Science.gov

Sample records for adults results showed

  1. Survey results show that adults are willing to pay higher insurance premiums for generous coverage of specialty drugs.

    PubMed

    Romley, John A; Sanchez, Yuri; Penrod, John R; Goldman, Dana P

    2012-04-01

    Generous coverage of specialty drugs for cancer and other diseases may be valuable not only for sick patients currently using these drugs, but also for healthy people who recognize the potential need for them in the future. This study estimated how healthy people value insurance coverage of specialty drugs, defined as high-cost drugs that treat cancer and other serious health conditions like multiple sclerosis, by quantifying willingness to pay via a survey. US adults were estimated to be willing to pay an extra $12.94 on average in insurance premiums per month for generous specialty-drug coverage--in effect, $2.58 for every dollar in out-of-pocket costs that they would expect to pay with a less generous insurance plan. Given the value that people assign to generous coverage of specialty drugs, having high cost sharing on these drugs seemingly runs contrary to what people value in their health insurance. PMID:22492884

  2. 13. DETAIL VIEW OF BUTTRESS 4 SHOWING THE RESULTS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL VIEW OF BUTTRESS 4 SHOWING THE RESULTS OF POOR CONSTRUCTION WORK. THOUGH NOT A SERIOUS STRUCTURAL DEFICIENCY, THE 'HONEYCOMB' TEXTURE OF THE CONCRETE SURFACE WAS THE RESULT OF INADEQUATE TAMPING AT THE TIME OF THE INITIAL 'POUR'. - Hume Lake Dam, Sequioa National Forest, Hume, Fresno County, CA

  3. Breast vibro-acoustography: initial results show promise

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Vibro-acoustography (VA) is a recently developed imaging modality that is sensitive to the dynamic characteristics of tissue. It detects low-frequency harmonic vibrations in tissue that are induced by the radiation force of ultrasound. Here, we have investigated applications of VA for in vivo breast imaging. Methods A recently developed combined mammography-VA system for in vivo breast imaging was tested on female volunteers, aged 25 years or older, with suspected breast lesions on their clinical examination. After mammography, a set of VA scans was acquired by the experimental device. In a masked assessment, VA images were evaluated independently by 3 reviewers who identified mass lesions and calcifications. The diagnostic accuracy of this imaging method was determined by comparing the reviewers' responses with clinical data. Results We collected images from 57 participants: 7 were used for training and 48 for evaluation of diagnostic accuracy (images from 2 participants were excluded because of unexpected imaging artifacts). In total, 16 malignant and 32 benign lesions were examined. Specificity for diagnostic accuracy was 94% or higher for all 3 reviewers, but sensitivity varied (69% to 100%). All reviewers were able to detect 97% of masses, but sensitivity for detection of calcification was lower (≤ 72% for all reviewers). Conclusions VA can be used to detect various breast abnormalities, including calcifications and benign and malignant masses, with relatively high specificity. VA technology may lead to a new clinical tool for breast imaging applications. PMID:23021305

  4. Adults with Dyslexia Show Deficits on Spatial Frequency Doubling and Visual Attention Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchholz, Judy; McKone, Elinor

    2004-01-01

    We examine the visual processing of high-functioning adults with developmental dyslexia (mean Performance IQ=126.5) and current phonological problems. In comparison to an age- and IQ-matched control group, the group with dyslexia showed deficits in two tasks associated with magnocellular/dorsal pathway function. For the "frequency doubling"…

  5. Older adults show a self-reference effect for narrative information.

    PubMed

    Carson, Nicole; Murphy, Kelly J; Moscovitch, Morris; Rosenbaum, R Shayna

    2016-10-01

    The self-reference effect (SRE), enhanced memory for information encoded through self-related processing, has been established in younger and older adults using single trait adjective words. We sought to examine the generality of this phenomenon by studying narrative information in these populations. Additionally, we investigated retrieval experience at recognition and whether valence of stimuli influences memory differently in young and older adults. Participants encoded trait adjectives and narratives in self-reference, semantic, or structural processing conditions, followed by tests of recall and recognition. Experiment 1 revealed an SRE for trait adjective recognition and narrative cued recall in both age groups, although the existence of an SRE for narrative recognition was unclear due to ceiling effects. Experiment 2 revealed an SRE on an adapted test of narrative recognition. Self-referential encoding was shown to enhance recollection for both trait adjectives and narrative material in Experiment 1, whereas similar estimates of recollection for self-reference and semantic conditions were found in Experiment 2. Valence effects were inconsistent but generally similar in young and older adults when they were found. Results demonstrate that the self-reference technique extends to narrative information in young and older adults and may provide a valuable intervention tool for those experiencing age-related memory decline. PMID:26360612

  6. Do Adults Show an Effect of Delayed First Language Acquisition When Calculating Scalar Implicatures?

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Kathryn; Mayberry, Rachel I

    2015-01-01

    Language acquisition involves learning not only grammatical rules and a lexicon, but also what someone is intending to convey with their utterance: the semantic/pragmatic component of language. In this paper we separate the contributions of linguistic development and cognitive maturity to the acquisition of the semantic/pragmatic component of language by comparing deaf adults who had either early or late first exposure to their first language (ASL). We focus on the particular type of meaning at the semantic/pragmatic interface called scalar implicature, for which preschool-age children typically differ from adults. Children's behavior has been attributed to either their not knowing appropriate linguistic alternatives to consider or to cognitive developmental differences between children and adults. Unlike children, deaf adults with late language exposure are cognitively mature, although they never fully acquire some complex linguistic structures, and thus serve as a test for the role of language in such interpretations. Our results indicate an overall high performance by late learners, especially when implicatures are not based on conventionalized items. However, compared to early language learners, late language learners compute fewer implicatures when conventionalized linguistic alternatives are involved (e.g. ). We conclude that (i) in general, Gricean pragmatic reasoning does not seem to be impacted by delayed first language acquisition and can account for multiple quantity implicatures, but (ii) the creation of a scale based on lexical items can lead to ease in alternative creation that may be advantageously learned early in life, and that this may be one of several factors contributing to differences between adults and children on scalar implicature tasks. PMID:26997850

  7. Plasma and Serum Lipidomics of Healthy White Adults Shows Characteristic Profiles by Subjects’ Gender and Age

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Masaki; Maekawa, Keiko; Saito, Kosuke; Senoo, Yuya; Urata, Masayo; Murayama, Mayumi; Tajima, Yoko; Kumagai, Yuji; Saito, Yoshiro

    2014-01-01

    Blood is a commonly used biofluid for biomarker discovery. Although blood lipid metabolites are considered to be potential biomarker candidates, their fundamental properties are not well characterized. We aimed to (1) investigate the matrix type (serum vs. plasma) that may be preferable for lipid biomarker exploration, (2) elucidate age- and gender-associated differences in lipid metabolite levels, and (3) examine the stability of lipid metabolites in matrix samples subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we performed lipidomic analyses for fasting plasma and serum samples for four groups (15 subjects/group) of young and elderly (25–34 and 55–64 years old, respectively) males and females and for an additional aliquot of samples from young males, which were subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Lysophosphatidylcholine and diacylglycerol levels were higher in serum than in plasma samples, suggesting that the clotting process influences serum lipid metabolite levels. Gender-associated differences highlighted that the levels of many sphingomyelin species were significantly higher in females than in males, irrespective of age and matrix (plasma and serum). Age-associated differences were more prominent in females than in males, and in both matrices, levels of many triacylglycerols were significantly higher in elderly females than in young females. Plasma and serum levels of most lipid metabolites were reduced by freeze-thawing. Our results indicate that plasma is an optimal matrix for exploring lipid biomarkers because it represents the original properties of an individual’s blood sample. In addition, the levels of some blood lipid species of healthy adults showed gender- and age-associated differences; thus, this should be considered during biomarker exploration and its application in diagnostics. Our fundamental findings on sample selection and handling procedures for measuring blood lipid metabolites is

  8. Older Adults Show Deficits in Retrieving and Decoding Associative Mediators Generated at Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzog, Christopher; Fulton, Erika K.; Mandviwala, Lulua; Dunlosky, John

    2013-01-01

    We instructed the use of mediators to encode paired-associate items, and then measured both cued recall of targets and mediators. Older adults (n = 49) and younger adults (n = 57) studied a mixed list of concrete and abstract noun pairs under instructions to either generate a sentence or an image to form a new association between normatively…

  9. Unlike adults, children and adolescents show predominantly increased neural activation to social exclusion by members of the opposite gender.

    PubMed

    Bolling, Danielle Z; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Vander Wyk, Brent C

    2016-10-01

    The effects of group membership on brain responses to social exclusion have been investigated in adults, revealing greater anterior cingulate responses to exclusion by members of one's in-group (e.g., same-gender). However, social exclusion is a critical aspect of peer relations in youth and reaches heightened salience during adolescence, a time when social anxiety disorders are also emergent. While the behavioral and neural correlates of social exclusion in adolescence have been extensively explored, the effects of group membership on peer rejection are less clear. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the differential neural correlates of being excluded by peers of one's same- versus opposite-gender during an online ball-toss game. Participants were a group of typically developing children and adolescents (7-17 years). As predicted, anterior cingulate cortex showed a main effect of social exclusion versus fair play. However, unlike a previous adult study, this region did not show increased activation to same-gender exclusion. Instead, several regions differentiating same- versus opposite-gender exclusion were exclusively more sensitive to exclusion by one's opposite gender. These results are discussed in the context of adolescent socio-emotional development. PMID:26592311

  10. Do Adults with Mental Retardation Show Pictorial Superiority Effects in Recall and Recognition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Katie E.; Applegate, Heather; Reese, Celinda M.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined memory for pictures and words in 16 adults with mental retardation and 24 controls. Pictorial superiority effects occurred in free recall and recognition for both intelligence-level groups. Correlational analyses indicated working memory span was primarily related to recall performance, irrespective of stimulus format. (Contains…

  11. Embryonic oxidative stress results in reproductive impairment for adult zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Trent A.C.; Carleton, Catherine R.; Leeke, Bryony; Hampton, Mark B.; Horsfield, Julia A.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to environmental stressors during embryo development can have long-term effects on the adult organism. This study used the thioredoxin reductase inhibitor auranofin to investigate the consequences of oxidative stress during zebrafish development. Auranofin at low doses triggered upregulation of the antioxidant genes gstp1 and prdx1. As the dose was increased, acute developmental abnormalities, including cerebral hemorrhaging and jaw malformation, were observed. To determine whether transient disruption of redox homeostasis during development could have long-term consequences, zebrafish embryos were exposed to a low dose of auranofin from 6–24 hours post fertilization, and then raised to adulthood. The adult fish were outwardly normal in their appearance with no gross physical differences compared to the control group. However, these adult fish had reduced odds of breeding and a lower incidence of egg fertilization. This study shows that a suboptimal early life environment can reduce the chances of reproductive success in adulthood. PMID:26584358

  12. Preterm birth and unintentional injuries: risks to children, adolescents and young adults show no consistent pattern

    PubMed Central

    Calling, Susanna; Palmér, Karolina; Jönsson, Lena; Sundquist, Jan; Winkleby, Marilyn; Sundquist, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Aim Preterm birth is associated with a number of physical and mental health issues. The aim of this study was to find out if there was also any association between individuals born preterm in Sweden between 1984 and 2006 and the risk of unintentional injuries during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. Methods The study followed 2,297,134 individuals, including 5.9% born preterm, from 1985 to 2007 for unintentional injuries leading to hospitalisation or death (n=244,021). The males and females were divided into four age groups: 1–5 years, 6–12 years, 13–18 years and 19–23 years. Hazard ratios were calculated for falls, transport injuries and other injuries. Results After adjusting for a comprehensive set of covariates, some of the preterm subgroups demonstrated slightly increased risks of unintentional injuries, while others showed slightly decreased risks. However, most of the estimates were borderline or non-significant in both males and females. In addition, the absolute risk differences between individuals born preterm and full term were small. Conclusion Despite the association between preterm birth and a variety of physical and mental health consequences, this study shows that there is no consistent risk pattern between preterm birth and unintentional injuries in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:23181809

  13. Comparison of some results of program SHOW with other solar hot water computer programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, M. F.; Baughn, J. W.

    The SHOW (solar hot water) computer program is capable of simulating both one and two tank designs of thermosiphon and pumped solar domestic hot water systems. SHOW differs in a number of ways from other programs, the most notable of which is the emphasis on a thermal/hydraulic model of the stratified storage tank. The predicted performance for a typical two tank pumped system, computed by Program SHOW are compared, with results computed using F-CHART and TRNSYS. The results show fair to good agreement between the various computer programs when comparing the annual percent solar contributions. SHOW is also used to compute the expected performance of a two tank thermosiphon system and to compare its performance to the two tank pumped system.

  14. Gun shows and gun violence: fatally flawed study yields misleading results.

    PubMed

    Wintemute, Garen J; Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A

    2010-10-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled "The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas" outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors' prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy. PMID:20724672

  15. Gun Shows and Gun Violence: Fatally Flawed Study Yields Misleading Results

    PubMed Central

    Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A.

    2010-01-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled “The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas” outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors’ prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy. PMID:20724672

  16. Younger Adults Show Long-Term Effects of Cognitive Training on Broad Cognitive Abilities over 2 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmiedek, Florian; Lövdén, Martin; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2014-01-01

    In the COGITO study (Schmiedek, Lövdén, & Lindenberger, 2010), 101 younger adults practiced 12 tests of perceptual speed, working memory, and episodic memory for over 100 daily 1-hr sessions. The intervention resulted in positive transfer to broad cognitive abilities, including reasoning and episodic memory. Here, we examine whether these…

  17. Adults Show Less Sensitivity to Phonetic Detail in Unfamiliar Words, Too

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Katherine S.; Yee, Eiling; Blumstein, Sheila E.; Morgan, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Young word learners fail to discriminate phonetic contrasts in certain situations, an observation that has been used to support arguments that the nature of lexical representation and lexical processing changes over development. An alternative possibility, however, is that these failures arise naturally as a result of how word familiarity affects…

  18. Nanotribology Results Show that DNA Forms a Mechanically Resistant 2D Network in Metaphase Chromatin Plates

    PubMed Central

    Gállego, Isaac; Oncins, Gerard; Sisquella, Xavier; Fernàndez-Busquets, Xavier; Daban, Joan-Ramon

    2010-01-01

    In a previous study, we found that metaphase chromosomes are formed by thin plates, and here we have applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) and friction force measurements at the nanoscale (nanotribology) to analyze the properties of these planar structures in aqueous media at room temperature. Our results show that high concentrations of NaCl and EDTA and extensive digestion with protease and nuclease enzymes cause plate denaturation. Nanotribology studies show that native plates under structuring conditions (5 mM Mg2+) have a relatively high friction coefficient (μ ≈ 0.3), which is markedly reduced when high concentrations of NaCl or EDTA are added (μ ≈ 0.1). This lubricant effect can be interpreted considering the electrostatic repulsion between DNA phosphate groups and the AFM tip. Protease digestion increases the friction coefficient (μ ≈ 0.5), but the highest friction is observed when DNA is cleaved by micrococcal nuclease (μ ≈ 0.9), indicating that DNA is the main structural element of plates. Whereas nuclease-digested plates are irreversibly damaged after the friction measurement, native plates can absorb kinetic energy from the AFM tip without suffering any damage. These results suggest that plates are formed by a flexible and mechanically resistant two-dimensional network which allows the safe storage of DNA during mitosis. PMID:21156137

  19. Characterization of motor units in behaving adult mice shows a wide primary range

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, Laura K.; Tresch, Matthew C.; Heckman, C. J.; Manuel, Marin

    2014-01-01

    The mouse is essential for genetic studies of motor function in both normal and pathological states. Thus it is important to consider whether the structure of motor output from the mouse is in fact analogous to that recorded in other animals. There is a striking difference in the basic electrical properties of mouse motoneurons compared with those in rats, cats, and humans. The firing evoked by injected currents produces a unique frequency-current (F-I) function that emphasizes recruitment of motor units at their maximum force. These F-I functions, however, were measured in anesthetized preparations that lacked two key components of normal synaptic input: high levels of synaptic noise and neuromodulatory inputs. Recent studies suggest that the alterations in the F-I function due to these two components are essential for recreating firing behavior of motor units in human subjects. In this study we provide the first data on firing patterns of motor units in the awake mouse, focusing on steady output in quiet stance. The resulting firing patterns did not match the predictions from the mouse F-I behaviors but instead revealed rate modulation across a remarkably wide range (10–60 Hz). The low end of the firing range may be due to changes in the F-I relation induced by synaptic noise and neuromodulatory inputs. The high end of the range may indicate that, unlike other species, quiet standing in the mouse involves recruitment of relatively fast-twitch motor units. PMID:24805075

  20. Characterization of motor units in behaving adult mice shows a wide primary range.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Laura K; Tresch, Matthew C; Heckman, C J; Manuel, Marin; Tysseling, Vicki M

    2014-08-01

    The mouse is essential for genetic studies of motor function in both normal and pathological states. Thus it is important to consider whether the structure of motor output from the mouse is in fact analogous to that recorded in other animals. There is a striking difference in the basic electrical properties of mouse motoneurons compared with those in rats, cats, and humans. The firing evoked by injected currents produces a unique frequency-current (F-I) function that emphasizes recruitment of motor units at their maximum force. These F-I functions, however, were measured in anesthetized preparations that lacked two key components of normal synaptic input: high levels of synaptic noise and neuromodulatory inputs. Recent studies suggest that the alterations in the F-I function due to these two components are essential for recreating firing behavior of motor units in human subjects. In this study we provide the first data on firing patterns of motor units in the awake mouse, focusing on steady output in quiet stance. The resulting firing patterns did not match the predictions from the mouse F-I behaviors but instead revealed rate modulation across a remarkably wide range (10-60 Hz). The low end of the firing range may be due to changes in the F-I relation induced by synaptic noise and neuromodulatory inputs. The high end of the range may indicate that, unlike other species, quiet standing in the mouse involves recruitment of relatively fast-twitch motor units. PMID:24805075

  1. Meta-analysis of aspirin use and risk of lung cancer shows notable results.

    PubMed

    Hochmuth, Friederike; Jochem, Maximilian; Schlattmann, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Aspirin is a promising agent for chemoprevention of lung cancer. We assessed the association of aspirin use and the development of lung cancer, with a focus on heterogeneity between studies. Databases were searched for relevant studies until September 2014. Studies evaluating the relationship of aspirin use and incidence of lung cancer were considered. Relative risks (RR) were extracted and a pooled estimate was calculated. Heterogeneity was assessed by the I measure, random-effects models, and finite-mixture models. Sources of heterogeneity were investigated using a meta-regression. A decreased risk of lung cancer was found including 20 studies [RR=0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79-0.95] on the basis of a random-effects model. Strong heterogeneity was observed (τ=0.0258, I=74.4%). As a result, two subpopulations of studies were identified on the basis of a mixture model. The first subpopulation (42%) has an average RR of 0.64. The remaining subpopulation (58%) shows an RR of 1.04. Different results were found for case-control (RR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.60-0.90) and cohort studies (RR=0.99, 95% CI: 0.93-1.06) in a stratified analysis. In a subgroup analysis, use of aspirin was associated with a decreased risk of non-small-cell lung cancer in case-control studies (RR=0.74; 95% CI: 0.58-0.94). At first glance, our meta-analysis shows an average protective effect. A second glance indicates that there is strong heterogeneity. This leads to a subpopulation with considerable benefit and another subpopulation with no benefit. For further investigations, it is important to identify populations that benefit from aspirin use. PMID:26067033

  2. Not all water mazes are created equal: cyclin D2 knockout mice with constitutively suppressed adult hippocampal neurogenesis do show specific spatial learning deficits

    PubMed Central

    Garthe, A; Huang, Z; Kaczmarek, L; Filipkowski, R K; Kempermann, G

    2014-01-01

    Studies using the Morris water maze to assess hippocampal function in animals, in which adult hippocampal neurogenesis had been suppressed, have yielded seemingly contradictory results. Cyclin D2 knockout (Ccnd2−/−) mice, for example, have constitutively suppressed adult hippocampal neurogenesis but had no overt phenotype in the water maze. In other paradigms, however, ablation of adult neurogenesis was associated with specific deficits in the water maze. Therefore, we hypothesized that the neurogenesis-related phenotype might also become detectable in Ccnd2−/− mice, if we used the exact setup and protocol that in our previous study had revealed deficits in mice with suppressed adult neurogenesis. Ccnd2−/− mice indeed learned the task and developed a normal preference for the goal quadrant, but were significantly less precise for the exact goal position and were slower in acquiring efficient and spatially more precise search strategies. Upon goal reversal (when the hidden platform was moved to a new position) Ccnd2−/− mice showed increased perseverance at the former platform location, implying that they were less flexible in updating the previously learned information. Both with respect to adult neurogenesis and behavioral performance, Ccnd2+/− mice ranged between wild types and knockouts. Importantly, hippocampus-dependent learning was not generally impaired by the mutation, but specifically functional aspects relying on precise and flexible encoding were affected. Whether ablation of adult neurogenesis causes a specific behavioral phenotype thus also depends on the actual task demands. The test parameters appear to be important variables influencing whether a task can pick up a contribution of adult neurogenesis to test performance. PMID:24602283

  3. Preschoolers with Down syndrome do not yet show the learning and memory impairments seen in adults with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lynette V; Richmond, Jenny L

    2015-05-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) exhibit a behavioral phenotype of specific strengths and weaknesses, in addition to a generalized cognitive delay. In particular, adults with DS exhibit specific deficits in learning and memory processes that depend on the hippocampus, and there is some suggestion of impairments on executive function tasks that depend on the prefrontal cortex. While these functions have been investigated in adults with DS, it is largely unclear how these processes develop in young children with DS. Here we tested preschoolers with DS and typically developing children, age-matched on either receptive language or non-verbal scores as a proxy for mental age (MA), on a battery of eye-tracking and behavioral measures that have been shown to depend on the hippocampus or the prefrontal cortex. Preschoolers with DS performed equivalently to MA-matched controls, suggesting that the disability-specific memory deficits documented in adults with DS, in addition to a cognitive delay, are not yet evident in preschoolers with DS, and likely emerge progressively with age. Our results reinforce the idea that early childhood may be a critical time frame for targeted early intervention. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r6GUA6my22Q&list=UU3FIcom6UpITHZOIEa8Onnw. PMID:25283764

  4. The ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord differs from other species and shows ependymoma-like features.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel; Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Florensa-Vila, José; Ferrer, Isidro; Grassner, Lukas; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo

    2015-06-01

    Several laboratories have described the existence of undifferentiated precursor cells that may act like stem cells in the ependyma of the rodent spinal cord. However, there are reports showing that this region is occluded and disassembled in humans after the second decade of life, although this has been largely ignored or interpreted as a post-mortem artefact. To gain insight into the patency, actual structure, and molecular properties of the adult human spinal cord ependymal region, we followed three approaches: (i) with MRI, we estimated the central canal patency in 59 control subjects, 99 patients with traumatic spinal cord injury, and 26 patients with non-traumatic spinal cord injuries. We observed that the central canal is absent from the vast majority of individuals beyond the age of 18 years, gender-independently, throughout the entire length of the spinal cord, both in healthy controls and after injury; (ii) with histology and immunohistochemistry, we describe morphological properties of the non-lesioned ependymal region, which showed the presence of perivascular pseudorosettes, a common feature of ependymoma; and (iii) with laser capture microdissection, followed by TaqMan® low density arrays, we studied the gene expression profile of the ependymal region and found that it is mainly enriched in genes compatible with a low grade or quiescent ependymoma (53 genes); this region is enriched only in 14 genes related to neurogenic niches. In summary, we demonstrate here that the central canal is mainly absent in the adult human spinal cord and is replaced by a structure morphologically and molecularly different from that described for rodents and other primates. The presented data suggest that the ependymal region is more likely to be reminiscent of a low-grade ependymoma. Therefore, a direct translation to adult human patients of an eventual therapeutic potential of this region based on animal models should be approached with caution. PMID:25882650

  5. The ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord differs from other species and shows ependymoma-like features

    PubMed Central

    Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Florensa-Vila, José; Ferrer, Isidro; Grassner, Lukas; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Several laboratories have described the existence of undifferentiated precursor cells that may act like stem cells in the ependyma of the rodent spinal cord. However, there are reports showing that this region is occluded and disassembled in humans after the second decade of life, although this has been largely ignored or interpreted as a post-mortem artefact. To gain insight into the patency, actual structure, and molecular properties of the adult human spinal cord ependymal region, we followed three approaches: (i) with MRI, we estimated the central canal patency in 59 control subjects, 99 patients with traumatic spinal cord injury, and 26 patients with non-traumatic spinal cord injuries. We observed that the central canal is absent from the vast majority of individuals beyond the age of 18 years, gender-independently, throughout the entire length of the spinal cord, both in healthy controls and after injury; (ii) with histology and immunohistochemistry, we describe morphological properties of the non-lesioned ependymal region, which showed the presence of perivascular pseudorosettes, a common feature of ependymoma; and (iii) with laser capture microdissection, followed by TaqMan® low density arrays, we studied the gene expression profile of the ependymal region and found that it is mainly enriched in genes compatible with a low grade or quiescent ependymoma (53 genes); this region is enriched only in 14 genes related to neurogenic niches. In summary, we demonstrate here that the central canal is mainly absent in the adult human spinal cord and is replaced by a structure morphologically and molecularly different from that described for rodents and other primates. The presented data suggest that the ependymal region is more likely to be reminiscent of a low-grade ependymoma. Therefore, a direct translation to adult human patients of an eventual therapeutic potential of this region based on animal models should be approached with caution. PMID:25882650

  6. Long-Term Trial Results Show No Mortality Benefit from Annual Prostate Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    Thirteen year follow-up data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial show higher incidence but similar mortality among men screened annually with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and digital rectal examination

  7. Analysis of large new South African dataset using two host-specificity indices shows generalism in both adult and larval ticks of mammals.

    PubMed

    Espinaze, Marcela P A; Hellard, Eléonore; Horak, Ivan G; Cumming, Graeme S

    2016-03-01

    Ticks and tick-borne pathogens can have considerable impacts on the health of livestock, wildlife and people. Knowledge of tick-host preferences is necessary for both tick and pathogen control. Ticks were historically considered as specialist parasites, but the range of sampled host species has been limited, infestation intensity has not been included in prior analyses, and phylogenetic distances between hosts have not been previously considered. We used a large dataset of 35 604 individual collections and two host-specificity indices to assess the specificity of 61 South African tick species, as well as distinctions between adult and juvenile ticks, for 95 mammalian hosts. When accounting for host phylogeny, most adult and juvenile ticks behaved as generalists, with juveniles being significantly more generalist than adults. When we included the intensity of tick infestation, ticks exhibited a wider diversity of specificity in all life stages. Our results show that ticks of mammals in South Africa tend to behave largely as generalists and that adult ticks are more host-specific. More generally, our analysis shows that the incorporation of life-stage differences, infestation intensity and phylogenetic distances between hosts, as well as the use of more than one specificity index, can all contribute to a deeper understanding of host-parasite interactions. PMID:26690251

  8. Comparison of some results of program SHOW with other solar hot water computer programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, M. F.; Baughn, J. W.

    Subroutines and the driver program for the simulation code SHOW (solar hot water) for solar thermosyphon systems are discussed, and simulations are compared with predictions by the F-CHART and TRNSYS codes. SHOW has the driver program MAIN, which defines the system control logic for choosing the appropriate system subroutine for analysis. Ten subroutines are described, which account for the solar system physical parameters, the weather data, the manufacturer-supplied system specifications, mass flow rates, pumped systems, total transformed radiation, load use profiles, stratification in storage, an electric water heater, and economic analyses. The three programs are employed to analyze a thermosiphon installation in Sacramento with two storage tanks. TRNSYS and SHOW were in agreement and lower than F-CHARt for annual predictions, although significantly more computer time was necessary to make TRNSYS converge.

  9. Results From Mars Show Electrostatic Charging of the Mars Pathfinder Sojourner Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolecki, Joseph C.; Siebert, Mark W.

    1998-01-01

    Indirect evidence (dust accumulation) has been obtained indicating that the Mars Pathfinder rover, Sojourner, experienced electrostatic charging on Mars. Lander camera images of the Sojourner rover provide distinctive evidence of dust accumulation on rover wheels during traverses, turns, and crabbing maneuvers. The sol 22 (22nd Martian "day" after Pathfinder landed) end-of-day image clearly shows fine red dust concentrated around the wheel edges with additional accumulation in the wheel hubs. A sol 41 image of the rover near the rock "Wedge" (see the next image) shows a more uniform coating of dust on the wheel drive surfaces with accumulation in the hubs similar to that in the previous image. In the sol 41 image, note particularly the loss of black-white contrast on the Wheel Abrasion Experiment strips (center wheel). This loss of contrast was also seen when dust accumulated on test wheels in the laboratory. We believe that this accumulation occurred because the Martian surface dust consists of clay-sized particles, similar to those detected by Viking, which have become electrically charged. By adhering to the wheels, the charged dust carries a net nonzero charge to the rover, raising its electrical potential relative to its surroundings. Similar charging behavior was routinely observed in an experimental facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center, where a Sojourner wheel was driven in a simulated Martian surface environment. There, as the wheel moved and accumulated dust (see the following image), electrical potentials in excess of 100 V (relative to the chamber ground) were detected by a capacitively coupled electrostatic probe located 4 mm from the wheel surface. The measured wheel capacitance was approximately 80 picofarads (pF), and the calculated charge, 8 x 10(exp -9) coulombs (C). Voltage differences of 100 V and greater are believed sufficient to produce Paschen electrical discharge in the Martian atmosphere. With an accumulated net charge of 8 x 10(exp

  10. [Indications and results of small bowel transplantation in adults].

    PubMed

    Joly, Francisca; Panis, Yves

    2012-02-01

    Optimised home parenteral nutrition is still, after 35 years of progress, the "gold standard "for benign but chronic intestinal failure. better recognition of chronic intestinal failure, in its multiple facets, is needed to improve Home Parenteral Nutrition by adding associated treatments such as intestinal trophic factors, rehabilitative surgery (reestablishment of colonic continuity, reverse jejunal segment in severe short gut type II) and/or reconstructive surgery (intestinal transplantation for end-stage intestinal failure). Intestinal transplantation is now a mature therapy with formal indications, especially in case of failure of Home Parenteral Nutrition (mainly Home Parenteral Nutrition-associated severe liver disease), where combined Liver-intestine transplantation is indicated before end-stage liver failure occurs. For high-risk patients, 'preemptive' intestinal transplantation alone should be discussed before home parenteral nutrition-related complications occur. Even, if the results in terms of patient survival have improved over the past 20 years, the 5-year survival rate still does not exceed 50%. Thus, each case should be discussed in a dedicated tertiary center. The ESPEN Home Artificial Nutrition Working Group conducted a survey in 2004 to assess potential candidates for intestinal transplantation in France, among the adult population of patients with home parenteral nutrition. The prevalence of potential candidates for intestinal transplantation was estimated at about 20% (about 40 new adult cases per year). Even though surgical techniques for isolated intestine, liver-intestine, and multivisceral transplantation were developed in the 1960s, very few patients were transplanted before 1990, because of inadequate initial immunosuppressive regimens. most patients died within days or months after Intestine transplantation. The discouraging results of the first clinical trials were due to technical complications, sepsis, and the failure of conventional

  11. Data for behavioral results and brain regions showing a time effect during pair-association retrieval.

    PubMed

    Jimura, Koji; Hirose, Satoshi; Wada, Hiroyuki; Yoshizawa, Yasunori; Imai, Yoshio; Akahane, Masaaki; Machida, Toru; Shirouzu, Ichiro; Koike, Yasuharu; Konishi, Seiki

    2016-09-01

    The current data article provides behavioral and neuroimaging data for the research article "Relatedness-dependent rapid development of brain activity in anterior temporal cortex during pair-association retrieval" (Jimura et al., 2016) [1]. Behavioral performance is provided in a table. Fig. 2 of the article is based on this table. Brain regions showing time effect are provided in a table. A statistical activation map for the time effect is shown in Fig. 3C of the article. PMID:27508239

  12. Adult Literacy in America: A First Look at the Results of the National Adult Literacy Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirsch, Irwin S.; And Others

    The National Adult Literacy Survey profiled the literacy of U.S. adults based on their performance on tasks reflecting materials and demands of daily life. Data were gathered through interviews with a random sample of 13,600 people over 16, a survey of 1,000 adults in each of 12 states, and interviews with 1,100 prison inmates, making a total of…

  13. Aortic emboli show surprising size dependent predilection for cerebral arteries: Results from computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Ian; Schwartz, Robert; Shadden, Shawn

    2012-11-01

    Cardiac emboli can have devastating consequences if they enter the cerebral circulation, and are the most common cause of embolic stroke. Little is known about relationships of embolic origin/density/size to cerebral events; as these relationships are difficult to observe. To better understand stoke risk from cardiac and aortic emboli, we developed a computational model to track emboli from the heart to the brain. Patient-specific models of the human aorta and arteries to the brain were derived from CT angiography from 10 MHIF patients. Blood flow was modeled by the Navier-Stokes equations using pulsatile inflow at the aortic valve, and physiologic Windkessel models at the outlets. Particulate was injected at the aortic valve and tracked using modified Maxey-Riley equations with a wall collision model. Results demonstrate aortic emboli that entered the cerebral circulation through the carotid or vertebral arteries were localized to specific locations of the proximal aorta. The percentage of released particles embolic to the brain markedly increased with particle size from 0 to ~1-1.5 mm in all patients. Larger particulate became less likely to traverse the cerebral vessels. These findings are consistent with sparse literature based on transesophageal echo measurements. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation, award number 1157041.

  14. New Hippocampal Neurons Are Not Obligatory for Memory Formation; Cyclin D2 Knockout Mice with No Adult Brain Neurogenesis Show Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaholkowski, Piotr; Kiryk, Anna; Jedynak, Paulina; Abdallah, Nada M. Ben; Knapska, Ewelina; Kowalczyk, Anna; Piechal, Agnieszka; Blecharz-Klin, Kamilla; Figiel, Izabela; Lioudyno, Victoria; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, Ewa; Wilczynski, Grzegorz M.; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Kaczmarek, Leszek; Filipkowski, Robert K.

    2009-01-01

    The role of adult brain neurogenesis (generating new neurons) in learning and memory appears to be quite firmly established in spite of some criticism and lack of understanding of what the new neurons serve the brain for. Also, the few experiments showing that blocking adult neurogenesis causes learning deficits used irradiation and various drugs…

  15. Knowledge of Results after Good Trials Enhances Learning in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; Wally, Raquel; Borges, Thiago

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, some researchers have examined motor learning in older adults. Some of these studies have specifically looked at the effectiveness of different manipulations of extrinsic feedback, or knowledge of results (KR). Given that many motor tasks may already be more challenging for older adults compared to younger adults, making KR more…

  16. Homeopathy Use by US Adults: Results of a National Survey.

    PubMed

    Dossett, Michelle L; Davis, Roger B; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Yeh, Gloria Y

    2016-04-01

    We used the 2012 National Health Interview Survey to compare homeopathy users with supplement users and those using other forms of complementary and integrative medicine. Among US adults, 2.1% used homeopathy within the past 12 months. Respiratory and otorhinolaryngology complaints were most commonly treated (18.5%). Homeopathy users were more likely to use multiple complementary and integrative medicine therapies and to perceive the therapy as helpful than were supplement users. US homeopathy use remains uncommon; however, users perceive it as helpful. PMID:26890179

  17. Norbin ablation results in defective adult hippocampal neurogenesis and depressive-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Warner-Schmidt, Jennifer; Varela, Santiago; Enikolopov, Grigori; Greengard, Paul; Flajolet, Marc

    2015-08-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus subgranular zone is associated with the etiology and treatment efficiency of depression. Factors that affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis have been shown to contribute to the neuropathology of depression. Glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter, plays a critical role in different aspects of neurogenesis. Of the eight metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), mGluR5 is the most highly expressed in neural stem cells. We previously identified Norbin as a positive regulator of mGluR5 and showed that its expression promotes neurite outgrowth. In this study, we investigated the role of Norbin in adult neurogenesis and depressive-like behaviors using Norbin-deficient mice. We found that Norbin deletion significantly reduced hippocampal neurogenesis; specifically, the loss of Norbin impaired the proliferation and maturation of newborn neurons without affecting cell-fate specification of neural stem cells/neural progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs). Norbin is highly expressed in the granular neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, but it is undetectable in NSCs/NPCs or immature neurons, suggesting that the effect of Norbin on neurogenesis is likely caused by a nonautonomous niche effect. In support of this hypothesis, we found that the expression of a cell-cell contact gene, Desmoplakin, is greatly reduced in Norbin-deletion mice. Moreover, Norbin-KO mice show an increased immobility in the forced-swim test and the tail-suspension test and reduced sucrose preference compared with wild-type controls. Taken together, these results show that Norbin is a regulator of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and that its deletion causes depressive-like behaviors. PMID:26195764

  18. Norbin ablation results in defective adult hippocampal neurogenesis and depressive-like behavior in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Warner-Schmidt, Jennifer; Varela, Santiago; Enikolopov, Grigori; Greengard, Paul; Flajolet, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus subgranular zone is associated with the etiology and treatment efficiency of depression. Factors that affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis have been shown to contribute to the neuropathology of depression. Glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter, plays a critical role in different aspects of neurogenesis. Of the eight metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), mGluR5 is the most highly expressed in neural stem cells. We previously identified Norbin as a positive regulator of mGluR5 and showed that its expression promotes neurite outgrowth. In this study, we investigated the role of Norbin in adult neurogenesis and depressive-like behaviors using Norbin-deficient mice. We found that Norbin deletion significantly reduced hippocampal neurogenesis; specifically, the loss of Norbin impaired the proliferation and maturation of newborn neurons without affecting cell-fate specification of neural stem cells/neural progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs). Norbin is highly expressed in the granular neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, but it is undetectable in NSCs/NPCs or immature neurons, suggesting that the effect of Norbin on neurogenesis is likely caused by a nonautonomous niche effect. In support of this hypothesis, we found that the expression of a cell–cell contact gene, Desmoplakin, is greatly reduced in Norbin-deletion mice. Moreover, Norbin-KO mice show an increased immobility in the forced-swim test and the tail-suspension test and reduced sucrose preference compared with wild-type controls. Taken together, these results show that Norbin is a regulator of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and that its deletion causes depressive-like behaviors. PMID:26195764

  19. "Show Me an Ounce of Respect": Respect and Authority in Adult-Youth Relationships in after-School Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Nancy L.; Jones, Jeffrey N.

    2008-01-01

    Authority is an important component of adult-youth relations. Little work has been done exploring authority outside of families and classrooms. This article consolidates findings from two studies of urban after-school programs. The article examines youths' experiences of authority in after-school programs, compares those with their reports of…

  20. Preschoolers with Down Syndrome Do Not yet Show the Learning and Memory Impairments Seen in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Lynette V.; Richmond, Jenny L.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) exhibit a behavioral phenotype of specific strengths and weaknesses, in addition to a generalized cognitive delay. In particular, adults with DS exhibit specific deficits in learning and memory processes that depend on the hippocampus, and there is some suggestion of impairments on executive function tasks that…

  1. Trials in adult critical care that show increased mortality of the new intervention: Inevitable or preventable mishaps?

    PubMed

    Russell, James A; Williams, Mark D

    2016-12-01

    Several promising therapies assessed in the adult critically ill in large, multicenter randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were associated with significantly increased mortality in the intervention arms. Our hypothesis was that there would be wide ranges in sponsorship (industry or not), type(s) of intervention(s), use of DSMBs, presence of interim analyses and early stopping rules, absolute risk increase (ARI), and whether or not adequate prior proof-of-principle Phase II studies were done of RCTs that found increased mortality rates of the intervention compared to control groups. We reviewed RCTs that showed a statistically significant increased mortality rate in the intervention compared to control group(s). We recorded source of sponsorship, sample sizes, types of interventions, mortality rates, ARI (as well as odds ratios, relative risks and number needed to harm), whether there were pre-specified interim analyses and early stopping rules, and whether or not there were prior proof-of-principle (also known as Phase II) RCTs. Ten RCTs (four industry sponsored) of many interventions (high oxygen delivery, diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin, growth hormone, methylprednisolone, hetastarch, high-frequency oscillation ventilation, intensive insulin, NOS inhibition, and beta-2 adrenergic agonist, TNF-α receptor) included 19,126 patients and were associated with wide ranges of intervention versus control group mortality rates (25.7-59 %, mean 29.9 vs 17-49 %, mean 25 %, respectively) yielding ARIs of 2.6-29 % (mean 5 %). All but two RCTs had pre-specified interim analyses, and seven RCTs were stopped early. All RCTs were preceded by published proof-of-principle RCT(s), two by the same group. Seven interventions (except diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin and the NOS inhibitor) were available for use clinically at the time of the pivotal RCT. Common, clinically available interventions used in the critically ill were associated with increased mortality in large

  2. Intravenous gestational nicotine exposure results in increased motivation for sucrose reward in adult rat offspring

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, Ryan T.; Hord, Lauren L.; Morgan, Amanda J.; Harrod, Steven B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Prenatal tobacco smoke exposure is associated with alterations in motivated behavior in offspring, such as increased consumption of highly palatable foods and abused drugs. Animal models show that gestational nicotine (GN) exposure mediates changes in responding for sucrose and drug reward. Methods A novel, intermittent low-dose intravenous (IV) exposure model was used to administer nicotine (0.05 mg/kg/injection) or saline 3×/day to rats on gestational days 8-21. Two experiments investigated the effect of IV GN on 1) the habituation of spontaneous locomotor activity and on 2) sucrose reinforced responding in offspring. For the operant experiments, animals acquired fixed-ratio (FR-3) responding for sucrose, 26% (w/v), and were tested on varying concentrations (0, 3, 10, 30, 56%; Latin-square) according to a FR-3, and then a progressive-ratio (PR) schedule. Male and female adult offspring were used. Results IV GN did not alter birth or growth weight, or the number of pups born. No between-group differences in habituation to spontaneous locomotor activity were observed. FR testing produced an inverted U-shaped response curve, and rats showed peak responding for 10% sucrose reinforcement. Neither gestation nor sex affected responding, suggesting equivalent sensitivity to varying sucrose concentrations. PR testing revealed that GN rats showed greater motivation for sucrose reinforcement relative to controls. Conclusions A low-dose, IV GN exposure model resulted in increased motivation to respond for sucrose reinforcement in adult offspring. This suggests that using a low number of cigarettes throughout pregnancy will result in increased motivation for highly palatable foods in adult, and perhaps, adolescent offspring. PMID:22377090

  3. Literacy for Life: Further Results from the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Literacy for Life is the second report from the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey. It presents additional results on the nature and magnitude of the literacy gaps faced by OECD countries and how these gaps have evolved over the medium term. It offers new insights into the factors that influence the formation of adult skills in various…

  4. OECD Skills Outlook 2013: First Results from the Survey of Adult Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This first "OECD Skills Outlook" presents the initial results of the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC), which evaluates the skills of adults in 22 OECD member countries and two partner countries. The PIAAC survey was designed to provide insights into the availability of some key skills and how they are used at work and at home through the…

  5. Treatment of unstable osteochondritis dissecans in adults with autogenous osteochondral grafts (Mosaicplasty): long-term results

    PubMed Central

    RONGA, MARIO; STISSI, PLACIDO; LA BARBERA, GIUSEPPE; VALOROSO, MARCO; ANGERETTI, GLORIA; GENOVESE, EUGENIO; CHERUBINO, PAOLO

    2015-01-01

    Purpose the unstable osteochondritis dissecans (OCD-type II and III according to the ICRS classification) of the knee largher than > 2.5 cm2 in adults are uncommon lesions and there is no consensus on how to treat them. Medium-term studies have reported good results using autogenous osteochondral plugs (mosaicplasty). The aim of this study is to analyze the long-term results of this technique for the treatment of unstable OCD in a selected group of adult patients. Methods four patients with OCD at either one of the femoral condyles were included in this prospective study. The average age was 21.2 years (range, 18–24 years). The OCD lesions were classified as type II in three patients and type III in one patient and the average size was 3.8 cm2 (range, 2.55–5.1 cm2). The lesions were treated in situ with a variable number of autogenous osteochondral plugs (Ø 4.5 mm2). The Modified Cincinnati, Lysholm II and Tegner scores were used for clinical and functional evaluation. Magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) was performed before surgery and at 2, 5 and 10 years after surgery. A modified MOCART score was used to evaluate MRA findings. Results the average follow-up duration was ten years and 6 months (range, 10–11 years). No complications occurred. At the final follow-up, all scores (clinical, functional and MOCART) improved. In all but one of the patients MRA showed complete osteochondral repair. Conclusions the fixation of large and unstable OCD lesions with mosaicplasty may be a good option for treating type II or III OCD lesions in adults. The advantages of this technique include stable fixation, promotion of blood supply to the base of the OCD fragment, and grafting of autologous cancellous bone that stimulates healing with preservation of the articular surface. Level of evidence Level IV, therapeutic case series. PMID:26904522

  6. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in Adults: Novel Drugs and Catheter Ablation Techniques Show Promise? Systematic Review on Pharmacotherapy and Interventional Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Gaudio, Carlo; Greco, Cesare; Keylani, Abdul M.; D'Agostino, Darrin C.

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review aims to provide an update on pharmacological and interventional strategies for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension in adults. Currently US Food and Drug Administration approved drugs including prostanoids, endothelin-receptor antagonists, phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors, and soluble guanylate-cyclase stimulators. These agents have transformed the prognosis for pulmonary arterial hypertension patients from symptomatic improvements in exercise tolerance ten years ago to delayed disease progression today. On the other hand, percutaneous balloon atrioseptostomy by using radiofrequency perforation, cutting balloon dilatation, or insertion of butterfly stents and pulmonary artery catheter-based denervation, both associated with very low rate of major complications and death, should be considered in combination with specific drugs at an earlier stage rather than late in the progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension and before the occurrence of overt right-sided heart failure. PMID:25013799

  7. Young Adults' Risk Perceptions of Various Tobacco Products Relative to Cigarettes: Results From the National Young Adult Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Wackowski, Olivia A; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-06-01

    Objectives Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method We examined risk perception responses among a nationally representative sample of young adults (age 18-34 years; n = 2,871, including tobacco and non-tobacco users) from the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey. Results Most (57.8%) respondents believed that e-cigarettes were less risky than cigarettes. Respondents were more likely to rate combustible products hookah (24.5%) and cigars (13.9%) as being less risky compared to noncombustible snus (10%) and other smokeless tobacco (SLT) products (7.1%) relative to cigarettes. Few (2.5%) rated menthol cigarettes as less risky. For e-cigarettes, hookah, and SLT, less risky beliefs were significantly higher among ever or current versus never product users. Between 22% and 33% of all respondents believed that SLT, snus, menthol cigarettes, and cigars were more risky than cigarettes, but differences in this belief between current and nonusers of these products were small and insignificant. Younger young adults were more likely to rate e-cigarettes and hookah as being "less risky" and rate cigars and SLT as being "more risky" than older young adults. Conclusion The public's views of comparative tobacco risk perceptions vary widely by tobacco product type and age-group. While "less risky" perceptions may be associated with product use, perceptions that products are "more risky" than cigarettes may not necessarily dissuade people from their use. PMID:26304709

  8. Full genome sequence of a novel circo-like virus detected in an adult European eel Anguilla anguilla showing signs of cauliflower disease.

    PubMed

    Doszpoly, Andor; Tarján, Zoltán L; Glávits, Róbert; Müller, Tamás; Benkő, Mária

    2014-05-13

    An adult European eel Anguilla anguilla, showing typical signs of the so-called cauliflower disease, was subjected to pathological and molecular virological examinations. Samples taken from internal organs and the polypoid proliferative tissue from the mouth were examined by PCR for the detection of several viruses. Positive results were obtained with a nested PCR targeting the rep gene of circoviruses. Analysis of the partial rep sequence indicated the presence of a putative novel circovirus, but attempts to isolate it remained unsuccessful. The missing part of the genome was acquired by an inverse nested PCR with 2 specific primer pairs, designed from the newly determined rep sequence, followed by genome walking. The circular full genome was found to consist of 1378 nt (GenBank accession no. KC469701). Two oppositely oriented open reading frames (ORFs) were present, of which one was unambiguously identified as a circoviral rep gene. However, the predicted product of the other ORF, though it is a clear positional counterpart of the cap genes, showed no obvious homology to any known circoviral capsid proteins. A stem-loop-like element in the intergenic region between the 5' ends of the ORFs was also found. Phylogenetic calculations indicated that the novel virus belongs to the genus Circovirus in the family Circoviridae. The relative amount of the viral DNA in the organ samples was estimated by quantitative real-time PCR. The results suggested that the examined fish was caught in an active viremic state, although the role of this circovirus in the etiology of the cauliflower diseases could not be ascertained. PMID:24991738

  9. An Online Self-Administered Social Skills Training for Young Adults: Results from a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehenbauer, Mario; Kothgassner, Oswald D.; Kryspin-Exner, Ilse; Stetina, Birgit U.

    2013-01-01

    Up to 95% of teens and young adults in western societies are online, and research shows striking evidence that users suffering from social fears use the Internet more frequently. Social phobia (SP) is one of the most common anxiety disorders, characterized by early onset and more frequent histories of childhood and adolescent shyness. SP is often…

  10. Prognostic significance of intraoperative macroscopic serosal invasion finding when it shows a discrepancy in pathologic result gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sang Yull; Park, Ho Sung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Depth of wall invasion is an important prognostic factor in patients with gastric cancer, whereas the prognostic significance of intraoperative macroscopic serosal invasion (mSE) findings remain unclear when they show a discrepancy in pathologic findings. This study, therefore, assessed the prognostic significance of mSE. Methods Data from cohort of 2,835 patients with resectable gastric cancer who underwent surgery between 1990 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Results The overall accuracy of mSE and pathologic results was 83.4%. The accuracy of mSE was 75.5% in pT2. On the other hand, the accuracy of pT3 dropped to 24.5%. According to mSE findings (+/–), the 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) rate differed significantly in patients with pT2 (+; 74.2% vs. –; 92.0%), pT3 (+; 76.7% vs. –; 91.8%) and pT4a (+; 51.3% vs. –; 72.8%) (P < 0.001 each), but not in patients with T1 tumor. Multivariate analysis showed that mSE findings (hazard ratio [HR], 2.275; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.148–4.509), tumor depth (HR, 6.894; 95% CI, 2.325–20.437), nodal status (HR, 5.206; 95% CI, 2.298–11.791), distant metastasis (HR, 2.881; 95% CI, 1.388–6.209), radical resection (HR, 2.002; 95% CI, 1.017–3.940), and lymphatic invasion (HR, 2.713; 95% CI, 1.424–5.167) were independent predictors of 5-year DSS rate. Conclusion We observed considerable discrepancies between macroscopic and pathologic diagnosis of serosal invasion. However, macroscopic diagnosis of serosal invasion was independently prognostic of 5-year DSS. It suggests that because the pathologic results could not be perfect and the local inflammatory change with mSE(+) could affect survival, a combination of mSE(+/–) and pathologic depth may be predictive of prognosis in patients with gastric cancer. PMID:27186569

  11. Results from the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT)

    PubMed Central

    Bader, James D.; Vollmer, William M.; Shugars, Daniel A.; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Amaechi, Bennett T.; Brown, John P.; Laws, Reesa L.; Funkhouser, Kimberly A.; Makhija, Sonia K.; Ritter, André V.; Leo, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although caries is prevalent in adults, few preventive therapies have been tested in adult populations. This randomized clinical trial evaluated the effectiveness of xylitol lozenges in preventing caries in elevated caries-risk adults. Methods X-ACT was a three-site placebo-controlled randomized trial. Participants (n=691) ages 21–80 consumed five 1.0 g xylitol or placebo lozenges daily for 33 months. Clinical examinations occurred at baseline, 12, 24 and 33 months. Results Xylitol lozenges reduced the caries increment 11%. This reduction, which represented less than one-third of a surface per year, was not statistically significant. There was no indication of a dose-response effect. Conclusions Daily use of xylitol lozenges did not result in a statistically or clinically significant reduction in 33-month caries increment among elevated caries-risk adults. Clinical Implications These results suggest that xylitol used as a supplement in adults does not significantly reduce their caries experience. PMID:23283923

  12. Multi- and unisensory decoding of words and nonwords result in differential brain responses in dyslexic and nondyslexic adults.

    PubMed

    Kast, Monika; Bezzola, Ladina; Jäncke, Lutz; Meyer, Martin

    2011-12-01

    The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was designed, in order to investigate the neural substrates involved in the audiovisual processing of disyllabic German words and pseudowords. Twelve dyslexic and 13 nondyslexic adults performed a lexical decision task while stimuli were presented unimodally (either aurally or visually) or bimodally (audiovisually simultaneously). The behavioral data collected during the experiment evidenced more accurate processing for bimodally than for unimodally presented stimuli irrespective of group. Words were processed faster than pseudowords. Notably, no group differences have been found for either accuracy or for reaction times. With respect to brain responses, nondyslexic compared to dyslexic adults elicited stronger hemodynamic responses in the leftward supramarginal gyrus (SMG), as well as in the right hemispheric superior temporal sulcus (STS). Furthermore, dyslexic compared to nondyslexic adults showed reduced responses to only aurally presented signals and enhanced hemodynamic responses to audiovisual, as well as visual stimulation in the right anterior insula. Our behavioral results evidence that the two groups easily identified the two-syllabic proper nouns that we provided them with. Our fMRI results indicate that dyslexics show less neuronal involvement of heteromodal and extrasylvian regions, namely, the STS, SMG, and insula when decoding phonological information. We posit that dyslexic adults evidence deficient functioning of word processing, which could possibly be attributed to deficits in phoneme to grapheme mapping. This problem may be caused by impaired audiovisual processing in multimodal areas. PMID:21641022

  13. Not all Surface Waters show a Strong Relation between DOC and Hg Species: Results from an Adirondack Mountain Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, D. A.; Schelker, J.; Murray, K. R.; Brigham, M. E.; Aiken, G.

    2009-12-01

    in ponded areas, and (3) the effects of the widely varying seasonal temperature and snow cover on the rates of microbial processes such as the decomposition of soil organic matter and methylation of Hg. These results emphasize that not all watersheds show simple linear relations between DOC and Hg species on an annual basis, and provide a caution that measurements such as the optical properties of waters are not always a strong surrogate for Hg.

  14. Sunbathing habits and sunscreen use among white adults: results of a national survey.

    PubMed Central

    Koh, H K; Bak, S M; Geller, A C; Mangione, T W; Hingson, R W; Levenson, S M; Miller, D R; Lew, R A; Howland, J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed current levels of sunbathing and sunscreen use in the United States. METHODS: From a general-population telephone survey of aquatic activities among adults in 3042 US households, we examined responses by the 2459 Whites. RESULTS: Most adults (59%) reported sunbathing during the past year, and 25% reported frequent sunbathing. Of the subsample who reported sunbathing during the month before the interview, 47% routinely used sunscreen. Of these individuals, almost half did not use sunscreens with a solar protection factor of 15 or higher. CONCLUSIONS: About a quarter of US White adults report frequent sunbathing, and only about a quarter of sunbathers use sunscreens at recommended levels. These results should help focus future sun protection educational efforts. PMID:9240117

  15. Genomic and Enzymatic Results Show Bacillus cellulosilyticus Uses a Novel Set of LPXTA Carbohydrases to Hydrolyze Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Mead, David; Drinkwater, Colleen; Brumm, Phillip J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Alkaliphilic Bacillus species are intrinsically interesting due to the bioenergetic problems posed by growth at high pH and high salt. Three alkaline cellulases have been cloned, sequenced and expressed from Bacillus cellulosilyticus N-4 (Bcell) making it an excellent target for genomic sequencing and mining of biomass-degrading enzymes. Methodology/Principal Findings The genome of Bcell is a single chromosome of 4.7 Mb with no plasmids present and three large phage insertions. The most unusual feature of the genome is the presence of 23 LPXTA membrane anchor proteins; 17 of these are annotated as involved in polysaccharide degradation. These two values are significantly higher than seen in any other Bacillus species. This high number of membrane anchor proteins is seen only in pathogenic Gram-positive organisms such as Listeria monocytogenes or Staphylococcus aureus. Bcell also possesses four sortase D subfamily 4 enzymes that incorporate LPXTA-bearing proteins into the cell wall; three of these are closely related to each other and unique to Bcell. Cell fractionation and enzymatic assay of Bcell cultures show that the majority of polysaccharide degradation is associated with the cell wall LPXTA-enzymes, an unusual feature in Gram-positive aerobes. Genomic analysis and growth studies both strongly argue against Bcell being a truly cellulolytic organism, in spite of its name. Preliminary results suggest that fungal mycelia may be the natural substrate for this organism. Conclusions/Significance Bacillus cellulosilyticus N-4, in spite of its name, does not possess any of the genes necessary for crystalline cellulose degradation, demonstrating the risk of classifying microorganisms without the benefit of genomic analysis. Bcell is the first Gram-positive aerobic organism shown to use predominantly cell-bound, non-cellulosomal enzymes for polysaccharide degradation. The LPXTA-sortase system utilized by Bcell may have applications both in anchoring

  16. Measuring Adult Mortality Using Sibling Survival: A New Analytical Method and New Results for 44 Countries, 1974–2006

    PubMed Central

    Obermeyer, Ziad; Rajaratnam, Julie Knoll; Park, Chang H.; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Hogan, Margaret C.; Lopez, Alan D.; Murray, Christopher J. L.

    2010-01-01

    15—the probability of a 15-y old dying before his or her 60th birthday—for 44 countries with DHS sibling survival data. Our findings suggest that levels of adult mortality prevailing in many developing countries are substantially higher than previously suggested by other analyses of sibling history data. Generally, our estimates show the risk of adult death between ages 15 and 60 y to be about 20%–35% for females and 25%–45% for males in sub-Saharan African populations largely unaffected by HIV. In countries of Southern Africa, where the HIV epidemic has been most pronounced, as many as eight out of ten men alive at age 15 y will be dead by age 60, as will six out of ten women. Adult mortality levels in populations of Asia and Latin America are generally lower than in Africa, particularly for women. The exceptions are Haiti and Cambodia, where mortality risks are comparable to many countries in Africa. In all other countries with data, the probability of dying between ages 15 and 60 y was typically around 10% for women and 20% for men, not much higher than the levels prevailing in several more developed countries. Conclusions Our results represent an expansion of direct knowledge of levels and trends in adult mortality in the developing world. The CSS method provides grounds for renewed optimism in collecting sibling survival data. We suggest that all nationally representative survey programs with adequate sample size ought to implement this critical module for tracking adult mortality in order to more reliably understand the levels and patterns of adult mortality, and how they are changing. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:20405004

  17. In utero/lactational and adult exposures to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) show differential effects on craniofacial development and growth in rats.

    PubMed

    Sholts, Sabrina B; Korkalainen, Merja; Simanainen, Ulla; Miettinen, Hanna M; Håkansson, Helen; Viluksela, Matti

    2015-11-01

    In a previous study of female Han/Wistar (H/W) and Long-Evans (L-E) rats, we found that adult exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was associated with size decreases in the cranium and especially the face. In this study we compared these crania to those from male and female Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats with in utero/lactational exposure to TCDD, using morphometric variables of size, shape, and fluctuating asymmetry to quantify the effects of dose on craniofacial development and growth. At the highest levels of exposure, in utero/lactational and adult TCDD exposures both resulted in small but significant reductions in facial size parameters (i.e., 3-5%) in only females and minor effects on facial shape in both sexes. The shape effects of in utero/lactational exposure were most significant at the sutural intersections, whereas adult exposure to TCDD corresponded to dose-dependent changes of decreasing facial length and vault breadth. Fluctuating asymmetry in general explained a relatively small amount of shape variation compared with other effects, and only increased significantly in female L-E rats with high levels of adult exposure to TCDD. These results indicate that TCDD-related changes in cranial development and growth in rats can vary with the timing and duration of exposure, and with sex. Further investigations of other dioxin-like compounds and animal species will broaden our understanding of how chemicals exposure can influence the development and growth of the mammalian skeleton. PMID:26320568

  18. Recruiting young adults into a weight loss trial: report of protocol development and recruitment results.

    PubMed

    Corsino, Leonor; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Batch, Bryan C; Intille, Stephen; Grambow, Steven C; Bosworth, Hayden B; Bennett, Gary G; Tyson, Crystal; Svetkey, Laura P; Voils, Corrine I

    2013-07-01

    Obesity has spread to all segments of the U.S. population. Young adults, aged 18-35 years, are rarely represented in clinical weight loss trials. We conducted a qualitative study to identify factors that may facilitate recruitment of young adults into a weight loss intervention trial. Participants were 33 adults aged 18-35 years with BMI ≥25 kg/m(2). Six group discussions were conducted using the nominal group technique. Health, social image, and "self" factors such as emotions, self-esteem, and confidence were reported as reasons to pursue weight loss. Physical activity, dietary intake, social support, medical intervention, and taking control (e.g. being motivated) were perceived as the best weight loss strategies. Incentives, positive outcomes, education, convenience, and social support were endorsed as reasons young adults would consider participating in a weight loss study. Incentives, advertisement, emphasizing benefits, and convenience were endorsed as ways to recruit young adults. These results informed the Cellphone Intervention for You (CITY) marketing and advertising, including message framing and advertising avenues. Implications for recruitment methods are discussed. PMID:23591327

  19. Loss of AND-34/BCAR3 expression in mice results in rupture of the adult lens

    PubMed Central

    Near, Richard I.; Smith, Richard S.; Toselli, Paul A.; Freddo, Thomas F.; Bloom, Alexander B.; Vanden Borre, Pierre; Seldin, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose AND-34/BCAR3 (Breast Cancer Anti-Estrogen Resistance 3) associates with the focal adhesion adaptor protein, p130CAS/BCAR1. Expression of AND-34 regulates epithelial cell growth pattern, motility, and growth factor dependence. We sought to establish the effects of the loss of AND-34 expression in a mammalian organism. Methods AND-34−/− mice were generated by homologous recombination. Histopathology, in situ hybridization, and western blotting were performed on murine tissues. Results Western analyses confirmed total loss of expression in AND-34−/− splenic lymphocytes. Mice lacking AND-34 are fertile and have normal longevity. While AND-34 is widely expressed in wild type mice, histologic analysis of multiple organs in AND-34−/− mice is unremarkable and analyses of lymphocyte development show no overt changes. A small percentage of AND-34−/− mice show distinctive small white eye lesions resulting from the migration of ruptured cortical lens tissue into the anterior chamber. Following initial vacuolization and liquefaction of the lens cortex first observed at postnatal day three, posterior lens rupture occurs in all AND-34−/− mice, beginning as early as three weeks and seen in all mice at three months. Western blot analysis and in situ hybridization confirmed the presence of AND-34 RNA and protein in lens epithelial cells, particularly at the lens equator. Prior data link AND-34 expression to the activation of Akt signaling. While Akt Ser 473 phosphorylation was readily detectable in AND-34+/+ lens epithelial cells, it was markedly reduced in the AND-34−/− lens epithelium. Basal levels of p130Cas phosphorylation were higher in AND-34+/+ than in AND-34−/− lens epithelium. Conclusions These results demonstrate the loss of AND-34 dysregulates focal adhesion complex signaling in lens epithelial cells and suggest that AND-34-mediated signaling is required for maintenance of the structural integrity of the adult ocular lens. PMID:19365570

  20. Clinical and histopathological results of the adult patients with unilateral cryptorchidism

    PubMed Central

    Ateş, Ferhat; Soydan, Hasan; Okçelik, Sezgin; Çırakoğlu, Abdullah; Yılmaz, İsmail; Malkoç, Ercan; Karademir, Kenan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical and histopathological results of adult unilateral cryptorchidism patients. Material and methods Data from adult unilateral cryptorchidism patients that underwent orchiectomy in our clinic between between January 2004 and March 2013 were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were divided into three groups as intra-abdominal, inguinal canal and superficial inguinal region according to the location of the undescended testes. Patients were also grouped according to their testicular volume (<4 cc, 4.1–12 cc, and >12 cc). Histopathology results of orchiectomy specimens were classified as follows: 1. Sertoli cells only, testicular atrophy and vanished testis (anorchia) 2. Hypospermatogenesis, and 3. Maturation arrest. Patients were grouped as normospermia, azoospermia and oligo/astheno/teratospermia groups according to semen analysis results. Correlations between testicular localization, testicular size, semen analysis and pathology results were evaluated. Incidental tumor detection rates were also calculated. Results Two hundred and forty-four adult unilateral cryptorchidism patients underwent orchiectomy in our clinic. There was no a significant relationship between location of the testis and testicular pathology results (p=0.707). Most common semen analysis results was normospermia in patients with high testicular volume group however azoospermia and oligoasthenospermia observed commonly in patients with low testicular volume group. There was a significant relationship between testicular volume and semen analysis results (p=0.023). No significant relationship was observed between semen analysis and pathological results (p=0.929). After an evaluation of all factors with possible effects on the semen analysis results, only testicular volume (p=0.036) was found to have a significant impact. Only one case (0.4%) was incidentally diagnosed seminoma after a review of 233 patients with available histopathological results on record

  1. Speech production variability in fricatives of children and adults: Results of functional data analysis

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Laura L.; Lucero, Jorge C.; Perlman, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates token-to-token variability in fricative production of 5 year olds, 10 year olds, and adults. Previous studies have reported higher intrasubject variability in children than adults, in speech as well as nonspeech tasks, but authors have disagreed on the causes and implications of this finding. The current work assessed the characteristics of age-related variability across articulators (larynx and tongue) as well as in temporal versus spatial domains. Oral airflow signals, which reflect changes in both laryngeal and supralaryngeal apertures, were obtained for multiple productions of ∕h s z∕. The data were processed using functional data analysis, which provides a means of obtaining relatively independent indices of amplitude and temporal (phasing) variability. Consistent with past work, both temporal and amplitude variabilities were higher in children than adults, but the temporal indices were generally less adultlike than the amplitude indices for both groups of children. Quantitative and qualitative analyses showed considerable speaker- and consonant-specific patterns of variability. The data indicate that variability in ∕s∕ may represent laryngeal as well as supralaryngeal control and further that a simple random noise factor, higher in children than in adults, is insufficient to explain developmental differences in speech production variability. PMID:19045800

  2. Exposure to Zinc Sulfate Results in Differential Effects on Olfactory Sensory Neuron Subtypes in Adult Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Hentig, James T; Byrd-Jacobs, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    Zinc sulfate is a known olfactory toxicant, although its specific effects on the olfactory epithelium of zebrafish are unknown. Olfactory organs of adult zebrafish were exposed to zinc sulfate and, after 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 or 14 days, fish were processed for histological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and behavioral analyses. Severe morphological disruption of the olfactory organ was observed two days following zinc sulfate exposure, including fusion of lamellae, epithelial inflammation, and significant loss of anti-calretinin labeling. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the apical surface of the sensory region was absent of ciliated structures, but microvilli were still present. Behavioral analysis showed significant loss of the ability to perceive bile salts and some fish also had no response to amino acids. Over the next several days, olfactory organ morphology, epithelial structure, and anti-calretinin labeling returned to control-like conditions, although the ability to perceive bile salts remained lost until day 14. Thus, exposure to zinc sulfate results in rapid degeneration of the olfactory organ, followed by restoration of morphology and function within two weeks. Zinc sulfate appears to have a greater effect on ciliated olfactory sensory neurons than on microvillous olfactory sensory neurons, suggesting differential effects on sensory neuron subtypes. PMID:27589738

  3. Characteristics of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who Use Adult Developmental Disability Services: Results from 25 US States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Amy S.; Stancliffe, Roger J.; Sirek, Annie Johnson; Hall-Lande, Jennifer; Taub, Sarah; Engler, Joshua; Bershadsky, Julie; Fortune, Jon; Moseley, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    There is a significant increase in the prevalence of autism and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in children with estimates now reaching 1 in 110 children in the United States. Families report difficulties in finding services for their young and adult children. Many adults with ASD receive services and supports through state intellectual and…

  4. Structured group psychotherapy in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: results of an open multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Philipsen, Alexandra; Richter, Harald; Peters, Julia; Alm, Barbara; Sobanski, Esther; Colla, Michael; Münzebrock, Mirka; Scheel, Corinna; Jacob, Christian; Perlov, Evgeniy; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Hesslinger, Bernd

    2007-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious mental disorder that often persists in adulthood. In a pilot study, a structured skills training group program for adult ADHD led to significant symptomatic improvements. The present study evaluated the program's effectiveness, feasibility, and patient acceptability in a multicenter setting. Seventy-two adult ADHD patients were assigned to 13 two-hour weekly sessions at 4 different therapy sites. The therapy was well tolerated and led to significant improvements of ADHD, depressive symptoms, and personal health status (p < 0.001). The factors treatment site and medication did not contribute to the overall improvement. Patients regarded the program topics "behavioral analyses," "mindfulness," and "emotion regulation" as the most helpful. In this multicenter study, the therapy program showed therapist-independent effects and seemed to be disorder-specific. This warrants the effort of organizing further controlled studies. PMID:18091195

  5. Presentation Showing Results of a Hydrogeochemical Investigation of the Standard Mine Vicinity, Upper Elk Creek Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, Andrew H.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Mast, M. Alisa; Wanty, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    PREFACE This Open-File Report consists of a presentation given in Crested Butte, Colorado on December 13, 2007 to the Standard Mine Advisory Group. The presentation was paired with another presentation given by the Colorado Division of Reclamation, Mining, and Safety on the physical features and geology of the Standard Mine. The presentation in this Open-File Report summarizes the results and conclusions of a hydrogeochemical investigation of the Standard Mine performed by the U.S. Geological Survey (Manning and others, in press). The purpose of the investigation was to aid the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in evaluating remediation options for the Standard Mine site. Additional details and supporting data related to the information in this presentation can be found in Manning and others (in press).

