Science.gov

Sample records for adults showed greater

  1. Greater priming for previously distracting information in young than older adults when suppression is ruled out.

    PubMed

    Ward, Emma V; de Mornay Davies, Paul; Politimou, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The use of previously distracting information on memory tests with indirect instructions is usually age-equivalent, while young adults typically show greater explicit memory for such information. This could reflect qualitatively distinct initial processing (encoding) of distracting information by younger and older adults, but could also be caused by greater suppression of such information by younger adults on tasks with indirect instructions. In Experiment 1, young and older adults read stories containing distracting words, which they ignored, before studying a list of words containing previously distracting items for a free recall task. Half the participants were informed of the presence of previously distracting items in the study list prior to recall (direct instruction), and half were not (indirect instruction). Recall of previously distracting words was age-equivalent in the indirect condition, but young adults recalled more distracting words in the direct condition. In Experiment 2, participants performed the continuous identification with recognition task, which captures a measure of perceptual priming and recognition on each trial, and is immune to suppression. Priming and recognition of previously distracting words was greater in younger than older adults, suggesting that the young engage in more successful suppression of previously distracting information on tasks in which its relevance is not overtly signaled.

  2. Youth at risk for obesity show greater activation of striatal and somatosensory regions to food.

    PubMed

    Stice, Eric; Yokum, Sonja; Burger, Kyle S; Epstein, Leonard H; Small, Dana M

    2011-03-23

    Obese humans, compared with normal-weight humans, have less striatal D2 receptors and striatal response to food intake; weaker striatal response to food predicts weight gain for individuals at genetic risk for reduced dopamine (DA) signaling, consistent with the reward-deficit theory of obesity. Yet these may not be initial vulnerability factors, as overeating reduces D2 receptor density, D2 sensitivity, reward sensitivity, and striatal response to food. Obese humans also show greater striatal, amygdalar, orbitofrontal cortex, and somatosensory region response to food images than normal-weight humans do, which predicts weight gain for those not at genetic risk for compromised dopamine signaling, consonant with the reward-surfeit theory of obesity. However, after pairings of palatable food intake and predictive cues, DA signaling increases in response to the cues, implying that eating palatable food contributes to increased responsivity. Using fMRI, we tested whether normal-weight adolescents at high- versus low-risk for obesity showed aberrant activation of reward circuitry in response to receipt and anticipated receipt of palatable food and monetary reward. High-risk youth showed greater activation in the caudate, parietal operculum, and frontal operculum in response to food intake and in the caudate, putamen, insula, thalamus, and orbitofrontal cortex in response to monetary reward. No differences emerged in response to anticipated food or monetary reward. Data indicate that youth at risk for obesity show elevated reward circuitry responsivity in general, coupled with elevated somatosensory region responsivity to food, which may lead to overeating that produces blunted dopamine signaling and elevated responsivity to food cues.

  3. Youth at Risk for Obesity Show Greater Activation of Striatal and Somatosensory Regions to Food

    PubMed Central

    Stice, E; Yokum, S; Burger, KS; Epstein, LH; Small, DM

    2011-01-01

    Obese versus normal-weight humans have less striatal D2 receptors and striatal response to food intake, and weaker striatal response to food predicts weight gain for individuals at genetic risk for reduced dopamine (DA) signaling, consistent with the reward deficit theory of obesity. Yet these may not be initial vulnerability factors, as overeating reduces D2 receptor density, D2 sensitivity, reward sensitivity, and striatal response to food. Obese versus normal-weight humans also show greater striatal, amygdalar, orbitofrontal cortex, and somatosensory region response to food images, which predicts weight gain for those not at genetic risk for compromised dopamine signaling, consonant with the reward surfeit theory of obesity. However, after pairings of palatable food intake and predictive cues, DA signaling increases in response to the cues, implying that eating palatable food contributes to increased responsivity. We tested whether normal-weight adolescents at high- versus low-risk for obesity showed aberrant activation of reward circuitry in response to receipt and anticipated receipt of palatable food and monetary reward using fMRI. High-risk youth showed greater activation in the caudate, parietal operculum, and frontal operculum in response to food intake and in the caudate, putamen, insula, thalamus, and orbitofrontal cortex in response to monetary reward. No differences emerged in response to anticipated food or monetary reward. Data indicate that youth at risk for obesity show elevated reward circuitry responsivity in general coupled with elevated somatosensory region responsivity to food, which may lead to overeating that produces blunted dopamine signaling and elevated responsivity to food cues. PMID:21430137

  4. Youth at risk for obesity show greater activation of striatal and somatosensory regions to food.

    PubMed

    Stice, Eric; Yokum, Sonja; Burger, Kyle S; Epstein, Leonard H; Small, Dana M

    2011-03-23

    Obese humans, compared with normal-weight humans, have less striatal D2 receptors and striatal response to food intake; weaker striatal response to food predicts weight gain for individuals at genetic risk for reduced dopamine (DA) signaling, consistent with the reward-deficit theory of obesity. Yet these may not be initial vulnerability factors, as overeating reduces D2 receptor density, D2 sensitivity, reward sensitivity, and striatal response to food. Obese humans also show greater striatal, amygdalar, orbitofrontal cortex, and somatosensory region response to food images than normal-weight humans do, which predicts weight gain for those not at genetic risk for compromised dopamine signaling, consonant with the reward-surfeit theory of obesity. However, after pairings of palatable food intake and predictive cues, DA signaling increases in response to the cues, implying that eating palatable food contributes to increased responsivity. Using fMRI, we tested whether normal-weight adolescents at high- versus low-risk for obesity showed aberrant activation of reward circuitry in response to receipt and anticipated receipt of palatable food and monetary reward. High-risk youth showed greater activation in the caudate, parietal operculum, and frontal operculum in response to food intake and in the caudate, putamen, insula, thalamus, and orbitofrontal cortex in response to monetary reward. No differences emerged in response to anticipated food or monetary reward. Data indicate that youth at risk for obesity show elevated reward circuitry responsivity in general, coupled with elevated somatosensory region responsivity to food, which may lead to overeating that produces blunted dopamine signaling and elevated responsivity to food cues. PMID:21430137

  5. Morphometry of the Greater Palatal Canal in Adult Skulls.

    PubMed

    Soto, Reinaldo A; Cáceres, Felipe; Vera, Cristóbal

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate in dry skulls the length and angle between the greater palatine foramen and the foramen rotundum in both the frontal and sagittal planes. In 50 human skulls from the department of morphology, the distance and angulation required to reach the foramen rotundum through the greater palatine canal were measured in the frontal and sagittal planes. A stylet was introduced up to the foramen rotundum in each greater palatine canal and fixed. The skulls were then photographed from a front and lateral view (both right and left). Finally, the stylets were photographed on graph paper. These images were analyzed with Photoshop software. In the frontal plane, mean angulations of 5.32 degrees on the right side and 6.15 degrees on the left side were obtained. In the sagittal plane, mean angulations of 61.66 degrees on the right side and 61.81 degrees on the left side were obtained. Finally, the mean length required to reach the foramen rotundum was 31.95  mm on the right side and 32.49  mm on the left side. Some of these results differ from those stated in the foreign literature (10 degrees front, 70 degrees sagittal). These differences should be considered for both clinical practice and teaching in Chile.

  6. Seizures triggered by pentylenetetrazol in marmosets made chronically epileptic with pilocarpine show greater refractoriness to treatment.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Josy Carolina C; Lima, Thiago Z; Queiroz, Claudio M; Cinini, Simone M; Blanco, Miriam M; Mello, Luiz E

    2016-10-01

    The efficiency of most of the new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on clinical trials still falls short the success reported in pre-clinical studies, possibly because the validity of the animal models is insufficient to fully represent the human pathology. To improve the translational value for testing AEDs, we propose the use of non-human primates. Here, we suggest that triggering limbic seizures with low doses of PTZ in pilocarpine-treated marmosets might provide a more effective basis for the development of AED. Marmosets with epileptic background were more susceptible to seizures induced by PTZ, which were at least 3 times longer and more severe (about 6 times greater frequency of generalized seizures) in comparison to naïve peers. Accordingly, PTZ-induced seizures were remarkably less attenuated by AEDs in epileptic than naïve marmosets. While phenobarbital (40mg/kg) virtually abolished seizures regardless of the animal's background, carbamazepine (120mg/kg) and valproic acid (400mg/kg) could not prevent PTZ-induced seizures in epileptic animals with the same efficiency as observed in naïve peers. VPA was less effective regarding the duration of individual seizures in epileptic animals, as assessed in ECoG (p=0.05). Similarly following CBZ treatment, the behavioral manifestation of generalized seizures lasted longer in epileptic (p<0.05), which were also more frequent than in the naïve group (p<0.05). As expected, epileptic marmosets experiencing stronger seizures showed more NPY- and ΔFosB-immunostained neurons in a number of brain areas associated with the generation and spread of limbic seizures. Our results suggest that PTZ induced seizures over an already existing epileptic background constitutes a reliable and controllable mean for the screening of new AEDs.

  7. Microsatellite DNA analysis shows that greater sage grouse leks are not kin groups.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Robert M; Pires, Debra; Delaney, Kathleen S; Wayne, Robert K

    2005-12-01

    The spectacular social courtship displays of lekking birds are thought to evolve via sexual selection, but this view does not easily explain the participation of many males that apparently fail to mate. One of several proposed solutions to this 'lek skew paradox' is that kin selection favours low-ranking males joining leks to increase the fitness of closely related breeders. We investigated the potential for kin selection to operate in leks of the greater sage grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus, by estimating relatedness between lekking males using microsatellite DNA markers. We also calibrated these estimates using data from known families. Mean relatedness within leks was statistically indistinguishable from zero. We also found no evidence for local clustering of kin during lek display, although males tended to range closer to kin when off the lek. These results make kin selection an unlikely solution to the lek skew paradox in sage grouse. Together with other recent studies, they also raise the question of why kin selection apparently promotes social courtship in some lekking species, but not in others.

  8. Happier People Show Greater Neural Connectivity during Negative Self-Referential Processing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Joo; Kyeong, Sunghyon; Cho, Sang Woo; Chun, Ji-Won; Park, Hae-Jeong; Kim, Jihye; Kim, Joohan; Dolan, Raymond J; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Life satisfaction is an essential component of subjective well-being and provides a fundamental resource for optimal everyday functioning. The goal of the present study was to examine how life satisfaction influences self-referential processing of emotionally valenced stimuli. Nineteen individuals with high life satisfaction (HLS) and 21 individuals with low life satisfaction (LLS) were scanned using functional MRI while performing a face-word relevance rating task, which consisted of 3 types of face stimuli (self, public other, and unfamiliar other) and 3 types of word stimuli (positive, negative, and neutral). We found a significant group x word valence interaction effect, most strikingly in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex. In the positive word condition dorsal medial prefrontal cortex activity was significantly higher in the LLS group, whereas in the negative word condition it was significantly higher in the HLS group. The two groups showed distinct functional connectivity of the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex with emotional processing-related regions. The findings suggest that, in response to emotional stimuli, individuals with HLS may successfully recruit emotion regulation-related regions in contrast to individuals with LLS. The difference in functional connectivity during self-referential processing may lead to an influence of life satisfaction on responses to emotion-eliciting stimuli.

  9. Transgenic barley overexpressing a cytokinin dehydrogenase gene shows greater tolerance to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Pospíšilová, Hana; Jiskrová, Eva; Vojta, Petr; Mrízová, Katarína; Kokáš, Filip; Čudejková, Mária Majeská; Bergougnoux, Veronique; Plíhal, Ondřej; Klimešová, Jana; Novák, Ondřej; Dzurová, Lenka; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr

    2016-09-25

    Together with auxins, cytokinins are the main plant hormones involved in many different physiological processes. Given this knowledge, cytokinin levels can be manipulated by genetic modification in order to improve agronomic parameters of cereals in relation to, for example, morphology, yield, and tolerance to various stresses. The barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar Golden Promise was transformed using the cytokinin dehydrogenase 1 gene from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtCKX1) under the control of mild root-specific β-glucosidase promoter from maize. Increased cytokinin degradation activity was observed positively to affect the number and length of lateral roots. The impact on morphology depended upon the recombinant protein's subcellular compartmentation. While assumed cytosolic and vacuolar targeting of AtCKX1 had negligible effect on shoot growth, secretion of AtCKX1 protein to the apoplast had a negative effect on development of the aerial part and yield. Upon the application of severe drought stress, all transgenic genotypes maintained higher water content and showed better growth and yield parameters during revitalization. Higher tolerance to drought stress was most caused by altered root morphology resulting in better dehydration avoidance. PMID:26773738

  10. Happier People Show Greater Neural Connectivity during Negative Self-Referential Processing

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Joo; Kyeong, Sunghyon; Cho, Sang Woo; Chun, Ji-Won; Park, Hae-Jeong; Kim, Jihye; Kim, Joohan; Dolan, Raymond J.; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Life satisfaction is an essential component of subjective well-being and provides a fundamental resource for optimal everyday functioning. The goal of the present study was to examine how life satisfaction influences self-referential processing of emotionally valenced stimuli. Nineteen individuals with high life satisfaction (HLS) and 21 individuals with low life satisfaction (LLS) were scanned using functional MRI while performing a face-word relevance rating task, which consisted of 3 types of face stimuli (self, public other, and unfamiliar other) and 3 types of word stimuli (positive, negative, and neutral). We found a significant group x word valence interaction effect, most strikingly in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex. In the positive word condition dorsal medial prefrontal cortex activity was significantly higher in the LLS group, whereas in the negative word condition it was significantly higher in the HLS group. The two groups showed distinct functional connectivity of the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex with emotional processing-related regions. The findings suggest that, in response to emotional stimuli, individuals with HLS may successfully recruit emotion regulation-related regions in contrast to individuals with LLS. The difference in functional connectivity during self-referential processing may lead to an influence of life satisfaction on responses to emotion-eliciting stimuli. PMID:26900857

  11. Individual limb work does not explain the greater metabolic cost of walking in elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Justus D; Farley, Claire T

    2007-06-01

    Elderly adults consume more metabolic energy during walking than young adults. Our study tested the hypothesis that elderly adults consume more metabolic energy during walking than young adults because they perform more individual limb work on the center of mass. Thus we compared how much individual limb work young and elderly adults performed on the center of mass during walking. We measured metabolic rate and ground reaction force while 10 elderly and 10 young subjects walked at 5 speeds between 0.7 and 1.8 m/s. Compared with young subjects, elderly subjects consumed an average of 20% more metabolic energy (P=0.010), whereas they performed an average of 10% less individual limb work during walking over the range of speeds (P=0.028). During the single-support phase, elderly and young subjects both conserved approximately 80% of the center of mass mechanical energy by inverted pendulum energy exchange and performed a similar amount of individual limb work (P=0.473). However, during double support, elderly subjects performed an average of 17% less individual limb work than young subjects (P=0.007) because their forward speed fluctuated less (P=0.006). We conclude that the greater metabolic cost of walking in elderly adults cannot be explained by a difference in individual limb work. Future studies should examine whether a greater metabolic cost of stabilization, reduced muscle efficiency, greater antagonist cocontraction, and/or a greater cost of generating muscle force cause the elevated metabolic cost of walking in elderly adults. PMID:17363623

  12. Preventive Care Service Usage Among Chinese Older Adults in the Greater Chicago Area

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Dong, XinQi

    2014-01-01

    Background. Preventive care is important for reducing morbidity and mortality among the elderly, but racial/ethnic disparities exist in use of preventive care services. We aimed to develop a better understanding of preventive care service utilization among Chinese older adults in the Greater Chicago area. Methods. We used data collected from the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago study, a population-based survey of 3,159 community-dwelling Chinese older adults in the Greater Chicago area. Preventive care services assessed include use of flu, pneumonia, and hepatitis B vaccines as well as colon, breast, cervical and prostate cancer screening. We also examined sociodemographic, health and quality of life correlates for preventive care service use. Results. We found that although Chinese older adults had lower utilization rates for the pneumonia vaccine and cancer screening, their utilization of the flu shot was consistent with national utilization rates. No sociodemographic, self-reported health, or quality of life characteristics were associated with all nine of the preventive care services. Conclusion. Use of preventive care services except flu vaccination was low among Chinese older adults in the Greater Chicago area. However, future longitudinal studies may be necessary to further elucidate preventive care service utilization patterns among Chinese older adults. PMID:25378452

  13. The Association between Filial Piety and Perceived Stress among Chinese Older Adults in Greater Chicago Area

    PubMed Central

    Dong, XinQi; Zhang, Manrui

    2016-01-01

    Background Perceived stress influences the health and well-being of older adults. This study aims to examine the association between the expectation and the receipt of filial piety and perceived stress among U.S Chinese older adults. Methods Data were drawn from the PINE study, a population-based study of Chinese older adults aged 60 and above in the greater Chicago area. Perceived stress was assessed by the PSS-10 and was the dependent variable. Independent variables were the expectation and the receipt of filial piety examined in six domains. Negative Binomial Regression and Multivariable Logistic Regression analyses were conducted. Results Of the 3,159 Chinese older adults interviewed, the mean age was 72.8 (SD=8.3) and 58.9% were female. Compared with older adults who received a high level of filial piety, older adults who received a medium level of filial piety were 1.57 (1.29–1.93) times more likely to perceive stress as high, and older adults who received a low level of filial piety were 2.74 (2.26–3.33) times more likely to perceive stress as high, after controlling for the potential confounding variables. The expectation of filial piety was not significantly associated with perceived stress. Conclusion A low level of filial piety receipt may be a risk factor for perceived stress. Our findings suggest incorporating cultural contributors into the analyses of perceived stress. PMID:27642631

  14. Physical Activity Is Linked to Greater Moment-To-Moment Variability in Spontaneous Brain Activity in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Wong, Chelsea N; Voss, Michelle W; Cooke, Gillian E; Gothe, Neha P; Fanning, Jason; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2015-01-01

    Higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) in old age are associated with greater brain structural and functional integrity, and higher cognitive functioning. However, it is not known how different aspects of lifestyle such as sedentariness, light PA (LI-PA), or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MV-PA) relate to neural activity in aging. In addition, it is not known whether the effects of PA on brain function differ or overlap with those of CRF. Here, we objectively measured CRF as oxygen consumption during a maximal exercise test and measured PA with an accelerometer worn for 7 days in 100 healthy but low active older adults (aged 60-80 years). We modeled the relationships between CRF, PA, and brain functional integrity using multivariate partial least squares analysis. As an index of functional brain integrity we used spontaneous moment-to-moment variability in the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal (SDBOLD), known to be associated with better cognitive functioning in aging. We found that older adults who engaged more in LI-PA and MV-PA had greater SDBOLD in brain regions that play a role in integrating segregated functional domains in the brain and benefit from greater CRF or PA, such as precuneus, hippocampus, medial and lateral prefrontal, and temporal cortices. Our results suggest that engaging in higher intensity PA may have protective effects on neural processing in aging. Finally, we demonstrated that older adults with greater overall WM microstructure were those showing more LI-PA and MV-PA and greater SDBOLD. We conclude that SDBOLD is a promising correlate of functional brain health in aging. Future analyses will evaluate whether SDBOLD is modifiable with interventions aimed to increase PA and CRF in older adults.

  15. Physical Activity Is Linked to Greater Moment-To-Moment Variability in Spontaneous Brain Activity in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Burzynska, Agnieszka Z.; Wong, Chelsea N.; Voss, Michelle W.; Cooke, Gillian E.; Gothe, Neha P.; Fanning, Jason; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2015-01-01

    Higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) in old age are associated with greater brain structural and functional integrity, and higher cognitive functioning. However, it is not known how different aspects of lifestyle such as sedentariness, light PA (LI-PA), or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MV-PA) relate to neural activity in aging. In addition, it is not known whether the effects of PA on brain function differ or overlap with those of CRF. Here, we objectively measured CRF as oxygen consumption during a maximal exercise test and measured PA with an accelerometer worn for 7 days in 100 healthy but low active older adults (aged 60–80 years). We modeled the relationships between CRF, PA, and brain functional integrity using multivariate partial least squares analysis. As an index of functional brain integrity we used spontaneous moment-to-moment variability in the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal (SDBOLD), known to be associated with better cognitive functioning in aging. We found that older adults who engaged more in LI-PA and MV-PA had greater SDBOLD in brain regions that play a role in integrating segregated functional domains in the brain and benefit from greater CRF or PA, such as precuneus, hippocampus, medial and lateral prefrontal, and temporal cortices. Our results suggest that engaging in higher intensity PA may have protective effects on neural processing in aging. Finally, we demonstrated that older adults with greater overall WM microstructure were those showing more LI-PA and MV-PA and greater SDBOLD. We conclude that SDBOLD is a promising correlate of functional brain health in aging. Future analyses will evaluate whether SDBOLD is modifiable with interventions aimed to increase PA and CRF in older adults. PMID:26244873

  16. Older adults have greater difficulty imagining future rather than atemporal experiences.

    PubMed

    Rendell, Peter G; Bailey, Phoebe E; Henry, Julie D; Phillips, Louise H; Gaskin, Shae; Kliegel, Matthias

    2012-12-01

    Episodic future thinking refers to mentally traveling forward in time to preexperience an event, and emerging research suggests that this is more difficult for older adults. The current study was designed to better understand the effect of aging on separate component processes of age differences in episodic future thinking. Young (n = 24) and older (n = 25) adults were asked to construct a) atemporal scenarios, b) future scenarios, and c) a narrative that involved navigation. Each of these conditions assesses the capacity to construct and describe a scene, but only the future scenario requires a subjective sense of self in time (autonoetic consciousness). The composite measure of performance showed that relative to young adults, older adults have substantially reduced capacity for all three types of construction, suggesting that age-related difficulty imagining future episodic events may reflect a more general cognitive decline with age. In addition, older adults were worse at imagining future experiences than atemporal experiences, indicating limited capacity for autonoetic consciousness. Further, this difference between imagining atemporal and future experiences was not as evident among younger adults. These deficits in episodic future thinking have implications for the daily lives of older adults in terms of anticipating and planning for the future.

  17. Intraindividual Variability in HIV Infection: Evidence for Greater Neurocognitive Dispersion in Older HIV Seropositive Adults

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Erin E.; Woods, Steven Paul; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Bondi, Mark W.; Grant, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Objective Both the prevalence and incidence of HIV infection among older adults are on the rise. Older adults are at increased risk of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, which has historically been characterized as an inconsistent or “spotty” pattern of deficits. Dispersion is a form of intraindividual variability (IIV) that is defined as within-person variability in performance across domains and has been associated with poorer neurocognitive functioning and incipient decline among healthy older adults. To our knowledge, no studies have yet examined dispersion in an aging HIV-infected sample. Methods For the current study we examined the hypothesis that age and HIV infection have synergistic effects on dispersion across a battery of clinical and experimental cognitive tasks. Our well-characterized sample comprised 126 HIV-seropositive individuals (HIV+) and 40 HIV-seronegative comparison individuals (HIV−), all of whom were administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Results Consistent with our hypothesis, an age by HIV serostatus interaction was observed, with the older HIV+ group demonstrating a higher level of dispersion relative to older HIV− and younger HIV+ individuals, even when potentially confounding demographic and medical factors were controlled. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that older HIV+ adults produce greater dispersion, or intraindividual variability in performance across a range of tests, which may be reflective of cognitive dyscontrol to which this population is vulnerable, perhaps driven by the combined effects of aging and HIV infection on prefrontostriatal systems. PMID:21574712

  18. Vitamin D status of older adults of diverse ancestry living in the greater Toronto area

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physiological and lifestyle factors put older adults at an increased risk of vitamin D insufficiency and resulting negative health outcomes. Here we explore the vitamin D status in a sample of community dwelling older adults of diverse ancestry living in the Greater Toronto area (GTA). Methods Two hundred and twenty-four (224) adults over 60 years of age were recruited from the Square One Older Adult Centre, in Mississauga, Ontario. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were measured from dried blood spot cards. Dietary and supplemental intakes of vitamin D were assessed via questionnaires. Skin pigmentation was assessed quantitatively by measuring melanin levels using a reflectometer. Results The mean 25(OH)D concentration in the total sample was 82.4 nmol/L. There were no statistically significant differences in serum 25(OH)D concentrations, supplemental or dietary vitamin D intakes between the three major ancestral groups (East Asians, Europeans and South Asians). Females had significantly higher 25(OH)D concentrations than males (84.5 nmol/L vs. 72.2 nmol/L, p = 0.012). The proportion of participants with 25(OH)D concentrations below 50 nmol/L and 75 nmol/L were 12.1%, and 38.8%, respectively. The mean daily supplemental intake of vitamin D was 917 IU/day. Vitamin D intake from supplements was the major factor determining 25(OH)D concentrations (p < 0.001). Conclusions Mean concentration of 25(OH)D in a sample of older adults of diverse ancestry living in the GTA exceeded 80 nmol/L, and there were no significant differences in 25(OH)D levels between ancestral groups. These results sharply contrast with our recent study focused on young adults of diverse ancestry living in the same geographic area, in which we found substantially lower 25(OH)D concentrations (mean 39.5 nmol/L), low supplemental vitamin D intake (114 IU/day), and significant differences in 25(OH)D levels between ancestral groups. High daily intake

  19. Short sleep duration is associated with greater alcohol consumption in adults.

    PubMed

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; McNeil, Jessica; Després, Jean-Pierre; Bouchard, Claude; Tremblay, Angelo

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between sleep duration and alcohol consumption in adults (301 men and 402 women aged 18-64years) from the greater Quebec City area. Sleep duration (self-reported), alcohol consumption (3-day food record and questions on drinking habits), and disinhibition eating behavior trait (score ≥ 6 on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) were assessed. Participants were categorized as short- ( ≤ 6h), average- (7-8h) or long- ( ≥ 9h) duration sleepers. Overall, short-duration sleepers consumed significantly more alcohol than the two other sleep-duration groups. After adjusting for relevant covariates, short sleep duration was associated with an increase in the odds of exceeding the recommendations for sensible weekly alcohol intake of 14 drinks for men and 7 drinks for women compared to those sleeping between 7 and 8h (OR 1.87, 95%CI 1.03-3.54, both sexes combined). In both men and women, daily alcohol intake was significantly higher in short-duration sleepers having a high disinhibition eating behavior trait. However, the prevalence of a binge drinking occasion (i.e. ≥5 drinks on one occasion) was more common in men than women. Men sleeping less than 6h per night with a disinhibited eating behavior were more likely to report binge drinking (41% of them). In summary, the combination of short sleep duration with disinhibited eating behavior is associated with greater alcohol intake in adults.

  20. Persistent glucose production and greater peripheral sensitivity to insulin in the neonate vs. the adult.

    PubMed

    Farrag, H M; Nawrath, L M; Healey, J E; Dorcus, E J; Rapoza, R E; Oh, W; Cowett, R M

    1997-01-01

    Insulin resistance has been reported to partially explain the clinical appearance of neonatal hyperglycemia. To determine the relative resistance to insulin of glucose production vs. glucose utilization, the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique was employed for the first time in the human neonate and was combined with stable isotopic determination of glucose production and glucose utilization. The basal rates of glucose production and glucose utilization were determined, after which each neonate was clamped at his or her own euglycemic glucose concentration while receiving regular human insulin at one rate of 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0 mU. kg-1.min-1. Persistent glucose production (> or = 1 mg.kg-1.min-1) during the clamp was recorded for all groups. A significant increase in the glucose infusion rate (P < 0.001) and in percent glucose utilization (P < 0.01) occurred in the 2.0 and 4.0 mU.kg-1.min-1 insulin groups. Metabolic clearance rate of insulin was significantly greater in the neonate compared with the adult at the 2.0 mU.kg-1.min-1 insulin infusion rate (P = 0.036). Our results indicate that, in contrast to the adult, the neonate has persistent glucose production (P = 0.001) and greater peripheral sensitivity to insulin (P = 0.015). PMID:9038856

  1. Greater cortical thinning in normal older adults predicts later cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Jennifer; Goh, Joshua O.; Kraut, Michael A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Resnick, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown regional differences in cortical thickness between healthy older adults and patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We now demonstrate that participants who subsequently develop cognitive impairment leading to a diagnosis of MCI or AD (n=25) experience greater cortical thinning in specific neuroanatomical regions compared to control participants who remained cognitively normal (n=96). Based on 8 years of annual MRI scans beginning an average of 11 years prior to onset of cognitive impairment, participants who developed cognitive impairment subsequent to the scanning period had greater longitudinal cortical thinning in the temporal poles and left medial temporal lobe compared to controls. No significant regional cortical thickness differences were found at baseline between the two study groups indicating that we are capturing a critical time when brain changes occur before behavioral manifestations of impairment are detectable. Our findings suggest that early events of the pathway that leads to cognitive impairment may involve the temporal lobe, and that this increased atrophy could be considered an early biomarker of neurodegeneration predictive of cognitive impairment years later. PMID:25311277

  2. Greater flavonoid intake is associated with improved CVD risk factors in US adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kijoon; Vance, Terrence M; Chun, Ock K

    2016-04-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported that diets high in flavonoids are associated with a reduced risk of CVD. However, evidence on the association of dietary flavonoid intake with CVD risk factors is still scarce. The present study aimed to investigate the association of dietary flavonoid intake with CVD risk factors among US adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012. A total of 4042 US adults aged 19 years and older from the NHANES 2007-2012 participated in this cross-sectional, population-based study. Intakes of total and individual flavonoids were estimated from 2-d 24-h diet recall data by matching with the expanded US Department of Agriculture flavonoid, isoflavone and proanthocyanidin databases. After adjusting for covariates, increased HDL-cholesterol was associated with higher total flavonoid intake (0·54 % change). TAG and TAG:HDL-cholesterol ratio were inversely associated with anthocyanidin (-1·25 % change for TAG; -1·60 % change for TAG:HDL-cholesterol ratio) and total flavonoid intakes (-1·31 % change for TAG; -1·83 % change for TAG:HDL-cholesterol ratio), respectively. Insulin and homoeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were inversely associated with flavone (for insulin, -3·18 % change; 95 % CI -5·85, -0·44; for HOMA-IR, -3·10 % change; 95 % CI -5·93, -0·19) and isoflavone intakes (for insulin, -3·11 % change; 95 % CI -5·46, -0·70; for HOMA-IR, -4·01 % change; 95 % CI -6·67, -1·27). BMI was negatively associated with anthocyanidin intake (-0·60 % change). This study showed that higher flavonoid intake was associated with improved CVD risk factors. Further research is warranted to confirm the findings from this study as these associations were moderate in strength. PMID:26931451

  3. The Nucleoside Analog BMS-986001 Shows Greater In Vitro Activity against HIV-2 than against HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert A; Raugi, Dana N; Wu, Vincent H; Leong, Sally S; Parker, Kate M; Oakes, Mariah K; Sow, Papa Salif; Ba, Selly; Seydi, Moussa; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S

    2015-12-01

    Treatment options for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) are restricted by the intrinsic resistance of the virus to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and the reduced susceptibility of HIV-2 to several protease inhibitors (PIs) used in antiretroviral therapy (ART). In an effort to identify new antiretrovirals for HIV-2 treatment, we evaluated the in vitro activity of the investigational nucleoside analog BMS-986001 (2',3'-didehydro-3'-deoxy-4'-ethynylthymidine; also known as censavudine, festinavir, OBP-601, 4'-ethynyl stavudine, or 4'-ethynyl-d4T). In single-cycle assays, BMS-986001 inhibited HIV-2 isolates from treatment-naive individuals, with 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) ranging from 30 to 81 nM. In contrast, EC50s for group M and O isolates of HIV-1 ranged from 450 to 890 nM. Across all isolates tested, the average EC50 for HIV-2 was 9.5-fold lower than that for HIV-1 (64 ± 18 nM versus 610 ± 200 nM, respectively; mean ± standard deviation). BMS-986001 also exhibited full activity against HIV-2 variants whose genomes encoded the single amino acid changes K65R and Q151M in reverse transcriptase, whereas the M184V mutant was 15-fold more resistant to the drug than the parental HIV-2ROD9 strain. Taken together, our findings show that BMS-986001 is an effective inhibitor of HIV-2 replication. To our knowledge, BMS-986001 is the first nucleoside analog that, when tested against a diverse collection of HIV-1 and HIV-2 isolates, exhibits more potent activity against HIV-2 than against HIV-1 in culture. PMID:26392486

  4. The Nucleoside Analog BMS-986001 Shows Greater In Vitro Activity against HIV-2 than against HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Raugi, Dana N.; Wu, Vincent H.; Leong, Sally S.; Parker, Kate M.; Oakes, Mariah K.; Sow, Papa Salif; Ba, Selly; Seydi, Moussa; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment options for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) are restricted by the intrinsic resistance of the virus to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and the reduced susceptibility of HIV-2 to several protease inhibitors (PIs) used in antiretroviral therapy (ART). In an effort to identify new antiretrovirals for HIV-2 treatment, we evaluated the in vitro activity of the investigational nucleoside analog BMS-986001 (2′,3′-didehydro-3′-deoxy-4′-ethynylthymidine; also known as censavudine, festinavir, OBP-601, 4′-ethynyl stavudine, or 4′-ethynyl-d4T). In single-cycle assays, BMS-986001 inhibited HIV-2 isolates from treatment-naive individuals, with 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) ranging from 30 to 81 nM. In contrast, EC50s for group M and O isolates of HIV-1 ranged from 450 to 890 nM. Across all isolates tested, the average EC50 for HIV-2 was 9.5-fold lower than that for HIV-1 (64 ± 18 nM versus 610 ± 200 nM, respectively; mean ± standard deviation). BMS-986001 also exhibited full activity against HIV-2 variants whose genomes encoded the single amino acid changes K65R and Q151M in reverse transcriptase, whereas the M184V mutant was 15-fold more resistant to the drug than the parental HIV-2ROD9 strain. Taken together, our findings show that BMS-986001 is an effective inhibitor of HIV-2 replication. To our knowledge, BMS-986001 is the first nucleoside analog that, when tested against a diverse collection of HIV-1 and HIV-2 isolates, exhibits more potent activity against HIV-2 than against HIV-1 in culture. PMID:26392486

  5. The Nucleoside Analog BMS-986001 Shows Greater In Vitro Activity against HIV-2 than against HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert A; Raugi, Dana N; Wu, Vincent H; Leong, Sally S; Parker, Kate M; Oakes, Mariah K; Sow, Papa Salif; Ba, Selly; Seydi, Moussa; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S

    2015-12-01

    Treatment options for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) are restricted by the intrinsic resistance of the virus to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and the reduced susceptibility of HIV-2 to several protease inhibitors (PIs) used in antiretroviral therapy (ART). In an effort to identify new antiretrovirals for HIV-2 treatment, we evaluated the in vitro activity of the investigational nucleoside analog BMS-986001 (2',3'-didehydro-3'-deoxy-4'-ethynylthymidine; also known as censavudine, festinavir, OBP-601, 4'-ethynyl stavudine, or 4'-ethynyl-d4T). In single-cycle assays, BMS-986001 inhibited HIV-2 isolates from treatment-naive individuals, with 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) ranging from 30 to 81 nM. In contrast, EC50s for group M and O isolates of HIV-1 ranged from 450 to 890 nM. Across all isolates tested, the average EC50 for HIV-2 was 9.5-fold lower than that for HIV-1 (64 ± 18 nM versus 610 ± 200 nM, respectively; mean ± standard deviation). BMS-986001 also exhibited full activity against HIV-2 variants whose genomes encoded the single amino acid changes K65R and Q151M in reverse transcriptase, whereas the M184V mutant was 15-fold more resistant to the drug than the parental HIV-2ROD9 strain. Taken together, our findings show that BMS-986001 is an effective inhibitor of HIV-2 replication. To our knowledge, BMS-986001 is the first nucleoside analog that, when tested against a diverse collection of HIV-1 and HIV-2 isolates, exhibits more potent activity against HIV-2 than against HIV-1 in culture.

  6. Do Coparenting and Social Support Have a Greater Effect on Adolescent Fathers than Adult Fathers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jay; Lee, Yookyong

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether coparenting support and social support had a stronger effect on father engagement with 3-year-olds among adolescent fathers compared with adult fathers. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 1,540), we found that coparenting support and paternal social support had a significantly stronger…

  7. Greater Emotional Gain from Giving in Older Adults: Age-Related Positivity Bias in Charitable Giving.

    PubMed

    Bjälkebring, Pär; Västfjäll, Daniel; Dickert, Stephan; Slovic, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Older adults have been shown to avoid negative and prefer positive information to a higher extent than younger adults. This positivity bias influences their information processing as well as decision-making. We investigate age-related positivity bias in charitable giving in two studies. In Study 1 we examine motivational factors in monetary donations, while Study 2 focuses on the emotional effect of actual monetary donations. In Study 1, participants (n = 353, age range 20-74 years) were asked to rate their affect toward a person in need and then state how much money they would be willing to donate to help this person. In Study 2, participants (n = 108, age range 19-89) were asked to rate their affect toward a donation made a few days prior. Regression analysis was used to investigate whether or not the positivity bias influences the relationship between affect and donations. In Study 1, we found that older adults felt more sympathy and compassion and were less motivated by negative affect when compared to younger adults, who were motivated by both negative and positive affect. In Study 2, we found that the level of positive emotional reactions from monetary donations was higher in older participants compared to younger participants. We find support for an age-related positivity bias in charitable giving. This is true for motivation to make a future donation, as well as affective thinking about a previous donation. We conclude that older adults draw more positive affect from both the planning and outcome of monetary donations and hence benefit more from engaging in monetary charity than their younger counterparts. PMID:27378966

  8. Fluctuations in acceleration during voluntary contractions lead to greater impairment of movement accuracy in old adults.

    PubMed

    Christou, Evangelos A; Shinohara, Minoru; Enoka, Roger M

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of movement velocity on the relation between fluctuations in acceleration and the ability to achieve a target velocity during voluntary contractions performed by young (29.5 +/- 4.3 yr) and old (74.9 +/- 6.2 yr) adults. Subjects performed concentric and eccentric contractions with the first dorsal interosseus muscle while lifting a submaximal load (15% of maximum) at six movement velocities (0.03-1.16 rad/s). Fluctuations in acceleration, the accuracy of matching the target velocity, and electromyographic (EMG) activity were determined from three trials for each contraction type and movement velocity. The fluctuations in acceleration increased with movement velocity for both concentric and eccentric contractions, but they were greatest during fast eccentric contractions ( approximately 135%) when there was stronger modulation of acceleration in the 5- to 10-Hz bandwidth. Nonetheless, EMG amplitude for first dorsal interosseus increased with movement velocity only for concentric and not eccentric contractions. Consistent with the minimum variance theory, movement accuracy was related to the fluctuations in acceleration for both types of contractions in all subjects. For a given level of fluctuations in acceleration, however, old subjects were three times less accurate than young subjects. Although the EMG amplitude at each speed was similar for young and old adults, only the young adults modulated the power in the EMG spectrum with speed. Thus the fluctuations in acceleration during voluntary contractions had a more pronounced effect on movement accuracy for old adults compared with young adults, probably due to factors that influenced the frequency-domain characteristics of the EMG.

  9. Greater Emotional Gain from Giving in Older Adults: Age-Related Positivity Bias in Charitable Giving

    PubMed Central

    Bjälkebring, Pär; Västfjäll, Daniel; Dickert, Stephan; Slovic, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Older adults have been shown to avoid negative and prefer positive information to a higher extent than younger adults. This positivity bias influences their information processing as well as decision-making. We investigate age-related positivity bias in charitable giving in two studies. In Study 1 we examine motivational factors in monetary donations, while Study 2 focuses on the emotional effect of actual monetary donations. In Study 1, participants (n = 353, age range 20–74 years) were asked to rate their affect toward a person in need and then state how much money they would be willing to donate to help this person. In Study 2, participants (n = 108, age range 19–89) were asked to rate their affect toward a donation made a few days prior. Regression analysis was used to investigate whether or not the positivity bias influences the relationship between affect and donations. In Study 1, we found that older adults felt more sympathy and compassion and were less motivated by negative affect when compared to younger adults, who were motivated by both negative and positive affect. In Study 2, we found that the level of positive emotional reactions from monetary donations was higher in older participants compared to younger participants. We find support for an age-related positivity bias in charitable giving. This is true for motivation to make a future donation, as well as affective thinking about a previous donation. We conclude that older adults draw more positive affect from both the planning and outcome of monetary donations and hence benefit more from engaging in monetary charity than their younger counterparts. PMID:27378966

  10. Greater serum carotenoid levels associated with lower prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yi; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Jun; Liu, Zhao-min; Ling, Wen-hua; Chen, Yu-ming

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that serum carotenoids may be inversely associated with liver injury, but limited data are available from population-based studies. We examined the relationship between serum carotenoid levels and the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Chinese adults. A total of 2935 participants aged 40–75 years were involved in this community-based cross-sectional study. General information, lifestyle factors, serum levels of carotenoid and the presence and degree of NAFLD were determined. After adjusting for potential covariates, we observed a dose-dependent inverse association between NAFLD risk and each individual serum carotenoid and total carotenoids (all p-values < 0.001). The ORs of NAFLD for the highest (vs. lowest) quartile were 0.44 (95% CI 0.35, 0.56) for α-carotene, 0.32 (95% CI 0.25, 0.41) for β-carotene, 0.62 (95% CI 0.49, 0.79) for β-cryptoxanthin, 0.54 (95% CI 0.42, 0.68) for lycopene, 0.56 (95% CI 0.44, 0.72) for lutein + zeaxanthin and 0.41 (95% CI 0.32, 0.53) for total carotenoids. Higher levels of α-carotene, β-carotene, lutein + zeaxanthin and total carotenoids were significantly associated with a decrease in the degree of NAFLD (p-trend: < 0.001 to 0.003). Serum carotenoids are inversely associated with prevalence of NAFLD in middle aged and elderly Chinese. PMID:26256414

  11. Young Adult Cannabis Users Report Greater Propensity for Risk-Taking Only in Non-Monetary Domains

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Jodi M.; Calderon, Vanessa; Curran, Max T.; Evins, A. Eden

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Though substance use is often associated with elevated risk-taking in real-world scenarios, many risk-taking tasks in experimental psychology using financial gambles fail to find significant differences between individuals with substance use disorders and healthy controls. We assessed whether participants using marijuana would show a greater propensity for risk-taking in distinct domains including, but not limited to, financial risk-taking. METHODS In the current study, we assessed risk-taking in young adult (age 18–25) regular marijuana users and in non-using control participants using a domain-specific risk-taking self-report scale (DOSPERT) encompassing five domains of risk-taking (social, financial, recreational, health/safety, and ethical). We also measured behavioral risk-taking using a laboratory monetary risk-taking task. RESULTS Marijuana users and controls reported significant differences on the social, health/safety, and ethical risk-taking scales, but no differences in the propensity to take recreational or financial risks. Complementing the self-report finding, there were no differences between marijuana users and controls in their performance on the laboratory risk-taking task. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that financial risk-taking may be less sensitive than other domains of risk-taking in assessing differences in risky behavior between those who use marijuana and those who do not. In order to more consistently determine whether increased risk-taking is a factor in substance use, it may be necessary to use both monetary risk-taking tasks and complementary assessments of non-monetary-based risk-taking measures. PMID:25577478

  12. Pain hypervigilance is associated with greater clinical pain severity and enhanced experimental pain sensitivity among adults with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Matthew S.; Goodin, Burel R.; Pero, Samuel T.; Schmidt, Jessica K.; Sotolongo, Adriana; Bulls, Hailey W.; Glover, Toni L.; King, Christopher D.; Sibille, Kimberly T.; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Staud, Roland; Fessler, Barri J.; Bradley, Laurence A.; Fillingim, Roger B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pain hypervigilance is an important aspect of the fear-avoidance model of pain that may help explain individual differences in pain sensitivity among persons with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of pain hypervigilance to clinical pain severity and experimental pain sensitivity in persons with symptomatic knee OA. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from 168 adults with symptomatic knee OA. Quantitative sensory testing was used to measure sensitivity to heat pain, pressure pain, and cold pain, as well as temporal summation of heat pain, a marker of central sensitization. Results Pain hypervigilance was associated with greater clinical pain severity, as well as greater pressure pain. Pain hypervigilance was also a significant predictor of temporal summation of heat pain. Conclusions Pain hypervigilance may be an important contributor to pain reports and experimental pain sensitivity among persons with knee OA. PMID:24352850

  13. A geospatial analysis of the relationship between neighbourhood socioeconomic status and adult severe injury in Greater Vancouver

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Fiona; Schuurman, Nadine; Amram, Ofer; Nathens, Avery B

    2015-01-01

    Background Every year, injuries cost the Canadian healthcare system billions of dollars and result in thousands of emergency room visits, hospitalisations and deaths. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between neighbourhood socioeconomic status (NSES) and the rates of all-cause, unintentional and intentional severe injury in Greater Vancouver adults. A second objective was to determine whether the identified associations were spatially consistent or non-stationary. Methods Severe injury cases occurring between 2001 and 2006 were identified using the British Columbia's Coroner's Service records and the British Columbia Trauma Registry, and mapped by census dissemination areas using a geographical information system. Descriptive statistics and exploratory spatial data analysis methods were used to gain a better understanding of the data sets and to explore the relationship between the rates of severe injury and two measures of NSES (social and material deprivation). Ordinary least squares and geographically weighted regression were used to model these relationships at the global and local levels. Results Inverse relationships were identified between both measures of NSES and the rates of severe injury with the strongest associations located in Greater Vancouver's most socioeconomically deprived neighbourhoods. Social deprivation was found to have a slightly stronger relationship with the rates of severe injury than material deprivation. Conclusions Results of this study suggest that policies and programmes aimed at reducing the burden of severe injury in Greater Vancouver should take into account social and material deprivation, and should target the most socioeconomically deprived neighbourhoods in Greater Vancouver. PMID:25694418

  14. Dietary Patterns and Relationship to Obesity-Related Health Outcomes and Mortality in Adults 75 Years of Age or Greater

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, P.Y.; Mitchell, D.C.; Coffman, D.L.; Wood, G. Craig; Hartman, T.J.; Still, C.; Jensen, G.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity-related adverse health outcomes is increasing among older adults. Because it is thought that nutrition plays an important role in successful aging, there has been considerable interest in the association between dietary patterns of older adults and obesity-related health outcomes. Objective This study examined the association between dietary patterns and mortality and prevalence of obesity-related health outcomes, namely cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), over a 5-year follow-up period in adults aged 75 years or greater. Design A longitudinal observational study with cross-sectional dietary assessment. Setting Rural Central Pennsylvania. Participants Community-dwelling older adults (N = 449; 76.5 years old; 57% female). Measurements Multiple, unannounced, 24-hour dietary recalls were used to collect dietary intake. Cluster analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Prevalence of CVD, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and MetSyn was extracted from outpatient electronic medical records. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between dietary patterns and health outcomes and mortality. Results ‘Sweets and Dairy’, ‘Health-Conscious’ and ‘Western’ dietary patterns were identified. Compared to the ‘Health-Conscious’ pattern, those in the ‘Sweets and Dairy’ pattern had increased odds of hypertension over the follow-up period; adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) was 2.18 (1.11-4.30). No significant associations were found for CVD, diabetes mellitus, MetSyn or mortality with dietary patterns. Conclusions These findings support the potential value of healthy dietary patterns in the management of hypertension in older adults. We did not observe any other strong associations between dietary patterns and health outcomes or mortality in persons ≥ 75 years of age; thus failing to support the use of overly restrictive diet prescriptions for

  15. Faster development does not lead to correlated evolution of greater pre-adult competitive ability in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Shakarad, Mallikarjun; Prasad, N G; Gokhale, Kaustubh; Gadagkar, Vikram; Rajamani, M; Joshi, Amitabh

    2005-03-22

    In comparisons across Drosophila species, faster pre-adult development is phenotypically correlated with increased pre-adult competitive ability, suggesting that these two traits may also be evolutionary correlates of one another. However, correlations between traits within- and among- species can differ, and in most cases it is the within-species genetic correlations that are likely to act as constraints on adaptive evolution. Moreover, laboratory studies on Drosophila melanogaster have shown that the suite of traits that evolves in populations subjected to selection for faster development is the opposite of the traits that evolve in populations selected for increased pre-adult competitive ability. This observation led us to propose that, despite having a higher carrying capacity and a reduced minimum food requirement for completing development than controls, D. melanogaster populations subjected to selection for faster development should have lower competitive ability than controls owing to their reduced larval feeding rates and urea tolerance. Here, we describe results from pre-adult competition experiments that clearly show that the faster developing populations are substantially poorer competitors than controls when reared at high density in competition with a marked mutant strain. We briefly discuss these results in the context of different formulations of density-dependent selection theory.

  16. Paleolithic nutrition improves plasma lipid concentrations of hypercholesterolemic adults to a greater extent than traditional heart-healthy dietary recommendations.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Robert L; Brooks, Judith T; Carbone, John W

    2015-06-01

    Recent research suggests that traditional grain-based heart-healthy diet recommendations, which replace dietary saturated fat with carbohydrate and reduce total fat intake, may result in unfavorable plasma lipid ratios, with reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and an elevation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triacylglycerols (TG). The current study tested the hypothesis that a grain-free Paleolithic diet would induce weight loss and improve plasma total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and TG concentrations in nondiabetic adults with hyperlipidemia to a greater extent than a grain-based heart-healthy diet, based on the recommendations of the American Heart Association. Twenty volunteers (10 male and 10 female) aged 40 to 62 years were selected based on diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia. Volunteers were not taking any cholesterol-lowering medications and adhered to a traditional heart-healthy diet for 4 months, followed by a Paleolithic diet for 4 months. Regression analysis was used to determine whether change in body weight contributed to observed changes in plasma lipid concentrations. Differences in dietary intakes and plasma lipid measures were assessed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Four months of Paleolithic nutrition significantly lowered (P < .001) mean total cholesterol, LDL, and TG and increased (P < .001) HDL, independent of changes in body weight, relative to both baseline and the traditional heart-healthy diet. Paleolithic nutrition offers promising potential for nutritional management of hyperlipidemia in adults whose lipid profiles have not improved after following more traditional heart-healthy dietary recommendations. PMID:26003334

  17. Seasoning ingredient variety, but not quality, is associated with greater intake of beans and rice among urban Costa Rican adults.

    PubMed

    Vadiveloo, Maya K; Campos, Hannia; Mattei, Josiemer

    2016-08-01

    Exposure to a variety of flavors may promote food enjoyment, but few studies have examined the relationship between food seasoning and food intake. We hypothesized that using a higher variety (number) of 11 seasonings to prepare 2 staple foods (beans, white rice) would be associated with intake of those foods in a population-based case-control study of Costa Rican adults in urban vs rural areas (n=1025), where cooking and dietary practices differ. Participants were surveyed about the variety of seasoning ingredients added when preparing beans or rice. Ingredients were also categorized by their dietary quality (healthfulness), and scores for seasoning variety and quality were created. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine the association between variety and quality scores (continuously and in tertiles (T)) and intake of each staple food. Seasoning variety was positively associated with daily servings of beans (β=.02, P=.01; 1.31 and 1.23 servings/day in T2 and T3 versus 1.02 servings/day in T1, P<.05) and rice (β=.04, P=.005) in the urban areas only. No differences in ingredient quality across increasing intakes of beans or rice were noted, and the joint associations between variety and quality were not significant. In conclusion, a greater variety, but not quality, of seasoning ingredients was positively associated with intakes of beans and rice in urban Costa Rican adults. Our results suggest that increasing the variety of seasonings added to beans may be a culturally-appropriate strategy to improve intake of this healthy staple food among urban Costa Rican adults. PMID:27440532

  18. Seasoning ingredient variety, but not quality, is associated with greater intake of beans and rice among urban Costa Rican adults.

