Science.gov

Sample records for adults results showed

  1. Storing CO2 underground shows promising results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweigel, Peter; Gale, John

    Long-term underground storage of CO2 is an important element in concepts to reduce atmospheric CO2 emissions as the use of fossil fuels continues. The first results of a multinational research project evaluating the injection of CO2 into a saline aquifer in the North Sea are validating this method of CO2 reduction, and are serving to further define the research needed to develop the technology for large-scale applicability. Reducing the emission of substances that have potentially harmful effects on global climate— for example, CO2—has become a central issue of environmental policy at least since the 1997 Kyoto conference on climate change.

  2. 14. DETAIL VIEW OF BUTTRESS 4 SHOWING THE RESULTS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL VIEW OF BUTTRESS 4 SHOWING THE RESULTS OF INADEQUATE TAMPING. THE SIZE OF THE GRANITE AGGREGATE USED IN THE DAMS CONCRETE IS CLEARLY SHOWN. - Hume Lake Dam, Sequioa National Forest, Hume, Fresno County, CA

  3. 13. DETAIL VIEW OF BUTTRESS 4 SHOWING THE RESULTS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL VIEW OF BUTTRESS 4 SHOWING THE RESULTS OF POOR CONSTRUCTION WORK. THOUGH NOT A SERIOUS STRUCTURAL DEFICIENCY, THE 'HONEYCOMB' TEXTURE OF THE CONCRETE SURFACE WAS THE RESULT OF INADEQUATE TAMPING AT THE TIME OF THE INITIAL 'POUR'. - Hume Lake Dam, Sequioa National Forest, Hume, Fresno County, CA

  4. Emerging Trends in Contextual Learning Show Positive Results for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WorkAmerica, 2001

    2001-01-01

    This issue focuses on contextual learning (CL), in which students master rigorous academic content in real-world or work-based learning experiences. "Emerging Trends in CL Show Positive Results for Students" discusses CL as an important strategy for improving student achievement. It describes: how CL raises the bar for all students, challenging…

  5. Breast vibro-acoustography: initial results show promise

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Vibro-acoustography (VA) is a recently developed imaging modality that is sensitive to the dynamic characteristics of tissue. It detects low-frequency harmonic vibrations in tissue that are induced by the radiation force of ultrasound. Here, we have investigated applications of VA for in vivo breast imaging. Methods A recently developed combined mammography-VA system for in vivo breast imaging was tested on female volunteers, aged 25 years or older, with suspected breast lesions on their clinical examination. After mammography, a set of VA scans was acquired by the experimental device. In a masked assessment, VA images were evaluated independently by 3 reviewers who identified mass lesions and calcifications. The diagnostic accuracy of this imaging method was determined by comparing the reviewers' responses with clinical data. Results We collected images from 57 participants: 7 were used for training and 48 for evaluation of diagnostic accuracy (images from 2 participants were excluded because of unexpected imaging artifacts). In total, 16 malignant and 32 benign lesions were examined. Specificity for diagnostic accuracy was 94% or higher for all 3 reviewers, but sensitivity varied (69% to 100%). All reviewers were able to detect 97% of masses, but sensitivity for detection of calcification was lower (≤ 72% for all reviewers). Conclusions VA can be used to detect various breast abnormalities, including calcifications and benign and malignant masses, with relatively high specificity. VA technology may lead to a new clinical tool for breast imaging applications. PMID:23021305

  6. Astrocytes from adult Wistar rats aged in vitro show changes in glial functions.

    PubMed

    Souza, Débora Guerini; Bellaver, Bruna; Raupp, Gustavo Santos; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Quincozes-Santos, André

    2015-11-01

    Astrocytes, the most versatile cells of the central nervous system, play an important role in the regulation of neurotransmitter homeostasis, energy metabolism, antioxidant defenses and the anti-inflammatory response. Recently, our group characterized cortical astrocyte cultures from adult Wistar rats. In line with that work, we studied glial function using an experimental in vitro model of aging astrocytes (30 days in vitro after reaching confluence) from newborn (NB), adult (AD) and aged (AG) Wistar rats. We evaluated metabolic parameters, such as the glucose uptake, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, and glutathione (GSH) content, as well as the GFAP, GLUT-1 and xCT expression. AD and AG astrocytes take up less glucose than NB astrocytes and had decreased GLUT1 expression levels. Furthermore, AD and AG astrocytes exhibited decreased GS activity compared to NB cells. Simultaneously, AD and AG astrocytes showed an increase in GSH levels, along with an increase in xCT expression. NB, AD and AG astrocytes presented similar morphology; however, differences in GFAP levels were observed. Taken together, these results improve the knowledge of cerebral senescence and represent an innovative tool for brain studies of aging. PMID:26210720

  7. Adolescent earthquake survivors' show increased prefrontal cortex activation to masked earthquake images as adults.

    PubMed

    Du, Xue; Wei, Dongtao; Ganzel, Barbara L; Kim, Pilyoung; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-03-01

    The great Sichuan earthquake in China on May 12, 2008 was a traumatic event to many who live near the earthquake area. However, at present, there are few studies that explore the long-term impact of the adolescent trauma exposure on adults' brain function. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the brain activation evoked by masked trauma-related stimuli (earthquake versus neutral images) in 14 adults who lived near the epicenter of the great Sichuan earthquake when they were adolescents (trauma-exposed group) and 14 adults who lived farther from the epicenter of the earthquake when they were adolescents (control group). Compared with the control group, the trauma-exposed group showed significant elevation of activation in the right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) in response to masked earthquake-related images. In the trauma-exposed group, the right ACC activation was negatively correlated with the frequency of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These findings differ markedly from the long-term effects of trauma exposure in adults. This suggests that trauma exposure during adolescence may have a unique long-term impact on ACC/MPFC function, top-down modulation of trauma-related information, and subsequent symptoms of PTSD.

  8. Older adults show a self-reference effect for narrative information.

    PubMed

    Carson, Nicole; Murphy, Kelly J; Moscovitch, Morris; Rosenbaum, R Shayna

    2016-10-01

    The self-reference effect (SRE), enhanced memory for information encoded through self-related processing, has been established in younger and older adults using single trait adjective words. We sought to examine the generality of this phenomenon by studying narrative information in these populations. Additionally, we investigated retrieval experience at recognition and whether valence of stimuli influences memory differently in young and older adults. Participants encoded trait adjectives and narratives in self-reference, semantic, or structural processing conditions, followed by tests of recall and recognition. Experiment 1 revealed an SRE for trait adjective recognition and narrative cued recall in both age groups, although the existence of an SRE for narrative recognition was unclear due to ceiling effects. Experiment 2 revealed an SRE on an adapted test of narrative recognition. Self-referential encoding was shown to enhance recollection for both trait adjectives and narrative material in Experiment 1, whereas similar estimates of recollection for self-reference and semantic conditions were found in Experiment 2. Valence effects were inconsistent but generally similar in young and older adults when they were found. Results demonstrate that the self-reference technique extends to narrative information in young and older adults and may provide a valuable intervention tool for those experiencing age-related memory decline.

  9. Older adults show a self-reference effect for narrative information.

    PubMed

    Carson, Nicole; Murphy, Kelly J; Moscovitch, Morris; Rosenbaum, R Shayna

    2016-10-01

    The self-reference effect (SRE), enhanced memory for information encoded through self-related processing, has been established in younger and older adults using single trait adjective words. We sought to examine the generality of this phenomenon by studying narrative information in these populations. Additionally, we investigated retrieval experience at recognition and whether valence of stimuli influences memory differently in young and older adults. Participants encoded trait adjectives and narratives in self-reference, semantic, or structural processing conditions, followed by tests of recall and recognition. Experiment 1 revealed an SRE for trait adjective recognition and narrative cued recall in both age groups, although the existence of an SRE for narrative recognition was unclear due to ceiling effects. Experiment 2 revealed an SRE on an adapted test of narrative recognition. Self-referential encoding was shown to enhance recollection for both trait adjectives and narrative material in Experiment 1, whereas similar estimates of recollection for self-reference and semantic conditions were found in Experiment 2. Valence effects were inconsistent but generally similar in young and older adults when they were found. Results demonstrate that the self-reference technique extends to narrative information in young and older adults and may provide a valuable intervention tool for those experiencing age-related memory decline. PMID:26360612

  10. Do Adults Show an Effect of Delayed First Language Acquisition When Calculating Scalar Implicatures?

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Kathryn; Mayberry, Rachel I

    2015-01-01

    Language acquisition involves learning not only grammatical rules and a lexicon, but also what someone is intending to convey with their utterance: the semantic/pragmatic component of language. In this paper we separate the contributions of linguistic development and cognitive maturity to the acquisition of the semantic/pragmatic component of language by comparing deaf adults who had either early or late first exposure to their first language (ASL). We focus on the particular type of meaning at the semantic/pragmatic interface called scalar implicature, for which preschool-age children typically differ from adults. Children's behavior has been attributed to either their not knowing appropriate linguistic alternatives to consider or to cognitive developmental differences between children and adults. Unlike children, deaf adults with late language exposure are cognitively mature, although they never fully acquire some complex linguistic structures, and thus serve as a test for the role of language in such interpretations. Our results indicate an overall high performance by late learners, especially when implicatures are not based on conventionalized items. However, compared to early language learners, late language learners compute fewer implicatures when conventionalized linguistic alternatives are involved (e.g. ). We conclude that (i) in general, Gricean pragmatic reasoning does not seem to be impacted by delayed first language acquisition and can account for multiple quantity implicatures, but (ii) the creation of a scale based on lexical items can lead to ease in alternative creation that may be advantageously learned early in life, and that this may be one of several factors contributing to differences between adults and children on scalar implicature tasks. PMID:26997850

  11. Laminotomy in adults: technique and results.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Andrea; Pichierri, Angelo; Marotta, Nicola; Tarantino, Roberto; Delfini, Roberto

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to describe step by step our surgical technique of laminotomy and analyze our series with regard to spinal deformities (risk and predisposing factors), postoperative pain and rate of postoperative contusions. Data regarding patients who underwent our technique of laminotomy (N = 40, mean follow-up: 52 ms) (N = 40) between 2002 and 2006 were retrospectively evaluated. The technique used is illustrated in depth. Chronic pain was present in 30% with a mean score of 3/10 cm (Graphic Rating Scale). Postoperative kyphoses occurred in three patients, all below 35 years of age and with laminotomies which involved C2 and/or C7. None of these deformities required further surgical treatment because they were self-limiting or asymptomatic at a mean follow-up of 52 months. Based on the results, our technique proved to be safe and effective in terms of late deformities, blood loss, early and chronic postoperative pain and protection from postoperative accidents over the surgical site.

  12. Sacral chordoma in an adult showing an aggressive clinical course: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ENDO, KOJI; YAMASHITA, HIDEKI; NAGASHIMA, HIDEKI; TESHIMA, RYOTA

    2014-01-01

    The current report presents a case of a 78-year-old male with sacral chordoma, showing an aggressive clinical course. The patient underwent sacral resection, however, nine months later, multiple metastases were detected by magnetic resonance imaging. The metastases progressed rapidly and 15 months following surgery the patient succumbed to respiratory dysfunction. An autopsy revealed multiple metastases of the lung, liver, heart, kidneys and vertebrae. Pathologically, the tumors did not show proliferation of anaplastic cells or dedifferentiation; however, the metastatic tumor cells were smaller than the primary tumor cells. The Ki-67 labeling indices were <5% in all of the patient’s tumors, therefore, the capacity for cellular proliferation of the tumors was considered to be low. Chordoma in adults are generally slow-growing tumors and are associated with a relatively prolonged course and frequent local recurrences. Therefore, it must be recognized that chordoma may grow rapidly and show an aggressive clinical course, even when the Ki-67 labeling index is low. PMID:24765153

  13. Older Adults Show Deficits in Retrieving and Decoding Associative Mediators Generated at Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzog, Christopher; Fulton, Erika K.; Mandviwala, Lulua; Dunlosky, John

    2013-01-01

    We instructed the use of mediators to encode paired-associate items, and then measured both cued recall of targets and mediators. Older adults (n = 49) and younger adults (n = 57) studied a mixed list of concrete and abstract noun pairs under instructions to either generate a sentence or an image to form a new association between normatively…

  14. Embryonic oxidative stress results in reproductive impairment for adult zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Trent A.C.; Carleton, Catherine R.; Leeke, Bryony; Hampton, Mark B.; Horsfield, Julia A.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to environmental stressors during embryo development can have long-term effects on the adult organism. This study used the thioredoxin reductase inhibitor auranofin to investigate the consequences of oxidative stress during zebrafish development. Auranofin at low doses triggered upregulation of the antioxidant genes gstp1 and prdx1. As the dose was increased, acute developmental abnormalities, including cerebral hemorrhaging and jaw malformation, were observed. To determine whether transient disruption of redox homeostasis during development could have long-term consequences, zebrafish embryos were exposed to a low dose of auranofin from 6–24 hours post fertilization, and then raised to adulthood. The adult fish were outwardly normal in their appearance with no gross physical differences compared to the control group. However, these adult fish had reduced odds of breeding and a lower incidence of egg fertilization. This study shows that a suboptimal early life environment can reduce the chances of reproductive success in adulthood. PMID:26584358

  15. Do Adults with Mental Retardation Show Pictorial Superiority Effects in Recall and Recognition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Katie E.; Applegate, Heather; Reese, Celinda M.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined memory for pictures and words in 16 adults with mental retardation and 24 controls. Pictorial superiority effects occurred in free recall and recognition for both intelligence-level groups. Correlational analyses indicated working memory span was primarily related to recall performance, irrespective of stimulus format. (Contains…

  16. Astronomy Diagnostic Test Results Reflect Course Goals and Show Room for Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2007-01-01

    The results of administering the Astronomy Diagnostic Test (ADT) to introductory astronomy students at Henry Ford Community College over three years have shown gains comparable with national averages. Results have also accurately corresponded to course goals, showing greater gains in topics covered in more detail, and lower gains in topics covered…

  17. Gun shows and gun violence: fatally flawed study yields misleading results.

    PubMed

    Wintemute, Garen J; Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A

    2010-10-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled "The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas" outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors' prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy.

  18. A case of adult moyamoya disease showing progressive angiopathy on cerebral angiography.

    PubMed

    Shirane, R; Mikawa, S; Ebina, T

    1999-09-01

    In moyamoya disease, progression of carotid occlusive lesion in an adult patient is very rare. We report a case of adult moyamoya disease with acute angiographical stage progression and hemodynamic deterioration. A 56-year-old female complaining of left motor weakness visited our department. On MRI, infarct lesion was found in the right white matter. On cerebral angiography, occlusive lesions in the bilateral internal carotid arterial siphons and moyamoya vessels were found. The right side was stage V and the left side was stage III. On IMP-SPECT, decreased cerebral hemodynamic reserve of the right cerebral hemisphere was found. In this patient, right STA-MCA anastomosis was performed. After operation, she became possible to walk and discharged to home. Five months after operation, good collateral formation and improvement of hemodynamic reserve in the right hemisphere were found. However, on left carotid arteriography, the anterior and middle cerebral arteries were only slightly imaged, and the disease state progressed to stage IV. In addition, decreased blood flow and hemodynamic reserve were appeared in the left hemisphere.

  19. Preterm birth and unintentional injuries: risks to children, adolescents and young adults show no consistent pattern

    PubMed Central

    Calling, Susanna; Palmér, Karolina; Jönsson, Lena; Sundquist, Jan; Winkleby, Marilyn; Sundquist, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Aim Preterm birth is associated with a number of physical and mental health issues. The aim of this study was to find out if there was also any association between individuals born preterm in Sweden between 1984 and 2006 and the risk of unintentional injuries during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. Methods The study followed 2,297,134 individuals, including 5.9% born preterm, from 1985 to 2007 for unintentional injuries leading to hospitalisation or death (n=244,021). The males and females were divided into four age groups: 1–5 years, 6–12 years, 13–18 years and 19–23 years. Hazard ratios were calculated for falls, transport injuries and other injuries. Results After adjusting for a comprehensive set of covariates, some of the preterm subgroups demonstrated slightly increased risks of unintentional injuries, while others showed slightly decreased risks. However, most of the estimates were borderline or non-significant in both males and females. In addition, the absolute risk differences between individuals born preterm and full term were small. Conclusion Despite the association between preterm birth and a variety of physical and mental health consequences, this study shows that there is no consistent risk pattern between preterm birth and unintentional injuries in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:23181809

  20. Younger Adults Show Long-Term Effects of Cognitive Training on Broad Cognitive Abilities over 2 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmiedek, Florian; Lövdén, Martin; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2014-01-01

    In the COGITO study (Schmiedek, Lövdén, & Lindenberger, 2010), 101 younger adults practiced 12 tests of perceptual speed, working memory, and episodic memory for over 100 daily 1-hr sessions. The intervention resulted in positive transfer to broad cognitive abilities, including reasoning and episodic memory. Here, we examine whether these…

  1. Characterization of motor units in behaving adult mice shows a wide primary range.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Laura K; Tresch, Matthew C; Heckman, C J; Manuel, Marin; Tysseling, Vicki M

    2014-08-01

    The mouse is essential for genetic studies of motor function in both normal and pathological states. Thus it is important to consider whether the structure of motor output from the mouse is in fact analogous to that recorded in other animals. There is a striking difference in the basic electrical properties of mouse motoneurons compared with those in rats, cats, and humans. The firing evoked by injected currents produces a unique frequency-current (F-I) function that emphasizes recruitment of motor units at their maximum force. These F-I functions, however, were measured in anesthetized preparations that lacked two key components of normal synaptic input: high levels of synaptic noise and neuromodulatory inputs. Recent studies suggest that the alterations in the F-I function due to these two components are essential for recreating firing behavior of motor units in human subjects. In this study we provide the first data on firing patterns of motor units in the awake mouse, focusing on steady output in quiet stance. The resulting firing patterns did not match the predictions from the mouse F-I behaviors but instead revealed rate modulation across a remarkably wide range (10-60 Hz). The low end of the firing range may be due to changes in the F-I relation induced by synaptic noise and neuromodulatory inputs. The high end of the range may indicate that, unlike other species, quiet standing in the mouse involves recruitment of relatively fast-twitch motor units. PMID:24805075

  2. Long-Term Trial Results Show No Mortality Benefit from Annual Prostate Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    Thirteen year follow-up data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial show higher incidence but similar mortality among men screened annually with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and digital rectal examination

  3. Comparison of some results of program SHOW with other solar hot water computer programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, M. F.; Baughn, J. W.

    Subroutines and the driver program for the simulation code SHOW (solar hot water) for solar thermosyphon systems are discussed, and simulations are compared with predictions by the F-CHART and TRNSYS codes. SHOW has the driver program MAIN, which defines the system control logic for choosing the appropriate system subroutine for analysis. Ten subroutines are described, which account for the solar system physical parameters, the weather data, the manufacturer-supplied system specifications, mass flow rates, pumped systems, total transformed radiation, load use profiles, stratification in storage, an electric water heater, and economic analyses. The three programs are employed to analyze a thermosiphon installation in Sacramento with two storage tanks. TRNSYS and SHOW were in agreement and lower than F-CHARt for annual predictions, although significantly more computer time was necessary to make TRNSYS converge.

  4. Not all water mazes are created equal: cyclin D2 knockout mice with constitutively suppressed adult hippocampal neurogenesis do show specific spatial learning deficits.

    PubMed

    Garthe, A; Huang, Z; Kaczmarek, L; Filipkowski, R K; Kempermann, G

    2014-04-01

    Studies using the Morris water maze to assess hippocampal function in animals, in which adult hippocampal neurogenesis had been suppressed, have yielded seemingly contradictory results. Cyclin D2 knockout (Ccnd2(-/-)) mice, for example, have constitutively suppressed adult hippocampal neurogenesis but had no overt phenotype in the water maze. In other paradigms, however, ablation of adult neurogenesis was associated with specific deficits in the water maze. Therefore, we hypothesized that the neurogenesis-related phenotype might also become detectable in Ccnd2(-/-) mice, if we used the exact setup and protocol that in our previous study had revealed deficits in mice with suppressed adult neurogenesis. Ccnd2(-/-) mice indeed learned the task and developed a normal preference for the goal quadrant, but were significantly less precise for the exact goal position and were slower in acquiring efficient and spatially more precise search strategies. Upon goal reversal (when the hidden platform was moved to a new position) Ccnd2(-/-) mice showed increased perseverance at the former platform location, implying that they were less flexible in updating the previously learned information. Both with respect to adult neurogenesis and behavioral performance, Ccnd2(+/-) mice ranged between wild types and knockouts. Importantly, hippocampus-dependent learning was not generally impaired by the mutation, but specifically functional aspects relying on precise and flexible encoding were affected. Whether ablation of adult neurogenesis causes a specific behavioral phenotype thus also depends on the actual task demands. The test parameters appear to be important variables influencing whether a task can pick up a contribution of adult neurogenesis to test performance.

  5. Data for behavioral results and brain regions showing a time effect during pair-association retrieval.

    PubMed

    Jimura, Koji; Hirose, Satoshi; Wada, Hiroyuki; Yoshizawa, Yasunori; Imai, Yoshio; Akahane, Masaaki; Machida, Toru; Shirouzu, Ichiro; Koike, Yasuharu; Konishi, Seiki

    2016-09-01

    The current data article provides behavioral and neuroimaging data for the research article "Relatedness-dependent rapid development of brain activity in anterior temporal cortex during pair-association retrieval" (Jimura et al., 2016) [1]. Behavioral performance is provided in a table. Fig. 2 of the article is based on this table. Brain regions showing time effect are provided in a table. A statistical activation map for the time effect is shown in Fig. 3C of the article. PMID:27508239

  6. Stem cells show promising results for lymphoedema treatment--a literature review.

    PubMed

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Christensen, Marlene Louise; Sheikh, Søren Paludan; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2015-04-01

    Lymphoedema is a debilitating condition, manifesting in excess lymphatic fluid and swelling of subcutaneous tissues. Lymphoedema is as of yet still an incurable condition and current treatment modalities are not satisfactory. The capacity of mesenchymal stem cells to promote angiogenesis, secrete growth factors, regulate the inflammatory process, and differentiate into multiple cell types make them a potential ideal therapy for lymphoedema. Adipose tissue is the richest and most accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells and they can be harvested, isolated, and used for therapy in a single stage procedure as an autologous treatment. The aim of this paper was to review all studies using mesenchymal stem cells for lymphoedema treatment with a special focus on the potential use of adipose-derived stem cells. A systematic search was performed and five preclinical and two clinical studies were found. Different stem cell sources and lymphoedema models were used in the described studies. Most studies showed a decrease in lymphoedema and an increased lymphangiogenesis when treated with stem cells and this treatment modality has so far shown great potential. The present studies are, however, subject to bias and more preclinical studies and large-scale high quality clinical trials are needed to show if this emerging therapy can satisfy expectations.

  7. The ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord differs from other species and shows ependymoma-like features.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel; Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Florensa-Vila, José; Ferrer, Isidro; Grassner, Lukas; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo

    2015-06-01

    Several laboratories have described the existence of undifferentiated precursor cells that may act like stem cells in the ependyma of the rodent spinal cord. However, there are reports showing that this region is occluded and disassembled in humans after the second decade of life, although this has been largely ignored or interpreted as a post-mortem artefact. To gain insight into the patency, actual structure, and molecular properties of the adult human spinal cord ependymal region, we followed three approaches: (i) with MRI, we estimated the central canal patency in 59 control subjects, 99 patients with traumatic spinal cord injury, and 26 patients with non-traumatic spinal cord injuries. We observed that the central canal is absent from the vast majority of individuals beyond the age of 18 years, gender-independently, throughout the entire length of the spinal cord, both in healthy controls and after injury; (ii) with histology and immunohistochemistry, we describe morphological properties of the non-lesioned ependymal region, which showed the presence of perivascular pseudorosettes, a common feature of ependymoma; and (iii) with laser capture microdissection, followed by TaqMan® low density arrays, we studied the gene expression profile of the ependymal region and found that it is mainly enriched in genes compatible with a low grade or quiescent ependymoma (53 genes); this region is enriched only in 14 genes related to neurogenic niches. In summary, we demonstrate here that the central canal is mainly absent in the adult human spinal cord and is replaced by a structure morphologically and molecularly different from that described for rodents and other primates. The presented data suggest that the ependymal region is more likely to be reminiscent of a low-grade ependymoma. Therefore, a direct translation to adult human patients of an eventual therapeutic potential of this region based on animal models should be approached with caution. PMID:25882650

  8. The ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord differs from other species and shows ependymoma-like features.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel; Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Florensa-Vila, José; Ferrer, Isidro; Grassner, Lukas; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo

    2015-06-01

    Several laboratories have described the existence of undifferentiated precursor cells that may act like stem cells in the ependyma of the rodent spinal cord. However, there are reports showing that this region is occluded and disassembled in humans after the second decade of life, although this has been largely ignored or interpreted as a post-mortem artefact. To gain insight into the patency, actual structure, and molecular properties of the adult human spinal cord ependymal region, we followed three approaches: (i) with MRI, we estimated the central canal patency in 59 control subjects, 99 patients with traumatic spinal cord injury, and 26 patients with non-traumatic spinal cord injuries. We observed that the central canal is absent from the vast majority of individuals beyond the age of 18 years, gender-independently, throughout the entire length of the spinal cord, both in healthy controls and after injury; (ii) with histology and immunohistochemistry, we describe morphological properties of the non-lesioned ependymal region, which showed the presence of perivascular pseudorosettes, a common feature of ependymoma; and (iii) with laser capture microdissection, followed by TaqMan® low density arrays, we studied the gene expression profile of the ependymal region and found that it is mainly enriched in genes compatible with a low grade or quiescent ependymoma (53 genes); this region is enriched only in 14 genes related to neurogenic niches. In summary, we demonstrate here that the central canal is mainly absent in the adult human spinal cord and is replaced by a structure morphologically and molecularly different from that described for rodents and other primates. The presented data suggest that the ependymal region is more likely to be reminiscent of a low-grade ependymoma. Therefore, a direct translation to adult human patients of an eventual therapeutic potential of this region based on animal models should be approached with caution.

  9. Aortic emboli show surprising size dependent predilection for cerebral arteries: Results from computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Ian; Schwartz, Robert; Shadden, Shawn

    2012-11-01

    Cardiac emboli can have devastating consequences if they enter the cerebral circulation, and are the most common cause of embolic stroke. Little is known about relationships of embolic origin/density/size to cerebral events; as these relationships are difficult to observe. To better understand stoke risk from cardiac and aortic emboli, we developed a computational model to track emboli from the heart to the brain. Patient-specific models of the human aorta and arteries to the brain were derived from CT angiography from 10 MHIF patients. Blood flow was modeled by the Navier-Stokes equations using pulsatile inflow at the aortic valve, and physiologic Windkessel models at the outlets. Particulate was injected at the aortic valve and tracked using modified Maxey-Riley equations with a wall collision model. Results demonstrate aortic emboli that entered the cerebral circulation through the carotid or vertebral arteries were localized to specific locations of the proximal aorta. The percentage of released particles embolic to the brain markedly increased with particle size from 0 to ~1-1.5 mm in all patients. Larger particulate became less likely to traverse the cerebral vessels. These findings are consistent with sparse literature based on transesophageal echo measurements. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation, award number 1157041.

  10. Animation shows promise in initiating timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Attin, Mina; Winslow, Katheryn; Smith, Tyler

    2014-04-01

    Delayed responses during cardiac arrest are common. Timely interventions during cardiac arrest have a direct impact on patient survival. Integration of technology in nursing education is crucial to enhance teaching effectiveness. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of animation on nursing students' response time to cardiac arrest, including initiation of timely chest compression. Nursing students were randomized into experimental and control groups prior to practicing in a high-fidelity simulation laboratory. The experimental group was educated, by discussion and animation, about the importance of starting cardiopulmonary resuscitation upon recognizing an unresponsive patient. Afterward, a discussion session allowed students in the experimental group to gain more in-depth knowledge about the most recent changes in the cardiac resuscitation guidelines from the American Heart Association. A linear mixed model was run to investigate differences in time of response between the experimental and control groups while controlling for differences in those with additional degrees, prior code experience, and basic life support certification. The experimental group had a faster response time compared with the control group and initiated timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation upon recognition of deteriorating conditions (P < .0001). The results demonstrated the efficacy of combined teaching modalities for timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Providing opportunities for repetitious practice when a patient's condition is deteriorating is crucial for teaching safe practice.

  11. Adult Literacy in America: A First Look at the Results of the National Adult Literacy Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirsch, Irwin S.; And Others

    The National Adult Literacy Survey profiled the literacy of U.S. adults based on their performance on tasks reflecting materials and demands of daily life. Data were gathered through interviews with a random sample of 13,600 people over 16, a survey of 1,000 adults in each of 12 states, and interviews with 1,100 prison inmates, making a total of…

  12. [Physical activity: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    PubMed

    Krug, S; Jordan, S; Mensink, G B M; Müters, S; Finger, J; Lampert, T

    2013-05-01

    Regular physical activity can have a positive effect on health at any age. Today's lifestyles, however, can often be characterised as sedentary. Therefore, the promotion of physical activity and sports has become an integral part of public health measures. The representative data of adults aged 18 to 79 years in Germany obtained from the "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS1) provide an overview of self-estimated current physical activity behaviour. The results show that one third of the adult population claims to pay close attention to reaching a sufficient level of physical activity and one fourth participates in sports for at least 2 h/week on a regular basis. Thus, the percentage of adults regularly engaged in sports has increased compared to the previous "German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998". Still, four out of five adults do not achieve at least 2.5 h/week of moderate-intensity physical activity as recommended by the World Health Organisation. Consequently, future individual-level and population-level interventions should focus on target group-specific measures while continuing to promote regular physical activity in all segments of the population. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  13. Screening for Tuberculosis at an Adult Education Center: Results of a Community-Based Participatory Process

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Jennifer A.; Olney, Marilynn W.; Alemán, Marty; Sullivan, Susan; Millington, Kendra; O'Hara, Connie; Nigon, Julie A.; Sia, Irene G.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We used a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to plan and implement free TB skin testing at an adult education center to determine the efficacy of CBPR with voluntary tuberculosis (TB) screening and the prevalence of TB infection among immigrant and refugee populations. Methods. We formed a CBPR partnership to address TB screening at an adult education center that serves a large immigrant and refugee population in Rochester, Minnesota. We conducted focus groups involving educators, health providers, and students of the education center, and used this input to implement TB education and TB skin testing among the center's students. Results. A total of 259 adult learners volunteered to be skin-tested in April 2009; 48 (18.5%) had positive TB skin tests. Conclusions. Our results imply that TB skin testing at adult education centers that serve large foreign-born populations may be effective. Our findings also show that a participatory process may enhance the willingness of foreign-born persons to participate in TB skin-testing efforts. PMID:21653249

  14. Homeopathy Use by US Adults: Results of a National Survey.

    PubMed

    Dossett, Michelle L; Davis, Roger B; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Yeh, Gloria Y

    2016-04-01

    We used the 2012 National Health Interview Survey to compare homeopathy users with supplement users and those using other forms of complementary and integrative medicine. Among US adults, 2.1% used homeopathy within the past 12 months. Respiratory and otorhinolaryngology complaints were most commonly treated (18.5%). Homeopathy users were more likely to use multiple complementary and integrative medicine therapies and to perceive the therapy as helpful than were supplement users. US homeopathy use remains uncommon; however, users perceive it as helpful. PMID:26890179

  15. Homeopathy Use by US Adults: Results of a National Survey.

    PubMed

    Dossett, Michelle L; Davis, Roger B; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Yeh, Gloria Y

    2016-04-01

    We used the 2012 National Health Interview Survey to compare homeopathy users with supplement users and those using other forms of complementary and integrative medicine. Among US adults, 2.1% used homeopathy within the past 12 months. Respiratory and otorhinolaryngology complaints were most commonly treated (18.5%). Homeopathy users were more likely to use multiple complementary and integrative medicine therapies and to perceive the therapy as helpful than were supplement users. US homeopathy use remains uncommon; however, users perceive it as helpful.

  16. Knowledge of Results after Good Trials Enhances Learning in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; Wally, Raquel; Borges, Thiago

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, some researchers have examined motor learning in older adults. Some of these studies have specifically looked at the effectiveness of different manipulations of extrinsic feedback, or knowledge of results (KR). Given that many motor tasks may already be more challenging for older adults compared to younger adults, making KR more…

  17. Hypertension among Tunisian adults: results of the TAHINA project.

    PubMed

    Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Ben Ali, Samir; Skhiri, Hajer; Traissac, Pierre; Bougatef, Souha; Maire, Bernard; Delpeuch, Francis; Achour, Noureddine

    2012-03-01

    We performed a national survey to determine the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension, one of the main cardiovascular risk factors, among the adult population in Tunisia. A total of 8007 adults aged 35-70 years were included in the study. Blood pressure (BP) measurements were taken by physicians with a mercury sphygmomanometer, and standard interviewing procedures were used to record medical history, socio-demographic and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Hypertension was defined as a systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg or current treatment with antihypertensive drugs. The prevalence of hypertension was 30.6%, higher in women (33.5%) than in men (27.3%). Multiple logistic regression analyses identified a higher age, urban area, higher body mass index, type 2 diabetes and family history of CVD as important correlates to the prevalence of hypertension. Only 38.8% of those with hypertension were aware of their diagnosis, of which 84.8% were receiving treatment. BP control was achieved in only 24.1% of treated hypertensive persons. Women were more aware than men (44.8 vs. 28.8%), but the rates of treatment and control of hypertension did not differ between the two genders. Higher age, being female, lower education level and urban area emerged as important correlates of hypertension awareness. The study highlights the hypertension problem in a middle-income developing country. There is an urgent need for a comprehensive integrated population-based intervention program to ameliorate the growing problem of hypertension in Tunisians.

  18. New Hippocampal Neurons Are Not Obligatory for Memory Formation; Cyclin D2 Knockout Mice with No Adult Brain Neurogenesis Show Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaholkowski, Piotr; Kiryk, Anna; Jedynak, Paulina; Abdallah, Nada M. Ben; Knapska, Ewelina; Kowalczyk, Anna; Piechal, Agnieszka; Blecharz-Klin, Kamilla; Figiel, Izabela; Lioudyno, Victoria; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, Ewa; Wilczynski, Grzegorz M.; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Kaczmarek, Leszek; Filipkowski, Robert K.

    2009-01-01

    The role of adult brain neurogenesis (generating new neurons) in learning and memory appears to be quite firmly established in spite of some criticism and lack of understanding of what the new neurons serve the brain for. Also, the few experiments showing that blocking adult neurogenesis causes learning deficits used irradiation and various drugs…

  19. What Is the Prevalence of Adult ADHD? Results of a Population Screen of 966 Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    To provide a better estimate of the prevalence of ADHD in adulthood, the authors complete a telephone survey of 966 randomly selected adults. They compute two diagnoses from the survey data. Participants meeting "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) criteria for both childhood and adulthood are defined as narrow ADHD.…

  20. Norbin ablation results in defective adult hippocampal neurogenesis and depressive-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Warner-Schmidt, Jennifer; Varela, Santiago; Enikolopov, Grigori; Greengard, Paul; Flajolet, Marc

    2015-08-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus subgranular zone is associated with the etiology and treatment efficiency of depression. Factors that affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis have been shown to contribute to the neuropathology of depression. Glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter, plays a critical role in different aspects of neurogenesis. Of the eight metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), mGluR5 is the most highly expressed in neural stem cells. We previously identified Norbin as a positive regulator of mGluR5 and showed that its expression promotes neurite outgrowth. In this study, we investigated the role of Norbin in adult neurogenesis and depressive-like behaviors using Norbin-deficient mice. We found that Norbin deletion significantly reduced hippocampal neurogenesis; specifically, the loss of Norbin impaired the proliferation and maturation of newborn neurons without affecting cell-fate specification of neural stem cells/neural progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs). Norbin is highly expressed in the granular neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, but it is undetectable in NSCs/NPCs or immature neurons, suggesting that the effect of Norbin on neurogenesis is likely caused by a nonautonomous niche effect. In support of this hypothesis, we found that the expression of a cell-cell contact gene, Desmoplakin, is greatly reduced in Norbin-deletion mice. Moreover, Norbin-KO mice show an increased immobility in the forced-swim test and the tail-suspension test and reduced sucrose preference compared with wild-type controls. Taken together, these results show that Norbin is a regulator of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and that its deletion causes depressive-like behaviors.

  1. Norbin ablation results in defective adult hippocampal neurogenesis and depressive-like behavior in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Warner-Schmidt, Jennifer; Varela, Santiago; Enikolopov, Grigori; Greengard, Paul; Flajolet, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus subgranular zone is associated with the etiology and treatment efficiency of depression. Factors that affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis have been shown to contribute to the neuropathology of depression. Glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter, plays a critical role in different aspects of neurogenesis. Of the eight metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), mGluR5 is the most highly expressed in neural stem cells. We previously identified Norbin as a positive regulator of mGluR5 and showed that its expression promotes neurite outgrowth. In this study, we investigated the role of Norbin in adult neurogenesis and depressive-like behaviors using Norbin-deficient mice. We found that Norbin deletion significantly reduced hippocampal neurogenesis; specifically, the loss of Norbin impaired the proliferation and maturation of newborn neurons without affecting cell-fate specification of neural stem cells/neural progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs). Norbin is highly expressed in the granular neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, but it is undetectable in NSCs/NPCs or immature neurons, suggesting that the effect of Norbin on neurogenesis is likely caused by a nonautonomous niche effect. In support of this hypothesis, we found that the expression of a cell–cell contact gene, Desmoplakin, is greatly reduced in Norbin-deletion mice. Moreover, Norbin-KO mice show an increased immobility in the forced-swim test and the tail-suspension test and reduced sucrose preference compared with wild-type controls. Taken together, these results show that Norbin is a regulator of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and that its deletion causes depressive-like behaviors. PMID:26195764

  2. Preschoolers with Down Syndrome Do Not yet Show the Learning and Memory Impairments Seen in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Lynette V.; Richmond, Jenny L.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) exhibit a behavioral phenotype of specific strengths and weaknesses, in addition to a generalized cognitive delay. In particular, adults with DS exhibit specific deficits in learning and memory processes that depend on the hippocampus, and there is some suggestion of impairments on executive function tasks that…

  3. Late Results After Splenectomy in Adult Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    PubMed Central

    Vecchio, Rosario; La Corte, Francesco; Marchese, Salvatore; Cacciola, Rossella R.; Cacciola, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Background: We performed a retrospective study on patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) to evaluate the response to splenectomy in relation to preoperative platelet count. Materials and Methods: Two groups of patients operated on with laparoscopic or open splenectomy for ITP, with a platelet count ≤30,000/μL (study group: 22 patients) and >30,000/μL (control group: 18 patients), respectively, were compared. The two groups were homogeneous in relation to age, sex, length of preoperative steroid therapy, and time interval between diagnosis and surgery (Student t test with P > .1). The results of surgery were evaluated at one year after splenectomy. Positive response to surgery, according to the American Society of Hematologic Guidelines, was considered in patients with a postoperative platelet count ≥100,000/μL or in patients with a postoperative platelet count ≥30,000/μL and a twofold increase in platelet count from baseline, in the absence of bleeding. The postoperative platelet count increase rate was statistically related to preoperative platelet count in both the study and control groups. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student's t test for independent sample and the Pearson correlation in a 2-tailed test. Results: No relationship between preoperative platelet count and postoperative platelet percent increase was observed in the control group (r = –0.41; P = .089), whereas a significant negative correlation (r = –0.68; P = .0004) was found in the study group. Conclusions: A higher increase of postoperative percent platelet count may be predicted in patients with a low preoperative platelet count. PMID:25848175

  4. OECD Skills Outlook 2013: First Results from the Survey of Adult Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This first "OECD Skills Outlook" presents the initial results of the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC), which evaluates the skills of adults in 22 OECD member countries and two partner countries. The PIAAC survey was designed to provide insights into the availability of some key skills and how they are used at work and at home through the…

  5. Literacy for Life: Further Results from the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Literacy for Life is the second report from the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey. It presents additional results on the nature and magnitude of the literacy gaps faced by OECD countries and how these gaps have evolved over the medium term. It offers new insights into the factors that influence the formation of adult skills in various…

  6. Treatment of unstable osteochondritis dissecans in adults with autogenous osteochondral grafts (Mosaicplasty): long-term results

    PubMed Central

    RONGA, MARIO; STISSI, PLACIDO; LA BARBERA, GIUSEPPE; VALOROSO, MARCO; ANGERETTI, GLORIA; GENOVESE, EUGENIO; CHERUBINO, PAOLO

    2015-01-01

    Purpose the unstable osteochondritis dissecans (OCD-type II and III according to the ICRS classification) of the knee largher than > 2.5 cm2 in adults are uncommon lesions and there is no consensus on how to treat them. Medium-term studies have reported good results using autogenous osteochondral plugs (mosaicplasty). The aim of this study is to analyze the long-term results of this technique for the treatment of unstable OCD in a selected group of adult patients. Methods four patients with OCD at either one of the femoral condyles were included in this prospective study. The average age was 21.2 years (range, 18–24 years). The OCD lesions were classified as type II in three patients and type III in one patient and the average size was 3.8 cm2 (range, 2.55–5.1 cm2). The lesions were treated in situ with a variable number of autogenous osteochondral plugs (Ø 4.5 mm2). The Modified Cincinnati, Lysholm II and Tegner scores were used for clinical and functional evaluation. Magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) was performed before surgery and at 2, 5 and 10 years after surgery. A modified MOCART score was used to evaluate MRA findings. Results the average follow-up duration was ten years and 6 months (range, 10–11 years). No complications occurred. At the final follow-up, all scores (clinical, functional and MOCART) improved. In all but one of the patients MRA showed complete osteochondral repair. Conclusions the fixation of large and unstable OCD lesions with mosaicplasty may be a good option for treating type II or III OCD lesions in adults. The advantages of this technique include stable fixation, promotion of blood supply to the base of the OCD fragment, and grafting of autologous cancellous bone that stimulates healing with preservation of the articular surface. Level of evidence Level IV, therapeutic case series. PMID:26904522

  7. Young Adults' Risk Perceptions of Various Tobacco Products Relative to Cigarettes: Results From the National Young Adult Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Wackowski, Olivia A; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-06-01

    Objectives Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method We examined risk perception responses among a nationally representative sample of young adults (age 18-34 years; n = 2,871, including tobacco and non-tobacco users) from the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey. Results Most (57.8%) respondents believed that e-cigarettes were less risky than cigarettes. Respondents were more likely to rate combustible products hookah (24.5%) and cigars (13.9%) as being less risky compared to noncombustible snus (10%) and other smokeless tobacco (SLT) products (7.1%) relative to cigarettes. Few (2.5%) rated menthol cigarettes as less risky. For e-cigarettes, hookah, and SLT, less risky beliefs were significantly higher among ever or current versus never product users. Between 22% and 33% of all respondents believed that SLT, snus, menthol cigarettes, and cigars were more risky than cigarettes, but differences in this belief between current and nonusers of these products were small and insignificant. Younger young adults were more likely to rate e-cigarettes and hookah as being "less risky" and rate cigars and SLT as being "more risky" than older young adults. Conclusion The public's views of comparative tobacco risk perceptions vary widely by tobacco product type and age-group. While "less risky" perceptions may be associated with product use, perceptions that products are "more risky" than cigarettes may not necessarily dissuade people from their use.

  8. Functional MRI evidence for language plasticity in adult epileptic patients: Preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Cousin, Emilie; Baciu, Monica; Pichat, Cédric; Kahane, Philippe; Le Bas, Jean-François

    2008-01-01

    The present fMRI study explores the cerebral reorganisation of language in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, according to the age of seizures onset (early or late) and the hippocampal sclerosis (associated or not). Seven right-handed control volunteers and seven preoperative adult epileptic patients performed a rhyme decision (language condition) and a visual detection (control condition) tasks in visually presented words and unreadable characters, respectively. All patients were left hemisphere dominant for language. Appropriate statistical analyses provided the following preliminary results: (1) patients compared with healthy subjects showed lower degree of hemispheric lateralization with supplementary involvement of the right hemisphere; (2) the degree of hemispheric specialization depends on the considered region; (3) patients with early seizures show signs of temporal and parietal reorganization more frequently than patients with late onset of seizures; (4) patients with early seizures show a tendency for intra-hemispheric frontal reorganisation; (5) associated hippocampal sclerosis facilitates the inter-hemispheric shift of temporal activation. Although our patients were left hemisphere predominant for language, the statistical analyses indicated that the degree of lateralization was significantly lower than in healthy subjects. This result has been considered as the indication of atypical lateralization of language. PMID:18728818

  9. Full genome sequence of a novel circo-like virus detected in an adult European eel Anguilla anguilla showing signs of cauliflower disease.

    PubMed

    Doszpoly, Andor; Tarján, Zoltán L; Glávits, Róbert; Müller, Tamás; Benkő, Mária

    2014-05-13

    An adult European eel Anguilla anguilla, showing typical signs of the so-called cauliflower disease, was subjected to pathological and molecular virological examinations. Samples taken from internal organs and the polypoid proliferative tissue from the mouth were examined by PCR for the detection of several viruses. Positive results were obtained with a nested PCR targeting the rep gene of circoviruses. Analysis of the partial rep sequence indicated the presence of a putative novel circovirus, but attempts to isolate it remained unsuccessful. The missing part of the genome was acquired by an inverse nested PCR with 2 specific primer pairs, designed from the newly determined rep sequence, followed by genome walking. The circular full genome was found to consist of 1378 nt (GenBank accession no. KC469701). Two oppositely oriented open reading frames (ORFs) were present, of which one was unambiguously identified as a circoviral rep gene. However, the predicted product of the other ORF, though it is a clear positional counterpart of the cap genes, showed no obvious homology to any known circoviral capsid proteins. A stem-loop-like element in the intergenic region between the 5' ends of the ORFs was also found. Phylogenetic calculations indicated that the novel virus belongs to the genus Circovirus in the family Circoviridae. The relative amount of the viral DNA in the organ samples was estimated by quantitative real-time PCR. The results suggested that the examined fish was caught in an active viremic state, although the role of this circovirus in the etiology of the cauliflower diseases could not be ascertained.

  10. Fractional anisotropy shows differential reduction in frontal-subcortical fiber bundles—A longitudinal MRI study of 76 middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Vik, Alexandra; Hodneland, Erlend; Haász, Judit; Ystad, Martin; Lundervold, Astri J.; Lundervold, Arvid

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the frontal- and white matter (WM) retrogenesis hypotheses and the assumptions that fronto-striatal circuits are especially vulnerable in normal aging, the goal of the present study was to identify fiber bundles connecting subcortical nuclei and frontal areas and obtain site-specific information about age related fractional anisotropy (FA) changes. Multimodal magnetic resonance image acquisitions [3D T1-weighted and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI)] were obtained from healthy older adults (N = 76, range 49–80 years at inclusion) at two time points, 3 years apart. A subset of the participants (N = 24) was included at a third time-point. In addition to the frontal-subcortical fibers, the anterior callosal fiber (ACF) and the corticospinal tract (CST) was investigated by its mean FA together with tract parameterization analysis. Our results demonstrated fronto-striatal structural connectivity decline (reduced FA) in normal aging with substantial inter-individual differences. The tract parameterization analysis showed that the along tract FA profiles were characterized by piece-wise differential changes along their extension rather than being uniformly affected. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first longitudinal study detecting age-related changes in frontal-subcortical WM connections in normal aging. PMID:26029102

  11. Literature review of clinical results of total skin electron irradiation (TSEBT) of mycosis fungoides in adults

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Fabio Ynoe de; Carvalho, Heloisa de Andrade; Hanna, Samir Abdallah; Silva, João Luis Fernandes da; Marta, Gustavo Nader

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycosis fungoides (MF) is an extranodal, indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma of T cell origin. Even with the establishment of MF staging, the initial treatment strategy often remains unclear. Aim The aim of this study was to review the clinical results of total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) for MF in adults published in English language scientific journals searched in Pubmed/Medline database until December 2012. Results MF is very sensitive to radiation therapy (RT) delivered either by photons or by electrons. In limited patches and/or plaques local electron beam irradiation results in good outcomes besides the fact of not being superior to other modalities. For extensive patches and/or plaques data suggest that TSEBT shows superior response rates. The cutaneous disease presentation is favorably managed with radiotherapy due to its ability to treat the full thickness of deeply infiltrated skin. For generalized erythroderma presentation, TSEBT seems to be an appropriate initial therapy. For advanced disease, palliation, or recurrence after the first radiotherapy treatment course, TSEBT may still be beneficial, with acceptable toxicity. Recommended dose is 30–36 Gy delivered in 6–10 weeks. Conclusion TSEBT can be used to treat any stage of MF. It also presents good tumor response with symptoms of relief and a palliative effect on MF, either after previous irradiation or failure of other treatment strategies. PMID:24936326

  12. Genomic and Enzymatic Results Show Bacillus cellulosilyticus Uses a Novel Set of LPXTA Carbohydrases to Hydrolyze Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Mead, David; Drinkwater, Colleen; Brumm, Phillip J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Alkaliphilic Bacillus species are intrinsically interesting due to the bioenergetic problems posed by growth at high pH and high salt. Three alkaline cellulases have been cloned, sequenced and expressed from Bacillus cellulosilyticus N-4 (Bcell) making it an excellent target for genomic sequencing and mining of biomass-degrading enzymes. Methodology/Principal Findings The genome of Bcell is a single chromosome of 4.7 Mb with no plasmids present and three large phage insertions. The most unusual feature of the genome is the presence of 23 LPXTA membrane anchor proteins; 17 of these are annotated as involved in polysaccharide degradation. These two values are significantly higher than seen in any other Bacillus species. This high number of membrane anchor proteins is seen only in pathogenic Gram-positive organisms such as Listeria monocytogenes or Staphylococcus aureus. Bcell also possesses four sortase D subfamily 4 enzymes that incorporate LPXTA-bearing proteins into the cell wall; three of these are closely related to each other and unique to Bcell. Cell fractionation and enzymatic assay of Bcell cultures show that the majority of polysaccharide degradation is associated with the cell wall LPXTA-enzymes, an unusual feature in Gram-positive aerobes. Genomic analysis and growth studies both strongly argue against Bcell being a truly cellulolytic organism, in spite of its name. Preliminary results suggest that fungal mycelia may be the natural substrate for this organism. Conclusions/Significance Bacillus cellulosilyticus N-4, in spite of its name, does not possess any of the genes necessary for crystalline cellulose degradation, demonstrating the risk of classifying microorganisms without the benefit of genomic analysis. Bcell is the first Gram-positive aerobic organism shown to use predominantly cell-bound, non-cellulosomal enzymes for polysaccharide degradation. The LPXTA-sortase system utilized by Bcell may have applications both in anchoring

  13. [Cardiorespiratory fitness among adults in Germany: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    PubMed

    Finger, J D; Krug, S; Gößwald, A; Härtel, S; Bös, K

    2013-05-01

    A high level of fitness is an indicator for a good health state. Therefore, cardiorespiratory fitness was examined in the cross-sectional German Health Interview Survey for Adults (DEGS1). Data from 3030 test-qualified adults between 18 and 64 years old were assessed by means of a standardized submaximal cycle ergometer test. Test-qualified participants were significantly younger, more often men, less often obese and showed a better health state than those who were not test-qualified. The calculated physical work capacity at 75 % of the age-predicted maximum heart rate (PWC75%) in watts per kg bodyweight was among men 1.52 and among women 1.15. PWC75% declines by 4.2 % per age decade for men and 4.8 % for women. A higher socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with better fitness among women. No significant association was observed between SES and fitness among men. These findings can be used to develop target-group specific health-promotion interventions in order to enhance cardiorespiratory fitness. It is planned to calculate updated PWC reference values based on the DEGS1 data. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  14. Serotonin axons of the neostriatum show a higher affinity for striatal than for ventral mesencephalic transplants: a quantitative study in adult and immature recipient rats.

    PubMed

    Pierret, P; Vallée, A; Bosler, O; Dorais, M; Moukhles, H; Abbaszadeh, R; Lepage, Y; Doucet, G

    1998-07-01

    We previously showed that grafts of fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue are practically not innervated by host serotonin (5-HT) axons after implantation into the striatum of rats aged more than 14 days, at variance with transplants of cortical or striatal tissue into the adult striatum, which are well innervated by these axons. Using 5-HT immunohistochemistry and in vitro [3H]5-HT uptake/autoradiography, we have examined and quantified the innervation of ventral mesencephalic versus striatal grafts several months after implantation into the striatum of neonatal (postnatal day 5 or P5), juvenile (P15), and adult rats. Ventral mesencephalic grafts implanted in P5 rats received a moderate 5-HT innervation, while similar grafts implanted in P15 or adult recipients were almost free of any 5-HT fibers (-80%, compared to P5). The density of 5-HT innervation showed a tendency toward higher values in striatal than in ventral mesencephalic grafts (1.6-2 times higher in P5 and adult recipients; 4 times higher in P15 recipients). The difference was more striking, and significant, when only the true striatal portions of the striatal grafts were considered, i.e., DARPP-32-immunopositive areas (4-5 times higher in P5 and adult recipients; 10 times higher in P15 recipients). Accordingly, these DARPP-32-positive areas were also more densely innervated than the DARPP-32-negative zones of the same grafts (3 times higher at any age). The 5-HT innervation density also decreased with increasing age of the recipients in DARPP-32-positive, as well as DARPP-32-negative compartments of the striatal grafts (-75% in adults), but this decrease appeared more gradual (-50% in juveniles) than with mesencephalic grafts. It is concluded that the 5-HT axons innervating the neostriatum have a better affinity for striatal grafts than for ventral mesencephalic grafts or the nonstriatal portions of striatal grafts. In adulthood, the relative affinity of these axons for the different types of grafts is

  15. Recruiting young adults into a weight loss trial: report of protocol development and recruitment results.

    PubMed

    Corsino, Leonor; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Batch, Bryan C; Intille, Stephen; Grambow, Steven C; Bosworth, Hayden B; Bennett, Gary G; Tyson, Crystal; Svetkey, Laura P; Voils, Corrine I

    2013-07-01

    Obesity has spread to all segments of the U.S. population. Young adults, aged 18-35 years, are rarely represented in clinical weight loss trials. We conducted a qualitative study to identify factors that may facilitate recruitment of young adults into a weight loss intervention trial. Participants were 33 adults aged 18-35 years with BMI ≥25 kg/m(2). Six group discussions were conducted using the nominal group technique. Health, social image, and "self" factors such as emotions, self-esteem, and confidence were reported as reasons to pursue weight loss. Physical activity, dietary intake, social support, medical intervention, and taking control (e.g. being motivated) were perceived as the best weight loss strategies. Incentives, positive outcomes, education, convenience, and social support were endorsed as reasons young adults would consider participating in a weight loss study. Incentives, advertisement, emphasizing benefits, and convenience were endorsed as ways to recruit young adults. These results informed the Cellphone Intervention for You (CITY) marketing and advertising, including message framing and advertising avenues. Implications for recruitment methods are discussed. PMID:23591327

  16. Increasing Writing Self-Efficacy of Adult Learners: Different Approaches, Different Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plakhotnik, Maria S.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2016-01-01

    To help graduate students with academic writing, a college of education at a large university implemented a new service, Writing Support Circles. Based on the results of the first series of this service, we changed its design. The purpose of this article is to share how changes in the design affected these adult learners' writing self-efficacy and…

  17. Sertoli cell dedifferentiation in human cryptorchidism and gender reassignment shows similarities between fetal environmental and adult medical treatment estrogen and antiandrogen exposure.

    PubMed

    Nistal, Manuel; Gonzalez-Peramato, Pilar; De Miguel, Maria P

    2013-12-01

    Studies over the last years show an increase in testicular cancer, hypospadias and cryptorchidism in industrial countries, leading to the concept of testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). It is hypothesized that TDS is caused by estrogen and antiandrogen exposure during fetal life, accompanied by incomplete maturation of testicular Sertoli cells (SC). However, it is not known if SC disruption is a primary cause or a response to fetal Leydig cell testosterone production changes. To determine if SC differentiation is directly affected by estrogens, we compared SC maturation between adult gender reassignment cases exposed to estrogen and antiandrogen therapy, and those of typical TDS in adult cryptorchidism. We found similar expression of immature SC markers M2A antigen, inhibin bodies and Anti Mullerian Hormone, and the absence of maturation marker androgen receptor in SC of both types of patients. These data supports the occurrence of true SC dedifferentiation caused by estrogen exposure in adult humans. Our data also suggests that SC maturation is directly disrupted in TDS.

  18. A nondiapausing variant of the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata, that shows arrhythmic adult eclosion and elevated expression of two circadian clock genes, period and timeless.

    PubMed

    Goto, Shin G; Han, Bing; Denlinger, David L

    2006-01-01

    We describe a variant of the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata, which fails to enter pupal diapause in response to short daylength and low temperatures. This fly also has an arrhythmic adult eclosion pattern: rather than eclosing in early photophase, the variant ecloses arrhythmically throughout the photophase and scotophase. The loss of both diapause (photoperiodic response) and the gating of adult eclosion (presumably a circadian response) suggests that the same clock system is involved in these two responses. An examination of the expression patterns of the clock genes period and timeless demonstrates that both genes are present in the nondiapausing variant, but surprisingly, both genes are expressed at higher levels. This abnormality we observe, possibly the consequence of an upstream clock gene malfunction or a malfunction of the autoregulatory loop, results in disruption of a component of the clock system that is apparently needed for both photoperiodism and circadian rhythmicity.

  19. Speech production variability in fricatives of children and adults: Results of functional data analysis

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Laura L.; Lucero, Jorge C.; Perlman, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates token-to-token variability in fricative production of 5 year olds, 10 year olds, and adults. Previous studies have reported higher intrasubject variability in children than adults, in speech as well as nonspeech tasks, but authors have disagreed on the causes and implications of this finding. The current work assessed the characteristics of age-related variability across articulators (larynx and tongue) as well as in temporal versus spatial domains. Oral airflow signals, which reflect changes in both laryngeal and supralaryngeal apertures, were obtained for multiple productions of ∕h s z∕. The data were processed using functional data analysis, which provides a means of obtaining relatively independent indices of amplitude and temporal (phasing) variability. Consistent with past work, both temporal and amplitude variabilities were higher in children than adults, but the temporal indices were generally less adultlike than the amplitude indices for both groups of children. Quantitative and qualitative analyses showed considerable speaker- and consonant-specific patterns of variability. The data indicate that variability in ∕s∕ may represent laryngeal as well as supralaryngeal control and further that a simple random noise factor, higher in children than in adults, is insufficient to explain developmental differences in speech production variability. PMID:19045800

  20. Exposure to Zinc Sulfate Results in Differential Effects on Olfactory Sensory Neuron Subtypes in Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Hentig, James T.; Byrd-Jacobs, Christine A.

    2016-01-01

    Zinc sulfate is a known olfactory toxicant, although its specific effects on the olfactory epithelium of zebrafish are unknown. Olfactory organs of adult zebrafish were exposed to zinc sulfate and, after 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 or 14 days, fish were processed for histological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and behavioral analyses. Severe morphological disruption of the olfactory organ was observed two days following zinc sulfate exposure, including fusion of lamellae, epithelial inflammation, and significant loss of anti-calretinin labeling. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the apical surface of the sensory region was absent of ciliated structures, but microvilli were still present. Behavioral analysis showed significant loss of the ability to perceive bile salts and some fish also had no response to amino acids. Over the next several days, olfactory organ morphology, epithelial structure, and anti-calretinin labeling returned to control-like conditions, although the ability to perceive bile salts remained lost until day 14. Thus, exposure to zinc sulfate results in rapid degeneration of the olfactory organ, followed by restoration of morphology and function within two weeks. Zinc sulfate appears to have a greater effect on ciliated olfactory sensory neurons than on microvillous olfactory sensory neurons, suggesting differential effects on sensory neuron subtypes. PMID:27589738

  1. Effects of adult male circumcision on premature ejaculation: results from a prospective study in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jingjing; Xu, Chuan; Zhang, Jingjing; Liang, Chaozhao; Su, Puyu; Peng, Zhen; Shi, Kai; Tang, Dongdong; Gao, Pan; Lu, Zhaoxiang; Liu, Jishuang; Xia, Lei; Yang, Jiajia; Hao, Zongyao; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Xiansheng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of adult male circumcision on premature ejaculation (PE). Therefore, between December 2009 and March 2014, a total of 575 circumcised men and 623 uncircumcised men (control group) were evaluated. Detailed evaluations (including circumcision and control groups) on PE were conducted before circumcision and at the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up visits after circumcision. Self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), Patient-Reported Outcome measures, and 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function were used to measure the ejaculatory and erectile function for all subjects. The results showed that, during the one-year follow-up, men after circumcision experienced higher IELT and better scores of control over ejaculation, satisfaction with sexual intercourse, and severity of PE than men before circumcision (P < 0.001 for all). Similarly, when compared with the control group, the circumcised men reported significantly improved IELT, control over ejaculation, and satisfaction with sexual intercourse (P < 0.001 for all). These findings suggested that circumcision might have positive effects on IELT, ejaculatory control, sexual satisfaction, and PE severity. In addition, circumcision was significantly associated with the development of PE.

  2. Exposure to Zinc Sulfate Results in Differential Effects on Olfactory Sensory Neuron Subtypes in Adult Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Hentig, James T; Byrd-Jacobs, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    Zinc sulfate is a known olfactory toxicant, although its specific effects on the olfactory epithelium of zebrafish are unknown. Olfactory organs of adult zebrafish were exposed to zinc sulfate and, after 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 or 14 days, fish were processed for histological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and behavioral analyses. Severe morphological disruption of the olfactory organ was observed two days following zinc sulfate exposure, including fusion of lamellae, epithelial inflammation, and significant loss of anti-calretinin labeling. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the apical surface of the sensory region was absent of ciliated structures, but microvilli were still present. Behavioral analysis showed significant loss of the ability to perceive bile salts and some fish also had no response to amino acids. Over the next several days, olfactory organ morphology, epithelial structure, and anti-calretinin labeling returned to control-like conditions, although the ability to perceive bile salts remained lost until day 14. Thus, exposure to zinc sulfate results in rapid degeneration of the olfactory organ, followed by restoration of morphology and function within two weeks. Zinc sulfate appears to have a greater effect on ciliated olfactory sensory neurons than on microvillous olfactory sensory neurons, suggesting differential effects on sensory neuron subtypes. PMID:27589738

  3. In utero/lactational and adult exposures to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) show differential effects on craniofacial development and growth in rats.

    PubMed

    Sholts, Sabrina B; Korkalainen, Merja; Simanainen, Ulla; Miettinen, Hanna M; Håkansson, Helen; Viluksela, Matti

    2015-11-01

    In a previous study of female Han/Wistar (H/W) and Long-Evans (L-E) rats, we found that adult exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was associated with size decreases in the cranium and especially the face. In this study we compared these crania to those from male and female Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats with in utero/lactational exposure to TCDD, using morphometric variables of size, shape, and fluctuating asymmetry to quantify the effects of dose on craniofacial development and growth. At the highest levels of exposure, in utero/lactational and adult TCDD exposures both resulted in small but significant reductions in facial size parameters (i.e., 3-5%) in only females and minor effects on facial shape in both sexes. The shape effects of in utero/lactational exposure were most significant at the sutural intersections, whereas adult exposure to TCDD corresponded to dose-dependent changes of decreasing facial length and vault breadth. Fluctuating asymmetry in general explained a relatively small amount of shape variation compared with other effects, and only increased significantly in female L-E rats with high levels of adult exposure to TCDD. These results indicate that TCDD-related changes in cranial development and growth in rats can vary with the timing and duration of exposure, and with sex. Further investigations of other dioxin-like compounds and animal species will broaden our understanding of how chemicals exposure can influence the development and growth of the mammalian skeleton.

  4. A collaborative accountable care model in three practices showed promising early results on costs and quality of care.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Richard B; Sanderson, Mark I; Walters, Barbara A; Kennedy, Karen; Flores, Robert C; Muney, Alan M

    2012-11-01

    Cigna's Collaborative Accountable Care initiative provides financial incentives to physician groups and integrated delivery systems to improve the quality and efficiency of care for patients in commercial open-access benefit plans. Registered nurses who serve as care coordinators employed by participating practices are a central feature of the initiative. They use patient-specific reports and practice performance reports provided by Cigna to improve care coordination, identify and close care gaps, and address other opportunities for quality improvement. We report interim quality and cost results for three geographically and structurally diverse provider practices in Arizona, New Hampshire, and Texas. Although not statistically significant, these early results revealed favorable trends in total medical costs and quality of care, suggesting that a shared-savings accountable care model and collaborative support from the payer can enable practices to take meaningful steps toward full accountability for care quality and efficiency.

  5. Health practice correlates in three adult age groups: results from two community surveys.

    PubMed

    Rakowski, W; Lefebvre, R C; Assaf, A R; Lasater, T M; Carleton, R A

    1990-01-01

    Independently done surveys of a target population can make an important contribution to knowledge about the determinants of personal health behavior by highlighting variables that consistently emerge as significant predictors. This investigation examined the correlates of four health practice and knowledge indices related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in two baseline community surveys of the Pawtucket Heart Health Program (N = 2,413; N = 2,808). An additional dimension was the use of three adult age groups (18-29, 30-49, 50-64) in conducting the analyses. Results of both surveys showed that sex was the strongest correlate of the four indices--knowledge of CVD, encouraging health practice changes in others, dietary intake, and exercise. The four indices related to CVD were also associated with years of education, primary language, and whether or not a recent cholesterol measurement had been obtained, although these relationships were not as consistent as the results for sex. Overall, about half of each survey's significant associations were also found in the other survey (survey 1, 30 of 62; survey 2, 30 of 56). Consistency of significant results between surveys was best for the group ages 30-49. In either survey, it was rare for an association between a predictor and behavioral index to appear in each of the three age groups. This study supports the importance of the subjects' sex in research on personal health practices, suggests the potential for independence even among health-related indices pertinent to a single type of illness, and emphasizes the usefulness of utilizing independent samples to identify important correlates of health behavior. PMID:2120725

  6. Presentation Showing Results of a Hydrogeochemical Investigation of the Standard Mine Vicinity, Upper Elk Creek Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, Andrew H.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Mast, M. Alisa; Wanty, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    PREFACE This Open-File Report consists of a presentation given in Crested Butte, Colorado on December 13, 2007 to the Standard Mine Advisory Group. The presentation was paired with another presentation given by the Colorado Division of Reclamation, Mining, and Safety on the physical features and geology of the Standard Mine. The presentation in this Open-File Report summarizes the results and conclusions of a hydrogeochemical investigation of the Standard Mine performed by the U.S. Geological Survey (Manning and others, in press). The purpose of the investigation was to aid the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in evaluating remediation options for the Standard Mine site. Additional details and supporting data related to the information in this presentation can be found in Manning and others (in press).

  7. Mental-Physical Comorbidity in Korean Adults: Results from a Nationwide General Population Survey in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Byung-Soo; Cho, Maeng Je

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of mental-physical comorbidity and health-threatening risk factors in subjects with mental disorders, and the risks of mental disorders in those with physical diseases for the last 12 months in the general Korean population. Methods Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area study replication (KECA-R) was conducted for 6,510 adults between August 2006 and April 2007. The Korean version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (K-CIDI) was used in the survey. Prevalence of mental and physical disorders, and risk factors for physical health were calculated, and their associations were evaluated with adjustment for age and sex. Results Subjects with any mental disorder showed significantly higher prevalence of chronic physical conditions (adjusted odds ratio, AOR=1.5 to 2.8, p<0.001) and medical risk factors including smoking, heavy drinking, overweight, and hypertension (AOR=1.5 to 4.0, p<0.001). Of those with chronic physical conditions, 21.6% had one or more comorbid mental disorder compared with 10.5% of the subjects without chronic physical disorders (AOR=2.6, p<0.001). Contrary to expectations, depressive disorders did not show significant association with hypertension and prevalence of obesity was not influenced by presence of mental disorders. Further studies should assess these findings. Conclusion This is the first identification of significant mental-physical comorbidity in the general Korean population. Clinicians and health care officials should keep in mind of its potential adverse effects on treatment outcome and aggravated disease-related socioeconomic burden. PMID:27757127

  8. Low-frequency ac electroporation shows strong frequency dependence and yields comparable transfection results to dc electroporation.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yihong; Cao, Zhenning; Bao, Ning; Li, Jianbo; Wang, Jun; Geng, Tao; Lin, Hao; Lu, Chang

    2012-06-28

    Conventional electroporation has been conducted by employing short direct current (dc) pulses for delivery of macromolecules such as DNA into cells. The use of alternating current (ac) field for electroporation has mostly been explored in the frequency range of 10kHz-1MHz. Based on Schwan equation, it was thought that with low ac frequencies (10Hz-10kHz), the transmembrane potential does not vary with the frequency. In this report, we utilized a flow-through electroporation technique that employed continuous 10Hz-10kHz ac field (based on either sine waves or square waves) for electroporation of cells with defined duration and intensity. Our results reveal that electropermeabilization becomes weaker with increased frequency in this range. In contrast, transfection efficiency with DNA reaches its maximum at medium frequencies (100-1000Hz) in the range. We postulate that the relationship between the transfection efficiency and the ac frequency is determined by combined effects from electrophoretic movement of DNA in the ac field, dependence of the DNA/membrane interaction on the ac frequency, and variation of transfection under different electropermeabilization intensities. The fact that ac electroporation in this frequency range yields high efficiency for transfection (up to ~71% for Chinese hamster ovary cells) and permeabilization suggests its potential for gene delivery.