  6. Abdominal Obesity, Race and Chronic Kidney Disease in Young Adults: Results from NHANES 1999-2010

    PubMed Central

    Sarathy, Harini; Henriquez, Gabriela; Abramowitz, Matthew K.; Kramer, Holly; Rosas, Sylvia E.; Johns, Tanya; Kumar, Juhi; Skversky, Amy; Kaskel, Frederick; Melamed, Michal L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Kidney dysfunction in obesity may be independent of and may precede the development of hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus. We aimed to examine if abdominal obesity is associated with early markers of CKD in a young healthy population and whether these associations differ by race and/or ethnicity. Methods We analyzed data from the NHANES 1999–2010 for 6918 young adults ages 20–40 years. Abdominal obesity was defined by gender criteria of waist circumference. CKD markers included estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria ≥30 mg/g. Race stratified analyses were done overall and in subgroups with normal blood pressures, normoglycemia and normal insulin sensitivity. Awareness of CKD was assessed in participants with albuminuria. Results Abdominal obesity was present in over one-third of all young adults and was more prevalent among non-Hispanic blacks (45.4%) versus Mexican-Americans (40.6%) or non-Hispanic whites (37.4%) (P-value = 0.004). Mexican-American young adults with abdominal obesity had a higher odds of albuminuria even among those with normal blood pressure, normal glucose, and normal insulin sensitivity [adjusted odds ratio 4.5; 95% confidence interval (1.6–12.2), p = 0.004]. Less than 5% of young adults with albuminuria of all races and ethnicities had been told they had kidney disease. Conclusion Abdominal obesity in young adults, especially in Mexican-Americans, is independently associated with albuminuria even with normal blood pressures, normoglycemia and normal insulin levels. Greater awareness of CKD is needed to protect this young population from long-standing exposure to abdominal obesity and early progressive renal disease. PMID:27224643

  7. A systematic review of hospitalization resulting from medicine-related problems in adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Al Hamid, Abdullah; Ghaleb, Maisoon; Aljadhey, Hisham; Aslanpour, Zoe

    2014-01-01

    Aims Medicine-related problems (MRPs) represent a major issue leading to hospitalization, especially in adult and elderly patients. The aims of this review are to investigate the prevalence, causes and major risk factors for MRPs leading to hospitalization in adult patients and to identify the main medicine classes involved. Methods Studies were identified through electronic searches of Medline, Embase, Scopus and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts between January 2000 and May 2013. A systematic review was conducted of both retrospective and prospective studies. Studies included were those involving hospitalization resulting from MRPs in adults (≥18 years old), whereas studies excluded were those investigating drug misuse and abuse and studies investigating MRPs in hospitalized patients. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 20. Results Forty-five studies were identified, including 21 that investigated hospitalization resulting from adverse drug reactions, six studies that investigated hospitalization due to adverse drug events and 18 studies that investigated hospitalization due to MRPs. The median prevalence rates of hospitalization resulting from adverse drug reactions, adverse drug events and MRPs were 7% (interquartile range, 2.4–14.9%), 4.6% (interquartile range, 2.85–16.6%) and 12.1% (interquartile range, 6.43–22.2%), respectively. The major causes contributing to MRPs were adverse drug reactions and noncompliance. In addition, the major risk factors associated with MRPs were old age, polypharmacy and comorbidities. Moreover, the main classes of medicines implicated were medicines used to treat cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Conclusions Hospitalization due to MRPs had a high prevalence, in the range of 4.6–12.1%. Most MRPs encountered were prevalent among adult patients taking medicines for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. PMID:24283967

  8. Results from a sixteen year study on the effects of oiling from the Exxon Valdez on adult pink salmon returns.

    PubMed

    Brannon, Ernest L; Maki, Alan W; Moulton, Lawrence L; Parker, Keith R

    2006-08-01

    For sixteen years following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill adult returns of pink salmon in Prince William Sound, Alaska were monitored to assess spill effects on survival. No evidence of spill effects was detected for either intertidal or whole-stream spawning fish. From 1989 through 2004 mean densities for oiled and reference streams tracked each other, illustrating similar responses of oiled and reference stream adult populations to naturally changing oceanographic and climactic conditions. Hatchery fish strayed into the study streams, but similar incursions occurred in oiled and reference streams, and their presence was compensated for to eliminate their influence on determining the success of the returning natural populations. These results, showing no detectable effects of oiling on pink salmon spawning populations, are supported by published field studies on pink salmon incubation success in oiled streams. PMID:16487548

  9. Selection Indices and Multivariate Analysis Show Similar Results in the Evaluation of Growth and Carcass Traits in Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Brito Lopes, Fernando; da Silva, Marcelo Corrêa; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhôa; Goncalves Narciso, Marcelo; Sainz, Roberto Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated a multivariate approach as an alternative tool for the purpose of selection regarding expected progeny differences (EPDs). Data were fitted using a multi-trait model and consisted of growth traits (birth weight and weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age) and carcass traits (longissimus muscle area (LMA), back-fat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF)), registered over 21 years in extensive breeding systems of Polled Nellore cattle in Brazil. Multivariate analyses were performed using standardized (zero mean and unit variance) EPDs. The k mean method revealed that the best fit of data occurred using three clusters (k = 3) (P < 0.001). Estimates of genetic correlation among growth and carcass traits and the estimates of heritability were moderate to high, suggesting that a correlated response approach is suitable for practical decision making. Estimates of correlation between selection indices and the multivariate index (LD1) were moderate to high, ranging from 0.48 to 0.97. This reveals that both types of indices give similar results and that the multivariate approach is reliable for the purpose of selection. The alternative tool seems very handy when economic weights are not available or in cases where more rapid identification of the best animals is desired. Interestingly, multivariate analysis allowed forecasting information based on the relationships among breeding values (EPDs). Also, it enabled fine discrimination, rapid data summarization after genetic evaluation, and permitted accounting for maternal ability and the genetic direct potential of the animals. In addition, we recommend the use of longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness as selection criteria, to allow estimation of breeding values before the first mating season in order to accelerate the response to individual selection. PMID:26789008

  10. Selection Indices and Multivariate Analysis Show Similar Results in the Evaluation of Growth and Carcass Traits in Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Brito Lopes, Fernando; da Silva, Marcelo Corrêa; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhôa; Goncalves Narciso, Marcelo; Sainz, Roberto Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated a multivariate approach as an alternative tool for the purpose of selection regarding expected progeny differences (EPDs). Data were fitted using a multi-trait model and consisted of growth traits (birth weight and weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age) and carcass traits (longissimus muscle area (LMA), back-fat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF)), registered over 21 years in extensive breeding systems of Polled Nellore cattle in Brazil. Multivariate analyses were performed using standardized (zero mean and unit variance) EPDs. The k mean method revealed that the best fit of data occurred using three clusters (k = 3) (P < 0.001). Estimates of genetic correlation among growth and carcass traits and the estimates of heritability were moderate to high, suggesting that a correlated response approach is suitable for practical decision making. Estimates of correlation between selection indices and the multivariate index (LD1) were moderate to high, ranging from 0.48 to 0.97. This reveals that both types of indices give similar results and that the multivariate approach is reliable for the purpose of selection. The alternative tool seems very handy when economic weights are not available or in cases where more rapid identification of the best animals is desired. Interestingly, multivariate analysis allowed forecasting information based on the relationships among breeding values (EPDs). Also, it enabled fine discrimination, rapid data summarization after genetic evaluation, and permitted accounting for maternal ability and the genetic direct potential of the animals. In addition, we recommend the use of longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness as selection criteria, to allow estimation of breeding values before the first mating season in order to accelerate the response to individual selection. PMID:26789008

  11. [The adult attachment projective (AAP) - psychometric properties and new reserach results].

    PubMed

    Buchheim, Anna; George, Carol; West, Malcom

    2003-01-01

    George, West and Pettem developed a new measure, the Adult Attachment Projective (AAP) to assess attachment representation in adults. The AAP is comprised of a set of eight drawings, one neutral scene and seven scenes of attachment situations. Although the pictures were drawn as projective stimuli, the method of administration combines projective and interview techniques in the form of a semi-structured interview. In this paper the coding procedure and attachment classifications of the AAP will shortly be described. The current results on reliability and convergent validity are reported. Developmental studies examining correlates of attachment during the preschool-age years, as well as adult attachment classification and foster mothers' perceptions of their relationship with their at risk foster children give first evidence for the predicitve validity of the AAP. The results of a recent study with dysthymic women using the AAP add to the increasing number of studies that have identified an association between preoccupied attachment and depression. This study encourages the use of the AAP in a broader clinical context. The modified application of the AAP using functional MRI opens a new approach to assess neural correlates of attachment representation in patients with a Borderline Personality Disorder compared to controls, and other clinical groups. PMID:14528412

  12. Increasing Hepatitis B Screening for Hmong adults: Results from a randomized controlled community-based study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Moon S.; Fang, Dao M.; Stewart, Susan L.; Ly, May Ying; Lee, Serge; Dang, Julie H.T.; Nguyen, Tram T.; Maxwell, Annette E.; Bowlus, Christopher L.; Bastani, Roshan; Nguyen, Tung T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B-linked liver cancer disproportionately affects Hmong Americans. With an incidence rate of 18.9/100,000, Hmong Americans experience liver cancer at a rate that is 6–7 times greater than that of non-Hispanic Whites. Serological testing for the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a principal means to prevent liver cancer deaths through earlier identification of those at risk. Methods Academic researchers and Hmong leaders collaborated in the design, conduct, and evaluation of a 5-year randomized controlled trial testing a lay health worker (LHW) intervention to promote HBV testing among 260 Hmong adults through in-home education and patient navigation. Results Intervention group participants were more likely to report receiving serological testing for HBV (24% vs. 10%, p=0.0056) and showed a greater mean increase in knowledge score (1.3 vs. 0.3 points, p=0.0003) than control group participants. Multivariable modeling indicated that self-reported test receipt was associated with intervention group assignment (odds ratio [OR] 3.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3–9.2), improvement in knowledge score (OR 1.3 per point, 95% CI 1.02–1.7), female gender (OR 5.3, 95% CI 1.7–16.6), and having seen a doctor in the past year at baseline (OR 4.8, 95% CI 1.3–17.6). The most often cited reason for testing was a doctor’s recommendation. Conclusions LHWs were effective in bringing about HBV screening. Doctor visits and adherence to doctors’ recommendations were pivotal. Participation of health care providers is essential to increase HBV testing. Impact LHWs can significantly increase HBV screening rates for Hmong, but their doctors’ recommendation is highly influential and should be pursued. PMID:23613027

  13. IRRITABLE MOOD IN ADULT MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER: RESULTS FROM THE WORLD MENTAL HEALTH SURVEYS

    PubMed Central

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Bromet, Evelyn; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia E.; Gruber, Michael J.; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Elie G.; Jin, Robert; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Medina-Mora, María E.; O’Neill, Siobhan; Ono, Yutaka; Posada-Villa, José A.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Scott, Kate M.; Shahly, Victoria; Stein, Dan J.; Viana, Maria C.; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although irritability is a core symptom of DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) for youth but not adults, clinical studies find comparable rates of irritability between nonbipolar depressed adults and youth. Including irritability as a core symptom of adult MDD would allow detection of depression-equivalent syndromes with primary irritability hypothesized to be more common among males than females. We carried out a preliminary examination of this issue using cross-national community-based survey data from 21 countries in the World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys (n = 110,729). Methods The assessment of MDD in the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview includes one question about persistent irritability. We examined two expansions of the definition of MDD involving this question: (1) cases with dysphoria and/or anhedonia and exactly four of nine Criterion A symptoms plus irritability; and (2) cases with two or more weeks of irritability plus four or more other Criterion A MDD symptoms in the absence of dysphoria or anhedonia. Results Adding irritability as a tenth Criterion A symptom increased lifetime prevalence by 0.4% (from 11.2 to 11.6%). Adding episodes of persistent irritability increased prevalence by an additional 0.2%. Proportional prevalence increases were significantly higher, but nonetheless small, among males compared to females. Rates of severe role impairment were significantly lower among respondents with this irritable depression who did not meet conventional DSM-IV criteria than those with DSM-IV MDD. Conclusion Although limited by the superficial assessment in this single question on irritability, results do not support expanding adult MDD criteria to include irritable mood. PMID:23364997

  14. "Glass fairies" and "bone children": adolescents and young adults with anorexia nervosa show positive reactions towards extremely emaciated body pictures measured by the startle reflex paradigm.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Valeska A; Schneider, Nora; Grünewald, Barbara; Kienast, Thorsten; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Korte, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the emotional processing of extremely emaciated body cues in adolescents and young adults with (n  =  36) and without (n =  36) anorexia nervosa (AN), introducing a new picture type, which was taken from websites that promote extreme thinness and is targeted specifically at adolescents interested in extreme thinness. A startle reflex paradigm was used for implicit reactions, while a self-assessment instrument was used for subjective responses. We found a significant group difference with a startle inhibition (appetitive response) among the patients and a startle potentiation (aversive response) among the controls, whereas no such difference for subjective measures was found. The results are in contrast to previous studies, which proposed a general failure to activate the appetitive motivational system in AN, but in keeping with findings from other addictions, where the same response pattern has been found. Implications for prevention and therapy are discussed. PMID:24423135

  15. Hippocampal Brain Volume Is Associated with Faster Facial Emotion Identification in Older Adults: Preliminary Results.

    PubMed

    Szymkowicz, Sarah M; Persson, Jonas; Lin, Tian; Fischer, Håkan; Ebner, Natalie C

    2016-01-01

    Quick correct identification of facial emotions is highly relevant for successful social interactions. Research suggests that older, compared to young, adults experience increased difficulty with face and emotion processing skills. While functional neuroimaging studies suggest age differences in neural processing of faces and emotions, evidence about age-associated structural brain changes and their involvement in face and emotion processing is scarce. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), this study investigated the extent to which volumes of frontal and temporal brain structures were related to reaction time in accurate identification of facial emotions in 30 young and 30 older adults. Volumetric segmentation was performed using FreeSurfer and gray matter volumes from frontal and temporal regions were extracted. Analysis of covariances (ANCOVAs) models with response time (RT) as the dependent variable and age group and regional volume, and their interaction, as independent variables were conducted, controlling for total intracranial volume (ICV). Results indicated that, in older adults, larger hippocampal volumes were associated with faster correct facial emotion identification. These preliminary observations suggest that greater volume in brain regions associated with face and emotion processing contributes to improved facial emotion identification performance in aging. PMID:27610082

  16. Hippocampal Brain Volume Is Associated with Faster Facial Emotion Identification in Older Adults: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Szymkowicz, Sarah M.; Persson, Jonas; Lin, Tian; Fischer, Håkan; Ebner, Natalie C.

    2016-01-01

    Quick correct identification of facial emotions is highly relevant for successful social interactions. Research suggests that older, compared to young, adults experience increased difficulty with face and emotion processing skills. While functional neuroimaging studies suggest age differences in neural processing of faces and emotions, evidence about age-associated structural brain changes and their involvement in face and emotion processing is scarce. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), this study investigated the extent to which volumes of frontal and temporal brain structures were related to reaction time in accurate identification of facial emotions in 30 young and 30 older adults. Volumetric segmentation was performed using FreeSurfer and gray matter volumes from frontal and temporal regions were extracted. Analysis of covariances (ANCOVAs) models with response time (RT) as the dependent variable and age group and regional volume, and their interaction, as independent variables were conducted, controlling for total intracranial volume (ICV). Results indicated that, in older adults, larger hippocampal volumes were associated with faster correct facial emotion identification. These preliminary observations suggest that greater volume in brain regions associated with face and emotion processing contributes to improved facial emotion identification performance in aging. PMID:27610082

  17. Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder Show Normal Attention to Eye-Gaze Information--Evidence from a New Change Blindness Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher-Watson, Sue; Leekam, Susan R.; Findlay, John M.; Stanton, Elaine C.

    2008-01-01

    Other people's eye-gaze is a powerful social stimulus that captures and directs visual attention. There is evidence that this is not the case for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), although less is known about attention to eye-gaze in adults. We investigated whether young adults would detect a change to the direction of eye-gaze in…

  18. Altered protein prenylation in Sertoli cells is associated with adult infertility resulting from childhood mumps infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiu-Xing; Ying, Pu; Diao, Fan; Wang, Qiang; Ye, Dan; Jiang, Chen; Shen, Ning; Xu, Na; Chen, Wei-Bo; Lai, Shan-Shan; Jiang, Shan; Miao, Xiao-Li; Feng, Jin; Tao, Wei-Wei; Zhao, Ning-Wei; Yao, Bing; Xu, Zhi-Peng; Sun, Hai-Xiang; Li, Jian-Min; Sha, Jia-Hao; Huang, Xing-Xu; Shi, Qing-Hua; Tang, Hong; Gao, Xiang; Li, Chao-Jun

    2013-07-29

    Mumps commonly affects children 5-9 yr of age, and can lead to permanent adult sterility in certain cases. However, the etiology of this long-term effect remains unclear. Mumps infection results in progressive degeneration of the seminiferous epithelium and, occasionally, Sertoli cell-only syndrome. Thus, the remaining Sertoli cells may be critical to spermatogenesis recovery after orchitis healing. Here, we report that the protein farnesylation/geranylgeranylation balance is critical for patients' fertility. The expression of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase 1 (GGPPS) was decreased due to elevated promoter methylation in the testes of infertile patients with mumps infection history. When we deleted GGPPS in mouse Sertoli cells, these cells remained intact, whereas the adjacent spermatogonia significantly decreased after the fifth postnatal day. The proinflammatory MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways were constitutively activated in GGPPS(-/-) Sertoli cells due to the enhanced farnesylation of H-Ras. GGPPS(-/-) Sertoli cells secreted an array of cytokines to stimulate spermatogonia apoptosis, and chemokines to induce macrophage invasion into the seminiferous tubules. Invaded macrophages further blocked spermatogonia development, resulting in a long-term effect through to adulthood. Notably, this defect could be rescued by GGPP administration in EMCV-challenged mice. Our results suggest a novel mechanism by which mumps infection during childhood results in adult sterility. PMID:23825187

  19. The Health Literacy of America's Adults: Results from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy. NCES 2006-483

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutner, Mark; Greenburg, Elizabeth; Jin, Ying; Paulsen, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the health literacy of America's adults is important because so many aspects of finding health care and health information, and maintaining health, depend on understanding written information. Many reports have suggested that low health literacy is associated with poor communication between patients and health care providers and with…

  20. Young Adults' Risk Perceptions of Various Tobacco Products Relative to Cigarettes: Results from the National Young Adult Health Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method: We examined risk…

  1. Adult Transitions to Learning in the USA: What Do PIAAC Survey Results Tell Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Margaret Becker; Paulson, Usha G.

    2016-01-01

    The Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) assessed literacy, numeracy, and technology-related skills of adults and found skill levels of US adults are well below the international average. In a world where advanced skills are requisite to workplace competitiveness, low skills are a danger sign. An initial PIAAC…

  2. Investigation of infectivity of neonates and adults from different rat strains to Toxoplasma gondii Prugniaud shows both variation which correlates with iNOS and Arginase-1 activity and increased susceptibility of neonates to infection.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jiang-Mei; Yi, Si-Qi; Wu, Ming-Shui; Geng, Guo-Qing; Shen, Ji-Long; Lu, Fang-Li; Hide, Geoff; Lai, De-Hua; Lun, Zhao-Rong

    2015-02-01

    Mouse models differ considerably from humans with regard to clinical symptoms of toxoplasmosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii and, by comparison, the rat model is more representative of this disease in humans. In the present study, we found that different strains of adult and newborn rats (Lewis, Wistar, Sprague Dawley, Brown Norway and Fischer 344) exhibited remarkable variation in the number of brain cysts following inoculation with the T.gondii Prugniaud strain. In adult rats, large numbers of cysts (1231 ± 165.6) were observed in Fischer 344, but none in the other four. This situation was different in newborn rats aged from 5 to 20 days old. All Fischer 344 and Brown Norway newborns were cyst-positive while cyst-positive infection in Sprague Dawley neonates ranged from 54.5% to 60% depending on their age at infection. In Wistar and Lewis rat neonates, however, cyst-positivity rates of 0-42.9% and 0-25% were found respectively. To investigate whether rat strain differences in infectivity could be related to inherent strain and genetic differences in the host immune response, we correlated our data with previously reported strain differences in iNOS/Arginase ratio in adult rats and found them to be linked. These results show that interactions between host genetic background and age of rat influence T.gondii infection. PMID:25541383

  3. Cognitive-Behaviorally-Oriented Group Rehabilitation of Adults with ADHD: Results of a 6-Month Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salakari, Anita; Virta, Maarit; Gronroos, Nina; Chydenius, Esa; Partinen, Markku; Vataja, Risto; Kaski, Markus; Iivanainen, Matti

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Recently, novel psychological treatments for adult ADHD have been reported with promising results. However, studies about long-term treatment effects are scanty. The authors study effects of cognitive-behaviorally-oriented group rehabilitation during a 6-month follow-up. Method: Participating in the rehabilitation were 29 adults, of…

  4. Competencies for Adult Basic Education and Diploma Programs: A Summary of Studies and Cross-Reference of Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Joan Keller

    This report summarizes and cross-references the results of 12 studies dealing with competencies for Adult Basic Education (ABE) and diploma programs. Described in the report are the following studies/projects: (1) the Adult Performance Level (APL) Study; (2) five APL-based validation studies (the New Jersey ABE Study, the New Jersey English as a…

  5. Increasing hepatitis C knowledge among homeless adults: results of a community-based, interdisciplinary intervention.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Darlene; Nyamathi, Adeline; Stein, Judith A; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Hodge, Felicia; Gelberg, Lillian

    2014-01-01

    Homeless adults have high rates of hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) and low levels of HCV knowledge. This study reports results of an interdisciplinary, community-based intervention using stakeholder cooperation, case management, risk factor identification, and modification of dysfunctional psychosocial factors to increase HCV knowledge among homeless adults (N = 747). Data are from a randomized quasi-experimental study, with the major goal of evaluating the effectiveness of a Nurse Case Managed Intervention compared to a Standard Intervention, encouraging completion of a three-series hepatitis A/hepatitis B vaccination program. Increased HCV knowledge was measured with an 18-item questionnaire discerning risk factors for HCV and common misconceptions about individuals with HCV. A significant increase in HCV knowledge resulted regardless of intervention format. Receiving the Nurse Case Managed Intervention predicted greatest gain in HCV knowledge (p < 0.000). Successfully engaging key stakeholders, outreach workers, community organizations, and homeless people themselves proved most efficacious in increasing HCV knowledge. PMID:23616250

  6. Early prenatal androgenization results in diminished ovarian reserve in adult female rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Dumesic, D.A.; Patankar, M.S.; Barnett, D.K.; Lesnick, T.G.; Hutcherson, B.A.; Abbott, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Early prenatal androgenization (PA) accelerates follicle differentiation and impairs embryogenesis in adult female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) undergoing FSH therapy for IVF. To determine whether androgen excess in utero affects follicle development over time, this study examines whether PA exposure, beginning at gestational days 40–44 (early treated) or 100–115 (late treated), alters the decline in serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels with age in adult female rhesus monkeys and perturbs their ovarian response to recombinant human FSH (rhFSH) therapy for IVF. METHODS Thirteen normal (control), 11 early-treated and 6 late-treated PA adult female monkeys had serum AMH levels measured at random times of the menstrual cycle or anovulatory period. Using some of the same animals, basal serum AMH, gonadotrophins and steroids were also measured in six normal, five early-treated and three late-treated PA female monkeys undergoing FSH therapy for IVF during late-reproductive life (>17 years); serum AMH also was measured on day of HCG administration and at oocyte retrieval. RESULTS Serum AMH levels in early-treated PA females declined with age to levels that were significantly lower than those of normal (P ≤ 0.05) and late-treated PA females (P ≤ 0.025) by late-reproductive life. Serum AMH levels positively predicted numbers of total/mature oocytes retrieved, with early-treated PA females having the lowest serum AMH levels, fewest oocytes retrieved and lowest percentage of females with fertilized oocytes that cleaved. CONCLUSIONS Based on these animals, early PA appears to program an exaggerated decline in ovarian reserve with age, suggesting that epigenetically induced hormonal factors during fetal development may influence the cohort size of ovarian follicles after birth. PMID:19740899

  7. [Transfer of cardiac catheterisation from a paediatric to an adult cardiological centre: results at 3 years].

    PubMed

    Agnoletti, G; Boudjemline, Y; Ladouceur, M; Iserin, L

    2007-05-01

    The advances of surgical and interventional treatment of congenital heart diseases have allowed a large number of patients with congenital heart disease to reach adult age. This population involves almost 0.3/1000 of total population in West Europe and North America and can be estimated around 200000 patients in France. Patients with operated Tetralogy of Fallot, benign forms of pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect, simple or complex transposition of the great arteries usually survive beyond childhood. These patients can need repeated interventions to treat lesions of native or reconstructed pulmonary arteries and/or aortic arch, to occlude residual shunts, to treat pulmonary incompetence. More complex heart diseases such as single ventricle, rarely allow survival until the adult age. The majority of these patients undergo heart transplant, often made difficult by multiple cardiac surgeries, anomalies of pulmonary arteries, chronic cyanosis, aorto-pulmonary shunts. Patients with relatively simple or complex congenital heart diseases need to be followed-up in specialized units, like those created more than twenty years ago in the United States, Canada, and United Kingdom. Interventional cardiac catheterisation play a major role in the management of this population. The results of 3 years of activity in a new centre treating GUCH patients are illustrated. PMID:17646764

  8. Cigarette smoking and the risk of adult leukemia: results from the Three Mile Island cohort study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohui; Talbott, Evelyn O; Zborowski, Jeanne V; Rager, Judith R

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is an unconfirmed risk factor for the development of leukemia. The authors examined the potential link using data from the Three Mile Island cohort for the period 1979-1995. Eligible for analysis were 24,539 individuals aged 14 years or older who were followed up over 16 years from the Three Mile Island cohort. The authors identified all incident leukemia cases through the Pennsylvania Department of Health Cancer Registry. They used the Cox proportional hazards model to evaluate the relationships and observed 42 incident leukemia cases, including 15 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases, in the cohort. After controlling for other confounding factors, the authors found current smoking to be associated with an increased risk of adult AML (relative risk = 3.47; 95% confidence interval = 1.002-11.99). The authors also observed a marginally significant linear trend of risk of AML associated with the number of years smoked (p = .06). The results from this study suggested that cigarette smoking was associated with an increased risk of adult AML. Further investigation is required to confirm these findings. PMID:18400653

  9. The Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine among Lebanese Adults: Results from a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Naja, F.; Alameddine, M.; Itani, L.; Shoaib, H.; Hariri, D.; Talhouk, S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine the prevalence and correlates of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use in Lebanon. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted through face to face interviews on a nationally representative sample of 1,475 Lebanese adults. The survey questionnaire explored the sociodemographic and health related characteristics as well as the types and modes of CAM use. The main outcome in this study was the use of CAM during the last 12 months. Results. Prevalence of CAM use was 29.87% with “folk herbs” being the most commonly used (75%). Two out of five CAM users indicated using it as alternative to conventional therapies and only 28.4% of users disclosed the use of CAM to their physician. CAM use was significantly associated with higher income, presence of a chronic disease, and lack of access to needed health care. Lower odds of CAM use were observed among older adults and those with a higher education level. Conclusions. This study revealed a high prevalence of CAM use in Lebanon. Health policy and decision makers need to facilitate proper regulation and integration of CAM into mainstream medicine and educate health care providers and the public alike on the safe and effective use of CAM therapies. PMID:26106436

  10. Cytochrome c oxidase response to changes in cerebral oxygen delivery in the adult brain shows higher brain-specificity than haemoglobin☆

    PubMed Central

    Kolyva, Christina; Ghosh, Arnab; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Highton, David; Cooper, Chris E.; Smith, Martin; Elwell, Clare E.

    2014-01-01

    The redox state of cerebral mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase monitored with near-infrared spectroscopy (Δ[oxCCO]) is a signal with strong potential as a non-invasive, bedside biomarker of cerebral metabolic status. We hypothesised that the higher mitochondrial density of brain compared to skin and skull would lead to evidence of brain-specificity of the Δ[oxCCO] signal when measured with a multi-distance near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system. Measurements of Δ[oxCCO] as well as of concentration changes in oxygenated (Δ[HbO2]) and deoxygenated haemoglobin (Δ[HHb]) were taken at multiple source-detector distances during systemic hypoxia and hypocapnia (decrease in cerebral oxygen delivery), and hyperoxia and hypercapnia (increase in cerebral oxygen delivery) from 15 adult healthy volunteers. Increasing source-detector spacing is associated with increasing light penetration depth and thus higher sensitivity to cerebral changes. An increase in Δ[oxCCO] was observed during the challenges that increased cerebral oxygen delivery and the opposite was observed when cerebral oxygen delivery decreased. A consistent pattern of statistically significant increasing amplitude of the Δ[oxCCO] response with increasing light penetration depth was observed in all four challenges, a behaviour that was distinctly different from that of the haemoglobin chromophores, which did not show this statistically significant depth gradient. This depth-dependence of the Δ[oxCCO] signal corroborates the notion of higher concentrations of CCO being present in cerebral tissue compared to extracranial components and highlights the value of NIRS-derived Δ[oxCCO] as a brain-specific signal of cerebral metabolism, superior in this aspect to haemoglobin. PMID:23707584

  11. Cytochrome c oxidase response to changes in cerebral oxygen delivery in the adult brain shows higher brain-specificity than haemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Kolyva, Christina; Ghosh, Arnab; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Highton, David; Cooper, Chris E; Smith, Martin; Elwell, Clare E

    2014-01-15

    The redox state of cerebral mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase monitored with near-infrared spectroscopy (Δ[oxCCO]) is a signal with strong potential as a non-invasive, bedside biomarker of cerebral metabolic status. We hypothesised that the higher mitochondrial density of brain compared to skin and skull would lead to evidence of brain-specificity of the Δ[oxCCO] signal when measured with a multi-distance near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system. Measurements of Δ[oxCCO] as well as of concentration changes in oxygenated (Δ[HbO2]) and deoxygenated haemoglobin (Δ[HHb]) were taken at multiple source-detector distances during systemic hypoxia and hypocapnia (decrease in cerebral oxygen delivery), and hyperoxia and hypercapnia (increase in cerebral oxygen delivery) from 15 adult healthy volunteers. Increasing source-detector spacing is associated with increasing light penetration depth and thus higher sensitivity to cerebral changes. An increase in Δ[oxCCO] was observed during the challenges that increased cerebral oxygen delivery and the opposite was observed when cerebral oxygen delivery decreased. A consistent pattern of statistically significant increasing amplitude of the Δ[oxCCO] response with increasing light penetration depth was observed in all four challenges, a behaviour that was distinctly different from that of the haemoglobin chromophores, which did not show this statistically significant depth gradient. This depth-dependence of the Δ[oxCCO] signal corroborates the notion of higher concentrations of CCO being present in cerebral tissue compared to extracranial components and highlights the value of NIRS-derived Δ[oxCCO] as a brain-specific signal of cerebral metabolism, superior in this aspect to haemoglobin. PMID:23707584

  12. Targeting Adults Who Provide Alcohol to Underage Youth: Results from a National Survey of Local Law Enforcement Agencies

    PubMed Central

    Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Toomey, Traci L.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We investigated what local enforcement agencies are doing to target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth; what types of enforcement activities are being conducted to target adult providers; and factors that encourage enforcement activities that target adult providers. Method We surveyed 1056 local law enforcement agencies in the U.S. and measured whether or not the agency conducted enforcement activities that target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. We also measured whether certain agency and jurisdiction characteristics were associated with enforcement activities that target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. Results Less than half (42%) of local enforcement agencies conducted enforcement efforts targeting adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. Agencies that conducted the enforcement activities targeting adult providers were significantly more likely to have a full time officer specific to alcohol enforcement, a division specific to alcohol enforcement, a social host law, and to perceive underage drinking was very common. Conclusions Results suggest that targeting social providers (i.e., adults over 21 years of age) will require greater law enforcement resources, implementation of underage drinking laws (e.g., social host policies), and changing perceptions among law enforcement regarding underage drinking. Future studies are needed to identify the most effective enforcement efforts and to examine how enforcement efforts are prospectively linked to alcohol consumption. PMID:25466432

  13. Clinical results with a hearing aid and a single-channel vibrotactile device for profoundly deaf adults.

    PubMed

    Blamey, P J; Dowell, R C; Brown, A M; Clark, G M

    1985-08-01

    The speech perception of a group of 19 adults with post-lingual profound to total hearing loss was tested with nine closed-set speech tests without lipreading, two open-set tests without lipreading and two open-set speech tests with lipreading. The subjects were all prospective cochlear implant patients participating in a clinical trial of the implant and the results reported here were obtained as part of the pre-operative assessment. They were divided into groups on the basis of their prior experience with the aid(s), their speech detection thresholds with the two aids and their personal preferences. Seven of the subjects used a hand-held single-channel vibrotactile device and the other 12 used a powerful conventional hearing aid. Subjects from each group scored significantly better than chance on the closed set tests without lipreading. Training or regular hearing aid use was correlated with good performance on the closed-set tests. No subject showed a significant improvement of the lipreading score when the aid was used as a supplement. The use of sophisticated wearable tactile devices and extensive training may allow a better result, but in this clinical program, neither a hearing aid nor a single-channel vibrotactile device greatly benefited the postlingually profoundly deaf adults. PMID:4063556

  14. Perinatal Exposure to Neuregulin-1 Results in Disinhibition of Adult Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons: Implication in Schizophrenia Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Namba, Hisaaki; Okubo, Takeshi; Nawa, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant neuregulin-1 (NRG1) signals are suggested to associate with the neuropathophysiology of schizophrenia. Employing a mouse schizophrenia model established by neonatal neuregulin-1 challenge, we analysed postpubertal consequence of the NRG1 pretreatment for the electrophysiological property of nigral dopamine neurons. In vivo single unit recordings from anaesthetized NRG1-pretreated mice revealed increased spike bursting of nigral dopamine neurons. In slice preparations from NRG1-pretreated mice, spontaneous firing was elevated relative to controls. The relative increase in firing rates was abolished by a GABAA receptor antagonist. Whole-cell recording showed that perinatal NRG1 pretreatment diminished inhibitory miniature synaptic currents as well as GABAA receptor sensitivity. These results collectively suggest that perinatal exposure to neuregulin-1 results in the disinhibition of nigral dopamine neurons to influence their firing properties at the adult stage when the behavioral deficits are evident. PMID:26935991

  15. Prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide results in myocardial remodelling in adult murine offspring

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The epigenetic plasticity hypothesis indicates that pregnancy exposure may result in adult-onset diseases, including hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, in offspring. In a previous study, we discovered that prenatal exposure to inflammatory stimulants, such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), could lead to hypertension in adult rat offspring. In the present study, we further demonstrate that maternal inflammation induces cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction via ectopic over-expression of nuclear transcription factor κB (NF- κB), and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) can protect cardiac function by reducing maternal inflammation. Methods Pregnant SD rats were randomly divided into three groups and intraperitoneally injected with a vehicle, LPS (0.79 mg/kg), or LPS (0.79 mg/kg) plus PDTC (100 mg/kg) at 8 to 12 days of gestation. The offspring were raised until 4 and 8 months old, at which point an echocardiographic study was performed. The left ventricular (LV) mass index and apoptosis were examined. Results At 4 months of age, the LPS offspring exhibited augmented posterior wall thickness. These rats displayed left ventricle (LV) hypertrophy and LV diastolic dysfunction as well as a higher apoptotic index, a higher level of Bax and a lower level of Bcl-2 at 8 months of age. The protein levels of NF-κB (p65) in the myocardium of the offspring were measured at this time. NF-κB protein levels were higher in the myocardium of LPS offspring. The offspring that were prenatally treated with PDTC displayed improved signs of blood pressure (BP) and LV hypertrophy. Conclusions Maternal inflammation can induce cardiac hypertrophy in offspring during aging accompanied with hypertension emergence and can be rescued by the maternal administration of PDTC (the inhibitor of NF-κB). PMID:24764457

  16. Comparision of clinical and histopathological results of hyalomatrix usage in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Erbatur, Serkan; Coban, Yusuf Kenan; Aydın, Engin Nasuhi

    2012-01-01

    Clinical and histopathological results of the hyaluronic acid skin substitute treatment of the patients who admitted to Inonu University Medical Faculty Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery clinic between january 2011 and march 2012 were evaluated. The patients were divided into two groups. HA were used for treatment of Hypertrophic scar (HS) or Keloid (K) in 10 patients of the first group. Skin biopsies obtained at peroperative and postoperative 3rd month were subjected to histopathologic examination in this group. In the second group, 10 patients with full thickness soft tissue loss secondary to burns, trauma or excisional reasons were also treated with HA application. Vancouver scar scale were used to determine the scar quality in both groups. Mean age was 25. 2 ± 10.2 and mean follow-up duration was 6.3±3.6 months in group 1. Preoperative and postoperative VSS scores in group 1 were 10.7±1.16 and 6.2±0.91, respectively. This difference was statistically significant (p<0,005). No HS or K development was seen in any patient in group 2 during the following period. Collagenisation scores of preoperative skin biopsies were significantly higher than postoperative scores (p<0,0001).Vascularisation scores of preoperative skin biopsies were significantly lower than postoperative scores (p<0,00001). The use of HA skin substitute in adults for treatment of HS or K provided the desired clinical healing in the 6 months' follow-up periods. At the same time, HA application as an alternative to other treatment modalities led to a durable skin coverage in full thickness tissue loss in adult patients. PMID:23071910

  17. Cardiometabolic risk factors predict cerebrovascular health in older adults: results from the Brain in Motion study.

    PubMed

    Tyndall, Amanda V; Argourd, Laurie; Sajobi, Tolulope T; Davenport, Margie H; Forbes, Scott C; Gill, Stephanie J; Parboosingh, Jillian S; Anderson, Todd J; Wilson, Ben J; Smith, Eric E; Hogan, David B; Hill, Michael D; Poulin, Marc J

    2016-04-01

    Aging and physical inactivity are associated with an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS). With the rising prevalence of MetS, it is important to determine the extent to which it affects cerebrovascular health. The primary purpose of this report is to examine the impact of MetS on cerebrovascular health (resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) peak velocity (V¯P), cerebrovascular conductance (CVC), and CBF responses to hypercapnia) in healthy older adults with normal cognition. A secondary goal was to examine the influence of apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 expression on these indices. In a sample of 258 healthy men and women older than 53 years, 29.1% met criteria for MetS. MetS, sex, and age were found to be significant predictors of CVC, and V¯P, MetS, and APOE status were significant predictors of V¯P-reactivity, and CVC-reactivity was best predicted by MetS status. After controlling for these factors, participants with MetS demonstrated lower cerebrovascular measures (CVC, V¯P, CVC-reactivity, and V¯P-reactivity) compared to participants without MetS. APOE ε4 carriers had higher V¯P-reactivity than noncarriers. These results provide evidence that cardiometabolic and vascular risk factors clustered together as the MetS predict measures of cerebrovascular health indices in older adults. Higher V¯P-reactivity in APOE ε4 carriers suggests vascular compensation for deleterious effects of this known risk allele for Alzheimer's disease and stroke. PMID:27117804

  18. Symptoms and socio-economic impact of ependymoma on adult patients: results of the Adult Ependymoma Outcomes Project 2.

    PubMed

    Walbert, Tobias; Mendoza, Tito R; Vera-Bolaños, Elizabeth; Acquaye, Alvina; Gilbert, Mark R; Armstrong, Terri S

    2015-01-01

    Ependymoma is a rare central nervous system tumor of adults. Reports of patient symptoms, interference patterns and costs encountered by patients and families are limited. Adult ependymoma patients completed the online Ependymoma Outcomes Questionnaire II. The survey assesses disease and functional status as well as socio-economic factors. Descriptive statistics were used to report disease characteristics as well as economic and social impact. Independent samples t test was used to test if differences exist between high- and low-income groups in terms of symptom severity. Correlations were calculated between symptoms and cost estimates. 86 international patients participated (male = 50 %). The economic analysis focused on 78 respondents from the US. 48 % were employed and 55 % earned ≥$60,000. Tumors were located in the brain (44 %), spine (44 %) or both (12 %). Spine patients compared to brain patients reported significantly worse pain (4.4 versus 2.2, p < .003), numbness (5.3 versus 2.2, p < .001), fatigue (5.1 versus 3.6, p < .03), changes in bowel patterns (3.8 versus 1.4, p < .003) and weakness (4.2 versus 2.1, p < .006). Brain patients compared with spine patients had increased lack of appetite (.4 versus 2, p < .014). Patients with lower income (≤$59,999) had more problems concentrating (p < .024) and worse cognitive module severity scores (p < .024). Estimated average monthly out-of-pocket spending was $168 for medical co-pays and $59 for prescription medication. Patients with ependymoma are highly affected by their symptoms. Spinal patients report higher severity of symptoms. Patients in the lower income group report significantly higher severity of cognitive symptoms independent of disease site. PMID:25359395

  19. Long-Term Outcomes of Cultivated Limbal Epithelial Transplantation: Evaluation and Comparison of Results in Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ganger, Anita; Vanathi, M.; Mohanty, Sujata; Tandon, Radhika

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the long-term clinical outcomes of cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation (CLET) in children and adults with limbal stem cell deficiency. Design. Retrospective case series. Methods. Case records of patients with limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) who underwent CLET from April 2004 to December 2014 were studied. Outcome measures were compared in terms of anatomical success and visual improvement. Parameters for total anatomical success were avascular, epithelized, and clinically stable corneal surface without conjunctivalization, whereas partial anatomical success was considered when mild vascularization (sparing centre of cornea) and mild conjunctivalization were noted along with complete epithelization. Results. A total of 62 cases underwent the CLET procedure: 38 (61.3%) were children and 24 (38.7%) were adults. Patients with unilateral LSCD (33 children and 21 adults) had autografts and those with bilateral LSCD (5 children and 3 adults) had allografts. Amongst the 54 autografts partial and total anatomical success were noted in 21.2% and 66.6% children, respectively, and 19.0% and 80.9% in adults, respectively (p value 0.23). Visual improvement of 1 line and ≥2 lines was seen in 57.5% and 21.2% children, respectively, and 38% and 38% in adults, respectively (p value 0.31). Conclusion. Cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation gives good long-term results in patients with LSCD and the outcomes are comparable in children and adults. PMID:26770973

  20. Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 Signaling in Adult Cardiomyocytes Increases Contractility and Results in a Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cilvik, Sarah N.; Wang, Joy I.; Lavine, Kory J.; Uchida, Keita; Castro, Angela; Gierasch, Carolyn M.; Weinheimer, Carla J.; House, Stacey L.; Kovacs, Attila; Nichols, Colin G.; Ornitz, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors are highly conserved signaling molecules that have been implicated in postnatal cardiac remodeling. However, it is not known whether cardiomyocyte-expressed FGF receptors are necessary or sufficient for ventricular remodeling in the adult heart. To determine whether cardiomyocytes were competent to respond to an activated FGF receptor, and to determine if this signal would result in the development of hypertrophy, we engineered a doxycycline (DOX)-inducible, cardiomyocyte-specific, constitutively active FGF receptor mouse model (αMHC-rtTA, TRE-caFgfr1-myc). Echocardiographic and hemodynamic analysis indicated that acute expression of caFGFR1 rapidly and directly increased cardiac contractility, while chronic expression resulted in significant hypertrophy with preservation of systolic function. Subsequent histologic analysis showed increased cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area and regions of myocyte disarray and fibrosis, classic features of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Analysis of downstream pathways revealed a lack of clear activation of classical FGF-mediated signaling pathways, but did demonstrate a reduction in Serca2 expression and troponin I phosphorylation. Isolated ventricular myocytes showed enhanced contractility and reduced relaxation, an effect that was partially reversed by inhibition of actin-myosin interactions. We conclude that adult cardiomyocytes are competent to transduce FGF signaling and that FGF signaling is sufficient to promote increased cardiomyocyte contractility in vitro and in vivo through enhanced intrinsic actin-myosin interactions. Long-term, FGFR overexpression results in HCM with a dynamic outflow tract obstruction, and may serve as a unique model of HCM. PMID:24349409

  1. Results of Innovative and Supportive Learning Programs for Homeless Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinatra, Richard; Eschenauer, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Four-week summer academy programs served homeless children and adults in two contiguous innovative learning programs. The programs may be the first of their kind in the homeless literature in which both adults and children were exposed to career, academic, and leadership opportunities in the supportive learning environment of a university campus,…

  2. Pathways to Homelessness among Older Homeless Adults: Results from the HOPE HOME Study

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rebecca T.; Goodman, Leah; Guzman, David; Tieu, Lina; Ponath, Claudia; Kushel, Margot B.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about pathways to homelessness among older adults. We identified life course experiences associated with earlier versus later onset of homelessness in older homeless adults and examined current health and functional status by age at first homelessness. We interviewed 350 homeless adults, aged 50 and older, recruited via population-based sampling. Participants reported age at first episode of adult homelessness and their life experiences during 3 time periods: childhood (<18 years), young adulthood (ages 18–25), and middle adulthood (ages 26–49). We used a structured modeling approach to identify experiences associated with first adult homelessness before age 50 versus at age 50 or older. Participants reported current health and functional status, including recent mental health and substance use problems. Older homeless adults who first became homeless before 50 had more adverse life experiences (i.e., mental health and substance use problems, imprisonment) and lower attainment of adult milestones (i.e., marriage, full-time employment) compared to individuals with later onset. After multivariable adjustment, adverse experiences were independently associated with experiencing a first episode of homelessness before age 50. Individuals who first became homeless before age 50 had higher prevalence of recent mental health and substance use problems and more difficulty performing instrumental activities of daily living. Life course experiences and current vulnerabilities of older homeless adults with first homelessness before age 50 differed from those with later onset of homelessness. Prevention and service interventions should be adapted to meet different needs. PMID:27163478

  3. Employment in Adults with Down Syndrome in the United States: Results from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumin, Libby; Schoenbrodt, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is no current data about employment/unemployment of adults with Down syndrome in the United States. The data that exists includes adults with Down syndrome as part of the larger group of people with disabilities or people with intellectual disability. Method: This study used a survey to investigate paid and volunteer employment,…

  4. Characteristics of Physical Activity Programs for Older Adults: Results of a Multisite Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Susan L.; Williams, Barbara; Molina, Lourdes C.; Bayles, Constance; Bryant, Lucinda L.; Harris, Jeffrey R.; Hunter, Rebecca; Ivey, Susan; Watkins, Ken

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Although increased participation in physical activity by older adults is a major public health goal, little is known about the supply and use of physical activity programs in the United States. Design and Methods: Seven academic centers in diverse geographic areas surveyed physical activity programs for older adults. Five sites conducted…

  5. Cognitive Enhancement Therapy for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Results of an 18-Month Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Bahorik, Amber L.; Litschge, Maralee Y.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    Adults with autism experience significant impairments in social and non-social information processing for which few treatments have been developed. This study conducted an 18-month uncontrolled trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET), a comprehensive cognitive rehabilitation intervention, in 14 verbal adults with autism spectrum disorder to…

  6. Cochlear Implantation in Adults with Prelingual Deafness. Part I. Clinical Results

    PubMed Central

    Teoh, Su Wooi; Pisoni, David B.; Miyamoto, Richard T.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis To examine the hypothesis that the newer generations of cochlear implants could provide considerable speech understanding to late-implanted, prelingually deaf adult patients. Study Design Retrospective review. Methods Speech perception scores of 103 patients with long-term pre-lingual deafness obtained from the recent clinical trials were compared with other previously published results. Results Unlike patients receiving implants in early childhood, the audiologic performance of most patients with long-term prelingual deafness rapidly approached asymptotic levels within 1 year after implantation. Beginning at 3 months postimplantation, statistically significant improvement was noted in their speech perception scores compared with their preimplant levels. However, the average performance plateau achieved by this group of patients was significantly below the levels published for postlingual patients. No statistically significant differences were observed between the test scores at any testing interval among patients with different devices. Conclusions Most patients with long-term prelingual deafness achieve their performance plateau within 1 year after implantation. The results suggest that patient characteristics, rather than device properties, are likely to be the major contributing factor responsible for the observed audiologic outcomes. PMID:15475777

  7. Adolescent perceptions of cholesterol screening results: “young invincibles” or developing adults?

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Holly C.; Sheldrick, R. Christopher; Leslie, Laurel K.; Shah, Supriya; de Ferranti, Sarah D.; Mackie, Thomas I.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Guidelines recommend cholesterol screening for all adolescents and young adults (AYAs) ages 17-21 years. Little is known about how screening results impact perceptions of AYA health. Methods We recruited 37 AYAs and 35 parents of AYAs with differing risk for abnormal cholesterol results: (1) familial hypercholesterolemia, (2) obesity, and (3) generally healthy. Participants completed quantitative health status ratings using visual analog scales (VAS) and semi-structured interviews regarding three hypothetical cholesterol screening scenarios: a) high likelihood of cardiovascular disease (CVD) before age 40 (“high-risk”), b) some risk of CVD before age 70 (“moderate-risk”), and c) low risk for CVD despite a strong family history of CVD (“low-risk”). We analyzed VAS data with logistic regression and qualitative data with a priori and emergent coding using multiple coders. Results Each group perceived all three cholesterol screening scenarios as comparatively less than perfect health; the high-risk result fell furthest from perfect health. While there was no significant difference between AYAs and parents in VAS ratings, qualitative analyses revealed AYAs were more likely than parents to discount the impact of moderate-risk results due to longer length of time before predicted CVD. Conclusions AYAs’ and parents’ perceptions of the impact of cholesterol screening results on AYA health varied by presented scenario, ranging from mild to significant decreases in perceptions of AYA health. As universal cholesterol screening continues to be adopted in this age group, further studies of the real-life impact on AYA risk perceptions and subsequent behavior is warranted. PMID:27155960

  8. Vitamin D is associated with cardiopulmonary exercise capacity: results of two independent cohorts of healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kaul, A; Gläser, S; Hannemann, A; Schäper, C; Nauck, M; Felix, S B; Bollmann, T; Ewert, R; Friedrich, N

    2016-02-14

    Vitamin D has an important role in calcium homeostasis and is known to have various health-promoting effects. Moreover, potential interactions between vitamin D and physical activity have been suggested. This study aims to investigate the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and exercise capacity quantified by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). For this, 1377 participants from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-1) and 750 participants from the independent SHIP-TREND cohort were investigated. Standardised incremental exercise tests on a cycle ergometer were performed to assess exercise capacity by VO2 at anaerobic threshold, peakVO2, O2 pulse and peak power output. Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured by an automated chemiluminescence immunoassay. In SHIP-1, 25(OH)D levels were positively associated with all considered parameters of cardiopulmonary exercise capacity. Subjects with high 25(OH)D levels (4th quartile) showed an up to 25% higher exercise capacity compared with subjects with low 25(OH)D levels (1st quartile). All associations were replicated in the independent SHIP-TREND cohort and were independent of age, sex, season and other interfering factors. In conclusion, significant positive associations between 25(OH)D and parameters of CPET were detected in two large cohorts of healthy adults. PMID:26620039

  9. Urinary sodium or potassium excretion and blood pressure in adults of Shandong province, China: preliminary results of the SMASH project.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Guo, Xiaolei; Ma, Jixiang; Zhang, Jiyu; Tang, Junli; Yan, Liuxia; Xu, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xiaofei; Ren, Jie; Lu, Zilong; Zhang, Gaohui; Dong, Jing; Xu, Aiqiang

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the urinary electrolyte excretion and assess the relationship between dietary sodium or potassium intake and blood pressure within a population of 18-69 adults in Shandong province, China. Random samples of 2184 adults enrolled in the Shandong and Ministry of Health Action on Salt reduction and Hypertension project were collected from 20 countries or districts. Electrolyte intake was estimated by 24-hour urine collections, and urinary volume or creatinine was measured to estimate the accuracy of the collection. Anthropometry was measured with standard procedures. Regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between electrolyte excretion and blood pressure. The mean sodium excretion was 241.8 ± 7.9 mmol among men and 222.3 ± 7.9 mmol among women, respectively. The 24-hour average potassium excretion was 39.9 ± 0.9 and 41.8 ± 1.1 mmol, respectively. Some resident and geographic differences were found for 24-hour urinary electrolyte. Regression analysis showed increments of 1.15 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure and 0.67 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure per gram increment in urinary sodium excretion. For each increment of 1-g potassium excretion per day, there was a decrement of 0.81 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure and 0.76 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure. The highest blood pressure was observed in the group with lowest potassium and the highest sodium excretion, which was 13.6 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure and 7.3 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure difference from group with highest potassium excretion and lowest sodium excretion (P < .0001 for interaction). The Shandong and Ministry of Health Action on Salt reduction and Hypertension project results show a substantially higher sodium excretion and a lower potassium excretion than recommended in Shandong adults. The sodium or potassium intake is positively association with blood pressure. These results support the recommended approaches to lower the risk of

  10. Late Results after Repair of Partial Atrioventricular Septal Defect in Adolescents and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lukács, László; Szántó, György; Kassai, Imre; Lengyel, Mária

    1992-01-01

    . The rate of freedom from reoperation was 77.7% ± 25.9%. We conclude that, in adolescents and adults, correction of a partial atrioventricular septal defect entails little risk and is likely to improve the patient's functional status. Repair of the left atrioventricular valve yields good results, even at long-term follow-up. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1992;19:265-9) PMID:15227452

  11. Construction of an extended library of adult male 3D models: rationale and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broggio, D.; Beurrier, J.; Bremaud, M.; Desbrée, A.; Farah, J.; Huet, C.; Franck, D.

    2011-12-01

    In order to best cover the possible extent of heights and weights of male adults the construction of 25 whole body 3D models has been undertaken. Such a library is thought to be useful to specify the uncertainties and relevance of dosimetry calculations carried out with models representing individuals of average body heights and weights. Representative 3D models of Caucasian body types are selected in a commercial database according to their height and weight, and 3D models of the skeleton and internal organs are designed using another commercial dataset. A review of the literature enabled one to fix volume or mass target values for the skeleton, soft organs, skin and fat content of the selected individuals. The composition of the remainder tissue is fixed so that the weight of the voxel models equals the weight of the selected individuals. After mesh and NURBS modelling, volume adjustment of the selected body shapes and additional voxel-based work, 25 voxel models with 109 identified organs or tissue are obtained. Radiation transport calculations are carried out with some of the developed models to illustrate potential uses. The following points are discussed throughout this paper: justification of the fixed or obtained models' features regarding available and relevant literature data; workflow and strategy for major modelling steps; advantages and drawbacks of the obtained library as compared with other works. The construction hypotheses are explained and justified in detail since future calculation results obtained with this library will depend on them.

  12. Strength Gains as a Result of Brief, Infrequent Resistance Exercise in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Fisher, James; Steele, James; McKinnon, Pat; McKinnon, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Chronological aging is associated with a decrease in skeletal muscle mass and bone mineral density, an increase in fat mass, frequency of falls and fractures, and the likelihood of obesity, diabetes, and coronary heart disease. Resistance exercise has been shown to counter all of these effects of aging and, in turn, reduce the risk of all-cause mortality. However, variables such as volume and frequency have become contentious issues, with recent publications suggesting that similar physiological adaptations are possible with both high- and low-volume approaches. The aim of this research was to consider strength increases as a result of brief, infrequent resistance exercise. The present study offers data from 33 (14 male and 19 female) older adults (M = 55 years) who underwent brief (<15 minutes per exercise session), infrequent (2×/week), resistance exercise to a high intensity of effort (6-repetition maximum) at a controlled repetition duration (10 seconds concentric : 10 seconds eccentric) on 5 resistance machines (chest press, leg press, pull-down, seated row, and overhead press). Data is presented for training interventions of 12 weeks (male) and 19 weeks (female). Significant strength increases were identified for all exercises. With the detailed health benefits obtainable, the present study suggests that resistance exercise can be efficacious in much smaller volumes than previously considered. PMID:26464894

  13. Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative Approaches for Motivating Activity in Sedentary Adults: Results of Project STRIDE

    PubMed Central

    Sevick, Mary Ann; Napolitano, Melissa A.; Papandonatos, George D.; Gordon, Adam J.; Reiser, Lorraine M.; Marcus, Bess H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of non face-to-face interventions for increasing physical activity in sedentary adults. The study took place in Providence, Rhode Island between the years 2000 and 2004. Methods 239 participants were randomized to: Phone, Print, or a contact control. Phone and Print groups were mailed regular surveys regarding their level of physical activity, motivational readiness and self-efficacy. Surveys were scanned by a computer expert system to generate feedback reports. Phone group participants received feedback by telephone. Print group participants received feedback by mail. The contact control group received mailings unrelated to physical activity. Intervention costs were assessed prospectively, from a payer perspective. Physical activity was measured using the Physical Activity Recall. Ambulatory health service use was assessed via monthly surveys. Results The Print intervention was more economically efficient than the Phone intervention in engaging participants in a more active lifestyle. Conclusion The Print intervention provides an efficient approach to increasing physical activity. Research is needed to determine the cost-effectiveness of the intervention in a more diverse population, within the context of the health service delivery system, and over a longer period of time. PMID:17573103

  14. Does social status predict adult smoking and obesity? Results from the 2000 Mexican National Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Buttenheim, A.M.; Wong, R.; Goldman, N.; Pebley, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is generally associated with better health, but recent evidence suggests that this ‘social gradient’ in health is far from universal. This study examines whether social gradients in smoking and obesity in Mexico—a country in the midst of rapid socioeconomic change—conform to or diverge from results for richer countries. Using a nationally-representative sample of 39 129 Mexican adults, we calculate the odds of smoking and of being obese by educational attainment and by household wealth. We conclude that socioeconomic determinants of smoking and obesity in Mexico are complex, with some flat gradients and some strong positive or negative gradients. Higher social status (education and assets) is associated with more smoking and less obesity for urban women. Higher status rural women also smoke more, but obesity for these women has a non-linear relationship to education. For urban men, higher asset levels (but not education) are associated with obesity, whereas education is protective of smoking. Higher status rural men with more assets are more likely to smoke and be obese. As household wealth, education, and urbanisation continue to increase in Mexico, these patterns suggest potential targets for public health intervention now and in the future. PMID:19367478

  15. Construction of an extended library of adult male 3D models: rationale and results.

    PubMed

    Broggio, D; Beurrier, J; Bremaud, M; Desbrée, A; Farah, J; Huet, C; Franck, D

    2011-12-01

    In order to best cover the possible extent of heights and weights of male adults the construction of 25 whole body 3D models has been undertaken. Such a library is thought to be useful to specify the uncertainties and relevance of dosimetry calculations carried out with models representing individuals of average body heights and weights. Representative 3D models of Caucasian body types are selected in a commercial database according to their height and weight, and 3D models of the skeleton and internal organs are designed using another commercial dataset. A review of the literature enabled one to fix volume or mass target values for the skeleton, soft organs, skin and fat content of the selected individuals. The composition of the remainder tissue is fixed so that the weight of the voxel models equals the weight of the selected individuals. After mesh and NURBS modelling, volume adjustment of the selected body shapes and additional voxel-based work, 25 voxel models with 109 identified organs or tissue are obtained. Radiation transport calculations are carried out with some of the developed models to illustrate potential uses. The following points are discussed throughout this paper: justification of the fixed or obtained models’ features regarding available and relevant literature data; workflow and strategy for major modelling steps; advantages and drawbacks of the obtained library as compared with other works. The construction hypotheses are explained and justified in detail since future calculation results obtained with this library will depend on them. PMID:22086354

  16. The long-term results of laparoscopic retroperitoneal pyeloplasty in adults

    PubMed Central

    Gargouri, Mohamed M.; Nouira, Yassine; Kallel, Yousri; Sellami, Ahmed; Boulma, Rami; Mohamed, Chlif; Rhouma, Sami Ben

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To report the long-term outcome of laparoscopic retroperitoneal pyeloplasty (LRP) in adults. Patients and methods Thirty patients underwent LRP for primary pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction (PUJO). Anderson–Hynes dismembered pyeloplasty was used in 28 patients and a Foley Y–V pyeloplasty in two. A JJ stent was inserted antegradely during the procedure. Patients were reviewed at 1 month after LRP for stent removal, and then at 6 and 12 months routinely, using excretory urography. Results The mean patient age was 29.7 years, with a female predominance of 60%. Conversion to open surgery was mandated by dense adhesions secondary to previous pyelonephritis in three patients, and difficulty in suturing in one. The mean (range) operative duration was 228 (190–280) min. There was a crossing vessel in 11 patients and it was not transposed in any. The mean hospital stay after LRP was 4.2 days. The mean (range) follow-up was 60 (29–106) months. Of the 26 patients who had complete laparoscopic procedures, 23 had no evidence of obstruction on long-term postoperative intravenous urography and/or diuretic renography. Conclusion LRP combines the high functional success rate of open pyeloplasty in the long term and the minimally invasive morbidity of laparoscopy. PMID:26558113

  17. Perinatal Lead Exposure Alters Gut Microbiota Composition and Results in Sex-specific Bodyweight Increases in Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianfeng; Wen, Xiaoquan William; Faulk, Christopher; Boehnke, Kevin; Zhang, Huapeng; Dolinoy, Dana C; Xi, Chuanwu

    2016-06-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a principle source of environmental contamination. Epidemiological and animal data suggest that early life lead (Pb) exposure results in critical effects on epigenetic gene regulation and child and adult weight trajectories. Using a mouse model of human-relevant exposure, we investigated the effects of perinatal Pb exposure on gut microbiota in adult mice, and the link between gut microbiota and bodyweight changes. Following Pb exposure during gestation and lactation via maternal drinking water, bodyweight in A(vy) strain wild-type non-agouti (a/a) offspring was tracked through adulthood. Gut microbiota of adult mice were characterized by deep DNA sequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes. Data analyses were stratified by sex and adjusted for litter effects. A Bayesian variable selection algorithm was used to analyze associations between bacterial operational taxonomic units and offspring adult bodyweight. Perinatal Pb exposure was associated with increased adult bodyweight in male (P < .05) but not in female offspring (P = .24). Cultivable aerobes decreased and anaerobes increased in Pb-exposed offspring (P < .005 and P < .05, respectively). Proportions of the 2 predominant phyla (Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes) shifted inversely with Pb exposure, and whole bacterial compositions were significantly different (analysis of molecular variance, P < .05) by Pb exposure without sex bias. In males, changes in gut microbiota were highly associated with adult bodyweight (P = .028; effect size = 2.59). Thus, perinatal Pb exposure results in altered adult gut microbiota regardless of sex, and these changes are highly correlated with increased bodyweight in males. Adult gut microbiota can be shaped by early exposures and may contribute to disease risks in a sex-specific manner. PMID:26962054

  18. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the state's best…

  19. Adult Perpetrator Gender Asymmetries in Child Sexual Assault Victim Selection: Results from the 2000 National Incident-Based Reporting System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Kathy A.; Raphael, Desreen N.

    2005-01-01

    Data from the 2000 National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) show that while males make up about nine out of every 10 adult sexual assault perpetrators, totaling about 26,878 incidents within the reporting period, females account for about one out of 10 perpetrators, totaling about 1,162 incidents. Male sexual assault perpetrators offend…

  20. Mouthwash Use in General Population: Results from Adult Dental Health Survey in Grampian, Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Kawecki, Michal M.; Cunningham, Claudia; Bovaird, Iain; Morgan, Rochelle; Rhodes, Kirstin; Watkins, Ray

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the pattern of mouthwash use and to investigate the associated factors in general population. Material and Methods An Adult Dental Health Survey was conducted on 3,022 residents of Grampian region of Scotland (adjusted participation rate 58.2%). Participants received a questionnaire consisting of questions on oral health and behavioural factors. Results The majority of participants (38.1%) have never used mouthwash, 17.5% used mouthwash less than once a month, 19.4% used mouthwash once every few days and 25.1% used mouthwash daily. Prevalence of use decreased with age (P < 0.001). Woman were more likely to use mouthwash than men (P = 0.004). Mouthwash use decreased with decrease in the level of deprivation (P < 0.001). Never-smokers were less likely to use mouthwash (40.3%) compared to smokers (53.1%) or those who stopped smoking (46.5%) (P < 0.001). Mouthwash was used by smaller proportion of people drinking alcohol on daily basis (36.6%), than by abstainers (42.2%) (P = 0.012). There was a positive relationship between flossing or brushing pattern and mouthwash use (P < 0.001). There was statistically significant relationship between mouthwash use and reasons for the last dental visit (P = 0.009). When compared to healthy individuals, mouthwash was used by higher proportion of people reporting that they had gum disease (P = 0.001), ulcers (P = 0.001), oral infections or swelling (P = 0.002) or other problems (P = 0.025). Conclusions Mouthwash use in general population is associated with socio-demographic, health and behavioural factors. PMID:24421979

  1. Adult perpetrator gender asymmetries in child sexual assault victim selection: results from the 2000 National Incident-Based Report System.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, Kathy A; Raphael, Desreen N

    2005-01-01

    Data from the 2000 National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) show that while males make up about nine out of every 10 adult sexual assault perpetrators, totaling about 26,878 incidents within the reporting period, females account for about one out of 10 perpetrators, totaling about 1,162 incidents. Male sexual assault perpetrators offend against child victims about 25% of the time and predominantly choose female child victims, whereas female perpetrators offend against child victims about 40% of the time and choose child victims of both genders equally. Male perpetrators offend against adolescent victims about 40% of the time, and once again tend to choose female adolescent victims. Female perpetrators offend against adolescent victims a comparable amount of time (about 45%), and for forcible offenses (rape, sodomy, sexual assault with an object, and forcible fondling) choose adolescent victims of both genders equally, while for non-forcible offenses (non-forcible incest and statutory rape) they tend to choose predominantly male victims. Finally, adult male sexual assault perpetrators choose adult victims about 36% of the time while female perpetrators choose adult victims only 16% of the time. Implications for professionals are discussed, including recommendations to aid in correct identification of adult perpetrators and child/adolescent victims of sexual assault. PMID:16354646

  2. Whole grain consumption in adults: Results from NHANES 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect that whole grain (WG) consumption has on diet quality and nutrient intake in a recent, nationally representative sample of adults: 19 to 51 years (n=7039), and 51+ years (n=6,237) using a secondary analysis of NHANES 1999-2004 data. Participants ...

  3. Do Sedentary Older Adults Benefit from Community-Based Exercise? Results from the Active Start Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Tingjian; Wilber, Kathleen H.; Aguirre, Rosa; Trejo, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed the effectiveness of Active Start, a community-based behavior change and fitness program, designed to promote physical activity among sedentary community-dwelling older adults. Design and Methods: A quasi-experimental design was used. Data were analyzed using a within-group pretest-post-test design to calculate changes…

  4. Outcome in Adult Life for People with Williams Syndrome Results from a Survey of 239 Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howlin, P.; Udwin, O.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although there has been considerable research into the genotype and phenotype of Williams syndrome, there have been relatively few studies of long-term prognosis. As a preliminary to a more detailed investigation of adults with Williams syndrome, a parental questionnaire was distributed to members of the UK Williams Syndrome…

  5. Learning a Living: First Results of the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey (ALL) is a large-scale co-operative effort undertaken by governments, national statistics agencies, research institutions and multi-lateral agencies. The development and management of the study were co-ordinated by Statistics Canada and the Educational Testing Service (ETS) in collaboration with the…

  6. Barriers to CRC Screening among Latino Adults in Pennsylvania: ACCN Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Dominic, Oralia; Lengerich, Eugene J.; Wray, Linda A.; Parrott, Roxanne; Aumiller, Betsy; Kluhsman, Brenda; Renderos, Carlos; Dignan, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To describe knowledge of and barriers to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening by sex and geography among Latino adults in Pennsylvania. Methods: Eighty-two Latinos greater than 50 years old engaged in one of 8 focus groups. Focus groups consisted of 4 components. Focus group data were audiotaped, transcribed, and grouped into thematic…

  7. Literacy, Economy and Society. Results of the First International Adult Literacy Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Statistics Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) was a collaborative effort by seven governments and three intergovernmental organizations to describe and compare the literacy skills of people from Canada, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States. Each country drew a probability sample from which results…

  8. An Exploration of Transformational Learning in Adults as a Result of Adventure Travel Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory qualitative research study was to identify the elements of adventure travel experiences that contribute to the process of transformational learning in adults. A qualitative research design was employed for this study. The sources of data were twelve pre-existing and de-identified interview transcriptions. A textual…

  9. Documenting and Analyzing the Results of Non-Formal Adult Education: The Hungarian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toth, Janos Szigeti

    2007-01-01

    Many valuable activities and local innovations go on in the field of non-formal adult learning. With the pressures of day-today work it is impossible to have a systematic overview of these, so that they are forgotten and are not continued, developed or passed on to others. More generally, these activities fail to be documented and analysed, even…

  10. Feelings towards Older vs. Younger Adults: Results from the European Social Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayalon, Liat

    2013-01-01

    The study evaluated the association of modernization (at the macro/societal-level) and modernity (at the micro/individual-level) with feelings towards older vs. younger adults. Analysis was based on the fourth wave of the European Social Survey, which includes a rotated module on ageism. The sample consisted of 28 countries and a total of 54,988…

  11. Happiness and arousal: framing happiness as arousing results in lower happiness ratings for older adults.

    PubMed

    Bjalkebring, Par; Västfjäll, Daniel; Johansson, Boo E A

    2015-01-01

    Older adults have been shown to describe their happiness as lower in arousal when compared to younger adults. In addition, older adults prefer low arousal positive emotions over high arousal positive emotions in their daily lives. We experimentally investigated whether or not changing a few words in the description of happiness could influence a person's rating of their happiness. We randomly assigned 193 participants, aged 22-92 years, to one of three conditions (high arousal, low arousal, or control). In line with previous findings, we found that older participants rated their happiness lower when framed as high in arousal (i.e., ecstatic, to be bursting with positive emotions) and rated their happiness higher when framed as low in arousal (i.e., satisfied, to have a life filled with positive emotions). Younger adults remained uninfluenced by the manipulation. Our study demonstrates that arousal is essential to understanding ratings of happiness, and gives support to the notion that there are age differences in the preference for arousal. PMID:26097459

  12. Low Physical Fitness Levels in Older Adults with ID: Results of the HA-ID Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Physical fitness is as important to aging adults with ID as in the general population, but to date, the physical fitness levels of this group are unknown. Comfortable walking speed, muscle strength (grip strength), muscle endurance (30 s Chair stand) and cardiorespiratory endurance (10 m incremental shuttle walking test) were tested in a sample of…

  13. Skills Matter: Further Results from the Survey of Adult Skills. OECD Skills Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kankaraš, Miloš; Montt, Guillermo; Paccagnella, Marco; Quintini, Glenda; Thorn, William

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the technological revolution that began in the last decades of the 20th century, labour market demand for information-processing and other high-level cognitive and interpersonal skills is growing substantially. The "Survey of Adult Skills," a product of the OECD Programme for the International Assessment of Adult…

  14. Fiber consumption and metabolic syndrome in adults: Results from NHANES 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect ofincreasing fiber and whole grain (WG) consumption on the odds of having metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a recent, nationally representative sample of US adults 19 to 51 years (n=7,039) and 51+ years (n=6,237) using a secondary analysis of NHANES 1...