    PubMed

    Vadiveloo, Maya K; Campos, Hannia; Mattei, Josiemer

    2016-08-01

    Exposure to a variety of flavors may promote food enjoyment, but few studies have examined the relationship between food seasoning and food intake. We hypothesized that using a higher variety (number) of 11 seasonings to prepare 2 staple foods (beans, white rice) would be associated with intake of those foods in a population-based case-control study of Costa Rican adults in urban vs rural areas (n=1025), where cooking and dietary practices differ. Participants were surveyed about the variety of seasoning ingredients added when preparing beans or rice. Ingredients were also categorized by their dietary quality (healthfulness), and scores for seasoning variety and quality were created. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine the association between variety and quality scores (continuously and in tertiles (T)) and intake of each staple food. Seasoning variety was positively associated with daily servings of beans (β=.02, P=.01; 1.31 and 1.23 servings/day in T2 and T3 versus 1.02 servings/day in T1, P<.05) and rice (β=.04, P=.005) in the urban areas only. No differences in ingredient quality across increasing intakes of beans or rice were noted, and the joint associations between variety and quality were not significant. In conclusion, a greater variety, but not quality, of seasoning ingredients was positively associated with intakes of beans and rice in urban Costa Rican adults. Our results suggest that increasing the variety of seasonings added to beans may be a culturally-appropriate strategy to improve intake of this healthy staple food among urban Costa Rican adults.

  19. Adults with Greater Weight Satisfaction Report More Positive Health Behaviors and Have Better Health Status Regardless of BMI

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Christine E.; Hébert, James R.; Lee, Duck-chul; Adams, Swann A.; Steck, Susan E.; Sui, Xuemei; Kuk, Jennifer L.; Baruth, Meghan; Blair, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Prior studies suggest that weight satisfaction may preclude changes in behavior that lead to healthier weight among individuals who are overweight or obese. Objective. To gain a better understanding of complex relationships between weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, and health outcomes. Design. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS). Participants. Large mixed-gender cohort of primarily white, middle-to-upper socioeconomic status (SES) adults with baseline examination between 1987 and 2002 (n = 19,003). Main Outcome Variables. Weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, chronic health conditions, and clinical health indicators. Statistical Analyses Performed. Chi-square test, t-tests, and linear and multivariate logistic regression. Results. Compared to men, women were more likely to be dieting (32% women; 18% men) and had higher weight dissatisfaction. Men and women with greater weight dissatisfaction reported more dieting, yo-yo dieting, and snacking and consuming fewer meals, being less active, and having to eat either more or less than desired to maintain weight regardless of weight status. Those who were overweight or obese and dissatisfied with their weight had the poorest health. Conclusion. Greater satisfaction with one's weight was associated with positive health behaviors and health outcomes in both men and women and across weight status groups. PMID:23862054

  20. Adolescent earthquake survivors' show increased prefrontal cortex activation to masked earthquake images as adults.

    PubMed

    Du, Xue; Wei, Dongtao; Ganzel, Barbara L; Kim, Pilyoung; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-03-01

    The great Sichuan earthquake in China on May 12, 2008 was a traumatic event to many who live near the earthquake area. However, at present, there are few studies that explore the long-term impact of the adolescent trauma exposure on adults' brain function. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the brain activation evoked by masked trauma-related stimuli (earthquake versus neutral images) in 14 adults who lived near the epicenter of the great Sichuan earthquake when they were adolescents (trauma-exposed group) and 14 adults who lived farther from the epicenter of the earthquake when they were adolescents (control group). Compared with the control group, the trauma-exposed group showed significant elevation of activation in the right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) in response to masked earthquake-related images. In the trauma-exposed group, the right ACC activation was negatively correlated with the frequency of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These findings differ markedly from the long-term effects of trauma exposure in adults. This suggests that trauma exposure during adolescence may have a unique long-term impact on ACC/MPFC function, top-down modulation of trauma-related information, and subsequent symptoms of PTSD.

  1. A Study of the Post-Secondary Educational Needs of Adults in the Greater Tuscaloosa (Alabama) Area. Research Paper No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owings, Thomas G.; Diener, Thomas J.

    A 1975 survey of adults (over 18 years old) in the Greater Tuscaloosa, Alabama area was conducted by the University of Alabama Committee on Adult and Part-Time Students, to assess opinions and attitudes on post-secondary educational opportunities and programs within the local area. From a random sample of approximately 400 individuals listed in…

  2. Astrocytes from adult Wistar rats aged in vitro show changes in glial functions.

    PubMed

    Souza, Débora Guerini; Bellaver, Bruna; Raupp, Gustavo Santos; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Quincozes-Santos, André

    2015-11-01

    Astrocytes, the most versatile cells of the central nervous system, play an important role in the regulation of neurotransmitter homeostasis, energy metabolism, antioxidant defenses and the anti-inflammatory response. Recently, our group characterized cortical astrocyte cultures from adult Wistar rats. In line with that work, we studied glial function using an experimental in vitro model of aging astrocytes (30 days in vitro after reaching confluence) from newborn (NB), adult (AD) and aged (AG) Wistar rats. We evaluated metabolic parameters, such as the glucose uptake, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, and glutathione (GSH) content, as well as the GFAP, GLUT-1 and xCT expression. AD and AG astrocytes take up less glucose than NB astrocytes and had decreased GLUT1 expression levels. Furthermore, AD and AG astrocytes exhibited decreased GS activity compared to NB cells. Simultaneously, AD and AG astrocytes showed an increase in GSH levels, along with an increase in xCT expression. NB, AD and AG astrocytes presented similar morphology; however, differences in GFAP levels were observed. Taken together, these results improve the knowledge of cerebral senescence and represent an innovative tool for brain studies of aging. PMID:26210720

  3. Sacral chordoma in an adult showing an aggressive clinical course: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ENDO, KOJI; YAMASHITA, HIDEKI; NAGASHIMA, HIDEKI; TESHIMA, RYOTA

    2014-01-01

    The current report presents a case of a 78-year-old male with sacral chordoma, showing an aggressive clinical course. The patient underwent sacral resection, however, nine months later, multiple metastases were detected by magnetic resonance imaging. The metastases progressed rapidly and 15 months following surgery the patient succumbed to respiratory dysfunction. An autopsy revealed multiple metastases of the lung, liver, heart, kidneys and vertebrae. Pathologically, the tumors did not show proliferation of anaplastic cells or dedifferentiation; however, the metastatic tumor cells were smaller than the primary tumor cells. The Ki-67 labeling indices were <5% in all of the patient’s tumors, therefore, the capacity for cellular proliferation of the tumors was considered to be low. Chordoma in adults are generally slow-growing tumors and are associated with a relatively prolonged course and frequent local recurrences. Therefore, it must be recognized that chordoma may grow rapidly and show an aggressive clinical course, even when the Ki-67 labeling index is low. PMID:24765153

  4. Older Adults Show Deficits in Retrieving and Decoding Associative Mediators Generated at Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzog, Christopher; Fulton, Erika K.; Mandviwala, Lulua; Dunlosky, John

    2013-01-01

    We instructed the use of mediators to encode paired-associate items, and then measured both cued recall of targets and mediators. Older adults (n = 49) and younger adults (n = 57) studied a mixed list of concrete and abstract noun pairs under instructions to either generate a sentence or an image to form a new association between normatively…

  5. Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels.

    PubMed

    Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Batista, Bruna Aparecida Melo; Neves, Alice Magagnin; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) can lead to weight gain, but evidence regarding their real effect in body weight and satiety is still inconclusive. Using a rat model, the present study compares the effect of saccharin and aspartame to sucrose in body weight gain and in caloric intake. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats received plain yogurt sweetened with 20% sucrose, 0.3% sodium saccharin or 0.4% aspartame, in addition to chow and water ad libitum, while physical activity was restrained. Measurements of cumulative body weight gain, total caloric intake, caloric intake of chow and caloric intake of sweetened yogurt were performed weekly for 12 weeks. Results showed that addition of either saccharin or aspartame to yogurt resulted in increased weight gain compared to addition of sucrose, however total caloric intake was similar among groups. In conclusion, greater weight gain was promoted by the use of saccharin or aspartame, compared with sucrose, and this weight gain was unrelated to caloric intake. We speculate that a decrease in energy expenditure or increase in fluid retention might be involved.

  6. Levels of Acculturation of Chinese Older Adults in the Greater Chicago Area - The Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Dong, XinQi; Bergren, Stephanie M; Chang, E-Shien

    2015-09-01

    Acculturation is a difficult process for minority older adults for a variety of reasons, including access and exposure to mainstream culture, competing ethnic identities, and linguistic ability and preference. There is a paucity of research regarding overall level of acculturation for Chinese older adults in the United States. This study aimed to provide an overall estimate of level of acculturation of Chinese older adults in the United States and to examine correlations between sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported health measures, and level of acculturation. Data were collected through the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago (PINE) study. This community-based participatory research study surveyed 3,159 Chinese older adults aged 60 and older. The PINE Study Acculturation Scale was used to assess level of acculturation in three dimensions: language preference, media use, and ethnic social relations. Mean acculturation level for all items was 15.3 ± 5.1, indicating low levels of acculturation. Older age, more offspring, lower income, fewer years living in the United States, lower overall health status, and lower quality of life were associated with lower levels of acculturation. Level of acculturation was low in Chinese older adults, and certain subsets of the population were more likely to have a lower level of acculturation. Future research should investigate causality and effects of level of acculturation.

  7. Elevated Serum Uric Acid Is Associated with Greater Bone Mineral Density and Skeletal Muscle Mass in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    He, Juan; Wang, Chen; Qiu, Rui; Chen, Yu-ming

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Previous studies have suggested a positive link between serum uric acid (UA) and bone mineral density (BMD). In this study, we re-examined the association between UA and BMD and further explored whether this was mediated by skeletal muscle mass in a general Chinese population. Method This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 3079 (963 men and 2116 women) Chinese adults aged 40–75 years. Face-to-face interviews and laboratory analyses were performed to determine serum UA and various covariates. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess the BMD and appendicular skeletal muscle mass. The skeletal muscle mass index (SMI = ASM/Height2, kg/m2) for the total limbs, arms, and legs was then calculated. Results The serum UA was graded and, in general, was significantly and positively associated with the BMD and muscle mass, after adjustment for multiple covariates in the total sample. Compared with participants in lowest quartile of UA, those participants in highest quartile showed a 2.3%(whole body), 4.1%(lumbar spine), 2.4%(total hip), and 2.0% (femoral neck) greater BMDs. The mean SMIs in the highest (vs. lowest) quartile increased by 2.7% (total), 2.5% (arm), 2.7% (leg) respectively. In addition, path analysis suggested that the favorable association between UA and BMD might be mediated by increasing SMI. Conclusion The elevated serum UA was associated with a higher BMD and a greater muscle mass in a middle-aged and elderly Chinese population and the UA-BMD association was partly mediated by muscle mass. PMID:27144737

  8. Older adults show a self-reference effect for narrative information.

    PubMed

    Carson, Nicole; Murphy, Kelly J; Moscovitch, Morris; Rosenbaum, R Shayna

    2016-10-01

    The self-reference effect (SRE), enhanced memory for information encoded through self-related processing, has been established in younger and older adults using single trait adjective words. We sought to examine the generality of this phenomenon by studying narrative information in these populations. Additionally, we investigated retrieval experience at recognition and whether valence of stimuli influences memory differently in young and older adults. Participants encoded trait adjectives and narratives in self-reference, semantic, or structural processing conditions, followed by tests of recall and recognition. Experiment 1 revealed an SRE for trait adjective recognition and narrative cued recall in both age groups, although the existence of an SRE for narrative recognition was unclear due to ceiling effects. Experiment 2 revealed an SRE on an adapted test of narrative recognition. Self-referential encoding was shown to enhance recollection for both trait adjectives and narrative material in Experiment 1, whereas similar estimates of recollection for self-reference and semantic conditions were found in Experiment 2. Valence effects were inconsistent but generally similar in young and older adults when they were found. Results demonstrate that the self-reference technique extends to narrative information in young and older adults and may provide a valuable intervention tool for those experiencing age-related memory decline.

  9. Older adults show a self-reference effect for narrative information.

    PubMed

    Carson, Nicole; Murphy, Kelly J; Moscovitch, Morris; Rosenbaum, R Shayna

    2016-10-01

    The self-reference effect (SRE), enhanced memory for information encoded through self-related processing, has been established in younger and older adults using single trait adjective words. We sought to examine the generality of this phenomenon by studying narrative information in these populations. Additionally, we investigated retrieval experience at recognition and whether valence of stimuli influences memory differently in young and older adults. Participants encoded trait adjectives and narratives in self-reference, semantic, or structural processing conditions, followed by tests of recall and recognition. Experiment 1 revealed an SRE for trait adjective recognition and narrative cued recall in both age groups, although the existence of an SRE for narrative recognition was unclear due to ceiling effects. Experiment 2 revealed an SRE on an adapted test of narrative recognition. Self-referential encoding was shown to enhance recollection for both trait adjectives and narrative material in Experiment 1, whereas similar estimates of recollection for self-reference and semantic conditions were found in Experiment 2. Valence effects were inconsistent but generally similar in young and older adults when they were found. Results demonstrate that the self-reference technique extends to narrative information in young and older adults and may provide a valuable intervention tool for those experiencing age-related memory decline. PMID:26360612

  10. Do Adults with Mental Retardation Show Pictorial Superiority Effects in Recall and Recognition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Katie E.; Applegate, Heather; Reese, Celinda M.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined memory for pictures and words in 16 adults with mental retardation and 24 controls. Pictorial superiority effects occurred in free recall and recognition for both intelligence-level groups. Correlational analyses indicated working memory span was primarily related to recall performance, irrespective of stimulus format. (Contains…

  11. Rutin and quercetin show greater efficacy than nifedipin in ameliorating hemodynamic, redox, and metabolite imbalances in sodium chloride-induced hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Olaleye, M T; Crown, O O; Akinmoladun, A C; Akindahunsi, A A

    2014-06-01

    Rutin and quercetin were investigated for their effects on blood pressure and antioxidant defense system of rats fed with 8% sodium chloride-supplemented diet (high salt diet) for 6 weeks. Animals fed with high salt diet demonstrated an increase in systolic, diastolic, pulse, and mean arterial blood pressures (p < 0.05) as well as lipid peroxidation but decreases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes compared with control group. Groups post-treated with rutin and quercetin for 2 weeks showed significant reversals in the values of these indices compared with the group fed with only the high salt diet but not post-treated. The high salt diet also led to significant increase in serum glucose, urea, creatinine, triglycerides, low-density-lipoprotein, and total cholesterol concentrations. Treatment with rutin and quercetin ameliorated the effects of high salt diet on these biochemical indices. The reference standard, nifedipin was less effective than rutin and quercetin. The results of this study highlight the risk of high salt consumption on cardiovascular health and the potent antioxidant and antihypertensive property of rutin and quercetin.

  12. Do Adults Show an Effect of Delayed First Language Acquisition When Calculating Scalar Implicatures?

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Kathryn; Mayberry, Rachel I

    2015-01-01

    Language acquisition involves learning not only grammatical rules and a lexicon, but also what someone is intending to convey with their utterance: the semantic/pragmatic component of language. In this paper we separate the contributions of linguistic development and cognitive maturity to the acquisition of the semantic/pragmatic component of language by comparing deaf adults who had either early or late first exposure to their first language (ASL). We focus on the particular type of meaning at the semantic/pragmatic interface called scalar implicature, for which preschool-age children typically differ from adults. Children's behavior has been attributed to either their not knowing appropriate linguistic alternatives to consider or to cognitive developmental differences between children and adults. Unlike children, deaf adults with late language exposure are cognitively mature, although they never fully acquire some complex linguistic structures, and thus serve as a test for the role of language in such interpretations. Our results indicate an overall high performance by late learners, especially when implicatures are not based on conventionalized items. However, compared to early language learners, late language learners compute fewer implicatures when conventionalized linguistic alternatives are involved (e.g. ). We conclude that (i) in general, Gricean pragmatic reasoning does not seem to be impacted by delayed first language acquisition and can account for multiple quantity implicatures, but (ii) the creation of a scale based on lexical items can lead to ease in alternative creation that may be advantageously learned early in life, and that this may be one of several factors contributing to differences between adults and children on scalar implicature tasks. PMID:26997850

  13. Less-healthy eating behaviors have a greater association with a high level of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among rural adults than among urban adults

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Joseph R.; Johnson, Cassandra M.; Dean, Wesley R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is associated with the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States; however, little is known about how less-healthy eating behaviors influence high levels of SSB consumption among rural adults. Objective We assessed the frequency of SSB consumption among rural and urban adults, examined the correlates of frequent SSB consumption, and determined difference in correlates between rural and urban adults in a large region of Texas. Design A cross-sectional study using data on 1,878 adult participants (urban=734 and rural=1,144), who were recruited by random digit dialing to participate in the seven-county 2006 Brazos Valley Community Health Assessment. Data included demographic characteristics, eating behaviors (SSB consumption, frequency of fast-food meals, frequency of breakfast meals, and daily fruit and vegetable intake), and household food insecurity. Results The prevalence of any consumption of SSB and the prevalence of high consumption of SSB were significantly higher among rural adults compared with urban counterparts. The multivariable logistic regression models indicated that a high level of SSB consumption (≥3 cans or glasses SSB/day) was associated with demographic characteristics (poverty-level income and children in the home), frequent consumption of fast-food meals, infrequent breakfast meals, low fruit and vegetable intake, and household food insecurity especially among rural adults. Conclusions This study provides impetus for understanding associations among multiple eating behaviors, especially among economically and geographically disadvantaged adults. New strategies are needed for educating consumers, not only about how to moderate their SSB intake, but also how to simultaneously disrupt the co-occurrence of undesirable eating and promote healthful eating. PMID:21845142

  14. A case of adult moyamoya disease showing progressive angiopathy on cerebral angiography.

    PubMed

    Shirane, R; Mikawa, S; Ebina, T

    1999-09-01

    In moyamoya disease, progression of carotid occlusive lesion in an adult patient is very rare. We report a case of adult moyamoya disease with acute angiographical stage progression and hemodynamic deterioration. A 56-year-old female complaining of left motor weakness visited our department. On MRI, infarct lesion was found in the right white matter. On cerebral angiography, occlusive lesions in the bilateral internal carotid arterial siphons and moyamoya vessels were found. The right side was stage V and the left side was stage III. On IMP-SPECT, decreased cerebral hemodynamic reserve of the right cerebral hemisphere was found. In this patient, right STA-MCA anastomosis was performed. After operation, she became possible to walk and discharged to home. Five months after operation, good collateral formation and improvement of hemodynamic reserve in the right hemisphere were found. However, on left carotid arteriography, the anterior and middle cerebral arteries were only slightly imaged, and the disease state progressed to stage IV. In addition, decreased blood flow and hemodynamic reserve were appeared in the left hemisphere.

  15. Face-to-Face Sharing with Strangers and Altruistic Punishment of Acquaintances for Strangers: Young Adolescents Exhibit Greater Altruism than Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Jian; Yang, Yue; Wang, Zhiwen

    2016-01-01

    Young adolescents are generally considered to be self-absorbed. Studies indicate that they lack relevant general cognitive abilities, such as impulse control, that mature in early adulthood. However, their idealism may cause them to be more intolerant of unfair treatment to others and thus result in their engaging in more altruistic behavior. The present study aimed to clarify whether young adolescents are more altruistic than adults and thus indicate whether altruistic competence is domain-specific. One hundred 22 young adolescents and adults participated in a face-to-face, two-round, third-party punishment experiment. In each interaction group, a participant served as an allocator who could share money units with a stranger; another participant who knew the allocator could punish the acquaintance for the stranger. Participants reported their emotions after the first round, and at the end of the experiment, the participants justified their behavior in each round. The results indicated that the young adolescents both shared more and punished more than did the adults. Sharing was associated with a reference to fairness in the justifications, but altruistic punishment was associated with subsequent positive emotion. In sum, greater altruism in young adolescents compared to adults with mature cognitive abilities provides evidence of domain-specificity of altruistic competence. Moreover, sharing and altruistic punishment are related to specific cognitive and emotional mechanisms, respectively. PMID:27752246

  16. Maternal choline supplementation programs greater activity of the phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) pathway in adult Ts65Dn trisomic mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jian; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Powers, Brian; Alldred, Melissa J; Saltzman, Arthur; Strupp, Barbara J; Caudill, Marie A

    2014-10-01

    Maternal choline supplementation (MCS) induces lifelong cognitive benefits in the Ts65Dn mouse, a trisomic mouse model of Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects, we conducted a study to test the hypothesis that MCS alters choline metabolism in adult Ts65Dn offspring. Deuterium-labeled methyl-d9-choline was administered to adult Ts65Dn and disomic (2N) female littermates born to choline-unsupplemented or choline-supplemented Ts65Dn dams. Enrichment of d9-choline metabolites (derived from intact choline) and d3 + d6-choline metabolites [produced when choline-derived methyl groups are used by phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT)] was measured in harvested tissues. Adult offspring (both Ts65Dn and 2N) of choline-supplemented (vs. choline-unsupplemented) dams exhibited 60% greater (P≤0.007) activity of hepatic PEMT, which functions in de novo choline synthesis and produces phosphatidylcholine (PC) enriched in docosahexaenoic acid. Higher (P<0.001) enrichment of PEMT-derived d3 and d6 metabolites was detected in liver, plasma, and brain in both genotypes but to a greater extent in the Ts65Dn adult offspring. MCS also yielded higher (P<0.05) d9 metabolite enrichments in liver, plasma, and brain. These data demonstrate that MCS exerts lasting effects on offspring choline metabolism, including up-regulation of the hepatic PEMT pathway and enhanced provision of choline and PEMT-PC to the brain. PMID:24963152

  17. Greater Healthful Food Variety as Measured by the US Healthy Food Diversity Index Is Associated with Lower Odds of Metabolic Syndrome and its Components in US Adults123

    PubMed Central

    Vadiveloo, Maya; Parkeh, Niyati; Mattei, Josiemer

    2015-01-01

    Background: Consuming a wider variety of nutrient-dense foods may promote adherence to healthful dietary patterns, leading to improved dietary quality and enhanced metabolic health. Objective: We used the US Healthy Food Diversity (HFD) index to simultaneously measure dietary variety, quality, and proportionality, hypothesizing a priori that race/ethnicity may moderate associations between diet and health. Methods: A representative sample of adults (n = 7470) aged 20+ y with two 24-h recalls and complete outcome data from the cross-sectional NHANES 2003–2006 were selected. US HFD values were generated using a previously validated equation with a theoretical range from 0 to nearly 1, with higher scores indicative of more varied diets with a higher proportion of healthful food groups. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was defined using the most recent harmonized definition. Survey-weighted multivariable linear and logistic regression, adjusted for demographic factors, smoking, energy, screen time, and leisure activity, were used to compute means and ORs (95% CIs). Results: Adults in the third vs. first US HFD tertile had 21% lower odds of MetS [OR (95% CI): 0.79 (0.64, 0.98)] as well as lower odds of hypertension [0.83 (0.70, 0.995] and elevated waist circumference [0.75 (0.66, 0.86] after multivariable adjustment (P-trend < 0.05). The age- and sex-adjusted odds of low serum HDL cholesterol and impaired fasting plasma glucose (P-trend < 0.05) were lower in the highest vs. lowest US HFD tertile but attenuated with multivariable adjustment (P = 0.06 and 0.22, respectively). Notably, the US HFD index was only protective against adiposity among non-Hispanic white (NHW) and non-Hispanic black (NHB) adults, and MetS associations were driven by NHW adults. No associations were observed among Hispanic adults for any MetS components. Conclusions: Greater healthful food variety was associated with lower odds of MetS and some MetS components in the total population, NHW adults, and

  18. Greater Response to Placebo in Children Than in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis in Drug-Resistant Partial Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Rheims, Sylvain; Cucherat, Michel; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Ryvlin, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    % CI 0.43–0.98], p = 0.004 by metaregression), due to higher withdrawal rate for seizure aggravation in children (5.6%) than in adults (0.7%) receiving placebo (p < 0.001). Finally, there was no significant difference in the seizure-free rate between adult and paediatric studies. Conclusions Children with drug-resistant partial epilepsy receiving placebo in double-blind RCTs demonstrated significantly greater 50% responder rate than adults, probably reflecting increased placebo and regression to the mean effects. Paediatric clinical trial designs should account for these age-dependent variations of the response to placebo to reduce the risk of an underestimated sample size that could result in falsely negative trials. PMID:18700812

  19. Preterm birth and unintentional injuries: risks to children, adolescents and young adults show no consistent pattern

    PubMed Central

    Calling, Susanna; Palmér, Karolina; Jönsson, Lena; Sundquist, Jan; Winkleby, Marilyn; Sundquist, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Aim Preterm birth is associated with a number of physical and mental health issues. The aim of this study was to find out if there was also any association between individuals born preterm in Sweden between 1984 and 2006 and the risk of unintentional injuries during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. Methods The study followed 2,297,134 individuals, including 5.9% born preterm, from 1985 to 2007 for unintentional injuries leading to hospitalisation or death (n=244,021). The males and females were divided into four age groups: 1–5 years, 6–12 years, 13–18 years and 19–23 years. Hazard ratios were calculated for falls, transport injuries and other injuries. Results After adjusting for a comprehensive set of covariates, some of the preterm subgroups demonstrated slightly increased risks of unintentional injuries, while others showed slightly decreased risks. However, most of the estimates were borderline or non-significant in both males and females. In addition, the absolute risk differences between individuals born preterm and full term were small. Conclusion Despite the association between preterm birth and a variety of physical and mental health consequences, this study shows that there is no consistent risk pattern between preterm birth and unintentional injuries in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:23181809

  20. Higher Levels of Adiponectin in Vascular Endothelial Cells are Associated with Greater Brachial Artery Flow-mediated Dilation in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Hwang, Moon-Hyon; Luttrell, Meredith J.; Kim, Han-Kyul; Meade, Thomas H.; English, Mark; Segal, Mark S.; Christou, Demetra D.

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived protein, exerts anti-atherosclerotic effects on the vascular endothelium. Recently adiponectin protein has been reported in murine vascular endothelial cells, however, whether adiponectin is present in human vascular endothelial cells remains unexplored. We sought to examine 1) adiponectin protein in vascular endothelial cells collected from older adults free of overt cardiovascular disease; 2) the relation between endothelial cell adiponectin and in vivo vascular endothelial function; and 3) the relation between endothelial cell adiponectin, circulating (plasma) adiponectin and related factors. We measured vascular endothelial function (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation using ultrasonography), vascular endothelial cell adiponectin (biopsy coupled with quantitative immunofluorescence) and circulating adiponectin (Mercodia, ELISA) in older, sedentary, non-smoking, men and women (55 – 79 years). We found that higher endothelial cell adiponectin was related with greater flow-mediated dilation (r=0.43, P<0.05) and greater flow-mediated dilation normalized for shear stress (r=0.56, P<0.01), but was not related with vascular smooth muscle responsiveness to nitric oxide (r=0.04, P=0.9). Vascular endothelial cell adiponectin was not related with circulating adiponectin (r=−0.14, P=0.6). Endothelial cell and circulating adiponectin were differentially associated with adiposity, metabolic and other factors, but both were inversely associated with renal function (r=0.44 to 0.62, P ≤ 0.04). In conclusion, higher endothelial cell adiponectin levels are associated with higher vascular endothelial function, independent of circulating adiponectin levels in older adults. PMID:25572013

  1. The ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord differs from other species and shows ependymoma-like features.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel; Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Florensa-Vila, José; Ferrer, Isidro; Grassner, Lukas; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo

    2015-06-01

    Several laboratories have described the existence of undifferentiated precursor cells that may act like stem cells in the ependyma of the rodent spinal cord. However, there are reports showing that this region is occluded and disassembled in humans after the second decade of life, although this has been largely ignored or interpreted as a post-mortem artefact. To gain insight into the patency, actual structure, and molecular properties of the adult human spinal cord ependymal region, we followed three approaches: (i) with MRI, we estimated the central canal patency in 59 control subjects, 99 patients with traumatic spinal cord injury, and 26 patients with non-traumatic spinal cord injuries. We observed that the central canal is absent from the vast majority of individuals beyond the age of 18 years, gender-independently, throughout the entire length of the spinal cord, both in healthy controls and after injury; (ii) with histology and immunohistochemistry, we describe morphological properties of the non-lesioned ependymal region, which showed the presence of perivascular pseudorosettes, a common feature of ependymoma; and (iii) with laser capture microdissection, followed by TaqMan® low density arrays, we studied the gene expression profile of the ependymal region and found that it is mainly enriched in genes compatible with a low grade or quiescent ependymoma (53 genes); this region is enriched only in 14 genes related to neurogenic niches. In summary, we demonstrate here that the central canal is mainly absent in the adult human spinal cord and is replaced by a structure morphologically and molecularly different from that described for rodents and other primates. The presented data suggest that the ependymal region is more likely to be reminiscent of a low-grade ependymoma. Therefore, a direct translation to adult human patients of an eventual therapeutic potential of this region based on animal models should be approached with caution. PMID:25882650

  2. The ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord differs from other species and shows ependymoma-like features.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel; Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Florensa-Vila, José; Ferrer, Isidro; Grassner, Lukas; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo

    2015-06-01

    Several laboratories have described the existence of undifferentiated precursor cells that may act like stem cells in the ependyma of the rodent spinal cord. However, there are reports showing that this region is occluded and disassembled in humans after the second decade of life, although this has been largely ignored or interpreted as a post-mortem artefact. To gain insight into the patency, actual structure, and molecular properties of the adult human spinal cord ependymal region, we followed three approaches: (i) with MRI, we estimated the central canal patency in 59 control subjects, 99 patients with traumatic spinal cord injury, and 26 patients with non-traumatic spinal cord injuries. We observed that the central canal is absent from the vast majority of individuals beyond the age of 18 years, gender-independently, throughout the entire length of the spinal cord, both in healthy controls and after injury; (ii) with histology and immunohistochemistry, we describe morphological properties of the non-lesioned ependymal region, which showed the presence of perivascular pseudorosettes, a common feature of ependymoma; and (iii) with laser capture microdissection, followed by TaqMan® low density arrays, we studied the gene expression profile of the ependymal region and found that it is mainly enriched in genes compatible with a low grade or quiescent ependymoma (53 genes); this region is enriched only in 14 genes related to neurogenic niches. In summary, we demonstrate here that the central canal is mainly absent in the adult human spinal cord and is replaced by a structure morphologically and molecularly different from that described for rodents and other primates. The presented data suggest that the ependymal region is more likely to be reminiscent of a low-grade ependymoma. Therefore, a direct translation to adult human patients of an eventual therapeutic potential of this region based on animal models should be approached with caution.

  3. Prevalence of High-Risk Sexual Behaviors Among Monoracial and Multiracial Groups from a National Sample: Are Multiracial Young Adults at Greater Risk?

    PubMed

    Landor, Antoinette M; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2016-02-01

    The present study compared the prevalence and variation in high-risk sexual behaviors among four monoracial (i.e., White, African American, Asian, Native American) and four multiracial (i.e., White/African American, White/Asian, White/Native American, African American/Native American) young adults using Wave IV data (2008-2009) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 9724). Findings indicated differences in the sexual behavior of monoracial and multiracial young adults, but directions of differences varied depending on the monoracial group used as the referent and gender. Among males, White/African Americans had higher risk than Whites; White/Native Americans had higher risk than Native Americans. Otherwise, multiracial groups had lower risk or did not differ from the single-race groups. Among females, White/Native Americans had higher risk than Whites; White/African Americans had higher risk than African Americans. Other comparisons showed no differences or had lower risk among multiracial groups. Variations in high-risk sexual behaviors underscore the need for health research to disaggregate multiracial groups to better understand health behaviors and outcomes in the context of experiences associated with a multiracial background, and to improve prevention strategies. PMID:26585167

  4. Prevalence of High-Risk Sexual Behaviors Among Monoracial and Multiracial Groups from a National Sample: Are Multiracial Young Adults at Greater Risk?

    PubMed

    Landor, Antoinette M; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2016-02-01

    The present study compared the prevalence and variation in high-risk sexual behaviors among four monoracial (i.e., White, African American, Asian, Native American) and four multiracial (i.e., White/African American, White/Asian, White/Native American, African American/Native American) young adults using Wave IV data (2008-2009) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 9724). Findings indicated differences in the sexual behavior of monoracial and multiracial young adults, but directions of differences varied depending on the monoracial group used as the referent and gender. Among males, White/African Americans had higher risk than Whites; White/Native Americans had higher risk than Native Americans. Otherwise, multiracial groups had lower risk or did not differ from the single-race groups. Among females, White/Native Americans had higher risk than Whites; White/African Americans had higher risk than African Americans. Other comparisons showed no differences or had lower risk among multiracial groups. Variations in high-risk sexual behaviors underscore the need for health research to disaggregate multiracial groups to better understand health behaviors and outcomes in the context of experiences associated with a multiracial background, and to improve prevention strategies.

  5. [Socio-demographic and health conditions associated with paid work in adults (50-69 years) in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Castro, Camila Menezes Sabino de; Mambrini, Juliana Vaz de Melo; Sampaio, Rosana Ferreira; Macinko, James; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda

    2015-08-01

    Factors associated with paid work were examined in a probabilistic sample of 3,320 adults (50-69 years) in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Prevalence of paid work was 62.8% in men and 35.8% in women. For both men and women, paid work was positively associated with schooling and negatively associated with self-rated health. The probability of having paid work was higher for single women and those who knew someone that had suffered discrimination at the workplace. For men, prevalence of paid work varied from 67.2% in those with ≥ 8 years of schooling and better self-rated health, as compared to 37.8% in those with less schooling and poor self-rated health (PR = 0.56; 95%CI: 0.37-0.87). In women, the corresponding prevalence rates were 42.1% and 3.6% (PR = 0.09; 95%CI: 0.03-0.26). For women with little schooling and poor self-rated health, the likelihood of having paid work was ten times lower than for their male counterparts. PMID:26375655

  6. Greater Food Reward Sensitivity Is Associated with More Frequent Intake of Discretionary Foods in a Nationally Representative Sample of Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Nansel, Tonja R; Lipsky, Leah M; Eisenberg, Miriam H; Haynie, Denise L; Liu, Danping; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Food reward sensitivity may influence individual susceptibility to an environment replete with highly palatable foods of minimal nutritional value. These foods contain combinations of added sugar, fat, and/or salt that may enhance their motivational salience. This study examined associations of food reward sensitivity with eating behaviors in the NEXT Generation Health Study, a nationally representative sample of U.S. young adults. Participants (n = 2202) completed self-report measures including the Power of Food Scale, assessing food reward sensitivity, and intake frequency of 14 food groups. Multiple linear regressions estimated associations of food reward sensitivity with each of the eating behaviors adjusting for covariates. Higher food reward sensitivity was associated with more frequent intake of fast food (b ± linearized SE = 0.24 ± 0.05, p < 0.001), sweet and salty snacks (0.21 ± 0.05, p < 0.001), foods made with cheese (0.14 ± 0.06, p = 0.03), soda (0.12 ± 0.04, p = 0.009), processed meats (0.12 ± 0.05, p = 0.045), and fish (0.08 ± 0.03, p = 0.03) but was not associated with intake frequency of fruit or juice, green or orange vegetables, beans, whole grains, nuts/seeds, or dairy products. Food reward sensitivity was associated with greater intake of discretionary foods but was not associated with intake of most health-promoting foods, suggesting food reward sensitivity may lead to preferential intake of unhealthful foods. PMID:27588287

  7. Greater Total Antioxidant Capacity from Diet and Supplements Is Associated with a Less Atherogenic Blood Profile in U.S. Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kijoon; Vance, Terrence M; Chun, Ock K

    2016-01-04

    Evidence from epidemiologic studies has shown that total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the diet might be inversely associated with stroke, heart failure, and inflammatory biomarkers. However, studies on the association of TAC from both diet and supplements with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the U.S. population are lacking. This cross-sectional population-based study aimed to investigate the association of TAC with both diet and supplements with CVD risk factors among 4039 U.S. adults in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012. TAC from both food sources and dietary supplements was estimated from two 24-h dietary recalls using the NHANES supplement ingredient database, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) proanthocyanidin, flavonoid, and isoflavone databases. Top contributors to TAC were tea, antioxidant supplements, vegetable mixture, orange juice, berries, and wine. Antioxidant supplement users had 1.6 times higher TAC than non-users. Greater TAC was associated with reduced triglycerides (TG) (-1.39% change; 95% CI = -2.56 to -0.21), TG to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (-2.03% change; 95% CI = -3.45 to -0.60), HDL-C (0.65% change; 95% CI = 0.07 to 1.23), insulin (-1.37% change; 95% CI = -2.64 to -0.09), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (-1.57% change; 95% CI = -3.02 to -0.09) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (-0.83% change; 95% CI = -1.29 to -0.38) after adjusting for potential confounders. There was no significant association between TAC and waist circumference, BMI, blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and fasting glucose. The findings of this study support the hypothesis that an antioxidant-rich diet and intake of supplements are beneficial to reduce CVD risk.

  8. Greater Food Reward Sensitivity Is Associated with More Frequent Intake of Discretionary Foods in a Nationally Representative Sample of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nansel, Tonja R.; Lipsky, Leah M.; Eisenberg, Miriam H.; Haynie, Denise L.; Liu, Danping; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Food reward sensitivity may influence individual susceptibility to an environment replete with highly palatable foods of minimal nutritional value. These foods contain combinations of added sugar, fat, and/or salt that may enhance their motivational salience. This study examined associations of food reward sensitivity with eating behaviors in the NEXT Generation Health Study, a nationally representative sample of U.S. young adults. Participants (n = 2202) completed self-report measures including the Power of Food Scale, assessing food reward sensitivity, and intake frequency of 14 food groups. Multiple linear regressions estimated associations of food reward sensitivity with each of the eating behaviors adjusting for covariates. Higher food reward sensitivity was associated with more frequent intake of fast food (b ± linearized SE = 0.24 ± 0.05, p < 0.001), sweet and salty snacks (0.21 ± 0.05, p < 0.001), foods made with cheese (0.14 ± 0.06, p = 0.03), soda (0.12 ± 0.04, p = 0.009), processed meats (0.12 ± 0.05, p = 0.045), and fish (0.08 ± 0.03, p = 0.03) but was not associated with intake frequency of fruit or juice, green or orange vegetables, beans, whole grains, nuts/seeds, or dairy products. Food reward sensitivity was associated with greater intake of discretionary foods but was not associated with intake of most health-promoting foods, suggesting food reward sensitivity may lead to preferential intake of unhealthful foods. PMID:27588287

  9. Greater Food Reward Sensitivity Is Associated with More Frequent Intake of Discretionary Foods in a Nationally Representative Sample of Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Nansel, Tonja R; Lipsky, Leah M; Eisenberg, Miriam H; Haynie, Denise L; Liu, Danping; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Food reward sensitivity may influence individual susceptibility to an environment replete with highly palatable foods of minimal nutritional value. These foods contain combinations of added sugar, fat, and/or salt that may enhance their motivational salience. This study examined associations of food reward sensitivity with eating behaviors in the NEXT Generation Health Study, a nationally representative sample of U.S. young adults. Participants (n = 2202) completed self-report measures including the Power of Food Scale, assessing food reward sensitivity, and intake frequency of 14 food groups. Multiple linear regressions estimated associations of food reward sensitivity with each of the eating behaviors adjusting for covariates. Higher food reward sensitivity was associated with more frequent intake of fast food (b ± linearized SE = 0.24 ± 0.05, p < 0.001), sweet and salty snacks (0.21 ± 0.05, p < 0.001), foods made with cheese (0.14 ± 0.06, p = 0.03), soda (0.12 ± 0.04, p = 0.009), processed meats (0.12 ± 0.05, p = 0.045), and fish (0.08 ± 0.03, p = 0.03) but was not associated with intake frequency of fruit or juice, green or orange vegetables, beans, whole grains, nuts/seeds, or dairy products. Food reward sensitivity was associated with greater intake of discretionary foods but was not associated with intake of most health-promoting foods, suggesting food reward sensitivity may lead to preferential intake of unhealthful foods.

  10. Map showing availability of hydrologic data published by the U.S. Environmental Data Service and by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperative agencies, greater Denver area, Front Range Urban Corridor, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hampton, E.R.

    1975-01-01

    What is the rainfall of this region? What areas are prone to periodic flooding? What is the water supply? What is the chemical quality of the ground water and water in the streams? How deep is the water table? Which streams are gaged, and where? These and similar questions are being asked regularly by land and resource developers, urban planners, industrial consultants, and governmental resource managers. This map provides the first step toward answering these questions. It shows by symbols and color the hydrologic data published as of January 1974 for the Greater Denver area by the U.S. Environmental Data Service and by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating agencies, and the points or areas where these data have been collected. The sources of the data are given in both the following discussion and the references.

  11. The Instrumented Sit-to-Stand Test (iSTS) Has Greater Clinical Relevance than the Manually Recorded Sit-to-Stand Test in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    van Lummel, Rob C.; Walgaard, Stefan; Maier, Andrea B.; Ainsworth, Erik; Beek, Peter J.; van Dieën, Jaap H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The ability to rise from sitting to standing is critical to an individual’s quality of life, as it is a prerequisite for functional independence. The purpose of the current study was to examine the hypothesis that test durations as assessed with the instrumented repeated Sit-To-Stand (STS) show stronger associations with health status, functional status and daily physical activity of older adults than manually recorded test durations. Methods In 63 older participants (mean age 83 ±6.9 years, 51 female), health status was assessed using the European Quality of Life questionnaire and functional status was assessed using the physical function index of the of the RAND-36. Physical performance was measured using a wearable sensor-based STS test. From this test, durations, sub-durations and kinematics of the STS movements were estimated and analysed. In addition, physical activity was measured for one week using an activity monitor and episodes of lying, sitting, standing and locomotion were identified. Associations between STS parameters with health status, functional status and daily physical activity were assessed. Results The manually recorded STS times were not significantly associated with health status (p = 0.457) and functional status (p = 0.055), whereas the instrumented STS times were (both p = 0.009). The manually recorded STS durations showed a significant association to daily physical activity for mean sitting durations (p = 0.042), but not for mean standing durations (p = 0.230) and mean number of locomotion periods (p = 0.218). Furthermore, durations of the dynamic sit-to-stand phase of the instrumented STS showed more significant associations with health status, functional status and daily physical activity (all p = 0.001) than the static phases standing and sitting (p = 0.043–0.422). Conclusions As hypothesized, instrumented STS durations were more strongly associated with participant health status, functional status and physical activity

  12. New Hippocampal Neurons Are Not Obligatory for Memory Formation; Cyclin D2 Knockout Mice with No Adult Brain Neurogenesis Show Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaholkowski, Piotr; Kiryk, Anna; Jedynak, Paulina; Abdallah, Nada M. Ben; Knapska, Ewelina; Kowalczyk, Anna; Piechal, Agnieszka; Blecharz-Klin, Kamilla; Figiel, Izabela; Lioudyno, Victoria; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, Ewa; Wilczynski, Grzegorz M.; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Kaczmarek, Leszek; Filipkowski, Robert K.

    2009-01-01

    The role of adult brain neurogenesis (generating new neurons) in learning and memory appears to be quite firmly established in spite of some criticism and lack of understanding of what the new neurons serve the brain for. Also, the few experiments showing that blocking adult neurogenesis causes learning deficits used irradiation and various drugs…

  13. Greater Total Antioxidant Capacity from Diet and Supplements Is Associated with a Less Atherogenic Blood Profile in U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kijoon; Vance, Terrence M.; Chun, Ock K.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from epidemiologic studies has shown that total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the diet might be inversely associated with stroke, heart failure, and inflammatory biomarkers. However, studies on the association of TAC from both diet and supplements with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the U.S. population are lacking. This cross-sectional population-based study aimed to investigate the association of TAC with both diet and supplements with CVD risk factors among 4039 U.S. adults in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2012. TAC from both food sources and dietary supplements was estimated from two 24-h dietary recalls using the NHANES supplement ingredient database, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) proanthocyanidin, flavonoid, and isoflavone databases. Top contributors to TAC were tea, antioxidant supplements, vegetable mixture, orange juice, berries, and wine. Antioxidant supplement users had 1.6 times higher TAC than non-users. Greater TAC was associated with reduced triglycerides (TG) (−1.39% change; 95% CI = −2.56 to −0.21), TG to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (−2.03% change; 95% CI = −3.45 to −0.60), HDL-C (0.65% change; 95% CI = 0.07 to 1.23), insulin (−1.37% change; 95% CI = −2.64 to −0.09), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (−1.57% change; 95% CI = −3.02 to −0.09) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (−0.83% change; 95% CI = −1.29 to −0.38) after adjusting for potential confounders. There was no significant association between TAC and waist circumference, BMI, blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and fasting glucose. The findings of this study support the hypothesis that an antioxidant-rich diet and intake of supplements are beneficial to reduce CVD risk. PMID:26742057

  14. An Examination of Psychotropic Medication Side Effects: Does Taking a Greater Number of Psychotropic Medications from Different Classes Affect Presentation of Side Effects in adults with ID?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahan, Sara; Holloway, Jodie; Bamburg, Jay W.; Hess, Julie A.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether the number of psychotropic medications an individual is taking across classes influences side effects among adults with Intellectual Disability (ID). Participants were 80 adults diagnosed with ID. Dependent variables were the composite score and domain scores of the "Matson Evaluation of Drug Side-Effects" ("MEDS"),…

  15. Younger Adults Show Long-Term Effects of Cognitive Training on Broad Cognitive Abilities over 2 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmiedek, Florian; Lövdén, Martin; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2014-01-01

    In the COGITO study (Schmiedek, Lövdén, & Lindenberger, 2010), 101 younger adults practiced 12 tests of perceptual speed, working memory, and episodic memory for over 100 daily 1-hr sessions. The intervention resulted in positive transfer to broad cognitive abilities, including reasoning and episodic memory. Here, we examine whether these…

  16. Preschoolers with Down Syndrome Do Not yet Show the Learning and Memory Impairments Seen in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Lynette V.; Richmond, Jenny L.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) exhibit a behavioral phenotype of specific strengths and weaknesses, in addition to a generalized cognitive delay. In particular, adults with DS exhibit specific deficits in learning and memory processes that depend on the hippocampus, and there is some suggestion of impairments on executive function tasks that…

  17. Higher Body Iron Is Associated with Greater Depression Symptoms among Young Adult Men but not Women: Observational Data from the Daily Life Study.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Aimee C; Heath, Anne-Louise M; Haszard, Jillian J; Polak, Maria A; Houghton, Lisa A; Conner, Tamlin S

    2015-08-01

    Studies investigating possible associations between iron status and mood or depressive symptoms have reported inconsistent results. However, they have neither used body iron to measure iron status nor measured mood using daily measures. We investigated whether body iron was associated with depressive symptoms, daily mood, daily tiredness, difficulty concentrating, and stress in young adult women and men. Young adult (17-25 years) women (n = 562) and men (n = 323) completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, then reported negative and positive mood, and other states daily for 13 days. Non-fasting venous blood was collected to determine hemoglobin, serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (to calculate body iron), C-reactive protein, and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein concentration. Regression models tested linear associations between body iron and the outcome variables, controlling for possible confounders. No associations were found between body iron and the outcome variables in women. However, higher body iron was associated with more depressive symptoms in men (3.4% more per body iron mg/kg; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.8%, 5.9%). In young adult women, body iron is unlikely to be associated with significant deficits in mood or depressive symptoms. However, higher body iron may be associated with more depressive symptoms in young adult men. PMID:26213963

  18. Electrical and Pharmacological Stimuli Reveal a Greater Susceptibility for CA3 Network Excitability in Hippocampal Slices from Aged vs. Adult Fischer 344 Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kanak, Daniel J.; Jones, Ryan T.; Tokhi, Ashish; Willingham, Amy L.; Zaveri, Hitten P.; Rose, Gregory M.; Patrylo, Peter R.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical data and experimental studies in rats have shown that the aged CNS is more susceptible to the proconvulsive effects of the excitotoxic glutamate analogues kainate (KA) and domoate (DA), which bind high-affinity receptors localized at mossy fiber (MF) synapses in the CA3 subregion of the hippocampus. Although decreased renal clearance appears to play a role in the hypersensitivity of the aged hippocampus to systemically-administered DA, it is unclear if the excitability of the CA3 network is also altered with age. Therefore, this study monitored CA3 field potential activity in hippocampal slices from aged and adult male Fischer 344 rats in response to electrical and pharmacological network stimulation targeted to the MF-CA3 circuit. Network challenges with repetitive hilar stimulation or bath application of nanomolar concentrations of KA more readily elicited excitable network activity (e.g. population spike facilitation, multiple population spikes, and epileptiform bursts) in slices from aged vs. adult rats, although basal network excitability was comparable between age groups. Additionally, exposure to 200 nM KA often abolished epileptiform activity and revealed theta or gamma oscillations instead. However, slices from aged rats were less sensitive to the rhythmogenic effects of 200 nM KA. Taken together, these findings suggest that aging decreases the capacity of the CA3 network to constrain the spread of excitability during focal excitatory network challenges. PMID:22396884

  19. Not all water mazes are created equal: cyclin D2 knockout mice with constitutively suppressed adult hippocampal neurogenesis do show specific spatial learning deficits.

    PubMed

    Garthe, A; Huang, Z; Kaczmarek, L; Filipkowski, R K; Kempermann, G

    2014-04-01

    Studies using the Morris water maze to assess hippocampal function in animals, in which adult hippocampal neurogenesis had been suppressed, have yielded seemingly contradictory results. Cyclin D2 knockout (Ccnd2(-/-)) mice, for example, have constitutively suppressed adult hippocampal neurogenesis but had no overt phenotype in the water maze. In other paradigms, however, ablation of adult neurogenesis was associated with specific deficits in the water maze. Therefore, we hypothesized that the neurogenesis-related phenotype might also become detectable in Ccnd2(-/-) mice, if we used the exact setup and protocol that in our previous study had revealed deficits in mice with suppressed adult neurogenesis. Ccnd2(-/-) mice indeed learned the task and developed a normal preference for the goal quadrant, but were significantly less precise for the exact goal position and were slower in acquiring efficient and spatially more precise search strategies. Upon goal reversal (when the hidden platform was moved to a new position) Ccnd2(-/-) mice showed increased perseverance at the former platform location, implying that they were less flexible in updating the previously learned information. Both with respect to adult neurogenesis and behavioral performance, Ccnd2(+/-) mice ranged between wild types and knockouts. Importantly, hippocampus-dependent learning was not generally impaired by the mutation, but specifically functional aspects relying on precise and flexible encoding were affected. Whether ablation of adult neurogenesis causes a specific behavioral phenotype thus also depends on the actual task demands. The test parameters appear to be important variables influencing whether a task can pick up a contribution of adult neurogenesis to test performance.