  9. Volar locking distal radius plates show better short-term results than other treatment options: A prospective randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Drobetz, Herwig; Koval, Lidia; Weninger, Patrick; Luscombe, Ruth; Jeffries, Paula; Ehrendorfer, Stefan; Heal, Clare

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare the outcomes of displaced distal radius fractures treated with volar locking plates and with immediate postoperative mobilisation with the outcomes of these fractures treated with modalities that necessitate 6 wk wrist immobilisation. METHODS A prospective, randomised controlled single-centre trial was conducted with 56 patients who had a displaced radius fracture were randomised to treatment either with a volar locking plate (n = 29), or another treatment modality (n = 27; cast immobilisation with or without wires or external fixator). Outcomes were measured at 12 wk. Functional outcome scores measured were the Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE) Score; Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand and activities of daily living (ADLs). Clinical outcomes were wrist range of motion and grip strength. Radiographic parameters were volar inclination and ulnar variance. RESULTS Patients in the volar locking plate group had significantly better PRWE scores, ADL scores, grip strength and range of extension at three months compared with the control group. All radiological parameters were significantly better in the volar locking plate group at 3 mo. CONCLUSION The present study suggests that volar locking plates produced significantly better functional and clinical outcomes at 3 mo compared with other treatment modalities. Anatomical reduction was significantly more likely to be preserved in the plating group. Level of evidence: II. PMID:27795951

  10. Selection Indices and Multivariate Analysis Show Similar Results in the Evaluation of Growth and Carcass Traits in Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Brito Lopes, Fernando; da Silva, Marcelo Corrêa; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhôa; Goncalves Narciso, Marcelo; Sainz, Roberto Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated a multivariate approach as an alternative tool for the purpose of selection regarding expected progeny differences (EPDs). Data were fitted using a multi-trait model and consisted of growth traits (birth weight and weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age) and carcass traits (longissimus muscle area (LMA), back-fat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF)), registered over 21 years in extensive breeding systems of Polled Nellore cattle in Brazil. Multivariate analyses were performed using standardized (zero mean and unit variance) EPDs. The k mean method revealed that the best fit of data occurred using three clusters (k = 3) (P < 0.001). Estimates of genetic correlation among growth and carcass traits and the estimates of heritability were moderate to high, suggesting that a correlated response approach is suitable for practical decision making. Estimates of correlation between selection indices and the multivariate index (LD1) were moderate to high, ranging from 0.48 to 0.97. This reveals that both types of indices give similar results and that the multivariate approach is reliable for the purpose of selection. The alternative tool seems very handy when economic weights are not available or in cases where more rapid identification of the best animals is desired. Interestingly, multivariate analysis allowed forecasting information based on the relationships among breeding values (EPDs). Also, it enabled fine discrimination, rapid data summarization after genetic evaluation, and permitted accounting for maternal ability and the genetic direct potential of the animals. In addition, we recommend the use of longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness as selection criteria, to allow estimation of breeding values before the first mating season in order to accelerate the response to individual selection. PMID:26789008

  11. Abdominal Obesity, Race and Chronic Kidney Disease in Young Adults: Results from NHANES 1999-2010

    PubMed Central

    Sarathy, Harini; Henriquez, Gabriela; Abramowitz, Matthew K.; Kramer, Holly; Rosas, Sylvia E.; Johns, Tanya; Kumar, Juhi; Skversky, Amy; Kaskel, Frederick; Melamed, Michal L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Kidney dysfunction in obesity may be independent of and may precede the development of hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus. We aimed to examine if abdominal obesity is associated with early markers of CKD in a young healthy population and whether these associations differ by race and/or ethnicity. Methods We analyzed data from the NHANES 1999–2010 for 6918 young adults ages 20–40 years. Abdominal obesity was defined by gender criteria of waist circumference. CKD markers included estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria ≥30 mg/g. Race stratified analyses were done overall and in subgroups with normal blood pressures, normoglycemia and normal insulin sensitivity. Awareness of CKD was assessed in participants with albuminuria. Results Abdominal obesity was present in over one-third of all young adults and was more prevalent among non-Hispanic blacks (45.4%) versus Mexican-Americans (40.6%) or non-Hispanic whites (37.4%) (P-value = 0.004). Mexican-American young adults with abdominal obesity had a higher odds of albuminuria even among those with normal blood pressure, normal glucose, and normal insulin sensitivity [adjusted odds ratio 4.5; 95% confidence interval (1.6–12.2), p = 0.004]. Less than 5% of young adults with albuminuria of all races and ethnicities had been told they had kidney disease. Conclusion Abdominal obesity in young adults, especially in Mexican-Americans, is independently associated with albuminuria even with normal blood pressures, normoglycemia and normal insulin levels. Greater awareness of CKD is needed to protect this young population from long-standing exposure to abdominal obesity and early progressive renal disease. PMID:27224643

  12. A systematic review of hospitalization resulting from medicine-related problems in adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Al Hamid, Abdullah; Ghaleb, Maisoon; Aljadhey, Hisham; Aslanpour, Zoe

    2014-01-01

    Aims Medicine-related problems (MRPs) represent a major issue leading to hospitalization, especially in adult and elderly patients. The aims of this review are to investigate the prevalence, causes and major risk factors for MRPs leading to hospitalization in adult patients and to identify the main medicine classes involved. Methods Studies were identified through electronic searches of Medline, Embase, Scopus and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts between January 2000 and May 2013. A systematic review was conducted of both retrospective and prospective studies. Studies included were those involving hospitalization resulting from MRPs in adults (≥18 years old), whereas studies excluded were those investigating drug misuse and abuse and studies investigating MRPs in hospitalized patients. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 20. Results Forty-five studies were identified, including 21 that investigated hospitalization resulting from adverse drug reactions, six studies that investigated hospitalization due to adverse drug events and 18 studies that investigated hospitalization due to MRPs. The median prevalence rates of hospitalization resulting from adverse drug reactions, adverse drug events and MRPs were 7% (interquartile range, 2.4–14.9%), 4.6% (interquartile range, 2.85–16.6%) and 12.1% (interquartile range, 6.43–22.2%), respectively. The major causes contributing to MRPs were adverse drug reactions and noncompliance. In addition, the major risk factors associated with MRPs were old age, polypharmacy and comorbidities. Moreover, the main classes of medicines implicated were medicines used to treat cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Conclusions Hospitalization due to MRPs had a high prevalence, in the range of 4.6–12.1%. Most MRPs encountered were prevalent among adult patients taking medicines for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. PMID:24283967

  13. Results from a sixteen year study on the effects of oiling from the Exxon Valdez on adult pink salmon returns.

    PubMed

    Brannon, Ernest L; Maki, Alan W; Moulton, Lawrence L; Parker, Keith R

    2006-08-01

    For sixteen years following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill adult returns of pink salmon in Prince William Sound, Alaska were monitored to assess spill effects on survival. No evidence of spill effects was detected for either intertidal or whole-stream spawning fish. From 1989 through 2004 mean densities for oiled and reference streams tracked each other, illustrating similar responses of oiled and reference stream adult populations to naturally changing oceanographic and climactic conditions. Hatchery fish strayed into the study streams, but similar incursions occurred in oiled and reference streams, and their presence was compensated for to eliminate their influence on determining the success of the returning natural populations. These results, showing no detectable effects of oiling on pink salmon spawning populations, are supported by published field studies on pink salmon incubation success in oiled streams. PMID:16487548

  14. Results from a sixteen year study on the effects of oiling from the Exxon Valdez on adult pink salmon returns.

    PubMed

    Brannon, Ernest L; Maki, Alan W; Moulton, Lawrence L; Parker, Keith R

    2006-08-01

    For sixteen years following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill adult returns of pink salmon in Prince William Sound, Alaska were monitored to assess spill effects on survival. No evidence of spill effects was detected for either intertidal or whole-stream spawning fish. From 1989 through 2004 mean densities for oiled and reference streams tracked each other, illustrating similar responses of oiled and reference stream adult populations to naturally changing oceanographic and climactic conditions. Hatchery fish strayed into the study streams, but similar incursions occurred in oiled and reference streams, and their presence was compensated for to eliminate their influence on determining the success of the returning natural populations. These results, showing no detectable effects of oiling on pink salmon spawning populations, are supported by published field studies on pink salmon incubation success in oiled streams.

  15. Philippines: decentralized approach shows results.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    In the Philippines several steps have been taken to meet the challenge of increasing population growth. Commencing with the Republic Act 6365, known as the Population Act (1971) program directives focus on achieving and maintaining population levels most conducive to the national welfare. In 1978 a Special Committee was constituted by the President to review the population program. Pursuant to the Committee's findings certain changes were adopted. The thrust is now towards longterm planning to ensure a more significant and perceptible demographic impact of development programs and policies. Increasing attention is paid to regional development and spatial distribution in the country. The 1978-82 Development Plan states more clearly the interaction between population and development. The National Economic and Development Authority, the central policy and planning agency of the government, takes charge of formulation and coordinating the broader aspects of population policy and integrating population with socioeconomic plans and policies. At present the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) is implementing a project known as the Population/Development Planning and Research (PDPR) project with financial support from the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). This project promotes and facilitates the integration of the population dimension in the planning process. It does this by maintaining linkages and instituting collaborative mechanisms with the different NEDA regional offices and sectoral ministries. It also trains government planners in ways of integrating population concerns into the development plan. PDPR promotes the use of population and development research for planning purposes and policy formation. The Philippine Development Plan, 1978-82, recognized that an improvement in the level of 1 sector reinforces the performance of the other sectors. Since the establishment of the National Population Program 12 years ago, population and family planning have been successfully integrated with various development sectors, notably, labor, health, and education. Through the policies of integration, multiagency participation, and partnership of the public and private sectors, the Commission on Population uses existing development programs of government and private organizations as vehicles for family planning information and services and shares the responsibility of implementing all facets of the population program with various participating agencies in the government and private sector.

  16. IRRITABLE MOOD IN ADULT MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER: RESULTS FROM THE WORLD MENTAL HEALTH SURVEYS

    PubMed Central

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Bromet, Evelyn; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia E.; Gruber, Michael J.; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Elie G.; Jin, Robert; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Medina-Mora, María E.; O’Neill, Siobhan; Ono, Yutaka; Posada-Villa, José A.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Scott, Kate M.; Shahly, Victoria; Stein, Dan J.; Viana, Maria C.; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although irritability is a core symptom of DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) for youth but not adults, clinical studies find comparable rates of irritability between nonbipolar depressed adults and youth. Including irritability as a core symptom of adult MDD would allow detection of depression-equivalent syndromes with primary irritability hypothesized to be more common among males than females. We carried out a preliminary examination of this issue using cross-national community-based survey data from 21 countries in the World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys (n = 110,729). Methods The assessment of MDD in the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview includes one question about persistent irritability. We examined two expansions of the definition of MDD involving this question: (1) cases with dysphoria and/or anhedonia and exactly four of nine Criterion A symptoms plus irritability; and (2) cases with two or more weeks of irritability plus four or more other Criterion A MDD symptoms in the absence of dysphoria or anhedonia. Results Adding irritability as a tenth Criterion A symptom increased lifetime prevalence by 0.4% (from 11.2 to 11.6%). Adding episodes of persistent irritability increased prevalence by an additional 0.2%. Proportional prevalence increases were significantly higher, but nonetheless small, among males compared to females. Rates of severe role impairment were significantly lower among respondents with this irritable depression who did not meet conventional DSM-IV criteria than those with DSM-IV MDD. Conclusion Although limited by the superficial assessment in this single question on irritability, results do not support expanding adult MDD criteria to include irritable mood. PMID:23364997

  17. Health Disparities Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Older Adults: Results From a Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Barkan, Susan E.; Muraco, Anna; Hoy-Ellis, Charles P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated health disparities among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults aged 50 years and older. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2003–2010 Washington State Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (n = 96 992) on health outcomes, chronic conditions, access to care, behaviors, and screening by gender and sexual orientation with adjusted logistic regressions. Results. LGB older adults had higher risk of disability, poor mental health, smoking, and excessive drinking than did heterosexuals. Lesbians and bisexual women had higher risk of cardiovascular disease and obesity, and gay and bisexual men had higher risk of poor physical health and living alone than did heterosexuals. Lesbians reported a higher rate of excessive drinking than did bisexual women; bisexual men reported a higher rate of diabetes and a lower rate of being tested for HIV than did gay men. Conclusions. Tailored interventions are needed to address the health disparities and unique health needs of LGB older adults. Research across the life course is needed to better understand health disparities by sexual orientation and age, and to assess subgroup differences within these communities. PMID:23763391

  18. Hippocampal Brain Volume Is Associated with Faster Facial Emotion Identification in Older Adults: Preliminary Results.

    PubMed

    Szymkowicz, Sarah M; Persson, Jonas; Lin, Tian; Fischer, Håkan; Ebner, Natalie C

    2016-01-01

    Quick correct identification of facial emotions is highly relevant for successful social interactions. Research suggests that older, compared to young, adults experience increased difficulty with face and emotion processing skills. While functional neuroimaging studies suggest age differences in neural processing of faces and emotions, evidence about age-associated structural brain changes and their involvement in face and emotion processing is scarce. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), this study investigated the extent to which volumes of frontal and temporal brain structures were related to reaction time in accurate identification of facial emotions in 30 young and 30 older adults. Volumetric segmentation was performed using FreeSurfer and gray matter volumes from frontal and temporal regions were extracted. Analysis of covariances (ANCOVAs) models with response time (RT) as the dependent variable and age group and regional volume, and their interaction, as independent variables were conducted, controlling for total intracranial volume (ICV). Results indicated that, in older adults, larger hippocampal volumes were associated with faster correct facial emotion identification. These preliminary observations suggest that greater volume in brain regions associated with face and emotion processing contributes to improved facial emotion identification performance in aging. PMID:27610082

  19. Hippocampal Brain Volume Is Associated with Faster Facial Emotion Identification in Older Adults: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Szymkowicz, Sarah M.; Persson, Jonas; Lin, Tian; Fischer, Håkan; Ebner, Natalie C.

    2016-01-01

    Quick correct identification of facial emotions is highly relevant for successful social interactions. Research suggests that older, compared to young, adults experience increased difficulty with face and emotion processing skills. While functional neuroimaging studies suggest age differences in neural processing of faces and emotions, evidence about age-associated structural brain changes and their involvement in face and emotion processing is scarce. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), this study investigated the extent to which volumes of frontal and temporal brain structures were related to reaction time in accurate identification of facial emotions in 30 young and 30 older adults. Volumetric segmentation was performed using FreeSurfer and gray matter volumes from frontal and temporal regions were extracted. Analysis of covariances (ANCOVAs) models with response time (RT) as the dependent variable and age group and regional volume, and their interaction, as independent variables were conducted, controlling for total intracranial volume (ICV). Results indicated that, in older adults, larger hippocampal volumes were associated with faster correct facial emotion identification. These preliminary observations suggest that greater volume in brain regions associated with face and emotion processing contributes to improved facial emotion identification performance in aging.

  20. Hippocampal Brain Volume Is Associated with Faster Facial Emotion Identification in Older Adults: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Szymkowicz, Sarah M.; Persson, Jonas; Lin, Tian; Fischer, Håkan; Ebner, Natalie C.

    2016-01-01

    Quick correct identification of facial emotions is highly relevant for successful social interactions. Research suggests that older, compared to young, adults experience increased difficulty with face and emotion processing skills. While functional neuroimaging studies suggest age differences in neural processing of faces and emotions, evidence about age-associated structural brain changes and their involvement in face and emotion processing is scarce. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), this study investigated the extent to which volumes of frontal and temporal brain structures were related to reaction time in accurate identification of facial emotions in 30 young and 30 older adults. Volumetric segmentation was performed using FreeSurfer and gray matter volumes from frontal and temporal regions were extracted. Analysis of covariances (ANCOVAs) models with response time (RT) as the dependent variable and age group and regional volume, and their interaction, as independent variables were conducted, controlling for total intracranial volume (ICV). Results indicated that, in older adults, larger hippocampal volumes were associated with faster correct facial emotion identification. These preliminary observations suggest that greater volume in brain regions associated with face and emotion processing contributes to improved facial emotion identification performance in aging. PMID:27610082

  1. Neighborhood built environment and physical activity of Japanese older adults: results from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although many studies have reported the association between neighborhood built environment (BE) and physical activity (PA), less is known about the associations for older populations or in countries besides the US and Australia. The aim of this paper is to examine the associations for older adult populations in Japan. Methods Our analyses were based on cross-sectional data from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES), conducted in 2003. The respondents were older adults, aged 65 years or over (n = 9,414), from 8 municipalities across urban, suburban, and rural areas. The frequency of leisure time sports activity and total walking time were used as the outcome variables. Using geographic information systems (GIS), we measured residential density, street connectivity, number of local destinations, access to recreational spaces, and land slope of the respondents' neighborhoods, based on network distances with multiple radii (250 m, 500 m, 1,000 m). An ordinal logistic regression model was used to analyze the association between PA and BE measures. Results Population density and presence of parks or green spaces had positive associations with the frequency of sports activity, regardless of the selected buffer zone. The analysis of total walking time, however, showed only a few associations. Conclusions Our findings provide mixed support for the association between PA and the characteristics of BE measures, previously used in Western settings. Some characteristics of the neighborhood built environment may facilitate leisure time sports activity, but not increase the total walking time for Japanese older adults. PMID:21854598

  2. "Glass fairies" and "bone children": adolescents and young adults with anorexia nervosa show positive reactions towards extremely emaciated body pictures measured by the startle reflex paradigm.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Valeska A; Schneider, Nora; Grünewald, Barbara; Kienast, Thorsten; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Korte, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the emotional processing of extremely emaciated body cues in adolescents and young adults with (n  =  36) and without (n =  36) anorexia nervosa (AN), introducing a new picture type, which was taken from websites that promote extreme thinness and is targeted specifically at adolescents interested in extreme thinness. A startle reflex paradigm was used for implicit reactions, while a self-assessment instrument was used for subjective responses. We found a significant group difference with a startle inhibition (appetitive response) among the patients and a startle potentiation (aversive response) among the controls, whereas no such difference for subjective measures was found. The results are in contrast to previous studies, which proposed a general failure to activate the appetitive motivational system in AN, but in keeping with findings from other addictions, where the same response pattern has been found. Implications for prevention and therapy are discussed.

  3. Associate investigations: detection of tuberculosis infections in children resulting in discovery of undiagnosed tuberculosis in adults.

    PubMed

    Moonan, Patrick K; Quitugua, Teresa; Cox, Rebecca A; Weis, Stephen E

    2002-07-01

    The authors present the design and implementation of associate investigations of young children with positive tuberculin skin test results. Case study analysis of an associate investigation was done using epidemiologic surveillance techniques, medical interviewing, sociogram mapping, tuberculin skin testing, radiographic evidence, and bacteriologic analysis. Deoxyribonucleic acid fingerprinting of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates using a standardized IS6110-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and IS6110-independent DNA spoligotyping methods was done to track and identify specific bacterial strains. Deoxyribonucleic acid fingerprinting and spoligotyping done on isolates obtained from family members demonstrated same-strain transmission of M. tuberculosis. Three adults with active pulmonary disease and six individuals with latent tuberculosis (TB) were discovered during this investigation. The arrival of a family member from Mexico who had the same strain suggests that the source case lives in Mexico. A child with positive tuberculin skin test results indicates recent and potentially ongoing transmission of TB in the community. Targeted tuberculin skin testing performed on high-risk groups by primary care physicians allows for detection of TB infections. When TB infections are discovered in children, associate investigations can result in the discovery of undiagnosed adult cases and prevent further transmission within the community.

  4. The Health Literacy of America's Adults: Results from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy. NCES 2006-483

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutner, Mark; Greenburg, Elizabeth; Jin, Ying; Paulsen, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the health literacy of America's adults is important because so many aspects of finding health care and health information, and maintaining health, depend on understanding written information. Many reports have suggested that low health literacy is associated with poor communication between patients and health care providers and with…

  5. Young Adults' Risk Perceptions of Various Tobacco Products Relative to Cigarettes: Results from the National Young Adult Health Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method: We examined risk…

  6. The impact of emotional stress early in life on adult voluntary ethanol intake-results of maternal separation in rats.

    PubMed

    Roman, Erika; Nylander, Ingrid

    2005-09-01

    The combination of genetic and environmental factors determines the individual vulnerability for excessive ethanol intake, possibly leading to dependence. The environmental influences early in life represent examples of determinant factors for adult behaviour and can be protective as well as risk factors. Maternal separation is one model to examine the long-term consequences of early environmental experiences on neurochemistry and behaviour, including drug-taking behaviour in experimental animals. In the present review, findings from studies using repeated short and prolonged periods of maternal separation, with emphasis on effects on voluntary ethanol intake in rats with or without a genetic predisposition for high voluntary ethanol intake, are summarized. Despite some contradictory results, the general picture emerging shows that short periods of maternal separation during the postnatal period result in a lower adult voluntary ethanol intake in male rats. Prolonged periods of maternal separation were found to induce a high voluntary ethanol intake in male rats, including rats with a genetic predisposition for high ethanol intake. Results from the literature also show that changes were not just related to time of separation but were also related to the degree of handling. Interestingly, in terms of voluntary ethanol intake, female rats were generally not affected by postnatal maternal separation. The reasons for these sex differences need further investigation. In terms of neurobiological consequences of maternal separation, conclusive data are sparse and one of the future challenges will, therefore, be to identify and characterize underlying neurobiological mechanisms, especially in the individual animal.

  7. Oral health status of older adults in Kentucky: results from the Kentucky Elder Oral Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Bush, Heather M; Dickens, Noel E; Henry, Robert G; Durham, Lisa; Sallee, Nancy; Skelton, Judith; Stein, Pam S; Cecil, James C

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the Kentucky Elder Oral Health Survey (KEOHS) was to assess the oral health status of Kentuckians 65 and older. The KEOHS consisted of a self-administered questionnaire and a clinical examination. Recruitment occurred from May 2002 through March 2005 of persons aged 65 and older (n = 1,386) whose functional ability was classified by residential setting. Independent elders living in their own homes were designated as "well-elders," those who lived in skilled nursing facilities and who were functionally dependent were designated as "nursing home elders," and those older adults who were considered frail were designated as "homebound elders." Significant associations were found between the functional ability of the elders and demographic characteristics. While elders who were homebound reported the highest rate of barriers to care, dental insurance, affordability, and transportation were consistently reported as barriers for all groups of elders. This study has established the baseline oral health status of older adults in Kentucky and the data show differences that exist for various community living situations.

  8. Adult Transitions to Learning in the USA: What Do PIAAC Survey Results Tell Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Margaret Becker; Paulson, Usha G.

    2016-01-01

    The Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) assessed literacy, numeracy, and technology-related skills of adults and found skill levels of US adults are well below the international average. In a world where advanced skills are requisite to workplace competitiveness, low skills are a danger sign. An initial PIAAC…

  9. Early prenatal androgenization results in diminished ovarian reserve in adult female rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Dumesic, D.A.; Patankar, M.S.; Barnett, D.K.; Lesnick, T.G.; Hutcherson, B.A.; Abbott, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Early prenatal androgenization (PA) accelerates follicle differentiation and impairs embryogenesis in adult female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) undergoing FSH therapy for IVF. To determine whether androgen excess in utero affects follicle development over time, this study examines whether PA exposure, beginning at gestational days 40–44 (early treated) or 100–115 (late treated), alters the decline in serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels with age in adult female rhesus monkeys and perturbs their ovarian response to recombinant human FSH (rhFSH) therapy for IVF. METHODS Thirteen normal (control), 11 early-treated and 6 late-treated PA adult female monkeys had serum AMH levels measured at random times of the menstrual cycle or anovulatory period. Using some of the same animals, basal serum AMH, gonadotrophins and steroids were also measured in six normal, five early-treated and three late-treated PA female monkeys undergoing FSH therapy for IVF during late-reproductive life (>17 years); serum AMH also was measured on day of HCG administration and at oocyte retrieval. RESULTS Serum AMH levels in early-treated PA females declined with age to levels that were significantly lower than those of normal (P ≤ 0.05) and late-treated PA females (P ≤ 0.025) by late-reproductive life. Serum AMH levels positively predicted numbers of total/mature oocytes retrieved, with early-treated PA females having the lowest serum AMH levels, fewest oocytes retrieved and lowest percentage of females with fertilized oocytes that cleaved. CONCLUSIONS Based on these animals, early PA appears to program an exaggerated decline in ovarian reserve with age, suggesting that epigenetically induced hormonal factors during fetal development may influence the cohort size of ovarian follicles after birth. PMID:19740899

  10. Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder Show Normal Attention to Eye-Gaze Information--Evidence from a New Change Blindness Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher-Watson, Sue; Leekam, Susan R.; Findlay, John M.; Stanton, Elaine C.

    2008-01-01

    Other people's eye-gaze is a powerful social stimulus that captures and directs visual attention. There is evidence that this is not the case for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), although less is known about attention to eye-gaze in adults. We investigated whether young adults would detect a change to the direction of eye-gaze in…

  11. Cognitive-Behaviorally-Oriented Group Rehabilitation of Adults with ADHD: Results of a 6-Month Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salakari, Anita; Virta, Maarit; Gronroos, Nina; Chydenius, Esa; Partinen, Markku; Vataja, Risto; Kaski, Markus; Iivanainen, Matti

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Recently, novel psychological treatments for adult ADHD have been reported with promising results. However, studies about long-term treatment effects are scanty. The authors study effects of cognitive-behaviorally-oriented group rehabilitation during a 6-month follow-up. Method: Participating in the rehabilitation were 29 adults, of…

  12. Cigarette smoking and the risk of adult leukemia: results from the Three Mile Island cohort study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohui; Talbott, Evelyn O; Zborowski, Jeanne V; Rager, Judith R

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is an unconfirmed risk factor for the development of leukemia. The authors examined the potential link using data from the Three Mile Island cohort for the period 1979-1995. Eligible for analysis were 24,539 individuals aged 14 years or older who were followed up over 16 years from the Three Mile Island cohort. The authors identified all incident leukemia cases through the Pennsylvania Department of Health Cancer Registry. They used the Cox proportional hazards model to evaluate the relationships and observed 42 incident leukemia cases, including 15 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases, in the cohort. After controlling for other confounding factors, the authors found current smoking to be associated with an increased risk of adult AML (relative risk = 3.47; 95% confidence interval = 1.002-11.99). The authors also observed a marginally significant linear trend of risk of AML associated with the number of years smoked (p = .06). The results from this study suggested that cigarette smoking was associated with an increased risk of adult AML. Further investigation is required to confirm these findings. PMID:18400653

  13. Fgf8 haploinsufficiency results in distinct craniofacial defects in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Albertson, R Craig; Yelick, Pamela C

    2007-06-15

    Significant progress has been made toward understanding the role of fgf8 in directing early embryonic patterning of the pharyngeal skeleton. Considerably less is known about the role this growth factor plays in the coordinated development, growth, and remodeling of the craniofacial skeleton beyond embryonic stages. To better understand the contributions of fgf8 in the formation of adult craniofacial architecture, we analyzed the skeletal anatomy of adult ace(ti282a)/fgf8 heterozygous zebrafish. Our results revealed distinct skeletal defects including facial asymmetries, aberrant craniofacial geometry, irregular patterns of cranial suturing, and ectopic bone formation. These defects are similar in presentation to several human craniofacial disorders (e.g., craniosynostosis, hemifacial microsomia), and may be related to increased levels of bone metabolism observed in ace(ti282a)/fgf8 heterozygotes. Moreover, skeletal defects observed in ace(ti282a)/fgf8 heterozygotes are consistent with expression patterns of fgf8 in the mature craniofacial skeleton. These data reveal previously unrecognized roles for fgf8 during skeletogenesis, and provide a basis for future investigations into the mechanisms that regulate craniofacial development beyond the embryo. PMID:17448458

  14. The Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine among Lebanese Adults: Results from a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Naja, F.; Alameddine, M.; Itani, L.; Shoaib, H.; Hariri, D.; Talhouk, S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine the prevalence and correlates of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use in Lebanon. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted through face to face interviews on a nationally representative sample of 1,475 Lebanese adults. The survey questionnaire explored the sociodemographic and health related characteristics as well as the types and modes of CAM use. The main outcome in this study was the use of CAM during the last 12 months. Results. Prevalence of CAM use was 29.87% with “folk herbs” being the most commonly used (75%). Two out of five CAM users indicated using it as alternative to conventional therapies and only 28.4% of users disclosed the use of CAM to their physician. CAM use was significantly associated with higher income, presence of a chronic disease, and lack of access to needed health care. Lower odds of CAM use were observed among older adults and those with a higher education level. Conclusions. This study revealed a high prevalence of CAM use in Lebanon. Health policy and decision makers need to facilitate proper regulation and integration of CAM into mainstream medicine and educate health care providers and the public alike on the safe and effective use of CAM therapies. PMID:26106436

  15. Functional results after cholesteatoma surgery in an adult population using the retrograde mastoidectomy technique.

    PubMed

    Minovi, Amir; Venjacob, Johanna; Volkenstein, Stefan; Dornhoffer, John; Dazert, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    In this retrospective study, we analyzed the functional results after using the retrograde mastoidectomy technique for cholesteatoma removal in an adult patient population. The described technique was used at a tertiary referral center for cholesteatoma removal in 218 adult patients, representing 242 operated ears, with an average follow-up time of 20.3 months. With the retrograde mastoidectomy technique, the cholesteatoma is removed posteriorly through the canal wall, from the epitympanic region toward the mastoid, with the option to reconstruct the posterior bony canal wall or create an open mastoid cavity, depending on the size of the defect. Primary surgery was carried out in 58.7 % ears, with the remaining 41.3 % representing revision surgery. In 151 cases, the posterior canal wall was reconstructed, and in 91 cases a classical CWD with an open mastoid cavity was created. In the majority of the cases (n = 213, 88.0 %), a primary hearing restoration was performed. There were 18 recurrences (12.7 %) in primary cases and 22 recurrences (22 %) in revision surgeries. Ninety percent of the recurrences (36 of 40 cases) occurred within 5 years. A postoperative air-bone gap of less than 20 dB was achieved in 61.6 % of the operated ears. Ears with a reconstructed posterior canal wall had significantly better hearing results than those cases in which a CWD procedure was used (air-bone gap of 17.6 versus 22.5 dB, p < 0.05). The retrograde mastoidectomy technique for cholesteatoma removal resulted in satisfying hearing results in the majority of the cases, with a recurrence rate comparable to the current literature.

  16. Investigation of infectivity of neonates and adults from different rat strains to Toxoplasma gondii Prugniaud shows both variation which correlates with iNOS and Arginase-1 activity and increased susceptibility of neonates to infection.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jiang-Mei; Yi, Si-Qi; Wu, Ming-Shui; Geng, Guo-Qing; Shen, Ji-Long; Lu, Fang-Li; Hide, Geoff; Lai, De-Hua; Lun, Zhao-Rong

    2015-02-01

    Mouse models differ considerably from humans with regard to clinical symptoms of toxoplasmosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii and, by comparison, the rat model is more representative of this disease in humans. In the present study, we found that different strains of adult and newborn rats (Lewis, Wistar, Sprague Dawley, Brown Norway and Fischer 344) exhibited remarkable variation in the number of brain cysts following inoculation with the T.gondii Prugniaud strain. In adult rats, large numbers of cysts (1231 ± 165.6) were observed in Fischer 344, but none in the other four. This situation was different in newborn rats aged from 5 to 20 days old. All Fischer 344 and Brown Norway newborns were cyst-positive while cyst-positive infection in Sprague Dawley neonates ranged from 54.5% to 60% depending on their age at infection. In Wistar and Lewis rat neonates, however, cyst-positivity rates of 0-42.9% and 0-25% were found respectively. To investigate whether rat strain differences in infectivity could be related to inherent strain and genetic differences in the host immune response, we correlated our data with previously reported strain differences in iNOS/Arginase ratio in adult rats and found them to be linked. These results show that interactions between host genetic background and age of rat influence T.gondii infection.

  17. Ambient Air Pollution and Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults: Results from the MOBILIZE Boston Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Eliot, Melissa N.; Koutrakis, Petros; Gryparis, Alexandros; Schwartz, Joel D.; Coull, Brent A.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Milberg, William P.; Lipsitz, Lewis A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to ambient air pollution, particularly from traffic, has been associated with adverse cognitive outcomes, but the association with depressive symptoms remains unclear. Objectives: We investigated the association between exposure to ambient air and traffic pollution and the presence of depressive symptoms among 732 Boston-area adults ≥ 65 years of age (78.1 ± 5.5 years, mean ± SD). Methods: We assessed depressive symptoms during home interviews using the Revised Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CESD-R). We estimated residential distance to the nearest major roadway as a marker of long-term exposure to traffic pollution and assessed short-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5), sulfates, black carbon (BC), ultrafine particles, and gaseous pollutants, averaged over the 2 weeks preceding each assessment. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of a CESD-R score ≥ 16 associated with exposure, adjusting for potential confounders. In sensitivity analyses, we considered CESD-R score as a continuous outcome and mean annual residential BC as an alternate marker of long-term exposure to traffic pollution. Results: We found no evidence of a positive association between depressive symptoms and long-term exposure to traffic pollution or short-term changes in pollutant levels. For example, we found an OR of CESD-R score ≥ 16 of 0.67 (95% CI: 0.46, 0.98) per interquartile range (3.4 μg/m3) increase in PM2.5 over the 2 weeks preceding assessment. Conclusions: We found no evidence suggesting that ambient air pollution is associated with depressive symptoms among older adults living in a metropolitan area in attainment of current U.S. regulatory standards. Citation: Wang Y, Eliot MN, Koutrakis P, Gryparis A, Schwartz JD, Coull BA, Mittleman MA, Milberg WP, Lipsitz LA, Wellenius GA. 2014. Ambient air pollution and depressive symptoms in older adults: results from the MOBILIZE Boston

  18. Pigment patterns in adult fish result from superimposition of two largely independent pigmentation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ceinos, Rosa M; Guillot, Raúl; Kelsh, Robert N; Cerdá-Reverter, José M; Rotllant, Josep

    2015-03-01

    Dorso-ventral pigment pattern differences are the most widespread pigmentary adaptations in vertebrates. In mammals, this pattern is controlled by regulating melanin chemistry in melanocytes using a protein, agouti-signalling peptide (ASIP). In fish, studies of pigment patterning have focused on stripe formation, identifying a core striping mechanism dependent upon interactions between different pigment cell types. In contrast, mechanisms driving the dorso-ventral countershading pattern have been overlooked. Here, we demonstrate that, in fact, zebrafish utilize two distinct adult pigment patterning mechanisms - an ancient dorso-ventral patterning mechanism, and a more recent striping mechanism based on cell-cell interactions; remarkably, the dorso-ventral patterning mechanism also utilizes ASIP. These two mechanisms function largely independently, with resultant patterns superimposed to give the full pattern.

  19. Perinatal Exposure to Neuregulin-1 Results in Disinhibition of Adult Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons: Implication in Schizophrenia Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Namba, Hisaaki; Okubo, Takeshi; Nawa, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant neuregulin-1 (NRG1) signals are suggested to associate with the neuropathophysiology of schizophrenia. Employing a mouse schizophrenia model established by neonatal neuregulin-1 challenge, we analysed postpubertal consequence of the NRG1 pretreatment for the electrophysiological property of nigral dopamine neurons. In vivo single unit recordings from anaesthetized NRG1-pretreated mice revealed increased spike bursting of nigral dopamine neurons. In slice preparations from NRG1-pretreated mice, spontaneous firing was elevated relative to controls. The relative increase in firing rates was abolished by a GABAA receptor antagonist. Whole-cell recording showed that perinatal NRG1 pretreatment diminished inhibitory miniature synaptic currents as well as GABAA receptor sensitivity. These results collectively suggest that perinatal exposure to neuregulin-1 results in the disinhibition of nigral dopamine neurons to influence their firing properties at the adult stage when the behavioral deficits are evident. PMID:26935991

  20. Targeting adults who provide alcohol to underage youth: results from a national survey of local law enforcement agencies.

    PubMed

    Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Toomey, Traci L; Lenk, Kathleen M; Nelson, Toben F; Erickson, Darin J

    2015-06-01

    We investigated what local enforcement agencies are doing to target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth; what types of enforcement activities are being conducted to target adult providers; and factors that encourage enforcement activities that target adult providers. We surveyed 1,056 local law enforcement agencies in the US and measured whether or not the agency conducted enforcement activities that target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. We also measured whether certain agency and jurisdiction characteristics were associated with enforcement activities that target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. Less than half (42%) of local enforcement agencies conducted enforcement efforts targeting adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. Agencies that conducted the enforcement activities targeting adult providers were significantly more likely to have a full time officer specific to alcohol enforcement, a division specific to alcohol enforcement, a social host law, and to perceive underage drinking was very common. Results suggest that targeting social providers (i.e., adults over 21 years of age) will require greater law enforcement resources, implementation of underage drinking laws (e.g., social host policies), and changing perceptions among law enforcement regarding underage drinking. Future studies are needed to identify the most effective enforcement efforts and to examine how enforcement efforts are prospectively linked to alcohol consumption.

  1. Minocycline treatment results in reduced oral steroid requirements in adult asthma.

    PubMed

    Daoud, Ammar; Gloria, C J; Taningco, Gladys; Hammerschlag, Margaret R; Weiss, Steven; Gelling, Maureen; Roblin, Patricia M; Joks, Rauno

    2008-01-01

    The tetracycline antibiotics have pleiotropic anti-inflammatory properties that may explain their therapeutic benefit in rheumatoid arthritis and acne. As these agents suppress both cellular and humoral immune responses, they may be of benefit in treating asthma and other allergic disorders. The purpose of this study was to determine whether minocycline therapy of asthma has steroid sparing effects beyond its inherent antibiotic properties. Adult asthmatic patients (n = 17) were treated with minocycline 150 mg p.o. twice daily or placebo for 8 weeks in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Patients were evaluated for clinical improvement in oral steroid requirements, spirometry, and symptom scores (Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire). They underwent assessment for preexisting infection (CT facial sinuses, Chlamydia pneumoniae nasopharyngeal culture, and C. pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae serology). Minocycline use was associated with a 30% reduction in mean daily prednisone use compared with placebo (8.8 mg versus 14.4 mg, respectively; p = 0.02). Pulmonary function testing showed improvement in forced vital capacity (FVC; percent predicted; p = 0.03) and improvement in actual FVC and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (percent predicted) approached statistical significance (p = 0.05 and 0.08, respectively). Minocycline treatment was associated with significant improvement in asthma symptoms brought on by environmental triggers (p = 0.01). This preliminary study of minocycline therapy showed oral steroid-sparing properties for those with moderate persistent and severe persistent asthma.

  2. Cytochrome c oxidase response to changes in cerebral oxygen delivery in the adult brain shows higher brain-specificity than haemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Kolyva, Christina; Ghosh, Arnab; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Highton, David; Cooper, Chris E; Smith, Martin; Elwell, Clare E

    2014-01-15

    The redox state of cerebral mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase monitored with near-infrared spectroscopy (Δ[oxCCO]) is a signal with strong potential as a non-invasive, bedside biomarker of cerebral metabolic status. We hypothesised that the higher mitochondrial density of brain compared to skin and skull would lead to evidence of brain-specificity of the Δ[oxCCO] signal when measured with a multi-distance near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system. Measurements of Δ[oxCCO] as well as of concentration changes in oxygenated (Δ[HbO2]) and deoxygenated haemoglobin (Δ[HHb]) were taken at multiple source-detector distances during systemic hypoxia and hypocapnia (decrease in cerebral oxygen delivery), and hyperoxia and hypercapnia (increase in cerebral oxygen delivery) from 15 adult healthy volunteers. Increasing source-detector spacing is associated with increasing light penetration depth and thus higher sensitivity to cerebral changes. An increase in Δ[oxCCO] was observed during the challenges that increased cerebral oxygen delivery and the opposite was observed when cerebral oxygen delivery decreased. A consistent pattern of statistically significant increasing amplitude of the Δ[oxCCO] response with increasing light penetration depth was observed in all four challenges, a behaviour that was distinctly different from that of the haemoglobin chromophores, which did not show this statistically significant depth gradient. This depth-dependence of the Δ[oxCCO] signal corroborates the notion of higher concentrations of CCO being present in cerebral tissue compared to extracranial components and highlights the value of NIRS-derived Δ[oxCCO] as a brain-specific signal of cerebral metabolism, superior in this aspect to haemoglobin. PMID:23707584

  3. Cytochrome c oxidase response to changes in cerebral oxygen delivery in the adult brain shows higher brain-specificity than haemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Kolyva, Christina; Ghosh, Arnab; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Highton, David; Cooper, Chris E; Smith, Martin; Elwell, Clare E

    2014-01-15

    The redox state of cerebral mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase monitored with near-infrared spectroscopy (Δ[oxCCO]) is a signal with strong potential as a non-invasive, bedside biomarker of cerebral metabolic status. We hypothesised that the higher mitochondrial density of brain compared to skin and skull would lead to evidence of brain-specificity of the Δ[oxCCO] signal when measured with a multi-distance near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system. Measurements of Δ[oxCCO] as well as of concentration changes in oxygenated (Δ[HbO2]) and deoxygenated haemoglobin (Δ[HHb]) were taken at multiple source-detector distances during systemic hypoxia and hypocapnia (decrease in cerebral oxygen delivery), and hyperoxia and hypercapnia (increase in cerebral oxygen delivery) from 15 adult healthy volunteers. Increasing source-detector spacing is associated with increasing light penetration depth and thus higher sensitivity to cerebral changes. An increase in Δ[oxCCO] was observed during the challenges that increased cerebral oxygen delivery and the opposite was observed when cerebral oxygen delivery decreased. A consistent pattern of statistically significant increasing amplitude of the Δ[oxCCO] response with increasing light penetration depth was observed in all four challenges, a behaviour that was distinctly different from that of the haemoglobin chromophores, which did not show this statistically significant depth gradient. This depth-dependence of the Δ[oxCCO] signal corroborates the notion of higher concentrations of CCO being present in cerebral tissue compared to extracranial components and highlights the value of NIRS-derived Δ[oxCCO] as a brain-specific signal of cerebral metabolism, superior in this aspect to haemoglobin.

  4. Cardiometabolic risk factors predict cerebrovascular health in older adults: results from the Brain in Motion study.

    PubMed

    Tyndall, Amanda V; Argourd, Laurie; Sajobi, Tolulope T; Davenport, Margie H; Forbes, Scott C; Gill, Stephanie J; Parboosingh, Jillian S; Anderson, Todd J; Wilson, Ben J; Smith, Eric E; Hogan, David B; Hill, Michael D; Poulin, Marc J

    2016-04-01

    Aging and physical inactivity are associated with an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS). With the rising prevalence of MetS, it is important to determine the extent to which it affects cerebrovascular health. The primary purpose of this report is to examine the impact of MetS on cerebrovascular health (resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) peak velocity (V¯P), cerebrovascular conductance (CVC), and CBF responses to hypercapnia) in healthy older adults with normal cognition. A secondary goal was to examine the influence of apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 expression on these indices. In a sample of 258 healthy men and women older than 53 years, 29.1% met criteria for MetS. MetS, sex, and age were found to be significant predictors of CVC, and V¯P, MetS, and APOE status were significant predictors of V¯P-reactivity, and CVC-reactivity was best predicted by MetS status. After controlling for these factors, participants with MetS demonstrated lower cerebrovascular measures (CVC, V¯P, CVC-reactivity, and V¯P-reactivity) compared to participants without MetS. APOE ε4 carriers had higher V¯P-reactivity than noncarriers. These results provide evidence that cardiometabolic and vascular risk factors clustered together as the MetS predict measures of cerebrovascular health indices in older adults. Higher V¯P-reactivity in APOE ε4 carriers suggests vascular compensation for deleterious effects of this known risk allele for Alzheimer's disease and stroke. PMID:27117804

  5. Comparision of clinical and histopathological results of hyalomatrix usage in adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Erbatur, Serkan; Coban, Yusuf Kenan; Aydın, Engin Nasuhi

    2012-01-01

    Clinical and histopathological results of the hyaluronic acid skin substitute treatment of the patients who admitted to Inonu University Medical Faculty Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery clinic between january 2011 and march 2012 were evaluated. The patients were divided into two groups. HA were used for treatment of Hypertrophic scar (HS) or Keloid (K) in 10 patients of the first group. Skin biopsies obtained at peroperative and postoperative 3rd month were subjected to histopathologic examination in this group. In the second group, 10 patients with full thickness soft tissue loss secondary to burns, trauma or excisional reasons were also treated with HA application. Vancouver scar scale were used to determine the scar quality in both groups. Mean age was 25. 2 ± 10.2 and mean follow-up duration was 6.3±3.6 months in group 1. Preoperative and postoperative VSS scores in group 1 were 10.7±1.16 and 6.2±0.91, respectively. This difference was statistically significant (p<0,005). No HS or K development was seen in any patient in group 2 during the following period. Collagenisation scores of preoperative skin biopsies were significantly higher than postoperative scores (p<0,0001).Vascularisation scores of preoperative skin biopsies were significantly lower than postoperative scores (p<0,00001). The use of HA skin substitute in adults for treatment of HS or K provided the desired clinical healing in the 6 months’ follow-up periods. At the same time, HA application as an alternative to other treatment modalities led to a durable skin coverage in full thickness tissue loss in adult patients. PMID:23071910

  6. Cardiometabolic risk factors predict cerebrovascular health in older adults: results from the Brain in Motion study.

    PubMed

    Tyndall, Amanda V; Argourd, Laurie; Sajobi, Tolulope T; Davenport, Margie H; Forbes, Scott C; Gill, Stephanie J; Parboosingh, Jillian S; Anderson, Todd J; Wilson, Ben J; Smith, Eric E; Hogan, David B; Hill, Michael D; Poulin, Marc J

    2016-04-01

    Aging and physical inactivity are associated with an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS). With the rising prevalence of MetS, it is important to determine the extent to which it affects cerebrovascular health. The primary purpose of this report is to examine the impact of MetS on cerebrovascular health (resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) peak velocity (V¯P), cerebrovascular conductance (CVC), and CBF responses to hypercapnia) in healthy older adults with normal cognition. A secondary goal was to examine the influence of apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 expression on these indices. In a sample of 258 healthy men and women older than 53 years, 29.1% met criteria for MetS. MetS, sex, and age were found to be significant predictors of CVC, and V¯P, MetS, and APOE status were significant predictors of V¯P-reactivity, and CVC-reactivity was best predicted by MetS status. After controlling for these factors, participants with MetS demonstrated lower cerebrovascular measures (CVC, V¯P, CVC-reactivity, and V¯P-reactivity) compared to participants without MetS. APOE ε4 carriers had higher V¯P-reactivity than noncarriers. These results provide evidence that cardiometabolic and vascular risk factors clustered together as the MetS predict measures of cerebrovascular health indices in older adults. Higher V¯P-reactivity in APOE ε4 carriers suggests vascular compensation for deleterious effects of this known risk allele for Alzheimer's disease and stroke.

  7. Pathways to Homelessness among Older Homeless Adults: Results from the HOPE HOME Study

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rebecca T.; Goodman, Leah; Guzman, David; Tieu, Lina; Ponath, Claudia; Kushel, Margot B.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about pathways to homelessness among older adults. We identified life course experiences associated with earlier versus later onset of homelessness in older homeless adults and examined current health and functional status by age at first homelessness. We interviewed 350 homeless adults, aged 50 and older, recruited via population-based sampling. Participants reported age at first episode of adult homelessness and their life experiences during 3 time periods: childhood (<18 years), young adulthood (ages 18–25), and middle adulthood (ages 26–49). We used a structured modeling approach to identify experiences associated with first adult homelessness before age 50 versus at age 50 or older. Participants reported current health and functional status, including recent mental health and substance use problems. Older homeless adults who first became homeless before 50 had more adverse life experiences (i.e., mental health and substance use problems, imprisonment) and lower attainment of adult milestones (i.e., marriage, full-time employment) compared to individuals with later onset. After multivariable adjustment, adverse experiences were independently associated with experiencing a first episode of homelessness before age 50. Individuals who first became homeless before age 50 had higher prevalence of recent mental health and substance use problems and more difficulty performing instrumental activities of daily living. Life course experiences and current vulnerabilities of older homeless adults with first homelessness before age 50 differed from those with later onset of homelessness. Prevention and service interventions should be adapted to meet different needs. PMID:27163478

  8. Employment in Adults with Down Syndrome in the United States: Results from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumin, Libby; Schoenbrodt, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is no current data about employment/unemployment of adults with Down syndrome in the United States. The data that exists includes adults with Down syndrome as part of the larger group of people with disabilities or people with intellectual disability. Method: This study used a survey to investigate paid and volunteer employment,…

  9. Cognitive Enhancement Therapy for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Results of an 18-Month Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Bahorik, Amber L.; Litschge, Maralee Y.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    Adults with autism experience significant impairments in social and non-social information processing for which few treatments have been developed. This study conducted an 18-month uncontrolled trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET), a comprehensive cognitive rehabilitation intervention, in 14 verbal adults with autism spectrum disorder to…

  10. Pathways to Homelessness among Older Homeless Adults: Results from the HOPE HOME Study.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rebecca T; Goodman, Leah; Guzman, David; Tieu, Lina; Ponath, Claudia; Kushel, Margot B

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about pathways to homelessness among older adults. We identified life course experiences associated with earlier versus later onset of homelessness in older homeless adults and examined current health and functional status by age at first homelessness. We interviewed 350 homeless adults, aged 50 and older, recruited via population-based sampling. Participants reported age at first episode of adult homelessness and their life experiences during 3 time periods: childhood (<18 years), young adulthood (ages 18-25), and middle adulthood (ages 26-49). We used a structured modeling approach to identify experiences associated with first adult homelessness before age 50 versus at age 50 or older. Participants reported current health and functional status, including recent mental health and substance use problems. Older homeless adults who first became homeless before 50 had more adverse life experiences (i.e., mental health and substance use problems, imprisonment) and lower attainment of adult milestones (i.e., marriage, full-time employment) compared to individuals with later onset. After multivariable adjustment, adverse experiences were independently associated with experiencing a first episode of homelessness before age 50. Individuals who first became homeless before age 50 had higher prevalence of recent mental health and substance use problems and more difficulty performing instrumental activities of daily living. Life course experiences and current vulnerabilities of older homeless adults with first homelessness before age 50 differed from those with later onset of homelessness. Prevention and service interventions should be adapted to meet different needs. PMID:27163478

  11. Characteristics of Physical Activity Programs for Older Adults: Results of a Multisite Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Susan L.; Williams, Barbara; Molina, Lourdes C.; Bayles, Constance; Bryant, Lucinda L.; Harris, Jeffrey R.; Hunter, Rebecca; Ivey, Susan; Watkins, Ken

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Although increased participation in physical activity by older adults is a major public health goal, little is known about the supply and use of physical activity programs in the United States. Design and Methods: Seven academic centers in diverse geographic areas surveyed physical activity programs for older adults. Five sites conducted…

  12. Results of Innovative and Supportive Learning Programs for Homeless Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinatra, Richard; Eschenauer, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Four-week summer academy programs served homeless children and adults in two contiguous innovative learning programs. The programs may be the first of their kind in the homeless literature in which both adults and children were exposed to career, academic, and leadership opportunities in the supportive learning environment of a university campus,…

  13. Symptoms and socio-economic impact of ependymoma on adult patients: results of the Adult Ependymoma Outcomes Project 2.

    PubMed

    Walbert, Tobias; Mendoza, Tito R; Vera-Bolaños, Elizabeth; Acquaye, Alvina; Gilbert, Mark R; Armstrong, Terri S

    2015-01-01

    Ependymoma is a rare central nervous system tumor of adults. Reports of patient symptoms, interference patterns and costs encountered by patients and families are limited. Adult ependymoma patients completed the online Ependymoma Outcomes Questionnaire II. The survey assesses disease and functional status as well as socio-economic factors. Descriptive statistics were used to report disease characteristics as well as economic and social impact. Independent samples t test was used to test if differences exist between high- and low-income groups in terms of symptom severity. Correlations were calculated between symptoms and cost estimates. 86 international patients participated (male = 50 %). The economic analysis focused on 78 respondents from the US. 48 % were employed and 55 % earned ≥$60,000. Tumors were located in the brain (44 %), spine (44 %) or both (12 %). Spine patients compared to brain patients reported significantly worse pain (4.4 versus 2.2, p < .003), numbness (5.3 versus 2.2, p < .001), fatigue (5.1 versus 3.6, p < .03), changes in bowel patterns (3.8 versus 1.4, p < .003) and weakness (4.2 versus 2.1, p < .006). Brain patients compared with spine patients had increased lack of appetite (.4 versus 2, p < .014). Patients with lower income (≤$59,999) had more problems concentrating (p < .024) and worse cognitive module severity scores (p < .024). Estimated average monthly out-of-pocket spending was $168 for medical co-pays and $59 for prescription medication. Patients with ependymoma are highly affected by their symptoms. Spinal patients report higher severity of symptoms. Patients in the lower income group report significantly higher severity of cognitive symptoms independent of disease site.

  14. Symptoms and socio-economic impact of ependymoma on adult patients: results of the Adult Ependymoma Outcomes Project 2.

    PubMed

    Walbert, Tobias; Mendoza, Tito R; Vera-Bolaños, Elizabeth; Acquaye, Alvina; Gilbert, Mark R; Armstrong, Terri S

    2015-01-01

    Ependymoma is a rare central nervous system tumor of adults. Reports of patient symptoms, interference patterns and costs encountered by patients and families are limited. Adult ependymoma patients completed the online Ependymoma Outcomes Questionnaire II. The survey assesses disease and functional status as well as socio-economic factors. Descriptive statistics were used to report disease characteristics as well as economic and social impact. Independent samples t test was used to test if differences exist between high- and low-income groups in terms of symptom severity. Correlations were calculated between symptoms and cost estimates. 86 international patients participated (male = 50 %). The economic analysis focused on 78 respondents from the US. 48 % were employed and 55 % earned ≥$60,000. Tumors were located in the brain (44 %), spine (44 %) or both (12 %). Spine patients compared to brain patients reported significantly worse pain (4.4 versus 2.2, p < .003), numbness (5.3 versus 2.2, p < .001), fatigue (5.1 versus 3.6, p < .03), changes in bowel patterns (3.8 versus 1.4, p < .003) and weakness (4.2 versus 2.1, p < .006). Brain patients compared with spine patients had increased lack of appetite (.4 versus 2, p < .014). Patients with lower income (≤$59,999) had more problems concentrating (p < .024) and worse cognitive module severity scores (p < .024). Estimated average monthly out-of-pocket spending was $168 for medical co-pays and $59 for prescription medication. Patients with ependymoma are highly affected by their symptoms. Spinal patients report higher severity of symptoms. Patients in the lower income group report significantly higher severity of cognitive symptoms independent of disease site. PMID:25359395

  15. Family-Focused Treatment for Adolescents and Young Adults at High Risk for Psychosis: Results of a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Miklowitz, David J.; O’Brien, Mary P.; Schlosser, Danielle A.; Addington, Jean; Candan, Kristin A.; Marshall, Catherine; Domingues, Isabel; Walsh, Barbara C.; Zinberg, Jamie L.; De Silva, Sandra D.; Friedman-Yakoobian, Michelle; Cannon, Tyrone D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Longitudinal studies have begun to clarify the phenotypic characteristics of adolescents and young adults at clinical high risk for psychosis. This 8-site randomized trial examined whether a 6-month program of family psychoeducation was effective in reducing the severity of attenuated positive and negative psychotic symptoms and enhancing functioning among individuals at high risk. Method Adolescents and young adults (mean 17.4±4.1 years) with attenuated positive psychotic symptoms, brief and intermittent psychosis, or genetic risk with functional deterioration were randomly assigned to 18 sessions of family-focused therapy for individuals at clinical high risk (FFT-CHR) in 6 months or 3 sessions of family psychoeducation (enhanced care, or EC). FFT-CHR included psychoeducation about early signs of psychosis, stress management, communication training, and problem-solving skills training, whereas EC focused on symptom prevention. Independent evaluators assessed participants at baseline and 6 months on positive and negative symptoms and social-role functioning. Results Of 129 participants, 102 (79.1%) were followed at 6 months. Participants in FFT-CHR showed greater improvements in attenuated positive symptoms over 6 months than participants in EC (F[1,97]=5.49, P=.02). Negative symptoms improved independently of psychosocial treatments. Changes in psychosocial functioning depended on age: participants over 19 years showed more role improvement in FFT-CHR, whereas participants between 16 and 19 years showed more role improvement in EC. The results were independent of concurrent pharmacotherapy. Conclusion Interventions that focus on improving family relationships may have prophylactic efficacy in individuals at high risk for psychosis. Future studies should examine the specificity of effects of family intervention compared to individual therapy of the same duration and frequency. PMID:25062592

  16. Long-Term Outcomes of Cultivated Limbal Epithelial Transplantation: Evaluation and Comparison of Results in Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ganger, Anita; Vanathi, M.; Mohanty, Sujata; Tandon, Radhika

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the long-term clinical outcomes of cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation (CLET) in children and adults with limbal stem cell deficiency. Design. Retrospective case series. Methods. Case records of patients with limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) who underwent CLET from April 2004 to December 2014 were studied. Outcome measures were compared in terms of anatomical success and visual improvement. Parameters for total anatomical success were avascular, epithelized, and clinically stable corneal surface without conjunctivalization, whereas partial anatomical success was considered when mild vascularization (sparing centre of cornea) and mild conjunctivalization were noted along with complete epithelization. Results. A total of 62 cases underwent the CLET procedure: 38 (61.3%) were children and 24 (38.7%) were adults. Patients with unilateral LSCD (33 children and 21 adults) had autografts and those with bilateral LSCD (5 children and 3 adults) had allografts. Amongst the 54 autografts partial and total anatomical success were noted in 21.2% and 66.6% children, respectively, and 19.0% and 80.9% in adults, respectively (p value 0.23). Visual improvement of 1 line and ≥2 lines was seen in 57.5% and 21.2% children, respectively, and 38% and 38% in adults, respectively (p value 0.31). Conclusion. Cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation gives good long-term results in patients with LSCD and the outcomes are comparable in children and adults. PMID:26770973

  17. The relationship between healthy lifestyle and hospital utilization among adults with diabetes: results from a national cohort in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Li, Chia-Lin; Sheu, Ji-Tian; Wang, Ting-Ann; Wen, Yu-Ping; Chao, Minston; Chang, Hsing-Yi

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether adopting healthy lifestyle habits, such as engaging in leisure time physical activity (LTPA), adopting recommended dietary patterns, and not smoking, are associated with reduced hospitalizations over 1 year among adults with diabetes. We analyzed data from a national sample of people aged 18 years and above with self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes (n = 664) through linkage to the 2001 National Health Interview Survey in Taiwan and the 2002 National Health Insurance claims data. Multivariate analysis showed that participants reporting greater than 150 min/wk of moderate-intensity activity had a significantly lower chance for hospitalization (odds ratio = 0.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.27-0.98), fewer admissions (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.33-1.00), and fewer hospital bed days (IRR = 0.42; 95% CI = 0.20-0.92) compared with inactive individuals. Diet control and smoking status did not significantly predict hospital use after controlling for other factors. Our findings indicate that increased LTPA results in reduced hospitalization among adults with diabetes.

  18. Adolescent perceptions of cholesterol screening results: “young invincibles” or developing adults?

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Holly C.; Sheldrick, R. Christopher; Leslie, Laurel K.; Shah, Supriya; de Ferranti, Sarah D.; Mackie, Thomas I.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Guidelines recommend cholesterol screening for all adolescents and young adults (AYAs) ages 17-21 years. Little is known about how screening results impact perceptions of AYA health. Methods We recruited 37 AYAs and 35 parents of AYAs with differing risk for abnormal cholesterol results: (1) familial hypercholesterolemia, (2) obesity, and (3) generally healthy. Participants completed quantitative health status ratings using visual analog scales (VAS) and semi-structured interviews regarding three hypothetical cholesterol screening scenarios: a) high likelihood of cardiovascular disease (CVD) before age 40 (“high-risk”), b) some risk of CVD before age 70 (“moderate-risk”), and c) low risk for CVD despite a strong family history of CVD (“low-risk”). We analyzed VAS data with logistic regression and qualitative data with a priori and emergent coding using multiple coders. Results Each group perceived all three cholesterol screening scenarios as comparatively less than perfect health; the high-risk result fell furthest from perfect health. While there was no significant difference between AYAs and parents in VAS ratings, qualitative analyses revealed AYAs were more likely than parents to discount the impact of moderate-risk results due to longer length of time before predicted CVD. Conclusions AYAs’ and parents’ perceptions of the impact of cholesterol screening results on AYA health varied by presented scenario, ranging from mild to significant decreases in perceptions of AYA health. As universal cholesterol screening continues to be adopted in this age group, further studies of the real-life impact on AYA risk perceptions and subsequent behavior is warranted. PMID:27155960

  19. Vitamin D is associated with cardiopulmonary exercise capacity: results of two independent cohorts of healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kaul, A; Gläser, S; Hannemann, A; Schäper, C; Nauck, M; Felix, S B; Bollmann, T; Ewert, R; Friedrich, N

    2016-02-14

    Vitamin D has an important role in calcium homeostasis and is known to have various health-promoting effects. Moreover, potential interactions between vitamin D and physical activity have been suggested. This study aims to investigate the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and exercise capacity quantified by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). For this, 1377 participants from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-1) and 750 participants from the independent SHIP-TREND cohort were investigated. Standardised incremental exercise tests on a cycle ergometer were performed to assess exercise capacity by VO2 at anaerobic threshold, peakVO2, O2 pulse and peak power output. Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured by an automated chemiluminescence immunoassay. In SHIP-1, 25(OH)D levels were positively associated with all considered parameters of cardiopulmonary exercise capacity. Subjects with high 25(OH)D levels (4th quartile) showed an up to 25% higher exercise capacity compared with subjects with low 25(OH)D levels (1st quartile). All associations were replicated in the independent SHIP-TREND cohort and were independent of age, sex, season and other interfering factors. In conclusion, significant positive associations between 25(OH)D and parameters of CPET were detected in two large cohorts of healthy adults.

  20. Does social status predict adult smoking and obesity? Results from the 2000 Mexican National Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Buttenheim, A.M.; Wong, R.; Goldman, N.; Pebley, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is generally associated with better health, but recent evidence suggests that this ‘social gradient’ in health is far from universal. This study examines whether social gradients in smoking and obesity in Mexico—a country in the midst of rapid socioeconomic change—conform to or diverge from results for richer countries. Using a nationally-representative sample of 39 129 Mexican adults, we calculate the odds of smoking and of being obese by educational attainment and by household wealth. We conclude that socioeconomic determinants of smoking and obesity in Mexico are complex, with some flat gradients and some strong positive or negative gradients. Higher social status (education and assets) is associated with more smoking and less obesity for urban women. Higher status rural women also smoke more, but obesity for these women has a non-linear relationship to education. For urban men, higher asset levels (but not education) are associated with obesity, whereas education is protective of smoking. Higher status rural men with more assets are more likely to smoke and be obese. As household wealth, education, and urbanisation continue to increase in Mexico, these patterns suggest potential targets for public health intervention now and in the future. PMID:19367478

  1. Adult Perpetrator Gender Asymmetries in Child Sexual Assault Victim Selection: Results from the 2000 National Incident-Based Reporting System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Kathy A.; Raphael, Desreen N.

    2005-01-01

    Data from the 2000 National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) show that while males make up about nine out of every 10 adult sexual assault perpetrators, totaling about 26,878 incidents within the reporting period, females account for about one out of 10 perpetrators, totaling about 1,162 incidents. Male sexual assault perpetrators offend…

  2. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the state's best…

  3. Deinstitutionalization for Older Adults with Severe Mental Retardation: Results From Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Louise; Ashman, Adrian F.

    2004-01-01

    A deinstitutionalization research project in which residents from the largest institution in Queensland, Australia, were relocated after a government decision to close the center was described. Outcomes of relocation into community living for adults with severe mental retardation, many of whom were older (over 40 years) and had been…

  4. Feelings towards Older vs. Younger Adults: Results from the European Social Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayalon, Liat

    2013-01-01

    The study evaluated the association of modernization (at the macro/societal-level) and modernity (at the micro/individual-level) with feelings towards older vs. younger adults. Analysis was based on the fourth wave of the European Social Survey, which includes a rotated module on ageism. The sample consisted of 28 countries and a total of 54,988…

  5. An Exploration of Transformational Learning in Adults as a Result of Adventure Travel Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory qualitative research study was to identify the elements of adventure travel experiences that contribute to the process of transformational learning in adults. A qualitative research design was employed for this study. The sources of data were twelve pre-existing and de-identified interview transcriptions. A textual…

  6. Barriers to CRC Screening among Latino Adults in Pennsylvania: ACCN Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Dominic, Oralia; Lengerich, Eugene J.; Wray, Linda A.; Parrott, Roxanne; Aumiller, Betsy; Kluhsman, Brenda; Renderos, Carlos; Dignan, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To describe knowledge of and barriers to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening by sex and geography among Latino adults in Pennsylvania. Methods: Eighty-two Latinos greater than 50 years old engaged in one of 8 focus groups. Focus groups consisted of 4 components. Focus group data were audiotaped, transcribed, and grouped into thematic…

  7. Low Physical Fitness Levels in Older Adults with ID: Results of the HA-ID Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Physical fitness is as important to aging adults with ID as in the general population, but to date, the physical fitness levels of this group are unknown. Comfortable walking speed, muscle strength (grip strength), muscle endurance (30 s Chair stand) and cardiorespiratory endurance (10 m incremental shuttle walking test) were tested in a sample of…

  8. Skills Matter: Further Results from the Survey of Adult Skills. OECD Skills Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kankaraš, Miloš; Montt, Guillermo; Paccagnella, Marco; Quintini, Glenda; Thorn, William

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the technological revolution that began in the last decades of the 20th century, labour market demand for information-processing and other high-level cognitive and interpersonal skills is growing substantially. The "Survey of Adult Skills," a product of the OECD Programme for the International Assessment of Adult…

  9. Documenting and Analyzing the Results of Non-Formal Adult Education: The Hungarian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toth, Janos Szigeti

    2007-01-01

    Many valuable activities and local innovations go on in the field of non-formal adult learning. With the pressures of day-today work it is impossible to have a systematic overview of these, so that they are forgotten and are not continued, developed or passed on to others. More generally, these activities fail to be documented and analysed, even…

  10. Happiness and arousal: framing happiness as arousing results in lower happiness ratings for older adults.

    PubMed

    Bjalkebring, Par; Västfjäll, Daniel; Johansson, Boo E A

    2015-01-01

    Older adults have been shown to describe their happiness as lower in arousal when compared to younger adults. In addition, older adults prefer low arousal positive emotions over high arousal positive emotions in their daily lives. We experimentally investigated whether or not changing a few words in the description of happiness could influence a person's rating of their happiness. We randomly assigned 193 participants, aged 22-92 years, to one of three conditions (high arousal, low arousal, or control). In line with previous findings, we found that older participants rated their happiness lower when framed as high in arousal (i.e., ecstatic, to be bursting with positive emotions) and rated their happiness higher when framed as low in arousal (i.e., satisfied, to have a life filled with positive emotions). Younger adults remained uninfluenced by the manipulation. Our study demonstrates that arousal is essential to understanding ratings of happiness, and gives support to the notion that there are age differences in the preference for arousal.

  11. Do Sedentary Older Adults Benefit from Community-Based Exercise? Results from the Active Start Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Tingjian; Wilber, Kathleen H.; Aguirre, Rosa; Trejo, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed the effectiveness of Active Start, a community-based behavior change and fitness program, designed to promote physical activity among sedentary community-dwelling older adults. Design and Methods: A quasi-experimental design was used. Data were analyzed using a within-group pretest-post-test design to calculate changes…

  12. Learning a Living: First Results of the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey (ALL) is a large-scale co-operative effort undertaken by governments, national statistics agencies, research institutions and multi-lateral agencies. The development and management of the study were co-ordinated by Statistics Canada and the Educational Testing Service (ETS) in collaboration with the…

  13. Older Adults' Perceptions of Offensive Senior Stereotypes in Magazine Advertisements: Results of a Q Method Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Tom; Popovich, Mark; Gustafson, Robert; Fraser, Cliff

    2003-01-01

    Using a Q sort, 39 older adults rated 40 magazine ads. They found offensive ads that stereotyped elders as out of touch, ridiculous, difficult, and unattractive. Stereotypes of real aging problems were deemed nonoffensive. In interviews, they expressed concerns about the harm such stereotypes can do. (Contains 37 references.) (SK)

  14. Distribution and determinants of functioning and disability in aged adults - results from the German KORA-Age study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Today industrialized countries face a burgeoning aged population. Thus, there is increasing attention on the functioning and disabilities of aged adults as potential determinants of autonomy and independent living. However, there are few representative findings on the prevalence and determinants of disability in aged persons in the German population. The objective of our study is to examine the frequency, distribution and determinants of functioning and disability in aged persons and to assess the contribution of diseases to the prevalence of disability. Methods Data originate from the MONICA/KORA study, a population-based epidemiological cohort. Survivors of the original cohorts who were 65 and older were examined by telephone interview in 2009. Disability was assessed with the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI). Minimal disability was defined as HAQ-DI > 0. Logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders and additive regression to estimate the contribution of diseases to disability prevalence. Results We analyzed a total of 4117 persons (51.2% female) with a mean age of 73.6 years (SD = 6.1). Minimal disability was present in 44.7% of all participants. Adjusted for age and diseases, disability was positively associated with female sex, BMI, low income, marital status, physical inactivity and poor nutritional status, but not with smoking and education. Problems with joint functions and eye diseases contributed most to disability prevalence in all age groups. Conclusions In conclusion, this study could show that there are vulnerable subgroups of aged adults who should receive increased attention, specifically women, those with low income, those over 80, and persons with joint or eye diseases. Physical activity, obesity and malnutrition were identified as modifiable factors for future targeted interventions. PMID:23410010

  15. Oral health status of older adults in Arizona: results from the Arizona Elder Study.

    PubMed

    Berg, R; Berkey, D B; Tang, J M; Baine, C; Altman, D S

    2000-01-01

    This study was undertaken to compare oral health status of independent community-dwelling elders with those using long-term-care services. Clinical examinations and self-reported sociodemographic data were collected for 2927 older adults living independently, using home-care services, or living in nursing facilities. Mean age of dentate participants (n = 2021) was 72.2 years (range, 50-103 years); mean number of teeth, 18.16; mean DFS, 28.86; and mean RCI, 15.23. In multivariate analyses, receiving home-care services or living in a nursing facility was significantly predictive of poorer oral health status with respect to both coronal and root caries. This was also true for ethnic groups other than non-Hispanic-white. We concluded that, in a large, multi-ethnic sample, direct comparisons highlight significant unmet treatment need among users of long-term-care services, compared with independent older adults living in the same communities.

  16. Basic Reading Skills and the Literacy of America's Least Literate Adults: Results from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) Supplemental Studies. NCES 2009-481

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Justin; Kutner, Mark; Sabatini, John; White, Sheida

    2009-01-01

    The 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) assessed the English literacy of adults in the United States for the first time since the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey. The assessment was administered to more than 19,000 adults (ages 16 and older) in households and prisons. The tasks included on the assessment were designed to measure…

  17. Household Food Insecurity and Sleep Patterns Among Mexican Adults: Results from ENSANUT-2012.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Monica L; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Desai, Mayur M; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2016-10-01

    To examine the independent association of household food insecurity with sleep duration and quality in a nationally representative survey of adults in Mexico. The Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale was used to categorize households as secure, mild (43.7 %), moderate (19.0 %), or severe (11.8 %). We assessed the association between household food insecurity and self-reported sleep duration and quality among 11,356 adults using weighted multinomial and binomial logistic regression. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant association was found between severe household food insecurity and getting less than the recommended 7-8 h of sleep [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) =1.83, 95 % confidence interval (CI) =1.37-2.43]. Compared with food-secure households, odds of poor sleep quality increased with level of severity (AOR = 1.27, 95 % CI 1.04-1.56 for mild; AOR = 1.71, 95 % CI 1.36-2.14 for moderate; and AOR = 1.89, 95 % CI 1.45-2.45 for severe household food insecurity). Household food insecurity is associated with inadequate sleep duration and poor sleep quality among Mexican adults. This study underscores the adverse effects of household food insecurity on the well-being of vulnerable populations.

  18. Deprivation of endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor results in impairment of spatial learning and memory in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Mu, J S; Li, W P; Yao, Z B; Zhou, X F

    1999-07-24

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is abundantly expressed in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex and is involved in synaptic plasticity and long-term potentiation (LTP). The present study was under taken to investigate whether endogenous BDNF was required for spatial learning and memory in a rat model. Antibodies to BDNF (anti-BDNF, n=7) or control immunoglobulin G (control, n=6) were delivered into the rat brain continuously for 7 days with an osmotic pump. The rats were then subjected to a battery of behavioral tests. The results show that the average escape latencies in the BDNF antibody treated group were dramatically longer than those of the control (F=13.3, p<0.001). The rats treated with control IgG swam for a significantly longer distance in the P quadrant (where the escape plane had been placed) compared with the other three quadrants (p<0.05). In contrast, anti-BDNF-treated rats swam an equivalent distance in all four quadrants. The average percentage of swimming distance in the P quadrant by anti-BDNF-treated rats was much less than that by control IgG treated rats (p<0.001). These results suggest that endogenous BDNF is required for spatial learning and memory in adult rats.

  19. Effects of Geographic Region upon Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Results: A Hawaii-Mainland United States Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsushima, William T.; Bratton, Joseph C.

    1977-01-01

    Investigated geographic differences in Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) results by comparing 60 Hawaiian and 60 mainland United States psychiatric outpatients. The influence of pidgin English led to expectations that Hawaiian subjects would have significantly lower WAIS Verbal scores than mainland subjects. Data verified these…

  20. Status Variations in Alcohol Use among Young Adults: Results from the 1984 National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Joan E.