  15. Characterization and Genetic Analysis of a Novel Light-Dependent Lesion Mimic Mutant, lm3, Showing Adult-Plant Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Common Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; Wu, Wenying; Wang, Dongzhi; Yang, Wenlong; Sun, Jiazhu; Liu, Dongcheng; Zhang, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Lesion mimics (LMs) that exhibit spontaneous disease-like lesions in the absence of pathogen attack might confer enhanced plant disease resistance to a wide range of pathogens. The LM mutant, lm3 was derived from a single naturally mutated individual in the F1 population of a 3-1/Jing411 cross, backcrossed six times with 3–1 as the recurrent parent and subsequently self-pollinated twice. The leaves of young seedlings of the lm3 mutant exhibited small, discrete white lesions under natural field conditions. The lesions first appeared at the leaf tips and subsequently expanded throughout the entire leaf blade to the leaf sheath. The lesions were initiated through light intensity and day length. Histochemical staining revealed that lesion formation might reflect programmed cell death (PCD) and abnormal accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The chlorophyll content in the mutant was significantly lower than that in wildtype, and the ratio of chlorophyll a/b was increased significantly in the mutant compared with wildtype, indicating that lm3 showed impairment of the biosynthesis or degradation of chlorophyll, and that Chlorophyll b was prone to damage during lesion formation. The lm3 mutant exhibited enhanced resistance to wheat powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici; Bgt) infection, which was consistent with the increased expression of seven pathogenesis-related (PR) and two wheat chemically induced (WCI) genes involved in the defense-related reaction. Genetic analysis showed that the mutation was controlled through a single partially dominant gene, which was closely linked to Xbarc203 on chromosome 3BL; this gene was delimited to a 40 Mb region between SSR3B450.37 and SSR3B492.6 using a large derived segregating population and the available Chinese Spring chromosome 3B genome sequence. Taken together, our results provide information regarding the identification of a novel wheat LM gene, which will facilitate the additional fine-mapping and

  16. Characterization and Genetic Analysis of a Novel Light-Dependent Lesion Mimic Mutant, lm3, Showing Adult-Plant Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Common Wheat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Wu, Wenying; Wang, Dongzhi; Yang, Wenlong; Sun, Jiazhu; Liu, Dongcheng; Zhang, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Lesion mimics (LMs) that exhibit spontaneous disease-like lesions in the absence of pathogen attack might confer enhanced plant disease resistance to a wide range of pathogens. The LM mutant, lm3 was derived from a single naturally mutated individual in the F1 population of a 3-1/Jing411 cross, backcrossed six times with 3-1 as the recurrent parent and subsequently self-pollinated twice. The leaves of young seedlings of the lm3 mutant exhibited small, discrete white lesions under natural field conditions. The lesions first appeared at the leaf tips and subsequently expanded throughout the entire leaf blade to the leaf sheath. The lesions were initiated through light intensity and day length. Histochemical staining revealed that lesion formation might reflect programmed cell death (PCD) and abnormal accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The chlorophyll content in the mutant was significantly lower than that in wildtype, and the ratio of chlorophyll a/b was increased significantly in the mutant compared with wildtype, indicating that lm3 showed impairment of the biosynthesis or degradation of chlorophyll, and that Chlorophyll b was prone to damage during lesion formation. The lm3 mutant exhibited enhanced resistance to wheat powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici; Bgt) infection, which was consistent with the increased expression of seven pathogenesis-related (PR) and two wheat chemically induced (WCI) genes involved in the defense-related reaction. Genetic analysis showed that the mutation was controlled through a single partially dominant gene, which was closely linked to Xbarc203 on chromosome 3BL; this gene was delimited to a 40 Mb region between SSR3B450.37 and SSR3B492.6 using a large derived segregating population and the available Chinese Spring chromosome 3B genome sequence. Taken together, our results provide information regarding the identification of a novel wheat LM gene, which will facilitate the additional fine-mapping and

  17. Basic Reading Skills and the Literacy of America's Least Literate Adults: Results from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) Supplemental Studies. NCES 2009-481

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Justin; Kutner, Mark; Sabatini, John; White, Sheida

    2009-01-01

    The 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) assessed the English literacy of adults in the United States for the first time since the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey. The assessment was administered to more than 19,000 adults (ages 16 and older) in households and prisons. The tasks included on the assessment were designed to measure…

  18. Umbilical cord blood transplantation in adults: results of the prospective Cord Blood Transplantation (COBLT).

    PubMed

    Cornetta, Kenneth; Laughlin, Mary; Carter, Shelly; Wall, Donna; Weinthal, Joel; Delaney, Colleen; Wagner, John; Sweetman, Robert; McCarthy, Philip; Chao, Nelson

    2005-02-01

    The Cord Blood Transplantation study group conducted a prospective study of unrelated cord blood transplantation (CBT) to better define the role of this stem cell source for subjects requiring unrelated allogeneic transplantation. We report on 1 stratum of the study designated for adult subjects. The primary end point of the study was survival at 180 days. Secondary end points included engraftment, graft-versus-host disease, relapse, and long-term survival. Eligibility criteria for malignant and nonmalignant diseases were specified. Subjects with active central nervous system disease, Karnofsky performance status <70%, grade 3 or 4 or primary myelofibrosis, or suitable related donors were excluded. Enrollment required a single cord blood unit containing >10(7) nucleated cells per kilogram of recipient weight and matched at > or =4 HLA-A and -B (low or intermediate resolution) and -DRB1 (high resolution) types. Thirty-four subjects were entered, with a median age of 34.5 years (range, 18.2-55 years). Most subjects (n = 23) had a 4 of 6 match, 10 subjects had a 5 of 6 match, and 1 subject had a 6 of 6 match. Diagnoses at transplantation included acute myelogenous leukemia (n = 19), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 9), chronic myelogenous leukemia (n = 3), myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 1), paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) (n = 1), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 1); 94% were classified as poor risk according to National Marrow Donor Program criteria. Subjects received total body irradiation/cyclophosphamide (n = 27) or busulfan/melphalan (n = 7) conditioning regimens. Four subjects died before CBT and are described here but are not included in the main analysis. The cumulative incidence rates and median times to neutrophil (500/microL) and platelet (>20,000/microL) engraftment were 0.66 by day 42 (median, 31 days) and 0.35 by day 180 (median, 117 days). The cumulative incidence rate for grade II-IV GVHD was 0.34 by day 100. For the primary end point, survival

  19. AB221. Effects of adult male circumcision on premature ejaculation: results from a prospective study in China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jingjing; Xu, Chuan; Zhang, Xiansheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of adult male circumcision on premature ejaculation (PE). Methods Therefore, between December 2009 and March 2014, a total of 575 circumcised men and 623 uncircumcised men (control group) were evaluated. Detailed evaluations (including circumcision and control groups) on PE were conducted before circumcision and at the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up visits after circumcision. Self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), patient-reported outcome measures, and 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function were used to measure the ejaculatory and erectile function for all subjects. Results The results showed that, during the 1 year follow-up, men after circumcision experienced higher IELT and better scores of control over ejaculation, satisfaction with sexual intercourse, and severity of PE than men before circumcision (P<0.001 for all). Similarly, when compared with the control group, the circumcised men reported significantly improved IELT, control over ejaculation, and satisfaction with sexual intercourse (P<0.001 for all). These findings suggested that circumcision might have positive effects on IELT, ejaculatory control, sexual satisfaction, and PE severity. Conclusions In addition, circumcision was significantly associated with the development of PE.

  20. Status Variations in Alcohol Use among Young Adults: Results from the 1984 National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Joan E.

    This document gives descriptive results on alcohol use patterns among young adults from the 1984 National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market of Youth, a survey of a large, nationally representative sample supplemented by samples of blacks, Hispanics, and economically disadvantaged non-black, non-Hispanic youth and covering the entire range of…

  1. Prepubertal goat oocytes from large follicles result in similar blastocyst production and embryo ploidy than those from adult goats.

    PubMed

    Romaguera, R; Moll, X; Morató, R; Roura, M; Palomo, M J; Catalá, M G; Jiménez-Macedo, A R; Hammami, S; Izquierdo, D; Mogas, T; Paramio, M T

    2011-07-01

    Developmental competence of oocytes from prepubertal females is lower than those from adult females. Oocyte development competence is positively related to follicular diameter. Most of the follicles of prepubertal goat ovaries are smaller than 3 mm. The aim of this study was to compare oocytes of two follicle sizes (< 3 mm and ≥ 3 mm) from prepubertal goats with oocytes from adult goats in relation to their in vitro production and quality of blastocysts. Oocytes from prepubertal goats were obtained from slaughterhouse ovaries and selected according to the follicle diameter whereas oocytes from adult goats were recovered in vivo by LOPU technique without prior selection of follicle size. COCs were IVM for 27 h, IVF at the conventional conditions with fresh semen and presumptive zygotes were cultured in SOF medium for 8 days. Blastocysts obtained were vitrified and after warming their blastocoele re-expansion and the ploidy by FISH technique were assessed. We found significant differences between blastocysts yield of oocytes recovered from follicles smaller than 3 mm of prepubertal goats compared to those from adult goats (5.45% vs 20. 83%, respectively) however, these differences disappear if oocytes were recovered form large follicles (18.07%). A total of 28 blastocysts were analysed and 96.43% showed mixoploidy. Age did not affect the number of embryos with abnormal ploidy or blastocyst re-expansion after warming. Furthermore, the percentage of diploid blastomeres per embryo was similar in the 3 groups studied, adult, prepubertal from follicles ≥ 3 mm and < 3 mm (68.6%, 80.8% and 73.6%, respectively). In conclusion, IVP of blastocysts coming from follicles larger than 3 mm of goats 45 days old were not different to the blastocysts produced from adult goats, both in terms of quantity and quality. PMID:21295839

  2. Can jumping capacity of adult show jumping horses be predicted on the basis of submaximal free jumps at foal age? A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Bobbert, Maarten F; Santamaría, Susana; van Weeren, P René; Back, Wim; Barneveld, Albert

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify performance characteristics of good jumping horses, and to determine whether these were already detectable at foal age. Kinematic data were collected of horses performing free jumps over a 0.60 m high fence at six months of age and of these same horses jumping with a rider over a 1.15 m high fence at five years of age. At five years of age the horses were divided into three groups on the basis of a puissance competition: a group of seven best jumpers that made no errors and in the end cleared a 1.50 m high fence, a group of nine worst jumpers that were unable to clear a 1.40 m high fence, and an intermediate group of 13 horses. Longitudinal kinematic data was available for all seven best jumpers and for six of the nine worst jumpers. Average values of variables for the best jumpers were compared with those of the worst jumpers for the jumps over 1.15 m. In the group of best jumpers, the forelimbs were shorter at forelimb clearance due to increased elbow flexion, and the hind limbs were further retroflexed at hind limb clearance. The same superior technique in clearing fences with the limbs was also found in this group at six months of age. Nevertheless, for individual horses it turned out to be too far-fetched to predict adult jumping capacity on the basis of kinematic variables collected during submaximal jumps at foal age. PMID:16129341

  3. Household Food Insecurity and Sleep Patterns Among Mexican Adults: Results from ENSANUT-2012.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Monica L; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Desai, Mayur M; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2016-10-01

    To examine the independent association of household food insecurity with sleep duration and quality in a nationally representative survey of adults in Mexico. The Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale was used to categorize households as secure, mild (43.7 %), moderate (19.0 %), or severe (11.8 %). We assessed the association between household food insecurity and self-reported sleep duration and quality among 11,356 adults using weighted multinomial and binomial logistic regression. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant association was found between severe household food insecurity and getting less than the recommended 7-8 h of sleep [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) =1.83, 95 % confidence interval (CI) =1.37-2.43]. Compared with food-secure households, odds of poor sleep quality increased with level of severity (AOR = 1.27, 95 % CI 1.04-1.56 for mild; AOR = 1.71, 95 % CI 1.36-2.14 for moderate; and AOR = 1.89, 95 % CI 1.45-2.45 for severe household food insecurity). Household food insecurity is associated with inadequate sleep duration and poor sleep quality among Mexican adults. This study underscores the adverse effects of household food insecurity on the well-being of vulnerable populations. PMID:26163336

  4. In Utero and Lactational Exposure to PCBs in Mice: Adult Offspring Show Altered Learning and Memory Depending on Cyp1a2 and Ahr Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Christine P.; Genter, Mary Beth; Patel, Krishna V.; Schaefer, Tori L.; Skelton, Matthew R.; Williams, Michael T.; Vorhees, Charles V.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Both coplanar and noncoplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exhibit neurotoxic effects in animal studies, but individual congeners do not always produce the same effects as PCB mixtures. Humans genetically have > 60-fold differences in hepatic cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2)-uninduced basal levels and > 12-fold variability in aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)affinity; because CYP1A2 is known to sequester coplanar PCBs and because AHR ligands include coplanar PCBs, both genotypes can affect PCB response. Objectives: We aimed to develop a mouse paradigm with extremes in Cyp1a2 and Ahr genotypes to explore genetic susceptibility to PCB-induced developmental neurotoxicity using an environmentally relevant mixture of PCBs. Methods: We developed a mixture of eight PCBs to simulate human exposures based on their reported concentrations in human tissue, breast milk, and food supply. We previously characterized specific differences in PCB congener pharmacokinetics and toxicity, comparing high-affinity–AHR Cyp1a2 wild-type [Ahrb1_Cyp1a2(+/+)], poor-affinity–AHR Cyp1a2 wild-type [Ahrd_Cyp1a2(+/+)], and high-affinity–AHR Cyp1a2 knockout [Ahrb1_Cyp1a2(–/–)] mouse lines [Curran CP, Vorhees CV, Williams MT, Genter MB, Miller ML, Nebert DW. 2011. In utero and lactational exposure to a complex mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls: toxicity in pups dependent on the Cyp1a2 and Ahr genotypes. Toxicol Sci 119:189–208]. Dams received a mixture of three coplanar and five noncoplanar PCBs on gestational day 10.5 and postnatal day (PND) 5. In the present study we conducted behavioral phenotyping of exposed offspring at PND60, examining multiple measures of learning, memory, and other behaviors. Results: We observed the most significant deficits in response to PCB treatment in Ahrb1_Cyp1a2(–/–) mice, including impaired novel object recognition and increased failure rate in the Morris water maze. However, all PCB-treated genotypes showed significant differences on

  5. Noncommunicable diseases and risk factors in adult populations of several Pacific Islands: results from the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Jeanie; Girin, Natalie; Roth, Adam; Vivili, Paula; Williams, Gail; Hoy, Damian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To provide an overview of the prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and their risk factors in several Pacific island countries and territories (PICTs), in accordance with global NCD targets. Methods: For six risk factors, data for adults (aged 25–64 years) from published reports of the World Health Organization STEPwise approach to NCD surveillance, or methodologically similar surveys, were collated, age standardised and compared across fifteen PICTs. Results: In the majority of PICT populations, more than half of male current drinkers drank heavily and more than 40% of men and 20% of women were current smokers. In 10 populations, about 50% or more of women were insufficiently physically active. Prevalence of hypertension and diabetes exceeded 20% and 25%, respectively, in several populations. Near or more than half of men and women in all populations were overweight; in most, more than one‐third of both sexes were obese. Conclusions: The prevalence of NCDs and risk factors varies widely between PICTs and by sex. The evidence shows the high and alarming present and future burden of NCDs in the region. Implications: Strengthened political commitment and increased investment are urgently required to tackle the NCD crisis, successfully achieve targets and ensure continuing sustainable development in the Pacific islands. PMID:26095921

  6. Dietary patterns in Swedish adults; results from a national dietary survey.

    PubMed

    Ax, Erika; Warensjö Lemming, Eva; Becker, Wulf; Andersson, Agneta; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Cederholm, Tommy; Sjögren, Per; Fung, Teresa T

    2016-01-14

    Dietary patterns derived by statistical procedures is a way to identify overall dietary habits in specific populations. The aim of this study was to identify and characterise dietary patterns in Swedish adults using data from the national dietary survey Riksmaten adults 2010-11 (952 women, 788 men). Principal component analyses were used and two patterns were identified in both sexes: a healthy pattern loading positively on vegetables, fruits, fish and seafood, and vegetable oils, and negatively on refined bread and fast food, and a Swedish traditional pattern loading positively on potatoes, meat and processed meat, full-fat milk products, sweet bakery products, sweet condiments and margarine. In addition, a light-meal pattern was identified in women with positive loadings on fibre-rich bread, cheese, rice, pasta and food grain dishes, substitute products for meat and dairy products, candies and tea. The healthy pattern was positively correlated to dietary fibre (r 0·51-0·58) and n-3 (r 0·25-0·31) (all P<0·0001), and had a higher nutrient density of folate, vitamin D and Se. The Swedish traditional and the light-meal pattern were positively correlated to added sugar (r 0·20-0·25) and the Swedish traditional also to SFA (r 0·13-0·21) (all P<0·0001); both patterns were in general negatively correlated to micronutrients. Dietary pattern scores were associated with, for example, age, physical activity, education and income. In conclusion, we identified three major dietary patterns among Swedish adults. The patterns can be further used for examining the association between whole diet and health outcomes. PMID:26490112

  7. Residential patterns in older homeless adults: Results of a cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christopher Thomas; Guzman, David; Ponath, Claudia; Tieu, Lina; Riley, Elise; Kushel, Margot

    2016-03-01

    Adults aged 50 and older make up half of individuals experiencing homelessness and have high rates of morbidity and mortality. They may have different life trajectories and reside in different environments than do younger homeless adults. Although the environmental risks associated with homelessness are substantial, the environments in which older homeless individuals live have not been well characterized. We classified living environments and identified associated factors in a sample of older homeless adults. From July 2013 to June 2014, we recruited a community-based sample of 350 homeless men and women aged fifty and older in Oakland, California. We administered structured interviews including assessments of health, history of homelessness, social support, and life course. Participants used a recall procedure to describe where they stayed in the prior six months. We performed cluster analysis to classify residential venues and used multinomial logistic regression to identify individual factors prior to the onset of homelessness as well as the duration of unstable housing associated with living in them. We generated four residential groups describing those who were unsheltered (n = 162), cohabited unstably with friends and family (n = 57), resided in multiple institutional settings (shelters, jails, transitional housing) (n = 88), or lived primarily in rental housing (recently homeless) (n = 43). Compared to those who were unsheltered, having social support when last stably housed was significantly associated with cohabiting and institution use. Cohabiters and renters were significantly more likely to be women and have experienced a shorter duration of homelessness. Cohabiters were significantly more likely than unsheltered participants to have experienced abuse prior to losing stable housing. Pre-homeless social support appears to protect against street homelessness while low levels of social support may increase the risk for becoming homeless immediately after

  8. Weight control practices in adults: results of a multistate telephone survey.

    PubMed

    Serdula, M K; Williamson, D F; Anda, R F; Levy, A; Heaton, A; Byers, T

    1994-11-01

    In this study, data collected in 1989 in a random-digit dialing telephone survey of 60,590 adults in 38 states and the District of Columbia were analyzed. Approximately 38% of women and 24% of men reported that they were currently trying to lose weight. Methods reported were counting calories (24% of women, 14% of men), participating in organized weight loss programs (10%, 3%), taking special supplements (10%, 7%), taking diet pills (4%, 2%), and fasting for 24 hours or longer (5%, 5%). Among both sexes, only half of those trying to lose weight reported using the recommended method of caloric restriction combined with physical activity. PMID:7977925

  9. Engaging older adults in burn prevention education: results of a community-based urban initiative.

    PubMed

    Leahy, Nicole E; Sessler, Kelly A; Baggott, Kaitlin; Laverde, Louisa; Rabbitts, Angela; Yurt, Roger W

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study is to educate New York City seniors aged 60 years and older about fire safety and burn prevention through the use of a community-based, culturally sensitive delivery platform. The ultimate goal is to reduce burn injury morbidity and mortality among this at-risk population. Programming was developed and provided to older adults attending community-based senior centers. Topics included etiology of injury, factors contributing to burn injuries, methods of prevention, emergency preparedness, and home safety. Attendees completed a postpresentation survey. Of the 234 senior centers invited to participate in the program, 64 (27%) centers requested presentations, and all received the educational programming, reaching 2196 seniors. An additional 2590 seniors received education during community-based health fairs. A majority reported learning new information, found the presentation helpful, and intended to apply this knowledge to daily routines. Data confirm that many opportunities exist to deliver culturally sensitive burn prevention programming to the older adult population of this large metropolitan area in settings that are part of their daily lives. A majority of respondents welcomed the information, perceived it as helpful, and reported that they were likely to integrate the information into their lives. PMID:22561308

  10. Season of birth and population schizotypy: Results from a large sample of the adult general population.

    PubMed

    Konrath, Lisa; Beckius, Danièle; Tran, Ulrich S

    2016-08-30

    Although the last years have seen an increasing interest in schizotypy and its pathogenesis, there exist only a handful of studies examining the possible interaction between season of birth (SOB) and schizotypic personality structure. Available research used differing screening instruments, rendering comparisons between studies difficult, and sample sizes in adult populations may have been too small to detect a mild effect. The current study examined the association between SOB and psychometric schizotypy in the so far single-largest sample from the adult general population (N=8114), balanced for men and women, and utilizing a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of schizotypy. Using the 12 most informative items of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire Brief, we obtained evidence of a small, but significant, effect of late winter and early spring births (February/March) on psychometric schizotypy. The effect was not constrained to women, but affected men and women alike. The observed association between SOB and schizotypy appears compatible with seasonal variations of temperature and influenza prevalence, and with recent evidence on seasonal variability in the activity of the human immune system. Our findings lend support to the continuum hypothesis of schizotypy and schizophrenia, for which SOB effects have been previously established. PMID:27310922

  11. Effectiveness of knowledge of result and knowledge of performance in the learning of a skilled motor activity by healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Dhara A; Chevidikunnan, Mohamed Faisal; Khan, Fayaz Rahman; Gaowgzeh, Riziq Allah

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The acquisition of motor skills are fundamental to human life. There is a lack of research on whether knowledge of performance or knowledge of result as augmented feedback is more effective. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of knowledge of result and knowledge of performance in the learning of a skilled motor activity by healthy young adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of thirty healthy young adult males and females without any neurological or musculoskeletal impairment, between the age of 18-30 years were the subjects of the study. They were randomly allocated to 2 groups: group 1 was given knowledge of result as feedback, and knowledge of performance was given as feedback to group 2. Both the groups practiced the task of throwing a soft spongy ball for 6 days per week for 4 weeks, with 40 trials each day. The outcome measure used was the distance of the throw. [Results] The results were analyzed using the t-test. The mean distances thrown by both the groups showed highly significant improvements and throwing distance of group 2 showed better improvement than that of group 1. [Conclusion] Both types of augmented feedback were effective at improving skilled motor activity, but the knowledge of performance group showed better improvement than the knowledge of result group. PMID:27313355

  12. Effectiveness of knowledge of result and knowledge of performance in the learning of a skilled motor activity by healthy young adults

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Dhara A; Chevidikunnan, Mohamed Faisal; Khan, Fayaz Rahman; Gaowgzeh, Riziq Allah

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The acquisition of motor skills are fundamental to human life. There is a lack of research on whether knowledge of performance or knowledge of result as augmented feedback is more effective. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of knowledge of result and knowledge of performance in the learning of a skilled motor activity by healthy young adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of thirty healthy young adult males and females without any neurological or musculoskeletal impairment, between the age of 18–30 years were the subjects of the study. They were randomly allocated to 2 groups: group 1 was given knowledge of result as feedback, and knowledge of performance was given as feedback to group 2. Both the groups practiced the task of throwing a soft spongy ball for 6 days per week for 4 weeks, with 40 trials each day. The outcome measure used was the distance of the throw. [Results] The results were analyzed using the t-test. The mean distances thrown by both the groups showed highly significant improvements and throwing distance of group 2 showed better improvement than that of group 1. [Conclusion] Both types of augmented feedback were effective at improving skilled motor activity, but the knowledge of performance group showed better improvement than the knowledge of result group. PMID:27313355

  13. Analysis of conservative tracer measurement results using the Frechet distribution at planted horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands filled with coarse gravel and showing the effect of clogging processes.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Ernő; Klincsik, Mihály

    2015-11-01

    A mathematical process, developed in Maple environment, has been successful in decreasing the error of measurement results and in the precise calculation of the moments of corrected tracer functions. It was proved that with this process, the measured tracer results of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands filled with coarse gravel (HSFCW-C) can be fitted more accurately than with the conventionally used distribution functions (Gaussian, Lognormal, Fick (Inverse Gaussian) and Gamma). This statement is true only for the planted HSFCW-Cs. The analysis of unplanted HSFCW-Cs needs more research. The result of the analysis shows that the conventional solutions (completely stirred series tank reactor (CSTR) model and convection-dispersion transport (CDT) model) cannot describe these types of transport processes with sufficient accuracy. These outcomes can help in developing better process descriptions of very difficult transport processes in HSFCW-Cs. Furthermore, a new mathematical process can be developed for the calculation of real hydraulic residence time (HRT) and dispersion coefficient values. The presented method can be generalized to other kinds of hydraulic environments. PMID:26126688

  14. Simple instruments used in monitoring ionospheric perturbations and some observational results showing the ionospheric responses to the perturbations mainly from the lower atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zuo; Hao, Yongqiang; Zhang, Donghe; Xiao, Sai-Guan; Huang, Weiquan

    Ionospheric disturbances such as SID and acoustic gravity waves in different scales are well known and commonly discussed topics. Some simple ground equipment was designed and used for monitoring continuously the effects of these disturbances, especially, SWF, SFD. Besides SIDs, They also reflect clearly the acoustic gravity waves in different scale and Spread-F and these data are important supplementary to the traditional ionosonde records. It is of signifi-cance in understanding physical essentials of the ionospheric disturbances and applications in SID warning. In this paper, the designing of the instruments is given and results are discussed in detail. Some case studies were introduced as example which showed very clearly not only immediate effects of solar flare, but also the phenomena of ionospheric responses to large scale gravity waves from lower atmosphere such as typhoon, great earthquake and volcano erup-tion. Particularlyresults showed that acoustic gravity waves play significant role in seeding ionospheric Spread-F. These examples give evidence that lower atmospheric activities strongly influence the ionosphere.

  15. Radiation doses in adult computed tomography practice in Serbia: initial results.

    PubMed

    Arandjic, Danijela; Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera; Hadnadjev, Darka; Stojanovic, Sanja; Bozovic, Predrag; Ceklic, Sandra; Lazarevic, Djordje

    2014-11-01

    This work presents initial data on radiation doses in adult computed tomography (CT) in Serbia. Data were collected in terms of CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP) values for head, chest and abdomen examination. The range of CTDIvol values was found to be 53-98, 11-34 and 8.5-227 mGy whereas for DLP was 803-1066, 350-845 and 1066-3078 mGy cm(-1) for head, chest and abdomen examination, respectively. Except for abdomen on one CT unit, all estimated values were in line with the reported data. This work also presents simple method on how to reduce radiation doses when scanning head. Using axial (step-and-shot) instead of helical mode and decreasing tube current-time product leads to significant dose reduction. CTDIvol was decreased by 20 % whereas DLP was reduced for a factor 2. PMID:25063787

  16. Endothelial deletion of ADAM17 in mice results in defective remodeling of the semilunar valves and cardiac dysfunction in adults

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Carole L.; Gough, Peter J.; Chang, Cindy A.; Chan, Christina K.; Frey, Jeremy M.; Liu, Yonggang; Braun, Kathleen R.; Chin, Michael T.; Wight, Thomas N.; Raines, Elaine W.

    2013-01-01

    Global inactivation of the metalloproteinase ADAM17 during mouse development results in perinatal lethality and abnormalities of the heart, including late embryonic cardiomegaly and thickened semilunar and atrioventricular valves. These defects have been attributed in part to a lack of ADAM17-mediated processing of HB-EGF, as absence of soluble HB-EGF results in similar phenotypes. Because valvular mesenchymal cells are largely derived from cardiac endothelial cells, we generated mice with a floxed Adam17 allele and crossed these animals with Tie2-Cre transgenics to focus on the role of endothelial ADAM17 in valvulogenesis. We find that although hearts from late-stage embryos with ablation of endothelial ADAM17 appear normal, an increase in valve size and cell number is evident, but only in the semilunar cusps. Unlike Hbegf−/− valves, ADAM17-null semilunar valves do not differ from controls in acute cell proliferation at embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5), suggesting compensatory processing of HB-EGF. However, levels of the proteoglycan versican are significantly reduced in mutant hearts early in valve remodeling (E12.5). After birth, aortic valve cusps from mutants are not only hyperplastic but also show expansion of the glycosaminoglycan-rich component, with the majority of adults exhibiting aberrant compartmentalization of versican and increased deposition of collagen. The inability of mutant outflow valve precursors to transition into fully mature cusps is associated with decreased postnatal viability, progressive cardiomegaly, and systolic dysfunction. Together, our data indicate that ADAM17 is required in valvular endothelial cells for regulating cell content as well as extracellular matrix composition and organization in semilunar valve remodeling and homeostasis. PMID:23354118

  17. Transgene silencing of the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome mutation results in a reversible bone phenotype, whereas resveratrol treatment does not show overall beneficial effects.

    PubMed

    Strandgren, Charlotte; Nasser, Hasina Abdul; McKenna, Tomás; Koskela, Antti; Tuukkanen, Juha; Ohlsson, Claes; Rozell, Björn; Eriksson, Maria

    2015-08-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare premature aging disorder that is most commonly caused by a de novo point mutation in exon 11 of the LMNA gene, c.1824C>T, which results in an increased production of a truncated form of lamin A known as progerin. In this study, we used a mouse model to study the possibility of recovering from HGPS bone disease upon silencing of the HGPS mutation, and the potential benefits from treatment with resveratrol. We show that complete silencing of the transgenic expression of progerin normalized bone morphology and mineralization already after 7 weeks. The improvements included lower frequencies of rib fractures and callus formation, an increased number of osteocytes in remodeled bone, and normalized dentinogenesis. The beneficial effects from resveratrol treatment were less significant and to a large extent similar to mice treated with sucrose alone. However, the reversal of the dental phenotype of overgrown and laterally displaced lower incisors in HGPS mice could be attributed to resveratrol. Our results indicate that the HGPS bone defects were reversible upon suppressed transgenic expression and suggest that treatments targeting aberrant progerin splicing give hope to patients who are affected by HGPS. PMID:25877214

  18. Magnetic Sphincter Augmentation for Gastroesophageal Reflux at 5 Years: Final Results of a Pilot Study Show Long-Term Acid Reduction and Symptom Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Saino, Greta; Bonavina, Luigi; Lipham, John C.; Dunn, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: As previously reported, the magnetic sphincter augmentation device (MSAD) preserves gastric anatomy and results in less severe side effects than traditional antireflux surgery. The final 5-year results of a pilot study are reported here. Patients and Methods: A prospective, multicenter study evaluated safety and efficacy of the MSAD for 5 years. Prior to MSAD placement, patients had abnormal esophageal acid and symptoms poorly controlled by proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Patients served as their own control, which allowed comparison between baseline and postoperative measurements to determine individual treatment effect. At 5 years, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)-Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL) questionnaire score, esophageal pH, PPI use, and complications were evaluated. Results: Between February 2007 and October 2008, 44 patients (26 males) had an MSAD implanted by laparoscopy, and 33 patients were followed up at 5 years. Mean total percentage of time with pH <4 was 11.9% at baseline and 4.6% at 5 years (P < .001), with 85% of patients achieving pH normalization or at least a 50% reduction. Mean total GERD-HRQL score improved significantly from 25.7 to 2.9 (P < .001) when comparing baseline and 5 years, and 93.9% of patients had at least a 50% reduction in total score compared with baseline. Complete discontinuation of PPIs was achieved by 87.8% of patients. No complications occurred in the long term, including no device erosions or migrations at any point. Conclusions: Based on long-term reduction in esophageal acid, symptom improvement, and no late complications, this study shows the relative safety and efficacy of magnetic sphincter augmentation for GERD. PMID:26437027

  19. Blockage of VIP during mouse embryogenesis modifies adult behavior and results in permanent changes in brain chemistry.

    PubMed

    Hill, Joanna M; Hauser, Janet M; Sheppard, Lia M; Abebe, Daniel; Spivak-Pohis, Irit; Kushnir, Michal; Deitch, Iris; Gozes, Illana

    2007-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) regulates growth and development during the early postimplantation period of mouse embryogenesis. Blockage of VIP with a VIP antagonist during this period results in growth restriction, microcephaly, and developmental delays. Similar treatment of neonatal rodents also causes developmental delays and impaired diurnal rhythms, and the adult brains of these animals exhibit neuronal dystrophy and increased VIP binding. These data suggest that blockage of VIP during the development of the nervous system can result in permanent changes to the brain. In the current study, pregnant mice were treated with a VIP antagonist during embryonic days 8 through 10. The adult male offspring were examined in tests of novelty, paired activity, and social recognition. Brain tissue was examined for several measures of chemistry and gene expression of VIP and related compounds. Glial cells from the cortex of treated newborn mice were plated with neurons and examined for VIP binding and their ability to enhance neuronal survival. Treated adult male mice exhibited increased anxiety-like behavior and deficits in social behavior. Brain tissue exhibited regionally specific changes in VIP chemistry and a trend toward increased gene expression of VIP and related compounds that reached statistical significance in the VIP receptor, VPAC-1, in the female cortex. When compared to control astrocytes, astrocytes from treated cerebral cortex produced further increases in neuronal survival with excess synaptic connections and reduced VIP binding. In conclusion, impaired VIP activity during mouse embryogenesis resulted in permanent changes to both adult brain chemistry/cell biology and behavior with aspects of autism-like social deficits. PMID:17726225

  20. Increased COUP-TFII expression in adult hearts induces mitochondrial dysfunction resulting in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Wu, San-Pin; Kao, Chung-Yang; Wang, Leiming; Creighton, Chad J; Yang, Jin; Donti, Taraka R; Harmancey, Romain; Vasquez, Hernan G; Graham, Brett H; Bellen, Hugo J; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Chang, Ching-Pin; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Tsai, Sophia Y

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic remodelling are pivotal in the development of cardiomyopathy. Here, we show that myocardial COUP-TFII overexpression causes heart failure in mice, suggesting a causal effect of elevated COUP-TFII levels on development of dilated cardiomyopathy. COUP-TFII represses genes critical for mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activity, oxidative stress detoxification and mitochondrial dynamics, resulting in increased levels of reactive oxygen species and lower rates of oxygen consumption in mitochondria. COUP-TFII also suppresses the metabolic regulator PGC-1 network and decreases the expression of key glucose and lipid utilization genes, leading to a reduction in both glucose and oleate oxidation in the hearts. These data suggest that COUP-TFII affects mitochondrial function, impairs metabolic remodelling and has a key role in dilated cardiomyopathy. Last, COUP-TFII haploinsufficiency attenuates the progression of cardiac dilation and improves survival in a calcineurin transgenic mouse model, indicating that COUP-TFII may serve as a therapeutic target for the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy. PMID:26356605

  1. Increased COUP-TFII expression in adult hearts induces mitochondrial dysfunction resulting in heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Wu, San-Pin; Kao, Chung-Yang; Wang, Leiming; Creighton, Chad J.; Yang, Jin; Donti, Taraka R.; Harmancey, Romain; Vasquez, Hernan G.; Graham, Brett H.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Chang, Ching-Pin; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Tsai, Sophia Y.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic remodelling are pivotal in the development of cardiomyopathy. Here, we show that myocardial COUP-TFII overexpression causes heart failure in mice, suggesting a causal effect of elevated COUP-TFII levels on development of dilated cardiomyopathy. COUP-TFII represses genes critical for mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activity, oxidative stress detoxification and mitochondrial dynamics, resulting in increased levels of reactive oxygen species and lower rates of oxygen consumption in mitochondria. COUP-TFII also suppresses the metabolic regulator PGC-1 network and decreases the expression of key glucose and lipid utilization genes, leading to a reduction in both glucose and oleate oxidation in the hearts. These data suggest that COUP-TFII affects mitochondrial function, impairs metabolic remodelling and has a key role in dilated cardiomyopathy. Last, COUP-TFII haploinsufficiency attenuates the progression of cardiac dilation and improves survival in a calcineurin transgenic mouse model, indicating that COUP-TFII may serve as a therapeutic target for the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy. PMID:26356605

  2. Urinary Dialkyl Phosphate Concentrations and Lung Function Parameters in Adolescents and Adults: Results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have reported associations between lung function parameters and organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposures in agricultural occupations, but to our knowledge associations have not been evaluated in general populations. Objectives: We examined associations between OP metabolite dialkyl phosphates (DAPs) and lung function using data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) Cycle 1. Methods: Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio, and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC (FEF25%–75%) were measured for 4,446 CHMS participants. Urinary concentrations of six DAP metabolites (DMP, DMTP, DMDTP, DEP, DETP, and DEDTP), smoking status, and other predictors of lung function were also measured in the CHMS-Cycle 1. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between total DAP concentrations (ΣDAPs) and lung function in adolescents (12–19 years) and adults (20–79 years). Results: In adults, estimates from multiple regression analyses suggested that a 1-unit increase on natural logarithmic scale (171% increase on the original scale) in the creatinine-corrected urinary concentration (nanomoles per gram creatinine) of ΣDAP was associated with a 32.6-mL (95% CI: –57.2, –8.1) reduction in FVC, 32.6-mL (95% CI: –59.0, –6.3) reduction in FEV1, 0.2% (95% CI: –0.6, 0.2) reduction in FEV1/FVC ratio, and 53.1-mL/sec (95% CI: –113.9, 7.7) reduction in FEF25%–75%. In adolescents, associations between ΣDAP and FEV1 were closer to the null and positive for FVC, whereas associations with FEV1/FVC and FEF25%–75% were negative, as in adults. However, none of the associations were significant in adolescents. Conclusions: The negative association between ΣDAP and lung function in adult participants suggests a detrimental effect of OP pesticides on lung function in the adult general population. Further studies using prospective designs are

  3. Literacy, Numeracy, and Problem Solving in Technology-Rich Environments among U.S. Adults: Results from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies 2012. Appendix D: Standard Error Tables. First Look. NCES 2014-008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides Appendix D, Standard Error tables, for the full report, entitled. "Literacy, Numeracy, and Problem Solving in Technology-Rich Environments among U.S. Adults: Results from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies 2012. First Look. NCES 2014-008." The full report presents results of the Program for the…

  4. Alterations in plasma lipid levels resulting from tofu and cheese consumption in adult women.

    PubMed

    Meredith, L; Liebman, M; Graves, K

    1989-12-01

    Changes in the concentration of plasma lipids were assessed in 10 normolipidemic adult women in response to alternate 3-week controlled feeding of similar low-fat diets containing either tofu or cheese. Plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were significantly lower (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively) following consumption of the tofu compared to the cheese diet, whereas no significant differences were observed in VLDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, or in total triglycerides. To assess whether protein source (animal vs vegetable) exerted an independent effect on plasma lipids, lipid responses to alternate 3-week feeding of tofu-and cheese-containing diets in which the amount and type of dietary fat were equilibrated were examined in five additional women. The finding of similar plasma lipid responses to the modified treatments suggested the high P/S ratio of tofu was primarily responsible for the observed hypocholesterolemic response. An independent effect of protein source on plasma lipids was not supported. PMID:2621294

  5. Persistent Adult Zebrafish Behavioral Deficits Results from Acute Embryonic Exposure to Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Lisa; Saili, Katerine S.; Miller, John M.; Hutchison, James E.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    As the number of products containing nanomaterials increase, human exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) is unavoidable. Presently, few studies focus on the potential long-term consequences of developmental NP exposure. In this study, zebrafish embryos were acutely exposed to three gold NPs that possess functional groups with differing surface charge. Embryos were exposed to 50 μg/mL of 1.5 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) possessing negatively charged 2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid (MES) or neutral 2-(2-(2-mercaptoethoxy)ethoxy)ethanol (MEEE) ligands or 10 μg/mL of the AuNPs possessing positively charged trimethylammoniumethanethiol (TMAT). Both MES- and TMAT-AuNP exposed embryos exhibited hypo-locomotor activity, while those exposed to MEEE-AuNPs did not. A subset of embryos that were exposed to 1.5 nm MES- and TMAT-AuNPs during development from 6–120 hours post fertilization were raised to adulthood. Behavioral abnormalities and the number of survivors into adulthood were evaluated at 122 days post fertilization. We found that both treatments induced abnormal startle behavior following a tap stimulus. However, the MES-AuNPs exposed group also exhibited abnormal adult behavior in the light and had a lower survivorship into adulthood. This study demonstrates that acute, developmental exposure to 1.5 nm MES- and TMAT- AuNPs, two NPs differing only in the functional group, affects larval behavior, with behavioral effects persisting into adulthood. PMID:21946249

  6. Evidence of Insulin Resistance in Adult Uncomplicated Malaria: Result of a Two-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Acquah, Samuel; Boampong, Johnson Nyarko; Eghan Jnr, Benjamin Ackon; Eriksson, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed at investigating the effects of adult uncomplicated malaria on insulin resistance. Fasting levels of blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and serum insulin were measured in 100 diabetics and 100 age-matched controls before and during Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Insulin resistance and beta cell function were computed by homeostatic models assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR) and beta cell function (HOMAB) formulae, respectively. Body mass index (BMI) was computed. At baseline, diabetics had significantly (P < 0.05) higher levels of BMI, FBG, HbA1c, and HOMAIR but lower level of HOMAB than controls. Baseline insulin levels were comparable (P > 0.05) between the two study groups. During malaria, diabetics maintained significantly (P < 0.05) higher levels of BMI, FBG, and HbA1c but lower levels of insulin and HOMAB than controls. Malaria-induced HOMAIR levels were comparable (P > 0.05) between the two study groups but higher than baseline levels. Apart from BMI and HOMAB, mean levels of all the remaining parameters increased in malaria-infected controls. In malaria-infected diabetics, significant (P < 0.05) increase was only observed for insulin and HOMAIR but not the other measured parameters. Uncomplicated malaria increased insulin resistance in diabetics and controls independent of BMI. This finding may have implications for the evolution of T2DM in malaria-endemic regions. PMID:25587486

  7. Telomerase Gene (hTERT) and Survival: Results From Two Swedish Cohorts of Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Rizzuto, Debora; Keller, Lina; Fastbom, Johan; Santoni, Giola; Angleman, Sara; Graff, Caroline; Bäckman, Lars; Fratiglioni, Laura

    2016-02-01

    Telomere length has been associated with longevity. As telomere length is partly determined by the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), we investigated the association between an hTERT polymorphism located in its promoter region ((-) (1327)T/C) and longevity in two cohorts of older adults. Participants from the Kungsholmen project (KP; n = 1,205) and the Swedish National study of Aging and Care in Kungsholmen (SNAC-K; n = 2,764) were followed for an average period of 7.5 years. The main outcomes were hazard ratios (HR) of mortality and median age at death. In both cohorts, mortality was lower in female T/T carriers, aged 75+ years in KP (HR = 0.8, 95% CI: 0.5-0.9) and 78+ years in SNAC-K (HR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4-0.8) compared with female C/C carriers. T/T carriers died 1.8-3 years later than the C/C carriers. This effect was not present in men, neither in SNAC-K women aged 60-72 years. The association was not modified by presence of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, number of chronic diseases, or markers of inflammation, and did not interact with APOE genotype or estrogen replacement therapy. The gender-specific increased survival in T/T carriers can be due to a synergistic effect between genetic background and the life-long exposure to endogenous estrogen. PMID:25452402

  8. Mortality Resulting From Congenital Heart Disease Among Children and Adults in the United States, 1999 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Salemi, Jason L.; Nembhard, Wendy N.; Fixler, David E.; Correa, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous reports suggest that mortality resulting from congenital heart disease (CHD) among infants and young children has been decreasing. There is little population-based information on CHD mortality trends and patterns among older children and adults. Methods and Results We used data from death certificates filed in the United States from 1999 to 2006 to calculate annual CHD mortality by age at death, race-ethnicity, and sex. To calculate mortality rates for individuals ≥1 year of age, population counts from the US Census were used in the denominator; for infant mortality, live birth counts were used. From 1999 to 2006, there were 41 494 CHD-related deaths and 27 960 deaths resulting from CHD (age-standardized mortality rates, 1.78 and 1.20 per 100 000, respectively). During this period, mortality resulting from CHD declined 24.1% overall. Mortality resulting from CHD significantly declined among all race-ethnicities studied. However, disparities persisted; overall and among infants, mortality resulting from CHD was consistently higher among non-Hispanic blacks compared with non-Hispanic whites. Infant mortality accounted for 48.1% of all mortality resulting from CHD; among those who survived the first year of life, 76.1% of deaths occurred during adulthood (≥18 years of age). Conclusions CHD mortality continued to decline among both children and adults; however, differences between race-ethnicities persisted. A large proportion of CHD-related mortality occurred during infancy, although significant CHD mortality occurred during adulthood, indicating the need for adult CHD specialty management. PMID:21098447

  9. Reactogenicity profile of tetanus-diphtheria (adult-type) vaccine: results of a naturalistic study performed at an adult vaccination center.

    PubMed

    Vilella, A; Dal-Ré, R; Simó, D; García-Corbeira, P; Diego, P; Bayas, J M

    2000-11-01

    A prospective observational naturalistic study was conducted at a vaccination center to assess the reactogenicity of tetanus-diphtheria (adult-type) (Td) vaccine. In 1 year, 3072 adult subjects were invited to participate, of whom 1977 (62% women, mean age [+/- SD]: 39 [+/- 14.5] years [range: 18-85 years]) actively did so. A follow-up diary card was provided to all subjects to record all local and general symptoms experienced during the following 4 days after vaccination. Of the study population (n = 1977), 280 received a second Td dose, and 30 received a third dose: the total number of diary cards collected was 2287. Td was always administered (i.m. route) in the left arm. The study population was grouped by age: 52%, 41%, and 7% were ages 18 to 35, 36 to 65, and > 65 years, respectively, most of them being travelers to developing countries. Close to two-thirds of subjects received up to nine different vaccines (mainly hepatitis B, hepatitis A, and typhoid) in addition to Td. Adverse reactions were classified as mild, moderate, and severe. Overall, 50% of subjects reported some type of adverse reaction. Pain, discomfort with arm movement, swelling, malaise, and fever (axillary temperature > or = 38 degrees C) were recorded in 43%, 14%, 3.8%, 5.1%, and 1.7% of all diary cards, respectively. Local and general reactions were considered as mild by almost two-thirds of vaccinees and lasted < or = 48 hours in about three-fourths of them. The incidence of moderate plus severe local reactions was significantly (p < 0.01) more commonly reported in the 18- to 35-year-old group than in the 36- to 65-year-old group. No statistically significant differences were observed when comparing the incidence of general adverse reactions of those receiving Td alone with those receiving additional vaccines or when comparing the duration and intensity by age groups. Only 5.2% of subjects required analgesic/antipyretic treatment. In conclusion, this study shows that Td vaccine is

  10. Long-term results of diaphragmatic plication in adults with unilateral diaphragm paralysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In this study we aimed to evaluate the long-term outcome of diaphragmatic plication for symptomatic unilateral diaphragm paralysis. Methods Thirteen patients who underwent unilateral diaphragmatic plication (2 patients had right, 11 left plication) between January 2003 and December 2006 were evaluated. One patient died postoperatively due to sepsis. The remaining 12 patients [9 males, 3 females; mean age 60 (36-66) years] were reevaluated with chest radiography, flouroscopy or ultrasonography, pulmonary function tests, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the MRC/ATS dyspnea score at an average of 5.4 (4-7) years after diaphragmatic plication. Results The etiology of paralysis was trauma (9 patients), cardiac by pass surgery (3 patients), and idiopathic (1 patient). The principle symptom was progressive dyspnea with a mean duration of 32.9 (22-60) months before surgery. All patients had an elevated hemidiaphragm and paradoxical movement radiologically prior to surgery. There were partial atelectasis and reccurent infection of the lower lobe in the affected side on CT in 9 patients. Atelectasis was completely improved in 9 patients after plication. Preoperative spirometry showed a clear restrictive pattern. Mean preoperative FVC was 56.7 ± 11.6% and FEV1 65.3 ± 8.7%. FVC and FEV1 improved by 43.6 ± 30.6% (p < 0.001) and 27.3 ± 10.9% (p < 0.001) at late follow-up. MRC/ATS dyspnea scores improved 3 points in 11 patients and 1 point in 1 patient at long-term (p < 0.0001). Eight patients had returned to work at 3 months after surgery. Conclusions Diaphragmatic plication for unilateral diaphragm paralysis decreases lung compression, ensures remission of symptoms, and improves quality of life in long-term period. PMID:21078140

  11. Literacy in Everyday Life: Results from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy. NCES 2007-490

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutner, Mark; Greenberg, Elizabeth; Jin, Ying; Boyle, Bridget; Hsu, Yung-chen; Dunleavy, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) assessed the English literacy skills of a nationally representative sample of more than 19,000 U.S. adults (age 16 and older) residing in households and prisons. NAAL is the first national assessment of adult literacy since the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey. Three types of literacy were…

  12. Ovariectomy Results in Variable Changes in Nociception, Mood and Depression in Adult Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li-Hong; Wang, Zhe-Chen; Yu, Jin; Zhang, Yu-Qiu

    2014-01-01

    Decline in the ovarian hormones with menopause may influence somatosensory, cognitive, and affective processing. The present study investigated whether hormonal depletion alters the nociceptive, depressive-like and learning behaviors in experimental rats after ovariectomy (OVX), a common method to deplete animals of their gonadal hormones. OVX rats developed thermal hyperalgesia in proximal and distal tail that was established 2 weeks after OVX and lasted the 7 weeks of the experiment. A robust mechanical allodynia was also occurred at 5 weeks after OVX. In the 5th week after OVX, dilute formalin (5%)-induced nociceptive responses (such as elevating and licking or biting) during the second phase were significantly increased as compared to intact and sham-OVX females. However, chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve-induced mechanical allodynia did not differ as hormonal status (e.g. OVX and ovarian intact). Using formalin-induced conditioned place avoidance (F-CPA), which is believed to reflect the pain-related negative emotion, we further found that OVX significantly attenuated F-CPA scores but did not alter electric foot-shock-induced CPA (S-CPA). In the open field and forced swimming test, there was an increase in depressive-like behaviors in OVX rats. There was no detectable impairment of spatial performance by Morris water maze task in OVX rats up to 5 weeks after surgery. Estrogen replacement retrieved OVX-induced nociceptive hypersensitivity and depressive-like behaviors. This is the first study to investigate the impacts of ovarian removal on nociceptive perception, negative emotion, depressive-like behaviors and spatial learning in adult female rats in a uniform and standard way. PMID:24710472

  13. Elevated blood lead in California adults, 1987: results of a statewide surveillance program based on laboratory reports.

    PubMed

    Maizlish, N; Rudolph, L; Sutton, P; Jones, J R; Kizer, K W

    1990-08-01

    California medical laboratories that test for blood lead are required to report results exceeding 1.21 mumols/L (25 micrograms/dl). Between April and December 1987, the California Department of Health Services received 3,077 blood lead reports from 34 laboratories for 1,293 civilian, non-institutionalized adults. Approximately 1 percent of all reports exceeded 3.87 mumols/L (80 micrograms/dl), 7 percent exceeded 2.42 mumols/L (50 micrograms/dl), and 21 percent exceeded 1.93 mumols/L (40 micrograms/dl). Individuals tested were overwhelmingly male (94 percent), disproportionately Hispanic surnamed (44 percent), and most often residents of Los Angeles County (81 percent). Workers in lead smelting, battery manufacturing, and brass foundries accounted for nearly 80 percent of reports. Construction, radiator repair, pottery and ceramics manufacturing, and gun firing ranges accounted for the remainder. All adults with reports of greater than or equal to 2.90 mumols/L who were contacted reported on occupational exposure. Approximately half were not in routine medical monitoring programs. Despite OSHA standards, elevated blood lead with the potential for serious acute and chronic lead poisoning in California adults remains a significant public health and major occupational health concern. PMID:2368852

  14. Modeling upward brine migration through faults as a result of CO2 storage in the Northeast German Basin shows negligible salinization in shallow aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, M.; Tillner, E.; Kempka, T.; Nakaten, B.

    2012-12-01

    The geological storage of CO2 in deep saline formations may cause salinization of shallower freshwater resources by upward flow of displaced brine from the storage formation into potable groundwater. In this regard, permeable faults or fractures can serve as potential leakage pathways for upward brine migration. The present study uses a regional-scale 3D model based on real structural data of a prospective CO2 storage site in Northeastern Germany to determine the impact of compartmentalization and fault permeability on upward brine migration as a result of pressure elevation by CO2 injection. To evaluate the degree of salinization in the shallower aquifers, different fault leakage scenarios were carried out using a newly developed workflow in which the model grid from the software package Petrel applied for pre-processing is transferred to the reservoir simulator TOUGH2-MP/ECO2N. A discrete fault description is achieved by using virtual elements. A static 3D geological model of the CO2 storage site with an a real size of 40 km x 40 km and a thickness of 766 m was implemented. Subsequently, large-scale numerical multi-phase multi-component (CO2, NaCl, H2O) flow simulations were carried out on a high performance computing system. The prospective storage site, located in the Northeast German Basin is part of an anticline structure characterized by a saline multi-layer aquifer system. The NE and SW boundaries of the study area are confined by the Fuerstenwalde Gubener and the Lausitzer Abbruch fault zones represented by four discrete faults in the model. Two formations of the Middle Bunter were chosen to assess brine migration through faults triggered by an annual injection rate of 1.7 Mt CO2 into the lowermost formation over a time span of 20 years. In addition to varying fault permeabilities, different boundary conditions were applied to evaluate the effects of reservoir compartmentalization. Simulation results show that the highest pressurization within the storage

  15. A candidate gene investigation of methylphenidate response in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients: results from a naturalistic study.

    PubMed

    Hegvik, Tor-Arne; Jacobsen, Kaya Kvarme; Fredriksen, Mats; Zayats, Tetyana; Haavik, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorder with a complex and heterogeneous symptomatology. Persistence of ADHD symptoms into adulthood is common. Methylphenidate (MPH) is a widely prescribed stimulant compound that may be effective against ADHD symptoms in children and adults. However, MPH does not exert satisfactory effect in all patients. Several genetic variants have been proposed to predict either treatment response or adverse effects of stimulants. We conducted a literature search to identify previously reported variants associated with MPH response and additional variants that were biologically plausible candidates for MPH response. The response to MPH was assessed by the treating clinicians in 564 adult ADHD patients and 20 genetic variants were successfully genotyped. Logistic regression was used to test for association between these polymorphisms and treatment response. Nominal associations (p < 0.05) were meta-analysed with published data from previous comparable studies. In our analyses, rs1800544 in the ADRA2A gene was associated with MPH response at a nominal significance level (OR 0.560, 95 % CI 0.329-0.953, p = 0.033). However, this finding was not affirmed in the meta-analysis. No genetic variants revealed significant associations after correction for multiple testing (p < 0.00125). Our results suggest that none of the studied variants are strong predictors of MPH response in adult ADHD as judged by clinician ratings, potentially except for rs1800544. Consequently, pharmacogenetic testing in routine clinical care is not supported by our analyses. Further studies on the pharmacogenetics of adult ADHD are warranted. PMID:27091191

  16. Risk Factors and Disability Associated with Low Back Pain in Older Adults in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Results from the WHO Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE)

    PubMed Central

    Stewart Williams, Jennifer; Ng, Nawi; Peltzer, Karl; Yawson, Alfred; Biritwum, Richard; Maximova, Tamara; Wu, Fan; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath

    2015-01-01

    Background Back pain is a common disabling chronic condition that burdens individuals, families and societies. Epidemiological evidence, mainly from high-income countries, shows positive association between back pain prevalence and older age. There is an urgent need for accurate epidemiological data on back pain in adult populations in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where populations are ageing rapidly. The objectives of this study are to: measure the prevalence of back pain; identify risk factors and determinants associated with back pain, and describe association between back pain and disability in adults aged 50 years and older, in six LMICs from different regions of the world. The findings provide insights into country-level differences in self-reported back pain and disability in a group of socially, culturally, economically and geographically diverse LMICs. Methods Standardized national survey data collected from adults (50 years and older) participating in the World Health Organization (WHO) Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) were analysed. The weighted sample (n = 30, 146) comprised respondents in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, South Africa and the Russian Federation. Multivariable regressions describe factors associated with back pain prevalence and intensity, and back pain as a determinant of disability. Results Prevalence was highest in the Russian Federation (56%) and lowest in China (22%). In the pooled multi-country analyses, female sex, lower education, lower wealth and multiple chronic morbidities were significant in association with past-month back pain (p<0.01). About 8% of respondents reported that they experienced intense back pain in the previous month. Conclusions Evidence on back pain and its impact on disability is needed in developing countries so that governments can invest in cost-effective education and rehabilitation to reduce the growing social and economic burden imposed by this disabling condition. PMID:26042785

  17. Storytelling Slide Shows to Improve Diabetes and High Blood Pressure Knowledge and Self-Efficacy: Three-Year Results among Community Dwelling Older African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertera, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    This study combined the African American tradition of oral storytelling with the Hispanic medium of "Fotonovelas." A staggered pretest posttest control group design was used to evaluate four Storytelling Slide Shows on health that featured community members. A total of 212 participants were recruited for the intervention and 217 for the…

  18. Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty of Dysplastic Stenoses of the Renal Artery: Results on 70 Adults

    SciTech Connect

    Fraissinette, Bruno de; Garcier, Jean Marc; Dieu, Valerie; Mofid, Reza; Ravel, Anne; Boire, Jean Yves; Boyer, Louis

    2003-02-15

    Purpose: Retrospective analysis of the dilatation (PTRA) of renal arterial dysplastic stenosis (RADS). Methods: Seventy patients suffering from hypertension (87RADS) were treated at our institution for medial (83%) or non-classified fibrodysplasias (17%). Four patients suffered from renal insufficiency. Two endoprostheses were implanted. We evaluated blood pressure with the USCSRH criteria and renal insufficiency with the Martin criteria. Results: Ninety-five percent technical success and 87.9% clinical success for blood pressure were obtained, with worse results for patients older than 57 years or with a history of hypertension greater than 9 years. Results were better when the RADS was responsible for an ipsilateral renal atrophy or for poorly controlled hypertension. No renal insufficiency worsened during the follow-up. Conclusion: PTRA is a first-line treatment for renovascular hypertension caused by RADS. The results were encouraging despite a high average age of the subjects and frequent associated extrarenal vascular lesions.

  19. Trends in food and nutritional intakes of French adults from 1999 to 2007: results from the INCA surveys.

    PubMed

    Dubuisson, Carine; Lioret, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Dufour, Ariane; Calamassi-Tran, Gloria; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Lafay, Lionel

    2010-04-01

    Two independent cross-sectional dietary surveys (the Individual and National Food Consumption Surveys, INCA), performed in 1998-99 (INCA1) and in 2006-07 (INCA2) on nationally representative samples of French people, were used to analyse trends in the dietary habits and nutritional intake of French adults. Food consumption was recorded through 7-d dietary records, and nutritional intakes were assessed using the French food composition database. After exclusion of under-reporters, analyses were performed on 3267 adults, aged 18-79 years: 1345 from INCA1 and 1922 from INCA2. The trends highlighted over the 8-year period showed a decrease in consumption of dairy products, meat, bread, potatoes, pastries/croissant-like pastries/cakes/biscuits and sugar/confectionery. In contrast, the consumption of fruits and vegetables, rice, ice cream and chocolate increased. Other food groups, like fish and snacking foods, remained stable. Food choices were mostly age specific. These age differences remained consistent over the years and underlined two opposite dietary trends: a 'traditional' one mainly followed by the elderly, and a 'snacking and convenience' one mainly adopted by young adults. The overall trends in food consumption did not influence the mean energy intake, but did slightly modify the contribution of each macronutrient to energy intake. These repeated surveys highlighted the fact that trends in French food habits have moved towards an average European diet at the crossroads between Mediterranean and Northern diets, and that food consumption changes impacted, to a lesser extent, nutritional intake. PMID:20028601

  20. What Does It Take to Be an Adult in Austria? Views of Adulthood in Austrian Adolescents, Emerging Adults, and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirsch, Ulrike; Dreher, Eva; Mayr, Eva; Willinger, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the defining features of emerging adulthood, subjects' conceptions of the transition to adulthood, and the perceived adult status in Austria. The sample consisted of 775 subjects (226 adolescents, 317 emerging adults, 232 adults). Results showed that most Austrian emerging adults feel themselves to be between adolescence…

  1. Selective Review of the Results of Research on the Use of Audiovisual Media to Teach Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campeau, Peggie L.

    The purpose of this literature review was to summarize results of experimental studies on the instructional effectiveness of audiovisual media in post-secondary education. Studies which met seven major screening criteria were used. A study was generally accepted if it compared performance of experimental and control groups on objective measures of…

  2. Literacy Behind Bars: Results from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy Prison Survey. NCES 2007-473

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Elizabeth; Dunleavy, Eric; Kutner, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) assessed the English literacy of incarcerated adults for the first time since 1992. The assessment was administered to approximately 1,200 inmates (ages 16 and older) in state and federal prisons, as well as to approximately 18,000 adults (ages 16 and older) living in households. Three types of…

  3. [Long-term results of surgical treatment of lumbar disk herniation in adults].

    PubMed

    Dudek, H; Michno, T; Łebkowski, W J; Kozłowski, A

    2001-01-01

    The authors present long-term results (10.2 years post-op) of surgical treatment of lumbar disc herniation in 1003 patients operated at the Department of Neurosurgery by the University of Medical Sciences in Białystok. The operated group comprised 33.1% women (mean age--55.6 years) and 68.7% men (mean age 57.3 years). Ten years post-op 15.9% women and 5.8% men kept the recommended diet, 14% women and 7.0% men continued muscle strengthening exercise. Ten years post-op excellent and good results were noted in respectively 42.4% and 46.5% women and 45.4% and 46.6% men. PMID:11761755

  4. Serologic and bacteriologic test results after adult vaccination with strain 19 in three dairy herds infected with brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Breitmeyer, R E; Hird, D W; Carpenter, T E

    1992-03-15

    Milk culture data and serologic test results were evaluated after adult vaccination with Brucella abortus strain 19 in cattle of 3 large California dairy herds infected with brucellosis. Strain-19 organisms were isolated by culture of milk from 1.9% of the vaccinated cows. Isolation of field strain of B abortus varied directly with magnitude of complement-fixation (CF) and rivanol titers. At time of milk culture, 74% of cows from which field strain was isolated had CF titer greater than or equal to 160, compared with 58% of cows from which strain 19 was isolated. Cows with CF titer greater than or equal to 160 at 2 months or greater than or equal to 80 to 4 months after adult vaccination were more likely to be correctly classified as reactors (on the basis of subsequent milk culture results and/or persistently high serologic titer) than were cows with lower CF titer at these times. Cows from which B abortus strain 19 was isolated from milk were more likely to maintain persistent serologic titer than were cows from which neither strain of B abortus was isolated. PMID:1568926

  5. Visual Persistence and Adult Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Roberta L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Visual persistence was investigated in adults with and without dyslexia in order to determine whether dyslexic adults demonstrate problems similar to those found in childhood dyslexia. Results showed that sensitivity of dyslexic adults was impaired when parts of a test stimulus were presented to adjacent retinal areas, suggesting that under…

  6. Long-term results of external valvuloplasty in adult patients with isolated great saphenous vein insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sarac, Atilla; Jahollari, Artan; Talay, Sureyya; Ozkaya, Sevket; Ozal, Ertugrul

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to present our 7-year results of external valvuloplasty for isolated great saphenous vein (GSV) insufficiency. Methods External valvuloplasty was applied in 83 patients with isolated GSV insufficiency. Follow-up consisted of venous color duplex scanning performed on the first postoperative day, the first postoperative month, and then annually. Valvular insufficiency, venous reflux, and venous thrombosis formation in the saphenofemoral junction were the main outcomes. Results A complete clinical and radiological healing was observed in 50 patients (60%). In 13 cases (15.6%), a secondary surgical treatment was performed consisting of vena saphena magna high ligation/stripping and varicose vein excisions, mainly due to severe and progressive vena saphena magna valvular insufficiency and clinical persistence of symptoms. Eight patients (9.6%) developed superficial vein thrombosis, and only one patient (1.2%) developed deep vein thrombosis. Contact was lost from 32 patients (38.5%) for different reasons. Conclusion External valvuloplasty is an effective surgical technique for selected cases of isolated GSV insufficiency without extensive varicose dilatations. This alternative method can be safely administered as an alternative to high ligation and conventional GSV stripping. PMID:24741299

  7. Mathematical modelling in Matlab of the experimental results shows the electrochemical potential difference - temperature of the WC coatings immersed in a NaCl solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benea, M. L.; Benea, O. D.

    2016-02-01

    The method used for purchasing the corrosion behaviour the WC coatings deposited by plasma spraying, on a martensitic stainless steel substrate consists in measuring the electrochemical potential of the coating, respectively that of the substrate, immersed in a NaCl solution as corrosive agent. The mathematical processing of the obtained experimental results in Matlab allowed us to make some correlations between the electrochemical potential of the coating and the solution temperature is very well described by some curves having equations obtained by interpolation order 4.

  8. Physical inactivity prevalence and trends among Mexican adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) 2006 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lifestyles such as unhealthy diets and the lack of physical activity have been contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity. In 2012, the world health organization published the first global recommendation for physical activity and health. People who do not meet at least 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity are considered to be physically inactive. The prevalence of physical inactivity worldwide is 31%, however there is insufficient data from prevalence and trends of physical inactivity in Mexican population. The purposes of this study are to describe the physical inactivity prevalence and recent trends in Mexican adults and to examine the association between physical inactivity with biologic and sociodemographic characteristics. Methods Representative samples of 17,183 and 10,729 adults (aged 20 to 69 years) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) in 2006 and 2012, respectively. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed using the short form version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), which was administered in face-to-face interviews. Self-reported IPAQ MVPA levels were adjusted using an equation derived from a previous validation study. Participants were considered inactive if they engaged in <150-minutes/week of moderate physical activity or <75 minutes/week of vigorous physical activity according to WHO classification criteria. Results The prevalence of physical inactivity was significantly higher in 2012 (19.4%, 95% CI: 18.1, 20.7) than in 2006 (13.4%, 95% CI: 12.5, 14.5). Adults in the obese category, 60–69 age group, and those in the highest socioeconomic status tertile were more likely to be physically inactive. Conclusions The proportion of the Mexican adult population who do not meet the minimum WHO physical activity criteria has increased by 6% points between 2006 and 2012. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, the aging of the population

  9. Visual Internal Urethrotomy for Adult Male Urethral Stricture Has Poor Long-Term Results

    PubMed Central

    Al Taweel, Waleed; Seyam, Raouf

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine the long-term stricture-free rate after visual internal urethrotomy following initial and follow-up urethrotomies. Methods. The records of all male patients who underwent direct visual internal urethrotomy for urethral stricture disease in our hospital between July 2004 and May 2012 were reviewed. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze stricture-free probability after the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth urethrotomies. Results. A total of 301 patients were included. The overall stricture-free rate at the 36-month follow-up was 8.3% with a median time to recurrence of 10 months (95% CI of 9.5 to 10.5, range: 2–36). The stricture-free rate after one urethrotomy was 12.1% with a median time to recurrence of eight months (95% CI of 7.1–8.9). After the second urethrotomy, the stricture-free rate was 7.9% with a median time to recurrence of 10 months (95% CI of 9.3 to 10.6). After the third to fifth procedures, the stricture-free rate was 0%. There was no significant difference in the stricture-free rate between single and multiple procedures. Conclusion. The long-term stricture-free rate of visual internal urethrotomy is modest even after a single procedure. PMID:26494995

  10. Preliminary results from the vector therapy in patients with chronic adult periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Vladimirov, S B; Firkova, E I

    2001-01-01

    Complete removal of the dental plaque, dental calculus, granulation tissue and necrotic cement from periodontal pockets is of paramount importance for the proper functioning of the regeneration process in the affected periodontium. The purpose of the current study was to obtain preliminary results of the administered vector therapy in patients with chronic periodontitis. Ten patients with 124 multiple-root and 120 single-root teeth were studied; 600 and 480 root surfaces, respectively, were treated. At each appointment we evaluated the oral hygiene of the patient, the presence of plaque-retention zones, bleeding, suppuration, recession, mobility, the probing depth, the quantity and pH of the crevicular liquid, presence of hyperesthesia. After the initial treatment of the root surfaces abrupt improvement of the clinical condition was observed. One month after the therapy there was reduction of the probing depth and the mobility of teeth, less plaque and less bleeding, decreased retention indices, as well as decrease in the crevicular liquid. PMID:15354463

  11. Preliminary Results of Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy After Cyst Drainage for Craniopharyngioma in Adults

    SciTech Connect

    Kanesaka, Naoto; Mikami, Ryuji; Nakayama, Hidetsugu; Nogi, Sachika; Tajima, Yu; Nakajima, Nobuyuki; Wada, Jun; Miki, Tamotsu; Haraoka, Jou; Okubo, Mitsuru; Sugahara, Shinji; Tokuuye, Koichi

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) for craniopharyngioma. Methods and Materials: Between 1999 and 2005, 16 patients with craniopharyngioma were referred to Tokyo Medical University Hospital. They received FSRT alone after histologic confirmation by needle biopsy and underwent cyst drainage via endoscopy. The median prescription dose fraction was 30 Gy in six fractions. All patients except 1 were followed up until December 2009 or death. Results: The median follow-up period was 52 months (range, 4-117 months). Of the 17 patients, 3 experienced recurrence 4 to 71 months after FSRT. The 3-year local control rate was 82.4%. One patient died of thyroid cancer, and the 3-year survival rate was 94.1%. Eight patients had improved visual fields at a median of 2.5 months after FSRT, but hormonal functions did not improve in any patient. Conclusions: FSRT after cyst drainage seems to be safe and effective for patients with craniopharyngiomas, and it may be a safe alternative to surgery.