  20. Determinants of Toxicity, Patterns of Failure, and Outcome Among Adult Patients With Soft Tissue Sarcomas of the Extremity and Superficial Trunk Treated With Greater Than Conventional Doses of Perioperative High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and External Beam Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    San Miguel, Inigo; San Julian, Mikel; Cambeiro, Mauricio; Sanmamed, Miguel Fernandez; Vazquez-Garcia, Blanca; Pagola, Maria; Gaztanaga, Miren; Martin-Algarra, Salvador; Martinez-Monge, Rafael

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The present study was undertaken to determine factors predictive of toxicity, patterns of failure, and survival in 60 adult patients with soft tissue sarcomas of the extremity and superficial trunk treated with combined perioperative high-dose-rate brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The patients were treated with surgical resection and perioperative high-dose-rate brachytherapy (16 or 24 Gy) for negative and close/microscopically positive resection margins, respectively. External beam radiotherapy (45 Gy) was added postoperatively to reach a 2-Gy equivalent dose of 62.9 and 72.3 Gy, respectively. Adjuvant chemotherapy with ifosfamide and doxorubicin was given to patients with advanced high-grade tumors. Results: Grade 3 toxic events were observed in 18 patients (30%) and Grade 4 events in 6 patients (10%). No Grade 5 events were observed. A location in the lower limb was significant for Grade 3 or greater toxic events on multivariate analysis (p = .013), and the tissue volume encompassed by the 150% isodose line showed a trend toward statistical significance (p = .086). The local control, locoregional control, and distant control rate at 9 years was 77.4%, 69.5%, and 63.8%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, microscopically involved margins correlated with local control (p = .036) and locoregional control (p = .007) and tumor size correlated with distant metastases (p = .004). The 9-year disease-free survival and overall survival rate was 47.0% and 61.5%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed poorer disease-free survival rates for patients with tumors >6 cm (p = .005) and microscopically involved margins (p = .043), and overall survival rates decreased with increasing tumor size (p = .011). Conclusions: Grade 3 or greater wound complications can probably be decreased using meticulous treatment planning to decrease the tissue volume encompassed by the 150% isodose line, especially in lower limb locations

  1. Higher Physiotherapy Frequency Is Associated with Shorter Length of Stay and Greater Functional Recovery in Hospitalized Frail Older Adults: A Retrospective Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Hartley, P; Adamson, J; Cunningham, C; Embleton, G; Romero-Ortuno, R

    2016-01-01

    Extra physiotherapy has been associated with better outcomes in hospitalized patients, but this remains an under-researched area in geriatric medicine wards. We retrospectively studied the association between average physiotherapy frequency and outcomes in hospitalized geriatric patients. High frequency physiotherapy (HFP) was defined as ≥0.5 contacts/day. Of 358 eligible patients, 131 (36.6%) received low, and 227 (63.4%) HFP. Functional improvement (discharge versus admission) in the modified Rankin scale was greater in the HFP group (1.1 versus 0.7 points, P<0.001). The mean length of stay (LOS) of the HFP group was 6 days shorter (7 versus 13 days, P<0.001). After adjusting for age, gender, comorbidity (Charlson index), frailty (Clinical Frailty Scale), dementia and acute illness severity, HFP was an independent predictor of functional improvement, shorter LOS and likelihood of being discharged without a formal care package. Prospective research is needed to examine the effect of physiotherapy frequency and intensity in geriatric wards.

  2. Serotonin axons of the neostriatum show a higher affinity for striatal than for ventral mesencephalic transplants: a quantitative study in adult and immature recipient rats.

    PubMed

    Pierret, P; Vallée, A; Bosler, O; Dorais, M; Moukhles, H; Abbaszadeh, R; Lepage, Y; Doucet, G

    1998-07-01

    We previously showed that grafts of fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue are practically not innervated by host serotonin (5-HT) axons after implantation into the striatum of rats aged more than 14 days, at variance with transplants of cortical or striatal tissue into the adult striatum, which are well innervated by these axons. Using 5-HT immunohistochemistry and in vitro [3H]5-HT uptake/autoradiography, we have examined and quantified the innervation of ventral mesencephalic versus striatal grafts several months after implantation into the striatum of neonatal (postnatal day 5 or P5), juvenile (P15), and adult rats. Ventral mesencephalic grafts implanted in P5 rats received a moderate 5-HT innervation, while similar grafts implanted in P15 or adult recipients were almost free of any 5-HT fibers (-80%, compared to P5). The density of 5-HT innervation showed a tendency toward higher values in striatal than in ventral mesencephalic grafts (1.6-2 times higher in P5 and adult recipients; 4 times higher in P15 recipients). The difference was more striking, and significant, when only the true striatal portions of the striatal grafts were considered, i.e., DARPP-32-immunopositive areas (4-5 times higher in P5 and adult recipients; 10 times higher in P15 recipients). Accordingly, these DARPP-32-positive areas were also more densely innervated than the DARPP-32-negative zones of the same grafts (3 times higher at any age). The 5-HT innervation density also decreased with increasing age of the recipients in DARPP-32-positive, as well as DARPP-32-negative compartments of the striatal grafts (-75% in adults), but this decrease appeared more gradual (-50% in juveniles) than with mesencephalic grafts. It is concluded that the 5-HT axons innervating the neostriatum have a better affinity for striatal grafts than for ventral mesencephalic grafts or the nonstriatal portions of striatal grafts. In adulthood, the relative affinity of these axons for the different types of grafts is

  3. Sertoli cell dedifferentiation in human cryptorchidism and gender reassignment shows similarities between fetal environmental and adult medical treatment estrogen and antiandrogen exposure.

    PubMed

    Nistal, Manuel; Gonzalez-Peramato, Pilar; De Miguel, Maria P

    2013-12-01

    Studies over the last years show an increase in testicular cancer, hypospadias and cryptorchidism in industrial countries, leading to the concept of testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). It is hypothesized that TDS is caused by estrogen and antiandrogen exposure during fetal life, accompanied by incomplete maturation of testicular Sertoli cells (SC). However, it is not known if SC disruption is a primary cause or a response to fetal Leydig cell testosterone production changes. To determine if SC differentiation is directly affected by estrogens, we compared SC maturation between adult gender reassignment cases exposed to estrogen and antiandrogen therapy, and those of typical TDS in adult cryptorchidism. We found similar expression of immature SC markers M2A antigen, inhibin bodies and Anti Mullerian Hormone, and the absence of maturation marker androgen receptor in SC of both types of patients. These data supports the occurrence of true SC dedifferentiation caused by estrogen exposure in adult humans. Our data also suggests that SC maturation is directly disrupted in TDS.

  4. Hemolymphangioma of Greater Omentum

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sagar; Fan, Miao; Chang, Dandan; Zhu, Junfeng; Zhu, Ying; Li, Ziping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hemolymphangioma is a rare vascular developmental error. It comprises malformed venous and lymphatic component in various proportion. To the best of our knowledge, only a few cases have been reported in the literature so far. Here, we report a case of huge intraperitoneal cystic mass in a 3-year-old boy that was presented to hospital with intractable abdominal pain. On examination, he had fever along with associated symptoms like cough and sputum. Abdomen was distended with no tenderness or rebound tenderness. On computed tomography scan, huge cystic mass was seen and was diagnosed as intraperitoneal benign cystic lesion. Excisional surgery of the lesion was planned. On surgery, lesion was found to be originated from greater omentum and no adhesion was seen in surrounding tissue. Complete excision of the lesion was done. Histopathological specimen after surgery suggested it to be hemolymphangioma. Follow-up for 6 months showed no recurrence. Hemolymphangioma of the greater omentum is benign tumor and accurate diagnosis before surgery is still a challenge. Presentation of disease may vary from simple well-defined cystic lesion to aggressive ill-defined lesion mimicking malignancy. Therefore, further research is needed to help doctor with preoperative radiological diagnosis and avoid unnecessary radical surgery. PMID:27124058

  5. Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder Show Normal Attention to Eye-Gaze Information--Evidence from a New Change Blindness Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher-Watson, Sue; Leekam, Susan R.; Findlay, John M.; Stanton, Elaine C.

    2008-01-01

    Other people's eye-gaze is a powerful social stimulus that captures and directs visual attention. There is evidence that this is not the case for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), although less is known about attention to eye-gaze in adults. We investigated whether young adults would detect a change to the direction of eye-gaze in…

  6. Fractional anisotropy shows differential reduction in frontal-subcortical fiber bundles—A longitudinal MRI study of 76 middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Vik, Alexandra; Hodneland, Erlend; Haász, Judit; Ystad, Martin; Lundervold, Astri J.; Lundervold, Arvid

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the frontal- and white matter (WM) retrogenesis hypotheses and the assumptions that fronto-striatal circuits are especially vulnerable in normal aging, the goal of the present study was to identify fiber bundles connecting subcortical nuclei and frontal areas and obtain site-specific information about age related fractional anisotropy (FA) changes. Multimodal magnetic resonance image acquisitions [3D T1-weighted and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI)] were obtained from healthy older adults (N = 76, range 49–80 years at inclusion) at two time points, 3 years apart. A subset of the participants (N = 24) was included at a third time-point. In addition to the frontal-subcortical fibers, the anterior callosal fiber (ACF) and the corticospinal tract (CST) was investigated by its mean FA together with tract parameterization analysis. Our results demonstrated fronto-striatal structural connectivity decline (reduced FA) in normal aging with substantial inter-individual differences. The tract parameterization analysis showed that the along tract FA profiles were characterized by piece-wise differential changes along their extension rather than being uniformly affected. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first longitudinal study detecting age-related changes in frontal-subcortical WM connections in normal aging. PMID:26029102

  7. Full genome sequence of a novel circo-like virus detected in an adult European eel Anguilla anguilla showing signs of cauliflower disease.

    PubMed

    Doszpoly, Andor; Tarján, Zoltán L; Glávits, Róbert; Müller, Tamás; Benkő, Mária

    2014-05-13

    An adult European eel Anguilla anguilla, showing typical signs of the so-called cauliflower disease, was subjected to pathological and molecular virological examinations. Samples taken from internal organs and the polypoid proliferative tissue from the mouth were examined by PCR for the detection of several viruses. Positive results were obtained with a nested PCR targeting the rep gene of circoviruses. Analysis of the partial rep sequence indicated the presence of a putative novel circovirus, but attempts to isolate it remained unsuccessful. The missing part of the genome was acquired by an inverse nested PCR with 2 specific primer pairs, designed from the newly determined rep sequence, followed by genome walking. The circular full genome was found to consist of 1378 nt (GenBank accession no. KC469701). Two oppositely oriented open reading frames (ORFs) were present, of which one was unambiguously identified as a circoviral rep gene. However, the predicted product of the other ORF, though it is a clear positional counterpart of the cap genes, showed no obvious homology to any known circoviral capsid proteins. A stem-loop-like element in the intergenic region between the 5' ends of the ORFs was also found. Phylogenetic calculations indicated that the novel virus belongs to the genus Circovirus in the family Circoviridae. The relative amount of the viral DNA in the organ samples was estimated by quantitative real-time PCR. The results suggested that the examined fish was caught in an active viremic state, although the role of this circovirus in the etiology of the cauliflower diseases could not be ascertained.

  8. Changes in time-use and drug use by young adults in poor neighbourhoods of Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina, after the political transitions of 2001-2002: Results of a survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In some countries, "Big Events" like crises and transitions have been followed by large increases in drug use, drug injection and HIV/AIDS. Argentina experienced an economic crisis and political transition in 2001/2002 that affected how people use their time. This paper studies how time use changes between years 2001 and 2004, subsequent to these events, were associated with drug consumption in poor neighbourhoods of Greater Buenos Aires. Methods In 2003-2004, 68 current injecting drug users (IDUs) and 235 young non-IDUs, aged 21-35, who lived in impoverished drug-impacted neighbourhoods in Greater Buenos Aires, were asked about time use then and in 2001. Data on weekly hours spent working or looking for work, doing housework/childcare, consuming drugs, being with friends, and hanging out in the neighbourhood, were studied in relation to time spent using drugs. Field observations and focus groups were also conducted. Results After 2001, among both IDUs and non-IDUs, mean weekly time spent working declined significantly (especially among IDUs); time spent looking for work increased, and time spent with friends and hanging out in the neighbourhood decreased. We found no increase in injecting or non-injecting drug consumption after 2001. Subjects most affected by the way the crises led to decreased work time and/or to increased time looking for work--and by the associated increase in time spent in one's neighbourhood--were most likely to increase their time using drugs. Conclusions Time use methods are useful to study changes in drug use and their relationships to every day life activities. In these previously-drug-impacted neighbourhoods, the Argentinean crisis did not lead to an increase in drug use, which somewhat contradicts our initial expectations. Nevertheless, those for whom the crises led to decreased work time, increased time looking for work, and increased time spent in indoor or outdoor neighbourhood environments, were likely to spend more time

  9. Cytochrome c oxidase response to changes in cerebral oxygen delivery in the adult brain shows higher brain-specificity than haemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Kolyva, Christina; Ghosh, Arnab; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Highton, David; Cooper, Chris E; Smith, Martin; Elwell, Clare E

    2014-01-15

    The redox state of cerebral mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase monitored with near-infrared spectroscopy (Δ[oxCCO]) is a signal with strong potential as a non-invasive, bedside biomarker of cerebral metabolic status. We hypothesised that the higher mitochondrial density of brain compared to skin and skull would lead to evidence of brain-specificity of the Δ[oxCCO] signal when measured with a multi-distance near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system. Measurements of Δ[oxCCO] as well as of concentration changes in oxygenated (Δ[HbO2]) and deoxygenated haemoglobin (Δ[HHb]) were taken at multiple source-detector distances during systemic hypoxia and hypocapnia (decrease in cerebral oxygen delivery), and hyperoxia and hypercapnia (increase in cerebral oxygen delivery) from 15 adult healthy volunteers. Increasing source-detector spacing is associated with increasing light penetration depth and thus higher sensitivity to cerebral changes. An increase in Δ[oxCCO] was observed during the challenges that increased cerebral oxygen delivery and the opposite was observed when cerebral oxygen delivery decreased. A consistent pattern of statistically significant increasing amplitude of the Δ[oxCCO] response with increasing light penetration depth was observed in all four challenges, a behaviour that was distinctly different from that of the haemoglobin chromophores, which did not show this statistically significant depth gradient. This depth-dependence of the Δ[oxCCO] signal corroborates the notion of higher concentrations of CCO being present in cerebral tissue compared to extracranial components and highlights the value of NIRS-derived Δ[oxCCO] as a brain-specific signal of cerebral metabolism, superior in this aspect to haemoglobin. PMID:23707584

  10. Cytochrome c oxidase response to changes in cerebral oxygen delivery in the adult brain shows higher brain-specificity than haemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Kolyva, Christina; Ghosh, Arnab; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Highton, David; Cooper, Chris E; Smith, Martin; Elwell, Clare E

    2014-01-15

    The redox state of cerebral mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase monitored with near-infrared spectroscopy (Δ[oxCCO]) is a signal with strong potential as a non-invasive, bedside biomarker of cerebral metabolic status. We hypothesised that the higher mitochondrial density of brain compared to skin and skull would lead to evidence of brain-specificity of the Δ[oxCCO] signal when measured with a multi-distance near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system. Measurements of Δ[oxCCO] as well as of concentration changes in oxygenated (Δ[HbO2]) and deoxygenated haemoglobin (Δ[HHb]) were taken at multiple source-detector distances during systemic hypoxia and hypocapnia (decrease in cerebral oxygen delivery), and hyperoxia and hypercapnia (increase in cerebral oxygen delivery) from 15 adult healthy volunteers. Increasing source-detector spacing is associated with increasing light penetration depth and thus higher sensitivity to cerebral changes. An increase in Δ[oxCCO] was observed during the challenges that increased cerebral oxygen delivery and the opposite was observed when cerebral oxygen delivery decreased. A consistent pattern of statistically significant increasing amplitude of the Δ[oxCCO] response with increasing light penetration depth was observed in all four challenges, a behaviour that was distinctly different from that of the haemoglobin chromophores, which did not show this statistically significant depth gradient. This depth-dependence of the Δ[oxCCO] signal corroborates the notion of higher concentrations of CCO being present in cerebral tissue compared to extracranial components and highlights the value of NIRS-derived Δ[oxCCO] as a brain-specific signal of cerebral metabolism, superior in this aspect to haemoglobin.

  11. A nondiapausing variant of the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata, that shows arrhythmic adult eclosion and elevated expression of two circadian clock genes, period and timeless.

    PubMed

    Goto, Shin G; Han, Bing; Denlinger, David L

    2006-01-01

    We describe a variant of the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata, which fails to enter pupal diapause in response to short daylength and low temperatures. This fly also has an arrhythmic adult eclosion pattern: rather than eclosing in early photophase, the variant ecloses arrhythmically throughout the photophase and scotophase. The loss of both diapause (photoperiodic response) and the gating of adult eclosion (presumably a circadian response) suggests that the same clock system is involved in these two responses. An examination of the expression patterns of the clock genes period and timeless demonstrates that both genes are present in the nondiapausing variant, but surprisingly, both genes are expressed at higher levels. This abnormality we observe, possibly the consequence of an upstream clock gene malfunction or a malfunction of the autoregulatory loop, results in disruption of a component of the clock system that is apparently needed for both photoperiodism and circadian rhythmicity.

  12. In utero/lactational and adult exposures to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) show differential effects on craniofacial development and growth in rats.

    PubMed

    Sholts, Sabrina B; Korkalainen, Merja; Simanainen, Ulla; Miettinen, Hanna M; Håkansson, Helen; Viluksela, Matti

    2015-11-01

    In a previous study of female Han/Wistar (H/W) and Long-Evans (L-E) rats, we found that adult exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was associated with size decreases in the cranium and especially the face. In this study we compared these crania to those from male and female Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats with in utero/lactational exposure to TCDD, using morphometric variables of size, shape, and fluctuating asymmetry to quantify the effects of dose on craniofacial development and growth. At the highest levels of exposure, in utero/lactational and adult TCDD exposures both resulted in small but significant reductions in facial size parameters (i.e., 3-5%) in only females and minor effects on facial shape in both sexes. The shape effects of in utero/lactational exposure were most significant at the sutural intersections, whereas adult exposure to TCDD corresponded to dose-dependent changes of decreasing facial length and vault breadth. Fluctuating asymmetry in general explained a relatively small amount of shape variation compared with other effects, and only increased significantly in female L-E rats with high levels of adult exposure to TCDD. These results indicate that TCDD-related changes in cranial development and growth in rats can vary with the timing and duration of exposure, and with sex. Further investigations of other dioxin-like compounds and animal species will broaden our understanding of how chemicals exposure can influence the development and growth of the mammalian skeleton.

  13. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the state's best…

  14. Stonehenge's Greater Cursus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burley, Paul; Mooers, Howard D.

    2016-01-01

    Archaeological investigations have emphasized relationships between solar and lunar phenomena and architectural features of prehistoric sites located on the Stonehenge ritual landscape. However, no over-riding landscape design has been identified to explain the purpose of placing hundreds of Neolithic through Iron Age burial sites upon the landscape. Our research and analysis shows the mid-4th millennium BC (mid-Neolithic) landscape represents an 'above, so below' cosmo-geographical relationship. Type, shape, size and orientation of specific elements (such as long barrows, henges, cursus and topography) created a hierotopy representing the Winter Hexagon asterism, Milky Way, ecliptic and other stellar features. The resulting pattern of ritual sites represents translocation of the astronomical Otherworld - the Spirit World - onto the plain. Results of the analysis create a new paradigm of purpose for the built landscape circa 3500 BC, and identifies the reason why Stonehenge is located where it is with respect to other contemorary monuments.

  15. "Glass fairies" and "bone children": adolescents and young adults with anorexia nervosa show positive reactions towards extremely emaciated body pictures measured by the startle reflex paradigm.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Valeska A; Schneider, Nora; Grünewald, Barbara; Kienast, Thorsten; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Korte, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the emotional processing of extremely emaciated body cues in adolescents and young adults with (n  =  36) and without (n =  36) anorexia nervosa (AN), introducing a new picture type, which was taken from websites that promote extreme thinness and is targeted specifically at adolescents interested in extreme thinness. A startle reflex paradigm was used for implicit reactions, while a self-assessment instrument was used for subjective responses. We found a significant group difference with a startle inhibition (appetitive response) among the patients and a startle potentiation (aversive response) among the controls, whereas no such difference for subjective measures was found. The results are in contrast to previous studies, which proposed a general failure to activate the appetitive motivational system in AN, but in keeping with findings from other addictions, where the same response pattern has been found. Implications for prevention and therapy are discussed.

  16. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    PubMed

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide. PMID:22039693

  17. Characterization and Genetic Analysis of a Novel Light-Dependent Lesion Mimic Mutant, lm3, Showing Adult-Plant Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Common Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; Wu, Wenying; Wang, Dongzhi; Yang, Wenlong; Sun, Jiazhu; Liu, Dongcheng; Zhang, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Lesion mimics (LMs) that exhibit spontaneous disease-like lesions in the absence of pathogen attack might confer enhanced plant disease resistance to a wide range of pathogens. The LM mutant, lm3 was derived from a single naturally mutated individual in the F1 population of a 3-1/Jing411 cross, backcrossed six times with 3–1 as the recurrent parent and subsequently self-pollinated twice. The leaves of young seedlings of the lm3 mutant exhibited small, discrete white lesions under natural field conditions. The lesions first appeared at the leaf tips and subsequently expanded throughout the entire leaf blade to the leaf sheath. The lesions were initiated through light intensity and day length. Histochemical staining revealed that lesion formation might reflect programmed cell death (PCD) and abnormal accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The chlorophyll content in the mutant was significantly lower than that in wildtype, and the ratio of chlorophyll a/b was increased significantly in the mutant compared with wildtype, indicating that lm3 showed impairment of the biosynthesis or degradation of chlorophyll, and that Chlorophyll b was prone to damage during lesion formation. The lm3 mutant exhibited enhanced resistance to wheat powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici; Bgt) infection, which was consistent with the increased expression of seven pathogenesis-related (PR) and two wheat chemically induced (WCI) genes involved in the defense-related reaction. Genetic analysis showed that the mutation was controlled through a single partially dominant gene, which was closely linked to Xbarc203 on chromosome 3BL; this gene was delimited to a 40 Mb region between SSR3B450.37 and SSR3B492.6 using a large derived segregating population and the available Chinese Spring chromosome 3B genome sequence. Taken together, our results provide information regarding the identification of a novel wheat LM gene, which will facilitate the additional fine-mapping and

  18. In Utero and Lactational Exposure to PCBs in Mice: Adult Offspring Show Altered Learning and Memory Depending on Cyp1a2 and Ahr Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Christine P.; Genter, Mary Beth; Patel, Krishna V.; Schaefer, Tori L.; Skelton, Matthew R.; Williams, Michael T.; Vorhees, Charles V.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Both coplanar and noncoplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exhibit neurotoxic effects in animal studies, but individual congeners do not always produce the same effects as PCB mixtures. Humans genetically have > 60-fold differences in hepatic cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2)-uninduced basal levels and > 12-fold variability in aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)affinity; because CYP1A2 is known to sequester coplanar PCBs and because AHR ligands include coplanar PCBs, both genotypes can affect PCB response. Objectives: We aimed to develop a mouse paradigm with extremes in Cyp1a2 and Ahr genotypes to explore genetic susceptibility to PCB-induced developmental neurotoxicity using an environmentally relevant mixture of PCBs. Methods: We developed a mixture of eight PCBs to simulate human exposures based on their reported concentrations in human tissue, breast milk, and food supply. We previously characterized specific differences in PCB congener pharmacokinetics and toxicity, comparing high-affinity–AHR Cyp1a2 wild-type [Ahrb1_Cyp1a2(+/+)], poor-affinity–AHR Cyp1a2 wild-type [Ahrd_Cyp1a2(+/+)], and high-affinity–AHR Cyp1a2 knockout [Ahrb1_Cyp1a2(–/–)] mouse lines [Curran CP, Vorhees CV, Williams MT, Genter MB, Miller ML, Nebert DW. 2011. In utero and lactational exposure to a complex mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls: toxicity in pups dependent on the Cyp1a2 and Ahr genotypes. Toxicol Sci 119:189–208]. Dams received a mixture of three coplanar and five noncoplanar PCBs on gestational day 10.5 and postnatal day (PND) 5. In the present study we conducted behavioral phenotyping of exposed offspring at PND60, examining multiple measures of learning, memory, and other behaviors. Results: We observed the most significant deficits in response to PCB treatment in Ahrb1_Cyp1a2(–/–) mice, including impaired novel object recognition and increased failure rate in the Morris water maze. However, all PCB-treated genotypes showed significant differences on

  19. Investigation of infectivity of neonates and adults from different rat strains to Toxoplasma gondii Prugniaud shows both variation which correlates with iNOS and Arginase-1 activity and increased susceptibility of neonates to infection.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jiang-Mei; Yi, Si-Qi; Wu, Ming-Shui; Geng, Guo-Qing; Shen, Ji-Long; Lu, Fang-Li; Hide, Geoff; Lai, De-Hua; Lun, Zhao-Rong

    2015-02-01

    Mouse models differ considerably from humans with regard to clinical symptoms of toxoplasmosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii and, by comparison, the rat model is more representative of this disease in humans. In the present study, we found that different strains of adult and newborn rats (Lewis, Wistar, Sprague Dawley, Brown Norway and Fischer 344) exhibited remarkable variation in the number of brain cysts following inoculation with the T.gondii Prugniaud strain. In adult rats, large numbers of cysts (1231 ± 165.6) were observed in Fischer 344, but none in the other four. This situation was different in newborn rats aged from 5 to 20 days old. All Fischer 344 and Brown Norway newborns were cyst-positive while cyst-positive infection in Sprague Dawley neonates ranged from 54.5% to 60% depending on their age at infection. In Wistar and Lewis rat neonates, however, cyst-positivity rates of 0-42.9% and 0-25% were found respectively. To investigate whether rat strain differences in infectivity could be related to inherent strain and genetic differences in the host immune response, we correlated our data with previously reported strain differences in iNOS/Arginase ratio in adult rats and found them to be linked. These results show that interactions between host genetic background and age of rat influence T.gondii infection.

  20. Bison in the greater Yellowstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meagher, Mary

    1994-01-01

    In the Greater Yellowstone Area, free-ranging bison occur in Jackson Hole, Wyoming, and Yellowstone National Park. The Yellowstone population is discussed, with emphasis on changes in numbers from approximately 400 in 1968 to about 3500 now. Major influences for change initially were natural; more recently the winter road system used by snowmobiles appeared to be the dominant factor. The situation is in a state of flux. Interagency planning is in progress to address management alternatives for conflicts outside the park.

  1. Planning for greater confinement disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    A report that provides guidance for planning for greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste is being prepared. The report addresses procedures for selecting a GCD technology and provides information for implementing these procedures. The focus is on GCD; planning aspects common to GCD and shallow-land burial are covered by reference. Planning procedure topics covered include regulatory requirements, waste characterization, benefit-cost-risk assessment and pathway analysis methodologies, determination of need, waste-acceptance criteria, performance objectives, and comparative assessment of attributes that support these objectives. The major technologies covered include augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, hydrofracture, improved waste forms, and high-integrity containers. Descriptive information is provided, and attributes that are relevant for risk assessment and operational requirements are given. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. The Busier the Better: Greater Busyness Is Associated with Better Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Festini, Sara B.; McDonough, Ian M.; Park, Denise C.

    2016-01-01

    Sustained engagement in mentally challenging activities has been shown to improve memory in older adults. We hypothesized that a busy schedule would be a proxy for an engaged lifestyle and would facilitate cognition. Here, we examined the relationship between busyness and cognition in adults aged 50–89. Participants (N = 330) from the Dallas Lifespan Brain Study (DLBS) completed a cognitive battery and the Martin and Park Environmental Demands Questionnaire (MPED), an assessment of busyness. Results revealed that greater busyness was associated with better processing speed, working memory, episodic memory, reasoning, and crystallized knowledge. Hierarchical regressions also showed that, after controlling for age and education, busyness accounted for significant additional variance in all cognitive constructs—especially episodic memory. Finally, an interaction between age and busyness was not present while predicting cognitive performance, suggesting that busyness was similarly beneficial in adults aged 50–89. Although correlational, these data demonstrate that living a busy lifestyle is associated with better cognition. PMID:27242510

  3. College Students with ADHD at Greater Risk for Sleep Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaultney, Jane F.

    2014-01-01

    The pediatric literature indicates that children with ADHD are at greater risk for sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and some sleep disorders than children with no diagnosed disability. It has not been determined whether this pattern holds true among emerging adults, and whether comorbid sleep disorders with ADHD predict GPA. The present study…

  4. Greater Milwaukee Metropolitan Area Career Education Project. Phase 3 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milwaukee Area Technical Coll., WI.

    The third report of the greater Milwaukee area career education project documents the phase 3 activities and accomplishments of the project, from October 1974 to July 1975. The following objectives were accomplished. Contact persons have been established in each district to promote career education. Three one-week workshops, two adult career…

  5. Paleotectonic and paleogeographic evolution of greater China

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, P.O.; Norton, I.O. )

    1996-01-01

    In this study, we utilize plate tectonic history of Central Asia to constrain understanding of sedimentary basin development and to show how regional scale tectonic events affect play elements for major basins of greater China. Tectonic framework and paleogeography are used as a constraint on models for basin formation, climate distribution and accommodation which in turn control distribution of reservoir, source, seal and trap. Greater China is an artifact of Phanerozoic tectonics. It has a protracted history of continental deformation as amalgamation of crustal blocks and island arc/subduction and accretion complexes occurred. Early Paleozoic hydrocarbon systems are dominated by extensive carbonate platform and Permian and younger systems are dominated by continental and lacustrine sedimentation. The basement of greater China consists of continental and accretion crust. The crustal blocks include South and North China, Indochina, Tibet and Tarim, and accretion blocks include the Altaids and Manchurides. The relative positions and interactions of these blocks during Paleozic and Mesozoic time resulted in formation of greater China. Final amalgamation and deformation occurred in Eocene time when India collided with Asia. The discussions consist of presentation of a model for tectonic evolution of these blocks and their paleogeography through Phanerozoic time. This is done with maps at 1:8 million scale covering nine time slices, three in the Paleozoic, three in the Mesozoic and three in the Cenozoic.

  6. Paleotectonic and paleogeographic evolution of greater China

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, P.O.; Norton, I.O.

    1996-12-31

    In this study, we utilize plate tectonic history of Central Asia to constrain understanding of sedimentary basin development and to show how regional scale tectonic events affect play elements for major basins of greater China. Tectonic framework and paleogeography are used as a constraint on models for basin formation, climate distribution and accommodation which in turn control distribution of reservoir, source, seal and trap. Greater China is an artifact of Phanerozoic tectonics. It has a protracted history of continental deformation as amalgamation of crustal blocks and island arc/subduction and accretion complexes occurred. Early Paleozoic hydrocarbon systems are dominated by extensive carbonate platform and Permian and younger systems are dominated by continental and lacustrine sedimentation. The basement of greater China consists of continental and accretion crust. The crustal blocks include South and North China, Indochina, Tibet and Tarim, and accretion blocks include the Altaids and Manchurides. The relative positions and interactions of these blocks during Paleozic and Mesozoic time resulted in formation of greater China. Final amalgamation and deformation occurred in Eocene time when India collided with Asia. The discussions consist of presentation of a model for tectonic evolution of these blocks and their paleogeography through Phanerozoic time. This is done with maps at 1:8 million scale covering nine time slices, three in the Paleozoic, three in the Mesozoic and three in the Cenozoic.

  7. Adult Age Differences in Accessing and Retrieving Information from Long-Term Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petros, Thomas V.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated adult age differences in accessing and retrieving information from long-term memory. Results showed that older adults (N=26) were slower than younger adults (N=35) at feature extraction, lexical access, and accessing category information. The age deficit was proportionally greater when retrieval of category information was required.…

  8. Life satisfaction in young adults 10 or more years after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for childhood malignant and nonmalignant diseases does not show significant impairment compared with healthy controls: a case-matched study.

    PubMed

    Uderzo, Cornelio; Corti, Paola; Pappalettera, Marco; Baldini, Valentina; Lucchini, Giovanna; Meani, Dario; Rovelli, Attilio

    2012-11-01

    Patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) may experience physical and psychological deterioration that impairs their life satisfaction (LS). This study focused on LS in long-term survivors at 10 or more years after HSCT. Fifty-five patients (39 males, median age 25 years) undergoing allogeneic HSCT for childhood malignant (n = 52) or nonmalignant diseases (n = 3) were enrolled. A control group of 98 young adults (59 males, median age 24 years) was considered. A questionnaire with a modified Satisfaction Life Domain Scale was administered. We assessed such domains as education, employment, leisure time, social relationships, and perception of physical status with a 30-item questionnaire. To investigate the association between the domains and the probability of diminished LS, we performed a logistical procedure using the maximum likelihood method. Predictive factors of LS were adjusted for sociodemographic variables. In the multivariate analysis, the participant's level of LS was not significantly correlated with sociodemographic factors or with HSCT status. The same analysis showed a slight trend in favor of the control group (P = .06) for body perception. Our data suggest that the patients who undergo HSCT in childhood have no significant difference in long-term LS compared with healthy controls.

  9. Poorer Phonetic Perceivers Show Greater Benefit in Phonetic-Phonological Speech Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingvalson, Erin M.; Barr, Allison M.; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research has demonstrated that native English speakers can learn lexical tones in word context (pitch-to-word learning), to an extent. However, learning success depends on learners' pre-training sensitivity to pitch patterns. The aim of this study was to determine whether lexical pitch-pattern training given before lexical…

  10. Human B lymphocytes show greater susceptibility to H2O2 toxicity than T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Farber, C M; Liebes, L F; Kanganis, D N; Silber, R

    1984-05-01

    Lymphocytes from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and from normal subjects were incubated with a glucose-glucose oxidase hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generating system to study the effect of oxidant stress on these cells. Within 4 hr, 90% of normal but only 21% of CLL lymphocytes remained viable. When normal and CLL preparations enriched in B or T cells were exposed to H2O2, B lymphocytes from both groups were highly susceptible to oxidative damage while T lymphocytes were relatively resistant. The H2O2 scavenger catalase prevented the cytotoxicity. The present work identifies the human B lymphocyte as a cell that should be a suitable target for selective killing by H2O2-generating systems.

  11. Health and Greater Manchester in Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    This article maps the history of health organisation across Greater Manchester (GM), primarily since the Second World War, to show how against a continuing backdrop of health inequalities, services have been driven (and constrained) by the needs and the politics of each period. Defining ‘success’ as benefits for patients the article identifies examples such as Salford’s mental health services (1950s and 1960s), public health in North Manchester (1970s and 1980s), the creation of centres for diabetes, sickle-cell and thalassaemia (1980s) and the formation of the Joint Health Unit in 2002. What this history shows is that over the period the common factors influencing the ‘success’ of health organisation across GM have been the championing of particular issues by multi-disciplinary groups working across health and social care and stability in structures and personnel. PMID:27499557

  12. An observation of Clostridium perfringens in Greater Sage-Grouse.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Christian A; Bildfell, Robert J

    2007-07-01

    Mortality due to infectious diseases is seldom reported in the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). A case of necrotic enteritis associated with Clostridium perfringens type A is described in a free-ranging adult male sage-grouse in eastern Oregon. Clostridial enteritis is known to cause outbreaks of mortality in various domestic and wild birds, and should be considered as a potential cause of mortality in sage-grouse populations.

  13. Does greater low frequency EEG activity in normal immaturity and in children with epilepsy arise in the same neuronal network?

    PubMed

    Michels, L; Bucher, K; Brem, S; Halder, P; Lüchinger, R; Liechti, M; Martin, E; Jeanmonod, D; Kröll, J; Brandeis, D

    2011-03-01

    Greater low frequency power (<8 Hz) in the electroencephalogram (EEG) at rest is normal in the immature developing brain of children when compared to adults. Children with epilepsy also have greater low frequency interictal resting EEG activity. Whether these power elevations reflect brain immaturity due to a developmental lag or the underlying epileptic pathophysiology is unclear. The present study addresses this question by analyzing spectral EEG topographies and sources for normally developing children and children with epilepsy. We first compared the resting EEG of healthy children to that of healthy adults to isolate effects related to normal brain immaturity. Next, we compared the EEG from 10 children with generalized cryptogenic epilepsy to the EEG of 24 healthy children to isolate effects related to epilepsy. Spectral analysis revealed that global low (delta: 1-3 Hz, theta: 4-7 Hz), medium (alpha: 8-12 Hz) and high (beta: 13-25 Hz) frequency EEG activity was greater in children without epilepsy compared to adults, and even further elevated for children with epilepsy. Topographical and tomographic EEG analyses showed that normal immaturity corresponded to greater delta and theta activity at fronto-central scalp and brain regions, respectively. In contrast, the epilepsy-related activity elevations were predominantly in the alpha band at parieto-occipital electrodes and brain regions, respectively. We conclude that lower frequency activity can be a sign of normal brain immaturity or brain pathology depending on the specific topography and frequency of the oscillating neuronal network. PMID:20820898

  14. Show Me the Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Lane B.

    2005-01-01

    Since the inception of the No Child Left Behind legislation, school districts have been faced with a growing need to gather, analyze and monitor more data than ever before in the management of school performance. Accountability mandates also have placed a greater emphasis on gleaning the most granular types of information from these large sources…

  15. Electrophysiological entropy in younger adults, older controls and older cognitively declined adults.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Michael J; Kilmartin, Liam; Keane, Michael; Collins, Peter; Staff, Roger T; Kaiser, Jochen; Lai, Robert; Upton, Neil

    2012-03-22

    The current study examined electrophysiological entropy in younger adults, older adults, and older cognitively declined adults across four experimental conditions - eyes closed, eyes open, and during both encoding and recognition of words in a memory task. We hypothesised reduced entropy in older declined adults relative to both older controls and younger adults, with the largest group differences in entropy expected during the encoding and recognition phases of the experiment. We also hypothesised greater hemispheric asymmetry in younger adults compared with older controls and older declined adults. Results revealed significant increases in entropy from eyes closed to eyes open to task. Young adults showed higher entropy in the right relative to the left hemisphere in the temporal lobe and higher entropy in the left relative to the right hemisphere in the parietal lobe. Old cognitively declined adults showed no significant differences between right and left hemisphere entropy. There was a trend whereby older declined adults showed lower entropy than older controls in the frontal lobe, this difference being largest in the left hemisphere during the encoding phase of the experiment. Results indicate that measures of entropy are sensitive to information processing demands and that higher cognitive performance may not be a simple function of entropy level, but rather a combination of level and range, or differentiated range of entropy states across the brain.

  16. More Years Playing Football, Greater Risk of Brain Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_161841.html More Years Playing Football, Greater Risk of Brain Disease: Study Researchers track ... say they can show that brain inflammation from football head trauma may lead to the development of ...

  17. The F4/AS01B HIV-1 Vaccine Candidate Is Safe and Immunogenic, But Does Not Show Viral Efficacy in Antiretroviral Therapy-Naive, HIV-1-Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dinges, Warren; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Podzamczer, Daniel; Brockmeyer, Norbert H.; García, Felipe.; Harrer, Thomas; Lelievre, Jean-Daniel; Frank, Ian; Colin De Verdière, Nathalie; Yeni, Guy-Patrick; Ortega Gonzalez, Enrique; Rubio, Rafael; Clotet Sala, Bonaventura; DeJesus, Edwin; Pérez-Elias, Maria Jesus; Launay, Odile; Pialoux, Gilles; Slim, Jihad; Weiss, Laurence; Bouchaud, Olivier; Felizarta, Franco; Meurer, Anja; Raffi, François; Esser, Stefan; Katlama, Christine; Koletar, Susan L.; Mounzer, Karam; Swindells, Susan; Baxter, John D.; Schneider, Stefan; Chas, Julie; Molina, Jean-Michel; Koutsoukos, Marguerite; Collard, Alix; Bourguignon, Patricia; Roman, François

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The impact of the investigational human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) F4/AS01B vaccine on HIV-1 viral load (VL) was evaluated in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive HIV-1 infected adults. This phase IIb, observer-blind study (NCT01218113), included ART-naive HIV-1 infected adults aged 18 to 55 years. Participants were randomized to receive 2 (F4/AS01B_2 group, N = 64) or 3 (F4/AS01B_3 group, N = 62) doses of F4/AS01B or placebo (control group, N = 64) at weeks 0, 4, and 28. Efficacy (HIV-1 VL, CD4+ T-cell count, ART initiation, and HIV-related clinical events), safety, and immunogenicity (antibody and T-cell responses) were evaluated during 48 weeks. At week 48, based on a mixed model, no statistically significant difference in HIV-1 VL change from baseline was demonstrated between F4/AS01B_2 and control group (0.073 log10 copies/mL [97.5% confidence interval (CI): −0.088; 0.235]), or F4/AS01B_3 and control group (−0.096 log10 copies/mL [97.5% CI: −0.257; 0.065]). No differences between groups were observed in HIV-1 VL change, CD4+ T-cell count, ART initiation, or HIV-related clinical events at intermediate timepoints. Among F4/AS01B recipients, the most frequent solicited symptoms were pain at injection site (252/300 doses), fatigue (137/300 doses), myalgia (105/300 doses), and headache (90/300 doses). Twelve serious adverse events were reported in 6 participants; 1 was considered vaccine-related (F4/AS01B_2 group: angioedema). F4/AS01B induced polyfunctional F4-specific CD4+ T-cells, but had no significant impact on F4-specific CD8+ T-cell and anti-F4 antibody levels. F4/AS01B had a clinically acceptable safety profile, induced F4-specific CD4+ T-cell responses, but did not reduce HIV-1 VL, impact CD4+ T-cells count, delay ART initiation, or prevent HIV-1 related clinical events. PMID:26871794

  18. The F4/AS01B HIV-1 Vaccine Candidate Is Safe and Immunogenic, But Does Not Show Viral Efficacy in Antiretroviral Therapy-Naive, HIV-1-Infected Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Dinges, Warren; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Podzamczer, Daniel; Brockmeyer, Norbert H; García, Felipe; Harrer, Thomas; Lelievre, Jean-Daniel; Frank, Ian; Colin De Verdière, Nathalie; Yeni, Guy-Patrick; Ortega Gonzalez, Enrique; Rubio, Rafael; Clotet Sala, Bonaventura; DeJesus, Edwin; Pérez-Elias, Maria Jesus; Launay, Odile; Pialoux, Gilles; Slim, Jihad; Weiss, Laurence; Bouchaud, Olivier; Felizarta, Franco; Meurer, Anja; Raffi, François; Esser, Stefan; Katlama, Christine; Koletar, Susan L; Mounzer, Karam; Swindells, Susan; Baxter, John D; Schneider, Stefan; Chas, Julie; Molina, Jean-Michel; Koutsoukos, Marguerite; Collard, Alix; Bourguignon, Patricia; Roman, François

    2016-02-01

    The impact of the investigational human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) F4/AS01B vaccine on HIV-1 viral load (VL) was evaluated in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive HIV-1 infected adults.This phase IIb, observer-blind study (NCT01218113), included ART-naive HIV-1 infected adults aged 18 to 55 years. Participants were randomized to receive 2 (F4/AS01B_2 group, N = 64) or 3 (F4/AS01B_3 group, N = 62) doses of F4/AS01B or placebo (control group, N = 64) at weeks 0, 4, and 28. Efficacy (HIV-1 VL, CD4 T-cell count, ART initiation, and HIV-related clinical events), safety, and immunogenicity (antibody and T-cell responses) were evaluated during 48 weeks.At week 48, based on a mixed model, no statistically significant difference in HIV-1 VL change from baseline was demonstrated between F4/AS01B_2 and control group (0.073 log10 copies/mL [97.5% confidence interval (CI): -0.088; 0.235]), or F4/AS01B_3 and control group (-0.096 log10 copies/mL [97.5% CI: -0.257; 0.065]). No differences between groups were observed in HIV-1 VL change, CD4 T-cell count, ART initiation, or HIV-related clinical events at intermediate timepoints. Among F4/AS01B recipients, the most frequent solicited symptoms were pain at injection site (252/300 doses), fatigue (137/300 doses), myalgia (105/300 doses), and headache (90/300 doses). Twelve serious adverse events were reported in 6 participants; 1 was considered vaccine-related (F4/AS01B_2 group: angioedema). F4/AS01B induced polyfunctional F4-specific CD4 T-cells, but had no significant impact on F4-specific CD8 T-cell and anti-F4 antibody levels.F4/AS01B had a clinically acceptable safety profile, induced F4-specific CD4 T-cell responses, but did not reduce HIV-1 VL, impact CD4 T-cells count, delay ART initiation, or prevent HIV-1 related clinical events.

  19. The F4/AS01B HIV-1 Vaccine Candidate Is Safe and Immunogenic, But Does Not Show Viral Efficacy in Antiretroviral Therapy-Naive, HIV-1-Infected Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Dinges, Warren; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Podzamczer, Daniel; Brockmeyer, Norbert H; García, Felipe; Harrer, Thomas; Lelievre, Jean-Daniel; Frank, Ian; Colin De Verdière, Nathalie; Yeni, Guy-Patrick; Ortega Gonzalez, Enrique; Rubio, Rafael; Clotet Sala, Bonaventura; DeJesus, Edwin; Pérez-Elias, Maria Jesus; Launay, Odile; Pialoux, Gilles; Slim, Jihad; Weiss, Laurence; Bouchaud, Olivier; Felizarta, Franco; Meurer, Anja; Raffi, François; Esser, Stefan; Katlama, Christine; Koletar, Susan L; Mounzer, Karam; Swindells, Susan; Baxter, John D; Schneider, Stefan; Chas, Julie; Molina, Jean-Michel; Koutsoukos, Marguerite; Collard, Alix; Bourguignon, Patricia; Roman, François

    2016-02-01

    The impact of the investigational human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) F4/AS01B vaccine on HIV-1 viral load (VL) was evaluated in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive HIV-1 infected adults.This phase IIb, observer-blind study (NCT01218113), included ART-naive HIV-1 infected adults aged 18 to 55 years. Participants were randomized to receive 2 (F4/AS01B_2 group, N = 64) or 3 (F4/AS01B_3 group, N = 62) doses of F4/AS01B or placebo (control group, N = 64) at weeks 0, 4, and 28. Efficacy (HIV-1 VL, CD4 T-cell count, ART initiation, and HIV-related clinical events), safety, and immunogenicity (antibody and T-cell responses) were evaluated during 48 weeks.At week 48, based on a mixed model, no statistically significant difference in HIV-1 VL change from baseline was demonstrated between F4/AS01B_2 and control group (0.073 log10 copies/mL [97.5% confidence interval (CI): -0.088; 0.235]), or F4/AS01B_3 and control group (-0.096 log10 copies/mL [97.5% CI: -0.257; 0.065]). No differences between groups were observed in HIV-1 VL change, CD4 T-cell count, ART initiation, or HIV-related clinical events at intermediate timepoints. Among F4/AS01B recipients, the most frequent solicited symptoms were pain at injection site (252/300 doses), fatigue (137/300 doses), myalgia (105/300 doses), and headache (90/300 doses). Twelve serious adverse events were reported in 6 participants; 1 was considered vaccine-related (F4/AS01B_2 group: angioedema). F4/AS01B induced polyfunctional F4-specific CD4 T-cells, but had no significant impact on F4-specific CD8 T-cell and anti-F4 antibody levels.F4/AS01B had a clinically acceptable safety profile, induced F4-specific CD4 T-cell responses, but did not reduce HIV-1 VL, impact CD4 T-cells count, delay ART initiation, or prevent HIV-1 related clinical events. PMID:26871794

  20. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

    2014-05-01

    Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions. PMID:24787333

  1. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

    2014-05-01

    Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions.

  2. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  3. Malaria situation in the Greater Mekong Subregion.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Sean; Delacollette, Charles; Chavez, Irwin

    2013-01-01

    The epidemiology of malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion is complex and rapidly evolving. Malaria control and elimination efforts face a daunting array of challenges including multidrug-resistant parasites. This review presents secondary data collected by the national malaria control programs in the six countries between 1998 and 2010 and examines trends over the last decade. This data has a number of limitations: it is derived exclusively from public sector health facilities; falciparum-specific and then pan-specific rapid diagnostic tests were introduced during the period under review; and, recently there has been a massive increase in case detection capability as a result of increased funding. It therefore requires cautious interpretation. A series of maps are presented showing trends in incidence, mortality and proportion of cases caused by Plasmodium falciparum over the last decade. A brief overview of institutional and implementation arrangements, historical background, demographics and key issues affecting malaria epidemiology is provided for each country. National malaria statistics for 2010 are presented and their robustness discussed in terms of the public sector's share of cases and other influencing factors such as inter-country variations in risk stratification, changes in diagnostic approach and immigration. Targets are presented for malaria control and where appropriate for elimination. Each country's artemisinin resistance status is described. The epidemiological trends presented reflect the improvement in the malaria situation, however the true malaria burden is as yet unknown. There is a need for continuing strengthening and updating of surveillance and response systems. PMID:24159830

  4. Men Face Greater Risk of Cardiac Arrest

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159651.html Men Face Greater Risk of Cardiac Arrest: Study Heart ... 30, 2016 THURSDAY, June 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Men are significantly more likely to have their heart ...

  5. Adult Education Regional Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2015

    2015-01-01

    For more than one hundred and fifty years, until 2008, California was an undisputed national leader in its commitment to adult education. The state's investment in adult learners topped $750 million, a sum greater than the combined total of every other state in the nation. However, for the past several years recession and fiscal crisis have left…

  6. Nutrition in older adults.

    PubMed

    DiMaria-Ghalili, Rose Ann; Amella, Elaine

    2005-03-01

    Both physiologic and psychosocial changes affect the nutritional status of adults over the age of 65. Malnutrition is, in fact, a greater threat to this population than obesity. This article reviews the intake requirements of older adults and discusses the risk factors that can lead to malnutrition, including diet, limited income, isolation, chronic illness, and physiologic changes. Assessment and nursing interventions are also addressed.

  7. Do Adults with High Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome Differ in Empathy and Emotion Recognition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Charlotte B.; Allison, Carrie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Cassidy, Sarah; Langdon, Peter E.; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined whether adults with high functioning autism (HFA) showed greater difficulties in (1) their self-reported ability to empathise with others and/or (2) their ability to read mental states in others' eyes than adults with Asperger syndrome (AS). The Empathy Quotient (EQ) and "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" Test…

  8. Alcohol Dependence in Adult Children of Alcoholics: Longitudinal Evidence of Early Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennison, Karen M.; Johnson, Kenneth A.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates familial alcoholism effects and the comparative probability of risk that adult children of alcoholics have for alcohol dependence. Results, based on a national survey of 12,686 young adults over a five-year period, show that the risk for alcoholism is relatively greater for males than females. (MKA)

  9. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  10. Influence of Delhi Pollution on Aerosol Properties Over Greater Noida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, M.; Singh, R. P.; Kumar, R.

    2015-12-01

    Influence of Delhi Pollution on Aerosol Properties over Greater NoidaManish Sharma1, Ramesh P. Singh2 and Rajesh Kumar3 1Research and Technology Development Centre, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India. 2School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Schmid College of Science, Chapman University, Orange 92866, USA 3School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India. Delhi capital of India is highly polluted during winter and summer seasons. Due to dominant westerly winds the air mass influence its neighboring city Greater Noida which is located 60 km south east of Delhi. Detailed analysis of multi satellite data and ground observations have been carried out during 2001-2015. The ground observation and satellite data show dynamic aerosol optical parameters over Greater Noida. During winter and summer seasons, dominant westerly wind outflow pollutants of Delhi that mix with the local anthropogenic emissions of Greater Noida influencing aerosol properties at different pressure levels. The characteristics of trace gases and aerosol parameters over Delhi and Greater Noida will be presented. The air quality is severely affected from the outflow of pollutants from Delhi which is threat to people living in the area. Due to dominant winds the air mass further transported towards eastern parts of Indo-Gangetic plains affecting weather conditions of the major cities.