    This document gives descriptive results on alcohol use patterns among young adults from the 1984 National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market of Youth, a survey of a large, nationally representative sample supplemented by samples of blacks, Hispanics, and economically disadvantaged non-black, non-Hispanic youth and covering the entire range of…

  1. Prepubertal goat oocytes from large follicles result in similar blastocyst production and embryo ploidy than those from adult goats.

    PubMed

    Romaguera, R; Moll, X; Morató, R; Roura, M; Palomo, M J; Catalá, M G; Jiménez-Macedo, A R; Hammami, S; Izquierdo, D; Mogas, T; Paramio, M T

    2011-07-01

    Developmental competence of oocytes from prepubertal females is lower than those from adult females. Oocyte development competence is positively related to follicular diameter. Most of the follicles of prepubertal goat ovaries are smaller than 3 mm. The aim of this study was to compare oocytes of two follicle sizes (< 3 mm and ≥ 3 mm) from prepubertal goats with oocytes from adult goats in relation to their in vitro production and quality of blastocysts. Oocytes from prepubertal goats were obtained from slaughterhouse ovaries and selected according to the follicle diameter whereas oocytes from adult goats were recovered in vivo by LOPU technique without prior selection of follicle size. COCs were IVM for 27 h, IVF at the conventional conditions with fresh semen and presumptive zygotes were cultured in SOF medium for 8 days. Blastocysts obtained were vitrified and after warming their blastocoele re-expansion and the ploidy by FISH technique were assessed. We found significant differences between blastocysts yield of oocytes recovered from follicles smaller than 3 mm of prepubertal goats compared to those from adult goats (5.45% vs 20. 83%, respectively) however, these differences disappear if oocytes were recovered form large follicles (18.07%). A total of 28 blastocysts were analysed and 96.43% showed mixoploidy. Age did not affect the number of embryos with abnormal ploidy or blastocyst re-expansion after warming. Furthermore, the percentage of diploid blastomeres per embryo was similar in the 3 groups studied, adult, prepubertal from follicles ≥ 3 mm and < 3 mm (68.6%, 80.8% and 73.6%, respectively). In conclusion, IVP of blastocysts coming from follicles larger than 3 mm of goats 45 days old were not different to the blastocysts produced from adult goats, both in terms of quantity and quality.

  2. Sabril® registry 5-year results: Characteristics of adult patients treated with vigabatrin.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Gregory; Faught, Edward; Foroozan, Rod; Pellock, John M; Sergott, Robert C; Shields, W Donald; Ziemann, Adam; Dribinsky, Yekaterina; Lee, Deborah; Torri, Sarah; Othman, Feisal; Isojarvi, Jouko

    2016-03-01

    Vigabatrin (Sabril®), approved in the US in 2009, is currently indicated as adjunctive therapy for refractory complex partial seizures (rCPS) in patients ≥ 10 years old who have responded inadequately to several alternative treatments and as monotherapy for infantile spasms (IS) in patients 1 month to 2 years of age. Because of reports of vision loss following vigabatrin exposure, FDA approval required a risk evaluation mitigation strategy (REMS) program. Vigabatrin is only available in the US through Support, Help, And Resources for Epilepsy (SHARE), which includes a mandated registry. This article describes 5 years of demographic and treatment exposure data from adult patients (≥ 17 years old) in the US treated with vigabatrin and monitored in the ongoing Sabril® registry. Registry participation is mandatory for all US Sabril® prescribers and patients. A benefit-risk assessment must be documented by the physician for a patient to progress to maintenance therapy, defined as 1 month of vigabatrin treatment for patients with IS and 3 months for patients with rCPS. Ophthalmologic assessments must be documented during and after completion of therapy. As of August 26, 2014, a total of 6823 patients were enrolled in the registry, of which 1200 were adults at enrollment. Of these patients, 1031 (86%) were naïve to vigabatrin. The majority of adult patients (n=783, 65%) had previously been prescribed ≥ 4 AEDs, and 719 (60%) were receiving ≥ 3 concomitant AEDs at vigabatrin initiation. Prescribers submitted an initial ophthalmological assessment form for 863 patients; an ophthalmologic exam was not completed for 300 (35%) patients and thus, were considered exempted from vision testing. Of these patients, 128 (43%) were exempted for neurologic disabilities. Clinicians discontinued treatment in 8 patients because of visual field deficits (VFD) (5 patients naïve to vigabatrin and 3 patients previously exposed). Based on Kaplan-Meier survival estimates, it is

  3. Characterization and Genetic Analysis of a Novel Light-Dependent Lesion Mimic Mutant, lm3, Showing Adult-Plant Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Common Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; Wu, Wenying; Wang, Dongzhi; Yang, Wenlong; Sun, Jiazhu; Liu, Dongcheng; Zhang, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Lesion mimics (LMs) that exhibit spontaneous disease-like lesions in the absence of pathogen attack might confer enhanced plant disease resistance to a wide range of pathogens. The LM mutant, lm3 was derived from a single naturally mutated individual in the F1 population of a 3-1/Jing411 cross, backcrossed six times with 3–1 as the recurrent parent and subsequently self-pollinated twice. The leaves of young seedlings of the lm3 mutant exhibited small, discrete white lesions under natural field conditions. The lesions first appeared at the leaf tips and subsequently expanded throughout the entire leaf blade to the leaf sheath. The lesions were initiated through light intensity and day length. Histochemical staining revealed that lesion formation might reflect programmed cell death (PCD) and abnormal accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The chlorophyll content in the mutant was significantly lower than that in wildtype, and the ratio of chlorophyll a/b was increased significantly in the mutant compared with wildtype, indicating that lm3 showed impairment of the biosynthesis or degradation of chlorophyll, and that Chlorophyll b was prone to damage during lesion formation. The lm3 mutant exhibited enhanced resistance to wheat powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici; Bgt) infection, which was consistent with the increased expression of seven pathogenesis-related (PR) and two wheat chemically induced (WCI) genes involved in the defense-related reaction. Genetic analysis showed that the mutation was controlled through a single partially dominant gene, which was closely linked to Xbarc203 on chromosome 3BL; this gene was delimited to a 40 Mb region between SSR3B450.37 and SSR3B492.6 using a large derived segregating population and the available Chinese Spring chromosome 3B genome sequence. Taken together, our results provide information regarding the identification of a novel wheat LM gene, which will facilitate the additional fine-mapping and

  4. Dietary patterns in Swedish adults; results from a national dietary survey.

    PubMed

    Ax, Erika; Warensjö Lemming, Eva; Becker, Wulf; Andersson, Agneta; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Cederholm, Tommy; Sjögren, Per; Fung, Teresa T

    2016-01-14

    Dietary patterns derived by statistical procedures is a way to identify overall dietary habits in specific populations. The aim of this study was to identify and characterise dietary patterns in Swedish adults using data from the national dietary survey Riksmaten adults 2010-11 (952 women, 788 men). Principal component analyses were used and two patterns were identified in both sexes: a healthy pattern loading positively on vegetables, fruits, fish and seafood, and vegetable oils, and negatively on refined bread and fast food, and a Swedish traditional pattern loading positively on potatoes, meat and processed meat, full-fat milk products, sweet bakery products, sweet condiments and margarine. In addition, a light-meal pattern was identified in women with positive loadings on fibre-rich bread, cheese, rice, pasta and food grain dishes, substitute products for meat and dairy products, candies and tea. The healthy pattern was positively correlated to dietary fibre (r 0·51-0·58) and n-3 (r 0·25-0·31) (all P<0·0001), and had a higher nutrient density of folate, vitamin D and Se. The Swedish traditional and the light-meal pattern were positively correlated to added sugar (r 0·20-0·25) and the Swedish traditional also to SFA (r 0·13-0·21) (all P<0·0001); both patterns were in general negatively correlated to micronutrients. Dietary pattern scores were associated with, for example, age, physical activity, education and income. In conclusion, we identified three major dietary patterns among Swedish adults. The patterns can be further used for examining the association between whole diet and health outcomes. PMID:26490112

  5. Residential patterns in older homeless adults: Results of a cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christopher Thomas; Guzman, David; Ponath, Claudia; Tieu, Lina; Riley, Elise; Kushel, Margot

    2016-03-01

    Adults aged 50 and older make up half of individuals experiencing homelessness and have high rates of morbidity and mortality. They may have different life trajectories and reside in different environments than do younger homeless adults. Although the environmental risks associated with homelessness are substantial, the environments in which older homeless individuals live have not been well characterized. We classified living environments and identified associated factors in a sample of older homeless adults. From July 2013 to June 2014, we recruited a community-based sample of 350 homeless men and women aged fifty and older in Oakland, California. We administered structured interviews including assessments of health, history of homelessness, social support, and life course. Participants used a recall procedure to describe where they stayed in the prior six months. We performed cluster analysis to classify residential venues and used multinomial logistic regression to identify individual factors prior to the onset of homelessness as well as the duration of unstable housing associated with living in them. We generated four residential groups describing those who were unsheltered (n = 162), cohabited unstably with friends and family (n = 57), resided in multiple institutional settings (shelters, jails, transitional housing) (n = 88), or lived primarily in rental housing (recently homeless) (n = 43). Compared to those who were unsheltered, having social support when last stably housed was significantly associated with cohabiting and institution use. Cohabiters and renters were significantly more likely to be women and have experienced a shorter duration of homelessness. Cohabiters were significantly more likely than unsheltered participants to have experienced abuse prior to losing stable housing. Pre-homeless social support appears to protect against street homelessness while low levels of social support may increase the risk for becoming homeless immediately after

  6. Dietary patterns in Swedish adults; results from a national dietary survey.

    PubMed

    Ax, Erika; Warensjö Lemming, Eva; Becker, Wulf; Andersson, Agneta; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Cederholm, Tommy; Sjögren, Per; Fung, Teresa T

    2016-01-14

    Dietary patterns derived by statistical procedures is a way to identify overall dietary habits in specific populations. The aim of this study was to identify and characterise dietary patterns in Swedish adults using data from the national dietary survey Riksmaten adults 2010-11 (952 women, 788 men). Principal component analyses were used and two patterns were identified in both sexes: a healthy pattern loading positively on vegetables, fruits, fish and seafood, and vegetable oils, and negatively on refined bread and fast food, and a Swedish traditional pattern loading positively on potatoes, meat and processed meat, full-fat milk products, sweet bakery products, sweet condiments and margarine. In addition, a light-meal pattern was identified in women with positive loadings on fibre-rich bread, cheese, rice, pasta and food grain dishes, substitute products for meat and dairy products, candies and tea. The healthy pattern was positively correlated to dietary fibre (r 0·51-0·58) and n-3 (r 0·25-0·31) (all P<0·0001), and had a higher nutrient density of folate, vitamin D and Se. The Swedish traditional and the light-meal pattern were positively correlated to added sugar (r 0·20-0·25) and the Swedish traditional also to SFA (r 0·13-0·21) (all P<0·0001); both patterns were in general negatively correlated to micronutrients. Dietary pattern scores were associated with, for example, age, physical activity, education and income. In conclusion, we identified three major dietary patterns among Swedish adults. The patterns can be further used for examining the association between whole diet and health outcomes.

  7. Weight control practices in adults: results of a multistate telephone survey.

    PubMed

    Serdula, M K; Williamson, D F; Anda, R F; Levy, A; Heaton, A; Byers, T

    1994-11-01

    In this study, data collected in 1989 in a random-digit dialing telephone survey of 60,590 adults in 38 states and the District of Columbia were analyzed. Approximately 38% of women and 24% of men reported that they were currently trying to lose weight. Methods reported were counting calories (24% of women, 14% of men), participating in organized weight loss programs (10%, 3%), taking special supplements (10%, 7%), taking diet pills (4%, 2%), and fasting for 24 hours or longer (5%, 5%). Among both sexes, only half of those trying to lose weight reported using the recommended method of caloric restriction combined with physical activity. PMID:7977925

  8. Noncommunicable diseases and risk factors in adult populations of several Pacific Islands: results from the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Jeanie; Girin, Natalie; Roth, Adam; Vivili, Paula; Williams, Gail; Hoy, Damian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To provide an overview of the prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and their risk factors in several Pacific island countries and territories (PICTs), in accordance with global NCD targets. Methods: For six risk factors, data for adults (aged 25–64 years) from published reports of the World Health Organization STEPwise approach to NCD surveillance, or methodologically similar surveys, were collated, age standardised and compared across fifteen PICTs. Results: In the majority of PICT populations, more than half of male current drinkers drank heavily and more than 40% of men and 20% of women were current smokers. In 10 populations, about 50% or more of women were insufficiently physically active. Prevalence of hypertension and diabetes exceeded 20% and 25%, respectively, in several populations. Near or more than half of men and women in all populations were overweight; in most, more than one‐third of both sexes were obese. Conclusions: The prevalence of NCDs and risk factors varies widely between PICTs and by sex. The evidence shows the high and alarming present and future burden of NCDs in the region. Implications: Strengthened political commitment and increased investment are urgently required to tackle the NCD crisis, successfully achieve targets and ensure continuing sustainable development in the Pacific islands. PMID:26095921

  9. Season of birth and population schizotypy: Results from a large sample of the adult general population.

    PubMed

    Konrath, Lisa; Beckius, Danièle; Tran, Ulrich S

    2016-08-30

    Although the last years have seen an increasing interest in schizotypy and its pathogenesis, there exist only a handful of studies examining the possible interaction between season of birth (SOB) and schizotypic personality structure. Available research used differing screening instruments, rendering comparisons between studies difficult, and sample sizes in adult populations may have been too small to detect a mild effect. The current study examined the association between SOB and psychometric schizotypy in the so far single-largest sample from the adult general population (N=8114), balanced for men and women, and utilizing a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of schizotypy. Using the 12 most informative items of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire Brief, we obtained evidence of a small, but significant, effect of late winter and early spring births (February/March) on psychometric schizotypy. The effect was not constrained to women, but affected men and women alike. The observed association between SOB and schizotypy appears compatible with seasonal variations of temperature and influenza prevalence, and with recent evidence on seasonal variability in the activity of the human immune system. Our findings lend support to the continuum hypothesis of schizotypy and schizophrenia, for which SOB effects have been previously established. PMID:27310922

  10. In Utero and Lactational Exposure to PCBs in Mice: Adult Offspring Show Altered Learning and Memory Depending on Cyp1a2 and Ahr Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Christine P.; Genter, Mary Beth; Patel, Krishna V.; Schaefer, Tori L.; Skelton, Matthew R.; Williams, Michael T.; Vorhees, Charles V.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Both coplanar and noncoplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exhibit neurotoxic effects in animal studies, but individual congeners do not always produce the same effects as PCB mixtures. Humans genetically have > 60-fold differences in hepatic cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2)-uninduced basal levels and > 12-fold variability in aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)affinity; because CYP1A2 is known to sequester coplanar PCBs and because AHR ligands include coplanar PCBs, both genotypes can affect PCB response. Objectives: We aimed to develop a mouse paradigm with extremes in Cyp1a2 and Ahr genotypes to explore genetic susceptibility to PCB-induced developmental neurotoxicity using an environmentally relevant mixture of PCBs. Methods: We developed a mixture of eight PCBs to simulate human exposures based on their reported concentrations in human tissue, breast milk, and food supply. We previously characterized specific differences in PCB congener pharmacokinetics and toxicity, comparing high-affinity–AHR Cyp1a2 wild-type [Ahrb1_Cyp1a2(+/+)], poor-affinity–AHR Cyp1a2 wild-type [Ahrd_Cyp1a2(+/+)], and high-affinity–AHR Cyp1a2 knockout [Ahrb1_Cyp1a2(–/–)] mouse lines [Curran CP, Vorhees CV, Williams MT, Genter MB, Miller ML, Nebert DW. 2011. In utero and lactational exposure to a complex mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls: toxicity in pups dependent on the Cyp1a2 and Ahr genotypes. Toxicol Sci 119:189–208]. Dams received a mixture of three coplanar and five noncoplanar PCBs on gestational day 10.5 and postnatal day (PND) 5. In the present study we conducted behavioral phenotyping of exposed offspring at PND60, examining multiple measures of learning, memory, and other behaviors. Results: We observed the most significant deficits in response to PCB treatment in Ahrb1_Cyp1a2(–/–) mice, including impaired novel object recognition and increased failure rate in the Morris water maze. However, all PCB-treated genotypes showed significant differences on

  11. Analysis of conservative tracer measurement results using the Frechet distribution at planted horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands filled with coarse gravel and showing the effect of clogging processes.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Ernő; Klincsik, Mihály

    2015-11-01

    A mathematical process, developed in Maple environment, has been successful in decreasing the error of measurement results and in the precise calculation of the moments of corrected tracer functions. It was proved that with this process, the measured tracer results of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands filled with coarse gravel (HSFCW-C) can be fitted more accurately than with the conventionally used distribution functions (Gaussian, Lognormal, Fick (Inverse Gaussian) and Gamma). This statement is true only for the planted HSFCW-Cs. The analysis of unplanted HSFCW-Cs needs more research. The result of the analysis shows that the conventional solutions (completely stirred series tank reactor (CSTR) model and convection-dispersion transport (CDT) model) cannot describe these types of transport processes with sufficient accuracy. These outcomes can help in developing better process descriptions of very difficult transport processes in HSFCW-Cs. Furthermore, a new mathematical process can be developed for the calculation of real hydraulic residence time (HRT) and dispersion coefficient values. The presented method can be generalized to other kinds of hydraulic environments.

  12. National Audit of Seizure management in Hospitals (NASH): results of the national audit of adult epilepsy in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Peter A; Kirkham, Jamie J; Marson, Anthony G; Pearson, Mike G

    2015-01-01

    Objectives About 100 000 people present to hospitals each year in England with an epileptic seizure. How they are managed is unknown; thus, the National Audit of Seizure management in Hospitals (NASH) set out to assess prior care, management of the acute event and follow-up of these patients. This paper describes the data from the second audit conducted in 2013. Setting 154 emergency departments (EDs) across the UK. Participants Data from 4544 attendances (median age of 45 years, 57% men) showed that 61% had a prior diagnosis of epilepsy, 12% other neurological problems and 22% were first seizure cases. Each ED identified 30 consecutive adult cases presenting due to a seizure. Primary and secondary outcome measures Details were recorded of the patient's prior care, management at hospital and onward referral to neurological specialists onto an online database. Descriptive results are reported at national level. Results Of those with epilepsy, 498 (18%) were on no antiepileptic drug therapy and 1330 (48%) were on monotherapy. Assessments were often incomplete and witness histories were sought in only 759 (75%) of first seizure patients, 58% were seen by a senior doctor and 57% were admitted. For first seizure patients, advice on further seizure management was given to 264 (27%) and only 55% were referred to a neurologist or epilepsy specialist. For each variable, there was wide variability among sites that was not explicable. For the sites who partook in both audits, there was a trend towards better care in 2013, but this was small and dwarfed by the intersite variability. Conclusions These results have parallels with the Sentinel Audit of Stroke performed a decade earlier. There is wide intersite variability in care covering the entire care pathway, and a need for better organised and accessible care for these patients. PMID:25829372

  13. How often do German children and adolescents show signs of common mental health problems? Results from different methodological approaches – a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Child and adolescent mental health problems are ubiquitous and burdensome. Their impact on functional disability, the high rates of accompanying medical illnesses and the potential to last until adulthood make them a major public health issue. While methodological factors cause variability of the results from epidemiological studies, there is a lack of prevalence rates of mental health problems in children and adolescents according to ICD-10 criteria from nationally representative samples. International findings suggest only a small proportion of children with function impairing mental health problems receive treatment, but information about the health care situation of children and adolescents is scarce. The aim of this epidemiological study was a) to classify symptoms of common mental health problems according to ICD-10 criteria in order to compare the statistical and clinical case definition strategies using a single set of data and b) to report ICD-10 codes from health insurance claims data. Methods a) Based on a clinical expert rating, questionnaire items were mapped on ICD-10 criteria; data from the Mental Health Module (BELLA study) were analyzed for relevant ICD-10 and cut-off criteria; b) Claims data were analyzed for relevant ICD-10 codes. Results According to parent report 7.5% (n = 208) met the ICD-10 criteria of a mild depressive episode and 11% (n = 305) showed symptoms of depression according to cut-off score; Anxiety is reported in 5.6% (n = 156) and 11.6% (n = 323), conduct disorder in 15.2% (n = 373) and 14.6% (n = 357). Self-reported symptoms in 11 to 17 year olds resulted in 15% (n = 279) reporting signs of a mild depression according to ICD-10 criteria (vs. 16.7% (n = 307) based on cut-off) and 10.9% (n = 201) reported symptoms of anxiety (vs. 15.4% (n = 283)). Results from routine data identify 0.9% (n = 1,196) with a depression diagnosis, 3.1% (n = 6,729) with anxiety and 1.4% (n

  14. Neurexin dysfunction in adult neurons results in autistic-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Rabaneda, Luis G; Robles-Lanuza, Estefanía; Nieto-González, José Luis; Scholl, Francisco G

    2014-07-24

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) comprise a group of clinical phenotypes characterized by repetitive behavior and social and communication deficits. Autism is generally viewed as a neurodevelopmental disorder where insults during embryonic or early postnatal periods result in aberrant wiring and function of neuronal circuits. Neurexins are synaptic proteins associated with autism. Here, we generated transgenic βNrx1ΔC mice in which neurexin function is selectively impaired during late postnatal stages. Whole-cell recordings in cortical neurons show an impairment of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the βNrx1ΔC mice. Importantly, mutant mice exhibit autism-related symptoms, such as increased self-grooming, deficits in social interactions, and altered interaction for nonsocial olfactory cues. The autistic-like phenotype of βNrx1ΔC mice can be reversed after removing the mutant protein in aged animals. The defects resulting from disruption of neurexin function after the completion of embryonic and early postnatal development suggest that functional impairment of mature circuits can trigger autism-related phenotypes.

  15. Radiation doses in adult computed tomography practice in Serbia: initial results.

    PubMed

    Arandjic, Danijela; Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera; Hadnadjev, Darka; Stojanovic, Sanja; Bozovic, Predrag; Ceklic, Sandra; Lazarevic, Djordje

    2014-11-01

    This work presents initial data on radiation doses in adult computed tomography (CT) in Serbia. Data were collected in terms of CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP) values for head, chest and abdomen examination. The range of CTDIvol values was found to be 53-98, 11-34 and 8.5-227 mGy whereas for DLP was 803-1066, 350-845 and 1066-3078 mGy cm(-1) for head, chest and abdomen examination, respectively. Except for abdomen on one CT unit, all estimated values were in line with the reported data. This work also presents simple method on how to reduce radiation doses when scanning head. Using axial (step-and-shot) instead of helical mode and decreasing tube current-time product leads to significant dose reduction. CTDIvol was decreased by 20 % whereas DLP was reduced for a factor 2. PMID:25063787

  16. Eating Behaviors in Cuban Adults: Results from an Exploratory Transcultural Study

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Martín, Boris C.; Innamorati, Marco; Imperatori, Claudio; Fabbricatore, Mariantonietta; Harnic, Désirée; Janiri, Luigi; Rivas-Suárez, Saira R.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate eating behaviors in Cuban adults and compare them with those of a developed Western country, Italy. The study also aimed to determine the overall accuracy of a predictive model intended to define variables which could be used to discriminate between nationalities. Participants were 283 normal weight individuals from Cuba (n = 158) and Italy (n = 125). Italians had higher scores for restrained eating on the questionnaire than Cubans with a considerable effect size. This trend was also found for emotional eating and binge eating, as well as number of current dieters, despite the fact that effect sizes were small. On the other hand, Cubans, when compared to Italians reported higher scores for food thought suppression with reward responsiveness and restrained eating emerging as significant predictors of between-country differences. To conclude, eating behaviors in Cubans could be different from those reported in European countries, perhaps as a consequence of Cuba’s recent history. PMID:27725806

  17. Transgene silencing of the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome mutation results in a reversible bone phenotype, whereas resveratrol treatment does not show overall beneficial effects.

    PubMed

    Strandgren, Charlotte; Nasser, Hasina Abdul; McKenna, Tomás; Koskela, Antti; Tuukkanen, Juha; Ohlsson, Claes; Rozell, Björn; Eriksson, Maria

    2015-08-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare premature aging disorder that is most commonly caused by a de novo point mutation in exon 11 of the LMNA gene, c.1824C>T, which results in an increased production of a truncated form of lamin A known as progerin. In this study, we used a mouse model to study the possibility of recovering from HGPS bone disease upon silencing of the HGPS mutation, and the potential benefits from treatment with resveratrol. We show that complete silencing of the transgenic expression of progerin normalized bone morphology and mineralization already after 7 weeks. The improvements included lower frequencies of rib fractures and callus formation, an increased number of osteocytes in remodeled bone, and normalized dentinogenesis. The beneficial effects from resveratrol treatment were less significant and to a large extent similar to mice treated with sucrose alone. However, the reversal of the dental phenotype of overgrown and laterally displaced lower incisors in HGPS mice could be attributed to resveratrol. Our results indicate that the HGPS bone defects were reversible upon suppressed transgenic expression and suggest that treatments targeting aberrant progerin splicing give hope to patients who are affected by HGPS.

  18. Effectiveness of knowledge of result and knowledge of performance in the learning of a skilled motor activity by healthy young adults

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Dhara A; Chevidikunnan, Mohamed Faisal; Khan, Fayaz Rahman; Gaowgzeh, Riziq Allah

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The acquisition of motor skills are fundamental to human life. There is a lack of research on whether knowledge of performance or knowledge of result as augmented feedback is more effective. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of knowledge of result and knowledge of performance in the learning of a skilled motor activity by healthy young adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of thirty healthy young adult males and females without any neurological or musculoskeletal impairment, between the age of 18–30 years were the subjects of the study. They were randomly allocated to 2 groups: group 1 was given knowledge of result as feedback, and knowledge of performance was given as feedback to group 2. Both the groups practiced the task of throwing a soft spongy ball for 6 days per week for 4 weeks, with 40 trials each day. The outcome measure used was the distance of the throw. [Results] The results were analyzed using the t-test. The mean distances thrown by both the groups showed highly significant improvements and throwing distance of group 2 showed better improvement than that of group 1. [Conclusion] Both types of augmented feedback were effective at improving skilled motor activity, but the knowledge of performance group showed better improvement than the knowledge of result group. PMID:27313355

  19. Effectiveness of knowledge of result and knowledge of performance in the learning of a skilled motor activity by healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Dhara A; Chevidikunnan, Mohamed Faisal; Khan, Fayaz Rahman; Gaowgzeh, Riziq Allah

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The acquisition of motor skills are fundamental to human life. There is a lack of research on whether knowledge of performance or knowledge of result as augmented feedback is more effective. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of knowledge of result and knowledge of performance in the learning of a skilled motor activity by healthy young adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of thirty healthy young adult males and females without any neurological or musculoskeletal impairment, between the age of 18-30 years were the subjects of the study. They were randomly allocated to 2 groups: group 1 was given knowledge of result as feedback, and knowledge of performance was given as feedback to group 2. Both the groups practiced the task of throwing a soft spongy ball for 6 days per week for 4 weeks, with 40 trials each day. The outcome measure used was the distance of the throw. [Results] The results were analyzed using the t-test. The mean distances thrown by both the groups showed highly significant improvements and throwing distance of group 2 showed better improvement than that of group 1. [Conclusion] Both types of augmented feedback were effective at improving skilled motor activity, but the knowledge of performance group showed better improvement than the knowledge of result group. PMID:27313355

  20. Magnetic Sphincter Augmentation for Gastroesophageal Reflux at 5 Years: Final Results of a Pilot Study Show Long-Term Acid Reduction and Symptom Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Saino, Greta; Bonavina, Luigi; Lipham, John C.; Dunn, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: As previously reported, the magnetic sphincter augmentation device (MSAD) preserves gastric anatomy and results in less severe side effects than traditional antireflux surgery. The final 5-year results of a pilot study are reported here. Patients and Methods: A prospective, multicenter study evaluated safety and efficacy of the MSAD for 5 years. Prior to MSAD placement, patients had abnormal esophageal acid and symptoms poorly controlled by proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Patients served as their own control, which allowed comparison between baseline and postoperative measurements to determine individual treatment effect. At 5 years, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)-Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL) questionnaire score, esophageal pH, PPI use, and complications were evaluated. Results: Between February 2007 and October 2008, 44 patients (26 males) had an MSAD implanted by laparoscopy, and 33 patients were followed up at 5 years. Mean total percentage of time with pH <4 was 11.9% at baseline and 4.6% at 5 years (P < .001), with 85% of patients achieving pH normalization or at least a 50% reduction. Mean total GERD-HRQL score improved significantly from 25.7 to 2.9 (P < .001) when comparing baseline and 5 years, and 93.9% of patients had at least a 50% reduction in total score compared with baseline. Complete discontinuation of PPIs was achieved by 87.8% of patients. No complications occurred in the long term, including no device erosions or migrations at any point. Conclusions: Based on long-term reduction in esophageal acid, symptom improvement, and no late complications, this study shows the relative safety and efficacy of magnetic sphincter augmentation for GERD. PMID:26437027

  1. Increased COUP-TFII expression in adult hearts induces mitochondrial dysfunction resulting in heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Wu, San-Pin; Kao, Chung-Yang; Wang, Leiming; Creighton, Chad J.; Yang, Jin; Donti, Taraka R.; Harmancey, Romain; Vasquez, Hernan G.; Graham, Brett H.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Chang, Ching-Pin; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Tsai, Sophia Y.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic remodelling are pivotal in the development of cardiomyopathy. Here, we show that myocardial COUP-TFII overexpression causes heart failure in mice, suggesting a causal effect of elevated COUP-TFII levels on development of dilated cardiomyopathy. COUP-TFII represses genes critical for mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activity, oxidative stress detoxification and mitochondrial dynamics, resulting in increased levels of reactive oxygen species and lower rates of oxygen consumption in mitochondria. COUP-TFII also suppresses the metabolic regulator PGC-1 network and decreases the expression of key glucose and lipid utilization genes, leading to a reduction in both glucose and oleate oxidation in the hearts. These data suggest that COUP-TFII affects mitochondrial function, impairs metabolic remodelling and has a key role in dilated cardiomyopathy. Last, COUP-TFII haploinsufficiency attenuates the progression of cardiac dilation and improves survival in a calcineurin transgenic mouse model, indicating that COUP-TFII may serve as a therapeutic target for the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy. PMID:26356605

  2. Increased COUP-TFII expression in adult hearts induces mitochondrial dysfunction resulting in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Wu, San-Pin; Kao, Chung-Yang; Wang, Leiming; Creighton, Chad J; Yang, Jin; Donti, Taraka R; Harmancey, Romain; Vasquez, Hernan G; Graham, Brett H; Bellen, Hugo J; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Chang, Ching-Pin; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Tsai, Sophia Y

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic remodelling are pivotal in the development of cardiomyopathy. Here, we show that myocardial COUP-TFII overexpression causes heart failure in mice, suggesting a causal effect of elevated COUP-TFII levels on development of dilated cardiomyopathy. COUP-TFII represses genes critical for mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activity, oxidative stress detoxification and mitochondrial dynamics, resulting in increased levels of reactive oxygen species and lower rates of oxygen consumption in mitochondria. COUP-TFII also suppresses the metabolic regulator PGC-1 network and decreases the expression of key glucose and lipid utilization genes, leading to a reduction in both glucose and oleate oxidation in the hearts. These data suggest that COUP-TFII affects mitochondrial function, impairs metabolic remodelling and has a key role in dilated cardiomyopathy. Last, COUP-TFII haploinsufficiency attenuates the progression of cardiac dilation and improves survival in a calcineurin transgenic mouse model, indicating that COUP-TFII may serve as a therapeutic target for the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy. PMID:26356605

  3. European Union's rapid TSE testing in adult cattle and sheep: implementation and results in 2001 and 2002.

    PubMed

    Bird, Sheila M

    2003-06-01

    After the discovery of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), scientific advances quickly led to post-mortem tests to identify late-stage bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) disease. These were first used in Switzerland in 1999 for active BSE surveillance of a) fallen and emergency-slaughter bovines (risk stock) and b) 5% sample of routinely slaughtered cattle over 30 months of age. In 1999 and 2000, Switzerland's estimated 103 BSE positives per 1000000 adult cattle put it in the same BSE risk classification as UK and Portugal. In July 2000, the European Union's Scientific Steering Committee published its methodology (and first vetted results) for geographical BSE risk (GBR) assessment in cattle. Member states with no BSE cases found themselves, on rational assessment, classified as GBR III (BSE likely but not confirmed, or confirmed at a lower level). Because of Europe's thus highly assessed BSE risks, active BSE surveillance of adult cattle in all member states began in January 2001 using one of three validated post-mortem tests. Implementation was variable across member states in January to March 2001 but, where operational, active surveillance was typically achieved for around 13300 routinely slaughtered and 1000 risk stock per month per 1000000 adult cattle; BSE positive rates were 60 and 600 per 1000000 routinely slaughtered and risk cattle, respectively. By the second half of 2001, active BSE surveillance was operating reasonably in most member states, although anomalies persisted. Performance and results for July to December 2001 and for January to June 2002 are considered in detail. The BSE positive rate decreased substantially in UK, Portugal and Ireland between semesters, whereas Spain's rates increased for both routinely slaughtered and risk bovines. Based on 1450000 routinely slaughtered and 135000 risk stock as standard, France could have expected 153 BSE positives in July to December 2001 (109 in January to June 2002); Italy 154 (67); and

  4. Persistent Adult Zebrafish Behavioral Deficits Results from Acute Embryonic Exposure to Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Lisa; Saili, Katerine S.; Miller, John M.; Hutchison, James E.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    As the number of products containing nanomaterials increase, human exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) is unavoidable. Presently, few studies focus on the potential long-term consequences of developmental NP exposure. In this study, zebrafish embryos were acutely exposed to three gold NPs that possess functional groups with differing surface charge. Embryos were exposed to 50 μg/mL of 1.5 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) possessing negatively charged 2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid (MES) or neutral 2-(2-(2-mercaptoethoxy)ethoxy)ethanol (MEEE) ligands or 10 μg/mL of the AuNPs possessing positively charged trimethylammoniumethanethiol (TMAT). Both MES- and TMAT-AuNP exposed embryos exhibited hypo-locomotor activity, while those exposed to MEEE-AuNPs did not. A subset of embryos that were exposed to 1.5 nm MES- and TMAT-AuNPs during development from 6–120 hours post fertilization were raised to adulthood. Behavioral abnormalities and the number of survivors into adulthood were evaluated at 122 days post fertilization. We found that both treatments induced abnormal startle behavior following a tap stimulus. However, the MES-AuNPs exposed group also exhibited abnormal adult behavior in the light and had a lower survivorship into adulthood. This study demonstrates that acute, developmental exposure to 1.5 nm MES- and TMAT- AuNPs, two NPs differing only in the functional group, affects larval behavior, with behavioral effects persisting into adulthood. PMID:21946249

  5. Evidence of Insulin Resistance in Adult Uncomplicated Malaria: Result of a Two-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Acquah, Samuel; Boampong, Johnson Nyarko; Eghan Jnr, Benjamin Ackon; Eriksson, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed at investigating the effects of adult uncomplicated malaria on insulin resistance. Fasting levels of blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and serum insulin were measured in 100 diabetics and 100 age-matched controls before and during Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Insulin resistance and beta cell function were computed by homeostatic models assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR) and beta cell function (HOMAB) formulae, respectively. Body mass index (BMI) was computed. At baseline, diabetics had significantly (P < 0.05) higher levels of BMI, FBG, HbA1c, and HOMAIR but lower level of HOMAB than controls. Baseline insulin levels were comparable (P > 0.05) between the two study groups. During malaria, diabetics maintained significantly (P < 0.05) higher levels of BMI, FBG, and HbA1c but lower levels of insulin and HOMAB than controls. Malaria-induced HOMAIR levels were comparable (P > 0.05) between the two study groups but higher than baseline levels. Apart from BMI and HOMAB, mean levels of all the remaining parameters increased in malaria-infected controls. In malaria-infected diabetics, significant (P < 0.05) increase was only observed for insulin and HOMAIR but not the other measured parameters. Uncomplicated malaria increased insulin resistance in diabetics and controls independent of BMI. This finding may have implications for the evolution of T2DM in malaria-endemic regions. PMID:25587486

  6. Urinary Dialkyl Phosphate Concentrations and Lung Function Parameters in Adolescents and Adults: Results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have reported associations between lung function parameters and organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposures in agricultural occupations, but to our knowledge associations have not been evaluated in general populations. Objectives: We examined associations between OP metabolite dialkyl phosphates (DAPs) and lung function using data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) Cycle 1. Methods: Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio, and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC (FEF25%–75%) were measured for 4,446 CHMS participants. Urinary concentrations of six DAP metabolites (DMP, DMTP, DMDTP, DEP, DETP, and DEDTP), smoking status, and other predictors of lung function were also measured in the CHMS-Cycle 1. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between total DAP concentrations (ΣDAPs) and lung function in adolescents (12–19 years) and adults (20–79 years). Results: In adults, estimates from multiple regression analyses suggested that a 1-unit increase on natural logarithmic scale (171% increase on the original scale) in the creatinine-corrected urinary concentration (nanomoles per gram creatinine) of ΣDAP was associated with a 32.6-mL (95% CI: –57.2, –8.1) reduction in FVC, 32.6-mL (95% CI: –59.0, –6.3) reduction in FEV1, 0.2% (95% CI: –0.6, 0.2) reduction in FEV1/FVC ratio, and 53.1-mL/sec (95% CI: –113.9, 7.7) reduction in FEF25%–75%. In adolescents, associations between ΣDAP and FEV1 were closer to the null and positive for FVC, whereas associations with FEV1/FVC and FEF25%–75% were negative, as in adults. However, none of the associations were significant in adolescents. Conclusions: The negative association between ΣDAP and lung function in adult participants suggests a detrimental effect of OP pesticides on lung function in the adult general population. Further studies using prospective designs are

  7. Long-term results of diaphragmatic plication in adults with unilateral diaphragm paralysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In this study we aimed to evaluate the long-term outcome of diaphragmatic plication for symptomatic unilateral diaphragm paralysis. Methods Thirteen patients who underwent unilateral diaphragmatic plication (2 patients had right, 11 left plication) between January 2003 and December 2006 were evaluated. One patient died postoperatively due to sepsis. The remaining 12 patients [9 males, 3 females; mean age 60 (36-66) years] were reevaluated with chest radiography, flouroscopy or ultrasonography, pulmonary function tests, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the MRC/ATS dyspnea score at an average of 5.4 (4-7) years after diaphragmatic plication. Results The etiology of paralysis was trauma (9 patients), cardiac by pass surgery (3 patients), and idiopathic (1 patient). The principle symptom was progressive dyspnea with a mean duration of 32.9 (22-60) months before surgery. All patients had an elevated hemidiaphragm and paradoxical movement radiologically prior to surgery. There were partial atelectasis and reccurent infection of the lower lobe in the affected side on CT in 9 patients. Atelectasis was completely improved in 9 patients after plication. Preoperative spirometry showed a clear restrictive pattern. Mean preoperative FVC was 56.7 ± 11.6% and FEV1 65.3 ± 8.7%. FVC and FEV1 improved by 43.6 ± 30.6% (p < 0.001) and 27.3 ± 10.9% (p < 0.001) at late follow-up. MRC/ATS dyspnea scores improved 3 points in 11 patients and 1 point in 1 patient at long-term (p < 0.0001). Eight patients had returned to work at 3 months after surgery. Conclusions Diaphragmatic plication for unilateral diaphragm paralysis decreases lung compression, ensures remission of symptoms, and improves quality of life in long-term period. PMID:21078140

  8. Low-level subchronic arsenic exposure from prenatal developmental stages to adult life results in an impaired glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Dávila-Esqueda, M E; Morales, J M V; Jiménez-Capdeville, M E; De la Cruz, E; Falcón-Escobedo, R; Chi-Ahumada, E; Martin-Pérez, S

    2011-11-01

    We evaluated how low-level (3 ppm) subchronic inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure from prenatal developmental stages until adult life affects glucose homeostasis. Biochemical parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism, pancreatic insulin and glycosylated haemoglobin were determined in 4-month-old female offspring of adult Wistar rats. Pancreatic histology was also performed. Statistical comparisons between control and iAs-treated groups were performed by unpaired two-tailed Student's t-test. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. We found that iAs treatment resulted in an impaired glucose tolerance test, suggestive of impaired glucose metabolism. This group was found to have hyperglycaemia and high levels of HOMA-IR, glycosylated haemoglobin, cholesterol and pancreatic insulin compared to control rats. However, plasma insulin, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were not different from control rats. Moreover, β-cell damage found in iAs-treated rats consisted of cells with a nucleus with dense chromatin and predominance of eosinophilic cytoplasm, as well as changes in the pancreatic vasculature. The current study provided evidence that subchronic iAs exposure at 3 ppm from prenatal developmental stages to adult life resulted in damage to pancreatic β cells, affected insulin secretion and demonstrated altered glucose homeostasis, thus supporting a causal association between iAs exposure and diabetes.

  9. Workplace Harassment and Morbidity Among US Adults: Results from the National Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Khubchandani, Jagdish; Price, James H

    2015-06-01

    Most research on workplace harassment originates from European countries.Prevalence of workplace harassment and associated morbidity has not been well studied in the United States. The purpose of this study was to assess in a sample of US workers the prevalence of workplace harassment and the psychological and physical health consequences of workplace harassment. The 2010 National Health Interview Survey data were analyzed in 2014 for this study. We computed the prevalence of workplace harassment, assessed the demographic and background characteristics of victims of harassment, and tested the association between harassment and selected health risk factors by using logistic regression analysis. Statistical significance was established as p < 0.01. A total of 17,524 adults were included in our study (51.5% females and 74.9% Whites). A little <1 in 10 (8.1%) reported being harassed in the workplace in the past 12 months. The odds of harassment were significantly higher for females (OR 1.47, p < 0.001),multiracial individuals (OR 2.30, p < 0.001), and divorced or separated individuals (OR 1.88, p < 0.001). Victims of harassment were significantly more likely to: be obese, sleep less, and smoke more. In addition, harassment was associated with psychosocial distress, pain disorders, work loss, bed days, and worsening health of employees in the past 12 months. Analysis was stratified by gender and distinct health risk patterns for men and women victims were observed. Workplace harassment in the US is associated with significant health risk factors and morbidity. Workplace policies and protocols can play a significant role in reducing harassment and the associated negative health outcomes. PMID:25399052

  10. Rapamycin and Chloroquine: The In Vitro and In Vivo Effects of Autophagy-Modifying Drugs Show Promising Results in Valosin Containing Protein Multisystem Proteinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Nalbandian, Angèle; Llewellyn, Katrina J.; Nguyen, Christopher; Yazdi, Puya G.; Kimonis, Virginia E.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the valosin containing protein (VCP) gene cause hereditary Inclusion body myopathy (hIBM) associated with Paget disease of bone (PDB), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), more recently termed multisystem proteinopathy (MSP). Affected individuals exhibit scapular winging and die from progressive muscle weakness, and cardiac and respiratory failure, typically in their 40s to 50s. Histologically, patients show the presence of rimmed vacuoles and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43)-positive large ubiquitinated inclusion bodies in the muscles. We have generated a VCPR155H/+ mouse model which recapitulates the disease phenotype and impaired autophagy typically observed in patients with VCP disease. Autophagy-modifying agents, such as rapamycin and chloroquine, at pharmacological doses have previously shown to alter the autophagic flux. Herein, we report results of administration of rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, and chloroquine, a lysosomal inhibitor which reverses autophagy by accumulating in lysosomes, responsible for blocking autophagy in 20-month old VCPR155H/+ mice. Rapamycin-treated mice demonstrated significant improvement in muscle performance, quadriceps histological analysis, and rescue of ubiquitin, and TDP-43 pathology and defective autophagy as indicated by decreased protein expression levels of LC3-I/II, p62/SQSTM1, optineurin and inhibiting the mTORC1 substrates. Conversely, chloroquine-treated VCPR155H/+ mice revealed progressive muscle weakness, cytoplasmic accumulation of TDP-43, ubiquitin-positive inclusion bodies and increased LC3-I/II, p62/SQSTM1, and optineurin expression levels. Our in vitro patient myoblasts studies treated with rapamycin demonstrated an overall improvement in the autophagy markers. Targeting the mTOR pathway ameliorates an increasing list of disorders, and these findings suggest that VCP disease and related neurodegenerative multisystem proteinopathies can

  11. Literacy in Everyday Life: Results from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy. NCES 2007-490

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutner, Mark; Greenberg, Elizabeth; Jin, Ying; Boyle, Bridget; Hsu, Yung-chen; Dunleavy, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) assessed the English literacy skills of a nationally representative sample of more than 19,000 U.S. adults (age 16 and older) residing in households and prisons. NAAL is the first national assessment of adult literacy since the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey. Three types of literacy were…

  12. Modeling upward brine migration through faults as a result of CO2 storage in the Northeast German Basin shows negligible salinization in shallow aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, M.; Tillner, E.; Kempka, T.; Nakaten, B.

    2012-12-01

    The geological storage of CO2 in deep saline formations may cause salinization of shallower freshwater resources by upward flow of displaced brine from the storage formation into potable groundwater. In this regard, permeable faults or fractures can serve as potential leakage pathways for upward brine migration. The present study uses a regional-scale 3D model based on real structural data of a prospective CO2 storage site in Northeastern Germany to determine the impact of compartmentalization and fault permeability on upward brine migration as a result of pressure elevation by CO2 injection. To evaluate the degree of salinization in the shallower aquifers, different fault leakage scenarios were carried out using a newly developed workflow in which the model grid from the software package Petrel applied for pre-processing is transferred to the reservoir simulator TOUGH2-MP/ECO2N. A discrete fault description is achieved by using virtual elements. A static 3D geological model of the CO2 storage site with an a real size of 40 km x 40 km and a thickness of 766 m was implemented. Subsequently, large-scale numerical multi-phase multi-component (CO2, NaCl, H2O) flow simulations were carried out on a high performance computing system. The prospective storage site, located in the Northeast German Basin is part of an anticline structure characterized by a saline multi-layer aquifer system. The NE and SW boundaries of the study area are confined by the Fuerstenwalde Gubener and the Lausitzer Abbruch fault zones represented by four discrete faults in the model. Two formations of the Middle Bunter were chosen to assess brine migration through faults triggered by an annual injection rate of 1.7 Mt CO2 into the lowermost formation over a time span of 20 years. In addition to varying fault permeabilities, different boundary conditions were applied to evaluate the effects of reservoir compartmentalization. Simulation results show that the highest pressurization within the storage

  13. Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke during gestation results in altered cholinesterase enzyme activity and behavioral deficits in adult rat offspring: potential relevance to schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Zugno, Alexandra I; Fraga, Daiane B; De Luca, Renata D; Ghedim, Fernando V; Deroza, Pedro F; Cipriano, Andreza L; Oliveira, Mariana B; Heylmann, Alexandra S A; Budni, Josiane; Souza, Renan P; Quevedo, João

    2013-06-01

    Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) has been associated with physiological and developmental changes that may be related to an increased risk for childhood and adult neuropsychiatric diseases. The present study investigated locomotor activity and cholinesterase enzyme activity in rats, following PCSE and/or ketamine treatment in adulthood. Pregnant female Wistar rats were exposed to 12 commercially filtered cigarettes per day for a period of 28 days. We evaluated motor activity and cholinesterase activity in the brain and serum of adult male offspring that were administered acute subanesthetic doses of ketamine (5, 15 and 25 mg/kg), which serves as an animal model of schizophrenia. To determine locomotor activity, we used the open field test. Cholinesterase activity was assessed by hydrolysis monitored spectrophotometrically. Our results show that both PCSE and ketamine treatment in the adult offspring induced increase of locomotor activity. Additionally, it was observed increase of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activity in the brain and serum, respectively. We demonstrated that animals exposed to cigarettes in the prenatal period had increased the risk for psychotic symptoms in adulthood. This also occurs in a dose-dependent manner. These changes provoke molecular events that are not completely understood and may result in abnormal behavioral responses found in neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia.

  14. Elevated blood lead in California adults, 1987: Results of a statewide surveillance program based on laboratory reports

    SciTech Connect

    Maizlish, N.; Rudolph, L.; Sutton, P.; Jones, J.R.; Kizer, K.W. )

    1990-08-01

    California medical laboratories that test for blood lead are required to report results exceeding 1.21 mumols/L (25 micrograms/dl). Between April and December 1987, the California Department of Health Services received 3,077 blood lead reports from 34 laboratories for 1,293 civilian, non-institutionalized adults. Approximately 1 percent of all reports exceeded 3.87 mumols/L (80 micrograms/dl), 7 percent exceeded 2.42 mumols/L (50 micrograms/dl), and 21 percent exceeded 1.93 mumols/L (40 micrograms/dl). Individuals tested were overwhelmingly male (94 percent), disproportionately Hispanic surnamed (44 percent), and most often residents of Los Angeles County (81 percent). Workers in lead smelting, battery manufacturing, and brass foundries accounted for nearly 80 percent of reports. Construction, radiator repair, pottery and ceramics manufacturing, and gun firing ranges accounted for the remainder. All adults with reports of greater than or equal to 2.90 mumols/L who were contacted reported on occupational exposure. Approximately half were not in routine medical monitoring programs. Despite OSHA standards, elevated blood lead with the potential for serious acute and chronic lead poisoning in California adults remains a significant public health and major occupational health concern.

  15. A candidate gene investigation of methylphenidate response in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients: results from a naturalistic study.

    PubMed

    Hegvik, Tor-Arne; Jacobsen, Kaya Kvarme; Fredriksen, Mats; Zayats, Tetyana; Haavik, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorder with a complex and heterogeneous symptomatology. Persistence of ADHD symptoms into adulthood is common. Methylphenidate (MPH) is a widely prescribed stimulant compound that may be effective against ADHD symptoms in children and adults. However, MPH does not exert satisfactory effect in all patients. Several genetic variants have been proposed to predict either treatment response or adverse effects of stimulants. We conducted a literature search to identify previously reported variants associated with MPH response and additional variants that were biologically plausible candidates for MPH response. The response to MPH was assessed by the treating clinicians in 564 adult ADHD patients and 20 genetic variants were successfully genotyped. Logistic regression was used to test for association between these polymorphisms and treatment response. Nominal associations (p < 0.05) were meta-analysed with published data from previous comparable studies. In our analyses, rs1800544 in the ADRA2A gene was associated with MPH response at a nominal significance level (OR 0.560, 95 % CI 0.329-0.953, p = 0.033). However, this finding was not affirmed in the meta-analysis. No genetic variants revealed significant associations after correction for multiple testing (p < 0.00125). Our results suggest that none of the studied variants are strong predictors of MPH response in adult ADHD as judged by clinician ratings, potentially except for rs1800544. Consequently, pharmacogenetic testing in routine clinical care is not supported by our analyses. Further studies on the pharmacogenetics of adult ADHD are warranted. PMID:27091191

  16. Storytelling Slide Shows to Improve Diabetes and High Blood Pressure Knowledge and Self-Efficacy: Three-Year Results among Community Dwelling Older African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertera, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    This study combined the African American tradition of oral storytelling with the Hispanic medium of "Fotonovelas." A staggered pretest posttest control group design was used to evaluate four Storytelling Slide Shows on health that featured community members. A total of 212 participants were recruited for the intervention and 217 for the…

  17. Risk Factors and Disability Associated with Low Back Pain in Older Adults in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Results from the WHO Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE)

    PubMed Central

    Stewart Williams, Jennifer; Ng, Nawi; Peltzer, Karl; Yawson, Alfred; Biritwum, Richard; Maximova, Tamara; Wu, Fan; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath

    2015-01-01

    Background Back pain is a common disabling chronic condition that burdens individuals, families and societies. Epidemiological evidence, mainly from high-income countries, shows positive association between back pain prevalence and older age. There is an urgent need for accurate epidemiological data on back pain in adult populations in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where populations are ageing rapidly. The objectives of this study are to: measure the prevalence of back pain; identify risk factors and determinants associated with back pain, and describe association between back pain and disability in adults aged 50 years and older, in six LMICs from different regions of the world. The findings provide insights into country-level differences in self-reported back pain and disability in a group of socially, culturally, economically and geographically diverse LMICs. Methods Standardized national survey data collected from adults (50 years and older) participating in the World Health Organization (WHO) Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) were analysed. The weighted sample (n = 30, 146) comprised respondents in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, South Africa and the Russian Federation. Multivariable regressions describe factors associated with back pain prevalence and intensity, and back pain as a determinant of disability. Results Prevalence was highest in the Russian Federation (56%) and lowest in China (22%). In the pooled multi-country analyses, female sex, lower education, lower wealth and multiple chronic morbidities were significant in association with past-month back pain (p<0.01). About 8% of respondents reported that they experienced intense back pain in the previous month. Conclusions Evidence on back pain and its impact on disability is needed in developing countries so that governments can invest in cost-effective education and rehabilitation to reduce the growing social and economic burden imposed by this disabling condition. PMID:26042785

  18. Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty of Dysplastic Stenoses of the Renal Artery: Results on 70 Adults

    SciTech Connect

    Fraissinette, Bruno de; Garcier, Jean Marc; Dieu, Valerie; Mofid, Reza; Ravel, Anne; Boire, Jean Yves; Boyer, Louis

    2003-02-15

    Purpose: Retrospective analysis of the dilatation (PTRA) of renal arterial dysplastic stenosis (RADS). Methods: Seventy patients suffering from hypertension (87RADS) were treated at our institution for medial (83%) or non-classified fibrodysplasias (17%). Four patients suffered from renal insufficiency. Two endoprostheses were implanted. We evaluated blood pressure with the USCSRH criteria and renal insufficiency with the Martin criteria. Results: Ninety-five percent technical success and 87.9% clinical success for blood pressure were obtained, with worse results for patients older than 57 years or with a history of hypertension greater than 9 years. Results were better when the RADS was responsible for an ipsilateral renal atrophy or for poorly controlled hypertension. No renal insufficiency worsened during the follow-up. Conclusion: PTRA is a first-line treatment for renovascular hypertension caused by RADS. The results were encouraging despite a high average age of the subjects and frequent associated extrarenal vascular lesions.

  19. Selective Review of the Results of Research on the Use of Audiovisual Media to Teach Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campeau, Peggie L.

    The purpose of this literature review was to summarize results of experimental studies on the instructional effectiveness of audiovisual media in post-secondary education. Studies which met seven major screening criteria were used. A study was generally accepted if it compared performance of experimental and control groups on objective measures of…

  20. [Long-term results of surgical treatment of lumbar disk herniation in adults].

    PubMed

    Dudek, H; Michno, T; Łebkowski, W J; Kozłowski, A

    2001-01-01

    The authors present long-term results (10.2 years post-op) of surgical treatment of lumbar disc herniation in 1003 patients operated at the Department of Neurosurgery by the University of Medical Sciences in Białystok. The operated group comprised 33.1% women (mean age--55.6 years) and 68.7% men (mean age 57.3 years). Ten years post-op 15.9% women and 5.8% men kept the recommended diet, 14% women and 7.0% men continued muscle strengthening exercise. Ten years post-op excellent and good results were noted in respectively 42.4% and 46.5% women and 45.4% and 46.6% men. PMID:11761755

  1. [Study of the remote results of five cases of unilateral condylar hyperplasia in the adult].

    PubMed

    Rey, P; Choitel, J; Souyris, F

    1984-01-01

    Exceptionally bilateral, condylar hyperplasia result in graduated facial asymmetry . The principal treatment is the condylectomy. (Condylar head and a portion of the neck of the condyle are removed.) Sometimes we must complete this condylectomy by mandibular osteotomy or resection of a segment of body of the mandible. The occlusal relationships of the teeth are affected by this process. That's why surgery treatment must be associated with orthodontics and prosthetic preparations. We use in post-operative immediate an intermaxillary fixation and traction by elastics. This allow to have a better congruence between the dental arches, and spare functional troubles. PMID:6587518

  2. Serum HDL-C level of Iranian adults: results from sixth national Surveillance of Risk Factors of Non-Communicable Disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reduced level of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) is shown to be in association with the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), metabolic syndrome, and chronic renal disease. Lack of a national representative research for assessing the level of HDL-C among Iranian adults, which is essential for health policy makers, was the motivation for this study. Methods HDL-C levels of 4,803 Iranian adults aged 25–64 years old were measured by sixth national Surveillance of Risk Factors of Non-Communicable Disease (SuRFNCD) in 2011. Data were entered into STATA 12 software and were analyzed using fractional polynomial model and other statistical methods. Results In average, Iranian adult women had 5.8 ± 0.3 mg/dL higher HDL-C level than men. The analysis showed that the HDL-C levels will be changed at most 3 mg/dL from the age of 25 to 64 years. Furthermore, it was shown that approximately half of the men and one third of the women had HDL-C level less than 40 mg/DL. Also HDL-C level of more than 60% of the women was less than 50 mg/dL. Conclusions High level of HDL-C among Iranian adults was shown in this study which can be a major reason of increasing incidence of heart diseases in Iran. Hence, formulating policy regulations and interventions in Iranian lifestyle to reduce HDL-C levels should be among top priorities for health politicians. PMID:25028645

  3. Mathematical modelling in Matlab of the experimental results shows the electrochemical potential difference - temperature of the WC coatings immersed in a NaCl solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benea, M. L.; Benea, O. D.

    2016-02-01

    The method used for purchasing the corrosion behaviour the WC coatings deposited by plasma spraying, on a martensitic stainless steel substrate consists in measuring the electrochemical potential of the coating, respectively that of the substrate, immersed in a NaCl solution as corrosive agent. The mathematical processing of the obtained experimental results in Matlab allowed us to make some correlations between the electrochemical potential of the coating and the solution temperature is very well described by some curves having equations obtained by interpolation order 4.

  4. Knowledge About E-Cigarette Constituents and Regulation: Results From a National Survey of U.S. Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Andy S. L.; Bigman, Cabral A.; Henriksen, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To examine young adults’ knowledge of e-cigarette constituents and regulation and its association with product use and self-reported exposure to marketing. Methods: Young adults (18–34 years, N = 1,247) from a U.S. web panel were surveyed in March 2014. Using multinomial logistic regressions, self-reported exposure to marketing was examined as a predictor of whether participants responded correctly (reference category), incorrectly, or “don’t know” to four knowledge items—whether e-cigarettes contain nicotine, contain toxic chemicals, are regulated by government for safety, and are regulated for use as a cessation aid. Analyses adjusted for demographics and smoking status and were weighted to match the U.S. young adult population. Results: Most respondents did not know if e-cigarettes, contain toxic chemicals (48%), are regulated for safety (61%), and are regulated as cessation aids (68%); fewer than 37% answered all of these items correctly. Current users of e-cigarettes (past 30 days) had a lower likelihood of being incorrect about safety testing (p = .006) and being regulated as a cessation aid (p = .017). Higher exposure to e-cigarette marketing was associated with a lower likelihood of responding “don’t know” than being correct, and with a higher likelihood of being incorrect as opposed to correct about e-cigarettes containing nicotine. Conclusions: Knowledge about e-cigarette constituents and regulation was low among young adults, who are the largest consumer group for these products. Interventions, such as warning labels or information campaigns, may be necessary to educate and correct misinformation about these products. PMID:25542915

  5. Transitioning from preclinical to clinical chemopreventive assessments of lyophilized black raspberries: interim results show berries modulate markers of oxidative stress in Barrett's esophagus patients.

    PubMed

    Kresty, Laura A; Frankel, Wendy L; Hammond, Cynthia D; Baird, Maureen E; Mele, Jennifer M; Stoner, Gary D; Fromkes, John J

    2006-01-01

    Increased fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with decreased risk of a number of cancers of epithelial origin, including esophageal cancer. Dietary administration of lyophilized black raspberries (LBRs) has significantly inhibited chemically induced oral, esophageal, and colon carcinogenesis in animal models. Likewise, berry extracts added to cell cultures significantly inhibited cancer-associated processes. Positive results in preclinical studies have supported further investigation of berries and berry extracts in high-risk human cohorts, including patients with existing premalignancy or patients at risk for cancer recurrence. We are currently conducting a 6-mo chemopreventive pilot study administering 32 or 45 g (female and male, respectively) of LBRs to patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE), a premalignant esophageal condition in which the normal stratified squamous epithelium changes to a metaplastic columnar-lined epithelium. BE's importance lies in the fact that it confers a 30- to 40-fold increased risk for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma, a rapidly increasing and extremely deadly malignancy. This is a report on interim findings from 10 patients. To date, the results support that daily consumption of LBRs promotes reductions in the urinary excretion of two markers of oxidative stress, 8-epi-prostaglandin F2alpha (8-Iso-PGF2) and, to a lesser more-variable extent, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), among patients with BE.

  6. Visual Internal Urethrotomy for Adult Male Urethral Stricture Has Poor Long-Term Results.

    PubMed

    Al Taweel, Waleed; Seyam, Raouf

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine the long-term stricture-free rate after visual internal urethrotomy following initial and follow-up urethrotomies. Methods. The records of all male patients who underwent direct visual internal urethrotomy for urethral stricture disease in our hospital between July 2004 and May 2012 were reviewed. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze stricture-free probability after the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth urethrotomies. Results. A total of 301 patients were included. The overall stricture-free rate at the 36-month follow-up was 8.3% with a median time to recurrence of 10 months (95% CI of 9.5 to 10.5, range: 2-36). The stricture-free rate after one urethrotomy was 12.1% with a median time to recurrence of eight months (95% CI of 7.1-8.9). After the second urethrotomy, the stricture-free rate was 7.9% with a median time to recurrence of 10 months (95% CI of 9.3 to 10.6). After the third to fifth procedures, the stricture-free rate was 0%. There was no significant difference in the stricture-free rate between single and multiple procedures. Conclusion. The long-term stricture-free rate of visual internal urethrotomy is modest even after a single procedure.

  7. Visual Internal Urethrotomy for Adult Male Urethral Stricture Has Poor Long-Term Results

    PubMed Central

    Al Taweel, Waleed; Seyam, Raouf

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine the long-term stricture-free rate after visual internal urethrotomy following initial and follow-up urethrotomies. Methods. The records of all male patients who underwent direct visual internal urethrotomy for urethral stricture disease in our hospital between July 2004 and May 2012 were reviewed. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze stricture-free probability after the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth urethrotomies. Results. A total of 301 patients were included. The overall stricture-free rate at the 36-month follow-up was 8.3% with a median time to recurrence of 10 months (95% CI of 9.5 to 10.5, range: 2–36). The stricture-free rate after one urethrotomy was 12.1% with a median time to recurrence of eight months (95% CI of 7.1–8.9). After the second urethrotomy, the stricture-free rate was 7.9% with a median time to recurrence of 10 months (95% CI of 9.3 to 10.6). After the third to fifth procedures, the stricture-free rate was 0%. There was no significant difference in the stricture-free rate between single and multiple procedures. Conclusion. The long-term stricture-free rate of visual internal urethrotomy is modest even after a single procedure. PMID:26494995

  8. Preliminary Results of Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy After Cyst Drainage for Craniopharyngioma in Adults

    SciTech Connect

    Kanesaka, Naoto; Mikami, Ryuji; Nakayama, Hidetsugu; Nogi, Sachika; Tajima, Yu; Nakajima, Nobuyuki; Wada, Jun; Miki, Tamotsu; Haraoka, Jou; Okubo, Mitsuru; Sugahara, Shinji; Tokuuye, Koichi

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) for craniopharyngioma. Methods and Materials: Between 1999 and 2005, 16 patients with craniopharyngioma were referred to Tokyo Medical University Hospital. They received FSRT alone after histologic confirmation by needle biopsy and underwent cyst drainage via endoscopy. The median prescription dose fraction was 30 Gy in six fractions. All patients except 1 were followed up until December 2009 or death. Results: The median follow-up period was 52 months (range, 4-117 months). Of the 17 patients, 3 experienced recurrence 4 to 71 months after FSRT. The 3-year local control rate was 82.4%. One patient died of thyroid cancer, and the 3-year survival rate was 94.1%. Eight patients had improved visual fields at a median of 2.5 months after FSRT, but hormonal functions did not improve in any patient. Conclusions: FSRT after cyst drainage seems to be safe and effective for patients with craniopharyngiomas, and it may be a safe alternative to surgery.

  9. The effect of marriage on young adult heavy drinking and its mediators: results from two methods of adjusting for selection into marriage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Matthew R; Chassin, Laurie; Mackinnon, David

    2010-12-01

    This study tested the effect of marriage on young adult heavy drinking and tested whether this effect was mediated by involvement in social activities, religiosity, and self-control reasons for limiting drinking. The sample of 508 young adults was taken from an ongoing longitudinal study of familial alcoholism that over-sampled children of alcoholics (Chassin, Rogosch, & Barrera, 1991). In order to distinguish role socialization effects of marriage from confounding effects of role selection into marriage, analyses used both the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) method and the change score method of adjusting for pre-marriage levels of heavy drinking and the mediators. Results showed role socialization effects of marriage on post-marriage declines in heavy drinking. This effect was mediated by involvement in social activities such that marriage predicted decreased involvement in social activities, which in turn predicted decreased heavy drinking. There were no statistically significant mediated effects of religiosity. The mediated effect of self-control reasons for limiting drinking was supported by the ANCOVA method only, and further investigation suggested that this result was detected erroneously due to violation of an assumption of the ANCOVA method that is not shared by the change score method. Findings from this study offer an explanation for the maturing out of heavy drinking that takes place for some individuals over the course of young adulthood. Methodologically, results suggest that the ANCOVA method should be employed with caution, and that the change score method is a viable approach to confirming results from the ANCOVA method.

  10. [Frequency and distribution of sleep problems and insomnia in the adult population in Germany: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    PubMed

    Schlack, R; Hapke, U; Maske, U; Busch, M; Cohrs, S

    2013-05-01

    Sleep disturbances are associated with a variety of physical and mental health disorders and cause high direct and indirect economic costs. The aim of this study was to report the frequency and distribution of problems of sleep onset and maintaining sleep, sleep quality, effective sleep time, and the consumption of sleeping pills in the adult population in Germany. During the 4 weeks prior to the interview, about one third of the respondents reported potentially clinically relevant problems initiating or maintaining sleep; about one-fifth reported poor quality of sleep. When additionally considering impairments during the daytime such as daytime fatigue or exhaustion, a prevalence of 5.7 % for an insomnia syndrome was found. Women were twice as likely to be affected by insomnia-syndrome as men. Significant age differences were not seen. Persons with low socioeconomic status had an increased risk of insomnia (OR: 3.44) as did people residing in West Germany (OR: 1.53). Women with low socioeconomic status (OR: 4.12) and West German men (OR: 1.79) were more affected. The results illustrate the considerable public health relevance of insomnia-related sleep disturbances. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental. PMID:23703493

  11. Association between Adult Height and Risk of Colorectal, Lung, and Prostate Cancer: Results from Meta-analyses of Prospective Studies and Mendelian Randomization Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Khankari, Nikhil K.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Wen, Wanqing; Kraft, Peter; Lindström, Sara; Peters, Ulrike; Schildkraut, Joellen; Schumacher, Fredrick; Bofetta, Paolo; Risch, Angela; Bickeböller, Heike; Amos, Christopher I.; Easton, Douglas; Gruber, Stephen B.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hunter, David J.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Pierce, Brandon L.; Zheng, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background Observational studies examining associations between adult height and risk of colorectal, prostate, and lung cancers have generated mixed results. We conducted meta-analyses using data from prospective cohort studies and further carried out Mendelian randomization analyses, using height-associated genetic variants identified in a genome-wide association study (GWAS), to evaluate the association of adult height with these cancers. Methods and Findings A systematic review of prospective studies was conducted using the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases. Using meta-analyses, results obtained from 62 studies were summarized for the association of a 10-cm increase in height with cancer risk. Mendelian randomization analyses were conducted using summary statistics obtained for 423 genetic variants identified from a recent GWAS of adult height and from a cancer genetics consortium study of multiple cancers that included 47,800 cases and 81,353 controls. For a 10-cm increase in height, the summary relative risks derived from the meta-analyses of prospective studies were 1.12 (95% CI 1.10, 1.15), 1.07 (95% CI 1.05, 1.10), and 1.06 (95% CI 1.02, 1.11) for colorectal, prostate, and lung cancers, respectively. Mendelian randomization analyses showed increased risks of colorectal (odds ratio [OR] = 1.58, 95% CI 1.14, 2.18) and lung cancer (OR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.00, 1.22) associated with each 10-cm increase in genetically predicted height. No association was observed for prostate cancer (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.92, 1.15). Our meta-analysis was limited to published studies. The sample size for the Mendelian randomization analysis of colorectal cancer was relatively small, thus affecting the precision of the point estimate. Conclusions Our study provides evidence for a potential causal association of adult height with the risk of colorectal and lung cancers and suggests that certain genetic factors and biological pathways affecting adult height may also affect the

  12. Enhancement of anticipatory postural adjustments in older adults as a result of a single session of ball throwing exercise.

    PubMed

    Aruin, Alexander S; Kanekar, Neeta; Lee, Yun-Ju; Ganesan, Mohan

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the role of short-term training in improvement of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) and its effect on subsequent control of posture in older adults. Nine healthy older adults were exposed to self-initiated and predictable external perturbations before and after a single training session consisting of throwing a medicine ball. EMG activity of eight trunk and leg muscles and ground reaction forces were recorded before and immediately after the training session. Muscle onsets and center of pressure displacements were analyzed during the anticipatory and compensatory phases of postural control. The training involving throwing of a medicine ball resulted in enhancement of the generation of APAs seen as significantly early onsets of leg and trunk muscle activity prior to the bilateral arm flexion task. Significantly early activation of postural muscles observed prior to the predictable external perturbation, the task that was not a part of training, indicates the transfer of the effect of the single training session. The observed training-related improvements of APAs suggest that APA-focused rehabilitation could be effective in improving postural control, functional balance, mobility, and quality of life in the elderly.

  13. Dietary exposure of Hong Kong adults to acrylamide: results of the first Hong Kong Total Diet Study.

    PubMed

    Wong, Waiky W K; Chung, Stephen W C; Lam, Chi-ho; Ho, Y Y; Xiao, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Acrylamide is a processing contaminant in food formed during cooking at high temperature, such as frying and baking. To assess the associated health risk of the Hong Kong population, the dietary exposure of Hong Kong adults to acrylamide was estimated in the first Hong Kong Total Diet Study (TDS), where food samples were collected and prepared "as consumed". A total of 532 composite food samples were analysed for acrylamide using LC-MS/MS. Dietary exposures were estimated by combining the analytical results with the food consumption data of the Hong Kong adults. The mean and 95th percentile exposures to acrylamide of the Hong Kong population were 0.213 and 0.538 μg kg⁻¹ body weight (bw) day⁻¹, respectively, and their margins of exposure (MOEs) were all below 10,000. The main dietary source of acrylamide was "Vegetables and their products" (52.4% of the total exposure), particularly stir-fried vegetables (44.9%), followed by "Cereals and their products" (14.7%) and "Mixed dishes" (9.43%). The study findings suggest that the relatively low figures for MOE for a genotoxic carcinogen may indicate human health concern of the Hong Kong population. Efforts should continue to be made in the interest of reducing acrylamide levels in food locally.