  12. The Increased Risk of Road Crashes in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Adult Drivers: Driven by Distraction? Results from a Responsibility Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    El Farouki, Kamal; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Orriols, Ludivine; Bouvard, Manuel-Pierre; Contrand, Benjamin; Galéra, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective Both distractions (external and internal) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are serious risk factors for traffic crashes and injuries. However, it is still unknown if ADHD (a chronic condition) modifies the effect of distractions (irregular hazards) on traffic crashes. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of distractions and ADHD on traffic crash responsibility. Methods A responsibility case-control study was conducted in the adult emergency department of Bordeaux University Hospital, France. Subjects were recruited among drivers injured in a motor vehicle crash between April 2010 and August 2011. Responsibility levels were estimated using a standardized method. Frequencies of exposures were compared between drivers responsible and drivers not responsible for the crash. Independent risk factors were identified using a multivariate logistic regression including test interactions between distractions and ADHD. Results A total of 777 subjects were included in the analysis. Factors associated with responsibility were distraction induced by an external event (adjusted OR (aOR)  = 1.47; 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.06–2.05]), distraction induced by an internal thought (aOR = 2.38; CI: [1.50–3.77]) and ADHD (aOR = 2.18 CI: [1.22–3.88]). The combined effect of ADHD and external distractions was strongly associated with responsibility for the crash (aOR = 5.79 CI: [2.06–16.32]). Interaction assessment showed that the attributable proportion due to the interaction among participants with both exposures was 68%. Discussion Adults with ADHD are a population at higher risk of being responsible for a road traffic crash when exposed to external distractions. This result reinforces the need to diagnose adult ADHD and to include road safety awareness messages delivered by the physician. Developing advanced driver assistance systems devoted to the management of attention lapses is also

  13. Physical activity is associated with lower arterial stiffness in older adults: results of the SAPALDIA 3 Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Endes, Simon; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Caviezel, Seraina; Dratva, Julia; Autenrieth, Christine Sonja; Wanner, Miriam; Martin, Brian; Stolz, Daiana; Pons, Marco; Turk, Alexander; Bettschart, Robert; Schindler, Christian; Künzli, Nino; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno

    2016-03-01

    Associations of physical activity (PA) intensity with arterial stiffness in older adults at the population level are insufficiently studied. We examined cross-sectional associations of self-reported PA intensities with arterial stiffness in elderly Caucasians of the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults. Mixed central and peripheral arterial stiffness was measured oscillometrically by the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). The self-reported International Physical Activity Questionnaire long version was administered to classify each subject's PA level. We used univariable and multivariable mixed linear and logistic regression models for analyses in 1908 persons aged 50 years and older. After adjustment for several confounders moderate, vigorous and total PA were inversely associated with CAVI (p = 0.02-0.03). BaPWV showed negative and marginally significant associations with vigorous and moderate PA (each p = 0.06), but not with total PA (p = 0.28). Increased arterial stiffness (CAVI ≥ 9, upper tertile) was inversely and significantly associated with vigorous PA [odds ratio (OR) 0.65, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.48-0.88], and marginally significantly with total PA (OR 0.76, 95 % CI 0.57-1.02) and moderate PA (OR 0.75, 95 % CI 0.56-1.01). The odds ratio for baPWV ≥ 14.4 was 0.67 (95 % CI 0.48-0.93) across the vigorous PA levels, and was non-significant across the total (OR 0.91, 95 % CI 0.66-1.23) and moderate PA levels (OR 0.94, 95 % CI 0.69-1.28). In this general Caucasian population of older adults higher levels especially of vigorous PA were associated with lower arterial stiffness. These data support the importance of PA for improving cardiovascular health in elderly people. PMID:26220521

  14. Use of the Internet as a Health Information Resource Among French Young Adults: Results From a Nationally Representative Survey

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Nguyen-Thanh, Viet; Montagni, Ilaria; Parizot, Isabelle; Renahy, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    Background The Internet is one of the main resources of health information especially for young adults, but website content is not always trustworthy or validated. Little is known about this specific population and the importance of online health searches for use and impact. It is fundamental to assess behaviors and attitudes of young people looking for online health-related information and their level of trust in such information. Objective The objective is to describe the characteristics of Internet users aged 15-30 years who use the Web as a health information resource and their trust in it, and to define the context and the effect of such use on French young adults’ behavior in relation to their medical consultations. Methods We used the French Health Barometer 2010, a nationally representative survey of 27,653 individuals that investigates population health behaviors and concerns. Multivariate logistic regressions were performed using a subsample of 1052 young adults aged 15-30 years to estimate associations between demographics, socioeconomic, and health status and (1) the use of the Internet to search for health information, and (2) its impact on health behaviors and the physician-patient relationship. Results In 2010, 48.5% (474/977) of Web users aged 15-30 years used the Internet for health purposes. Those who did not use the Internet for health purposes reported being informed enough by other sources (75.0%, 377/503), stated they preferred seeing a doctor (74.1%, 373/503) or did not trust the information on the Internet (67.2%, 338/503). However, approximately 80% (371/474) of young online health seekers considered the information found online reliable. Women (P<.001) and people with higher sociocultural positions (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.9 and OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.7 for employees and manual workers, respectively, vs individuals with executive or manager positions) were more likely to use the Internet for health purposes. For a subsample of women only

  15. Brief Report: the Social Responsiveness Scale for Adults (SRS-A): initial results in a German cohort.

    PubMed

    Bölte, Sven

    2012-09-01

    The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is a tool for quantitative autism assessment in children and adolescents. The SRS-A addresses social responsiveness in adulthood. Reliability and validity using the German adaptation of the SRS-A was examined in 20 adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), 62 with other mental disorders (CLIN) and 163 typically developing (TD) participants. Cronbach's alpha ranged from .71 (TD) to .89 (ASD). A SRS-A total score of 67 had a sensitivity of .85, and a specificity of .83 for ASD versus CLIN/TD. Correlations with established autism scales (ADOS, AQ, SCQ) were moderate to high (r = .25-.83). Results provide adequate preliminary support for the application of the SRS-A. PMID:22183423

  16. Cerebrovascular correlates of vitamin D deficiency in older adults living near the Equator: results from the Atahualpa Project.

    PubMed

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Mera, Robertino M; Macias, Jorge; Morales, Gabriela; Zambrano, Mauricio

    2015-12-01

    All studies attempting to find an association between vitamin D deficiency and cerebrovascular diseases have been conducted at latitudes far away from the Equator, where living conditions, cardiovascular risk factors, and sunshine exposure are different from tropical regions. We aimed to assess cerebrovascular correlates of vitamin D deficiency in community-dwelling older adults living in Atahualpa, a village located in rural coastal Ecuador. Out of 267 individuals enrolled in the neuroimaging substudy of the Atahualpa Project, 220 (82%) signed the informed consent. Mean age of participants was 70·9 ± 7·8 years, and 126 (57%) were women. Fifty-four (25%) persons have vitamin D levels <20 ng/ml, 47 (21%) had ischemic strokes, and 53 (24%) had moderate-to-severe white matter hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin. Exposure effect models constructed with vitamin D deficiency as the exposure, white matter hyperintensities and ischemic stroke as the outcomes, and confounders--age, gender, body mass index, physical activity, blood pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, ionized calcium, phosphorus, intact parathormone, and serum creatinine--as independent variables revealed a significant association of vitamin D deficiency with white matter hyperintensities (P = 0·006) but not with ischemic strokes (P = 0·359). This study shows an association of vitamin D deficiency with diffuse subcortical brain damage in older adults living in a tropical region. Lack of awareness of the importance of vitamin D deficiency might be one of the factors influencing the high prevalence of white matter hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin in underserved Latin American populations. PMID:26310517

  17. The association between types of eating behaviour and dispositional mindfulness in adults with diabetes. Results from Diabetes MILES. The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Tak, Sanne R; Hendrieckx, Christel; Nefs, Giesje; Nyklíček, Ivan; Speight, Jane; Pouwer, François

    2015-04-01

    Although healthy food choices are important in the management of diabetes, making dietary adaptations is often challenging. Previous research has shown that people with type 2 diabetes are less likely to benefit from dietary advice if they tend to eat in response to emotions or external cues. Since high levels of dispositional mindfulness have been associated with greater awareness of healthy dietary practices in students and in the general population, it is relevant to study the association between dispositional mindfulness and eating behaviour in people with type 1 or 2 diabetes. We analysed data from Diabetes MILES - The Netherlands, a national observational survey in which 634 adults with type 1 or 2 diabetes completed the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (to assess restrained, external and emotional eating behaviour) and the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire-Short Form (to assess dispositional mindfulness), in addition to other psychosocial measures. After controlling for potential confounders, including demographics, clinical variables and emotional distress, hierarchical linear regression analyses showed that higher levels of dispositional mindfulness were associated with eating behaviours that were more restrained (β = 0.10) and less external (β = -0.11) and emotional (β = -0.20). The mindfulness subscale 'acting with awareness' was the strongest predictor of both external and emotional eating behaviour, whereas for emotional eating, 'describing' and 'being non-judgemental' were also predictive. These findings suggest that there is an association between dispositional mindfulness and eating behaviour in adults with type 1 or 2 diabetes. Since mindfulness interventions increase levels of dispositional mindfulness, future studies could examine if these interventions are also effective in helping people with diabetes to reduce emotional or external eating behaviour, and to improve the quality of their diet. PMID:25596042

  18. Apathy and cognitive and functional decline in community-dwelling older adults: Results from the Baltimore ECA longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Diana E.; Ko, Jean Y.; Lyketsos, Constantine; Rebok, George W.; Eaton, William W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Apathy, a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome, commonly affects patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Prevalence estimates for apathy range widely and are based on cross-sectional data and / or clinic samples. This study examines the relationships between apathy and cognitive and functional declines in non-depressed community-based older adults. Methods Data on 1,136 community-dwelling adults age 50 and older from the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study, with 1 and 13 years of follow-up, were used. Apathy was assessed with a subscale of items from the General Health Questionnaire. Chi-square, t-tests, logistic regression, and Generalized Estimating Equations were used to accomplish the study’s objectives. Results The prevalence of apathy at Wave 1 was 23.7%. Compared to those without, individuals with apathy were on average older, more likely to be female, and have lower MMSE scores and impairments in basic and instrumental functioning at baseline. Apathy was significantly associated with cognitive decline (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.06, 2.60) and declines in instrumental (OR = 4.42; 95% CI = 2.65, 7.38) and basic (OR=2.74; 95%CI= 1.35, 5.57) function at 1 year follow-up, even after adjustment for baseline age, level of education, race, and depression at follow-up. At 13 years of follow-up, apathetic individuals were not at greater risk for cognitive decline but were 2-fold more likely to have functional decline. Incidence of apathy at 1- year follow up and 13- year follow-up was respectively, 22.6% and 29.4%. Conclusions These results underline the public health importance of apathy and the need for further population-based studies in this area. PMID:20478091

  19. "First Things First" Shows Promising Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrie, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses a school improvement model, First Things First, developed by James P. Connell, a former tenured professor of psychology at the University of Rochester in New York. The model has three pillars for the high school level: (1) small, themed learning communities that each keep a group of students together…

  20. Periodontal Infection and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Younger Adults: Results from Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004

    PubMed Central

    Papapanou, Panos N.; Jacobs, David R.; Desvarieux, Moïse

    2014-01-01

    Objective Previous studies report associations between periodontal infection and cardiorespiratory fitness but no study has examined the association among younger adults. Our objective was to study the association between clinical measures of periodontal infection and cardiorespiratory fitness levels among a population-based sample of younger adults. Methods The Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004 enrolled 2,863 participants (46% women) who received a partial-mouth periodontal examination and completed a submaximal treadmill test for the assessment of estimated VO2 max(eVO2 max ). Participants were mean±SD age 33±9 years (range = 20–49 years), 30% Hispanic, 48% White, 19% Black, and 3% other. Mean eVO2 max (mL/kg/minute) as well as eVO2 max≤32 mL/kg/minute (20th percentile) were regressed across quartiles of mean probing depth and mean attachment loss in multivariable linear and logistic regression models. Results After multivariable adjustment, mean eVO2 max levels±SE across quartiles of attachment loss were 39.72±0.37, 39.64±0.34, 39.59±0.36, and 39.85±0.39 (P = 0.99). Mean eVO2 max±SE across quartiles of probing depth were 39.57±0.32, 39.78±0.38, 39.19±0.25, and 40.37±0.53 (P = 0.28). Similarly, multivariable adjusted mean eVO2 max values were similar between healthy participants vs. those with moderate/severe periodontitis: 39.70±0.21 vs. 39.70±0.90 (P = 1.00). The odds ratio (OR) for low eVO2 max comparing highest vs. lowest quartile of attachment loss = 0.89[95% CI 0.64–1.24]. The OR for comparing highest vs. lowest probing depth quartile = 0.77[95% CI 0.51–1.15]. Conclusion Clinical measures of periodontal infection were not related to cardiorespiratory fitness in a sample of generally healthy younger adults. PMID:24663097

  1. Gait Characteristics Associated with Walking Speed Decline in Older Adults: Results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Jerome, Gerald J; Ko, Seung-uk; Kauffman, Danielle; Studenski, Stephanie A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Simonsick, Eleanor M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding the mechanisms that contribute to walking speed decline can provide needed insight for developing targeted interventions to reduce the rate and likelihood of decline. Objective Examine the association between gait characteristics and walking speed decline in older adults. Methods Participants in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging aged 60 to 89 were evaluated in the gait laboratory which used a three dimensional motion capture system and force platforms to assess cadence, stride length, stride width, percent of gait cycle in double stance, anterior-posterior mechanical work expenditure (MWE), and medial-lateral MWE. Usual walking speed was assessed over 6 meters at baseline and follow-up. Gait characteristics associated with meaningful decline (decline ≥ 0.05 m/s/y) in walking speed were evaluated by logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, race, height, weight, initial walking speed and follow-up time. Results Among 362 participants, the average age was 72.4 (SD=8.1) years, 51% were female, 27% were black and 23% were identified has having meaningful decline in usual walking speed with an average follow-up time of 3.2 (1.1) years. In the fully adjusted model, faster cadence [ORadj=0.65 95% CI (0.43,0.97)] and longer strides [ORadj=0.87 95% CI (0.83,0.91)] were associated with lower odds of decline. However age [ORadj=1.04 95% CI (0.99,1.10)] was not associated with decline when controlling for gait characteristics and other demographics. Conclusion A sizable proportion of healthy older adults experienced walking speed decline over an average of 3 years. Longer stride and faster cadence were protective against meaningful decline in usual walking speed. PMID:25614178

  2. Pain in Community-Dwelling Older Adults with Dementia: Results from the National Health and Aging Trends Study

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Lauren J.; Covinsky, Kenneth E.; Yaffe, Kristine; Stephens, Caroline E.; Miao, Yinghui; Boscardin, W. John; Smith, Alex K.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To report prevalence, correlates, and medication management of pain in community-dwelling older adults with dementia. DESIGN Cross-sectional. SETTING In-person interviews with self- or proxy respondents living in private residences or non-nursing home residential care settings. PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative sample of community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 and older enrolled in the National Health and Aging Trends Study 2011 wave. MEASUREMENTS Dementia status was determined using a modified previously validated algorithm. Participants were asked whether they had had bothersome and activity-limiting pain over the past month. A multivariable Poisson regression model was used to determine the relationship between bothersome pain and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS Of the 7,609 participants with complete data on cognitive function, 802 had dementia (67.2% aged ≥80, 65.0% female, 67.9% white, 49.7% proxy response, 32.0% lived alone, 18.8% lived in residential care); 670 (63.5%) participants with dementia experienced bothersome pain, and 347 (43.3%) had pain that limited activities. These rates were significantly higher than in a propensity score–matched cohort without dementia (54.5% bothersome pain, P < .001, 27.2% pain that limited activity, P < .001). Proxies reported slightly higher rates of pain than self-respondents, but differences were statistically significant only for activity-limiting pain (46.6% proxy vs 40.1% self, P = .03). Correlates of bothersome pain included arthritis, heart and lung disease, less than high school education, activity of daily living disability, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and low energy. Of those reporting pain, 30.3% stated that they rarely or never took any medications for pain. CONCLUSION Community-living older adults with dementia are at high risk of having pain. Creative interventions and programs are needed to manage pain adequately in this vulnerable population. PMID

  3. Dietary exposure of Hong Kong adults to pesticide residues: results of the first Hong Kong Total Diet Study.

    PubMed

    Wong, Waiky W K; Yau, Arthur T C; Chung, Stephen W C; Lam, Chi-ho; Ma, Stephanie; Ho, Y Y; Xiao, Ying

    2014-01-01

    The use of pesticides and other chemicals has become a common practice in modern agriculture to enhance and stabilise crop yield, protect the nutritional integrity of food, facilitate food storage to assure year-round supplies, and provide attractive and appealing food products. With the adoption of strict good agricultural practice (GAP), only minimal amounts of pesticide residues should remain on the crops or in connected foods of animal origin up the food chain. To assess their associated health risk to local people, the dietary exposure of Hong Kong adults to residues of four groups of pesticides or their metabolites - organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs), carbamates, pyrethrins and pyrethroids, and dithiocarbamate (DTC) metabolites - is estimated in the first Hong Kong Total Diet Study (TDS). A total of 150 commonly consumed food items were collected and prepared "as consumed". A total of 600 composite food samples were analysed for 85 pesticides or their metabolites by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). These pesticides were primarily found at low levels (highest mean = 350 μg kg⁻¹) in food samples of plant origin such as vegetables and fruits. Dietary exposures to pesticide residues were estimated based on the analytical results and the food consumption data of the local residents. The estimated dietary exposures of Hong Kong adults to all individual pesticides were well below their respective acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). The percentage contributions of the estimated mean and 95th percentile dietary exposures to the ADIs of individual pesticides were <6% and <24% for the OPPs, <1% for the carbamates and pyrethrins and pyrethroids, and <1% and <4% for the DTC metabolites, respectively. The findings indicate that dietary exposures to all the pesticide residues analysed in this study were unlikely to pose unacceptable health risks to the Hong Kong population. PMID:24588687

  4. Pain reporting in older adults: the influence of cognitive impairment – results from the Cambridge City >75 Cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Docking, Rachael E; Fleming, Jane; Brayne, Carol; Zhao, Jun; Macfarlane, Gary J

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Evidence suggests that while disabling back pain (BP), and rheumatic diseases associated with pain, continues to increase with age, the prevalence of non-disabling BP reaches a plateau, or even decreases, in the oldest old. This study aimed to determine whether this age-related pattern of non-disabling BP is a function of increasing cognitive impairment. Methods: Cross-sectional study of adults aged >77 years. Participants answered interviewer-administered questions on BP and cognitive function, assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination, categorised into normal versus mild, moderate or severe impairment. The relationship between cognitive function and BP was examined using multinomial logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex and residence. Results: Of 1174 participants with BP data, 1126 (96%) completed cognitive assessments. The relationship between cognitive function and BP differed for disabling and non-disabling BP. Across categories of cognitive impairment, increasingly higher prevalence of disabling BP was reported, compared to those with normal cognition, although this was not statistically significant (odds ratio (OR) = 1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.7–4.6). No association was found between cognitive function and non-disabling BP (OR = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.4–1.6). Conclusion: This study found no association between the reporting of BP and level of cognitive impairment, suggesting that increasing cognitive impairment is an inadequate explanation for age-related decline in self-reported non-disabling BP. Future research should determine the reasons for the decline in non-disabling pain in older adults, although, meanwhile, it is important to ensure that this group receive appropriate pain assessment and pain management. Key points Prevalence of non-disabling back pain decreases in the oldest old. Some have proposed that this may be a function of cognitive impairment in older age, and an increasing inability to adequately report pain

  5. Deaf Adults' Reasons for Genetic Testing Depend on Cultural Affiliation: Results from a Prospective, Longitudinal Genetic Counseling and Testing Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreault, Patrick; Baldwin, Erin E.; Fox, Michelle; Dutton, Loriel; Tullis, LeeElle; Linden, Joyce; Kobayashi, Yoko; Zhou, Jin; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Sininger, Yvonne; Grody, Wayne W.; Palmer, Christina G. S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between cultural affiliation and deaf adults' motivations for genetic testing for deafness in the first prospective, longitudinal study to examine the impact of genetic counseling and genetic testing on deaf adults and the deaf community. Participants (n = 256), classified as affiliating with hearing, Deaf,…

  6. State Policies Affecting the "Adult Re-Entry Pipeline" in Postsecondary Education: Results of a Fifty-State Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeke, Marianne; Zis, Stacey; Ewell, Peter

    2011-01-01

    With support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NCHEMS) is engaged in a two year project centered on state policies that foster student progression and success in the "adult re-entry pipeline." The adult re-entry pipeline consists of the many alternative pathways to obtain a…

  7. Exploring the Adult Life of Men and Women with Fragile X Syndrome: Results from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartleyand, Sigan L.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Raspa, Melissa; Olmstead, Murrey; Bishop, Ellen; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a national family survey, the authors describe the adult lives (i.e., residence, employment, level of assistance needed with everyday life, friendships, and leisure activities) of 328 adults with the full mutation of the FMR1 gene and identify characteristics related to independence in these domains. Level of functional skills was…

  8. A Combined Treatment Approach for Adults with ADHD--Results of an Open Study of 43 Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostain, Anthony L.; Ramsay, J. Russell

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Increasing numbers of adults are seeking treatment for ADHD. Pharmacotherapy is well established as the first line treatment for adult ADHD, although medications alone may be insufficient treatment for the myriad problems experienced by these patients. Few studies have examined the clinical outcomes of a combination of pharmacotherapy…

  9. Results from a preliminary review of scientific evidence for appropriateness of preparations, dosage forms and other product design elements for older adult patients.

    PubMed

    Messina, Rossella; Becker, Robert; van Riet-Nales, Diana A; Stegemann, Sven

    2015-01-30

    The aging population and the growing multimorbidity of the major patient population as well as the advanced (pharmaco)therapeutic treatment options are increasing the complexity of independent drug therapy management and administration. The increased complexity may have an impact on drug adherence (including any need for patients initiated coping strategies), and consequently on the safety and efficacy of the medicine. To overcome adherence issues caused by the design of the medicine, it is crucial that developers consider the age appropriateness of the medicine (route of administration, dosage form, excipients in the composition, frequency of dosing) in meeting patients' needs to manage their therapy without the support of a care giver. In order to understand the scientific evidence on such age appropriately designed medicines for use by older adults, a literature search was performed in the Medline database (all languages included). The search produced 34 publications that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria for the patient population of 65 years an older. An in-depth analysis of the included publications with respect to the methodological quality (study design, data collection, endpoints chosen) and results showed that none of these publications had adequately investigated the age appropriateness of the medicine for use by older adults. The authors consider that the knowledge gap in this area requires attention of all stakeholders in the healthcare community. PMID:25445516

  10. Learning to Identify Near-Acuity Letters, either with or without Flankers, Results in Improved Letter Size and Spacing Limits in Adults with Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Susana T. L.; Li, Roger W.; Levi, Dennis M.

    2012-01-01

    Amblyopia is a developmental abnormality that results in deficits for a wide range of visual tasks, most notably, the reduced ability to see fine details, the loss in contrast sensitivity especially for small objects and the difficulty in seeing objects in clutter (crowding). The primary goal of this study was to evaluate whether crowding can be ameliorated in adults with amblyopia through perceptual learning using a flanked letter identification task that was designed to reduce crowding, and if so, whether the improvements transfer to untrained visual functions: visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and the size of visual span (the amount of information obtained in one fixation). To evaluate whether the improvements following this training task were specific to training with flankers, we also trained another group of adult observers with amblyopia using a single letter identification task that was designed to improve letter contrast sensitivity, not crowding. Following 10,000 trials of training, both groups of observers showed improvements in the respective training task. The improvements generalized to improved visual acuity, letter contrast sensitivity, size of the visual span, and reduced crowding. The magnitude of the improvement for each of these measurements was similar in the two training groups. Perceptual learning regimens aimed at reducing crowding or improving letter contrast sensitivity are both effective in improving visual acuity, contrast sensitivity for near-acuity objects and reducing the crowding effect, and could be useful as a clinical treatment for amblyopia. PMID:22558234

  11. The Association between Sleep Problems, Sleep Medication Use, and Falls in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Results from the Health and Retirement Study 2010

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Very few studies have assessed the impact of poor sleep and sleep medication use on the risk of falls among community-dwelling older adults. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between sleep problems, sleep medication use, and falls in community-dwelling older adults. Methods. The study population comprised a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized older adults participating in the 2010 Health and Retirement Study. Proportion of adults reporting sleep problems, sleep medication use, and fall was calculated. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to examine the impact of sleep problems and sleep medication use on the risk of falls after controlling for covariates. Results. Among 9,843 community-dwelling older adults, 35.8% had reported a fall and 40.8% had reported sleep problems in the past two years. Sleep medication use was reported by 20.9% of the participants. Older adults who do have sleep problems and take sleep medications had a significant high risk of falls, compared to older adults who do not have sleep problems and do not take sleep medications. The other two groups also had significantly greater risk for falls. Conclusion. Sleep problems added to sleep medication use increase the risk of falls. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these observed findings. PMID:27547452

  12. The effect of marriage on young adult heavy drinking and its mediators: results from two methods of adjusting for selection into marriage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Matthew R; Chassin, Laurie; Mackinnon, David

    2010-12-01

    This study tested the effect of marriage on young adult heavy drinking and tested whether this effect was mediated by involvement in social activities, religiosity, and self-control reasons for limiting drinking. The sample of 508 young adults was taken from an ongoing longitudinal study of familial alcoholism that over-sampled children of alcoholics (Chassin, Rogosch, & Barrera, 1991). In order to distinguish role socialization effects of marriage from confounding effects of role selection into marriage, analyses used both the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) method and the change score method of adjusting for pre-marriage levels of heavy drinking and the mediators. Results showed role socialization effects of marriage on post-marriage declines in heavy drinking. This effect was mediated by involvement in social activities such that marriage predicted decreased involvement in social activities, which in turn predicted decreased heavy drinking. There were no statistically significant mediated effects of religiosity. The mediated effect of self-control reasons for limiting drinking was supported by the ANCOVA method only, and further investigation suggested that this result was detected erroneously due to violation of an assumption of the ANCOVA method that is not shared by the change score method. Findings from this study offer an explanation for the maturing out of heavy drinking that takes place for some individuals over the course of young adulthood. Methodologically, results suggest that the ANCOVA method should be employed with caution, and that the change score method is a viable approach to confirming results from the ANCOVA method. PMID:21198229

  13. Job Strain, Depressive Symptoms, and Drinking Behavior Among Older Adults: Results From the Health and Retirement Study

    PubMed Central

    Bohnert, Amy S. B.; Ratliff, Scott; Zivin, Kara

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To examine the relationship between job strain and two indicators of mental health, depression and alcohol misuse, among currently employed older adults. Method. Data come from the 2004 and 2006 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (N = 2,902). Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to determine the association between job strain, indicated by the imbalance of job stress and job satisfaction, with depression and alcohol misuse. Results. High job strain (indicated by high job stress combined with low job satisfaction) was associated with elevated depressive symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 2.98, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.99–4.45) relative to low job strain after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, labor force status, and occupation. High job stress combined with high job satisfaction (OR = 1.93) and low job stress combined with low job satisfaction (OR = 1.94) were also associated with depressive symptoms to a lesser degree. Job strain was unrelated to either moderate or heavy drinking. These associations did not vary by gender or age. Discussion. Job strain is associated with elevated depressive symptoms among older workers. In contrast to results from investigations of younger workers, job strain was unrelated to alcohol misuse. These findings can inform the development and implementation of workplace health promotion programs that reflect the mental health needs of the aging workforce. PMID:21427175

  14. Assessing Mobility Difficulties for Cross-National Comparisons: Results from the WHO Study on AGEing and Adult Health

    PubMed Central

    Capistrant, Benjamin D.; Glymour, M. Maria; Berkman, Lisa F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the correspondence between self-reported and measured indicators of mobility disability among older adults across six low and middle income countries [LMICs]. Design Cross-sectional analysis of Study of Ageing and Adult Health [SAGE] Setting Household surveys in China, India, Russia, South Africa, Ghana, and Mexico Participants Community-dwelling SAGE respondents aged 65+ (total n= 12,215) Measurements Objective mobility was assessed by a 4-meter timed walk at normal pace conducted in the respondent’s home; we defined slow walking speed per the Fried frailty criteria (lowest quintile of walking speed, adjusted for age and height). Self-reported mobility difficulty was assessed with a question about ability to walk 1 kilometer (km); we dichotomized this response into any/no self-reported difficulty walking 1 km (reference: no difficulty). We estimated the age (5-year groups) and gender-specific probability of self-reporting difficulty walking 1 km among those with a measured slow walk with logistic regression. Results Across the countries, between 42% and 76% of people aged 65+ reported any difficulty walking 1 km. Average walking speed was slowest in Russia (0.61 m/s) and fastest in China (0.88 m/s). The probabilities of reporting any difficulty walking 1km among women aged 65–69, for example, with a slow walk varied: China=0.35; India=0.90; Russia=0.68; South Africa=0.81; Ghana=0.91; Mexico=0.73; test of country differences p-value<0.001. There was significant variation at older ages, albeit smaller in magnitude. Patterns were similar for men. Conclusion Although correspondence between an objective and self-reported measure of mobility was generally high, correspondence differed significantly across LMICs. International comparisons of self-reported disability measures for clinical, prevention and policy guidelines in LMICs should consider that self-reported data may not correspond to objective measures uniformly across countries. PMID

  15. Daily Use of Complementary and Other Therapies for Symptoms among Older Adults: Study Design and Illustrative Results

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Neiberg, Rebecca H.; Lang, Wei; Nguyen, Ha; Altizer, Kathryn; Stoller, Eleanor P.; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This paper describes research designed to specify complementary therapies used among older adults by obtaining daily use data and the specific purposes for use. Design Two-hundred African American and white participants completed a baseline interview and up to six sets of three daily-diary interviews at monthly intervals. Results Participants provided retrospective information on complementary therapy use, and information on the use of therapies for specific symptoms experienced across 3,070 person days. Retrospective information indicated that most participants used complementary therapies (e.g., 85.0% used home remedies in the past year). The use of complementary or other therapies and the number of days the therapies were used varied for specific symptoms. For example, home remedies were used on 86 (9.1%) of the 944 person days for which joint pain was reported. Discussion The daily-diary design provides detailed information for delineating how elders include complementary and other therapies in their health self-management. PMID:20937796

  16. Axillary and thoracic skin temperatures poorly comparable to core body temperature circadian rhythm: results from 2 adult populations.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Karen A; Burr, Robert; Wang, Shu-Yuann; Lentz, Martha J; Shaver, Joan

    2004-01-01

    Data from 2 separate studies were used to examine the relationships of axillary or thoracic skin temperature to rectal temperature and to determine the phase relationships of the circadian rhythms of these temperatures. In study 1, axillary skin and rectal temperatures were recorded in 19 healthy women, 21 to 36 years of age. In study 2, thoracic skin and rectal temperatures were recorded in 74 healthy women, 39 to 59 years of age. In both studies, temperatures were recorded continuously for 24 h while subjects carried out normal activities. Axillary and thoracic probes were insulated purposely to prevent ambient effects. Cosinor analysis was employed to estimate circadian rhythm mesor, amplitude, and acrophase. In addition, correlations between temperatures at various measurement sites were calculated and agreement determined. The circadian timing of axillary and skin temperature did not closely approximate that of rectal temperature: the mean acrophase (clock time) for study 1 was 18:57 h for axillary temperature and 16:12 h for rectal; for study 2, it was 03:05 h for thoracic and 15:05 h for rectal. Across individual subjects, the correlations of axillary or thoracic temperatures with rectal temperatures were variable. Results do not support the use of either axillary or skin temperature as a substitute for rectal temperature in circadian rhythm research related to adult women. PMID:14737919

  17. Effects of a Prekindergarten Educational Intervention on Adult Health: 37-Year Follow-Up Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Schweinhart, Lawrence; Montie, Jeanne; Neidell, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We used 37 years of follow-up data from a randomized controlled trial to explore the linkage between an early educational intervention and adult health. Methods. We analyzed data from the High/Scope Perry Preschool Program (PPP), an early school-based intervention in which 123 children were randomized to a prekindergarten education group or a control group. In addition to exploring the effects of the program on health behavioral risk factors and health outcomes, we examined the extent to which educational attainment, income, family environment, and health insurance access mediated the relationship between randomization to PPP and behavioral and health outcomes. Results. The PPP led to improvements in educational attainment, health insurance, income, and family environment Improvements in these domains, in turn, lead to improvements in an array of behavioral risk factors and health (P = .01). However, despite these reductions in behavioral risk factors, participants did not exhibit any overall improvement in physical health outcomes by the age of 40 years. Conclusions. Early education reduces health behavioral risk factors by enhancing educational attainment, health insurance coverage, income, and family environments. Further follow-up will be needed to determine the long-term health effects of PPP. PMID:19542034

  18. Suicidal Ideation and Mental Distress Among Adults With Military Service History: Results From 5 US States, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Adam J.; Bossarte, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association of military service history with past-year suicidal ideation and past-30-days mental distress in a probability-based sample of adults. Methods. We gathered 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 5 states that asked about past-year suicidal ideation. Military service was defined as current or former active-duty service or National Guard or Reserves service. We stratified analyses into 18 to 39 years, 40 to 64 years, and 65 years and older age groups and used multiple logistic regression analyses, adjusted for demographic confounders, to discern the association of military service history with past-year suicidal ideation and past-30-days mental distress. Results. Among the 26 736 respondents, 13.1% indicated military service history. After adjusting for several confounders, we found military history status among those aged 40 to 64 years was associated with both past-year suicidal ideation and past-30-days mental distress. We found no significant associations among the younger or older age groups. Conclusions. Differences in suicidal ideation between military and nonmilitary individuals may occur in midlife. Future research should examine the possibility of cohort effects, service era effects, or both. PMID:25100426

  19. Results of a Feasibility and Acceptability Trial of an Online Smoking Cessation Program Targeting Young Adult Nondaily Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J.; Schauer, Gillian L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite increases in nondaily smoking among young adults, no prior research has aimed to develop and test an intervention targeting this group. Thus, we aimed to develop and test the feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness of an online intervention targeting college student nondaily smokers. We conducted a one-arm feasibility and acceptability trial of a four-week online intervention with weekly contacts among 31 college student nondaily smokers. We conducted assessments at baseline (B), end of treatment (EOT), and six-week followup (FU). We maintained a 100% retention rate over the 10-week period. Google Analytics data indicated positive utilization results, and 71.0% were satisfied with the program. There were increases (P < .001) in the number of people refraining from smoking for the past 30 days and reducing their smoking from B to EOT and to FU, with additional individuals reporting being quit despite recent smoking. Participants also increased in their perceptions of how bothersome secondhand smoke is to others (P < .05); however, no other attitudinal variables were altered. Thus, this intervention demonstrated feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness among college-aged nondaily smokers. Additional research is needed to understand how nondaily smokers define cessation, improve measures for cessation, and examine theoretical constructs related to smoking among this population. PMID:22570666

  20. An embryonic atrazine exposure results in reproductive dysfunction in adult zebrafish and morphological alterations in their offspring.

    PubMed

    Wirbisky, Sara E; Weber, Gregory J; Sepúlveda, Maria S; Lin, Tsang-Long; Jannasch, Amber S; Freeman, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    The herbicide atrazine, a suspected endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC), frequently contaminates potable water supplies. Studies suggest alterations in the neuroendocrine system along the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis; however, most studies address either developmental, pubertal, or adulthood exposures, with few investigations regarding a developmental origins hypothesis. In this study, zebrafish were exposed to 0, 0.3, 3, or 30 parts per billion (ppb) atrazine through embryogenesis and then allowed to mature with no additional chemical exposure. Reproductive function, histopathology, hormone levels, offspring morphology, and the ovarian transcriptome were assessed. Embryonic atrazine exposure resulted in a significant increase in progesterone levels in the 3 and 30 ppb groups. A significant decrease in spawning and a significant increase in follicular atresia in the 30 ppb group were observed. In offspring, a decrease in the head length to body ratio in the 30 ppb group, along with a significant increase in head width to body ratio in the 0.3 and 3 ppb groups occurred. Transcriptomic alterations involved genes associated with endocrine system development and function, tissue development, and behavior. This study provides evidence to support atrazine as an EDC causing reproductive dysfunction and molecular alterations in adults exposed only during embryogenesis and morphological alterations in their offspring. PMID:26891955

  1. An embryonic atrazine exposure results in reproductive dysfunction in adult zebrafish and morphological alterations in their offspring

    PubMed Central

    Wirbisky, Sara E.; Weber, Gregory J.; Sepúlveda, Maria S.; Lin, Tsang-Long; Jannasch, Amber S.; Freeman, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    The herbicide atrazine, a suspected endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC), frequently contaminates potable water supplies. Studies suggest alterations in the neuroendocrine system along the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis; however, most studies address either developmental, pubertal, or adulthood exposures, with few investigations regarding a developmental origins hypothesis. In this study, zebrafish were exposed to 0, 0.3, 3, or 30 parts per billion (ppb) atrazine through embryogenesis and then allowed to mature with no additional chemical exposure. Reproductive function, histopathology, hormone levels, offspring morphology, and the ovarian transcriptome were assessed. Embryonic atrazine exposure resulted in a significant increase in progesterone levels in the 3 and 30 ppb groups. A significant decrease in spawning and a significant increase in follicular atresia in the 30 ppb group were observed. In offspring, a decrease in the head length to body ratio in the 30 ppb group, along with a significant increase in head width to body ratio in the 0.3 and 3 ppb groups occurred. Transcriptomic alterations involved genes associated with endocrine system development and function, tissue development, and behavior. This study provides evidence to support atrazine as an EDC causing reproductive dysfunction and molecular alterations in adults exposed only during embryogenesis and morphological alterations in their offspring. PMID:26891955

  2. Life satisfaction in young adults 10 or more years after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for childhood malignant and nonmalignant diseases does not show significant impairment compared with healthy controls: a case-matched study.

    PubMed

    Uderzo, Cornelio; Corti, Paola; Pappalettera, Marco; Baldini, Valentina; Lucchini, Giovanna; Meani, Dario; Rovelli, Attilio

    2012-11-01

    Patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) may experience physical and psychological deterioration that impairs their life satisfaction (LS). This study focused on LS in long-term survivors at 10 or more years after HSCT. Fifty-five patients (39 males, median age 25 years) undergoing allogeneic HSCT for childhood malignant (n = 52) or nonmalignant diseases (n = 3) were enrolled. A control group of 98 young adults (59 males, median age 24 years) was considered. A questionnaire with a modified Satisfaction Life Domain Scale was administered. We assessed such domains as education, employment, leisure time, social relationships, and perception of physical status with a 30-item questionnaire. To investigate the association between the domains and the probability of diminished LS, we performed a logistical procedure using the maximum likelihood method. Predictive factors of LS were adjusted for sociodemographic variables. In the multivariate analysis, the participant's level of LS was not significantly correlated with sociodemographic factors or with HSCT status. The same analysis showed a slight trend in favor of the control group (P = .06) for body perception. Our data suggest that the patients who undergo HSCT in childhood have no significant difference in long-term LS compared with healthy controls. PMID:22766222

  3. Food consumption of adults in Germany: results of the German National Nutrition Survey II based on diet history interviews.

    PubMed

    Heuer, Thorsten; Krems, Carolin; Moon, Kilson; Brombach, Christine; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2015-05-28

    The second German National Nutrition Survey (NVS II) aimed to evaluate food consumption and other aspects of nutritional behaviour of a representative sample of the German population, using a modular design with three different dietary assessment methods. To assess usual food consumption, 15,371 German speaking subjects 14-80 years of age completed a diet history interview between November 2005 and November 2006. With reference to the guidelines of the German Nutrition Society (DGE), NVS II observed that the German population did not eat enough foods of plant origin, especially vegetables and consumed too much of meat and meat products. While generally similar food consumption is observed in other European countries, consumption of bread, fruit juices/nectars and beer is higher in Germany. On average, men consumed two times more meat and soft drinks as well as six times more beer than women did, whereas the consumption of vegetables, fruit as well as herbal/fruit tea was higher in women. Older participants showed a lower consumption of meat, fruit juice/nectars, soft drinks and spirits as well as a higher consumption of fish, vegetables, fruit, and herbal/fruit tea than adolescents and younger adults did. There are also differences in food consumption with regard to socio-economic status (SES). Persons with higher SES consumed more vegetables, fruit, fish, water, coffee/tea and wine, while persons with lower SES consumed more meat and meat products, soft drinks and beer. In general, the food consumption of women, the elderly and the higher SES group tends to be closer to the official dietary guidelines in Germany. PMID:25866161

  4. Radiotherapy for adult medulloblastoma: Long term result from a single institution. A review of prognostic factors and why we do need a multi-institutional cooperative program

    PubMed Central

    Buglione, Michela; Ghirardelli, Paolo; Triggiani, Luca; Pedretti, Sara; Pasinetti, Nadia; De Bari, Berardino; Tonoli, Sandro; Borghetti, Paolo; Spiazzi, Luigi; Magrini, Stefano Maria

    2015-01-01

    Aim We retrospectively analyzed our Institution experience with these patients. The endpoints of the analysis were overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), local control (LC), metastasis free survival (MFS); results were compared with the literature. Background Medulloblastoma in adult patients is a very rare disease; the 5 and 10-year overall survival rates range between 33–78% and 27–56%, respectively. The collection of more clinical data is strongly needed. Materials and methods From September 1975 to October 2006, we treated 16 adult patients (9 males and 7 females) with a histological diagnosis of medulloblastoma. Acute and late toxicities were scored according to RTOG toxicity scale. Karnofski performance status (KPS) and neurological performance status (NPS) pre- and post-RT were reported. Median age was 27 years (range 18–53 years). All the patients received cranio-spinal irradiation, two patients were also given chemotherapy. Median follow-up period was 121.5 months. Results In January 2014, 10/16 patients were alive without evidence of disease, 6/16 died with progressive disease (1 local and spinal, 3 spinal and 2 extraneural). Ten-year LC, OS, DFS, MFS were, respectively, 84%, 67%, 60% and 59%. Univariate analysis shows that gross total resection is associated with better survival. No acute or late G3–G4 toxicity was observed. Conclusions This experience and the analysis of the literature confirm the efficacy of postoperative RT but also the need of large datasets to better define prognostic factors and the possible role of the association of chemotherapy. PMID:26109916

  5. Family Violence Among Older Adult Patients Consulting in Primary Care Clinics: Results From the ESA (Enquête sur la santé des aînés) Services Study on Mental Health and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Préville, Michel; Mechakra-Tahiri, Samia Djemaa; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Mathieu, Véronique; Quesnel, Louise; Gontijo-Guerra, Samantha; Lamoureux-Lamarche, Catherine; Berbiche, Djamal

    2014-01-01

    Objective To document the reliability and construct validity of the Family Violence Scale (FVS) in the older adult population aged 65 years and older. Method: Data came from a cross-sectional survey, the Enquête sur la santé des aînés et l’utilisation des services de santé (ESA Services Study), conducted in 2011–2013 using a probabilistic sample of older adults waiting for medical services in primary care clinics (n = 1765). Family violence was defined as a latent variable, coming from a spouse and from children. Results: A model with 2 indicators of violence; that is, psychological and financial violence, and physical violence, adequately fitted the observed data. The reliability of the FVS was 0.95. According to our results, 16% of older adults reported experiencing some form of family violence in the past 12 months of their interview, and 3% reported a high level of family violence (FVS > 0.36). Our results showed that the victim’s sex was not associated with the degree of violence (β = 0.02). However, the victim’s age was associated with family violence (β = −0.12). Older adults, aged 75 years and older, reported less violence than those aged between 65 and 74 years. Conclusion: Our results lead us to conclude that family violence against older adults is common and warrants greater public health and political attention. General practitioners could play an active role in the detection of violence among older adults. PMID:25161067

  6. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  7. Impact of Australia's introduction of tobacco plain packs on adult smokers’ pack-related perceptions and responses: results from a continuous tracking survey

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Sally M; Dobbins, Timothy; Young, Jane M; Perez, Donna; Currow, David C

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the impact of Australia's plain tobacco packaging policy on two stated purposes of the legislation—increasing the impact of health warnings and decreasing the promotional appeal of packaging—among adult smokers. Design Serial cross-sectional study with weekly telephone surveys (April 2006–May 2013). Interrupted time-series analyses using ARIMA modelling and linear regression models were used to investigate intervention effects. Participants 15 745 adult smokers (aged 18 years and above) in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Random selection of participants involved recruiting households using random digit dialling and selecting the nth oldest smoker for interview. Intervention The introduction of the legislation on 1 October 2012. Outcomes Salience of tobacco pack health warnings, cognitive and emotional responses to warnings, avoidance of warnings, perceptions regarding one's cigarette pack. Results Adjusting for background trends, seasonality, antismoking advertising activity and cigarette costliness, results from ARIMA modelling showed that, 2–3 months after the introduction of the new packs, there was a significant increase in the absolute proportion of smokers having strong cognitive (9.8% increase, p=0.005), emotional (8.6% increase, p=0.01) and avoidant (9.8% increase, p=0.0005) responses to on-pack health warnings. Similarly, there was a significant increase in the proportion of smokers strongly disagreeing that the look of their cigarette pack is attractive (57.5% increase, p<0.0001), says something good about them (54.5% increase, p<0.0001), influences the brand they buy (40.6% increase, p<0.0001), makes their pack stand out (55.6% increase, p<0.0001), is fashionable (44.7% increase, p<0.0001) and matches their style (48.1% increase, p<0.0001). Changes in these outcomes were maintained 6 months postintervention. Conclusions The introductory effects of the plain packaging legislation among adult smokers are

  8. Prevalence, correlates, and comorbidities of adult ADHD symptoms in Korea: results of the Korean epidemiologic catchment area study.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Cho, Maeng Je; Chang, Sung Man; Jeon, Hong Jin; Cho, Seong-Jin; Kim, Byung-Soo; Bae, Jae Nam; Wang, Hee-Ryung; Ahn, Joon Ho; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2011-04-30

    We examined the prevalence, correlates, and comorbidities of adult attention-deficit hypersensitivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a Korean community using data from the National Epidemiological Survey of Psychiatric Disorders in Korea conducted in 2006. A total of 6081 subjects aged 18 to 59 years participated in this study. Diagnostic assessments were based on the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Screener and Composite International Diagnostic Interview administered by lay interviewers. The frequencies of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) disorders, sleep disturbances, and suicidal tendency were compared in the ADHD and non-ADHD groups. Odds ratios and significance levels were calculated. The 6 month prevalence of adult ADHD symptoms was 1.1%. Associations between ADHD symptoms and alcohol abuse/dependence, nicotine dependence, mood disorders, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, somatoform disorder, sleep disturbances, and suicidality were overwhelmingly positive and significant (P<0.05), after controlling for gender and age. Adult ADHD symptoms are highly associated with substance abuse, mood and anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, sleep disturbances and suicidality, suggesting that clinicians should carefully evaluate and treat such psychiatric disorders in adults with ADHD symptoms. PMID:20724004

  9. The extent of cigarette brand and company switching: results from the Adult Use-of-Tobacco Survey.

    PubMed

    Siegel, M; Nelson, D E; Peddicord, J P; Merritt, R K; Giovino, G A; Eriksen, M P

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of cigarette advertising on brand switching, an accurate estimate of the extent of cigarette brand and company switching among current smokers is needed. Data from the 1986 Adult Use-of-Tobacco Survey were analyzed to estimate the percentage of adult smokers who switched cigarette brands and companies in the previous year. Approximately 9.2% of adult smokers (4.2 million) switched cigarette brands in 1986, and 6.7% (3.1 million) switched cigarette companies. The aggregate profitability of brand switching in 1986 was approximately $362 million. Based on this analysis, brand switching alone justifies only a small percentage of a cigarette company's advertising and promotion expenditures, suggesting that future research should address other potential effects of advertising, including maintenance of brand loyalty and expanding the cigarette market. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH): addictive behavior, advertising, smoking, tobacco. PMID:8776289

  10. Diabetes, Depressive Symptoms, and Inflammation in Older Adults: Results from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Todd A.; de Groot, Mary; Harris, Tamara; Schwartz, Frank; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Johnson, Karen C.; Kanaya, Alka

    2013-01-01

    Objective Up-regulated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) are common to both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and elevated depressive symptoms, yet little attention has been given to the biological mechanisms associated with these co-morbidities. This study examined the association between inflammation and both T2DM and elevated depressive symptoms. Methods Baseline data were analyzed from 3,009 adults, aged 70–79, participating in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. Diabetes was assessed per self-report, medication use, fasting glucose and/or glucose tolerance tests. Elevated depressive symptoms were categorized using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (cut-score≥20). Log-transformed IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP were analyzed using ANCOVA. Results Participants with T2DM and elevated depressive symptoms (T2DM+DEP n=14) demonstrated significantly (p<.05) higher IL-6 compared to (T2DM Only n=628), (DEP Only n=49), and (No T2DM or DEP n=2,067) groups following covariate adjustment. Similarly, participants with T2DM+DEP (n=14) had significantly (p<.05) higher CRP, after covariate adjustment, compared to DEP Only (n=50) and No T2DM or DEP groups (n=2,153). No association was observed for TNF-α. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that inflammation is associated with T2DM and elevated depressive symptoms. Participants with T2DM+DEP demonstrated the highest IL-6 levels compared to all other groups. Greater CRP levels were also observed in T2DM, but not elevated depressive symptoms, which may suggest that differential associations between T2DM and depressive symptoms exist for various inflammatory markers. Further investigation into these associations could aid in understanding the biological pathways underlying both T2DM and depressive symptoms. PMID:24182629

  11. Dolutegravir in antiretroviral-naive adults with HIV-1: 96-week results from a randomized dose-ranging study

    PubMed Central

    Stellbrink, Hans-Jürgen; Reynes, Jacques; Lazzarin, Adriano; Voronin, Eugene; Pulido, Federico; Felizarta, Franco; Almond, Steve; Clair, Marty St; Flack, Nancy; Min, Sherene

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety/tolerability of dolutegravir (DTG, S/GSK1349572), a potent inhibitor of HIV integrase, through the full 96 weeks of the SPRING-1 study. Design: ING112276 (SPRING-1) was a 96-week, randomized, partially blinded, phase IIb dose-ranging study. Methods: Treatment-naive adults with HIV received DTG 10, 25, or 50 mg once daily or efavirenz (EFV) 600 mg once daily (control arm) combined with investigator-selected dual nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitor backbone regimen (tenofovir/emtricitabine or abacavir/lamivudine). The primary endpoint of the study was the proportion of participants with plasma HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies/ml, based on time to loss of virologic response at 16 weeks (conducted for the purpose of phase III dose selection), with a planned analysis at 96 weeks. Safety and tolerability were also assessed. Results: Of 208 participants randomized to treatment, 205 received study drug. At week 96, the proportion of participants achieving plasma HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies/ml was 79, 78, and 88% for DTG 10, 25, and 50 mg, respectively, compared with 72% for EFV. The median increase from baseline in CD4+ cells was 338 cells/μl with DTG (all treatment groups combined) compared with 301 cells/μl with EFV (P = 0.155). No clinically significant dose-related trends in adverse events were observed, and fewer participants who received DTG withdrew because of adverse events (3%) compared with EFV (10%). Conclusion: Throughout the 96 weeks of the SPRING-1 study, DTG demonstrated sustained efficacy and favorable safety/tolerability in treatment-naive individuals with HIV-1. PMID:23807273

  12. Thrombopoietin receptor agonists for preparing adult patients with immune thrombocytopenia to splenectomy: results of a retrospective, observational GIMEMA study.

    PubMed

    Zaja, Francesco; Barcellini, Wilma; Cantoni, Silvia; Carpenedo, Monica; Caparrotti, Giuseppe; Carrai, Valentina; Di Renzo, Nicola; Santoro, Cristina; Di Nicola, Massimo; Veneri, Dino; Simonetti, Federico; Liberati, Anna M; Ferla, Valeria; Paoloni, Francesca; Crea, Enrico; Volpetti, Stefano; Tuniz, Enrica; Fanin, Renato

    2016-05-01

    In patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) refractory to corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG), splenectomy may result at higher risk of peri-operative complications and, for this reason, potentially contraindicated. The thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TPO-RAs) romiplostim and eltrombopag have shown high therapeutic activity in primary ITP, but data of efficacy and safety regarding their use in preparation for splenectomy are missing. Thirty-one adult patients, median age 50 years, with corticosteroids and/or IVIG refractory persistent and chronic ITP who were treated with TPO-RAs (romiplostim= 24; eltrombopag= 7) with the aim to increase platelet count and allow a safer execution of splenectomy were retrospectively evaluated. Twenty-four patients (77%) responded to the use of TPO-RAs with a median platelet count that increased from 11 × 10(9) /L before starting TPO-RAs to 114 × 10(9) /L pre-splenectomy, but a concomitant treatment with corticosteroids and/or IVIG was required in 19 patients. Twenty-nine patients underwent splenectomy while two patients who responded to TPO-RAs subsequently refused surgery. Post-splenectomy complications were characterized by two Grade 3 thrombotic events (1 portal vein thrombosis in the patient with previous history of HCV hepatitis and 1 pulmonary embolism), with a platelet count at the time of thrombosis of 260 and 167 × 10(9) /L, respectively and one Grade 3 infectious event. TPO-RAs may represent a therapeutic option to improve platelet count and reduce the risk of peri-operative complications in ITP candidates to splenectomy. An increased risk of post-splenectomy thromboembolic events cannot be ruled out and thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular weight heparin is generally recommended. Am. J. Hematol. 91:E293-E295, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26910388

  13. Knowledge and attitudes of adults towards smoking in pregnancy: results from the HealthStyles© 2008 survey.

    PubMed

    Polen, Kara N D; Sandhu, Paramjit K; Honein, Margaret A; Green, Katie K; Berkowitz, Judy M; Pace, Jill; Rasmussen, Sonja A

    2015-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is causally associated with many adverse health outcomes. Quitting smoking, even late in pregnancy, improves some outcomes. Among adults in general and reproductive-aged women, we sought to understand knowledge and attitudes towards prenatal smoking and its effects on pregnancy outcomes. Using data from the 2008 HealthStyles© survey, we assessed knowledge and attitudes about prenatal smoking and smoking cessation. We classified respondents as having high knowledge if they gave ≥ 5 correct responses to six knowledge questions regarding the health effects of prenatal smoking. We calculated frequencies of correct responses to assess knowledge about prenatal smoking and estimated relative risk to examine knowledge by demographic and lifestyle factors. Only 15 % of all respondents and 23 % of reproductive-aged women had high knowledge of the adverse effects of prenatal smoking on pregnancy outcomes. Preterm birth and low birth weight were most often recognized as adverse outcomes associated with prenatal smoking. Nearly 70 % of reproductive-aged women smokers reported they would quit smoking if they became pregnant without any specific reasons from their doctor. Few respondents recognized the benefits of quitting smoking after the first trimester of pregnancy. Our results suggest that many women lack knowledge regarding the increased risks for adverse outcomes associated with prenatal smoking. Healthcare providers should follow the recommendations provided by the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, which include educating women about the health risks of prenatal smoking and the benefits of quitting. Healthcare providers should emphasize quitting smoking even after the first trimester of pregnancy. PMID:24825031

  14. Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate for Adults with Moderate to Severe Binge Eating Disorder: Results of Two Pivotal Phase 3 Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, Susan L; Hudson, James; Ferreira-Cornwell, M Celeste; Radewonuk, Jana; Whitaker, Timothy; Gasior, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) vs placebo in binge eating disorder (BED) was evaluated in two multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Adults (study 1, n=383; study 2, n=390) meeting DSM-IV-TR BED criteria were randomized (1:1) to placebo or LDX (50 or 70 mg/day) dose titration; optimized doses were maintained to the end of double-blind treatment (week 12/early termination). Change from baseline in binge eating days/week at weeks 11−12 (primary efficacy endpoint) was assessed with mixed-effects models for repeated measures. Secondary endpoints related to binge eating and medical parameters, safety, and treatment compliance were also assessed. Least squares mean (95% CI) treatment differences for change from baseline binge eating days/week at weeks 11–12 significantly favored LDX (study 1: –1.35 [–1.70, –1.01] study 2: –1.66 [–2.04, –1.28] both P<0.001). In both studies, treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) reported by ⩾10% of LDX participants were dry mouth, insomnia, and headache. Serious TEAEs occurred in two (1.1%) placebo participants in each study and in three (1.6%) and one (0.6%) LDX participants in study 1 and study 2, respectively. Across studies, mean increases from baseline at week 12/early termination with LDX for pulse and systolic and diastolic blood pressure ranged from 4.41–6.31 b.p.m. and 0.2–1.45 and 1.06–1.83 mm Hg, respectively. LDX (50 and 70 mg/day) was superior to placebo in decreasing binge eating days/week from baseline and improving binge eating–related key secondary endpoints. Safety results appear consistent with the known safety profile of LDX. PMID:26346638

  15. A Mediterranean-type diet is associated with better metabolic profile in urban Polish adults: Results from the HAPIEE study

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Stepaniak, Urszula; Micek, Agnieszka; Topor-Mądry, Roman; Stefler, Denes; Szafraniec, Krystyna; Bobak, Martin; Pająk, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between adherence to a Mediterranean-type diet and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the Polish arm of the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) cohort study. Materials/methods A cross-sectional survey including 8821 adults was conducted in Krakow, Poland. Food intake was evaluated through a validated food frequency questionnaire and adherence to the dietary pattern was assessed using a score specifically developed for non-Mediterranean countries (MedTypeDiet score). Linear and logistic regression models were performed to estimate beta and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), respectively. Results Significant associations between the MedTypeDiet score and waist circumference (β = − 0.307 ± 0.239 cm), systolic blood pressure (β = − 0.440 ± 0.428 mmHg), and triglycerides (β = − 0.021 ± 0.016 mmol/L) were observed. After multivariable adjustment, individuals in the highest quartile of the score were less likely to have MetS, central obesity, high triglycerides, and hypertension. Increase of one standard deviation of the score was associated with 7% less odds of having MetS (OR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.97). When analyzing the relation of single components of the MedTypeDiet score, wine, dairy products, and the total unsaturated:saturated fatty acids ratio were associated with MetS. Conclusions Adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet may decrease the risk of MetS also among non-Mediterranean populations. PMID:25752843

  16. Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate for Adults with Moderate to Severe Binge Eating Disorder: Results of Two Pivotal Phase 3 Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Susan L; Hudson, James; Ferreira-Cornwell, M Celeste; Radewonuk, Jana; Whitaker, Timothy; Gasior, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) vs placebo in binge eating disorder (BED) was evaluated in two multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Adults (study 1, n=383; study 2, n=390) meeting DSM-IV-TR BED criteria were randomized (1:1) to placebo or LDX (50 or 70 mg/day) dose titration; optimized doses were maintained to the end of double-blind treatment (week 12/early termination). Change from baseline in binge eating days/week at weeks 11-12 (primary efficacy endpoint) was assessed with mixed-effects models for repeated measures. Secondary endpoints related to binge eating and medical parameters, safety, and treatment compliance were also assessed. Least squares mean (95% CI) treatment differences for change from baseline binge eating days/week at weeks 11-12 significantly favored LDX (study 1: -1.35 [-1.70, -1.01]; study 2: -1.66 [-2.04, -1.28]; both P<0.001). In both studies, treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) reported by ⩾10% of LDX participants were dry mouth, insomnia, and headache. Serious TEAEs occurred in two (1.1%) placebo participants in each study and in three (1.6%) and one (0.6%) LDX participants in study 1 and study 2, respectively. Across studies, mean increases from baseline at week 12/early termination with LDX for pulse and systolic and diastolic blood pressure ranged from 4.41-6.31 b.p.m. and 0.2-1.45 and 1.06-1.83 mm Hg, respectively. LDX (50 and 70 mg/day) was superior to placebo in decreasing binge eating days/week from baseline and improving binge eating-related key secondary endpoints. Safety results appear consistent with the known safety profile of LDX. PMID:26346638

  17. Long-term secondary prophylaxis in children, adolescents and young adults with von Willebrand disease. Results of a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Halimeh, Susan; Krümpel, Anne; Rott, Hannelore; Bogdanova, Nadja; Budde, Ulrich; Manner, Daniela; Faeser, Britta; Mesters, Rolf; Nowak-Göttl, Ulrike

    2011-04-01

    In patients with von Willebrand disease (VWD) replacement therapy with factor VIII/von Willebrand (VWF) concentrates is increasingly applied as prophylactic regimen. Since 2000, 82 consecutively enrolled patients with clinically relevant bleeding episodes (spontaneous, peri- or postoperative) were diagnosed with VWD [type 1: 42/82; type 2: 24/82; type 3: 13/82; acquired: 3/82]. In all patients, decision for initiating prophylaxis was based on a bleeding score > 2 prior to diagnosis, concomitant with recurrent bleeds associated with anaemia in patients with on-demand VWD therapy. We report results on secondary prophylactic VWF replacement therapy applied in 32 patients [children n=13; adolescents n=7; adults n=12] with VWD [type 1: 4; type 2: 15; type 3: 13], 15 of which were females, and nine of these at the reproductive period. Eight patients were treated with Humate P® or Wilate® (n=24). Median [min-max] dose [vWF:RCo] was 40 [20-47] IU/kg, 23 patients were given substitution therapy twice weekly, seven patients three times a week, and two children four times per week. Within a 12-month-period haemoglobin concentrations returned to normal values. Median duration of prophylaxis was three years. Recurrent bleeding episodes stopped in 31 of 32 patients, whereas inhibitors developed in one. Following a 12-month observation period the monthly bleeding frequency and the bleeding score was significantly reduced [3 vs. 0.07; 3 vs. 0: p< 0.001], compared to the pre-prophylaxis/pre-diagnostic values. The use of secondary prophylactic VWF replacement therapy is an effective tolerated treatment modality, highly beneficial for patients with VWD, who present with recurrent bleeding events during on-demand therapy. PMID:21301780

  18. Predictors of carotid intima-media thickness and carotid plaque in young Indian adults: results from the New Delhi Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Anita; Huffman, Mark D; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Osmond, Clive; Fall, Caroline HD; Tandon, Nikhil; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Prabhakaran, Poornima; Biswas, SK Dey; Ramji, Siddharth; Sachdev, Harshpal S; Bhargava, Santosh K

    2012-01-01

    Background Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and carotid plaques represent preclinical markers of atherosclerosis. We sought to describe predictors of CIMT and carotid plaques, including early life growth, in a young urban Indian cohort free of clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods In 2006-2009, we performed B-mode carotid ultrasound on 600 participants (mean [SD] age 36 [1.1] years; 45% women) from the New Delhi Birth Cohort to evaluate CIMT and carotid plaques (> 1mm). Height and weight were recorded at birth, 2 and 11 years of age. Data on CVD risk factors, anthropometry, medical history, socio-economic position, and lifestyle habits were collected in 1998-2002. Results Mean (SD) CIMT for men and women was 0.91 (0.12) and 0.86 (0.13) mm, respectively. Carotid plaque was present in 33% of men and 26% of women. Waist circumference in 1998-2002 was positively associated with CIMT (β coefficient 0.26 mm [0.17, 0.36] per SD) and carotid plaque (OR 1.27 [1.06,1.52] per SD) in 2006-2009. Higher triglycerides, PAI-1, insulin resistance, and diastolic blood pressure, metabolic syndrome, and lower HDL-cholesterol and physical activity predicted higher CIMT and/or plaque (p<0.05). Longer length at 2 years was associated with higher CIMT (p<0.05). These associations were attenuated after adjusting for adult waist circumference. Conclusions These are the first prospective data from India showing that early life growth, adult socio-demographics, and CVD risk factors predict future CIMT and /or carotid plaque. These relationships appear primarily mediated through central adiposity, highlighting the importance of maintaining a healthy weight in early adulthood to prevent CVD. PMID:22537976

  19. Effectiveness of Front-Of-Pack Nutrition Labels in French Adults: Results from the NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ducrot, Pauline; Méjean, Caroline; Julia, Chantal; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Touvier, Mathilde; Fezeu, Léopold; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, no consensus has emerged on the most appropriate front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition label to help consumers in making informed choices. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of the label formats currently in use: nutrient-specific, graded and simple summary systems, in a large sample of adults. Methods The FOP label effectiveness was assessed by measuring the label acceptability and understanding among 13,578 participants of the NutriNet-Santé cohort study, representative of the French adult population. Participants were exposed to five conditions, including four FOP labels: Guideline Daily Amounts (GDA), Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL), 5-Color Nutrition Label (5-CNL), Green Tick (Tick), and a “no label” condition. Acceptability was evaluated by several indicators: attractiveness, liking and perceived cognitive workload. Objective understanding was assessed by the percentage of correct answers when ranking three products according to their nutritional quality. Five different product categories were tested: prepared fish dishes, pizzas, dairy products, breakfast cereals, and appetizers. Differences among the label effectiveness were compared with chi-square tests. Results The 5-CNL was viewed as the easiest label to identify and as the one requiring the lowest amount of effort and time to understand. GDA was considered as the least easy to identify and to understand, despite being the most attractive and liked label. All FOP labels were found to be effective in ranking products according to their nutritional quality compared with the “no label” situation, although they showed differing levels of effectiveness (p<0.0001). Globally, the 5-CNL performed best, followed by MTL, GDA and Tick labels. Conclusions The graded 5-CNL label was considered as easy to identify, simple and rapid to understand; it performed well when comparing the products’ nutritional quality. Therefore, it is likely to present advantages in real shopping situations where

  20. Results of the northern Manhattan diabetes community outreach project: a randomized trial studying a community health worker intervention to improve diabetes care in Hispanic adults.

    PubMed

    Palmas, Walter; Findley, Sally E; Mejia, Miriam; Batista, Milagros; Teresi, Jeanne; Kong, Jian; Silver, Stephanie; Fleck, Elaine M; Luchsinger, Jose A; Carrasquillo, Olveen

    2014-04-01

    OBJECTIVE The Northern Manhattan Diabetes Community Outreach Project evaluated whether a community health worker (CHW) intervention improved clinically relevant markers of diabetes care in adult Hispanics. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants were adult Hispanics, ages 35-70 years, with recent hemoglobin A1c (A1C) ≥8% (≥64 mmol/mol), from a university-affiliated network of primary care practices in northern Manhattan (New York City, NY). They were randomized to a 12-month CHW intervention (n = 181), or enhanced usual care (educational materials mailed at 4-month intervals, preceded by phone calls, n = 179). The primary outcome was A1C at 12 months; the secondary outcomes were systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure, and LDL-cholesterol levels. RESULTS There was a nonsignificant trend toward improvement in A1C levels in the intervention group (from unadjusted mean A1C of 8.77 to 8.40%), as compared with usual care (from 8.58 to 8.53%) (P = 0.131). There was also a nonsignificant trend toward an increase in SBP and LDL cholesterol in the intervention arm. Intervention fidelity, measured as the number of contacts in the intervention arm (visits, phone contacts, group support, and nutritional education), showed a borderline association with greater A1C reduction (P = 0.054). When assessed separately, phone contacts were associated with greater A1C reduction (P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS The trend toward A1C reduction with the CHW intervention failed to achieve statistical significance. Greater intervention fidelity may achieve better glycemic control, and more accessible treatment models, such as phone-based interventions, may be more efficacious in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. PMID:24496805

  1. Dynamics of Adult Participation in Part-Time Education and Training: Results from the British Household Panel Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macleod, Flora; Lambe, Paul

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the dynamics of adult participation in part-time education and training throughout the 90s and into the 2000s using data from 14 waves (1992-2005) of the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS). We study the volume (stocks) of participation and non-participation and the gross flows between states. This analysis provides a…

  2. Pathogenesis and epidemiology of Brucellosis in Yellowstone bison: serologic and culture results from adult females and their offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this prospective study was to follow the natural course of Brucella abortus infection in cohorts of seropositive and seronegative female bison and their offspring in Yellowstone National Park over a 5 year period. Specimens were collected from 53 adult, female bison at least once a...

  3. Multi- and Unisensory Decoding of Words and Nonwords Result in Differential Brain Responses in Dyslexic and Nondyslexic Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kast, Monika; Bezzola, Ladina; Jancke, Lutz; Meyer, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was designed, in order to investigate the neural substrates involved in the audiovisual processing of disyllabic German words and pseudowords. Twelve dyslexic and 13 nondyslexic adults performed a lexical decision task while stimuli were presented unimodally (either aurally or…

  4. Employment Status and Income Generation among Homeless Young Adults: Results from a Five-City, Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J.; Maccio, Elaine M.; Pollio, David

    2012-01-01

    This mixed-methods study identified correlates of unemployment among homeless young adults in five cities. Two hundred thirty-eight homeless young people from Los Angeles (n = 50), Austin (n = 50), Denver (n = 50), New Orleans (n = 50), and St. Louis (n = 38) were recruited using comparable sampling strategies. Multivariate logistic regression…

  5. Trajectories and Determinants of Alcohol Use among LGB Young Adults and Their Heterosexual Peers: Results from a Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Corbin, William R.; Fromme, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Lesbians, gays, and bisexuals (LGBs) are at increased risk for alcohol use during young adulthood, but the mechanisms remain inadequately understood. The aim of the present study was to examine the trajectories and determinants of alcohol use among LGB young adults who were sampled prospectively. The sample included 111 LGB individuals (47 women…

  6. Brief Report: The Social Responsiveness Scale for Adults (SRS-A)-- Initial Results in a German Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Sven

    2012-01-01

    The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is a tool for quantitative autism assessment in children and adolescents. The SRS-A addresses social responsiveness in adulthood. Reliability and validity using the German adaptation of the SRS-A was examined in 20 adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), 62 with other mental disorders (CLIN) and 163…

  7. Age, Ageing and Skills: Results from the Survey of Adult Skills. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 132

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paccagnella, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the link between age and proficiency in information-processing skills, based on information drawn from the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). The data reveal significant age-related differences in proficiencies, strongly suggesting that proficiency tends to "naturally" decline with age. Age…

  8. Self and Proxy Rating of Quality of Life in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Results from the DISQOL Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Silke; Power, Mick; Green, Ann; Lucas-Carrasco, Ramona; Eser, Erhan; Dragomirecka, Eva; Fleck, Marcello

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the agreement between self and proxy reports of quality of life (QoL) in people with intellectual disabilities and to examine the factors which contribute to these differences. The study was conducted across six international centres in a sample of 614 adults with intellectual disabilities as well as two…

  9. Association between Lung Function in Adults and Plasma DDT and DDE Levels: Results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane] has been banned in many countries since the 1970s, it may still pose a risk to human respiratory health. In agriculture, DDT exposures have been associated with asthma and chronic bronchitis. However, little is known about the effect of DDT on lung function. Methods We used data on 1,696 participants 20–79 years of age from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) and conducted multiple regression analysis to estimate associations between plasma p,p´-DDT/DDE and lung function. Results Almost all participants (> 99.0%) had detectable concentrations of plasma p,p´-DDE, but only 10.0% had detectable p,p´-DDT. Participants with detectable p,p´-DDT had significantly lower mean FVC (difference = 311 mL; 95% CI: –492, –130; p = 0.003) and FEV1 (difference = 232 mL; 95% CI: –408, –55; p = 0.015) than those without. A 100-ng/g lipid increase in plasma p,p´-DDE was associated with an 18.8-mL decrease in mean FVC (95% CI: –29, –9) and an 11.8-mL decrease in mean FEV1 (95% CI: –21, –3). Neither exposure was associated with FEV1/FVC ratio or FEF25%–75%. Conclusions DDT exposures, which may have occurred decades ago, were still detectable among Canadians. Plasma DDT and DDE were negatively associated with lung function parameters. Additional research on the potential effects of DDT use on lung function is warranted. Citation Ye M, Beach J, Martin JW, Senthilselvan A. 2015. Association between lung function in adults and plasma DDT and DDE levels: results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey. Environ Health Perspect 123:422–427; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408217 PMID:25536373

  10. Age Differences in the Trends of Smoking Among California Adults: Results from the California Health Interview Survey 2001-2012.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yue; Wang, Weize; Wang, Ke-Sheng; Moore, Kevin; Dunn, Erin; Huang, Shi; Feaster, Daniel J

    2015-12-01

    The aim is to study the trends of cigarette smoking from 2001 to 2012 using a California representative sample in the US. Data was taken from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) from 2001 to 2012, which is a population-based, biennial, random digit-dial telephone survey of the non-institutionalized population. The CHIS is the largest telephone survey in California and the largest state health survey in the US. 282,931 adults (n = 184,454 with age 18-60 and n = 98,477 with age >60) were included in the analysis. Data were weighted to be representative and adjusted for potential covariance and non-response biases. During 2001-2012, the prevalence of current smoking decreased from 18.86 to 15.4 % among adults age 18-60 (β = -0.8, p = 0.0041). As for adults age >60, the prevalence of current smoking trend decreased with variations, started from 9.66 % in 2001, slightly increased to 9.74 % in 2003, but then gradually decreased, falling to 8.18 % in 2012. In 2012, there was a 14 % reduction of daily smoking adults age 18-60 (OR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.76-0.93, p = 0.0006) compared to 2001, while no significant reduction of daily smoking was observed for those age >60. The reductions of smoking prevalence for adults younger than 60 are encouraging. However, there is a concern for smoking cessation rates among those older than 60 years of age, particularly for African Americans. PMID:25929677

  11. Comparing adult and pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program, 1988-2005: an analysis of 21 734 cases.