  11. Liver metal concentrations in Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus).

    PubMed

    Dailey, Rebecca N; Raisbeck, Merl F; Siemion, Roger S; Cornish, Todd E

    2008-04-01

    Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are a species of concern due to shrinking populations associated with habitat fragmentation and loss. Baseline health parameters for this species are limited or lacking, especially with regard to tissue metal concentrations. To obtain a range of tissue metal concentrations, livers were collected from 71 Greater Sage-grouse from Wyoming and Montana. Mean +/- SE metal concentrations (mg/kg wet weight) in liver were determined for vanadium (V) (0.12 +/- 0.01), chromium (Cr) (0.50 +/- 0.02), manganese (Mn) (2.68 +/- 0.11), iron (Fe) (1,019 +/- 103), nickel (Ni) (0.40 +/- 0.04), cobalt (Co) (0.08 +/- 0.02), copper (Cu) (6.43 +/- 0.40), mercury (Hg) (0.30 +/- 0.09), selenium (Se) (1.45 +/- 0.64), zinc (Zn) (59.2 +/- 4.70), molybdenum (Mo) (0.93 +/- 0.07), cadmium (Cd) (1.44 +/- 0.14), barium (Ba) (0.20 +/- 0.03), and lead (Pb) (0.17 +/- 0.03). In addition to providing baseline data, metal concentrations were compared between sex, age (juvenile/adult), and West Nile virus (WNv) groups (positive/negative). Adult birds had higher concentrations of Ni and Cd compared to juveniles. In addition, Zn and Cu concentrations were significantly elevated in WNv-positive birds.

  12. The Ozone Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

  13. Show What You Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eccleston, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Big things come in small packages. This saying came to the mind of the author after he created a simple math review activity for his fourth grade students. Though simple, it has proven to be extremely advantageous in reinforcing math concepts. He uses this activity, which he calls "Show What You Know," often. This activity provides the perfect…

  14. Showing What They Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

  15. Stage a Water Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

  16. What Do Maps Show?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

    This curriculum packet, appropriate for grades 4-8, features a teaching poster which shows different types of maps (different views of Salt Lake City, Utah), as well as three reproducible maps and reproducible activity sheets which complement the maps. The poster provides teacher background, including step-by-step lesson plans for four geography…

  17. Obesity in show cats.

    PubMed

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. PMID:24612018

  18. Show Me the Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicks, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    Because today's students have grown up steeped in video games and the Internet, most of them expect feedback, and usually gratification, very soon after they expend effort on a task. Teachers can get quick feedback to students by showing them videotapes of their learning performances. The author, a 3rd grade teacher describes how the seemingly…

  19. The Art Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scolarici, Alicia

    2004-01-01

    This article describes what once was thought to be impossible--a formal art show extravaganza at an elementary school with 1,000 students, a Department of Defense Dependent School (DODDS) located overseas, on RAF Lakenheath, England. The dream of this this event involved the transformation of the school cafeteria into an elegant art show…

  20. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  1. Taking in a Show.

    PubMed

    Boden, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Many medical practices have cut back on education and staff development expenses, especially those costs associated with conventions and conferences. But there are hard-to-value returns on your investment in these live events--beyond the obvious benefits of acquired knowledge and skills. Major vendors still exhibit their services and wares at many events, and the exhibit hall is a treasure-house of information and resources for the savvy physician or administrator. Make and stick to a purposeful plan to exploit the trade show. You can compare products, gain new insights and ideas, and even negotiate better deals with representatives anxious to realize returns on their exhibition investments. PMID:27249887

  2. Taking in a Show.

    PubMed

    Boden, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Many medical practices have cut back on education and staff development expenses, especially those costs associated with conventions and conferences. But there are hard-to-value returns on your investment in these live events--beyond the obvious benefits of acquired knowledge and skills. Major vendors still exhibit their services and wares at many events, and the exhibit hall is a treasure-house of information and resources for the savvy physician or administrator. Make and stick to a purposeful plan to exploit the trade show. You can compare products, gain new insights and ideas, and even negotiate better deals with representatives anxious to realize returns on their exhibition investments.

  3. Increased activity in frontal motor cortex compensates impaired speech perception in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yi; Buchsbaum, Bradley R.; Grady, Cheryl L.; Alain, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Understanding speech in noisy environments is challenging, especially for seniors. Although evidence suggests that older adults increasingly recruit prefrontal cortices to offset reduced periphery and central auditory processing, the brain mechanisms underlying such compensation remain elusive. Here we show that relative to young adults, older adults show higher activation of frontal speech motor areas as measured by functional MRI during a syllable identification task at varying signal-to-noise ratios. This increased activity correlates with improved speech discrimination performance in older adults. Multivoxel pattern classification reveals that despite an overall phoneme dedifferentiation, older adults show greater specificity of phoneme representations in frontal articulatory regions than auditory regions. Moreover, older adults with stronger frontal activity have higher phoneme specificity in frontal and auditory regions. Thus, preserved phoneme specificity and upregulation of activity in speech motor regions provide a means of compensation in older adults for decoding impoverished speech representations in adverse listening conditions. PMID:27483187

  4. Waste Management in Greater Dhaka City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, M. H.

    1993-01-01

    This study focuses on the environmental degradation of Greater Dhaka City (GDC) resulting from pollution created by the indiscriminate disposal of industrial wastes, open dumping of solid wastes, inadequate treatment and disposal of domestic sewage, and unplanned disposal of leachate from agricultural land. Measures to protect the GDC environment…

  5. Primary torsion of the greater omentum.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Y; Oka, S; Nakamura, M; Nakatsuka, H; Yamade, N; Maeda, Y

    1991-11-01

    A case with primary torsion of the greater omentum is reported. This pathological condition is an uncommon cause of acute abdominal emergency and it is very difficult even for general surgeons to differentiate this from other acute abdomen. The etiology remains unknown and the treatment of choice is resection of the affected organ. PMID:1820017

  6. Greater Capital Region Career Pathways Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workforce Strategy Center, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This case study documents the activities of the Greater Capital Region Career Pathways Initiative (CPI), a partnership to develop regional, demand driven career pathways for the biotechnology sector in and around Albany, NY. This document is written for three primary audiences. First, it provides a report to the New York State Department of Labor…

  7. Obesity in show dogs.

    PubMed

    Corbee, R J

    2013-10-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a growing incidence. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, and decreases life span, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain breeds is often suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, we investigated 1379 dogs of 128 different breeds by determining their body condition score (BCS). Overall, 18.6% of the show dogs had a BCS >5, and 1.1% of the show dogs had a BCS>7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be correlated to the breed standards. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and judges in order to come to different interpretations of the standards to prevent overweight conditions from being the standard of beauty. PMID:22882163

  8. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show. PMID:23631336

  9. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show.

  10. Convergence between central segment of Greater and Lesser Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokhadze, Giorgi; Floyd, Mike; Cowgill, Eric; Chen, Horng-Yue; Hu, Jyr-Ching

    2016-04-01

    Caucasus region is the relatively young part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt and represent northernmost edge of intracontinental collision of Arabia-Eurasia plates. Greater and Lesser Caucasus are major tectonic units and separated by west Rioni basin, Dzirula Massif and east Kura (Mtkvari) basin, with fold-thrust belt. During last decades, Instrumentally recorded earthquakes revealed, that Greater and Lesser Caucasus margins are active, where north dipping thrust earthquakes Racha(6,9Mw, 1991 year), Barisako(6.4Mw, 1992 year) and flank of Lesser Caucasus Gori(6.2Mw, 1920 year) and south dipping thrust Baghdati(5.3Mw, 2011 year) produced. Geodetic and Geologic observation Shows that major present-day crustal deformation are between lesser and greater Caucasus, where convergence rate increase from WNW to ESE (~2 to ~12 mm/yr). Deformation in the east part of Kura basin is accommodated to the north, foothill of the greater Caucasus, where north dipping thrust system presence, which is coherent with seismic activity. However in the west(42E - 44.5E) convergence not well constrained and slip distribution between Lesser and Greater Caucasus is ambiguous. In this study we present combined previously published and new geodetic observation for present-day surface motions and constrain convergence and position of locked fault in the central segment of Greater and Lesser Caucasus.

  11. Public medical shows.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre. PMID:25273491

  12. The Great Cometary Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave

  13. Very early onset and greater vulnerability in schizophrenia: A clinical and neuroimaging study

    PubMed Central

    Margari, Francesco; Presicci, Anna; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Ventura, Patrizia; Di Cuonzo, Franca; Palma, Michele; Margari, Lucia

    2008-01-01

    Although schizophrenia has been diagnosed in children, this group of disorders has received too little attention in the clinical and research literature. Preliminary data suggest that early onset schizophrenia (EOS) and very early onset schizophrenia (VEOS) tend to have a worse outcome than adult onset schizophrenia, and seem to be related to a greater familial vulnerability, due to genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors. Recently, advanced neuroimaging techniques have revealed structural and functional brain abnormalities in some cerebral areas. This paper reports on a case diagnosed as VEOS, with premorbid year-long psychopathological history. The patient showed atypical proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings, and normal brain and spine computer tomography and brain magnetic resonance images. PMID:19043525

  14. Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    This pair of images from the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity served as initial confirmation that the two-year-old rover is within sight of 'Victoria Crater,' which it has been approaching for more than a year. Engineers on the rover team were unsure whether Opportunity would make it as far as Victoria, but scientists hoped for the chance to study such a large crater with their roving geologist. Victoria Crater is 800 meters (nearly half a mile) in diameter, about six times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' where Opportunity spent several months in 2004 examining rock layers affected by ancient water.

    When scientists using orbital data calculated that they should be able to detect Victoria's rim in rover images, they scrutinized frames taken in the direction of the crater by the panoramic camera. To positively characterize the subtle horizon profile of the crater and some of the features leading up to it, researchers created a vertically-stretched image (top) from a mosaic of regular frames from the panoramic camera (bottom), taken on Opportunity's 804th Martian day (April 29, 2006).

    The stretched image makes mild nearby dunes look like more threatening peaks, but that is only a result of the exaggerated vertical dimension. This vertical stretch technique was first applied to Viking Lander 2 panoramas by Philip Stooke, of the University of Western Ontario, Canada, to help locate the lander with respect to orbiter images. Vertically stretching the image allows features to be more readily identified by the Mars Exploration Rover science team.

    The bright white dot near the horizon to the right of center (barely visible without labeling or zoom-in) is thought to be a light-toned outcrop on the far wall of the crater, suggesting that the rover can see over the low rim of Victoria. In figure 1, the northeast and southeast rims are labeled

  15. Environmental planning and management in Greater Johannesburg.

    PubMed

    Von Schirnding, Y E

    1996-03-01

    This article describes the actions among urban environmental, management, and development planners in Greater Johannesburg, South Africa. Initiatives, such as the Healthy Cities Project and Model Communities, are being integrated into an environmental management and development approach that attains the goals of Agenda 21. Greater Johannesburg has housing shortages and homelessness. Priority needs include the areas of housing, water, electricity, public transportation, and sanitation. Clean water and air are inequitably distributed. Other key environmental problems include illegal dumping, inadequate waste disposal, poor environmental hygiene in overcrowded inner city areas, lack of open spaces, flooding, and water scarcities. The newly formed metropolitan authority offers opportunities to improve coordination and integration of environmental problems. Stakeholders from government at all levels, politicians, nongovernmental organizations, and the business sector formed an intersectoral, interdepartmental environment management committee in 1995. Stakeholders will integrate Agenda 21 within broader urban development plans and processes. The executive committee and the full council approved a set of guiding principles on environmental policy and an administrative framework for management. Four workshops were held to ensure a participatory consultation process in 1995. The WHO Collaborating Center for Urban Health will be used to facilitate the work of the Greater Johannesburg Metropolitan Council. Changes are being made in the way local governments work.

  16. Greater trochanter apophysitis in the adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Young, Simon W; Safran, Marc R

    2015-05-01

    Lower limb traction apophysitis is common in young athletes, occurring at sites such as the tibial tubercle (Osgood-Schlatter disease) and distal patella (Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease). Around the hip, iliac apophysitis is well recognized, but no cases of greater trochanter apophysitis have previously been reported. We describe the case of a 15-year-old male basketball player with a 2-month history of the right hip pain and significant functional limitation. X-rays revealed widening of the greater trochanter apophysis with subchondral sclerosis, consistent with a diagnosis of traction apophysitis. The patient was treated with a period of relative rest and anti-inflammatory medication. He gradually returned to full athletic activity, including basketball, without recurrence of pain or limitation. We describe the first reported case of traction apophysitis of the greater trochanter. The unique muscular anatomy of this apophysis with balanced forces explains the rarity of this condition. If encountered, rest and activity modification is the recommended treatment.

  17. External Scan 2000: Environmental Scan of the Greater Sacramento Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beachler, Judith

    This document provides a summary of the social, economic, and political changes at state and national levels that affect the Los Rios Community College District (LRCCD) in California. LRCCD consists of American River College (ARC), Cosumnes River College (CRC), and Sacramento City College (SCC). Demographic trends show that Greater Sacramento is…

  18. When does prior knowledge disproportionately benefit older adults' memory?

    PubMed

    Badham, Stephen P; Hay, Mhairi; Foxon, Natasha; Kaur, Kiran; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Material consistent with knowledge/experience is generally more memorable than material inconsistent with knowledge/experience - an effect that can be more extreme in older adults. Four experiments investigated knowledge effects on memory with young and older adults. Memory for familiar and unfamiliar proverbs (Experiment 1) and for common and uncommon scenes (Experiment 2) showed similar knowledge effects across age groups. Memory for person-consistent and person-neutral actions (Experiment 3) showed a greater benefit of prior knowledge in older adults. For cued recall of related and unrelated word pairs (Experiment 4), older adults benefited more from prior knowledge only when it provided uniquely useful additional information beyond the episodic association itself. The current data and literature suggest that prior knowledge has the age-dissociable mnemonic properties of (1) improving memory for the episodes themselves (age invariant), and (2) providing conceptual information about the tasks/stimuli extrinsically to the actual episodic memory (particularly aiding older adults). PMID:26473767

  19. Adult Books for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Betty

    1997-01-01

    Considers the differences between young adult and adult books and maintains that teachers must be familiar with young adults' tastes for both. Suggests that traffic between these publishing divisions is a two-way street, with young adults reading adult books and adults reading young adult books. (TB)

  20. To What Behaviors Do Attending Adults Respond? A Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felce, David; And Others

    1987-01-01

    In a replication of a study by Warren and Mondy (1971), staff responses to severely mentally retarded adults (N=90) in institutional units, large community units, and small community houses in the United Kingdom were observed. Staff in small community houses showed a greater level of encouragement of appropriate behavior. (Author/JW)

  1. The Effects of Interactive Images on Language Acquisition for Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abed, Farough

    1996-01-01

    Progression is an interactive mnemonic strategy using a series of five panels: the first displaying a stimulus item, the last, a response item, and the intermediate panels showing a metamorphosis from the first to the last. Adults viewing progressive displays of foreign words had significantly greater recall of meaning than those viewing…

  2. Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanser, Steven E.; Manier, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    The condition of the sagebrush ecosystem has been declining in the Western United States, and greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a sagebrush-obligate species, has experienced concurrent decreases in distribution and population numbers. This has prompted substantial research and management over the past two decades to improve the understanding of sage-grouse and its habitats and to address the observed decreases in distribution and population numbers. The amount of research and management has increased as the year 2015 approaches, which is when the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is expected to make a final decision about whether or not to protect the species under the Endangered Species Act. In 2012, the Sage-Grouse Executive Oversight Committee (EOC) of the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA) requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) lead the development of a Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy (hereafter Research Strategy). This request was motivated by a practical need to systematically connect existing research and conservation plans with persisting or emerging information needs. Managers and researchers also wanted to reduce redundancy and help focus limited funds on the highest priority research and management issues. The USGS undertook the development of this Research Strategy, which addresses information and science relating to the greater sage-grouse and its habitat across portions of 11 Western States. This Research Strategy provides an outline of important research topics to ensure that science information gaps are identified and documented in a comprehensive manner. Further, by identifying priority topics and critical information needed for planning, research, and resource management, it provides a structure to help coordinate members of an expansive research and management community in their efforts to conduct priority research.

  3. Hospital design to support greater operating efficiency.

    PubMed

    Skaggs, R L

    1984-12-01

    With the new imperative on cost containment and particular emphasis on prospective payment, hospital design must support greater productivity. It is incumbent on architects and engineers to reduce construction costs; but more importantly, to design facilities that improve personnel productivity. Several approaches to designing for efficiency are discussed including improving the development process; systems building, ease of maintenance, and conserving energy; developing the model hospital; minimizing travel throughout the hospital; centralization vs. decentralization; automating support systems; designing for growth and change; analyzing workflow; utilizing swing space; and emphasizing consumer centered care.

  4. Interspecific hybridization between greater kudu and nyala.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Desiré L; Tordiffe, Adrian; Luther, Ilse; Duran, Assumpta; van Wyk, Anna M; Brettschneider, Helene; Oosthuizen, Almero; Modiba, Catherine; Kotzé, Antoinette

    2014-06-01

    Hybridization of wildlife species, even in the absence of introgression, is of concern due to wasted reproductive effort and a reduction in productivity. In this study we detail an accidental mating between a female nyala (Tragelaphus angasii) and a male greater kudu (T. strepsiceros). The hybrid was phenotypically nyala and was identified as such based on mitochondrial DNA. Further genetic analysis based on nine microsatellite markers, chromosome number and chromosome morphology however, confirmed its status as an F1 hybrid. Results obtained from a reproductive potential assessment indicated that this animal does not have the potential to breed successfully and can be considered as sterile.

  5. Greater auricular nerve masquerading as lymph node

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Shilpi; Deb, Prabal; Nijhawan, Vijay Shrawan; Kharayat, Veena; Verma, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Hansen's disease is on the verge of being eliminated from India and often missed by clinicians due to low index of suspicion. We present an unusual case in which greater auricular nerve thickening masqueraded as enlarged lymph node in the neck. The patient was referred for fine needle aspiration cytology, which revealed epithelioid cell granulomas suggestive of Hansen's disease. Further clinical examination and investigations including the skin biopsy confirmed the disease, highlighting the role of pathologist in the management of such unusual presentation of a common disease. PMID:26229249

  6. Attitudes toward advertisements of the older adults.

    PubMed

    Estrada, M; Moliner, M A; Sánchez, J

    2010-01-01

    In this study we will analyze the attitude of older adults to advertisements, differentiating between advertisements that contain rhetorical figures (trope ads) and those that do not (explicit ads). We will also study their attitude toward the brand advertised according to their degree of involvement with the product. In the course of the empirical research, a total of 183 personal surveys were carried out with people aged over 65 taking as reference 2 products with different prices and durabilities. Analysis of the results indicated that in products involving little economic effort, older adults showed the same attitude toward both trope and explicit advertisements. However, with products requiring greater economic effort, older adults showed differences in their attitudes to trope ads and to explicit ads depending on their degree of involvement with the product. These differences had a strong effect on their attitudes to the brands of the products analyzed.

  7. Attitudes toward advertisements of the older adults.

    PubMed

    Estrada, M; Moliner, M A; Sánchez, J

    2010-01-01

    In this study we will analyze the attitude of older adults to advertisements, differentiating between advertisements that contain rhetorical figures (trope ads) and those that do not (explicit ads). We will also study their attitude toward the brand advertised according to their degree of involvement with the product. In the course of the empirical research, a total of 183 personal surveys were carried out with people aged over 65 taking as reference 2 products with different prices and durabilities. Analysis of the results indicated that in products involving little economic effort, older adults showed the same attitude toward both trope and explicit advertisements. However, with products requiring greater economic effort, older adults showed differences in their attitudes to trope ads and to explicit ads depending on their degree of involvement with the product. These differences had a strong effect on their attitudes to the brands of the products analyzed. PMID:20503807

  8. Six lessons learned for greater success.

    PubMed

    Leander, W J

    1993-01-01

    These six lessons learned for greater success with your Patient Focused communications can help keep your cultural change process in sync with your operational change process. Of course, there are other key elements of the former, including: formal Patient Focused educational programs; restructured Human Resources "systems" (e.g., job descriptions and compensation programs); and migration toward greater organizational empowerment and more self-directed work teams. Still, your Patient Focused communications campaign will spearhead the cultural change process. As such, it will have the opportunity to make the very first impact. Basically, your communications can make or break your Patient Focused Care program from Day One. It's up to you--learn the lessons learned by others and your organization may follow the words of Marx rather than those of Brand: "Workers of the world, unite (on behalf of your Patient Focused Care program)!" Karl Marx.p6 "Workers of the world, fan out (in formation against your Patient Focused Care program)!" Stewart Brand. PMID:10133393

  9. Greater emotional empathy and prosocial behavior in late life.

    PubMed

    Sze, Jocelyn A; Gyurak, Anett; Goodkind, Madeleine S; Levenson, Robert W

    2012-10-01

    Emotional empathy and prosocial behavior were assessed in older, middle-aged, and young adults. Participants watched two films depicting individuals in need, one uplifting and the other distressing. Physiological responses were monitored during the films, and participants rated their levels of emotional empathy following each film. As a measure of prosocial behavior, participants were given an additional payment they could contribute to charities supporting the individuals in the films. Age-related linear increases were found for both emotional empathy (self-reported empathic concern and cardiac and electrodermal responding) and prosocial behavior (size of contribution) across both films and in self-reported personal distress to the distressing film. Empathic concern and cardiac reactivity to both films, along with personal distress to the distressing film only, were associated with greater prosocial behavior. Empathic concern partially mediated the age-related differences in prosocial behavior. Results are discussed in terms of our understanding both of adult development and of the nature of these vital aspects of human emotion.

  10. Greater Emotional Empathy and Prosocial Behavior in Late Life

    PubMed Central

    Sze, Jocelyn A.; Gyurak, Anett; Goodkind, Madeleine S.; Levenson, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Emotional empathy and prosocial behavior were assessed in older, middle-aged, and young adults. Participants watched two films depicting individuals in need, one uplifting and the other distressing. Physiological responses were monitored during the films and participants rated their levels of emotional empathy following each film. As a measure of prosocial behavior, participants were given an additional payment they could contribute to charities supporting the individuals in the films. Age-related linear increases were found for both emotional empathy (self-reported empathic concern and cardiac and electrodermal responding) and prosocial behavior (size of contribution) across both films and in self-reported personal distress to the distressing film. Empathic concern and cardiac reactivity to both films, along with personal distress to the distressing film only, were associated with greater prosocial behavior. Empathic concern partially mediated the age-related differences in prosocial behavior. Results are discussed in terms of our understanding both of adult development and of the nature of these vital aspects of human emotion. PMID:21859198

  11. Greater Influence of Aerosol on Cloud Microphysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, V.; Hudson, J. G.; Noble, S.

    2009-12-01

    CCN and cloud microphysics measurements are presented from four projects: RICO, PASE,ICE-L and POST. Correlations coefficients (R) between 1% supersaturation CCN concentrations and total cloud droplet concentrations were 0.80 in all four projects and for the combined data. R between CCN and larger cloud droplet concentrations progressively decreased with increasing sizes (Fig. 1A). At ~20 µm R was maximum negative and then reversed to smaller negative and even positive at larger drop sizes. R is positive for CCN with total cloud droplets because droplets are proportional to the concentrations of nuclei that they condensed upon, CCN. The negative R for CCN with larger droplets is due to competition among droplets for condensate. Competition for condensate is greater when CCN concentrations are higher and this limits droplet sizes, more so for higher concentrations. Negative R ensues because this reduces droplet concentrations above specific sizes to a greater extent for higher CCN concentrations. The greatest negative R thus occurs at the size range where droplet concentrations are the largest, the mode of the droplet size distributions. In Fig. 1 this is just beyond the average mode. At larger sizes droplet concentrations are lower (Fig. 1B) and thus there is less competition for condensate. The more numerous small sized droplets do not have enough surface area to affect the growth of the larger less numerous droplets. Thus at larger sizes with reduced competition, droplet concentrations are again proportional to the concentrations of the nuclei that they condensed upon. Often particle concentrations at various sizes are proportional. When this is the case there will be a positive R for CCN at 1% with such larger droplet concentrations such as PASE in Fig. 1A. Thus there are two directly conflicting influences on R; the usual positive R between CCN and droplets and the negative R due to competition for condensate. Thus lower R between CCN and droplet

  12. [Greater trochanteric pain syndrome of the hip].

    PubMed

    Haviv, Barak; Bronak, Shlomo; Thein, Rafael

    2014-02-01

    Lateral pain of the hip with point tenderness at the Greater Trochanter is a common musculoskeletal complaint. It is frequently diagnosed as trochanteric bursitis; however, this term is inaccurate because of evident non-inflammatory pathologies, particularly of the abductor tendons of the hip. It is important to differentiate this extra-articular source from an intra-articular or a lower back source of pain. Imaging is useful in cases of trauma, prolonged pain or uncertain diagnosis. Non-operative treatment that involves modifying activities, physiotherapy, analgesics, steroid injections and shock wave therapy is usually helpful. Nevertheless, despite the above treatments, about one third of the patients suffer from chronic pain and disability. These patients may be candidates for operative intervention. Currently, there are endoscopic surgical techniques for local decompression, bursectomy and suture of torn tendons similar to surgery used in the shoulder. PMID:24716427

  13. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1984-01-01

    This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objectives and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 references.

  14. Greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) includes a broad spectrum of different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and hazards. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most LLW. A small volume fraction (approx. 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx. 90%) requires specific measures known as greater-confinement disposal (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics.

  15. Map showing areas serviced by public water-supply agencies in 1973 Greater Pittsburgh region, southwestern Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beall, Robert M.

    1974-01-01

    Urban water planning, development, and management are many sectored, costly efforts, subject to a multitude of controls and demands including those imposed by nature. One primary concern in development is for providing a dependable and safe water supply. In spite of a bountiful natural availability, the process of satisfying consumer needs involves the resolution of a variety of problems, not the least of which are cooperation and coordination among suppliers. One of the fundamental requisites in seeking sound solutions to developmental and environmental problems is inventory documentation. This map is one facet of documentation; the data listing, given on sheet 2, is the companion inventory. These supplement State, regional, and local efforts directed toward both long-range planning and current evaluation programs. Such documentation also assists the assessment of the effect of one water-management subsystem on hydrologic characteristics.

  16. Aeromagnetic and radio echo ice-sounding measurements show much greater area of the dufek intrusion, antarctica.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, J C; Drewry, D J; Jankowski, E; Grim, M S

    1980-08-29

    A combined aeromagnetic and radio echo ice-sounding survey made in 1978 in Antarctica over the Dufek layered mafic intrusion suggests a minimum area of the intrusion of about 50,000 square kilometers, making it comparable in size with the Bushveld Complex of Africa. Comparisons of the magnetic and subglacial topographic profiles illustrate the usefulness of this combination of methods in studying bedrock geology beneath ice-covered areas. Magnetic anomalies range in peak-to-through amplitude from about 50 nanoteslas over the lowermost exposed portion of the section in the Dufek Massif to about 3600 nanoteslas over the uppermost part of the section in the Forrestal Range. Theoretical magnetic anomalies, computed from a model based on the subice topography fitted to the highest amplitude observed magnetic anomalies, required normal and reversed magnetizations ranging from 10(-3) to 10(-2) electromagnetic units per cubic centimeter. This result is interpreted as indicating that the Dufek intrusion cooled through the Curie isotherm during one or more reversals of the earth's magnetic field.

  17. Aeromagnetic and radio echo ice-sounding measurements show much greater area of the Dufek intrusion, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Behrendt, John C.; Drewry, D.J.; Jankowski, E.; Grim, M.S.

    1980-01-01

    A combined aeromagnetic and radio echo ice-sounding survey made in 1978 in Antarctica over the Dufek layered mafic intrusion suggests a minimum area of the intrusion of about 50,000 square kilometers, making it comparable in size with the Bushveld Complex of Africa. Comparisons of the magnetic and subglacial topographic profiles illustrate the usefulness of this combination of methods in studying bedrock geology beneath ice-covered areas. Magnetic anomalies range in peak-to-trough amplitude from about 50 nanoteslas over the lowermost exposed portion of the section in the Dufek Massif to about 3600 nanoteslas over the uppermost part of the section in the Forrestal Range. Theoretical magnetic anomalies, computed from a model based on the subice topography fitted to the highest amplitude observed magnetic anomalies, required normal and reversed magnetizations ranging from 10-3 to 10-2 electromagnetic units per cubic centimeter. This result is interpreted as indicating that the Dufek intrusion cooled through the Curie isotherm during one or more reversals of the earth's magnetic field. Copyright ?? 1980 AAAS.

  18. Prevalence of pressure ulcers by race and ethnicity for older adults admitted to nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Harms, Susan; Bliss, Donna Z; Garrard, Judith; Cunanan, Kristen; Savik, Kay; Gurvich, Olga; Mueller, Christine; Wyman, Jean F; Eberly, Lynn; Virnig, Beth

    2014-03-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of pressure ulcers (PUs) among racial and ethnic groups of older individuals admitted to nursing homes (NHs). NHs admitting higher percentages of minority individuals may face resource challenges for groups with more PUs or ones of greater severity. This study examined the prevalence of PUs (Stages 2 to 4) among older adults admitted to NHs by race and ethnicity at the individual, NH, and regional levels. Results show that the prevalence of PUs in Black older adults admitted to NHs was greater than that in Hispanic older adults, which were both greater than in White older adults. The PU rate among admissions of Black individuals was 1.7 times higher than White individuals. A higher prevalence of PUs was observed among NHs with a lower percentage of admissions of White individuals. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 40(3), 20-26.]. PMID:24219072

  19. Multisensor Arrays for Greater Reliability and Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Immer, Christopher; Eckhoff, Anthony; Lane, John; Perotti, Jose; Randazzo, John; Blalock, Norman; Ree, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Arrays of multiple, nominally identical sensors with sensor-output-processing electronic hardware and software are being developed in order to obtain accuracy, reliability, and lifetime greater than those of single sensors. The conceptual basis of this development lies in the statistical behavior of multiple sensors and a multisensor-array (MSA) algorithm that exploits that behavior. In addition, advances in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and integrated circuits are exploited. A typical sensor unit according to this concept includes multiple MEMS sensors and sensor-readout circuitry fabricated together on a single chip and packaged compactly with a microprocessor that performs several functions, including execution of the MSA algorithm. In the MSA algorithm, the readings from all the sensors in an array at a given instant of time are compared and the reliability of each sensor is quantified. This comparison of readings and quantification of reliabilities involves the calculation of the ratio between every sensor reading and every other sensor reading, plus calculation of the sum of all such ratios. Then one output reading for the given instant of time is computed as a weighted average of the readings of all the sensors. In this computation, the weight for each sensor is the aforementioned value used to quantify its reliability. In an optional variant of the MSA algorithm that can be implemented easily, a running sum of the reliability value for each sensor at previous time steps as well as at the present time step is used as the weight of the sensor in calculating the weighted average at the present time step. In this variant, the weight of a sensor that continually fails gradually decreases, so that eventually, its influence over the output reading becomes minimal: In effect, the sensor system "learns" which sensors to trust and which not to trust. The MSA algorithm incorporates a criterion for deciding whether there remain enough sensor readings that

  20. Greater Green River Basin Production Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Lim, F.H.; Calogero, D.

    1997-10-01

    The Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming has produced abundant oil and gas out of multiple reservoirs for over 60 years, and large quantities of gas remain untapped in tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Even though GGRB production has been established in formations from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, recent activity has focused on several Cretaceous reservoirs. Two of these formations, the Ahnond and the Frontier Formations, have been classified as tight sands and are prolific producers in the GGRB. The formations typically naturally fractured and have been exploited using conventional well technology. In most cases, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed when completing these wells to to increase gas production rates to economic levels. The objectives of the GGRB production improvement project were to apply the concept of horizontal and directional drilling to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift and to compare production improvements by drilling, completing, and testing vertical, horizontal and directionally-drilled wellbores at a common site.

  1. Water quality improvement plan for Greater Vancouver

    SciTech Connect

    Foellmi, S.N. . Environmental Div.); Neden, D.G. ); Dawson, R.N. )

    1993-10-01

    The Greater Vancouver Regional District commissioned an 18-month planning and predesign study to define the components in a comprehensive water and predesign study to define the components in a comprehensive water quality improvement plan for its 2,500-ML/d (660-mgd) system. The study included three primary tasks: (1) predesign of disinfection and corrosion control facilities, (2) a 12-month pilot testing program using parallel pilot plants at the Seymour and Capilano water supply reservoirs, and (3) planning for future filtration plants. The results of the study identified chlorine, ammonia, sulfur dioxide, soda ash, and carbon dioxide in a two-stage treatment approach as the recommended disinfection and corrosion control scheme for the low-pH, low-alkalinity water supplies. The pilot-plant studies confirmed that direct filtration using deep-bed monomedium filters operating at a loading rate of 22.5 m/h provided excellent treatment performance and productivity over a wide range of raw-water quality. Ozonation was studied extensively and found not to be beneficial in the overall treatment performance. The phased improvement plan for the disinfection, corrosion control, and filtration facilities has an estimated capital cost of about Can$459 million.

  2. Drug Issues Affecting Chinese, Indian and Pakistani People Living in Greater Glasgow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, A. J.; Heim, D.; Bakshi, N.; Davies, J. B.; Flatley, K. J.; Hunter, S. C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes research on drug issues affecting Chinese, Indian and Pakistani people living in Greater Glasgow. There were two strands: (i) a questionnaire-based survey of young people and focus groups; (ii) interviews with young people and adults. The primary aims were to gather prevalence data and to investigate perceptions about current…

  3. Allometric scaling for chemical restraint in greater Rheas (Rhea americana) with Tiletamine and Zolazepam

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chemical restraint is of great importance in the clinical practice of wildlife animals. In such, interspecific allometric scaling proposes pharmacological doses to a wide range of species, based on previously known doses for domestic animals and the target animal’s body mass. The objective was to compare chemical restraint responses in the greater rhea (Rhea americana) with conventional doses of tiletamine/zolazepam, found in the literature for the species, and with doses calculated through interspecific allometric scaling extrapolation. From the Federal University of Piauí, six adult greater rheas (Rhea americana), three males and three females, were randomly selected to be subjects in this research. All six animals were submitted to two chemical restraint protocols with tiletamine and zolazepam, per intramuscular injection in the hind limb. The first protocol was composed of doses found on the literature for the species, while the second protocol used doses calculated by interspecific allometric scaling, with the domestic dog as model animal. Heart and respiratory rates, body temperature, eyelid reflex, digital pinch and metatarsal reflex were registered along with latency and ambulation times. Results The use of interspecific allometric scaling for chemical restraint with the combination tiletamine and zolazepam showed satisfying results, with great similarity to results obtained with conventional doses in Greater rheas. Conclusions Literature on chemical restraint and use of tiletamine and zolazepam in rheas is scarce. Chemical restraint is of extreme importance on these animals, due to their aggressive nature and low level of domesticity. This research may further establish the interspecific allometric scaling method as a viable tool for the veterinary physician in formulating anesthetic and chemical restraint protocols for wildlife animals. PMID:24625103

  4. Gender Dysphoria in Adults.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Kenneth J; Lawrence, Anne A; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C

    2016-01-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD), a term that denotes persistent discomfort with one's biologic sex or assigned gender, replaced the diagnosis of gender identity disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 2013. Subtypes of GD in adults, defined by sexual orientation and age of onset, have been described; these display different developmental trajectories and prognoses. Prevalence studies conclude that fewer than 1 in 10,000 adult natal males and 1 in 30,000 adult natal females experience GD, but such estimates vary widely. GD in adults is associated with an elevated prevalence of comorbid psychopathology, especially mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and suicidality. Causal mechanisms in GD are incompletely understood, but genetic, neurodevelopmental, and psychosocial factors probably all contribute. Treatment of GD in adults, although largely standardized, is likely to evolve in response to the increasing diversity of persons seeking treatment, demands for greater client autonomy, and improved understanding of the benefits and limitations of current treatment modalities. PMID:26788901

  5. Editorial Commentary: Save the Subchondral Bone in Rotator Cuff Repair Greater Tuberosity Preparation.

    PubMed

    Brand, Jefferson C

    2016-04-01

    Results from a recent investigation into the practice of greater tuberosity decortication before rotator cuff repair showed that decortication significantly reduced the ultimate failure load. Although the potential of greater tuberosity treatment for solving the rotator cuff healing quandary still exists, the biomechanics are clear, one should not decorticate the greater tuberosity to cancellous bone. PMID:27039677

  6. Hailstones across the Greater Sydney Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasuly, A. A.; Cheung, K. K. W.; McBurney, B.

    2014-11-01

    This study addresses the recent climatology of hail occurrence in the Greater Metropolitan Severe Thunderstorm Warning Area (GMSTWA) of New South Wales, Australia, which is a sprawling suburban area, with a population of nearly 4.7 million and one of Australia's largest metropolis. The main objective is to highlight the recent temporal-spatial fluctuations of hailstone frequencies and magnitudes for each of recognized and vastly inhabited Local Government Areas (LGAs). The relevant hail event data from 1989 to 2013 were initially derived from the severe storm archive of Australian Bureau of Meteorology. A climatologically oriented GIS technique was applied in the examining and mapping procedure of all hail events and hail days reported throughout the study area. By applying a specific criterion, all severe hails (defined as 2 cm or more in diameter) were cautiously selected and then imported into the ArcGIS software for relevant analysis. Appropriate data layers were stored in a unique database to allow logical integration of the data directly into some geoprocessing functions, mainly for querying, analyzing and mapping purposes in a model-builder setting. The database includes 357 hailstones with sizes 2-11 cm and occurred in 169 hail days across the region during the past 25 years. The models have established that hailstones are neither temporally nor spatially uniform in magnitude throughout the study area. Temporal analysis indicated that most of hail events occurred predominately in the afternoons with peak time of 1-5 p.m. EST. They were particularly common in spring and summer, and reached maximum frequency in November and December. There was an average of 14.3 events each year, but a significant decreasing trend in terms of hail frequency and associated magnitude in the recent years has been identified. In turn, spatial models also established three main distribution patterns over the study area, which include the Sydney Metropolitan, coastal and pronounced

  7. Ecological specialization and morphological diversification in Greater Antillean boas.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, R Graham; Collar, David C; Pasachnik, Stesha A; Niemiller, Matthew L; Puente-Rolón, Alberto R; Revell, Liam J

    2016-08-01

    Colonization of islands can dramatically influence the evolutionary trajectories of organisms, with both deterministic and stochastic processes driving adaptation and diversification. Some island colonists evolve extremely large or small body sizes, presumably in response to unique ecological circumstances present on islands. One example of this phenomenon, the Greater Antillean boas, includes both small (<90 cm) and large (4 m) species occurring on the Greater Antilles and Bahamas, with some islands supporting pairs or trios of body-size divergent species. These boas have been shown to comprise a monophyletic radiation arising from a Miocene dispersal event to the Greater Antilles, though it is not known whether co-occurrence of small and large species is a result of dispersal or in situ evolution. Here, we provide the first comprehensive species phylogeny for this clade combined with morphometric and ecological data to show that small body size evolved repeatedly on separate islands in association with specialization in substrate use. Our results further suggest that microhabitat specialization is linked to increased rates of head shape diversification among specialists. Our findings show that ecological specialization following island colonization promotes morphological diversity through deterministic body size evolution and cranial morphological diversification that is contingent on island- and species-specific factors. PMID:27345593

  8. Ecological specialization and morphological diversification in Greater Antillean boas.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, R Graham; Collar, David C; Pasachnik, Stesha A; Niemiller, Matthew L; Puente-Rolón, Alberto R; Revell, Liam J

    2016-08-01

    Colonization of islands can dramatically influence the evolutionary trajectories of organisms, with both deterministic and stochastic processes driving adaptation and diversification. Some island colonists evolve extremely large or small body sizes, presumably in response to unique ecological circumstances present on islands. One example of this phenomenon, the Greater Antillean boas, includes both small (<90 cm) and large (4 m) species occurring on the Greater Antilles and Bahamas, with some islands supporting pairs or trios of body-size divergent species. These boas have been shown to comprise a monophyletic radiation arising from a Miocene dispersal event to the Greater Antilles, though it is not known whether co-occurrence of small and large species is a result of dispersal or in situ evolution. Here, we provide the first comprehensive species phylogeny for this clade combined with morphometric and ecological data to show that small body size evolved repeatedly on separate islands in association with specialization in substrate use. Our results further suggest that microhabitat specialization is linked to increased rates of head shape diversification among specialists. Our findings show that ecological specialization following island colonization promotes morphological diversity through deterministic body size evolution and cranial morphological diversification that is contingent on island- and species-specific factors.

  9. Dreaming, Stealing, Dancing, Showing Off.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavender, Peter; Taylor, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Lessons learned from British projects to delivery literacy, numeracy, and English as a second language through community agencies included the following: (1) innovation and measured risks are required to attract hard-to-reach adults; (2) good practice needs to be shared; and (3) projects worked best when government funds were managed by community…

  10. Composite materials with viscoelastic stiffness greater than diamond.

    PubMed

    Jaglinski, T; Kochmann, D; Stone, D; Lakes, R S

    2007-02-01

    We show that composite materials can exhibit a viscoelastic modulus (Young's modulus) that is far greater than that of either constituent. The modulus, but not the strength, of the composite was observed to be substantially greater than that of diamond. These composites contain bariumtitanate inclusions, which undergo a volume-change phase transformation if they are not constrained. In the composite, the inclusions are partially constrained by the surrounding metal matrix. The constraint stabilizes the negative bulk modulus (inverse compressibility) of the inclusions. This negative modulus arises from stored elastic energy in the inclusions, in contrast to periodic composite metamaterials that exhibit negative refraction by inertial resonant effects. Conventional composites with positive-stiffness constituents have aggregate properties bounded by a weighted average of constituent properties; their modulus cannot exceed that of the stiffest constituent. PMID:17272714

  11. Effects of neck bands on survival of greater snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menu, S.; Hestbeck, J.B.; Gauthier, G.; Reed, A.

    2000-01-01

    Neck bands are a widely used marker in goose research. However, few studies have investigated a possible negative effect of this marker on survival. We tested the effect of neck bands on the survival of adult female greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) by marking birds with either a neck band and a metal leg band or a leg band only on Bylot Island (Nunavut, formerly included in the Northwest Territories, Canada) from 1990 to 1996. Annual survival was estimated using leg-band recoveries in fall and winter and using neck-band sightings in spring and fall. Recapture rates were estimated using summer recaptures. Using recovery data, the selected model yielded a survival similar for the neck-banded and leg-banded only birds (S = 0.845 ?? 0.070 vs. S = 0.811 ?? 0.107). The hypothesis of equality of survival between the 2 groups was easily accepted under most constraints imposed on survival or recovery rates. However, failure to account for a different direct recovery rate for neck-banded birds would lead us to incorrectly conclude a possible negative effect of neck bands on survival. Using sighting data, mean annual survival of neck-banded birds was independently estimated at 0.833 ?? 0.057, a value very similar to that estimated with band-recovery analysis. Raw recapture rates during summer were significantly lower for neck-banded birds compared to those marked with leg bands only (4.6% vs. 12.1%), but in this analysis, survival, site fidelity, reproductive status, and recapture rates were confounded. We conclude that neck bands did not affect survival of greater snow geese, but could possibly affect other demographic traits such as breeding propensity and emigration.

  12. A comparison of delay discounting in adolescents and adults in treatment for cannabis use disorders.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dustin C; Stanger, Catherine; Budney, Alan J

    2015-04-01

    Delay discounting is associated with problematic substance use and poorer treatment outcomes in adolescents and adults with substance use disorders. Although some research has addressed delay discounting among individuals with cannabis use disorders (CUDs), results have been equivocal, and no study has examined whether discounting rates differ between adolescent and adult cannabis users. The aim of this study was to compare discounting rates between adolescents and adults in treatment for CUD to determine whether discounting at intake or changes in discounting across treatment differed between age groups. Participants were 165 adolescents and 104 adults enrolled in treatment for CUD. Participants completed a delay discounting task at intake and end of treatment for 2 commodities (money and cannabis) at 2 different magnitudes ($100 and $1,000). Repeated measures mixed models examined differences in discounting rates by commodity and magnitude across age groups at intake and changes in discounting across treatment. At intake, adolescents discounted money more than adults whereas adults showed greater discounting at $100 magnitude than $1,000. In addition, adults had greater decreases in discounting of cannabis over the course of treatment. Overall, adolescents appeared less sensitive to changes in magnitude of rewards, discounted money at higher rates, and showed less improvement in discounting over the course of treatment compared to adults. Comparing delay discounting in adolescents and adults with CUD can contribute to a better understanding of how development influences the effect of discounting on substance use to better inform treatment for substance use disorders.

  13. [Adult twins].

    PubMed

    Charlemaine, Christiane

    2006-12-31

    This paper explores the deep roots of closeness that twins share in their youngest age and their effect on their destiny at the adult age. Psychologists believe the bond between twins begins in utero and develops throughout the twins' lives. The four patterns of twinship described show that the twin bond is determined by the quality of parenting that twins receive in their infancy and early childhood. Common problems of adult twins bring about difficulties to adapt in a non-twin world. The nature versus nurture controversy has taken on new life focusing on inter-twin differences and the importance of parent-child interaction as fundamental to the growth and development of personality. PMID:17352324

  14. Fitness and nutritional assessment of greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) using hematologic and serum chemistry parameters through a cycle of seasonal habitats in northern Nevada.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Kathryn J; Perryman, Barry L; Holcombe, Dale W

    2009-03-01

    Bird health can significantly affect spring reproductive fitness. A better understanding of how female sage grouse health varies with seasonal nutrition changes provides insight for determining if specific nutritional habitats are limiting bird productivity. In 2004, greater sage grouse adult and yearling hens were captured, and blood samples collected, during breeding (MARCH: March 15 to April 11; n = 22), early brood rearing (MAY: May 20 to June 22; n = 21), and on summer range (JULY: July 7 to August 17; n = 19) in two distinct but similar northern Nevada population management units (Tuscarora [TU] and Lone Willow [LW]). In TU, yearlings weighed less (P < 0.043) than adults at all sampling periods. No age-related differences were observed for LW birds. Serum blood chemistry values were influenced by site, bird age, and season. Adults had more plasma protein and albumin than yearlings during MARCH (P < 0.005) followed by a decrease by MAY (P < or = 0.0001). Lone Willow females had higher albumin levels (P = 0.0005). Higher serum phosphorus levels were detected for LW females during MARCH (P < 0.0001), and no site differences were detected for MAY or JULY. Tuscarora yearlings had lower serum calcium levels than adults during MARCH (P < 0.0001); LW yearlings had lower levels than adults during MAY (P = 0.030). Both TU yearlings (MARCH P < 0.0001) and adults (MARCH P < 0.0001; MAY P = 0.040) had lower values than LW counterparts. Tuscarora adults and LW yearlings and adults showed decreases between MARCH and MAY (P < 0.0001). The combination of lower yearling weight, plasma protein, and serum calcium and phosphorus in the TU birds indicates a lower nesting and re-nesting potential. Leading to the conclusion that TU yearlings contributed less to the population production than LW yearlings for that particular year.

  15. A reintroduction experiment involving mated pairs of parent-reared greater sandhill cranes in northern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mummert, D.P.; Ellis, D.H.; Chambers, C.L.

    2001-01-01

    In April 1997, 4 mated pairs of adult greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) were abrupt-released at Mormon Lake, Arizona. Five of 8 adult cranes died within 10 days of release. One crane flew from the release area within 10 days after release and was never relocated. One pair of cranes, with 1 pair member sustaining a broken wing 4 days after release, survived for 4 months and demonstrated the importance of maintaining pair bonds after release. The cause of death of at least 5 birds was predation. The high mediate mortality and complete long-term mortality experienced in this pilot project suggests that adult cranes are poor candidates for release. These poor results encourage that, in future release attempts with mated pairs or other adult cranes, it is important to provide the cranes with roosting habitat while still in captivity and to hold the cranes in an acclimation pen at the release site for several clays prior to release.

  16. Acute Seizures in Old Age Leads to a Greater Loss of CA1 Pyramidal Neurons, an Increased Propensity for Developing Chronic TLE and a Severe Cognitive Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hattiangady, Bharathi; Kuruba, Ramkumar; Shetty, Ashok K

    2011-02-01

    The aged population displays an enhanced risk for developing acute seizure (AS) activity. However, it is unclear whether AS activity in old age would result in a greater magnitude of hippocampal neurodegeneration and inflammation, and an increased predilection for developing chronic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, we addressed these issues in young-adult (5-months old) and aged (22-months old) F344 rats after three-hours of AS activity, induced through graded intraperitoneal injections of kainic acid (KA), and terminated through a diazepam injection. During the three-hours of AS activity, both young adult and aged groups exhibited similar numbers of stage-V motor seizures but the numbers of stage-IV motor seizures were greater in the aged group. In both age groups, three-hour AS activity induced degeneration of 50-55% of neurons in the dentate hilus, 22-32% of neurons in the granule cell layer and 49-52% neurons in the CA3 pyramidal cell layer without showing any interaction between the age and AS activity. However, degeneration of neurons in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer showed a clear interaction between the age and AS activity (12% in the young adult group and 56% in the aged group), suggesting that an advanced age makes the CA1 pyramidal neurons more susceptible to die with AS activity. The extent of inflammation measured through the numbers of activated microglial cells was similar between the two age groups. Interestingly, the predisposition for developing chronic TLE at 2-3 months after AS activity was 60% for young adult rats but 100% for aged rats. Moreover, both frequency & intensity of spontaneous recurrent seizures in the chronic phase after AS activity were 6-12 folds greater in aged rats than in young adult rats. Furthermore, aged rats lost their ability for spatial learning even in a scrupulous eleven-session water maze learning paradigm after AS activity, in divergence from young adult rats which retained the

  17. Does Unemployment Lead to Greater Alcohol Consumption?

    PubMed

    Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T

    2013-04-01

    Using panel data from Waves 1 and 2 of the NESARC, we estimate gender-specific effects of changes in employment status on overall alcohol consumption, binge drinking episodes, and a diagnosis of alcohol abuse and/or dependence. We employ various fixed-effects models to address potential bias from unobserved and time-invariant individual heterogeneity. All results show a positive and significant effect of unemployment on drinking behaviors and the findings are robust to numerous sensitivity tests. Perhaps macroeconomic policy decisions intended to stimulate the economy during economic downturns should also consider the avoided personal costs and externalities associated with alcohol misuse.

  18. Conservatives report, but liberals display, greater happiness.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, Sean P; Hovasapian, Arpine; Graham, Jesse; Motyl, Matt; Ditto, Peter H

    2015-03-13

    Research suggesting that political conservatives are happier than political liberals has relied exclusively on self-report measures of subjective well-being. We show that this finding is fully mediated by conservatives' self-enhancing style of self-report (study 1; N = 1433) and then describe three studies drawing from "big data" sources to assess liberal-conservative differences in happiness-related behavior (studies 2 to 4; N = 4936). Relative to conservatives, liberals more frequently used positive emotional language in their speech and smiled more intensely and genuinely in photographs. Our results were consistent across large samples of online survey takers, U.S. politicians, Twitter users, and LinkedIn users. Our findings illustrate the nuanced relationship between political ideology, self-enhancement, and happiness and illuminate the contradictory ways that happiness differences can manifest across behavior and self-reports.