  14. Use of the Internet as a Health Information Resource Among French Young Adults: Results From a Nationally Representative Survey

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Nguyen-Thanh, Viet; Montagni, Ilaria; Parizot, Isabelle; Renahy, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    Background The Internet is one of the main resources of health information especially for young adults, but website content is not always trustworthy or validated. Little is known about this specific population and the importance of online health searches for use and impact. It is fundamental to assess behaviors and attitudes of young people looking for online health-related information and their level of trust in such information. Objective The objective is to describe the characteristics of Internet users aged 15-30 years who use the Web as a health information resource and their trust in it, and to define the context and the effect of such use on French young adults’ behavior in relation to their medical consultations. Methods We used the French Health Barometer 2010, a nationally representative survey of 27,653 individuals that investigates population health behaviors and concerns. Multivariate logistic regressions were performed using a subsample of 1052 young adults aged 15-30 years to estimate associations between demographics, socioeconomic, and health status and (1) the use of the Internet to search for health information, and (2) its impact on health behaviors and the physician-patient relationship. Results In 2010, 48.5% (474/977) of Web users aged 15-30 years used the Internet for health purposes. Those who did not use the Internet for health purposes reported being informed enough by other sources (75.0%, 377/503), stated they preferred seeing a doctor (74.1%, 373/503) or did not trust the information on the Internet (67.2%, 338/503). However, approximately 80% (371/474) of young online health seekers considered the information found online reliable. Women (P<.001) and people with higher sociocultural positions (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.9 and OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.7 for employees and manual workers, respectively, vs individuals with executive or manager positions) were more likely to use the Internet for health purposes. For a subsample of women only

  15. Brief Report: the Social Responsiveness Scale for Adults (SRS-A): initial results in a German cohort.

    PubMed

    Bölte, Sven

    2012-09-01

    The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is a tool for quantitative autism assessment in children and adolescents. The SRS-A addresses social responsiveness in adulthood. Reliability and validity using the German adaptation of the SRS-A was examined in 20 adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), 62 with other mental disorders (CLIN) and 163 typically developing (TD) participants. Cronbach's alpha ranged from .71 (TD) to .89 (ASD). A SRS-A total score of 67 had a sensitivity of .85, and a specificity of .83 for ASD versus CLIN/TD. Correlations with established autism scales (ADOS, AQ, SCQ) were moderate to high (r = .25-.83). Results provide adequate preliminary support for the application of the SRS-A. PMID:22183423

  16. Long-term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Serum Leptin in Older Adults: Results from the MOBILIZE Boston Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Eliot, Melissa N.; Kuchel, George A.; Schwartz, Joel; Coull, Brent A.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Lipsitz, Lewis A.; Wellenius, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution has been linked to increased risk of obesity and diabetes and may be associated with higher serum levels of the adipokine leptin, but this hypothesis has not been previously evaluated in humans. Methods In a cohort of older adults, we estimated the association between serum leptin concentrations and two markers of long-term exposure to traffic pollution, adjusting for participant characteristics, temporal trends, socioeconomic factors, and medical history. Results An interquartile range increase (0.11 µg/m3) in annual mean residential black carbon was associated with 12% (95% CI: 3%, 22%) higher leptin levels. Leptin levels were not associated with residential distance to major roadway. Conculsions If confirmed, these findings support the emerging evidence suggesting that certain sources of traffic pollution may be associated with adverse cardiometabolic effects. PMID:25192230

  17. The association between types of eating behaviour and dispositional mindfulness in adults with diabetes. Results from Diabetes MILES. The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Tak, Sanne R; Hendrieckx, Christel; Nefs, Giesje; Nyklíček, Ivan; Speight, Jane; Pouwer, François

    2015-04-01

    Although healthy food choices are important in the management of diabetes, making dietary adaptations is often challenging. Previous research has shown that people with type 2 diabetes are less likely to benefit from dietary advice if they tend to eat in response to emotions or external cues. Since high levels of dispositional mindfulness have been associated with greater awareness of healthy dietary practices in students and in the general population, it is relevant to study the association between dispositional mindfulness and eating behaviour in people with type 1 or 2 diabetes. We analysed data from Diabetes MILES - The Netherlands, a national observational survey in which 634 adults with type 1 or 2 diabetes completed the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (to assess restrained, external and emotional eating behaviour) and the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire-Short Form (to assess dispositional mindfulness), in addition to other psychosocial measures. After controlling for potential confounders, including demographics, clinical variables and emotional distress, hierarchical linear regression analyses showed that higher levels of dispositional mindfulness were associated with eating behaviours that were more restrained (β = 0.10) and less external (β = -0.11) and emotional (β = -0.20). The mindfulness subscale 'acting with awareness' was the strongest predictor of both external and emotional eating behaviour, whereas for emotional eating, 'describing' and 'being non-judgemental' were also predictive. These findings suggest that there is an association between dispositional mindfulness and eating behaviour in adults with type 1 or 2 diabetes. Since mindfulness interventions increase levels of dispositional mindfulness, future studies could examine if these interventions are also effective in helping people with diabetes to reduce emotional or external eating behaviour, and to improve the quality of their diet.

  18. The association between types of eating behaviour and dispositional mindfulness in adults with diabetes. Results from Diabetes MILES. The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Tak, Sanne R; Hendrieckx, Christel; Nefs, Giesje; Nyklíček, Ivan; Speight, Jane; Pouwer, François

    2015-04-01

    Although healthy food choices are important in the management of diabetes, making dietary adaptations is often challenging. Previous research has shown that people with type 2 diabetes are less likely to benefit from dietary advice if they tend to eat in response to emotions or external cues. Since high levels of dispositional mindfulness have been associated with greater awareness of healthy dietary practices in students and in the general population, it is relevant to study the association between dispositional mindfulness and eating behaviour in people with type 1 or 2 diabetes. We analysed data from Diabetes MILES - The Netherlands, a national observational survey in which 634 adults with type 1 or 2 diabetes completed the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (to assess restrained, external and emotional eating behaviour) and the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire-Short Form (to assess dispositional mindfulness), in addition to other psychosocial measures. After controlling for potential confounders, including demographics, clinical variables and emotional distress, hierarchical linear regression analyses showed that higher levels of dispositional mindfulness were associated with eating behaviours that were more restrained (β = 0.10) and less external (β = -0.11) and emotional (β = -0.20). The mindfulness subscale 'acting with awareness' was the strongest predictor of both external and emotional eating behaviour, whereas for emotional eating, 'describing' and 'being non-judgemental' were also predictive. These findings suggest that there is an association between dispositional mindfulness and eating behaviour in adults with type 1 or 2 diabetes. Since mindfulness interventions increase levels of dispositional mindfulness, future studies could examine if these interventions are also effective in helping people with diabetes to reduce emotional or external eating behaviour, and to improve the quality of their diet. PMID:25596042

  19. Cerebrovascular correlates of vitamin D deficiency in older adults living near the Equator: results from the Atahualpa Project.

    PubMed

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Mera, Robertino M; Macias, Jorge; Morales, Gabriela; Zambrano, Mauricio

    2015-12-01

    All studies attempting to find an association between vitamin D deficiency and cerebrovascular diseases have been conducted at latitudes far away from the Equator, where living conditions, cardiovascular risk factors, and sunshine exposure are different from tropical regions. We aimed to assess cerebrovascular correlates of vitamin D deficiency in community-dwelling older adults living in Atahualpa, a village located in rural coastal Ecuador. Out of 267 individuals enrolled in the neuroimaging substudy of the Atahualpa Project, 220 (82%) signed the informed consent. Mean age of participants was 70·9 ± 7·8 years, and 126 (57%) were women. Fifty-four (25%) persons have vitamin D levels <20 ng/ml, 47 (21%) had ischemic strokes, and 53 (24%) had moderate-to-severe white matter hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin. Exposure effect models constructed with vitamin D deficiency as the exposure, white matter hyperintensities and ischemic stroke as the outcomes, and confounders--age, gender, body mass index, physical activity, blood pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, ionized calcium, phosphorus, intact parathormone, and serum creatinine--as independent variables revealed a significant association of vitamin D deficiency with white matter hyperintensities (P = 0·006) but not with ischemic strokes (P = 0·359). This study shows an association of vitamin D deficiency with diffuse subcortical brain damage in older adults living in a tropical region. Lack of awareness of the importance of vitamin D deficiency might be one of the factors influencing the high prevalence of white matter hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin in underserved Latin American populations.

  20. Characteristic gait patterns in older adults with obesity--results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    PubMed

    Ko, Seung-uk; Stenholm, Sari; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2010-04-19

    Obesity in older adults is a growing public health problem. Excess weight causes biomechanical burden to lower extremity joints and contribute to joint pathology. The aim of this study was to identify specific characteristics of gait associated with body mass index (BMI). Preferred and maximum speed walking and related gait characteristics were examined in 164 (50-84 years) participants from Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) able to walk unassisted. Participants were divided into three groups based on their BMI: normal weight (19< or =BMI<25 kg/m(2)), overweight (25< or =BMI<30 kg/m(2)) and obese (BMI 30< or =BMI<40 kg/m(2)). Total ankle generative mechanical work expenditure (MWE) in the anterior-posterior (AP) plane was progressively and significantly lower with increase in BMI for both preferred (p=0.026) and maximum speed walking (p<0.001). In the medial-lateral (ML) plane, total knee generative MWE was higher in obese participants in the preferred speed task (p=0.002), and total hip absorptive MWE was higher in obese in both preferred speed (p<0.001) and maximum speed (p=0.002) walking task compared to the normal weight participants. Older adults with obesity show spatiotemporal gait patterns that may help in reducing contact impacts. In addition, in obese persons mechanical energy usages tend to be lower in the AP plane and higher in the ML plane. Since forward progression forces are mainly implicated in normal walking, this pattern found in obese participants is suggestive of lower energetic efficiency.

  1. The Increased Risk of Road Crashes in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Adult Drivers: Driven by Distraction? Results from a Responsibility Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    El Farouki, Kamal; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Orriols, Ludivine; Bouvard, Manuel-Pierre; Contrand, Benjamin; Galéra, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective Both distractions (external and internal) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are serious risk factors for traffic crashes and injuries. However, it is still unknown if ADHD (a chronic condition) modifies the effect of distractions (irregular hazards) on traffic crashes. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of distractions and ADHD on traffic crash responsibility. Methods A responsibility case-control study was conducted in the adult emergency department of Bordeaux University Hospital, France. Subjects were recruited among drivers injured in a motor vehicle crash between April 2010 and August 2011. Responsibility levels were estimated using a standardized method. Frequencies of exposures were compared between drivers responsible and drivers not responsible for the crash. Independent risk factors were identified using a multivariate logistic regression including test interactions between distractions and ADHD. Results A total of 777 subjects were included in the analysis. Factors associated with responsibility were distraction induced by an external event (adjusted OR (aOR)  = 1.47; 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.06–2.05]), distraction induced by an internal thought (aOR = 2.38; CI: [1.50–3.77]) and ADHD (aOR = 2.18 CI: [1.22–3.88]). The combined effect of ADHD and external distractions was strongly associated with responsibility for the crash (aOR = 5.79 CI: [2.06–16.32]). Interaction assessment showed that the attributable proportion due to the interaction among participants with both exposures was 68%. Discussion Adults with ADHD are a population at higher risk of being responsible for a road traffic crash when exposed to external distractions. This result reinforces the need to diagnose adult ADHD and to include road safety awareness messages delivered by the physician. Developing advanced driver assistance systems devoted to the management of attention lapses is also

  2. Apathy and cognitive and functional decline in community-dwelling older adults: Results from the Baltimore ECA longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Diana E.; Ko, Jean Y.; Lyketsos, Constantine; Rebok, George W.; Eaton, William W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Apathy, a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome, commonly affects patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Prevalence estimates for apathy range widely and are based on cross-sectional data and / or clinic samples. This study examines the relationships between apathy and cognitive and functional declines in non-depressed community-based older adults. Methods Data on 1,136 community-dwelling adults age 50 and older from the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study, with 1 and 13 years of follow-up, were used. Apathy was assessed with a subscale of items from the General Health Questionnaire. Chi-square, t-tests, logistic regression, and Generalized Estimating Equations were used to accomplish the study’s objectives. Results The prevalence of apathy at Wave 1 was 23.7%. Compared to those without, individuals with apathy were on average older, more likely to be female, and have lower MMSE scores and impairments in basic and instrumental functioning at baseline. Apathy was significantly associated with cognitive decline (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.06, 2.60) and declines in instrumental (OR = 4.42; 95% CI = 2.65, 7.38) and basic (OR=2.74; 95%CI= 1.35, 5.57) function at 1 year follow-up, even after adjustment for baseline age, level of education, race, and depression at follow-up. At 13 years of follow-up, apathetic individuals were not at greater risk for cognitive decline but were 2-fold more likely to have functional decline. Incidence of apathy at 1- year follow up and 13- year follow-up was respectively, 22.6% and 29.4%. Conclusions These results underline the public health importance of apathy and the need for further population-based studies in this area. PMID:20478091

  3. What Does It Take to Be an Adult in Austria? Views of Adulthood in Austrian Adolescents, Emerging Adults, and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirsch, Ulrike; Dreher, Eva; Mayr, Eva; Willinger, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the defining features of emerging adulthood, subjects' conceptions of the transition to adulthood, and the perceived adult status in Austria. The sample consisted of 775 subjects (226 adolescents, 317 emerging adults, 232 adults). Results showed that most Austrian emerging adults feel themselves to be between adolescence…

  4. Periodontal Infection and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Younger Adults: Results from Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004

    PubMed Central

    Papapanou, Panos N.; Jacobs, David R.; Desvarieux, Moïse

    2014-01-01

    Objective Previous studies report associations between periodontal infection and cardiorespiratory fitness but no study has examined the association among younger adults. Our objective was to study the association between clinical measures of periodontal infection and cardiorespiratory fitness levels among a population-based sample of younger adults. Methods The Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004 enrolled 2,863 participants (46% women) who received a partial-mouth periodontal examination and completed a submaximal treadmill test for the assessment of estimated VO2 max(eVO2 max ). Participants were mean±SD age 33±9 years (range = 20–49 years), 30% Hispanic, 48% White, 19% Black, and 3% other. Mean eVO2 max (mL/kg/minute) as well as eVO2 max≤32 mL/kg/minute (20th percentile) were regressed across quartiles of mean probing depth and mean attachment loss in multivariable linear and logistic regression models. Results After multivariable adjustment, mean eVO2 max levels±SE across quartiles of attachment loss were 39.72±0.37, 39.64±0.34, 39.59±0.36, and 39.85±0.39 (P = 0.99). Mean eVO2 max±SE across quartiles of probing depth were 39.57±0.32, 39.78±0.38, 39.19±0.25, and 40.37±0.53 (P = 0.28). Similarly, multivariable adjusted mean eVO2 max values were similar between healthy participants vs. those with moderate/severe periodontitis: 39.70±0.21 vs. 39.70±0.90 (P = 1.00). The odds ratio (OR) for low eVO2 max comparing highest vs. lowest quartile of attachment loss = 0.89[95% CI 0.64–1.24]. The OR for comparing highest vs. lowest probing depth quartile = 0.77[95% CI 0.51–1.15]. Conclusion Clinical measures of periodontal infection were not related to cardiorespiratory fitness in a sample of generally healthy younger adults. PMID:24663097

  5. Dietary exposure of Hong Kong adults to pesticide residues: results of the first Hong Kong Total Diet Study.

    PubMed

    Wong, Waiky W K; Yau, Arthur T C; Chung, Stephen W C; Lam, Chi-ho; Ma, Stephanie; Ho, Y Y; Xiao, Ying

    2014-01-01

    The use of pesticides and other chemicals has become a common practice in modern agriculture to enhance and stabilise crop yield, protect the nutritional integrity of food, facilitate food storage to assure year-round supplies, and provide attractive and appealing food products. With the adoption of strict good agricultural practice (GAP), only minimal amounts of pesticide residues should remain on the crops or in connected foods of animal origin up the food chain. To assess their associated health risk to local people, the dietary exposure of Hong Kong adults to residues of four groups of pesticides or their metabolites - organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs), carbamates, pyrethrins and pyrethroids, and dithiocarbamate (DTC) metabolites - is estimated in the first Hong Kong Total Diet Study (TDS). A total of 150 commonly consumed food items were collected and prepared "as consumed". A total of 600 composite food samples were analysed for 85 pesticides or their metabolites by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). These pesticides were primarily found at low levels (highest mean = 350 μg kg⁻¹) in food samples of plant origin such as vegetables and fruits. Dietary exposures to pesticide residues were estimated based on the analytical results and the food consumption data of the local residents. The estimated dietary exposures of Hong Kong adults to all individual pesticides were well below their respective acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). The percentage contributions of the estimated mean and 95th percentile dietary exposures to the ADIs of individual pesticides were <6% and <24% for the OPPs, <1% for the carbamates and pyrethrins and pyrethroids, and <1% and <4% for the DTC metabolites, respectively. The findings indicate that dietary exposures to all the pesticide residues analysed in this study were unlikely to pose unacceptable health risks to the Hong Kong population.

  6. Drinking and Driving among Immigrant and US-born Hispanic Young Adults: Results from a longitudinal and nationally representative study

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Reingle, Jennifer M.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Prado, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the risk factors associated with the initiation of driving under the influence (DUI) among Hispanics in a longitudinal and nationally-representative sample of adolescents and young adults. Specifically, this study tests the effect of demographic variables, individual-level risk factors, and eco-processes (e.g., peer drug use, parental involvement) during adolescence on DUI among Hispanic young adults. Methods Data were derived from 1,734 Hispanic adolescents surveyed for the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Survey logistic regression procedures were used to examine the effects of nativity status on DUI initiation, to evaluate the independent effect of each risk factor (demographic, individual-level, and eco-processes), and to identify whether and to what extent these factors are associated with the initiation of DUI. Results The overall prevalence of DUI initiation was 18.3%. Differences were observed in the rates of DUI initiation by nativity status: first-generation immigrants reported the lowest rates of DUI initiation (15.4%) when compared with second-generation US-born Hispanic youth (17.4%) and third-generation and beyond US-born Hispanic youth (21.5%). US-born Hispanic youth were also more likely to report higher frequency of alcohol use (t=3.46, p=.001) and marijuana use (t=2.34, p=.021) compared to immigrant adolescents. After adjusting for a number of risk factors, men (OR=2.86), marijuana users (OR=1.98), and those who reported feeling safe in their neighborhoods (OR=2.02) were at an increased risk DUI initiation. Conclusions Findings provide support for the “immigrant paradox”: immigrant youth reported lower rates of DUI initiation and other high-risk behaviors when compared with US-born Hispanic youth. PMID:21216535

  7. Pain reporting in older adults: the influence of cognitive impairment – results from the Cambridge City >75 Cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Docking, Rachael E; Fleming, Jane; Brayne, Carol; Zhao, Jun; Macfarlane, Gary J

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Evidence suggests that while disabling back pain (BP), and rheumatic diseases associated with pain, continues to increase with age, the prevalence of non-disabling BP reaches a plateau, or even decreases, in the oldest old. This study aimed to determine whether this age-related pattern of non-disabling BP is a function of increasing cognitive impairment. Methods: Cross-sectional study of adults aged >77 years. Participants answered interviewer-administered questions on BP and cognitive function, assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination, categorised into normal versus mild, moderate or severe impairment. The relationship between cognitive function and BP was examined using multinomial logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex and residence. Results: Of 1174 participants with BP data, 1126 (96%) completed cognitive assessments. The relationship between cognitive function and BP differed for disabling and non-disabling BP. Across categories of cognitive impairment, increasingly higher prevalence of disabling BP was reported, compared to those with normal cognition, although this was not statistically significant (odds ratio (OR) = 1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.7–4.6). No association was found between cognitive function and non-disabling BP (OR = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.4–1.6). Conclusion: This study found no association between the reporting of BP and level of cognitive impairment, suggesting that increasing cognitive impairment is an inadequate explanation for age-related decline in self-reported non-disabling BP. Future research should determine the reasons for the decline in non-disabling pain in older adults, although, meanwhile, it is important to ensure that this group receive appropriate pain assessment and pain management. Key points Prevalence of non-disabling back pain decreases in the oldest old. Some have proposed that this may be a function of cognitive impairment in older age, and an increasing inability to adequately report pain

  8. State Policies Affecting the "Adult Re-Entry Pipeline" in Postsecondary Education: Results of a Fifty-State Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeke, Marianne; Zis, Stacey; Ewell, Peter

    2011-01-01

    With support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NCHEMS) is engaged in a two year project centered on state policies that foster student progression and success in the "adult re-entry pipeline." The adult re-entry pipeline consists of the many alternative pathways to obtain a…

  9. Exploring the Adult Life of Men and Women with Fragile X Syndrome: Results from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartleyand, Sigan L.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Raspa, Melissa; Olmstead, Murrey; Bishop, Ellen; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a national family survey, the authors describe the adult lives (i.e., residence, employment, level of assistance needed with everyday life, friendships, and leisure activities) of 328 adults with the full mutation of the FMR1 gene and identify characteristics related to independence in these domains. Level of functional skills was…

  10. Deaf Adults' Reasons for Genetic Testing Depend on Cultural Affiliation: Results from a Prospective, Longitudinal Genetic Counseling and Testing Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreault, Patrick; Baldwin, Erin E.; Fox, Michelle; Dutton, Loriel; Tullis, LeeElle; Linden, Joyce; Kobayashi, Yoko; Zhou, Jin; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Sininger, Yvonne; Grody, Wayne W.; Palmer, Christina G. S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between cultural affiliation and deaf adults' motivations for genetic testing for deafness in the first prospective, longitudinal study to examine the impact of genetic counseling and genetic testing on deaf adults and the deaf community. Participants (n = 256), classified as affiliating with hearing, Deaf,…

  11. Physical performance, body weight and BMI of young adults in Germany 2000 - 2004: results of the physical-fitness-test study.

    PubMed

    Leyk, D; Rohde, U; Gorges, W; Ridder, D; Wunderlich, M; Dinklage, C; Sievert, A; Rüther, T; Essfeld, D

    2006-08-01

    In westernized countries the sedentary lifestyle in conjunction with a hypercaloric diet has caused an increase in the number of obese adults. Moreover, recent studies suggest that the prevalence of overweight in children increased during the last decade. However, the literature has to be interpreted with some caution since the majority of epidemiological studies examining health, fitness, and obesity rely on self-reported data rather than measurements. A further limitation is that most studies examine either physical activity or nutrition, only few deal with both aspects simultaneously. In the present study we analyzed both aspects in more than 58,000 persons aged between 17 and 26 years. All of them were applicants for the German Bundeswehr, which accepts only volunteers with school leaving certificates and a body mass index (BMI) below 30 kg . m (-2). The admitted subjects performed a Physical-Fitness-Test (PFT) consisting of 5 simple sport tests (shuttle run, sit-ups, push-ups, standing jump, Cooper test). For 23 000 subjects additional measurements of body height and body weight as well as information about their education level were available. These data were combined with the PFT results. We found large deficits in the physical fitness of young adults: More than 37 % of the participants failed to pass the PFT, with failure rates of the male volunteers increasing significantly since 2001. While the female volunteers showed virtually constant body weight and BMI, the corresponding values of men increased monotonously between the age of 17 and 26 years. Physical fitness was positively, BMI negatively correlated with education level. The present findings suggest that body weight increases and fitness decreases in non-obese young adults in Germany. Despite the correlations between BMI and physical fitness the terms "overweight" and "physically unfit" should not be regarded as synonyms.

  12. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  13. Results from a preliminary review of scientific evidence for appropriateness of preparations, dosage forms and other product design elements for older adult patients.

    PubMed

    Messina, Rossella; Becker, Robert; van Riet-Nales, Diana A; Stegemann, Sven

    2015-01-30

    The aging population and the growing multimorbidity of the major patient population as well as the advanced (pharmaco)therapeutic treatment options are increasing the complexity of independent drug therapy management and administration. The increased complexity may have an impact on drug adherence (including any need for patients initiated coping strategies), and consequently on the safety and efficacy of the medicine. To overcome adherence issues caused by the design of the medicine, it is crucial that developers consider the age appropriateness of the medicine (route of administration, dosage form, excipients in the composition, frequency of dosing) in meeting patients' needs to manage their therapy without the support of a care giver. In order to understand the scientific evidence on such age appropriately designed medicines for use by older adults, a literature search was performed in the Medline database (all languages included). The search produced 34 publications that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria for the patient population of 65 years an older. An in-depth analysis of the included publications with respect to the methodological quality (study design, data collection, endpoints chosen) and results showed that none of these publications had adequately investigated the age appropriateness of the medicine for use by older adults. The authors consider that the knowledge gap in this area requires attention of all stakeholders in the healthcare community.

  14. Learning to Identify Near-Acuity Letters, either with or without Flankers, Results in Improved Letter Size and Spacing Limits in Adults with Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Susana T. L.; Li, Roger W.; Levi, Dennis M.

    2012-01-01

    Amblyopia is a developmental abnormality that results in deficits for a wide range of visual tasks, most notably, the reduced ability to see fine details, the loss in contrast sensitivity especially for small objects and the difficulty in seeing objects in clutter (crowding). The primary goal of this study was to evaluate whether crowding can be ameliorated in adults with amblyopia through perceptual learning using a flanked letter identification task that was designed to reduce crowding, and if so, whether the improvements transfer to untrained visual functions: visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and the size of visual span (the amount of information obtained in one fixation). To evaluate whether the improvements following this training task were specific to training with flankers, we also trained another group of adult observers with amblyopia using a single letter identification task that was designed to improve letter contrast sensitivity, not crowding. Following 10,000 trials of training, both groups of observers showed improvements in the respective training task. The improvements generalized to improved visual acuity, letter contrast sensitivity, size of the visual span, and reduced crowding. The magnitude of the improvement for each of these measurements was similar in the two training groups. Perceptual learning regimens aimed at reducing crowding or improving letter contrast sensitivity are both effective in improving visual acuity, contrast sensitivity for near-acuity objects and reducing the crowding effect, and could be useful as a clinical treatment for amblyopia. PMID:22558234

  15. Learning to identify near-acuity letters, either with or without flankers, results in improved letter size and spacing limits in adults with amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Chung, Susana T L; Li, Roger W; Levi, Dennis M

    2012-01-01

    Amblyopia is a developmental abnormality that results in deficits for a wide range of visual tasks, most notably, the reduced ability to see fine details, the loss in contrast sensitivity especially for small objects and the difficulty in seeing objects in clutter (crowding). The primary goal of this study was to evaluate whether crowding can be ameliorated in adults with amblyopia through perceptual learning using a flanked letter identification task that was designed to reduce crowding, and if so, whether the improvements transfer to untrained visual functions: visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and the size of visual span (the amount of information obtained in one fixation). To evaluate whether the improvements following this training task were specific to training with flankers, we also trained another group of adult observers with amblyopia using a single letter identification task that was designed to improve letter contrast sensitivity, not crowding. Following 10,000 trials of training, both groups of observers showed improvements in the respective training task. The improvements generalized to improved visual acuity, letter contrast sensitivity, size of the visual span, and reduced crowding. The magnitude of the improvement for each of these measurements was similar in the two training groups. Perceptual learning regimens aimed at reducing crowding or improving letter contrast sensitivity are both effective in improving visual acuity, contrast sensitivity for near-acuity objects and reducing the crowding effect, and could be useful as a clinical treatment for amblyopia.

  16. Job Strain, Depressive Symptoms, and Drinking Behavior Among Older Adults: Results From the Health and Retirement Study

    PubMed Central

    Bohnert, Amy S. B.; Ratliff, Scott; Zivin, Kara

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To examine the relationship between job strain and two indicators of mental health, depression and alcohol misuse, among currently employed older adults. Method. Data come from the 2004 and 2006 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (N = 2,902). Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to determine the association between job strain, indicated by the imbalance of job stress and job satisfaction, with depression and alcohol misuse. Results. High job strain (indicated by high job stress combined with low job satisfaction) was associated with elevated depressive symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 2.98, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.99–4.45) relative to low job strain after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, labor force status, and occupation. High job stress combined with high job satisfaction (OR = 1.93) and low job stress combined with low job satisfaction (OR = 1.94) were also associated with depressive symptoms to a lesser degree. Job strain was unrelated to either moderate or heavy drinking. These associations did not vary by gender or age. Discussion. Job strain is associated with elevated depressive symptoms among older workers. In contrast to results from investigations of younger workers, job strain was unrelated to alcohol misuse. These findings can inform the development and implementation of workplace health promotion programs that reflect the mental health needs of the aging workforce. PMID:21427175

  17. The Association between Sleep Problems, Sleep Medication Use, and Falls in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Results from the Health and Retirement Study 2010

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Very few studies have assessed the impact of poor sleep and sleep medication use on the risk of falls among community-dwelling older adults. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between sleep problems, sleep medication use, and falls in community-dwelling older adults. Methods. The study population comprised a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized older adults participating in the 2010 Health and Retirement Study. Proportion of adults reporting sleep problems, sleep medication use, and fall was calculated. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to examine the impact of sleep problems and sleep medication use on the risk of falls after controlling for covariates. Results. Among 9,843 community-dwelling older adults, 35.8% had reported a fall and 40.8% had reported sleep problems in the past two years. Sleep medication use was reported by 20.9% of the participants. Older adults who do have sleep problems and take sleep medications had a significant high risk of falls, compared to older adults who do not have sleep problems and do not take sleep medications. The other two groups also had significantly greater risk for falls. Conclusion. Sleep problems added to sleep medication use increase the risk of falls. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these observed findings. PMID:27547452

  18. Maternal exposure to atrazine during lactation suppresses suckling-induced prolactin release and results in prostatitis in the adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Stoker, T E; Robinette, C L; Cooper, R L

    1999-11-01

    The availability of prolactin (PRL) to the neonatal brain is known to affect the development of the tuberoinfundibular (TIDA) neurons and, as a consequence, lead to alterations in subsequent PRL regulation. Without early lactational exposure to PRL (derived from the dam's milk), TIDA neuronal growth is impaired and elevated PRL levels are present in the prepubertal male. These observations, combined with the finding that alterations in PRL secretion (i.e., hyperprolactinemia) in the adult male rat have been implicated in the development of prostatitis, led us to hypothesize that early lactational exposure to agents that suppress suckling-induced PRL release would lead to a disruption in TIDA development, altered PRL regulation, and subsequent prostatitis in the male offspring. To test this hypothesis, suckling-induced PRL release was measured in Wistar dams treated twice daily with the herbicide atrazine (ATR, by gavage, on PND 1-4 at 0, 6.25, 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg body weight), or twice daily with the dopamine receptor agonist bromocriptine (BROM, sc, at 0.052, 0.104, 0.208, and 0.417 mg/kg); BROM is known to suppress PRL release. Similarly, atrazine has also been reported to suppress PRL in adult females. Serum PRL was measured on PND 3 using a serial sampling technique and indwelling cardiac catheters. A significant rise in serum PRL release was noted in all control females within 10 min of the initiation of suckling. Fifty-mg/kg ATR inhibited suckling-induced PRL release in all females, whereas 25 and 12.5 mg/kg ATR inhibited this measure in some dams and had no discernible effect in others. The 6.25 mg/kg dose of ATR was without effect. BROM, used here as a positive control, also inhibited suckling-induced PRL release at doses of 0.104 to 0.417 mg/kg, with no effect at 0.052 mg/kg. To examine the effect of postnatal ATR and BROM on the incidence and severity of inflammation (INF) of the lateral prostate of the offspring, adult males were examined at 90 and

  19. The effect of marriage on young adult heavy drinking and its mediators: results from two methods of adjusting for selection into marriage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Matthew R; Chassin, Laurie; Mackinnon, David

    2010-12-01

    This study tested the effect of marriage on young adult heavy drinking and tested whether this effect was mediated by involvement in social activities, religiosity, and self-control reasons for limiting drinking. The sample of 508 young adults was taken from an ongoing longitudinal study of familial alcoholism that over-sampled children of alcoholics (Chassin, Rogosch, & Barrera, 1991). In order to distinguish role socialization effects of marriage from confounding effects of role selection into marriage, analyses used both the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) method and the change score method of adjusting for pre-marriage levels of heavy drinking and the mediators. Results showed role socialization effects of marriage on post-marriage declines in heavy drinking. This effect was mediated by involvement in social activities such that marriage predicted decreased involvement in social activities, which in turn predicted decreased heavy drinking. There were no statistically significant mediated effects of religiosity. The mediated effect of self-control reasons for limiting drinking was supported by the ANCOVA method only, and further investigation suggested that this result was detected erroneously due to violation of an assumption of the ANCOVA method that is not shared by the change score method. Findings from this study offer an explanation for the maturing out of heavy drinking that takes place for some individuals over the course of young adulthood. Methodologically, results suggest that the ANCOVA method should be employed with caution, and that the change score method is a viable approach to confirming results from the ANCOVA method. PMID:21198229

  20. An embryonic atrazine exposure results in reproductive dysfunction in adult zebrafish and morphological alterations in their offspring

    PubMed Central

    Wirbisky, Sara E.; Weber, Gregory J.; Sepúlveda, Maria S.; Lin, Tsang-Long; Jannasch, Amber S.; Freeman, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    The herbicide atrazine, a suspected endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC), frequently contaminates potable water supplies. Studies suggest alterations in the neuroendocrine system along the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis; however, most studies address either developmental, pubertal, or adulthood exposures, with few investigations regarding a developmental origins hypothesis. In this study, zebrafish were exposed to 0, 0.3, 3, or 30 parts per billion (ppb) atrazine through embryogenesis and then allowed to mature with no additional chemical exposure. Reproductive function, histopathology, hormone levels, offspring morphology, and the ovarian transcriptome were assessed. Embryonic atrazine exposure resulted in a significant increase in progesterone levels in the 3 and 30 ppb groups. A significant decrease in spawning and a significant increase in follicular atresia in the 30 ppb group were observed. In offspring, a decrease in the head length to body ratio in the 30 ppb group, along with a significant increase in head width to body ratio in the 0.3 and 3 ppb groups occurred. Transcriptomic alterations involved genes associated with endocrine system development and function, tissue development, and behavior. This study provides evidence to support atrazine as an EDC causing reproductive dysfunction and molecular alterations in adults exposed only during embryogenesis and morphological alterations in their offspring. PMID:26891955

  1. Suicidal Ideation and Mental Distress Among Adults With Military Service History: Results From 5 US States, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Adam J.; Bossarte, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association of military service history with past-year suicidal ideation and past-30-days mental distress in a probability-based sample of adults. Methods. We gathered 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 5 states that asked about past-year suicidal ideation. Military service was defined as current or former active-duty service or National Guard or Reserves service. We stratified analyses into 18 to 39 years, 40 to 64 years, and 65 years and older age groups and used multiple logistic regression analyses, adjusted for demographic confounders, to discern the association of military service history with past-year suicidal ideation and past-30-days mental distress. Results. Among the 26 736 respondents, 13.1% indicated military service history. After adjusting for several confounders, we found military history status among those aged 40 to 64 years was associated with both past-year suicidal ideation and past-30-days mental distress. We found no significant associations among the younger or older age groups. Conclusions. Differences in suicidal ideation between military and nonmilitary individuals may occur in midlife. Future research should examine the possibility of cohort effects, service era effects, or both. PMID:25100426

  2. Results of a feasibility and acceptability trial of an online smoking cessation program targeting young adult nondaily smokers.

    PubMed

    Berg, Carla J; Schauer, Gillian L

    2012-01-01

    Despite increases in nondaily smoking among young adults, no prior research has aimed to develop and test an intervention targeting this group. Thus, we aimed to develop and test the feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness of an online intervention targeting college student nondaily smokers. We conducted a one-arm feasibility and acceptability trial of a four-week online intervention with weekly contacts among 31 college student nondaily smokers. We conducted assessments at baseline (B), end of treatment (EOT), and six-week followup (FU). We maintained a 100% retention rate over the 10-week period. Google Analytics data indicated positive utilization results, and 71.0% were satisfied with the program. There were increases (P < .001) in the number of people refraining from smoking for the past 30 days and reducing their smoking from B to EOT and to FU, with additional individuals reporting being quit despite recent smoking. Participants also increased in their perceptions of how bothersome secondhand smoke is to others (P < .05); however, no other attitudinal variables were altered. Thus, this intervention demonstrated feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness among college-aged nondaily smokers. Additional research is needed to understand how nondaily smokers define cessation, improve measures for cessation, and examine theoretical constructs related to smoking among this population.

  3. Food consumption of adults in Germany: results of the German National Nutrition Survey II based on diet history interviews.

    PubMed

    Heuer, Thorsten; Krems, Carolin; Moon, Kilson; Brombach, Christine; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2015-05-28

    The second German National Nutrition Survey (NVS II) aimed to evaluate food consumption and other aspects of nutritional behaviour of a representative sample of the German population, using a modular design with three different dietary assessment methods. To assess usual food consumption, 15,371 German speaking subjects 14-80 years of age completed a diet history interview between November 2005 and November 2006. With reference to the guidelines of the German Nutrition Society (DGE), NVS II observed that the German population did not eat enough foods of plant origin, especially vegetables and consumed too much of meat and meat products. While generally similar food consumption is observed in other European countries, consumption of bread, fruit juices/nectars and beer is higher in Germany. On average, men consumed two times more meat and soft drinks as well as six times more beer than women did, whereas the consumption of vegetables, fruit as well as herbal/fruit tea was higher in women. Older participants showed a lower consumption of meat, fruit juice/nectars, soft drinks and spirits as well as a higher consumption of fish, vegetables, fruit, and herbal/fruit tea than adolescents and younger adults did. There are also differences in food consumption with regard to socio-economic status (SES). Persons with higher SES consumed more vegetables, fruit, fish, water, coffee/tea and wine, while persons with lower SES consumed more meat and meat products, soft drinks and beer. In general, the food consumption of women, the elderly and the higher SES group tends to be closer to the official dietary guidelines in Germany. PMID:25866161

  4. Food consumption of adults in Germany: results of the German National Nutrition Survey II based on diet history interviews.

    PubMed

    Heuer, Thorsten; Krems, Carolin; Moon, Kilson; Brombach, Christine; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2015-05-28

    The second German National Nutrition Survey (NVS II) aimed to evaluate food consumption and other aspects of nutritional behaviour of a representative sample of the German population, using a modular design with three different dietary assessment methods. To assess usual food consumption, 15,371 German speaking subjects 14-80 years of age completed a diet history interview between November 2005 and November 2006. With reference to the guidelines of the German Nutrition Society (DGE), NVS II observed that the German population did not eat enough foods of plant origin, especially vegetables and consumed too much of meat and meat products. While generally similar food consumption is observed in other European countries, consumption of bread, fruit juices/nectars and beer is higher in Germany. On average, men consumed two times more meat and soft drinks as well as six times more beer than women did, whereas the consumption of vegetables, fruit as well as herbal/fruit tea was higher in women. Older participants showed a lower consumption of meat, fruit juice/nectars, soft drinks and spirits as well as a higher consumption of fish, vegetables, fruit, and herbal/fruit tea than adolescents and younger adults did. There are also differences in food consumption with regard to socio-economic status (SES). Persons with higher SES consumed more vegetables, fruit, fish, water, coffee/tea and wine, while persons with lower SES consumed more meat and meat products, soft drinks and beer. In general, the food consumption of women, the elderly and the higher SES group tends to be closer to the official dietary guidelines in Germany.

  5. [Indication of magnetic resonance imaging in cases of headaches in adults: results following the RAND/UCLA appropriateness method].

    PubMed

    Millán-Ortuondo, Eduardo; Cabrera-Zubizarreta, Alberto; Muniz-Saitua, Jaime; Sola-Sarabia, Carlos; Zubia-Arratibel, J

    2013-09-16

    INTRODUCTION. The number of requests for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in healthcare systems is continually on the rise. An MRI scan of the head is one of the most frequent locations, which if used inappropriately entails a loss of resources. Consequently, guidelines are needed to help the physician make decisions and allow better management of resources. AIM. To establish the key indications of MRI scans in cases of adults with headache. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The RAND/UCLA appropriateness method was used, that is, following a systematic review, a list of possible indications of MRI in cases of headache was drawn up. This list was then assessed by a panel of experts and given a score between 1 ('totally inappropriate') and 9 ('totally appropriate'). An initial round of scoring was carried out online, the results were then discussed at a face-to-face meeting of the experts and finally another online round was undertaken. MRI was considered appropriate in each indication if the mean score was 6.5 or higher and there was agreement among the experts (using the IPRAS index). RESULTS. MRI scanning was considered appropriate in cases of: new headache, new headache in immunodeficient patients, sudden intense headache, headache with focal neurological symptoms, postural headache, headache due to physical effort or Valsalva manoeuvres, suspected thrombosis in the venous sinuses, systemic involvement, progressive headache, headache in pregnancy, autonomic trigeminal headache or severe cranial traumatic injury with focus. CONCLUSIONS. It seems that indication can be summed up in headaches with a suspected secondary pathology. The methodology employed makes it possible to establish MRI indications that can be useful both in clinical practice and for healthcare management practitioners.

  6. Acute and fractionated exposure to high-LET (56)Fe HZE-particle radiation both result in similar long-term deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Phillip D; Shih, Hung-Ying; Leblanc, Junie A; Cole, Mara G; Amaral, Wellington Z; Mukherjee, Shibani; Zhang, Shichuan; Lucero, Melanie J; Decarolis, Nathan A; Chen, Benjamin P C; Eisch, Amelia J

    2013-12-01

    Astronauts on multi-year interplanetary missions will be exposed to a low, chronic dose of high-energy, high-charge particles. Studies in rodents show acute, nonfractionated exposure to these particles causes brain changes such as fewer adult-generated hippocampal neurons and stem cells that may be detrimental to cognition and mood regulation and thus compromise mission success. However, the influence of a low, chronic dose of these particles on neurogenesis and stem cells is unknown. To examine the influence of galactic cosmic radiation on neurogenesis, adult-generated stem and progenitor cells in Nestin-CreER(T2)/R26R-YFP transgenic mice were inducibly labeled to allow fate tracking. Mice were then sham exposed or given one acute 100 cGy (56)Fe-particle exposure or five fractionated 20 cGy (56)Fe-particle exposures. Adult-generated hippocampal neurons and stem cells were quantified 24 h or 3 months later. Both acute and fractionated exposure decreased the amount of proliferating cells and immature neurons relative to sham exposure. Unexpectedly, neither acute nor fractionated exposure decreased the number of adult neural stem cells relative to sham expsoure. Our findings show that single and fractionated exposures of (56)Fe-particle irradiation are similarly detrimental to adult-generated neurons. Implications for future missions and ground-based studies in space radiation are discussed. PMID:24320054

  7. Acute and Fractionated Exposure to High-LET 56Fe HZE-Particle Radiation Both Result in Similar Long-Term Deficits in Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Phillip D.; Shih, Hung-Ying; LeBlanc, Junie A.; Cole, Mara G.; Amaral, Wellington Z.; Mukherjee, Shibani; Zhang, Shichuan; Lucero, Melanie J.; DeCarolis, Nathan A.; Chen, Benjamin P. C.; Eisch, Amelia J.

    2014-01-01

    Astronauts on multi-year interplanetary missions will be exposed to a low, chronic dose of high-energy, high-charge particles. Studies in rodents show acute, nonfractionated exposure to these particles causes brain changes such as fewer adult-generated hippocampal neurons and stem cells that may be detrimental to cognition and mood regulation and thus compromise mission success. However, the influence of a low, chronic dose of these particles on neurogenesis and stem cells is unknown. To examine the influence of galactic cosmic radiation on neurogenesis, adult-generated stem and progenitor cells in Nestin-CreERT2/R26R-YFP transgenic mice were inducibly labeled to allow fate tracking. Mice were then sham exposed or given one acute 100 cGy 56Fe-particle exposure or five fractionated 20 cGy 56Fe-particle exposures. Adult-generated hippocampal neurons and stem cells were quantified 24 h or 3 months later. Both acute and fractionated exposure decreased the amount of proliferating cells and immature neurons relative to sham exposure. Unexpectedly, neither acute nor fractionated exposure decreased the number of adult neural stem cells relative to sham expsoure. Our findings show that single and fractionated exposures of 56Fe-particle irradiation are similarly detrimental to adult-generated neurons. Implications for future missions and ground-based studies in space radiation are discussed. PMID:24320054

  8. Radiotherapy for adult medulloblastoma: Long term result from a single institution. A review of prognostic factors and why we do need a multi-institutional cooperative program

    PubMed Central

    Buglione, Michela; Ghirardelli, Paolo; Triggiani, Luca; Pedretti, Sara; Pasinetti, Nadia; De Bari, Berardino; Tonoli, Sandro; Borghetti, Paolo; Spiazzi, Luigi; Magrini, Stefano Maria

    2015-01-01

    Aim We retrospectively analyzed our Institution experience with these patients. The endpoints of the analysis were overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), local control (LC), metastasis free survival (MFS); results were compared with the literature. Background Medulloblastoma in adult patients is a very rare disease; the 5 and 10-year overall survival rates range between 33–78% and 27–56%, respectively. The collection of more clinical data is strongly needed. Materials and methods From September 1975 to October 2006, we treated 16 adult patients (9 males and 7 females) with a histological diagnosis of medulloblastoma. Acute and late toxicities were scored according to RTOG toxicity scale. Karnofski performance status (KPS) and neurological performance status (NPS) pre- and post-RT were reported. Median age was 27 years (range 18–53 years). All the patients received cranio-spinal irradiation, two patients were also given chemotherapy. Median follow-up period was 121.5 months. Results In January 2014, 10/16 patients were alive without evidence of disease, 6/16 died with progressive disease (1 local and spinal, 3 spinal and 2 extraneural). Ten-year LC, OS, DFS, MFS were, respectively, 84%, 67%, 60% and 59%. Univariate analysis shows that gross total resection is associated with better survival. No acute or late G3–G4 toxicity was observed. Conclusions This experience and the analysis of the literature confirm the efficacy of postoperative RT but also the need of large datasets to better define prognostic factors and the possible role of the association of chemotherapy. PMID:26109916

  9. Impact of Australia's introduction of tobacco plain packs on adult smokers’ pack-related perceptions and responses: results from a continuous tracking survey

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Sally M; Dobbins, Timothy; Young, Jane M; Perez, Donna; Currow, David C

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the impact of Australia's plain tobacco packaging policy on two stated purposes of the legislation—increasing the impact of health warnings and decreasing the promotional appeal of packaging—among adult smokers. Design Serial cross-sectional study with weekly telephone surveys (April 2006–May 2013). Interrupted time-series analyses using ARIMA modelling and linear regression models were used to investigate intervention effects. Participants 15 745 adult smokers (aged 18 years and above) in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Random selection of participants involved recruiting households using random digit dialling and selecting the nth oldest smoker for interview. Intervention The introduction of the legislation on 1 October 2012. Outcomes Salience of tobacco pack health warnings, cognitive and emotional responses to warnings, avoidance of warnings, perceptions regarding one's cigarette pack. Results Adjusting for background trends, seasonality, antismoking advertising activity and cigarette costliness, results from ARIMA modelling showed that, 2–3 months after the introduction of the new packs, there was a significant increase in the absolute proportion of smokers having strong cognitive (9.8% increase, p=0.005), emotional (8.6% increase, p=0.01) and avoidant (9.8% increase, p=0.0005) responses to on-pack health warnings. Similarly, there was a significant increase in the proportion of smokers strongly disagreeing that the look of their cigarette pack is attractive (57.5% increase, p<0.0001), says something good about them (54.5% increase, p<0.0001), influences the brand they buy (40.6% increase, p<0.0001), makes their pack stand out (55.6% increase, p<0.0001), is fashionable (44.7% increase, p<0.0001) and matches their style (48.1% increase, p<0.0001). Changes in these outcomes were maintained 6 months postintervention. Conclusions The introductory effects of the plain packaging legislation among adult smokers are

  10. Diabetes, Depressive Symptoms, and Inflammation in Older Adults: Results from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Todd A.; de Groot, Mary; Harris, Tamara; Schwartz, Frank; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Johnson, Karen C.; Kanaya, Alka

    2013-01-01

    Objective Up-regulated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) are common to both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and elevated depressive symptoms, yet little attention has been given to the biological mechanisms associated with these co-morbidities. This study examined the association between inflammation and both T2DM and elevated depressive symptoms. Methods Baseline data were analyzed from 3,009 adults, aged 70–79, participating in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. Diabetes was assessed per self-report, medication use, fasting glucose and/or glucose tolerance tests. Elevated depressive symptoms were categorized using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (cut-score≥20). Log-transformed IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP were analyzed using ANCOVA. Results Participants with T2DM and elevated depressive symptoms (T2DM+DEP n=14) demonstrated significantly (p<.05) higher IL-6 compared to (T2DM Only n=628), (DEP Only n=49), and (No T2DM or DEP n=2,067) groups following covariate adjustment. Similarly, participants with T2DM+DEP (n=14) had significantly (p<.05) higher CRP, after covariate adjustment, compared to DEP Only (n=50) and No T2DM or DEP groups (n=2,153). No association was observed for TNF-α. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that inflammation is associated with T2DM and elevated depressive symptoms. Participants with T2DM+DEP demonstrated the highest IL-6 levels compared to all other groups. Greater CRP levels were also observed in T2DM, but not elevated depressive symptoms, which may suggest that differential associations between T2DM and depressive symptoms exist for various inflammatory markers. Further investigation into these associations could aid in understanding the biological pathways underlying both T2DM and depressive symptoms. PMID:24182629

  11. Knowledge and attitudes of adults towards smoking in pregnancy: results from the HealthStyles© 2008 survey.

    PubMed

    Polen, Kara N D; Sandhu, Paramjit K; Honein, Margaret A; Green, Katie K; Berkowitz, Judy M; Pace, Jill; Rasmussen, Sonja A

    2015-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is causally associated with many adverse health outcomes. Quitting smoking, even late in pregnancy, improves some outcomes. Among adults in general and reproductive-aged women, we sought to understand knowledge and attitudes towards prenatal smoking and its effects on pregnancy outcomes. Using data from the 2008 HealthStyles© survey, we assessed knowledge and attitudes about prenatal smoking and smoking cessation. We classified respondents as having high knowledge if they gave ≥ 5 correct responses to six knowledge questions regarding the health effects of prenatal smoking. We calculated frequencies of correct responses to assess knowledge about prenatal smoking and estimated relative risk to examine knowledge by demographic and lifestyle factors. Only 15 % of all respondents and 23 % of reproductive-aged women had high knowledge of the adverse effects of prenatal smoking on pregnancy outcomes. Preterm birth and low birth weight were most often recognized as adverse outcomes associated with prenatal smoking. Nearly 70 % of reproductive-aged women smokers reported they would quit smoking if they became pregnant without any specific reasons from their doctor. Few respondents recognized the benefits of quitting smoking after the first trimester of pregnancy. Our results suggest that many women lack knowledge regarding the increased risks for adverse outcomes associated with prenatal smoking. Healthcare providers should follow the recommendations provided by the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, which include educating women about the health risks of prenatal smoking and the benefits of quitting. Healthcare providers should emphasize quitting smoking even after the first trimester of pregnancy. PMID:24825031

  12. A Mediterranean-type diet is associated with better metabolic profile in urban Polish adults: Results from the HAPIEE study

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Stepaniak, Urszula; Micek, Agnieszka; Topor-Mądry, Roman; Stefler, Denes; Szafraniec, Krystyna; Bobak, Martin; Pająk, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between adherence to a Mediterranean-type diet and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the Polish arm of the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) cohort study. Materials/methods A cross-sectional survey including 8821 adults was conducted in Krakow, Poland. Food intake was evaluated through a validated food frequency questionnaire and adherence to the dietary pattern was assessed using a score specifically developed for non-Mediterranean countries (MedTypeDiet score). Linear and logistic regression models were performed to estimate beta and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), respectively. Results Significant associations between the MedTypeDiet score and waist circumference (β = − 0.307 ± 0.239 cm), systolic blood pressure (β = − 0.440 ± 0.428 mmHg), and triglycerides (β = − 0.021 ± 0.016 mmol/L) were observed. After multivariable adjustment, individuals in the highest quartile of the score were less likely to have MetS, central obesity, high triglycerides, and hypertension. Increase of one standard deviation of the score was associated with 7% less odds of having MetS (OR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.97). When analyzing the relation of single components of the MedTypeDiet score, wine, dairy products, and the total unsaturated:saturated fatty acids ratio were associated with MetS. Conclusions Adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet may decrease the risk of MetS also among non-Mediterranean populations. PMID:25752843

  13. Dolutegravir in antiretroviral-naive adults with HIV-1: 96-week results from a randomized dose-ranging study

    PubMed Central

    Stellbrink, Hans-Jürgen; Reynes, Jacques; Lazzarin, Adriano; Voronin, Eugene; Pulido, Federico; Felizarta, Franco; Almond, Steve; Clair, Marty St; Flack, Nancy; Min, Sherene

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety/tolerability of dolutegravir (DTG, S/GSK1349572), a potent inhibitor of HIV integrase, through the full 96 weeks of the SPRING-1 study. Design: ING112276 (SPRING-1) was a 96-week, randomized, partially blinded, phase IIb dose-ranging study. Methods: Treatment-naive adults with HIV received DTG 10, 25, or 50 mg once daily or efavirenz (EFV) 600 mg once daily (control arm) combined with investigator-selected dual nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitor backbone regimen (tenofovir/emtricitabine or abacavir/lamivudine). The primary endpoint of the study was the proportion of participants with plasma HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies/ml, based on time to loss of virologic response at 16 weeks (conducted for the purpose of phase III dose selection), with a planned analysis at 96 weeks. Safety and tolerability were also assessed. Results: Of 208 participants randomized to treatment, 205 received study drug. At week 96, the proportion of participants achieving plasma HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies/ml was 79, 78, and 88% for DTG 10, 25, and 50 mg, respectively, compared with 72% for EFV. The median increase from baseline in CD4+ cells was 338 cells/μl with DTG (all treatment groups combined) compared with 301 cells/μl with EFV (P = 0.155). No clinically significant dose-related trends in adverse events were observed, and fewer participants who received DTG withdrew because of adverse events (3%) compared with EFV (10%). Conclusion: Throughout the 96 weeks of the SPRING-1 study, DTG demonstrated sustained efficacy and favorable safety/tolerability in treatment-naive individuals with HIV-1. PMID:23807273

  14. Knowledge and attitudes of adults towards smoking in pregnancy: results from the HealthStyles© 2008 survey.

    PubMed

    Polen, Kara N D; Sandhu, Paramjit K; Honein, Margaret A; Green, Katie K; Berkowitz, Judy M; Pace, Jill; Rasmussen, Sonja A

    2015-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is causally associated with many adverse health outcomes. Quitting smoking, even late in pregnancy, improves some outcomes. Among adults in general and reproductive-aged women, we sought to understand knowledge and attitudes towards prenatal smoking and its effects on pregnancy outcomes. Using data from the 2008 HealthStyles© survey, we assessed knowledge and attitudes about prenatal smoking and smoking cessation. We classified respondents as having high knowledge if they gave ≥ 5 correct responses to six knowledge questions regarding the health effects of prenatal smoking. We calculated frequencies of correct responses to assess knowledge about prenatal smoking and estimated relative risk to examine knowledge by demographic and lifestyle factors. Only 15 % of all respondents and 23 % of reproductive-aged women had high knowledge of the adverse effects of prenatal smoking on pregnancy outcomes. Preterm birth and low birth weight were most often recognized as adverse outcomes associated with prenatal smoking. Nearly 70 % of reproductive-aged women smokers reported they would quit smoking if they became pregnant without any specific reasons from their doctor. Few respondents recognized the benefits of quitting smoking after the first trimester of pregnancy. Our results suggest that many women lack knowledge regarding the increased risks for adverse outcomes associated with prenatal smoking. Healthcare providers should follow the recommendations provided by the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, which include educating women about the health risks of prenatal smoking and the benefits of quitting. Healthcare providers should emphasize quitting smoking even after the first trimester of pregnancy.

  15. The Association between Hypertension and Depression and Anxiety Disorders: Results from a Nationally-Representative Sample of South African Adults

    PubMed Central

    Grimsrud, Anna; Stein, Dan J.; Seedat, Soraya; Williams, David; Myer, Landon

    2009-01-01

    Objective Growing evidence suggests high levels of comorbidity between hypertension and mental illness but there are few data from low- and middle-income countries. We examined the association between hypertension and depression and anxiety in South Africa. Methods Data come from a nationally-representative survey of adults (n = 4351). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to measure DSM-IV mental disorders during the previous 12-months. The relationships between self-reported hypertension and anxiety disorders, depressive disorders and comorbid anxiety-depression were assessed after adjustment for participant characteristics including experience of trauma and other chronic physical conditions. Results Overall 16.7% reported a previous medical diagnosis of hypertension, and 8.1% and 4.9% were found to have a 12-month anxiety or depressive disorder, respectively. In adjusted analyses, hypertension diagnosis was associated with 12-month anxiety disorders [Odds ratio (OR) = 1.55, 95% Confidence interval (CI) = 1.10–2.18] but not 12-month depressive disorders or 12-month comorbid anxiety-depression. Hypertension in the absence of other chronic physical conditions was not associated with any of the 12-month mental health outcomes (p-values all <0.05), while being diagnosed with both hypertension and another chronic physical condition were associated with 12-month anxiety disorders (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.46–3.45), but not 12-month depressive disorders or comorbid anxiety-depression. Conclusions These are the first population-based estimates to demonstrate an association between hypertension and mental disorders in sub-Saharan Africa. Further investigation is needed into role of traumatic life events in the aetiology of hypertension as well as the temporality of the association between hypertension and mental disorders. PMID:19440241

  16. Thrombopoietin receptor agonists for preparing adult patients with immune thrombocytopenia to splenectomy: results of a retrospective, observational GIMEMA study.

    PubMed

    Zaja, Francesco; Barcellini, Wilma; Cantoni, Silvia; Carpenedo, Monica; Caparrotti, Giuseppe; Carrai, Valentina; Di Renzo, Nicola; Santoro, Cristina; Di Nicola, Massimo; Veneri, Dino; Simonetti, Federico; Liberati, Anna M; Ferla, Valeria; Paoloni, Francesca; Crea, Enrico; Volpetti, Stefano; Tuniz, Enrica; Fanin, Renato

    2016-05-01

    In patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) refractory to corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG), splenectomy may result at higher risk of peri-operative complications and, for this reason, potentially contraindicated. The thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TPO-RAs) romiplostim and eltrombopag have shown high therapeutic activity in primary ITP, but data of efficacy and safety regarding their use in preparation for splenectomy are missing. Thirty-one adult patients, median age 50 years, with corticosteroids and/or IVIG refractory persistent and chronic ITP who were treated with TPO-RAs (romiplostim= 24; eltrombopag= 7) with the aim to increase platelet count and allow a safer execution of splenectomy were retrospectively evaluated. Twenty-four patients (77%) responded to the use of TPO-RAs with a median platelet count that increased from 11 × 10(9) /L before starting TPO-RAs to 114 × 10(9) /L pre-splenectomy, but a concomitant treatment with corticosteroids and/or IVIG was required in 19 patients. Twenty-nine patients underwent splenectomy while two patients who responded to TPO-RAs subsequently refused surgery. Post-splenectomy complications were characterized by two Grade 3 thrombotic events (1 portal vein thrombosis in the patient with previous history of HCV hepatitis and 1 pulmonary embolism), with a platelet count at the time of thrombosis of 260 and 167 × 10(9) /L, respectively and one Grade 3 infectious event. TPO-RAs may represent a therapeutic option to improve platelet count and reduce the risk of peri-operative complications in ITP candidates to splenectomy. An increased risk of post-splenectomy thromboembolic events cannot be ruled out and thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular weight heparin is generally recommended.

  17. Hypertension Improvement Project (HIP) Latino: results of a pilot study of lifestyle intervention for lowering blood pressure in Latino adults

    PubMed Central

    del Pilar Rocha-Goldberg, María; Corsino, Leonor; Batch, Bryan; Voils, Corrine I.; Thorpe, Carolyn T.; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Svetkey, Laura P.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To assess the feasibility of a culturally tailored behavioral intervention for improving hypertension-related health behaviors in Hispanic/Latino adults. Design Feasibility pilot study in a community health center and a Latino organization in Durham, North Carolina (NC). Intervention The culturally adapted behavioral intervention consisted of 6 weekly group sessions incorporating motivational interviewing techniques. Goals included weight loss if overweight, adoption of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern, and increased physical activity. Participants were also encouraged to monitor their daily intake of fruits, vegetables, dairy and fat, and to record physical activity. Cultural adaptations included conducting the study in familiar places, using Spanish-speaking interventionist, culturally-appropriate food choices, and physical activity. Main outcomes Systolic blood pressure, weight, body mass index (BMI), exercise, and dietary pattern were measured at baseline and at 6 weeks follow-up. Qualitative evaluations of the recruitment process and the intervention were also conducted. Results There were 64 potential participants identified via health care provider referrals (33%), printed media (23%), and direct contact (44%). Seventeen participants completed the intervention and had main outcome data available. Participants “strongly agreed/ agreed” that the group sessions provided them with the tools they needed to achieve weight loss, blood pressure control, and the possibility of sustaining the lifestyle changes after completing the intervention. At the end of the intervention, all physiological, diet, and exercise outcomes were more favorable, with the exception of fat. After 6 weeks, systolic blood pressure decreased an average of −10.4 ± 10.6 mmHg, weight decreased 1.5 ± 3.2 lbs, BMI decreased 0.3 ± 0.5, and physical activity increased 40 minutes per week. Conclusion Our findings suggest that lifestyle

  18. Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate for Adults with Moderate to Severe Binge Eating Disorder: Results of Two Pivotal Phase 3 Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, Susan L; Hudson, James; Ferreira-Cornwell, M Celeste; Radewonuk, Jana; Whitaker, Timothy; Gasior, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) vs placebo in binge eating disorder (BED) was evaluated in two multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Adults (study 1, n=383; study 2, n=390) meeting DSM-IV-TR BED criteria were randomized (1:1) to placebo or LDX (50 or 70 mg/day) dose titration; optimized doses were maintained to the end of double-blind treatment (week 12/early termination). Change from baseline in binge eating days/week at weeks 11−12 (primary efficacy endpoint) was assessed with mixed-effects models for repeated measures. Secondary endpoints related to binge eating and medical parameters, safety, and treatment compliance were also assessed. Least squares mean (95% CI) treatment differences for change from baseline binge eating days/week at weeks 11–12 significantly favored LDX (study 1: –1.35 [–1.70, –1.01] study 2: –1.66 [–2.04, –1.28] both P<0.001). In both studies, treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) reported by ⩾10% of LDX participants were dry mouth, insomnia, and headache. Serious TEAEs occurred in two (1.1%) placebo participants in each study and in three (1.6%) and one (0.6%) LDX participants in study 1 and study 2, respectively. Across studies, mean increases from baseline at week 12/early termination with LDX for pulse and systolic and diastolic blood pressure ranged from 4.41–6.31 b.p.m. and 0.2–1.45 and 1.06–1.83 mm Hg, respectively. LDX (50 and 70 mg/day) was superior to placebo in decreasing binge eating days/week from baseline and improving binge eating–related key secondary endpoints. Safety results appear consistent with the known safety profile of LDX. PMID:26346638

  19. Life satisfaction in young adults 10 or more years after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for childhood malignant and nonmalignant diseases does not show significant impairment compared with healthy controls: a case-matched study.

    PubMed

    Uderzo, Cornelio; Corti, Paola; Pappalettera, Marco; Baldini, Valentina; Lucchini, Giovanna; Meani, Dario; Rovelli, Attilio

    2012-11-01

    Patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) may experience physical and psychological deterioration that impairs their life satisfaction (LS). This study focused on LS in long-term survivors at 10 or more years after HSCT. Fifty-five patients (39 males, median age 25 years) undergoing allogeneic HSCT for childhood malignant (n = 52) or nonmalignant diseases (n = 3) were enrolled. A control group of 98 young adults (59 males, median age 24 years) was considered. A questionnaire with a modified Satisfaction Life Domain Scale was administered. We assessed such domains as education, employment, leisure time, social relationships, and perception of physical status with a 30-item questionnaire. To investigate the association between the domains and the probability of diminished LS, we performed a logistical procedure using the maximum likelihood method. Predictive factors of LS were adjusted for sociodemographic variables. In the multivariate analysis, the participant's level of LS was not significantly correlated with sociodemographic factors or with HSCT status. The same analysis showed a slight trend in favor of the control group (P = .06) for body perception. Our data suggest that the patients who undergo HSCT in childhood have no significant difference in long-term LS compared with healthy controls.

  20. Multi- and Unisensory Decoding of Words and Nonwords Result in Differential Brain Responses in Dyslexic and Nondyslexic Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kast, Monika; Bezzola, Ladina; Jancke, Lutz; Meyer, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was designed, in order to investigate the neural substrates involved in the audiovisual processing of disyllabic German words and pseudowords. Twelve dyslexic and 13 nondyslexic adults performed a lexical decision task while stimuli were presented unimodally (either aurally or…

  1. Dynamics of Adult Participation in Part-Time Education and Training: Results from the British Household Panel Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macleod, Flora; Lambe, Paul

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the dynamics of adult participation in part-time education and training throughout the 90s and into the 2000s using data from 14 waves (1992-2005) of the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS). We study the volume (stocks) of participation and non-participation and the gross flows between states. This analysis provides a…

  2. Trajectories and Determinants of Alcohol Use among LGB Young Adults and Their Heterosexual Peers: Results from a Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Corbin, William R.; Fromme, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Lesbians, gays, and bisexuals (LGBs) are at increased risk for alcohol use during young adulthood, but the mechanisms remain inadequately understood. The aim of the present study was to examine the trajectories and determinants of alcohol use among LGB young adults who were sampled prospectively. The sample included 111 LGB individuals (47 women…

  3. Pathogenesis and epidemiology of Brucellosis in Yellowstone bison: serologic and culture results from adult females and their offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this prospective study was to follow the natural course of Brucella abortus infection in cohorts of seropositive and seronegative female bison and their offspring in Yellowstone National Park over a 5 year period. Specimens were collected from 53 adult, female bison at least once a...

  4. Employment Status and Income Generation among Homeless Young Adults: Results from a Five-City, Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J.; Maccio, Elaine M.; Pollio, David

    2012-01-01

    This mixed-methods study identified correlates of unemployment among homeless young adults in five cities. Two hundred thirty-eight homeless young people from Los Angeles (n = 50), Austin (n = 50), Denver (n = 50), New Orleans (n = 50), and St. Louis (n = 38) were recruited using comparable sampling strategies. Multivariate logistic regression…

  5. Brief Report: The Social Responsiveness Scale for Adults (SRS-A)-- Initial Results in a German Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Sven

    2012-01-01

    The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is a tool for quantitative autism assessment in children and adolescents. The SRS-A addresses social responsiveness in adulthood. Reliability and validity using the German adaptation of the SRS-A was examined in 20 adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), 62 with other mental disorders (CLIN) and 163…

  6. Age, Ageing and Skills: Results from the Survey of Adult Skills. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 132

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paccagnella, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the link between age and proficiency in information-processing skills, based on information drawn from the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). The data reveal significant age-related differences in proficiencies, strongly suggesting that proficiency tends to "naturally" decline with age. Age…

  7. Association between Lung Function in Adults and Plasma DDT and DDE Levels: Results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane] has been banned in many countries since the 1970s, it may still pose a risk to human respiratory health. In agriculture, DDT exposures have been associated with asthma and chronic bronchitis. However, little is known about the effect of DDT on lung function. Methods We used data on 1,696 participants 20–79 years of age from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) and conducted multiple regression analysis to estimate associations between plasma p,p´-DDT/DDE and lung function. Results Almost all participants (> 99.0%) had detectable concentrations of plasma p,p´-DDE, but only 10.0% had detectable p,p´-DDT. Participants with detectable p,p´-DDT had significantly lower mean FVC (difference = 311 mL; 95% CI: –492, –130; p = 0.003) and FEV1 (difference = 232 mL; 95% CI: –408, –55; p = 0.015) than those without. A 100-ng/g lipid increase in plasma p,p´-DDE was associated with an 18.8-mL decrease in mean FVC (95% CI: –29, –9) and an 11.8-mL decrease in mean FEV1 (95% CI: –21, –3). Neither exposure was associated with FEV1/FVC ratio or FEF25%–75%. Conclusions DDT exposures, which may have occurred decades ago, were still detectable among Canadians. Plasma DDT and DDE were negatively associated with lung function parameters. Additional research on the potential effects of DDT use on lung function is warranted. Citation Ye M, Beach J, Martin JW, Senthilselvan A. 2015. Association between lung function in adults and plasma DDT and DDE levels: results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey. Environ Health Perspect 123:422–427; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408217 PMID:25536373

  8. Results of the northern Manhattan diabetes community outreach project: a randomized trial studying a community health worker intervention to improve diabetes care in Hispanic adults.

    PubMed

    Palmas, Walter; Findley, Sally E; Mejia, Miriam; Batista, Milagros; Teresi, Jeanne; Kong, Jian; Silver, Stephanie; Fleck, Elaine M; Luchsinger, Jose A; Carrasquillo, Olveen

    2014-04-01

    OBJECTIVE The Northern Manhattan Diabetes Community Outreach Project evaluated whether a community health worker (CHW) intervention improved clinically relevant markers of diabetes care in adult Hispanics. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants were adult Hispanics, ages 35-70 years, with recent hemoglobin A1c (A1C) ≥8% (≥64 mmol/mol), from a university-affiliated network of primary care practices in northern Manhattan (New York City, NY). They were randomized to a 12-month CHW intervention (n = 181), or enhanced usual care (educational materials mailed at 4-month intervals, preceded by phone calls, n = 179). The primary outcome was A1C at 12 months; the secondary outcomes were systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure, and LDL-cholesterol levels. RESULTS There was a nonsignificant trend toward improvement in A1C levels in the intervention group (from unadjusted mean A1C of 8.77 to 8.40%), as compared with usual care (from 8.58 to 8.53%) (P = 0.131). There was also a nonsignificant trend toward an increase in SBP and LDL cholesterol in the intervention arm. Intervention fidelity, measured as the number of contacts in the intervention arm (visits, phone contacts, group support, and nutritional education), showed a borderline association with greater A1C reduction (P = 0.054). When assessed separately, phone contacts were associated with greater A1C reduction (P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS The trend toward A1C reduction with the CHW intervention failed to achieve statistical significance. Greater intervention fidelity may achieve better glycemic control, and more accessible treatment models, such as phone-based interventions, may be more efficacious in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations.

  9. Effectiveness of Front-Of-Pack Nutrition Labels in French Adults: Results from the NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ducrot, Pauline; Méjean, Caroline; Julia, Chantal; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Touvier, Mathilde; Fezeu, Léopold; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, no consensus has emerged on the most appropriate front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition label to help consumers in making informed choices. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of the label formats currently in use: nutrient-specific, graded and simple summary systems, in a large sample of adults. Methods The FOP label effectiveness was assessed by measuring the label acceptability and understanding among 13,578 participants of the NutriNet-Santé cohort study, representative of the French adult population. Participants were exposed to five conditions, including four FOP labels: Guideline Daily Amounts (GDA), Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL), 5-Color Nutrition Label (5-CNL), Green Tick (Tick), and a “no label” condition. Acceptability was evaluated by several indicators: attractiveness, liking and perceived cognitive workload. Objective understanding was assessed by the percentage of correct answers when ranking three products according to their nutritional quality. Five different product categories were tested: prepared fish dishes, pizzas, dairy products, breakfast cereals, and appetizers. Differences among the label effectiveness were compared with chi-square tests. Results The 5-CNL was viewed as the easiest label to identify and as the one requiring the lowest amount of effort and time to understand. GDA was considered as the least easy to identify and to understand, despite being the most attractive and liked label. All FOP labels were found to be effective in ranking products according to their nutritional quality compared with the “no label” situation, although they showed differing levels of effectiveness (p<0.0001). Globally, the 5-CNL performed best, followed by MTL, GDA and Tick labels. Conclusions The graded 5-CNL label was considered as easy to identify, simple and rapid to understand; it performed well when comparing the products’ nutritional quality. Therefore, it is likely to present advantages in real shopping situations where

  10. Age Differences in the Trends of Smoking Among California Adults: Results from the California Health Interview Survey 2001-2012.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yue; Wang, Weize; Wang, Ke-Sheng; Moore, Kevin; Dunn, Erin; Huang, Shi; Feaster, Daniel J

    2015-12-01

    The aim is to study the trends of cigarette smoking from 2001 to 2012 using a California representative sample in the US. Data was taken from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) from 2001 to 2012, which is a population-based, biennial, random digit-dial telephone survey of the non-institutionalized population. The CHIS is the largest telephone survey in California and the largest state health survey in the US. 282,931 adults (n = 184,454 with age 18-60 and n = 98,477 with age >60) were included in the analysis. Data were weighted to be representative and adjusted for potential covariance and non-response biases. During 2001-2012, the prevalence of current smoking decreased from 18.86 to 15.4 % among adults age 18-60 (β = -0.8, p = 0.0041). As for adults age >60, the prevalence of current smoking trend decreased with variations, started from 9.66 % in 2001, slightly increased to 9.74 % in 2003, but then gradually decreased, falling to 8.18 % in 2012. In 2012, there was a 14 % reduction of daily smoking adults age 18-60 (OR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.76-0.93, p = 0.0006) compared to 2001, while no significant reduction of daily smoking was observed for those age >60. The reductions of smoking prevalence for adults younger than 60 are encouraging. However, there is a concern for smoking cessation rates among those older than 60 years of age, particularly for African Americans.