    PubMed

    Bazzeh, Faiha; Rihani, Rawad; Howard, Scott; Sultan, Iyad

    2010-12-01

    We analyzed data from 18 898 adults (age ≥20 years) and 2836 children/adolescents reported in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database as having Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), diagnosed from 1988 to 2005. The nodular sclerosis subtype was significantly more common in the pediatric age group (76% in children/adolescents vs. 61% in adults, p < 0.001). The mixed cellularity subtype was more prevalent in children <10 years old (22%), but less likely in older children/adolescents (8.5%). Systemic symptoms were reported in 39% of children/adolescents and in 48% of adults (p < 0.001). Children/adolescents had significantly better HL-specific survival than adults (5-year survival rate, 96% ± 0.4% vs.88% ± 0.3%, p < 0.001). Using a Cox proportional-hazards regression model in patients with classical HL, the prognostic factors significantly impacting survival were age, histology, stage, B symptoms, year of diagnosis, and race. The only adverse prognostic factors that were significant when this analysis was restricted to children/adolescents were stage IV disease and the presence of B symptoms. In conclusion, several differences in clinicopathologic features and outcomes were identified between children/adolescents and adults with HL, and this was particularly noted in young children (<10 years). PMID:21054151

  12. Engagement in HIV Care Among Kenyan Adults and Adolescents: Results From a National Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wafula, Rose; Masyuko, Sarah; Ng’ang’a, Lucy; Kim, Andrea A.; Gichangi, Anthony; Mukui, Irene; Batuka, James; Ngugi, Evelyn W.; Maina, William K.; Schwarcz, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing access to care and treatment for HIV-infected persons is a goal in Kenya’s response to the HIV epidemic. Using data from the second Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2012), we describe coverage of services received among adults and adolescents who were enrolled in HIV care. Methods KAIS 2012 was a population-based survey that collected information from persons aged 15–64 years that included self-reported HIV status, and for persons reporting HIV infection, use of HIV care and antiretroviral therapy (ART). Blood specimens were collected and tested for HIV. HIV-positive specimens were tested for CD4 counts and viral load. Results Among 363 persons who reported HIV infection, 93.4% [95% confidence interval (CI): 87.2 to 99.6] had ever received HIV care. Among those receiving HIV care, 96.3% (95% CI: 94.1 to 98.4) were using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, and 74.6% (95% CI: 69.0 to 80.2) were receiving ART. A lower proportion of persons in care and not on ART reported using cotrimoxazole (89.5%, 95% CI: 82.5 to 96.5 compared with 98.6%, 95% CI: 97.1 to 100) and had a CD4 count measurement done (72.9%, 95% CI: 64.0 to 81.9 compared with 90.0%, 95% CI: 82.8 to 97.3) than persons in care and on ART, respectively. Among persons in care and not on ART, 23.2% (95% CI: 6.8 to 39.7) had CD4 counts ≤350 cells per microliter. Viral suppression was observed in 75.3% (95% CI: 68.7 to 81.9) of persons on ART. Conclusions Linkage and retention in care are high among persons with known HIV infection. However, improvements in care for the pre-ART population are needed. Viral suppression rates were comparable to developed settings. PMID:24732825

  13. Older Adults and Gambling: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the social cognitive theory model to review the literature on older adult gambling, and related personal and environment characteristics. Results show that lottery is the kind of gambling most frequently played by older adults, followed by casino games. Older adults take trips to casinos to socialize, find excitement, and win…

  14. Predicting Heavy Drug Use. Results of a Longitudinal Study, Youth Characteristics Describing and Predicting Heavy Drug Use by Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schildhaus, Sam; Shaw-Taylor, Yoku; Pedlow, Steven; Pergamit, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to describe the movement of adolescents and young adults into and out of drug use and to predict heavy drug use. The data source is the Department of Labor's National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, which began in 1979 with a sample of 12,686 adolescents aged 14-21. After 17 rounds and 19 years, the response rate in…

  15. Does Participation in Home-Delivered Meals Programs Improve Outcomes for Older Adults? Results of a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Anthony D; Godfryd, Alice; Buys, David R; Locher, Julie L

    2015-01-01

    Participation in home-delivered meals programs may contribute to the health and independence of older adults living in the community, especially those who are food insecure or those who are making transitions from acute, subacute, and chronic care settings to the home. The purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive and systematic review of all studies related to home-delivered meals in order to shed light on the state of the science. A complete review of articles appearing in PubMed using the keyword "Meal" was conducted; and titles, abstracts, and full-texts were screened for relevance. Included in this review are 80 articles. Most studies are descriptive and do not report on outcomes. Frequently reported outcomes included nutritional status based on self-reported dietary intake. Additionally, most studies included in this review are cross-sectional, have a small sample size, and/or are limited to a particular setting or participant population. More rigorous research is needed to (1) gain insight into why so few eligible older adults access home-delivered meals programs, (2) support expansion of home-delivered meals to all eligible older adults, (3) better identify what home-delivered meals models alone and in combination with other services works best and for whom, and (4) better target home-delivered meals programs where and when resources are scarce. PMID:26106985

  16. [Sexual and contraceptive behavior of teenagers and young adults. Selected results of the BZgA study "Youth Sexuality 2010"].

    PubMed

    Heßling, A; Bode, H

    2013-02-01

    The BZgA study "Youth Sexuality 2010" clarifies the changes that have occurred in the sexual and contraceptive behavior of teenagers and young adults over the last 30 years. Among young Germans, there is now more gender similarity regarding both the age at which intercourse first takes place and contraceptive behavior. The proportion of German teenagers who take no contraceptive precautions when they have intercourse for the first time is now 8%, a lower figure than ever previously recorded. Communication about contraception, both at home and between the partners, is making a substantial contribution to responsible contraceptive behavior on the part of teenagers and young adults. Alongside education about sexuality in the family and at school, there are also structural influences on the positive developments witnessed in Germany. And yet there are still target groups that are inadequately reached. Many migrants are less well informed about bodily processes, their contraceptive practice is not as good, and their religious background tends to exclude them from access to information. Disabled teenagers and young adults constitute a target group about which to date we have insufficient knowledge. Education and social deprivation continue to be important factors in the differences seen in sexual and contraceptive behavior. In this area, proactive efforts are necessary. PMID:23361202

  17. Does Participation in Home-delivered Meals Programs Improve Outcomes for Older Adults?: Results of a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Anthony D.; Godfryd, Alice; Buys, David R.; Locher, Julie L.

    2015-01-01

    Participation in home-delivered meals programs may contribute to the health and independence of older adults living in the community, especially those who are food insecure or those who are making transitions from acute, subacute, and chronic care settings to the home. The purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive and systematic review of ALL studies related to home-delivered meals in order to shed light on the state of the science. A complete review of articles appearing in PubMed using the Keyword “Meal” was conducted; and titles, abstracts, and full-texts were screened for relevance. Included in this review are 80 articles. Most studies are descriptive and do not report on outcomes. Frequently reported outcomes included nutritional status based upon self-reported dietary intake. Additionally, most studies included in this review are cross-sectional, have a small sample size, and/or are limited to a particular setting or participant population. More rigorous research is needed to: 1) gain insight into why so few eligible older adults access home-delivered meals programs, 2) support expansion of home-delivered meals to all eligible older adults, 3) better identify what home-delivered meals models alone and in combination with other services works best and for whom, and 4) better target home-delivered meals programs where and when resources are scarce. PMID:26106985

  18. Face and body recognition show similar improvement during childhood.

    PubMed

    Bank, Samantha; Rhodes, Gillian; Read, Ainsley; Jeffery, Linda

    2015-09-01

    Adults are proficient in extracting identity cues from faces. This proficiency develops slowly during childhood, with performance not reaching adult levels until adolescence. Bodies are similar to faces in that they convey identity cues and rely on specialized perceptual mechanisms. However, it is currently unclear whether body recognition mirrors the slow development of face recognition during childhood. Recent evidence suggests that body recognition develops faster than face recognition. Here we measured body and face recognition in 6- and 10-year-old children and adults to determine whether these two skills show different amounts of improvement during childhood. We found no evidence that they do. Face and body recognition showed similar improvement with age, and children, like adults, were better at recognizing faces than bodies. These results suggest that the mechanisms of face and body memory mature at a similar rate or that improvement of more general cognitive and perceptual skills underlies improvement of both face and body recognition. PMID:25909913

  19. Depression and the Onset of Dementia in Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Diana Byrd; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Comparison of 61 adults with Down's syndrome and 43 adults with mental retardation resulting from other causes found that 8 Down's syndrome adults had both depression and declines in functioning, whereas no adults in the other group showed functional declines. Greater severity of depression was related to poor functioning in adults with Down's…

  20. Bladder and Bowel Symptoms Among Adults Presenting With Low Back Pain to an Academic Chiropractic Clinic: Results of a Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Walden, Anna L.; Salsbury, Stacie A.; Reed, William R.; Lawrence, Dana J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purposes of this study were to estimate the 1-month point prevalence of bowel and bladder symptoms (BBS) among adult chiropractic patients and to evaluate associations between these symptoms and low back pain (LBP). Methods Patients 18 years or older presenting to a chiropractic college academic health clinic between March 25 and April 25, 2013, were asked to complete a symptom screening questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, binary logistic regression, Fisher exact test, and P values were calculated from the sample. Results The sample included 140 of 1300 patients who visited the clinic during the survey period (11%). Mean age was 47.5 (range 18-79) years. LBP was the primary chief complaint in 42%. The 1-month point prevalence of any bladder symptoms was 75%, while the rate for bowel symptoms was 62%; 55% reported both BBS. Binary logistic regression analyses showed no statistically significant association between a chief complaint of LBP and combined BBS (OR = 1.67, P = .164). Conclusion The prevalence of bowel and bladder symptoms in chiropractic patients was high. There was no statistically significant association between these symptoms and LBP in this group of patients seeking care for LBP. PMID:25225466

  1. l-asparaginase loaded red blood cells in refractory or relapsing acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children and adults: results of the GRASPALL 2005-01 randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Domenech, Carine; Thomas, Xavier; Chabaud, Sylvie; Baruchel, Andre; Gueyffier, François; Mazingue, Françoise; Auvrignon, Anne; Corm, Selim; Dombret, Herve; Chevallier, Patrice; Galambrun, Claire; Huguet, Françoise; Legrand, Faezeh; Mechinaud, Françoise; Vey, Norbert; Philip, Irène; Liens, David; Godfrin, Yann; Rigal, Dominique; Bertrand, Yves

    2011-04-01

    l-asparaginase encapsulated within erythrocytes (GRASPA(®) ) should allow serum asparagine depletion over a longer period than the native form of the enzyme, using lower doses and allowing better tolerance. The GRASPALL 2005-01 study, a multicentre randomized controlled trial, investigated three doses of GRASPA(®) for the duration of asparagine depletion in a phase I/II study in adults and children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in first relapse. Between February 2006 and April 2008, 18 patients received GRASPA(®) (50 iu/kg: n = 6,100 iu/kg: n = 6, 150 iu/kg: n = 6) after randomization, and six patients were assigned to the Escherichia coli native l-asparaginase (E. colil-ASNase) control group. GRASPA(®) was effective at depleting l-asparagine. One single injection of 150 iu/kg of GRASPA(®) provided similar results to 8 × 10,000 iu/m(2) intravenous injections of E. colil-ASNase. The safety profile of GRASPA(®) showed a reduction in the number and severity of allergic reactions and a trend towards less coagulation disorders. Other expected adverse events were comparable to those observed with E. colil-ASNase and there was also no difference between the three doses of GRASPA(®) . PMID:21332712

  2. Long-Term Effects of Physical Exercise on Verbal Learning and Memory in Middle-Aged Adults: Results of a One-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Hötting, Kirsten; Schauenburg, Gesche; Röder, Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    A few months of physical exercise have been shown to increase cognition and to modulate brain functions in previously sedentary, mainly older adults. However, whether the preservation of newly gained cognitive capacities requires an active maintenance of the achieved fitness level during the intervention is not yet known. The aim of the present study was to test whether cardiovascular fitness one year after an exercise intervention was linked to cognitive variables. Twenty-five healthy participants (42-57 years of age) took part in a follow-up assessment one year after the end of a supervised exercise intervention. Measurements included a cardiovascular fitness test, psychometric tests of verbal learning and memory and selective attention as well as questionnaires assessing physical activity and self-efficacy beliefs. Recognition scores of participants with higher cardiovascular fitness at follow-up did not change significantly during the follow-up period; however, the scores of participants with lower cardiovascular fitness decreased. One year after the end of the physical training intervention, previously sedentary participants spent more hours exercising than prior to the intervention. The time participants spent exercising correlated with their self-efficacy beliefs. These results demonstrate a direct link between verbal learning and cardiovascular fitness and show that positive effects of physical interventions on learning and memory do need an active maintenance of cardiovascular fitness. PMID:24961197

  3. Sarcopenia Is Not Associated with Depression in Korean Adults: Results from the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Chae-Hwa; Kang, Kee-Young; Kang, Se-Hun; Kim, Han-Kyul

    2016-01-01

    Background Sarcopenia is associated with metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease, and mortality; however, its association with depression in the general population remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated this association in Korea. Methods This study included 8,958 and 8,518 subjects from the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V-1, 2. The study was restricted to participants ≥20 years of age who had completed the survey, including whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans. After exclusion, 7,364 subjects were included in our final analysis. Age was categorized into three groups (20–39, 40–59, and ≥60 years), and subjects were categorized according to their sarcopenic and obesity status. Depression was categorized into three groups (not depressed, depressed, and depression). Results The sarcopenia group did not have a higher prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms compared to the nonsarcopenia group; the same was true even when obesity was considered. All age groups showed non-significant associations between sarcopenia and depression. In multivariate logistic regression models, no significant associations were observed between sarcopenia and prevalence of depression or depressed symptoms in men and women. Conclusion We found no associations between sarcopenia and the prevalence of depression or depressed symptoms in Korean adults. Future large prospective studies and randomized controlled trials are needed to further assess this relationship. PMID:26885321

  4. Association Between Neighborhood Disadvantage and Hypertension Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control in Older Adults: Results From the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Virginia J.; McClure, Leslie A.; Buys, Katie Crawford; Sawyer, Patricia; Allman, Richard M.; Levitan, Emily B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effect of neighborhood disadvantage (ND) on older adults’ prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension. Methods. Data were from the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging, an observational study of 1000 community-dwelling Black and White Alabamians aged 65 years and older, in 1999 to 2001. We assessed hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control with blood pressure measurements and self-report data. We assessed ND with US Census data corresponding with participants’ census tracts, created tertiles of ND, and fit models with generalized estimating equations via a logit link function with a binomial distribution. Adjusted models included variables assessing personal advantage and disadvantage, place-based factors, sociodemographics, comorbidities, and health behaviors. Results. Living in mid-ND (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2, 2.1) and high-ND tertiles (AOR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.3, 2.3) was associated with higher hypertension prevalence, and living in high-ND tertiles was associated with lower odds of controlled hypertension (AOR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.4, 0.6). In adjusted models, ND was not associated with hypertension awareness or treatment. Conclusions. These findings show that neighborhood environmental factors matter for hypertension outcomes and suggest the importance of ND for hypertension management in older adults. PMID:25322309

  5. Oral health status and chewing ability is related to mini-nutritional assessment results in an older adult population in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Samnieng, Patcharaphol; Ueno, Masayuki; Shinada, Kayoko; Zaitsu, Takashi; Wright, Fredrick Allan Clive; Kawaguchi, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study, we investigated the relationship of Mini-Nutrition Assessment (MNA) results with chewing ability tests and oral examinations (number of teeth present and functional tooth units (FTUs)). The participants were 612 older people (Mean [SD] age: 68.8 [5.9]). According to the MNA score, 25.1% of participants were categorized as having normal nutrition, 67.2% were categorized as at risk of malnourishment, and 7.7% were categorized as having malnutrition. The mean numbers of teeth present and FTUs were [15.5] and [8.9], respectively. The ANCOVA analyses adjusted for age and gender showed that participants with malnutrition had lower numbers of teeth present (8.8), FTUs (8.4), and chewing ability (6.8) than those with normal nutrition (13.3, 10.4 and 7.8) (p < 0.05). Nutritional status was associated with mean numbers of teeth present, FTUs, and chewing ability. Therefore, it was concluded that retention of natural teeth with appropriate numbers of FTUs by replacing missing teeth with dentures and improving chewing ability will help the reduce risk of malnutrition in older adults. PMID:21846244

  6. Overall Quality of Life in Adult Biliary Atresia Survivors with or without Liver Transplantation: Results from a National Cohort.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Willemien; Lind, Robert C; Sze, Yuk-Kueng; van der Steeg, Alida F W; Sieders, Egbert; Porte, Robert Jack; Verkade, Henkjan J; Hulscher, Jan B F; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E H M

    2016-08-01

    Background Biliary atresia (BA) is a rare cholestatic disease of infancy. Kasai portoenterostomy and liver transplantation (LT) are the two sequential treatment options. An increasing number of patients survive into adulthood. Little is known about their health-related quality of life (HRQOL). This study aims to compare HRQOL of transplanted and nontransplanted patients in a cohort of young adult BA survivors. Patients and Methods RAND-36 and Liver Disease Index Score (LDSI) questionnaires were sent to eligible adult patients with BA. Clinical characteristics were obtained from the NeSBAR (Netherlands Study group on Biliary Atresia Registry) and the national pediatric LT database. RAND-36 domain and summary scores were compared with those of an age-matched Dutch reference group. The correlations between several clinical variables and HRQOL were analyzed. Results Mean RAND-36 domain and summary scores of transplanted (n = 15) and nontransplanted (n = 25) patients with BA (response 74%) were similar to the reference scores, with the exception of a decreased general health perception in nontransplanted patients (63 ± 21 vs. 75 ± 17; [p < 0.001], particularly in females. RAND-36 domain and summary scores were not significantly correlated to age at LT, time since LT, serum bilirubin, aspartate amino transferase or albumin levels, but were moderately to strongly correlated to LDSI total scores (r values 0.35-0.77). Conclusions Overall, young adult patients with BA have a HRQOL similar to an age-matched reference group. However, general health perception of nontransplanted patients, particularly of females, was decreased. HRQOL is correlated to liver disease symptoms but not to liver biochemistry parameters. Nontransplanted females and patients suffering from liver disease-associated symptoms may be a target for tailored supportive interventions. PMID:26018212

  7. Is religiosity a barrier to sexual and reproductive health? Results from a population-based study of young Croatian adults.

    PubMed

    Puzek, Ivan; Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Božičević, Ivana

    2012-12-01

    Following the demise of socialism in 1989, religious identification substantially increased in most countries of Central, East, and Southeast Europe. Considering that there is evidence that religiosity is associated with reduced sexual risk taking among young people, this study explored associations between religiosity--assessed at three different levels (religious upbringing, personal religiosity, and social network religiosity)--and sexual risks among young Croatian adults. In addition, we examined whether religiosity predicted chlamydial infection among women and men aged 18-25. The data were collected in a national probability survey carried out in 2010 (n = 1,005). Overall, the effects of religiosity were sporadic, present primarily among women, and of small size. This lack of a sizeable impact of religiosity on young adults' sexuality was likely related to a particular type of religiosity, characterized by individualized morality, found among young people in the country. Although Croatia seems to be one of the most religious countries in Europe, our findings suggest that promoting religious morality--as recently attempted by an abstinence-based educational program--may not be an efficient tool in reducing sexual risks. PMID:22441770

  8. Association between parental psychopathology and suicidal behavior among adult offspring: results from the cross-sectional South African Stress and Health survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior studies have demonstrated a link between parental psychopathology and offspring suicidal behavior. However, it remains unclear what aspects of suicidal behavior among adult offspring are predicted by specific parental mental disorders, especially in Africa. This study set out to investigate the association between parental psychopathology and suicidal behavior among their adult offspring in a South African general population sample. Method Parental psychopathology and suicidal behavior in offspring were assessed using structured interviews among 4,315 respondents from across South Africa. The WHO CIDI was used to collect data on suicidal behavior, while the Family History Research Diagnostic Criteria Interview was used to assess prior parental psychopathology. Bivariate and multivariate survival models tested the associations between the type and number parental mental disorders (including suicide) and lifetime suicidal behavior in the offspring. Associations between a range of parental disorders and the onset of subsequent suicidal behavior (suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts) among adult offspring were tested. Results The presence of parental psychopathology significantly increased the odds of suicidal behavior among their adult offspring. More specifically, parental panic disorder was associated with offspring suicidal ideation, while parental panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and suicide were significantly associated with offspring suicide attempts. Among those with suicidal ideation, none of the tested forms of parental psychopathology was associated with having suicide plans or attempts. There was a dose–response relationship between the number of parental disorders and odds of suicidal ideation. Conclusions Parental psychopathology increases the odds of suicidal behavior among their adult offspring in the South African context, replicating results found in other regions. Specific parental disorders predicted the onset and

  9. Multiple Chronic Conditions and Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Among US Adults: Results From the 2012 National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zaixing; Greenlee, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Introduction More than 25% of American adults report having 2 or more chronic conditions. People with chronic conditions often use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for self-care and disease management, despite a limited evidence base. Methods Data from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (n = 33,557) were analyzed to assess associations between presence of multiple chronic conditions (n = 13) and CAM use, using multivariable relative risk and linear regressions weighted for complex NHIS sampling. CAM use was defined as self-reported use of one or more of 16 therapies in the previous 12 months. Results Chronic conditions were common. US adults reported one (22.3%) or 2 or more (33.8%) conditions. Many used at least one form of CAM. Multivitamins, multiminerals, or both (52.7%); vitamins (34.8%); and minerals (28.4%) were the most common. Compared with adults with no conditions, adults with 2 or more conditions were more likely to use multivitamins or multiminerals or both, vitamins, minerals, nonvitamins or herbs, mind–body therapies, chiropractic or osteopathic manipulation, massage, movement therapies, special diets, acupuncture, naturopathy, or some combination of these therapies (P <.003). Conclusion People with multiple chronic conditions have a high prevalence of CAM use. Longitudinal studies are needed to understand the association between CAM use and chronic disease prevention and treatment. PMID:27149072

  10. Adolescent traumatic stress experience results in less robust conditioned fear and post-extinction fear cue responses in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Moore, Nicole L T; Gauchan, Sangeeta; Genovese, Raymond F

    2014-05-01

    Early exposure to a traumatic event may produce lasting effects throughout the lifespan. Traumatic stress during adolescence may deliver a distinct developmental insult compared with more-often studied neonatal or juvenile traumatic stress paradigms. The present study describes the lasting effects of adolescent traumatic stress upon adulthood fear conditioning. Adolescent rats were exposed to a traumatic stressor (underwater trauma, UWT), then underwent fear conditioning during adulthood. Fear extinction was tested over five conditioned suppression extinction sessions three weeks later. The efficacies of two potential extinction-enhancing compounds, endocannabinoid reuptake inhibitor AM404 (10mg/kg) and M1 muscarinic positive allosteric modulator BQCA (10mg/kg), were also assessed. Finally, post-extinction fear responses were examined using a fear cue (light) as a prepulse stimulus. Rats traumatically stressed during adolescence showed blunted conditioned suppression on day 1 of extinction training, and AM404 reversed this effect. Post-extinction startle testing showed that fear conditioning eliminates prepulse inhibition to the light cue. Startle potentiation was observed only in rats without adolescent UWT exposure. AM404 and BQCA both ameliorated this startle potentiation, while BQCA increased startle in the UWT group. These results suggest that exposure to a traumatic stressor during adolescence alters developmental outcomes related to stress response and fear extinction compared to rats without adolescent traumatic stress exposure, blunting the adulthood fear response and reducing residual post-extinction fear expression. Efficacy of pharmacological interventions may also vary as a factor of developmental traumatic stress exposure. PMID:24491436

  11. Profiles of Organic Food Consumers in a Large Sample of French Adults: Results from the Nutrinet-Santé Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Péneau, Sandrine; Méjean, Caroline; Szabo de Edelenyi, Fabien; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Background Lifestyle, dietary patterns and nutritional status of organic food consumers have rarely been described, while interest for a sustainable diet is markedly increasing. Methods Consumer attitude and frequency of use of 18 organic products were assessed in 54,311 adult participants in the Nutrinet-Santé cohort. Cluster analysis was performed to identify behaviors associated with organic product consumption. Socio-demographic characteristics, food consumption and nutrient intake across clusters are provided. Cross-sectional association with overweight/obesity was estimated using polytomous logistic regression. Results Five clusters were identified: 3 clusters of non-consumers whose reasons differed, occasional (OCOP, 51%) and regular (RCOP, 14%) organic product consumers. RCOP were more highly educated and physically active than other clusters. They also exhibited dietary patterns that included more plant foods and less sweet and alcoholic beverages, processed meat or milk. Their nutrient intake profiles (fatty acids, most minerals and vitamins, fibers) were healthier and they more closely adhered to dietary guidelines. In multivariate models (after accounting for confounders, including level of adherence to nutritional guidelines), compared to those not interested in organic products, RCOP participants showed a markedly lower probability of overweight (excluding obesity) (25≤body mass index<30) and obesity (body mass index ≥30): −36% and −62% in men and −42% and −48% in women, respectively (P<0.0001). OCOP participants (%) generally showed intermediate figures. Conclusions Regular consumers of organic products, a sizeable group in our sample, exhibit specific socio-demographic characteristics, and an overall healthy profile which should be accounted for in further studies analyzing organic food intake and health markers. PMID:24204721

  12. Persistently Elevated Serum Interleukin-6 Predicts Mortality Among Adults Receiving Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Botswana: Results from a Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Bethan; Moyo, Sikhulile; Gabaitiri, Lesego; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Bussmann, Hermann; Koethe, John R.; Musonda, Rosemary; Makhema, Joseph; Novitsky, Vladimir; Marlink, Richard G.; Wester, C. William

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Elevated serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers have been associated with increased mortality and morbidity among HIV-infected individuals receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in European and U.S. cohorts. Few similar data are available from sub-Saharan Africa, where most cART-treated adults reside and the prevalence of advanced immunosuppression and opportunistic infections (OIs) at cART initiation is higher. This was a retrospective nested case-control analysis of clinical trial data from the completed Adult Antiretroviral Treatment and Drug Resistance (“Tshepo”) study, 2002–2007, Gaborone, Botswana. We measured pretreatment serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and D-dimer in stored plasma samples from 32 deceased participants (cases) and 64 survivors (controls), matched for age, sex, baseline CD4+ cell count, and plasma HIV-1 RNA. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses were used to compare inflammatory biomarker levels, adjusting for pretreatment body mass index (BMI) and the presence of OIs. A total of 37 (5.7%) of 650 patients died on study, for a crude mortality rate of 20.6/1,000 person-years. Of 37 (86%) study participants who died on study 32 were included in this analysis. Causes of death (n=32) included non-AIDS-defining events (31.3%), HIV-related OIs (28.1%), cART/toxicity-related (21.9%), other infectious etiologies (15.6%), and unknown (3.1%). Median time to death was 31 weeks [interquartile range (IQR) 14–64]. Median baseline levels of all three biomarkers were higher in cases compared to matched controls. After adjusting for BMI and the presence of OIs, only baseline and most recent (near time of event) levels of IL-6 remained as significant predictors of all-cause mortality [adjusted OR (aOR)=1.25, 95% CI (1.05–1.48); p=0.012; and aOR=1.48 (1.05–2.09); p=0.027, respectively]. Serum IL-6 levels are important predictors of all-cause mortality in this adult

  13. Racial Differences in Left Atrial Size: Results from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Dewland, Thomas A.; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Lin, Feng; Vittinghoff, Eric; Foster, Elyse; Ogunyankin, Kofo O.; Lima, Joao A.; Jacobs, David R.; Hu, Donglei; Burchard, Esteban G.; Marcus, Gregory M.

    2016-01-01

    Whites have an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) compared to Blacks. The mechanism underlying this association is unknown. Left atrial (LA) size is an important AF risk factor, and studies in older adults suggest Whites have larger LA diameters. However, because AF itself causes LA dilation, LA size differences may be due to greater subclinical AF among older Whites. We therefore assessed for racial differences in LA size among young adults at low AF risk. The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study enrolled White and Black participants between 18 and 30 years of age. LA diameter was measured in a subset of participants using echocardiography at Year 5 (n = 4,201) and Year 25 (n = 3,373) of follow up. LA volume was also assessed at Year 5 (n = 2,489). Multivariate linear regression models were used to determine the adjusted association between race and LA size. In unadjusted analyses, mean LA diameter was significantly larger among Blacks compared to Whites both at Year 5 (35.5 ± 4.8 mm versus 35.1 ± 4.5 mm, p = 0.01) and Year 25 (37.4 ± 5.1 mm versus 36.8 ± 4.9 mm, p = 0.002). After adjusting for demographics, comorbidities, and echocardiographic parameters, Whites demonstrated an increased LA diameter (0.7 mm larger at Year 5, 95% CI 0.3–1.1, p<0.001; 0.6 mm larger at Year 25, 95% CI 0.3–1.0, p<0.001). There was no significant association between race and adjusted Year 5 LA volume. In conclusion, in a young, well-characterized cohort, the larger adjusted LA diameter among White participants suggests inherent differences in atrial structure may partially explain the higher risk of AF in Whites. The incongruent associations between race, LA diameter, and LA volume suggest that LA geometry, rather than size alone, may have implications for AF risk. PMID:26985672

  14. Racial Differences in Left Atrial Size: Results from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study.

    PubMed

    Dewland, Thomas A; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Lin, Feng; Vittinghoff, Eric; Foster, Elyse; Ogunyankin, Kofo O; Lima, Joao A; Jacobs, David R; Hu, Donglei; Burchard, Esteban G; Marcus, Gregory M

    2016-01-01

    Whites have an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) compared to Blacks. The mechanism underlying this association is unknown. Left atrial (LA) size is an important AF risk factor, and studies in older adults suggest Whites have larger LA diameters. However, because AF itself causes LA dilation, LA size differences may be due to greater subclinical AF among older Whites. We therefore assessed for racial differences in LA size among young adults at low AF risk. The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study enrolled White and Black participants between 18 and 30 years of age. LA diameter was measured in a subset of participants using echocardiography at Year 5 (n = 4,201) and Year 25 (n = 3,373) of follow up. LA volume was also assessed at Year 5 (n = 2,489). Multivariate linear regression models were used to determine the adjusted association between race and LA size. In unadjusted analyses, mean LA diameter was significantly larger among Blacks compared to Whites both at Year 5 (35.5 ± 4.8 mm versus 35.1 ± 4.5 mm, p = 0.01) and Year 25 (37.4 ± 5.1 mm versus 36.8 ± 4.9 mm, p = 0.002). After adjusting for demographics, comorbidities, and echocardiographic parameters, Whites demonstrated an increased LA diameter (0.7 mm larger at Year 5, 95% CI 0.3-1.1, p<0.001; 0.6 mm larger at Year 25, 95% CI 0.3-1.0, p<0.001). There was no significant association between race and adjusted Year 5 LA volume. In conclusion, in a young, well-characterized cohort, the larger adjusted LA diameter among White participants suggests inherent differences in atrial structure may partially explain the higher risk of AF in Whites. The incongruent associations between race, LA diameter, and LA volume suggest that LA geometry, rather than size alone, may have implications for AF risk. PMID:26985672

  15. Status of cardiovascular health among adults in a rural area of Northwest China: Results from a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yaling; Yan, Hong; Yang, Ruihai; Li, Qiang; Dang, Shaonong; Liu, Ruru; Pei, Leilei; Cao, Lei; Marshall, Roger J; Wang, Duolao

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the status of cardiovascular health among a rural population in Northwest China and to determine the associated factors for cardiovascular health.A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural areas of Hanzhong in Northwest China. Interview, physical examination, and fasting blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 2693 adults. The construct of cardiovascular health and the definitions of cardiovascular health metrics proposed by the American Heart Association were used to assess cardiovascular health. The proportions of subjects with cardiovascular health metrics were calculated, adjusting for age and sex. The multiple logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association between ideal cardiovascular health and its associated factors.Only 0.5% (0.0% in men vs 0.9% in women, P = 0.002) of the participants had ideal cardiovascular health, whereas 33.8% (18.0% in men vs 50.0% in women, P < 0.001) and 65.7% (82.0% in men vs 49.1% in women, P < 0.001) of the participants had intermediate and poor cardiovascular health, respectively. The prevalence of poor cardiovascular health increased with increasing age (P < 0.001 for trend). Participants fulfilled, on average, 4.4 (95% confidence interval: 4.2-4.7) of the ideal cardiovascular health metrics. Also, 22.2% of the participants presented with 3 or fewer ideal metrics. Only 19.4% of the participants presented with 6 or more ideal metrics. 24.1% of the participants had all 4 ideal health factors, but only 1.1% of the participants had all 4 ideal health behaviors. Women were more likely to have ideal cardiovascular health, whereas adults aged 35 years or over and those who had a family history of hypertension were less likely to have ideal cardiovascular health.The prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health was extremely low among the rural population in Northwest China. Most adults, especially men and the elderly, had a poor

  16. Hepatocyte-specific deletion of hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α in adult mice results in increased hepatocyte proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Walesky, Chad; Gunewardena, Sumedha; Terwilliger, Ernest F.; Edwards, Genea; Borude, Prachi

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α (HNF4α) is known as the master regulator of hepatocyte differentiation. Recent studies indicate that HNF4α may inhibit hepatocyte proliferation via mechanisms that have yet to be identified. Using a HNF4α knockdown mouse model based on delivery of inducible Cre recombinase via an adeno-associated virus 8 viral vector, we investigated the role of HNF4α in the regulation of hepatocyte proliferation. Hepatocyte-specific deletion of HNF4α resulted in increased hepatocyte proliferation. Global gene expression analysis showed that a majority of the downregulated genes were previously known HNF4α target genes involved in hepatic differentiation. Interestingly, ≥500 upregulated genes were associated with cell proliferation and cancer. Furthermore, we identified potential negative target genes of HNF4α, many of which are involved in the stimulation of proliferation. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, we confirmed binding of HNF4α at three of these genes. Furthermore, overexpression of HNF4α in mouse hepatocellular carcinoma cells resulted in a decrease in promitogenic gene expression and cell cycle arrest. Taken together, these data indicate that, apart from its role in hepatocyte differentiation, HNF4α actively inhibits hepatocyte proliferation by repression of specific promitogenic genes. PMID:23104559

  17. Neighborhood food environment and body mass index among Japanese older adults: results from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The majority of studies of the local food environment in relation to obesity risk have been conducted in the US, UK, and Australia. The evidence remains limited to western societies. The aim of this paper is to examine the association of local food environment to body mass index (BMI) in a study of older Japanese individuals. Methods The analysis was based on 12,595 respondents from cross-sectional data of the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES), conducted in 2006 and 2007. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), we mapped respondents' access to supermarkets, convenience stores, and fast food outlets, based on a street network (both the distance to the nearest stores and the number of stores within 500 m of the respondents' home). Multiple linear regression and logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between food environment and BMI. Results In contrast to previous reports, we found that better access to supermarkets was related to higher BMI. Better access to fast food outlets or convenience stores was also associated with higher BMI, but only among those living alone. The logistic regression analysis, using categorized BMI, showed that the access to supermarkets was only related to being overweight or obese, but not related to being underweight. Conclusions Our findings provide mixed support for the types of food environment measures previously used in western settings. Importantly, our results suggest the need to develop culture-specific approaches to characterizing neighborhood contexts when hypotheses are extrapolated across national borders. PMID:21777439

  18. [Syringomyelia and Chiari abnormality in the adult. Analysis of the results of a cooperative series of 285 cases].

    PubMed

    Aghakhani, N; Parker, F; Tadié, M

    1999-06-01

    This chapter discusses the retrospective data found in 285 patients with syringomyelia associated with Chiari abnormality and collected from 18 neurosurgical departments. A pre and postoperative MRI study and a minimum follow up of at least 2 years were required. A scale of severity was fixed and tested before and after treatment. The size of the cyst, the degree of the foraminal obstruction were analyzed. The mean age at diagnosis was about 39 years and the duration of symptoms about 6.7 years. Sensory disorders were present in 91% of cases, pain in 66% and motor deficit in about 60%. According to our functional classification, the majority of our patients were moderately disabled and only 10.8% showed a severe impotence. Results of the two major surgical procedures, foramen magnum decompression (FMD) (88% of cases) and cyst shunting procedures (SP) (32% of cases) were evaluated with a mean follow-up period of 6.7 years (ranged from 2 to 14 years). Better clinical and morphological results (87% of stabilization or improvement for FMD versus 71% for SP) were obtained by FMD procedure comparing to SP, with the same rate of complications. PMID:10420402

  19. Nut consumption is associated with better nutrient intakes: results from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rachel C; Tey, Siew Ling; Gray, Andrew R; Chisholm, Alex; Smith, Claire; Fleming, Elizabeth; Parnell, Winsome

    2016-01-14

    A limited number of studies have examined associations between nut consumption and nutrient intakes or diet quality. None has investigated these associations in the Southern Hemisphere. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between nut consumption and nutrient intakes among adult New Zealanders. Data from the 24-h recalls of 4721 participants from the cross-sectional 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey (2008/09 NZANS) were used to determine whole nut intake and total nut intake from all sources as well as nutrient intakes. Regression models, both unadjusted and adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate differences in nutrient intakes between those consuming and those not consuming nuts. From adjusted models, compared with non-whole nut consumers, whole nut consumers had higher intakes of energy and percentage of energy from total fat, MUFA and PUFA, whereas percentage of energy from SFA and carbohydrate was lower (all P≤0·025). After the additional adjustment for energy intake, whole nut consumers had higher intakes of dietary fibre, vitamin E, folate, Cu, Mg, K, P and Zn (all P≤0·044), whereas cholesterol and vitamin B12 intakes were significantly lower (both P≤0·013). Total nut consumption was associated with similar nutrient profiles as observed in whole nut consumers, albeit less pronounced. Nut consumption was associated with better nutrient profiles, especially a lower intake of SFA and higher intakes of unsaturated fats and a number of vitamins and minerals that could collectively reduce the risk for chronic disease, in particular for CVD. PMID:26481949

  20. Reaching Non-Readers: Meeting Needs in Adult Literacy Services. Results of a Conference of Adult Literacy Specialists at Gannett Foundation Headquarters (Arlington, VA, May 15, 1990). A Gannett Foundation Conference Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannett Foundation, Arlington, VA.

    The first of two conferences on adult literacy focused on what needs to be done to give all nonreading U.S. adults the chance to learn to read, write, and do basic math. The number of adults seeking help in learning basic skills far exceeds the capacity of current adult literacy services to help them. Barriers to remedying the problem include lack…

  1. Considerations in Applying the Results of Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials to the Care of Older Adults With Kidney Disease in the Clinical Setting: The SHARP Trial.

    PubMed

    Butler, Catherine R; O'Hare, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    The Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP) found that treatment with ezetemibe and low-dose simvastatin reduced the incidence of major atherosclerotic events in patients with kidney disease. Due to the paucity of evidence-based interventions that lower cardiovascular morbidity in this high-risk population, the SHARP trial will likely have a large impact on clinical practice. However, applying the results of clinical trials conducted in select populations to the care of individual patients in real-world settings can be fraught with difficulty. This is especially true when caring for older adults with complex comorbidity and limited life expectancy. These patients are often excluded from clinical trials, frequently have competing health priorities, and may be less likely to benefit and more likely to be harmed by medications. We discuss key considerations in applying the results of the SHARP trial to the care of older adults with CKD in real-world clinical settings using guiding principles set forth by the American Geriatrics Society's Expert Panel on the Care of Older Adults with Multimorbidity. Using this schema, we emphasize the importance of evaluating trial results in the unique context of each patient's goals, values, priorities, and circumstances. PMID:26709060

  2. Yoga decreases kyphosis in senior women and men with adult onset hyperkyphosis: results of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Greendale, Gail A.; Huang, Mei-Hua; Karlamangla, Arun S.; Seeger, Leanne; Crawford, Sybil

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess whether a specifically designed Yoga intervention can reduce hyperkyphosis. Design A 6-month, 2 group, randomized, controlled, single masked trial. Setting Community research unit. Participants 118 women and men aged >60 years with kyphosis angle >40 degrees. Major exclusions were: serious medical comorbidity; use of assistive device; unable to hear or see adequately for participation; or unable to pass a physical safety screen. Intervention The active treatment group attended hour-long Yoga classes, 3 days per week, for 24 weeks. The control group attended a monthly luncheon/seminar and received mailings. Measurements Primary outcomes were change (baseline to 6 months) in Debrunner kyphometer-assessed kyphosis angle, standing height, timed chair stands, functional reach and walking speed. Secondary outcomes were change in: kyphosis index, flexicurve kyphosis angle, the Rancho Bernardo Blocks posture assessment and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Results Compared to control participants, those randomized to Yoga experienced a 4.4% improvement in flexicurve kyphosis angle (p=0.006) and a 5% improvement in kyphosis index (p=0.004). The intervention did not result in statistically significant improvement in Debrunner kyphometer angle, measured physical performance or in self-assessed HRQOL (each p>0.1). Conclusion The decrease in flexicurve kyphosis angle in the Yoga treatment group shows that hyperkyphosis is remediable, a critical first step in the pathway to treating or preventing this condition. Larger, more definitive studies of Yoga or other interventions for hyperkyphosis should be considered. Targeting individuals with more malleable spines and using longitudinally precise measures of kyphosis could strengthen the treatment effect. PMID:19682114

  3. Spatiotemporally Regulated Ablation of Klf4 in Adult Mouse Corneal Epithelial Cells Results in Altered Epithelial Cell Identity and Disrupted Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Delp, Emili E.; Swamynathan, Sudha; Kao, Winston W.; Swamynathan, Shivalingappa K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. In previous studies, conditional disruption of Klf4 in the developing mouse ocular surface from embryonic day 10 resulted in corneal epithelial fragility, stromal edema, and loss of conjunctival goblet cells, revealing the importance of Klf4 in ocular surface maturation. Here, we use spatiotemporally regulated ablation of Klf4 to investigate its functions in maintenance of adult corneal epithelial homeostasis. Methods. Expression of Cre was induced in ternary transgenic (Klf4LoxP/LoxP/Krt12rtTA/rtTA/Tet-O-Cre) mouse corneal epithelium by doxycycline administered through intraperitoneal injections and drinking water, to generate corneal epithelium–specific deletion of Klf4 (Klf4Δ/ΔCE). Corneal epithelial barrier function was tested by fluorescein staining. Expression of selected Klf4-target genes was determined by quantitative PCR (QPCR), immunoblotting, and immunofluorescent staining. Results. Klf4 was efficiently ablated within 5 days of doxycycline administration in adult Klf4Δ/ΔCE corneal epithelium. The Klf4Δ/ΔCE corneal epithelial barrier function was disrupted, and the basal cells were swollen and rounded after 15 days of doxycycline treatment. Increased numbers of cell layers and Ki67-positive proliferating cells suggested deregulated Klf4Δ/ΔCE corneal epithelial homeostasis. Expression of tight junction proteins ZO-1 and occludin, desmosomal Dsg and Dsp, basement membrane laminin-332, and corneal epithelial–specific keratin-12 was decreased, while that of matrix metalloproteinase Mmp9 and noncorneal keratin-17 increased, suggesting altered Klf4Δ/ΔCE corneal epithelial cell identity. Conclusions. Ablation of Klf4 in the adult mouse corneas resulted in the absence of characteristic corneal epithelial cell differentiation, disrupted barrier function, and squamous metaplasia, revealing that Klf4 is essential for maintenance of the adult corneal epithelial cell identity and homeostasis. PMID:26047041

  4. Association between smoking status and the parameters of vascular structure and function in adults: results from the EVIDENT study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study analyses the relation between smoking status and the parameters used to assess vascular structure and function. Methods This cross-sectional, multi-centre study involved a random sample of 1553 participants from the EVIDENT study. Measurements: The smoking status, peripheral augmentation index and ankle-brachial index were measured in all participants. In a small subset of the main population (265 participants), the carotid intima-media thickness and pulse wave velocity were also measured. Results After controlling for the effect of age, sex and other risk factors, present smokers have higher values of carotid intima-media thickness (p = 0.011). Along the same lines, current smokers have higher values of pulse wave velocity and lower mean values of ankle-brachial index but without statistical significance in both cases. Conclusions Among the parameters of vascular structure and function analysed, only the IMT shows association with the smoking status, after adjusting for confounders. PMID:24289208

  5. Self-report compared to electronic medical record across eight adult vaccines: Do results vary by demographic factors?

    PubMed Central

    Rolnick, S.J.; Parker, E.D.; Nordin, J.D.; Hedblom, B.D.; Wei, F.; Kerby, T.; Jackson, J.M.; Crain, A.L; Euler, G.

    2015-01-01

    Immunizations are crucial to the prevention of disease, thus, having an accurate measure of vaccination status for a population is an important guide in targeting prevention efforts. In order to comprehensively assess the validity of self-reported adult vaccination status for the eight most common adult vaccines we conducted a survey of vaccination receipt and compared it to the electronic medical record (EMR), which was used as the criterion standard, in a population of community-dwelling patients in a large healthcare system. In addition, we assessed whether validity varied by demographic factors. The vaccines included: pneumococcal (PPSV), influenza (Flu), tetanus diphtheria (Td), tetanus diphtheria pertussis (Tdap), Human PapillomaVirus (HPV), hepatitis A (HepA), hepatitis B (HepB) and herpes zoster (shingles). Telephone surveys were conducted with 11,760 individuals, ≥ 18, half with documented receipt of vaccination and half without. We measured sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, net bias and over- and under-reporting of vaccination. Variation was found across vaccines, however, sensitivity and specificity did not vary substantially by either age or race/ethnicity. Sensitivity ranged between 63% for HepA to over 90% (tetanus, HPV, shingles and Flu). Hispanics were 2.7 times more likely to claim receipt of vaccination compared to whites. For PPSV and Flu those 65+ had low specificity compared to patients of younger ages while those in the youngest age group had lowest specificity for HepA and HepB. In addition to racial/ethnic differences, over-reporting was more frequent in those retired and those with household income less than $75,000. Accurate information for vaccination surveillance is important to estimate progress toward vaccination coverage goals and ensure appropriate policy decisions and allocation of resources for public health. It was clear from our findings that EMR and self-report do not always agree. Finding

  6. A Mobile Telehealth Intervention for Adults With Insulin-Requiring Diabetes: Early Results of a Mixed-Methods Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Justine; Hirani, Shashivadan

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of technology in health care delivery has grown rapidly in the last decade. The potential of mobile telehealth (MTH) to support patient self-management is a key area of research. Providing patients with technological tools that allow for the recording and transmission of health parameters to health care professionals (HCPs) may promote behavior changes that result in improved health outcomes. Although for some conditions the evidence of the effectiveness of MTH is clear, to date the findings on the effects of MTH on diabetes management remain inconsistent. Objective This study aims to evaluate an MTH intervention among insulin-requiring adults with diabetes to establish whether supplementing standard care with MTH results in improved health outcomes—glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure (BP), health-related quality of life (HRQoL), diabetes self-management behaviors, diabetes health care utilization, and diabetes self-efficacy and illness beliefs. An additional objective was to explore the acceptability of MTH and patients’ perceptions of, and experience, using it. Methods A mixed-method design consisting of a 9-month, two-arm, parallel randomized controlled trial (RCT) was used in combination with exit qualitative interviews. Quantitative data was collected at baseline, 3 months, and 9 months. Additional intervention fidelity data, such as participants’ MTH transmissions and contacts with the MTH nurse during the study, were also recorded. Results Data collection for both the quantitative and qualitative components of this study has ended and data analysis is ongoing. A total of 86 participants were enrolled into the study. Out of 86 participants, 45 (52%) were randomized to the intervention group and 36 (42%) to the control group. Preliminary data on MTH training sessions and MTH usage by intervention participants are presented in this paper. We expect to publish complete study results in 2015. Conclusions The range of data

  7. Dietary factors and the risk of glioma in adults: results of a case-control study in Melbourne, Australia.

    PubMed

    Giles, G G; McNeil, J J; Donnan, G; Webley, C; Staples, M P; Ireland, P D; Hurley, S F; Salzberg, M

    1994-11-01

    In a population-based case-control study of 416 incident gliomas in adults carried out in Melbourne, Australia, between 1987 and 1991, 409 age-sex-matched case-control pairs (243 male and 166 female) had adequate data available to examine associations between the dietary intake of N-nitroso compounds, N-nitroso precursors, other nutrients including N-nitroso inhibitors, and the risk of glioma. Dietary intakes were based on the reported frequency of consumption of 59 food items. Increased odds ratio (OR) were observed in males who consumed high levels of bacon, corned meats, apples, melons and oil. OR less than unity were observed in men consuming cabbage and cola drinks, and in women who consumed wholegrain bread, pasta, corned meat, bananas, cauliflower, brocoli, cola drinks and nuts. Generally, N-nitroso associations were greater in men and micronutrient associations were greater in women. Elevated OR in men, but not women, were associated with the intake of N-nitroso dimethylamine (NDMA), retinol and vitamin E. The intake of nitrate (largely of vegetable origin) was protective in women but not in men. When analyzed using multiple logistic regression, the association with NDMA intake in males was not modified by dietary micronutrient intakes. In females, beta carotene alone, though not directly associated with risk, modified the effect of NDMA. On balance, this study added only limited support to the N-nitroso hypothesis of glial carcinogenesis. PMID:7927941

  8. Coffee consumption and cystatin-C-based estimated glomerular filtration rates in healthy young adults: results of a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Saito, Masafumi; Nemoto, Tohru; Tobimatsu, Satoshi; Ebata, Midori; Le, Yulan; Nakajima, Kei

    2011-01-01

    Recently it has been reported that the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is higher in habitual coffee consumers than in noncoffee consumers. However, the causality remains unclear. Therefore, we conducted a clinical trial to investigate the effects of coffee consumption on kidney function. Nineteen asymptomatic nonsmokers aged 21-27 years old participated in this study. They consumed coffee (18 g coffee beans/450 mL per day) or green tea as a comparator for 2 weeks in a crossover design. Although creatinine-based eGFR was not affected after consuming either beverage, all cystatin-C-based eGFRs determined using five different equations were significantly increased after coffee consumption (means: 5.0-7.7%), but not after green tea consumption (means: 0.1-1.6%). Serum adiponectin and magnesium levels increased significantly after coffee consumption (means: 13.6% and 4.3%, resp.), but not after green tea consumption. These findings suggest that even a short period of coffee consumption may increase cystatin-C-based eGFR, along with favorable changes in serum adiponectin, in healthy young adults. PMID:21773013

  9. Dietary intake of metals by the young adult population of Eastern Poland: Results from a market basket study.

    PubMed

    Koch, Wojciech; Karim, Md Rezaul; Marzec, Zbigniew; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2016-05-01

    Dietary intake of macro-, trace and toxic elements was determined among the young adult population of Eastern Poland. The study was performed in 2011-2013 and involved 583 participants living in Lublin and its province. Dietary intakes of metals were determined using a 24h dietary recall technique and a market basket method. The analytical quantification of As, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn was performed using ICP-MS technique, whereas the content of mercury was determined using the Mercury Analyzer. Performed investigations revealed that daily dietary intakes of the majority of the study elements (macro- and trace) and toxic elements such as As, Pb or Hg are within the range of reference values. However, high consumption of Na and improper Na/K ratio combined with low intake of Mg may be harmful to the health of the population. Moreover, obtained data suggest that the risk of developing diseases among population in Eastern Poland related to high exposure to Ni and Cd absorbed from foodstuffs was high. PMID:27049125

  10. Pain at multiple body sites and health-related quality of life in older adults: results from the North Staffordshire Osteoarthritis Project

    PubMed Central

    Belcher, John; Rathod, Trishna; Wilkie, Ross; Thomas, Elaine; McBeth, John

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Number of pain sites (NPS) is a potentially important marker of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) but remains unexplored in older people. This cross-sectional study investigated whether, in older people including the oldest old, NPS was independently associated with poorer mental and physical HRQoL and if the association was moderated by age. Methods. A postal questionnaire sent to a population sample of adults aged ≥50 years in North Staffordshire, UK, included the 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) mental component summary (MCS) and physical component summary (PCS), a blank body pain manikin, socio-demographic, health behaviour and morbidity questions. Participants shaded sites of pain lasting ≥1 day in the past 4 weeks on the manikin. OA consultation data were obtained for participants consenting to medical records review. Results. A total of 13 986 individuals (adjusted response 70.6%) completed a questionnaire, of which 12 408 provided complete pain data. The median NPS reported was 4 [interquartile range (IQR) 0–8]. General linear models showed that an increasing NPS was significantly associated with poorer MCS (β = −0.43, 95% CI −0.46, −0.40) and PCS (β = −0.87, 95% CI −0.90, −0.84). Adjustment for covariates attenuated the associations but they remained significant (MCS: β = −0.28, 95% CI −0.31, −0.24; PCS: β = −0.63, 95% CI −0.66, −0.59). The association between NPS and MCS or PCS was moderated by age, but the strongest associations were not in the oldest old. Conclusion. NPS appears to be a potentially modifiable target for improving physical and mental HRQoL in older people. Future analyses should investigate the influence of NPS on HRQoL over time in older people. PMID:24925881

  11. Association between anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, & early life factors & adult measures of endothelial function: Results from the New Delhi Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Huffman, Mark D.; Khalil, Anita; Osmond, Clive; Fall, Caroline H. D.; Tandon, Nikhil; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Ramji, Siddharth; Gera, Tarun; Prabhakaran, Poornima; Dey Biswas, S. K.; Reddy, K. Srinath; Bhargava, Santosh K.; Sachdev, Harshpal S.; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Abnormal endothelial function represents a preclinical marker of atherosclerosis. This study was conducted to evaluate associations between anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, and early life factors and adult measures of endothelial function in a young urban Indian cohort free of clinical cardiovascular disease. Methods: Absolute changes in brachial artery diameter following cuff inflation and sublingual nitroglycerin (400 µg) were recorded to evaluate endothelium-dependent and -independent measures of endothelial function in 600 participants (362 men; 238 women) from the New Delhi Birth Cohort (2006-2009). Data on anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, medical history, socio-economic position, and lifestyle habits were collected. Height and weight were recorded at birth, two and 11 yr of age. Age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models were developed to evaluate these associations. Results: The mean age of participants was 36±1 yr. Twenty two per cent men and 29 per cent women were obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2). Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) was 131±14 and 119±13 mmHg, and diabetes prevalence was 12 and 8 per cent for men and women, respectively. Brachial artery diameter was higher for men compared with women both before (3.48±0.37 and 2.95±0.35 cm) and after hyperaemia (3.87±0.37 vs. 3.37±0.35 cm). A similar difference was seen before and after nitroglycerin. Markers of increased adiposity, smoking, SBP, and metabolic syndrome, but not early life anthropometry, were inversely associated with endothelial function after adjustment for age and sex. Interpretation & conclusions: The analysis of the current prospective data from a young urban Indian cohort showed that cardiometabolic risk factors, but not early life anthropometry, were associated with worse endothelial function. PMID:26831418

  12. ONE ANTIGEN MISMATCHED RELATED VS. HLA-MATCHED UNRELATED DONOR HEMATOPOIETIC TRANSPLANTATION IN ADULTS WITH ACUTE LEUKEMIA: CIBMTR RESULTS IN THE ERA OF MOLECULAR HLA TYPING

    PubMed Central

    Valcárcel, David; Sierra, Jorge; Wang, Tao; Kan, Fangyu; Gupta, Vikas; Hale, Gregory A.; Marks, David I.; McCarthy, Philip L; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Petersdorf, Effie W; Ringdén, Olle; Setterholm, Michelle; Spellman, Stephen R; Waller, Edmund K.; Gajewski, James L; Marino, Susana R.; Senitzer, David; Lee, Stephanie J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Approximately 13% of patients lacking an HLA-identical sibling have a 1-antigen-mismatched related donor (MMRD). Historically, outcomes using a 1-antigen MMRD were considered equivalent to a matched unrelated donor (UD). Recent improvements in unrelated donor (UD) stem cell transplantation (SCT) due to better molecular HLA-matching justifies investigating if UD should be preferred to MMRD in adult patients with acute leukemia. Patients and Methods The outcomes of MMRD (n=89) and HLA-A, B, C, DRB1 allele matched UD (n=700) SCT reported to the CIBMTR between 1995 and 2005 were compared. Patients were transplanted for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) in first or second complete remission. Results Donor type was not associated with hematological recovery. Univariate and multivariate comparisons of MMRD vs. HLA-matched UD transplants showed no statistically significant differences in overall survival, disease free survival, transplant related mortality, relapse, and 100-day grade III–IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). MMRD SCT was associated with a lower rate of chronic GVHD at 1-year, 35% vs 47% p=0.03, which was confirmed in multivariate analysis (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.39-0.85, p<0.01). Conclusion HLA-matched UD and MMRD SCT are associated with comparable survival. Since less chronic GVHD was observed in MMRD, this option when available remains the first choice in acute leukemia patients without an HLA-identical sibling in need of allogeneic transplantation. PMID:20674756

  13. Two-year seizure reduction in adults with medically intractable partial onset epilepsy treated with responsive neurostimulation: Final results of the RNS System Pivotal trial

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Christianne N; King-Stephens, David; Massey, Andrew D; Nair, Dileep R; Jobst, Barbara C; Barkley, Gregory L; Salanova, Vicenta; Cole, Andrew J; Smith, Michael C; Gwinn, Ryder P; Skidmore, Christopher; Van Ness, Paul C; Bergey, Gregory K; Park, Yong D; Miller, Ian; Geller, Eric; Rutecki, Paul A; Zimmerman, Richard; Spencer, David C; Goldman, Alica; Edwards, Jonathan C; Leiphart, James W; Wharen, Robert E; Fessler, James; Fountain, Nathan B; Worrell, Gregory A; Gross, Robert E; Eisenschenk, Stephan; Duckrow, Robert B; Hirsch, Lawrence J; Bazil, Carl; O'Donovan, Cormac A; Sun, Felice T; Courtney, Tracy A; Seale, Cairn G; Morrell, Martha J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of responsive stimulation at the seizure focus as an adjunctive therapy to reduce the frequency of seizures in adults with medically intractable partial onset seizures arising from one or two seizure foci. Methods Randomized multicenter double-blinded controlled trial of responsive focal cortical stimulation (RNS System). Subjects with medically intractable partial onset seizures from one or two foci were implanted, and 1 month postimplant were randomized 1:1 to active or sham stimulation. After the fifth postimplant month, all subjects received responsive stimulation in an open label period (OLP) to complete 2 years of postimplant follow-up. Results All 191 subjects were randomized. The percent change in seizures at the end of the blinded period was −37.9% in the active and −17.3% in the sham stimulation group (p = 0.012, Generalized Estimating Equations). The median percent reduction in seizures in the OLP was 44% at 1 year and 53% at 2 years, which represents a progressive and significant improvement with time (p < 0.0001). The serious adverse event rate was not different between subjects receiving active and sham stimulation. Adverse events were consistent with the known risks of an implanted medical device, seizures, and of other epilepsy treatments. There were no adverse effects on neuropsychological function or mood. Significance Responsive stimulation to the seizure focus reduced the frequency of partial-onset seizures acutely, showed improving seizure reduction over time, was well tolerated, and was acceptably safe. The RNS System provides an additional treatment option for patients with medically intractable partial-onset seizures. PMID:24621228

  14. Effect of a Lifestyle Intervention on Change in Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD Study

    PubMed Central

    Jakicic, John M.; Jaramillo, Sarah A.; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Bancroft, Barbara; Curtis, Jeffery M.; Mathews, Anne; Pereira, Mark; Regensteiner, Judith G.; Ribisl, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of an intensive lifestyle weight loss intervention (ILI) compared to diabetes support and education (DSE) on changes in fitness and physical activity in the Look AHEAD trial. Design Randomized clinical trial to compare a lifestyle intervention for weight loss with a diabetes support and education condition in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Subjects Data from 4,376 overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes (age = 58.7±6.8 years, BMI = 35.8±5.8 kg/m2) who completed one-year of the Look AHEAD trial and had available fitness data were analyzed. Intervention Subjects were randomly assigned to DSE or ILI. DSE received standard-care plus 3 education sessions over the one-year period. ILI included individual and group contact throughout the year, restriction in energy intake, and 175 min/wk of prescribed physical activity. Measurements Fitness was assessed using a submaximal graded exercise test. Physical activity was assessed via questionnaire in a subset of 2,221 subjects. Results Change in fitness was statistically greater in ILI vs. DSE after adjustment for baseline fitness (20.9% vs. 5.7%) (p<0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed that change in fitness was greater in overweight vs. obese Class II and III (p<0.05). Physical activity increased by 892±1694 kcal/wk in ILI vs. 108±1254 kcal/wk in DSE (p<0.01). Changes in fitness (r=0.41) and physical activity (r=0.42) were significantly correlated with weight loss (p<0.0001). Conclusions The ILI was effective in increasing physical activity and improving cardiorespiratory fitness in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. This effect may add to weight loss in improving metabolic control in patients in lifestyle intervention programs. PMID:19153582

  15. Malaria Vaccine Shows Promise in Small Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158765.html Malaria Vaccine Shows Promise in Small Study It protected more ... May 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental malaria vaccine protects a majority of adults against the mosquito- ...

  16. Malaria Vaccine Shows Promise in Small Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158765.html Malaria Vaccine Shows Promise in Small Study It protected more ... May 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental malaria vaccine protects a majority of adults against the mosquito- ...

  17. Adverse events in childhood and chronic widespread pain in adult life: Results from the 1958 British Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gareth T; Power, Chris; Macfarlane, Gary J

    2009-05-01

    Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is a common and frequently disabling condition. Several studies have shown that early life adversity is associated with CWP in later life; however, the majority are retrospective and suffer from potential recall bias. Using data from the 1958 British Birth Cohort Study, the aim of the current study was to examine, prospectively, the relationship between childhood physical and psychological adversity and CWP in adulthood. At 7 yrs data were collected, by parental report, on physically traumatic events (hospitalisation following a road traffic accident, or for surgery); and factors indicating poor social and psychological environment (periods in local authority care, death of a parent; or parental divorce, alcoholism, or financial hardship). CWP was assessed at 45 yrs using self-completion questionnaires. The relationship between childhood events and CWP was examined using Poisson regression. 7571 individuals provided pain data at 45 yrs (71.5%). There was no association between childhood surgery and CWP in adulthood (relative risk: 1.0; 95%CI: 0.9-1.1). However, children who had been hospitalised following a road traffic accident experienced a significant increase in the risk of future CWP (1.5; 1.05-2.1). Children who had resided in institutional care also experienced an increase in the risk of CWP (1.7; 1.3-2.4) as did those who experienced maternal death (2.0; 1.08-3.7) and familial financial hardship (1.6; 1.3-1.9). Further these associations were not explained by adult psychological distress or social class. To prevent long-term consequences of adverse childhood events, future research should study the mechanisms, in particular the biological mechanisms, underlying these relationships. PMID:19304391

  18. Is Acculturation Related to Obesity in Hispanic/Latino Adults? Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Isasi, Carmen R.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Penedo, Frank; Loria, Catherine M.; Elder, John P.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Barnhart, Janice; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Schneiderman, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Background. The study examined the association of obesity with acculturation in a large and diverse sample of US Hispanic/Latino adults. Methods. The Hispanic Community Health Study (HCHS)/Study of Latinos (SOL) is a community-based cohort study of Hispanic/Latino adults aged 18–74 years (N = 16,415) from four urban areas. Height and weight were directly measured using a standardized protocol. Acculturation was assessed by the Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanics (SASH). Other immigration related variables included place of birth, length of residency in the US, and age at immigration. Odds ratios were calculated to assess the association of overweight, moderate obesity, and extreme obesity (≥40 kg/m2) with acculturation and sociodemographic variables. Results. The prevalence of obesity was 42.4% for women and 36.5% for men and varied by field center and Hispanic/Latino background. The strongest predictor of moderate and extreme obesity was length of residency in mainland US. This association was consistent across Hispanic/Latino backgrounds. Acculturation was not significantly associated with obesity. Discussion. The burden of obesity is high among Hispanic/Latino adults. The study findings suggest that prolonged exposure to the environments in these communities, rather than acculturation, is an important risk factor for obesity in this population. PMID:25893114

  19. Haemophilia Experiences, Results and Opportunities (HERO) Study: influence of haemophilia on interpersonal relationships as reported by adults with haemophilia and parents of children with haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Cassis, F R M Y; Buzzi, A; Forsyth, A; Gregory, M; Nugent, D; Garrido, C; Pilgaard, T; Cooper, D L; Iorio, A

    2014-07-01

    Evidence delineating the effects of haemophilia on interpersonal relationships is sparse and largely outdated, failing to reflect the impact of current treatment strategies. HERO (Haemophilia Experiences, Results and Opportunities) was commenced to garner a more comprehensive understanding of psychosocial issues facing persons with haemophilia (PWH). This article describes the findings of the quantitative HERO survey relating to the influence of haemophilia on interpersonal relationships of adult PWH, and parents/caregivers of children with haemophilia. Separate questionnaires were completed by adult PWH and parents of minor children from 10 countries, including satisfaction with support from partners, family, friends and other social contacts; disclosure of haemophilia and carrier status and family dynamics. A total of 675 PWH and 561 parents completed the survey. Over half of PWH (57%) and parents (84%) were married. Most PWH were satisfied with support from partners (94%), family (90%) and friends (85%), with lower percentages reported among those with inhibitors. Most parents were likewise satisfied with support from partners (88%) and family (83%). Whereas PWH were reticent to disclose their diagnosis beyond family and friends, parents were more likely to share their son's diagnosis, and most were satisfied with the support from their son's peers (74%), teachers (83%) and other adults in supervisory roles (85%). PWH and parents surveyed were satisfied overall with the support they received from partners, family, friends and social contacts. Relationships are affected by haemophilia in various ways, and particularly affected in terms of disease burden, age and social life. PMID:24800872

  20. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adults With Bipolar Disorder or Major Depressive Disorder: Results From the International Mood Disorders Collaborative Project

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Sidney H.; Soczynska, Joanna K.; Nguyen, Ha T. T.; Bilkey, Timothy S.; Woldeyohannes, Hanna O.; Nathanson, Jay A.; Joshi, Shikha; Cheng, Jenny S. H.; Benson, Kathleen M.; Muzina, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Relatively few studies have evaluated the clinical implications of lifetime attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults with bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder (MDD). Herein, we sought to determine the prevalence as well as the demographic and clinical correlates of lifetime ADHD in persons with a mood disorder. Method: The first 399 patients enrolled in the International Mood Disorders Collaborative Project (IMDCP) were evaluated for lifetime ADHD using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview-Plus (MINI-Plus) as the primary instrument to derive current and lifetime DSM-IV diagnoses. All analyses of variables of interest were conducted utilizing the MINI-Plus, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale-v1.1, and the Wender Utah Rating Scale-Short Form. The effect of ADHD on clinical presentation, course of illness variables, comorbidity, anamnesis, treatment, and outcome are reported. The IMDCP is a joint initiative of the Mood Disorders Psychopharmacology Unit at the University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and the Cleveland Clinic Center for Mood Disorders Treatment and Research at Lutheran Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio. All data for this study were procured between January 2008 and January 2009. Results: The percentages of subjects with MDD or bipolar disorder meeting the DSM-IV criteria for lifetime adult ADHD were 5.4% and 17.6% (P < .001), respectively. Lifetime comorbid ADHD in both mood disorder populations was associated with earlier age at illness onset (MDD, P = .049; bipolar disorder, P = .005), a higher number of psychiatric comorbidities (eg, MDD and current panic disorder with agoraphobia [P = .002]; bipolar disorder and social phobia [P = .012]), and decreased quality of life (MDD, P = .018). Conclusions: The overarching findings herein are that the adult ADHD phenotype is commonly reported by individuals with MDD or bipolar disorder and is associated with a greater illness burden

  1. Public medical shows.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre. PMID:25273491

  2. The F4/AS01B HIV-1 Vaccine Candidate Is Safe and Immunogenic, But Does Not Show Viral Efficacy in Antiretroviral Therapy-Naive, HIV-1-Infected Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Dinges, Warren; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Podzamczer, Daniel; Brockmeyer, Norbert H; García, Felipe; Harrer, Thomas; Lelievre, Jean-Daniel; Frank, Ian; Colin De Verdière, Nathalie; Yeni, Guy-Patrick; Ortega Gonzalez, Enrique; Rubio, Rafael; Clotet Sala, Bonaventura; DeJesus, Edwin; Pérez-Elias, Maria Jesus; Launay, Odile; Pialoux, Gilles; Slim, Jihad; Weiss, Laurence; Bouchaud, Olivier; Felizarta, Franco; Meurer, Anja; Raffi, François; Esser, Stefan; Katlama, Christine; Koletar, Susan L; Mounzer, Karam; Swindells, Susan; Baxter, John D; Schneider, Stefan; Chas, Julie; Molina, Jean-Michel; Koutsoukos, Marguerite; Collard, Alix; Bourguignon, Patricia; Roman, François

    2016-02-01

    The impact of the investigational human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) F4/AS01B vaccine on HIV-1 viral load (VL) was evaluated in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive HIV-1 infected adults.This phase IIb, observer-blind study (NCT01218113), included ART-naive HIV-1 infected adults aged 18 to 55 years. Participants were randomized to receive 2 (F4/AS01B_2 group, N = 64) or 3 (F4/AS01B_3 group, N = 62) doses of F4/AS01B or placebo (control group, N = 64) at weeks 0, 4, and 28. Efficacy (HIV-1 VL, CD4 T-cell count, ART initiation, and HIV-related clinical events), safety, and immunogenicity (antibody and T-cell responses) were evaluated during 48 weeks.At week 48, based on a mixed model, no statistically significant difference in HIV-1 VL change from baseline was demonstrated between F4/AS01B_2 and control group (0.073 log10 copies/mL [97.5% confidence interval (CI): -0.088; 0.235]), or F4/AS01B_3 and control group (-0.096 log10 copies/mL [97.5% CI: -0.257; 0.065]). No differences between groups were observed in HIV-1 VL change, CD4 T-cell count, ART initiation, or HIV-related clinical events at intermediate timepoints. Among F4/AS01B recipients, the most frequent solicited symptoms were pain at injection site (252/300 doses), fatigue (137/300 doses), myalgia (105/300 doses), and headache (90/300 doses). Twelve serious adverse events were reported in 6 participants; 1 was considered vaccine-related (F4/AS01B_2 group: angioedema). F4/AS01B induced polyfunctional F4-specific CD4 T-cells, but had no significant impact on F4-specific CD8 T-cell and anti-F4 antibody levels.F4/AS01B had a clinically acceptable safety profile, induced F4-specific CD4 T-cell responses, but did not reduce HIV-1 VL, impact CD4 T-cells count, delay ART initiation, or prevent HIV-1 related clinical events. PMID:26871794

  3. The F4/AS01B HIV-1 Vaccine Candidate Is Safe and Immunogenic, But Does Not Show Viral Efficacy in Antiretroviral Therapy-Naive, HIV-1-Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dinges, Warren; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Podzamczer, Daniel; Brockmeyer, Norbert H.; García, Felipe.; Harrer, Thomas; Lelievre, Jean-Daniel; Frank, Ian; Colin De Verdière, Nathalie; Yeni, Guy-Patrick; Ortega Gonzalez, Enrique; Rubio, Rafael; Clotet Sala, Bonaventura; DeJesus, Edwin; Pérez-Elias, Maria Jesus; Launay, Odile; Pialoux, Gilles; Slim, Jihad; Weiss, Laurence; Bouchaud, Olivier; Felizarta, Franco; Meurer, Anja; Raffi, François; Esser, Stefan; Katlama, Christine; Koletar, Susan L.; Mounzer, Karam; Swindells, Susan; Baxter, John D.; Schneider, Stefan; Chas, Julie; Molina, Jean-Michel; Koutsoukos, Marguerite; Collard, Alix; Bourguignon, Patricia; Roman, François

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The impact of the investigational human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) F4/AS01B vaccine on HIV-1 viral load (VL) was evaluated in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive HIV-1 infected adults. This phase IIb, observer-blind study (NCT01218113), included ART-naive HIV-1 infected adults aged 18 to 55 years. Participants were randomized to receive 2 (F4/AS01B_2 group, N = 64) or 3 (F4/AS01B_3 group, N = 62) doses of F4/AS01B or placebo (control group, N = 64) at weeks 0, 4, and 28. Efficacy (HIV-1 VL, CD4+ T-cell count, ART initiation, and HIV-related clinical events), safety, and immunogenicity (antibody and T-cell responses) were evaluated during 48 weeks. At week 48, based on a mixed model, no statistically significant difference in HIV-1 VL change from baseline was demonstrated between F4/AS01B_2 and control group (0.073 log10 copies/mL [97.5% confidence interval (CI): −0.088; 0.235]), or F4/AS01B_3 and control group (−0.096 log10 copies/mL [97.5% CI: −0.257; 0.065]). No differences between groups were observed in HIV-1 VL change, CD4+ T-cell count, ART initiation, or HIV-related clinical events at intermediate timepoints. Among F4/AS01B recipients, the most frequent solicited symptoms were pain at injection site (252/300 doses), fatigue (137/300 doses), myalgia (105/300 doses), and headache (90/300 doses). Twelve serious adverse events were reported in 6 participants; 1 was considered vaccine-related (F4/AS01B_2 group: angioedema). F4/AS01B induced polyfunctional F4-specific CD4+ T-cells, but had no significant impact on F4-specific CD8+ T-cell and anti-F4 antibody levels. F4/AS01B had a clinically acceptable safety profile, induced F4-specific CD4+ T-cell responses, but did not reduce HIV-1 VL, impact CD4+ T-cells count, delay ART initiation, or prevent HIV-1 related clinical events. PMID:26871794

  4. Talk or text to tell? How young adults in Canada and South Africa prefer to receive STI results, counseling, and treatment updates in a wireless world.