  19. Conservatives report, but liberals display, greater happiness.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, Sean P; Hovasapian, Arpine; Graham, Jesse; Motyl, Matt; Ditto, Peter H

    2015-03-13

    Research suggesting that political conservatives are happier than political liberals has relied exclusively on self-report measures of subjective well-being. We show that this finding is fully mediated by conservatives' self-enhancing style of self-report (study 1; N = 1433) and then describe three studies drawing from "big data" sources to assess liberal-conservative differences in happiness-related behavior (studies 2 to 4; N = 4936). Relative to conservatives, liberals more frequently used positive emotional language in their speech and smiled more intensely and genuinely in photographs. Our results were consistent across large samples of online survey takers, U.S. politicians, Twitter users, and LinkedIn users. Our findings illustrate the nuanced relationship between political ideology, self-enhancement, and happiness and illuminate the contradictory ways that happiness differences can manifest across behavior and self-reports. PMID:25766233

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in road dust over Greater Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hassanien, Mahmoud A; Abdel-Latif, Nasser M

    2008-02-28

    Road dust samples were collected during 2005 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined. Sites under investigation were selected to represent the different parts of Greater Cairo, Egypt. Estimation and spatial distribution pattern of PAHs in road dust were the main objectives of this study. The road dust samples were collected from 17 sites over greater Cairo. The concentration of PAHs was determined by using HPLC technique. Twelve common environmental PAHs were found to be distributed. The present data illustrated that the total average of PAHs over the investigated sites was ranged from 0.045 to 2.6 mg/kg. On individual scale, the highest concentrations were 1.031 and 1.028 mg/kg for pyrene and phenanthrene, meanwhile the lowest was benzo(a)pyrene with value 0.0001 mg/kg. The obtained results showed that the carcinogenic content of PAHs (naphthalene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene) ranged from 0.8 to 46.6% of total PAHs. It has been concluded from the present work that PAHs concentrations are greater and closer to traffic routes and industrial activities.

  1. EEG asymmetry responses to lavender and rosemary aromas in adults and infants.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Chris; Diego, Miguel; Fernandez, Mercedes; Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Roca, Amparo

    2002-11-01

    Frontal EEG asymmetry shifting from baseline was examined in adults and infants exposed to lavender and rosemary by reanalyzing previously published data, using techniques different from those utilized in the original two studies. Results from Study 1 on 39 adults revealed significant EEG shifting in the lavender group, with greater relative left frontal EEG activation (associated with greater approach behavior and less depressed affect). The participants in the two aroma groups were further grouped by those with greater baseline, relative to left frontal EEG activation, versus those with a greater baseline, relative to right frontal activation. Collapsing across aroma groups, those with greater baseline, relative to right frontal activation, shifted left during the aroma. Those with greater baseline relative to left frontal activation did not change. In the rosemary group, those with greater baseline relative to right frontal EEG activation shifted left during the aroma, while those with greater baselines relative to left frontal EEG activation shifted right. In the lavender group, those with greater baselines relative to right frontal baseline EEG activation shifted left, but those with greater baselines relative to left baseline did not shift. Study 2 on 27 full-term newborns revealed no significant shifts in asymmetry in either aroma group. However, when the aroma groups were collapsed, the right frontal EEG group exhibited significant shifting relative to left frontal EEG activation. This finding was similar to the adult findings, suggesting that either lavender or rosemary may induce left frontal EEG shifting in adults and infants who show greater baselines relative to right frontal EEG activation. PMID:12625191

  2. Effect of prior diet on consumption and digestion of prey and non-prey food by adults of the generalist predator Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coleomegilla maculata adults fed on prey (Colorado potato beetle eggs) or non-prey (corn pollen) food following 7 days of feeding on a mixed diet, showed differences in ingestion, with females consuming greater quantities of pollen, and males consuming greater quantities of eggs, under no-choice con...

  3. Individual differences in the neural signature of subjective value among older adults.

    PubMed

    Halfmann, Kameko; Hedgcock, William; Kable, Joseph; Denburg, Natalie L

    2016-07-01

    Some healthy older adults show departures from standard decision-making patterns exhibited by younger adults. We asked if such departures are uniform or if heterogeneous aging processes can designate which older adults show differing decision patterns. Thirty-three healthy older adults with varying decision-making patterns on a complex decision task (the Iowa Gambling Task) completed an intertemporal choice task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. We examined whether value representation in the canonical valuation network differed across older adults based on complex decision-making ability. Older adults with advantageous decision patterns showed increased activity in the valuation network, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and striatum. In contrast, older adults with disadvantageous decision patterns showed reduced or absent activation in the VMPFC and striatum, and these older adults also showed greater blood oxygen level dependent signal temporal variability in the striatum. Our results suggest that a reduced representation of value in the brain, possibly driven by increased neural noise, relates to suboptimal decision-making in a subset of older adults, which could translate to poor decision-making in many aspects of life, including finance, health and long-term care. Understanding the connection between suboptimal decision-making and neural value signals is a step toward mitigating age-related decision-making impairments.

  4. Plan Showing Cross Bracing Under Upper Stringers, Typical Section Showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plan Showing Cross Bracing Under Upper Stringers, Typical Section Showing End Framing, Plan Showing Cross Bracing Under Lower Stringers, End Elevation - Covered Bridge, Spanning Contoocook River, Hopkinton, Merrimack County, NH

  5. Current World Trends in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bown, Lalage

    Adult education is now seen as an integral part of lifelong education. Adult education has become an instrument of policy that helps forward the goals of social and economic development. In many countries, adult education is being used to promote a greater sense of community and understanding across cultural and ethnic divisions. The tasks of…

  6. Adult Education Collection at Syracuse University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charters, Alexander N., Comp.

    Intended to give adult educators and adult education researchers greater and easier access to the Syracuse University adult education collection, the guide inventories, describes the resources, and names a contact person for each of 18 parts of the diverse collection. The following are the holdings attended to, which also reflect the guide's…

  7. Do Adults with High Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome Differ in Empathy and Emotion Recognition?

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Charlotte B; Allison, Carrie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Cassidy, Sarah; Langdon, Peter E; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined whether adults with high functioning autism (HFA) showed greater difficulties in (1) their self-reported ability to empathise with others and/or (2) their ability to read mental states in others' eyes than adults with Asperger syndrome (AS). The Empathy Quotient (EQ) and 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' Test (Eyes Test) were compared in 43 adults with AS and 43 adults with HFA. No significant difference was observed on EQ score between groups, while adults with AS performed significantly better on the Eyes Test than those with HFA. This suggests that adults with HFA may need more support, particularly in mentalizing and complex emotion recognition, and raises questions about the existence of subgroups within autism spectrum conditions.

  8. Do Adults with High Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome Differ in Empathy and Emotion Recognition?

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Charlotte B; Allison, Carrie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Cassidy, Sarah; Langdon, Peter E; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined whether adults with high functioning autism (HFA) showed greater difficulties in (1) their self-reported ability to empathise with others and/or (2) their ability to read mental states in others' eyes than adults with Asperger syndrome (AS). The Empathy Quotient (EQ) and 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' Test (Eyes Test) were compared in 43 adults with AS and 43 adults with HFA. No significant difference was observed on EQ score between groups, while adults with AS performed significantly better on the Eyes Test than those with HFA. This suggests that adults with HFA may need more support, particularly in mentalizing and complex emotion recognition, and raises questions about the existence of subgroups within autism spectrum conditions. PMID:26883645

  9. Enhanced striatal sensitivity to aversive reinforcement in adolescents versus adults.

    PubMed

    Galván, Adriana; McGlennen, Kristine M

    2013-02-01

    Neurodevelopmental changes in mesolimbic regions are associated with adolescent risk-taking behavior. Numerous studies have shown exaggerated activation in the striatum in adolescents compared with children and adults during reward processing. However, striatal sensitivity to aversion remains elusive. Given the important role of the striatum in tracking both appetitive and aversive events, addressing this question is critical to understanding adolescent decision-making, as both positive and negative factors contribute to this behavior. In this study, human adult and adolescent participants performed a task in which they received squirts of appetitive or aversive liquid while undergoing fMRI, a novel approach in human adolescents. Compared with adults, adolescents showed greater behavioral and striatal sensitivity to both appetitive and aversive stimuli, an effect that was exaggerated in response to delivery of the aversive stimulus. Collectively, these findings contribute to understanding how neural responses to positive and negative outcomes differ between adolescents and adults and how they may influence adolescent behavior. PMID:23163417

  10. Enhanced striatal sensitivity to aversive reinforcement in adolescents versus adults.

    PubMed

    Galván, Adriana; McGlennen, Kristine M

    2013-02-01

    Neurodevelopmental changes in mesolimbic regions are associated with adolescent risk-taking behavior. Numerous studies have shown exaggerated activation in the striatum in adolescents compared with children and adults during reward processing. However, striatal sensitivity to aversion remains elusive. Given the important role of the striatum in tracking both appetitive and aversive events, addressing this question is critical to understanding adolescent decision-making, as both positive and negative factors contribute to this behavior. In this study, human adult and adolescent participants performed a task in which they received squirts of appetitive or aversive liquid while undergoing fMRI, a novel approach in human adolescents. Compared with adults, adolescents showed greater behavioral and striatal sensitivity to both appetitive and aversive stimuli, an effect that was exaggerated in response to delivery of the aversive stimulus. Collectively, these findings contribute to understanding how neural responses to positive and negative outcomes differ between adolescents and adults and how they may influence adolescent behavior.

  11. Expression of tandem gene duplicates is often greater than twofold

    PubMed Central

    Loehlin, David W.; Carroll, Sean B.

    2016-01-01

    Tandem gene duplication is an important mutational process in evolutionary adaptation and human disease. Hypothetically, two tandem gene copies should produce twice the output of a single gene, but this expectation has not been rigorously investigated. Here, we show that tandem duplication often results in more than double the gene activity. A naturally occurring tandem duplication of the Alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene exhibits 2.6-fold greater expression than the single-copy gene in transgenic Drosophila. This tandem duplication also exhibits greater activity than two copies of the gene in trans, demonstrating that it is the tandem arrangement and not copy number that is the cause of overactivity. We also show that tandem duplication of an unrelated synthetic reporter gene is overactive (2.3- to 5.1-fold) at all sites in the genome that we tested, suggesting that overactivity could be a general property of tandem gene duplicates. Overactivity occurs at the level of RNA transcription, and therefore tandem duplicate overactivity appears to be a previously unidentified form of position effect. The increment of surplus gene expression observed is comparable to many regulatory mutations fixed in nature and, if typical of other genomes, would shape the fate of tandem duplicates in evolution. PMID:27162370

  12. Dietary behaviors of adults born prematurely may explain future risk for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Sharafi, Mastaneh; Duffy, Valerie B; Miller, Robin J; Winchester, Suzy B; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Sullivan, Mary C

    2016-04-01

    Being born prematurely associates with greater cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adulthood. Less understood are the unique and joint associations of dietary patterns and behaviors to this elevated risk among adults who are born prematurely. We aimed to model the associations between term status, dietary and lifestyle behaviors with CVD risk factors while accounting for the longitudinal effects of family protection, and medical or environmental risks. In wave-VIII of a longitudinal study, 23-year olds born prematurely (PT-adults, n = 129) and full term (FT-adults, n = 38) survey-reported liking for foods/beverages and activities, constructed into indexes of dietary quality and sensation-seeking, dietary restraint and physical activity. Measured CVD risk factors included fasting serum lipids and glucose, blood pressure and adiposity. In bivariate relationships, PT-adults reported lower dietary quality (including less affinity for protein-rich foods and higher affinity for sweets), less liking for sensation-seeking foods/activities, and less restrained eating than did FT-adults. In comparison to nationally-representative values and the FT-adults, PT-adults showed greater level of CVD risk factors for blood pressure and serum lipids. In structural equation modeling, dietary quality completely mediated the association between term status and HDL-cholesterol (higher quality, lower HDL-cholesterol) yet joined term status to explain variability in systolic blood pressure (PT-adults with lowest dietary quality had highest blood pressures). Through lower dietary quality, being born prematurely was indirectly linked to higher cholesterol/HDL, higher LDL/HDL and elevated waist/hip ratios. The relationship between dietary quality and CVD risk was strongest for PT-adults who had developed greater cumulative medical risk. Protective environments failed to attenuate relationships between dietary quality and elevated CVD risk among PT-adults. In summary, less healthy dietary

  13. Dietary behaviors of adults born prematurely may explain future risk for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Sharafi, Mastaneh; Duffy, Valerie B; Miller, Robin J; Winchester, Suzy B; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Sullivan, Mary C

    2016-04-01

    Being born prematurely associates with greater cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adulthood. Less understood are the unique and joint associations of dietary patterns and behaviors to this elevated risk among adults who are born prematurely. We aimed to model the associations between term status, dietary and lifestyle behaviors with CVD risk factors while accounting for the longitudinal effects of family protection, and medical or environmental risks. In wave-VIII of a longitudinal study, 23-year olds born prematurely (PT-adults, n = 129) and full term (FT-adults, n = 38) survey-reported liking for foods/beverages and activities, constructed into indexes of dietary quality and sensation-seeking, dietary restraint and physical activity. Measured CVD risk factors included fasting serum lipids and glucose, blood pressure and adiposity. In bivariate relationships, PT-adults reported lower dietary quality (including less affinity for protein-rich foods and higher affinity for sweets), less liking for sensation-seeking foods/activities, and less restrained eating than did FT-adults. In comparison to nationally-representative values and the FT-adults, PT-adults showed greater level of CVD risk factors for blood pressure and serum lipids. In structural equation modeling, dietary quality completely mediated the association between term status and HDL-cholesterol (higher quality, lower HDL-cholesterol) yet joined term status to explain variability in systolic blood pressure (PT-adults with lowest dietary quality had highest blood pressures). Through lower dietary quality, being born prematurely was indirectly linked to higher cholesterol/HDL, higher LDL/HDL and elevated waist/hip ratios. The relationship between dietary quality and CVD risk was strongest for PT-adults who had developed greater cumulative medical risk. Protective environments failed to attenuate relationships between dietary quality and elevated CVD risk among PT-adults. In summary, less healthy dietary

  14. Extrauterine choriocarcinoma of the greater omentum after tubal pregnancy: case report.

    PubMed

    Wan, X; Li, J; Xie, X

    2006-01-01

    Extrauterine choriocarcinoma is a rare form of gestational trophoblastic tumor. Extrauterine choriocarcinoma of the greater omentum is extremely rare in the literature. A 24-year-old female with irregular vaginal bleeding, mimicking as ectopic pregnancy, underwent emergency exploratory laparotomy and local excision of the greater omentum mass. The serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin level decreased rapidly after operation; however, it rose up again before long. Pathology showed choriocarcinoma in the greater omentum. No evidence showed lesions on uterus. No other metastasis was found. Multiple courses of combined chemotherapy were effective for this case. Surgical excision and combined chemotherapy were effective for extrauterine choriocarcinoma of the greater omentum.

  15. Advanced age brings a greater reliance on visual feedback to maintain balance during walking.

    PubMed

    Franz, Jason R; Francis, Carrie A; Allen, Matthew S; O'Connor, Shawn M; Thelen, Darryl G

    2015-04-01

    We implemented a virtual reality system to quantify differences in the use of visual feedback to maintain balance during walking between healthy young (n=12, mean age: 24 years) and healthy old (n=11, 71 years) adults. Subjects walked on a treadmill while watching a speed-matched, virtual hallway with and without mediolateral visual perturbations. A motion capture system tracked center of mass (CoM) motion and foot kinematics. Spectral analysis, detrended fluctuation analysis, and local divergence exponents quantified old and young adults' dynamic response to visual perturbations. Old and young adults walked normally with comparable CoM spectral characteristics, lateral step placement temporal persistence, and local divergence exponents. Perturbed visual flow induced significantly larger changes in mediolateral CoM motion in old vs. young adults. Moreover, visual perturbations disrupted the control of lateral step placement and compromised local dynamic stability more significantly in old than young adults. Advanced age induces a greater reliance on visual feedback to maintain balance during waking, an effect that may compensate for degradations in somatosensation. Our findings are relevant to the early diagnosis of sensory-induced balance impairments and also point to the potential use of virtual reality to evaluate sensory rehabilitation and balance training programs for old adults.

  16. Recognition of greater diversity of Bacillus species and related bacteria in human faeces.

    PubMed

    Hoyles, Lesley; Honda, Harue; Logan, Niall A; Halket, Gillian; La Ragione, Roberto M; McCartney, Anne L

    2012-01-01

    In a study looking at culturable aerobic Actinobacteria associated with the human gastrointestinal tract, the vast majority of isolates obtained from dried human faeces belonged to the genus Bacillus and related bacteria. A total of 124 isolates were recovered from the faeces of 10 healthy adult donors. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses showed the majority belonged to the families Bacillaceae (n=81) and Paenibacillaceae (n=3), with Bacillus species isolated from all donors. Isolates tentatively identified as Bacillus clausii (n=32) and Bacillus licheniformis (n=28) were recovered most frequently, with the genera Lysinibacillus, Ureibacillus, Oceanobacillus, Ornithinibacillus and Virgibacillus represented in some donors. Phenotypic data confirmed the identities of isolates belonging to well-characterized species. Representatives of the phylum Actinobacteria were recovered in much lower numbers (n=11). Many of the bacilli exhibited antimicrobial activity against one or more strains of Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus, with some (n=12) found to have no detectable cytopathic effect on HEp-2 cells. This study has revealed greater diversity within gut-associated aerobic spore-formers than previous studies, and suggests that bacilli with potential as probiotics could be isolated from the human gut. PMID:22041546

  17. Aspartame intake is associated with greater glucose intolerance in individuals with obesity.

    PubMed

    Kuk, Jennifer L; Brown, Ruth E

    2016-07-01

    This study examined whether sucrose, fructose, aspartame, and saccharin influences the association between obesity and glucose tolerance in 2856 adults from the NHANES III survey. Aspartame intake significantly influenced the association between body mass index (BMI) and glucose tolerance (interaction: P = 0.004), wherein only those reporting aspartame intake had a steeper positive association between BMI and glucose tolerance than those reporting no aspartame intake. Therefore, consumption of aspartame is associated with greater obesity-related impairments in glucose tolerance. PMID:27216413

  18. Aspartame intake is associated with greater glucose intolerance in individuals with obesity.

    PubMed

    Kuk, Jennifer L; Brown, Ruth E

    2016-07-01

    This study examined whether sucrose, fructose, aspartame, and saccharin influences the association between obesity and glucose tolerance in 2856 adults from the NHANES III survey. Aspartame intake significantly influenced the association between body mass index (BMI) and glucose tolerance (interaction: P = 0.004), wherein only those reporting aspartame intake had a steeper positive association between BMI and glucose tolerance than those reporting no aspartame intake. Therefore, consumption of aspartame is associated with greater obesity-related impairments in glucose tolerance.

  19. Greater Avoidance of a Heroin-Paired Taste Cue is Associated with Greater Escalation of Heroin Self-Administration in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Imperio, Caesar G.; Grigson, Patricia S.

    2015-01-01

    Heroin addiction is a disease of chronic relapse affecting over half of its users. Therefore, modeling individual differences in addiction-like behavior is needed to better reflect the human condition. In a rodent model, avoidance of a cocaine-paired saccharin cue is associated with greater cocaine seeking and taking. Here, we tested whether rats would avoid a saccharin cue when paired with the opportunity to self-administer heroin and whether the rats that most greatly avoid the heroin-paired taste cue would exhibit the greatest drug escalation over time, the greatest willingness to work for drug, and the greatest heroin-induced relapse. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received 5 min access to a 0.15% saccharin solution followed by the opportunity to self-administer either saline or heroin for 3 h (short access) or 6 h (extended access). Following 16 – 18 pairings, terminal saccharin intake was used to categorize the rats into small (>200 licks/5min) or large (<200 licks/5min) suppressors and responding for drug was examined accordingly. Only 5% of the short access rats reached the criteria for large suppressors. This large suppressor did not differ from the small suppressors in drug taking behavior. Conversely, 50% of the extended access saccharin-heroin rats were large suppressors and showed the largest escalation of drug intake, drug-loading behavior, and the greatest relapse-like behaviors. Extended access small suppressors displayed drug-taking behaviors that were similar to rats in the short access heroin condition. Avoidance of a heroin-paired taste cue reliably identifies individual differences in addiction-like behavior for heroin using extended drug access. PMID:26214212

  20. Greater avoidance of a heroin-paired taste cue is associated with greater escalation of heroin self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Imperio, Caesar G; Grigson, Patricia S

    2015-08-01

    Heroin addiction is a disease of chronic relapse affecting over half of its users. Therefore, modeling individual differences in addiction-like behavior is needed to better reflect the human condition. In a rodent model, avoidance of a cocaine-paired saccharin cue is associated with greater cocaine seeking and taking. Here, we tested whether rats would avoid a saccharin cue when paired with the opportunity to self-administer heroin and whether the rats that most greatly avoid the heroin-paired taste cue would exhibit the greatest drug escalation over time, the greatest willingness to work for drug, and the greatest heroin-induced relapse. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received 5 min access to a 0.15% saccharin solution followed by the opportunity to self-administer either saline or heroin for 3 hr (short access) or 6 hr (extended access). Following 16 to 18 pairings, terminal saccharin intake was used to categorize the rats into small (>200 licks/5min) or large (<200 licks/5min) suppressors and responding for drug was examined accordingly. Only 5% of the short access rats reached the criteria for large suppressors. This large suppressor did not differ from the small suppressors in drug-taking behavior. On the other hand, 50% of the extended access saccharin-heroin rats were large suppressors and showed the largest escalation of drug intake, drug-loading behavior, and the greatest relapse-like behaviors. Extended access small suppressors displayed drug-taking behaviors that were similar to rats in the short access heroin condition. Avoidance of a heroin-paired taste cue reliably identifies individual differences in addiction-like behavior for heroin using extended drug access.

  1. Land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica using MODIS data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giri, Chandra; Jenkins, Clinton N.

    2005-01-01

    A new land cover database of Greater Mesoamerica has been prepared using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS, 500 m resolution) satellite data. Daily surface reflectance MODIS data and a suite of ancillary data were used in preparing the database by employing a decision tree classification approach. The new land cover data are an improvement over traditional advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) based land cover data in terms of both spatial and thematic details. The dominant land cover type in Greater Mesoamerica is forest (39%), followed by shrubland (30%) and cropland (22%). Country analysis shows forest as the dominant land cover type in Belize (62%), Cost Rica (52%), Guatemala (53%), Honduras (56%), Nicaragua (53%), and Panama (48%), cropland as the dominant land cover type in El Salvador (60.5%), and shrubland as the dominant land cover type in Mexico (37%). A three-step approach was used to assess the quality of the classified land cover data: (i) qualitative assessment provided good insight in identifying and correcting gross errors; (ii) correlation analysis of MODIS- and Landsat-derived land cover data revealed strong positive association for forest (r2 = 0.88), shrubland (r2 = 0.75), and cropland (r2 = 0.97) but weak positive association for grassland (r2 = 0.26); and (iii) an error matrix generated using unseen training data provided an overall accuracy of 77.3% with a Kappa coefficient of 0.73608. Overall, MODIS 500 m data and the methodology used were found to be quite useful for broad-scale land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica.

  2. Adults with reading disabilities: converting a meta-analysis to practice.

    PubMed

    Swanson, H Lee

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the results of a meta-analysis of the experimental published literature that compares the academic, cognitive, and behavioral performance of adults with reading disabilities (RD) with average achieving adult readers. The meta-analysis shows that deficits independent of the classification measures emerged for adults with RD on measures of vocabulary, math, spelling, and specific cognitive process related to naming speed, phonological processing, and verbal memory. The results also showed that adults with high verbal IQs (scores > 100) but low word recognition standard scores (< 90) yielded greater deficits related to their average reading counterparts when compared to studies that included adults with RD with verbal IQ and reading scores in the same low range. Implications of the findings related to assessment and intervention are discussed.

  3. Occult fractures of the greater tuberosity of the humerus

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, S.; Postacchini, F.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the highest reported number of patients with occult fracture of the greater tuberosity of the humerus and we analysed why fracture was not diagnosed, shoulder function and prevalence of eventually associated rotator cuff tear (RCT). Twenty-four patients with a missed fracture of the greater tuberosity underwent MR study for a suspect RCT. We evaluated shoulder function and self-assessed comfort with the Constant score (CS) and Simple Shoulder Test (SST). Nine patients showed evidence of cuff tendinosis, 11 of partial (p) RCT (2: subscapularis; 6: supraspinatus and 3: supraspinatus and infraspinatus). All patients with pRCT were older than 40. Initially, the mean CS and SST were 54% and 5/12; at follow-up, values increased to 36% and 5 points. MR should be performed in patients apparently negative for fracture but with painful shoulders and decreased ROM. Of our patients, 45.8% had pRCT; nevertheless function recovery was verified in 16 weeks. PMID:18256834

  4. Behavioral responses to short-term transport in male and female Greater Rheas (Rhea americana) reared in captivity.

    PubMed

    Della Costa, N S; Lèche, A; Guzmán, D A; Navarro, J L; Marin, R H; Martella, M B

    2013-04-01

    Animal transport is an indispensable practice in species that need to be moved for management or commercial purposes. However, transport may have negative effects on individuals' welfare. The aims of the present work were to determine if the behavioral responses of adult Greater Rheas (Rhea americana) bred in captivity are sensitive to short-term transport and if males and females differ in their posttransport behavioral activity and recovery. Eight males and 8 females were placed in individual pens and allowed 6 d to habituate (d 1 to 6) before transport procedure. On the transport day (d 7), half of the birds (4 males and 4 females) were randomly assigned to a transport group that was captured and handled to be placed into the crates, exposed to a 30-min transport stressor, and immediately returned to their pens. Four transports with 1 different male and female each time were performed. The other half remained undisturbed and were used as controls. Behavior of all individuals was video-recorded during habituation days, after transport on d 7, and on the 2 following days (d 8 and 9) to evaluate pre- and posttransport behavioral activity for 2 h per day. No significant behavioral changes were observed during the last 2 d of the habituation period (d 5 and 6), suggesting that Greater Rheas were adapted to the housing conditions before transport. After transportation, several behaviors were affected: transported males and females showed null resting, transported females also showed reduced preening and increased vigilance (P < 0.05), whereas transported males showed increased drinking (P < 0.05) compared with their respective control groups. The results suggest that behavioral responses of captive-bred Greater Rheas are sensitive to short-term transport (which includes handling) and that males and females differ in their posttransport behavioral activity, recovering their overall basal levels on the third day posttransportation. PMID:23472006

  5. Behavioral responses to short-term transport in male and female Greater Rheas (Rhea americana) reared in captivity.

    PubMed

    Della Costa, N S; Lèche, A; Guzmán, D A; Navarro, J L; Marin, R H; Martella, M B

    2013-04-01

    Animal transport is an indispensable practice in species that need to be moved for management or commercial purposes. However, transport may have negative effects on individuals' welfare. The aims of the present work were to determine if the behavioral responses of adult Greater Rheas (Rhea americana) bred in captivity are sensitive to short-term transport and if males and females differ in their posttransport behavioral activity and recovery. Eight males and 8 females were placed in individual pens and allowed 6 d to habituate (d 1 to 6) before transport procedure. On the transport day (d 7), half of the birds (4 males and 4 females) were randomly assigned to a transport group that was captured and handled to be placed into the crates, exposed to a 30-min transport stressor, and immediately returned to their pens. Four transports with 1 different male and female each time were performed. The other half remained undisturbed and were used as controls. Behavior of all individuals was video-recorded during habituation days, after transport on d 7, and on the 2 following days (d 8 and 9) to evaluate pre- and posttransport behavioral activity for 2 h per day. No significant behavioral changes were observed during the last 2 d of the habituation period (d 5 and 6), suggesting that Greater Rheas were adapted to the housing conditions before transport. After transportation, several behaviors were affected: transported males and females showed null resting, transported females also showed reduced preening and increased vigilance (P < 0.05), whereas transported males showed increased drinking (P < 0.05) compared with their respective control groups. The results suggest that behavioral responses of captive-bred Greater Rheas are sensitive to short-term transport (which includes handling) and that males and females differ in their posttransport behavioral activity, recovering their overall basal levels on the third day posttransportation.

  6. Cuba shows jump in HIV positives.

    PubMed

    Cuba experienced a substantial increase in the number of HIV cases in 1996 due primarily to a growth of foreign tourism and an increase in prostitution, health officials said. The Juventud Rebelde newspaper said that since HIV/AIDS testing began in 1985, government-run hospitals and clinics have detected 1609 HIV-positive cases. In 1995 the total was reported at 1196, meaning that 413 new cases were detected in 1996. This compared with only 97 new cases reported during 1995. HIV infection among the island's 11 million inhabitants has remained relatively low due to a massive testing program and a public health infrastructure that provides universal and free medical treatment. Cuba was a pioneer in the use of interferon on those testing HIV-positive. Cuba produces its own interferon, which prolongs the life expectancy of patients, and also reagents for AIDS testing. There are special sanitariums for AIDS patients in most of Cuba's 12 provinces. Cuban adults who test HIV-positive are required to enter the sanitarium in a policy reminiscent of the way tuberculosis patients were tested in the US earlier in this century. Officials said the isolation of patients in sanitariums has been somewhat relaxed over past years by introducing greater flexibility in allowing persons who are considered reliable to live at home or make prolonged visits.

  7. Probabilistic Motor Sequence Yields Greater Offline and Less Online Learning than Fixed Sequence.

    PubMed

    Du, Yue; Prashad, Shikha; Schoenbrun, Ilana; Clark, Jane E

    2016-01-01

    It is well acknowledged that motor sequences can be learned quickly through online learning. Subsequently, the initial acquisition of a motor sequence is boosted or consolidated by offline learning. However, little is known whether offline learning can drive the fast learning of motor sequences (i.e., initial sequence learning in the first training session). To examine offline learning in the fast learning stage, we asked four groups of young adults to perform the serial reaction time (SRT) task with either a fixed or probabilistic sequence and with or without preliminary knowledge (PK) of the presence of a sequence. The sequence and PK were manipulated to emphasize either procedural (probabilistic sequence; no preliminary knowledge (NPK)) or declarative (fixed sequence; with PK) memory that were found to either facilitate or inhibit offline learning. In the SRT task, there were six learning blocks with a 2 min break between each consecutive block. Throughout the session, stimuli followed the same fixed or probabilistic pattern except in Block 5, in which stimuli appeared in a random order. We found that PK facilitated the learning of a fixed sequence, but not a probabilistic sequence. In addition to overall learning measured by the mean reaction time (RT), we examined the progressive changes in RT within and between blocks (i.e., online and offline learning, respectively). It was found that the two groups who performed the fixed sequence, regardless of PK, showed greater online learning than the other two groups who performed the probabilistic sequence. The groups who performed the probabilistic sequence, regardless of PK, did not display online learning, as indicated by a decline in performance within the learning blocks. However, they did demonstrate remarkably greater offline improvement in RT, which suggests that they are learning the probabilistic sequence offline. These results suggest that in the SRT task, the fast acquisition of a motor sequence is driven

  8. Probabilistic Motor Sequence Yields Greater Offline and Less Online Learning than Fixed Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yue; Prashad, Shikha; Schoenbrun, Ilana; Clark, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    It is well acknowledged that motor sequences can be learned quickly through online learning. Subsequently, the initial acquisition of a motor sequence is boosted or consolidated by offline learning. However, little is known whether offline learning can drive the fast learning of motor sequences (i.e., initial sequence learning in the first training session). To examine offline learning in the fast learning stage, we asked four groups of young adults to perform the serial reaction time (SRT) task with either a fixed or probabilistic sequence and with or without preliminary knowledge (PK) of the presence of a sequence. The sequence and PK were manipulated to emphasize either procedural (probabilistic sequence; no preliminary knowledge (NPK)) or declarative (fixed sequence; with PK) memory that were found to either facilitate or inhibit offline learning. In the SRT task, there were six learning blocks with a 2 min break between each consecutive block. Throughout the session, stimuli followed the same fixed or probabilistic pattern except in Block 5, in which stimuli appeared in a random order. We found that PK facilitated the learning of a fixed sequence, but not a probabilistic sequence. In addition to overall learning measured by the mean reaction time (RT), we examined the progressive changes in RT within and between blocks (i.e., online and offline learning, respectively). It was found that the two groups who performed the fixed sequence, regardless of PK, showed greater online learning than the other two groups who performed the probabilistic sequence. The groups who performed the probabilistic sequence, regardless of PK, did not display online learning, as indicated by a decline in performance within the learning blocks. However, they did demonstrate remarkably greater offline improvement in RT, which suggests that they are learning the probabilistic sequence offline. These results suggest that in the SRT task, the fast acquisition of a motor sequence is driven

  9. 8. Detail showing concrete abutment, showing substructure of bridge, specifically ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail showing concrete abutment, showing substructure of bridge, specifically west side of arch and substructure. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  10. 28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS LINCOLN BOULEVARD, BIG LOST RIVER, AND NAVAL REACTORS FACILITY. F.C. TORKELSON DRAWING NUMBER 842-ARVFS-101-2. DATED OCTOBER 12, 1965. INEL INDEX CODE NUMBER: 075 0101 851 151969. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. Memory for Pictures, Words, and Spatial Location in Older Adults: Evidence for Pictorial Superiority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Denise Cortis; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Tested recognition memory for items and spatial location by varying picture and word stimuli across four slide quadrants. Results showed a pictorial superiority effect for item recognition and a greater ability to remember the spatial location of pictures versus words for both old and young adults (N=95). (WAS)

  12. Greater inflammatory activity and blunted glucocorticoid signaling in monocytes of chronically stressed caregivers.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gregory E; Murphy, Michael L M; Cashman, Rosemary; Ma, Roy; Ma, Jeffrey; Arevalo, Jesusa M G; Kobor, Michael S; Cole, Steve W

    2014-10-01

    Chronic stress is associated with morbidity and mortality from numerous conditions, many of whose pathogenesis involves persistent inflammation. Here, we examine how chronic stress influences signaling pathways that regulate inflammation in monocytes. The sample consisted of 33 adults caring for a family member with glioblastoma and 47 controls whose lives were free of major stressors. The subjects were assessed four times over eight months. Relative to controls, caregivers' monocytes showed increased expression of genes bearing response elements for nuclear-factor kappa B, a key pro-inflammatory transcription factor. Simultaneously, caregivers showed reduced expression of genes with response elements for the glucocorticoid receptor, a transcription factor that conveys cortisol's anti-inflammatory signals to monocytes. Transcript origin analyses revealed that CD14+/CD16- cells, a population of immature monocytes, were the predominate source of inflammatory gene expression among caregivers. We considered hormonal, molecular, and functional explanations for caregivers' decreased glucocorticoid-mediated transcription. Across twelve days, the groups displayed similar diurnal cortisol profiles, suggesting that differential adrenocortical activity was not involved. Moreover, the groups' monocytes expressed similar amounts of glucocorticoid receptor protein, suggesting that differential receptor availability was not involved. In ex vivo studies, subjects' monocytes were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide, and caregivers showed greater production of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 relative to controls. However, no group differences in functional glucocorticoid sensitivity were apparent; hydrocortisone was equally effective at inhibiting cytokine production in caregivers and controls. These findings may help shed light on the mechanisms through which caregiving increases vulnerability to inflammation-related diseases.

  13. Greater inflammatory activity and blunted glucocorticoid signaling in monocytes of chronically stressed caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Gregory E.; Murphy, Michael L.M.; Cashman, Rosemary; Ma, Roy; Ma, Jeffrey; Arevalo, Jesusa M.G.; Kobor, Michael S.; Cole, Steve W.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress is associated with morbidity and mortality from numerous conditions, many of whose pathogenesis involves persistent inflammation. Here, we examine how chronic stress influences signaling pathways that regulate inflammation in monocytes. The sample consisted of 33 adults caring for a family member with glioblastoma and 47 controls whose lives were free of major stressors. The subjects were assessed four times over eight months. Relative to controls, caregivers’ monocytes showed increased expression of genes bearing response elements for nuclear-factor kappa B, a key pro-inflammatory transcription factor. Simultaneously, caregivers showed reduced expression of genes with response elements for the glucocorticoid receptor, a transcription factor that conveys cortisol’s anti-inflammatory signals to monocytes. Transcript origin analyses revealed that CD14+/CD16− cells, a population of immature monocytes, were the predominate source of inflammatory gene expression among caregivers. We considered hormonal, molecular, and functional explanations for caregivers’ decreased glucocorticoid-mediated transcription. Across twelve days, the groups displayed similar diurnal cortisol profiles, suggesting that differential adrenocortical activity was not involved. Moreover, the groups’ monocytes expressed similar amounts of glucocorticoid receptor protein, suggesting that differential receptor availability was not involved. In ex vivo studies, subjects’ monocytes were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide, and caregivers showed greater production of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 relative to controls. However, no group differences in functional glucocorticoid sensitivity were apparent; hydrocortisone was equally effective at inhibiting cytokine production in caregivers and controls. These findings may help shed light on the mechanisms through which caregiving increases vulnerability to inflammation-related diseases. PMID:25242587

  14. Adult immunization

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Bharti; Chawla, Sumit; Kumar Dharma, Vijay; Jindal, Harashish; Bhatt, Bhumika

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is recommended throughout life to prevent vaccine-preventable diseases and their sequel. The primary focus of vaccination programs has historically been directed to childhood immunizations. For adults, chronic diseases have been the primary focus of preventive and medical health care, though there has been increased emphasis on preventing infectious diseases. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains low for most of the routinely recommended vaccines. Though adults are less susceptible to fall prey to traditional infectious agents, the probability of exposure to infectious agents has increased manifold owing to globalization and increasing travel opportunities both within and across the countries. Thus, there is an urgent need to address the problem of adult immunization. The adult immunization enterprise is more complex, encompassing a wide variety of vaccines and a very diverse target population. There is no coordinated public health infrastructure to support an adult immunization program as there is for children. Moreover, there is little coordination among adult healthcare providers in terms of vaccine provision. Substantial improvement in adult vaccination is needed to reduce the health consequences of vaccine-preventable diseases among adults. Routine assessment of adult patient vaccination needs, recommendation, and offer of needed vaccines for adults should be incorporated into routine clinical care of adults. PMID:24128707

  15. Plasmas with index of refraction greater than one

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, J; Scofield, J H

    2004-06-23

    Over the last decade, X-ray lasers in the wavelength range14 - 47 nm have been used to do interferometry of plasmas. Just as for optical interferometry of plasmas, the experimental analysis assumed that the index of refraction is due only to the free electrons. This makes the index of refraction less then one. Recent experiments in Al plasmas have observed fringe lines bend the wrong way as though the electron density is negative. We show how the bound electrons can dominate the index of refraction in many plasmas and make the index greater than one or enhance the index such that one would greatly overestimate the density of the plasma using interferometry.

  16. Fixation systems of greater trochanteric osteotomies: biomechanical and clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Jarit, Gregg J; Sathappan, Sathappan S; Panchal, Anand; Strauss, Eric; Di Cesare, Paul E

    2007-10-01

    The development of cerclage systems for fixation of greater trochanteric osteotomies has progressed from monofilament wires to multifilament cables to cable grip and cable plate systems. Cerclage wires and cables have various clinical indications, including fixation for fractures and for trochanteric osteotomy in hip arthroplasty. To achieve stable fixation and eventual union of the trochanteric osteotomy, the implant must counteract the destabilizing forces associated with pull of the peritrochanteric musculature. The material properties of cables and cable grip systems are superior to those of monofilament wires; however, potential complications with the use of cables include debris generation and third-body polyethylene wear. Nevertheless, the cable grip system provides the strongest fixation and results in lower rates of nonunion and trochanteric migration. Cable plate constructs show promise but require further clinical studies to validate their efficacy and safety.

  17. Predictors of change in fruit and vegetable consumption in a faith-based intervention with African American adults.

    PubMed

    Condrasky, Margaret D; Baruth, Meghan; Wilcox, Sara; Carter, Chad

    2013-01-01

    A majority of African American adults do not eat the recommended daily amount of fruit and vegetables. This study examined baseline demographic, health-related, and psychosocial variables as predictors of change in fruit and vegetable consumption from baseline to postprogram in a sample of church members taking part in a 15-month intervention. Participants who had a greater waist circumference, greater baseline fruit and vegetable consumption, greater leisure time physical activity, higher levels of social support, greater attendance at worship service, were obese, and did not have diabetes at baseline showed higher posttest fruit and vegetable consumption.

  18. Older Adults and Drinking | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Older Adults and Drinking Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of ... quickly than when they were younger. Drinking puts older adults at greater risk for falls, car crashes, and ...

  19. Mosquito, adult (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This illustration shows an adult southern house mosquito. This mosquito feeds on blood and is the carrier of many diseases, such as encephalitis, West Nile, dengue fever, yellow fever, and others. ( ...

  20. Infant Cries Rattle Adult Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Dudek, Joanna; Faress, Ahmed; Bornstein, Marc H.; Haley, David W.

    2016-01-01

    The attention-grabbing quality of the infant cry is well recognized, but how the emotional valence of infant vocal signals affects adult cognition and cortical activity has heretofore been unknown. We examined the effects of two contrasting infant vocalizations (cries vs. laughs) on adult performance on a Stroop task using a cross-modal distraction paradigm in which infant distractors were vocal and targets were visual. Infant vocalizations were presented before (Experiment 1) or during each Stroop trial (Experiment 2). To evaluate the influence of infant vocalizations on cognitive control, neural responses to the Stroop task were obtained by measuring electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERPs) in Experiment 1. Based on the previously demonstrated existence of negative arousal bias, we hypothesized that cry vocalizations would be more distracting and invoke greater conflict processing than laugh vocalizations. Similarly, we expected participants to have greater difficulty shifting attention from the vocal distractors to the target task after hearing cries vs. after hearing laughs. Behavioral results from both experiments showed a cry interference effect, in which task performance was slower with cry than with laugh distractors. Electrophysiology data further revealed that cries more than laughs reduced attention to the task (smaller P200) and increased conflict processing (larger N450), albeit differently for incongruent and congruent trials. Results from a correlation analysis showed that the amplitudes of P200 and N450 were inversely related, suggesting a reciprocal relationship between attention and conflict processing. The findings suggest that cognitive control processes contribute to an attention bias to infant signals, which is modulated in part by the valence of the infant vocalization and the demands of the cognitive task. The findings thus support the notion that infant cries elicit a negative arousal bias that is distracting; they

  1. Infant Cries Rattle Adult Cognition.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Joanna; Faress, Ahmed; Bornstein, Marc H; Haley, David W

    2016-01-01

    The attention-grabbing quality of the infant cry is well recognized, but how the emotional valence of infant vocal signals affects adult cognition and cortical activity has heretofore been unknown. We examined the effects of two contrasting infant vocalizations (cries vs. laughs) on adult performance on a Stroop task using a cross-modal distraction paradigm in which infant distractors were vocal and targets were visual. Infant vocalizations were presented before (Experiment 1) or during each Stroop trial (Experiment 2). To evaluate the influence of infant vocalizations on cognitive control, neural responses to the Stroop task were obtained by measuring electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERPs) in Experiment 1. Based on the previously demonstrated existence of negative arousal bias, we hypothesized that cry vocalizations would be more distracting and invoke greater conflict processing than laugh vocalizations. Similarly, we expected participants to have greater difficulty shifting attention from the vocal distractors to the target task after hearing cries vs. after hearing laughs. Behavioral results from both experiments showed a cry interference effect, in which task performance was slower with cry than with laugh distractors. Electrophysiology data further revealed that cries more than laughs reduced attention to the task (smaller P200) and increased conflict processing (larger N450), albeit differently for incongruent and congruent trials. Results from a correlation analysis showed that the amplitudes of P200 and N450 were inversely related, suggesting a reciprocal relationship between attention and conflict processing. The findings suggest that cognitive control processes contribute to an attention bias to infant signals, which is modulated in part by the valence of the infant vocalization and the demands of the cognitive task. The findings thus support the notion that infant cries elicit a negative arousal bias that is distracting; they

  2. Infant Cries Rattle Adult Cognition.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Joanna; Faress, Ahmed; Bornstein, Marc H; Haley, David W

    2016-01-01

    The attention-grabbing quality of the infant cry is well recognized, but how the emotional valence of infant vocal signals affects adult cognition and cortical activity has heretofore been unknown. We examined the effects of two contrasting infant vocalizations (cries vs. laughs) on adult performance on a Stroop task using a cross-modal distraction paradigm in which infant distractors were vocal and targets were visual. Infant vocalizations were presented before (Experiment 1) or during each Stroop trial (Experiment 2). To evaluate the influence of infant vocalizations on cognitive control, neural responses to the Stroop task were obtained by measuring electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERPs) in Experiment 1. Based on the previously demonstrated existence of negative arousal bias, we hypothesized that cry vocalizations would be more distracting and invoke greater conflict processing than laugh vocalizations. Similarly, we expected participants to have greater difficulty shifting attention from the vocal distractors to the target task after hearing cries vs. after hearing laughs. Behavioral results from both experiments showed a cry interference effect, in which task performance was slower with cry than with laugh distractors. Electrophysiology data further revealed that cries more than laughs reduced attention to the task (smaller P200) and increased conflict processing (larger N450), albeit differently for incongruent and congruent trials. Results from a correlation analysis showed that the amplitudes of P200 and N450 were inversely related, suggesting a reciprocal relationship between attention and conflict processing. The findings suggest that cognitive control processes contribute to an attention bias to infant signals, which is modulated in part by the valence of the infant vocalization and the demands of the cognitive task. The findings thus support the notion that infant cries elicit a negative arousal bias that is distracting; they

  3. What Do Blood Tests Show?

    MedlinePlus

    ... shows the ranges for blood glucose levels after 8 to 12 hours of fasting (not eating). It shows the normal range and the abnormal ranges that are a sign of prediabetes or diabetes. Plasma Glucose Results (mg/dL)* Diagnosis 70 to 99 ...

  4. Neural markers of a greater female responsiveness to social stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Proverbio, Alice M; Zani, Alberto; Adorni, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Background There is fMRI evidence that women are neurally predisposed to process infant laughter and crying. Other findings show that women might be more empathic and sensitive than men to emotional facial expressions. However, no gender difference in the brain responses to persons and unanimated scenes has hitherto been demonstrated. Results Twenty-four men and women viewed 220 images portraying persons or landscapes and ERPs were recorded from 128 sites. In women, but not in men, the N2 component (210–270) was much larger to persons than to scenes. swLORETA showed significant bilateral activation of FG (BA19/37) in both genders when viewing persons as opposed to scenes. Only women showed a source of activity in the STG and in the right MOG (extra-striate body area, EBA), and only men in the left parahippocampal area (PPA). Conclusion A significant gender difference was found in activation of the left and right STG (BA22) and the cingulate cortex for the subtractive condition women minus men, thus indicating that women might have a greater preference or interest for social stimuli (faces and persons). PMID:18590546

  5. An Activation Likelihood Estimation Meta-Analysis Study of Simple Motor Movements in Older and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Turesky, Ted K.; Turkeltaub, Peter E.; Eden, Guinevere F.

    2016-01-01

    The functional neuroanatomy of finger movements has been characterized with neuroimaging in young adults. However, less is known about the aging motor system. Several studies have contrasted movement-related activity in older versus young adults, but there is inconsistency among their findings. To address this, we conducted an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on within-group data from older adults and young adults performing regularly paced right-hand finger movement tasks in response to external stimuli. We hypothesized that older adults would show a greater likelihood of activation in right cortical motor areas (i.e., ipsilateral to the side of movement) compared to young adults. ALE maps were examined for conjunction and between-group differences. Older adults showed overlapping likelihoods of activation with young adults in left primary sensorimotor cortex (SM1), bilateral supplementary motor area, bilateral insula, left thalamus, and right anterior cerebellum. Their ALE map differed from that of the young adults in right SM1 (extending into dorsal premotor cortex), right supramarginal gyrus, medial premotor cortex, and right posterior cerebellum. The finding that older adults uniquely use ipsilateral regions for right-hand finger movements and show age-dependent modulations in regions recruited by both age groups provides a foundation by which to understand age-related motor decline and motor disorders. PMID:27799910

  6. Satellite Movie Shows Erika Dissipate

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite from Aug. 27 to 29 shows Tropical Storm Erika move through the Eastern Caribbean Sea and dissipate near eastern Cuba. ...

  7. Face and body recognition show similar improvement during childhood.

    PubMed

    Bank, Samantha; Rhodes, Gillian; Read, Ainsley; Jeffery, Linda

    2015-09-01

    Adults are proficient in extracting identity cues from faces. This proficiency develops slowly during childhood, with performance not reaching adult levels until adolescence. Bodies are similar to faces in that they convey identity cues and rely on specialized perceptual mechanisms. However, it is currently unclear whether body recognition mirrors the slow development of face recognition during childhood. Recent evidence suggests that body recognition develops faster than face recognition. Here we measured body and face recognition in 6- and 10-year-old children and adults to determine whether these two skills show different amounts of improvement during childhood. We found no evidence that they do. Face and body recognition showed similar improvement with age, and children, like adults, were better at recognizing faces than bodies. These results suggest that the mechanisms of face and body memory mature at a similar rate or that improvement of more general cognitive and perceptual skills underlies improvement of both face and body recognition.

  8. Working memory capacity and overgeneral autobiographical memory in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Ros, Laura; Latorre, José Miguel; Serrano, Juan Pedro

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to compare the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) performance of two healthy samples of younger and older adults and to analyse the relationship between overgeneral memory (OGM) and working memory executive processes (WMEP) using a structural equation modelling with latent variables. The AMT and sustained attention, short-term memory and working memory tasks were administered to a group of young adults (N = 50) and a group of older adults (N = 46). On the AMT, the older adults recalled a greater number of categorical memories (p = .000) and fewer specific memories (p = .000) than the young adults, confirming that OGM occurs in the normal population and increases with age. WMEP was measured by reading span and a working memory with sustained attention load task. Structural equation modelling reflects that WMEP shows a strong relationship with OGM: lower scores on WMEP reflect an OGM phenomenon characterized by higher categorical and lower specific memories.

  9. Bilateral luxatio erecta with greater tuberosity fracture: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Vikas; Pradhan, Pavan

    2013-01-01

    Bilateral shoulder dislocation with greater tuberosity fracture and luxatio erecta, both are rare by themselves, with only few reports of each. We report an unusual case of posttraumatic bilateral symmetrical shoulder dislocation involving luxatio erecta with greater tuberosity fracture in a young male. To our knowledge, this is the first case of symmetrical bilateral shoulder dislocation with greater tuberosity fracture involving luxatio erecta dislocation from Indian subcontinent. PMID:26403880

  10. Children Age 7 Complete Complex Gait and Postural Tasks Differently Than Adults Under Dual-Task Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Dorelle C; Vallis, Lori Ann

    2016-01-01

    Healthy children (7 years old) and adults (20 years old) completed a simultaneous balancing, reaching, and cognitive task while standing and during gait. Cognitive accuracy rate for children and adults was similar for both postures; however, response latency was greater for children than adults. While standing, trunk, upper arm, and forearm segments moved as individual segments in adults; however, articulated control of the upper arm and forearm in children was not evident. Adults and children showed evidence of articulated segmental control during gait. Absolute gait velocity (m/s) was significantly slower for children; however, there was no effect of age on step length. Children 7 years old can perform a simultaneous motor and cognitive task but their performance strategies do not yet match young adults. PMID:26305113

  11. National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Jimenez Sheri Raborn, CPA; Tom Baker

    2008-03-31

    National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration created a 400KW Photovoltaic self-generation plant at the National Orange Show Events Center (NOS). The NOS owns a 120-acre state fairground where it operates an events center and produces an annual citrus fair known as the Orange Show. The NOS governing board wanted to employ cost-saving programs for annual energy expenses. It is hoped the Photovoltaic program will result in overall savings for the NOS, help reduce the State's energy demands as relating to electrical power consumption, improve quality of life within the affected grid area as well as increase the energy efficiency of buildings at our venue. In addition, the potential to reduce operational expenses would have a tremendous effect on the ability of the NOS to service its community.