  11. Continuous-eligibility policies stabilize Medicaid coverage for children and could be extended to adults with similar results.

    PubMed

    Ku, Leighton; Steinmetz, Erika; Bruen, Brian K

    2013-09-01

    A key method of stabilizing Medicaid coverage is to provide beneficiaries with twelve months of continuous eligibility. Following the passage of the Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act in 2009, seven states adopted the continuous-eligibility option for children. That policy change led to a 1.8-percentage-point increase in the average length of child enrollment during fiscal year 2010 and increased annual costs for children by about 2.2 percent. The Medicaid and CHIP Payment and Access Commission has recommended offering states the option of giving adults twelve-month continuous eligibility for Medicaid. Our findings suggest that continuous eligibility could promote more stable coverage for adults enrolled in Medicaid at a modest cost. PMID:24019362

  12. Selection on the timing of adult emergence results in altered circadian clocks in fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shailesh; Kumar, Dhanya; Paranjpe, Dhanashree A; R, Akarsh C; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2007-03-01

    To investigate whether circadian clocks in fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster evolve as a consequence of selection on the timing of adult emergence, we raised four replicate populations each of early (early(1..4)) and late (late(1..4)) emerging flies by selecting for adults that emerged during the morning and the evening hours. We estimated the percentage of flies that emerged during the two selection windows to evaluate the direct response to selection, and the circadian phenotypes of adult emergence and locomotor activity rhythms under light/dark (LD) and constant darkness (DD) to assess the correlated response to selection. After 55 generations, the percentage of flies emerging during the morning window increased in the early populations, but decreased in the late populations. The percentage of flies emerging during the evening window increased in the late populations, but decreased in the early populations. The time course and waveform of emergence and locomotor activity rhythms of the selected populations diverged from each other as well as from the controls. Further, the circadian periodicity of the early populations was significantly shorter than the controls, while that of the late populations was significantly longer than the controls. The light-induced phase response curve of the selected populations differed significantly within groups as well as from the controls. Such modifications in the circadian phenotypes of the selected populations due to heritable changes in genetic architecture, in response to imposed selection pressure, suggest that the circadian clocks underlying emergence and locomotor activity rhythms in D. melanogaster evolve as a correlated response to selection on the timing of adult emergence.

  13. Predicting Heavy Drug Use. Results of a Longitudinal Study, Youth Characteristics Describing and Predicting Heavy Drug Use by Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schildhaus, Sam; Shaw-Taylor, Yoku; Pedlow, Steven; Pergamit, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to describe the movement of adolescents and young adults into and out of drug use and to predict heavy drug use. The data source is the Department of Labor's National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, which began in 1979 with a sample of 12,686 adolescents aged 14-21. After 17 rounds and 19 years, the response rate in…

  14. Subgroups associated with lower physical fitness in older adults with ID: results of the HA-ID study.

    PubMed

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M

    2014-02-01

    Although physical fitness is generally very low in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), levels may differ across subgroups. It is important to identify which subgroups need to be targeted specifically in physical activity and fitness interventions and reference values. Physical fitness was measured with box-and-block-test, response-time-test, Berg-balance-scale, walking speed, grip strength, 30s-chair-stand, 10 m incremental-shuttle-walking test and the extended modified-back-saver-sit-and-reach-test in a large sample of older adults with ID (n=1050), and subgroups associated with lower physical fitness levels were identified applying multivariate linear regression analyses. Both fixed personal characteristics such as being older, being female, having more severe ID and having Down syndrome and modifiable or preventable factors such as physical activity levels, mobility impairments and a need of more intensive care, are independently associated with lower levels of multiple physical fitness components. This first study identifies subgroups of older adults with ID which require adapted reference values, and subgroups that need to be specifically targeted in fitness promotion programs.

  15. Does Participation in Home-delivered Meals Programs Improve Outcomes for Older Adults?: Results of a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Anthony D.; Godfryd, Alice; Buys, David R.; Locher, Julie L.

    2015-01-01

    Participation in home-delivered meals programs may contribute to the health and independence of older adults living in the community, especially those who are food insecure or those who are making transitions from acute, subacute, and chronic care settings to the home. The purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive and systematic review of ALL studies related to home-delivered meals in order to shed light on the state of the science. A complete review of articles appearing in PubMed using the Keyword “Meal” was conducted; and titles, abstracts, and full-texts were screened for relevance. Included in this review are 80 articles. Most studies are descriptive and do not report on outcomes. Frequently reported outcomes included nutritional status based upon self-reported dietary intake. Additionally, most studies included in this review are cross-sectional, have a small sample size, and/or are limited to a particular setting or participant population. More rigorous research is needed to: 1) gain insight into why so few eligible older adults access home-delivered meals programs, 2) support expansion of home-delivered meals to all eligible older adults, 3) better identify what home-delivered meals models alone and in combination with other services works best and for whom, and 4) better target home-delivered meals programs where and when resources are scarce. PMID:26106985

  16. Human adult bone marrow-derived somatic cell therapy results in functional recovery and axonal plasticity following stroke in the rat.

    PubMed

    Andrews, E M; Tsai, S-Y; Johnson, S C; Farrer, J R; Wagner, J P; Kopen, G C; Kartje, G L

    2008-06-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability in the United States. To date there is no satisfactory treatment for stroke once neuronal damage has occurred. Human adult bone marrow-derived somatic cells (hABM-SC) represent a homogenous population of CD49c/CD90 co-positive, non-hematopoietic cells that have been shown to secrete therapeutically relevant trophic factors and to support axonal growth in a rodent model of spinal cord injury. Here we demonstrate that treatment with hABM-SC after ischemic stroke in adult rats results in recovery of forelimb function on a skilled motor test, and that this recovery is positively correlated with increased axonal outgrowth of the intact, uninjured corticorubral tract. While the complete mechanism of repair is still unclear, we conclude that enhancement of structural neuroplasticity from uninjured brain areas is one mechanism by which hABM-SC treatment after stroke leads to functional recovery. PMID:18440506

  17. Ablation of Gata1 in adult mice results in aplastic crisis, revealing its essential role in steady-state and stress erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Laura; Tsukamoto, Saho; Suzuki, Mikiko; Yamamoto-Mukai, Harumi; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Philipsen, Sjaak; Ohneda, Kinuko

    2008-04-15

    The transcription factor Gata1 is expressed in several hematopoietic lineages and plays essential roles in normal hematopoietic development during embryonic stages. The lethality of Gata1-null embryos has precluded determination of its role in adult erythropoiesis. Here we have examined the effects of Gata1 loss in adult erythropoiesis using conditional Gata1 knockout mice expressing either interferon- or tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase (Mx-Cre and Tx-Cre, respectively). Mx-Cre-mediated Gata1 recombination, although incomplete, resulted in maturation arrest of Gata1-null erythroid cells at the proerythroblast stage, thrombocytopenia, and excessive proliferation of megakaryocytes in the spleen. Tx-Cre-mediated Gata1 recombination resulted in depletion of the erythroid compartment in bone marrow and spleen. Formation of the early and late erythroid progenitors in bone marrow was significantly reduced in the absence of Gata1. Furthermore, on treatment with a hemolytic agent, these mice failed to activate a stress erythropoietic response, despite the rising erythropoietin levels. These results indicate that, in addition to the requirement of Gata1 in adult megakaryopoiesis, Gata1 is necessary for steady-state erythropoiesis and for erythroid expansion in response to anemia. Thus, ablation of Gata1 in adult mice results in a condition resembling aplastic crisis in human.

  18. Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2001. Volume II: College Students & Adults Ages 19-40, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    This is the second volume in a two volume set covering research conducted as part of the Monitoring the Future study of young adults. It presents the results of the 1977 through 2001 follow-up surveys of the graduating high school classes of 1976 through 2000 as these respondents have progressed from college into adulthood. In order for this…

  19. Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2000. Volume II: College Students and Young Adults Ages 19-40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    This is the second volume in a two volume set covering research conducted as part of the Monitoring the Future study of young adults. It presents the results of the 1977 through 2000 follow-up surveys of the graduating high school classes of 1976 through 1999 as these respondents have progressed into adulthood. In order for this volume to stand…

  20. The Association between Active and Passive Smoking and Latent Tuberculosis Infection in Adults and Children in the United States: Results from NHANES

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Ryan P.; Shin, Sanghyuk S.; Garfein, Richard S.; Rusch, Melanie L. A.; Novotny, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies assessing the relationship between active and passive smoking and tuberculosis have used biomarkers to measure smoke exposure. We sought to determine the association between active and passive smoking and LTBI in a representative sample of US adults and children. Methods We used the 1999–2000 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset with tuberculin skin test (TST) data to assess the association between cotinine-confirmed smoke exposure and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among adults ages ≥20 years (n = 3598) and children 3–19 years (n = 2943) and estimate the prevalence of smoke exposure among those with LTBI. Weighted multivariate logistic regression was used to measure the associations between active and passive smoking and LTBI. Results LTBI prevalence in 1999–2000 among cotinine-confirmed active, passive, and non-smoking adults and children was 6.0%, 5.2%, 3.3% and 0.3%, 1.0%, 1.5%, respectively. This corresponds to approximately 3,556,000 active and 3,379,000 passive smoking adults with LTBI in the US civilian non-institutionalized population in 1999–2000. Controlling for age, gender, socioeconomic status, race, birthplace (US vs. foreign-born), household size, and having ever lived with someone with TB, adult active smokers were significantly more likely to have LTBI than non-smoking adults (AOR = 2.31 95% CI 1.17–4.55). Adult passive smokers also had a greater odds of LTBI compared with non-smokers, but this association did not achieve statistical significance (AOR = 2.00 95% CI 0.87–4.60). Neither active or passive smoking was associated with LTBI among children. Among only the foreign-born adults, both active (AOR = 2.56 (95% CI 1.20–5.45) and passive smoking (AOR = 2.27 95% CI 1.09–4.72) were significantly associated with LTBI. Conclusions Active adult smokers and both foreign-born active and passive smokers in the United States are at elevated risk for LTBI

  1. Association of oral health and cardiovascular disease risk factors "results from a community based study on 5900 adult subjects".

    PubMed

    Najafipour, Hamid; Malek Mohammadi, Tayebeh; Rahim, Foad; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Shadkam, Mitra; Afshari, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to determine the association between some oral health status as a risk factor for cardiac diseases and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a sample of Iranian population in 2011. Methods. The study recruited 5900 inhabitants who aged 15-75 years old of Kerman city through a population based cluster sampling. Having collected informed consent, participants were interviewed for CVD risk factors. Some oral health indicators such as DMFT, Gingival Inflammation index, and Community Periodontal Index were assessed. The association between oral health indices and CVD risk factors was tested using multivariate regression models. Results. The mean age of participants was 33.5 years, and 45.1% were male. Moderate gingival inflammation was observed in 67.6% of participants. Presence of sub- or supragingival calculus was more common (90%) in participants. Older age (RR from 2.7 to 3.88), cigarette smoking (RR = 1.49), and high blood glucose (RR = 1.41) showed an increased risk for oral diseases after adjustment for different covariates including established CVD risk factors. Conclusion. The study results showed an increase in periodontal diseases in the presence of some CVD risk factors. Therefore there may be a bilateral but independent association for both conditions and common risk factor approach preventive program is highly recommended.

  2. Housing outcomes for homeless adults with mental illness: results from the second-round McKinney program.

    PubMed

    Shern, D L; Felton, C J; Hough, R L; Lehman, A F; Goldfinger, S; Valencia, E; Dennis, D; Straw, R; Wood, P A

    1997-02-01

    In the early 1990s the National Institute of Mental Health sponsored projects in four cities that served a total of 896 homeless mentally ill adults. Each project tested the effectiveness of different housing, support, and rehabilitative services in reducing homelessness. Most homeless individuals resided in community housing after the intervention. The proportion in community housing varied between sites. A 47.5 percent increase in community housing was found for those in active treatment conditions. At final follow-up, 78 percent of participants in community housing were stably housed. The findings indicate that effective strategies are available for serving homeless individuals with severe mental illness. PMID:9021858

  3. My life is a longing: child abuse and its adult sequelae. Results of the Brody longitudinal study from birth to age 30.

    PubMed

    Massie, Henry; Szajnberg, Nathan

    2006-04-01

    The psychoanalytically oriented Brody longitudinal study has followed the psychological development of 76 individuals from birth to age 30. Ten suffered severe maltreatment in childhood in the form of rejection and/or physical abuse at the hands of one or both parents. This report describes the effects of child abuse on the emerging personalities of the children, as well as on their adult personalities and mental health. Specifically, as adults the maltreated children had significantly more psychiatric illness (typically depressions and anxiety disorders), less mature psychological defense mechanisms, more insecure mental representations of attachment to their parents as indicated by the adult attachment interview, and a lower Global Assessment of Functioning than their well-treated counterparts. Additionally, their prevailing moods were joyless. Case examples show the emergence of symptoms, personality disorders, and defenses over time, as well as the workings of ameliorating influences. Several of the maltreated children made relatively successful adaptations as adults, indicating children's potential for resilience. Resilience, however, may be a superficial concept, for, in this series of cases, seemingly adequate coping in formerly mistreated children always came at the price of emotional vulnerability and compromised potential.

  4. Sarcopenia Is Not Associated with Depression in Korean Adults: Results from the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Chae-Hwa; Kang, Kee-Young; Kang, Se-Hun; Kim, Han-Kyul

    2016-01-01

    Background Sarcopenia is associated with metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease, and mortality; however, its association with depression in the general population remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated this association in Korea. Methods This study included 8,958 and 8,518 subjects from the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V-1, 2. The study was restricted to participants ≥20 years of age who had completed the survey, including whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans. After exclusion, 7,364 subjects were included in our final analysis. Age was categorized into three groups (20–39, 40–59, and ≥60 years), and subjects were categorized according to their sarcopenic and obesity status. Depression was categorized into three groups (not depressed, depressed, and depression). Results The sarcopenia group did not have a higher prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms compared to the nonsarcopenia group; the same was true even when obesity was considered. All age groups showed non-significant associations between sarcopenia and depression. In multivariate logistic regression models, no significant associations were observed between sarcopenia and prevalence of depression or depressed symptoms in men and women. Conclusion We found no associations between sarcopenia and the prevalence of depression or depressed symptoms in Korean adults. Future large prospective studies and randomized controlled trials are needed to further assess this relationship. PMID:26885321

  5. Bladder and Bowel Symptoms Among Adults Presenting With Low Back Pain to an Academic Chiropractic Clinic: Results of a Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Walden, Anna L.; Salsbury, Stacie A.; Reed, William R.; Lawrence, Dana J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purposes of this study were to estimate the 1-month point prevalence of bowel and bladder symptoms (BBS) among adult chiropractic patients and to evaluate associations between these symptoms and low back pain (LBP). Methods Patients 18 years or older presenting to a chiropractic college academic health clinic between March 25 and April 25, 2013, were asked to complete a symptom screening questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, binary logistic regression, Fisher exact test, and P values were calculated from the sample. Results The sample included 140 of 1300 patients who visited the clinic during the survey period (11%). Mean age was 47.5 (range 18-79) years. LBP was the primary chief complaint in 42%. The 1-month point prevalence of any bladder symptoms was 75%, while the rate for bowel symptoms was 62%; 55% reported both BBS. Binary logistic regression analyses showed no statistically significant association between a chief complaint of LBP and combined BBS (OR = 1.67, P = .164). Conclusion The prevalence of bowel and bladder symptoms in chiropractic patients was high. There was no statistically significant association between these symptoms and LBP in this group of patients seeking care for LBP. PMID:25225466

  6. Association Between Neighborhood Disadvantage and Hypertension Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control in Older Adults: Results From the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Virginia J.; McClure, Leslie A.; Buys, Katie Crawford; Sawyer, Patricia; Allman, Richard M.; Levitan, Emily B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effect of neighborhood disadvantage (ND) on older adults’ prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension. Methods. Data were from the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging, an observational study of 1000 community-dwelling Black and White Alabamians aged 65 years and older, in 1999 to 2001. We assessed hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control with blood pressure measurements and self-report data. We assessed ND with US Census data corresponding with participants’ census tracts, created tertiles of ND, and fit models with generalized estimating equations via a logit link function with a binomial distribution. Adjusted models included variables assessing personal advantage and disadvantage, place-based factors, sociodemographics, comorbidities, and health behaviors. Results. Living in mid-ND (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2, 2.1) and high-ND tertiles (AOR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.3, 2.3) was associated with higher hypertension prevalence, and living in high-ND tertiles was associated with lower odds of controlled hypertension (AOR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.4, 0.6). In adjusted models, ND was not associated with hypertension awareness or treatment. Conclusions. These findings show that neighborhood environmental factors matter for hypertension outcomes and suggest the importance of ND for hypertension management in older adults. PMID:25322309

  7. Waist Circumference, Physical Activity, and Functional Impairments in Older U.S. Adults: Results from the NHANES 2005-2010.

    PubMed

    Batsis, John A; Germain, Cassandra M; Vásquez, Elizabeth; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Bartels, Stephen J

    2015-07-01

    Physical activity (PA) improves function in older obese adults. However, body mass index is an unreliable adiposity indicator better reflected by waist circumference (WC). The impact of PA on physical impairment and mobility with high WC is unclear. We performed a secondary data analysis of 4,976 adults ≥ 60 years of age using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2010. Physical limitations (PL), activities of daily living (ADL) impairments, and PA (low = < 1 day/week or high = > 1 day/week) were self-reported. WC was dichotomized (females: 88 cm; males: 102 cm). Mean age was 70.1 years and 55.1% were female. Prevalence of PL and ADL impairment in the high WC group were 57.7% and 18.8%, respectively, and high PA was present in 53.9%. Among those with high WC, high PA vs. low PA participants were at lower risk of PL (OR 0.58 [0.48-0.70]) and ADL impairment (OR 0.46 [0.32-0.65]). Those with high WC had higher odds of PL irrespective of PA (high PA: OR 1.57 [1.30-1.88]; low PA: OR 1.52 [1.29-1.79]) and ADL impairment (high PA: OR 1.27 [1.02-1.57] and low PA: OR 1.24 [0.99-1.54]). High PA in viscerally obese individuals is associated with impairments.

  8. Is religiosity a barrier to sexual and reproductive health? Results from a population-based study of young Croatian adults.

    PubMed

    Puzek, Ivan; Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Božičević, Ivana

    2012-12-01

    Following the demise of socialism in 1989, religious identification substantially increased in most countries of Central, East, and Southeast Europe. Considering that there is evidence that religiosity is associated with reduced sexual risk taking among young people, this study explored associations between religiosity--assessed at three different levels (religious upbringing, personal religiosity, and social network religiosity)--and sexual risks among young Croatian adults. In addition, we examined whether religiosity predicted chlamydial infection among women and men aged 18-25. The data were collected in a national probability survey carried out in 2010 (n = 1,005). Overall, the effects of religiosity were sporadic, present primarily among women, and of small size. This lack of a sizeable impact of religiosity on young adults' sexuality was likely related to a particular type of religiosity, characterized by individualized morality, found among young people in the country. Although Croatia seems to be one of the most religious countries in Europe, our findings suggest that promoting religious morality--as recently attempted by an abstinence-based educational program--may not be an efficient tool in reducing sexual risks.

  9. Adolescent traumatic stress experience results in less robust conditioned fear and post-extinction fear cue responses in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Moore, Nicole L T; Gauchan, Sangeeta; Genovese, Raymond F

    2014-05-01

    Early exposure to a traumatic event may produce lasting effects throughout the lifespan. Traumatic stress during adolescence may deliver a distinct developmental insult compared with more-often studied neonatal or juvenile traumatic stress paradigms. The present study describes the lasting effects of adolescent traumatic stress upon adulthood fear conditioning. Adolescent rats were exposed to a traumatic stressor (underwater trauma, UWT), then underwent fear conditioning during adulthood. Fear extinction was tested over five conditioned suppression extinction sessions three weeks later. The efficacies of two potential extinction-enhancing compounds, endocannabinoid reuptake inhibitor AM404 (10mg/kg) and M1 muscarinic positive allosteric modulator BQCA (10mg/kg), were also assessed. Finally, post-extinction fear responses were examined using a fear cue (light) as a prepulse stimulus. Rats traumatically stressed during adolescence showed blunted conditioned suppression on day 1 of extinction training, and AM404 reversed this effect. Post-extinction startle testing showed that fear conditioning eliminates prepulse inhibition to the light cue. Startle potentiation was observed only in rats without adolescent UWT exposure. AM404 and BQCA both ameliorated this startle potentiation, while BQCA increased startle in the UWT group. These results suggest that exposure to a traumatic stressor during adolescence alters developmental outcomes related to stress response and fear extinction compared to rats without adolescent traumatic stress exposure, blunting the adulthood fear response and reducing residual post-extinction fear expression. Efficacy of pharmacological interventions may also vary as a factor of developmental traumatic stress exposure.

  10. Status of cardiovascular health among adults in a rural area of Northwest China: Results from a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yaling; Yan, Hong; Yang, Ruihai; Li, Qiang; Dang, Shaonong; Liu, Ruru; Pei, Leilei; Cao, Lei; Marshall, Roger J; Wang, Duolao

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the status of cardiovascular health among a rural population in Northwest China and to determine the associated factors for cardiovascular health.A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural areas of Hanzhong in Northwest China. Interview, physical examination, and fasting blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 2693 adults. The construct of cardiovascular health and the definitions of cardiovascular health metrics proposed by the American Heart Association were used to assess cardiovascular health. The proportions of subjects with cardiovascular health metrics were calculated, adjusting for age and sex. The multiple logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association between ideal cardiovascular health and its associated factors.Only 0.5% (0.0% in men vs 0.9% in women, P = 0.002) of the participants had ideal cardiovascular health, whereas 33.8% (18.0% in men vs 50.0% in women, P < 0.001) and 65.7% (82.0% in men vs 49.1% in women, P < 0.001) of the participants had intermediate and poor cardiovascular health, respectively. The prevalence of poor cardiovascular health increased with increasing age (P < 0.001 for trend). Participants fulfilled, on average, 4.4 (95% confidence interval: 4.2-4.7) of the ideal cardiovascular health metrics. Also, 22.2% of the participants presented with 3 or fewer ideal metrics. Only 19.4% of the participants presented with 6 or more ideal metrics. 24.1% of the participants had all 4 ideal health factors, but only 1.1% of the participants had all 4 ideal health behaviors. Women were more likely to have ideal cardiovascular health, whereas adults aged 35 years or over and those who had a family history of hypertension were less likely to have ideal cardiovascular health.The prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health was extremely low among the rural population in Northwest China. Most adults, especially men and the elderly, had a poor

  11. Racial Differences in Left Atrial Size: Results from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study.

    PubMed

    Dewland, Thomas A; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Lin, Feng; Vittinghoff, Eric; Foster, Elyse; Ogunyankin, Kofo O; Lima, Joao A; Jacobs, David R; Hu, Donglei; Burchard, Esteban G; Marcus, Gregory M

    2016-01-01

    Whites have an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) compared to Blacks. The mechanism underlying this association is unknown. Left atrial (LA) size is an important AF risk factor, and studies in older adults suggest Whites have larger LA diameters. However, because AF itself causes LA dilation, LA size differences may be due to greater subclinical AF among older Whites. We therefore assessed for racial differences in LA size among young adults at low AF risk. The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study enrolled White and Black participants between 18 and 30 years of age. LA diameter was measured in a subset of participants using echocardiography at Year 5 (n = 4,201) and Year 25 (n = 3,373) of follow up. LA volume was also assessed at Year 5 (n = 2,489). Multivariate linear regression models were used to determine the adjusted association between race and LA size. In unadjusted analyses, mean LA diameter was significantly larger among Blacks compared to Whites both at Year 5 (35.5 ± 4.8 mm versus 35.1 ± 4.5 mm, p = 0.01) and Year 25 (37.4 ± 5.1 mm versus 36.8 ± 4.9 mm, p = 0.002). After adjusting for demographics, comorbidities, and echocardiographic parameters, Whites demonstrated an increased LA diameter (0.7 mm larger at Year 5, 95% CI 0.3-1.1, p<0.001; 0.6 mm larger at Year 25, 95% CI 0.3-1.0, p<0.001). There was no significant association between race and adjusted Year 5 LA volume. In conclusion, in a young, well-characterized cohort, the larger adjusted LA diameter among White participants suggests inherent differences in atrial structure may partially explain the higher risk of AF in Whites. The incongruent associations between race, LA diameter, and LA volume suggest that LA geometry, rather than size alone, may have implications for AF risk. PMID:26985672

  12. Increased allocation of adult-acquired carbohydrate to egg production results in its decreased allocation to sex pheromone production in mated females of the moth Heliothis virescens.

    PubMed

    Foster, Stephen P; Anderson, Karin G; Harmon, J P

    2014-02-15

    Females of most species of moths produce a volatile sex pheromone that attracts conspecific males over distance. In females of the polyandrous moth Heliothis virescens, feeding on carbohydrate (e.g. nectar) supplies precursor, via hemolymph trehalose, for both sex pheromone and egg production. With limited carbohydrate acquisition these two reproductive physiologies might compete for hemolymph trehalose, resulting in an allocation deficit to either sex pheromone or egg production. Using virgin and mated females, which have low and high egg maturation rates, respectively, we fed females a limited diet of (13)C-labeled glucose daily and, using mass isotopomer distribution analysis, determined allocations of adult-acquired carbohydrate (AAC) to newly synthesized pheromone and ovarian and egg fats, our proxies for allocation to egg production. With increased number of feeds, AAC enrichment of hemolymph trehalose increased, as expected. This led to mated females increasing their proportional allocation of AAC to ovarian and egg fats, but decreasing their proportional allocation of AAC to pheromone production. By contrast, virgins increased their proportional allocation of AAC to pheromone production with increased feeds, consistent with increasing AAC enrichment of hemolymph trehalose. These results show that with limited AAC intake, enhanced egg maturation in mated females results in reduced AAC allocation to pheromone production; this does not occur in virgins because of their lower egg maturation rate. This physiological competition for AAC corresponded with decreased pheromone production in mated moths to levels unlikely to attract mates. Therefore, the availability and/or allocation of AAC may be a proximate mechanism underlying the incidence of polyandry in this and other species of moths.

  13. Older Adults and Gambling: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the social cognitive theory model to review the literature on older adult gambling, and related personal and environment characteristics. Results show that lottery is the kind of gambling most frequently played by older adults, followed by casino games. Older adults take trips to casinos to socialize, find excitement, and win…

  14. Multiple Chronic Conditions and Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Among US Adults: Results From the 2012 National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zaixing; Greenlee, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Introduction More than 25% of American adults report having 2 or more chronic conditions. People with chronic conditions often use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for self-care and disease management, despite a limited evidence base. Methods Data from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (n = 33,557) were analyzed to assess associations between presence of multiple chronic conditions (n = 13) and CAM use, using multivariable relative risk and linear regressions weighted for complex NHIS sampling. CAM use was defined as self-reported use of one or more of 16 therapies in the previous 12 months. Results Chronic conditions were common. US adults reported one (22.3%) or 2 or more (33.8%) conditions. Many used at least one form of CAM. Multivitamins, multiminerals, or both (52.7%); vitamins (34.8%); and minerals (28.4%) were the most common. Compared with adults with no conditions, adults with 2 or more conditions were more likely to use multivitamins or multiminerals or both, vitamins, minerals, nonvitamins or herbs, mind–body therapies, chiropractic or osteopathic manipulation, massage, movement therapies, special diets, acupuncture, naturopathy, or some combination of these therapies (P <.003). Conclusion People with multiple chronic conditions have a high prevalence of CAM use. Longitudinal studies are needed to understand the association between CAM use and chronic disease prevention and treatment. PMID:27149072

  15. Face and body recognition show similar improvement during childhood.

    PubMed

    Bank, Samantha; Rhodes, Gillian; Read, Ainsley; Jeffery, Linda

    2015-09-01

    Adults are proficient in extracting identity cues from faces. This proficiency develops slowly during childhood, with performance not reaching adult levels until adolescence. Bodies are similar to faces in that they convey identity cues and rely on specialized perceptual mechanisms. However, it is currently unclear whether body recognition mirrors the slow development of face recognition during childhood. Recent evidence suggests that body recognition develops faster than face recognition. Here we measured body and face recognition in 6- and 10-year-old children and adults to determine whether these two skills show different amounts of improvement during childhood. We found no evidence that they do. Face and body recognition showed similar improvement with age, and children, like adults, were better at recognizing faces than bodies. These results suggest that the mechanisms of face and body memory mature at a similar rate or that improvement of more general cognitive and perceptual skills underlies improvement of both face and body recognition.

  16. Safety, immunogenicity, and tolerability of three influenza vaccines in older adults: results of a randomized, controlled comparison.

    PubMed

    Scheifele, David W; McNeil, Shelly A; Ward, Brian J; Dionne, Marc; Cooper, Curtis; Coleman, Brenda; Loeb, Mark; Rubinstein, Ethan; McElhaney, Janet; Hatchette, Todd; Li, Yan; Montomoli, Emanuele; Schneeberg, Amy; Bettinger, Julie A; Halperin, Scott A

    2013-11-01

    To determine if newer influenza vaccines can safely improve seroprotection rates of older adults, we compared three licensed trivalent inactivated vaccines (TIVs) in a randomized, controlled trial with evaluator blinding. Participants were non-frail adults ≥ 65 y old, annually TIV-immunized. Study vaccines included intradermal (IDV), MF59-adjuvanted (ADV) and subunit (TIV) formulations of equal potency and strain composition. Blood was obtained before vaccination (V1) and 21 (V2) and 180 d (V3) afterward and tested by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay. Safety diaries were completed daily by participants and specific tolerability questions were posed regarding injections and symptoms. In total, 911 participants were immunized and 887 (97.4%) completed V3. Groups had similar demographics. General symptom rates post-vaccination were similar among groups. Rates of injection site redness after IDV/ADV/TIV were 75%/13%/13% and rates of pain were 29%/38%/20%, respectively, but each vaccine was well tolerated, with symptoms causing little bother. Baseline antibody titers did not differ significantly among groups but B/Brisbane titers were too high for meaningful response assessments. At V2, seroprotection rates (HAI titer ≥ 40) were highest after ADV, the rate advantage over IDV and TIV being significant at 11.8% and 11.4% for H3N2 and 10.2% and 12.5% for H1N1, respectively. At day 180, seroprotection rates had declined ~25% and no longer differed significantly among groups. While IDV and TIV were also well tolerated, ADV induced modestly higher antibody titers in seniors to influenza A strains at 3 weeks but not 6 mo post-vaccination. Immune responses to IDV and TIV were similar in this population.

  17. Profile of adults seeking voluntary HIV testing and counseling in rural Central India: results from a hospital-based study.

    PubMed

    Pai, Nitika Pant; Joshi, Rajnish; Moodie, Erica E M; Taksande, Bharati; Kalantri, S P; Pai, Madhukar; Tulsky, Jacqueline P; Reingold, Arthur

    2009-03-01

    Rural India has an undetected load of HIV-positive individuals. Few rural adults present for HIV testing and counseling due to stigma, discrimination, and fear of social ostracization. In this rural hospital clinic-based study, we document profiles of rural adults seeking voluntary testing and counseling, and analyze correlates of HIV seropositivity. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 450 participants presenting to the outpatient clinics of Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, Central India. After informed consent, pre- and post-test counseling, HIV testing, and face-to-face interviews were conducted. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. The median age of the 450 study participants was 34 years (range 18-88 years); the majority (74%) was married. The overall proportion of HIV seropositivity was 32% [95% CI 28%, 37%]. The proportions of HIV seropositivity in married women, married men, and single men were 41%, 37%, 18%, respectively. No single woman was found seropositive in the study. Very few married women were aware of their husbands' HIV status. In a multivariate analysis, correlates of HIV seropositivity in men were: age 30-39 years, being married, having sex with multiple partners, use of alcohol before sex, and testing positive for HIV in the past. In married women, the only predictor of seropositivity was being married. Although limited by the non-random nature of the sampling method, this pilot study is unique in that it is the first from this rural region of Central India. It provides baseline data on marginalized, largely unstudied populations that may aid in designing probabilistic community-based surveys in this neglected population.

  18. Nut consumption is associated with better nutrient intakes: results from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rachel C; Tey, Siew Ling; Gray, Andrew R; Chisholm, Alex; Smith, Claire; Fleming, Elizabeth; Parnell, Winsome

    2016-01-14

    A limited number of studies have examined associations between nut consumption and nutrient intakes or diet quality. None has investigated these associations in the Southern Hemisphere. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between nut consumption and nutrient intakes among adult New Zealanders. Data from the 24-h recalls of 4721 participants from the cross-sectional 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey (2008/09 NZANS) were used to determine whole nut intake and total nut intake from all sources as well as nutrient intakes. Regression models, both unadjusted and adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate differences in nutrient intakes between those consuming and those not consuming nuts. From adjusted models, compared with non-whole nut consumers, whole nut consumers had higher intakes of energy and percentage of energy from total fat, MUFA and PUFA, whereas percentage of energy from SFA and carbohydrate was lower (all P≤0·025). After the additional adjustment for energy intake, whole nut consumers had higher intakes of dietary fibre, vitamin E, folate, Cu, Mg, K, P and Zn (all P≤0·044), whereas cholesterol and vitamin B12 intakes were significantly lower (both P≤0·013). Total nut consumption was associated with similar nutrient profiles as observed in whole nut consumers, albeit less pronounced. Nut consumption was associated with better nutrient profiles, especially a lower intake of SFA and higher intakes of unsaturated fats and a number of vitamins and minerals that could collectively reduce the risk for chronic disease, in particular for CVD.

  19. Profiles of Organic Food Consumers in a Large Sample of French Adults: Results from the Nutrinet-Santé Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Péneau, Sandrine; Méjean, Caroline; Szabo de Edelenyi, Fabien; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Background Lifestyle, dietary patterns and nutritional status of organic food consumers have rarely been described, while interest for a sustainable diet is markedly increasing. Methods Consumer attitude and frequency of use of 18 organic products were assessed in 54,311 adult participants in the Nutrinet-Santé cohort. Cluster analysis was performed to identify behaviors associated with organic product consumption. Socio-demographic characteristics, food consumption and nutrient intake across clusters are provided. Cross-sectional association with overweight/obesity was estimated using polytomous logistic regression. Results Five clusters were identified: 3 clusters of non-consumers whose reasons differed, occasional (OCOP, 51%) and regular (RCOP, 14%) organic product consumers. RCOP were more highly educated and physically active than other clusters. They also exhibited dietary patterns that included more plant foods and less sweet and alcoholic beverages, processed meat or milk. Their nutrient intake profiles (fatty acids, most minerals and vitamins, fibers) were healthier and they more closely adhered to dietary guidelines. In multivariate models (after accounting for confounders, including level of adherence to nutritional guidelines), compared to those not interested in organic products, RCOP participants showed a markedly lower probability of overweight (excluding obesity) (25≤body mass index<30) and obesity (body mass index ≥30): −36% and −62% in men and −42% and −48% in women, respectively (P<0.0001). OCOP participants (%) generally showed intermediate figures. Conclusions Regular consumers of organic products, a sizeable group in our sample, exhibit specific socio-demographic characteristics, and an overall healthy profile which should be accounted for in further studies analyzing organic food intake and health markers. PMID:24204721

  20. The relationship between smoking, body weight, body mass index, and dietary intake among Thai adults: results of the national Thai Food Consumption Survey.

    PubMed

    Jitnarin, Nattinee; Kosulwat, Vongsvat; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Boonpraderm, Atitada; Haddock, Christopher K; Poston, Walker S C

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the relationship between dietary intake, body weight, and body mass index (BMI) in adult Thais as a function of smoking status. A cross-sectional, nationally representative survey using health and dietary questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were used. Participants were 7858 Thai adults aged 18 years and older recruited from 17 provinces in Thailand. Results demonstrated that smoking is associated with lower weights and BMI. However, when smokers were stratified by smoking intensity, there was no dose-response relationship between smoking and body weight. There is no conclusive explanation for weight differences across smoking groups in this sample, and the results of the present study did not clearly support any of the purported mechanisms for the differences in body weight or BMI. In addition, because the substantial negative health consequences of smoking are far stronger than those associated with modest weight differences, smoking cannot be viewed as an appropriate weight management strategy.

  1. Association between smoking status and the parameters of vascular structure and function in adults: results from the EVIDENT study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study analyses the relation between smoking status and the parameters used to assess vascular structure and function. Methods This cross-sectional, multi-centre study involved a random sample of 1553 participants from the EVIDENT study. Measurements: The smoking status, peripheral augmentation index and ankle-brachial index were measured in all participants. In a small subset of the main population (265 participants), the carotid intima-media thickness and pulse wave velocity were also measured. Results After controlling for the effect of age, sex and other risk factors, present smokers have higher values of carotid intima-media thickness (p = 0.011). Along the same lines, current smokers have higher values of pulse wave velocity and lower mean values of ankle-brachial index but without statistical significance in both cases. Conclusions Among the parameters of vascular structure and function analysed, only the IMT shows association with the smoking status, after adjusting for confounders. PMID:24289208

  2. Reaching Non-Readers: Meeting Needs in Adult Literacy Services. Results of a Conference of Adult Literacy Specialists at Gannett Foundation Headquarters (Arlington, VA, May 15, 1990). A Gannett Foundation Conference Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannett Foundation, Arlington, VA.

    The first of two conferences on adult literacy focused on what needs to be done to give all nonreading U.S. adults the chance to learn to read, write, and do basic math. The number of adults seeking help in learning basic skills far exceeds the capacity of current adult literacy services to help them. Barriers to remedying the problem include lack…

  3. Considerations in Applying the Results of Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials to the Care of Older Adults With Kidney Disease in the Clinical Setting: The SHARP Trial.

    PubMed

    Butler, Catherine R; O'Hare, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    The Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP) found that treatment with ezetemibe and low-dose simvastatin reduced the incidence of major atherosclerotic events in patients with kidney disease. Due to the paucity of evidence-based interventions that lower cardiovascular morbidity in this high-risk population, the SHARP trial will likely have a large impact on clinical practice. However, applying the results of clinical trials conducted in select populations to the care of individual patients in real-world settings can be fraught with difficulty. This is especially true when caring for older adults with complex comorbidity and limited life expectancy. These patients are often excluded from clinical trials, frequently have competing health priorities, and may be less likely to benefit and more likely to be harmed by medications. We discuss key considerations in applying the results of the SHARP trial to the care of older adults with CKD in real-world clinical settings using guiding principles set forth by the American Geriatrics Society's Expert Panel on the Care of Older Adults with Multimorbidity. Using this schema, we emphasize the importance of evaluating trial results in the unique context of each patient's goals, values, priorities, and circumstances.

  4. Prenatal exposure to interleukin-6 results in hypertension and increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Samuelsson, Anne-Maj; Ohrn, Iris; Dahlgren, Jovanna; Eriksson, Elias; Angelin, Bo; Folkow, Björn; Holmäng, Agneta

    2004-11-01

    During pregnancy, systemic inflammatory responses induce cytokines that may stress the fetus and contribute to cardiovascular and neuroendocrine dysfunction in adulthood. We evaluated the effects of early and late prenatal exposure to IL-6 on mean systolic arterial pressure (MSAP) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation in male and female rats at 5-24 wk of age. MSAP and ACTH and corticosterone levels were measured basally and in response to a novel environment, immobilization stress, and stimulation with corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and ACTH. In addition, mRNA expression and protein levels of glucocorticoid receptor, mineralocorticoid receptor, CRF receptor type 1, and CRF were estimated in brain areas thought to mediate central effects of corticosteroids on the HPA axis and on central neuroendocrine regulation of MSAP. Both early and late prenatal IL-6 exposure led to hypertension, which was evident in females at 5 wk of age. In adult rats, basal ACTH and corticosterone levels were elevated, the responses to stress and stimulation tests were of extended duration, and circadian rhythm during the light period was flattened and reversed. Mineralocorticoid receptor and glucocorticoid receptor mRNA expression was reduced in the hippocampus, the CRF level was increased in the hypothalamus, and CRF receptor type 1 mRNA expression was increased in the pituitary. These findings suggest that fetal stress induced by prenatal exposure to IL-6 leads to hypertension and dysregulation of HPA axis activity during adulthood.

  5. Coffee consumption and cystatin-C-based estimated glomerular filtration rates in healthy young adults: results of a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Saito, Masafumi; Nemoto, Tohru; Tobimatsu, Satoshi; Ebata, Midori; Le, Yulan; Nakajima, Kei

    2011-01-01

    Recently it has been reported that the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is higher in habitual coffee consumers than in noncoffee consumers. However, the causality remains unclear. Therefore, we conducted a clinical trial to investigate the effects of coffee consumption on kidney function. Nineteen asymptomatic nonsmokers aged 21-27 years old participated in this study. They consumed coffee (18 g coffee beans/450 mL per day) or green tea as a comparator for 2 weeks in a crossover design. Although creatinine-based eGFR was not affected after consuming either beverage, all cystatin-C-based eGFRs determined using five different equations were significantly increased after coffee consumption (means: 5.0-7.7%), but not after green tea consumption (means: 0.1-1.6%). Serum adiponectin and magnesium levels increased significantly after coffee consumption (means: 13.6% and 4.3%, resp.), but not after green tea consumption. These findings suggest that even a short period of coffee consumption may increase cystatin-C-based eGFR, along with favorable changes in serum adiponectin, in healthy young adults. PMID:21773013

  6. Dietary factors and the risk of glioma in adults: results of a case-control study in Melbourne, Australia.

    PubMed

    Giles, G G; McNeil, J J; Donnan, G; Webley, C; Staples, M P; Ireland, P D; Hurley, S F; Salzberg, M

    1994-11-01

    In a population-based case-control study of 416 incident gliomas in adults carried out in Melbourne, Australia, between 1987 and 1991, 409 age-sex-matched case-control pairs (243 male and 166 female) had adequate data available to examine associations between the dietary intake of N-nitroso compounds, N-nitroso precursors, other nutrients including N-nitroso inhibitors, and the risk of glioma. Dietary intakes were based on the reported frequency of consumption of 59 food items. Increased odds ratio (OR) were observed in males who consumed high levels of bacon, corned meats, apples, melons and oil. OR less than unity were observed in men consuming cabbage and cola drinks, and in women who consumed wholegrain bread, pasta, corned meat, bananas, cauliflower, brocoli, cola drinks and nuts. Generally, N-nitroso associations were greater in men and micronutrient associations were greater in women. Elevated OR in men, but not women, were associated with the intake of N-nitroso dimethylamine (NDMA), retinol and vitamin E. The intake of nitrate (largely of vegetable origin) was protective in women but not in men. When analyzed using multiple logistic regression, the association with NDMA intake in males was not modified by dietary micronutrient intakes. In females, beta carotene alone, though not directly associated with risk, modified the effect of NDMA. On balance, this study added only limited support to the N-nitroso hypothesis of glial carcinogenesis. PMID:7927941

  7. Spatiotemporally Regulated Ablation of Klf4 in Adult Mouse Corneal Epithelial Cells Results in Altered Epithelial Cell Identity and Disrupted Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Delp, Emili E.; Swamynathan, Sudha; Kao, Winston W.; Swamynathan, Shivalingappa K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. In previous studies, conditional disruption of Klf4 in the developing mouse ocular surface from embryonic day 10 resulted in corneal epithelial fragility, stromal edema, and loss of conjunctival goblet cells, revealing the importance of Klf4 in ocular surface maturation. Here, we use spatiotemporally regulated ablation of Klf4 to investigate its functions in maintenance of adult corneal epithelial homeostasis. Methods. Expression of Cre was induced in ternary transgenic (Klf4LoxP/LoxP/Krt12rtTA/rtTA/Tet-O-Cre) mouse corneal epithelium by doxycycline administered through intraperitoneal injections and drinking water, to generate corneal epithelium–specific deletion of Klf4 (Klf4Δ/ΔCE). Corneal epithelial barrier function was tested by fluorescein staining. Expression of selected Klf4-target genes was determined by quantitative PCR (QPCR), immunoblotting, and immunofluorescent staining. Results. Klf4 was efficiently ablated within 5 days of doxycycline administration in adult Klf4Δ/ΔCE corneal epithelium. The Klf4Δ/ΔCE corneal epithelial barrier function was disrupted, and the basal cells were swollen and rounded after 15 days of doxycycline treatment. Increased numbers of cell layers and Ki67-positive proliferating cells suggested deregulated Klf4Δ/ΔCE corneal epithelial homeostasis. Expression of tight junction proteins ZO-1 and occludin, desmosomal Dsg and Dsp, basement membrane laminin-332, and corneal epithelial–specific keratin-12 was decreased, while that of matrix metalloproteinase Mmp9 and noncorneal keratin-17 increased, suggesting altered Klf4Δ/ΔCE corneal epithelial cell identity. Conclusions. Ablation of Klf4 in the adult mouse corneas resulted in the absence of characteristic corneal epithelial cell differentiation, disrupted barrier function, and squamous metaplasia, revealing that Klf4 is essential for maintenance of the adult corneal epithelial cell identity and homeostasis. PMID:26047041

  8. Presentation and management of acute coronary syndromes among adult persons with haemophilia: results of an international, retrospective, 10-year survey.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, P F; Mancuso, M E; Kasthuri, R; Bidlingmaier, C; Chitlur, M; Gomez, K; Holme, P A; James, P; Kruse-Jarres, R; Mahlangu, J; Mingot-Castellano, M E; Soni, A

    2015-09-01

    Sparse data are available on presentation and management of acute coronary syndromes (ACS), including unstable angina and non-ST- and ST-elevation myocardial infarction, among persons with haemophilia (PWH). The aim of this study was to determine demographics, bleeding disorder characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs), interventions, haemostatic protocol, revascularization outcomes and complications among PWH with ACS. Members of an international consortium comprising >2000 adult PWH retrospectively completed case report forms for episodes of ACS in a >10-year follow-up period (2003-2013). Twenty ACS episodes occurred among 19 patients [rate, 0.8% (95% CI 0.4, 1.2)]. Seven patients (37%) were aged <50 years; 10 (53%) had ≥3 CRFs. In 5/20 episodes (25%), the initial ACS management protocol was altered because of the bleeding disorder. None of the eight patients with severe haemophilia underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), compared with 54.5% of patients with non-severe disease (P = 0.02). Revascularization with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or CABG was rated successful in 13/13 cases, with no excessive bleeding during initial management. During chronic exposure to antiplatelet agents, secondary haemophilia prophylaxis was more prevalent in patients with severe haemophilia compared with non-severe haemophilia (85.7% vs. 30%, P = 0.05). No ACS-related deaths occurred during initial management, but one patient with severe haemophilia A died of undetermined cause 36 months after the ACS event while on aspirin therapy. ACS occurs even among relatively younger PWH, typically in association with multiple CRFs. Revascularization with PCI/CABG is feasible, and antiplatelet agents plus secondary prophylaxis appears to be well tolerated in selected PWH with ACS.

  9. Gait energetic efficiency in older adults with and without knee pain: results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    PubMed

    Ko, Seung-Uk; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2015-02-01

    With aging, customary gait patterns change and energetic efficiency declines, but the relationship between these alterations is not well understood. If gait characteristics that develop with aging explain part of the decline in energetic efficiency that occur in most aging individuals, then efforts to modify these characteristics could delay or prevent mobility limitation. This study characterizes gait patterns in older persons with and without knee pain and tests the hypothesis that changes in gait characteristics due to knee pain are associated with increased energetic cost of walking in older adults. Study participants were 364 men and 170 women aged 60 to 96 years enrolled in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), of whom 86 had prevalent knee pain. Gait patterns were assessed at participant self-selected usual pace in the gait laboratory, and the energetic cost of walking was assessed by indirect calorimetry during self-selected usual pace walking over 2.5 min in a tiled corridor using a portable equipment. Participants with knee pain were less energetically efficient than those without pain (oxygen consumption 0.97 vs. 0.88 ml/(10 m · 100 kg); p = 0.002) and had slower gait speed and smaller range of motion (ROM) at the hip and knee joints (p < 0.05, for all). Slower gait speed and lower knee ROM in participants with knee pain and longer double support time and higher ankle ROM in participants without knee pain were associated with lower energetic efficiency (p < 0.05, for all). Slower gait speed and lower knee ROM were correlates of knee pain and were found to mediate the association between age and oxygen consumption. Although knee pain is associated with a higher energetic cost of walking, gait characteristics associated with energetic efficiency differ by pain status which suggests that compensatory strategies both in the presence and absence of pain may impact gait efficiency.

  10. Being breastfed in infancy and breast cancer incidence in adult life: results from the two nurses' health studies.

    PubMed

    Michels, K B; Trichopoulos, D; Rosner, B A; Hunter, D J; Colditz, G A; Hankinson, S E; Speizer, F E; Willett, W C

    2001-02-01

    Events during perinatal and early life may influence the incidence of breast cancer in adult life, and some case-control studies suggest that having been breastfed may reduce breast cancer risk. The authors studied this association among premenopausal and postmenopausal women by using data from the two Nurses' Health Studies, the Nurses' Health Study (using data from 1992 to 1996) and the Nurses' Health Study II (using data from 1991 to 1997). A history of being breastfed was self-reported by the study participants. During a total of 695,655 person-years, 1,073 cases of invasive breast cancer were diagnosed. The authors did not observe any important overall association between having been breastfed and the development of breast cancer later in life among premenopausal women (covariate-adjusted relative risk = 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.78, 1.20) or postmenopausal women (covariate-adjusted relative risk = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.92, 1.37). No significant trend was observed with increasing duration of breastfeeding. The authors also used data on breastfeeding retrospectively collected from 2,103 mothers of participants of the two Nurses' Health Studies. With the mothers' reports, the covariate-adjusted odds ratio of breast cancer was 1.11 (95% CI: 0.88, 1.39) for women who were breastfed compared with those who were not. Data from these two large cohorts do not support the hypothesis that being breastfed confers protection against subsequent breast cancer. PMID:11157415

  11. Patterns and predictors of nut consumption: results from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rachel C; Tey, Siew Ling; Gray, Andrew R; Chisholm, Alexandra; Smith, Claire; Fleming, Elizabeth; Blakey, Charlie; Parnell, Winsome

    2014-12-28

    Regular nut consumption is associated with reduced CVD risk. Insight into nut consumption patterns provides important information to help design strategies to encourage intake. The present study aimed to describe nut consumption in terms of the percentage of consumers, mean grams eaten among the population and nut consumers, and to identify the predictors of nut consumption. Data from the 24 h dietary recalls of the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey (n 4721) were used to measure nut consumption. On the recall day, the percentages of consumers of whole nuts, nut butters and nuts from hidden sources were 6.9% (n 240), 7.2% (n 346) and 19.2% (n 732), respectively (28.9% (n 1167) combined (total)). The mean grams consumed by the population were relatively low for whole nuts (2.8 g/d), nut butters (0.9 g/d), nuts from hidden sources (1.5 g/d) and total nuts (5.2 g/d). Among consumers, the mean daily grams of whole nuts, nut butters, nuts from hidden sources and total nuts eaten were 40.3, 12.9, 7.8 and 17.9 g/d, respectively. Those aged 15-18 years had the lowest whole nut consumption, but had the highest nut butter consumption. The consumption of total nuts was positively associated with education and socio-economic status, while whole nut consumption was inversely associated with BMI. In conclusion, the low percentage of nut consumers is of concern and new strategies to increase nut consumption are required. Future public health initiatives should be mindful of these patterns and predictors. In particular, different forms of nuts may appeal to different age and socio-economic groups.

  12. Pain at multiple body sites and health-related quality of life in older adults: results from the North Staffordshire Osteoarthritis Project

    PubMed Central

    Belcher, John; Rathod, Trishna; Wilkie, Ross; Thomas, Elaine; McBeth, John

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Number of pain sites (NPS) is a potentially important marker of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) but remains unexplored in older people. This cross-sectional study investigated whether, in older people including the oldest old, NPS was independently associated with poorer mental and physical HRQoL and if the association was moderated by age. Methods. A postal questionnaire sent to a population sample of adults aged ≥50 years in North Staffordshire, UK, included the 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) mental component summary (MCS) and physical component summary (PCS), a blank body pain manikin, socio-demographic, health behaviour and morbidity questions. Participants shaded sites of pain lasting ≥1 day in the past 4 weeks on the manikin. OA consultation data were obtained for participants consenting to medical records review. Results. A total of 13 986 individuals (adjusted response 70.6%) completed a questionnaire, of which 12 408 provided complete pain data. The median NPS reported was 4 [interquartile range (IQR) 0–8]. General linear models showed that an increasing NPS was significantly associated with poorer MCS (β = −0.43, 95% CI −0.46, −0.40) and PCS (β = −0.87, 95% CI −0.90, −0.84). Adjustment for covariates attenuated the associations but they remained significant (MCS: β = −0.28, 95% CI −0.31, −0.24; PCS: β = −0.63, 95% CI −0.66, −0.59). The association between NPS and MCS or PCS was moderated by age, but the strongest associations were not in the oldest old. Conclusion. NPS appears to be a potentially modifiable target for improving physical and mental HRQoL in older people. Future analyses should investigate the influence of NPS on HRQoL over time in older people. PMID:24925881

  13. Two-year seizure reduction in adults with medically intractable partial onset epilepsy treated with responsive neurostimulation: Final results of the RNS System Pivotal trial

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Christianne N; King-Stephens, David; Massey, Andrew D; Nair, Dileep R; Jobst, Barbara C; Barkley, Gregory L; Salanova, Vicenta; Cole, Andrew J; Smith, Michael C; Gwinn, Ryder P; Skidmore, Christopher; Van Ness, Paul C; Bergey, Gregory K; Park, Yong D; Miller, Ian; Geller, Eric; Rutecki, Paul A; Zimmerman, Richard; Spencer, David C; Goldman, Alica; Edwards, Jonathan C; Leiphart, James W; Wharen, Robert E; Fessler, James; Fountain, Nathan B; Worrell, Gregory A; Gross, Robert E; Eisenschenk, Stephan; Duckrow, Robert B; Hirsch, Lawrence J; Bazil, Carl; O'Donovan, Cormac A; Sun, Felice T; Courtney, Tracy A; Seale, Cairn G; Morrell, Martha J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of responsive stimulation at the seizure focus as an adjunctive therapy to reduce the frequency of seizures in adults with medically intractable partial onset seizures arising from one or two seizure foci. Methods Randomized multicenter double-blinded controlled trial of responsive focal cortical stimulation (RNS System). Subjects with medically intractable partial onset seizures from one or two foci were implanted, and 1 month postimplant were randomized 1:1 to active or sham stimulation. After the fifth postimplant month, all subjects received responsive stimulation in an open label period (OLP) to complete 2 years of postimplant follow-up. Results All 191 subjects were randomized. The percent change in seizures at the end of the blinded period was −37.9% in the active and −17.3% in the sham stimulation group (p = 0.012, Generalized Estimating Equations). The median percent reduction in seizures in the OLP was 44% at 1 year and 53% at 2 years, which represents a progressive and significant improvement with time (p < 0.0001). The serious adverse event rate was not different between subjects receiving active and sham stimulation. Adverse events were consistent with the known risks of an implanted medical device, seizures, and of other epilepsy treatments. There were no adverse effects on neuropsychological function or mood. Significance Responsive stimulation to the seizure focus reduced the frequency of partial-onset seizures acutely, showed improving seizure reduction over time, was well tolerated, and was acceptably safe. The RNS System provides an additional treatment option for patients with medically intractable partial-onset seizures. PMID:24621228

  14. Association between anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, & early life factors & adult measures of endothelial function: Results from the New Delhi Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Huffman, Mark D.; Khalil, Anita; Osmond, Clive; Fall, Caroline H. D.; Tandon, Nikhil; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Ramji, Siddharth; Gera, Tarun; Prabhakaran, Poornima; Dey Biswas, S. K.; Reddy, K. Srinath; Bhargava, Santosh K.; Sachdev, Harshpal S.; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Abnormal endothelial function represents a preclinical marker of atherosclerosis. This study was conducted to evaluate associations between anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, and early life factors and adult measures of endothelial function in a young urban Indian cohort free of clinical cardiovascular disease. Methods: Absolute changes in brachial artery diameter following cuff inflation and sublingual nitroglycerin (400 µg) were recorded to evaluate endothelium-dependent and -independent measures of endothelial function in 600 participants (362 men; 238 women) from the New Delhi Birth Cohort (2006-2009). Data on anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, medical history, socio-economic position, and lifestyle habits were collected. Height and weight were recorded at birth, two and 11 yr of age. Age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models were developed to evaluate these associations. Results: The mean age of participants was 36±1 yr. Twenty two per cent men and 29 per cent women were obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2). Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) was 131±14 and 119±13 mmHg, and diabetes prevalence was 12 and 8 per cent for men and women, respectively. Brachial artery diameter was higher for men compared with women both before (3.48±0.37 and 2.95±0.35 cm) and after hyperaemia (3.87±0.37 vs. 3.37±0.35 cm). A similar difference was seen before and after nitroglycerin. Markers of increased adiposity, smoking, SBP, and metabolic syndrome, but not early life anthropometry, were inversely associated with endothelial function after adjustment for age and sex. Interpretation & conclusions: The analysis of the current prospective data from a young urban Indian cohort showed that cardiometabolic risk factors, but not early life anthropometry, were associated with worse endothelial function. PMID:26831418

  15. Effect of a Lifestyle Intervention on Change in Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD Study

    PubMed Central

    Jakicic, John M.; Jaramillo, Sarah A.; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Bancroft, Barbara; Curtis, Jeffery M.; Mathews, Anne; Pereira, Mark; Regensteiner, Judith G.; Ribisl, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of an intensive lifestyle weight loss intervention (ILI) compared to diabetes support and education (DSE) on changes in fitness and physical activity in the Look AHEAD trial. Design Randomized clinical trial to compare a lifestyle intervention for weight loss with a diabetes support and education condition in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Subjects Data from 4,376 overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes (age = 58.7±6.8 years, BMI = 35.8±5.8 kg/m2) who completed one-year of the Look AHEAD trial and had available fitness data were analyzed. Intervention Subjects were randomly assigned to DSE or ILI. DSE received standard-care plus 3 education sessions over the one-year period. ILI included individual and group contact throughout the year, restriction in energy intake, and 175 min/wk of prescribed physical activity. Measurements Fitness was assessed using a submaximal graded exercise test. Physical activity was assessed via questionnaire in a subset of 2,221 subjects. Results Change in fitness was statistically greater in ILI vs. DSE after adjustment for baseline fitness (20.9% vs. 5.7%) (p<0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed that change in fitness was greater in overweight vs. obese Class II and III (p<0.05). Physical activity increased by 892±1694 kcal/wk in ILI vs. 108±1254 kcal/wk in DSE (p<0.01). Changes in fitness (r=0.41) and physical activity (r=0.42) were significantly correlated with weight loss (p<0.0001). Conclusions The ILI was effective in increasing physical activity and improving cardiorespiratory fitness in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. This effect may add to weight loss in improving metabolic control in patients in lifestyle intervention programs. PMID:19153582

  16. Haemophilia Experiences, Results and Opportunities (HERO) Study: influence of haemophilia on interpersonal relationships as reported by adults with haemophilia and parents of children with haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Cassis, F R M Y; Buzzi, A; Forsyth, A; Gregory, M; Nugent, D; Garrido, C; Pilgaard, T; Cooper, D L; Iorio, A

    2014-07-01

    Evidence delineating the effects of haemophilia on interpersonal relationships is sparse and largely outdated, failing to reflect the impact of current treatment strategies. HERO (Haemophilia Experiences, Results and Opportunities) was commenced to garner a more comprehensive understanding of psychosocial issues facing persons with haemophilia (PWH). This article describes the findings of the quantitative HERO survey relating to the influence of haemophilia on interpersonal relationships of adult PWH, and parents/caregivers of children with haemophilia. Separate questionnaires were completed by adult PWH and parents of minor children from 10 countries, including satisfaction with support from partners, family, friends and other social contacts; disclosure of haemophilia and carrier status and family dynamics. A total of 675 PWH and 561 parents completed the survey. Over half of PWH (57%) and parents (84%) were married. Most PWH were satisfied with support from partners (94%), family (90%) and friends (85%), with lower percentages reported among those with inhibitors. Most parents were likewise satisfied with support from partners (88%) and family (83%). Whereas PWH were reticent to disclose their diagnosis beyond family and friends, parents were more likely to share their son's diagnosis, and most were satisfied with the support from their son's peers (74%), teachers (83%) and other adults in supervisory roles (85%). PWH and parents surveyed were satisfied overall with the support they received from partners, family, friends and social contacts. Relationships are affected by haemophilia in various ways, and particularly affected in terms of disease burden, age and social life.

  17. Is Acculturation Related to Obesity in Hispanic/Latino Adults? Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Isasi, Carmen R.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Penedo, Frank; Loria, Catherine M.; Elder, John P.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Barnhart, Janice; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Schneiderman, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Background. The study examined the association of obesity with acculturation in a large and diverse sample of US Hispanic/Latino adults. Methods. The Hispanic Community Health Study (HCHS)/Study of Latinos (SOL) is a community-based cohort study of Hispanic/Latino adults aged 18–74 years (N = 16,415) from four urban areas. Height and weight were directly measured using a standardized protocol. Acculturation was assessed by the Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanics (SASH). Other immigration related variables included place of birth, length of residency in the US, and age at immigration. Odds ratios were calculated to assess the association of overweight, moderate obesity, and extreme obesity (≥40 kg/m2) with acculturation and sociodemographic variables. Results. The prevalence of obesity was 42.4% for women and 36.5% for men and varied by field center and Hispanic/Latino background. The strongest predictor of moderate and extreme obesity was length of residency in mainland US. This association was consistent across Hispanic/Latino backgrounds. Acculturation was not significantly associated with obesity. Discussion. The burden of obesity is high among Hispanic/Latino adults. The study findings suggest that prolonged exposure to the environments in these communities, rather than acculturation, is an important risk factor for obesity in this population. PMID:25893114

  18. Childhood social class and adult adiposity and blood-pressure trajectories 36–53 years: gender-specific results from a British birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Strand, Bjørn Heine; Murray, Emily T; Guralnik, Jack; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Background In this study, the authors investigate gender-specific effects of childhood socio-economic position (SEP) on adiposity and blood pressure at three time points in adulthood. Methods Mixed models were used to assess the association of childhood SEP with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at ages 36, 43 and 53 years in a British birth cohort. Results The adverse effect of lower childhood SEP on adiposity increased between ages 36 and 53 years in women (BMI: trend test: p=0.03) and remained stable in men, but the opposite was seen for SBP, where inequalities increased in men (p=0.01). Childhood SEP inequalities in DBP were stable with age in both men and women. Educational attainment mediated some but not all of the effects of childhood SEP on adiposity and SBP, and their rate of change; adult social class was a less important mediator. Conclusion Childhood SEP is important for adult adiposity and blood pressure across midlife, especially for BMI in women and for blood pressure in men. Thus, pathways to adult health differ for men and women, and public health policies aimed at reducing social inequalities need to start early in life and take account of gender. PMID:21098826

  19. Naphthalene biomarkers and relationship with hemoglobin and hematocrit in White, Black, and Hispanic adults: results from the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Sudakin, Daniel L; Smit, Ellen; Cardenas, Andres; Harding, Anna

    2013-06-01

    Naphthalene is an important contaminant in indoor and outdoor air. Acute overexposure can have toxic effects, resulting in hemolysis. There have been no studies evaluating the impact of environmental exposure on red blood cell indices. We examined 1- and 2-hydroxynaphthalene urinary metabolites (NAP1 and NAP2) in non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Mexican-American adults in the USA and their relationship with hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (HCT). Using the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, weighted generalized linear regression analyses were used to examine the association between Hb (in grams per deciliter) and HCT (in percent) with NAP1 and NAP2 (per 100,000 ng/L). Beta coefficients ± SE are reported. NAP1 and NAP2 were highest in non-Hispanic Blacks, followed by non-Hispanic Whites, and lowest in Mexican-American adults. There was a positive association between NAP1 and Hb (0.39 ± 0.11, p = 0.0034) and HCT (1.14 ± 0.28, p = 0.0009) after adjusting for age, gender, race, education, and smoking. Stratified analysis by smoking showed similar results with the association being stronger for smokers (Hb 0.63 ± 0.23, p = 0.02; HCT 1.43 ± 0.79, p = 0.09) than nonsmokers (Hb 0.34 ± 0.14, p = 0.03; HCT 1.08 ± 0.42, p = 0.02). The association was also stronger for non-Hispanic blacks (Hb 0.54 ± 0.20, p = 0.02; HCT 1.43 ± 0.55, p = 0.02) than for non-Hispanic whites (Hb 0.37 ± 0.18, p = 0.06; HCT 1.20 ± 0.51, p = 0.03) and was not significant for Mexican-Americans (Hb 0.30 ± 1.7, p = 0.10; HCT 0.99 ± 0.52, p = 0.08). NAP2 was not significantly associated with Hb or HCT. The observed disparity in NAP1 and NAP2 levels by race/ethnicity is consistent with published literature. The origin of these differences in exposure is unclear but may reflect differences in environmental exposure as well as genetic susceptibility. The

  20. Talk or text to tell? How young adults in Canada and South Africa prefer to receive STI results, counseling, and treatment updates in a wireless world.

    PubMed

    Labacher, Lukas; Mitchell, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Young adults often lack access to confidential, long-lasting, and nonjudgmental interactions with sexual health professionals at brick-and-mortar clinics. To ensure that patients return for their STI test results, post-result counseling, and STI-related information, computer-mediated health intervention programming allows them to receive sexual health information through onsite computers, the Internet, and mobile phone calls and text messages. To determine whether young adults (age: M = 21 years) prefer to communicate with health professionals about the status of their sexual health through computer-mediated communication devices, 303 second-year university students (183 from an urban North American university and 120 from a periurban university in South Africa) completed a paper-based survey indicating how they prefer to communicate with doctors and nurses: talking face to face, mobile phone call, text message, Internet chat programs, Facebook, Twitter, or e-mail. Nearly all students, and female students in South Africa in particular, prefer to receive their STI test results, post-results counseling, and STI-related information by talking face to face with doctors and nurses rather than communicating through computers or mobile phones. Results are clarified in relation to gender, availability of various technologies, and prevalence of HIV in Canada and in South Africa. PMID:24015829

  1. Talk or text to tell? How young adults in Canada and South Africa prefer to receive STI results, counseling, and treatment updates in a wireless world.

    PubMed

    Labacher, Lukas; Mitchell, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Young adults often lack access to confidential, long-lasting, and nonjudgmental interactions with sexual health professionals at brick-and-mortar clinics. To ensure that patients return for their STI test results, post-result counseling, and STI-related information, computer-mediated health intervention programming allows them to receive sexual health information through onsite computers, the Internet, and mobile phone calls and text messages. To determine whether young adults (age: M = 21 years) prefer to communicate with health professionals about the status of their sexual health through computer-mediated communication devices, 303 second-year university students (183 from an urban North American university and 120 from a periurban university in South Africa) completed a paper-based survey indicating how they prefer to communicate with doctors and nurses: talking face to face, mobile phone call, text message, Internet chat programs, Facebook, Twitter, or e-mail. Nearly all students, and female students in South Africa in particular, prefer to receive their STI test results, post-results counseling, and STI-related information by talking face to face with doctors and nurses rather than communicating through computers or mobile phones. Results are clarified in relation to gender, availability of various technologies, and prevalence of HIV in Canada and in South Africa.

  2. [A comparison of teenage and adult mothers with mental diseases. Preliminary results of the project "chances for children of parents with mental diseases and/or addiction problems"].

    PubMed

    Kluth, S; Stern, K; Trebes, J; Freyberger, H-J

    2010-11-01

    This study enrolled mentally ill mothers from Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany, with children between the ages of 0 and 3 years. Using different self and expert ratings, psychological symptoms, social support, parental stress, and behavior of the children were assessed. Teenage mothers and adult mothers were compared using the mean values of the data. The data of 104 mothers were included; 46.1% of the mothers were younger than 20 years of age when they gave birth. All mothers show a variety of psychological problems. While adult mothers had significantly more affective and anxiety disorders, teenage mothers had significantly more eating disorders and sexual abuse in their histories. Young mothers reported subjectively significantly less social support and more parenting stress than older mothers. The children in both subgroups are described as unremarkable. More than 80% of the mothers had at least one contact with youth welfare, a general practitioner, or a pediatrician, while only 23% used psychiatric or psychological help. The data show a high level of stress in both groups and there is a great need for support from the medical sector as well as from youth welfare.

  3. [A comparison of teenage and adult mothers with mental diseases. Preliminary results of the project "chances for children of parents with mental diseases and/or addiction problems"].