    PubMed

    Labacher, Lukas; Mitchell, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Young adults often lack access to confidential, long-lasting, and nonjudgmental interactions with sexual health professionals at brick-and-mortar clinics. To ensure that patients return for their STI test results, post-result counseling, and STI-related information, computer-mediated health intervention programming allows them to receive sexual health information through onsite computers, the Internet, and mobile phone calls and text messages. To determine whether young adults (age: M = 21 years) prefer to communicate with health professionals about the status of their sexual health through computer-mediated communication devices, 303 second-year university students (183 from an urban North American university and 120 from a periurban university in South Africa) completed a paper-based survey indicating how they prefer to communicate with doctors and nurses: talking face to face, mobile phone call, text message, Internet chat programs, Facebook, Twitter, or e-mail. Nearly all students, and female students in South Africa in particular, prefer to receive their STI test results, post-results counseling, and STI-related information by talking face to face with doctors and nurses rather than communicating through computers or mobile phones. Results are clarified in relation to gender, availability of various technologies, and prevalence of HIV in Canada and in South Africa. PMID:24015829

  5. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  6. Skills of U.S. Unemployed, Young, and Older Adults in Sharper Focus: Results from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) 2012/2014. First Look. NCES 2016-039

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampey, Bobby D.; Finnegan, Robert; Goodman, Madeline; Mohadjer, Leyla; Krenzke, Tom; Hogan, Jacquie; Provasnik, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The "Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies" (PIAAC) is a cyclical, large-scale study of adult skills and life experiences focusing on education and employment. Nationally representative samples of adults between the ages of 16 and 65 are administered an assessment of literacy, numeracy, and problem solving in…

  7. The Great Cometary Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer, which allows astronomers to scrutinise objects with a precision equivalent to that of a 130-m telescope, is proving itself an unequalled success every day. One of the latest instruments installed, AMBER, has led to a flurry of scientific results, an anthology of which is being published this week as special features in the research journal Astronomy & Astrophysics. ESO PR Photo 06a/07 ESO PR Photo 06a/07 The AMBER Instrument "With its unique capabilities, the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) has created itself a niche in which it provide answers to many astronomical questions, from the shape of stars, to discs around stars, to the surroundings of the supermassive black holes in active galaxies," says Jorge Melnick (ESO), the VLT Project Scientist. The VLTI has led to 55 scientific papers already and is in fact producing more than half of the interferometric results worldwide. "With the capability of AMBER to combine up to three of the 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes, we can really achieve what nobody else can do," added Fabien Malbet, from the LAOG (France) and the AMBER Project Scientist. Eleven articles will appear this week in Astronomy & Astrophysics' special AMBER section. Three of them describe the unique instrument, while the other eight reveal completely new results about the early and late stages in the life of stars. ESO PR Photo 06b/07 ESO PR Photo 06b/07 The Inner Winds of Eta Carinae The first results presented in this issue cover various fields of stellar and circumstellar physics. Two papers deal with very young solar-like stars, offering new information about the geometry of the surrounding discs and associated outflowing winds. Other articles are devoted to the study of hot active stars of particular interest: Alpha Arae, Kappa Canis Majoris, and CPD -57o2874. They provide new, precise information about their rotating gas envelopes. An important new result concerns the enigmatic object Eta Carinae. Using AMBER with

  8. Midterm results of “treat and repair” for adults with non-restrictive ventricular septal defect and severe pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhenlei; Xie, Bo; Zhai, Xinming; Liu, Jidong; Gu, Jianmin; Wang, Xudong; Zheng, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Background A non-restrictive ventricular septal defect (VSD) can cause intracardiac left to right shunt, which leads to increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and pulmonary hypertension causes bi-directional or even right-left shunt, namely the Eisenmenger’s syndrome. For patients with non-restrictive VSD with severe pulmonary hypertension at stage of near or to be Eisenmenger’s syndrome, traditional VSD repair carries high mortality and poor prognosis. Recently, targeted drug therapy was used to decrease pulmonary circulation resistance in these patients before they receive defect repair surgery, namely “treat and repair” strategy, however, there is few reports about the midterm result of this strategy in adults with non-restrictive VSD with severe pulmonary hypertension at stage of near or to be Eisenmenger’s syndrome. Methods In this study, we used this strategy to treat 41 adult VSD patients who received bosentan as the targeted therapy to decrease their PVR before and after repair surgery. Results A total of 39 patients were followed up for an average of 37 months. None of the patients died during follow-up. Among them, 36 cases continued targeted drug therapy, whose mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) was significantly reduced, including 31 cases with mPAP <50 mmHg, and the valve of tap hole was closed. Besides, the SpO2 was significantly elevated. Conclusions These results demonstrated that “treat-and-repair” strategy may be a viable approach for the adults with non-restrictive VSD with severe pulmonary hypertension at stage of near or to be Eisenmenger’s syndrome. PMID:26380732

  9. Less Effort, Better Results: How Does Music Act on Prefrontal Cortex in Older Adults during Verbal Encoding? An fNIRS Study

    PubMed Central

    Ferreri, Laura; Bigand, Emmanuel; Perrey, Stephane; Muthalib, Makii; Bard, Patrick; Bugaiska, Aurélia

    2014-01-01

    Several neuroimaging studies of cognitive aging revealed deficits in episodic memory abilities as a result of prefrontal cortex (PFC) limitations. Improving episodic memory performance despite PFC deficits is thus a critical issue in aging research. Listening to music stimulates cognitive performance in several non-purely musical activities (e.g., language and memory). Thus, music could represent a rich and helpful source during verbal encoding and therefore help subsequent retrieval. Furthermore, such benefit could be reflected in less demand of PFC, which is known to be crucial for encoding processes. This study aimed to investigate whether music may improve episodic memory in older adults while decreasing the PFC activity. Sixteen healthy older adults (μ = 64.5 years) encoded lists of words presented with or without a musical background while their dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity was monitored using a eight-channel continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system (Oxymon Mk III, Artinis, The Netherlands). Behavioral results indicated a better source-memory performance for words encoded with music compared to words encoded with silence (p < 0.05). Functional NIRS data revealed bilateral decrease of oxyhemoglobin values in the music encoding condition compared to the silence condition (p < 0.05), suggesting that music modulates the activity of the DLPFC during encoding in a less-demanding direction. Taken together, our results indicate that music can help older adults in memory performances by decreasing their PFC activity. These findings open new perspectives about music as tool for episodic memory rehabilitation on special populations with memory deficits due to frontal lobe damage such as Alzheimer’s patients. PMID:24860481

  10. Repeated, Intermittent Social Defeat across the Entire Juvenile Period Resulted in Behavioral, Physiological, Hormonal, Immunological, and Neurochemical Alterations in Young Adult Male Golden Hamsters.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wei-Chun; Liu, Ching-Yi; Lai, Wen-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The developing brain is vulnerable to social defeat during the juvenile period. As complements of human studies, animal models of social defeat provide a straightforward approach to investigating the functional and neurobiological consequences of social defeats. Taking advantage of agonist behavior and social defeat in male golden hamster, a set of 6 experiments was conducted to investigate the consequences at multiple levels in young adulthood resulting from repeated, intermittent social defeats or "social threats" across the entire juvenile period. Male hamsters at postnatal day 28 (P28) were randomly assigned to either the social defeat, "social threat", or arena control group, and they correspondingly received a series of nine social interaction trials (i.e., either social defeat, "social threat", or arena control conditions) from P33 to P66. At the behavioral level (Experiment 1), we found that repeated social defeats (but not "social threats") significantly impacted locomotor activity in the familiar context and social interaction in the familiar/unfamiliar social contexts. At the physiological and hormonal levels (Experiments 2 and 3), repeated social defeat significantly enhanced the cortisol and norepinephrine concentrations in blood. Enlargement of the spleen was also found in the social defeat and "social threat" groups. At the immunological level (Experiment 4), the social defeat group showed lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hypothalamus and hippocampus but higher concentration of IL-6 in the striatum compared to the other two groups. At the neurochemical level (Experiment 5), the socially defeated hamsters mainly displayed reductions of dopamine, dopamine metabolites, and 5-HT levels in the striatum and decreased level of 5-HT in the hippocampus. In Experiment 6, an increase in the spine density of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was specifically observed in the "social threat" group. Collectively, our findings indicate that repeated

  11. Repeated, Intermittent Social Defeat across the Entire Juvenile Period Resulted in Behavioral, Physiological, Hormonal, Immunological, and Neurochemical Alterations in Young Adult Male Golden Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wei-Chun; Liu, Ching-Yi; Lai, Wen-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The developing brain is vulnerable to social defeat during the juvenile period. As complements of human studies, animal models of social defeat provide a straightforward approach to investigating the functional and neurobiological consequences of social defeats. Taking advantage of agonist behavior and social defeat in male golden hamster, a set of 6 experiments was conducted to investigate the consequences at multiple levels in young adulthood resulting from repeated, intermittent social defeats or “social threats” across the entire juvenile period. Male hamsters at postnatal day 28 (P28) were randomly assigned to either the social defeat, “social threat”, or arena control group, and they correspondingly received a series of nine social interaction trials (i.e., either social defeat, “social threat”, or arena control conditions) from P33 to P66. At the behavioral level (Experiment 1), we found that repeated social defeats (but not “social threats”) significantly impacted locomotor activity in the familiar context and social interaction in the familiar/unfamiliar social contexts. At the physiological and hormonal levels (Experiments 2 and 3), repeated social defeat significantly enhanced the cortisol and norepinephrine concentrations in blood. Enlargement of the spleen was also found in the social defeat and “social threat” groups. At the immunological level (Experiment 4), the social defeat group showed lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hypothalamus and hippocampus but higher concentration of IL-6 in the striatum compared to the other two groups. At the neurochemical level (Experiment 5), the socially defeated hamsters mainly displayed reductions of dopamine, dopamine metabolites, and 5-HT levels in the striatum and decreased level of 5-HT in the hippocampus. In Experiment 6, an increase in the spine density of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was specifically observed in the “social threat” group. Collectively, our

  12. Long-term efficacy and safety results of taliglucerase alfa up to 36 months in adult treatment-naïve patients with Gaucher disease.

    PubMed

    Zimran, Ari; Durán, Gloria; Mehta, Atul; Giraldo, Pilar; Rosenbaum, Hanna; Giona, Fiorina; Amato, Dominick J; Petakov, Milan; Muñoz, Eduardo Terreros; Solorio-Meza, Sergio Eduardo; Cooper, Peter A; Varughese, Sheeba; Chertkoff, Raul; Brill-Almon, Einat

    2016-07-01

    Taliglucerase alfa is an intravenous enzyme replacement therapy approved for treatment of type 1 Gaucher disease (GD), and is the first available plant cell-expressed recombinant therapeutic protein. Herein, we report long-term safety and efficacy results of taliglucerase alfa in treatment-naïve adult patients with GD. Patients were randomized to receive taliglucerase alfa 30 or 60 U/kg every other week, and 23 patients completed 36 months of treatment. Taliglucerase alfa (30 U/kg; 60 U/kg, respectively) resulted in mean decreases in spleen volume (50.1%; 64.6%) and liver volume (25.6%; 24.4%) with mean increases in hemoglobin concentration (16.0%; 35.8%) and platelet count (45.7%; 114.0%), and mean decreases in chitotriosidase activity (71.5%; 82.2%). All treatment-related adverse events were mild to moderate in intensity and transient. The most common adverse events were nasopharyngitis, arthralgia, upper respiratory tract infection, headache, pain in extremity, and hypertension. These 36-month results of taliglucerase alfa in treatment-naïve adult patients with GD demonstrate continued improvement in disease parameters with no new safety concerns. These findings extend the taliglucerase alfa clinical safety and efficacy dataset. www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00705939. Am. J. Hematol. 91:656-660, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27174694

  13. Results of a 2-year randomized, controlled obesity prevention trial: Effects on diet, activity and sleep behaviors in an at-risk young adult population.

    PubMed

    Laska, Melissa N; Lytle, Leslie A; Nanney, Marilyn S; Moe, Stacey G; Linde, Jennifer A; Hannan, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Excess weight gain tends to occur in young adulthood. However, research examining effective weight-related interventions for this age group has been limited. As one of seven trials in the EARLY Trials consortium (Early Adult Reduction of weight through LifestYle intervention), the CHOICES Study (Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings) tested effects of a technology-integrated, young adult weight gain prevention intervention. It was a randomized controlled trial with assessments at baseline (2011) and 4-, 12- and 24-months post-intervention initiation and included 441 participants (ages 18-35) who were students at three Minnesota community colleges. The 24-month intervention included a 1-credit academic course and social networking and support online intervention. This analysis examined effects on 12 secondary behavioral outcomes across three domains: diet (fast food, sugary beverages, breakfast, at-home meal preparation), physical activity/screen time (minutes and energy expenditure in leisure time physical activity, television viewing, leisure time computer use) and sleep (hours of sleep, time required to fall asleep, days not getting enough rest, difficulty staying awake). The intervention resulted in significant reductions in fast food (p=0.007) but increases in difficulty staying awake (p=0.015). There was limited evidence of other behavior changes at 4months (0.05results (p=0.005). Additional research is needed to understand effective obesity prevention among young adults, particularly when addressing multiple weight-related outcomes. PMID:27283096

  14. Enzyme replacement therapy with taliglucerase alfa: 36-month safety and efficacy results in adult patients with Gaucher disease previously treated with imiglucerase.

    PubMed

    Pastores, Gregory M; Shankar, Suma P; Petakov, Milan; Giraldo, Pilar; Rosenbaum, Hanna; Amato, Dominick J; Szer, Jeffrey; Chertkoff, Raul; Brill-Almon, Einat; Zimran, Ari

    2016-07-01

    Taliglucerase alfa is the first available plant cell-expressed human recombinant therapeutic protein. It is indicated for treatment of patients with type 1 Gaucher disease (GD) in adult and pediatric patients in several countries. Study PB-06-002 examined the safety and efficacy of taliglucerase alfa for 9 months in patients who previously received imiglucerase. The results of adult patients from Study PB-06-002 who continued receiving taliglucerase alfa in extension Study PB-06-003 for up to 36 months are reported here. Eighteen patients received at least one dose of taliglucerase alfa in Study PB-06-003; 10 patients completed 36 total months of therapy, and four patients who transitioned to commercial drug completed 30-33 months of treatment. In patients who completed 36 total months of treatment, mean percent (±standard error) changes from baseline/time of switch to taliglucerase alfa to 36 months were as follows: hemoglobin concentration, -1.0% (±1.9%; n = 10); platelet count, +9.3% (±9.8%; n = 10); spleen volume measured in multiples of normal (MN), -19.8% (±9.9%; n = 7); liver volume measured in MN, +0.9% (±5.4%; n = 8); chitotriosidase activity, -51.5% (±8.1%; n = 10); and CCL18 concentration, -36.5 (±8.0%; n = 10). Four patients developed antidrug antibodies, including one with evidence of neutralizing activity in vitro. All treatment-related adverse events were mild or moderate and transient. The 36-month results of switching from imiglucerase to taliglucerase alfa treatment in adults with GD provide further data on the clinical safety and efficacy of taliglucerase alfa beyond the initial 9 months of the original study. www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00705939. Am. J. Hematol. 91:661-665, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27102949

  15. Genome-wide significant results identified for plasma apolipoprotein H levels in middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Karen A.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Song, Fei; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Poljak, Anne; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; McEvoy, Mark; Kwok, John B.; Assareh, Amelia A.; Reppermund, Simone; Kochan, Nicole A.; Lee, Teresa; Ames, David; Wright, Margaret J.; Trollor, Julian N.; Schofield, Peter W.; Brodaty, Henry; Scott, Rodney J.; Schofield, Peter R.; Attia, John R.; Sachdev, Perminder S.

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein H (ApoH) is a multi-functional plasma glycoprotein that has been associated with negative health outcomes. ApoH levels have high heritability. We undertook a genome-wide association study of ApoH levels using the largest sample to date and replicated the results in an independent cohort (total N = 1,255). In the discovery phase, a meta-analysis of two cohorts, the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study (Sydney MAS) and the Older Australian Twins Study (OATS) (n = 942) revealed genome-wide significant results in or near the APOH gene on chromosome 17 (top SNP, rs7211380, p = 1 × 10−11). The results were replicated in an independent cohort, the Hunter Community Study (p < 0.002) (n = 313). Conditional and joint analysis (COJO) confirmed the association of the chromosomal 17 region with ApoH levels. The set of independent SNPs identified by COJO explained 23% of the variance. The relationships between the top SNPs and cardiovascular/lipid/cognition measures and diabetes were assessed in Sydney MAS, with suggestive results observed for diabetes and cognitive performance. However, replication of these results in the smaller OATS cohort was not found. This work provides impetus for future research to better understand the contribution of genetics to ApoH levels and its possible impacts on health. PMID:27030319

  16. Genome-wide significant results identified for plasma apolipoprotein H levels in middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Mather, Karen A; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Song, Fei; Armstrong, Nicola J; Poljak, Anne; Holliday, Elizabeth G; McEvoy, Mark; Kwok, John B; Assareh, Amelia A; Reppermund, Simone; Kochan, Nicole A; Lee, Teresa; Ames, David; Wright, Margaret J; Trollor, Julian N; Schofield, Peter W; Brodaty, Henry; Scott, Rodney J; Schofield, Peter R; Attia, John R; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein H (ApoH) is a multi-functional plasma glycoprotein that has been associated with negative health outcomes. ApoH levels have high heritability. We undertook a genome-wide association study of ApoH levels using the largest sample to date and replicated the results in an independent cohort (total N = 1,255). In the discovery phase, a meta-analysis of two cohorts, the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study (Sydney MAS) and the Older Australian Twins Study (OATS) (n = 942) revealed genome-wide significant results in or near the APOH gene on chromosome 17 (top SNP, rs7211380, p = 1 × 10(-11)). The results were replicated in an independent cohort, the Hunter Community Study (p < 0.002) (n = 313). Conditional and joint analysis (COJO) confirmed the association of the chromosomal 17 region with ApoH levels. The set of independent SNPs identified by COJO explained 23% of the variance. The relationships between the top SNPs and cardiovascular/lipid/cognition measures and diabetes were assessed in Sydney MAS, with suggestive results observed for diabetes and cognitive performance. However, replication of these results in the smaller OATS cohort was not found. This work provides impetus for future research to better understand the contribution of genetics to ApoH levels and its possible impacts on health. PMID:27030319

  17. The Wordpath Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderton, Alice

    The Intertribal Wordpath Society is a nonprofit educational corporation formed to promote the teaching, status, awareness, and use of Oklahoma Indian languages. The Society produces "Wordpath," a weekly 30-minute public access television show about Oklahoma Indian languages and the people who are teaching and preserving them. The show aims to…

  18. Postnatal testosterone exposure results in insulin resistance, enlarged mesenteric adipocytes, and an atherogenic lipid profile in adult female rats: comparisons with estradiol and dihydrotestosterone.

    PubMed

    Alexanderson, Camilla; Eriksson, Elias; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Lystig, Theodore; Gabrielsson, Britt; Lönn, Malin; Holmäng, Agneta

    2007-11-01

    Postnatal events contribute to features of the metabolic syndrome in adulthood. In this study, postnatally administered testosterone reduced insulin sensitivity and increased the mesenteric fat depot, the size of mesenteric adipocytes, serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides, and the atherogenic index in adult female rats. To assess the involvement of estrogen and androgen receptors in these programming effects, we compared testosterone-exposed rats to rats exposed to estradiol or dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Estradiol-treated rats had lower insulin sensitivity than testosterone-treated rats and, like those rats, had enlarged mesenteric adipocytes and increased triglyceride levels. DHT also reduced insulin sensitivity but did not mimic the other metabolic effects of testosterone. All treated rats were probably anovulatory, but only those treated with testosterone had reduced testosterone levels. This study confirms our previous finding that postnatal administration of testosterone reduces insulin sensitivity in adult female rats and shows that this effect is accompanied by unfavorable changes in mesenteric fat tissue and in serum lipid levels. The findings in the estradiol and DHT groups suggest that estrogen receptors exert stronger metabolic programming effects than androgen receptors. Thus, insults such as sex hormone exposure in early life may have long-lasting effects, thereby creating a predisposition to disturbances in insulin sensitivity, adipose tissue, and lipid profile in adulthood. PMID:17656458

  19. Clinical practice in perioperative monitoring in adult cardiac surgery: is there a standard of care? Results from an national survey.

    PubMed

    Bignami, Elena; Belletti, Alessandro; Moliterni, Paola; Frati, Elena; Guarnieri, Marcello; Tritapepe, Luigi

    2016-06-01

    This study was to investigate and define what is considered as a current clinical practice in hemodynamic monitoring and vasoactive medication use after cardiac surgery in Italy. A 33-item questionnaire was sent to all intensive care units (ICUs) admitting patients after cardiac surgery. 71 out of 92 identified centers (77.2 %) returned a completed questionnaire. Electrocardiogram, invasive blood pressure, central venous pressure, pulse oximetry, diuresis, body temperature and blood gas analysis were identified as routinely used hemodynamic monitoring, whereas advanced monitoring was performed with pulmonary artery catheter or echocardiography. Crystalloids were the fluids of choice for volume replacement (86.8 % of Centers). To guide volume management, central venous pressure (26.7 %) and invasive blood pressure (19.7 %) were the most frequently used parameters. Dobutamine was the first choice for treatment of left heart dysfunction (40 %) and epinephrine was the first choice for right heart dysfunction (26.8 %). Half of the Centers had an internal protocol for vasoactive drugs administration. Intra-aortic balloon pump and extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation were widely available among Cardiothoracic ICUs. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were suspended in 28 % of the Centers. The survey shows what is considered as standard monitoring in Italian Cardiac ICUs. Standard, routinely used monitoring consists of ECG, SpO2, etCO2, invasive BP, CVP, diuresis, body temperature, and BGA. It also shows that there is large variability among the various Centers regarding hemodynamic monitoring of fluid therapy and inotropes administration. Further research is required to better standardize and define the indicators to improve the standards of intensive care after cardiac surgery among Italian cardiac ICUs. PMID:26089166

  20. A Controlled Study of Autonomic Nervous System Function in Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treated with Stimulant Medications: Results of a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubiner, Howard; Hassunizadeh, Bischan; Kaczynski, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Despite the fact that autonomic nervous system (ANS) abnormalities are commonly found in adults and predict increased cardiovascular mortality, no studies have assessed ANS function in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) taking stimulants. Method: This pilot study evaluated ANS function in adults with ADHD in…

  1. Effect of Gaboxadol on Sleep in Adult and Elderly Patients with Primary Insomnia: Results From Two Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, 30-Night Polysomnography Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lankford, D. Alan; Corser, Bruce C.; Zheng, Yan-Ping; Li, Zhengrong; Snavely, Duane B.; Lines, Christopher R.; Deacon, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of gaboxadol in the treatment of adult and elderly patients with primary insomnia. Design: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, 30-night, polysomnography studies. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Patients: Primary insomnia, 18–64 y (adult study), or ≥65 y (elderly study). Interventions: Adult study: gaboxadol 15 mg (GBX15; N = 148), 10 mg (GBX10; N = 154), or placebo (N = 156); elderly study: GBX10 (N = 157), gaboxadol 5 mg (GBX5; N = 153), or placebo (N=176). Measurements and Results: Primary endpoints were wake after sleep onset (WASO) and latency to persistent sleep (LPS). Slow wave sleep (SWS) was a secondary endpoint. Analyses were based on the change from baseline for the average of nights 1/2, and nights 29/30, and compared gaboxadol versus placebo. Exploratory endpoints included patient's subjective assessment of total sleep time (sTST), WASO (sWASO), time to sleep onset (sTSO), and number of awakenings (sNAW); these analyses were based on weekly means. 1) Adult study. GBX15 significantly (P ≤ 0.05) improved WASO through nights 29/30 but had no significant effects on LPS. No significant differences were seen for GBX10 versus placebo on WASO or LPS. GBX15 and GBX10 enhanced SWS. GBX15 significantly improved sTST, sWASO, sTSO, and sNAW at weeks 1 and 4. 2) Elderly study. GBX10 significantly improved WASO through nights 29/30; a significant improvement was also seen for GBX5 at nights 1/2 but this was not maintained through nights 29/30. GBX10 significantly improved LPS at nights 1/2 but the improvement was not maintained through nights 29/30; no significant differences were seen for GBX5 versus placebo on LPS. GBX10 and GBX5 enhanced SWS. GBX10 significantly improved sTST at week 1, and sTST, sWASO, and sNAW at week 4. Gaboxadol was generally well tolerated in both studies. Conclusions: The maximum studied doses of gaboxadol (GBX15 in adult patients and GBX10 in elderly patients

  2. Tweets, Apps, and Pods: Results of the 6-Month Mobile Pounds Off Digitally (Mobile POD) Randomized Weight-Loss Intervention Among Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous interventions have shown promising results using theory-based podcasts to deliver a behavioral weight-loss intervention. Objective The objective of our study was to examine whether a combination of podcasting, mobile support communication, and mobile diet monitoring can assist people in weight loss. Methods In this 6-month, minimal contact intervention, overweight (n = 96, body mass index 32.6 kg/m2) adults were recruited through television advertisements and email listservs and randomly assigned to Podcast-only or Podcast+Mobile groups. Both groups received 2 podcasts per week for 3 months and 2 minipodcasts per week for months 3–6. In addition to the podcasts, the Podcast+Mobile group was also instructed to use a diet and physical activity monitoring application (app) on their mobile device and to interact with study counselors and other participants on Twitter. Results Weight loss did not differ by group at 6 months: mean –2.7% (SD 5.6%) Podcast+Mobile, n = 47; mean –2.7% (SD 5.1%) Podcast, n = 49; P = .98. Days/week of reported diet monitoring did not differ between Podcast+Mobile (mean 2.3, SD 1.9 days/week) and Podcast groups (mean 1.9, SD 1.7 days/week; P = .28) but method of monitoring did differ. Podcast+Mobile participants were 3.5 times more likely than the Podcast group to use an app to monitor diet (P = .01), whereas the majority of Podcast participants reported using the Web (14/41, 34%) or paper (12/41, 29%). There were more downloads per episode in the Podcast+Mobile group (1.4/person) than in the Podcast group (1.1/person; P < .001). The number of podcasts participants reported downloading over the 6-month period was significantly moderately correlated with weight loss in both the Podcast+Mobile (r = –.46, P = .001) and the Podcast (r = –.53, P < .001) groups. Podcast+Mobile participants felt more user control at 3 months (P = .02), but not at 6 months, and there was a trend (P = .06) toward greater elaboration among

  3. The Association between Taking Dietary Supplements and Healthy Habits among Korean Adults: Results from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2010–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Wook; Lee, So-Hye; Kim, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyung-Do; Kwack, Tae-Eung; Kim, Bo-Seon; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Jo, Eun-Bae; Park, Young-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, the number of people interested in health in South Korea has increased, and the rate of dietary supplement use is rising. Researchers have hypothesized that the rate of practicing healthy habits is higher among those who use dietary supplements than those who do not. Therefore, this study aimed to discover the association between taking dietary supplements and practicing various healthy habits in the Korean, adult population. Methods The sample included 15,789 adults over 19 years old who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The user group was defined as those taking dietary supplements for more than 2 weeks during the previous year or once during the past month. Measures for the seven healthy habits were based on those included in the Alameda study and were analyzed accounting for the complex sampling design. Results The rate of taking dietary supplements was significantly higher in women, middle aged participants, urban residents, those with a higher income, those with a higher education level, and nonsmokers as well as among women with a moderate subjective health status, women who limited their alcohol content, and women with dyslipidemia. In the adjusted analysis, the rate of performing three of the 'Alameda 7' habits—eating breakfast regularly, restricting snacking, and limiting drinking—was higher in the female dietary supplement user group than in the other groups. Women practiced more healthy habits and had a higher dietary supplement intake rate than men. Conclusion We found that taking dietary supplements in Korean adults is highly associated with demographic and social factors. Taking dietary supplements had a relationship with dietary habits, and there was no significant association between dietary supplement and other healthy habits. Thus in the health clinic, we suggest that taking dietary supplements complements a patient's healthy habits, with the exception of dietary habits, for

  4. Australian adult smokers’ responses to plain packaging with larger graphic health warnings 1 year after implementation: results from a national cross-sectional tracking survey

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Melanie; Coomber, Kerri; Zacher, Meghan; Durkin, Sarah; Brennan, Emily; Scollo, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Background We assessed whether the Australian plain packs with larger graphic health warnings (GHWs) achieved three specific objectives of reducing the appeal of tobacco, increasing health warning effectiveness and reducing the ability of packaging to mislead about smoking harms. Methods We compared responses from continuous cross-sectional telephone surveys of n=2176 cigarette smokers during pre-plain packaging (April–September 2012, pre-PP) with n=759 surveyed in the transition period (October–November 2012) and n=4240 during the first year of implementation (December 2012–November 2013, PP year 1), using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results From pre-PP to PP year 1, more smokers disliked their pack (p<0.001), perceived lower pack appeal (p<0.001), lower cigarette quality (p<0.001), lower satisfaction (p<0.001) and lower value (p<0.001) and disagreed brands differed in prestige (p=0.003). There was no change in perceived differences in taste of different brands. More smokers noticed GHWs (p<0.001), attributed much motivation to quit to GHWs (p<0.001), avoided specific GHWs when purchasing (p<0.001), and covered packs (p<0.001), with no change in perceived exaggeration of harms. PP year 1 saw an increased proportion believing that brands do not differ in harmfulness (p=0.004), but no change in the belief that variants do not differ in strength or the perceived harmfulness of cigarettes compared with a year ago. Interactions signified greater change for four outcomes assessing aspects of appeal among young adults and two appeal outcomes among mid-aged adults. Conclusions The specific objectives of plain packaging were achieved and generally sustained among adult smokers up to 12 months after implementation.

  5. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  6. Psychosocial Results from a Phase I Trial of a Nonsurgical Circumcision Device for Adult Men in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Kasprzyk, Danuta; Montaño, Daniel E; Hamilton, Deven T; Down, Kayla L; Marrett, Karl D; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Mugurungi, Owen

    2016-01-01

    Male circumcision (MC), an effective HIV prevention tool, has been added to Zimbabwe's Ministry of Health and Child Care HIV/AIDS Prevention Program. A Phase I safety trial of a nonsurgical male circumcision device was conducted and extensive psychosocial variables were assessed. Fifty-three men (18 and older) were recruited for the device procedure; 13 follow-up clinical visits were completed. Interviews conducted three times (before the procedure, at 2 weeks and 90 days post-procedure) assessed: Satisfaction; expectations; actual experience; activities of daily living; sexual behavior; and HIV risk perception. Using the Integrated Behavioral Model, attitudes towards MC, sex, and condoms, and sources of social influence and support were also assessed. Men (mean age 32.5, range 18-50; mean years of education = 13.6; 55% employed) were satisfied with device circumcision results. Men understand that MC is only partially protective against HIV acquisition. Most (94.7%) agreed that they will continue to use condoms to protect themselves from HIV. Pain ratings were surprisingly negative for a procedure billed as painless. Men talked to many social networks members about their MC experience; post-procedure (mean of 14 individuals). Minimal impact on activities of daily living and absenteeism indicate possible cost savings of device circumcisions. Spontaneous erections occurred frequently post-procedure. The results had important implications for changes in the pre-procedure clinical counseling protocol. Clear-cut counseling to manage pain and erection expectations should result in improved psychosocial outcomes in future roll-out of device circumcisions. Men's expectations must be managed through evidence-based counseling, as they share their experiences broadly among their social networks. PMID:26745142

  7. Minimal Incision Scar-Less Open Umbilical Hernia Repair in Adults – Technical Aspects and Short-Term Results

    PubMed Central

    Zachariah, Sanoop K.; Kolathur, Najeeb Mohamed; Balakrishnan, Mahesh; Parakkadath, Arun Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is no gold standard technique for umbilical hernia (UH) repair. Conventional open UH repair often produces an undesirable scar. Laparoscopic UH repair requires multiple incisions beyond the umbilicus, specialized equipments, and expensive tissue separating mesh. We describe our technique of open UH repair utilizing a small incision. The technique was derived from our experience with single incision laparoscopy. We report the technical details and short-term results. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of the first 20 patients, who underwent minimal incision scar-less open UH repair, from June 2011 to February 2014. A single intra-umbilical curved incision was used to gain access to the hernia sac. Primary suture repair was performed for defects up to 2 cm. Larger defects were repaired using an onlay mesh. In patients with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or greater, onlay mesh hernioplasty was performed irrespective of the defect size. Results: A total of 20 patients, 12 males and 8 females underwent the procedure. Mean age was 50 (range 29–82) years. Mean BMI was 26.27 (range 20.0–33.1) kg/m2. Average size of the incision was 1.96 range (1.5–2.5) cm. Mesh hernioplasty was done in nine patients. Eleven patients underwent primary suture repair alone. There were no postoperative complications associated with this technique. Average postoperative length of hospital stay was 3.9 (range 2–10) days. Mean follow-up was 29.94 months (2 weeks to 2.78 years). On follow-up there was no externally visible scar in any of the patients. There were no recurrences on final follow-up. Conclusion: This technique provides a similar cosmetic effect as obtained from single port laparoscopy. It is easy to perform, safe, offers good cosmesis, does not require incisions beyond the umbilicus, and cost effective, with encouraging results on short-term follow-up. Further research is needed to assess the true potential of the technique and the long-term results. PMID

  8. The effect of brexpiprazole (OPC-34712) and aripiprazole in adult patients with acute schizophrenia: results from a randomized, exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Citrome, Leslie; Ota, Ai; Nagamizu, Kazuhiro; Perry, Pamela; Weiller, Emmanuelle; Baker, Ross A

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of brexpiprazole and aripiprazole on efficacy, cognitive functioning, and safety in patients with acute schizophrenia. Patients who would benefit from hospitalization/continued hospitalization for acute relapse of schizophrenia were enrolled and randomized (2 : 1) to target doses of open-label brexpiprazole 3 mg/day or aripiprazole 15 mg/day for 6 weeks. Outcomes included change from baseline to week 6 in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11-item score, and Cogstate computerized cognitive test battery scores. Patients treated with brexpiprazole (n=64) or aripiprazole (n=33) showed reductions in symptoms of schizophrenia as assessed by Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score (-22.9 and -19.4, respectively). A modest reduction in impulsivity was observed with brexpiprazole, but not aripiprazole (mean change in the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11-item total score: -2.7 and 0.1, respectively). No change in Cogstate scores was observed for either treatment. Brexpiprazole was well tolerated and the incidence of akathisia was lower in patients treated with brexpiprazole (9.4%) than aripiprazole (21.2%). Clinically relevant improvements in psychopathology were observed in patients with acute schizophrenia treated with brexpiprazole or aripiprazole. Brexpiprazole was well tolerated, with a lower incidence of akathisia than aripiprazole. PMID:26963842

  9. Prevalence and Correlates of Mitral Annular Calcification in Adults with Chronic Kidney Disease: Results from CRIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Abd alamir, Moshrik; Radulescu, Vlad; Goyfman, Michael; Mohler, Emile R; Gao, Yan Lin; Budoff, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Risk factors for mitral annular calcification (MAC) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) demonstrate significant overlap in the general population. The aim of this paper is to determine whether there are independent relationships between MAC and demographics, traditional and novel CVD risk factors using cardiac CT in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) in a cross-sectional study. Methods A sample of 2070 subjects underwent coronary calcium scanning during the CRIC study. Data were obtained for each participant at time of scan. Subjects were dichotomized into the presence and absence of MAC. Differences in baseline demographic and transitional risk factor data were evaluated across groups. Covariates used in multivariable adjustment were age, gender, BMI, HDL, LDL, lipid lowering medications, smoking status, family history of heart attack, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, phosphate, PTH, albuminuria, and calcium. Results Our study consisted of 2070 subjects, of which 331 had MAC (prevalence of 16.0%). The mean MAC score was 511.98 (SD 1368.76). Age and white race remained independently associated with presence of MAC. Decreased GFR was also a risk factor. African American and Hispanic race, as well as former smoking status were protective against MAC. In multivariable adjusted analyses, the remaining covariates were not significantly associated with MAC. Among renal covariates, elevated phosphate was significant. Conclusion In the CRIC population, presence of MAC was independently associated with age, Caucasian race, decreased GFR, and elevated phosphate. These results are suggested by mechanisms of dysregulation of inflammation, hormones, and electrolytes in subjects with renal disease. PMID:26188533

  10. Neutropenia as an Adverse Event following Vaccination: Results from Randomized Clinical Trials in Healthy Adults and Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Muturi-Kioi, Vincent; Lewis, David; Launay, Odile; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Anemona, Alessandra; Loulergue, Pierre; Bodinham, Caroline L.; Aerssens, Annelies; Groth, Nicola; Saul, Allan; Podda, Audino

    2016-01-01

    Background In the context of early vaccine trials aimed at evaluating the safety profile of novel vaccines, abnormal haematological values, such as neutropenia, are often reported. It is therefore important to evaluate how these trials should be planned not to miss potentially important safety signals, but also to understand the implications and the clinical relevance. Methodology We report and discuss the results from five clinical trials (two with a new Shigella vaccine in the early stage of clinical development and three with licensed vaccines) where the absolute neutrophil counts (ANC) were evaluated before and after vaccination. Additionally, we have performed a systematic review of the literature on cases of neutropenia reported during vaccine trials to discuss our results in a more general context. Principal Findings Both in our clinical trials and in the literature review, several cases of neutropenia have been reported, in the first two weeks after vaccination. However, neutropenia was generally transient and had a benign clinical outcome, after vaccination with either multiple novel candidates or well-known licensed vaccines. Additionally, the vaccine recipients with neutropenia frequently had lower baseline ANC than non-neutropenic vaccinees. In many instances neutropenia occurred in subjects of African descent, known to have lower ANC compared to western populations. Conclusions It is important to include ANC and other haematological tests in early vaccine trials to identify potential safety signals. Post-vaccination neutropenia is not uncommon, generally transient and clinically benign, but many vaccine trials do not have a sampling schedule that allows its detection. Given ethnic variability in the level of circulating neutrophils, normal ranges taking into account ethnicity should be used for determination of trial inclusion/exclusion criteria and classification of neutropenia related adverse events. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02017899

  11. Adult experience of mental health outcomes as a result of intimate partner violence victimisation: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lagdon, Susan; Armour, Cherie; Stringer, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been known to adversely affect the mental health of victims. Research has tended to focus on the mental health impact of physical violence rather than considering other forms of violence. Objective To systematically review the literature in order to identify the impact of all types of IPV victimisation on various mental health outcomes. Method A systematic review of 11 electronic databases (2004–2014) was conducted. Fifty eight papers were identified and later described and reviewed in relation to the main objective. Results Main findings suggest that IPV can have increasing adverse effects on the mental health of victims in comparison with those who have never experienced IPV or those experiencing other traumatic events. The most significant outcomes were associations between IPV experiences with depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and anxiety. Findings confirm previous observations that the severity and extent of IPV exposure can increase mental health symptoms. The effect of psychological violence on mental health is more prominent than originally thought. Individual differences such as gender and childhood experience of violence also increase IPV risk and affect mental health outcomes in diverse ways. Conclusions Psychological violence should be considered as a more serious form of IPV which can affect the mental health of victims. Experiencing more than one form of IPV can increase severity of outcomes. Researchers should look at IPV as a multi-dimensional experience. A uniformed definition and measure of IPV could help advance knowledge and understanding of this disparaging global issue. PMID:25279103

  12. Surgical Results of Anderson-Hynes Dismembered Pyeloplasty Without Internal Drainage in Adults With Ureteroplevic Junction Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Yarmohamadi, Aliasghar; Saeedi, Parisa; Hoghabrosadat, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anderson-Hynes dismembered pyeloplasty is the gold standard therapeutic approach to ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). Use of a drainage method to protect the suture line from leakage is a matter of controversy. Objectives: We have compared the surgical outcome of Anderson-Hynes dismembered pyeloplasty for UPJO repair, with or without internal stenting. Patients and Methods: Eighty-two patients with UPJO were evaluated from 1996 to 2002. Complicated or emergent cases were excluded. Classic standard dismembered pyeloplasty was performed. Internal drainage, with a double j catheter, was performed in several patients, randomly. Another drain was also placed in the retroperitoneal space. The follow-up of patients was planned weekly, with patient visits and urine analysis and intravenous pyelography (IVP) and diethylene-triamine-pentaacetate (DTPA) scan after one month. Results: The study group consisted of 51 male and 31 female patients, who were mostly in the age range of 20 - 40 years. Comparing the two techniques of pyeloplasty with or without internal drainage, there was no significant difference between groups regarding extravasation and anastomosis complications, such as leakage, stenosis, urinoma formation or evidence of obstruction on postoperative IVP or DTPA scan. However, a higher incidence of catheter related urinary symptoms and flank pain was reported among those with internal stent. Conclusions: Pyeloplasty, with adequate spatulation, hemostasis and a watertight anastomosis, represents the mainstay of successful pyeloplasty and there may be no significant benefit for urethral stenting, especially in non-complicated cases. PMID:26034744

  13. Health Disparities by Type of Disability: Health Examination Results of Adults (18-64 Years) with Disabilities in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Lu, Jun; Yu, Huijiong

    2016-01-01

    Aims There have been few studies on the disparities within the population with disabilities, especially in China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in some health conditions among people with different types of disabilities in Shanghai. Methods This study was conducted using data from the Shanghai Disabled Persons’ Rehabilitation Comprehensive Information Platform. The records of 31,082 persons with disabilities who had undergone professional health examination were analyzed, and the prevalence and number of five diseases and five risk factors were examined. Logistic regression was used to explore disparities from two perspectives: 1) basic differences, unadjusted for other factors, and 2) differences after adjusting for key demographic covariates. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results Individuals with visual disability had a high rate of refractive error (60.0%), and averaged 1.75 diseases of interest, which was the highest value among all disability types. The mean number of risk factors we measured was greatest (1.96) in the population with mental disability. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) between the hearing and speech impairment group and the other groups with respect to most health outcomes, except chronic pharyngitis, hepatic cysts, and high blood pressure. Conclusion Significant differences of selected health outcomes between groups with different types of disabilities remained after controlling for key demographic indicators. Further research is needed to explore the relationships between health conditions and disability types. PMID:27196419

  14. Medical Injection Use Among Adults and Adolescents Aged 15 to 64 Years in Kenya: Results From a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kimani, Daniel; Kamau, Rachel; Ssempijja, Victor; Robinson, Katherine; Oluoch, Tom; Njeru, Mercy; Mwangi, Jane; Njogu, David; Kim, Andrea A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Unsafe medical injections remain a potential route of HIV transmission in Kenya. We used data from a national survey in Kenya to study the magnitude of medical injection use, medication preference, and disposal of medical waste in the community. Methods The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2012 was a nationally representative population-based survey. Among participants aged 15–64 years, data were collected regarding medical injections received in the year preceding the interview; blood samples were collected from participants for HIV testing. Results Of the 13,673 participants who answered questions on medical injections, 35.9% [95% confidence interval (CI): 34.5 to 37.3] reported receiving ≥1 injection in the past 12 months and 51.2% (95% CI: 49.7 to 52.8) preferred receiving an injection over a pill. Among those who received an injection from a health care provider, 95.9% (95% CI: 95.2 to 96.7) observed him/her open a new injection pack, and 7.4% (95% CI: 6.4 to 8.4) had seen a used syringe or needle near their home or community in the past 12 months. Men who had received ≥1 injection in the past 12 months (adjusted odds ratio, 3.2; 95% CI: 1.2 to 8.9) and women who had received an injection in the past 12 months, not for family planning purposes (adjusted odds ratio, 2.6; 95% CI: 1.2 to 5.5), were significantly more likely to be HIV infected compared with those who had not received medical injection in the past 12 months. Conclusions Injection preference may contribute to high rates of injections in Kenya. Exposure to unsafe medical waste in the community poses risks for injury and infection. We recommend that community- and facility-based injection safety strategies be integrated in disease prevention programs. PMID:24413041

  15. Housing First Reduces Re-offending among Formerly Homeless Adults with Mental Disorders: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Somers, Julian M.; Rezansoff, Stefanie N.; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Palepu, Anita; Patterson, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Background Homelessness and mental illness have a strong association with public disorder and criminality. Experimental evidence indicates that Housing First (HF) increases housing stability and perceived choice among those experiencing chronic homelessness and mental disorders. HF is also associated with lower residential costs than common alternative approaches. Few studies have examined the effect of HF on criminal behavior. Methods Individuals meeting criteria for homelessness and a current mental disorder were randomized to one of three conditions treatment as usual (reference); scattered site HF; and congregate HF. Administrative data concerning justice system events were linked in order to study prior histories of offending and to test the relationship between housing status and offending following randomization for up to two years. Results The majority of the sample (67%) was involved with the justice system, with a mean of 8.07 convictions per person in the ten years prior to recruitment. The most common category of crime was “property offences” (mean = 4.09). Following randomization, the scattered site HF condition was associated with significantly lower numbers of sentences than treatment as usual (Adjusted IRR = 0.29; 95% CI 0.12–0.72). Congregate HF was associated with a marginally significant reduction in sentences compared to treatment as usual (Adjusted IRR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.26–1.14). Conclusions This study is the first randomized controlled trial to demonstrate benefits of HF among a homeless sample with mental illness in the domain of public safety and crime. Our sample was frequently involved with the justice system, with great personal and societal costs. Further implementation of HF is strongly indicated, particularly in the scattered site format. Research examining interdependencies between housing, health, and the justice system is indicated. Trial registration ISRCTN57595077 PMID:24023796

  16. Poor Awareness of Risk Factors for Cancer in Irish Adults: Results of a Large Survey and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Cushen, Samantha; Schellekens, Harriët; Bhuachalla, Eadaoin Ni; Burns, Lisa; Kenny, Ursula; Power, Derek G.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Knowledge of cancer risk factors is unknown in Ireland. An understanding of risk factors could help inform cancer prevention programs. Aims and Methods. A 48-question online survey was designed to gather data to assess levels of public knowledge about cancer risk factors. Results. There were 748 participants (648 women, 100 men). Mean age was 37 years (range: 18–74 years). For the public, 81% were concerned about developing cancer; however, 20% believed that cancer is unavoidable if a family history exists, 27% believed that >50% of cancers are inherited, and 54% believed that 10%–20% of cancers are inherited; 20% were unaware that risk increases with age. The top five risk factors listed by respondents were smoking (87%), diet (76%), genetics (47%), alcohol (42%), and obesity (33%). Only 32% of the public were aware that obesity is a risk factor, and 33% did not think the location of fat was important. Moreover, 29% and 48% believed that risk could be increased by wearing a tight bra and by a blow to the breast, respectively. In addition, 85% and 86% believed that stress and that mobile phones, respectively, “strongly” increase risk; 12% believed that luck is important in avoiding cancer; 35% thought that “detox” diets could reduce risk; and 61% believed that organic food reduces risk. The majority were aware that physical activity of 30 minutes per day can reduce risk. Conclusion. A sizable portion of the population is misinformed about cancer risk. Most participants were aware of classic risk factors (e.g., smoking, diet); however, many overestimated risk attributable to genetics, environment, and stress and underestimated age, obesity, and sunlight. One in seven participants believed that lifetime risk of cancer is not modifiable. PMID:25746344

  17. Hospitalisation Resulting from Medicine-Related Problems in Adult Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes in the United Kingdom and Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al Hamid, Abdullah; Aslanpour, Zoe; Aljadhey, Hisham; Ghaleb, Maisoon

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes (DM) are two interrelated conditions that have a heavy morbidity and mortality burden worldwide. Patients with the two conditions usually take multiple medicines and thus are more susceptible to medicine-related problems (MRPs). MRPs can occur at any stage of the treatment process and in many cases can lead to unplanned hospitalisations. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of hospitalisation resulting from MRPs in adult patients with CVDs and/or DM and to identify the main causes, risk factors, and medicine classes involved. A retrospective study included 300 adult patients from two hospitals, one in the United Kingdom and one in Saudi Arabia. To identify MRPs, medical records were reviewed for demographic data, clinical data, laboratory assay, and prescription records. A total of 197 (65.7%) patients had MRPs, of which less than 10% were severe. The main problems were lack of treatment effectiveness and adverse drug reactions. Moreover, polypharmacy and patient non-adherence were the main risk factors contributing to MRPs. The main medicine classes associated with MRPs were insulin and antihypertensive medicines. Further research should address the pharmaceutical care processes employed in treating CVDs and DM, and to empower patients/healthcare providers in tackling MRPs. PMID:27171100

  18. Hospitalisation Resulting from Medicine-Related Problems in Adult Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes in the United Kingdom and Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Hamid, Abdullah; Aslanpour, Zoe; Aljadhey, Hisham; Ghaleb, Maisoon

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes (DM) are two interrelated conditions that have a heavy morbidity and mortality burden worldwide. Patients with the two conditions usually take multiple medicines and thus are more susceptible to medicine-related problems (MRPs). MRPs can occur at any stage of the treatment process and in many cases can lead to unplanned hospitalisations. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of hospitalisation resulting from MRPs in adult patients with CVDs and/or DM and to identify the main causes, risk factors, and medicine classes involved. A retrospective study included 300 adult patients from two hospitals, one in the United Kingdom and one in Saudi Arabia. To identify MRPs, medical records were reviewed for demographic data, clinical data, laboratory assay, and prescription records. A total of 197 (65.7%) patients had MRPs, of which less than 10% were severe. The main problems were lack of treatment effectiveness and adverse drug reactions. Moreover, polypharmacy and patient non-adherence were the main risk factors contributing to MRPs. The main medicine classes associated with MRPs were insulin and antihypertensive medicines. Further research should address the pharmaceutical care processes employed in treating CVDs and DM, and to empower patients/healthcare providers in tackling MRPs. PMID:27171100

  19. Association between Lifetime Physical Activity and Cognitive Functioning in Middle-Aged and Older Community Dwelling Adults: Results from the Brain in Motion Study.

    PubMed

    Gill, Stephanie J; Friedenreich, Christine M; Sajobi, Tolulope T; Longman, R Stewart; Drogos, Lauren L; Davenport, Margie H; Tyndall, Amanda V; Eskes, Gail A; Hogan, David B; Hill, Michael D; Parboosingh, Jillian S; Wilson, Ben J; Poulin, Marc J

    2015-11-01

    To determine if total lifetime physical activity (PA) is associated with better cognitive functioning with aging and if cerebrovascular function mediates this association. A sample of 226 (52.2% female) community dwelling middle-aged and older adults (66.5 ± 6.4 years) in the Brain in Motion Study, completed the Lifetime Total Physical Activity Questionnaire and underwent neuropsychological and cerebrovascular blood flow testing. Multiple robust linear regressions were used to model the associations between lifetime PA and global cognition after adjusting for age, sex, North American Adult Reading Test results (i.e., an estimate of premorbid intellectual ability), maximal aerobic capacity, body mass index and interactions between age, sex, and lifetime PA. Mediation analysis assessed the effect of cerebrovascular measures on the association between lifetime PA and global cognition. Post hoc analyses assessed past year PA and current fitness levels relation to global cognition and cerebrovascular measures. Better global cognitive performance was associated with higher lifetime PA (p=.045), recreational PA (p=.021), and vigorous intensity PA (p=.004), PA between the ages of 0 and 20 years (p=.036), and between the ages of 21 and 35 years (p.5), but partially mediated the relation between current fitness and global cognition. This study revealed significant associations between higher levels of PA (i.e., total lifetime, recreational, vigorous PA, and past year) and better cognitive function in later life. Current fitness levels relation to cognitive function may be partially mediated through current cerebrovascular function. PMID:26581793

  20. Show What You Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eccleston, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Big things come in small packages. This saying came to the mind of the author after he created a simple math review activity for his fourth grade students. Though simple, it has proven to be extremely advantageous in reinforcing math concepts. He uses this activity, which he calls "Show What You Know," often. This activity provides the perfect…

  1. The Ozone Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

  2. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  3. Talk Show Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  4. Stage a Water Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

  5. Showing What They Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

  6. Adults' ability to detect children's lying.

    PubMed

    Crossman, Angela M; Lewis, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Adults are poor deception detectors when examining lies told by adults, on average. However, there are some adults who are better at detecting lies than others. Children learn to lie at a very young age, a behavior that is socialized by parents. Yet, less is known about the ability to detect children's lies, particularly with regard to individual differences in the ability to detect this deception. The current study explored adult raters' ability to discern honesty in children who lied or told the truth about committing a misdeed. Results showed that adults are no better at detecting children's lies than they are with adult lies. In particular, adults were very poor at identifying children's honest statements. However, individual differences did emerge, suggesting that the ability to detect lying in children might be facilitated by relevant experience working with children. Implications for legal and mental health contexts are discussed. PMID:17016813

  7. The effects of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on biomarkers of kidney injury in adults with diabetes: results of the GO-FISH trial.

    PubMed

    Miller, Edgar R; Juraschek, Stephen P; Anderson, Cheryl A; Guallar, Eliseo; Henoch-Ryugo, Karen; Charleston, Jeanne; Turban, Sharon; Bennett, Michael R; Appel, Lawrence J

    2013-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplements may have renoprotective effects in patients with diabetes, but previous trials have been inconsistent. We performed a randomized controlled trial of n-3 PUFA supplementation on urine albumin excretion and markers of kidney injury in adults with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover trial to test the effects of 4 g/day of n-3 PUFA supplementation on markers of glomerular filtration and kidney injury in adults with adult-onset diabetes and greater than or equal to trace amounts of proteinuria. Each period lasted 6 weeks and was separated by a 2-week washout. The main outcome was urine albumin excretion and, secondarily, markers of kidney injury (kidney injury molecule-1, N-acetyl β-d-glucosaminidase [NAG], neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL], and liver fatty acid-binding protein [LFABP]), serum markers of kidney function (cystatin C, β2-microglobulin, and creatinine), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). RESULTS Of the 31 participants, 29 finished both periods. A total of 55% were male, and 61% were African American; mean age was 67 years. At baseline, mean BMI was 31.6 kg/m(2), median eGFR was 76.9 mL/min/1.73 m(2), and median 24-h urine albumin excretion was 161 mg/day. Compared with placebo, n-3 PUFA had nonsignificant effects on urine albumin excretion (-7.2%; 95% CI -20.6 to 8.5; P = 0.35) and significant effects on urine NGAL excretion (-16% [-29.1 to -0.5%]; P = 0.04). There was no effect on serum markers of kidney function or eGFR. In subgroup analyses, there were significant decreases in 24-h urinary excretion of albumin, NGAL, LFABP, and NAG among participants taking medications that block the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). CONCLUSIONS These results suggest a potential effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on markers of kidney injury in patients with diabetes and early

  8. Is Urinary Lipoarabinomannan the Result of Renal Tuberculosis? Assessment of the Renal Histology in an Autopsy Cohort of Ugandan HIV-Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Janneke A.; Lukande, Robert L.; Kalungi, Sam; Van Marck, Eric; Van de Vijver, Koen; Kambugu, Andrew; Nelson, Ann M.; Colebunders, Robert; Manabe, Yukari C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The detection of urinary lipoarabinomannan (LAM), a mycobacterial cell wall component, is used to diagnose tuberculosis (TB). How LAM enters the urine is not known. To investigate if urinary LAM-positivity is the result of renal TB infection we correlated the outcomes of urinary LAM-antigen testing to renal histology in an autopsy cohort of hospitalized, Ugandan, HIV-infected adults. Methods We performed a complete autopsy, including renal sampling, in HIV-infected adults that died during hospitalization after written informed consent was obtained from the next of kin. Urine was collected postmortem through post-mortem catheterisation or by bladder puncture and tested for LAM with both a lateral flow assay (LFA) and an ELISA assay. Two pathologists assessed the kidney histology. We correlated the LAM-assay results and the histology findings. Results Of the 13/36 (36%) patients with a positive urinary LAM ELISA and/or LFA, 8/13 (62%) had renal TB. The remaining 5 LAM-positive patients had disseminated TB without renal involvement. Of the 23 LAM-negative patients, 3 had disseminated TB without renal involvement. The remaining LAM-negative patients had no TB infection and died mostly of fungal and bacterial infections. LAM LFA had a sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 100% to diagnose TB at any location, and the LAM ELISA a sensitivity of 63% and a specificity of 100%. 54% (7/13) LAM LFA-positive patients were not on anti-TB treatment at the time of death. Conclusion Renal TB infection explained LAM-positivity in the majority of patients. Patients with disseminated TB without renal involvement can also be diagnosed with LAM. This suggests that other mechanisms that lead to urinary LAM-positivity exist in a minority of patients. PMID:25897661

  9. Death as a result of heat stroke in a vehicle: an adult case in winter confirmed with reconstruction and animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Ng'walali, P M; Kibayashi, K; Yonemitsu, K; Ohtsu, Y; Tsunenari, S

    1998-12-01

    A 54-year-old man was found dead in the driver's seat of his vehicle on a winter's day. Investigations of the vehicle revealed that the engine was running, and the car heater was left on with the maximum temperature and velocity. The body was found excessively sweating. Rectal temperature of the body was 43 degrees C at 10 h post mortem. In autopsy, several superficial skin burns were observed on the face, the shoulders and the legs. The lungs were heavily congested and hemorrhagic. The liver showed typical alcohol-induced micronodular cirrhosis. The alcohol concentrations were 0.17% in the blood of both the left and the right heart, 0.17% in the femoral-vein blood, 0.21% in the bladder urine and 0.34% in the gastric contents. A reconstruction experiment demonstrated that the temperature inside the vehicle rose rapidly and reached 50-58 degrees C in 3 h. Animal experiments showed that the temperature threshold for rats to succumb to heat was between 40 and 45 degrees C. This case shows that heat stroke in a vehicle can occur in adults with chronic diseases or alcoholism, such as in this particular case, even in the winter. PMID:15335516

  10. Literacy, Numeracy, and Problem Solving in Technology-Rich Environments among U.S. Adults: Results from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies 2012. First Look. NCES 2014-008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Madeline; Finnegan, Robert; Mohadjer, Leyla; Krenzke, Tom; Hogan, Jacquie

    2013-01-01

    The Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) is a cyclical, large scale study of adult skills and life experience focusing on education and employment that was developed and organized by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). In the United States, the study was conducted in 2011-12 with a…

  11. Computational models of adult neurogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecchi, Guillermo A.; Magnasco, Marcelo O.

    2005-10-01

    Experimental results in recent years have shown that adult neurogenesis is a significant phenomenon in the mammalian brain. Little is known, however, about the functional role played by the generation and destruction of neurons in the context of an adult brain. Here, we propose two models where new projection neurons are incorporated. We show that in both models, using incorporation and removal of neurons as a computational tool, it is possible to achieve a higher computational efficiency that in purely static, synapse-learning-driven networks. We also discuss the implication for understanding the role of adult neurogenesis in specific brain areas like the olfactory bulb and the dentate gyrus.

  12. Taking in a Show.

    PubMed

    Boden, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Many medical practices have cut back on education and staff development expenses, especially those costs associated with conventions and conferences. But there are hard-to-value returns on your investment in these live events--beyond the obvious benefits of acquired knowledge and skills. Major vendors still exhibit their services and wares at many events, and the exhibit hall is a treasure-house of information and resources for the savvy physician or administrator. Make and stick to a purposeful plan to exploit the trade show. You can compare products, gain new insights and ideas, and even negotiate better deals with representatives anxious to realize returns on their exhibition investments. PMID:27249887

  13. 56Fe Particle Exposure Results in a Long-Lasting Increase in a Cellular Index of Genomic Instability and Transiently Suppresses Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    DeCarolis, Nathan A.; Rivera, Phillip D.; Ahn, Francisca; Amaral, Wellington Z.; LeBlanc, Junie A.; Malhotra, Shveta; Shih, Hung-Ying; Petrik, David; Melvin, Neal; Chen, Benjamin P.C.; Eisch, Amelia J.

    2014-01-01

    The high-LET HZE particles from galactic cosmic radiation pose tremendous health risks to astronauts, as they may incur sub-threshold brain injury or maladaptations that may lead to cognitive impairment. The health effects of HZE particles are difficult to predict and unfeasible to prevent. This underscores the importance of estimating radiation risks to the central nervous system as a whole as well as to specific brain regions like the hippocampus, which is central to learning and memory. Given that neurogenesis in the hippocampus has been linked to learning and memory, we investigated the response and recovery of neurogenesis and neural stem cells in the adult mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus after HZE particle exposure using two nestin transgenic reporter mouse lines to label and track radial glia stem cells (Nestin-GFP and Nestin-CreERT2/R26R:YFP mice, respectively). Mice were subjected to 56Fe particle exposure (0 or 1 Gy, at either 300 or 1000 MeV/n) and brains were harvested at early (24h), intermediate (7d), and/or long time points (2–3mo) post-irradiation. 56Fe particle exposure resulted in a robust increase in 53BP1+ foci at both the intermediate and long time points post-irradiation, suggesting long-term genomic instability in the brain. However, 56Fe particle exposure only produced a transient decrease in immature neuron number at the intermediate time point, with no significant decrease at the long time point post-irradiation. 56Fe particle exposure similarly produced a transient decrease in dividing progenitors, with fewer progenitors labeled at the early time point but equal number labeled at the intermediate time point, suggesting a recovery of neurogenesis. Notably, 56Fe particle exposure did not change the total number of nestin-expressing neural stem cells. These results highlight that despite the persistence of an index of genomic instability, 56Fe particle-induced deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis may be transient. These data support

  14. 56Fe particle exposure results in a long-lasting increase in a cellular index of genomic instability and transiently suppresses adult hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCarolis, Nathan A.; Rivera, Phillip D.; Ahn, Francisca; Amaral, Wellington Z.; LeBlanc, Junie A.; Malhotra, Shveta; Shih, Hung-Ying; Petrik, David; Melvin, Neal R.; Chen, Benjamin P. C.; Eisch, Amelia J.

    2014-07-01

    The high-LET HZE particles from galactic cosmic radiation pose tremendous health risks to astronauts, as they may incur sub-threshold brain injury or maladaptations that may lead to cognitive impairment. The health effects of HZE particles are difficult to predict and unfeasible to prevent. This underscores the importance of estimating radiation risks to the central nervous system as a whole as well as to specific brain regions like the hippocampus, which is central to learning and memory. Given that neurogenesis in the hippocampus has been linked to learning and memory, we investigated the response and recovery of neurogenesis and neural stem cells in the adult mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus after HZE particle exposure using two nestin transgenic reporter mouse lines to label and track radial glia stem cells (Nestin-GFP and Nestin-CreERT2/R26R:YFP mice, respectively). Mice were subjected to 56Fe particle exposure (0 or 1 Gy, at either 300 or 1000 MeV/n) and brains were harvested at early (24 h), intermediate (7 d), and/or long time points (2-3 mo) post-irradiation. 56Fe particle exposure resulted in a robust increase in 53BP1+ foci at both the intermediate and long time points post-irradiation, suggesting long-term genomic instability in the brain. However, 56Fe particle exposure only produced a transient decrease in immature neuron number at the intermediate time point, with no significant decrease at the long time point post-irradiation. 56Fe particle exposure similarly produced a transient decrease in dividing progenitors, with fewer progenitors labeled at the early time point but equal number labeled at the intermediate time point, suggesting a recovery of neurogenesis. Notably, 56Fe particle exposure did not change the total number of nestin-expressing neural stem cells. These results highlight that despite the persistence of an index of genomic instability, 56Fe particle-induced deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis may be transient. These data support

  15. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show. PMID:23631336

  16. Comprehensive Echocardiographic Detection of Treatment-related Cardiac Dysfunction in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer: Results from the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Gregory T.; Joshi, Vijaya M.; Ness, Kirsten K.; Marwick, Thomas H.; Zhang, Nan; Srivastava, DeoKumar; Griffin, Brian P.; Grimm, Richard A.; Thomas, James; Phelan, Dermot; Collier, Patrick; Krull, Kevin R.; Mulrooney, Daniel A.; Green, Daniel M.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Robison, Leslie L.; Plana, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment-related cardiac death is the primary non-cancer cause of mortality in adult survivors of childhood malignancies. Early detection of cardiac dysfunction using modern echocardiographic techniques may identify a high risk subset of survivors for early intervention. Objective To determine the prevalence of cardiac dysfunction in adult survivors of childhood malignancies using state of the art echocardiographic evaluation of cardiac function including strain imaging Methods Echocardiographic assessment included three dimensional (3D) left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), global longitudinal and circumferential myocardial strain and diastolic function, graded per American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) guidelines on 1,820 adult (median age 31 [range 18-65] years) survivors of childhood cancer (median time from diagnosis 23 years [range10-48] years) exposed to either anthracycline chemotherapy (N=1,050), chest-directed radiotherapy (RT, N=306), or both therapies (N=464). Results Only 5.8% of survivors had an abnormal 3D LVEF (<50%). However, 32.1% of survivors with a normal 3D LVEF had evidence for cardiac dysfunction by either global longitudinal strain (28.0%), ASE graded diastolic assessment (8.7%), or both. Abnormal global longitudinal strain was associated with chest-directed RT (1-19.9 Gy, Rate Ratio (RR) 1.38, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.14-1.66; 20-29.9 Gy, RR 1.65, 95% CI 1.31-2.08; >30 Gy, RR 2.39, 95% CI 1.79-3.18) and anthracycline dose >300 mg/m2 (RR 1.72, 95% CI 1.31-2.26). Survivors with metabolic syndrome were twice as likely to have abnormal global longitudinal strain (Rate Ratio [RR] 1.94, 95% CI 1.66-2.28) as well as abnormal diastolic function (RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.39-2.03), but not abnormal 3D LVEF (RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.74-1.53). Conclusions and Relevance Abnormal global longitudinal strain and abnormal diastolic function are more prevalent than reduced 3D LVEF and are associated with treatment exposure. They may identify a

  17. Is exposure to e-cigarette communication associated with perceived harms of e-cigarette secondhand vapour? Results from a national survey of US adults

    PubMed Central

    Bigman, Cabral A; Mello, Susan; Sanders-Jackson, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Objectives E-cigarettes are frequently advertised and portrayed in the media as less harmful compared with regular cigarettes. Earlier surveys reported public perceptions of harms to people using e-cigarettes; however, public perceptions of harms from exposure to secondhand vapour (SHV) have not been studied. We examined associations between self-reported exposure to e-cigarette advertising, media coverage, and interpersonal discussion and perceived harms of SHV. Design Observational study. Setting National online sample of US adults aged ≥18 years. Participants 1449 US adults (mean age 49.5 years), 51.3% female, 76.6% non-Hispanic Caucasian, 7.5% African-American, 10.0% Hispanic and 5.9% other races. Outcomes Perceived harm measures included (1) harmfulness of SHV to one's health, (2) concern about health impact of breathing SHV and (3) comparative harm of SHV versus secondhand smoke (SHS). Predictors were (1) self-reported frequency of exposure to e-cigarette advertising, media coverage and interpersonal discussion (close friends or family) and (2) perceived valence of exposure from each source. Covariates were demographic characteristics, cigarette smoking status and e-cigarette use, and were weighted to the general US adult population. Results More frequent interpersonal discussion was associated with lower perceived harmfulness of SHV to one's health and lower perceived comparative harm of SHV versus SHS. Frequency of e-cigarette ad and other media exposure were not significant predictors. Perceived negative valence of ad exposure and interpersonal discussion (vs no exposure) was associated with higher perceived harm across all three outcomes, while negative valence of media coverage was associated with higher concern about health impact of breathing SHV. Perceived positive valence (vs no exposure) of interpersonal discussion was associated with lower perceived harm across all three outcomes about health impact of breathing SHV. Conclusions Exposure to

  18. Estimating the Prevalence and Predictors of Incorrect Condom Use Among Sexually Active Adults in Kenya: Results From a Nationally Representative Survey

    PubMed Central

    Grasso, Michael A.; Schwarcz, Sandra; Galbraith, Jennifer S.; Musyoki, Helgar; Kambona, Caroline; Kellogg, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Condom use continues to be an important primary prevention tool to reduce the acquisition and transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. However, incorrect use of condoms can reduce their effectiveness. Methods Using data from a 2012 nationally representative cross-sectional household survey conducted in Kenya, we analyzed a subpopulation of sexually active adults and estimated the percent that used condoms incorrectly during sex, and the type of condom errors. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine variables to be independently associated with incorrect condom use. Results Among 13,720 adolescents and adults, 8014 were sexually active in the previous 3 months (60.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 59.0–61.7). Among those who used a condom with a sex partner, 20% (95% CI, 17.4–22.6) experienced at least one instance of incorrect condom use in the previous 3 months. Of incorrect condom users, condom breakage or leakage was the most common error (52%; 95% CI, 44.5–59.6). Factors found to be associated with incorrect condom use were multiple sexual partnerships in the past 12 months (2 partners: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0–2.0; P = 0.03; ≥3: aOR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.5–3.5; P < 0.01) and reporting symptoms of a sexually transmitted infection (aOR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.8–4.3; P < 0.01). Conclusions Incorrect condom use is frequent among sexually active Kenyans and this may translate into substantial HIV transmission. Further understanding of the dynamics of condom use and misuse, in the broader context of other prevention strategies, will aid program planners in the delivery of appropriate interventions aimed at limiting such errors. PMID:26766524

  19. Lipopolysaccharide exposure during late embryogenesis results in diminished locomotor activity and amphetamine response in females and spatial cognition impairment in males in adult, but not adolescent rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Batinić, Bojan; Santrač, Anja; Divović, Branka; Timić, Tamara; Stanković, Tamara; Obradović, Aleksandar Lj; Joksimović, Srđan; Savić, Miroslav M

    2016-02-15

    Numerous basic and epidemiological studies have connected prenatal maternal immune activation with the occurrence of schizophrenia and/or autism. Depending on subtle differences in protocols of the used animal model, a variety of behavioral abnormalities has been reported. This study investigated behavioral differences in Wistar rat offspring of both genders, exposed to the 100 μg/kg per day dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in late embryogenesis (embryonic days 15 and 16), while tested at their adolescent and young adult age (postnatal days 40 and 60, respectively). Immune activation was confirmed by detecting high levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in dam blood withdrawn 2h after the first dose of LPS. The animals were assessed in three consecutive trials of locomotor activity (novelty exploration, response to i.p. saline injection and challenge with 0.5mg/kg amphetamine), Morris water maze and social interaction tests. Overt behavioral dysfunction was perceived in adult rats only, and these changes were gender-distinctive. When compared with control rats, LPS females displayed baseline hypolocomotion and a decreased reactivity to amphetamine, while LPS males exhibited spatial learning (acquisition trials) and memory (probe trial) impairments. Prenatal treatment did not affect the time spent in social interaction. As maternal exposure to LPS in late gestation resulted in behavioral changes in offspring in early adulthood, it may model schizophrenia-like, but not autism-like endophenotypes. However, lack of a potentiated response to amphetamine testified that this model could not mimic positive symptoms, but rather certain traits of cognitive dysfunction and deficit symptoms, in males and females, respectively. PMID:26620494

  20. Alcoholic beverage consumption by adults compared to dietary guidelines: results of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Patricia M; Ding, Eric L; Rimm, Eric B

    2013-04-01

    The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) state that if alcohol is consumed, it should be consumed in moderation, which is defined as up to two drinks in a single day for men and one drink for women. The purpose of this analysis was to estimate the percentages of adults who, on a given day, drank more than these limits and the percentages who drank too heavily; that is, more than four drinks for men and more than three for women. Dietary intake data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2010, were analyzed. Using a computer-assisted protocol, 24-hour dietary recalls were collected from 2,740 men and 2,941 women, age 21 years and older. Results were weighted to be nationally representative. Estimated mean daily intake was 1.2 drinks for men and 0.4 for women (1 drink=14 g of ethanol). On a given day, 36% of men and 21% of women consumed alcohol. Whereas 82% of men and 89% of women did not exceed the DGA's limits, 8% of men had more than four drinks, and 3% of women had more than three, amounts defined as heavy. The percentages who drank more than the DGA's limits varied by age group and were highest among men age 31 to 50 years and women age 51 to 70 years. Excessive drinking is an important health problem and is not limited to college-age individuals. Registered dietitians and other health professionals should be aware of excessive drinking by the adult US population. Consumer education resources are available. PMID:23415501

  1. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use by U.S. Adults with Gastrointestinal Conditions: Results from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Dossett, Michelle L.; Davis, Roger B.; Lembo, Anthony J.; Yeh, Gloria Y.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has increased over the past two decades, and a growing body of evidence suggests that some CAM modalities may be useful in addressing gastrointestinal (GI) conditions. However, the overall patterns of CAM use for GI conditions remains unknown. We sought to elucidate the prevalence and patterns of CAM use among U.S. adults with GI conditions. Methods We used the 2012 National Health Interview Survey (n=34,525), a nationally representative survey of the civilian, non-institutionalized U.S. population, to estimate the prevalence of CAM use among adults with GI conditions (abdominal pain, acid reflux/heartburn, digestive allergy, liver condition, nausea and/or vomiting, stomach or intestinal illness, ulcer). We also examined the reasons for CAM use, perceived helpfulness, and disclosure of use to health care providers among individuals who specifically used CAM to address a GI condition. Prevalence estimates were weighted to reflect the complex sampling design of the survey. Results Of 13,505 respondents with a GI condition in the past year, 42% (n=5629) used CAM in the past year and 3% (n=407) used at least one CAM modality to address a GI condition. The top 3 modalities among those using CAM to address GI conditions were herbs and supplements, mind body therapies, and manipulative therapies. Of those using CAM to address a GI condition, 47% used 3 or more CAM therapies, and over 80% felt that it was helpful in addressing a GI condition and was important in maintaining health and well-being. Respondents told their health care provider about use of these therapies 70% of the time. Conclusions CAM was used by 42% of respondents with a GI condition in the past year. A small proportion use CAM specifically to address their GI condition, but the majority who do find it helpful. The most commonly used modalities in this group are herbs and supplements, mind body, and manipulative therapies. PMID:25001257

  2. Association between Body Mass Index and All-Cause Mortality in Hypertensive Adults: Results from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT).