  12. Arches showing UV flaring activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    The UVSP data obtained in the previous maximum activity cycle show the frequent appearance of flaring events in the UV. In many cases these flaring events are characterized by at least two footpoints which show compact impulsive non-simultaneous brightenings and a fainter but clearly observed arch developes between the footpoints. These arches and footpoints are observed in line corresponding to different temperatures, as Lyman alpha, N V, and C IV, and when observed above the limb display large Doppler shifts at some stages. The size of the arches can be larger than 20 arcsec.

  13. Create a Polarized Light Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, William H.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson that introduces students to polarized light using a problem-solving approach. After illustrating the concept using a slinky and poster board with a vertical slot, students solve the problem of creating a polarized light show using Polya's problem-solving methods. (MDH)

  14. Pembrolizumab Shows Promise for NSCLC.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    Data from the KEYNOTE-001 trial show that pembrolizumab improves clinical outcomes for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer, and is well tolerated. PD-L1 expression in at least 50% of tumor cells correlated with improved efficacy.

  15. Event-related potentials findings differ between children and adults during arithmetic-fact retrieval.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Corona, Belén; Rodríguez-Camacho, Mario; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Marosi, Erzsébet; Fernández, Thalía; Guerrero, Vicente

    2010-01-14

    Some cognitive abilities of arithmetical calculation depend on retrieval of arithmetic facts from long-term memory. Arithmetic-fact retrieval has been studied in adults through Event-Related Potentials (ERP) experiments. Such information in children, however, has been scarce. It has been reported that from the age of 9 years, children employ a memory retrieval strategy for solving simple multiplication problems. The present study compared arithmetical-fact retrieval in children and adults while they were being subjected to ERP recording. The subjects were asked to make judgments about solutions to simple multiplication problems. Both groups of participants displayed the so-called arithmetic N400 effect for incorrect solutions relative to correct solutions. Adults showed a posterior N400 effect, while children showed a widely distributed N400 effect. Children displayed a larger amplitude and longer latency arithmetic N400 component than adults; this observation could be due to children exerting greater effort involving more widespread cortical activation than adults to solve the experimental problems. The Late Positive Component (LPC), which follows the arithmetic N400 and has been described previously in adult subjects, was observed in the present adult subjects, but was present in children only for correct solutions. These results may indicate that, relative to adults, children showed slower memory retrieval and a different pattern of a verification mechanism for correct and incorrect solutions. PMID:19897015

  16. 3D stress field simulation for Greater Munich, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Moritz; Heidbach, Oliver; Reinecker, John; Przybycin, Anna Maria; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    Geotechnical applications such as tunneling, storage of waste, wellbore planning, or reservoir engineering requires detailed 3D information on the rock properties and behavior of the continuum. One of the key parameters is the contemporary crustal in-situ stress state. However, generally the availability of stress data on reservoir scale is scarce or no data exists at all. Furthermore, stress data is often limited to the orientation of the maximum horizontal stress. Hence, geomechanical-numerical modelling provides an approximation of a continuous description of the 3D in-situ stress state. We present a model workflow that shows (1) how to calibrate a regional scale model of Greater Munich with stress orientations and magnitudes mainly from borehole data and (2) how to derive from the regional model boundary conditions for a local high-resolution model of a geothermal reservoir site. This approach using two models is an alternative to the required trade-off between resolution, computational cost and a sufficient number of calibration data which is otherwise inevitable for a single model. The incorporated 3D geological models contain the topography from a digital elevation model and 6 stratigraphic units with different elasto-plastic rock properties. The local model mimics the area of a planned reservoir and its resolution is significantly higher than in the regional model and down to 10 m near the planned borehole trajectories using 21×106 tetrahedron finite elements with linear approximation functions. The uncertainties of the calibrated regional model are large since no information on the magnitude of the maximum horizontal stress is available. Even in the entire Greater Munich area only two reliable leak-off tests that deliver the magnitude of the minimum horizontal stress could be used. These uncertainties are transferred also to the local model. Hence we also show how to quantify for the workflow in general the systematic uncertainties and discuss

  17. Magic Carpet Shows Its Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The upper left image in this display is from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, showing the 'Magic Carpet' region near the rover at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Sol 7, the seventh martian day of its journey (Jan. 10, 2004). The lower image, also from the panoramic camera, is a monochrome (single filter) image of a rock in the 'Magic Carpet' area. Note that colored portions of the rock correlate with extracted spectra shown in the plot to the side. Four different types of materials are shown: the rock itself, the soil in front of the rock, some brighter soil on top of the rock, and some dust that has collected in small recesses on the rock face ('spots'). Each color on the spectra matches a line on the graph, showing how the panoramic camera's different colored filters are used to broadly assess the varying mineral compositions of martian rocks and soils.

  18. Intertemporal Choice Behavior in Emerging Adults and Adults: Effects of Age Interact with Alcohol Use and Family History Status

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christopher T.; Steel, Eleanor A.; Parrish, Michael H.; Kelm, Mary K.; Boettiger, Charlotte A.

    2015-01-01

    Adults with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) show marked immediate reward selection (or “Now”) bias in intertemporal choice tasks. This Now bias persists long into abstinence, suggesting an irreversible consequence of chronic alcohol abuse or a pre-existing AUD intermediate phenotype. However, some data show substantial Now bias among emerging adults (18–25), regardless of drinking behavior, suggesting age-dependent effects on Now bias. The objectives of the present study were to determine (1) whether Now bias is greater among emerging adults relative to adults, (2) whether any such age effect on Now bias is diminished in sub-clinical heavy alcohol users, and (3) whether having a problem drinking first degree relative is independently associated with elevated Now bias. To achieve these objectives, we used an intertemporal choice task to quantify Now bias in n = 237 healthy participants (ages 18–40; 50% female), and a wide range of non-zero alcohol use, based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). We found that among non-heavy drinkers, Now bias inversely correlated with age; this relationship was not present among heavy drinkers. We found no significant relationship between AUDIT score and Now bias among emerging adults, but AUDIT scores and Now bias were positively correlated among 26–40 year olds. Additionally, non-heavy drinking adults who reported a problem drinking first degree relative showed greater Now bias compared to those not reporting familial problem drinking. While not definitive, these findings lend support for elevated Now bias in adulthood as an intermediate phenotype for AUDs. Moreover, non-additive effects of age and heavy drinking on Now bias suggest perturbations in largely common neural circuits in both groups. PMID:26635580

  19. Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Human capital is one of the critical issues that impacts the Greater Philadelphia region's ability to grow and prosper. The CEO Council for Growth (CEO Council) is committed to ensuring a steady and talented supply of quality workers for this region. "Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action" provides insights…

  20. Greater history of weight-related stigmatizing experience is associated with greater weight loss in obesity treatment.

    PubMed

    Latner, Janet D; Wilson, G Terence; Jackson, Mary L; Stunkard, Albert J

    2009-03-01

    Experiences of obesity stigmatization and fear of fat, body image and self-esteem, were examined in relation to weight loss and weight maintenance. Participants in obesity treatment (N = 185) with more stigmatizing experiences had poorer body image and greater fear of fat. Higher initial BMI, more stigmatizing experiences, lower body dissatisfaction and greater fear of fat predicted greater weight loss. Higher initial BMI and more stigmatizing experiences predicted greater weight maintenance after six months in treatment. These findings suggest that despite the negative psychological correlates of stigmatization, experience and fear of obesity's negative consequences may also be associated with improved treatment outcome. PMID:19237486

  1. The hypercorrection effect in younger and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Eich, Teal S.; Stern, Yaakov; Metcalfe, Janet

    2012-01-01

    The hypercorrection effect, which refers to the finding that errors committed with high confidence are more likely to be corrected than are low confidence errors, has been replicated many times, and with both young adults and children. In the present study, we contrasted older with younger adults. Participants answered general-information questions, made confidence ratings about their answers, were given corrective feedback, and then were retested on questions that they had gotten wrong. While younger adults showed the hypercorrection effect, older adults, despite higher overall accuracy on the general-information questions and excellent basic metacognitive ability, showed a diminished hypercorrection effect. Indeed, the correspondence between their confidence in their errors and the probability of correction was not significantly greater than zero, showing, for the first time, that a particular participant population is selectively impaired on this error-correction task. These results potentially offer leverage both on the mechanisms underlying the hypercorrection effect and on reasons for older adults' memory impairments, as well as on memory functions that are spared. PMID:23241028

  2. Urinary tract infection - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Bladder infection - adults; UTI - adults; Cystitis - bacterial - adults; Pyelonephritis - adults; Kidney infection - adults ... to the hospital if you: Are an older adult Have kidney stones or changes in the anatomy ...

  3. What Does It Take to Be an Adult in Austria? Views of Adulthood in Austrian Adolescents, Emerging Adults, and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirsch, Ulrike; Dreher, Eva; Mayr, Eva; Willinger, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the defining features of emerging adulthood, subjects' conceptions of the transition to adulthood, and the perceived adult status in Austria. The sample consisted of 775 subjects (226 adolescents, 317 emerging adults, 232 adults). Results showed that most Austrian emerging adults feel themselves to be between adolescence…

  4. Giant solitary fibrous tumor arising from greater omentum.

    PubMed

    Zong, Liang; Chen, Ping; Wang, Guang-Yao; Zhu, Qun-Shan

    2012-11-28

    Extrathoracic solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) have been described at almost every anatomic location of human body, but reports of SFT in the abdominal cavity are rare. We herein present a rare case of SFT originating from greater omentum. Computed tomography revealed a 15.8 cm × 21.0 cm solid mass located at superior aspect of stomach. Open laparotomy confirmed its mesenchymal origin. Microscopically, its tissue was composed of non-organized and spindle-shaped cells exhibiting atypical nuclei, which were divided up by branching vessel and collagen bundles. Immunohistochemical staining showed that this tumor was negative for CD117, CD99, CD68, cytokeratin, calretinin, desmin, epithelial membrane antigen, F8 and S-100, but positive for CD34, bcl-2, α-smooth muscle actin and vimentin. The patient presented no evidence of recurrence during follow-up. SFT arising from abdominal cavity can be diagnosed by histological findings and immunohistochemical markers, especially for CD34 and bcl-2 positive cases.

  5. Older Adults are Highly Responsive to Recent Events During Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Worthy, Darrell A.; Otto, A. Ross; Doll, Bradley B.; Byrne, Kaileigh A.; Maddox, W. Todd

    2014-01-01

    Recent work suggests that older adults’ decision-making behavior is highly affected by recent events. In the present work younger and older adults performed a two-choice task where one option provided a larger average reward, but there was a large amount of noise around the mean reward for each option which led to sharp improvements or declines in rewards over trials. Older adults showed greater responsiveness to recent events than younger adults as evidenced by fits of Reinforcement Learning (RL) models. Older adults were particularly sensitive to recent negative events, which was evidenced by a strong tendency for older adults to switch to the other option following steep declines in reward. This tendency led to superior performance for older adults in one condition where heightened sensitivity to recent negative events was advantageous. These results extend prior work that has found an older adult bias toward negative feedback, and suggest that older adults engage in more abrupt switching in response to negative outcomes than younger adults. PMID:25580469

  6. Composition of fatty acids in the maternal and umbilical cord plasma of adolescent and adult mothers: relationship with anthropometric parameters of newborn

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Considering the importance of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to fetal development and the lack of studies that have compared the status of fatty acids between adolescents and adults mothers, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the composition of fatty acids in maternal and umbilical cord plasma from adolescent and adults mothers. Methods Forty pregnant adolescents and forty pregnant adults were selected to assess the distribution profile of fatty acids in the maternal and umbilical cord plasma. Quantification of fatty acids in the total lipids of the sample groups was performed through the use of gas-liquid chromatography. Results The maternal and umbilical cord plasma of the adolescents showed a greater concentration of AA than did that of the adults (P < 0.05). However, a greater percentage of EPA was found in the umbilical cord plasma of the adults (P < 0.05). DHA in the plasma of the adolescent mothers correlated positively to birth weight and head circumference. Conclusions This suggests that in situations of greater nutritional risk, as in adolescent pregnancy, n-3PUFA concentrations have a greater influence on the proper development of newborns. Moreover, variations in fatty acid concentrations in the maternal and cord plasma of adolescents and adults may indicate that pregnancy affects the LC-PUFA status of adults and adolescents in distinct ways. PMID:23153394

  7. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  8. "Show me" bioethics and politics.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Myra J

    2007-10-01

    Missouri, the "Show Me State," has become the epicenter of several important national public policy debates, including abortion rights, the right to choose and refuse medical treatment, and, most recently, early stem cell research. In this environment, the Center for Practical Bioethics (formerly, Midwest Bioethics Center) emerged and grew. The Center's role in these "cultural wars" is not to advocate for a particular position but to provide well researched and objective information, perspective, and advocacy for the ethical justification of policy positions; and to serve as a neutral convener and provider of a public forum for discussion. In this article, the Center's work on early stem cell research is a case study through which to argue that not only the Center, but also the field of bioethics has a critical role in the politics of public health policy.

  9. ShowMe3D

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less

  10. Lower oxidative DNA damage despite greater ROS production in muscles from rats selectively bred for high running capacity.

    PubMed

    Tweedie, Constance; Romestaing, Caroline; Burelle, Yan; Safdar, Adeel; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Seadon, Scott; Britton, Steven L; Koch, Lauren G; Hepple, Russell T

    2011-03-01

    Artificial selection in rat has yielded high-capacity runners (HCR) and low-capacity runners (LCR) that differ in intrinsic (untrained) aerobic exercise ability and metabolic disease risk. To gain insight into how oxygen metabolism may have been affected by selection, we compared mitochondrial function, oxidative DNA damage (8-dihydroxy-guanosine; 8dOHG), and antioxidant enzyme activities in soleus muscle (Sol) and gastrocnemius muscle (Gas) of adult and aged LCR vs. HCR rats. In Sol of adult HCR rats, maximal ADP-stimulated respiration was 37% greater, whereas in Gas of adult HCR rats, there was a 23% greater complex IV-driven respiratory capacity and 54% greater leak as a fraction of electron transport capacity (suggesting looser mitochondrial coupling) vs. LCR rats. H(2)O(2) emission per gram of muscle was 24-26% greater for both muscles in adult HCR rats vs. LCR, although H(2)O(2) emission in Gas was 17% lower in HCR, after normalizing for citrate synthase activity (marker of mitochondrial content). Despite greater H(2)O(2) emission, 8dOHG levels were 62-78% lower in HCR rats due to 62-96% higher superoxide dismutase activity in both muscles and 47% higher catalase activity in Sol muscle in adult HCR rats, with no evidence for higher 8 oxoguanine glycosylase (OGG1; DNA repair enzyme) protein expression. We conclude that genetic segregation for high running capacity has generated a molecular network of cellular adaptations, facilitating a superior response to oxidative stress. PMID:21148474

  11. Geochronology and magma sources of Elbrus volcano (Greater Caucasus, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    Elbrus volcano (5642m), the largest Quaternary volcano in the European part of the Russia, is situated within the central part of Greater Caucasus mountain system at the watershed of Black and Caspian seas. Complex isotope-geochronological studies showed that the Elbrus volcano experienced long (approximately 200-250 thousands years) discrete evolution, with protracted periods of igneous quiescence (approximately 50 ka) between large-scale eruptions. The volcanic activity of Elbrus is subdivided into three phases: Middle-Neopleistocene (225-170 ka), Late Neopleistocene (110-70 ka), and Late Neopleistocene-Holocene (less than 35 ka). No eruptions presumably occurred during 'quiescence' periods, while the volcano was dormant or revealed only insignificant explosive eruptions and postmagmatic activity. Volcanic rocks of the Elbrus volcano are represented by biotite-hypersthene-plagioclase calc-alcaline dacites (65.2-70.4% SiO2, and 6.4-7.9% K2O+Na2O at 2.7-3.9% K2O). Petrogeochemical and isotope-geochemical signatures of Elbrus dacitic lavas (87Sr/86Sr - 0.70535-0.70636, Eps(Nd) from +0.8 to -2.3, 206Pb/204Pb - 18.631-18.671, 207Pb/204Pb - 15.649-15.660, and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.811-38.847) point to their mantle-crustal origin. It was found that hybrid parental magmas of the volcano were formed due to mixing and/or contamination of deep-seated mantle melts by Paleozoic upper crustal material of the Greater Caucasus. The temporal evolution of isotope characteristics for lavas of Elbrus volcano is well described by a Sr-Nd mixing hyperbole between mantle source of 'Common'-type and estimated average composition of the Paleozoic upper crust of the Greater Caucasus. It was shown that, with time, the proportions of mantle material in the parental magmas of Elbrus gently increased: from ~60% at the Middle-Neopleistocene phase of activity to ~80% at the Late Neopleistocene-Holocene phase, which indicates an increase of the activity of deep-seated source at decreasing input of

  12. Adult Brains Don't Fully Overcome Biases that Lead to Incorrect Performance during Cognitive Development: An fMRI Study in Young Adults Completing a Piaget-Like Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leroux, Gaelle; Spiess, Jeanne; Zago, Laure; Rossi, Sandrine; Lubin, Amelie; Turbelin, Marie-Renee; Mazoyer, Bernard; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Houde, Olivier; Joliot, Marc

    2009-01-01

    A current issue in developmental science is that greater continuity in cognition between children and adults may exist than is usually appreciated in Piaget-like (stages or "staircase") models. This phenomenon has been demonstrated at the behavioural level, but never at the brain level. Here we show with functional magnetic resonance imaging…

  13. Effects of Sexual Dimorphism and Landscape Composition on the Trophic Behavior of Greater Prairie-Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Fontao, Beatriz; Sandercock, Brett K.; Obeso, José Ramón; McNew, Lance B.; Quevedo, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Partitioning of ecological niche is expected in lekking species that show marked sexual size dimorphism as a consequence of sex-specific ecological constraints. However, niche partitioning is uncertain in species with moderate sexual dimorphism. In addition, the ecological niche of a species may also be affected by landscape composition; particularly, agricultural fragmentation may greatly influence the trophic behavior of herbivores. We studied trophic niche variation in Greater Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido), a grouse species that shows moderate sex-dimorphism. Greater Prairie-Chickens are native to tallgrass prairies of North America, although populations persist in less natural mosaics of cropland and native habitats. We used stable isotope analysis of carbon and nitrogen in blood, claws and feathers to assess seasonal differences in trophic niche breadth and individual specialization between male and female Greater Prairie-Chickens, and between birds living in continuous and fragmented landscapes. We found that females showed broader niches and higher individual specialization than males, especially in winter and autumn. However, differences between females and males were smaller in spring when birds converge at leks, suggesting that females and males may exhibit similar feeding behaviors during the lekking period. In addition, we found that birds living in native prairies showed greater annual trophic variability than conspecifics in agricultural mosaic landscapes. Native habitats may provide greater dietary diversity, resulting in greater diversity of feeding strategies. PMID:24244588

  14. Pea Plants Show Risk Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Dener, Efrat; Kacelnik, Alex; Shemesh, Hagai

    2016-07-11

    Sensitivity to variability in resources has been documented in humans, primates, birds, and social insects, but the fit between empirical results and the predictions of risk sensitivity theory (RST), which aims to explain this sensitivity in adaptive terms, is weak [1]. RST predicts that agents should switch between risk proneness and risk aversion depending on state and circumstances, especially according to the richness of the least variable option [2]. Unrealistic assumptions about agents' information processing mechanisms and poor knowledge of the extent to which variability imposes specific selection in nature are strong candidates to explain the gap between theory and data. RST's rationale also applies to plants, where it has not hitherto been tested. Given the differences between animals' and plants' information processing mechanisms, such tests should help unravel the conflicts between theory and data. Measuring root growth allocation by split-root pea plants, we show that they favor variability when mean nutrient levels are low and the opposite when they are high, supporting the most widespread RST prediction. However, the combination of non-linear effects of nitrogen availability at local and systemic levels may explain some of these effects as a consequence of mechanisms not necessarily evolved to cope with variance [3, 4]. This resembles animal examples in which properties of perception and learning cause risk sensitivity even though they are not risk adaptations [5]. PMID:27374342

  15. Casimir experiments showing saturation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Sernelius, Bo E.

    2009-10-15

    We address several different Casimir experiments where theory and experiment disagree. First out is the classical Casimir force measurement between two metal half spaces; here both in the form of the torsion pendulum experiment by Lamoreaux and in the form of the Casimir pressure measurement between a gold sphere and a gold plate as performed by Decca et al.; theory predicts a large negative thermal correction, absent in the high precision experiments. The third experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between a metal plate and a laser irradiated semiconductor membrane as performed by Chen et al.; the change in force with laser intensity is larger than predicted by theory. The fourth experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between an atom and a wall in the form of the measurement by Obrecht et al. of the change in oscillation frequency of a {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate trapped to a fused silica wall; the change is smaller than predicted by theory. We show that saturation effects can explain the discrepancies between theory and experiment observed in all these cases.

  16. Predictors of Transience among Homeless Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J.

    2014-01-01

    This study identified predictors of transience among homeless emerging adults in three cities. A total of 601 homeless emerging adults from Los Angeles, Austin, and Denver were recruited using purposive sampling. Ordinary least squares regression results revealed that significant predictors of greater transience include White ethnicity, high…

  17. A Pilot Study of Alcohol and Cigarette Consumption among Adolescent and Young Adult Females Attending Health Clinics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; Dunn, Michael; Woods, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Examines the alcohol and cigarette use patterns of adolescent and young adult female patients (N=246). Results indicate that smoking differences between Whites and Blacks was inversely related to education: less-educated Whites and more-educated Blacks had a greater smoking risk. Conclusions show females' differential needs regarding alcohol and…

  18. The neurodevelopmental differences of increasing verbal working memory demand in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Vogan, V M; Morgan, B R; Powell, T L; Smith, M L; Taylor, M J

    2016-02-01

    Working memory (WM) - temporary storage and manipulation of information in the mind - is a key component of cognitive maturation, and structural brain changes throughout development are associated with refinements in WM. Recent functional neuroimaging studies have shown that there is greater activation in prefrontal and parietal brain regions with increasing age, with adults showing more refined, localized patterns of activations. However, few studies have investigated the neural basis of verbal WM development, as the majority of reports examine visuo-spatial WM. We used fMRI and a 1-back verbal WM task with six levels of difficulty to examine the neurodevelopmental changes in WM function in 40 participants, twenty-four children (ages 9-15 yr) and sixteen young adults (ages 20-25 yr). Children and adults both demonstrated an opposing system of cognitive processes with increasing cognitive demand, where areas related to WM (frontal and parietal regions) increased in activity, and areas associated with the default mode network decreased in activity. Although there were many similarities in the neural activation patterns associated with increasing verbal WM capacity in children and adults, significant changes in the fMRI responses were seen with age. Adults showed greater load-dependent changes than children in WM in the bilateral superior parietal gyri, inferior frontal and left middle frontal gyri and right cerebellum. Compared to children, adults also showed greater decreasing activation across WM load in the bilateral anterior cingulate, anterior medial prefrontal gyrus, right superior lateral temporal gyrus and left posterior cingulate. These results demonstrate that while children and adults activate similar neural networks in response to verbal WM tasks, the extent to which they rely on these areas in response to increasing cognitive load evolves between childhood and adulthood. PMID:26615571

  19. The neurodevelopmental differences of increasing verbal working memory demand in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Vogan, V M; Morgan, B R; Powell, T L; Smith, M L; Taylor, M J

    2016-02-01

    Working memory (WM) - temporary storage and manipulation of information in the mind - is a key component of cognitive maturation, and structural brain changes throughout development are associated with refinements in WM. Recent functional neuroimaging studies have shown that there is greater activation in prefrontal and parietal brain regions with increasing age, with adults showing more refined, localized patterns of activations. However, few studies have investigated the neural basis of verbal WM development, as the majority of reports examine visuo-spatial WM. We used fMRI and a 1-back verbal WM task with six levels of difficulty to examine the neurodevelopmental changes in WM function in 40 participants, twenty-four children (ages 9-15 yr) and sixteen young adults (ages 20-25 yr). Children and adults both demonstrated an opposing system of cognitive processes with increasing cognitive demand, where areas related to WM (frontal and parietal regions) increased in activity, and areas associated with the default mode network decreased in activity. Although there were many similarities in the neural activation patterns associated with increasing verbal WM capacity in children and adults, significant changes in the fMRI responses were seen with age. Adults showed greater load-dependent changes than children in WM in the bilateral superior parietal gyri, inferior frontal and left middle frontal gyri and right cerebellum. Compared to children, adults also showed greater decreasing activation across WM load in the bilateral anterior cingulate, anterior medial prefrontal gyrus, right superior lateral temporal gyrus and left posterior cingulate. These results demonstrate that while children and adults activate similar neural networks in response to verbal WM tasks, the extent to which they rely on these areas in response to increasing cognitive load evolves between childhood and adulthood.

  20. The asymmetry of pectoralis muscles is greater in male prepubertal than in professional tennis players.

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Moysi, Joaquin; Dorado, Cecilia; Idoate, Fernando; González-Henríquez, Juan J; Serrano-Sanchez, Jose A; Calbet, Jose A L

    2016-10-01

    It is generally accepted that preadolescents have a limited capacity to develop muscle hypertrophy in response to exercise compared with older populations; however, studies are scarce and conflicting. The main aim of the present study was to assess if playing tennis is associated with the hypertrophy of dominant pectoralis muscles (PM) in professional (PRO) and in prepubescent tennis players (PRE). A secondary aim was to assess if the degree of asymmetry of PM is greater in PRO than PRE. The volume of PM of both sides was determined using magnetic resonance imaging in 8 male PRO (21.9 years), 6 male PRE (11 years, Tanner 1-2) and 12 male non-active controls (6 adults: 23.5 years; and 6 prepubescents: 10.7 years, Tanner 1-2). PRO and PRE had 15 and 30% greater volume, respectively, in the dominant than in the contralateral PM (P < .01). No significant side-to-side differences in PM volume were observed in the non-active controls (3%, P = .34 in adults and 5%, P = .17 in children). The degree of side-to-side asymmetry in PM volume was greater in PRE than in PRO (P < .05). In conclusion, tennis practice is associated with marked hypertrophy of dominant PM in tennis players, even at prepubertal age, whilst non-active age-matched control subjects display similar volumes in both sides. The larger asymmetry observed in PRE than in PRO may indicate a greater relative loading in the children or increased contralateral hypertrophy in the professionals. This study demonstrates that prepubertal children respond with marked hypertrophy to loading by tennis.

  1. Attentional bias in adults with cannabis use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Vujanovic, Anka A.; Wardle, Margaret C.; Liu, Shijing; Dias, Nadeeka R.; Lane, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT There has been modest examination of attentional bias in individuals with cannabis use disorders. Clinical implications of this work are directly relevant to better informing extant evidence-based treatment for substance use disorders (e.g., relapse prevention) and/or developing novel interventions. The overarching aim of this investigation was to examine a novel attentional bias task in adults with cannabis use disorders. Participants were comprised of 25 adults (8 women: M age = 31, SD = 6.8; range = 22–45) with cannabis use disorders (n = 12) and controls (n = 13) without any current (past month) psychopathology. Relative to controls, adults with cannabis use disorders had greater attentional bias scores. These differences were present only at the 125-ms probe time, where the cannabis use disorders group showed greater attentional bias to cannabis cues than the control group (adjusted p = .001, cannabis use disorders mean = 59.9, control mean = −24.8, Cohen's d-effect size for 125 ms = 1.03). The cannabis use disorders group also reported significantly greater perceived stress and post-task stress scores than the control group, but stress was not related to attentional bias. This study informs understanding of the influence of cannabis cues on visual detection and reaction time under different cue-target onset times, as attentional bias was most prevalent under time pressure to detect the probe. PMID:26566718

  2. Spontaneous neoplasia in four captive greater hedgehog tenrecs (Setifer setosus).

    PubMed

    Khoii, Mina K; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Burns, Roy B; Carmichael, K Paige; Gyimesi, Zoltan S

    2008-09-01

    Little information is available about diseases and pathology of species within the family Tenrecidae, including the greater hedgehog tenrec (Setifer setosus), a Madagascan insectivore. This report summarizes necropsy and histopathologic findings of neoplasia in four captive greater hedgehog tenrecs. Although only four animals are included in this report, neoplasia seems to be a common and significant source of morbidity and mortality in greater hedgehog tenrecs. Types of neoplasia identified include a thyroid follicular-solid carcinoma, two urinary bladder transitional cell carcinomas, uterine endometrial polyps, and multicentric B-cell lymphoma. Due to small sample size, no etiology could be determined, but genetics, viral infection, pesticide treatment, nutrition, or other environmental factors might contribute to the development of neoplasia in this species. This is the first report of neoplasia in greater hedgehog tenrecs.

  3. Surgical Treatment of Displaced Greater Tuberosity Fractures of the Humerus.

    PubMed

    Rouleau, Dominique M; Mutch, Jennifer; Laflamme, Georges-Yves

    2016-01-01

    Greater tuberosity fractures of the humerus can be successfully treated nonsurgically in most patients. However, as little as 3 to 5 mm of superior greater tuberosity displacement may adversely affect rotator cuff biomechanics and lead to subacromial impingement in patients who are active. In these cases, surgical treatment is recommended. Multiple surgical techniques include open and arthroscopic options tailored to fracture morphology, and strategies for repair include the use of suture anchors, transosseous sutures, tension bands, and plates/screws. Three classification systems are commonly used to describe greater tuberosity fractures: the AO, Neer, and morphologic classifications. Several hypotheses have been discussed for the mechanism of greater tuberosity fractures and the deforming forces of the rotator cuff, and the use of advanced imaging is being explored.

  4. Effective literacy instruction for adults with specific learning disabilities: implications for adult educators.

    PubMed

    Hock, Michael F

    2012-01-01

    Adults with learning disabilities (LD) attending adult basic education, GED programs, or community colleges are among the lowest performers on measures of literacy. For example, on multiple measures of reading comprehension, adults with LD had a mean reading score at the third grade level, whereas adults without LD read at the fifth grade level. In addition, large numbers of adults perform at the lowest skill levels on quantitative tasks. Clearly, significant instructional challenges exist for adults who struggle with literacy issues, and those challenges can be greater for adults with LD. In this article, the literature on adults with LD is reviewed, and evidenced-based instructional practices that significantly narrow the literacy achievement gap for this population are identified. Primary attention is given to instructional factors that have been shown to affect literacy outcomes for adults with LD. These factors include the use of explicit instruction, instructional technology, and intensive tutoring in skills and strategies embedded in authentic contexts.

  5. Post-irradiation angiosarcoma of the greater omentum.

    PubMed

    Westenberg, A H; Wiggers, T; Henzen-Logmans, S C; Verweij, J; Meerwaldt, J A; van Geel, A N

    1989-04-01

    A case of angiosarcoma of the greater omentum is reported. This angiosarcoma developed 8 years after irradiation for cervical carcinoma and presented with an intra-abdominal hemorrhage. We describe her clinical course, treatment and follow-up. Although several other locations of irradiation-induced sarcomas have been published, this is the first report in literature of a postirradiation angiosarcoma in the greater omentum.

  6. Neural correlates of conceptual object priming in young and older adults: An event-related fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Bischof, Gérard N.; Goh, Joshua O.; Park, Denise C.

    2012-01-01

    In this event-related fMRI study, we investigated age-related differences in brain activity associated with conceptual repetition priming in young and older adults. Participants performed a speeded “living/non-living” classification task with three repetitions of familiar objects. Both young and older adults showed a similar magnitude of behavioral priming to repeated objects and evidencing repetition-related activation reductions in fusiform gyrus, superior occipital, middle and inferior temporal cortex, as well as inferior frontal and insula regions. The neural priming effect in young adults was extensive and continued through both the second and third stimulus repetitions, whereas neural priming in older adults was markedly attenuated and reached floor at the second repetition. In young adults, greater neural priming in multiple brain regions correlated with greater behavioral facilitation whereas in older adults, only activation reduction in the left inferior frontal correlated with faster behavioral responses. These findings provide evidence for altered neural priming in older adults despite preserved behavioral priming, and suggest the possibility that age-invariant behavioral priming is observed as a result of more sustained neural processing of stimuli in older adults which may be a form of compensatory neural activity. PMID:23102512

  7. Neural correlates of conceptual object priming in young and older adults: an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Bischof, Gérard N; Goh, Joshua O; Park, Denise C

    2013-04-01

    In this event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated age-related differences in brain activity associated with conceptual repetition priming in young and older adults. Participants performed a speeded "living/nonliving" classification task with 3 repetitions of familiar objects. Both young and older adults showed a similar magnitude of behavioral priming to repeated objects and evidenced repetition-related activation reductions in fusiform gyrus, superior occipital, middle, and inferior temporal cortex, and inferior frontal and insula regions. The neural priming effect in young adults was extensive and continued through both the second and third stimulus repetitions, and neural priming in older adults was markedly attenuated and reached floor at the second repetition. In young adults, greater neural priming in multiple brain regions correlated with greater behavioral facilitation and in older adults, only activation reduction in the left inferior frontal correlated with faster behavioral responses. These findings provide evidence for altered neural priming in older adults despite preserved behavioral priming, and suggest the possibility that age-invariant behavioral priming is observed as a result of more sustained neural processing of stimuli in older adults which might be a form of compensatory neural activity.

  8. Neural correlates of conceptual object priming in young and older adults: an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Bischof, Gérard N; Goh, Joshua O; Park, Denise C

    2013-04-01

    In this event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated age-related differences in brain activity associated with conceptual repetition priming in young and older adults. Participants performed a speeded "living/nonliving" classification task with 3 repetitions of familiar objects. Both young and older adults showed a similar magnitude of behavioral priming to repeated objects and evidenced repetition-related activation reductions in fusiform gyrus, superior occipital, middle, and inferior temporal cortex, and inferior frontal and insula regions. The neural priming effect in young adults was extensive and continued through both the second and third stimulus repetitions, and neural priming in older adults was markedly attenuated and reached floor at the second repetition. In young adults, greater neural priming in multiple brain regions correlated with greater behavioral facilitation and in older adults, only activation reduction in the left inferior frontal correlated with faster behavioral responses. These findings provide evidence for altered neural priming in older adults despite preserved behavioral priming, and suggest the possibility that age-invariant behavioral priming is observed as a result of more sustained neural processing of stimuli in older adults which might be a form of compensatory neural activity. PMID:23102512

  9. Mimas Showing False Colors #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    False color images of Saturn's moon, Mimas, reveal variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

    During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

    The image at the left is a narrow angle clear-filter image, which was separately processed to enhance the contrast in brightness and sharpness of visible features. The image at the right is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined into a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences. This 'color map' was then superimposed over the clear-filter image at the left.

    The combination of color map and brightness image shows how the color differences across the Mimas surface materials are tied to geological features. Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

    Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of each image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in

  10. Generativity and Themes of Agency and Communion in Adult Autobiography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Elizabeth D.; McAdams, Dan P.

    1996-01-01

    Examines differences between 70 more- and less-generative adults through a new coding system for analyzing themes of agency and communion in significant life-story scenes. The study revealed that highly generative adults express greater levels of the communion themes of dialog and care/help and greater levels of agency/communion integration. (LSR)

  11. Adult Stem and Progenitor Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraerts, Martine; Verfaillie, Catherine M.

    The discovery of adult stem cells in most adult tissues is the basis of a number of clinical studies that are carried out, with therapeutic use of hematopoietic stem cells as a prime example. Intense scientific debate is still ongoing as to whether adult stem cells may have a greater plasticity than previously thought. Although cells with some features of embryonic stem cells that, among others, express Oct4, Nanog and SSEA1 are isolated from fresh tissue, it is not clear if the greater differentiation potential is acquired during cell culture. Moreover, adult more pluripotent cells do not have all pluripotent characteristics typical for embryonic stem cells. Recently, some elegant studies were published in which adult cells could be completely reprogrammed to embryonic stem cell-like cells by overexpression of some key transcription factors for pluripotency (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc). It will be interesting for the future to investigate the exact mechanisms underlying this reprogramming and whether similar transcription factor pathways are present and/or can be activated in adult more pluripotent stem cells.

  12. Why is violence more common where inequality is greater?

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Richard

    2004-12-01

    The most well-established environmental determinant of levels of violence is the scale of income differences between rich and poor. More unequal societies tend to be more violent. If this is a relation between institutional violence and personal violence, how does it work and why is most of the violence a matter of the poor attacking the poor rather than the rich? This paper begins by showing that the tendency for rates of violent crime and homicide to be higher where there is more inequality is part of a more general tendency for the quality of social relations to be poorer in more hierarchical societies. Research on the social determinants of health is used to explore these relationships. It is a powerful source of insights because health is also harmed by greater inequality. Because epidemiological research has gone some way towards identifying the nature of our sensitivity to the social environment and to social status differentials in particular, it provides important insights into why violence is related to inequality. The picture that emerges substantiates and explains the common intuition that inequality is socially corrosive. With an evolutionary slant, and informed by work on ranking systems in non-human primates, this paper focuses on the sharp distinction between competitive social strategies appropriate to dominance hierarchies and the more affiliative social strategies associated with more egalitarian social structures. The implications for policy seem to echo the importance to the quality of life of the three inter-related dimensions of the social environment expressed in the demand for "liberty, equality, fraternity."

  13. Greater sensitivity to nonaccidental than metric shape properties in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Amir, Ori; Biederman, Irving; Herald, Sarah B; Shah, Manan P; Mintz, Toben H

    2014-04-01

    Nonaccidental properties (NAPs) are image properties that are invariant over orientation in depth and allow facile recognition of objects at varied orientations. NAPs are distinguished from metric properties (MPs) that generally vary continuously with changes in orientation in depth. While a number of studies have demonstrated greater sensitivity to NAPs in human adults, pigeons, and macaque IT cells, the few studies that investigated sensitivities in preschool children did not find significantly greater sensitivity to NAPs. However, these studies did not provide a principled measure of the physical image differences for the MP and NAP variations. We assessed sensitivity to NAP vs. MP differences in a nonmatch-to-sample task in which 14 preschool children were instructed to choose which of two shapes was different from a sample shape in a triangular display. Importantly, we scaled the shape differences so that MP and NAP differences were roughly equal (although the MP differences were slightly larger), using the Gabor-Jet model of V1 similarity (Lades & et al., 1993). Mean reaction times (RTs) for every child were shorter when the target shape differed from the sample in a NAP than an MP. The results suggest that preschoolers, like adults, are more sensitive to NAPs, which could explain their ability to rapidly learn new objects, even without observing them from every possible orientation. PMID:24582797

  14. Why are hispanics at greater risk for PTSD?

    PubMed

    Pole, Nnamdi; Best, Suzanne R; Metzler, Thomas; Marmar, Charles R

    2005-05-01

    Several studies have found that Hispanic Americans have higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than non-Hispanic Caucasian and Black Americans. The authors identified predictors of PTSD symptom severity that distinguished Hispanic police officers (n=189) from their non-Hispanic Caucasian (n=317) and Black (n=162) counterparts and modeled them to explain the elevated Hispanic risk for PTSD. The authors found that greater peritraumatic dissociation, greater wishful thinking and self-blame coping, lower social support, and greater perceived racism were important variables in explaining the elevated PTSD symptoms among Hispanics. Results are discussed in the context of Hispanic culture and may be important for prevention of mental illness in the fastest growing ethnic group in the United States.

  15. Young Adults Deserve the Best: YALSA's Competencies in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    As high school enrollment continues to rise, the need for effective librarianship serving young adults is greater than ever before. "Young Adults Deserve the Best: Competencies for Librarians Serving Youth," developed by Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), is a document outlining areas of focus for providing quality library service…

  16. Thematic Review on Adult Learning: Finland. Background Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    In international comparisons, participation in adult learning in Finland is high. Work or career development is the main reason for participation. Persons starting with greater educational attainment participate in adult learning opportunities more. Roots of adult education and training (AET) lie in liberal education; those of occupational AET in…

  17. Growing Up without Siblings and Adult Sociability Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trent, Katherine; Spitze, Glenna

    2011-01-01

    The authors use data from the National Survey of Families and Households to examine a range of sociability behaviors for adults who grew up with and without siblings. Compared with adults who grew up with siblings, adults who grew up without siblings have less frequent social activities with relatives, and the difference is greater among those who…

  18. Adult intussusception.

    PubMed Central

    Azar, T; Berger, D L

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objectives were to review adult intussusception, its diagnosis, and its treatment. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Adult intussusception represents 1% of all bowel obstructions, 5% of all intussusceptions, and 0.003%-0.02% of all hospital admissions. Intussusception is a different entity in adults than it is in children. METHODS: The records of all patients 18 years and older with the postoperative diagnosis of intussusception at the Massachusetts General Hospital during the years 1964 through 1993 were reviewed retrospectively. The 58 patients were divided into those with benign enteric, malignant enteric, benign colonic, and malignant colonic lesions associated with their intussusception. The diagnosis and treatment of each were reviewed. RESULTS: In 30 years at the Massachusetts General Hospital, there are 58 cases of surgically proven adult intussusception. The patients' mean age was 54.4 years. Most patients presented with symptoms consistent with bowel obstruction. There were 44 enteric and 14 colonic intussusceptions. Ninety-three percent of the intussusceptions were associated with a pathologic lesion. Forty-eight percent of the enteric lesions were malignant and 52% were benign. Forty-three percent of the colonic lesions were malignant and 57% were benign. CONCLUSIONS: Intussusception occurs rarely in adults. It presents with a variety of acute, intermittent, and chronic symptoms, thus making its preoperative diagnosis difficult. Computed tomography scanning proved to be the most useful diagnostic radiologic method. The diagnosis and treatment of adult intussusception are surgical. Surgical resection of the intussusception without reduction is the preferred treatment in adults, as almost half of both colonic and enteric intussusceptions are associated with malignancy. PMID:9296505

  19. When Age Matters: Differences in Facial Mimicry and Autonomic Responses to Peers' Emotions in Teenagers and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ardizzi, Martina; Sestito, Mariateresa; Martini, Francesca; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra; Ravera, Roberto; Gallese, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Age-group membership effects on explicit emotional facial expressions recognition have been widely demonstrated. In this study we investigated whether Age-group membership could also affect implicit physiological responses, as facial mimicry and autonomic regulation, to observation of emotional facial expressions. To this aim, facial Electromyography (EMG) and Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA) were recorded from teenager and adult participants during the observation of facial expressions performed by teenager and adult models. Results highlighted that teenagers exhibited greater facial EMG responses to peers' facial expressions, whereas adults showed higher RSA-responses to adult facial expressions. The different physiological modalities through which young and adults respond to peers' emotional expressions are likely to reflect two different ways to engage in social interactions with coetaneous. Findings confirmed that age is an important and powerful social feature that modulates interpersonal interactions by influencing low-level physiological responses. PMID:25337916

  20. Intolerance of uncertainty and adult separation anxiety.

    PubMed

    Boelen, Paul A; Reijntjes, Albert; Carleton, R Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU)-the tendency to react negatively to situations that are uncertain-is involved in different anxiety disorders and depression. No studies have yet examined the association between IU and symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder. However, it is possible that greater difficulties tolerating uncertainties that can occur in relationships with attachment figures inflate fears and worries about the consequences of being separated from these attachment figures. The current study examined the possible role of IU in symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder, relative to its role in symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), social anxiety, and depression, using self-reported data from 215 undergraduates (92% women) with elevated separation anxiety. Findings showed that IU was significantly associated with symptom levels of separation anxiety disorder, GAD, OCD, social anxiety, and depression (rs > .30). IU continued to explain variance in OCD, social anxiety, and depression (but not GAD and separation anxiety) when controlling for the association of neuroticism, attachment anxiety, and attachment avoidance with these symptoms. Additional findings indicated that IU is more strongly associated with symptoms of GAD, OCD, and social anxiety than symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder and depression.

  1. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder outcome in adults].

    PubMed

    Bange, F

    2011-07-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood. Although some symptoms of ADHD may diminish this does not mean that functioning is unimpaired in adults. Follow-up studies of children with ADHD show that it persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. Due to genetic factors high rates of ADHD exist among the parents of children with ADHD. More females are identified and become diagnosed in adulthood. There is a greater persistence of inattentive than of hyperactive/impulsive childhood symptoms of ADHD in adulthood. Some experts conceptualise ADHD as primarily a deficit of executive functions impairing planification, time perception and emotional regulation. ADHD often presents as a lifelong condition in adults associated with a range of clinical and psychosocial impairments. Young adults with comorbid antisocial or substance use disorder in adolescence are at significantly increased risk for criminal behaviors. Some predictors of the outcome have been identified such as childhood symptom profile and severity, comorbidity and childhood family adversities.

  2. Morphological differences in Pacific Coast populations of greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orthmeyer, D.L.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Ely, C.R.; Wege, M.; Newton, W.E.

    1995-01-01

    We examined morphological relationships of three Pacific coast populations of Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons). Adult geese were captured and measured at three breeding areas in Alaska and two wintering areas in California, 1980-1991. A two-step discriminant function analysis examined morphological differences among the three populations. Stepwise discriminant function procedures created the simplest measurement models. Each sex was analyzed separately since multivariate analysis of variance indicated that males were significantly larger than females for all three populations. Tule Greater White-fronted Geese (A. a. gambelli) were significantly larger than Pacific Greater White-fronted Geese (A. a. frontalis), hereafter Pacific Geese. The first step of discriminant function analysis created models to differentiate Tule Geese from the Pacific Geese. Bivariate stepwise discriminant function models consisting of only two measurements correctly classified 92% of males (bill height, bill width) and 96% of females (bill height, culmen) of these subspecies. The second step of discriminant function analysis compared a small population of Pacific Geese from the Bristol Bay Lowlands (BBL) of southwestern Alaska with the large population of Pacific Geese that breed on the Yukon-Kuskokwim River Delta (YKD) of westcentral Alaska. We developed models with three (culmen, diagonal tarsus, midtoe) and five (culmen, diagonal tarsus, midtoe, total tarsus, bill height) measurements from stepwise discriminant function analyses to correctly classify 72% of males and 74% of females of these populations. Thus, morphology of Tule Geese differed highly significantly from Pacific Geese, as expected but differences between populations from the BBL and YKD areas were also significant. Morphometric analyses as these provided supporting evidence for clinal variation in populations of Greater White-fronted Geese. They also underscore a need for further studies of differences among

  3. WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT. A BOEING 737-200 HAS BEEN TOWED IN FOR AN OVERNIGHT (BALANCE) CHECK. THE TAIL DOCK STANDS ARE IN POSITION AT THE REAR OF THE AIRCRAFT TO FACILITATE INSPECTION. MAINTENANCE CREWS PERFORM NIGHTLY SERVICE ON UP TO 6 AIRCRAFT. THE NORMAL SEQUENCE OF 12 ROUTINE CHECKS COVERS SEVEN BASIC AREAS: INTERIOR, EXTERIOR, WINGS, LANDING GEAR, TAIL, AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), AND ENGINES. THE WORK FORCE CONSISTS OF 5 INSPECTORS, 3 LEAD MECHANICS, AND 24 MECHANICS; NIGHTLY SCHEDULES ARE COORDINATED BY A PLANNER. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  4. Thermal evolution of the Greater Himalaya, Garhwal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, K. V.; Silverberg, David Scott

    1988-06-01

    The hanging wall of the Main Central Thrust (MCT) in Garhwal, India (roughly 79°N-80°E; 30°N-31°N), exhibits an inverted metamorphic gradient: sillimanite ± potassium feldspar assemblages near the top of the hanging wall, or Greater Himalayan sequence, are underlain by kyanite grade rocks near the fault. Textural relationships in pelitic samples from the Alaknanda and Dhauli river valleys indicate that the "inversion" is the product of two distinct metamorphic events: an early Harrovian event (M1), which affected the entire Greater, Himalayan sequence and a later Buchan event (M2), the effects of which are most obvious in the upper part of the sequence. Rim thermobarometry, garnet inclusion thermobarometry, and thermodynamic modeling of garnet zoning reveal that the basal portions of the metamorphic sequence experienced peak M1 conditions of >900 K and >960 MPa (roughly 36 km depth) before following an "erosion controlled" uplift path (e.g., England and Richardson, 1977). M2 metamorphic temperatures in the upper part of the sequence also exceeded 900 K, but maximum pressures (317-523 MPa) indicate paleodepths of only 12-19 km. Calculated pressure-temperature paths indicate that M2 was characterized by temperature increases of >80 K and roughly 5 km of tectonic burial We attribute M1 to tectonic burial of the Greater Himalayan sequence during the early stages of India-Eurasia collision. We believe that the uplift and cooling path of the sequence was interrupted in late Oligocene(?) - Miocene time by a second burial and heating event (M2) related to thrust imbrications in southern Tibet. This burial was coincident with the generation of leucogranites, which are abundant near the top of the Greater Himalayan sequence but are virtually absent near the MCT. Field relations do not constrain whether the leucogranites were derived from some presently unexposed portion of the Greater Himalayan sequence and were injected at their present structural level, or were melted

  5. Physicochemical comparison of chitin and chitosan obtained from larvae and adult Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata).

    PubMed

    Kaya, Murat; Baran, Talat; Erdoğan, Sevil; Menteş, Ayfer; Özüsağlam, Meltem Aşan; Çakmak, Yavuz Selim

    2014-12-01

    Chitins and chitosans obtained from larva and adult Colorado potato beetles (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) were physico-chemically characterized and differences between adults and larvae were identified. The dry weight chitin contents of the adult Colorado potato beetles and larvae were determined as 20% and 7%, respectively. The chitin produced chitosan yields of 72% from the adult Colorado potato beetles and 67% from the larvae. FTIR analysis showed that the isolated chitins were in the alpha form. Crystalline index values, determined by XRD, were 72% for larvae and 76% for adults. The degradation temperatures of the isolated chitin structures were measured by TGA, and this showed that the chitin from adult Colorado potato beetles had a more stable structure than that from the larvae. The surface morphologies of the isolated chitin and chitosan structures were analysed with SEM and it was revealed that these structures consisted of nanofibres. According to elemental analysis, the purity of chitin and chitosan from adults was greater than that from the larvae. The results of molecular analysis showed that the chitosans from adults (2.722 kDa) and larvae (2.676 kDa) of the Colorado potato beetle have low molecular weights. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of both adult and larval chitosans were determined. The adult potato beetle is more appropriate than the larvae as an alternative chitin source because of the fact that its dry weight chitin content, chitosan yield and purity of chitin are higher than those from the larvae, and its antimicrobial and antioxidant activities are also higher than those from the larvae. PMID:25491803

  6. Physicochemical comparison of chitin and chitosan obtained from larvae and adult Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata).

    PubMed

    Kaya, Murat; Baran, Talat; Erdoğan, Sevil; Menteş, Ayfer; Özüsağlam, Meltem Aşan; Çakmak, Yavuz Selim

    2014-12-01

    Chitins and chitosans obtained from larva and adult Colorado potato beetles (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) were physico-chemically characterized and differences between adults and larvae were identified. The dry weight chitin contents of the adult Colorado potato beetles and larvae were determined as 20% and 7%, respectively. The chitin produced chitosan yields of 72% from the adult Colorado potato beetles and 67% from the larvae. FTIR analysis showed that the isolated chitins were in the alpha form. Crystalline index values, determined by XRD, were 72% for larvae and 76% for adults. The degradation temperatures of the isolated chitin structures were measured by TGA, and this showed that the chitin from adult Colorado potato beetles had a more stable structure than that from the larvae. The surface morphologies of the isolated chitin and chitosan structures were analysed with SEM and it was revealed that these structures consisted of nanofibres. According to elemental analysis, the purity of chitin and chitosan from adults was greater than that from the larvae. The results of molecular analysis showed that the chitosans from adults (2.722 kDa) and larvae (2.676 kDa) of the Colorado potato beetle have low molecular weights. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of both adult and larval chitosans were determined. The adult potato beetle is more appropriate than the larvae as an alternative chitin source because of the fact that its dry weight chitin content, chitosan yield and purity of chitin are higher than those from the larvae, and its antimicrobial and antioxidant activities are also higher than those from the larvae.