    PubMed

    Kluth, S; Stern, K; Trebes, J; Freyberger, H-J

    2010-11-01

    This study enrolled mentally ill mothers from Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany, with children between the ages of 0 and 3 years. Using different self and expert ratings, psychological symptoms, social support, parental stress, and behavior of the children were assessed. Teenage mothers and adult mothers were compared using the mean values of the data. The data of 104 mothers were included; 46.1% of the mothers were younger than 20 years of age when they gave birth. All mothers show a variety of psychological problems. While adult mothers had significantly more affective and anxiety disorders, teenage mothers had significantly more eating disorders and sexual abuse in their histories. Young mothers reported subjectively significantly less social support and more parenting stress than older mothers. The children in both subgroups are described as unremarkable. More than 80% of the mothers had at least one contact with youth welfare, a general practitioner, or a pediatrician, while only 23% used psychiatric or psychological help. The data show a high level of stress in both groups and there is a great need for support from the medical sector as well as from youth welfare. PMID:20976429

  4. Public medical shows.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre. PMID:25273491

  5. Skills of U.S. Unemployed, Young, and Older Adults in Sharper Focus: Results from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) 2012/2014. First Look. NCES 2016-039

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampey, Bobby D.; Finnegan, Robert; Goodman, Madeline; Mohadjer, Leyla; Krenzke, Tom; Hogan, Jacquie; Provasnik, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The "Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies" (PIAAC) is a cyclical, large-scale study of adult skills and life experiences focusing on education and employment. Nationally representative samples of adults between the ages of 16 and 65 are administered an assessment of literacy, numeracy, and problem solving in…

  6. Repeated, Intermittent Social Defeat across the Entire Juvenile Period Resulted in Behavioral, Physiological, Hormonal, Immunological, and Neurochemical Alterations in Young Adult Male Golden Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wei-Chun; Liu, Ching-Yi; Lai, Wen-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The developing brain is vulnerable to social defeat during the juvenile period. As complements of human studies, animal models of social defeat provide a straightforward approach to investigating the functional and neurobiological consequences of social defeats. Taking advantage of agonist behavior and social defeat in male golden hamster, a set of 6 experiments was conducted to investigate the consequences at multiple levels in young adulthood resulting from repeated, intermittent social defeats or “social threats” across the entire juvenile period. Male hamsters at postnatal day 28 (P28) were randomly assigned to either the social defeat, “social threat”, or arena control group, and they correspondingly received a series of nine social interaction trials (i.e., either social defeat, “social threat”, or arena control conditions) from P33 to P66. At the behavioral level (Experiment 1), we found that repeated social defeats (but not “social threats”) significantly impacted locomotor activity in the familiar context and social interaction in the familiar/unfamiliar social contexts. At the physiological and hormonal levels (Experiments 2 and 3), repeated social defeat significantly enhanced the cortisol and norepinephrine concentrations in blood. Enlargement of the spleen was also found in the social defeat and “social threat” groups. At the immunological level (Experiment 4), the social defeat group showed lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hypothalamus and hippocampus but higher concentration of IL-6 in the striatum compared to the other two groups. At the neurochemical level (Experiment 5), the socially defeated hamsters mainly displayed reductions of dopamine, dopamine metabolites, and 5-HT levels in the striatum and decreased level of 5-HT in the hippocampus. In Experiment 6, an increase in the spine density of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was specifically observed in the “social threat” group. Collectively, our

  7. Repeated, Intermittent Social Defeat across the Entire Juvenile Period Resulted in Behavioral, Physiological, Hormonal, Immunological, and Neurochemical Alterations in Young Adult Male Golden Hamsters.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wei-Chun; Liu, Ching-Yi; Lai, Wen-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The developing brain is vulnerable to social defeat during the juvenile period. As complements of human studies, animal models of social defeat provide a straightforward approach to investigating the functional and neurobiological consequences of social defeats. Taking advantage of agonist behavior and social defeat in male golden hamster, a set of 6 experiments was conducted to investigate the consequences at multiple levels in young adulthood resulting from repeated, intermittent social defeats or "social threats" across the entire juvenile period. Male hamsters at postnatal day 28 (P28) were randomly assigned to either the social defeat, "social threat", or arena control group, and they correspondingly received a series of nine social interaction trials (i.e., either social defeat, "social threat", or arena control conditions) from P33 to P66. At the behavioral level (Experiment 1), we found that repeated social defeats (but not "social threats") significantly impacted locomotor activity in the familiar context and social interaction in the familiar/unfamiliar social contexts. At the physiological and hormonal levels (Experiments 2 and 3), repeated social defeat significantly enhanced the cortisol and norepinephrine concentrations in blood. Enlargement of the spleen was also found in the social defeat and "social threat" groups. At the immunological level (Experiment 4), the social defeat group showed lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hypothalamus and hippocampus but higher concentration of IL-6 in the striatum compared to the other two groups. At the neurochemical level (Experiment 5), the socially defeated hamsters mainly displayed reductions of dopamine, dopamine metabolites, and 5-HT levels in the striatum and decreased level of 5-HT in the hippocampus. In Experiment 6, an increase in the spine density of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was specifically observed in the "social threat" group. Collectively, our findings indicate that repeated

  8. Genome-wide significant results identified for plasma apolipoprotein H levels in middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Karen A.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Song, Fei; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Poljak, Anne; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; McEvoy, Mark; Kwok, John B.; Assareh, Amelia A.; Reppermund, Simone; Kochan, Nicole A.; Lee, Teresa; Ames, David; Wright, Margaret J.; Trollor, Julian N.; Schofield, Peter W.; Brodaty, Henry; Scott, Rodney J.; Schofield, Peter R.; Attia, John R.; Sachdev, Perminder S.

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein H (ApoH) is a multi-functional plasma glycoprotein that has been associated with negative health outcomes. ApoH levels have high heritability. We undertook a genome-wide association study of ApoH levels using the largest sample to date and replicated the results in an independent cohort (total N = 1,255). In the discovery phase, a meta-analysis of two cohorts, the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study (Sydney MAS) and the Older Australian Twins Study (OATS) (n = 942) revealed genome-wide significant results in or near the APOH gene on chromosome 17 (top SNP, rs7211380, p = 1 × 10−11). The results were replicated in an independent cohort, the Hunter Community Study (p < 0.002) (n = 313). Conditional and joint analysis (COJO) confirmed the association of the chromosomal 17 region with ApoH levels. The set of independent SNPs identified by COJO explained 23% of the variance. The relationships between the top SNPs and cardiovascular/lipid/cognition measures and diabetes were assessed in Sydney MAS, with suggestive results observed for diabetes and cognitive performance. However, replication of these results in the smaller OATS cohort was not found. This work provides impetus for future research to better understand the contribution of genetics to ApoH levels and its possible impacts on health. PMID:27030319

  9. Genome-wide significant results identified for plasma apolipoprotein H levels in middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Mather, Karen A; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Song, Fei; Armstrong, Nicola J; Poljak, Anne; Holliday, Elizabeth G; McEvoy, Mark; Kwok, John B; Assareh, Amelia A; Reppermund, Simone; Kochan, Nicole A; Lee, Teresa; Ames, David; Wright, Margaret J; Trollor, Julian N; Schofield, Peter W; Brodaty, Henry; Scott, Rodney J; Schofield, Peter R; Attia, John R; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein H (ApoH) is a multi-functional plasma glycoprotein that has been associated with negative health outcomes. ApoH levels have high heritability. We undertook a genome-wide association study of ApoH levels using the largest sample to date and replicated the results in an independent cohort (total N = 1,255). In the discovery phase, a meta-analysis of two cohorts, the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study (Sydney MAS) and the Older Australian Twins Study (OATS) (n = 942) revealed genome-wide significant results in or near the APOH gene on chromosome 17 (top SNP, rs7211380, p = 1 × 10(-11)). The results were replicated in an independent cohort, the Hunter Community Study (p < 0.002) (n = 313). Conditional and joint analysis (COJO) confirmed the association of the chromosomal 17 region with ApoH levels. The set of independent SNPs identified by COJO explained 23% of the variance. The relationships between the top SNPs and cardiovascular/lipid/cognition measures and diabetes were assessed in Sydney MAS, with suggestive results observed for diabetes and cognitive performance. However, replication of these results in the smaller OATS cohort was not found. This work provides impetus for future research to better understand the contribution of genetics to ApoH levels and its possible impacts on health. PMID:27030319

  10. The F4/AS01B HIV-1 Vaccine Candidate Is Safe and Immunogenic, But Does Not Show Viral Efficacy in Antiretroviral Therapy-Naive, HIV-1-Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dinges, Warren; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Podzamczer, Daniel; Brockmeyer, Norbert H.; García, Felipe.; Harrer, Thomas; Lelievre, Jean-Daniel; Frank, Ian; Colin De Verdière, Nathalie; Yeni, Guy-Patrick; Ortega Gonzalez, Enrique; Rubio, Rafael; Clotet Sala, Bonaventura; DeJesus, Edwin; Pérez-Elias, Maria Jesus; Launay, Odile; Pialoux, Gilles; Slim, Jihad; Weiss, Laurence; Bouchaud, Olivier; Felizarta, Franco; Meurer, Anja; Raffi, François; Esser, Stefan; Katlama, Christine; Koletar, Susan L.; Mounzer, Karam; Swindells, Susan; Baxter, John D.; Schneider, Stefan; Chas, Julie; Molina, Jean-Michel; Koutsoukos, Marguerite; Collard, Alix; Bourguignon, Patricia; Roman, François

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The impact of the investigational human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) F4/AS01B vaccine on HIV-1 viral load (VL) was evaluated in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive HIV-1 infected adults. This phase IIb, observer-blind study (NCT01218113), included ART-naive HIV-1 infected adults aged 18 to 55 years. Participants were randomized to receive 2 (F4/AS01B_2 group, N = 64) or 3 (F4/AS01B_3 group, N = 62) doses of F4/AS01B or placebo (control group, N = 64) at weeks 0, 4, and 28. Efficacy (HIV-1 VL, CD4+ T-cell count, ART initiation, and HIV-related clinical events), safety, and immunogenicity (antibody and T-cell responses) were evaluated during 48 weeks. At week 48, based on a mixed model, no statistically significant difference in HIV-1 VL change from baseline was demonstrated between F4/AS01B_2 and control group (0.073 log10 copies/mL [97.5% confidence interval (CI): −0.088; 0.235]), or F4/AS01B_3 and control group (−0.096 log10 copies/mL [97.5% CI: −0.257; 0.065]). No differences between groups were observed in HIV-1 VL change, CD4+ T-cell count, ART initiation, or HIV-related clinical events at intermediate timepoints. Among F4/AS01B recipients, the most frequent solicited symptoms were pain at injection site (252/300 doses), fatigue (137/300 doses), myalgia (105/300 doses), and headache (90/300 doses). Twelve serious adverse events were reported in 6 participants; 1 was considered vaccine-related (F4/AS01B_2 group: angioedema). F4/AS01B induced polyfunctional F4-specific CD4+ T-cells, but had no significant impact on F4-specific CD8+ T-cell and anti-F4 antibody levels. F4/AS01B had a clinically acceptable safety profile, induced F4-specific CD4+ T-cell responses, but did not reduce HIV-1 VL, impact CD4+ T-cells count, delay ART initiation, or prevent HIV-1 related clinical events. PMID:26871794

  11. The F4/AS01B HIV-1 Vaccine Candidate Is Safe and Immunogenic, But Does Not Show Viral Efficacy in Antiretroviral Therapy-Naive, HIV-1-Infected Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Dinges, Warren; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Podzamczer, Daniel; Brockmeyer, Norbert H; García, Felipe; Harrer, Thomas; Lelievre, Jean-Daniel; Frank, Ian; Colin De Verdière, Nathalie; Yeni, Guy-Patrick; Ortega Gonzalez, Enrique; Rubio, Rafael; Clotet Sala, Bonaventura; DeJesus, Edwin; Pérez-Elias, Maria Jesus; Launay, Odile; Pialoux, Gilles; Slim, Jihad; Weiss, Laurence; Bouchaud, Olivier; Felizarta, Franco; Meurer, Anja; Raffi, François; Esser, Stefan; Katlama, Christine; Koletar, Susan L; Mounzer, Karam; Swindells, Susan; Baxter, John D; Schneider, Stefan; Chas, Julie; Molina, Jean-Michel; Koutsoukos, Marguerite; Collard, Alix; Bourguignon, Patricia; Roman, François

    2016-02-01

    The impact of the investigational human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) F4/AS01B vaccine on HIV-1 viral load (VL) was evaluated in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive HIV-1 infected adults.This phase IIb, observer-blind study (NCT01218113), included ART-naive HIV-1 infected adults aged 18 to 55 years. Participants were randomized to receive 2 (F4/AS01B_2 group, N = 64) or 3 (F4/AS01B_3 group, N = 62) doses of F4/AS01B or placebo (control group, N = 64) at weeks 0, 4, and 28. Efficacy (HIV-1 VL, CD4 T-cell count, ART initiation, and HIV-related clinical events), safety, and immunogenicity (antibody and T-cell responses) were evaluated during 48 weeks.At week 48, based on a mixed model, no statistically significant difference in HIV-1 VL change from baseline was demonstrated between F4/AS01B_2 and control group (0.073 log10 copies/mL [97.5% confidence interval (CI): -0.088; 0.235]), or F4/AS01B_3 and control group (-0.096 log10 copies/mL [97.5% CI: -0.257; 0.065]). No differences between groups were observed in HIV-1 VL change, CD4 T-cell count, ART initiation, or HIV-related clinical events at intermediate timepoints. Among F4/AS01B recipients, the most frequent solicited symptoms were pain at injection site (252/300 doses), fatigue (137/300 doses), myalgia (105/300 doses), and headache (90/300 doses). Twelve serious adverse events were reported in 6 participants; 1 was considered vaccine-related (F4/AS01B_2 group: angioedema). F4/AS01B induced polyfunctional F4-specific CD4 T-cells, but had no significant impact on F4-specific CD8 T-cell and anti-F4 antibody levels.F4/AS01B had a clinically acceptable safety profile, induced F4-specific CD4 T-cell responses, but did not reduce HIV-1 VL, impact CD4 T-cells count, delay ART initiation, or prevent HIV-1 related clinical events.

  12. The F4/AS01B HIV-1 Vaccine Candidate Is Safe and Immunogenic, But Does Not Show Viral Efficacy in Antiretroviral Therapy-Naive, HIV-1-Infected Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Dinges, Warren; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Podzamczer, Daniel; Brockmeyer, Norbert H; García, Felipe; Harrer, Thomas; Lelievre, Jean-Daniel; Frank, Ian; Colin De Verdière, Nathalie; Yeni, Guy-Patrick; Ortega Gonzalez, Enrique; Rubio, Rafael; Clotet Sala, Bonaventura; DeJesus, Edwin; Pérez-Elias, Maria Jesus; Launay, Odile; Pialoux, Gilles; Slim, Jihad; Weiss, Laurence; Bouchaud, Olivier; Felizarta, Franco; Meurer, Anja; Raffi, François; Esser, Stefan; Katlama, Christine; Koletar, Susan L; Mounzer, Karam; Swindells, Susan; Baxter, John D; Schneider, Stefan; Chas, Julie; Molina, Jean-Michel; Koutsoukos, Marguerite; Collard, Alix; Bourguignon, Patricia; Roman, François

    2016-02-01

    The impact of the investigational human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) F4/AS01B vaccine on HIV-1 viral load (VL) was evaluated in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive HIV-1 infected adults.This phase IIb, observer-blind study (NCT01218113), included ART-naive HIV-1 infected adults aged 18 to 55 years. Participants were randomized to receive 2 (F4/AS01B_2 group, N = 64) or 3 (F4/AS01B_3 group, N = 62) doses of F4/AS01B or placebo (control group, N = 64) at weeks 0, 4, and 28. Efficacy (HIV-1 VL, CD4 T-cell count, ART initiation, and HIV-related clinical events), safety, and immunogenicity (antibody and T-cell responses) were evaluated during 48 weeks.At week 48, based on a mixed model, no statistically significant difference in HIV-1 VL change from baseline was demonstrated between F4/AS01B_2 and control group (0.073 log10 copies/mL [97.5% confidence interval (CI): -0.088; 0.235]), or F4/AS01B_3 and control group (-0.096 log10 copies/mL [97.5% CI: -0.257; 0.065]). No differences between groups were observed in HIV-1 VL change, CD4 T-cell count, ART initiation, or HIV-related clinical events at intermediate timepoints. Among F4/AS01B recipients, the most frequent solicited symptoms were pain at injection site (252/300 doses), fatigue (137/300 doses), myalgia (105/300 doses), and headache (90/300 doses). Twelve serious adverse events were reported in 6 participants; 1 was considered vaccine-related (F4/AS01B_2 group: angioedema). F4/AS01B induced polyfunctional F4-specific CD4 T-cells, but had no significant impact on F4-specific CD8 T-cell and anti-F4 antibody levels.F4/AS01B had a clinically acceptable safety profile, induced F4-specific CD4 T-cell responses, but did not reduce HIV-1 VL, impact CD4 T-cells count, delay ART initiation, or prevent HIV-1 related clinical events. PMID:26871794

  13. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  14. The Great Cometary Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer, which allows astronomers to scrutinise objects with a precision equivalent to that of a 130-m telescope, is proving itself an unequalled success every day. One of the latest instruments installed, AMBER, has led to a flurry of scientific results, an anthology of which is being published this week as special features in the research journal Astronomy & Astrophysics. ESO PR Photo 06a/07 ESO PR Photo 06a/07 The AMBER Instrument "With its unique capabilities, the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) has created itself a niche in which it provide answers to many astronomical questions, from the shape of stars, to discs around stars, to the surroundings of the supermassive black holes in active galaxies," says Jorge Melnick (ESO), the VLT Project Scientist. The VLTI has led to 55 scientific papers already and is in fact producing more than half of the interferometric results worldwide. "With the capability of AMBER to combine up to three of the 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes, we can really achieve what nobody else can do," added Fabien Malbet, from the LAOG (France) and the AMBER Project Scientist. Eleven articles will appear this week in Astronomy & Astrophysics' special AMBER section. Three of them describe the unique instrument, while the other eight reveal completely new results about the early and late stages in the life of stars. ESO PR Photo 06b/07 ESO PR Photo 06b/07 The Inner Winds of Eta Carinae The first results presented in this issue cover various fields of stellar and circumstellar physics. Two papers deal with very young solar-like stars, offering new information about the geometry of the surrounding discs and associated outflowing winds. Other articles are devoted to the study of hot active stars of particular interest: Alpha Arae, Kappa Canis Majoris, and CPD -57o2874. They provide new, precise information about their rotating gas envelopes. An important new result concerns the enigmatic object Eta Carinae. Using AMBER with

  15. Results of a 2-year randomized, controlled obesity prevention trial: Effects on diet, activity and sleep behaviors in an at-risk young adult population.

    PubMed

    Laska, Melissa N; Lytle, Leslie A; Nanney, Marilyn S; Moe, Stacey G; Linde, Jennifer A; Hannan, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Excess weight gain tends to occur in young adulthood. However, research examining effective weight-related interventions for this age group has been limited. As one of seven trials in the EARLY Trials consortium (Early Adult Reduction of weight through LifestYle intervention), the CHOICES Study (Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings) tested effects of a technology-integrated, young adult weight gain prevention intervention. It was a randomized controlled trial with assessments at baseline (2011) and 4-, 12- and 24-months post-intervention initiation and included 441 participants (ages 18-35) who were students at three Minnesota community colleges. The 24-month intervention included a 1-credit academic course and social networking and support online intervention. This analysis examined effects on 12 secondary behavioral outcomes across three domains: diet (fast food, sugary beverages, breakfast, at-home meal preparation), physical activity/screen time (minutes and energy expenditure in leisure time physical activity, television viewing, leisure time computer use) and sleep (hours of sleep, time required to fall asleep, days not getting enough rest, difficulty staying awake). The intervention resulted in significant reductions in fast food (p=0.007) but increases in difficulty staying awake (p=0.015). There was limited evidence of other behavior changes at 4months (0.05results (p=0.005). Additional research is needed to understand effective obesity prevention among young adults, particularly when addressing multiple weight-related outcomes. PMID:27283096

  16. Enzyme replacement therapy with taliglucerase alfa: 36-month safety and efficacy results in adult patients with Gaucher disease previously treated with imiglucerase.

    PubMed

    Pastores, Gregory M; Shankar, Suma P; Petakov, Milan; Giraldo, Pilar; Rosenbaum, Hanna; Amato, Dominick J; Szer, Jeffrey; Chertkoff, Raul; Brill-Almon, Einat; Zimran, Ari

    2016-07-01

    Taliglucerase alfa is the first available plant cell-expressed human recombinant therapeutic protein. It is indicated for treatment of patients with type 1 Gaucher disease (GD) in adult and pediatric patients in several countries. Study PB-06-002 examined the safety and efficacy of taliglucerase alfa for 9 months in patients who previously received imiglucerase. The results of adult patients from Study PB-06-002 who continued receiving taliglucerase alfa in extension Study PB-06-003 for up to 36 months are reported here. Eighteen patients received at least one dose of taliglucerase alfa in Study PB-06-003; 10 patients completed 36 total months of therapy, and four patients who transitioned to commercial drug completed 30-33 months of treatment. In patients who completed 36 total months of treatment, mean percent (±standard error) changes from baseline/time of switch to taliglucerase alfa to 36 months were as follows: hemoglobin concentration, -1.0% (±1.9%; n = 10); platelet count, +9.3% (±9.8%; n = 10); spleen volume measured in multiples of normal (MN), -19.8% (±9.9%; n = 7); liver volume measured in MN, +0.9% (±5.4%; n = 8); chitotriosidase activity, -51.5% (±8.1%; n = 10); and CCL18 concentration, -36.5 (±8.0%; n = 10). Four patients developed antidrug antibodies, including one with evidence of neutralizing activity in vitro. All treatment-related adverse events were mild or moderate and transient. The 36-month results of switching from imiglucerase to taliglucerase alfa treatment in adults with GD provide further data on the clinical safety and efficacy of taliglucerase alfa beyond the initial 9 months of the original study. www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00705939. Am. J. Hematol. 91:661-665, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27102949

  17. Results of a 2-year randomized, controlled obesity prevention trial: Effects on diet, activity and sleep behaviors in an at-risk young adult population.

    PubMed

    Laska, Melissa N; Lytle, Leslie A; Nanney, Marilyn S; Moe, Stacey G; Linde, Jennifer A; Hannan, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Excess weight gain tends to occur in young adulthood. However, research examining effective weight-related interventions for this age group has been limited. As one of seven trials in the EARLY Trials consortium (Early Adult Reduction of weight through LifestYle intervention), the CHOICES Study (Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings) tested effects of a technology-integrated, young adult weight gain prevention intervention. It was a randomized controlled trial with assessments at baseline (2011) and 4-, 12- and 24-months post-intervention initiation and included 441 participants (ages 18-35) who were students at three Minnesota community colleges. The 24-month intervention included a 1-credit academic course and social networking and support online intervention. This analysis examined effects on 12 secondary behavioral outcomes across three domains: diet (fast food, sugary beverages, breakfast, at-home meal preparation), physical activity/screen time (minutes and energy expenditure in leisure time physical activity, television viewing, leisure time computer use) and sleep (hours of sleep, time required to fall asleep, days not getting enough rest, difficulty staying awake). The intervention resulted in significant reductions in fast food (p=0.007) but increases in difficulty staying awake (p=0.015). There was limited evidence of other behavior changes at 4months (0.05results (p=0.005). Additional research is needed to understand effective obesity prevention among young adults, particularly when addressing multiple weight-related outcomes.

  18. Duloxetine and care management treatment of older adults with comorbid major depressive disorder and chronic low back pain: results of an open-label pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Karp, Jordan F.; Weiner, Debra K.; Dew, Mary A.; Begley, Amy; Miller, Mark D.; Reynolds, Charles F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In older adults, major depressive disorder (MDD) and chronic low back pain (CLBP) are common and mutually exacerbating. We predicted that duloxetine pharmacotherapy and Depression and Pain Care Management (DPCM) would result in (1) significant improvement in MDD and CLBP and (2) significant improvements in health-related quality of life, anxiety, disability, self-efficacy, and sleep quality. Design and Intervention: Twelve week open-label study using duloxetine up to 120 mg/day + DPCM. Setting: Outpatient late-life depression research clinic. Patients: Thirty community-dwelling adults >60 years old. Outcome Measures: Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and McGill Pain Questionnaire-Short Form (MPQ-SF). Results: 46.7% (n = 14) of the sample had a depression remission. All subjects who met criteria for the depression remission also had a pain response. 93.3% (n = 28) had a significant pain response. Of the subjects who met criteria for a low back pain response, 50% (n = 14) also met criteria for the depression remission. The mean time to depression remission was 7.6 (SE = 0.6) weeks. The mean time to pain response was 2.8 (SE = 0.5) weeks. There were significant improvements in mental health-related quality of life, anxiety, sleep quality, somatic complaints, and both self-efficacy for pain management and for coping with symptoms. Physical health-related quality of life, back pain-related disability, and self-efficacy for physical functioning did not improve. Conclusions: Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors like duloxetine delivered with DPCM may be a good choice to treat these linked conditions in older adults. Treatments that target low self-efficacy for physical function and improving disability may further increase response rates. PMID:19750557

  19. Psychosocial Results from a Phase I Trial of a Nonsurgical Circumcision Device for Adult Men in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Kasprzyk, Danuta; Montaño, Daniel E; Hamilton, Deven T; Down, Kayla L; Marrett, Karl D; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Mugurungi, Owen

    2016-01-01

    Male circumcision (MC), an effective HIV prevention tool, has been added to Zimbabwe's Ministry of Health and Child Care HIV/AIDS Prevention Program. A Phase I safety trial of a nonsurgical male circumcision device was conducted and extensive psychosocial variables were assessed. Fifty-three men (18 and older) were recruited for the device procedure; 13 follow-up clinical visits were completed. Interviews conducted three times (before the procedure, at 2 weeks and 90 days post-procedure) assessed: Satisfaction; expectations; actual experience; activities of daily living; sexual behavior; and HIV risk perception. Using the Integrated Behavioral Model, attitudes towards MC, sex, and condoms, and sources of social influence and support were also assessed. Men (mean age 32.5, range 18-50; mean years of education = 13.6; 55% employed) were satisfied with device circumcision results. Men understand that MC is only partially protective against HIV acquisition. Most (94.7%) agreed that they will continue to use condoms to protect themselves from HIV. Pain ratings were surprisingly negative for a procedure billed as painless. Men talked to many social networks members about their MC experience; post-procedure (mean of 14 individuals). Minimal impact on activities of daily living and absenteeism indicate possible cost savings of device circumcisions. Spontaneous erections occurred frequently post-procedure. The results had important implications for changes in the pre-procedure clinical counseling protocol. Clear-cut counseling to manage pain and erection expectations should result in improved psychosocial outcomes in future roll-out of device circumcisions. Men's expectations must be managed through evidence-based counseling, as they share their experiences broadly among their social networks. PMID:26745142

  20. DETERMINANTS OF OBESITY: RESULTS FROM A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS LIVING IN AN URBAN AREA1, 2

    PubMed Central

    BROOK, JUDITH S.; LEE, JUNG YEON; BROOK, DAVID. W.; FINCH, STEPHEN J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary This study examined the relation of cigarette smoking, psychological symptoms (e.g., depressive symptoms, anxiety), physical activity, and body mass index (BMI) separately by sex. The sample consisted of 815 African Americans and Puerto Ricans (324 males, 491 females). The participants were originally 14 years of age and were followed to 32 years of age and gave information on smoking, depressive symptoms, anxiety, physical activity, and BMI. Structural equation modeling showed that for males cigarette smoking in mid/late adolescence was related to cigarette smoking in emerging adulthood and early adulthood. Finally cigarette smoking in early adulthood was negatively related to BMI in adulthood only for male participants. For female participants, cigarette smoking in adolescence was related to psychological symptoms (e.g., depressive symptoms, anxiety) in emerging adulthood and early adulthood. Psychological symptoms in early adulthood predicted physical activity in adulthood, which in turn, was related to BMI. With one exception, all of the standardized coefficients were statistically significant. Implications for preventive interventions are discussed. PMID:24693808

  1. Disclosure of HIV positive result to a sexual partner among adult clinical service users in Kemissie district, northeast Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Seid, Mohammed; Wasie, Belaynew; Admassu, Mengesha

    2012-03-01

    HIV Status disclosure is vital for HIV prevention efforts and the couple's health in the context of accelerated highly active antiretroviral therapy. This study aimed to identify factors associated with disclosure of HIV Status to a sexual partner and its outcomes. A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted at Kemissie Health center on 360 HIV positive individuals selected by systematic random sampling. Data were collected using a structured, interviewer administered questionnaire. The level of disclosure to a sexual partner was 93.1%. Among those who disclosed, 74.5% were accepted, 10.8% minor challenges or suspicion of result and the last 7.8% faced physical abuse and blame. The main reasons for not disclosing were fear of divorce [32%], fear of stigma and discrimination [32%] and fear of physical abuse [16%]. Prior discussion, disclosure to family, smooth relationship and knowing partner status were significantly associated with disclosure. HIV prevention programs and counseling efforts should focus on mutual disclosure of HIV test results, by encouraging discussion, reduction of stigma, for better disclosure and continuing care.

  2. Prevalence and Correlates of Mitral Annular Calcification in Adults with Chronic Kidney Disease: Results from CRIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Abd alamir, Moshrik; Radulescu, Vlad; Goyfman, Michael; Mohler, Emile R; Gao, Yan Lin; Budoff, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Risk factors for mitral annular calcification (MAC) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) demonstrate significant overlap in the general population. The aim of this paper is to determine whether there are independent relationships between MAC and demographics, traditional and novel CVD risk factors using cardiac CT in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) in a cross-sectional study. Methods A sample of 2070 subjects underwent coronary calcium scanning during the CRIC study. Data were obtained for each participant at time of scan. Subjects were dichotomized into the presence and absence of MAC. Differences in baseline demographic and transitional risk factor data were evaluated across groups. Covariates used in multivariable adjustment were age, gender, BMI, HDL, LDL, lipid lowering medications, smoking status, family history of heart attack, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, phosphate, PTH, albuminuria, and calcium. Results Our study consisted of 2070 subjects, of which 331 had MAC (prevalence of 16.0%). The mean MAC score was 511.98 (SD 1368.76). Age and white race remained independently associated with presence of MAC. Decreased GFR was also a risk factor. African American and Hispanic race, as well as former smoking status were protective against MAC. In multivariable adjusted analyses, the remaining covariates were not significantly associated with MAC. Among renal covariates, elevated phosphate was significant. Conclusion In the CRIC population, presence of MAC was independently associated with age, Caucasian race, decreased GFR, and elevated phosphate. These results are suggested by mechanisms of dysregulation of inflammation, hormones, and electrolytes in subjects with renal disease. PMID:26188533

  3. Area-Based Socioeconomic Position and Adult Glioma: A Hierarchical Analysis of Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Data

    PubMed Central

    Plascak, Jesse J.; Fisher, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Glioma rates vary by demographic factors and geo-political boundaries and this variation suggests higher glioma rates in groups of higher socioeconomic position. The primary goal of this analysis is to investigate the relationship between glioma and county socioeconomic position using U.S. Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data. Methods Cases were individuals 25+ years diagnosed with glioma between 2000 and 2006 and residing within the SEER-17 catchment area. County-, sex-, race-, age-specific rates were created in order to investigate individual-level associations (population data from U.S. Census 2000). A Bayesian hierarchical Poisson spatial conditionally autoregressive (CAR) model was utilized to simultaneously estimate individual- and county-level associations while controlling for county spatial dependence. Results Those residing in counties of the second, third, and fourth highest quartiles of socioeconomic position have glioma incidence rates that are 1.10 (95% CI: 1.02,1.19), 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02,1.20), 1.14 (95% CI: 1.05,1.23) times that of the first quartile, respectively. A CAR model properly controlled for error spatial dependence. Investigated lag times suggest year 2000 census data yields superior model fit. Conclusion Demographically adjusted rates of glioma are elevated in counties of higher socioeconomic position. More well-grounded theory concerning the glioma-socioeconomic position association along with socioeconomic data collected at multiple levels is recommended for future studies investigating this relationship. PMID:23585860

  4. A Controlled Study of Autonomic Nervous System Function in Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treated with Stimulant Medications: Results of a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubiner, Howard; Hassunizadeh, Bischan; Kaczynski, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Despite the fact that autonomic nervous system (ANS) abnormalities are commonly found in adults and predict increased cardiovascular mortality, no studies have assessed ANS function in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) taking stimulants. Method: This pilot study evaluated ANS function in adults with ADHD in…

  5. Adult Learners in Higher Education: Barriers to Success and Strategies to Improve Results. Employment and Training Administration. Occasional Paper 2007-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazis, Richard; Callahan, Abigail; Davidson, Chris; McLeod, Annie; Bosworth, Brian; Choitz, Vickie; Hoops, John

    2007-01-01

    This reports synthesizes the research literature on the challenges facing adult learners in higher education today and emerging strategies for increasing the number of adults over 24 who earn college credentials and degrees. This synthesis is meant to provide perspectives on key issues facing adults as more and more of them see the need for higher…

  6. Characteristics of adults involved in alcohol-related intimate partner violence: results from a nationally representative sample

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background More than 12 million women and men are victims of partner violence each year. Although the health outcomes of partner violence have been well documented, we know very little about specific event-level characteristics that may provide implications for prevention and intervention of partner violence situations. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate substance abuse and dependence as risk factors for event-level alcohol-related intimate partner violence (IPV). Methods Data were derived from Wave II of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2004–2005). Eligible participants (N = 2,255) reported IPV the year before the survey. Negative binomial and ordinal regression methods were used to assess risk factors for alcohol use during IPV. Results Respondent PTSD was the only mental health diagnosis related to alcohol use during IPV (OR = 1.45). Marijuana use was related to respondents’ use of alcohol during IPV (OR = 2.68). Respondents’ meeting the criteria for alcohol abuse/dependence was strongly associated with respondent drinking (OR = 10.74) and partner drinking (OR = 2.89) during IPV. Conclusion Results indicate that PTSD, marijuana use disorders, alcohol abuse and dependence are associated with more frequent alcohol use during IPV. In addition, it is important to consider that the patient who presents in emergency settings (e.g., hospitals or urgent care facilities) may not be immediately identifiable as the victim or the perpetrator of partner violence. Therefore, screening and intervention programs should probe to further assess the event-level characteristics of partner violence situations to ensure the correct service referrals are made to prevent partner violence. PMID:24884943

  7. Quality of Life, Cortisol Blood Levels and Exercise in Older Adults: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mura, Gioia; Cossu, Giulia; Migliaccio, Gian M; Atzori, Claudio; Nardi, Antonio E; Machado, Sergio; Carta, Mauro G

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cortisol plays a central role in the stress response; while high stress can determine physical and psychological impairment, moderate stress, with a mild increase in cortisol level, may have a positive effect on coping and physical performance. This trial attempted to determine whether cortisol levels were associated with Quality of Life (QoL) in a sample of elderly subjects undertaking an exercise program. Methods:42 subjects aged ≥65 years were randomlyassigned in a 1:1 fashion either to a vigorous physical activity (VAG: N=21) or to a postural gimnastic group (PGG: N=21). Differences between the two groups in QoL (on SF-12), and blood cortisol levels were assessed by ANOVA at different times. Results:In both the VAG and PGG, cortisol levels rose at the end of the trial, with statistically significant differences as compared to the baseline. QoL at the end of the trial was higher than in the national normative sample. Cortisol and QoL in both groups decreased slightly 12 weeks after the end of the trial (T2); however, only in the VAG did the difference from the initial level remain statistically significant. At T1 and T2, subjects with higher SF-12 scores were found in subsamples in both groups with cortisol levels moderately increased (between 200 and 300 mg/ml). Conclusion:In a sample of elderly subjects undergoing two different kinds of exercise, a better perception of Quality of Life was associated with a moderate, non-pathological increase in cortisol. The results need to be confirmed by trials on larger samples. PMID:25006344

  8. Neutropenia as an Adverse Event following Vaccination: Results from Randomized Clinical Trials in Healthy Adults and Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Muturi-Kioi, Vincent; Lewis, David; Launay, Odile; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Anemona, Alessandra; Loulergue, Pierre; Bodinham, Caroline L.; Aerssens, Annelies; Groth, Nicola; Saul, Allan; Podda, Audino

    2016-01-01

    Background In the context of early vaccine trials aimed at evaluating the safety profile of novel vaccines, abnormal haematological values, such as neutropenia, are often reported. It is therefore important to evaluate how these trials should be planned not to miss potentially important safety signals, but also to understand the implications and the clinical relevance. Methodology We report and discuss the results from five clinical trials (two with a new Shigella vaccine in the early stage of clinical development and three with licensed vaccines) where the absolute neutrophil counts (ANC) were evaluated before and after vaccination. Additionally, we have performed a systematic review of the literature on cases of neutropenia reported during vaccine trials to discuss our results in a more general context. Principal Findings Both in our clinical trials and in the literature review, several cases of neutropenia have been reported, in the first two weeks after vaccination. However, neutropenia was generally transient and had a benign clinical outcome, after vaccination with either multiple novel candidates or well-known licensed vaccines. Additionally, the vaccine recipients with neutropenia frequently had lower baseline ANC than non-neutropenic vaccinees. In many instances neutropenia occurred in subjects of African descent, known to have lower ANC compared to western populations. Conclusions It is important to include ANC and other haematological tests in early vaccine trials to identify potential safety signals. Post-vaccination neutropenia is not uncommon, generally transient and clinically benign, but many vaccine trials do not have a sampling schedule that allows its detection. Given ethnic variability in the level of circulating neutrophils, normal ranges taking into account ethnicity should be used for determination of trial inclusion/exclusion criteria and classification of neutropenia related adverse events. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02017899

  9. Australian adult smokers’ responses to plain packaging with larger graphic health warnings 1 year after implementation: results from a national cross-sectional tracking survey

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Melanie; Coomber, Kerri; Zacher, Meghan; Durkin, Sarah; Brennan, Emily; Scollo, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Background We assessed whether the Australian plain packs with larger graphic health warnings (GHWs) achieved three specific objectives of reducing the appeal of tobacco, increasing health warning effectiveness and reducing the ability of packaging to mislead about smoking harms. Methods We compared responses from continuous cross-sectional telephone surveys of n=2176 cigarette smokers during pre-plain packaging (April–September 2012, pre-PP) with n=759 surveyed in the transition period (October–November 2012) and n=4240 during the first year of implementation (December 2012–November 2013, PP year 1), using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results From pre-PP to PP year 1, more smokers disliked their pack (p<0.001), perceived lower pack appeal (p<0.001), lower cigarette quality (p<0.001), lower satisfaction (p<0.001) and lower value (p<0.001) and disagreed brands differed in prestige (p=0.003). There was no change in perceived differences in taste of different brands. More smokers noticed GHWs (p<0.001), attributed much motivation to quit to GHWs (p<0.001), avoided specific GHWs when purchasing (p<0.001), and covered packs (p<0.001), with no change in perceived exaggeration of harms. PP year 1 saw an increased proportion believing that brands do not differ in harmfulness (p=0.004), but no change in the belief that variants do not differ in strength or the perceived harmfulness of cigarettes compared with a year ago. Interactions signified greater change for four outcomes assessing aspects of appeal among young adults and two appeal outcomes among mid-aged adults. Conclusions The specific objectives of plain packaging were achieved and generally sustained among adult smokers up to 12 months after implementation.

  10. The Association between Taking Dietary Supplements and Healthy Habits among Korean Adults: Results from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2010–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Wook; Lee, So-Hye; Kim, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyung-Do; Kwack, Tae-Eung; Kim, Bo-Seon; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Jo, Eun-Bae; Park, Young-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, the number of people interested in health in South Korea has increased, and the rate of dietary supplement use is rising. Researchers have hypothesized that the rate of practicing healthy habits is higher among those who use dietary supplements than those who do not. Therefore, this study aimed to discover the association between taking dietary supplements and practicing various healthy habits in the Korean, adult population. Methods The sample included 15,789 adults over 19 years old who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The user group was defined as those taking dietary supplements for more than 2 weeks during the previous year or once during the past month. Measures for the seven healthy habits were based on those included in the Alameda study and were analyzed accounting for the complex sampling design. Results The rate of taking dietary supplements was significantly higher in women, middle aged participants, urban residents, those with a higher income, those with a higher education level, and nonsmokers as well as among women with a moderate subjective health status, women who limited their alcohol content, and women with dyslipidemia. In the adjusted analysis, the rate of performing three of the 'Alameda 7' habits—eating breakfast regularly, restricting snacking, and limiting drinking—was higher in the female dietary supplement user group than in the other groups. Women practiced more healthy habits and had a higher dietary supplement intake rate than men. Conclusion We found that taking dietary supplements in Korean adults is highly associated with demographic and social factors. Taking dietary supplements had a relationship with dietary habits, and there was no significant association between dietary supplement and other healthy habits. Thus in the health clinic, we suggest that taking dietary supplements complements a patient's healthy habits, with the exception of dietary habits, for

  11. Adult experience of mental health outcomes as a result of intimate partner violence victimisation: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lagdon, Susan; Armour, Cherie; Stringer, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been known to adversely affect the mental health of victims. Research has tended to focus on the mental health impact of physical violence rather than considering other forms of violence. Objective To systematically review the literature in order to identify the impact of all types of IPV victimisation on various mental health outcomes. Method A systematic review of 11 electronic databases (2004–2014) was conducted. Fifty eight papers were identified and later described and reviewed in relation to the main objective. Results Main findings suggest that IPV can have increasing adverse effects on the mental health of victims in comparison with those who have never experienced IPV or those experiencing other traumatic events. The most significant outcomes were associations between IPV experiences with depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and anxiety. Findings confirm previous observations that the severity and extent of IPV exposure can increase mental health symptoms. The effect of psychological violence on mental health is more prominent than originally thought. Individual differences such as gender and childhood experience of violence also increase IPV risk and affect mental health outcomes in diverse ways. Conclusions Psychological violence should be considered as a more serious form of IPV which can affect the mental health of victims. Experiencing more than one form of IPV can increase severity of outcomes. Researchers should look at IPV as a multi-dimensional experience. A uniformed definition and measure of IPV could help advance knowledge and understanding of this disparaging global issue. PMID:25279103

  12. Health Disparities by Type of Disability: Health Examination Results of Adults (18-64 Years) with Disabilities in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Lu, Jun; Yu, Huijiong

    2016-01-01

    Aims There have been few studies on the disparities within the population with disabilities, especially in China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in some health conditions among people with different types of disabilities in Shanghai. Methods This study was conducted using data from the Shanghai Disabled Persons’ Rehabilitation Comprehensive Information Platform. The records of 31,082 persons with disabilities who had undergone professional health examination were analyzed, and the prevalence and number of five diseases and five risk factors were examined. Logistic regression was used to explore disparities from two perspectives: 1) basic differences, unadjusted for other factors, and 2) differences after adjusting for key demographic covariates. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results Individuals with visual disability had a high rate of refractive error (60.0%), and averaged 1.75 diseases of interest, which was the highest value among all disability types. The mean number of risk factors we measured was greatest (1.96) in the population with mental disability. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) between the hearing and speech impairment group and the other groups with respect to most health outcomes, except chronic pharyngitis, hepatic cysts, and high blood pressure. Conclusion Significant differences of selected health outcomes between groups with different types of disabilities remained after controlling for key demographic indicators. Further research is needed to explore the relationships between health conditions and disability types. PMID:27196419

  13. Poor Awareness of Risk Factors for Cancer in Irish Adults: Results of a Large Survey and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Cushen, Samantha; Schellekens, Harriët; Bhuachalla, Eadaoin Ni; Burns, Lisa; Kenny, Ursula; Power, Derek G.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Knowledge of cancer risk factors is unknown in Ireland. An understanding of risk factors could help inform cancer prevention programs. Aims and Methods. A 48-question online survey was designed to gather data to assess levels of public knowledge about cancer risk factors. Results. There were 748 participants (648 women, 100 men). Mean age was 37 years (range: 18–74 years). For the public, 81% were concerned about developing cancer; however, 20% believed that cancer is unavoidable if a family history exists, 27% believed that >50% of cancers are inherited, and 54% believed that 10%–20% of cancers are inherited; 20% were unaware that risk increases with age. The top five risk factors listed by respondents were smoking (87%), diet (76%), genetics (47%), alcohol (42%), and obesity (33%). Only 32% of the public were aware that obesity is a risk factor, and 33% did not think the location of fat was important. Moreover, 29% and 48% believed that risk could be increased by wearing a tight bra and by a blow to the breast, respectively. In addition, 85% and 86% believed that stress and that mobile phones, respectively, “strongly” increase risk; 12% believed that luck is important in avoiding cancer; 35% thought that “detox” diets could reduce risk; and 61% believed that organic food reduces risk. The majority were aware that physical activity of 30 minutes per day can reduce risk. Conclusion. A sizable portion of the population is misinformed about cancer risk. Most participants were aware of classic risk factors (e.g., smoking, diet); however, many overestimated risk attributable to genetics, environment, and stress and underestimated age, obesity, and sunlight. One in seven participants believed that lifetime risk of cancer is not modifiable. PMID:25746344

  14. Hypertension Awareness, Treatment, and Control in Adults With CKD: Results From the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Muntner, Paul; Anderson, Amanda; Charleston, Jeanne; Chen, Zhen; Ford, Virginia; Makos, Gail; O’Connor, Andrew; Perumal, Kalyani; Rahman, Mahboob; Steigerwalt, Susan; Teal, Valerie; Townsend, Raymond; Weir, Matthew; Wright, Jackson T

    2010-01-01

    Background A low rate of blood pressure control has been reported among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). These data were derived from population-based samples with a low rate of CKD awareness. Study Design Cross-sectional Setting & Participants Data from the baseline visit of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study (n=3612) were analyzed. Participants with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 20 to 70 ml/min/1.73m2 were identified from physician offices and review of laboratory databases. Outcomes Prevalence and awareness of hypertension, treatment patterns, control rates and factors associated with hypertension control. Measurements Following a standardized protocol, blood pressure was measured three times by trained staff and hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg and/or self-reported antihypertensive medication use. Patients’ awareness and treatment of hypertension were defined using self-report and two levels of hypertension control were evaluated: systolic/diastolic blood pressure <140/90 mmHg and <130/80 mmHg. Results The prevalence of hypertension was 85.7%, and 98.9% of CRIC participants were aware of this diagnosis, 98.3% were treated with medications while 67.1% and 46.1% had their hypertension controlled to <140/90 mmHg and <130/80 mmHg, respectively. Of CRIC participants with hypertension, 15%, 25%, 26% and 32% were taking one, two, three and four or more antihypertensive medications, respectively. After multivariable adjustment, older patients, blacks, those with higher urinary albumin excretion were less likely while participants taking ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers were more likely to have controlled their hypertension to <140/90 mmHg and <130/80 mmHg. Limitations Data were derived from a single study visit. Conclusions Despite almost universal hypertension awareness and treatment in this cohort of patients with CKD, rates of

  15. Quadriceps Strength, Quadriceps Power, and Gait Speed in Older U.S. Adults with Diabetes: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999–2002

    PubMed Central

    Kalyani, Rita Rastogi; Tra, Yolande; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Egan, Josephine M.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Brancati, Frederick L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the independent association of diabetes (and its duration and severity) with quadriceps strength, quadriceps power, and gait speed in a national population of older adults. Design Cross-sectional nationally representative survey. Setting U.S. Participants We examined 2573 adults ≥50 years of age in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2002 who had assessment of quadriceps strength. Methods Diabetes was ascertained by questionnaire. Measurement of isokinetic knee extensors (quadriceps) strength was performed at 60 degrees/second. Gait speed was assessed using a 20-foot walk test. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess the association between diabetes status and outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders or mediators. Results Among older U.S. adults, those with versus without diabetes had significantly slower gait speed (0.96±0.02 versus 1.08±0.01 m/s; p<0.001). After adjusting for demographics, weight, and height, diabetes was also associated with significantly lower quadriceps strength (−4.6±1.9 Newton-meters; p=0.02), quadriceps power (−4.9±2.0 Watts; p=0.02), in addition to gait speed (−0.05±0.02 m/s; p=0.002). Associations remained significant after adjusting for physical activity and C-reactive protein. After accounting for comorbidities (cardiovascular disease, peripheral neuropathy, amputation, cancer, arthritis, fracture, COPD), diabetes was only independently associated with gait speed (−0.04±0.02 m/s; p=0.02). Diabetes duration in men and women was negatively associated with age-adjusted quadriceps strength (−5.7 and −3.5 Newton-meters/decade of diabetes, respectively) and power (−6.1 and −3.8 Watts/decade of diabetes, respectively) (all p≤0.001, no significant interactions by gender). Hemoglobin A1c was not associated with outcomes accounting for body weight. Conclusion Compared to persons without diabetes, older U.S. adults with diabetes have lower quadriceps

  16. Sodium intake may promote weight gain; results of the FANPE study in a representative sample of the adult Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Navia, Beatriz; Aparicio, Aránzazu; Perea, José Miguel; Pérez-Farinós, Napoleon; Villar-Villalba, Carmen; Labrado, Estefania; Ortega, Rosa María

    2014-06-01

    Introducción: Estudios recientes, han señalado que las dietas ricas en sodio podrían predisponer a la aparición de obesidad, ya sea de forma directa, o por estar asociadas con el consumo de alimentos que favorecen el aumento de peso. Objetivo: El objeto de este estudio fue analizar la asociación entre sodio urinario y presencia de sobrepeso y obesidad, en una muestra representativa de adultos españoles, así como conocer si el mayor consumo de sal, se asocia con unos peores hábitos alimentarios y con una mayor ingesta de alimentos, que puedan predisponer a la aparición de la misma. Métodos: Se ha estudiado un grupo de 418 adultos (196 hombres y 222 mujeres) de 18 a 60 años de edad. Se recogieron datos de peso, talla, circunferencia de cintura y se calculó, a partir de ellos, el IMC y el índice cintura/talla. Con el fin de conocer el consumo de alimentos, se aplicó un “Recuerdo de 24 horas” durante dos días consecutivos y se determinó el sodio en orina de 24 horas. Resultados: Un 34,4% de la población presentó sobrepeso y un 13,6% obesidad. Se observó una asociación positiva entre el IMC y la excreción urinaria de sodio. Los valores de sodio en orina también se relacionaron de forma directa con otros parámetros indicadores de adiposidad, como la circunferencia de la cintura o la relación cintura/talla. Tanto el peso, como el IMC, la circunferencia de la cintura y la relación cintura/talla, fueron mayores en el grupo con una excreción urinaria de sodio ≥154 mmol/l (Percentil 50) (P50). Además, las personas con una mayor eliminación urinaria de sodio presentaron una mayor ingesta calórica y un mayor consumo de alimentos totales y, en concreto, de carnes, precocinados y aperitivos. Tras ajustar por la ingesta de energía, la mayor ingesta de sodio resultó ser un factor de riesgo de tener un IMC más alto (OR = 1.0041, IC 95% 1.0015-1.0067, p < 0,01). Conclusiones: La ingesta de sal estuvo asociada con la presencia de obesidad, ya

  17. Association between Lifetime Physical Activity and Cognitive Functioning in Middle-Aged and Older Community Dwelling Adults: Results from the Brain in Motion Study.

    PubMed

    Gill, Stephanie J; Friedenreich, Christine M; Sajobi, Tolulope T; Longman, R Stewart; Drogos, Lauren L; Davenport, Margie H; Tyndall, Amanda V; Eskes, Gail A; Hogan, David B; Hill, Michael D; Parboosingh, Jillian S; Wilson, Ben J; Poulin, Marc J

    2015-11-01

    To determine if total lifetime physical activity (PA) is associated with better cognitive functioning with aging and if cerebrovascular function mediates this association. A sample of 226 (52.2% female) community dwelling middle-aged and older adults (66.5 ± 6.4 years) in the Brain in Motion Study, completed the Lifetime Total Physical Activity Questionnaire and underwent neuropsychological and cerebrovascular blood flow testing. Multiple robust linear regressions were used to model the associations between lifetime PA and global cognition after adjusting for age, sex, North American Adult Reading Test results (i.e., an estimate of premorbid intellectual ability), maximal aerobic capacity, body mass index and interactions between age, sex, and lifetime PA. Mediation analysis assessed the effect of cerebrovascular measures on the association between lifetime PA and global cognition. Post hoc analyses assessed past year PA and current fitness levels relation to global cognition and cerebrovascular measures. Better global cognitive performance was associated with higher lifetime PA (p=.045), recreational PA (p=.021), and vigorous intensity PA (p=.004), PA between the ages of 0 and 20 years (p=.036), and between the ages of 21 and 35 years (p.5), but partially mediated the relation between current fitness and global cognition. This study revealed significant associations between higher levels of PA (i.e., total lifetime, recreational, vigorous PA, and past year) and better cognitive function in later life. Current fitness levels relation to cognitive function may be partially mediated through current cerebrovascular function. PMID:26581793

  18. Hospitalisation Resulting from Medicine-Related Problems in Adult Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes in the United Kingdom and Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al Hamid, Abdullah; Aslanpour, Zoe; Aljadhey, Hisham; Ghaleb, Maisoon

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes (DM) are two interrelated conditions that have a heavy morbidity and mortality burden worldwide. Patients with the two conditions usually take multiple medicines and thus are more susceptible to medicine-related problems (MRPs). MRPs can occur at any stage of the treatment process and in many cases can lead to unplanned hospitalisations. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of hospitalisation resulting from MRPs in adult patients with CVDs and/or DM and to identify the main causes, risk factors, and medicine classes involved. A retrospective study included 300 adult patients from two hospitals, one in the United Kingdom and one in Saudi Arabia. To identify MRPs, medical records were reviewed for demographic data, clinical data, laboratory assay, and prescription records. A total of 197 (65.7%) patients had MRPs, of which less than 10% were severe. The main problems were lack of treatment effectiveness and adverse drug reactions. Moreover, polypharmacy and patient non-adherence were the main risk factors contributing to MRPs. The main medicine classes associated with MRPs were insulin and antihypertensive medicines. Further research should address the pharmaceutical care processes employed in treating CVDs and DM, and to empower patients/healthcare providers in tackling MRPs. PMID:27171100

  19. Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    This pair of images from the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity served as initial confirmation that the two-year-old rover is within sight of 'Victoria Crater,' which it has been approaching for more than a year. Engineers on the rover team were unsure whether Opportunity would make it as far as Victoria, but scientists hoped for the chance to study such a large crater with their roving geologist. Victoria Crater is 800 meters (nearly half a mile) in diameter, about six times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' where Opportunity spent several months in 2004 examining rock layers affected by ancient water.

    When scientists using orbital data calculated that they should be able to detect Victoria's rim in rover images, they scrutinized frames taken in the direction of the crater by the panoramic camera. To positively characterize the subtle horizon profile of the crater and some of the features leading up to it, researchers created a vertically-stretched image (top) from a mosaic of regular frames from the panoramic camera (bottom), taken on Opportunity's 804th Martian day (April 29, 2006).

    The stretched image makes mild nearby dunes look like more threatening peaks, but that is only a result of the exaggerated vertical dimension. This vertical stretch technique was first applied to Viking Lander 2 panoramas by Philip Stooke, of the University of Western Ontario, Canada, to help locate the lander with respect to orbiter images. Vertically stretching the image allows features to be more readily identified by the Mars Exploration Rover science team.

    The bright white dot near the horizon to the right of center (barely visible without labeling or zoom-in) is thought to be a light-toned outcrop on the far wall of the crater, suggesting that the rover can see over the low rim of Victoria. In figure 1, the northeast and southeast rims are labeled

  20. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  1. Depression and All-Cause Mortality Among Persons With Diabetes: Are Older Adults at Higher Risk? - Results from the Translating Research Into Action for Diabetes (TRIAD) Study

    PubMed Central

    Kimbro, Lindsay B.; Mangione, Carol M.; Steers, W. Neil; Duru, O. Kenrik; McEwen, Laura; Karter, Andrew; Ettner, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Several studies have found that depression leads to an increased risk of mortality among patients with diabetes. Our goal is to compare the strength of the association between depression and mortality between the elderly and non-elderly population. Design A survival analysis conducted in a longitudinal cohort study of persons with diabetes to test the association of depression and mortality among Medicare-aged and non-Medicare aged persons. Setting Managed care. Participants 3341 persons aged 18 and over with diabetes who participated in the wave 2 survey of the Translating Research Into Action for Diabetes (TRIAD) study. Measurements The primary outcome was mortality risk, which was measured as days until death using linked data from the National Death Index. Depression was measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ8). Results After controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, income, and other comorbidities, mortality risk among depressed persons with diabetes was 49% higher than among non-depressed persons with diabetes. However, our results varied by age. After controlling for the same variables, mortality risk among persons over the age 65 years and older with depression was 78% greater than among elderly persons without depression. For the less than 65-year-old cohort, the effect of depression on mortality was smaller and not statistically significant. Conclusion This analysis suggests that the effect of depression on mortality among persons with diabetes is most significant for older adults. Because there is evidence in the literature that treatment of depression in the elderly can lead to lower mortality, our results may suggest that older adults with diabetes should be considered a high priority population for depression screening and treatment. PMID:24823259

  2. Is Urinary Lipoarabinomannan the Result of Renal Tuberculosis? Assessment of the Renal Histology in an Autopsy Cohort of Ugandan HIV-Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Janneke A.; Lukande, Robert L.; Kalungi, Sam; Van Marck, Eric; Van de Vijver, Koen; Kambugu, Andrew; Nelson, Ann M.; Colebunders, Robert; Manabe, Yukari C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The detection of urinary lipoarabinomannan (LAM), a mycobacterial cell wall component, is used to diagnose tuberculosis (TB). How LAM enters the urine is not known. To investigate if urinary LAM-positivity is the result of renal TB infection we correlated the outcomes of urinary LAM-antigen testing to renal histology in an autopsy cohort of hospitalized, Ugandan, HIV-infected adults. Methods We performed a complete autopsy, including renal sampling, in HIV-infected adults that died during hospitalization after written informed consent was obtained from the next of kin. Urine was collected postmortem through post-mortem catheterisation or by bladder puncture and tested for LAM with both a lateral flow assay (LFA) and an ELISA assay. Two pathologists assessed the kidney histology. We correlated the LAM-assay results and the histology findings. Results Of the 13/36 (36%) patients with a positive urinary LAM ELISA and/or LFA, 8/13 (62%) had renal TB. The remaining 5 LAM-positive patients had disseminated TB without renal involvement. Of the 23 LAM-negative patients, 3 had disseminated TB without renal involvement. The remaining LAM-negative patients had no TB infection and died mostly of fungal and bacterial infections. LAM LFA had a sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 100% to diagnose TB at any location, and the LAM ELISA a sensitivity of 63% and a specificity of 100%. 54% (7/13) LAM LFA-positive patients were not on anti-TB treatment at the time of death. Conclusion Renal TB infection explained LAM-positivity in the majority of patients. Patients with disseminated TB without renal involvement can also be diagnosed with LAM. This suggests that other mechanisms that lead to urinary LAM-positivity exist in a minority of patients. PMID:25897661

  3. The Ozone Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

  4. Show What You Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eccleston, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Big things come in small packages. This saying came to the mind of the author after he created a simple math review activity for his fourth grade students. Though simple, it has proven to be extremely advantageous in reinforcing math concepts. He uses this activity, which he calls "Show What You Know," often. This activity provides the perfect…

  5. Showing What They Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

  6. Stage a Water Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

  7. What Do Maps Show?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

    This curriculum packet, appropriate for grades 4-8, features a teaching poster which shows different types of maps (different views of Salt Lake City, Utah), as well as three reproducible maps and reproducible activity sheets which complement the maps. The poster provides teacher background, including step-by-step lesson plans for four geography…

  8. Obesity in show cats.

    PubMed

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. PMID:24612018

  9. Show Me the Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicks, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    Because today's students have grown up steeped in video games and the Internet, most of them expect feedback, and usually gratification, very soon after they expend effort on a task. Teachers can get quick feedback to students by showing them videotapes of their learning performances. The author, a 3rd grade teacher describes how the seemingly…

  10. The Art Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scolarici, Alicia

    2004-01-01

    This article describes what once was thought to be impossible--a formal art show extravaganza at an elementary school with 1,000 students, a Department of Defense Dependent School (DODDS) located overseas, on RAF Lakenheath, England. The dream of this this event involved the transformation of the school cafeteria into an elegant art show…

  11. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  12. 56Fe particle exposure results in a long-lasting increase in a cellular index of genomic instability and transiently suppresses adult hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCarolis, Nathan A.; Rivera, Phillip D.; Ahn, Francisca; Amaral, Wellington Z.; LeBlanc, Junie A.; Malhotra, Shveta; Shih, Hung-Ying; Petrik, David; Melvin, Neal R.; Chen, Benjamin P. C.; Eisch, Amelia J.

    2014-07-01

    The high-LET HZE particles from galactic cosmic radiation pose tremendous health risks to astronauts, as they may incur sub-threshold brain injury or maladaptations that may lead to cognitive impairment. The health effects of HZE particles are difficult to predict and unfeasible to prevent. This underscores the importance of estimating radiation risks to the central nervous system as a whole as well as to specific brain regions like the hippocampus, which is central to learning and memory. Given that neurogenesis in the hippocampus has been linked to learning and memory, we investigated the response and recovery of neurogenesis and neural stem cells in the adult mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus after HZE particle exposure using two nestin transgenic reporter mouse lines to label and track radial glia stem cells (Nestin-GFP and Nestin-CreERT2/R26R:YFP mice, respectively). Mice were subjected to 56Fe particle exposure (0 or 1 Gy, at either 300 or 1000 MeV/n) and brains were harvested at early (24 h), intermediate (7 d), and/or long time points (2-3 mo) post-irradiation. 56Fe particle exposure resulted in a robust increase in 53BP1+ foci at both the intermediate and long time points post-irradiation, suggesting long-term genomic instability in the brain. However, 56Fe particle exposure only produced a transient decrease in immature neuron number at the intermediate time point, with no significant decrease at the long time point post-irradiation. 56Fe particle exposure similarly produced a transient decrease in dividing progenitors, with fewer progenitors labeled at the early time point but equal number labeled at the intermediate time point, suggesting a recovery of neurogenesis. Notably, 56Fe particle exposure did not change the total number of nestin-expressing neural stem cells. These results highlight that despite the persistence of an index of genomic instability, 56Fe particle-induced deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis may be transient. These data support

  13. The prevalence and effects of Adult Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on the performance of workers: Results from the WHO World Mental Health Survey Initiative

    PubMed Central

    de Graaf, Ron; Kessler, Ronald C.; Fayyad, John; ten Have, Margreet; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Borges, Guilherme; Demyttenaere, Koen; Gasquet, Isabelle; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Jin, Robert; Karam, Elie G; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, José

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence and workplace consequences of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods Ann ADHD screen was administered to 18–44 year-old respondents in ten national surveys in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative (n = 7075 in paid or self employment; response rate 45.9–87.7% across countries). Blinded clinical reappraisal interviews were administered in the US to calibrate the screen. Days out of role were measured in the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHO-DAS). Questions were also asked about ADHD treatment. Results An average of 3.5% of workers in the ten countries was estimated to meet DSM-IV criteria for adult ADHD (inter-quartile range: 1.3–4.9%). ADHD was more common among males than females and less common among professionals than other workers. ADHD was associated with a statistically significant 22.1 annual days of excess lost role performance compared to otherwise similar respondents without ADHD. No difference in the magnitude of this effect was found by occupation, education, age, gender, or partner status. This effect was most pronounced in Colombia, Italy, Lebanon, and the US. Although only a small minority of workers with ADHD ever received treatment for this condition, higher proportions were treated for comorbid mental-substance disorders. Conclusions ADHD is a relatively common condition among working people in the countries studied and is associated with high work impairment in these countries. This impairment, in conjunction with the low treatment rate and the availability of cost-effective therapies, suggests that ADHD would be a good candidate for targeted workplace screening and treatment programs. Main messages A high proportion of childhood ADHD persists into adulthood. An average of 3.5% of workers in nationally representative surveys carried out in 10 countries met criteria for current DSM-IV adult ADHD. Workers with ADHD have an average 8.4 excess sickness absence

  14. (56)Fe Particle Exposure Results in a Long-Lasting Increase in a Cellular Index of Genomic Instability and Transiently Suppresses Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Vivo.

    PubMed

    DeCarolis, Nathan A; Rivera, Phillip D; Ahn, Francisca; Amaral, Wellington Z; LeBlanc, Junie A; Malhotra, Shveta; Shih, Hung-Ying; Petrik, David; Melvin, Neal; Chen, Benjamin P C; Eisch, Amelia J

    2014-07-01

    The high-LET HZE particles from galactic cosmic radiation pose tremendous health risks to astronauts, as they may incur sub-threshold brain injury or maladaptations that may lead to cognitive impairment. The health effects of HZE particles are difficult to predict and unfeasible to prevent. This underscores the importance of estimating radiation risks to the central nervous system as a whole as well as to specific brain regions like the hippocampus, which is central to learning and memory. Given that neurogenesis in the hippocampus has been linked to learning and memory, we investigated the response and recovery of neurogenesis and neural stem cells in the adult mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus after HZE particle exposure using two nestin transgenic reporter mouse lines to label and track radial glia stem cells (Nestin-GFP and Nestin-CreER(T2)/R26R:YFP mice, respectively). Mice were subjected to (56)Fe particle exposure (0 or 1 Gy, at either 300 or 1000 MeV/n) and brains were harvested at early (24h), intermediate (7d), and/or long time points (2-3mo) post-irradiation. (56)Fe particle exposure resulted in a robust increase in 53BP1+ foci at both the intermediate and long time points post-irradiation, suggesting long-term genomic instability in the brain. However, (56)Fe particle exposure only produced a transient decrease in immature neuron number at the intermediate time point, with no significant decrease at the long time point post-irradiation. (56)Fe particle exposure similarly produced a transient decrease in dividing progenitors, with fewer progenitors labeled at the early time point but equal number labeled at the intermediate time point, suggesting a recovery of neurogenesis. Notably, (56)Fe particle exposure did not change the total number of nestin-expressing neural stem cells. These results highlight that despite the persistence of an index of genomic instability, (56)Fe particle-induced deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis may be transient. These

  15. 56Fe Particle Exposure Results in a Long-Lasting Increase in a Cellular Index of Genomic Instability and Transiently Suppresses Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    DeCarolis, Nathan A.; Rivera, Phillip D.; Ahn, Francisca; Amaral, Wellington Z.; LeBlanc, Junie A.; Malhotra, Shveta; Shih, Hung-Ying; Petrik, David; Melvin, Neal; Chen, Benjamin P.C.; Eisch, Amelia J.

    2014-01-01

    The high-LET HZE particles from galactic cosmic radiation pose tremendous health risks to astronauts, as they may incur sub-threshold brain injury or maladaptations that may lead to cognitive impairment. The health effects of HZE particles are difficult to predict and unfeasible to prevent. This underscores the importance of estimating radiation risks to the central nervous system as a whole as well as to specific brain regions like the hippocampus, which is central to learning and memory. Given that neurogenesis in the hippocampus has been linked to learning and memory, we investigated the response and recovery of neurogenesis and neural stem cells in the adult mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus after HZE particle exposure using two nestin transgenic reporter mouse lines to label and track radial glia stem cells (Nestin-GFP and Nestin-CreERT2/R26R:YFP mice, respectively). Mice were subjected to 56Fe particle exposure (0 or 1 Gy, at either 300 or 1000 MeV/n) and brains were harvested at early (24h), intermediate (7d), and/or long time points (2–3mo) post-irradiation. 56Fe particle exposure resulted in a robust increase in 53BP1+ foci at both the intermediate and long time points post-irradiation, suggesting long-term genomic instability in the brain. However, 56Fe particle exposure only produced a transient decrease in immature neuron number at the intermediate time point, with no significant decrease at the long time point post-irradiation. 56Fe particle exposure similarly produced a transient decrease in dividing progenitors, with fewer progenitors labeled at the early time point but equal number labeled at the intermediate time point, suggesting a recovery of neurogenesis. Notably, 56Fe particle exposure did not change the total number of nestin-expressing neural stem cells. These results highlight that despite the persistence of an index of genomic instability, 56Fe particle-induced deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis may be transient. These data support

  16. Literacy, Numeracy, and Problem Solving in Technology-Rich Environments among U.S. Adults: Results from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies 2012. First Look. NCES 2014-008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Madeline; Finnegan, Robert; Mohadjer, Leyla; Krenzke, Tom; Hogan, Jacquie

    2013-01-01

    The Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) is a cyclical, large scale study of adult skills and life experience focusing on education and employment that was developed and organized by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). In the United States, the study was conducted in 2011-12 with a…

  17. Taking in a Show.

    PubMed

    Boden, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Many medical practices have cut back on education and staff development expenses, especially those costs associated with conventions and conferences. But there are hard-to-value returns on your investment in these live events--beyond the obvious benefits of acquired knowledge and skills. Major vendors still exhibit their services and wares at many events, and the exhibit hall is a treasure-house of information and resources for the savvy physician or administrator. Make and stick to a purposeful plan to exploit the trade show. You can compare products, gain new insights and ideas, and even negotiate better deals with representatives anxious to realize returns on their exhibition investments. PMID:27249887

  18. Taking in a Show.

    PubMed

    Boden, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Many medical practices have cut back on education and staff development expenses, especially those costs associated with conventions and conferences. But there are hard-to-value returns on your investment in these live events--beyond the obvious benefits of acquired knowledge and skills. Major vendors still exhibit their services and wares at many events, and the exhibit hall is a treasure-house of information and resources for the savvy physician or administrator. Make and stick to a purposeful plan to exploit the trade show. You can compare products, gain new insights and ideas, and even negotiate better deals with representatives anxious to realize returns on their exhibition investments.

  19. Is exposure to e-cigarette communication associated with perceived harms of e-cigarette secondhand vapour? Results from a national survey of US adults

    PubMed Central

    Bigman, Cabral A; Mello, Susan; Sanders-Jackson, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Objectives E-cigarettes are frequently advertised and portrayed in the media as less harmful compared with regular cigarettes. Earlier surveys reported public perceptions of harms to people using e-cigarettes; however, public perceptions of harms from exposure to secondhand vapour (SHV) have not been studied. We examined associations between self-reported exposure to e-cigarette advertising, media coverage, and interpersonal discussion and perceived harms of SHV. Design Observational study. Setting National online sample of US adults aged ≥18 years. Participants 1449 US adults (mean age 49.5 years), 51.3% female, 76.6% non-Hispanic Caucasian, 7.5% African-American, 10.0% Hispanic and 5.9% other races. Outcomes Perceived harm measures included (1) harmfulness of SHV to one's health, (2) concern about health impact of breathing SHV and (3) comparative harm of SHV versus secondhand smoke (SHS). Predictors were (1) self-reported frequency of exposure to e-cigarette advertising, media coverage and interpersonal discussion (close friends or family) and (2) perceived valence of exposure from each source. Covariates were demographic characteristics, cigarette smoking status and e-cigarette use, and were weighted to the general US adult population. Results More frequent interpersonal discussion was associated with lower perceived harmfulness of SHV to one's health and lower perceived comparative harm of SHV versus SHS. Frequency of e-cigarette ad and other media exposure were not significant predictors. Perceived negative valence of ad exposure and interpersonal discussion (vs no exposure) was associated with higher perceived harm across all three outcomes, while negative valence of media coverage was associated with higher concern about health impact of breathing SHV. Perceived positive valence (vs no exposure) of interpersonal discussion was associated with lower perceived harm across all three outcomes about health impact of breathing SHV. Conclusions Exposure to

  20. Obesity in show dogs.

    PubMed

    Corbee, R J

    2013-10-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a growing incidence. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, and decreases life span, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain breeds is often suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, we investigated 1379 dogs of 128 different breeds by determining their body condition score (BCS). Overall, 18.6% of the show dogs had a BCS >5, and 1.1% of the show dogs had a BCS>7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be correlated to the breed standards. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and judges in order to come to different interpretations of the standards to prevent overweight conditions from being the standard of beauty. PMID:22882163

  1. Estimating the Prevalence and Predictors of Incorrect Condom Use Among Sexually Active Adults in Kenya: Results From a Nationally Representative Survey

    PubMed Central

    Grasso, Michael A.; Schwarcz, Sandra; Galbraith, Jennifer S.; Musyoki, Helgar; Kambona, Caroline; Kellogg, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Condom use continues to be an important primary prevention tool to reduce the acquisition and transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. However, incorrect use of condoms can reduce their effectiveness. Methods Using data from a 2012 nationally representative cross-sectional household survey conducted in Kenya, we analyzed a subpopulation of sexually active adults and estimated the percent that used condoms incorrectly during sex, and the type of condom errors. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine variables to be independently associated with incorrect condom use. Results Among 13,720 adolescents and adults, 8014 were sexually active in the previous 3 months (60.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 59.0–61.7). Among those who used a condom with a sex partner, 20% (95% CI, 17.4–22.6) experienced at least one instance of incorrect condom use in the previous 3 months. Of incorrect condom users, condom breakage or leakage was the most common error (52%; 95% CI, 44.5–59.6). Factors found to be associated with incorrect condom use were multiple sexual partnerships in the past 12 months (2 partners: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0–2.0; P = 0.03; ≥3: aOR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.5–3.5; P < 0.01) and reporting symptoms of a sexually transmitted infection (aOR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.8–4.3; P < 0.01). Conclusions Incorrect condom use is frequent among sexually active Kenyans and this may translate into substantial HIV transmission. Further understanding of the dynamics of condom use and misuse, in the broader context of other prevention strategies, will aid program planners in the delivery of appropriate interventions aimed at limiting such errors. PMID:26766524

  2. Association between Body Mass Index and All-Cause Mortality in Hypertensive Adults: Results from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Li, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Yan; Fan, Fang-Fang; Xu, Xi-Ping; Wang, Bin-Yan; Xu, Xin; Qin, Xian-Hui; Xing, Hou-Xun; Tang, Gen-Fu; Zhou, Zi-Yi; Gu, Dong-Feng; Zhao, Dong; Huo, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The association between elevated body mass index (BMI) and risk of death has been reported in many studies. However, the association between BMI and all-cause mortality for hypertensive Chinese adults remains unclear. We conducted a post-hoc analysis using data from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT). Cox regression analysis was performed to determine the significance of the association of BMI with all-cause mortality. During a mean follow-up duration of 4.5 years, 622 deaths (3.0%) occurred among the 20,694 participants aged 45–75 years. A reversed J-shaped relationship was observed between BMI and all-cause mortality. The hazard ratios (HRs) for underweight (<18.5 kg/m2), overweight (24.0–27.9 kg/m2), and obesity (≥28.0 kg/m2) were calculated relative to normal weight (18.5–23.9 kg/m2). The summary HRs were 1.56 (95% CI, 1.11–2.18) for underweight, 0.78 (95% CI 0.64–0.95) for overweight and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.48–0.85) for obesity. In sex-age-specific analyses, participants over 60 years of age had optimal BMI in the obesity classification and the results were consistent in both males and females. Relative to normal weight, underweight was associated with significantly higher mortality. Excessive weight was not associated with increased risk of mortality. Chinese hypertensive adults had the lowest mortality in grade 1 obesity. PMID:27338470

  3. Long-term concentrations of ambient air pollutants and incident lung cancer in California adults: results from the AHSMOG study.Adventist Health Study on Smog.