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Li, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Yan; Fan, Fang-Fang; Xu, Xi-Ping; Wang, Bin-Yan; Xu, Xin; Qin, Xian-Hui; Xing, Hou-Xun; Tang, Gen-Fu; Zhou, Zi-Yi; Gu, Dong-Feng; Zhao, Dong; Huo, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The association between elevated body mass index (BMI) and risk of death has been reported in many studies. However, the association between BMI and all-cause mortality for hypertensive Chinese adults remains unclear. We conducted a post-hoc analysis using data from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT). Cox regression analysis was performed to determine the significance of the association of BMI with all-cause mortality. During a mean follow-up duration of 4.5 years, 622 deaths (3.0%) occurred among the 20,694 participants aged 45-75 years. A reversed J-shaped relationship was observed between BMI and all-cause mortality. The hazard ratios (HRs) for underweight (<18.5 kg/m²), overweight (24.0-27.9 kg/m²), and obesity (≥28.0 kg/m²) were calculated relative to normal weight (18.5-23.9 kg/m²). The summary HRs were 1.56 (95% CI, 1.11-2.18) for underweight, 0.78 (95% CI 0.64-0.95) for overweight and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.48-0.85) for obesity. In sex-age-specific analyses, participants over 60 years of age had optimal BMI in the obesity classification and the results were consistent in both males and females. Relative to normal weight, underweight was associated with significantly higher mortality. Excessive weight was not associated with increased risk of mortality. Chinese hypertensive adults had the lowest mortality in grade 1 obesity. PMID:27338470

  3. Association between Body Mass Index and All-Cause Mortality in Hypertensive Adults: Results from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Li, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Yan; Fan, Fang-Fang; Xu, Xi-Ping; Wang, Bin-Yan; Xu, Xin; Qin, Xian-Hui; Xing, Hou-Xun; Tang, Gen-Fu; Zhou, Zi-Yi; Gu, Dong-Feng; Zhao, Dong; Huo, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The association between elevated body mass index (BMI) and risk of death has been reported in many studies. However, the association between BMI and all-cause mortality for hypertensive Chinese adults remains unclear. We conducted a post-hoc analysis using data from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT). Cox regression analysis was performed to determine the significance of the association of BMI with all-cause mortality. During a mean follow-up duration of 4.5 years, 622 deaths (3.0%) occurred among the 20,694 participants aged 45–75 years. A reversed J-shaped relationship was observed between BMI and all-cause mortality. The hazard ratios (HRs) for underweight (<18.5 kg/m2), overweight (24.0–27.9 kg/m2), and obesity (≥28.0 kg/m2) were calculated relative to normal weight (18.5–23.9 kg/m2). The summary HRs were 1.56 (95% CI, 1.11–2.18) for underweight, 0.78 (95% CI 0.64–0.95) for overweight and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.48–0.85) for obesity. In sex-age-specific analyses, participants over 60 years of age had optimal BMI in the obesity classification and the results were consistent in both males and females. Relative to normal weight, underweight was associated with significantly higher mortality. Excessive weight was not associated with increased risk of mortality. Chinese hypertensive adults had the lowest mortality in grade 1 obesity. PMID:27338470

  4. Impact of Short- and Long-term Tai Chi Mind-Body Exercise Training on Cognitive Function in Healthy Adults: Results From a Hybrid Observational Study and Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Jacquelyn N.; Manor, Brad; Hausdorff, Jeffrey; Novak, Vera; Lipsitz, Lewis; Gow, Brian; Macklin, Eric A.; Peng, Chung-Kang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cognitive decline amongst older adults is a significant public health concern. There is growing interest in behavioral interventions, including exercise, for improving cognition. Studies to date suggest tai chi (TC) may be a safe and potentially effective exercise for preserving cognitive function with aging; however, its short-term and potential long-term impact on physically active, healthy adults is unclear. Objective: To compare differences in cognitive function among long-term TC expert practitioners and age-matched and gender-matched TC-naïve adults and to determine the effects of short-term TC training on measures of cognitive function in healthy, nonsedentary adults. Design: A hybrid design including an observational comparison and a 2-arm randomized clinical trial (RCT) Participants: Healthy, nonsedentary, TC-naive adults (50 y-79 y) and age-matched and gender-matched long-term TC experts Methods: A cross-sectional comparison of cognitive function in healthy TC-naïve (n=60) and TC expert (24.5 y ÷ 12 y experience; n=27) adults: TC-naïve adults then completed a 6-month, 2-arm, wait-list randomized clinical trial of TC training. Six measures of cognitive function were assessed for both cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons. Results: TC experts exhibited trends towards better scores on all cognitive measures, significantly so for category fluency (P=.01), as well as a composite z score summarizing all 6 cognitive assessments (P=.03). In contrast, random assignment to 6 months of TC training in TC-naïve adults did not significantly improve any measures of cognitive function. Conclusions: In healthy nonsedentary adults, long-term TC training may help preserve cognitive function; however, the effect of short-term TC training in healthy adults remains unclear. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01340365 PMID:26331103

  5. Molecular basis of an adult form of Sandhoff disease: substitution of glutamine for arginine at position 505 of the beta-chain of beta-hexosaminidase results in a labile enzyme.

    PubMed

    Bolhuis, P A; Ponne, N J; Bikker, H; Baas, F; Vianney de Jong, J M

    1993-09-01

    Sandhoff disease is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by accumulation of GM2 ganglioside due to mutations in the beta-chain of beta-hexosaminidase. Hexosaminidase activity is negligible in infantile Sandhoff disease whereas residual activity is present in juvenile and adult forms. Here we report the molecular basis of the first described adult form of Sandhoff disease. Southern analysis of chromosomal DNA indicated the absence of chromosomal deletions in the gene encoding the beta-chain. Northern analysis of RNA from cultured fibroblasts demonstrated that at least one of the beta-chain alleles was transcribed into normal-length mRNA. Sequence analysis of the entire cDNA prepared from poly-adenylated RNA showed that only one point mutation was present, consisting of a G-->A transition at nucleotide position 1514. This mutation changes the electric charge at amino acid position 505 by substitution of glutamine for arginine in a highly conserved part of the beta-chain, present even in the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The nucleotide transition generated a new restriction site for DdeI, which was present in only one of the alleles of the patient. Reverse transcription of mRNA followed by restriction with DdeI resulted in complete digestion at the mutation site, demonstrating that the second allele was of an mRNA-negative type. Transfection of COS cells with a cDNA construct containing the mutation but otherwise the normal sequence resulted in the expression of a labile form of beta-hexosaminidase. These results show that the patient's is a genetic compound, and that the lability of beta-hexosaminidase found in this form of Sandhoff disease is based on a single nucleotide transition. PMID:8357844

  6. Reading Intervention Outcomes for Adults with Disabilities in a Vocational Rehabilitation Setting: Results of a 3-Year Research and Demonstration Grant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderberg, Laura E.; Pierce, Margaret E.; Disney, Laurel J.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on an examination of the effectiveness of a reading intervention for adults with disabilities in a vocational rehabilitation setting. Participants were 57 adults with disabilities and low reading skills enrolled at the Reading Clinic at the Michigan Career and Technical Institute. As part of a 3-year research and demonstration…

  7. What Do Blood Tests Show?

    MedlinePlus

    ... shows the ranges for blood glucose levels after 8 to 12 hours of fasting (not eating). It shows the normal range and the abnormal ranges that are a sign of prediabetes or diabetes. Plasma Glucose Results (mg/dL)* Diagnosis 70 to 99 ...

  8. Patient Eye Examinations - Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Examinations, Adults Patient Eye Examinations, Children Refractive Errors Scientists in the Laboratory Visual Acuity Testing Patient Eye Examinations, Adults × Warning message Automatic fallback to the cURL connection method kicked in to handle the request. Result code ...

  9. Children's school-breakfast reports and school-lunch reports (in 24-h dietary recalls): conventional and reporting-error-sensitive measures show inconsistent accuracy results for retention interval and breakfast location.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Suzanne D; Guinn, Caroline H; Smith, Albert F; Hitchcock, David B; Royer, Julie A; Puryear, Megan P; Collins, Kathleen L; Smith, Alyssa L

    2016-04-14

    Validation-study data were analysed to investigate retention interval (RI) and prompt effects on the accuracy of fourth-grade children's reports of school-breakfast and school-lunch (in 24-h recalls), and the accuracy of school-breakfast reports by breakfast location (classroom; cafeteria). Randomly selected fourth-grade children at ten schools in four districts were observed eating school-provided breakfast and lunch, and were interviewed under one of eight conditions created by crossing two RIs ('short'--prior-24-hour recall obtained in the afternoon and 'long'--previous-day recall obtained in the morning) with four prompts ('forward'--distant to recent, 'meal name'--breakfast, etc., 'open'--no instructions, and 'reverse'--recent to distant). Each condition had sixty children (half were girls). Of 480 children, 355 and 409 reported meals satisfying criteria for reports of school-breakfast and school-lunch, respectively. For breakfast and lunch separately, a conventional measure--report rate--and reporting-error-sensitive measures--correspondence rate and inflation ratio--were calculated for energy per meal-reporting child. Correspondence rate and inflation ratio--but not report rate--showed better accuracy for school-breakfast and school-lunch reports with the short RI than with the long RI; this pattern was not found for some prompts for each sex. Correspondence rate and inflation ratio showed better school-breakfast report accuracy for the classroom than for cafeteria location for each prompt, but report rate showed the opposite. For each RI, correspondence rate and inflation ratio showed better accuracy for lunch than for breakfast, but report rate showed the opposite. When choosing RI and prompts for recalls, researchers and practitioners should select a short RI to maximise accuracy. Recommendations for prompt selections are less clear. As report rates distort validation-study accuracy conclusions, reporting-error-sensitive measures are recommended. PMID

  10. Predictors and impact of non-adherence in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder receiving OROS methylphenidate: results from a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medication non-adherence has an important impact on treatment efficacy and healthcare burden across a range of conditions and therapeutic areas. The aim of this analysis was to determine predictors of non-adherence and impact of non-adherence on treatment response in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods Post-hoc analysis of a 13-week randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study of OROS methylphenidate (MPH) 54 and 72 mg/day. Primary efficacy variable was the Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scale – Screening Version (CAARS:O-SV). Daily adherence was calculated as average daily adherence (100 × capsules taken/2), with overall adherence calculated as the average daily adherence. Predictors of adherence were assessed using mixed-effects logistic regression. Descriptive statistics were generated for change in CAARS:O-SV score for adherent (> 95% adherence) and non-adherent subjects. Predictors of change were analyzed using a mixed model. Results Subjects were allocated to OROS MPH (54 mg, n = 87; 72 mg, n = 92) or placebo (n = 97). Mean adherence was 92.6% and 93.3% (OROS MPH 54 and 72 mg/day, respectively), versus 97.5% (placebo). Adherence was higher and less variable in completers. Factors significantly associated with non-adherence included female sex, shorter time since ADHD diagnosis, higher education level (completion of university) and score on the Drug Use Screening Inventory psychiatric disorders subscale. Improvements from baseline in CAARS:O-SV score were numerically greater in subjects defined as adherent than in those who were non-adherent. Significant predictors of CAARS:O-SV change in patients who completed the study included percentage adherence up to the point of assessment (p < 0.0001), baseline score (p < 0.0001) and family history of ADHD (p = 0.0003). Conclusion The results of this analysis suggest that newly diagnosed patients, those with a high score on the DUSI-R psychiatric disorder scale, women

  11. High dose multiple micronutrient supplementation improves villous morphology in environmental enteropathy without HIV enteropathy: results from a double-blind randomised placebo controlled trial in Zambian adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Environmental enteropathy (EE) is an asymptomatic abnormality of small bowel structure and function, which may underlie vaccine inefficacy in the developing world. HIV infection co-exists in many of these populations. There is currently no effective treatment. We conducted a secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial of high dose multiple micronutrient (MM) supplementation on small bowel architecture in EE in participants with or without HIV infection. Methods In a double-blind parallel-group trial of the effect of MM on innate immune responses to oral vaccines, consenting Zambian adults were randomised to receive 6 weeks of 24 micronutrients as a daily capsule or placebo. HIV status was established after randomisation. Proximal jejunal biopsies were obtained after the supplementation period. Villous height, crypt depth, villous width, villous perimeter per 100 μm muscularis mucosa (a measure of epithelial surface area), and villous cross sectional area per 100 μm muscularis mucosa (a measure of villous compartment volume) were measured in orientated biopsy sections using semi-automated image analysis. Analysis was by intention to treat. Results 18 patients received MM and 20 placebo. 6/18 MM and 9/20 placebo patients had HIV. In HIV negative patients given MM compared to placebo, mean villous height was 24.0% greater (293.3 v. 236.6 μm; 95% CI of difference 17.7–95.9 μm; P = 0.006), mean villous area was 27.6% greater (27623 v. 21650 μm2/100 μm; 95% CI of difference 818–11130 μm2/100 μm; P = 0.03), and median villous perimeter was 29.7% greater (355.0 v. 273.7 μm/100 μm; 95% CI of difference 16.3–146.2 μm/100 μm; P = 0.003). There was no significant effect on crypt depth or villous width. No effect was observed in HIV positive patients. There were no adverse events attributable to MM. Conclusions MM improved small bowel villous height and absorptive area, but not crypt depth, in adults with EE without HIV. Nutritional

  12. Preliminary Results From a Prospective Study Using Limited Margin Radiotherapy in Pediatric and Young Adult Patients With High-Grade Nonrhabdomyosarcoma Soft-Tissue Sarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Krasin, Matthew J.; Davidoff, Andrew M.; Xiong Xiaoping; Wu Shengjie; Hua, C.-H.; Navid, Fariba; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Rao, Bhaskar N.; Hoth, Kelly A.; Neel, Michael D.; Merchant, Thomas E.; Kun, Larry E.; Spunt, Sheri L.

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the safety and efficacy of limited margin radiotherapy in the local control of pediatric and young adult patients with high-grade nonrhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcoma (NRSTS). Methods and Materials: Pediatric patients with high-grade NRSTS requiring radiation were treated on an institutional review board approved prospective institutional study of conformal/intensity-modulated/interstitial brachytherapy using a 2-cm anatomically constrained margin. Results: A total of 32 patients (median age, 15.3 years; range, 2-22 years) received adjuvant (27 patients) or definitive (5 patients) irradiation. With a median follow-up of 32 months, the 3-year cumulative incidence of local failure was 3.7% for patients undergoing irradiation after surgical resection. Four patients experienced local failure; the mean dose to the volume of recurrence was >=97% of the prescribed dose. Conclusions: Delivery of limited margin radiotherapy using external beam or brachytherapy provides a high rate of local tumor control without marginal failure. Further follow-up is required to determine whether normal tissue effects are minimized using this approach.

  13. Associations between perceived proximity to neighborhood resources, disability, and social participation among community-dwelling older adults: Results from the VoisiNuAge Study

    PubMed Central

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Gauvin, Lise; Richard, Lucie; Kestens, Yan; Daniel, Mark; Payette, Hélène

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations between perceived proximity to neighborhood resources, disability and social participation, and the potential moderating effect of perceived proximity to neighborhood resources on the association between disability and social participation among community-dwelling older women and men. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Community. Participants Older adults (296 women; 258 men). Interventions Not applicable. Main outcome measures Data on age, education, depressive symptoms, frequency of participation in community activities, perceived proximity to neighborhood resources (services and amenities), and functional autonomy in daily activities (disability) were collected by interviewer-administered questionnaire. Results Greater perceived proximity to resources and lower level of disability were associated with greater social participation for both women (R2=0.10; p<0.001) and men (R2=0.05; p<0.01). The association between disability and social participation did not vary as a function of perceived proximity to neighborhood resources among women (no moderating effect; p=0.15). Among men, however, greater perceived proximity to neighborhood resources enhanced social participation (p=0.01), but only among those with minor or no disability. Conclusions Future studies should investigate why perceived proximity to services and amenities is associated with social participation among older men with minor or no disabilities and with women overall but has no association among men with moderate disabilities. PMID:22133245

  14. Antisocial Behavioral Syndromes and Body Mass Index Among Adults in the United States: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Risë B.; Dawson, Deborah A.; Stinson, Frederick S.; June Ruan, W.; Patricia Chou, S.; Pickering, Roger P.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe associations of antisocial behavioral syndromes, including DSM-IV antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and conduct disorder without progression to ASPD (“CD only”), and syndromal antisocial behavior in adulthood without CD before age 15 (AABS, not a codable DSM-IV disorder), with body mass index (BMI) status in the general U.S. adult population. Methods This report is based on the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n=43,093, response rate=81%). Respondents were classified according to whether they met criteria for ASPD, AABS, “CD only,” or no antisocial syndrome, and on current BMI status based on self-reported height and weight. Associations of antisocial syndromes with BMI status were examined using multinomial logistic regression. Results Among men, antisociality was not associated with BMI. Among women, ASPD was significantly associated with overweight and extreme obesity; AABS was associated with obesity and extreme obesity; and “CD only” was significantly associated with overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity. Conclusions Assessment of antisocial features appears warranted in overweight, obese, and extremely obese women, and assessment of BMI status appears indicated in antisocial women. Prevention and treatment guidelines for overweight and obesity may need revision to address comorbid antisociality, and interventions targeting antisociality may need to include attention to weight concerns. PMID:18396181

  15. Intracortical Posterior Cingulate Myelin Content Relates to Error Processing: Results from T1- and T2-Weighted MRI Myelin Mapping and Electrophysiology in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Grydeland, Håkon; Westlye, Lars T; Walhovd, Kristine B; Fjell, Anders M

    2016-06-01

    Myelin content of the cerebral cortex likely impacts cognitive functioning, but this notion has scarcely been investigated in vivo in humans. Here we tested for a relationship between intracortical myelin and a direct measure of neural activity in the form of the electrophysiological response error-related negativity (ERN). Using magnetic resonance imaging, myelin mapping was performed in 81 healthy adults aged 40-60 years by means of a T1- and T2-weighted (T1w/T2w) signal intensity ratio approach. Error trials on a version of the Eriksen flanker task triggered the ERN, a negative deflection of the event-related potential reflecting performance monitoring. Compelling evidence from neuroimaging, lesion, and source localization studies indicates that the ERN stems from the cingulate cortex. Vertex-wise analyses across the cingulate demonstrated that increased amplitude of the ERN was related to higher levels of intracortical myelin in the left posterior cingulate cortex. The association was independent of general ability level and subjacent white matter myelin. The results fit the notion that degree of myelin within the posterior cingulate cortex as measured by T1w/T2w signal intensity plays a role in error processing and cognitive control through the relationship with neural activity as measured by ERN amplitude, potentially by facilitating local neural synchronization. PMID:25840423

  16. Association between Sleep Duration and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Korean Adults: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Cho-Rong; Shin, Jin-Young; Gim, Wook

    2016-01-01

    Background Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is an established risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This study evaluated the relationship between sleep duration and IFG. Methods This cross-sectional study included 14,925 Korean adults (5,868 men and 9,057 women) ≥19 years of age who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2011 and 2012. Blood glucose levels were measured after at least eight hours of fasting. Study subjects were categorized into three groups based on self-reported sleep duration (<7, 7–8, or >8 h/d). IFG was diagnosed according to recommendations American Diabetes Association guidelines. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed with adjustment for covariates. Results In men, short sleep duration (<7 hours) was associated with increased risk of IFG (odds ratio [OR], 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08 to 1.96) compared to adequate sleep duration (7–8 hours), whereas long sleep duration (>8 hours) was not associated with risk of IFG (OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.37 to 2.18). In women, sleep duration was not associated with risk of IFG. Conclusion The association between sleep duration and IFG differed by sex; sleep deprivation, was associated with increased risk of IFG, especially in men. PMID:26885323

  17. Results of the First Year of Active for Life: Translation of 2 Evidence-Based Physical Activity Programs for Older Adults Into Community Settings

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Sara; Dowda, Marsha; Griffin, Sarah F.; Rheaume, Carol; Ory, Marcia G.; Leviton, Laura; King, Abby C.; Dunn, Andrea; Buchner, David M.; Bazzarre, Terry; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Campbell-Voytal, Kimberly; Bartlett-Prescott, Jenny; Dowdy, Diane; Castro, Cynthia M.; Carpenter, Ruth Ann; Dzewaltowski, David A.; Mockenhaupt, Robin

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. Translating efficacious interventions into practice within community settings is a major public health challenge. We evaluated the effects of 2 evidence-based physical activity interventions on self-reported physical activity and related outcomes in midlife and older adults. Methods. Four community-based organizations implemented Active Choices, a 6-month, telephone-based program, and 5 implemented Active Living Every Day, a 20-week, group-based program. Both programs emphasize behavioral skills necessary to become more physically active. Participants completed pretest and posttest surveys. Results. Participants (n=838) were aged an average of 68.4 ±9.4 years, 80.6% were women, and 64.1% were non-Hispanic White. Seventy-two percent returned posttest surveys. Intent-to-treat analyses found statistically significant increases in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and total physical activity, decreases in depressive symptoms and stress, increases in satisfaction with body appearance and function, and decreases in body mass index. Conclusions. The first year of Active for Life demonstrated that Active Choices and Active Living Every Day, 2 evidence-based physical activity programs, can be successfully translated into community settings with diverse populations. Further, the magnitudes of change in outcomes were similar to those reported in the efficacy trials. PMID:16735619

  18. Disparities in Adverse Childhood Experiences among Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Adults: Results from a Multi-State Probability-Based Sample

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Judith P; Blosnich, John

    2013-01-01

    Background Adverse childhood experiences (e.g., physical, sexual and emotional abuse, neglect, exposure to domestic violence, parental discord, familial mental illness, incarceration and substance abuse) constitute a major public health problem in the United States. The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale is a standardized measure that captures multiple developmental risk factors beyond sexual, physical and emotional abuse. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (i.e., sexual minority) individuals may experience disproportionately higher prevalence of adverse childhood experiences. Purpose To examine, using the ACE scale, prevalence of childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and childhood household dysfunction among sexual minority and heterosexual adults. Methods Analyses were conducted using a probability-based sample of data pooled from three U.S. states’ Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys (Maine, Washington, Wisconsin) that administered the ACE scale and collected information on sexual identity (n = 22,071). Results Compared with heterosexual respondents, gay/lesbian and bisexual individuals experienced increased odds of six of eight and seven of eight adverse childhood experiences, respectively. Sexual minority persons had higher rates of adverse childhood experiences (IRR = 1.66 gay/lesbian; 1.58 bisexual) compared to their heterosexual peers. Conclusions Sexual minority individuals have increased exposure to multiple developmental risk factors beyond physical, sexual and emotional abuse. We recommend the use of the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale in future research examining health disparities among this minority population. PMID:23372755

  19. Results, Results, Results?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Dale

    2000-01-01

    Given the amount of time, energy, and money devoted to provincial achievement exams in Canada, it is disturbing that Alberta students and teachers feel so pressured and that the exams do not accurately reflect what students know. Research shows that intelligence has an (untested) emotional component. (MLH)

  20. In favour of the definition "adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis": juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis braced after ten years of age, do not show different end results. SOSORT award winner 2014

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The most important factor discriminating juvenile (JIS) from adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the risk of deformity progression. Brace treatment can change natural history, even when risk of progression is high. The aim of this study was to compare the end of growth results of JIS subjects, treated after 10 years of age, with final results of AIS. Methods Design: prospective observational controlled cohort study nested in a prospective database. Setting: outpatient tertiary referral clinic specialized in conservative treatment of spinal deformities. Inclusion criteria: idiopathic scoliosis; European Risser 0–2; 25 degrees to 45 degrees Cobb; start treatment age: 10 years or more, never treated before. Exclusion criteria: secondary scoliosis, neurological etiology, prior treatment for scoliosis (brace or surgery). Groups: 27 patients met the inclusion criteria for the AJIS, (Juvenile Idiopathic Scoliosis treated in adolescence), demonstrated by an x-ray before 10 year of age, and treatment start after 10 years of age. AIS group included 45 adolescents with a diagnostic x-ray made after the threshold of age 10 years. Results at the end of growth were analysed; the threshold of 5 Cobb degree to define worsened, improved and stabilized curves was considered. Statistics: Mean and SD were used for descriptive statistics of clinical and radiographic changes. Relative Risk of failure (RR), Chi-square and T-test of all data was calculated to find differences among the two groups. 95% Confidence Interval (CI) , and of radiographic changes have been calculated. Results We did not find any Cobb angle significant differences among groups at baseline and at the end of treatment. The only difference was in the number of patients progressed above 45 degrees, found in the JIS group. The RR of progression of AJIS was, 1.35 (IC95% 0.57-3.17) versus AIS, and it wasn't statistically significant in the AJIS group, in respect to AIS group (p = 0.5338). Conclusion

  1. Accelerometer-measured sedentary time among Hispanic adults: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL)

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Gina; Buelna, Christina; Castañeda, Sheila F.; Arredondo, Elva M.; Marshall, Simon J.; Strizich, Garrett; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Chambers, Earle C.; McMurray, Robert G.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Stoutenberg, Mark; Hankinson, Arlene L.; Talavera, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive sedentary behavior is associated with negative health outcomes independent of physical activity. Objective estimates of time spent in sedentary behaviors are lacking among adults from diverse Hispanic/Latino backgrounds. The objective of this study was to describe accelerometer-assessed sedentary time in a large, representative sample of Hispanic/Latino adults living in the United States, and compare sedentary estimates by Hispanic/Latino background, sociodemographic characteristics and weight categories. This study utilized baseline data from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) that included adults aged 18–74 years from four metropolitan areas (N = 16,415). Measured with the Actical accelerometer over 6 days, 76.9% (n = 12,631) of participants had > 10 h/day and > 3 days of data. Participants spent 11.9 h/day (SD 3.0), or 74% of their monitored time in sedentary behaviors. Adjusting for differences in wear time, adults of Mexican background were the least (11.6 h/day), whereas adults of Dominican background were the most (12.3 h/day), sedentary. Women were more sedentary than men, and older adults were more sedentary than younger adults. Household income was positively associated, whereas employment was negatively associated, with sedentary time. There were no differences in sedentary time by weight categories, marital status, or proxies of acculturation. To reduce sedentariness among these populations, future research should examine how the accumulation of various sedentary behaviors differs by background and region, and which sedentary behaviors are amenable to intervention. PMID:26844159

  2. Incidence and trends of cardiovascular mortality after common cancers in young adults: Analysis of surveillance, epidemiology and end-results program

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kindi, Sadeer G; Oliveira, Guilherme H

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To describe the incidence of cardiovascular mortality (CVM) in survivors of major cancers and identify its trends over the past two decades. METHODS: We used the surveillance, epidemiology and end-results 19 registry to identify young adults (20-49 years), diagnosed with the following major primary cancers: Lung, breast, liver/intrahepatic bile duct, pancreas, prostate, colorectal, and ovarian from 1990 through 2012 and identified the cumulative incidence of CVM after adjusting for confounding factors. RESULTS: We identified a total of 301923 cancers (breast 173748, lung 38938, colorectal 31722, prostate 22848, ovary 16065, liver 9444, pancreas 9158). A total of 2297 (0.8%) of patients had incident CVM. Lung (10-year cumulative CVM 2.4%) and liver (1.73%) cancers had the highest incidence of CVM, while breast (0.6%) and prostate (1.2%) had the lowest CVM mortality, even after multiple adjustments (P < 0.001). Overall, there was a significant improvement in CVM since 1990 [2005-2012 vs 1990-1994, adjusted HR 0.63 (0.54-0.72), P < 0.001]. This was driven by improvements in CVM in lung cancers (P = 0.02), breast (P < 0.001), and a trend in ovarian cancer (P = 0.097). There was no statistically significant improvement in CVM among survivors of colorectal, pancreatic, liver, or prostate cancers. CONCLUSION: The risk of CVM differs among different cancers, and is highest among survivors of lung and liver cancers. The incidence of CVM has decreased over the past 2 decades mainly among survivors of lung and breast cancers. PMID:27354894

  3. How transplant surgeons can overcome the inevitable insufficiency of allograft size during adult living-donor liver transplantation: strategy for donor safety with a smaller-size graft and excellent recipient results.

    PubMed

    Hori, Tomohide; Ogura, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Kohei; Kaido, Toshimi; Segawa, Hajime; Okajima, Hideaki; Kogure, Takayuki; Uemoto, Shinji

    2012-01-01

    Small-for-size grafts are an issue in liver transplantation. Portal venous pressure (PVP) was monitored and intentionally controlled during living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in 155 adult recipients. The indocyanine green elimination rate (kICG) was simultaneously measured in 16 recipients and divided by the graft weight (g) to reflect portal venous flow (PVF). The target PVP was <20 mmHg. Patients were divided by the final PVP (mmHg): Group A, PVP < 12; Group B, 12 ≤ PVP < 15; Group C, 15 ≤ PVP < 20; and Group D, PVP ≥ 20. With intentional PVP control, we performed splenectomy and collateral ligation in 80 cases, splenectomy in 39 cases, and splenectomy, collateral ligation, and additional creation in five cases. Thirty-one cases received no modulation. Groups A and B showed good LDLT results, while Groups C and D did not. Final PVP was the most important factor for the LDLT results, and the PVP cutoffs for good outcomes and clinical courses were both 15.5 mmHg. The respective kICG/graft weight cutoffs were 3.5580 × 10(-4) /g and 4.0015 × 10(-4) /g. Intentional PVP modulation at <15 mmHg is a sure surgical strategy for small-for-size grafts, to establish greater donor safety with good LDLT results. The kICG/graft weight value may have potential as a parameter for optimal PVF and a predictor for LDLT results. PMID:22686957

  4. Impact of Early Life Adversity on Reward Processing in Young Adults: EEG-fMRI Results from a Prospective Study over 25 Years

    PubMed Central

    Boecker, Regina; Holz, Nathalie E.; Buchmann, Arlette F.; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Plichta, Michael M.; Wolf, Isabella; Baumeister, Sarah; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Several lines of evidence have implicated the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway in altered brain function resulting from exposure to early adversity. The present study examined the impact of early life adversity on different stages of neuronal reward processing later in life and their association with a related behavioral phenotype, i.e. attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 162 healthy young adults (mean age = 24.4 years; 58% female) from an epidemiological cohort study followed since birth participated in a simultaneous EEG-fMRI study using a monetary incentive delay task. Early life adversity according to an early family adversity index (EFA) and lifetime ADHD symptoms were assessed using standardized parent interviews conducted at the offspring's age of 3 months and between 2 and 15 years, respectively. fMRI region-of-interest analysis revealed a significant effect of EFA during reward anticipation in reward-related areas (i.e. ventral striatum, putamen, thalamus), indicating decreased activation when EFA increased. EEG analysis demonstrated a similar effect for the contingent negative variation (CNV), with the CNV decreasing with the level of EFA. In contrast, during reward delivery, activation of the bilateral insula, right pallidum and bilateral putamen increased with EFA. There was a significant association of lifetime ADHD symptoms with lower activation in the left ventral striatum during reward anticipation and higher activation in the right insula during reward delivery. The present findings indicate a differential long-term impact of early life adversity on reward processing, implicating hyporesponsiveness during reward anticipation and hyperresponsiveness when receiving a reward. Moreover, a similar activation pattern related to lifetime ADHD suggests that the impact of early life stress on ADHD may possibly be mediated by a dysfunctional reward pathway. PMID:25118701

  5. Chemotherapy-related neuropathic symptoms and functional impairment in adult survivors of extracranial solid tumors of childhood: Results from the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ness, Kirsten K.; Jones, Kendra E.; Smith, Webb A.; Spunt, Sheri L.; Wilson, Carmen L.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Srivastava, Deo Kumar; Robison, Leslie L.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Gurney, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To ascertain prevalence of peripheral sensory and motor neuropathy; to evaluate impairments in relation to function. Design St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study, a clinical follow-up study designed to evaluate adverse late effects in adult survivors of childhood cancer. Setting St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital (SJCRH). Participants Eligibility required treatment for an extracranial solid malignancy between 1962 and 2002, age ≥18 years, ≥10 years post-diagnosis, no history of cranial radiation. 531 survivors were included in the evaluation: median age 32 years, median time from diagnosis 25 years. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Primary exposure measures were cumulative doses of vinca-alkaloid and platinum-based chemotherapies. Survivors with scores ≥ 1 on the sensory subscale of the modified Total Neuropathy Score were classified with prevalent sensory impairment. Those with sex-specific Z-scores of ≤−1.3 for dorsiflexion strength were classified with prevalent motor impairment. Participants completed the 6-minute walk test (endurance), the timed up and go test (mobility), and the sensory organization test (balance). Results The prevalence of sensory and motor impairment was 20% and 17.5%, respectively. Vinca-alkaloid exposure was associated with an increased risk of motor impairment (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.66, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.04–2.64) without evidence for a dose response. Platinum exposure was associated with increased risk of sensory impairment (adjusted OR= 1.62, 95% CI: 0.97–2.72) without evidence of a dose response. Sensory impairment was associated with poor endurance (OR=1.99, 95% CI: 0.99–4.00) and mobility (OR=1.65, 95% CI: 0.96–2.83). Conclusion Vincristine and cisplatin exposure may increase risk for long-term motor and sensory impairment, respectively. Survivors with sensory impairment are at increased risk for functional performance limitations. PMID:23537607

  6. Antisocial Behavioral Syndromes and Past-Year Physical Health Among Adults in the United States: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Risë B.; Dawson, Deborah A.; Chou, S. Patricia; Ruan, W. June; Saha, Tulshi D.; Pickering, Roger P.; Stinson, Frederick S.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe associations of DSM-IV antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), conduct disorder without progression to ASPD (“CD only”), and syndromal antisocial behavior in adulthood without CD before age 15 (AABS, not a DSM-IV diagnosis) with past-year physical health status and hospital care utilization in the general U.S. adult population. Methods This report is based on the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n=43,093, response rate=81%). Respondents were classified according to whether they met criteria for ASPD, AABS, “CD only,” or no antisocial syndrome. Associations of antisocial syndromes with physical health status and care utilization were examined using normal-theory and logistic regression. Results ASPD and AABS were significantly but modestly associated with total past-year medical conditions, coronary heart and gastrointestinal diseases, and numbers of inpatient hospitalizations, inpatient days, emergency department visits, and clinically significant injuries. ASPD was also associated with liver disease, arthritis, and lower scores on the Short Form-12 version 2 (SF-12v2) Physical Component, Role Physical, and Bodily Pain Scales. AABS was associated with noncoronary heart disease, lower scores on the SF-12v2 General Health and Vitality Scales, and, among men, arthritis. “CD only” was associated with single but not multiple inpatient hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and clinically significant injuries. Conclusions Estimates of burden related to antisocial behavioral syndromes need to consider associated physical health problems. Prevention and treatment guidelines for injuries and common chronic diseases may need to address comorbid antisociality, and interventions targeting antisociality may need to consider general health status, including prevention and management of injuries and chronic diseases. PMID:18348594

  7. An overview of the contribution of dairy and cheese intakes to nutrient intakes in the Irish diet: results from the National Adult Nutrition Survey.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Emma L; Nugent, Anne P; Mc Nulty, Breige; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Eileen R

    2016-02-28

    Dairy products are important contributors to nutrient intakes. However, dairy intakes are reportedly declining in developed populations, potentially due to concerns regarding Na and SFA in dairy foods, particularly cheese. This could impact other nutrient intakes. The present study used data from the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) to (1) examine dairy intakes, with a specific focus on cheese, and (2) to examine the contribution of cheese to population nutrient intakes. The NANS captured detailed dietary intake data from a nationally representative sample (n 1500) between 2008 and 2010 using 4-d semi-weighed food diaries; 99·9% of the population reported dairy intake. Mean daily population dairy intake was 290·0 (SD 202·1) g. Dairy products provided 8·7% of the population intake of reported dietary Na, 19·8% SFA, 39% Ca, 34·5% vitamin B12 and 10·5% Mg. Cheese alone provided 3·9% Na intake, 9·1% Ca, 12·6% retinol, 8·3% SFA, 3·7% protein, 3·4% vitamin B12 and 3·2% riboflavin. High dairy consumers had greater Ca and Mg intakes per 10 MJ, greater total energy intake, greater percentage of energy from carbohydrate and SFA and lower Na intakes compared with low dairy consumers. Similar trends were observed for high consumers of cheese for most nutrients except Na. These results demonstrate that dairy and cheese are important contributors to nutrient intakes of public health interest, such as Ca and B12. Our analysis also demonstrated that food-based dietary guidelines recommending lower-fat versions of dairy products are warranted. PMID:26675882

  8. Use of complementary and alternative medical therapies among racial and ethnic minority adults: results from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Robert E.; Ahn, Andrew C.; Davis, Roger B.; O'Connor, Bonnie B.; Eisenberg, David M.; Phillips, Russell S.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among ethnic minority populations is poorly understood. We sought to examine CAM use in Hispanics, non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic whites. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Alternative Health Supplement to the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), including information on 19 different CAM therapies used in the past 12 months. RESULTS: An estimated 34% of Hispanic, non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white adults in the United States used at least one CAM therapy (excluding prayer) during the prior 12 months (2002). CAM use was highest for non-Hispanic whites (36%), followed by Hispanics (27%) and non-Hispanic blacks (26%). Non-Hispanic whites were more likely to use herbal medicine, relaxation techniques and chiropractic more frequently than Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks. After controlling for other sociodemographic factors, Hispanic and non-Hispanic black races/ethnicities were associated with less CAM use, with adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 0.78 (0.70, 0.87) and 0.71 (0.65, 0.78), respectively. Hispanics cited using CAM because conventional medical treatments were too expensive more frequently than non-Hispanic blacks or whites. Hispanics had the highest provider nondisclosure rates (68.5%), followed by non-Hispanic blacks (65.1%) and non-Hispanic whites (58.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Excluding prayer, Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks used CAM less frequently than non-Hispanic whites and were less likely to disclose their use to their healthcare provider. Further research is needed to improve our understanding of the disparities in CAM use. PMID:15868773

  9. Low Literacy Decision Aid Enhances Knowledge and Reduces Decisional Conflict among Diverse Population of Adults with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Results of a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Jennifer L.; Trupin, Laura; Schillinger, Dean; Evans-Young, Gina; Imboden, John; Montori, Victor M.; Yelin, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Objective Despite innovations in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), adherence is poor and disparities persist. Shared decision making (SDM) promotes patient engagement and enhances adherence, however few tools support SDM in RA. Our objective was to pilot a low literacy medication guide and decision aid to facilitate patient-clinician conversations about RA medications. Methods RA patients were consecutively enrolled into one of three arms: (1) control, patients received existing medication guide prior to clinic visit; (2) adapted guide prior to visit; (3) adapted guide prior plus decision aid during visit. Outcomes were collected immediately post-visit, at 1-week, 3- and 6-month interviews. Eligible adults had to have failed at least one DMARD and fulfill one of the following: age >65, immigrant, non-English speaker, < high school education, limited health literacy, racial/ethnic minority. Primary outcomes were knowledge of RA medications, decisional conflict, and acceptability of interventions. Results Majority of 166 patients were immigrants (66%), non-English speakers (54%), and had limited health literacy (71%). Adequate RA knowledge post visit in arm 3 was higher (78%) than arm 1 (53%, adjusted OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2–6.1). Among patients with a medication change, there was lower (better) mean decisional conflict in arms 2 and 3 (p=0.03). No significant differences in acceptability. Conclusion A low literacy medication guide and decision aid was acceptable, improved knowledge, and reduced decisional conflict among vulnerable RA patients. Enhancing knowledge and patient engagement with decision support tools may lead to medication choices better aligned with patient values and preferences in RA. PMID:26605752

  10. The personality correlates of adults who had imaginary companions in childhood.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Evan; Rogers, Paul; Rogers, Christine

    2010-08-01

    Two studies showed that adults who reported having an imaginary companion as a child differed from adults who did not on certain personality dimensions. The first yielded a higher mean on the Gough Creative Personality Scale for the group who had imaginary companions. Study 2 showed that such adults scored higher on the Achievement and Absorption subscales of Tellegen's Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire. The results suggest that some differences reported in the developmental literature may be observed in adults. PMID:20923060

  11. [Adult twins].

    PubMed

    Charlemaine, Christiane

    2006-12-31

    This paper explores the deep roots of closeness that twins share in their youngest age and their effect on their destiny at the adult age. Psychologists believe the bond between twins begins in utero and develops throughout the twins' lives. The four patterns of twinship described show that the twin bond is determined by the quality of parenting that twins receive in their infancy and early childhood. Common problems of adult twins bring about difficulties to adapt in a non-twin world. The nature versus nurture controversy has taken on new life focusing on inter-twin differences and the importance of parent-child interaction as fundamental to the growth and development of personality. PMID:17352324

  12. Job-Preference and Job-Matching Assessment Results and Their Association with Job Performance and Satisfaction among Young Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Julie; Morgan, Robert L.; Salzberg, Charles L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of preference and degree of match on job performance of four 19 to 20-year-old young adults with developmental disabilities placed in community-based job conditions. We identified high-preference, high-matched and low-preference, low-matched job tasks using a video web-based assessment program. The job matching…

  13. The relationship between mothering in infancy, childhood experience and adult mental health: results of the Brody prospective longitudinal study from birth to age 30.

    PubMed

    Massie, Henry; Szajnberg, Nathan

    2002-02-01

    This longitudinal study has followed seventy-six individuals from birth to age 30 using films of the mother-child interaction, psychoanalytically informed interviews of parents and children, and psychodiagnostic testing to assess how the quality of mothering a child receives in the first year of life contributes to his/her subsequent emotional well-being. The thirty-year follow-up of the now adult participants found that those who had received more effective care in infancy in terms of maternal empathy, consistency, control, thoughtfulness, affection and management of aggression had higher-level psychological defence mechanisms as adults than children receiving less effective nurturing--suggesting a process in which the children internalised their mothers' own defence mechanisms. Other measures at 30 years (Global Functioning, Erikson psychosocial attainment, mental representation of security of attachment to parents and presence or absence of a psychiatric diagnosis) did not achieve statistical significance. On the other hand, trauma after infancy and before age 18 provided the strongest correlation with adult outcome: consistent with the theory of the effect of cumulative trauma on psychic functioning, children experiencing two or more adverse circumstances had significantly lower levels of global functioning as adults than those spared multiple traumas. With case examples, the findings illustrate how the effect of pre-verbal experience attenuates over time, and how later influences overlie early life in the course of psychological structuralisation. PMID:11915148

  14. Feasibility of Eight Physical Fitness Tests in 1,050 Older Adults with Intellectual Disability: Results of the Healthy Ageing with Intellectual Disabilities Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Although physical fitness is relevant for well-being and health, knowledge on the feasibility of instruments to measure physical fitness in older adults with intellectual disability (ID) is lacking. As part of the study Healthy Ageing with Intellectual Disabilities with 1,050 older clients with ID in three Dutch care services, the feasibility of 8…

  15. Community and Cluster Centre Residential Services for Adults with Intellectual Disability: Long-Term Results from an Australian-Matched Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, L.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Changes in residential accommodation models for adults with intellectual disability (ID) over the last 20 years in Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States have involved relocation from institutions primarily into dispersed homes in the community. But an evolving alternative service style is the cluster centre. Methods: This…

  16. Assessing the Long-Term Effects of EMDR: Results from an 18-Month Follow-Up Study with Adult Female Survivors of CSA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmond, Tonya; Rubin, Allen

    2004-01-01

    This 18-month follow-up study builds on the findings of a randomized experimental evaluation that found qualified support for the short-term effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) in reducing trauma symptoms among adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The current study provides preliminary evidence…

  17. Technical Information and Data from the 1977 Young Adult Assessment of Health, Energy and Reading; Released Exercises, National and Group Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO. National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    This volume provides technical information and data on the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of American young adults, aged 17 and 26-35 years old. The three subjects chosen for this eighth year assessment were health: (section 1), energy (section 2), and reading (section 3). (Science exercises were also administered in the survey, and will…

  18. Alcoholic beverage consumption by adults 21 years and over in the United States: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study described in the Technical Report was conducted to answer specific questions from the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, Ethanol Subcommittee. The study uses data from three different instruments pertaining to alcoholic beverage intakes of adults 21 years and older in the Nationa...

  19. U.S. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID): Adult Multivitamin/Mineral (MVM) Study Results and Implementation Strategies for the First Data Release

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to provide nationally representative estimates for 19 nutrients in representative adult MVM products based upon chemical analysis, and to assess variability in specific products. Methods and Materials: USDA's NDL obtained data from market research and na...

  20. New Drug Shows Mixed Results Against Early Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sign Up See recent e-Newsletters Preserving Your Memory Magazine Get Your Copy Now Subscribe to our ... 3 Letter Resources Articles Brochure Download Preserving Your Memory Magazine e-Newsletter Resource Locator Videos Charity Navigator ...

  1. Dreaming, Stealing, Dancing, Showing Off.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavender, Peter; Taylor, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Lessons learned from British projects to delivery literacy, numeracy, and English as a second language through community agencies included the following: (1) innovation and measured risks are required to attract hard-to-reach adults; (2) good practice needs to be shared; and (3) projects worked best when government funds were managed by community…

  2. The H3.3 K27M mutation results in a poorer prognosis in brainstem gliomas than thalamic gliomas in adults.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jie; Hao, Shuyu; Pan, Changcun; Wang, Yu; Wu, Zhen; Zhang, Junting; Yan, Hai; Zhang, Liwei; Wan, Hong

    2015-11-01

    Brainstem and thalamic gliomas are rare, and they are poorly understood in adults. Genetic aberrations that occur in these tumors are still unknown. In this study, we investigated whether thalamic gliomas have different genetic aberrations and clinical outcomes compared with brainstem gliomas in adults. Forty-three glioma samples were selected, including 28 brainstem and 15 thalamic gliomas. The frequency of the K27M mutation in adult midline gliomas was 58.1%. High-grade gliomas in the thalamus were statistically significantly more numerous than brainstem gliomas. Patients with K27M mutant brainstem gliomas had a significantly shorter overall survival than patients with wild-type tumors (P = .020) by Cox regression after adjustment for other independent risk factors. However, there was no statistical tendency toward a poorer overall survival in thalamic gliomas containing the K27M mutation compared with wild-type tumors. The presence of the K27M mutation significantly corresponded with mutations in TP53 in thalamic gliomas. Interestingly, the K27M mutation was mutually exclusive with mutations in IDH1, which was detected only in brainstem gliomas. The microarray data identified 86 differentially expressed genes between brainstem and thalamic gliomas with the K27M mutation. The cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) gene, which plays an important role in cancer pathways, was found to be differentially expressed between brainstem and thalamic gliomas with K27M mutations. Although the K27M mutation was frequently observed in adult brainstem and thalamic gliomas, this mutation tended to be associated with a poorer prognosis in brainstem gliomas but not in thalamic gliomas. Brainstem gliomas may present different genetic aberrations from thalamic gliomas. These differences may provide guidance for therapeutic decisions for the treatment of adult brainstem and thalamic gliomas, which may have different molecular targets. PMID:26297251

  3. National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Jimenez Sheri Raborn, CPA; Tom Baker

    2008-03-31

    National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration created a 400KW Photovoltaic self-generation plant at the National Orange Show Events Center (NOS). The NOS owns a 120-acre state fairground where it operates an events center and produces an annual citrus fair known as the Orange Show. The NOS governing board wanted to employ cost-saving programs for annual energy expenses. It is hoped the Photovoltaic program will result in overall savings for the NOS, help reduce the State's energy demands as relating to electrical power consumption, improve quality of life within the affected grid area as well as increase the energy efficiency of buildings at our venue. In addition, the potential to reduce operational expenses would have a tremendous effect on the ability of the NOS to service its community.

  4. Full time adult credential students' instructional preferences at California State University, Long Beach: pedagogy orandragogy?

    PubMed

    Wang, Victor

    2004-03-01

    This study investigated the instructional preferences of full time adult credential students after they took a live course called Principles of Adult Education at California State University, Long Beach (CSULB) in the fall semester of 2002. These full time adult credential students had been working on their adult teaching credentials to meet the competencies specified by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. The course introduced students to Andragogy developed by Malcolm Knowles out of the andragogical model developed by Lindeman (1926). The study used Principles of Adult Learning Scales (PALS), advanced by Gary Conti in 1983 to measure instructional preferences. Data were collected from 30 (100% of 30) full time adult credential students enrolled in a live course to determine their instructional preferences of helping adults learn. The results of the study showed in most cases these adult learning professionals taught adult students andragogically; in some cases they taught adult students pedagogically. PMID:14727315

  5. Habitat selection and adult-recruit interactions in Pectinaria koreni (Malmgren) (Annelida: Polychaeta) post-larval populations: Results of flume experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivier, Frédéric; Desroy, Nicolas; Retière, Christian

    1996-12-01

    The fate of recently settled populations of soft-bottom invertebrates depends not only on dispersal of pelagic larvae by tidal currents but also on other physical ( e. g. resuspension) and biological mechanisms ( e.g. habitat selection and adult-recruit interactions) acting at the water-substratum interface. To assess the relative importance of such processes under megatidal conditions in the Abra alba community of the eastern Baie de Seine (English Channel), flume experiments were conducted on post-larvae of the dominant polychaete species, Pectinaria koreni. Habitat selection by post-larvae of P. koreni was determined in a first set of experiments, where individuals were sowed either on a suitable or on an unsuitable substratum. Once resuspended, post-larvae were given a choice between two highly contrasting treatments with a natural organic-rich muddy sand and a bare flat PVC surface. P. koreni post-larvae were able to leave an unfavourable substratum into which they had initially burrowed and reach a more suitable substrate by drifting (induced by the secretion of mucus) before final settlement. The influence of adults on habitat selection and survival of P. koreni post-larvae was analysed in a second set of experiments, where individuals were sowed onto a suitable sediment with adults (test treatment) or without (control treatment). The presence of conspecific adults induced a high resuspension rate of the post-larvae. Drifting occurred mainly just after the introduction of the current and affected the whole experimental population, regardless of size. Such a response seems to be related to the intense bioturbation caused by the sub-surface deposit-feeding habit of the adults, which alters the boundary-layer flow. In contrast, the presence of adults of Owenia fusiformis, another dominant polychaete of the Abra alba community, led to an enhanced recruitment by a reduction in post-larvae resuspension. In fact, at low shear velocities, dense aggregates of tubes

  6. Safety and metabolic outcomes of resveratrol supplementation in older adults: results of a twelve-week, placebo-controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Stephen D.; Embry, Chelsea; Marsiske, Michael; Lud, Xiaomin; Doss, Hani; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Manini, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol has been found to have potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic effects. The safety and efficacy of resveratrol supplementation in older adults are currently unknown. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to examine the safety and metabolic outcomes in 32 overweight, older adults (mean age, 73 ± 7 years). Participants were randomized into one of three treatment groups: (1) placebo, (2) moderate dose resveratrol (300 mg/day), and (3) high dose resveratrol (1000 mg/day). Both resveratrol and placebo were orally ingested in capsule form twice daily for 90 days. Blood chemistry values remained within the normal range, and there were no significant differences in the number of participants reporting adverse events across conditions. Compared to placebo, glucose levels were significantly lower at post-treatment among participants randomized to both resveratrol conditions, with and without adjustment for the corresponding baseline values (ps < 0.05). Glucose values of participants in the treatment groups, however, were not significantly different from baseline levels. These findings suggest that short-term resveratrol supplementation at doses of 300 mg/day and 1000 mg/day does not adversely affect blood chemistries and is well tolerated in overweight, older individuals. These findings support the study of resveratrol for improving cardio-metabolic health in older adults in larger clinical trials. PMID:24866496

  7. Water intoxication in adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Naoya; Ofuji, Sosuke; Abe, Sakae; Tanaka, Ai; Uematsu, Masami; Ogata, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Water intoxication is a common disorder in calves and is usually characterized by transient hemoglobinuria. In contrast, the condition is very rare in adult cattle, with few reports on naturally occurring cases. In the present report, four female Japanese Black cattle, aged 16-25 months, showed neurological signs when they drank water following a water outage. Hemoglobinuria was not grossly observed, while severe hyponatremia was revealed by laboratory tests. Autopsy indicated cerebral edema with accumulation of serous fluid in expanded Virchow-Robin spaces. These results indicate the possibility of water intoxication associated with cerebral edema due to severe dilutional hyponatremia in adult cattle. PMID:27506091

  8. Adult Age Differences in Accessing and Retrieving Information from Long-Term Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petros, Thomas V.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated adult age differences in accessing and retrieving information from long-term memory. Results showed that older adults (N=26) were slower than younger adults (N=35) at feature extraction, lexical access, and accessing category information. The age deficit was proportionally greater when retrieval of category information was required.…

  9. Giant pandas failed to show mirror self-recognition.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaozan; Jin, Yuan; Luo, Bo; Zhang, Guiquan; Wei, Rongping; Liu, Dingzhen

    2015-05-01

    Mirror self-recognition (MSR), i.e., the ability to recognize oneself in a mirror, is considered a potential index of self-recognition and the foundation of individual development. A wealth of literature on MSR is available for social animals, such as chimpanzees, Asian elephants and dolphins, yet little is known about MSR in solitary mammalian species. We aimed to evaluate whether the giant panda can recognize itself in the mirror, and whether this capacity varies with age. Thirty-four captive giant pandas (F:M = 18:16; juveniles, sub-adults and adults) were subjected to four mirror tests: covered mirror tests, open mirror tests, water mark control tests, and mark tests. The results showed that, though adult, sub-adult and juvenile pandas exposed to mirrors spent similar amounts of time in social mirror-directed behaviors (χ(2) = 0.719, P = 0.698), none of them used the mirror to touch the mark on their head, a self-directed behavior suggesting MSR. Individuals of all age groups initially displayed attacking, threatening, foot scraping and backwards walking behaviors when exposed to their self-images in the mirror. Our data indicate that, regardless of age, the giant pandas did not recognize their self-image in the mirror, but instead considered the image to be a conspecific. Our results add to the available information on mirror self-recognition in large mammals, provide new information on a solitary species, and will be useful for enclosure design and captive animal management. PMID:25609263

  10. Early immunotherapy using autologous adult stem cells reversed the effect of anti-pancreatic islets in recently diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus: Preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Mesples, Alejandro; Majeed, Nasir; Zhang, Yun; Hu, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone marrow stem cell treatment has been proven a promising therapeutic strategy and showed significant results given the strong immune modulating properties. We have investigated the safety and efficacy of autologous bone marrow stem cell transplantation through liver puncture in two patients with recently diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus. Material/Methods The procedure was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. In 2011, in three young patients, type 1 diabetes mellitus diagnosis was confirmed, with the presence of positive antibodies and ketoacidosis. Two patients was treated with autologous bone marrow stem cell stimulated with filgrastim and transplantation, through liver puncture, as immune modulators. One patients was treated with conventional treatment and participate in this experiment as a control group. The families of the patients signed the informed consent. No specific statistical analysis was performed. The patients had less than 8 years old, diagnosis of type 1 diabetes for less than 60 days, body mass index less than 22 kg/m2, normal complete blood count, coagulation and renal function, no lesions in target organs, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level less than 13.70%, c-peptide level less than 0.67 ng/ml, positive results of Islets Cells Antibody (ICA), Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GAD) and insulin antibody. Results In two patients treated, the follow up at 12 months showed negative value in ICA, GAD and anti insulin antibody levels, with an increased levels of c peptide and decreased levels of blood glucose and HbA1c. Conclusions Treatment with autologous bone marrow stem cells is easy and effective as it reversed the production and effect of anti pancreatic islet antibody and significantly resulted in an increased c-peptide concentration. PMID:24121994

  11. Neuropsychological status in older adults influences susceptibility to false memories.

    PubMed

    Meade, Michelle L; Geraci, Lisa D; Roediger, Henry L

    2012-01-01

    In 2 experiments we examined the influence of frontal lobe function on older adults' susceptibility to false memory in a categorized list paradigm. Using a neuropsychological battery of tests developed by Glisky, Polster, and Routhieaux (1995), we designated older adults as having high- or low-frontal function. Young and older adults studied and were tested on categorized lists using free report cued recall and forced report cued recall instructions, with the latter requiring participants to produce responses even if they had to guess. Under free report cued recall instructions, frontal lobe function was a strong predictor of false memories in older adults: Older adults who scored low on tests of frontal functioning demonstrated much higher levels of false recall than younger adults, whereas levels of false recall in high-frontal older adults were more similar to those of young adults. However, after forced report cued recall, high- and low-frontal older adults performed similarly to each other, and both demonstrated higher levels of false recall than young adults. On a final recognition test, high-frontal older adults in both the free report cued recall and forced report cued recall conditions were more successful than low-frontal older adults in using source information to reduce memory errors. The results indicate that older adults show higher levels of false recall than younger adults, but type of test (free report or forced report) and neuropsychological status of older adults mediate these effects. Low-frontal older adults are particularly susceptible to producing false memories on free report tests that entail source monitoring. PMID:23350303

  12. Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risk factors and events associated with second-generation antipsychotic compared to antidepressant use in a non-elderly adult sample: results from a claims-based inception cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Correll, Christoph U; Joffe, Benjamin I; Rosen, Lisa M; Sullivan, Timothy B; Joffe, Russell T

    2015-01-01

    This is a study of the metabolic and distal cardiovascular/cerebrovascular outcomes associated with the use of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) compared to antidepressants (ADs) in adults aged 18-65 years, based on data from Thomson Reuters MarketScan® Research Databases 2006-2010, a commercial U.S. claims database. Interventions included clinicians' choice treatment with SGAs (allowing any comedications) versus ADs (not allowing SGAs). The primary outcomes of interest were time to inpatient or outpatient claims for the following diagnoses within one year of SGA or AD discontinuation: hypertension, ischemic and hypertensive heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. Secondary outcomes included the same diagnoses at last follow-up time point, i.e., not censoring observations at 365 days after SGA or AD discontinuation. Cox regression models, adjusted for age, gender, diagnosis of schizophrenia and mood disorders, and number of medical comorbidities, were run. Among 284,234 individuals, those within one year of exposure to SGAs versus ADs showed a higher risk of essential hypertension (adjusted hazard ratio, AHR+1.16, 95% CI: 1.12-1.21, p<0.0001), diabetes mellitus (AHR+1.43, CI: 1.33-1.53, p<0.0001), hypertensive heart disease (AHR+1.34, CI: 1.10-1.63, p<0.01), stroke (AHR+1.46, CI: 1.22-1.75, p<0.0001), coronary artery disease (AHR+1.17, CI: 1.05-1.30, p<0.01), and hyperlipidemia (AHR+1.12, CI: 1.07-1.17, p<0.0001). Unrestricted follow-up results were consistent with within one-year post-exposure results. Increased risk for stroke with SGAs has previously only been demonstrated in elderly patients, usually with dementia. This study documents, for the first time, a significantly increased risk for stroke and coronary artery disease in a non-elderly adult sample with SGA use. We also confirm a significant risk for adverse metabolic outcomes. These findings raise concerns about the longer-term safety of SGAs, given

  13. Building a Tailored, Patient-Guided, Web-Based Self-Management Intervention ‘ReumaUitgedaagd!’ for Adults With a Rheumatic Disease: Results of a Usability Study and Design for a Randomized Control Trail

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Olga K; de Boer-Nijhof, Nienke C; Maat, Bertha; Kruize, Aike A; van Laar, Jaap; van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; Geenen, Rinie

    2016-01-01

    Background The chronic nature of rheumatic diseases imposes daily challenges upon those affected and causes patients to make daily decisions about the way they self-manage their illness. Although there is attention to self-management and evidence for the desirability of tailored interventions to support people with a rheumatic disease, interventions based on individual needs and preferences are scarce. Objective To provide a systematic and comprehensive description of the theoretical considerations for building a Web-based, expert, patient-guided, and tailored intervention for adult patients with a rheumatic disease. Also, to present the results of a usability study on the feasibility of this intervention, and its study design in order to measure the effectiveness. Methods To fit the intervention closely to the autonomy, needs, and preferences of the individual patient, a research team comprising patient representatives, health professionals, Web technicians, and communication experts was formed. The research team followed the new guidance by the Medical Research Council (MRC) for developing and evaluating complex interventions as a guide for the design of the intervention. Results Considerations from self-determination theory and a comprehensive assessment of preferences and needs in patients with a rheumatic disease guided the development of the Web-based intervention. The usability study showed that the intervention was useful, easy to use, and accepted and appreciated by the target group of patients. The planned randomized controlled trial is designed to be conducted among 120 adults with a rheumatic disease, who are assigned to the self-management intervention or a self-help control group. Both groups will be asked to formulate personal goals they want to achieve concerning their self-management. Progress toward the personal goal is the primary outcome measure of this study. Self-reported Web-based measures will be assessed before randomization at baseline

  14. Immunogenicity and safety results from a randomized multicenter trial comparing a Tdap-IPV vaccine (REPEVAX®) and a tetanus monovalent vaccine in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Laurichesse, Henri; Zimmermann, Ulrich; Galtier, Florence; Launay, Odile; Duval, Xavier; Richard, Patrick; Sadorge, Christine; Soubeyrand, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    In adults with a tetanus-prone injury, combined vaccines such as Tdap-IPV (REPEVAX®) can boost immunity against several diseases simultaneously. This Phase IIIb, parallel-group, open-label trial compared antibody responses to Tdap-IPV and tetanus monovalent vaccine (TMV; Vaccin Tétanique Pasteur® or Tetavax®) against tetanus toxoid 10 and 28 d post-vaccination. Between July and December 2009, four centers in France and five in Germany recruited healthy adults who had received a tetanus-containing vaccine 5−10 y previously. Participants were randomized 1:1 to receive at the first visit a single dose (0.5 mL) of Tdap-IPV or TMV, with follow-up visits at Day 10 and Day 28. Outcomes: per protocol (PP) population immunogenicity at Day 10 (primary) and at Day 28 (secondary); safety throughout the study. Of 456 adults randomized, 223 received Tdap-IPV and 233 received TMV (PP population: 183 and 199 participants, respectively). All participants receiving Tdap-IPV and 99.0% receiving TMV had an anti-tetanus antibody concentration ≥ 0.1 IU/mL, confirming non-inferiority of Tdap-IPV to TMV (95% confidence interval of the difference: –1.2, 3.6). Number of adverse events reported was comparable in each group. Injection-site reactions were reported by 76.6% participants receiving Tdap-IPV and 74.6% receiving TMV. Systemic events (e.g., malaise, myalgia and headache) were reported in 47.7% and 39.7% of the Tdap-IPV and the TMV groups, respectively. Tdap-IPV is effective and well-tolerated for use in the management of tetanus-prone injuries in emergency settings in persons for whom a booster against diphtheria, pertussis and poliomyelitis is also needed. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00928785. Research sponsored by Sanofi Pasteur MSD. PMID:23032160

  15. Central nervous system involvement in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia at diagnosis: results from the international ALL trial MRC UKALL XII/ECOG E2993

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Hillard M.; Richards, Susan M.; Chopra, Raj; Litzow, Mark R.; Burnett, Alan K.; Wiernik, Peter H.; Franklin, Ian M.; Tallman, Martin S.; Cook, Lucy; Buck, Georgina; Durrant, I. Jill; Rowe, Jacob M.; Goldstone, Anthony H.

    2006-01-01

    Outcome of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in adults with central nervous system (CNS) disease at diagnosis is unclear. We treated 1508 de novo ALL patients with 2-phase induction and then high-dose methotrexate with l-asparaginase. Patients up to 50 years old in first remission (CR1) with a matched related donor (MRD) underwent an allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT); the remainder in CR1 were randomized to an autologous SCT or intensive consolidation followed by maintenance chemotherapy. Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)–positive patients were offered a matched unrelated donor (MUD) allogeneic SCT. Seventy-seven of 1508 (5%) patients a median age of 29 years had CNS leukemia at presentation; 13 of the 77 (17%) had Ph-positive ALL. Sixty-nine of 77 (90%) patients attained CR1. Thirty-six patients underwent transplantation in CR1 (25 MRD, 5 MUD, and 6 autografts). Eleven of 25 patients with MRD transplantation remain alive at 21 to 102 months, 2 of 5 with MUD at 42 and 71 months, and 1 of 6 with autologous SCT at 35 months. Seven of 27 treated with consolidation/maintenance remain in CR1 56 to 137 months after diagnosis. Overall survival at 5 years was 29% in those with CNS involvement at diagnosis versus 38% (P = .03) for those without. CNS leukemia in adult ALL is uncommon at diagnosis. Adult Ph-negative ALL patients, however, can attain long-term disease-free survival using SCT as well as conventional chemotherapy. PMID:16556888

  16. Differences by race/ethnicity in older adults' beliefs about the relative importance of dietary supplements vs prescription medications: results from the SURE Study.

    PubMed

    Albright, Cheryl L; Schembre, Susan M; Steffen, Alana D; Wilkens, Lynne R; Monroe, Kristine R; Yonemori, Kim M; Murphy, Suzanne P

    2012-08-01

    Dietary supplement use is widespread among adults across races/ethnicities, yet reasons for use can vary across these groups. The Supplement Reporting (SURE) study quantified dietary supplement use and reasons for taking supplements in a multiethnic sample of adults who took at least one supplement. This study explored sociodemographic differences, including by race/ethnicity, associated with specific reasons/motivations for taking dietary supplements, including perceived importance of taking supplements relative to prescription medications. The study time period was March 2005 to August 2006. Participants (n=397) were older adults (ages 52 to 88 years) recruited from the Multiethnic Cohort Study in Hawaii and Los Angeles, CA, with equal representation of males and females from six ethnic groups (ie, white, Japanese American, Native Hawaiian, African American, US-born Latino, and foreign-born Latino). Subgroups of participants were compared by χ(2) tests and logistic regression. The most common reasons for taking supplements were to maintain a healthy life, because they were recommended by a health professional, and to prevent a disease/medical problem. A majority (76%) of participants reported that their dietary supplements were as important as prescription medications, with foreign-born Latinos and Japanese Americans being most likely to state this belief. The relative importance of supplements was not associated with excessive use, but 27% of participants exceeded the upper limit for a nutrient. It is crucial for health professionals to better understand why individuals take supplements and the importance that they attach to their use. This information could lead to better monitoring and education efforts to prevent overuse of supplements and possible interactions with medications. PMID:22818730

  17. A randomized controlled trial of brain training with non-action video games in older adults: results of the 3-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia; Prieto, Antonio; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Laura, Ponce de León; Reales, José M.; Waterworth, John A.