  7. Cognitively Engaging Activity Is Associated with Greater Cortical and Subcortical Volumes

    PubMed Central

    Seider, Talia R.; Fieo, Robert A.; O’Shea, Andrew; Porges, Eric C.; Woods, Adam J.; Cohen, Ronald A.

    2016-01-01

    As the population ages and dementia becomes a growing healthcare concern, it is increasingly important to identify targets for intervention to delay or attenuate cognitive decline. Research has shown that the most successful interventions aim at altering lifestyle factors. Thus, this study examined how involvement in physical, cognitive, and social activity is related to brain structure in older adults. Sixty-five adults (mean age = 71.4 years, standard deviation = 8.9) received the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS), a questionnaire that polls everyday activities in which older adults may be involved, and also underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Stepwise regression with backward selection was used to predict weekly time spent in either social, cognitive, light physical, or heavy physical activity from the volume of one of the cortical or subcortical regions of interest (corrected by intracranial volume) as well as age, education, and gender as control variables. Regressions revealed that more time spent in cognitive activity was associated with greater volumes of all brain regions studied: total cortex (β = 0.289, p = 0.014), frontal (β = 0.276, p = 0.019), parietal (β = 0.305, p = 0.009), temporal (β = 0.275, p = 0.020), and occipital (β = 0.256, p = 0.030) lobes, and thalamus (β = 0.310, p = 0.010), caudate (β = 0.233, p = 0.049), hippocampus (β = 0.286, p = 0.017), and amygdala (β = 0.336, p = 0.004). These effects remained even after accounting for the positive association between cognitive activity and education. No other activity variable was associated with brain volumes. Results indicate that time spent in cognitively engaging activity is associated with greater cortical and subcortical brain volume. Findings suggest that interventions aimed at increasing levels of cognitive activity may delay cognitive consequences of aging and decrease the risk of developing dementia. PMID:27199740

  8. Use of song as an effective teaching strategy for nutrition education in older adults.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Jacquelyn W; Jayaratne, K S U; Bird, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore whether singing an educational song would be effective in improving older adults' knowledge about nutrition. We used a randomized controlled design to determine whether singing an educational song would result in increased nutrition knowledge in a low-income population of older adults compared to a control group of similar adults who did not sing the song. Eighteen congregate nutrition sites were randomly assigned to the treatment or control group. Analysis via independent samples t -test showed the knowledge gain mean scores for the treatment group were significantly ( P  < 0.05) greater than those of the control group. This study supports a unique new approach to increasing nutrition knowledge of older adults by using music. PMID:25803602

  9. Influence of hyperoxia and mechanical ventilation in lung inflammation and diaphragm function in aged versus adult rats.

    PubMed

    Andrade, P V; dos Santos, J M; Silva, H C A; Wilbert, D D; Cavassani, S S; Oliveira-Júnior, I S

    2014-04-01

    Although assist ventilation with FIO2 0.21 is the preferable mode of ventilation in the intensive care unit, sometimes controlled ventilation with hyperoxia is needed. But the impact of this setting has not been extensively studied in elderly subjects. We hypothesized that a high fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO(2)) and controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) is associated with greater deleterious effects in old compared to adult subjects. Adult and old rats were submitted to CMV with low tidal volume (6 ml/kg) and FiO(2) 1 during 3 or 6 h. Arterial blood gas samples were measured at 0, 60 and 180 min (four groups: old and adult rats, 3 or 6 h of CMV), and additionally at 360 min (two groups: old and adult rats, 6 h of CMV). Furthermore, total protein content (TPC) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in bronchoalveolar lavage were assessed; lung tissue was used for malondialdehyde and histological analyses, and the diaphragm for measurement of contractile function. Arterial blood gas analysis showed an initial (60 min) greater PaO(2) in elderly versus adult animals; after that time, elderly animals had lowers pH and PaO(2), and greater PaCO(2). After 3 h of CMV, TPC and TNF-α levels were higher in the old compared with the adult group (P < 0.05). After 6 h of MV, malondialdehyde was significantly higher in elderly compared with the adult animals (P < 0.05). Histological analysis showed leukocyte infiltration and edema, greater in old animals. In diaphragm, twitch contraction with caffeine significantly declined after 6 h of CMV only for the elderly group. These data support the hypothesis that relatively short-term CMV with low tidal volume and hyperoxia has greatest impact in elderly rats, decreasing diaphragmatic contractile function and increasing lung inflammation.

  10. Do Inequalities in Adult Learning Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Fiona; Iain Murray; Berry, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    The National Institute of Adult Continuing Education (NIACE) Adult Participation in Learning Survey 10 years ago showed that two-fifths of the adult population said that they had taken part in learning in the last three years. A decade later, the 2012 survey shows that little has changed--active participation in learning remains a minority…

  11. Job-Sharing at the Greater Victoria Public Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Don

    1978-01-01

    Describes the problems associated with the management of part-time library employees and some solutions afforded by a job sharing arrangement in use at the Greater Victoria Public Library. This is a voluntary work arrangement, changing formerly full-time positions into multiple part-time positions. (JVP)

  12. A Partnership for Development: Public Libraries in Greater Vancouver.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowron, Albert

    Deliberations of the Five Year Plan Committee in 1970 uncovered a need for a separate study on the organization of public libraries in the greater Vancouver area. The results of such a study, conducted in 1971, are contained in this report. Part I dwells on the details of the rapid growth of the Vancouver area in the hope that those responsible…

  13. The Educational Afterlife of Greater Britain, 1903-1914

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Following its late nineteenth-century emergence as an important element within federalist thinking across the British Empire, the idea of Greater Britain lost much of its political force in the years following the Boer War. The concept however continued to retain considerable residual currency in other fields of Imperial debate, including those…

  14. Metagenome Sequencing of the Greater Kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) Rumen Microbiome.

    PubMed

    Dube, Anita N; Moyo, Freeman; Dhlamini, Zephaniah

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant herbivores utilize a symbiotic relationship with microorganisms in their rumen to exploit fibrous foods for nutrition. We report the metagenome sequences of the greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) rumen digesta, revealing a diverse community of microbes and some novel hydrolytic enzymes.

  15. Metagenome Sequencing of the Greater Kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) Rumen Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Dube, Anita N.; Moyo, Freeman

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant herbivores utilize a symbiotic relationship with microorganisms in their rumen to exploit fibrous foods for nutrition. We report the metagenome sequences of the greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) rumen digesta, revealing a diverse community of microbes and some novel hydrolytic enzymes. PMID:26272573

  16. Metagenome Sequencing of the Greater Kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) Rumen Microbiome.

    PubMed

    Dube, Anita N; Moyo, Freeman; Dhlamini, Zephaniah

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant herbivores utilize a symbiotic relationship with microorganisms in their rumen to exploit fibrous foods for nutrition. We report the metagenome sequences of the greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) rumen digesta, revealing a diverse community of microbes and some novel hydrolytic enzymes. PMID:26272573

  17. Contaminants in greater snow geese and their eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; Heyland, J.D.; Reed, A.; Laporte, P.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports on organochlorine pesticide, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), and mercury residues in eggs and tissues of greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) and provides data on egg length and width, egg and shell weight, shell thickness, and the index of thickness.

  18. Report Urges Greater Coordination of European Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2007-01-01

    A new report assessing the state of doctoral education in Europe says that, even as 47 European nations enter the final phase of harmonizing their degree programs, Ph.D.-level education across Europe suffers from a lack of coordination and cooperation. "There is an urgent need for greater consultation and coordination at the regional, national,…

  19. On the Occurrence of Standardized Regression Coefficients Greater than One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deegan, John, Jr.

    1978-01-01

    It is demonstrated here that standardized regression coefficients greater than one can legitimately occur. Furthermore, the relationship between the occurrence of such coefficients and the extent of multicollinearity present among the set of predictor variables in an equation is examined. Comments on the interpretation of these coefficients are…

  20. Report on the Greater Kansas City Hispanic Needs Assessment, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Francisco H.; And Others

    The Greater Kansas City Community Foundation conducted a formal, comprehensive needs assessment designed to address what the Hispanic community sees as its important needs. Data were gathered by surveying 100 residents of Hispanic neighborhoods, 53 Hispanic and non-Hispanic community leaders city-wide, and 28 heads of agencies located in the…

  1. Laparoscopic Greater Curve Plication as an Outpatient Weight Loss Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Ilvia

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Laparoscopic greater curve plication is emerging as a weight loss procedure that avoids many of the complications of other surgeries that require gastrointestinal division, amputation, or use of a foreign body. Cost savings and affordability have also been promoted, as plication does not require the use of stapling devices, adjustable gastric bands, or prolonged hospitalization. The ability to predictably perform plication as an outpatient surgery may further define its role as a therapeutic option for treating morbid obesity. We present the 30-day outcomes and supplementary 12-month data in a series of 141 laparoscopic greater curve plication surgeries performed as outpatient procedures. Methods: Laparoscopic greater curve plication was performed as outpatient surgery in 141 consecutive patients. Outcomes including perioperative complications, incidental 12-month follow-up for weight loss, and change in diabetic and hypertensive medication are reported. Results: Of the 141 plications performed, 138 patients were discharged from the recovery room and 6 were readmitted. There was no conversion to open surgery and no mortality. Conclusions: The ability to reliably perform greater curve plication as an outpatient surgery may further define its role as an additional weight loss surgery technique. PMID:26508824

  2. Lodging Management Career Questionnaire of Greater Philadelphia Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Robert C., Jr.; Wetzel, Susan J.

    A survey was undertaken by Delaware County Community College's (Pennsylvania) Hotel/Restaurant Management program: (1) to provide students with local up-to-date information regarding the lodging industry in the Greater Philadelphia area; and (2) to provide information regarding necessary skills as perceived by the managers for the purpose of…

  3. Growing parental economic power in parent-adult child households: coresidence and financial dependency in the United States, 1960-2010.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Joan R; Goldscheider, Frances; García-Manglano, Javier

    2013-08-01

    Research on coresidence between parents and their adult children in the United States has challenged the myth that elders are the primary beneficiaries, instead showing that intergenerationally extended households generally benefit the younger generation more than their parents. Nevertheless, the economic fortunes of those at the older and younger ends of the adult life course have shifted in the second half of the twentieth century, with increasing financial well-being among older adults and greater financial strain among younger adults. This article uses U.S. census and American Community Survey (ACS) data to examine the extent to which changes in generational financial well-being over the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries have been reflected in the likelihood of coresidence and financial dependency in parent-adult child U.S. households between 1960 and 2010. We find that younger adults have become more financially dependent on their parents and that while older adults have become more financially independent of their adult children, they nevertheless coreside with their needy adult children. We also find that the effect of economic considerations in decisions about coresidence became increasingly salient for younger adults, but decreasingly so for older adults.

  4. Developmental Differences in Parenting Behavior: Comparing Adolescent, Emerging Adult, and Adult Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Amy; Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Ronzio, Cynthia R.

    2013-01-01

    The nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth cohort data set was used to compare parenting behaviors of adolescent mothers (less than 19 years old), emerging adult mothers (19-25 years old), and adult mothers (greater than 25 years old) when their children were 2 years old. Regression models controlling for socioeconomic…

  5. Predictors of Adult Education Program Satisfaction in Urban Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamashita, Takashi; López, Erick B.; Keene, Jennifer R.; Kinney, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Lifelong learning is receiving greater attention due to population aging in modern societies. Lifelong learning benefits individuals by supporting their physical, psychological, social, and economic well-being. However, older adults generally have lower motivation for learning than younger adults, and facilitating long-term participation in…

  6. Cougar survival and source-sink structure on Greater Yellowstone's Northern Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruth, T.K.; Haroldson, M.A.; Murphy, K.M.; Buotte, P.C.; Hornocker, M.G.; Quigley, H.B.

    2011-01-01

    We studied survival and causes of mortality of radiocollared cougars (Puma concolor) on the Greater Yellowstone Northern Range (GYNR) prior to (1987–1994) and after wolf (Canis lupus) reintroduction (1998–2005) and evaluated temporal, spatial, and environmental factors that explain variation in adult, subadult, and kitten survival. Using Program MARK and multimodel inference, we modeled cougar survival based on demographic status, season, and landscape attributes. Our best models for adult and independent subadults indicated that females survived better than males and survival increased with age until cougars reached older ages. Lower elevations and increasing density of roads, particularly in areas open to cougar hunting north of Yellowstone National Park (YNP), increased mortality risks for cougars on the GYNR. Indices of ungulate biomass, cougar and wolf population size, winter severity, rainfall, and individual characteristics such as the presence of dependent young, age class, and use of Park or Wilderness were not important predictors of survival. Kitten survival increased with age, was lower during winter, increased with increasing minimum estimates of elk calf biomass, and increased with increasing density of adult male cougars. Using our best model, we mapped adult cougar survival on the GYNR landscape. Results of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated a good model fit for both female (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.70–0.92, n = 35 locations) and male cougars (AUC = 0.84, 95%CI = 0.74–0.94, n = 49 locations) relative to hunter harvest locations in our study area. Using minimum estimates of survival necessary to sustain the study population, we developed a source-sink surface and we identify several measures that resource management agencies can take to enhance cougar population management based on a source-sink strategy.

  7. Successful treatment of capture myopathy in three wild greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida).

    PubMed

    Businga, Nancy K; Langenberg, Julie; Carlson, LaVinda

    2007-12-01

    Two adult and 1 juvenile free-flying greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) were diagnosed with capture myopathy after alpha-chloralose baiting and physical capture during a banding and feeding ecologic study. Blood samples were collected for serum biochemical analysis at the time of capture for the 2 adults, and at 24 hours postcapture, at various intervals during treatment, and at the time of release for all 3 birds. Concentrations of creatine kinase, aspartate transaminase, and lactate dehydrogenase were high within 1 hour of capture and peaked approximately 3 days after capture. By days 10-17 after capture, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase concentrations both decreased to within the reference range measured for cranes at capture, but aspartate transaminase concentrations remained 2-5 times higher than the measured reference range. Treatment consisted of corticosteroids, selenium/vitamin E, parenteral fluids, and gavage feedings. Physical therapy consisted of assisting the cranes to stand and walk 2-8 times a day, massaging leg muscles, and moving limbs manually through the range of motion. The adults were released when they were able to stand up independently and were pacing in the pen. The juvenile was released 12 hours after it was able to stand independently but was returned to the pen when it fell and could not rise. It was treated supportively for an additional 3 days and then successfully released. Both adult cranes were observed on their territories with their original mates after release and returned to their territories for the subsequent 8 years, raising chicks most years. After release, the juvenile was observed in a flock of cranes near its natal territory for the next 2 days.

  8. Corpus callosum size and diffusion tensor anisotropy in adolescents and adults with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Balevich, Emily C; Haznedar, M Mehmet; Wang, Eugene; Newmark, Randall E; Bloom, Rachel; Schneiderman, Jason S; Aronowitz, Jonathan; Tang, Cheuk Y; Chu, King-Wai; Byne, William; Buchsbaum, Monte S; Hazlett, Erin A

    2015-03-30

    The corpus callosum has been implicated as a region of dysfunctional connectivity in schizophrenia, but the association between age and callosal pathology is unclear. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) were performed on adults (n=34) and adolescents (n=17) with schizophrenia and adult (n=33) and adolescent (n=15) age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The corpus callosum was manually traced on each participant׳s MRI, and the DTI scan was co-registered to the MRI. The corpus callosum was divided into five anteroposterior segments. Area and anisotropy were calculated for each segment. Both patient groups demonstrated reduced callosal anisotropy; however, the adolescents exhibited reductions mostly in anterior regions while the reductions were more prominent in posterior regions of the adults. The adolescent patients showed greater decreases in absolute area as compared with the adult patients, particularly in the anterior segments. However, the adults showed greater reductions when area was considered relative to whole brain white matter volume. Our results suggest that the initial stages of the illness are characterized by deficiencies in frontal connections, and the chronic phase is characterized by deficits in the posterior corpus callosum; or, alternatively, adolescent-onset schizophrenia may represent a different or more severe form of the illness.

  9. Tough Times for Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckett, Alan; Aldridge, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    The key message of NIACE's 2011 survey of adult participation in learning is that recession is bad for lifelong learning for anyone over the age of 25. The survey highlights the central importance of workplaces as sites of adult learning--and the challenges posed to a learning society when opportunities to learn reduce. It shows that the gap…

  10. Asteroid Ida - 6 Views Showing Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This composite image shows the asteroid 243 Ida as seen from the Galileo spacecraft during its approach on August 28, 1993. The six views were shuttered through the camera's green filter and show Ida's rotation over a period of about 3 hours 18 minutes. The asteroid makes a complete rotation every 4 hours 38 minutes; therefore, this set of images spans about 3/4 of Ida's rotation period and shows most of Ida's surface. By combining the information in these views with that from the highest resolution images returned from the spacecraft in September 1993, the size and shape of this irregular body can now be determined accurately The asteroid appears to be about 58 kilometers (36 miles) long and about 23 kilometers wide, with a very irregular shape and volume of some 16,000 cubic kilometers. The images are arranged in chronological order from a time 3 hours 51 minutes before closest approach (upper left), through upper right, middle left, middle right lower left and lower right (33 minutes before closest approach). The six images show Ida at the same scale throughout. Ida's rotation axis is roughly vertical in these images, and the rotation causes the right-hand end of Ida to move toward the viewer as time progresses. The first image was taken from a range of about 171,000 km (106,000 miles) and provides an image resolution of about 1,700 meters per pixel (the highest resolution achieved for Ida is about 25 meters per pixel). The second, taken 70 minutes later, is from 119,000 kilometers, followed by 102,000 kilometers, 85,000 kilometers, 50,000 kilometers, and 25,000 kilometers. The features on Ida are less sharp in the earlier views because of the greater distances. Prominent in the middle three views is a deep depression across the short axis of the Asteroid. This feature tends to support the idea that Ida may have originally been formed from two or more separate large objects that collided softly and stuck together. Also visible in the lower left view is an

  11. Childhood beauty pageant contestants: associations with adult disordered eating and mental health.

    PubMed

    Wonderlich, Anna L; Ackard, Diann M; Henderson, Judith B

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the association between childhood beauty pageants and adult disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, depression, and self-esteem. Eleven women who participated in childhood beauty pageants were matched on age and BMI with 11 non-participating women. Childhood pageant participants scored higher on body dissatisfaction, interpersonal distrust, and impulse dysregulation than non-participants, and showed a trend toward greater ineffectiveness. There were no significant differences between groups on measures of bulimia, body perception, depression, and self-esteem. These findings suggest childhood beauty pageant participation may influence adult body dissatisfaction, interpersonal distrust, and impulse dysregulation, but not bulimic behaviors, body perception, depression, and self-esteem. PMID:16864534

  12. Investigating the psychometric properties of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale for South African residents of Greater Pretoria.

    PubMed

    Westaway, Margaret S; Jordaan, Esmè R; Tsai, Jennifer

    2015-06-01

    Interviewers administered the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale (RSES) to five groups of Black (formal township and informal settlement), White, Indian, and mixed race adult residents of Greater Pretoria. The results demonstrated that the RSES was psychometrically sound for the five groups. The minimal effects of sociodemographic characteristics on global self-esteem showed that the RSES and its two dimensions, self-competence (SC) and self-liking (SL), were suitable in this setting. All five groups scored above the theoretical midpoint of the RSES, indicating that generally positive self-evaluations appear to be universal. The relationships between positively and negatively worded items, SC, and SL attested to the following: internal structure reliability, congruence between positive and negative items, no negative biases in response, and concordance between SC and SL dimensions. The significant differences between informal settlement residents and the other four groups on global self-esteem, positively and negatively worded items, and SC and SL were possibly due to physiological needs taking precedence over higher order needs.

  13. Higher baseline irisin concentrations are associated with greater reductions in glycemia and insulinemia after weight loss in obese subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Legarrea, P; de la Iglesia, R; Crujeiras, A B; Pardo, M; Casanueva, F F; Zulet, M A; Martinez, J A

    2014-01-01

    Irisin is assumed to be a relevant link between muscle and weight maintenance as well as to mediate exercise benefits on health. The aim of this study was to assess the possible associations between irisin levels and glucose homeostasis in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS) following an energy-restricted treatment. Ninety-six adults with excessive body weight and MetS features underwent a hypocaloric dietary pattern for 8 weeks, within the RESMENA randomized controlled trial (www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01087086). After the intervention, dietary restriction significantly reduced body weight and evidenced a dietary-induced decrease in circulating levels of irisin in parallel with improvements on glucose homeostasis markers. Interestingly, participants with higher irisin values at baseline (above the median) showed a greater reduction on glucose (P=0.022) and insulin (P=0.021) concentrations as well as on the homeostasis model assessment index (P=0.008) and triglycerides (P=0.006) after the dietary intervention, compared with those presenting low-irisin baseline values (below the median). Interestingly, a positive correlation between irisin and carbohydrate intake was found at the end of the experimental period. In conclusion, irisin appears to be involved in glucose metabolism regulation after a dietary-induced weight loss. PMID:24567125

  14. Adult Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Billie H.

    This document contains a brief bibliography of peer-reviewed literature, with abstracts, on adult children. It is one of 12 bibliographies on aging prepared by the National Agricultural Library for its "Pathfinders" series of publications. Topics covered by the other 11 bibliographies include aging parents, dementia and Alzheimer's disease in the…

  15. Adult Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bischof, Ledford J.

    This volume comprehensively reviews the research on the psychology of the middle aged (ages 40-65). Topics include the concept of maturity and maturation models, the measurement and influences of adult self image; marriage and sexual patterns; intergenerational relationships between and children; vocations and avocations (work, retirement, play,…

  16. Mercury source sector asssessment for the Greater Milwaukee Area

    SciTech Connect

    Obenauf, P.; Skavroneck, S.

    1997-09-01

    The Mercury Reduction Project for the Greater Milwaukee Area is a joint effort of the Pollution Prevention Partnership, Milwaukee Metropolitan Seweage District (MMSD) and Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Estimates of the amounts of mercury present, used and/or annually released to air, land and water within the MMSD service area are provided for 25 source sectors. This 420 square mile area (including Milwaukee County and parts of Waukesha, Racine, Ozaukee and Washington Counties) is home to just over 1 million people. The tables and figures summarize the relative amounts of mercury: annually released from purposeful uses; annually released due to trace impurities; and present or in use from the various source sectors in the Greater Milwaukee Area.

  17. Trafficking in persons and development: towards greater policy coherence.

    PubMed

    Danailova-Trainor, Gergana; Laczko, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Poverty is often regarded as the "root cause" of trafficking, but the linkages between poverty, a lack of development and trafficking are complex. For example, there is some evidence to suggest that victims of cross-border trafficking are more likely to originate from middle-income rather than lower-income countries. Trafficking and development have tended to be treated as very separate policy areas and the assessment of the development impact of counter-trafficking programmes is still at an early stage. This paper outlines a possible framework for a more evidence-based approach to understanding the linkages between trafficking, trafficking policy and human development. The paper argues that the human development gains from greater mobility could be significantly enhanced if there was greater coherence between policies to combat trafficking and policies to promote development. PMID:20645470

  18. Subspecies of the greater scaup and their names

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    The name Fuligula mariloides Vigors, presently used by many authors for a subspecies of the Greater Scaup, Aythya marila, was originally proposed for the Lesser Scaup, A. afinis, and may not be used in combination with the name marila. The name mariloides has been applied to a population of Greater Scaup in Kamchatka and the Commander Islands, supposedly distinguished by small size and dark dorsal color, or for that population and the one in North America, otherwise known as A. m. nearctica. Evidence for a subspecifically distinct population in eastern Asia is lacking, and A. marila is best considered to consist of only the Eurasian A. m. marila and the American A. m. nearctica. There is some interchange of the two subspecies in migration.

  19. Taxonomy of Greater White-fronted Geese (Aves: Anatidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Five subspecies of the Greater White-fronted Goose, Anser albifrons (Scopoli, 1769), have been named, all on the basis of wintering birds, and up to six subspecies have been recognized. There has been confusion over the application of some names, particularly in North America, because of lack of knowledge of the breeding ranges and type localities, and incorrect taxonomic decisions. There is one clinally varying subspecies in Eurasia, one that breeds in Greenland, and three in North America, one newly named herein.

  20. Changing Water Environment in the Greater Jakarta Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawitan, H.; Delinom, R.; Lubis, R. F.

    2014-12-01

    Recent rapid economic development in the greater Jakarta areas has caused not only increased water resources demands but also affects the water environment due to population increase and land use changes, that further causes land degradation, and changes in hydrologic regimes and environmental qualities. In the present study, the water environmental capacities as indicated by the changing landscapes in the greater Jakarta basins were investigated to understand the role of land use management and its impact on water resources, ecosystem and environmental services. The Ciliwung river basin where rapid population increases and progresses of the land use/cover changes occurring was selected as a representative basin, and 41 water samplings were taken at different time of Jan. 08, Apr. 08, Jul. 08, and Oct. 08 during 2009 to understand the effect of rainfall variation on water quality, and clarify the characteristics of hydrological cycle. Landuse changes of the upper basins as can be seen for the upper basin indicated the expansion of settlements during 1990 to 2004 from 4.1% to 17.6% or in acreage increased almost five times, not only converting forested area, but mostly taking place from paddy fields that contributed about 50% of the additional land for new settlements. Urbanization expanding around the greater Jakarta basins, is closely related to the increased fluctuations of river discharges in recent years, with recurrence floods quickly after heavy rainfall events. Furthermore, the study results indicated that water quality of Ciliwung river, especially the loading concentrations of nitric acid closely reflects the population densities of the watershed. These results suggest that the land use/cover changes of the greater Jakarta basins affect largely the change of water environment of the areas and resulting a deteriorated factor for water resources, ecosystems and environmental services in both of quantity and quality

  1. Gaining a greater share of the healthcare dollar.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, R N

    1986-01-01

    Are physicians being left out as hospitals rush to form outpatient surgery centers, diagnostic imaging centers, home health agencies, and other new financial ventures? Joint ventures and revenue diversification offer an often unexplored means for medical group practice to profit from the many financial opportunities created by the changing reimbursement system. Out-lined here are the considerations involved in the formation of an alternative health delivery system to help medical group practices gain a greater share of the healthcare dollar.

  2. Integrating parasitology and marine ecology: Seven challenges towards greater synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulin, Robert; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Randhawa, Haseeb S.

    2016-07-01

    Despite their very different historical origins as scientific disciplines, parasitology and marine ecology have already combined successfully to make important contributions to our understanding of the functioning of natural ecosystems. For example, robust assessments of the contribution of parasites to ecosystem biomass and energetics, and of their impact on community-wide biodiversity and food web structure, have all been made for the first time in marine systems. Nevertheless, for the marriage between parasitology and marine ecology to remain fruitful, several challenges must first be overcome. We discuss seven such challenges on the road to a greater synergy between these disciplines: (1) Raising awareness of parasitism as an ecological force by increasing the proportion of articles about parasites and diseases in marine ecology journals; (2) Making greater use of theory and conceptual frameworks from marine ecology to guide parasitological research; (3) Speeding up or at least maintaining the current rate at which marine parasites are found and described; (4) Elucidating a greater proportion of life cycles in all major groups of marine parasites; (5) Increasing the number of host-parasite model systems on which our knowledge is based; (6) Extending parasitological research offshore and into ocean depths; and (7) Developing, as needed, new epidemiological theory and transmission models for the marine environment. None of these challenges is insurmountable, and addressing just a few of them should guarantee that parasitology and marine ecology will continue to join forces and make further substantial contributions.

  3. Dietary phosphorus is associated with greater left ventricular mass.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kalani T; Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; de Oliveira, Marcia C; Kostina, Alina; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Ix, Joachim H; Nguyen, Ha; Eng, John; Lima, Joao A C; Siscovick, David S; Weiss, Noel S; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2013-04-01

    Dietary phosphorus consumption has risen steadily in the United States. Oral phosphorus loading alters key regulatory hormones and impairs vascular endothelial function, which may lead to an increase in left ventricular mass (LVM). We investigated the association of dietary phosphorus with LVM in 4494 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a community-based study of individuals who were free of known cardiovascular disease. The intake of dietary phosphorus was estimated using a 120-item food frequency questionnaire and the LVM was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Regression models were used to determine associations of estimated dietary phosphorus with LVM and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Mean estimated dietary phosphorus intake was 1167 mg/day in men and 1017 mg/day in women. After adjustment for demographics, dietary sodium, total calories, lifestyle factors, comorbidities, and established LVH risk factors, each quintile increase in the estimated dietary phosphate intake was associated with an estimated 1.1 g greater LVM. The highest gender-specific dietary phosphorus quintile was associated with an estimated 6.1 g greater LVM compared with the lowest quintile. Higher dietary phosphorus intake was associated with greater odds of LVH among women, but not men. These associations require confirmation in other studies.

  4. Distribution of Permo-Carboniferous clastics of Greater Arabian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Laboun, A.A.

    1987-05-01

    Strikingly correlative sequences of sediments composed of sandstones, siltstones, shales, and thin argillaceous carbonate beds are present, practically everywhere, underlying the Late Permian carbonates in the Greater Arabian basin. The Greater Arabian basin as defined here occupies the broad Arabian Shelf that borders the Arabian shield. This basin is composed of several smaller basins. These clastics are exposed as thin bands and scattered small exposures in several localities around the margins of the basin. The Permo-Carboniferous clastics are represented by the Unayzah Formation of Arabia, the Doubayat Group of Syria, the Hazro Formation of southeast Turkey, the Ga'arah Formation of Iraq, the Faraghan Formation of southwest Iran, and the Haushi Group of Oman. A Late Carboniferous-Early Permian age is assigned to these clastics because they contain fossil plants and palynomorphs. These sediments represent time-transgressive fluctuating sea deposits following a phase of regional emergence, erosion, and structural disturbance which preceded the Permian transgression. The basal contact of these clastics is marked by a well-pronounced angular unconformity with various older units, ranging in age from early Carboniferous to late Precambrian. This regional unconformity is probably related to the Hercynian movements. The upper contact is conformable with the Permian carbonates. The porous sandstones of the Permo-Carboniferous sediments are important hydrocarbon exploration targets. These reservoir rocks sometimes overlie mature source rocks and are capped by shales, marls, and tight carbonates. Significant quantities of hydrocarbons are contained in these reservoirs in different parts of the Greater Arabian basin.

  5. Assessing the geologic evolution of Greater Thaumasia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, Don R.; Judice, Taylor; Karunatillake, Suniti; Rogers, Deanne; Dohm, James M.; Susko, David; Carnes, Lorraine K.

    2016-09-01

    The Greater Thaumasia region consists of three chemical provinces that include Syria, Solis, and Thaumasia Planae, the Corprates Rise, part of the Thaumasia Highlands, and the transition zone northwest of the Argyre basin. Chemical signatures obtained from the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer suggest low abundances of K and Th to the west, with low H abundances and high Si abundances to the east, relative to the bulk Martian crust at midlatitudes. These observations are confirmed and quantified with a modified box and whisker analysis that simultaneously captures the degree of deviation and significance of the regionally anomalous chemistry. Motivated by regionally unique chemistry, as well as its diverse geological history, we characterize Greater Thaumasia in terms of chemistry, mineralogy, and mapped geology to determine how such complementary data record the evolution of this region. Our observations are inconsistent with a proposed salt-lubricated landslide origin, particularly given the lack of chemical or mineralogical signatures to support near-surface salt deposits that should arise over geological timescales. Our observations instead support magmatic processes, such as mantle evolution over geological time, which may impart the Si-enriched signature of the eastern portion of Greater Thaumasia as well as the K and Th depletion of the southeastern flank of Syria Planum. While the observed trend of decreasing K and Th from Noachian to Hesperian lavas is inconsistent with previous models of Martian mantle evolution, we see an increase in Ca content at the Noachian-Hesperian boundary, consistent with predictions from thermodynamic modeling.

  6. Greater Green River basin well-site selection

    SciTech Connect

    Frohne, K.H.; Boswell, R.

    1993-12-31

    Recent estimates of the natural gas resources of Cretaceous low-permeability reservoirs of the Greater Green River basin indicate that as much as 5000 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of gas may be in place (Law and others 1989). Of this total, Law and others (1989) attributed approximately 80 percent to the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group and Lewis Shale. Unfortunately, present economic conditions render the drilling of many vertical wells unprofitable. Consequently, a three-well demonstration program, jointly sponsored by the US DOE/METC and the Gas Research Institute, was designed to test the profitability of this resource using state-of-the-art directional drilling and completion techniques. DOE/METC studied the geologic and engineering characteristics of ``tight`` gas reservoirs in the eastern portion of the Greater Green River basin in order to identify specific locations that displayed the greatest potential for a successful field demonstration. This area encompasses the Rocks Springs Uplift, Wamsutter Arch, and the Washakie and Red Desert (or Great Divide) basins of southwestern Wyoming. The work was divided into three phases. Phase 1 consisted of a regional geologic reconnaissance of 14 gas-producing areas encompassing 98 separate gas fields. In Phase 2, the top four areas were analyzed in greater detail, and the area containing the most favorable conditions was selected for the identification of specific test sites. In Phase 3, target horizons were selected for each project area, and specific placement locations were selected and prioritized.

  7. Long-term aerobic exercise is associated with greater muscle strength throughout the life span.

    PubMed

    Crane, Justin D; Macneil, Lauren G; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive decline in muscle strength, muscle mass, and aerobic capacity, which reduces mobility and impairs quality of life in elderly adults. Exercise is commonly employed to improve muscle function in individuals of all ages; however, chronic aerobic exercise is believed to largely impact cardiovascular function and oxidative metabolism, with minimal effects on muscle mass and strength. To study the effects of long-term aerobic exercise on muscle strength, we recruited 74 sedentary (SED) or highly aerobically active (ACT) men and women from within three distinct age groups (young: 20-39 years, middle: 40-64 years, and older: 65-86 years) and tested their aerobic capacity, isometric grip and knee extensor strength, and dynamic 1 repetition maximum knee extension. As expected, ACT subjects had greater maximal oxygen uptake and peak aerobic power output compared with SED subjects (p < .05). Grip strength relative to body weight declined with age (p < .05) and was greater in ACT compared with SED subjects in both hands (p < .05). Similarly, relative maximal isometric knee extension torque declined with age (p < .05) and was higher in ACT versus SED individuals in both legs (p < .05). Absolute and relative 1 repetition maximum knee extension declined with age (p < .05) and were greater in ACT versus SED groups (p < .05). Knee extensor strength was associated with a greater amount of leg lean mass in the ACT subjects (p < .05). In summary, long-term aerobic exercise appears to attenuate age-related reductions in muscle strength in addition to its cardiorespiratory and metabolic benefits.

  8. A Structuration Theory Analysis of the Refugee Action Support Program in Greater Western Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Loshini

    2009-01-01

    This article uses Gidden's structuration theory to analyse the Refugee Action Support program in Greater Western Sydney. The study shows that many refugee students in Australian high schools experience difficulty with academic transition in mainstream classrooms due to their previous experiences in war-torn countries. As a result of the trauma…

  9. Family or Friends: Who Plays a Greater Supportive Role for Latino College Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Norma; Mira, Consuelo Bingham; Myers, Hector F.; Morris, Julie K.; Cardoza, Desdemona

    2003-01-01

    Compares the relative contribution of perceived family and friend support to psychological well-being and distress and examined whether family or friend support moderated the effects of stress on psychological adjustment in 338 Latino college students. Results showed that friend support made a slightly greater contribution to well-being than…

  10. 41. GARRET TRUSS DETAIL. This view was taken to show ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. GARRET TRUSS DETAIL. This view was taken to show that the 'Rafters' (as called in the 1755 account for scantling for the Greater Meeting House) were first hewn with a broad axe and them sawn to size. - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. Communal nesting increases pup growth but has limited effects on adult behavior and neurophysiology in inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Heiderstadt, Kathleen M; Vandenbergh, David J; Gyekis, Joseph P; Blizard, David A

    2014-03-01

    Laboratory mice preferentially rear their offspring in communal nests (CN), with all mothers contributing to maternal care and feeding of all the pups. Previous studies using primarily outbred mice have shown that offspring reared under CN conditions may display increased preweaning growth rates and differences in adult behavior and neurobiology compared with mice reared under single-nesting (SN; one dam with her litter) conditions. Here we compared pup mortality; weaning and adult body weights; adult behavior; and gene expression in the hippocampus and frontal cortex between C57BL/6J, DBA/2J and 129x1/SvJ mice reared by using CN (3 dams and their litters sharing a single nest) or SN. Male and female pups of all 3 strains reared in CN cages showed higher body weight at weaning than did SN pups of the same strain, with no significant difference in pup mortality between groups. Adult male offspring reared in CN showed no differences in any behavioral test when compared with SN offspring. Combining CN dams and litters after parturition revealed greater cortical brain-derived neurotropic factor expression in adult male C57BL/6J offspring and cortical glucocorticoid receptor expression in adult male C57BL/6J and 129x1/SvJ offspring as compared with SN offspring of the same strain. Communal rearing can enhance juvenile growth rates but does not change adult behavior in inbred mouse strains, although potential effects on adult neurophysiology are possible.

  12. Atypical EEG Beta Asymmetry in Adults with ADHD1

    PubMed Central

    Hale, T. Sigi; Smalley, Susan L.; Walshaw, Patricia D.; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; McCracken, James T.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.

    2010-01-01

    Background Abnormal brain laterality (ABL) is well established in ADHD. However, its clinical specificity and association to cognitive and clinical symptoms is not yet understood. Previous studies indicate increased right hemisphere (RH) contribution in both ADHD and reading impaired samples. The current study investigates whether this ABL characteristic occurs in adults with ADHD absent comorbid language impairment. Methods EEG beta asymmetry was compared in 35 adult ADHD subjects and 104 controls during rest and active cognition. Group differences in beta asymmetry were then further evaluated for association to linguistic and attentional abilities, as well as association to beta asymmetry measures across different brain regions. Results Adults with ADHD showed pronounced rightward beta asymmetry (p = .00001) in inferior parietal regions (P8-P7) during a continuous performance task (CPT) that could not be attributed to linguistic ability. Among ADHD subjects only, greater rightward beta asymmetry at this measure was correlated with better CPT performance. Furthermore, this measure showed a lack of normal association (i.e., observed in controls) to left-biased processing in temporal-parietal (TP8-TP7) brain regions important for higher order language functions. Conclusion Adult ADHD involves abnormally increased right-biased contribution to CPT processing that could not be attributed to poor language ability. This appears to also involve abnormal recruitment of LH linguistic processing regions and represents an alternative, albeit less effective, CPT processing strategy. These findings suggest different pathophysiologic mechanisms likely underlie RH biased processing in ADHD and reading impaired samples. PMID:20705076

  13. ADULT EDUCATION OF MIGRANT ADULTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BEAL, CATHERINE; AND OTHERS

    UNITS ON MIGRANT ADULT EDUCATION, AND A UNIT ON ORGANIZING INFORMAL GROUPS OF MIGRANT WOMEN TO DISCUSS MAINTAINING AND IMPROVING THEIR TEMPORARY HOMES, ARE PRESENTED. THE GOALS OF THE UNIT ON EDUCATION FOR MIGRANT MEN ARE ECONOMIC INDEPENDENCE, BETTER HEALTH AND WELL-BEING, AND BETTER HANDLING OF RESPONSIBILITIES. THE MAIN DIVISIONS OF THE…

  14. Necrotizing fasciitis following endoscopic harvesting of the greater saphenous vein for coronary artery bypass graft.

    PubMed

    Liliav, Benjamin; Yakoub, Danny; Kasabian, Armen

    2011-01-01

    The greater saphenous vein (GSV) remains the most commonly harvested conduit for revascularization in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Published literature shows that minimally invasive vein harvesting techniques have a significantly lower incidence of wound infection rates than conventional open vein harvesting techniques have. We report a case of necrotizing fasciitis, an infection with a mortality rate of 30% to 50%, after endoscopic harvesting of the greater saphenous vein to be used as a conduit in a CABG procedure. Though minimally invasive vein harvesting techniques have advantages of smaller incisions and a decreased overall rate of wound infection, clinicians should be aware of this potentially lethal infection that may occur. PMID:21902951

  15. Defining and Dividing the Greater Caribbean: Insights from the Biogeography of Shorefishes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Greater Caribbean biogeographic region is the high-diversity heart of the Tropical West Atlantic, one of four global centers of tropical marine biodiversity. The traditional view of the Greater Caribbean is that it is limited to the Caribbean, West Indies, southwest Gulf of Mexico and tip of Florida, and that, due to its faunal homogeneity, lacks major provincial subdivisions. In this scenario the northern 2/3 of the Gulf of Mexico and southeastern USA represent a separate temperate, “Carolinian” biogeographic region. We completed a comprehensive re-assessment of the biogeography of the Greater Caribbean by comparing the distributions of 1,559 shorefish species within 45 sections of shelf waters of the Greater Caribbean and adjacent areas. This analysis shows that that the Greater Caribbean occupies a much larger area than usually thought, extending south to at least Guyana, and north to encompass the entire Carolinian area. Rather than being homogenous, the Greater Caribbean is divided into three major provinces, each with a distinctive, primarily tropical fauna: (1) a central, tropical province comprising the West Indies, Bermuda and Central America; (2) a southern, upwelling-affected province spanning the entire continental shelf of northern South America; and (iii) a northern, subtropical province that includes all of the Gulf of Mexico, Florida and southeastern USA. This three-province pattern holds for both reef- and soft bottom fishes, indicating a general response by demersal fishes to major variation in provincial shelf environments. Such environmental differences include latitudinal variation in sea temperature, availability of major habitats (coral reefs, soft bottom shorelines, and mangroves), and nutrient additions from upwelling areas and large rivers. The three-province arrangement of the Greater Caribbean broadly resembles and has a similar environmental basis to the provincial arrangement of its sister biogeographic region, the Tropical

  16. Defining and dividing the greater Caribbean: insights from the biogeography of shorefishes.

    PubMed

    Robertson, D Ross; Cramer, Katie L

    2014-01-01

    The Greater Caribbean biogeographic region is the high-diversity heart of the Tropical West Atlantic, one of four global centers of tropical marine biodiversity. The traditional view of the Greater Caribbean is that it is limited to the Caribbean, West Indies, southwest Gulf of Mexico and tip of Florida, and that, due to its faunal homogeneity, lacks major provincial subdivisions. In this scenario the northern 2/3 of the Gulf of Mexico and southeastern USA represent a separate temperate, "Carolinian" biogeographic region. We completed a comprehensive re-assessment of the biogeography of the Greater Caribbean by comparing the distributions of 1,559 shorefish species within 45 sections of shelf waters of the Greater Caribbean and adjacent areas. This analysis shows that that the Greater Caribbean occupies a much larger area than usually thought, extending south to at least Guyana, and north to encompass the entire Carolinian area. Rather than being homogenous, the Greater Caribbean is divided into three major provinces, each with a distinctive, primarily tropical fauna: (1) a central, tropical province comprising the West Indies, Bermuda and Central America; (2) a southern, upwelling-affected province spanning the entire continental shelf of northern South America; and (iii) a northern, subtropical province that includes all of the Gulf of Mexico, Florida and southeastern USA. This three-province pattern holds for both reef- and soft bottom fishes, indicating a general response by demersal fishes to major variation in provincial shelf environments. Such environmental differences include latitudinal variation in sea temperature, availability of major habitats (coral reefs, soft bottom shorelines, and mangroves), and nutrient additions from upwelling areas and large rivers. The three-province arrangement of the Greater Caribbean broadly resembles and has a similar environmental basis to the provincial arrangement of its sister biogeographic region, the Tropical Eastern

  17. Sexual predators, energy development, and conservation in greater Yellowstone.

    PubMed

    Berger, Joel; Beckmann, Jon P

    2010-06-01

    In the United States, as elsewhere, a growing debate pits national energy policy and homeland security against biological conservation. In rural communities the extraction of fossil fuels is often encouraged because of the employment opportunities it offers, although the concomitant itinerant workforce is often associated with increased wildlife poaching. We explored possible positive and negative factors associated with energy extraction in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), an area known for its national parks, intact biological diversity, and some of the New World's longest terrestrial migrations. Specifically, we asked whether counties with different economies-recreation (ski), agrarian (ranching or farming), and energy extractive (petroleum)-differed in healthcare (gauged by the abundance of hospital beds) and in the frequency of sexual predators. The absolute and relative frequency of registered sex offenders grew approximately two to three times faster in areas reliant on energy extraction. Healthcare among counties did not differ. The strong conflation of community dishevel, as reflected by in-migrant sexual predators, and ecological decay in Greater Yellowstone is consistent with patterns seen in similar systems from Ecuador to northern Canada, where social and environmental disarray exist around energy boomtowns. In our case, that groups (albeit with different aims) mobilized campaigns to help maintain the quality of rural livelihoods by protecting open space is a positive sign that conservation can matter, especially in the face of rampant and poorly executed energy extraction projects. Our findings further suggest that the public and industry need stronger regulatory action to instill greater vigilance when and where social factors and land conversion impact biological systems.

  18. Physiological and behavioral effects of acute ethanol hangover in juvenile, adolescent, and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Brasser, Susan M; Spear, Norman E

    2002-04-01

    This study examined differential responding of juvenile, adolescent, and adult rats after intoxication from an acute alcohol challenge. Experiment I generated blood ethanol curves for subjects 25, 35, or 110 days postnatal, after doses of 2.0 or 4.0 g/kg, assessing elimination rates and time of drug clearance. Experiment 2 compared ethanol's initial hypothermic and delayed hyperthermic effect across age by 48-hr temperature measurement with telemetry. At clearance or 24 hr after alcohol exposure, Experiment 3 tested subjects for changes in acoustic startle reactivity and ultrasonic vocalization (USV). Younger rats showed an absent or reduced tendency for residual hyperthermia, and adults showed alterations in USV observed as aftereffects of intoxication, despite greater initial blood alcohol levels and ethanol hypothermia in the former. The lesser ethanol hangover effects in weanlings and adolescents may be due in part to faster ethanol elimination at these ages compared with adults.

  19. Ultradeep (greater than 300 kilometers), ultramafic upper mantle xenoliths.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, S E; Sautter, V

    1990-05-25

    Geophysical discontinuities in Earth's upper mantle and experimental data predict the structural transformation of pyroxene to garnet and the solid-state dissolution of pyroxene into garnet with increasing depth. These predictions are indirectly verified by omphacitic pyroxene exsolution in pyropic garnet-bearing xenoliths from a diamondiferous kimberlite. Conditions for silicon in octahedral sites in the original garnets are met at pressures greater than 130 kilobars, placing the origin of these xenoliths at depths of 300 to 400 kilometers. These ultradeep xenoliths support the theory that the 400-km seismic discontinuity is marked by a transition from peridotite to eclogite. PMID:17745405

  20. Range-wide patterns of greater sage-grouse persistence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aldridge, C.L.; Nielsen, S.E.; Beyer, H.L.; Boyce, M.S.; Connelly, J.W.; Knick, S.T.; Schroeder, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a shrub-steppe obligate species of western North America, currently occupies only half its historical range. Here we examine how broad-scale, long-term trends in landscape condition have affected range contraction. Location: Sagebrush biome of the western USA. Methods: Logistic regression was used to assess persistence and extirpation of greater sage-grouse range based on landscape conditions measured by human population (density and population change), vegetation (percentage of sagebrush habitat), roads (density of and distance to roads), agriculture (cropland, farmland and cattle density), climate (number of severe and extreme droughts) and range periphery. Model predictions were used to identify areas where future extirpations can be expected, while also explaining possible causes of past extirpations. Results: Greater sage-grouse persistence and extirpation were significantly related to sagebrush habitat, cultivated cropland, human population density in 1950, prevalence of severe droughts and historical range periphery. Extirpation of sage-grouse was most likely in areas having at least four persons per square kilometre in 1950, 25% cultivated cropland in 2002 or the presence of three or more severe droughts per decade. In contrast, persistence of sage-grouse was expected when at least 30 km from historical range edge and in habitats containing at least 25% sagebrush cover within 30 km. Extirpation was most often explained (35%) by the combined effects of peripherality (within 30 km of range edge) and lack of sagebrush cover (less than 25% within 30 km). Based on patterns of prior extirpation and model predictions, we predict that 29% of remaining range may be at risk. Main Conclusions: Spatial patterns in greater sage-grouse range contraction can be explained by widely available landscape variables that describe patterns of remaining sagebrush habitat and loss due to cultivation, climatic trends, human

  1. Ultradeep (greater than 300 kilometers), ultramafic upper mantle xenoliths.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, S E; Sautter, V

    1990-05-25

    Geophysical discontinuities in Earth's upper mantle and experimental data predict the structural transformation of pyroxene to garnet and the solid-state dissolution of pyroxene into garnet with increasing depth. These predictions are indirectly verified by omphacitic pyroxene exsolution in pyropic garnet-bearing xenoliths from a diamondiferous kimberlite. Conditions for silicon in octahedral sites in the original garnets are met at pressures greater than 130 kilobars, placing the origin of these xenoliths at depths of 300 to 400 kilometers. These ultradeep xenoliths support the theory that the 400-km seismic discontinuity is marked by a transition from peridotite to eclogite.

  2. Triticum aestivum shows a greater biomass response to a supply of aluminium phosphate than Lupinus albus, despite releasing fewer carboxylates into the rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Pearse, Stuart J; Veneklaas, Erik J; Cawthray, Greg; Bolland, Mike D A; Lambers, Hans

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between carboxylate release and the ability of plants to access phosphorus from AlPO4 and to detoxify aluminium was studied by comparing species with a low and high rate of carboxylate release, Triticum aestivum (wheat) and Lupinus albus (white lupin), respectively. Species were supplied with P at 10, 20, 40 or 100 mg P kg-1 sand in the form of sparingly soluble AlPO4 or soluble KH2PO4; control plants did not receive any P. Triticum aestivum was significantly better than L. albus at accessing P from AlPO4, despite accumulating fewer carboxylates in its rhizosphere. Rhizosphere pH of L. albus did not vary with form or level of P supply, while the rhizosphere pH of T. aestivum increased with the level of P supplied. Based on the evidence in the present study, a model is proposed to explain the poor performance of L. albus, whereby the release of carboxylates and associated protons reduces the chelating ability of exuded carboxylates, thus reducing P acquisition and increasing Al toxicity.

  3. An Endangered Arboreal Specialist, the Western Ringtail Possum (Pseudocheirus occidentalis), Shows a Greater Genetic Divergence across a Narrow Artificial Waterway than a Major Road.