    PubMed Central

    Beeson, W L; Abbey, D E; Knutsen, S F

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of long-term concentrations of ambient air pollutants and risk of incident lung cancer in nonsmoking California adults. A cohort study of 6,338 nonsmoking, non-Hispanic, white Californian adults, ages 27-95, was followed from 1977 to 1992 for newly diagnosed cancers. Monthly ambient air pollution data were interpolated to zip code centroids according to home and work location histories, cumulated, and then averaged over time. The increased relative risk (RR) of incident lung cancer in males associated with an interquartile range (IQR) increase in 100 ppb ozone (O3) was 3.56 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.35-9.42]. Incident lung cancer in males was also positively associated with IQR increases for mean concentrations of particulate matter <10 microm (PM10; RR = 5.21; CI, 1.94-13.99) and SO2 (RR = 2.66; CI, 1.62-4.39). For females, incident lung cancer was positively associated with IQR increases for SO2 (RR = 2.14; CI, 1.36-3.37) and IQR increases for PM10 exceedance frequencies of 50 microg/m3 (RR = 1.21; CI, 0.55-2.66) and 60 microg/m3 (RR = 1.25; CI, 0.57-2.71). Increased risks of incident lung cancer were associated with elevated long-term ambient concentrations of PM10 and SO2 in both genders and with O3 in males. The gender differences for the O3 and PM10 results appeared to be partially due to gender differences in exposure. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9831542

  4. Hospitalizations for Alcohol and Drug Overdoses in Young Adults Ages 18–24 in the United States, 1999–2008: Results From the Nationwide Inpatient Sample

    PubMed Central

    White, Aaron M.; Hingson, Ralph W.; Pan, I-jen; yi, Hsiao-ye

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Recent reports indicate an increase in rates of hospitalizations for drug overdoses in the United States. The role of alcohol in hospitalizations for drug overdoses remains unclear. Excessive consumption of alcohol and drugs is prevalent in young adults ages 18–24. The present study explores rates and costs of inpatient hospital stays for alcohol overdoses, drug overdoses, and their co-occurrence in young adults ages 18–24 and changes in these rates between 1999 and 2008. Method: Data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample were used to estimate numbers, rates, and costs of inpatient hospital stays stemming from alcohol overdoses (and their subcategories, alcohol poisonings and excessive consumption of alcohol), drug overdoses (and their subcategories, drug poisonings and nondependent abuse of drugs), and their co-occurrence in 18- to 24-year-olds. Results: Hospitalization rates for alcohol overdoses alone increased 25% from 1999 to 2008, reaching 29,412 cases in 2008 at a cost of $266 million. Hospitalization rates for drug overdoses alone increased 55%, totaling 113,907 cases in 2008 at a cost of $737 million. Hospitalization rates for combined alcohol and drug overdoses increased 76%, with 29,202 cases in 2008 at a cost of $198 million. Conclusions: Rates of hospitalizations for alcohol overdoses, drug overdoses, and their combination all increased from 1999 to 2008 among 18- to 24-year-olds. The cost of such hospitalizations now exceeds $1.2 billion annually. The steepest increase occurred among cases of combined alcohol and drug overdoses. Stronger efforts are needed to educate medical practitioners and the public about the risk of overdoses, particularly when alcohol is combined with other drugs. PMID:21906505

  5. Medical Comorbidity of Full and Partial Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in United States Adults: Results from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pietrzak, Robert H.; Goldstein, Risë B.; Southwick, Steven M.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study examined associations between lifetime trauma exposures, PTSD and partial PTSD, and past-year medical conditions in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 34,653 participants in the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic regression analyses evaluated associations of trauma exposure, PTSD and partial PTSD with respondent-reported medical diagnoses. Results After adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and comorbid Axis I and II disorders, respondents with full PTSD were more likely than traumatized respondents without full or partial PTSD (comparison group) to report diagnoses of diabetes mellitus, noncirrhotic liver disease, angina pectoris, tachycardia, hypercholesterolemia, other heart disease, stomach ulcer, HIV seropositivity, gastritis, and arthritis (odds ratios [ORs]=1.2-2.5). Respondents with partial PTSD were more likely than the comparison group to report past-year diagnoses of stomach ulcer, angina pectoris, tachycardia, and arthritis (ORs=1.3-1.6). Men with full and partial PTSD were more likely than controls to report diagnoses of hypertension (both ORs=1.6), and both men and women with PTSD (ORs=1.8 and 1.6, respectively), and men with partial PTSD (OR=2.0) were more likely to report gastritis. Total number of lifetime traumatic event types was associated with many assessed medical conditions (ORs=1.04-1.16), reducing the magnitudes and rendering non-significant some of the associations between PTSD status and medical conditions. Conclusions Greater lifetime trauma exposure and PTSD are associated with numerous medical conditions, many of which are stress-related and chronic, in U.S. adults. Partial PTSD is associated with intermediate odds of some of these conditions. PMID:21949429

  6. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show. PMID:23631336

  7. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show.

  8. Reading Intervention Outcomes for Adults with Disabilities in a Vocational Rehabilitation Setting: Results of a 3-Year Research and Demonstration Grant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderberg, Laura E.; Pierce, Margaret E.; Disney, Laurel J.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on an examination of the effectiveness of a reading intervention for adults with disabilities in a vocational rehabilitation setting. Participants were 57 adults with disabilities and low reading skills enrolled at the Reading Clinic at the Michigan Career and Technical Institute. As part of a 3-year research and demonstration…

  9. Monitoring the Future: National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2009. Volume II: College Students and Adults Ages 19-50. NIH Publication No. 10-7585

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring the Future (MTF), now in its 35th year, has become one of the nation's most relied-upon sources of information on changes taking place in licit and illicit psychoactive drug use among American adolescents, college students, young adults, and more recently, middle-aged adults. During the last three and a half decades, the study has…

  10. Impact of Short- and Long-term Tai Chi Mind-Body Exercise Training on Cognitive Function in Healthy Adults: Results From a Hybrid Observational Study and Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Jacquelyn N.; Manor, Brad; Hausdorff, Jeffrey; Novak, Vera; Lipsitz, Lewis; Gow, Brian; Macklin, Eric A.; Peng, Chung-Kang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cognitive decline amongst older adults is a significant public health concern. There is growing interest in behavioral interventions, including exercise, for improving cognition. Studies to date suggest tai chi (TC) may be a safe and potentially effective exercise for preserving cognitive function with aging; however, its short-term and potential long-term impact on physically active, healthy adults is unclear. Objective: To compare differences in cognitive function among long-term TC expert practitioners and age-matched and gender-matched TC-naïve adults and to determine the effects of short-term TC training on measures of cognitive function in healthy, nonsedentary adults. Design: A hybrid design including an observational comparison and a 2-arm randomized clinical trial (RCT) Participants: Healthy, nonsedentary, TC-naive adults (50 y-79 y) and age-matched and gender-matched long-term TC experts Methods: A cross-sectional comparison of cognitive function in healthy TC-naïve (n=60) and TC expert (24.5 y ÷ 12 y experience; n=27) adults: TC-naïve adults then completed a 6-month, 2-arm, wait-list randomized clinical trial of TC training. Six measures of cognitive function were assessed for both cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons. Results: TC experts exhibited trends towards better scores on all cognitive measures, significantly so for category fluency (P=.01), as well as a composite z score summarizing all 6 cognitive assessments (P=.03). In contrast, random assignment to 6 months of TC training in TC-naïve adults did not significantly improve any measures of cognitive function. Conclusions: In healthy nonsedentary adults, long-term TC training may help preserve cognitive function; however, the effect of short-term TC training in healthy adults remains unclear. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01340365 PMID:26331103

  11. Molecular basis of an adult form of Sandhoff disease: substitution of glutamine for arginine at position 505 of the beta-chain of beta-hexosaminidase results in a labile enzyme.

    PubMed

    Bolhuis, P A; Ponne, N J; Bikker, H; Baas, F; Vianney de Jong, J M

    1993-09-01

    Sandhoff disease is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by accumulation of GM2 ganglioside due to mutations in the beta-chain of beta-hexosaminidase. Hexosaminidase activity is negligible in infantile Sandhoff disease whereas residual activity is present in juvenile and adult forms. Here we report the molecular basis of the first described adult form of Sandhoff disease. Southern analysis of chromosomal DNA indicated the absence of chromosomal deletions in the gene encoding the beta-chain. Northern analysis of RNA from cultured fibroblasts demonstrated that at least one of the beta-chain alleles was transcribed into normal-length mRNA. Sequence analysis of the entire cDNA prepared from poly-adenylated RNA showed that only one point mutation was present, consisting of a G-->A transition at nucleotide position 1514. This mutation changes the electric charge at amino acid position 505 by substitution of glutamine for arginine in a highly conserved part of the beta-chain, present even in the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The nucleotide transition generated a new restriction site for DdeI, which was present in only one of the alleles of the patient. Reverse transcription of mRNA followed by restriction with DdeI resulted in complete digestion at the mutation site, demonstrating that the second allele was of an mRNA-negative type. Transfection of COS cells with a cDNA construct containing the mutation but otherwise the normal sequence resulted in the expression of a labile form of beta-hexosaminidase. These results show that the patient's is a genetic compound, and that the lability of beta-hexosaminidase found in this form of Sandhoff disease is based on a single nucleotide transition. PMID:8357844

  12. Children's school-breakfast reports and school-lunch reports (in 24-h dietary recalls): conventional and reporting-error-sensitive measures show inconsistent accuracy results for retention interval and breakfast location.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Suzanne D; Guinn, Caroline H; Smith, Albert F; Hitchcock, David B; Royer, Julie A; Puryear, Megan P; Collins, Kathleen L; Smith, Alyssa L

    2016-04-14

    Validation-study data were analysed to investigate retention interval (RI) and prompt effects on the accuracy of fourth-grade children's reports of school-breakfast and school-lunch (in 24-h recalls), and the accuracy of school-breakfast reports by breakfast location (classroom; cafeteria). Randomly selected fourth-grade children at ten schools in four districts were observed eating school-provided breakfast and lunch, and were interviewed under one of eight conditions created by crossing two RIs ('short'--prior-24-hour recall obtained in the afternoon and 'long'--previous-day recall obtained in the morning) with four prompts ('forward'--distant to recent, 'meal name'--breakfast, etc., 'open'--no instructions, and 'reverse'--recent to distant). Each condition had sixty children (half were girls). Of 480 children, 355 and 409 reported meals satisfying criteria for reports of school-breakfast and school-lunch, respectively. For breakfast and lunch separately, a conventional measure--report rate--and reporting-error-sensitive measures--correspondence rate and inflation ratio--were calculated for energy per meal-reporting child. Correspondence rate and inflation ratio--but not report rate--showed better accuracy for school-breakfast and school-lunch reports with the short RI than with the long RI; this pattern was not found for some prompts for each sex. Correspondence rate and inflation ratio showed better school-breakfast report accuracy for the classroom than for cafeteria location for each prompt, but report rate showed the opposite. For each RI, correspondence rate and inflation ratio showed better accuracy for lunch than for breakfast, but report rate showed the opposite. When choosing RI and prompts for recalls, researchers and practitioners should select a short RI to maximise accuracy. Recommendations for prompt selections are less clear. As report rates distort validation-study accuracy conclusions, reporting-error-sensitive measures are recommended. PMID

  13. Computational models of adult neurogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecchi, Guillermo A.; Magnasco, Marcelo O.

    2005-10-01

    Experimental results in recent years have shown that adult neurogenesis is a significant phenomenon in the mammalian brain. Little is known, however, about the functional role played by the generation and destruction of neurons in the context of an adult brain. Here, we propose two models where new projection neurons are incorporated. We show that in both models, using incorporation and removal of neurons as a computational tool, it is possible to achieve a higher computational efficiency that in purely static, synapse-learning-driven networks. We also discuss the implication for understanding the role of adult neurogenesis in specific brain areas like the olfactory bulb and the dentate gyrus.

  14. [Transition of adolescents with the exstrophy-epispadias complex to adult medicine: influence of long-term outcome results on management].

    PubMed

    Ebert, A-K; Reutter, H; Neissner, C; Rösch, W

    2012-11-01

    Today, young individuals with rare congenital anomalies as the Exstrophy-Epispadias-Complex (EEC) are mostly monitored interdisciplinary with a high standard of care and enthusiasm during childhood. However, when growing up through adolescence to adulthood adequate care-givers are not available at the moment in adult medicine in Germany and a concrete transition process has yet not been established. Over the past years, we put much effort in systematic evaluation of long-term outcome after reconstruction of the EEC in the newborn period to further improve outcome results. Beside predictive parameters for continence and long-term bladder function, genital function and fertility, as well as postoperative pelvic floor morphology and gynecological outcome, orthopedic results and psychosexual and psychosocial development in EEC were of major interest. As a consequence we currently develop a German-wide follow-up concept in EEC patients regarding age- and gender specific outcome issues. Long-term observations of the EEC outcome however, underline the unrestricted importance of careful long-term follow-up of all EEC patients, as well as the necessity of close cooperation of pediatric urologist, pediatric surgeons, urologists, orthopedic surgeons, gynecologists, andrologists, psychologists and urotherapists from early childhood and the need of knowledge transfer and hopefully a successful transition of the EEC individuals to general medicine.

  15. The association between substance use and common mental disorders in young adults: results from the South African Stress and Health (SASH) Survey

    PubMed Central

    Saban, Amina; Flisher, Alan J; Grimsrud, Anna; Morojele, Neo; London, Leslie; Williams, David R; Stein, Dan J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although substance use is commonly associated with mental disorders, limited data on this association are available from low and middle income countries such as South Africa. The aims of the study were i) to determine patterns of substance use in young adults, ii) to identify trends of common psychiatric disorders in relation to use of specific substances, and iii) to determine whether specific psychiatric disorders were associated with use of specific substances in the South African population. Methods Data were drawn from the South African Stress and Health (SASH) study, a nationally-representative, cross-sectional survey of South African households that forms part of a World Health Organisation (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) initiative to standardise information on the global burden of mental illness and its correlates. Data from a subset (n = 1766; aged 18 to 30 years) of the SASH sample of 4351 individuals were analysed. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3 (CIDI 3.0) was used to elicit basic demographic details and information regarding mental illness and substance use. Multiple regression analyses, adjusted for age and gender, were used to identify associations between mental disorders and substance use. Results Significant associations were found between substance use and mood and anxiety disorders, with a particularly strong relationship between cannabis use and mental disorder. Conclusion The results are consistent with those from previous studies, and reinforce the argument that comorbid substance use and mental disorders constitute a major public health burden. PMID:24624244

  16. Using a Powered Bone Marrow Biopsy System Results in Shorter Procedures, Causes Less Residual Pain to Adult Patients, and Yields Larger Specimens

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In recent years, a battery-powered bone marrow biopsy system was developed and cleared by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to allow health care providers to access the bone marrow space quickly and efficiently. A multicenter randomized clinical trial was designed for adult patients to determine if the powered device had advantages over traditional manually-inserted needles in regard to length of procedure, patient pain, complications, user satisfaction, and pathological analysis of the specimens. Methods Adult patients requiring marrow sampling procedures were randomized for a Manual or Powered device. Visual Analog Scale (VAS) pain scores were captured immediately following the procedure and 1 and 7 days later. Procedure time was measured and core specimens were submitted to pathology for grading. Results Ten sites enrolled 102 patients into the study (Powered, n = 52; Manual, n = 50). Mean VAS scores for overall procedural pain were not significantly different between the arms (3.8 ± 2.8 for Powered, 3.5 ± 2.3 for Manual [p = 0.623]). A day later, more patients who underwent the Powered procedure were pain-free (67%) than those patients in the Manual group (33%; p = 0.003). One week later, there was no difference (83% for Powered patients; 76% for Manual patients.) Mean procedure time was 102.1 ± 86.4 seconds for the Powered group and 203.1 ± 149.5 seconds for the Manual group (p < 0.001). Pathology assessment was similar in specimen quality, but there was a significant difference in the specimen volume between the devices (Powered: 36.8 ± 21.2 mm3; Manual: 20.4 ± 9.0 mm3; p = 0.039). Two non-serious complications were experienced during Powered procedures (4%); but none during Manual procedures (p = 0.495). Conclusions The results of this first trial provide evidence that the Powered device delivers larger-volume bone marrow specimens for pathology evaluation. In addition, bone marrow specimens were secured more rapidly and subjects

  17. Changes in the vitamin D endocrine system and bone turnover after oral vitamin D3 supplementation in healthy adults: results of a randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is uncertainty as to which intake of vitamin D is needed to suppress PTH and maintain normal bone metabolism throughout winter at northern latitudes. We aimed to investigate whether four weeks’ daily supplementation with 10 μg vitamin D3 from fish oil produced a greater change in serum vitamin D metabolites, parathyroid hormone, and bone turnover in healthy adults compared with solid multivitamin tablets. Furthermore, it was studied whether age, gender, ethnic background, body mass index, or serum concentrations at baseline predicted the magnitude of change in these parameters. Methods Healthy adults aged 19–48 years living in Oslo, Norway (59°N) were randomised to receive a daily dose of 10 μg vitamin D3 given as fish oil capsules or multivitamin tablets during four weeks in late winter. Serum samples from baseline and after 28 days were analysed for 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (s-1,25(OH)2D), intact parathyroid hormone (s-iPTH), and osteoclast-specific tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (s-TRACP). Fifty-five eligible participants completed the intervention (74% of those randomised). Results S-25(OH)D increased by mean 34.1 (SD 13.1) nmol/l, p < 0.001; s-iPTH decreased by mean 1.2 (SD 2.5) pmol/l, p = 0.001; s-1,25(OH)2D increased by mean 13 (SD 48) pmol/l, p = 0.057; and s-TRACP increased by mean 0.38 (SD 0.33) U/l, p < 0.001. For all these parameters, there was no difference between fish oil and multivitamin formulation. Baseline concentrations were the only independent predictors of changes in biochemical parameters. Conclusions Four weeks of daily supplementation with 10 μg vitamin D3 decreased mean s-iPTH and increased s-TRACP concentration, and this did not differ by mode of administration. Our results suggest an increased bone resorption following vitamin D supplementation in young individuals, despite a decrease in parathyroid hormone levels. Trial Registration Clinical

  18. Adult AMPA GLUA1 Receptor Subunit Loss in 5-HT Neurons Results in a Specific Anxiety-Phenotype with Evidence for Dysregulation of 5-HT Neuronal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Tillmann; Vogt, Miriam A; Gartside, Sarah E; Berger, Stefan M; Lujan, Rafael; Lau, Thorsten; Herrmann, Elke; Sprengel, Rolf; Bartsch, Dusan; Gass, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Both the glutamatergic and serotonergic (5-HT) systems are implicated in the modulation of mood and anxiety. Descending cortical glutamatergic neurons regulate 5-HT neuronal activity in the midbrain raphe nuclei through α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. To analyze the functional role of GLUA1-containing AMPA receptors in serotonergic neurons, we used the Cre-ERT2/loxP-system for the conditional inactivation of the GLUA1-encoding Gria1 gene selectively in 5-HT neurons of adult mice. These Gria15-HT−/− mice exhibited a distinct anxiety phenotype but showed no alterations in locomotion, depression-like behavior, or learning and memory. Increased anxiety-related behavior was associated with significant decreases in tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) expression and activity, and subsequent reductions in tissue levels of 5-HT, its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and norepinephrine in the raphe nuclei. However, TPH2 expression and activity as well as monoamine levels were unchanged in the projection areas of 5-HT neurons. Extracellular electrophysiological recordings of 5-HT neurons revealed that, while α1-adrenoceptor-mediated excitation was unchanged, excitatory responses to AMPA were enhanced and the 5-HT1A autoreceptor-mediated inhibitory response to 5-HT was attenuated in Gria15-HT−/− mice. Our data show that a loss of GLUA1 protein in 5-HT neurons enhances AMPA receptor function and leads to multiple local molecular and neurochemical changes in the raphe nuclei that dysregulate 5-HT neuronal activity and induce anxiety-like behavior. PMID:25547714

  19. Adult AMPA GLUA1 receptor subunit loss in 5-HT neurons results in a specific anxiety-phenotype with evidence for dysregulation of 5-HT neuronal activity.

    PubMed

    Weber, Tillmann; Vogt, Miriam A; Gartside, Sarah E; Berger, Stefan M; Lujan, Rafael; Lau, Thorsten; Herrmann, Elke; Sprengel, Rolf; Bartsch, Dusan; Gass, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Both the glutamatergic and serotonergic (5-HT) systems are implicated in the modulation of mood and anxiety. Descending cortical glutamatergic neurons regulate 5-HT neuronal activity in the midbrain raphe nuclei through α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. To analyze the functional role of GLUA1-containing AMPA receptors in serotonergic neurons, we used the Cre-ERT2/loxP-system for the conditional inactivation of the GLUA1-encoding Gria1 gene selectively in 5-HT neurons of adult mice. These Gria1(5-HT-/-) mice exhibited a distinct anxiety phenotype but showed no alterations in locomotion, depression-like behavior, or learning and memory. Increased anxiety-related behavior was associated with significant decreases in tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) expression and activity, and subsequent reductions in tissue levels of 5-HT, its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and norepinephrine in the raphe nuclei. However, TPH2 expression and activity as well as monoamine levels were unchanged in the projection areas of 5-HT neurons. Extracellular electrophysiological recordings of 5-HT neurons revealed that, while α1-adrenoceptor-mediated excitation was unchanged, excitatory responses to AMPA were enhanced and the 5-HT1A autoreceptor-mediated inhibitory response to 5-HT was attenuated in Gria1(5-HT-/-) mice. Our data show that a loss of GLUA1 protein in 5-HT neurons enhances AMPA receptor function and leads to multiple local molecular and neurochemical changes in the raphe nuclei that dysregulate 5-HT neuronal activity and induce anxiety-like behavior.

  20. Adult Books for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Betty

    1997-01-01

    Considers the differences between young adult and adult books and maintains that teachers must be familiar with young adults' tastes for both. Suggests that traffic between these publishing divisions is a two-way street, with young adults reading adult books and adults reading young adult books. (TB)

  1. What Do Blood Tests Show?

    MedlinePlus

    ... shows the ranges for blood glucose levels after 8 to 12 hours of fasting (not eating). It shows the normal range and the abnormal ranges that are a sign of prediabetes or diabetes. Plasma Glucose Results (mg/dL)* Diagnosis 70 to 99 ...

  2. Adult intussusception.

    PubMed Central

    Azar, T; Berger, D L

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objectives were to review adult intussusception, its diagnosis, and its treatment. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Adult intussusception represents 1% of all bowel obstructions, 5% of all intussusceptions, and 0.003%-0.02% of all hospital admissions. Intussusception is a different entity in adults than it is in children. METHODS: The records of all patients 18 years and older with the postoperative diagnosis of intussusception at the Massachusetts General Hospital during the years 1964 through 1993 were reviewed retrospectively. The 58 patients were divided into those with benign enteric, malignant enteric, benign colonic, and malignant colonic lesions associated with their intussusception. The diagnosis and treatment of each were reviewed. RESULTS: In 30 years at the Massachusetts General Hospital, there are 58 cases of surgically proven adult intussusception. The patients' mean age was 54.4 years. Most patients presented with symptoms consistent with bowel obstruction. There were 44 enteric and 14 colonic intussusceptions. Ninety-three percent of the intussusceptions were associated with a pathologic lesion. Forty-eight percent of the enteric lesions were malignant and 52% were benign. Forty-three percent of the colonic lesions were malignant and 57% were benign. CONCLUSIONS: Intussusception occurs rarely in adults. It presents with a variety of acute, intermittent, and chronic symptoms, thus making its preoperative diagnosis difficult. Computed tomography scanning proved to be the most useful diagnostic radiologic method. The diagnosis and treatment of adult intussusception are surgical. Surgical resection of the intussusception without reduction is the preferred treatment in adults, as almost half of both colonic and enteric intussusceptions are associated with malignancy. PMID:9296505

  3. Electrophysiological entropy in younger adults, older controls and older cognitively declined adults.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Michael J; Kilmartin, Liam; Keane, Michael; Collins, Peter; Staff, Roger T; Kaiser, Jochen; Lai, Robert; Upton, Neil

    2012-03-22

    The current study examined electrophysiological entropy in younger adults, older adults, and older cognitively declined adults across four experimental conditions - eyes closed, eyes open, and during both encoding and recognition of words in a memory task. We hypothesised reduced entropy in older declined adults relative to both older controls and younger adults, with the largest group differences in entropy expected during the encoding and recognition phases of the experiment. We also hypothesised greater hemispheric asymmetry in younger adults compared with older controls and older declined adults. Results revealed significant increases in entropy from eyes closed to eyes open to task. Young adults showed higher entropy in the right relative to the left hemisphere in the temporal lobe and higher entropy in the left relative to the right hemisphere in the parietal lobe. Old cognitively declined adults showed no significant differences between right and left hemisphere entropy. There was a trend whereby older declined adults showed lower entropy than older controls in the frontal lobe, this difference being largest in the left hemisphere during the encoding phase of the experiment. Results indicate that measures of entropy are sensitive to information processing demands and that higher cognitive performance may not be a simple function of entropy level, but rather a combination of level and range, or differentiated range of entropy states across the brain.

  4. Accelerometer-measured sedentary time among Hispanic adults: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).

    PubMed

    Merchant, Gina; Buelna, Christina; Castañeda, Sheila F; Arredondo, Elva M; Marshall, Simon J; Strizich, Garrett; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Chambers, Earle C; McMurray, Robert G; Evenson, Kelly R; Stoutenberg, Mark; Hankinson, Arlene L; Talavera, Gregory A

    2015-01-01

    Excessive sedentary behavior is associated with negative health outcomes independent of physical activity. Objective estimates of time spent in sedentary behaviors are lacking among adults from diverse Hispanic/Latino backgrounds. The objective of this study was to describe accelerometer-assessed sedentary time in a large, representative sample of Hispanic/Latino adults living in the United States, and compare sedentary estimates by Hispanic/Latino background, sociodemographic characteristics and weight categories. This study utilized baseline data from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) that included adults aged 18-74 years from four metropolitan areas (N = 16,415). Measured with the Actical accelerometer over 6 days, 76.9% (n = 12,631) of participants had > 10 h/day and > 3 days of data. Participants spent 11.9 h/day (SD 3.0), or 74% of their monitored time in sedentary behaviors. Adjusting for differences in wear time, adults of Mexican background were the least (11.6 h/day), whereas adults of Dominican background were the most (12.3 h/day), sedentary. Women were more sedentary than men, and older adults were more sedentary than younger adults. Household income was positively associated, whereas employment was negatively associated, with sedentary time. There were no differences in sedentary time by weight categories, marital status, or proxies of acculturation. To reduce sedentariness among these populations, future research should examine how the accumulation of various sedentary behaviors differs by background and region, and which sedentary behaviors are amenable to intervention.

  5. Accelerometer-measured sedentary time among Hispanic adults: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL)

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Gina; Buelna, Christina; Castañeda, Sheila F.; Arredondo, Elva M.; Marshall, Simon J.; Strizich, Garrett; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Chambers, Earle C.; McMurray, Robert G.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Stoutenberg, Mark; Hankinson, Arlene L.; Talavera, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive sedentary behavior is associated with negative health outcomes independent of physical activity. Objective estimates of time spent in sedentary behaviors are lacking among adults from diverse Hispanic/Latino backgrounds. The objective of this study was to describe accelerometer-assessed sedentary time in a large, representative sample of Hispanic/Latino adults living in the United States, and compare sedentary estimates by Hispanic/Latino background, sociodemographic characteristics and weight categories. This study utilized baseline data from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) that included adults aged 18–74 years from four metropolitan areas (N = 16,415). Measured with the Actical accelerometer over 6 days, 76.9% (n = 12,631) of participants had > 10 h/day and > 3 days of data. Participants spent 11.9 h/day (SD 3.0), or 74% of their monitored time in sedentary behaviors. Adjusting for differences in wear time, adults of Mexican background were the least (11.6 h/day), whereas adults of Dominican background were the most (12.3 h/day), sedentary. Women were more sedentary than men, and older adults were more sedentary than younger adults. Household income was positively associated, whereas employment was negatively associated, with sedentary time. There were no differences in sedentary time by weight categories, marital status, or proxies of acculturation. To reduce sedentariness among these populations, future research should examine how the accumulation of various sedentary behaviors differs by background and region, and which sedentary behaviors are amenable to intervention. PMID:26844159

  6. [Comparison of 2 chemotherapy protocols in adult acute myeloblastic leukemia. Results of the Instituto Nacional de la Nutrición Salvador Zubirán cooperative group].

    PubMed

    Lobato-Mendizábal, E; Ruiz-Argüelles, G J; Labardini-Méndez, J; Gómez-Almaguer, D; Ganci-Cerrud, G; Lozano-de-la-Vega, A

    1992-01-01

    Up to now, the best treatment for patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is the induction of bone marrow hypoplasia by ablative combined chemotherapy; the prototype of these schedules is the so-called 7 + 3 (seven days of continuous infusion of cytarabine and three days of one-hour infusion of any anthracycline); these schedules require the support of both platelet transfusions and antibiotics. Other non-ablative schedules have also been tried in the treatment of such patients. Here we analyze the results of the treatment of 76 adult patients with AML; 43 were treated with the classical 7 + 3 schedule, whereas 33 were treated with a combination of chemotherapy used in non-ablative doses (TADOP: thioguanine, arabinosyl-citosine, doxorrubicin, vincristine and prednisone). The results were as follows, respectively, for 7 + 3 and TADOP: complete remission (CR) was achieved in 60 and 48% of patients (p NS); the number of cycles to achieve CR had a median of 1 and 5 months (p less than 0.001); the median duration of the CR was 21 and 10 months (p less than 0.05); fatal myelotoxicity was 30 and 42% (p NS), one-year disease free survival (DFS) was 45 and 46% (p NS) and three-year survival was 22% and 15% (p NS). Additionally, patients treated with 7 + 3 were divided into two groups according to the type of platelet transfusion support; those supported with apheresis equipment and those with centrifugation-derived platelets.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. An overview of the contribution of dairy and cheese intakes to nutrient intakes in the Irish diet: results from the National Adult Nutrition Survey.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Emma L; Nugent, Anne P; Mc Nulty, Breige; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Eileen R

    2016-02-28

    Dairy products are important contributors to nutrient intakes. However, dairy intakes are reportedly declining in developed populations, potentially due to concerns regarding Na and SFA in dairy foods, particularly cheese. This could impact other nutrient intakes. The present study used data from the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) to (1) examine dairy intakes, with a specific focus on cheese, and (2) to examine the contribution of cheese to population nutrient intakes. The NANS captured detailed dietary intake data from a nationally representative sample (n 1500) between 2008 and 2010 using 4-d semi-weighed food diaries; 99·9% of the population reported dairy intake. Mean daily population dairy intake was 290·0 (SD 202·1) g. Dairy products provided 8·7% of the population intake of reported dietary Na, 19·8% SFA, 39% Ca, 34·5% vitamin B12 and 10·5% Mg. Cheese alone provided 3·9% Na intake, 9·1% Ca, 12·6% retinol, 8·3% SFA, 3·7% protein, 3·4% vitamin B12 and 3·2% riboflavin. High dairy consumers had greater Ca and Mg intakes per 10 MJ, greater total energy intake, greater percentage of energy from carbohydrate and SFA and lower Na intakes compared with low dairy consumers. Similar trends were observed for high consumers of cheese for most nutrients except Na. These results demonstrate that dairy and cheese are important contributors to nutrient intakes of public health interest, such as Ca and B12. Our analysis also demonstrated that food-based dietary guidelines recommending lower-fat versions of dairy products are warranted.

  8. Antisocial Behavioral Syndromes and Past-Year Physical Health Among Adults in the United States: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Risë B.; Dawson, Deborah A.; Chou, S. Patricia; Ruan, W. June; Saha, Tulshi D.; Pickering, Roger P.; Stinson, Frederick S.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe associations of DSM-IV antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), conduct disorder without progression to ASPD (“CD only”), and syndromal antisocial behavior in adulthood without CD before age 15 (AABS, not a DSM-IV diagnosis) with past-year physical health status and hospital care utilization in the general U.S. adult population. Methods This report is based on the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n=43,093, response rate=81%). Respondents were classified according to whether they met criteria for ASPD, AABS, “CD only,” or no antisocial syndrome. Associations of antisocial syndromes with physical health status and care utilization were examined using normal-theory and logistic regression. Results ASPD and AABS were significantly but modestly associated with total past-year medical conditions, coronary heart and gastrointestinal diseases, and numbers of inpatient hospitalizations, inpatient days, emergency department visits, and clinically significant injuries. ASPD was also associated with liver disease, arthritis, and lower scores on the Short Form-12 version 2 (SF-12v2) Physical Component, Role Physical, and Bodily Pain Scales. AABS was associated with noncoronary heart disease, lower scores on the SF-12v2 General Health and Vitality Scales, and, among men, arthritis. “CD only” was associated with single but not multiple inpatient hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and clinically significant injuries. Conclusions Estimates of burden related to antisocial behavioral syndromes need to consider associated physical health problems. Prevention and treatment guidelines for injuries and common chronic diseases may need to address comorbid antisociality, and interventions targeting antisociality may need to consider general health status, including prevention and management of injuries and chronic diseases. PMID:18348594

  9. Chemotherapy-related neuropathic symptoms and functional impairment in adult survivors of extracranial solid tumors of childhood: Results from the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ness, Kirsten K.; Jones, Kendra E.; Smith, Webb A.; Spunt, Sheri L.; Wilson, Carmen L.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Srivastava, Deo Kumar; Robison, Leslie L.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Gurney, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To ascertain prevalence of peripheral sensory and motor neuropathy; to evaluate impairments in relation to function. Design St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study, a clinical follow-up study designed to evaluate adverse late effects in adult survivors of childhood cancer. Setting St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital (SJCRH). Participants Eligibility required treatment for an extracranial solid malignancy between 1962 and 2002, age ≥18 years, ≥10 years post-diagnosis, no history of cranial radiation. 531 survivors were included in the evaluation: median age 32 years, median time from diagnosis 25 years. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Primary exposure measures were cumulative doses of vinca-alkaloid and platinum-based chemotherapies. Survivors with scores ≥ 1 on the sensory subscale of the modified Total Neuropathy Score were classified with prevalent sensory impairment. Those with sex-specific Z-scores of ≤−1.3 for dorsiflexion strength were classified with prevalent motor impairment. Participants completed the 6-minute walk test (endurance), the timed up and go test (mobility), and the sensory organization test (balance). Results The prevalence of sensory and motor impairment was 20% and 17.5%, respectively. Vinca-alkaloid exposure was associated with an increased risk of motor impairment (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.66, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.04–2.64) without evidence for a dose response. Platinum exposure was associated with increased risk of sensory impairment (adjusted OR= 1.62, 95% CI: 0.97–2.72) without evidence of a dose response. Sensory impairment was associated with poor endurance (OR=1.99, 95% CI: 0.99–4.00) and mobility (OR=1.65, 95% CI: 0.96–2.83). Conclusion Vincristine and cisplatin exposure may increase risk for long-term motor and sensory impairment, respectively. Survivors with sensory impairment are at increased risk for functional performance limitations. PMID:23537607

  10. Low Literacy Decision Aid Enhances Knowledge and Reduces Decisional Conflict among Diverse Population of Adults with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Results of a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Jennifer L.; Trupin, Laura; Schillinger, Dean; Evans-Young, Gina; Imboden, John; Montori, Victor M.; Yelin, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Objective Despite innovations in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), adherence is poor and disparities persist. Shared decision making (SDM) promotes patient engagement and enhances adherence, however few tools support SDM in RA. Our objective was to pilot a low literacy medication guide and decision aid to facilitate patient-clinician conversations about RA medications. Methods RA patients were consecutively enrolled into one of three arms: (1) control, patients received existing medication guide prior to clinic visit; (2) adapted guide prior to visit; (3) adapted guide prior plus decision aid during visit. Outcomes were collected immediately post-visit, at 1-week, 3- and 6-month interviews. Eligible adults had to have failed at least one DMARD and fulfill one of the following: age >65, immigrant, non-English speaker, < high school education, limited health literacy, racial/ethnic minority. Primary outcomes were knowledge of RA medications, decisional conflict, and acceptability of interventions. Results Majority of 166 patients were immigrants (66%), non-English speakers (54%), and had limited health literacy (71%). Adequate RA knowledge post visit in arm 3 was higher (78%) than arm 1 (53%, adjusted OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2–6.1). Among patients with a medication change, there was lower (better) mean decisional conflict in arms 2 and 3 (p=0.03). No significant differences in acceptability. Conclusion A low literacy medication guide and decision aid was acceptable, improved knowledge, and reduced decisional conflict among vulnerable RA patients. Enhancing knowledge and patient engagement with decision support tools may lead to medication choices better aligned with patient values and preferences in RA. PMID:26605752

  11. Impact of Early Life Adversity on Reward Processing in Young Adults: EEG-fMRI Results from a Prospective Study over 25 Years

    PubMed Central

    Boecker, Regina; Holz, Nathalie E.; Buchmann, Arlette F.; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Plichta, Michael M.; Wolf, Isabella; Baumeister, Sarah; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Several lines of evidence have implicated the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway in altered brain function resulting from exposure to early adversity. The present study examined the impact of early life adversity on different stages of neuronal reward processing later in life and their association with a related behavioral phenotype, i.e. attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 162 healthy young adults (mean age = 24.4 years; 58% female) from an epidemiological cohort study followed since birth participated in a simultaneous EEG-fMRI study using a monetary incentive delay task. Early life adversity according to an early family adversity index (EFA) and lifetime ADHD symptoms were assessed using standardized parent interviews conducted at the offspring's age of 3 months and between 2 and 15 years, respectively. fMRI region-of-interest analysis revealed a significant effect of EFA during reward anticipation in reward-related areas (i.e. ventral striatum, putamen, thalamus), indicating decreased activation when EFA increased. EEG analysis demonstrated a similar effect for the contingent negative variation (CNV), with the CNV decreasing with the level of EFA. In contrast, during reward delivery, activation of the bilateral insula, right pallidum and bilateral putamen increased with EFA. There was a significant association of lifetime ADHD symptoms with lower activation in the left ventral striatum during reward anticipation and higher activation in the right insula during reward delivery. The present findings indicate a differential long-term impact of early life adversity on reward processing, implicating hyporesponsiveness during reward anticipation and hyperresponsiveness when receiving a reward. Moreover, a similar activation pattern related to lifetime ADHD suggests that the impact of early life stress on ADHD may possibly be mediated by a dysfunctional reward pathway. PMID:25118701

  12. Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate for Adults with Moderate to Severe Binge Eating Disorder: Results of Two Pivotal Phase 3 Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, Susan L; Hudson, James; Ferreira-Cornwell, M Celeste; Radewonuk, Jana; Whitaker, Timothy; Gasior, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) vs placebo in binge eating disorder (BED) was evaluated in two multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Adults (study 1, n=383; study 2, n=390) meeting DSM-IV-TR BED criteria were randomized (1:1) to placebo or LDX (50 or 70 mg/day) dose titration; optimized doses were maintained to the end of double-blind treatment (week 12/early termination). Change from baseline in binge eating days/week at weeks 11−12 (primary efficacy endpoint) was assessed with mixed-effects models for repeated measures. Secondary endpoints related to binge eating and medical parameters, safety, and treatment compliance were also assessed. Least squares mean (95% CI) treatment differences for change from baseline binge eating days/week at weeks 11–12 significantly favored LDX (study 1: –1.35 [–1.70, –1.01] study 2: –1.66 [–2.04, –1.28] both P<0.001). In both studies, treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) reported by ⩾10% of LDX participants were dry mouth, insomnia, and headache. Serious TEAEs occurred in two (1.1%) placebo participants in each study and in three (1.6%) and one (0.6%) LDX participants in study 1 and study 2, respectively. Across studies, mean increases from baseline at week 12/early termination with LDX for pulse and systolic and diastolic blood pressure ranged from 4.41–6.31 b.p.m. and 0.2–1.45 and 1.06–1.83 mm Hg, respectively. LDX (50 and 70 mg/day) was superior to placebo in decreasing binge eating days/week from baseline and improving binge eating–related key secondary endpoints. Safety results appear consistent with the known safety profile of LDX. PMID:26346638

  13. An overview of the contribution of dairy and cheese intakes to nutrient intakes in the Irish diet: results from the National Adult Nutrition Survey.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Emma L; Nugent, Anne P; Mc Nulty, Breige; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Eileen R

    2016-02-28

    Dairy products are important contributors to nutrient intakes. However, dairy intakes are reportedly declining in developed populations, potentially due to concerns regarding Na and SFA in dairy foods, particularly cheese. This could impact other nutrient intakes. The present study used data from the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) to (1) examine dairy intakes, with a specific focus on cheese, and (2) to examine the contribution of cheese to population nutrient intakes. The NANS captured detailed dietary intake data from a nationally representative sample (n 1500) between 2008 and 2010 using 4-d semi-weighed food diaries; 99·9% of the population reported dairy intake. Mean daily population dairy intake was 290·0 (SD 202·1) g. Dairy products provided 8·7% of the population intake of reported dietary Na, 19·8% SFA, 39% Ca, 34·5% vitamin B12 and 10·5% Mg. Cheese alone provided 3·9% Na intake, 9·1% Ca, 12·6% retinol, 8·3% SFA, 3·7% protein, 3·4% vitamin B12 and 3·2% riboflavin. High dairy consumers had greater Ca and Mg intakes per 10 MJ, greater total energy intake, greater percentage of energy from carbohydrate and SFA and lower Na intakes compared with low dairy consumers. Similar trends were observed for high consumers of cheese for most nutrients except Na. These results demonstrate that dairy and cheese are important contributors to nutrient intakes of public health interest, such as Ca and B12. Our analysis also demonstrated that food-based dietary guidelines recommending lower-fat versions of dairy products are warranted. PMID:26675882

  14. Racial Differences in Abnormal Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Measures: Results From the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Cora E.; Diaz, Keith M.; Carson, April P.; Kim, Yongin; Calhoun, David; Yano, Yuichiro; Viera, Anthony J.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Several ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) measures have been associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk independent of clinic blood pressure (BP). African Americans have higher clinic BP compared with Whites but few data are available on racial differences in ABPM measures. METHODS We compared ABPM measures between African American (n = 178) and White (n = 103) participants at the Year 5 Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study visit. BP was measured during a study visit and the second and third measurements were averaged. ABPM was conducted over the following 24 hours. RESULTS Mean ± SD age of participants was 29.8±3.8 years and 30.8±3.5 years for African Americans and Whites, respectively. Mean daytime systolic BP (SBP) was 3.90 (SD 1.18) mm Hg higher among African Americans compared with Whites (P < 0.001) after age–gender adjustment and 1.71 (SD 1.03) mm Hg higher after multivariable adjustment including mean clinic SBP (P = 0.10). After multivariable adjustment including mean clinic SBP, nighttime SBP was 4.83 (SD 1.11) mm Hg higher among African Americans compared with Whites (P < 0.001). After multivariable adjustment, the African Americans were more likely than Whites to have nocturnal hypertension (prevalence ratio: 2.44, 95% CI: 0.99–6.05) and nondipping (prevalence ratio: 2.50, 95% CI: 1.39–4.48). The prevalence of masked hypertension among African Americans and Whites was 4.4% and 2.1%, respectively, (P = 0.49) and white coat hypertension was 3.3% and 3.9%, respectively (P = 0.99). Twenty-four hour BP variability on ABPM was higher among African Americans compared with Whites. CONCLUSIONS These data suggest racial differences in several ABPM measures exist. PMID:25376639

  15. New Drug Shows Mixed Results Against Early Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sign Up See recent e-Newsletters Preserving Your Memory Magazine Get Your Copy Now Subscribe to our ... 3 Letter Resources Articles Brochure Download Preserving Your Memory Magazine e-Newsletter Resource Locator Videos Charity Navigator ...

  16. Feasibility of Eight Physical Fitness Tests in 1,050 Older Adults with Intellectual Disability: Results of the Healthy Ageing with Intellectual Disabilities Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Although physical fitness is relevant for well-being and health, knowledge on the feasibility of instruments to measure physical fitness in older adults with intellectual disability (ID) is lacking. As part of the study Healthy Ageing with Intellectual Disabilities with 1,050 older clients with ID in three Dutch care services, the feasibility of 8…

  17. Severity but not comorbidities predicts response to methylphenidate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: results from a naturalistic study.

    PubMed

    Victor, Marcelo M; Rovaris, Diego L; Salgado, Carlos A I; Silva, Katiane L; Karam, Rafael G; Vitola, Eduardo S; Picon, Felipe A; Contini, Verônica; Guimarães-da-Silva, Paula O; Blaya-Rocha, Paula; Belmonte-de-Abreu, Paulo S; Rohde, Luis A; Grevet, Eugenio H; Bau, Claiton H D

    2014-04-01

    Although the identification of reliable predictors of methylphenidate response in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is necessary to guide treatment decisions, very few data exist on this issue. Here, we assessed the predictors of clinical response to immediate-release methylphenidate hydrochloride (IR-MPH) in a naturalistic setting by analyzing the influence of demographic factors, severity, and a wide range of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Two hundred fifty adult patients with ADHD were evaluated and completed a short-term treatment with IR-MPH. Mental health diagnoses were based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria through the use of standard structured interviews. The Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Rating Scale, version 4, adapted to adults was used to assess the severity of ADHD. In the linear regression model, only higher severity of ADHD was associated to a better IR-MPH response (b = 0.770; P < 0.001). Treatment of comorbidities in a subsample (n = 62) did not modify this pattern. Our findings suggest that in clinical settings, patients with more severe ADHD symptoms have a good response to treatment independently from the presence of mild or stabilized comorbidities and their treatments. For adults with ADHD, differently from other common psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety, higher severity is associated with better treatment response.

  18. U.S. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID): Adult Multivitamin/Mineral (MVM) Study Results and Implementation Strategies for the First Data Release

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to provide nationally representative estimates for 19 nutrients in representative adult MVM products based upon chemical analysis, and to assess variability in specific products. Methods and Materials: USDA's NDL obtained data from market research and na...

  19. Job-Preference and Job-Matching Assessment Results and Their Association with Job Performance and Satisfaction among Young Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Julie; Morgan, Robert L.; Salzberg, Charles L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of preference and degree of match on job performance of four 19 to 20-year-old young adults with developmental disabilities placed in community-based job conditions. We identified high-preference, high-matched and low-preference, low-matched job tasks using a video web-based assessment program. The job matching…

  20. Assessing the Long-Term Effects of EMDR: Results from an 18-Month Follow-Up Study with Adult Female Survivors of CSA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmond, Tonya; Rubin, Allen

    2004-01-01

    This 18-month follow-up study builds on the findings of a randomized experimental evaluation that found qualified support for the short-term effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) in reducing trauma symptoms among adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The current study provides preliminary evidence…

  1. National Survey Results on Drug Use from the Monitoring the Future Study, 1975-1997. Volume 2: College Students and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    Data from the "Monitoring the Future" study follow-up studies on drug use of young adults post-high school are presented. An introduction, overview of key findings, and study design and procedures (including discussions of validity and representativeness) are provided. Follow-up procedures and sampling issues are discussed. This report is focused…

  2. Community and Cluster Centre Residential Services for Adults with Intellectual Disability: Long-Term Results from an Australian-Matched Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, L.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Changes in residential accommodation models for adults with intellectual disability (ID) over the last 20 years in Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States have involved relocation from institutions primarily into dispersed homes in the community. But an evolving alternative service style is the cluster centre. Methods: This…

  3. Cause-specific mortality among children and young adults with epilepsy: Results from the U.S. National Child Death Review Case Reporting System.

    PubMed

    Tian, Niu; Shaw, Esther C; Zack, Matthew; Kobau, Rosemarie; Dykstra, Heather; Covington, Theresa M

    2015-04-01

    We investigated causes of death in children and young adults with epilepsy by using data from the U.S. National Child Death Review Case Reporting System (NCDR-CRS), a passive surveillance system composed of comprehensive information related to deaths reviewed by local child death review teams. Information on a total of 48,697 deaths in children and young adults 28days to 24years of age, including 551 deaths with epilepsy and 48,146 deaths without epilepsy, was collected from 2004 through 2012 in 32 states. In a proportionate mortality analysis by official manner of death, decedents with epilepsy had a significantly higher percentage of natural deaths but significantly lower percentages of deaths due to accidents, homicide, and undetermined causes compared with persons without epilepsy. With respect to underlying causes of death, decedents with epilepsy had significantly higher percentages of deaths due to drowning and most medical conditions including pneumonia and congenital anomalies but lower percentages of deaths due to asphyxia, weapon use, and unknown causes compared with decedents without epilepsy. The increased percentages of deaths due to pneumonia and drowning in children and young adults with epilepsy suggest preventive interventions including immunization and better instruction and monitoring before or during swimming. State-specific and national population-based mortality studies of children and young adults with epilepsy are recommended.

  4. Neonatal ethanol exposure results in dose-dependent impairments in the acquisition and timing of the conditioned eyeblink response and altered cerebellar interpositus nucleus and hippocampal CA1 unit activity in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Derick H; Sokoloff, Greta; Milner, Eric; Steinmetz, Joseph E

    2013-09-01

    Exposure to ethanol in neonatal rats results in reduced neuronal numbers in the cerebellar cortex and deep nuclei of juvenile and adult animals. This reduction in cell numbers is correlated with impaired delay eyeblink conditioning (EBC), a simple motor learning task in which a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS; tone) is repeatedly paired with a co-terminating unconditioned stimulus (US; periorbital shock). Across training, cell populations in the interpositus (IP) nucleus model the temporal form of the eyeblink-conditioned response (CR). The hippocampus, though not required for delay EBC, also shows learning-dependent increases in CA1 and CA3 unit activity. In the present study, rat pups were exposed to 0, 3, 4, or 5 mg/kg/day of ethanol during postnatal days (PD) 4-9. As adults, CR acquisition and timing were assessed during 6 training sessions of delay EBC with a short (280 ms) interstimulus interval (ISI; time from CS onset to US onset) followed by another 6 sessions with a long (880 ms) ISI. Neuronal activity was recorded in the IP and area CA1 during all 12 sessions. The high-dose rats learned the most slowly and, with the moderate-dose rats, produced the longest CR peak latencies over training to the short ISI. The low dose of alcohol impaired CR performance to the long ISI only. The 3E (3 mg/kg/day of ethanol) and 5E (5 mg/kg/day of ethanol) rats also showed slower-than-normal increases in learning-dependent excitatory unit activity in the IP and CA1. The 4E (4 mg/kg/day of ethanol) rats showed a higher rate of CR production to the long ISI and enhanced IP and CA1 activation when compared to the 3E and 5E rats. The results indicate that binge-like ethanol exposure in neonatal rats induces long-lasting, dose-dependent deficits in CR acquisition and timing and diminishes conditioning-related neuronal excitation in both the cerebellum and hippocampus.

  5. The H3.3 K27M mutation results in a poorer prognosis in brainstem gliomas than thalamic gliomas in adults.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jie; Hao, Shuyu; Pan, Changcun; Wang, Yu; Wu, Zhen; Zhang, Junting; Yan, Hai; Zhang, Liwei; Wan, Hong

    2015-11-01

    Brainstem and thalamic gliomas are rare, and they are poorly understood in adults. Genetic aberrations that occur in these tumors are still unknown. In this study, we investigated whether thalamic gliomas have different genetic aberrations and clinical outcomes compared with brainstem gliomas in adults. Forty-three glioma samples were selected, including 28 brainstem and 15 thalamic gliomas. The frequency of the K27M mutation in adult midline gliomas was 58.1%. High-grade gliomas in the thalamus were statistically significantly more numerous than brainstem gliomas. Patients with K27M mutant brainstem gliomas had a significantly shorter overall survival than patients with wild-type tumors (P = .020) by Cox regression after adjustment for other independent risk factors. However, there was no statistical tendency toward a poorer overall survival in thalamic gliomas containing the K27M mutation compared with wild-type tumors. The presence of the K27M mutation significantly corresponded with mutations in TP53 in thalamic gliomas. Interestingly, the K27M mutation was mutually exclusive with mutations in IDH1, which was detected only in brainstem gliomas. The microarray data identified 86 differentially expressed genes between brainstem and thalamic gliomas with the K27M mutation. The cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) gene, which plays an important role in cancer pathways, was found to be differentially expressed between brainstem and thalamic gliomas with K27M mutations. Although the K27M mutation was frequently observed in adult brainstem and thalamic gliomas, this mutation tended to be associated with a poorer prognosis in brainstem gliomas but not in thalamic gliomas. Brainstem gliomas may present different genetic aberrations from thalamic gliomas. These differences may provide guidance for therapeutic decisions for the treatment of adult brainstem and thalamic gliomas, which may have different molecular targets.

  6. The H3.3 K27M mutation results in a poorer prognosis in brainstem gliomas than thalamic gliomas in adults.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jie; Hao, Shuyu; Pan, Changcun; Wang, Yu; Wu, Zhen; Zhang, Junting; Yan, Hai; Zhang, Liwei; Wan, Hong

    2015-11-01

    Brainstem and thalamic gliomas are rare, and they are poorly understood in adults. Genetic aberrations that occur in these tumors are still unknown. In this study, we investigated whether thalamic gliomas have different genetic aberrations and clinical outcomes compared with brainstem gliomas in adults. Forty-three glioma samples were selected, including 28 brainstem and 15 thalamic gliomas. The frequency of the K27M mutation in adult midline gliomas was 58.1%. High-grade gliomas in the thalamus were statistically significantly more numerous than brainstem gliomas. Patients with K27M mutant brainstem gliomas had a significantly shorter overall survival than patients with wild-type tumors (P = .020) by Cox regression after adjustment for other independent risk factors. However, there was no statistical tendency toward a poorer overall survival in thalamic gliomas containing the K27M mutation compared with wild-type tumors. The presence of the K27M mutation significantly corresponded with mutations in TP53 in thalamic gliomas. Interestingly, the K27M mutation was mutually exclusive with mutations in IDH1, which was detected only in brainstem gliomas. The microarray data identified 86 differentially expressed genes between brainstem and thalamic gliomas with the K27M mutation. The cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) gene, which plays an important role in cancer pathways, was found to be differentially expressed between brainstem and thalamic gliomas with K27M mutations. Although the K27M mutation was frequently observed in adult brainstem and thalamic gliomas, this mutation tended to be associated with a poorer prognosis in brainstem gliomas but not in thalamic gliomas. Brainstem gliomas may present different genetic aberrations from thalamic gliomas. These differences may provide guidance for therapeutic decisions for the treatment of adult brainstem and thalamic gliomas, which may have different molecular targets. PMID:26297251

  7. Habitat selection and adult-recruit interactions in Pectinaria koreni (Malmgren) (Annelida: Polychaeta) post-larval populations: Results of flume experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivier, Frédéric; Desroy, Nicolas; Retière, Christian

    1996-12-01

    The fate of recently settled populations of soft-bottom invertebrates depends not only on dispersal of pelagic larvae by tidal currents but also on other physical ( e. g. resuspension) and biological mechanisms ( e.g. habitat selection and adult-recruit interactions) acting at the water-substratum interface. To assess the relative importance of such processes under megatidal conditions in the Abra alba community of the eastern Baie de Seine (English Channel), flume experiments were conducted on post-larvae of the dominant polychaete species, Pectinaria koreni. Habitat selection by post-larvae of P. koreni was determined in a first set of experiments, where individuals were sowed either on a suitable or on an unsuitable substratum. Once resuspended, post-larvae were given a choice between two highly contrasting treatments with a natural organic-rich muddy sand and a bare flat PVC surface. P. koreni post-larvae were able to leave an unfavourable substratum into which they had initially burrowed and reach a more suitable substrate by drifting (induced by the secretion of mucus) before final settlement. The influence of adults on habitat selection and survival of P. koreni post-larvae was analysed in a second set of experiments, where individuals were sowed onto a suitable sediment with adults (test treatment) or without (control treatment). The presence of conspecific adults induced a high resuspension rate of the post-larvae. Drifting occurred mainly just after the introduction of the current and affected the whole experimental population, regardless of size. Such a response seems to be related to the intense bioturbation caused by the sub-surface deposit-feeding habit of the adults, which alters the boundary-layer flow. In contrast, the presence of adults of Owenia fusiformis, another dominant polychaete of the Abra alba community, led to an enhanced recruitment by a reduction in post-larvae resuspension. In fact, at low shear velocities, dense aggregates of tubes

  8. Associations Between Initial Water Pipe Tobacco Smoking and Snus Use and Subsequent Cigarette Smoking Results From a Longitudinal Study of US Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Soneji, Samir; Sargent, James D.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Primack, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Many adolescents and young adults use alternative tobacco products, such as water pipes and snus, instead of cigarettes. OBJECTIVE To assess whether prior water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use among never smokers are risk factors for subsequent cigarette smoking. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We conducted a 2-wave national longitudinal study in the United States among 2541 individuals aged 15 to 23 years old. At baseline (October 25, 2010, through June 11, 2011), we ascertained whether respondents had smoked cigarettes, smoked water pipe tobacco, or used snus. At the 2-year follow-up (October 27, 2012, through March 31, 2013), we determined whether baseline non–cigarette smokers had subsequently tried cigarette smoking, were current (past 30 days) cigarette smokers, or were high-intensity cigarette smokers. We fit multivariable logistic regression models among baseline non–cigarette smokers to assess whether baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and baseline snus use were associated with subsequent cigarette smoking initiation and current cigarette smoking, accounting for established sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors. We fit similarly specified multivariable ordinal logistic regression models to assess whether baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and baseline snus use were associated with high-intensity cigarette smoking at follow-up. EXPOSURES Water pipe tobacco smoking and the use of snus at baseline. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Among baseline non–cigarette smokers, cigarette smoking initiation, current (past 30 days) cigarette smoking at follow-up, and the intensity of cigarette smoking at follow-up. RESULTS Among 1596 respondents, 1048 had never smoked cigarettes at baseline, of whom 71 had smoked water pipe tobacco and 20 had used snus at baseline. At follow-up, accounting for behavioral and sociodemographic risk factors, baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use were independently associated with cigarette smoking

  9. Association of Arsenic with Kidney Function in Adolescents and Young Adults: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2012

    PubMed Central

    Weidemann, Darcy; Chin-Chi, Kuo; Ana, Navas-Acien; Abraham, Alison G.; Virginia, Weaver; Jeffrey, Fadrowski

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-term exposure to arsenic is a major public health concern. Emerging evidence suggests adverse health effects even at low levels of exposure. This study examined the association of arsenic exposure with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and compared methods of adjustment for urinary dilution in a representative sample of U.S. adolescents and young adults. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of 1,253 participants ages 12–30 years in the 2009–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with available urinary arsenic and eGFR measures. Multivariable linear regression was used to model the association of urinary total arsenic and dimethylarsinate (DMA) with eGFR. Results The median urinary total arsenic and DMA concentrations were 6.3 μg/L (IQR 3.3 – 12.7 μg/L) and 3.3 μg/L (IQR 1.7 – 5.7 μg/L), respectively. Median eGFR was 109 mL/min/1.73 m2. Adjusting arsenic for urine concentration with urinary creatinine, eGFR was 4.0 mL/min/1.73 m2 higher (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0 to 7.1 mL/min/1.73 m2) and 4.3 mL/min/1.73 m2 higher (95% CI 0.5 to 8.0 mL/min/1.73 m2) per log-unit increase in total arsenic and DMA, respectively. When using urine osmolality to adjust for urine concentration, a log-unit increase in total arsenic and DMA was associated with a 0.4 mL/min/1.73 m2 (95% CI −1.8 to 1.1 mL/min/1.73 m2) and 0.01 (95% CI −1.9 to 1.9 mL/min/1.73 m2) lower eGFR, respectively. Conclusions Discordant associations were observed between arsenic and eGFR levels depending on whether urinary creatinine or osmolality was used to adjust for urine concentration. Further study should be dedicated to validating the best approach to account for urinary dilution in research in toxicants, and this may have implications for all studies which examine urinary biomarkers. PMID:25909687

  10. Dreaming, Stealing, Dancing, Showing Off.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavender, Peter; Taylor, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Lessons learned from British projects to delivery literacy, numeracy, and English as a second language through community agencies included the following: (1) innovation and measured risks are required to attract hard-to-reach adults; (2) good practice needs to be shared; and (3) projects worked best when government funds were managed by community…

  11. Physical fitness is predictive for a decline in daily functioning in older adults with intellectual disabilities: results of the HA-ID study.

    PubMed

    Oppewal, Alyt; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; van Wijck, Ruud; Schoufour, Josje D; Evenhuis, Heleen M

    2014-10-01

    A high incidence of limitations in daily functioning is seen in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), along with poor physical fitness levels. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of physical fitness for daily functioning after 3 years, in 602 older adults with borderline to profound ID (≥ 50 years). At baseline, physical fitness levels and daily functioning (operationalized as basic activities of daily living [ADL] and mobility) were assessed. After 3 years, the measurements of daily functioning were repeated. At follow-up, 12.6% of the participants were completely independent in ADL and 48.5% had no mobility limitations. More than half of the participants (54.8%) declined in their ability to perform ADL and 37.5% declined in their mobility. Manual dexterity, visual reaction time, balance, comfortable and fast gait speed, muscular endurance, and cardiorespiratory fitness were significant predictors for a decline in ADL. For a decline in mobility, manual dexterity, balance, comfortable and fast walking speed, grip strength, muscular endurance, and cardiorespiratory fitness were all significant predictors. This proves the predictive validity of these physical fitness tests for daily functioning and stresses the importance of using physical fitness tests and implementing physical fitness enhancing programs in the care for older adults with ID.

  12. Safety and metabolic outcomes of resveratrol supplementation in older adults: results of a twelve-week, placebo-controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Stephen D.; Embry, Chelsea; Marsiske, Michael; Lud, Xiaomin; Doss, Hani; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Manini, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol has been found to have potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic effects. The safety and efficacy of resveratrol supplementation in older adults are currently unknown. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to examine the safety and metabolic outcomes in 32 overweight, older adults (mean age, 73 ± 7 years). Participants were randomized into one of three treatment groups: (1) placebo, (2) moderate dose resveratrol (300 mg/day), and (3) high dose resveratrol (1000 mg/day). Both resveratrol and placebo were orally ingested in capsule form twice daily for 90 days. Blood chemistry values remained within the normal range, and there were no significant differences in the number of participants reporting adverse events across conditions. Compared to placebo, glucose levels were significantly lower at post-treatment among participants randomized to both resveratrol conditions, with and without adjustment for the corresponding baseline values (ps < 0.05). Glucose values of participants in the treatment groups, however, were not significantly different from baseline levels. These findings suggest that short-term resveratrol supplementation at doses of 300 mg/day and 1000 mg/day does not adversely affect blood chemistries and is well tolerated in overweight, older individuals. These findings support the study of resveratrol for improving cardio-metabolic health in older adults in larger clinical trials. PMID:24866496

  13. A randomized controlled trial of brain training with non-action video games in older adults: results of the 3-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia; Prieto, Antonio; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Laura, Ponce de León; Reales, José M; Waterworth, John A

    2015-01-01

    This randomized controlled study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02007616) investigated the maintenance of training effects of 20 1-hr non-action video game training sessions with selected games from a commercial package on several age-declining cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing after a 3-month no-contact period. Two groups of cognitively normal older adults participated in both the post-training (posttest) and the present follow-up study, the experimental group who received training and the control group who attended several meetings with the research team during the study but did not receive training. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. Significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group had been previously found at posttest, in processing speed, attention and visual recognition memory, as well as in two dimensions of subjective wellbeing. In the current study, improvement from baseline to 3 months follow-up was found only in wellbeing (Affection and Assertivity dimensions) in the trained group whereas there was no change in the control group. Previous significant improvements in processing speed, attention and spatial memory become non-significant after the 3-month interval. Training older adults with non-action video games enhanced aspects of cognition just after training but this effect disappeared after a 3-month no-contact follow-up period. Cognitive plasticity can be induced in older adults by training, but to maintain the benefits periodic boosting sessions would be necessary.

  14. [Adult twins].

    PubMed

    Charlemaine, Christiane

    2006-12-31

    This paper explores the deep roots of closeness that twins share in their youngest age and their effect on their destiny at the adult age. Psychologists believe the bond between twins begins in utero and develops throughout the twins' lives. The four patterns of twinship described show that the twin bond is determined by the quality of parenting that twins receive in their infancy and early childhood. Common problems of adult twins bring about difficulties to adapt in a non-twin world. The nature versus nurture controversy has taken on new life focusing on inter-twin differences and the importance of parent-child interaction as fundamental to the growth and development of personality. PMID:17352324

  15. National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Jimenez Sheri Raborn, CPA; Tom Baker

    2008-03-31

    National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration created a 400KW Photovoltaic self-generation plant at the National Orange Show Events Center (NOS). The NOS owns a 120-acre state fairground where it operates an events center and produces an annual citrus fair known as the Orange Show. The NOS governing board wanted to employ cost-saving programs for annual energy expenses. It is hoped the Photovoltaic program will result in overall savings for the NOS, help reduce the State's energy demands as relating to electrical power consumption, improve quality of life within the affected grid area as well as increase the energy efficiency of buildings at our venue. In addition, the potential to reduce operational expenses would have a tremendous effect on the ability of the NOS to service its community.

  16. [Health status of people with a migrant background and impact of socio-economic factors: First results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    PubMed

    Rommel, Alexander; Saß, A C; Born, S; Ellert, U

    2015-06-01

    People with a migrant background (PMB) have specific health-related risk factors and resources compared to the non-migrant population (NMP). The analysis focuses on the relationship between migrant background and health and health-related behavior. Moreover, the study analyses whether socio-economic status (SES) contributes to the explanation of differences between PMB and the NMP. The research is based on the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1) (2008-2012, n = 8151). The population for cross-sectional analyses contains 1107 PMB (weighted 19.8 %). The research question is addressed on the basis of nine exemplary health outcomes. All analyses are gender specific and make a distinction between first and second generation PMB. Logistic regression is calculated adjusting for age and SES. The results reveal clear gender-specific patterns: For women, differences are statistically significant mainly for first generation PMB. Compared to the NMP their self-assessed health status is lower, they are less physically active, consume less alcohol, feel less informed about cancer screening programs and make less use of preventive health services. However, daily smoking is more prevalent in second generation women. For men, differences are statistically significant for first and second generation PMB. Men with a migrant background show more symptoms of depression, consume less alcohol and feel less informed about cancer screening programs. After adjusting for SES the impact of migrant background on health status and health-related behavior largely remains stable. The study shows that the DEGS1 data offers valuable results and new insights into the health status of people with a migrant background. The use of this data for further research requires a differentiated approach to the concept of migrant background and a careful interpretation of results.

  17. [Health status of people with a migrant background and impact of socio-economic factors: First results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    PubMed

    Rommel, Alexander; Saß, A C; Born, S; Ellert, U

    2015-06-01

    People with a migrant background (PMB) have specific health-related risk factors and resources compared to the non-migrant population (NMP). The analysis focuses on the relationship between migrant background and health and health-related behavior. Moreover, the study analyses whether socio-economic status (SES) contributes to the explanation of differences between PMB and the NMP. The research is based on the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1) (2008-2012, n = 8151). The population for cross-sectional analyses contains 1107 PMB (weighted 19.8 %). The research question is addressed on the basis of nine exemplary health outcomes. All analyses are gender specific and make a distinction between first and second generation PMB. Logistic regression is calculated adjusting for age and SES. The results reveal clear gender-specific patterns: For women, differences are statistically significant mainly for first generation PMB. Compared to the NMP their self-assessed health status is lower, they are less physically active, consume less alcohol, feel less informed about cancer screening programs and make less use of preventive health services. However, daily smoking is more prevalent in second generation women. For men, differences are statistically significant for first and second generation PMB. Men with a migrant background show more symptoms of depression, consume less alcohol and feel less informed about cancer screening programs. After adjusting for SES the impact of migrant background on health status and health-related behavior largely remains stable. The study shows that the DEGS1 data offers valuable results and new insights into the health status of people with a migrant background. The use of this data for further research requires a differentiated approach to the concept of migrant background and a careful interpretation of results. PMID:25824135

  18. Childhood sexual abuse and its association with adult physical and mental health: results from a national cohort of young Australian women.

    PubMed

    Coles, Jan; Lee, Adeline; Taft, Angela; Mazza, Danielle; Loxton, Deborah

    2015-07-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) occurs across the world, with a prevalence of 20% internationally. Our aim was to investigate the associations between CSA, CSA plus adult violence experiences, and selected self-reported physical and mental health in a community sample of women. Data from 7,700 women aged 28-33 years from the 1973-1978 cohort who completed Survey 4 of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) were analyzed. Questions about prior abuse experience such as child sexual abuse, IPV, adult physical and sexual assaults, andphysical and mental health. Women who experienced CSA were 1.4 times more likely to experience bodily pain (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.37, confidence interval [CI] = [1.19, 1.58]), 1.3 times more likely to have poorer general health (AOR = 1.33, CI = [1.15, 1.54]), and 1.4 times more likely to be depressed in the past 3 years (AOR = 1.44, CI = [1.22, 1.71]) compared with those without abuse.. Women who experienced both CSA and adult violence were 2.4 to 3.1 times more likely to experience poor general (AOR = 2.35, CI = [1.76, 3.14]) and mental health (AOR = 2.69, CI = [1.98, 3.64]), and suffer from depression (AOR = 2.84, CI = [2.13, 3.78]) and anxiety (AOR = 3.10, CI = [2.12, 4.53]) compared with women with no abuse. This study demonstrates the importance of CSA in pain and poorer long-term mental and physical health.. It emphasizes how prior CSA may amplify pain and poorer long-term mental and physical health among women who are again exposed to violence in adulthood.