    2015-01-01

    This randomized controlled study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02007616) investigated the maintenance of training effects of 20 1-hr non-action video game training sessions with selected games from a commercial package on several age-declining cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing after a 3-month no-contact period. Two groups of cognitively normal older adults participated in both the post-training (posttest) and the present follow-up study, the experimental group who received training and the control group who attended several meetings with the research team during the study but did not receive training. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. Significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group had been previously found at posttest, in processing speed, attention and visual recognition memory, as well as in two dimensions of subjective wellbeing. In the current study, improvement from baseline to 3 months follow-up was found only in wellbeing (Affection and Assertivity dimensions) in the trained group whereas there was no change in the control group. Previous significant improvements in processing speed, attention and spatial memory become non-significant after the 3-month interval. Training older adults with non-action video games enhanced aspects of cognition just after training but this effect disappeared after a 3-month no-contact follow-up period. Cognitive plasticity can be induced in older adults by training, but to maintain the benefits periodic boosting sessions would be necessary. PMID:25926790

  18. A randomized controlled trial of brain training with non-action video games in older adults: results of the 3-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia; Prieto, Antonio; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Laura, Ponce de León; Reales, José M; Waterworth, John A

    2015-01-01

    This randomized controlled study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02007616) investigated the maintenance of training effects of 20 1-hr non-action video game training sessions with selected games from a commercial package on several age-declining cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing after a 3-month no-contact period. Two groups of cognitively normal older adults participated in both the post-training (posttest) and the present follow-up study, the experimental group who received training and the control group who attended several meetings with the research team during the study but did not receive training. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. Significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group had been previously found at posttest, in processing speed, attention and visual recognition memory, as well as in two dimensions of subjective wellbeing. In the current study, improvement from baseline to 3 months follow-up was found only in wellbeing (Affection and Assertivity dimensions) in the trained group whereas there was no change in the control group. Previous significant improvements in processing speed, attention and spatial memory become non-significant after the 3-month interval. Training older adults with non-action video games enhanced aspects of cognition just after training but this effect disappeared after a 3-month no-contact follow-up period. Cognitive plasticity can be induced in older adults by training, but to maintain the benefits periodic boosting sessions would be necessary. PMID:25926790

  19. Adult Education in Cohesion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenson, Kjell

    2003-01-01

    International Adult Literacy Survey data show the average adult education participation in Nordic countries is 14% higher than in other industrialized nations. Public support for participation of the disadvantaged, an active labor market policy, and popular education are key characteristics. (Contains 37 references.) (Author/JOW)

  20. Blame Conformity: Innocent Bystanders Can Be Blamed for a Crime as a Result of Misinformation from a Young, but Not Elderly, Adult Co-Witness

    PubMed Central

    Thorley, Craig

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether or not exposing an eyewitness to a co-witness statement that incorrectly blames an innocent bystander for a crime can increase the likelihood of the eyewitness subsequently blaming the innocent bystander for the crime. It also examined whether or not the perceived age of the co-witness influences this effect. Participant eyewitnesses first watched a video of a crime featuring a perpetrator and an innocent bystander. They then read one of six bogus co-witness statements about the crime. All were presented as having been written by a female co-witness and they differed in terms of her age (young adult or elderly) and who she blamed for the crime (the perpetrator, the innocent bystander, or nobody). One week later the participants were asked who committed the crime. When the young adult co-witness had blamed the innocent bystander just over 40% of participants subsequently did the same. Few participants (less than 8%) in the other conditions subsequently blamed the innocent bystander. The elderly co-witness was also rated as less credible, less competent, and less accurate than the younger co-witness suggesting eyewitnesses were less likely to be influenced by her incorrect statement as they perceived her to be a less reliable source of information. The applied implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26230523

  1. Do changes in neighborhood and household levels of smoking and deprivation result in changes in individual smoking behavior? A large-scale longitudinal study of New Zealand adults.

    PubMed

    Ivory, Vivienne C; Blakely, Tony; Richardson, Ken; Thomson, George; Carter, Kristie

    2015-09-01

    Health behavior takes place within social contexts. In this study, we investigated whether changes in exposure to neighborhood deprivation and smoking prevalence and to household smoking were associated with change in personal smoking behavior. Three waves of biannual data collection (2004-2009) in a New Zealand longitudinal study, the Survey of Family, Income and Employment (SoFIE)-Health, were used, with 13,815 adults (persons aged ≥15 years) contributing to the analyses. Smoking status was dichotomized as current smoking versus never/ex-smoking. Fixed-effects regression analyses removed time-invariant confounding and adjusted for time-varying covariates (neighborhood smoking prevalence and deprivation, household smoking, labor force status, income, household tenure, and family status). A between-wave decile increase in neighborhood deprivation was significantly associated with increased odds of smoking (odds ratio (OR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 1.14), but a between-wave increase in neighborhood smoking prevalence was not (OR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.10). Changing household exposures between waves to live with another smoker (compared with a nonsmoker (referent)) increased the odds of smoking (OR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.84, 3.34), as did changing to living in a sole-adult household (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.14). Tobacco control policies and programs should address the broader household and neighborhood circumstances within which individual smoking takes place. PMID:26271117

  2. The Role of Patient Activation in Preferences for Shared Decision Making: Results From a National Survey of U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Samuel G.; Pandit, Anjali; Rush, Steven R.; Wolf, Michael S.; Simon, Carol J.

    2016-01-01

    Studies investigating preferences for shared decision making (SDM) have focused on associations with sociodemographic variables, with few investigations exploring patient factors. We aimed to investigate the relationship between patient activation and preferences for SDM in 6 common medical decisions among a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of American adults. Adults older than 18 were recruited online (n = 2,700) and by telephone (n = 700). Respondents completed sociodemographic assessments and the Patient Activation Measure. They were also asked whether they perceived benefit (yes/no) in SDM in 6 common medical decisions. Nearly half of the sample (45.9%) reached the highest level of activation (Level 4). Activation was associated with age (p < .001), higher income (p = .001), higher education (p = .010), better self-rated health (p < .001), and fewer chronic conditions (p = .050). The proportion of people who agreed that SDM was beneficial varied from 53.1% (deciding the necessity of a diagnostic test) to 71.8% (decisions associated with making lifestyle changes). After we controlled for participant characteristics, higher activation was associated with greater perceived benefit in SDM across 4 of the 6 decisions. Preferences for SDM varied among 6 common medical scenarios. Low patient activation is an important barrier to SDM that could be ameliorated through the development of behavioral interventions. PMID:26313690

  3. Typical food portion sizes consumed by Australian adults: results from the 2011-12 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Miaobing; Wu, Jason H Y; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Flood, Victoria M; Gill, Tim; Thomas, Beth; Cleanthous, Xenia; Neal, Bruce; Rangan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Considerable evidence has associated increasing portion sizes with elevated obesity prevalence. This study examines typical portion sizes of commonly consumed core and discretionary foods in Australian adults, and compares these data with the Australian Dietary Guidelines standard serves. Typical portion sizes are defined as the median amount of foods consumed per eating occasion. Sex- and age-specific median portion sizes of adults aged 19 years and over (n = 9341) were analysed using one day 24 hour recall data from the 2011-12 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. A total of 152 food categories were examined. There were significant sex and age differences in typical portion sizes among a large proportion of food categories studied. Typical portion sizes of breads and cereals, meat and chicken cuts, and starchy vegetables were 30-160% larger than the standard serves, whereas, the portion sizes of dairy products, some fruits, and non-starchy vegetables were 30-90% smaller. Typical portion sizes for discretionary foods such as cakes, ice-cream, sausages, hamburgers, pizza, and alcoholic drinks exceeded the standard serves by 40-400%. The findings of the present study are particularly relevant for establishing Australian-specific reference portions for dietary assessment tools, refinement of nutrition labelling and public health policies. PMID:26786684

  4. Blame Conformity: Innocent Bystanders Can Be Blamed for a Crime as a Result of Misinformation from a Young, but Not Elderly, Adult Co-Witness.

    PubMed

    Thorley, Craig

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether or not exposing an eyewitness to a co-witness statement that incorrectly blames an innocent bystander for a crime can increase the likelihood of the eyewitness subsequently blaming the innocent bystander for the crime. It also examined whether or not the perceived age of the co-witness influences this effect. Participant eyewitnesses first watched a video of a crime featuring a perpetrator and an innocent bystander. They then read one of six bogus co-witness statements about the crime. All were presented as having been written by a female co-witness and they differed in terms of her age (young adult or elderly) and who she blamed for the crime (the perpetrator, the innocent bystander, or nobody). One week later the participants were asked who committed the crime. When the young adult co-witness had blamed the innocent bystander just over 40% of participants subsequently did the same. Few participants (less than 8%) in the other conditions subsequently blamed the innocent bystander. The elderly co-witness was also rated as less credible, less competent, and less accurate than the younger co-witness suggesting eyewitnesses were less likely to be influenced by her incorrect statement as they perceived her to be a less reliable source of information. The applied implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26230523

  5. Typical food portion sizes consumed by Australian adults: results from the 2011–12 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Miaobing; Wu, Jason H Y; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Flood, Victoria M; Gill, Tim; Thomas, Beth; Cleanthous, Xenia; Neal, Bruce; Rangan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Considerable evidence has associated increasing portion sizes with elevated obesity prevalence. This study examines typical portion sizes of commonly consumed core and discretionary foods in Australian adults, and compares these data with the Australian Dietary Guidelines standard serves. Typical portion sizes are defined as the median amount of foods consumed per eating occasion. Sex- and age-specific median portion sizes of adults aged 19 years and over (n = 9341) were analysed using one day 24 hour recall data from the 2011–12 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. A total of 152 food categories were examined. There were significant sex and age differences in typical portion sizes among a large proportion of food categories studied. Typical portion sizes of breads and cereals, meat and chicken cuts, and starchy vegetables were 30–160% larger than the standard serves, whereas, the portion sizes of dairy products, some fruits, and non-starchy vegetables were 30–90% smaller. Typical portion sizes for discretionary foods such as cakes, ice-cream, sausages, hamburgers, pizza, and alcoholic drinks exceeded the standard serves by 40–400%. The findings of the present study are particularly relevant for establishing Australian-specific reference portions for dietary assessment tools, refinement of nutrition labelling and public health policies. PMID:26786684

  6. [Social inequities regarding annoyance to noise and road traffic intensity: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    PubMed

    Laussmann, D; Haftenberger, M; Lampert, T; Scheidt-Nave, C

    2013-05-01

    To study the associations of annoyance to noise and exposure to residential traffic with sociodemographic, socioeconomic and regional characteristics as well as housing conditions, a population-based sample of 7,988 adults 18-79 years of age was studied in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1). Annoyance to noise and exposure to residential traffic were assessed by self-administered questionnaires. A total of 6.3 % of the participants reported a high to very high exposure to residential traffic noise, 3.7 % to neighbourhood noise and 2.1 % to aircraft noise. An excessive exposure to residential traffic was reported by 21.3 % of the participants. A high annoyance to traffic and neighborhood noise was associated with a lower equivalised disposable income and poor housing conditions. Additionally annoyance to neighborhood noise was associated with low socioeconomic and occupational status. A high annoyance to aircraft noise was only associated with a low equivalised disposable income and living in apartment blocks. Exposure to residential traffic was associated with all investigated indicators. At present in Germany environmental exposures are social unequally distributed and may lead to negative health consequences in social disadvantaged groups. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental. PMID:23703504

  7. The association between dietary glycemic index, glycemic load and diet quality indices in Iranian adults: results from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program.

    PubMed

    Azadbakht, Leila; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Akhavanzanjani, Mohsen; Taheri, Marzieh; Golshahi, Jafar; Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh

    2016-01-01

    To assess the association between dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL) and dietary quality indices in Iranian adults. This cross section was conducted among 1571 Iranian adults aged  ≥19 years. GI, GL and diet quality indices were estimated by 24-h recall and DDS was calculated using a validated 48-item food frequency questionnaire. Participants who were in the top tertile of GI had lower healthy eating index (HEI) (57.2 ± 7.8 versus 55.6 ± 8.7; p < 0.001), dietary diversity score (DDS) (3.6 ± 0.9 versus 3.3 ± 1.1; p < 0.001) and nutrient adequacy ratios (NARs) for Zn, Ca, vitamin C and B2. Individuals in the lowest tertile of GL had lower HEI, MAR and NARs for Zn, vitamin B2, B3, B6, B12, vitamin D. Both GI and GL were positively related to dietary diversity score (DED) (p < 0.001). The inverse associations for GI and GL with diet quality indices may suggest the relevance of carbohydrate source in determining the diet quality indices. PMID:26915989

  8. Health Literacy, Social Support, and Health Status among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Arozullah, Ahsan M.; Cho, Young Ik; Crittenden, Kathleen; Vicencio, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The study examines whether social support interacts with health literacy in affecting the health status of older adults. Health literacy is assessed using the short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Social support is measured with the Medical Outcome Study social support scale. Results show, unexpectedly, that rather…

  9. Project Open-Out: Adult Basic Education: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Elva M.

    A project in adult basic education was established in the Model Neighborhood of Wilmington, Delaware. A delivery system of services using paraprofessionals was created to give eligible adults individualized instruction in their home or a nearby center. The results showed that most of the project enrollment and performance objectives were met. Data…

  10. Optimising prescription and titration of oxygen for adult inpatients using novel silicone wristbands: results of a pilot project at three centres.

    PubMed

    Forster, Sarah; Smith, Sue; Daniel, Priya; Binnion, Amy; Briggs, Lucy; Evans, Rachel; Ryanna, Kimuli; Woltmann, Gerrit; Bajammal, Omar; Hodgson, David; Saini, Gauri; Scullion, Jane; Bolton, Charlotte E; Lowrey, Gillian

    2016-08-01

    Oxygen is the most commonly used drug in the acute hospital setting. Oxygen can be lifesaving but there is increasing evidence that it can cause harm if it is not given correctly. Prescription of oxygen, according to target saturations, has been advocated since 2008 but compliance remains at low levels. This paper describes a novel approach to improve oxygen prescription and titration in three acute hospital trusts using a colour-coded silicone wristband. The project ran for 3 months and covered more than 2,000 emergency admissions to hospital. Data was collected for oxygen prescription and titration rates for 270 patients during the project period. The wristbands showed an improvement in prescription and titration of oxygen in two out of three sites. The results support a wider controlled study of colour-coded wristbands to improve oxygen safety in secondary care. PMID:27481375

  11. Natural experience modulates the processing of older adult faces in young adults and 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Valentina; Pisacane, Antonella; Macchi Cassia, Viola

    2013-01-01

    Just like other face dimensions, age influences the way faces are processed by adults as well as by children. However, it remains unclear under what conditions exactly such influence occurs at both ages, in that there is some mixed evidence concerning the presence of a systematic processing advantage for peer faces (own-age bias) across the lifespan. Inconsistency in the results may stem from the fact that the individual's face representation adapts to represent the most predominant age traits of the faces present in the environment, which is reflective of the individual's specific living conditions and social experience. In the current study we investigated the processing of younger and older adult faces in two groups of adults (Experiment 1) and two groups of 3-year-old children (Experiment 2) who accumulated different amounts of experience with elderly people. Contact with elderly adults influenced the extent to which both adult and child participants showed greater discrimination abilities and stronger sensitivity to configural/featural cues in younger versus older adult faces, as measured by the size of the inversion effect. In children, the size of the inversion effect for older adult faces was also significantly correlated with the amount of contact with elderly people. These results show that, in both adults and children, visual experience with older adult faces can tune perceptual processing strategies to the point of abolishing the discrimination disadvantage that participants typically manifest for those faces in comparison to younger adult faces. PMID:23460867

  12. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure, Adaptive Function, and Entry into Adult Roles in a Prospective Study of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Mary Ellen; Kable, Julie A.; Coles, Claire D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although many studies have demonstrated effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on physical, cognitive, and behavioral development in children, few have focused on the long term effects on adults. In this study, data are presented on adaptive function and entry into adult roles in a community sample of young adults with PAE. The expectation was that prenatally exposed adults would show lower adaptive functioning and more difficulty with entry into adult roles than the non-exposed control group and that these effects would be related to the severity of PAE effects. Method The predominantly African-American, low income sample included adults with a wide range of prenatal exposure (n = 123) as well as control groups for socioeconomic (SES) (n = 59) and disability (n = 54) status. The mothers of the alcohol-exposed and SES-control group participants were recruited before birth and offspring have been followed up periodically. The disability control group was recruited in adolescence. The adults were interviewed about adaptive function in day-to-day life and adult role entry. Collateral adults who were well-acquainted with each participant were interviewed concerning adaptive function. Results Results showed that adults who were dysmorphic and/or cognitively affected by PAE had difficulty with adaptive function and entry into adult roles. Males showing cognitive effects with no physical effects were the most severely affected. Results for exposed adults not showing physical or cognitive effects were similar to or more positive than those of the control group for most outcomes. Conclusion PAE has long-term effects on adaptive outcomes in early adulthood. Additional research should focus on possible interventions at this transition and on factors contributing to the adjustment of the exposed, but unaffected participants. PMID:26247662

  13. Successful Up-Scaled Population Interventions to Reduce Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Disease in Adults: Results from the International Community Interventions for Health (CIH) Project in China, India and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Dyson, Pamela A.; Anthony, Denis; Fenton, Brenda; Stevens, Denise E.; Champagne, Beatriz; Li, Li-Ming; Lv, Jun; Ramírez Hernández, Jorge; Thankappan, K. R.; Matthews, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-communicable disease (NCD) is increasing rapidly in low and middle-income countries (LMIC), and is associated with tobacco use, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. There is little evidence for up-scaled interventions at the population level to reduce risk in LMIC. Methods The Community Interventions for Health (CIH) program was a population-scale community intervention study with comparator population group undertaken in communities in China, India, and Mexico, each with populations between 150,000-250,000. Culturally appropriate interventions were delivered over 18-24 months. Two independent cross-sectional surveys of a stratified sample of adults aged 18-64 years were conducted at baseline and follow-up. Results A total of 6,194 adults completed surveys at baseline, and 6,022 at follow-up. The proportion meeting physical activity recommendations decreased significantly in the control group (C) (44.1 to 30.2%), but not in the intervention group (I) (38.0 to 36.1%), p<0.001. Those eating ≥5 portions of fruit and vegetables daily decreased significantly in C (19.2 to 17.2%), but did not change in I (20.0 to 19.6%,), p=0.013. The proportion adding salt to food was unchanged in C (24.9 to 25.3%) and decreased in I (25.9 to 19.6%), p<0.001. Prevalence of obesity increased in C (8.3 to 11.2%), with no change in I (8.6 to 9.7%,) p=0.092. Concerning tobacco, for men the difference-in-difference analysis showed that the reduction in use was significantly greater in I compared to C (p=0.014) Conclusions Up-scaling known health promoting interventions designed to reduce the incidence of NCD in whole communities in LMIC is feasible, and has measurable beneficial outcomes on risk factors for NCD, namely tobacco use, diet, and physical inactivity. PMID:25875825

  14. Career and Technical Education: Show Us the Buck, We'll Show You the Bang!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whetstone, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Adult and CTE programs in California have been cut by about 60 percent over the past three years. A number of school districts have summarily eliminated these programs to preserve funding for other educational endeavors. The author says part of the problem has been the community's inability to communicate quantifiable results. One of the hottest…

  15. VIEW SHOWING WEST ELEVATION, EAST SIDE OF MEYER AVENUE. SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SHOWING WEST ELEVATION, EAST SIDE OF MEYER AVENUE. SHOWS 499-501, MUNOZ HOUSE (AZ-73-37) ON FAR RIGHT - Antonio Bustamente House, 485-489 South Meyer Avenue & 186 West Kennedy Street, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  16. 15. Detail showing lower chord pinconnected to vertical member, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail showing lower chord pin-connected to vertical member, showing floor beam riveted to extension of vertical member below pin-connection, and showing brackets supporting cantilevered sidewalk. View to southwest. - Selby Avenue Bridge, Spanning Short Line Railways track at Selby Avenue between Hamline & Snelling Avenues, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  17. A bivalent Neisseria meningitidis recombinant lipidated factor H binding protein vaccine in young adults: results of a randomised, controlled, dose-escalation phase 1 trial.

    PubMed

    Richmond, P C; Nissen, M D; Marshall, H S; Lambert, S B; Roberton, D; Gruber, W C; Jones, T R; Arora, A

    2012-09-21

    Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of meningitis and septicaemia, but a broadly-protective vaccine against endemic serogroup B disease is not licensed and available. The conserved, outer-membrane lipoprotein factor H binding protein (fHBP, also known as LP2086) is expressed as one of two subfamily variants in virtually all meningococci. This study investigated the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a recombinant-expressed bivalent fHBP (r-fHBP) vaccine in healthy adults. Participants (N=103) aged 18-25 years were recruited into three ascending dose level cohorts of 20, 60, and 200μg of a bivalent r-fHBP vaccine formulation and randomised to receive vaccine or placebo at 0, 1, and 6 months. The vaccine was well tolerated. Geometric mean titres (GMTs) for r-fHBP subfamily-specific IgG antibodies increased 19-168-fold from pre-vaccination to post-dose 2 in a dose level-dependent manner. In addition, robust serum bactericidal assay using human complement (hSBA) responses for strains expressing both homologous and heterologous fHBP variants were observed. After three vaccinations, 16-52% of the placebo group and 47-90%, 75-100%, and 88-100%, of the 20, 60, and 200μg dose levels, respectively, had seroprotective (≥ 1:4) hSBA titres against six serogroup B strains. The bivalent r-fHBP vaccine was well tolerated and induced robust bactericidal activity against six diverse serogroup B strains in young adults at the 60 and 200μg dose levels. PMID:22871351

  18. Bacteremia as a Cause of Fever in Ambulatory, HIV-Infected Mozambican Adults: Results and Policy Implications from a Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Troy D.; Silva, Wilson P.; Buene, Manuel; Morais, Luís; Valverde, Emilio; Vermund, Sten H.; Brentlinger, Paula E.

    2013-01-01

    Fever is typically treated empirically in rural Mozambique. We examined the distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacterial pathogens isolated from blood-culture specimens, and clinical characteristics of ambulatory HIV-infected febrile patients with and without bacteremia. This analysis was nested within a larger prospective observational study to evaluate the performance of new Mozambican guidelines for fever and anemia in HIV-infected adults (clinical trial registration NCT01681914, www.clinicaltrials.gov); the guidelines were designed to be used by non-physician clinicians who attended ambulatory HIV-infected patients in very resource-constrained peripheral health units. In 2012 (April-September), we recruited 258 HIV-infected adults with documented fever or history of recent fever in three sites within Zambézia Province, Mozambique. Although febrile patients were routinely tested for malaria, blood culture capacity was unavailable in Zambézia prior to study initiation. We confirmed bacteremia in 39 (15.1%) of 258 patients. The predominant organisms were non-typhoid Salmonella, nearly all resistant to multiple first-line antibiotics (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole). Features most associated with bacteremia included higher temperature, lower CD4+ T-lymphocyte count, lower hemoglobin, and headache. Introduction of blood cultures allowed us to: 1) confirm bacteremia in a substantial proportion of patients; 2) tailor specific antimicrobial therapy for confirmed bacteremia based on known susceptibilities; 3) make informed choices of presumptive antibiotics for patients with suspected bacteremia; and 4) construct a preliminary clinical profile to help clinicians determine who would most likely benefit from presumptive bacteremia treatment. Our findings demonstrate that in resource-limited settings, there is urgent need to expand local microbiologic capacity to better identify and treat cases of bacteremia in HIV

  19. Adult Compacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This bulletin focuses on adult compacts, three-way agreements among employers, potential employees, and trainers to provide the right kind of quality training to meet the employers' requirements. Part 1 is an executive summary of a report of the Adult Compacts Project, which studied three adult compacts in Birmingham and Loughborough, England, and…

  20. Do Web-based Mental Health Literacy Interventions Improve the Mental Health Literacy of Adult Consumers? Results From a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Antoniades, Josefine

    2016-01-01

    Background Low levels of mental health literacy (MHL) have been identified as an important contributor to the mental health treatment gap. Interventions to improve MHL have used traditional media (eg, community talks, print media) and new platforms (eg, the Internet). Evaluations of interventions using conventional media show improvements in MHL improve community recognition of mental illness as well as knowledge, attitude, and intended behaviors toward people having mental illness. However, the potential of new media, such as the Internet, to enhance MHL has yet to be systematically evaluated. Objective Study aims were twofold: (1) To systematically appraise the efficacy of Web-based interventions in improving MHL. (2) To establish if increases in MHL translated into improvement in individual health seeking and health outcomes as well as reductions in stigma toward people with mental illness. Methods We conducted a systematic search and appraisal of all original research published between 2000 and 2015 that evaluated Web-based interventions to improve MHL. The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines were used to report findings. Results Fourteen studies were included: 10 randomized controlled trials and 4 quasi-experimental studies. Seven studies were conducted in Australia. A variety of Web-based interventions were identified ranging from linear, static websites to highly interactive interventions such as social media games. Some Web-based interventions were specifically designed for people living with mental illness whereas others were applicable to the general population. Interventions were more likely to be successful if they included “active ingredients” such as a structured program, were tailored to specific populations, delivered evidenced-based content, and promoted interactivity and experiential learning. Conclusions Web-based interventions targeting MHL are more likely to be successful if they include

  1. Mosquito, adult (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This illustration shows an adult southern house mosquito. This mosquito feeds on blood and is the carrier of many diseases, such as encephalitis, West Nile, dengue fever, yellow fever, and others. ( ...

  2. Results of a Culturally Adapted Internet-Enhanced Physical Activity Pilot Intervention for Overweight and Obese Young Adult African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Rodney P.; Pekmezi, Dori; Dutton, Gareth R.; Cherrington, Andrea L.; Kim, Young-II; Allison, Jeroan J.; Durant, Nefertiti H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated a culturally relevant, social cognitive theory–based, Internet-enhanced physical activity (PA) pilot intervention developed for overweight/obese African American (AA) female college students. Design Using a 3-month, single group, pretest–posttest design, participants accessed a culturally relevant PA promotion website and engaged in four moderate-intensity PA sessions each week. Results Study completers (n = 25, mean age = 21.9 years) reported a decrease in sedentary screen time (p < .0001); however, no changes in moderate-to-vigorous PA were reported (p = .150). A significant increase in self-regulation for PA (p < .0001) and marginally significant increases in social support (p = .052) and outcome expectations (p = .057) for PA were observed. No changes in body mass index (p = .162), PA enjoyment (p = .151), or exercise self-efficacy (p = .086) were reported. Conclusions Findings of this exploratory study show some preliminary support for Internet-enhanced approaches to promote PA among overweight/obese AA women. Implications for Practice Future studies with larger samples are needed to further explore culturally relevant Internet-enhanced PA programs in this underserved population. PMID:24934566

  3. 28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS LINCOLN BOULEVARD, BIG LOST RIVER, AND NAVAL REACTORS FACILITY. F.C. TORKELSON DRAWING NUMBER 842-ARVFS-101-2. DATED OCTOBER 12, 1965. INEL INDEX CODE NUMBER: 075 0101 851 151969. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. 8. Detail showing concrete abutment, showing substructure of bridge, specifically ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail showing concrete abutment, showing substructure of bridge, specifically west side of arch and substructure. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  5. Pea Plants Show Risk Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Dener, Efrat; Kacelnik, Alex; Shemesh, Hagai

    2016-07-11

    Sensitivity to variability in resources has been documented in humans, primates, birds, and social insects, but the fit between empirical results and the predictions of risk sensitivity theory (RST), which aims to explain this sensitivity in adaptive terms, is weak [1]. RST predicts that agents should switch between risk proneness and risk aversion depending on state and circumstances, especially according to the richness of the least variable option [2]. Unrealistic assumptions about agents' information processing mechanisms and poor knowledge of the extent to which variability imposes specific selection in nature are strong candidates to explain the gap between theory and data. RST's rationale also applies to plants, where it has not hitherto been tested. Given the differences between animals' and plants' information processing mechanisms, such tests should help unravel the conflicts between theory and data. Measuring root growth allocation by split-root pea plants, we show that they favor variability when mean nutrient levels are low and the opposite when they are high, supporting the most widespread RST prediction. However, the combination of non-linear effects of nitrogen availability at local and systemic levels may explain some of these effects as a consequence of mechanisms not necessarily evolved to cope with variance [3, 4]. This resembles animal examples in which properties of perception and learning cause risk sensitivity even though they are not risk adaptations [5]. PMID:27374342

  6. Beneficial effects of citrus juice fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 on atopic dermatitis: results of daily intake by adult patients in two open trials

    PubMed Central

    HARIMA-MIZUSAWA, Naomi; KAMACHI, Keiko; KANO, Mitsuyoshi; NOZAKI, Daisuke; UETAKE, Tatsuo; YOKOMIZO, Yuji; NAGINO, Takayuki; TANAKA, Akira; MIYAZAKI, Kouji; NAKAMURA, Shinichiro

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether daily intake of citrus juice containing heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 (LP0132-fermented juice) alleviates symptoms of atopic dermatitis. This was a natural extension of our previous study in which LP0132 was shown to enhance IL-10 production in vitro and LP0132-fermented juice was found to alleviate symptoms and enhance quality of life (QOL) in patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis. In two open trials, Trial 1 and Trial 2, 32 and 18 adult patients with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis consumed LP0132-fermented juice for 8 weeks. Skin conditions and QOL were subjectively evaluated using Skindex-16 before intake of the juice (Pre-treatment), 8 weeks after starting intake (Treatment) and 8 weeks after termination of intake (Post-treatment). Blood parameters were also analyzed. Comparison of the Treatment and Post-treatment time points with the Pre-treatment time point revealed significant reductions in the Skindex-16 overall score and the 3 domain subscores (symptoms, emotions, and functioning domains) in both trials. Moreover, blood levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and specific IgEs for Japanese cedar and cypress pollen were significantly attenuated in Trial 2. The findings suggest that daily intake of citrus fermented juice containing heat-killed LP0132 has beneficial effects on symptoms and QOL in patients with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis due to an immunomodulatory effect via attenuation of IgE and ECP. PMID:26858928

  7. Reporting Errors in Siblings’ Survival Histories and Their Impact on Adult Mortality Estimates: Results From a Record Linkage Study in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Helleringer, Stéphane; Pison, Gilles; Kanté, Almamy M.; Duthé, Géraldine; Andro, Armelle

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of adult mortality in countries with limited vital registration (e.g., sub-Saharan Africa) are often derived from information about the survival of a respondent’s siblings. We evaluated the completeness and accuracy of such data through a record linkage study conducted in Bandafassi, located in southeastern Senegal. We linked at the individual level retrospective siblings’ survival histories (SSH) reported by female respondents (n = 268) to prospective mortality data and genealogies collected through a health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS). Respondents often reported inaccurate lists of siblings. Additions to these lists were uncommon, but omissions were frequent: respondents omitted 3.8 % of their live sisters, 9.1 % of their deceased sisters, and 16.6 % of their sisters who had migrated out of the DSS area. Respondents underestimated the age at death of the siblings they reported during the interview, particularly among siblings who had died at older ages (≥45 years). Restricting SSH data to person-years and events having occurred during a recent reference period reduced list errors but not age and date errors. Overall, SSH data led to a 20 % underestimate of 45q15 relative to HDSS data. Our study suggests new quality improvement strategies for SSH data and demonstrates the potential use of HDSS data for the validation of “unconventional” demographic techniques. PMID:24493063

  8. Combined effect of hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity on the prevalence of hypertension among US adults: result from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Han, G-M; Gonzalez, S; DeVries, D

    2014-10-01

    Hypertension is a large and growing public health problem worldwide. Hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity are two of the most important risk factors for hypertension. However, their combined effect on the risk of hypertension is not known. Participants aged 20 years and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999-2012 were used to evaluate the separate and combined effects of hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity on the risk of prevalent hypertension among different race, gender and age groups. Participants (31,473) were used to estimate separate and combined effects on the prevalence of hypertension. The overall prevalence of hypertension among adults with a combination of hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity (50.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 48.3-52.1%) was significantly higher than separate hyperuricemia (41.7%, 95% CI 37.2-46.2%) and overweight/obesity (30.6%, 95% CI 29.5-31.8%). The magnitude of odds ratio (OR) from the combination of hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity (OR=4.53, 95% CI 4.05-5.07) was significantly higher than both hyperuricemia (OR=2.62, 95% CI 2.07-3.32) and overweight/obesity (OR=2.08, 95% CI 1.89-2.30). Combined effect of hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity on the risk of hypertension is much stronger than any separate one. These data can provide important information for identification of target populations for future intervention and patient management. PMID:24785975

  9. The Association Between Blood Mercury Levels and Risk for Overweight in a General Adult Population: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghyun; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Won, Jong-Uk; Lee, Wanhyung; Lee, June-Hee; Seok, Hongdeok; Kim, Yeong-Kwang; Kim, Chi-Nyon; Roh, Jaehoon

    2016-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the association between blood mercury levels and overweight in Korean adults. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 9228 participants (4283 men and 4945 women) who completed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2007-2013. The population was divided into two groups according to the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Blood mercury levels were analyzed using a gold amalgam method with a DMA-80 instrument, categorized into quartiles, and stratified by sex. After adjusting for all covariates, blood mercury was significantly associated with overweight in all subjects. According to the BMI criteria, the adjusted odds ratio of being in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.75 (95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.53-2.01) overall, 2.09 (95 % CI, 1.71-2.55) in men, and 1.58 (95 % CI, 1.32-1.89) in women. According to the WC criteria, the adjusted odds ratio of being in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.85 (95 % CI, 1.49-2.30) in men and 1.96 (95 % CI, 1.62-2.36) in women compared to the lowest quartile. Additionally, a trend in overweight across increasing blood mercury levels was observed by the p for trend test in the multiple diagnostic criteria. PMID:26458904

  10. Beneficial effects of citrus juice fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 on atopic dermatitis: results of daily intake by adult patients in two open trials.

    PubMed

    Harima-Mizusawa, Naomi; Kamachi, Keiko; Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Nozaki, Daisuke; Uetake, Tatsuo; Yokomizo, Yuji; Nagino, Takayuki; Tanaka, Akira; Miyazaki, Kouji; Nakamura, Shinichiro

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether daily intake of citrus juice containing heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 (LP0132-fermented juice) alleviates symptoms of atopic dermatitis. This was a natural extension of our previous study in which LP0132 was shown to enhance IL-10 production in vitro and LP0132-fermented juice was found to alleviate symptoms and enhance quality of life (QOL) in patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis. In two open trials, Trial 1 and Trial 2, 32 and 18 adult patients with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis consumed LP0132-fermented juice for 8 weeks. Skin conditions and QOL were subjectively evaluated using Skindex-16 before intake of the juice (Pre-treatment), 8 weeks after starting intake (Treatment) and 8 weeks after termination of intake (Post-treatment). Blood parameters were also analyzed. Comparison of the Treatment and Post-treatment time points with the Pre-treatment time point revealed significant reductions in the Skindex-16 overall score and the 3 domain subscores (symptoms, emotions, and functioning domains) in both trials. Moreover, blood levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and specific IgEs for Japanese cedar and cypress pollen were significantly attenuated in Trial 2. The findings suggest that daily intake of citrus fermented juice containing heat-killed LP0132 has beneficial effects on symptoms and QOL in patients with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis due to an immunomodulatory effect via attenuation of IgE and ECP. PMID:26858928

  11. Safety and efficacy of mangafodipir trisodium (MnDPDP) injection for hepatic MRI in adults: results of the U.S. multicenter phase III clinical trials (safety).

    PubMed

    Federle, M P; Chezmar, J L; Rubin, D L; Weinreb, J C; Freeny, P C; Semelka, R C; Brown, J J; Borello, J A; Lee, J K; Mattrey, R; Dachman, A H; Saini, S; Harmon, B; Fenstermacher, M; Pelsang, R E; Harms, S E; Mitchell, D G; Halford, H H; Anderson, M W; Johnson, C D; Francis, I R; Bova, J G; Kenney, P J; Klippenstein, D L; Foster, G S; Turner, D A

    2000-07-01

    The short-term safety of mangafodipir trisodium (MnDPDP) injection was studied in 546 adults with known or suspected focal liver lesions. An initial contrast-enhanced computed tomography examination was followed by unenhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), injection of MnDPDP (5 micromol/kg), and enhanced MRI. Adverse events were reported for 23% of the patients; most were mild to moderate in intensity, did not require treatment, and were not drug related. The most commonly reported adverse events were nausea (7%) and headache (4%). The incidence of serious adverse events was low (nine events in six patients) and not drug related. Injection-associated discomfort was reported for 69% of the patients, and the most commonly reported discomforts included heat (49%) and flushing (33%). Changes in laboratory values and vital signs were generally transient, were not clinically significant, and did not require treatment. There were no clinically significant short-term risks from exposure to MnDPDP. PMID:10931579

  12. "Payment by Results"--financial incentives and motivational interviewing, adherence interventions in young adults with perinatally acquired HIV-1 infection: a pilot program.

    PubMed

    Foster, Caroline; McDonald, Susan; Frize, Graham; Ayers, Sarah; Fidler, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests financial incentives (FIs) improve medication adherence in select populations. A small proportion of adolescents with perinatal HIV (PaHIV) transfer to adult services with established poor adherence and advanced disease. We describe a single center adherence intervention combining FIs with motivational interviewing (MI). Eligible patients (PaHIV,16-25 years, CD4 count ≤ 200, off ART despite multiple attempts) received MI, and FI dependent on viral load (VL) reduction for 1 year. Outcome measures compared CD4 gain from baseline at 1 year and 12 months post cessation of FI/MI. Eleven young people enrolled; median age 19 years, 8 female. Baseline median CD4 count 30 cells/μL (IQR 10-160), VL 12,870 c/mL. Outcomes at 12 months: 9/11 ever achieved VL < 50, 5 sustained undetectable VL, median CD4 140, mean CD4 gain 90 cells/μL at 1 year. Twelve months post cessation of MI/FI; six VL < 50, median CD4 75, mean CD4 gain 122 cells/μL. Total FI expenditure £1,350: £68 per 50 CD4 cells at 1 year, £55 at 24 months. To prevent death, adolescents with PaHIV require novel interventions to reverse poor patterns of adherence established since childhood. FI/MI improved virological and immunological outcomes with minimal expenditure. Extension of this pilot work for vulnerable individuals is now indicated. PMID:24428797

  13. Physical fitness is predictive for a decline in the ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living in older adults with intellectual disabilities: Results of the HA-ID study.

    PubMed

    Oppewal, Alyt; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; van Wijck, Ruud; Schoufour, Josje D; Evenhuis, Heleen M

    2015-01-01

    The ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) is important for one's level of independence. A high incidence of limitations in IADL is seen in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), which is an important determinant for the amount of support one needs. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of physical fitness for the ability to perform IADL, over a 3-year follow-up period, in 601 older adults with ID. At baseline, an extensive physical fitness assessment was performed. In addition, professional caregivers completed the Lawton IADL scale, both at baseline and at follow-up. The average ability to perform IADL declined significantly over the 3-year follow-up period. A decline in the ability to perform IADL was seen in 44.3% of the participants. The percentage of participants being completely independent in IADL declined from 2.7% to 1.3%. Manual dexterity, balance, comfortable and fast gait speed, muscular endurance, and cardiorespiratory fitness were significant predictors for a decline in IADL after correcting for baseline IADL and personal characteristics (age, gender, level of ID, and Down syndrome). This can be interpreted as representing the predictive validity of the physical tests for a decline in IADL. This study shows that even though older adults with ID experience dependency on others due to cognitive limitations, physical fitness also is an important aspect for IADL, which stresses the importance of using physical fitness tests and physical fitness enhancing programs in the care for older adults with ID. PMID:26079525

  14. Impact of Genetic Counseling and Connexin-26 and Connexin-30 Testing on Deaf Identity and Comprehension of Genetic Test Results in a Sample of Deaf Adults: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Christina G. S.; Boudreault, Patrick; Baldwin, Erin E.; Sinsheimer, Janet S.

    2014-01-01

    Using a prospective, longitudinal study design, this paper addresses the impact of genetic counseling and testing for deafness on deaf adults and the Deaf community. This study specifically evaluated the effect of genetic counseling and Connexin-26 and Connexin-30 genetic test results on participants' deaf identity and understanding of their genetic test results. Connexin-26 and Connexin-30 genetic testing was offered to participants in the context of linguistically and culturally appropriate genetic counseling. Questionnaire data collected from 209 deaf adults at four time points (baseline, immediately following pre-test genetic counseling, 1-month following genetic test result disclosure, and 6-months after result disclosure) were analyzed. Four deaf identity orientations (hearing, marginal, immersion, bicultural) were evaluated using subscales of the Deaf Identity Development Scale-Revised. We found evidence that participants understood their specific genetic test results following genetic counseling, but found no evidence of change in deaf identity based on genetic counseling or their genetic test results. This study demonstrated that culturally and linguistically appropriate genetic counseling can improve deaf clients' understanding of genetic test results, and the formation of deaf identity was not directly related to genetic counseling or Connexin-26 and Connexin-30 genetic test results. PMID:25375116

  15. Age-Related Changes of Plasma Bile Acid Concentrations in Healthy Adults--Results from the Cross-Sectional KarMeN Study.

    PubMed

    Frommherz, Lara; Bub, Achim; Hummel, Eva; Rist, Manuela J; Roth, Alexander; Watzl, Bernhard; Kulling, Sabine E

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids (BA) play an important role in lipid metabolism. They facilitate intestinal lipid absorption, and BA synthesis is the main catabolic pathway for cholesterol. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of age, sex, diet (fat intake) and parameters of lipid metabolism (triglycerides, LDL, HDL, body fat content) with fasting plasma BA concentration of healthy individuals. Fasting plasma samples from a cross-sectional study were used to determine the concentrations of 14 BA using an LC-MS stable isotope dilution assay. Triglycerides, LDL and HDL were analyzed by standard clinical chemistry methods and body fat content was measured with a DXA instrument. The dietary fat intake of the 24 h period prior to the sampling was assessed on the basis of a 24 h recall. Subsequent statistical data processing was done by means of a median regression model. Results revealed large inter-individual variations. Overall, higher median plasma concentrations of BA were observed in men than in women. Quantile regression showed significant interactions of selected BA with age and sex, affecting primarily chenodeoxycholic acid and its conjugates. No associations were found for LDL and the amount of fat intake (based on the percentage of energy intake from dietary fat as well as total fat intake). Additional associations regarding body fat content, HDL and triglycerides were found for some secondary BA plasma concentrations. We conclude that age and sex are associated with the fasting plasma concentrations. Those associations are significant and need to be considered in studies investigating the role of BA in the human metabolism. PMID:27092559

  16. Planning a Successful Tech Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikirk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

  17. Hey Teacher, Your Personality's Showing!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, James R.

    1977-01-01

    A study of 30 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade teachers and 300 of their students showed that a teacher's age, sex, and years of experience did not relate to students' mathematics achievement, but that more effective teachers showed greater "freedom from defensive behavior" than did less effective teachers. (DT)

  18. Consumption of a healthy dietary pattern results in significant reductions in C-reactive protein levels in adults: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Neale, E P; Batterham, M J; Tapsell, L C

    2016-05-01

    Consumption of healthy dietary patterns has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Dietary intervention targets disease prevention, so studies increasingly use biomarkers of underlying inflammation and metabolic syndrome progression to examine the diet-health relationship. The extent to which these biomarkers contribute to the body of evidence on healthy dietary patterns is unknown. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of healthy dietary patterns on biomarkers associated with adiposity, insulin resistance, and inflammation in adults. A systematic search of Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (all years to April 2015) was conducted. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials; effects of dietary patterns assessed on C-reactive protein (CRP), total adiponectin, high-molecular-weight adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-α, adiponectin:leptin, resistin, or retinol binding protein 4. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to assess the weighted mean differences in change or final mean values for each outcome. Seventeen studies were included in the review. These reflected research on dietary patterns associated with the Mediterranean diet, Nordic diet, Tibetan diet, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet. Consumption of a healthy dietary pattern was associated with significant reductions in CRP (weighted mean difference, -0.75 [-1.16, -0.35]; P = .0003). Non-significant changes were found for all other biomarkers. This analysis found evidence for favorable effects of healthy dietary patterns on CRP, with limited evidence for other biomarkers. Future research should include additional randomized controlled trials incorporating a greater range of dietary patterns and biomarkers. PMID:27101757

  19. Efficacy and toxicity of a paediatric protocol in teenagers and young adults with Philadelphia chromosome negative acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: results from UKALL 2003.

    PubMed

    Hough, Rachael; Rowntree, Clare; Goulden, Nick; Mitchell, Chris; Moorman, Anthony; Wade, Rachel; Vora, Ajay

    2016-02-01

    Despite the substantial outcome improvements achieved in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), survival in teenage and young adult (TYA) patients has remained inferior. We report the treatment outcomes and toxicity profiles observed in TYA patients treated on the UK paediatric ALL trial, UKALL2003. UKALL2003 was a multi-centre, prospective, randomized phase III trial, investigating treatment intensification or de-escalation according to minimal residual disease (MRD) kinetics at the end of induction. Of 3126 patients recruited to UKALL2003, 229 (7·3%) were aged 16-24 years. These patients were significantly more likely to have high risk MRD compared to 10-15 year olds (47·9% vs. 36·6%, P = 0·004). Nonetheless, 5-year event-free survival for the TYA cohort (aged 16-24 years) was 72·3% [95% confidence interval (CI): 66·2-78·4] overall and 92·6% (95% CI: 85·5-99·7) for MRD low risk patients. The risk of serious adverse events was higher in patients aged ≥10 years compared to those aged 9 or younger (P < 0·0001) and novel age-specific patterns of treatment-related toxicity were observed. TYA patients obtain excellent outcomes with a risk- and response-adapted paediatric chemotherapy protocol. Whilst those aged 10 years and older have excess toxicity compared with younger patients, the age association is specific to individual toxicities. PMID:26683485

  20. Age-Related Differences in the Brain Areas outside the Classical Language Areas among Adults Using Category Decision Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Yong Won; Song, Hui-Jin; Lee, Jae Jun; Lee, Joo Hwa; Lee, Hui Joong; Yi, Sang Doe; Chang, Hyuk Won; Berl, Madison M.; Gaillard, William D.; Chang, Yongmin

    2012-01-01

    Older adults perform much like younger adults on language. This similar level of performance, however, may come about through different underlying brain processes. In the present study, we evaluated age-related differences in the brain areas outside the typical language areas among adults using a category decision task. Our results showed that…

  1. Distraction by competing speech in young and older adult listeners.

    PubMed

    Tun, Patricia A; O'Kane, Gail; Wingfield, Arthur

    2002-09-01

    In 2 experiments, young and older adults heard target speech presented in quiet or with a competing speaker in the background. The distractor consisted either of meaningful speech or nonmeaningful speech composed of randomly ordered word strings (Experiment 1) or speech in an unfamiliar language (Experiment 2). Tests of recall for the target speech showed that older adults, but not younger adults, were impaired more by meaningful distractors than by nonmeaningful distracters. However, on a surprise recognition test, young adults were more likely than older adults to recognize meaningful distractor items. These results suggest that reduced efficiency in attentional control is an important factor in older adults' difficulty in recalling target speech in the presence of a background of competing speech. PMID:12243387

  2. The prevalence and clinical characteristics associated with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Version-5-defined anxious distress specifier in adults with major depressive disorder: results from the International Mood Disorders Collaborative Project

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Roger S.; Woldeyohannes, Hanna O.; Soczynska, Joanna K.; Vinberg, Maj; Cha, Danielle S.; Lee, Yena; Gallaugher, Laura A.; Dale, Roman S.; Alsuwaidan, Mohammad T.; Mansur, Rodrigo B.; Muzina, David J.; Carvalho, Andre; Kennedy, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of and illness characteristics in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) with anxious distress specifier (ADS) enrolled in the International Mood Disorders Collaborative Project, which is a collaborative research platform at the Mood Disorders Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Toronto, Canada and the Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA. Methods: Data from participants who met criteria for a current major depressive episode as part of MDD (n = 830) were included in this post hoc analysis. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Version-5-defined ADS was operationalized as the presence of at least two out of three proxy items instead of two out of five specifiers. Results: A total of 464 individuals (i.e. 56%) met criteria for ADS. There were no between-group differences in sociodemographic variables (e.g. gender, employment, marital status). Greater severity of illness was observed in adults with ADS as evidenced by a higher number of hospitalizations, higher rates of suicidal ideation, greater depressive symptom severity, greater workplace impairment, decreased quality of life, and greater self-reported cognitive impairment. Conclusions: Our findings underscore the importance of evaluating ADS in adults with MDD as its presence identifies a subpopulation with greater illness-associated burden and hazards. PMID:27347362

  3. Satellite Movie Shows Erika Dissipate

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite from Aug. 27 to 29 shows Tropical Storm Erika move through the Eastern Caribbean Sea and dissipate near eastern Cuba. ...

  4. Preadult life history variation determines adult transcriptome expression.

    PubMed

    Etges, William J; de Oliveira, Cássia; Rajpurohit, Subhash; Gibbs, Allen G

    2016-02-01

    Preadult determinants of adult fitness and behaviour have been documented in a variety of organisms with complex life cycles, but little is known about expression patterns of genes underlying these adult traits. We explored the effects of differences in egg-to-adult development time on adult transcriptome and cuticular hydrocarbon variation in order to understand the nature of the genetic correlation between preadult development time and premating isolation between populations of Drosophila mojavensis reared in different host cactus environments. Transcriptome variation was analysed separately in flies reared on each host and revealed that hundreds of genes in adults were differentially expressed (FDR P < 0.05) due to development time differences. For flies reared on pitaya agria cactus, longer preadult development times caused increased expression of genes in adults enriched for ribosome production, protein metabolism, chromatin remodelling and regulation of alternate splicing and transcription. Baja California flies reared on organ pipe cactus showed fewer differentially expressed genes in adults due to longer preadult development time, but these were enriched for ATP synthesis and the TCA cycle. Mainland flies reared on organ pipe cactus with shorter development times showed increased transcription of genes enriched for mitochondria and energy production, protein synthesis and glucose metabolism: adults with longer development times had increased expression of genes enriched for adult life span, cuticle proteins and ion binding, although most differentially expressed genes were unannotated. Differences due to population, sex, mating status and their interactions were also assessed. Adult cuticular hydrocarbon profiles also showed shifts due to egg-to-adult development time and were influenced by population and mating status. These results help to explain why preadult life history variation determines subsequent expression of the adult transcriptome along with

  5. Results of a phase 1 study utilizing monocyte-derived dendritic cells pulsed with tumor RNA in children and young adults with brain cancer1

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Denise A.; Orme, Lisa M.; Neale, Alana M.; Radcliff, Fiona J.; Amor, Gerlinda M.; Maixner, Wirginia; Downie, Peter; Hassall, Timothy E.; Tang, Mimi L.K.; Ashley, David M.

    2004-01-01

    We conducted a phase 1 study of 9 pediatric patients with recurrent brain tumors using monocyte-derived dendritic cells pulsed with tumor RNA to produce antitumor vaccine (DCRNA) preparations. The objectives of this study included (1) establishing safety and feasibility and (2) measuring changes in general, antigen-specific, and tumor-specific immune responses after DCRNA. Dendritic cells were derived from freshly isolated monocytes after 7 days of culture with IL-4 and granulocyte-macrophage colony–stimulating factor, pulsed with autologous tumor RNA, and then cryopreserved. Patients received at least 3 vaccines, each consisting of an intravenous and an intra-dermal administration at biweekly intervals. The study showed that this method for producing and administering DCRNA from a single leukapheresis product was both feasible and safe in this pediatric brain tumor population. Immune function at the time of enrollment into the study was impaired in all patients tested. While humoral responses to recall antigens (diphtheria and tetanus) were intact in all patients, cellular responses to mitogen and recall antigens were below normal. Following DCRNA vaccine, 2 of 7 patients showed stable clinical disease and 1 of 7 showed a partial response. Two of 7 patients who were tested showed a tumor-specific immune response to DCRNA. This study showed that DCRNA vaccines are both safe and feasible in children with tumors of the central nervous system with a single leukapheresis. PMID:15279716

  6. Adult Multiple Intelligences and Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Meg Ryback

    In the Adult Multiple Intelligences (AMI) study, 10 teachers of adults from the northeastern region of the United States explored for 18 months the ways that multiple intelligences (MI) theory could support instruction and assessment in various adult learning contexts. The results of this research were published in a book by Julie Viens called MI…

  7. Recognition of Posed and Spontaneous Dynamic Smiles in Younger and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Nora A.; Lehrfeld, Jonathan M.; Isaacowitz, Derek M.

    2010-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated age effects in the ability to recognize dynamic posed and spontaneous smiles. Study 1 found that both younger and older adult participants were above-chance in their ability to distinguish between posed and spontaneous younger adult smiles. Study 2 found that younger adult participant performance declined when judging a combination of both younger and older adult target smiles, while older adult participants outperformed younger adult participants in distinguishing between posed and spontaneous smiles. A synthesis of results across the two studies showed a small-to-medium age effect (d = −0.40) suggesting an older adult advantage when discriminating between smile types. Mixed stimuli (i.e., a mixture of younger and older adult faces) may impact accurate smile discrimination. Future research should investigate both the sources (cues, etc.) and behavioral effects of age-related differences in the discrimination of positive expressions. PMID:20718538

  8. Creating Slide Show Book Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Harriet G.; Stuhlmann, Janice M.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of "Kid Pix 2" software by fourth grade students to develop slide-show book reports. Highlights include collaboration with education majors from Louisiana State University, changes in attitudes of the education major students and elementary students, and problems with navigation and disk space. (LRW)

  9. Producing Talent and Variety Shows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szabo, Chuck

    1995-01-01

    Identifies key aspects of producing talent shows and outlines helpful hints for avoiding pitfalls and ensuring a smooth production. Presents suggestions concerning publicity, scheduling, and support personnel. Describes types of acts along with special needs and problems specific to each act. Includes a list of resources. (MJP)

  10. Urinary tract infection - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Bladder infection - adults; UTI - adults; Cystitis - bacterial - adults; Pyelonephritis - adults; Kidney infection - adults ... to the hospital if you: Are an older adult Have kidney stones or changes in the anatomy ...

  11. Snacking on Television: A Content Analysis of Adolescents’ Favorite Shows

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Nicole I.; Gollust, Sarah E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Snacking is a complex behavior that may be influenced by entertainment media. Research suggests that snacking and unhealthy foods are commonly shown in programming that targets young audiences, but shows selected for study have been limited. We conducted a content analysis on shows that were named as favorites by adolescents to characterize portrayals of snacking on popular television. Methods A diverse sample of 2,130 adolescents (mean age, 14.3 y) listed 3 favorite television shows in a 2010 school-based survey. Three episodes each of the 25 most popular shows were coded for food-related content, including healthfulness, portion size, screen time use, setting, and social context. We also analyzed the characteristics of characters involved in eating incidents, the show type, and the show rating. We used χ2 tests, binomial tests, and multilevel regression models to compare incidence of snacks versus meals, the characteristics of those involved, and snacking across show characteristics. Results Almost half of food incidents on television shows were snacks. Snacks were significantly more likely than meals to be “mostly unhealthy” (69.3% vs 22.6%, P < .001) and were more likely to include screen time use (25.0% of snacking incidents vs 4.0% of meals, P < .001). Young characters and those coded as being of low socioeconomic status or overweight were overrepresented in snacking incidents. Sitcoms and shows rated for a youth audience were significantly more likely to portray snacking than were shows for adult audiences. Conclusion Media awareness and literacy programs should include foods and snacking behaviors among the issues they address. More healthful portrayals of food and dietary intake in entertainment shows’ content would create a healthier media environment for youth. PMID:27197079

  12. Suboptimal Detection of Influenza Virus in Adults by the Directigen Flu A+B Enzyme Immunoassay and Correlation of Results with the Number of Antigen-Positive Cells Detected by Cytospin Immunofluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Marie L.; Ferguson, David

    2003-01-01

    To provide 24-h influenza diagnosis for adults presenting to the emergency department, the Directigen Flu A+B enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was performed in the chemistry laboratory during the night shift. Nasopharyngeal swabs were retested by cytospin-enhanced direct immunofluorescence (DFA; SimulFluor respiratory screen) when the virology laboratory opened. The influenza EIA detected 16 influenza A virus infections, whereas cytospin-enhanced DFA detected 31 influenza A virus infections as well as 3 respiratory syncytial virus, 2 adenovirus, and 1 parainfluenza virus infections. A positive EIA result usually correlated with 50 or more influenza virus cells positive by DFA. PMID:12843105

  13. Pancreatoblastoma in an adult.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Di; Tang, Na; Liu, Yang; Wang, En-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatoblastoma is a malignant pancreatic tumor that rarely occurs in adults. We report a case of an adult female with pancreatoblastoma. A mass was detected in the pancreatic head using computed tomography and ultrasonography. The clinical diagnosis was a solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas. However, after the operation, the final diagnosis was pancreatoblastoma, which showed two lines of differentiation: Acinar differentiation and squamoid corpuscles. The patient is currently in good condition. PMID:25673604

  14. Magic Carpet Shows Its Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The upper left image in this display is from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, showing the 'Magic Carpet' region near the rover at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Sol 7, the seventh martian day of its journey (Jan. 10, 2004). The lower image, also from the panoramic camera, is a monochrome (single filter) image of a rock in the 'Magic Carpet' area. Note that colored portions of the rock correlate with extracted spectra shown in the plot to the side. Four different types of materials are shown: the rock itself, the soil in front of the rock, some brighter soil on top of the rock, and some dust that has collected in small recesses on the rock face ('spots'). Each color on the spectra matches a line on the graph, showing how the panoramic camera's different colored filters are used to broadly assess the varying mineral compositions of martian rocks and soils.

  15. Personal Assistance Providers' Mistreatment of Disabled Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oktay, Julianne S.; Tompkins, Catherine J.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a survey of 84 adults with disabilities who received personal assistance with activities of daily living from family members, informal providers, or agency personnel. Results showed that 30 percent reported mistreatment from their primary provider, and 61 percent reported mistreatment by another provider. Verbal abuse,…

  16. 30-year trends in serum lipids among United States adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys II, III, and 1999-2006.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jerome D; Cziraky, Mark J; Cai, Qian; Wallace, Anna; Wasser, Thomas; Crouse, John R; Jacobson, Terry A

    2010-10-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) II (1976 to 1980), NHANES III (1988 to 1994), and NHANES 1999 to 2006 were examined to assess trends in total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), lipid-lowering medication use, and obesity. Age-adjusted decreases in TC (210 to 200 mg/dl) and LDL cholesterol (134 to 119 mg/dl) were observed. Those with high TC showed a decrease of 9% from NHANES II to NHANES 1999 to 2006, whereas those with LDL cholesterol ≥160 mg/dl showed a decrease of 8%. A significant increase in mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was observed (50 to 53 mg/dl, p <0.001), most likely due to changes in methods. Those with TG levels ≥150 mg/dl showed a decrease from NHANES II to NHANES III from 30% to 27% but then an increase from NHANES III to NHANES 1999 to 2006 from 27% to 33%. Since NHANES III, mean TG levels have increased 12% from 130 to 146 mg/dl. In the 2 most recent surveys, self-reported "high cholesterol" increased from 17% to 27%, and self-reported lipid medication use by those with high cholesterol increased from 16% to 38%. Mean body mass index increased from 26 to 29 kg/m(2), and prevalence of obesity doubled and was significantly associated with increased TG. In conclusion, recent favorable trends in TC and LDL cholesterol are likely due to increased awareness of high cholesterol and the greater use of lipid-lowering drugs. However, countertrends in obesity and TG levels, if continued, will likely have a negative impact on cardiovascular disease in the future. PMID:20854959

  17. ENVITEC shows off air technologies

    SciTech Connect

    McIlvaine, R.W.

    1995-08-01

    The ENVITEC International Trade Fair for Environmental Protection and Waste Management Technologies, held in June in Duesseldorf, Germany, is the largest air pollution exhibition in the world and may be the largest environmental technology show overall. Visitors saw thousands of environmental solutions from 1,318 companies representing 29 countries and occupying roughly 43,000 square meters of exhibit space. Many innovations were displayed under the category, ``thermal treatment of air pollutants.`` New technologies include the following: regenerative thermal oxidizers; wet systems for removing pollutants; biological scrubbers;electrostatic precipitators; selective adsorption systems; activated-coke adsorbers; optimization of scrubber systems; and air pollution monitors.

  18. Self-perceived lactose intolerance results in lower intakes of calcium and dairy foods and is associated with hypertension and diabetes in adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Self-perceived lactose intolerance may result in adverse dietary modifications; thus, more studies are needed to understand the prevalence of self-perceived lactose intolerance and how it relates to calcium intake and selected health conditions. The objective was to examine the effects of self-perce...

  19. Older adults do not notice their names: a new twist to a classic attention task.

    PubMed

    Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe; Kilb, Angela; Maddox, Geoffrey B; Thomas, Jenna; Fine, Hope C; Chen, Tina; Cowan, Nelson

    2014-11-01

    Although working memory spans are, on average, lower for older adults than young adults, we demonstrate in 5 experiments a way in which older adults paradoxically resemble higher capacity young adults. Specifically, in a selective-listening task, older adults almost always failed to notice their names presented in an unattended channel. This is an exaggeration of what high-span young adults show and the opposite of what low-span young adults show. This striking finding in older adults remained significant after controlling for working memory span and for noticing their names in an attended channel. The findings were replicated when presentation rate was slowed and when the ear in which the unattended name was presented was controlled. These results point to an account of older adults' performance involving not only an inhibition factor, which allows high-span young adults to suppress the channel to be ignored, but also an attentional capacity factor, with more unallocated capacity. This capacity allows low-span young adults to notice their names much more often than older adults with comparably low working memory spans do. PMID:24820668

  20. Post-chikungunya chronic inflammatory rheumatism: results from a retrospective follow-up study of 283 adult and child cases in La Virginia, Risaralda, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Gil-Restrepo, Andrés F.; Ramírez-Jaramillo, Valeria; Montoya-Arias, Cindy P.; Acevedo-Mendoza, Wilmer F.; Bedoya-Arias, Juan E.; Chica-Quintero, Laura A.; Murillo-García, David R.; García-Robledo, Juan E.; Castrillón-Spitia, Juan D.; Londoño, Jose J.; Bedoya-Rendón, Hector D.; Cárdenas-Pérez, Javier de Jesús; Cardona-Ospina, Jaime A.; Lagos-Grisales, Guillermo J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: There are limited studies in Latin America regarding the chronic consequences of the Chikungunya virus (CHIK), such as post-CHIK chronic inflammatory rheumatism (pCHIK-CIR). We assessed the largest cohort so far of pCHIK-CIR in Latin America, at the municipality of La Virginia, Risaralda, a new endemic area of CHIK in Colombia. Methods: We conducted a cohort retrospective study in Colombia of 283 patients diagnosed with CHIK that persisted with pCHIK-CIR after a minimum of 6 weeks and up to a maximum of 26.1 weeks. pCHIK cases were identified according to validated criteria via telephone. Results: Of the total CHIK-infected subjects, 152 (53.7%) reported persistent rheumatological symptoms (pCHIK-CIR). All of these patients reported joint pains (chronic polyarthralgia, pCHIK-CPA), 49.5% morning stiffness, 40.6% joint edema, and 16.6% joint redness. Of all patients, 19.4% required and attended for care prior to the current study assessment (1.4% consulting rheumatologists). Significant differences in the frequency were observed according to age groups and gender. Patients aged >40 years old required more medical attention (39.5%) than those ≤40 years-old (12.1%) (RR=4.748, 95%CI 2.550-8.840). Conclusions: According to our results, at least half of the patients with CHIK developed chronic rheumatologic sequelae, and from those with pCHIK-CPA, nearly half presented clinical symptoms consistent with inflammatory forms of the disease. These results support previous estimates obtained from pooled data of studies in La Reunion (France) and India and are consistent with the results published previously from other Colombian cohorts in Venadillo (Tolima) and Since (Sucre). PMID:27081477

  1. Treatment of malignant gliomas and brain metastases in adults with a combination of adriamycin, VM 26, and CCNU. Results of a phase II trail.

    PubMed

    Pouillart, P; Mathe, G; Thy, T H; Lheritier, J; Poisson, M; Huguenin, P; Gauthier, H; Morin, P; Parrot, R

    1976-11-01

    Forty-three patients with inoperable or recurring malignant gliomas, and 30 patients with multiple recurring brain metastases were treated with a combination of Adriamycin (45 mg/m2) and 4-dimethyl-epipodophyllotoxin D-thenylidene (VM 26) (60 mg/m2 for 2 days) with 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU) (60 mg/m2 for 2 days). These cycles of treatment were repeated as soon as the hematologic restoration was complete. The treatment was well tolerated and the clinical condition of 31 of 43 glioblastoma patients improved during the 2 months after the beginning of the treatment. Six of eight patients with breast cancer metastases, one of 13 with bronchial cancer matastases, and three of nine with other types of cancer metastases also benefitted from the treatment. Examination of the results obtained revealed the following characteristics: 1) This combination had a low degree of efficiency in the treatment of metastases to brain, except for breast cancer metastases; 2) there was no complete correlation between the clinical results observed and the cinegammagraphic developments; 3) the results obtained were similar, independent of the initial localization; and a 6-month median survival period was established, with 10 patients now in a state of apparently complete remission, 180 to 506 days after beginning of the treatment. PMID:1033028

  2. ShowMe3D

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less

  3. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  4. Human metapneumovirus in adults.

    PubMed

    Haas, Lenneke E M; Thijsen, Steven F T; van Elden, Leontine; Heemstra, Karen A

    2013-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a relative newly described virus. It was first isolated in 2001 and currently appears to be one of the most significant and common human viral infections. Retrospective serologic studies demonstrated the presence of HMPV antibodies in humans more than 50 years earlier. Although the virus was primarily known as causative agent of respiratory tract infections in children, HMPV is an important cause of respiratory infections in adults as well. Almost all children are infected by HMPV below the age of five; the repeated infections throughout life indicate transient immunity. HMPV infections usually are mild and self-limiting, but in the frail elderly and the immunocompromised patients, the clinical course can be complicated. Since culturing the virus is relatively difficult, diagnosis is mostly based on a nucleic acid amplification test, such as reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. To date, no vaccine is available and treatment is supportive. However, ongoing research shows encouraging results. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature concerning HMPV infections in adults, and discuss recent development in treatment and vaccination. PMID:23299785

  5. Human Metapneumovirus in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Lenneke E. M.; Thijsen, Steven F. T.; van Elden, Leontine; Heemstra, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a relative newly described virus. It was first isolated in 2001 and currently appears to be one of the most significant and common human viral infections. Retrospective serologic studies demonstrated the presence of HMPV antibodies in humans more than 50 years earlier. Although the virus was primarily known as causative agent of respiratory tract infections in children, HMPV is an important cause of respiratory infections in adults as well. Almost all children are infected by HMPV below the age of five; the repeated infections throughout life indicate transient immunity. HMPV infections usually are mild and self-limiting, but in the frail elderly and the immunocompromised patients, the clinical course can be complicated. Since culturing the virus is relatively difficult, diagnosis is mostly based on a nucleic acid amplification test, such as reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. To date, no vaccine is available and treatment is supportive. However, ongoing research shows encouraging results. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature concerning HMPV infections in adults, and discuss recent development in treatment and vaccination. PMID:23299785

  6. Control of Plasma Uric Acid in Adults at Risk for Tumor Lysis Syndrome: Efficacy and Safety of Rasburicase Alone and Rasburicase Followed by Allopurinol Compared With Allopurinol Alone—Results of a Multicenter Phase III Study

    PubMed Central

    Cortes, Jorge; Moore, Joseph O.; Maziarz, Richard T.; Wetzler, Meir; Craig, Michael; Matous, Jeffrey; Luger, Selina; Dey, Bimalangshu R.; Schiller, Gary J.; Pham, Dat; Abboud, Camille N.; Krishnamurthy, Muthuswamy; Brown, Archie; Laadem, Abderrahmane; Seiter, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Rasburicase is effective in controlling plasma uric acid in pediatric patients with hematologic malignancies. This study in adults evaluated safety of and compared efficacy of rasburicase alone with rasburicase followed by oral allopurinol and with allopurinol alone in controlling plasma uric acid. Patients and Methods Adults with hematologic malignancies at risk for hyperuricemia and tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) were randomly assigned to rasburicase (0.20 mg/kg/d intravenously days 1-5), rasburicase plus allopurinol (rasburicase 0.20 mg/kg/d days 1 to 3 followed by oral allopurinol 300 mg/d days 3 to 5), or allopurinol (300 mg/d orally days 1 to 5). Primary efficacy variable was plasma uric acid response rate defined as percentage of patients achieving or maintaining plasma uric acid ≤ 7.5 mg/dL during days 3 to 7. Results Ninety-two patients received rasburicase, 92 rasburicase plus allopurinol, and 91 allopurinol. Plasma uric acid response rate was 87% with rasburicase, 78% with rasburicase plus allopurinol, and 66% with allopurinol. It was significantly greater for rasburicase than for allopurinol (P = .001) in the overall study population, in patients at high risk for TLS (89% v 68%; P = .012), and in those with baseline hyperuricemia (90% v 53%; P = .015). Time to plasma uric acid control in hyperuricemic patients was 4 hours for rasburicase, 4 hours for rasburicase plus allopurinol, and 27 hours for allopurinol. Conclusion In adults with hyperuricemia or at high risk for TLS, rasburicase provided control of plasma uric acid more rapidly than allopurinol. Rasburicase was well tolerated as a single agent and in sequential combination with allopurinol. PMID:20713865

  7. Medical Therapies with Adult Stem/Progenitor Cells (MSCs): A Backward Journey from Dramatic Results in Vivo to the Cellular and Molecular Explanations

    PubMed Central

    Prockop, Darwin J.; Oh, Joo Youn

    2012-01-01

    There is currently great interest in the use of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) for the therapy of many diseases of animals and humans. However, we are still left with the serious challenges in explaining the beneficial effects of the cells. Hence, it is essential to work backward from dramatic results obtained in vivo to the cellular and molecular explanations in order to discover the secrets of MSCs. This review will focus on recent data that have changed the paradigms for understanding the therapeutic potentials of MSCs. PMID:22213121

  8. Modulation of Prepulse Inhibition and Startle Reflex by Emotions: A Comparison between Young and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Le Duc, Jolyanne; Fournier, Philippe; Hébert, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether or not the acoustic startle response and sensorimotor gating may be modulated by emotions differentially between young and older adults. Two groups of participants (mean age Young: 24 years old; Elderly: 63.6 years old) were presented with three types of auditory stimuli (Startle alone, High or Low frequency Prepulse) while viewing pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant images. Electromyographic activity of the eyeblink response was measured. Results show that older adults displayed diminished eyeblink responses whereas younger adults displayed enhanced eyeblink responses when viewing negative images. Sensorimotor gating also differed between young and older adults, with enhanced sensorimotor gating abilities while viewing positive pictures in older adults and diminished abilities while viewing negative pictures among younger adults. These results argue in favor of a differential emotional influence on the sensorimotor abilities of young and older adults, with a positivity bias among the latter. PMID:26941643

  9. Modulation of Prepulse Inhibition and Startle Reflex by Emotions: A Comparison between Young and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Le Duc, Jolyanne; Fournier, Philippe; Hébert, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether or not the acoustic startle response and sensorimotor gating may be modulated by emotions differentially between young and older adults. Two groups of participants (mean age Young: 24 years old; Elderly: 63.6 years old) were presented with three types of auditory stimuli (Startle alone, High or Low frequency Prepulse) while viewing pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant images. Electromyographic activity of the eyeblink response was measured. Results show that older adults displayed diminished eyeblink responses whereas younger adults displayed enhanced eyeblink responses when viewing negative images. Sensorimotor gating also differed between young and older adults, with enhanced sensorimotor gating abilities while viewing positive pictures in older adults and diminished abilities while viewing negative pictures among younger adults. These results argue in favor of a differential emotional influence on the sensorimotor abilities of young and older adults, with a positivity bias among the latter. PMID:26941643

  10. Adult