  19. Central nervous system involvement in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia at diagnosis: results from the international ALL trial MRC UKALL XII/ECOG E2993

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Hillard M.; Richards, Susan M.; Chopra, Raj; Litzow, Mark R.; Burnett, Alan K.; Wiernik, Peter H.; Franklin, Ian M.; Tallman, Martin S.; Cook, Lucy; Buck, Georgina; Durrant, I. Jill; Rowe, Jacob M.; Goldstone, Anthony H.

    2006-01-01

    Outcome of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in adults with central nervous system (CNS) disease at diagnosis is unclear. We treated 1508 de novo ALL patients with 2-phase induction and then high-dose methotrexate with l-asparaginase. Patients up to 50 years old in first remission (CR1) with a matched related donor (MRD) underwent an allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT); the remainder in CR1 were randomized to an autologous SCT or intensive consolidation followed by maintenance chemotherapy. Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)–positive patients were offered a matched unrelated donor (MUD) allogeneic SCT. Seventy-seven of 1508 (5%) patients a median age of 29 years had CNS leukemia at presentation; 13 of the 77 (17%) had Ph-positive ALL. Sixty-nine of 77 (90%) patients attained CR1. Thirty-six patients underwent transplantation in CR1 (25 MRD, 5 MUD, and 6 autografts). Eleven of 25 patients with MRD transplantation remain alive at 21 to 102 months, 2 of 5 with MUD at 42 and 71 months, and 1 of 6 with autologous SCT at 35 months. Seven of 27 treated with consolidation/maintenance remain in CR1 56 to 137 months after diagnosis. Overall survival at 5 years was 29% in those with CNS involvement at diagnosis versus 38% (P = .03) for those without. CNS leukemia in adult ALL is uncommon at diagnosis. Adult Ph-negative ALL patients, however, can attain long-term disease-free survival using SCT as well as conventional chemotherapy. PMID:16556888

  20. A randomized controlled trial of brain training with non-action video games in older adults: results of the 3-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia; Prieto, Antonio; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Laura, Ponce de León; Reales, José M; Waterworth, John A

    2015-01-01

    This randomized controlled study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02007616) investigated the maintenance of training effects of 20 1-hr non-action video game training sessions with selected games from a commercial package on several age-declining cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing after a 3-month no-contact period. Two groups of cognitively normal older adults participated in both the post-training (posttest) and the present follow-up study, the experimental group who received training and the control group who attended several meetings with the research team during the study but did not receive training. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. Significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group had been previously found at posttest, in processing speed, attention and visual recognition memory, as well as in two dimensions of subjective wellbeing. In the current study, improvement from baseline to 3 months follow-up was found only in wellbeing (Affection and Assertivity dimensions) in the trained group whereas there was no change in the control group. Previous significant improvements in processing speed, attention and spatial memory become non-significant after the 3-month interval. Training older adults with non-action video games enhanced aspects of cognition just after training but this effect disappeared after a 3-month no-contact follow-up period. Cognitive plasticity can be induced in older adults by training, but to maintain the benefits periodic boosting sessions would be necessary. PMID:25926790

  1. A randomized controlled trial of brain training with non-action video games in older adults: results of the 3-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia; Prieto, Antonio; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Laura, Ponce de León; Reales, José M.; Waterworth, John A.

    2015-01-01

    This randomized controlled study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02007616) investigated the maintenance of training effects of 20 1-hr non-action video game training sessions with selected games from a commercial package on several age-declining cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing after a 3-month no-contact period. Two groups of cognitively normal older adults participated in both the post-training (posttest) and the present follow-up study, the experimental group who received training and the control group who attended several meetings with the research team during the study but did not receive training. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. Significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group had been previously found at posttest, in processing speed, attention and visual recognition memory, as well as in two dimensions of subjective wellbeing. In the current study, improvement from baseline to 3 months follow-up was found only in wellbeing (Affection and Assertivity dimensions) in the trained group whereas there was no change in the control group. Previous significant improvements in processing speed, attention and spatial memory become non-significant after the 3-month interval. Training older adults with non-action video games enhanced aspects of cognition just after training but this effect disappeared after a 3-month no-contact follow-up period. Cognitive plasticity can be induced in older adults by training, but to maintain the benefits periodic boosting sessions would be necessary. PMID:25926790

  2. Coparenting conflict, nonacceptance, and depression among divorced adults: results from a 12-year follow-up study of child custody mediation using multiple imputation.

    PubMed

    Sbarra, David A; Emery, Robert E

    2005-01-01

    Using statistically imputed data to increase available power, this article reevaluated the long-term effects of divorce mediation on adults' psychological adjustment and investigated the relations among coparenting custody conflict, nonacceptance of marital termination, and depression at 2 occasions over a decade apart following marital dissolution. Group comparisons revealed that fathers and parents who mediated their custody disputes reported significantly more nonacceptance at the 12-year follow-up assessment. Significant interactions were observed by gender in regression models predicting nonacceptance at the follow-up; mothers' nonacceptance was positively associated with concurrent depression, whereas fathers' nonacceptance was positively associated with early nonacceptance and negatively associated with concurrent conflict.

  3. Building a Tailored, Patient-Guided, Web-Based Self-Management Intervention ‘ReumaUitgedaagd!’ for Adults With a Rheumatic Disease: Results of a Usability Study and Design for a Randomized Control Trail

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Olga K; de Boer-Nijhof, Nienke C; Maat, Bertha; Kruize, Aike A; van Laar, Jaap; van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; Geenen, Rinie

    2016-01-01

    Background The chronic nature of rheumatic diseases imposes daily challenges upon those affected and causes patients to make daily decisions about the way they self-manage their illness. Although there is attention to self-management and evidence for the desirability of tailored interventions to support people with a rheumatic disease, interventions based on individual needs and preferences are scarce. Objective To provide a systematic and comprehensive description of the theoretical considerations for building a Web-based, expert, patient-guided, and tailored intervention for adult patients with a rheumatic disease. Also, to present the results of a usability study on the feasibility of this intervention, and its study design in order to measure the effectiveness. Methods To fit the intervention closely to the autonomy, needs, and preferences of the individual patient, a research team comprising patient representatives, health professionals, Web technicians, and communication experts was formed. The research team followed the new guidance by the Medical Research Council (MRC) for developing and evaluating complex interventions as a guide for the design of the intervention. Results Considerations from self-determination theory and a comprehensive assessment of preferences and needs in patients with a rheumatic disease guided the development of the Web-based intervention. The usability study showed that the intervention was useful, easy to use, and accepted and appreciated by the target group of patients. The planned randomized controlled trial is designed to be conducted among 120 adults with a rheumatic disease, who are assigned to the self-management intervention or a self-help control group. Both groups will be asked to formulate personal goals they want to achieve concerning their self-management. Progress toward the personal goal is the primary outcome measure of this study. Self-reported Web-based measures will be assessed before randomization at baseline

  4. The association between dietary glycemic index, glycemic load and diet quality indices in Iranian adults: results from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program.

    PubMed

    Azadbakht, Leila; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Akhavanzanjani, Mohsen; Taheri, Marzieh; Golshahi, Jafar; Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh

    2016-01-01

    To assess the association between dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL) and dietary quality indices in Iranian adults. This cross section was conducted among 1571 Iranian adults aged  ≥19 years. GI, GL and diet quality indices were estimated by 24-h recall and DDS was calculated using a validated 48-item food frequency questionnaire. Participants who were in the top tertile of GI had lower healthy eating index (HEI) (57.2 ± 7.8 versus 55.6 ± 8.7; p < 0.001), dietary diversity score (DDS) (3.6 ± 0.9 versus 3.3 ± 1.1; p < 0.001) and nutrient adequacy ratios (NARs) for Zn, Ca, vitamin C and B2. Individuals in the lowest tertile of GL had lower HEI, MAR and NARs for Zn, vitamin B2, B3, B6, B12, vitamin D. Both GI and GL were positively related to dietary diversity score (DED) (p < 0.001). The inverse associations for GI and GL with diet quality indices may suggest the relevance of carbohydrate source in determining the diet quality indices. PMID:26915989

  5. Typical food portion sizes consumed by Australian adults: results from the 2011–12 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Miaobing; Wu, Jason H Y; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Flood, Victoria M; Gill, Tim; Thomas, Beth; Cleanthous, Xenia; Neal, Bruce; Rangan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Considerable evidence has associated increasing portion sizes with elevated obesity prevalence. This study examines typical portion sizes of commonly consumed core and discretionary foods in Australian adults, and compares these data with the Australian Dietary Guidelines standard serves. Typical portion sizes are defined as the median amount of foods consumed per eating occasion. Sex- and age-specific median portion sizes of adults aged 19 years and over (n = 9341) were analysed using one day 24 hour recall data from the 2011–12 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. A total of 152 food categories were examined. There were significant sex and age differences in typical portion sizes among a large proportion of food categories studied. Typical portion sizes of breads and cereals, meat and chicken cuts, and starchy vegetables were 30–160% larger than the standard serves, whereas, the portion sizes of dairy products, some fruits, and non-starchy vegetables were 30–90% smaller. Typical portion sizes for discretionary foods such as cakes, ice-cream, sausages, hamburgers, pizza, and alcoholic drinks exceeded the standard serves by 40–400%. The findings of the present study are particularly relevant for establishing Australian-specific reference portions for dietary assessment tools, refinement of nutrition labelling and public health policies. PMID:26786684

  6. The Role of Patient Activation in Preferences for Shared Decision Making: Results From a National Survey of U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Samuel G.; Pandit, Anjali; Rush, Steven R.; Wolf, Michael S.; Simon, Carol J.

    2016-01-01

    Studies investigating preferences for shared decision making (SDM) have focused on associations with sociodemographic variables, with few investigations exploring patient factors. We aimed to investigate the relationship between patient activation and preferences for SDM in 6 common medical decisions among a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of American adults. Adults older than 18 were recruited online (n = 2,700) and by telephone (n = 700). Respondents completed sociodemographic assessments and the Patient Activation Measure. They were also asked whether they perceived benefit (yes/no) in SDM in 6 common medical decisions. Nearly half of the sample (45.9%) reached the highest level of activation (Level 4). Activation was associated with age (p < .001), higher income (p = .001), higher education (p = .010), better self-rated health (p < .001), and fewer chronic conditions (p = .050). The proportion of people who agreed that SDM was beneficial varied from 53.1% (deciding the necessity of a diagnostic test) to 71.8% (decisions associated with making lifestyle changes). After we controlled for participant characteristics, higher activation was associated with greater perceived benefit in SDM across 4 of the 6 decisions. Preferences for SDM varied among 6 common medical scenarios. Low patient activation is an important barrier to SDM that could be ameliorated through the development of behavioral interventions. PMID:26313690

  7. Blame Conformity: Innocent Bystanders Can Be Blamed for a Crime as a Result of Misinformation from a Young, but Not Elderly, Adult Co-Witness

    PubMed Central

    Thorley, Craig

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether or not exposing an eyewitness to a co-witness statement that incorrectly blames an innocent bystander for a crime can increase the likelihood of the eyewitness subsequently blaming the innocent bystander for the crime. It also examined whether or not the perceived age of the co-witness influences this effect. Participant eyewitnesses first watched a video of a crime featuring a perpetrator and an innocent bystander. They then read one of six bogus co-witness statements about the crime. All were presented as having been written by a female co-witness and they differed in terms of her age (young adult or elderly) and who she blamed for the crime (the perpetrator, the innocent bystander, or nobody). One week later the participants were asked who committed the crime. When the young adult co-witness had blamed the innocent bystander just over 40% of participants subsequently did the same. Few participants (less than 8%) in the other conditions subsequently blamed the innocent bystander. The elderly co-witness was also rated as less credible, less competent, and less accurate than the younger co-witness suggesting eyewitnesses were less likely to be influenced by her incorrect statement as they perceived her to be a less reliable source of information. The applied implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26230523

  8. Do changes in neighborhood and household levels of smoking and deprivation result in changes in individual smoking behavior? A large-scale longitudinal study of New Zealand adults.

    PubMed

    Ivory, Vivienne C; Blakely, Tony; Richardson, Ken; Thomson, George; Carter, Kristie

    2015-09-01

    Health behavior takes place within social contexts. In this study, we investigated whether changes in exposure to neighborhood deprivation and smoking prevalence and to household smoking were associated with change in personal smoking behavior. Three waves of biannual data collection (2004-2009) in a New Zealand longitudinal study, the Survey of Family, Income and Employment (SoFIE)-Health, were used, with 13,815 adults (persons aged ≥15 years) contributing to the analyses. Smoking status was dichotomized as current smoking versus never/ex-smoking. Fixed-effects regression analyses removed time-invariant confounding and adjusted for time-varying covariates (neighborhood smoking prevalence and deprivation, household smoking, labor force status, income, household tenure, and family status). A between-wave decile increase in neighborhood deprivation was significantly associated with increased odds of smoking (odds ratio (OR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 1.14), but a between-wave increase in neighborhood smoking prevalence was not (OR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.10). Changing household exposures between waves to live with another smoker (compared with a nonsmoker (referent)) increased the odds of smoking (OR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.84, 3.34), as did changing to living in a sole-adult household (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.14). Tobacco control policies and programs should address the broader household and neighborhood circumstances within which individual smoking takes place.

  9. Probability and amounts of yogurt intake are differently affected by sociodemographic, economic, and lifestyle factors in adults and the elderly-results from a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Possa, Gabriela; de Castro, Michelle Alessandra; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Fisberg, Mauro

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this population-based cross-sectional health survey (N = 532) was to investigate the factors associated with the probability and amounts of yogurt intake in Brazilian adults and the elderly. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain data on demographics, socioeconomic information, presence of morbidities and lifestyle and anthropometric characteristics. Food intake was evaluated using two nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls and a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Approximately 60% of the subjects were classified as yogurt consumers. In the logistic regression model, yogurt intake was associated with smoking (odds ratio [OR], 1.98), female sex (OR, 2.12), and age 20 to 39 years (OR, 3.11). Per capita family income and being a nonsmoker were factors positively associated with the amount of yogurt consumption (coefficients, 0.61 and 3.73, respectively), whereas the level of education of the head of household was inversely associated (coefficient, 0.61). In this study, probability and amounts of yogurt intake are differently affected by demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors in adults and the elderly.

  10. Blame Conformity: Innocent Bystanders Can Be Blamed for a Crime as a Result of Misinformation from a Young, but Not Elderly, Adult Co-Witness.

    PubMed

    Thorley, Craig

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether or not exposing an eyewitness to a co-witness statement that incorrectly blames an innocent bystander for a crime can increase the likelihood of the eyewitness subsequently blaming the innocent bystander for the crime. It also examined whether or not the perceived age of the co-witness influences this effect. Participant eyewitnesses first watched a video of a crime featuring a perpetrator and an innocent bystander. They then read one of six bogus co-witness statements about the crime. All were presented as having been written by a female co-witness and they differed in terms of her age (young adult or elderly) and who she blamed for the crime (the perpetrator, the innocent bystander, or nobody). One week later the participants were asked who committed the crime. When the young adult co-witness had blamed the innocent bystander just over 40% of participants subsequently did the same. Few participants (less than 8%) in the other conditions subsequently blamed the innocent bystander. The elderly co-witness was also rated as less credible, less competent, and less accurate than the younger co-witness suggesting eyewitnesses were less likely to be influenced by her incorrect statement as they perceived her to be a less reliable source of information. The applied implications of these findings are discussed.

  11. Obese children, adults and senior citizens in the eyes of the general public: results of a representative study on stigma and causation of obesity.

    PubMed

    Sikorski, Claudia; Luppa, Melanie; Brähler, Elmar; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2012-01-01

    Obese individuals are blamed for their excess weight based on causal attribution to the individual. It is unclear whether obese individuals of different age groups and gender are faced with the same amount of stigmatization. This information is important in order to identify groups of individuals at risk for higher stigmatization and discrimination. A telephone interview was conducted in a representative sample of 3,003 participants. Experimental manipulation was realized by vignettes describing obese and normal-weight children, adults and senior citizens. Stigmatizing attitudes were measured by semantic differential. Causal attribution was assessed. Internal factors were rated with highest agreement rates as a cause for the vignette's obesity. Lack of activity behavior and eating too much are the most supported causes. Importance of causes differed for the different vignettes. For the child, external causes were considered more important. The overweight vignette was rated consistently more negatively. Higher educational attainment and personal obesity were associated with lower stigmatizing attitudes. The vignette of the obese child was rated more negatively compared to that of an adult or senior citizen. Obesity is seen as a controllable condition, but for children external factors are seen as well. Despite this finding, they are faced with higher stigmatizing attitudes in the general public, contradicting attribution theory assumptions. Internal and external attribution were found to be inter-correlated. Obese children are the population most at risk for being confronted with stigmatization, making them a target point in stigma-reduction campaigns. PMID:23071664

  12. Optimising prescription and titration of oxygen for adult inpatients using novel silicone wristbands: results of a pilot project at three centres.

    PubMed

    Forster, Sarah; Smith, Sue; Daniel, Priya; Binnion, Amy; Briggs, Lucy; Evans, Rachel; Ryanna, Kimuli; Woltmann, Gerrit; Bajammal, Omar; Hodgson, David; Saini, Gauri; Scullion, Jane; Bolton, Charlotte E; Lowrey, Gillian

    2016-08-01

    Oxygen is the most commonly used drug in the acute hospital setting. Oxygen can be lifesaving but there is increasing evidence that it can cause harm if it is not given correctly. Prescription of oxygen, according to target saturations, has been advocated since 2008 but compliance remains at low levels. This paper describes a novel approach to improve oxygen prescription and titration in three acute hospital trusts using a colour-coded silicone wristband. The project ran for 3 months and covered more than 2,000 emergency admissions to hospital. Data was collected for oxygen prescription and titration rates for 270 patients during the project period. The wristbands showed an improvement in prescription and titration of oxygen in two out of three sites. The results support a wider controlled study of colour-coded wristbands to improve oxygen safety in secondary care.

  13. Plan Showing Cross Bracing Under Upper Stringers, Typical Section Showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plan Showing Cross Bracing Under Upper Stringers, Typical Section Showing End Framing, Plan Showing Cross Bracing Under Lower Stringers, End Elevation - Covered Bridge, Spanning Contoocook River, Hopkinton, Merrimack County, NH

  14. Giant pandas failed to show mirror self-recognition.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaozan; Jin, Yuan; Luo, Bo; Zhang, Guiquan; Wei, Rongping; Liu, Dingzhen

    2015-05-01

    Mirror self-recognition (MSR), i.e., the ability to recognize oneself in a mirror, is considered a potential index of self-recognition and the foundation of individual development. A wealth of literature on MSR is available for social animals, such as chimpanzees, Asian elephants and dolphins, yet little is known about MSR in solitary mammalian species. We aimed to evaluate whether the giant panda can recognize itself in the mirror, and whether this capacity varies with age. Thirty-four captive giant pandas (F:M = 18:16; juveniles, sub-adults and adults) were subjected to four mirror tests: covered mirror tests, open mirror tests, water mark control tests, and mark tests. The results showed that, though adult, sub-adult and juvenile pandas exposed to mirrors spent similar amounts of time in social mirror-directed behaviors (χ(2) = 0.719, P = 0.698), none of them used the mirror to touch the mark on their head, a self-directed behavior suggesting MSR. Individuals of all age groups initially displayed attacking, threatening, foot scraping and backwards walking behaviors when exposed to their self-images in the mirror. Our data indicate that, regardless of age, the giant pandas did not recognize their self-image in the mirror, but instead considered the image to be a conspecific. Our results add to the available information on mirror self-recognition in large mammals, provide new information on a solitary species, and will be useful for enclosure design and captive animal management. PMID:25609263

  15. Giant pandas failed to show mirror self-recognition.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaozan; Jin, Yuan; Luo, Bo; Zhang, Guiquan; Wei, Rongping; Liu, Dingzhen

    2015-05-01

    Mirror self-recognition (MSR), i.e., the ability to recognize oneself in a mirror, is considered a potential index of self-recognition and the foundation of individual development. A wealth of literature on MSR is available for social animals, such as chimpanzees, Asian elephants and dolphins, yet little is known about MSR in solitary mammalian species. We aimed to evaluate whether the giant panda can recognize itself in the mirror, and whether this capacity varies with age. Thirty-four captive giant pandas (F:M = 18:16; juveniles, sub-adults and adults) were subjected to four mirror tests: covered mirror tests, open mirror tests, water mark control tests, and mark tests. The results showed that, though adult, sub-adult and juvenile pandas exposed to mirrors spent similar amounts of time in social mirror-directed behaviors (χ(2) = 0.719, P = 0.698), none of them used the mirror to touch the mark on their head, a self-directed behavior suggesting MSR. Individuals of all age groups initially displayed attacking, threatening, foot scraping and backwards walking behaviors when exposed to their self-images in the mirror. Our data indicate that, regardless of age, the giant pandas did not recognize their self-image in the mirror, but instead considered the image to be a conspecific. Our results add to the available information on mirror self-recognition in large mammals, provide new information on a solitary species, and will be useful for enclosure design and captive animal management.

  16. Water intoxication in adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Naoya; Ofuji, Sosuke; Abe, Sakae; Tanaka, Ai; Uematsu, Masami; Ogata, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Water intoxication is a common disorder in calves and is usually characterized by transient hemoglobinuria. In contrast, the condition is very rare in adult cattle, with few reports on naturally occurring cases. In the present report, four female Japanese Black cattle, aged 16-25 months, showed neurological signs when they drank water following a water outage. Hemoglobinuria was not grossly observed, while severe hyponatremia was revealed by laboratory tests. Autopsy indicated cerebral edema with accumulation of serous fluid in expanded Virchow-Robin spaces. These results indicate the possibility of water intoxication associated with cerebral edema due to severe dilutional hyponatremia in adult cattle.

  17. Water intoxication in adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Naoya; Ofuji, Sosuke; Abe, Sakae; Tanaka, Ai; Uematsu, Masami; Ogata, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Water intoxication is a common disorder in calves and is usually characterized by transient hemoglobinuria. In contrast, the condition is very rare in adult cattle, with few reports on naturally occurring cases. In the present report, four female Japanese Black cattle, aged 16-25 months, showed neurological signs when they drank water following a water outage. Hemoglobinuria was not grossly observed, while severe hyponatremia was revealed by laboratory tests. Autopsy indicated cerebral edema with accumulation of serous fluid in expanded Virchow-Robin spaces. These results indicate the possibility of water intoxication associated with cerebral edema due to severe dilutional hyponatremia in adult cattle. PMID:27506091

  18. Results of a prospective multicentre myeloablative double-unit cord blood transplantation trial in adult patients with acute leukaemia and myelodysplasia.

    PubMed

    Barker, Juliet N; Fei, Mingwei; Karanes, Chatchada; Horwitz, Mitchell; Devine, Steven; Kindwall-Keller, Tamila L; Holter, Jennifer; Adams, Alexia; Logan, Brent; Navarro, Willis H; Riches, Marcie

    2015-02-01

    Double-unit cord blood (CB) grafts may improve engraftment and relapse risk in adults with haematological malignancies. We performed a prospective high-dose myeloablative double-unit CB transplantation (CBT) trial in adults with high-risk acute leukaemia or myelodysplasia (MDS) between 2007 and 2011. The primary aim was to establish the 1-year overall survival in a multi-centre setting. Fifty-six patients (31 acute myeloid leukaemia, 19 acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, 4 other acute leukaemias, 2 myelodysplastic syndrome [MDS]) were transplanted at 10 centres. The median infused total nucleated cell doses were 2·62 (larger unit) and 2·02 (smaller unit) x 10(7) /kg. The cumulative incidence of day 100 neutrophil engraftment was 89% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 80-96). Day 180 grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) incidence was 64% (95%CI: 51-76) and 36% (95%CI: 24-49) of patients had chronic GVHD by 3-years. At 3-years post-transplant, the transplant-related mortality (TRM) was 39% (95%CI: 26-52), and the 3-year relapse incidence was 11% (95%CI: 4-21). With a median 37-month (range 23-71) follow-up of survivors, the 3-year disease-free survival was 50% (95%CI: 37-63). Double-unit CBT is a viable alternative therapy for high-risk acute leukaemia/ MDS in patients lacking a matched unrelated donor. This is especially important for minority patients. The relapse incidence was low but strategies to ameliorate TRM are needed.

  19. Bacteremia as a Cause of Fever in Ambulatory, HIV-Infected Mozambican Adults: Results and Policy Implications from a Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Troy D.; Silva, Wilson P.; Buene, Manuel; Morais, Luís; Valverde, Emilio; Vermund, Sten H.; Brentlinger, Paula E.

    2013-01-01

    Fever is typically treated empirically in rural Mozambique. We examined the distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacterial pathogens isolated from blood-culture specimens, and clinical characteristics of ambulatory HIV-infected febrile patients with and without bacteremia. This analysis was nested within a larger prospective observational study to evaluate the performance of new Mozambican guidelines for fever and anemia in HIV-infected adults (clinical trial registration NCT01681914, www.clinicaltrials.gov); the guidelines were designed to be used by non-physician clinicians who attended ambulatory HIV-infected patients in very resource-constrained peripheral health units. In 2012 (April-September), we recruited 258 HIV-infected adults with documented fever or history of recent fever in three sites within Zambézia Province, Mozambique. Although febrile patients were routinely tested for malaria, blood culture capacity was unavailable in Zambézia prior to study initiation. We confirmed bacteremia in 39 (15.1%) of 258 patients. The predominant organisms were non-typhoid Salmonella, nearly all resistant to multiple first-line antibiotics (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole). Features most associated with bacteremia included higher temperature, lower CD4+ T-lymphocyte count, lower hemoglobin, and headache. Introduction of blood cultures allowed us to: 1) confirm bacteremia in a substantial proportion of patients; 2) tailor specific antimicrobial therapy for confirmed bacteremia based on known susceptibilities; 3) make informed choices of presumptive antibiotics for patients with suspected bacteremia; and 4) construct a preliminary clinical profile to help clinicians determine who would most likely benefit from presumptive bacteremia treatment. Our findings demonstrate that in resource-limited settings, there is urgent need to expand local microbiologic capacity to better identify and treat cases of bacteremia in HIV

  20. Bacteremia as a cause of fever in ambulatory, HIV-infected Mozambican adults: results and policy implications from a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Moon, Troy D; Silva, Wilson P; Buene, Manuel; Morais, Luís; Valverde, Emilio; Vermund, Sten H; Brentlinger, Paula E

    2013-01-01

    Fever is typically treated empirically in rural Mozambique. We examined the distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacterial pathogens isolated from blood-culture specimens, and clinical characteristics of ambulatory HIV-infected febrile patients with and without bacteremia. This analysis was nested within a larger prospective observational study to evaluate the performance of new Mozambican guidelines for fever and anemia in HIV-infected adults (clinical trial registration NCT01681914, www.clinicaltrials.gov); the guidelines were designed to be used by non-physician clinicians who attended ambulatory HIV-infected patients in very resource-constrained peripheral health units. In 2012 (April-September), we recruited 258 HIV-infected adults with documented fever or history of recent fever in three sites within Zambézia Province, Mozambique. Although febrile patients were routinely tested for malaria, blood culture capacity was unavailable in Zambézia prior to study initiation. We confirmed bacteremia in 39 (15.1%) of 258 patients. The predominant organisms were non-typhoid Salmonella, nearly all resistant to multiple first-line antibiotics (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole). Features most associated with bacteremia included higher temperature, lower CD4+ T-lymphocyte count, lower hemoglobin, and headache. Introduction of blood cultures allowed us to: 1) confirm bacteremia in a substantial proportion of patients; 2) tailor specific antimicrobial therapy for confirmed bacteremia based on known susceptibilities; 3) make informed choices of presumptive antibiotics for patients with suspected bacteremia; and 4) construct a preliminary clinical profile to help clinicians determine who would most likely benefit from presumptive bacteremia treatment. Our findings demonstrate that in resource-limited settings, there is urgent need to expand local microbiologic capacity to better identify and treat cases of bacteremia in HIV

  1. Gait pattern alterations in older adults associated with type 2 diabetes in the absence of peripheral neuropathy--results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    PubMed

    Ko, Seung-uk; Stenholm, Sari; Chia, Chee W; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2011-10-01

    Diabetes may impact gait mechanics before onset of frank neuropathies and other associated threats to mobility. This study aims to characterize gait pattern alterations of type 2 diabetic adults without peripheral neuropathy during walking at maximum speed (fast-walking) as well as at self-selected speed (usual-walking). One-hundred and eighty-six participants aged 60-87 from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) able to walk unassisted and without peripheral neuropathy were classified as non-diabetic (N=160) or having type 2 diabetes (N=26). Gait parameters from the fast-walking and usual-walking tests were compared between participants with and without type 2 diabetes. Participants with diabetes had a shorter stride length for fast-walking (p=0.033) and a longer percentage of the gait cycle with the knee in 1st flexion for both fast- and usual-walking (p=0.033, and 0.040, respectively) than non-diabetic participants. Participants with diabetes exhibited a smaller hip range of motion in the sagittal plane during usual-walking compared to non-diabetics (p=0.049). During fast-walking, participants with diabetes used lower ankle generative mechanical work expenditure (MWE) and higher knee absorptive MWE compared to non-diabetic persons (p=0.021, and 0.018, respectively). These findings suggest that individuals with type 2 diabetes without overt peripheral neuropathy exhibit altered and less efficient gait patterns than non-diabetic persons. These alterations are more apparent during walking at a maximum speed indicating that maximum gait testing may be useful for identifying early threats to mobility limitations in older adults with type 2 diabetes.

  2. Successful Up-Scaled Population Interventions to Reduce Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Disease in Adults: Results from the International Community Interventions for Health (CIH) Project in China, India and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Dyson, Pamela A.; Anthony, Denis; Fenton, Brenda; Stevens, Denise E.; Champagne, Beatriz; Li, Li-Ming; Lv, Jun; Ramírez Hernández, Jorge; Thankappan, K. R.; Matthews, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-communicable disease (NCD) is increasing rapidly in low and middle-income countries (LMIC), and is associated with tobacco use, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. There is little evidence for up-scaled interventions at the population level to reduce risk in LMIC. Methods The Community Interventions for Health (CIH) program was a population-scale community intervention study with comparator population group undertaken in communities in China, India, and Mexico, each with populations between 150,000-250,000. Culturally appropriate interventions were delivered over 18-24 months. Two independent cross-sectional surveys of a stratified sample of adults aged 18-64 years were conducted at baseline and follow-up. Results A total of 6,194 adults completed surveys at baseline, and 6,022 at follow-up. The proportion meeting physical activity recommendations decreased significantly in the control group (C) (44.1 to 30.2%), but not in the intervention group (I) (38.0 to 36.1%), p<0.001. Those eating ≥5 portions of fruit and vegetables daily decreased significantly in C (19.2 to 17.2%), but did not change in I (20.0 to 19.6%,), p=0.013. The proportion adding salt to food was unchanged in C (24.9 to 25.3%) and decreased in I (25.9 to 19.6%), p<0.001. Prevalence of obesity increased in C (8.3 to 11.2%), with no change in I (8.6 to 9.7%,) p=0.092. Concerning tobacco, for men the difference-in-difference analysis showed that the reduction in use was significantly greater in I compared to C (p=0.014) Conclusions Up-scaling known health promoting interventions designed to reduce the incidence of NCD in whole communities in LMIC is feasible, and has measurable beneficial outcomes on risk factors for NCD, namely tobacco use, diet, and physical inactivity. PMID:25875825

  3. Adult Age Differences in Accessing and Retrieving Information from Long-Term Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petros, Thomas V.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated adult age differences in accessing and retrieving information from long-term memory. Results showed that older adults (N=26) were slower than younger adults (N=35) at feature extraction, lexical access, and accessing category information. The age deficit was proportionally greater when retrieval of category information was required.…

  4. Adults with Reading Disabilities: Converting a Meta-Analysis to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the results of a meta-analysis of the experimental published literature that compares the academic, cognitive, and behavioral performance of adults with reading disabilities (RD) with average achieving adult readers. The meta-analysis shows that deficits independent of the classification measures emerged for adults with RD on…

  5. Do Web-based Mental Health Literacy Interventions Improve the Mental Health Literacy of Adult Consumers? Results From a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Antoniades, Josefine

    2016-01-01

    Background Low levels of mental health literacy (MHL) have been identified as an important contributor to the mental health treatment gap. Interventions to improve MHL have used traditional media (eg, community talks, print media) and new platforms (eg, the Internet). Evaluations of interventions using conventional media show improvements in MHL improve community recognition of mental illness as well as knowledge, attitude, and intended behaviors toward people having mental illness. However, the potential of new media, such as the Internet, to enhance MHL has yet to be systematically evaluated. Objective Study aims were twofold: (1) To systematically appraise the efficacy of Web-based interventions in improving MHL. (2) To establish if increases in MHL translated into improvement in individual health seeking and health outcomes as well as reductions in stigma toward people with mental illness. Methods We conducted a systematic search and appraisal of all original research published between 2000 and 2015 that evaluated Web-based interventions to improve MHL. The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines were used to report findings. Results Fourteen studies were included: 10 randomized controlled trials and 4 quasi-experimental studies. Seven studies were conducted in Australia. A variety of Web-based interventions were identified ranging from linear, static websites to highly interactive interventions such as social media games. Some Web-based interventions were specifically designed for people living with mental illness whereas others were applicable to the general population. Interventions were more likely to be successful if they included “active ingredients” such as a structured program, were tailored to specific populations, delivered evidenced-based content, and promoted interactivity and experiential learning. Conclusions Web-based interventions targeting MHL are more likely to be successful if they include

  6. Neuropsychological status in older adults influences susceptibility to false memories.

    PubMed

    Meade, Michelle L; Geraci, Lisa D; Roediger, Henry L

    2012-01-01

    In 2 experiments we examined the influence of frontal lobe function on older adults' susceptibility to false memory in a categorized list paradigm. Using a neuropsychological battery of tests developed by Glisky, Polster, and Routhieaux (1995), we designated older adults as having high- or low-frontal function. Young and older adults studied and were tested on categorized lists using free report cued recall and forced report cued recall instructions, with the latter requiring participants to produce responses even if they had to guess. Under free report cued recall instructions, frontal lobe function was a strong predictor of false memories in older adults: Older adults who scored low on tests of frontal functioning demonstrated much higher levels of false recall than younger adults, whereas levels of false recall in high-frontal older adults were more similar to those of young adults. However, after forced report cued recall, high- and low-frontal older adults performed similarly to each other, and both demonstrated higher levels of false recall than young adults. On a final recognition test, high-frontal older adults in both the free report cued recall and forced report cued recall conditions were more successful than low-frontal older adults in using source information to reduce memory errors. The results indicate that older adults show higher levels of false recall than younger adults, but type of test (free report or forced report) and neuropsychological status of older adults mediate these effects. Low-frontal older adults are particularly susceptible to producing false memories on free report tests that entail source monitoring. PMID:23350303

  7. Results of a Culturally Adapted Internet-Enhanced Physical Activity Pilot Intervention for Overweight and Obese Young Adult African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Rodney P.; Pekmezi, Dori; Dutton, Gareth R.; Cherrington, Andrea L.; Kim, Young-II; Allison, Jeroan J.; Durant, Nefertiti H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated a culturally relevant, social cognitive theory–based, Internet-enhanced physical activity (PA) pilot intervention developed for overweight/obese African American (AA) female college students. Design Using a 3-month, single group, pretest–posttest design, participants accessed a culturally relevant PA promotion website and engaged in four moderate-intensity PA sessions each week. Results Study completers (n = 25, mean age = 21.9 years) reported a decrease in sedentary screen time (p < .0001); however, no changes in moderate-to-vigorous PA were reported (p = .150). A significant increase in self-regulation for PA (p < .0001) and marginally significant increases in social support (p = .052) and outcome expectations (p = .057) for PA were observed. No changes in body mass index (p = .162), PA enjoyment (p = .151), or exercise self-efficacy (p = .086) were reported. Conclusions Findings of this exploratory study show some preliminary support for Internet-enhanced approaches to promote PA among overweight/obese AA women. Implications for Practice Future studies with larger samples are needed to further explore culturally relevant Internet-enhanced PA programs in this underserved population. PMID:24934566

  8. Career and Technical Education: Show Us the Buck, We'll Show You the Bang!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whetstone, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Adult and CTE programs in California have been cut by about 60 percent over the past three years. A number of school districts have summarily eliminated these programs to preserve funding for other educational endeavors. The author says part of the problem has been the community's inability to communicate quantifiable results. One of the hottest…

  9. Wolf spiders show graded antipredator behavior in the presence of chemical cues from different sized predators.

    PubMed

    Persons, M H; Rypstra, A L

    2001-12-01

    The wolf spider, Pardosa milvina, displays effective antipredator behavior (reduced activity) in the presence of silk and excreta cues from adults of another cooccurring wolf spider, Hogna helluo. However, Pardosa and Hogna engage in size-structured intraguild predation, where Pardosa may be either the prey or predator of Hogna. We tested the ability of adult female Pardosa to vary antipredator responses toward kairomones produced by Hogna that vary in size. Hogna were maintained on filter paper for 24 hr. We then presented the paper to adult female Pardosa simultaneously paired with a blank sheet of paper. One treatment had two sheets of blank paper to serve as a control. The Hogna stimulus treatments were as follows (N = 15/treatment): (1) 1 Hogna half the mass of Pardosa; (2) 1 Hogna of equal mass of a Pardosa; (3) 1 adult Hogna, 30 times the mass of Pardosa; and (4) 8 Hogna each 0.25 the mass of Pardosa. Pardosa decreased activity in the presence of kairomones from Hogna of equal or larger size, but showed no change in activity in the presence of a blank control or from a single Hogna smaller than itself. Pardosa showed a reduction in activity in the presence of cues from eight small Hogna. Pardosa avoided substrates with adult Hogna cues, but showed no avoidance response to any other treatment. These results suggest that Pardosa is showing graded antipredator behavior relative to the quantity of predator kairomones present rather than directly discriminating among the different sizes of the predator.

  10. Beneficial effects of citrus juice fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 on atopic dermatitis: results of daily intake by adult patients in two open trials

    PubMed Central

    HARIMA-MIZUSAWA, Naomi; KAMACHI, Keiko; KANO, Mitsuyoshi; NOZAKI, Daisuke; UETAKE, Tatsuo; YOKOMIZO, Yuji; NAGINO, Takayuki; TANAKA, Akira; MIYAZAKI, Kouji; NAKAMURA, Shinichiro

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether daily intake of citrus juice containing heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 (LP0132-fermented juice) alleviates symptoms of atopic dermatitis. This was a natural extension of our previous study in which LP0132 was shown to enhance IL-10 production in vitro and LP0132-fermented juice was found to alleviate symptoms and enhance quality of life (QOL) in patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis. In two open trials, Trial 1 and Trial 2, 32 and 18 adult patients with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis consumed LP0132-fermented juice for 8 weeks. Skin conditions and QOL were subjectively evaluated using Skindex-16 before intake of the juice (Pre-treatment), 8 weeks after starting intake (Treatment) and 8 weeks after termination of intake (Post-treatment). Blood parameters were also analyzed. Comparison of the Treatment and Post-treatment time points with the Pre-treatment time point revealed significant reductions in the Skindex-16 overall score and the 3 domain subscores (symptoms, emotions, and functioning domains) in both trials. Moreover, blood levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and specific IgEs for Japanese cedar and cypress pollen were significantly attenuated in Trial 2. The findings suggest that daily intake of citrus fermented juice containing heat-killed LP0132 has beneficial effects on symptoms and QOL in patients with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis due to an immunomodulatory effect via attenuation of IgE and ECP. PMID:26858928

  11. The effect of bupropion XL and escitalopram on memory and functional outcomes in adults with major depressive disorder: results from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Soczynska, Joanna K; Ravindran, Lakshmi N; Styra, Rima; McIntyre, Roger S; Cyriac, Anna; Manierka, Marena S; Kennedy, Sidney H

    2014-12-15

    Decrements in cognitive function are a common feature of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), and whether distinct classes of antidepressants differentially affect memory in these individuals has not been sufficiently evaluated. In this study we sought to determine the effect of escitalopram and bupropion XL on memory and psychosocial function. Forty-one individuals (18-50 years) with MDD were enrolled in an 8-week, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized controlled comparative trial of bupropion XL and escitalopram. Thirty-six participants completed pre and post memory assessments. Verbal, non-verbal and working memory were evaluated with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Psychosocial function was assessed with the Sheehan Disability Scale and Endicott Work Productivity Scale. Escitalopram and bupropion XL significantly improved immediate as well as delayed verbal and nonverbal memory, global function (all p≤0.001), and work productivity (p=0.045), with no significant between-group differences. Improvement in immediate verbal memory exerted a direct influence on improvement in global function (p=0.006). Treatment with either escitalopram or bupropion XL was associated with improvement in memory and psychosocial function in adults with MDD.

  12. Combined effect of hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity on the prevalence of hypertension among US adults: result from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Han, G-M; Gonzalez, S; DeVries, D

    2014-10-01

    Hypertension is a large and growing public health problem worldwide. Hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity are two of the most important risk factors for hypertension. However, their combined effect on the risk of hypertension is not known. Participants aged 20 years and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999-2012 were used to evaluate the separate and combined effects of hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity on the risk of prevalent hypertension among different race, gender and age groups. Participants (31,473) were used to estimate separate and combined effects on the prevalence of hypertension. The overall prevalence of hypertension among adults with a combination of hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity (50.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 48.3-52.1%) was significantly higher than separate hyperuricemia (41.7%, 95% CI 37.2-46.2%) and overweight/obesity (30.6%, 95% CI 29.5-31.8%). The magnitude of odds ratio (OR) from the combination of hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity (OR=4.53, 95% CI 4.05-5.07) was significantly higher than both hyperuricemia (OR=2.62, 95% CI 2.07-3.32) and overweight/obesity (OR=2.08, 95% CI 1.89-2.30). Combined effect of hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity on the risk of hypertension is much stronger than any separate one. These data can provide important information for identification of target populations for future intervention and patient management.

  13. Markers of Sleep Disordered Breathing and Diabetes Mellitus in a Multiethnic Sample of US Adults: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005–2008)

    PubMed Central

    Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Teppala, Srinivas; Shankar, Anoop

    2012-01-01

    We examined gender and ethnic differences in the association between sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and diabetes among 6,522 participants aged ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–08. SDB severity was defined based on an additive summary score including sleep duration, snoring, snorting, and daytime sleepiness. We found that the summary SDB score was significantly associated with diabetes after adjusting for potential confounders in the whole population. Compared to those without any sleep disturbance, the multivariable odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) of diabetes among those with ≥3 sleep disturbances was 2.04 (1.46–2.87). In sex-specific analyses, this association was significant only in women (OR (95% CI) = 3.68 (2.01–6.72)) but not in men (1.10 (0.59–2.04)), P-interaction = 0.01. However, there were no ethnic differences in this association, P-interaction = 0.7. In a nationally representative sample of US adults, SDB was independently associated with diabetes only in women, but not in men. PMID:22518133

  14. Beneficial effects of citrus juice fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 on atopic dermatitis: results of daily intake by adult patients in two open trials.

    PubMed

    Harima-Mizusawa, Naomi; Kamachi, Keiko; Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Nozaki, Daisuke; Uetake, Tatsuo; Yokomizo, Yuji; Nagino, Takayuki; Tanaka, Akira; Miyazaki, Kouji; Nakamura, Shinichiro

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether daily intake of citrus juice containing heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 (LP0132-fermented juice) alleviates symptoms of atopic dermatitis. This was a natural extension of our previous study in which LP0132 was shown to enhance IL-10 production in vitro and LP0132-fermented juice was found to alleviate symptoms and enhance quality of life (QOL) in patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis. In two open trials, Trial 1 and Trial 2, 32 and 18 adult patients with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis consumed LP0132-fermented juice for 8 weeks. Skin conditions and QOL were subjectively evaluated using Skindex-16 before intake of the juice (Pre-treatment), 8 weeks after starting intake (Treatment) and 8 weeks after termination of intake (Post-treatment). Blood parameters were also analyzed. Comparison of the Treatment and Post-treatment time points with the Pre-treatment time point revealed significant reductions in the Skindex-16 overall score and the 3 domain subscores (symptoms, emotions, and functioning domains) in both trials. Moreover, blood levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and specific IgEs for Japanese cedar and cypress pollen were significantly attenuated in Trial 2. The findings suggest that daily intake of citrus fermented juice containing heat-killed LP0132 has beneficial effects on symptoms and QOL in patients with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis due to an immunomodulatory effect via attenuation of IgE and ECP.

  15. High alcohol consumption in middle aged adults is associated with poorer cognitive performance only in the low socioeconomic group. Results from the GAZEL cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sabia, Séverine; Guéguen, Alice; Berr, Claudine; Berkman, Lisa; Ankri, Joël; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2010-01-01

    Aims To examine the association of alcohol consumption over 10 years with cognitive performance in different socioeconomic groups. Design Prospective cohort study, the French GAZEL study. Setting France. Participants Employees of France’s national electricity and gas company. Measurements Alcohol intake was assessed annually, beginning in 1992, using questions on frequency and quantity of alcoholic beverages consumed in a week; used to define mean consumption and trajectory of alcohol intake over 10 years. Cognitive performance among participants aged ≥55 years (N=4073) was assessed in 2002–2004 using the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), a measure of psychomotor speed, attention and reasoning. Occupational position at age 35 and education were used as the markers of socioeconomic position. Findings All analyses were stratified by socioeconomic position. In the low occupational group, participants consuming a mean of more than 21 drinks per week had 2.1 points lower (95% CI: −3.9, −0.3) DSST score compared to those consuming 4–14 drinks per week. In participants with primary school education, the corresponding difference was 3.6 points (95% CI: −7.1,−0.0). No association between alcohol consumption and cognitive performance was observed in the intermediate and high socioeconomic groups, defined using either occupation or education. Analysis of trajectories of alcohol consumption showed that in the low socioeconomic groups large increase or decrease in alcohol consumption was associated with lower cognitive scores compared to stable consumption. Conclusions Our results suggest that high alcohol consumption is associated with poorer cognitive performance only in the low socioeconomic group, possibly due to greater cognitive reserve in the higher socioeconomic groups. PMID:20840170

  16. Effects of health information in youth on adult physical activity: 20-year study results from the Amsterdam growth and health longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Han C G; Verhagen, E A L M; Milo, D; Post, G B; Van Lenthe, F; Van Mechelen, W; Twisk, J W R; De Vente, W

    2002-01-01

    In the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study (AGAHLS), a group of apparently healthy males and females (n = 200) were interviewed about their physical activities on eight separate occasions over a period of 20 years between 13 and 33 years of age (multi-measured group: MM). Information about their health was given based on their personally measured lifestyle (activity, diet, smoking) and biological risk characteristics for chronic diseases (medical check-ups). A comparable group of boys and girls (n = 200) was only measured on two occasions (bi-measured group: BM): at 13 and 33 years. Physical activity was estimated with a structured interview. Total physical activity and sports activity were estimated in three intensity levels (light, moderate, and heavy). It was hypothesized that the eight repeated medical check-ups with health information in the MM group would result in a healthier lifestyle with respect to the determinants and levels of habitual physical activity compared to the BM group. Contrary to the hypothesis, males and females in the BM group showed a significantly higher increase or a lower decrease in physical activities compared to the MM group. This negative effect on the physical activity pattern at 33 years in the MM group may have been caused by more underreporting of physical activities than in the BM group. In conclusion, there does not appear to be a significant effect of long-term (multi-measured) health information with medical check-ups during adolescence and young adulthood on level of physical activity in males and females at 33 years of age. PMID:12112566

  17. Age-Related Changes of Plasma Bile Acid Concentrations in Healthy Adults--Results from the Cross-Sectional KarMeN Study.

    PubMed

    Frommherz, Lara; Bub, Achim; Hummel, Eva; Rist, Manuela J; Roth, Alexander; Watzl, Bernhard; Kulling, Sabine E

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids (BA) play an important role in lipid metabolism. They facilitate intestinal lipid absorption, and BA synthesis is the main catabolic pathway for cholesterol. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of age, sex, diet (fat intake) and parameters of lipid metabolism (triglycerides, LDL, HDL, body fat content) with fasting plasma BA concentration of healthy individuals. Fasting plasma samples from a cross-sectional study were used to determine the concentrations of 14 BA using an LC-MS stable isotope dilution assay. Triglycerides, LDL and HDL were analyzed by standard clinical chemistry methods and body fat content was measured with a DXA instrument. The dietary fat intake of the 24 h period prior to the sampling was assessed on the basis of a 24 h recall. Subsequent statistical data processing was done by means of a median regression model. Results revealed large inter-individual variations. Overall, higher median plasma concentrations of BA were observed in men than in women. Quantile regression showed significant interactions of selected BA with age and sex, affecting primarily chenodeoxycholic acid and its conjugates. No associations were found for LDL and the amount of fat intake (based on the percentage of energy intake from dietary fat as well as total fat intake). Additional associations regarding body fat content, HDL and triglycerides were found for some secondary BA plasma concentrations. We conclude that age and sex are associated with the fasting plasma concentrations. Those associations are significant and need to be considered in studies investigating the role of BA in the human metabolism. PMID:27092559

  18. Health Literacy, Social Support, and Health Status among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Arozullah, Ahsan M.; Cho, Young Ik; Crittenden, Kathleen; Vicencio, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The study examines whether social support interacts with health literacy in affecting the health status of older adults. Health literacy is assessed using the short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Social support is measured with the Medical Outcome Study social support scale. Results show, unexpectedly, that rather…

  19. Impact of Genetic Counseling and Connexin-26 and Connexin-30 Testing on Deaf Identity and Comprehension of Genetic Test Results in a Sample of Deaf Adults: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Christina G. S.; Boudreault, Patrick; Baldwin, Erin E.; Sinsheimer, Janet S.

    2014-01-01

    Using a prospective, longitudinal study design, this paper addresses the impact of genetic counseling and testing for deafness on deaf adults and the Deaf community. This study specifically evaluated the effect of genetic counseling and Connexin-26 and Connexin-30 genetic test results on participants' deaf identity and understanding of their genetic test results. Connexin-26 and Connexin-30 genetic testing was offered to participants in the context of linguistically and culturally appropriate genetic counseling. Questionnaire data collected from 209 deaf adults at four time points (baseline, immediately following pre-test genetic counseling, 1-month following genetic test result disclosure, and 6-months after result disclosure) were analyzed. Four deaf identity orientations (hearing, marginal, immersion, bicultural) were evaluated using subscales of the Deaf Identity Development Scale-Revised. We found evidence that participants understood their specific genetic test results following genetic counseling, but found no evidence of change in deaf identity based on genetic counseling or their genetic test results. This study demonstrated that culturally and linguistically appropriate genetic counseling can improve deaf clients' understanding of genetic test results, and the formation of deaf identity was not directly related to genetic counseling or Connexin-26 and Connexin-30 genetic test results. PMID:25375116

  20. Impact of genetic counseling and Connexin-26 and Connexin-30 testing on deaf identity and comprehension of genetic test results in a sample of deaf adults: a prospective, longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Christina G S; Boudreault, Patrick; Baldwin, Erin E; Sinsheimer, Janet S

    2014-01-01

    Using a prospective, longitudinal study design, this paper addresses the impact of genetic counseling and testing for deafness on deaf adults and the Deaf community. This study specifically evaluated the effect of genetic counseling and Connexin-26 and Connexin-30 genetic test results on participants' deaf identity and understanding of their genetic test results. Connexin-26 and Connexin-30 genetic testing was offered to participants in the context of linguistically and culturally appropriate genetic counseling. Questionnaire data collected from 209 deaf adults at four time points (baseline, immediately following pre-test genetic counseling, 1-month following genetic test result disclosure, and 6-months after result disclosure) were analyzed. Four deaf identity orientations (hearing, marginal, immersion, bicultural) were evaluated using subscales of the Deaf Identity Development Scale-Revised. We found evidence that participants understood their specific genetic test results following genetic counseling, but found no evidence of change in deaf identity based on genetic counseling or their genetic test results. This study demonstrated that culturally and linguistically appropriate genetic counseling can improve deaf clients' understanding of genetic test results, and the formation of deaf identity was not directly related to genetic counseling or Connexin-26 and Connexin-30 genetic test results.

  1. Physical fitness is predictive for a decline in the ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living in older adults with intellectual disabilities: Results of the HA-ID study.

    PubMed

    Oppewal, Alyt; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; van Wijck, Ruud; Schoufour, Josje D; Evenhuis, Heleen M

    2015-01-01

    The ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) is important for one's level of independence. A high incidence of limitations in IADL is seen in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), which is an important determinant for the amount of support one needs. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of physical fitness for the ability to perform IADL, over a 3-year follow-up period, in 601 older adults with ID. At baseline, an extensive physical fitness assessment was performed. In addition, professional caregivers completed the Lawton IADL scale, both at baseline and at follow-up. The average ability to perform IADL declined significantly over the 3-year follow-up period. A decline in the ability to perform IADL was seen in 44.3% of the participants. The percentage of participants being completely independent in IADL declined from 2.7% to 1.3%. Manual dexterity, balance, comfortable and fast gait speed, muscular endurance, and cardiorespiratory fitness were significant predictors for a decline in IADL after correcting for baseline IADL and personal characteristics (age, gender, level of ID, and Down syndrome). This can be interpreted as representing the predictive validity of the physical tests for a decline in IADL. This study shows that even though older adults with ID experience dependency on others due to cognitive limitations, physical fitness also is an important aspect for IADL, which stresses the importance of using physical fitness tests and physical fitness enhancing programs in the care for older adults with ID.

  2. Physical fitness is predictive for a decline in the ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living in older adults with intellectual disabilities: Results of the HA-ID study.

    PubMed

    Oppewal, Alyt; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; van Wijck, Ruud; Schoufour, Josje D; Evenhuis, Heleen M

    2015-01-01

    The ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) is important for one's level of independence. A high incidence of limitations in IADL is seen in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), which is an important determinant for the amount of support one needs. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of physical fitness for the ability to perform IADL, over a 3-year follow-up period, in 601 older adults with ID. At baseline, an extensive physical fitness assessment was performed. In addition, professional caregivers completed the Lawton IADL scale, both at baseline and at follow-up. The average ability to perform IADL declined significantly over the 3-year follow-up period. A decline in the ability to perform IADL was seen in 44.3% of the participants. The percentage of participants being completely independent in IADL declined from 2.7% to 1.3%. Manual dexterity, balance, comfortable and fast gait speed, muscular endurance, and cardiorespiratory fitness were significant predictors for a decline in IADL after correcting for baseline IADL and personal characteristics (age, gender, level of ID, and Down syndrome). This can be interpreted as representing the predictive validity of the physical tests for a decline in IADL. This study shows that even though older adults with ID experience dependency on others due to cognitive limitations, physical fitness also is an important aspect for IADL, which stresses the importance of using physical fitness tests and physical fitness enhancing programs in the care for older adults with ID. PMID:26079525

  3. Efficacy and toxicity of a paediatric protocol in teenagers and young adults with Philadelphia chromosome negative acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: results from UKALL 2003.

    PubMed

    Hough, Rachael; Rowntree, Clare; Goulden, Nick; Mitchell, Chris; Moorman, Anthony; Wade, Rachel; Vora, Ajay

    2016-02-01

    Despite the substantial outcome improvements achieved in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), survival in teenage and young adult (TYA) patients has remained inferior. We report the treatment outcomes and toxicity profiles observed in TYA patients treated on the UK paediatric ALL trial, UKALL2003. UKALL2003 was a multi-centre, prospective, randomized phase III trial, investigating treatment intensification or de-escalation according to minimal residual disease (MRD) kinetics at the end of induction. Of 3126 patients recruited to UKALL2003, 229 (7·3%) were aged 16-24 years. These patients were significantly more likely to have high risk MRD compared to 10-15 year olds (47·9% vs. 36·6%, P = 0·004). Nonetheless, 5-year event-free survival for the TYA cohort (aged 16-24 years) was 72·3% [95% confidence interval (CI): 66·2-78·4] overall and 92·6% (95% CI: 85·5-99·7) for MRD low risk patients. The risk of serious adverse events was higher in patients aged ≥10 years compared to those aged 9 or younger (P < 0·0001) and novel age-specific patterns of treatment-related toxicity were observed. TYA patients obtain excellent outcomes with a risk- and response-adapted paediatric chemotherapy protocol. Whilst those aged 10 years and older have excess toxicity compared with younger patients, the age association is specific to individual toxicities.

  4. Consumption of a healthy dietary pattern results in significant reductions in C-reactive protein levels in adults: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Neale, E P; Batterham, M J; Tapsell, L C

    2016-05-01

    Consumption of healthy dietary patterns has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Dietary intervention targets disease prevention, so studies increasingly use biomarkers of underlying inflammation and metabolic syndrome progression to examine the diet-health relationship. The extent to which these biomarkers contribute to the body of evidence on healthy dietary patterns is unknown. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of healthy dietary patterns on biomarkers associated with adiposity, insulin resistance, and inflammation in adults. A systematic search of Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (all years to April 2015) was conducted. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials; effects of dietary patterns assessed on C-reactive protein (CRP), total adiponectin, high-molecular-weight adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-α, adiponectin:leptin, resistin, or retinol binding protein 4. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to assess the weighted mean differences in change or final mean values for each outcome. Seventeen studies were included in the review. These reflected research on dietary patterns associated with the Mediterranean diet, Nordic diet, Tibetan diet, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet. Consumption of a healthy dietary pattern was associated with significant reductions in CRP (weighted mean difference, -0.75 [-1.16, -0.35]; P = .0003). Non-significant changes were found for all other biomarkers. This analysis found evidence for favorable effects of healthy dietary patterns on CRP, with limited evidence for other biomarkers. Future research should include additional randomized controlled trials incorporating a greater range of dietary patterns and biomarkers. PMID:27101757

  5. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure, Adaptive Function, and Entry into Adult Roles in a Prospective Study of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Mary Ellen; Kable, Julie A.; Coles, Claire D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although many studies have demonstrated effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on physical, cognitive, and behavioral development in children, few have focused on the long term effects on adults. In this study, data are presented on adaptive function and entry into adult roles in a community sample of young adults with PAE. The expectation was that prenatally exposed adults would show lower adaptive functioning and more difficulty with entry into adult roles than the non-exposed control group and that these effects would be related to the severity of PAE effects. Method The predominantly African-American, low income sample included adults with a wide range of prenatal exposure (n = 123) as well as control groups for socioeconomic (SES) (n = 59) and disability (n = 54) status. The mothers of the alcohol-exposed and SES-control group participants were recruited before birth and offspring have been followed up periodically. The disability control group was recruited in adolescence. The adults were interviewed about adaptive function in day-to-day life and adult role entry. Collateral adults who were well-acquainted with each participant were interviewed concerning adaptive function. Results Results showed that adults who were dysmorphic and/or cognitively affected by PAE had difficulty with adaptive function and entry into adult roles. Males showing cognitive effects with no physical effects were the most severely affected. Results for exposed adults not showing physical or cognitive effects were similar to or more positive than those of the control group for most outcomes. Conclusion PAE has long-term effects on adaptive outcomes in early adulthood. Additional research should focus on possible interventions at this transition and on factors contributing to the adjustment of the exposed, but unaffected participants. PMID:26247662

  6. 8. Detail showing concrete abutment, showing substructure of bridge, specifically ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail showing concrete abutment, showing substructure of bridge, specifically west side of arch and substructure. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  7. 28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS LINCOLN BOULEVARD, BIG LOST RIVER, AND NAVAL REACTORS FACILITY. F.C. TORKELSON DRAWING NUMBER 842-ARVFS-101-2. DATED OCTOBER 12, 1965. INEL INDEX CODE NUMBER: 075 0101 851 151969. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. Pea Plants Show Risk Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Dener, Efrat; Kacelnik, Alex; Shemesh, Hagai

    2016-07-11

    Sensitivity to variability in resources has been documented in humans, primates, birds, and social insects, but the fit between empirical results and the predictions of risk sensitivity theory (RST), which aims to explain this sensitivity in adaptive terms, is weak [1]. RST predicts that agents should switch between risk proneness and risk aversion depending on state and circumstances, especially according to the richness of the least variable option [2]. Unrealistic assumptions about agents' information processing mechanisms and poor knowledge of the extent to which variability imposes specific selection in nature are strong candidates to explain the gap between theory and data. RST's rationale also applies to plants, where it has not hitherto been tested. Given the differences between animals' and plants' information processing mechanisms, such tests should help unravel the conflicts between theory and data. Measuring root growth allocation by split-root pea plants, we show that they favor variability when mean nutrient levels are low and the opposite when they are high, supporting the most widespread RST prediction. However, the combination of non-linear effects of nitrogen availability at local and systemic levels may explain some of these effects as a consequence of mechanisms not necessarily evolved to cope with variance [3, 4]. This resembles animal examples in which properties of perception and learning cause risk sensitivity even though they are not risk adaptations [5]. PMID:27374342

  9. Adult immunization

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Bharti; Chawla, Sumit; Kumar Dharma, Vijay; Jindal, Harashish; Bhatt, Bhumika

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is recommended throughout life to prevent vaccine-preventable diseases and their sequel. The primary focus of vaccination programs has historically been directed to childhood immunizations. For adults, chronic diseases have been the primary focus of preventive and medical health care, though there has been increased emphasis on preventing infectious diseases. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains low for most of the routinely recommended vaccines. Though adults are less susceptible to fall prey to traditional infectious agents, the probability of exposure to infectious agents has increased manifold owing to globalization and increasing travel opportunities both within and across the countries. Thus, there is an urgent need to address the problem of adult immunization. The adult immunization enterprise is more complex, encompassing a wide variety of vaccines and a very diverse target population. There is no coordinated public health infrastructure to support an adult immunization program as there is for children. Moreover, there is little coordination among adult healthcare providers in terms of vaccine provision. Substantial improvement in adult vaccination is needed to reduce the health consequences of vaccine-preventable diseases among adults. Routine assessment of adult patient vaccination needs, recommendation, and offer of needed vaccines for adults should be incorporated into routine clinical care of adults. PMID:24128707

  10. Multitasking in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Gawrilow, Caterina; Merkt, Julia; Goossens-Merkt, Heinrich; Bodenburg, Sebastian; Wendt, Mike

    2011-09-01

    Adults with ADHD have problems in everyday multitasking situations presumably because of deficits in executive functions. The present study aims to find out (a) whether adults with ADHD show deficient multitasking performance in a standardized task, (b) how they perceive the multitasking situation, and (c) which task structure might be beneficial for them as compared with adults without ADHD. Therefore, we experimentally compared task performance, mood, and motivation in a group of 45 men with ADHD (M-age = 34.47, SD = 9.95) with a comparison group of 42 men without ADHD (M-age = 31.12, SD = 10.59) in three conditions: (a) a multitasking paradigm, (b) an interleaving condition in which tasks had to be performed without planning or monitoring, and (c) a non-interleaving condition. Our results showed no impaired multitasking performance in adults with ADHD. However, they showed better mood and more motivation in the non-interleaving condition.

  11. Frequency and correlates of late presentation for HIV infection in France: older adults are a risk group - results from the ANRS-VESPA2 Study, France.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kayigan d'Almeida; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Aubrière, Cindy; Hamelin, Christine; Spire, Bruno; Lert, France

    2014-01-01

    Correlates of late presentation (LP) for HIV infection in Metropolitan France and French overseas departments (FODs) were assessed among HIV-infected patients recently diagnosed, using data from a large cross-sectional survey, representative of the French HIV-infected population, conducted in 2011. LP was defined as presentation with either clinical AIDS events within the calendar year of diagnosis or CD4 < 350/mm(3) and presentation with advanced disease (PAD) was defined as presentation with either clinical AIDS events or CD4 < 200/mm(3). Correlates of LP/PAD were assessed through logistic modelling, separately in Metropolitan France and FODs. In Metropolitan France, 47.7% of participants were late presenters and 29.3% presented with advanced disease. LP was more frequent among male and female migrants from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA; 58.5% and 56.4%) and non-African heterosexual males (61.8%) than among men who have sex with men (34.8%). In FODs, 53.2% of participants were late presenters and 36.8% presented with an advanced disease. LP was more frequent among men than women (60.6% vs. 45.3%) and among those with a lower level of education (56.6% vs. 47.5%). A consistent positive association was found in adjusted analyses between LP/PAD and increasing age at diagnosis among all subpopulations, in both settings. In Metropolitan France, among men who have sex with men, those self-declaring as bisexual were at higher risk of LP/PAD; among non-African heterosexual males and females, religiosity was associated with increased risk of LP/PAD; and among SSA migrants, those diagnosed within the year following their arrival in France were at higher risk of LP/PAD. Older age at diagnosis is a major risk factor for LP/PAD independently of any other socio-demographic characteristics. Promotion of HIV testing should be renewed to target each subgroup at risk while paying a particular attention to middle-aged or older adults whose attitudes and beliefs towards HIV/AIDS might

  12. Incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus and associated complications among children and young adults: results from Karnataka Diabetes Registry 1995-2008.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prasanna; Krishna, Pushpa; Reddy, Sanjay C; Gurappa, Mala; Aravind, S R; Munichoodappa, C

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) among children and young adults aged 0-25 years and to assess growth, glycaemic control, complications, risk factors and mortality associated diabetes mellitus,based on prospective registration of patients in Karnataka Diabetes Registry during the period 1995-2008. Complications were determined in subgroups serving as cohorts by screening tests and based on physicians' report. There were 1040 patients (514 boys and 526 girls) registered during the period 1995-2008. The overall incidence/prevalence of T1 DM (per 100,000 persons) was 3.8(0.32/10(5)/year) [males 3.7(0.3110(5)/year) and females 4(0.33/10(5)/year)]. On cross-sectional analysis of different cohorts, 88% (90/102) were below 50th percentile height, 95% (114/120) were <50th percentile of weight. Thirty-nine patients (10.7%) had poor glycaemic control (A1c>9%), The prevalence of different complications were as follows: Neuropathy 5.2% (12/230), retinopathy 8.4% (14/166), nephropathy 8.6% (20/230), hypertension 2.6% (6/230). Hypercholesterolaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia were found in 20.2% (24/119) and 41.7% (48/115) cases respectively and 18.1% (19/105) had low HDL. The percentage of patient with micro-albuminuria, high sensitive C-reactive protein were 29.6% (n=233) and 44.4% (20/45) respectively. Poor glycaemic control, hypertension and duration were strong consistent predictors of all complications. Twenty patients died during the period of which 10 deaths were related to diabetes. Though the incidence of diabetes in the young is low in our population compared to the western population, the burden of diabetes is high due to large population in our country. In spite of our best efforts there are still a huge gap between the standard of care and practice. Majority of type 1 diabetics are not reaching the ideal glycaemic targets.

  13. The prevalence and clinical characteristics associated with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Version-5-defined anxious distress specifier in adults with major depressive disorder: results from the International Mood Disorders Collaborative Project

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Roger S.; Woldeyohannes, Hanna O.; Soczynska, Joanna K.; Vinberg, Maj; Cha, Danielle S.; Lee, Yena; Gallaugher, Laura A.; Dale, Roman S.; Alsuwaidan, Mohammad T.; Mansur, Rodrigo B.; Muzina, David J.; Carvalho, Andre; Kennedy, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of and illness characteristics in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) with anxious distress specifier (ADS) enrolled in the International Mood Disorders Collaborative Project, which is a collaborative research platform at the Mood Disorders Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Toronto, Canada and the Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA. Methods: Data from participants who met criteria for a current major depressive episode as part of MDD (n = 830) were included in this post hoc analysis. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Version-5-defined ADS was operationalized as the presence of at least two out of three proxy items instead of two out of five specifiers. Results: A total of 464 individuals (i.e. 56%) met criteria for ADS. There were no between-group differences in sociodemographic variables (e.g. gender, employment, marital status). Greater severity of illness was observed in adults with ADS as evidenced by a higher number of hospitalizations, higher rates of suicidal ideation, greater depressive symptom severity, greater workplace impairment, decreased quality of life, and greater self-reported cognitive impairment. Conclusions: Our findings underscore the importance of evaluating ADS in adults with MDD as its presence identifies a subpopulation with greater illness-associated burden and hazards. PMID:27347362

  14. Mosquito, adult (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This illustration shows an adult southern house mosquito. This mosquito feeds on blood and is the carrier of many diseases, such as encephalitis, West Nile, dengue fever, yellow fever, and others. ( ...

  15. Provision for Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Edward

    1970-01-01

    Comments on the report recently issued by the National Institute of Adult Education as a result of inquiries made into provision for adult education in six areas in England and one in Wales between the years 1967 and 1969. (Author/EB)

  16. Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-1999. Volume II: College Students and Adults Ages 19-40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    This is the second volume in a two-volume set reporting the results of all surveys from the Monitoring the Future study of American secondary school students and college students. This volume presents the results of the 1977 through 1999 follow-up surveys of the graduating high school classes of 1976 through 1998, as the respondents progressed…

  17. Satellite Movie Shows Erika Dissipate

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite from Aug. 27 to 29 shows Tropical Storm Erika move through the Eastern Caribbean Sea and dissipate near eastern Cuba. ...

  18. Arches showing UV flaring activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    The UVSP data obtained in the previous maximum activity cycle show the frequent appearance of flaring events in the UV. In many cases these flaring events are characterized by at least two footpoints which show compact impulsive non-simultaneous brightenings and a fainter but clearly observed arch developes between the footpoints. These arches and footpoints are observed in line corresponding to different temperatures, as Lyman alpha, N V, and C IV, and when observed above the limb display large Doppler shifts at some stages. The size of the arches can be larger than 20 arcsec.

  19. Self-perceived lactose intolerance results in lower intakes of calcium and dairy foods and is associated with hypertension and diabetes in adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Self-perceived lactose intolerance may result in adverse dietary modifications; thus, more studies are needed to understand the prevalence of self-perceived lactose intolerance and how it relates to calcium intake and selected health conditions. The objective was to examine the effects of self-perce...

  20. How Prepared Are Transition-Age Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students for Adult Living? Results of the Transition Competence Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luft, Pamela; Huff, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    One result of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act and related legislation is that most deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) students attend local public schools. Although such placements may provide greater access to general education classrooms and curriculum, DHH students' specialized needs are less likely to be addressed. Using the…

  1. Create a Polarized Light Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, William H.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson that introduces students to polarized light using a problem-solving approach. After illustrating the concept using a slinky and poster board with a vertical slot, students solve the problem of creating a polarized light show using Polya's problem-solving methods. (MDH)

  2. Pembrolizumab Shows Promise for NSCLC.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    Data from the KEYNOTE-001 trial show that pembrolizumab improves clinical outcomes for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer, and is well tolerated. PD-L1 expression in at least 50% of tumor cells correlated with improved efficacy.

  3. Distraction by competing speech in young and older adult listeners.

    PubMed

    Tun, Patricia A; O'Kane, Gail; Wingfield, Arthur

    2002-09-01

    In 2 experiments, young and older adults heard target speech presented in quiet or with a competing speaker in the background. The distractor consisted either of meaningful speech or nonmeaningful speech composed of randomly ordered word strings (Experiment 1) or speech in an unfamiliar language (Experiment 2). Tests of recall for the target speech showed that older adults, but not younger adults, were impaired more by meaningful distractors than by nonmeaningful distracters. However, on a surprise recognition test, young adults were more likely than older adults to recognize meaningful distractor items. These results suggest that reduced efficiency in attentional control is an important factor in older adults' difficulty in recalling target speech in the presence of a background of competing speech.

  4. Distraction by competing speech in young and older adult listeners.

    PubMed

    Tun, Patricia A; O'Kane, Gail; Wingfield, Arthur

    2002-09-01

    In 2 experiments, young and older adults heard target speech presented in quiet or with a competing speaker in the background. The distractor consisted either of meaningful speech or nonmeaningful speech composed of randomly ordered word strings (Experiment 1) or speech in an unfamiliar language (Experiment 2). Tests of recall for the target speec