    PubMed

    Yokochi, Kaori; Kennington, Winn Jason; Bencini, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    The fragmentation of habitats by roads and other artificial linear structures can have a profound effect on the movement of arboreal species due to their strong fidelity to canopies. Here, we used 12 microsatellite DNA loci to investigate the fine-scale spatial genetic structure and the effects of a major road and a narrow artificial waterway on a population of the endangered western ringtail possum (Pseudocheirus occidentalis) in Busselton, Western Australia. Using spatial autocorrelation analysis, we found positive genetic structure in continuous habitat over distances up to 600 m. These patterns are consistent with the sedentary nature of P. occidentalis and highlight their vulnerability to the effects of habitat fragmentation. Pairwise relatedness values and Bayesian cluster analysis also revealed significant genetic divergences across an artificial waterway, suggesting that it was a barrier to gene flow. By contrast, no genetic divergences were detected across the major road. While studies often focus on roads when assessing the effects of artificial linear structures on wildlife, this study provides an example of an often overlooked artificial linear structure other than a road that has a significant impact on wildlife dispersal leading to genetic subdivision. PMID:26784921

  4. An Endangered Arboreal Specialist, the Western Ringtail Possum (Pseudocheirus occidentalis), Shows a Greater Genetic Divergence across a Narrow Artificial Waterway than a Major Road

    PubMed Central

    Yokochi, Kaori

    2016-01-01

    The fragmentation of habitats by roads and other artificial linear structures can have a profound effect on the movement of arboreal species due to their strong fidelity to canopies. Here, we used 12 microsatellite DNA loci to investigate the fine-scale spatial genetic structure and the effects of a major road and a narrow artificial waterway on a population of the endangered western ringtail possum (Pseudocheirus occidentalis) in Busselton, Western Australia. Using spatial autocorrelation analysis, we found positive genetic structure in continuous habitat over distances up to 600 m. These patterns are consistent with the sedentary nature of P. occidentalis and highlight their vulnerability to the effects of habitat fragmentation. Pairwise relatedness values and Bayesian cluster analysis also revealed significant genetic divergences across an artificial waterway, suggesting that it was a barrier to gene flow. By contrast, no genetic divergences were detected across the major road. While studies often focus on roads when assessing the effects of artificial linear structures on wildlife, this study provides an example of an often overlooked artificial linear structure other than a road that has a significant impact on wildlife dispersal leading to genetic subdivision. PMID:26784921

  5. Older leaves of lettuce (Lactuca spp.) support higher levels of Salmonella enterica ser. Senftenberg attachment and show greater variation between plant accessions than do younger leaves.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Paul J; Shaw, Robert K; Berger, Cedric N; Frankel, Gad; Pink, David; Hand, Paul

    2015-06-01

    Salmonella can bind to the leaves of salad crops including lettuce and survive for commercially relevant periods. Previous studies have shown that younger leaves are more susceptible to colonization than older leaves and that colonization levels are dependent on both the bacterial serovar and the lettuce cultivar. In this study, we investigated the ability of two Lactuca sativa cultivars (Saladin and Iceberg) and an accession of wild lettuce (L. serriola) to support attachment of Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg, to the first and fifth to sixth true leaves and the associations between cultivar-dependent variation in plant leaf surface characteristics and bacterial attachment. Attachment levels were higher on older leaves than on the younger ones and these differences were associated with leaf vein and stomatal densities, leaf surface hydrophobicity and leaf surface soluble protein concentrations. Vein density and leaf surface hydrophobicity were also associated with cultivar-specific differences in Salmonella attachment, although the latter was only observed in the older leaves and was also associated with level of epicuticular wax.

  6. Map showing potential sources of gravel and crushed-rock aggregate in the greater Denver area, Front Range urban corridor, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trimble, D.E.; Fitch, H.R.

    1974-01-01

    Gravel and (or) crushed-rock aggregates are essential commodities for urban development, but supplies in many places are exhausted or otherwise eliminated by urban growth. Gravel resources may be exhausted by exploitation, covered by urban spread, or eliminated from production by zoning. this conflict between a growing need and a progressively reduced supply can be forestalled by informed land-use planning. Fundamental to intelligent decisions on land use is knowledge of the physical character, distribution, and quantity of the gravel resources of an area, and of the alternative resource of rock suitable for crushing. This map has been prepared to supply data basic to land-use planning in the Front Range Urban Corridor.

  7. Can genetically based clines in plant defence explain greater herbivory at higher latitudes?

    PubMed

    Anstett, Daniel N; Ahern, Jeffrey R; Glinos, Julia; Nawar, Nabanita; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-12-01

    Greater plant defence is predicted to evolve at lower latitudes in response to increased herbivore pressure. However, recent studies question the generality of this pattern. In this study, we tested for genetically based latitudinal clines in resistance to herbivores and underlying defence traits of Oenothera biennis. We grew plants from 137 populations from across the entire native range of O. biennis. Populations from lower latitudes showed greater resistance to multiple specialist and generalist herbivores. These patterns were associated with an increase in total phenolics at lower latitudes. A significant proportion of the phenolics were driven by the concentrations of two major ellagitannins, which exhibited opposing latitudinal clines. Our analyses suggest that these findings are unlikely to be explained by local adaptation of herbivore populations or genetic variation in phenology. Rather greater herbivory at high latitudes can be explained by latitudinal clines in the evolution of plant defences.

  8. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your ...

  9. Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes The table below shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

  10. How feelings of stereotype threat influence older adults' memory performance.

    PubMed

    Chasteen, Alison L; Bhattacharyya, Sudipa; Horhota, Michelle; Tam, Raymond; Hasher, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to explore the role of stereotype threat as a mediator of older people's memory performance under different instructional sets. In three studies, younger and older participants completed a memory test that was either framed as a memorization or as an impression formation task. Across these studies, memory performance was greater for younger than for older adults and was higher in the impression formation than memorization condition, but was not different for older adults in the two instruction conditions. These results also showed that age differences in memory performance were mediated by participants' feelings of stereotype threat, such that age was positively related to stereotype threat and stereotype threat was negatively related to memory performance. These data demonstrate that concerns about being negatively stereotyped influence age differences in memory performance, and that the effects of these feelings on performance are not easily reduced by reframing the task instructions. PMID:16036721

  11. Audiovocal Integration in Adults Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucks, Torrey; Chon, HeeCheong; Han, Woojae

    2012-01-01

    Background: Altered auditory feedback can facilitate speech fluency in adults who stutter. However, other findings suggest that adults who stutter show anomalies in "audiovocal integration", such as longer phonation reaction times to auditory stimuli and less effective pitch tracking. Aims: To study audiovocal integration in adults who stutter…

  12. Older Adults and Gambling: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the social cognitive theory model to review the literature on older adult gambling, and related personal and environment characteristics. Results show that lottery is the kind of gambling most frequently played by older adults, followed by casino games. Older adults take trips to casinos to socialize, find excitement, and win…

  13. Greater effort boosts the affective taste properties of food

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Alexander W.; Gallagher, Michela

    2011-01-01

    Actions can create preferences, increasing the value ascribed to commodities acquired at greater cost. This behavioural finding has been observed in a variety of species; however, the causal factors underlying the phenomenon are relatively unknown. We sought to develop a behavioural platform to examine the relationship between effort and reinforcer value in mice trained under demanding or lenient schedules of reinforcement to obtain food. In the initial experiment, expenditure of effort enhanced the value of the associated food via relatively lasting changes in its hedonic attributes, promoting an acquired preference for these reinforcers when tested outside of the training environment. Moreover, otherwise neutral cues associated with those reinforcers during training similarly acquired greater reinforcing value, as assessed under conditioned reinforcement. In a separate experiment, expenditure of effort was also capable of enhancing the value of less-preferred low-caloric reinforcers. Analysis of licking microstructure revealed the basis for this increased valuation was, in part, due to increased palatability of the associated reinforcer. This change in the hedonic taste properties of the food can not only serve as a basis for preference, but also guide decision-making and foraging behaviour by coordinating a potentially adaptive repertoire of incentive motivation, goal-directed action and consumption. PMID:21047860

  14. BBilateral Neglected Anterior Shoulder Dislocation with Greater Tuberosity Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Upasani, Tejas; Bhatnagar, Abhinav; Mehta, Sonu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Shoulder dislocations are a very common entity in routine orthopaedic practice. Chronic unreduced anterior dislocations of the shoulder are not very common. Neurological and vascular complications may occur as a result of an acute anterior dislocation of the shoulder or after a while in chronic unreduced shoulder dislocation. Open reduction is indicated for most chronic shoulder dislocations. We report a case of neglected bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation with bilateral displaced greater tuberosity fracture. To the best of our knowledge, only a handful cases have been reported in literature with bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation with bilateral fractures. Delayed diagnosis/reporting is a scenario which makes the list even slimmer and management all the more challenging. Case Report: We report a case of a 35-year-old male who had bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation and bilateral greater tuberosity fracture post seizure and failed to report it for a period of 30 days. One side was managed conservatively with closed reduction and immobilization and the other side with open reduction. No neurovascular complications pre or post reduction of shoulder were seen. Conclusion: Shoulder dislocations should always be suspected post seizures and if found should be treated promptly. Treatment becomes difficult for any shoulder dislocation that goes untreated for considerable period of time PMID:27703939

  15. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Ramón A; Pacala, Stephen W; Winebrake, James J; Chameides, William L; Hamburg, Steven P

    2012-04-24

    Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH(4) leakage were capped at a level 45-70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH(4) losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas. PMID:22493226

  16. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Ramón A; Pacala, Stephen W; Winebrake, James J; Chameides, William L; Hamburg, Steven P

    2012-04-24

    Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH(4) leakage were capped at a level 45-70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH(4) losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas.

  17. Greater Platte River Basins - Science to Sustain Ecosystems and Communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thormodsgard, June M.

    2009-01-01

    The Greater Platte River Basins (GPRB), located in the heartland of the United States, provides a collaborative opportunity for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners to understand the sustainability of natural and managed ecosystems under changing climate and resource requirements.The Greater Platte River Basins, an area of about 140,000 square miles, sustains thousands of acres of lakes and wetlands, which provide a staging and resting area for the North American Central Flyway. Part of the GPRB is within the U.S. Corn Belt, one of the most productive agricultural ecosystems on Earth. Changes in water and land use, changing patterns of snowmelt in the Rocky Mountains, drought, and increasing demands for irrigation have reduced flows in the Platte River. These changes raise questions about the sustainability of the region for both wildlife and agriculture.The USGS and partners are developing a science strategy that will help natural-resource managers address and balance the needs of this region.

  18. Greater-confinement disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes include a broad spectrum of wastes that have different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and physical and chemical properties. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most low-level wastes, but a small volume fraction (about 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx.90%) requires specific measures known as ''greater-confinement disposal'' (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics. This paper presents an overview of the factors that must be considered in planning the application of methods proposed for providing greater confinement of low-level wastes. 27 refs.

  19. Avian cholera exposure and carriers in greater white-fronted geese breeding in Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a 3-yr study (2001a??03) on greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) breeding in Alaska, USA, to determine the exposure of this population to Pasteurella multocida and the potential role of these birds as disease carriers. We tested sera from nearly 600 adult geese for antibodies to P. multocida serotype 1. We found a low prevalence (<5%) of positive antibodies in adult geese, and based on the short duration of detectable antibodies, these findings indicate recent infection with P. multocida. Prevalence was similar to serologic results from both breeding and wintering lesser snow geese. We also collected oral (n=1,035), nasal (n=102), and cloacal (n=90) swab samples to determine the presence of avian cholera carriers in this population. We were unable to isolate P. multocida serotype 1 from any of the birds sampled. Based on comparison with other waterfowl species, we concluded that these geese may be exposed to avian cholera during the winter or spring migration but are unlikely to play a significant role as carriers of the bacterium causing avian cholera.

  20. Avian cholera exposure and carriers in greater white-fronted geese breeding in Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Michael D; Shadduck, Daniel J; Goldberg, Diana R

    2005-07-01

    We conducted a 3-yr study (2001-03) on greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) breeding in Alaska, USA, to determine the exposure of this population to Pasteurella multocida and the potential role of these birds as disease carriers. We tested sera from nearly 600 adult geese for antibodies to P. multocida serotype 1. We found a low prevalence (<5%) of positive antibodies in adult geese, and based on the short duration of detectable antibodies, these findings indicate recent infection with P. multocida. Prevalence was similar to serologic results from both breeding and wintering lesser snow geese. We also collected oral (n=1,035), nasal (n=102), and cloacal (n=90) swab samples to determine the presence of avian cholera carriers in this population. We were unable to isolate P. multocida serotype 1 from any of the birds sampled. Based on comparison with other waterfowl species, we concluded that these geese may be exposed to avian cholera during the winter or spring migration but are unlikely to play a significant role as carriers of the bacterium causing avian cholera. PMID:16244059

  1. Age and the purchase of prescription drug insurance by older adults.

    PubMed

    Szrek, Helena; Bundorf, M Kate

    2011-06-01

    The Medicare Part D Prescription Drug Program places an unprecedented degree of choice in the hands of older adults despite concerns over their ability to make effective decisions and desire to have extensive choice in this context. While previous research has compared older adults to younger adults along these dimensions, our study, in contrast, examines how likelihood to delay decision making and preferences for choice differ by age among older age cohorts. Our analysis is based on responses of older adults to a simulation of enrollment in Medicare Part D. We examine how age, numeracy, cognitive reflection, and the interaction between age and performance on these instruments are related to the decision to enroll in a Medicare prescription drug plan and preference for choice in this context. We find that numeracy and cognitive reflection are positively associated with enrollment likelihood and that they are more important determinants of enrollment than age. We also find that greater numeracy is associated with a lower willingness to pay for choice. Hence, our findings raise concern that older adults, and, in particular, those with poorer numerical processing skills, may need extra support in enrolling in the program: they are less likely to enroll than those with stronger numerical processing skills, even though they show greater willingness to pay for choice. PMID:21534689

  2. State-based versus reward-based motivation in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Worthy, Darrell A; Cooper, Jessica A; Byrne, Kaileigh A; Gorlick, Marissa A; Maddox, W Todd

    2014-12-01

    Recent decision-making work has focused on a distinction between a habitual, model-free neural system that is motivated toward actions that lead directly to reward and a more computationally demanding goal-directed, model-based system that is motivated toward actions that improve one's future state. In this article, we examine how aging affects motivation toward reward-based versus state-based decision making. Participants performed tasks in which one type of option provided larger immediate rewards but the alternative type of option led to larger rewards on future trials, or improvements in state. We predicted that older adults would show a reduced preference for choices that led to improvements in state and a greater preference for choices that maximized immediate reward. We also predicted that fits from a hybrid reinforcement-learning model would indicate greater model-based strategy use in younger than in older adults. In line with these predictions, older adults selected the options that maximized reward more often than did younger adults in three of the four tasks, and modeling results suggested reduced model-based strategy use. In the task where older adults showed similar behavior to younger adults, our model-fitting results suggested that this was due to the utilization of a win-stay-lose-shift heuristic rather than a more complex model-based strategy. Additionally, within older adults, we found that model-based strategy use was positively correlated with memory measures from our neuropsychological test battery. We suggest that this shift from state-based to reward-based motivation may be due to age related declines in the neural structures needed for more computationally demanding model-based decision making.

  3. Teaching Adults. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Alan

    The question of how adult educators can make their teaching of adults more effective is explored in the context of recent work on adult lifelong learning. The following are among the topics discussed: (1) modes of adult education and the shift in focus from adult education to lifelong learning; (2) the contract between adult student and adult…

  4. Age differences in physique of adult males aged 30 to 86 years in Rarotonga, the Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, S J

    2000-07-01

    In the Pacific Region, some adult populations have shown a steady rise in overweight and obesity across the 1970s and into the 1990s. While younger adults have been shown to have lower body mass index (BMI) than older ones in both the least and most modernised Samoan populations, among intermediately modernised Samoan populations, BMI has been found to be higher in younger adults than in older ones. A survey in the Cook Islands carried out in 1966 showed no age group differences in height, weight and BMI among adult males, but significantly higher mean weight and BMI among adult males aged 30 years and above. The present analysis gives mean height, weight, BMI and skinfolds of adult males above 30 years of age on Rarotonga in 1996, and examines whether the BMI-age group relationship now shows a similar transitional pattern to that observed on American Samoa. In addition, the 1996 values are compared with values obtained in 1986, to determine whether changes in physique have taken place across this time. In the 1996 volunteer sample of 142 male Cook Islanders, older adults are significantly shorter, lighter, with lower BMI than younger adults. Furthermore, the younger adults of the 1996 survey are significantly heavier, with greater BMI than the 1986 sample. This suggests that the adult male Rarotongan population is in an intermediate position with respect to lifestyle transition, the secular trend in body size and increasing prevalence of obesity, and that there has been a rapid increase in body fatness prevalence among younger adults. PMID:11027034

  5. How emotions expressed by adults' faces affect the desire to eat liked and disliked foods in children compared to adults.

    PubMed

    Barthomeuf, Laetitia; Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Rousset, Sylvie

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether or not pleasure, neutrality, and disgust expressed by eaters in photographs could affect the desire to eat food products to a greater extent in children than in adults. Children of 5 and 8 years of age, as well as adults, were presented with photographs of liked and disliked foods. These foods were presented either alone or with an eater who expressed three different emotions: pleasure, neutrality, or disgust. Results showed that, compared with food presented alone, food presented with a pleasant face increased the desire to eat disliked foods, particularly in children, and increased the desire to eat liked foods only in the 5-year-old children. In contrast, with a disgusted face, the desire to eat the liked foods decreased in all participants, although to a greater extent in children, while it had no effect on the desire to eat the disliked foods. Finally, food presented with a neutral face also increased and decreased the desire to eat disliked and liked foods, respectively, and in each case more for the 5-year-olds than for the older participants. In sum, the facial expressions of others influence the desire to eat liked and disliked foods and, to a greater extent, in younger children.

  6. Collective memories of three wars in United States history in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Zaromb, Franklin; Butler, Andrew C; Agarwal, Pooja K; Roediger, Henry L

    2014-04-01

    A collective memory is a representation of the past that is shared by members of a group. We investigated similarities and differences in the collective memories of younger and older adults for three major wars in U.S. history (the Civil War, World War II, and the Iraq War). Both groups were alive during the recent Iraq War, but only the older subjects were alive during World War II, and both groups learned about the Civil War from historical sources. Subjects recalled the 10 most important events that occurred during each war and then evaluated the emotional valence, the relative importance, and their level of knowledge for each event. They also estimated the percentage of people that would share their memory of each event within their age group and the other age group. Although most historical events were recalled by fewer than 25 % of subjects, younger and older adults commonly recalled a core set of events for each war that conform to a narrative structure that may be fundamental to collective remembering. Younger adults showed greater consensus in the events that they recalled for all three wars, relative to older adults, but there was less consensus in both groups for the Iraq War. Whereas younger adults recalled more specific events of short duration, older adults recalled more extended and summarized events of long duration. Our study shows that collective memories can be studied empirically and can differ depending on whether the events are experienced personally or learned from historical sources.

  7. Mammalian embryonic cerebrospinal fluid proteome has greater apolipoprotein and enzyme pattern complexity than the avian proteome.

    PubMed

    Parada, Carolina; Gato, Angel; Bueno, David

    2005-01-01

    During early stages of embryo development, the brain cavity is filled with Embryonic Cerebro-Spinal Fluid, which has an essential role in the survival, proliferation and neurogenesis of the neuroectodermal stem cells. We identified and analyzed the proteome of Embryonic Cerebro-Spinal Fluid from rat embryos (Rattus norvegicus), which includes proteins involved in the regulation of Central Nervous System development. The comparison between mammalian and avian Embryonic Cerebro-Spinal Fluid proteomes reveals great similarity, but also greater complexity in some protein groups. The pattern of apolipoproteins and enzymes in CSF is more complex in the mammals than in birds. This difference may underlie the greater neural complexity and synaptic plasticity found in mammals. Fourteen Embryonic Cerebro-Spinal Fluid gene products were previously identified in adult human Cerebro-Spinal Fluid proteome, and interestingly they are altered in patients with neurodegenerative diseases and/or neurological disorders. Understanding these molecules and the mechanisms they control during embryonic neurogenesis may contribute to our understanding of Central Nervous System development and evolution, and these human diseases. PMID:16335996

  8. Histomorphology of the mandibular condylar cartilage in greater galagos (Otolemur spp.).

    PubMed

    Burrows, Anne M; Smith, Timothy D

    2007-01-01

    The functional morphology of the primate craniomandibular complex and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) components is frequently discussed in terms of gross skeletal structure. At the histomorphologic level, however, the TMJ has only been studied in Old World anthropoids. The present study is designed to describe the microanatomy of the condylar cartilage of the TMJ in two closely related species of greater galago: the exudativorous Otolemur crassicaudatus and the frugivorous O. garnettii. TMJs with intact joint capsules were harvested from adult, cadaveric specimens of these species (four O. crassicaudatus and five O. garnettii). The samples were decalcified, processed for paraffin sectioning, and sectioned at 10-18 microm in the coronal plane. The samples were then stained with hematoxylin/eosin, Gomori trichrome, and Alcian blue, and examined with a photomicroscope. Generally, condylar cartilage in O. crassicaudatus was thickest both laterally and centrally, while O. garnettii had the relatively thickest cartilage laterally. Both species displayed a superficial articular zone, a middle proliferative zone, and a deeply located hypertrophic zone in the condylar cartilage. O. crassicaudatus typically had the greatest cell density in each of these zones. In addition, O. crassicaudatus had focal concentrations of Alcian blue laterally and centrally, while O. garnettii had the greatest reactivity in the central portion only. These results suggest that O. crassicaudatus may be specialized to resist greater compressive force at the TMJ condylar cartilage in specific regions of the mandibular condyle.

  9. Characteristic muscle activity patterns during gait initiation in the healthy younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Khanmohammadi, Roya; Talebian, Saeed; Hadian, Mohammad Reza; Olyaei, Gholamreza; Bagheri, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    It is thought that gait initiation (GI) might be an optimal task for identifying postural control deficiencies. Thus, the aim of this study was to clarify the strategies adopted by older subjects during this task. 16 healthy younger and 15 healthy older adults participated in the study. Subjects were instructed to begin forward stepping with their dominant limb in response to an auditory stimulus. The mean muscle activity, co-contraction index, and intra-subject coefficients of variation (intra-subject CVs) of dominant limb muscles in different phases of GI were measured. The level of association between the co-contraction index and intra-subject CV of muscles was also explored. This study showed that in the anticipatory phase, the younger group had larger amplitudes and more intra-subject CVs than older the group, particularly for the tibialis anterior muscle. However, the co-contraction index was greater in older subjects relative to younger subjects. During the weight transition phase, tibialis anterior, semitendinosus and vastus lateralis muscles of older adults had a lower amplitude as compared to younger adults. However, during the locomotor phase, the activity of tibialis anterior was greater in comparison to younger adults. Also, during this phase, similar to the anticipatory phase, the co-contraction index between tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles was greater in older subjects relative to younger subjects. Additionally, the larger co-contraction index of some muscles was associated with smaller intra-subject CV. These findings suggest that muscle behaviors are altered with aging and older adults employ different strategies in the different phases of GI as compared to younger adults.

  10. Greater hippocampal volume is associated with PTSD treatment response.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Mikael; Shvil, Erel; Papini, Santiago; Chhetry, Binod T; Helpman, Liat; Markowitz, John C; Mann, J John; Neria, Yuval

    2016-06-30

    Previous research associates smaller hippocampal volume with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is unclear, however, whether treatment affects hippocampal volume or vice versa. Seventy-six subjects, 40 PTSD patients and 36 matched trauma-exposed healthy resilient controls, underwent clinical assessments and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline, and 10 weeks later, during which PTSD patients completed ten weeks of Prolonged Exposure (PE) treatment. The resilient controls and treatment responders (n=23) had greater baseline hippocampal volume than treatment non-responders (n=17) (p=0.012 and p=0.050, respectively), perhaps due to more robust fear-extinction capacity in both the initial phase after exposure to trauma and during treatment. PMID:27179314

  11. Risks of Brucella abortus spillover in the Greater Yellowstone area.

    PubMed

    Schumaker, B

    2013-04-01

    Recurrent spillover of Brucella abortus from wildlife reservoirs to domestic cattle in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) has prevented the United States from completely eradicating bovine brucellosis. Risks to cattle are a function of the size and location of wildlife and livestock populations, the degree and nature of spatio-temporal interactions between the various hosts, the level of disease in wildlife, and the susceptibility of livestock herds. While the brucellosis prevalence in wild, free-ranging GYA bison (Bison bison) is high, current management actions have successfully limited contact between bison and cattle. Under current management practices, the risks to cattle in the GYA are predominantly from wild elk (Cervus elaphus). Intra- and inter-species transmission events, while uncommon, are nevertheless crucial for the maintenance of brucellosis in the GYA. Future management actions should focus on decreasing elk herd densities and group sizes and on understanding the behavioural and environmental drivers that result in co-mingling that makes transmission possible.

  12. Evil genius? How dishonesty can lead to greater creativity.

    PubMed

    Gino, Francesca; Wiltermuth, Scott S

    2014-04-01

    We propose that dishonest and creative behavior have something in common: They both involve breaking rules. Because of this shared feature, creativity may lead to dishonesty (as shown in prior work), and dishonesty may lead to creativity (the hypothesis we tested in this research). In five experiments, participants had the opportunity to behave dishonestly by overreporting their performance on various tasks. They then completed one or more tasks designed to measure creativity. Those who cheated were subsequently more creative than noncheaters, even when we accounted for individual differences in their creative ability (Experiment 1). Using random assignment, we confirmed that acting dishonestly leads to greater creativity in subsequent tasks (Experiments 2 and 3). The link between dishonesty and creativity is explained by a heightened feeling of being unconstrained by rules, as indicated by both mediation (Experiment 4) and moderation (Experiment 5). PMID:24549296

  13. The Greater Plains Collaborative: a PCORnet Clinical Research Data Network.

    PubMed

    Waitman, Lemuel R; Aaronson, Lauren S; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Connolly, Daniel W; Campbell, James R

    2014-01-01

    The Greater Plains Collaborative (GPC) is composed of 10 leading medical centers repurposing the research programs and informatics infrastructures developed through Clinical and Translational Science Award initiatives. Partners are the University of Kansas Medical Center, Children's Mercy Hospital, University of Iowa Healthcare, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the Medical College of Wisconsin and Marshfield Clinic, the University of Minnesota Academic Health Center, the University of Nebraska Medical Center, the University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. The GPC network brings together a diverse population of 10 million people across 1300 miles covering seven states with a combined area of 679 159 square miles. Using input from community members, breast cancer was selected as a focus for cohort building activities. In addition to a high-prevalence disorder, we also selected a rare disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  14. Evil genius? How dishonesty can lead to greater creativity.

    PubMed

    Gino, Francesca; Wiltermuth, Scott S

    2014-04-01

    We propose that dishonest and creative behavior have something in common: They both involve breaking rules. Because of this shared feature, creativity may lead to dishonesty (as shown in prior work), and dishonesty may lead to creativity (the hypothesis we tested in this research). In five experiments, participants had the opportunity to behave dishonestly by overreporting their performance on various tasks. They then completed one or more tasks designed to measure creativity. Those who cheated were subsequently more creative than noncheaters, even when we accounted for individual differences in their creative ability (Experiment 1). Using random assignment, we confirmed that acting dishonestly leads to greater creativity in subsequent tasks (Experiments 2 and 3). The link between dishonesty and creativity is explained by a heightened feeling of being unconstrained by rules, as indicated by both mediation (Experiment 4) and moderation (Experiment 5).

  15. Unsaturated zone transport modeling of the Greater Confinement Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.

    1994-12-31

    Unsaturated zone transport modeling is being conducted as part of the performance assessment of the Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) facility which is located on the Nevada Test Site. This performance assessment is based on an iterative process of modeling and data collection to assess the likelihood the site will meet the US Environmental Protection Agency`s containment, individual protection and groundwater protection requirements for the disposal of transuranic wastes, high-level wastes and spent fuel. The current iteration of the performance assessment evaluates the potential impact of future events on the transport system. The future events included in this analysis are subsidence, bioturbation, erosion, climate change, irrigated farming and drilling. This paper presents the unsaturated transport model, how it fits into the performance assessment and how the future events are incorporated in the model.

  16. Free greater omental flap for treatment of mandibular osteoradionecrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, W.J.; Panje, W.R.

    1987-04-01

    Osteoradionecrosis can involve the mandible following radical irradiation for treatment of oral cavity cancer. The radionecrosis of the mandible is often associated with severe intractable pain, local or extensive deformity, including pathologic fracture, orocutaneous fistula formation, and frequent loss of function. Treatment has ranged from analgesia and antibiotics to hyperbaric oxygen treatments to local or extensive sequestrectomies with partial or total mandibulectomy and restoration of tissue losses with unirradiated tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the successful use of a free greater omental flap for immediate treatment of mandibular osteoradionecrosis and concomitant reconstruction. We found the omentum to be an excellent vascular bed that rapidly resolved the osteoradionecrosis and pain, promoted healing, and restored mandibular function with minimal discomfort to the patient.

  17. Low glucose relates to greater aggression in married couples

    PubMed Central

    Bushman, Brad J.; DeWall, C. Nathan; Pond, Richard S.; Hanus, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence affects millions of people globally. One possible contributing factor is poor self-control. Self-control requires energy, part of which is provided by glucose. For 21 days, glucose levels were measured in 107 married couples. To measure aggressive impulses, each evening participants stuck between 0 and 51 pins into a voodoo doll that represented their spouse, depending how angry they were with their spouse. To measure aggression, participants competed against their spouse on a 25-trial task in which the winner blasted the loser with loud noise through headphones. As expected, the lower the level of glucose in the blood, the greater number of pins participants stuck into the voodoo doll, and the higher intensity and longer duration of noise participants set for their spouse. PMID:24733932

  18. Exercise vasodilation is greater in women: contributions of nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Rebecca E.; Harrell, John W.; Sebranek, Joshua J.; Walker, Benjamin J.; Eldridge, Marlowe W.; Schrage, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We hypothesized exercise vasodilation would be greater in women due to nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) signaling. Methods 45 healthy adults (23 women, W, 22 men, M, 26 ± 1 years) completed two 10-min trials of dynamic forearm exercise at 15 % intensity. Forearm blood flow (FBF; Doppler ultrasound), arterial pressure (brachial catheter), and forearm lean mass were measured to calculate relative forearm vascular conductance (FVCrel) = F BF 100 mmHg−1 100 g−1 lean mass. Local intra-arterial infusion of L-NMMA or ketorolac acutely inhibited NOS and COX, respectively. In Trial 1, the first 5 min served as control exercise (CON), followed by 5 min of L-NMMA or ketorolac over the last 5 min of exercise. In Trial 2, the remaining drug was infused during 5–10 min, to achieve combined NOS–COX inhibition (double blockade, DB). Results Are mean ± SE. Women exhibited 29 % greater vasodilation in CON (AFVCrel, 19 ± 1 vs. 15 ± 1, p = 0.01). L-NMMA reduced AFVCrel (p < 0.001) (W: Δ −2.3 ± 1.3 vs. M: Δ −3.7 ± 0.8, p = 0.25); whereas, ketorolac modestly increased ΔFVCrel (p = 0.04) similarly between sexes (W: Δ 1.6 ± 1.1 vs. M: Δ 2.0 ± 1.6, p = 0.78). DB was also found to be similar between the sexes (p = 0.85). Conclusion These data clearly indicate women produce a greater exercise vasodilator response. Furthermore, contrary to experiments in animal models, these data are the first to demonstrate vascular control by NOS and COX is similar between sexes. PMID:25820143

  19. Corticosterone stress response of Greater Rhea (Rhea americana) during short-term road transport.

    PubMed

    Lèche, A; Della Costa, N S; Hansen, C; Navarro, J L; Marin, R H; Martella, M B

    2013-01-01

    The effect of transport stress on blood corticosterone levels in captive Greater Rheas was investigated. Twelve adult individuals (7 males; 5 females) were loaded in pairs inside wooden crates and transported along a paved road for 30 min. Blood samples were taken before the individuals were introduced into the crate (baseline value) and immediately after they were unloaded (30 min after capture). To assess whether corticosterone levels were affected by the blood sampling procedure per se, another 6 (nontransport) control birds (3 males; 3 females) were also captured and sampled at the same times as their transported counterparts. Plasma corticosterone concentrations were measured using a commercially available corticosterone (125)I radio-immunoassay kit. Baseline corticosterone levels were similar in the control and transported birds (9.0 ± 1.6 and 10.4 ± 0.8 ng/mL, respectively). Transportation induced a highly significant (P < 0.001), more than 40-fold increase in the corticosterone levels (433.6 ± 35.4 ng/mL) that was about 5 times higher (P < 0.001) than in their nontransported counterparts (88.4 ± 14.8 ng/mL). The present findings suggest that Greater Rhea is a species highly sensitive to stressful manipulations. Both blood sampling and transportation induced highly significant adrenocortical responses. Considering that transportation is one of the unavoidable common practices in the management of Greater Rheas and, as shown in the present study, that it induces a significant 40-fold corticosterone stress response, efforts should focus on helping to generate management transport standards for optimization of the welfare of this ratite.

  20. Site and age class variation of hematologic parameters for female Greater Sage Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) of Northern Nevada.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Kathryn J; Perryman, Barry L; Holcombe, Dale W

    2010-01-01

    Decreases in Greater Sage Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) numbers throughout the western United States have been attributed to declining habitat quantity and quality. Improving our understanding of how interannual ecologic site variability affects nutritional status and fitness of different bird age classes will lead to improved land management and conservation strategies. Greater Sage Grouse were sampled from two Population Management Units located in northern Nevada, United States: Tuscarora (TU) and Lone Willow (LW) during 15 March-11 April 2004 and 14-20 March 2005. Twenty (16 yearlings, four adults) and 17 (7 yearlings, 10 adults) female Sage Grouse were captured and bled during 2004, and 12 (four yearlings, eight adults) and 14 (10 yearlings, four adults) were sampled during 2005 in TU and LW, respectively. Samples were evaluated to examine the effect of site, age, and year on specific hematologic and serum chemistry parameters. Several differences between age classes, sites, and years were detected for a number of fitness indicators; however, actual values fell within normal ranges of variation for Sage Grouse or other avian species. Differences were also detected for several parameters more closely related to reproductive fitness, including total plasma and serum proteins, and serum calcium and phosphorus. Yearlings had lower plasma protein (P<0.0001) and lower serum protein than did adults (P=0.0003). In 2004, TU yearlings had lower serum calcium levels than the adults, and in 2005, LW yearlings had lower levels than adults (P=0.008). Females on the TU site had lower serum phosphorus than the LW females (P<0.0001). Overall, adult females weighed more than yearlings (P=0.0004). Lower values found in yearlings, and on the TU management unit, indicate a lower production potential, particularly in unfavorable years. A lower intrinsic ability of yearlings to reproduce, combined with lower nutrition potentials and associated annual variations on certain types

  1. Clinical Features of Infection in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Norman, Dean C

    2016-08-01

    The impact of infectious diseases on older adults is far greater than on younger adults because of significantly higher morbidity and mortality caused by infection. The reasons for this greater impact include factors such as lower physiologic reserve due to age and chronic disease, age-related changes in host defenses, loss of mobility, higher risk for polypharmacy and adverse drug reactions, and being on drugs that increase the risk for infection (e.g., anticholinergic and other sedating medications increase the risk for pneumonia). PMID:27394015

  2. Ovarian follicle dynamics of female Greater Scaup during egg production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorman, K.B.; Flint, P.L.; Esler, Daniel; Williams, T.D.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of female waterfowl nutrient reserve use during egg production require a precise understanding of ovarian follicle dynamics to correctly interpret breeding status, and, therefore, derive proper inference. Concerns over numerical declines of North American scaup have increased the need to better understand the role of female condition in reproductive performance. We quantified ovarian follicle dynamics of female Greater Scaup (Aythya marila) breeding on the Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, using a method that accounts for within day variation in follicle size. We considered several models for describing changes in follicle growth with the best supported model estimating the duration of rapid follicle growth (RFG) to be 5.20 ± 0.52 days (±95% confidence intervals) for each developing follicle. Average diameter and dry mass of preovulatory follicles were estimated to be 9.36 mm and 0.26 g, respectively, at the onset of RFG, and these follicle characteristics were 41.47 mm and 15.57 g, respectively, at ovulation. The average diameter of postovulatory follicles immediately following ovulation was estimated to be 17.35 mm, regressing quickly over several days. In addition, we derived predictive equations using diameter and dry mass to estimate the number of days before, and after, ovulation for pre- and postovulatory follicles, as well as an equation to estimate dry mass of damaged follicles. Our results allow precise definition of RFG and nest initiation dates, clutch size, and the daily energetic and nutritional demands of egg production at the individual level. This study provides the necessary foundation for additional work on Greater Scaup reproductive energetics and physiology, and offers an approach for quantifying ovarian follicle dynamics in other species.

  3. Afghanistan structure, greater India concept and Eastern Tethys evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulin, Jean

    1981-02-01

    The large and complex area between Central Asia and the Arabia—India block includes, from north to south, the Tien Shan and Hindu Kush—Kun Lun Hercynian belts, the Turkman—Farah Rud and Tanghla Shan Neokimmerian belt, the Zagros—Makran—Baluch—Himalayan Alpine belt and relics of corresponding oceanic spaces. The Angarian or Gondwanian affinities of the different blocks separated by these successive peri-Indian belts are discussed. An interpretation is proposed for the paleogeographic and structural evolution of this area, from Early Paleozoic to Present. This interpretation is based on geologic and paleomagnetic data and on global tectonic considerations. The Hindu Kush—Kun Lun pre-Hercynian ocean probably separated Laurasia from Gondwanaland. It was an Early Paleozoic Tethys (Tethys 1). The Tien Shan ocean may have been a marginal basin for the Hindu Kush—Kun Lun ocean. The Turkman-Farah Rud—Tanghla Shan pre-Neokimmerian ocean resulted from the break-up of the Gondwanaland margin. Its opening seems to have been related to the pre-Hercynian ocean closure resulting in the formation of a new Tethys (Tethys 2). Its subsequent closure may also have been related to the opening of the Zagros—Baluch—Indus—Tsang Po pre-Alpine ocean (Tethys 3). According to this interpretation, Eurasia appears to have increased from Early Paleozoic to Cenozoic by successive accretion of cratonic blocks which came from the south through the Tethys. This evolution can be compared to the similar Mediterranean evolution. This interpretation is in agreement with the Greater India concept. However, the northern border of Greater India differs according to the stage of the Gondwanaland evolution which is considered. Actually, Greatest India extended north to the Caledonian belt and consequently has recorded the whole history of the Eastern Tethys.

  4. Myiasis in Dogs in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sherry A M; Gakuya, Daniel W; Mbuthia, Paul G; Mande, John D; Afakye, Kofi; Maingi, Ndichu

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of tissues of live vertebrate animals and humans with dipterous larvae. In sub-Saharan Africa, Cordylobia anthropohaga and Cordylobia rodhaini are known to be responsible for cutaneous myiasis in animals and humans. Human cases of myiasis, purportedly acquired in Ghana but diagnosed in other countries, have been reported; however, published data on its occurrence in animals in Ghana is unavailable. This study assessed the prevalence of canine myiasis among owned dogs in the Greater Accra region (GAR) of Ghana. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Greater Accra region of Ghana, selected for being the region with the highest estimated population density of owned dogs. Physical examination and demographic characteristics of the study dogs were assessed. Management of the dogs was assessed through a questionnaire administered to the dog owners. A total of 392 owned dogs were sampled. Twenty-nine (7.4%) had cutaneous myiasis caused by C. rodhaini. In addition, one (0.2%) of the dogs had intestinal myiasis, with Dermatobia hominis as the offending larvae. Among the breeds of dogs with myiasis, the mongrel was most affected, with 24 (82.8%) out of the 29 cases. The mongrels, majority of which (24; 82.8%) were males, were left to roam freely in the community. Results from this study demonstrate that C. rodhaini and D. hominis are important causes of myiasis in owned dogs in the GAR of Ghana. Dogs could play a role in the spread of myiasis to humans, with its attendant public health implications.

  5. Gas, Oil, and Water Production from Jonah, Pinedale, Greater Wamsutter, and Stagecoach Draw Fields in the Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Philip H.; Ewald, Shauna M.; Santus, Stephen L.; Trainor, Patrick K.

    2010-01-01

    Gas, oil, and water production data were compiled from selected wells in four gas fields in rocks of Late Cretaceous age in southwestern Wyoming. This study is one of a series of reports examining fluid production from tight-gas reservoirs, which are characterized by low permeability, low porosity, and the presence of clay minerals in pore space. Production from each well is represented by two samples spaced five years apart, the first sample typically taken two years after commencement of production. For each producing interval, summary diagrams of oil versus gas and water versus gas production show fluid production rates, the change in rates during five years, the water-gas and oil-gas ratios, and the fluid type. These diagrams permit well-to-well and field-to-field comparisons. Fields producing water at low rates (water dissolved in gas in the reservoir) can be distinguished from fields producing water at moderate or high rates, and the water-gas ratios are quantified. The ranges of first-sample gas rates in Pinedale field and Jonah field are quite similar, and the average gas production rate for the second sample, taken five years later, is about one-half that of the first sample for both fields. Water rates are generally substantially higher in Pinedale than in Jonah, and water-gas ratios in Pinedale are roughly a factor of ten greater in Pinedale than in Jonah. Gas and water production rates from each field are fairly well grouped, indicating that Pinedale and Jonah fields are fairly cohesive gas-water systems. Pinedale field appears to be remarkably uniform in its flow behavior with time. Jonah field, which is internally faulted, exhibits a small spread in first-sample production rates. In the Greater Wamsutter field, gas production from the upper part of the Almond Formation is greater than from the main part of the Almond. Some wells in the main and the combined (upper and main parts) Almond show increases in water production with time, whereas increases

  6. [Degenerative adult scoliosis].

    PubMed

    García-Ramos, C L; Obil-Chavarría, C A; Zárate-Kalfópulos, B; Rosales-Olivares, L M; Alpizar-Aguirre, A; Reyes-Sánchez, A A

    2015-01-01

    Adult scoliosis is a complex three-dimensional rotational deformity of the spine, resulting from the progressive degeneration of the vertebral elements in middle age, in a previously straight spine; a Cobb angle greater than 10° in the coronal plane, which also alters the sagittal and axial planes. It originates an asymmetrical degenerative disc and facet joint, creating asymmetrical loads and subsequently deformity. The main symptom is axial, radicular pain and neurological deficit. Conservative treatment includes drugs and physical therapy. The epidural injections and facet for selectively blocking nerve roots improves short-term pain. Surgical treatment is reserved for patients with intractable pain, radiculopathy and/ or neurological deficits. There is no consensus for surgical indications, however, it must have a clear understanding of the symptoms and clinical signs. The goal of surgery is to decompress neural elements with restoration, modification of the three-dimensional shape deformity and stabilize the coronal and sagittal balance. PMID:27012088

  7. [Degenerative adult scoliosis].

    PubMed

    García-Ramos, C L; Obil-Chavarría, C A; Zárate-Kalfópulos, B; Rosales-Olivares, L M; Alpizar-Aguirre, A; Reyes-Sánchez, A A

    2015-01-01

    Adult scoliosis is a complex three-dimensional rotational deformity of the spine, resulting from the progressive degeneration of the vertebral elements in middle age, in a previously straight spine; a Cobb angle greater than 10° in the coronal plane, which also alters the sagittal and axial planes. It originates an asymmetrical degenerative disc and facet joint, creating asymmetrical loads and subsequently deformity. The main symptom is axial, radicular pain and neurological deficit. Conservative treatment includes drugs and physical therapy. The epidural injections and facet for selectively blocking nerve roots improves short-term pain. Surgical treatment is reserved for patients with intractable pain, radiculopathy and/ or neurological deficits. There is no consensus for surgical indications, however, it must have a clear understanding of the symptoms and clinical signs. The goal of surgery is to decompress neural elements with restoration, modification of the three-dimensional shape deformity and stabilize the coronal and sagittal balance.

  8. Moral dilemmas in females: children are more utilitarian than adults.

    PubMed

    Bucciarelli, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Influential theories on moral judgments propose that they rely either on emotions or on innate moral principles. In contrast, the mental model theory postulates that moral judgments rely on reasoning, either intuition or deliberation. The theory allows for the possibility that intuitions lead to utilitarian judgments. This paper reports two experiments involving fifth-grade children, adolescents, and adults; the results revealed that children reason intuitively to resolve moral dilemmas in which action and inaction lead to different outcomes. In particular, the results showed female children to be more utilitarian than female adults in resolving classical moral dilemmas: they preferred an action that achieved a good outcome for a greater number of people. Within the mental model theory's framework there is no reason to expect that females and males differ in their ability to reason, but at the moment the results for females cannot be generalized to males who were not properly represented in the adults groups of the two experiments. The result revealing that (female) children are more utilitarian than (female) adults, which is hard to explain via many current theories, was predicted by the mental model theory. PMID:26441722

  9. Moral dilemmas in females: children are more utilitarian than adults.

    PubMed

    Bucciarelli, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Influential theories on moral judgments propose that they rely either on emotions or on innate moral principles. In contrast, the mental model theory postulates that moral judgments rely on reasoning, either intuition or deliberation. The theory allows for the possibility that intuitions lead to utilitarian judgments. This paper reports two experiments involving fifth-grade children, adolescents, and adults; the results revealed that children reason intuitively to resolve moral dilemmas in which action and inaction lead to different outcomes. In particular, the results showed female children to be more utilitarian than female adults in resolving classical moral dilemmas: they preferred an action that achieved a good outcome for a greater number of people. Within the mental model theory's framework there is no reason to expect that females and males differ in their ability to reason, but at the moment the results for females cannot be generalized to males who were not properly represented in the adults groups of the two experiments. The result revealing that (female) children are more utilitarian than (female) adults, which is hard to explain via many current theories, was predicted by the mental model theory.

  10. Moral dilemmas in females: children are more utilitarian than adults

    PubMed Central

    Bucciarelli, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Influential theories on moral judgments propose that they rely either on emotions or on innate moral principles. In contrast, the mental model theory postulates that moral judgments rely on reasoning, either intuition or deliberation. The theory allows for the possibility that intuitions lead to utilitarian judgments. This paper reports two experiments involving fifth-grade children, adolescents, and adults; the results revealed that children reason intuitively to resolve moral dilemmas in which action and inaction lead to different outcomes. In particular, the results showed female children to be more utilitarian than female adults in resolving classical moral dilemmas: they preferred an action that achieved a good outcome for a greater number of people. Within the mental model theory's framework there is no reason to expect that females and males differ in their ability to reason, but at the moment the results for females cannot be generalized to males who were not properly represented in the adults groups of the two experiments. The result revealing that (female) children are more utilitarian than (female) adults, which is hard to explain via many current theories, was predicted by the mental model theory. PMID:26441722

  11. Greater amberjack Fsh, Lh, and their receptors: Plasma and mRNA profiles during ovarian development.

    PubMed

    Nyuji, Mitsuo; Kazeto, Yukinori; Izumida, Daisuke; Tani, Kosuke; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Hamada, Kazuhisa; Mekuchi, Miyuki; Gen, Koichiro; Soyano, Kiyoshi; Okuzawa, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    To understand the endocrine regulation of ovarian development in a multiple spawning fish, the relationship between gonadotropins (Gths; follicle-stimulating hormone [Fsh] and luteinizing hormone [Lh]) and their receptors (Gthrs; Fshr and Lhr) were investigated in greater amberjack (Seriola dumerili). cDNAs encoding the Gth subunits (Fshβ, Lhβ, and glycoprotein α [Gpα]) and Gthrs were cloned. The in vitro reporter gene assay using recombinant hormones revealed that greater amberjack Fshr and Lhr responded strongly to their own ligands. Competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were developed for measuring greater amberjack Fsh and Lh. Anti-Fsh and anti-Lh antibodies were raised against recombinant chimeric single-chain Gths consisting of greater amberjack Fshβ (or Lhβ) with rabbit GPα. The validation study showed that the ELISAs were precise (intra- and inter-assay coefficient of variation, <10%) and sensitive (detection limit of 0.2ng/ml for Fsh and 0.8ng/ml for Lh) with low cross-reactivity. A good parallelism between the standard curve and serial dilutions of greater amberjack plasma and pituitary extract were obtained. In female greater amberjack, pituitary fshb, ovarian fshr, and plasma E2 gradually increased during ovarian development, and plasma Fsh significantly increased during the post-spawning period. This suggests that Fsh plays a role throughout ovarian development and during the post-spawning period. Pituitary lhb, ovarian lhr, and plasma Lh were high during the spawning period, suggesting that the synthesis and secretion of Lh, and Lhr expression are upregulated to induce final oocyte maturation and ovulation. PMID:26519759

  12. A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stein, R.S.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Grunewald, E.; Blong, R.; Sparks, S.; Shah, H.; Kennedy, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105 000 lives. Fuelled by greater Tokyo's rich seismological record, but challenged by its magnificent complexity, our joint Japanese-US group carried out a new study of the capital's earthquake hazards. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M???8 shocks in the past 7000 years), a newly digitized dataset of historical shaking (10 000 observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300 000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and Japan's GeoNet array (150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years) to reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates and estimate their earthquake frequency. We propose that a dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath the Kanto plain on which Tokyo sits. We suggest that the Kanto fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behaviour for large earthquakes, including the damaging 1855 M???7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, events with magnitude and location similar to the M??? 7.3 Ansei-Edo event have a ca 20% likelihood in an average 30 year period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for the great M??? 7.9 plate boundary shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30 year probability of ca 10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (ca 0.9g peak ground acceleration (PGA)) in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ca 30%. The long historical record in Kanto also affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner exclusively from intensity observations. This approach permits robust estimates

  13. Greater functionality of bismuth and lead based perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchomel, Matthew R.

    Novel Bi and Pb-based perovskite oxide chemistries have been investigated through bulk solid-state synthesis methods with a goal of increasing the dielectric, ferroelectric, and magnetic functionality of these materials. Although the Pb+2 and Bi+3 canons are chemically similar, Pb-based perovskites have historically received greater commercial and scientific attention. However, recent experimental and theoretical progress in studies of Bi containing systems has prompted a renewed interest in their potential. As such, particular focus was given to the Bi+3 containing systems in the current work. An investigation of the Bi-based perovskite compounds, emphasizing multiferroic BiFeO3 and related solid solutions, has explored the limitations of bulk synthesis methods for these systems. Numerous cation and anion substitution routes are experimentally studied and a comprehensive review of previous work examining B' site cation substitution in Bi-based perovskites is performed. This has resulted in an improved understanding of phase competition within these systems. These findings were used to engineer new chemistries, particularly those of mixed cation site occupancy, with improved perovskite stability. New low tolerance factor Bi-based perovskites with mixed B ' site cation chemistries have been used to induce morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) formation in solid solutions with PbTiO3. Moreover, a new qualitative relationship correlating the tolerance factor of Bi and Pb-based end members in PbTiO3 solid solutions to the compositional position of the system's MPB has been developed and experimentally validated. This relationship has been used to explore novel end members with very low tolerance factors including (Pb1/2Th1/2)ScO 3, for PbTiO3-based MPB solid solutions. A new category of Bi-based chemistries which enhance tetragonality and Curie temperature (Tc) in solid solutions with PbTiO3 has been identified. This effect is particularly dramatic for the (x)PbTiO 3

  14. Experience-dependent natal philopatry of breeding greater flamingos.

    PubMed

    Balkiz, Ozge; Béchet, Arnaud; Rouan, Lauriane; Choquet, Rémi; Germain, Christophe; Amat, Juan A; Rendón-Martos, Manuel; Baccetti, Nicola; Nissardi, Sergio; Ozesmi, Uygar; Pradel, Roger

    2010-09-01

    1. Contrary to the generally high level of natal philopatry (i.e. likelihood that individuals breed at their natal colony) found in first-breeding colonial birds, little is known of natal philopatry later in life. Most hypotheses advanced to explain natal philopatry are valid at all ages. However, for young and inexperienced birds, the benefits of natal philopatry may be counterbalanced by the costs of intraspecific competition at the natal colony making dispersal temporarily advantageous. In turn, experience may increase competitive ability and make natal philopatry advantageous again. 2. We evaluated this hypothesis on the large-scale dispersal of greater flamingos Phoenicopterus roseus breeding among three colonies comprising >85% of the Western Mediterranean metapopulation. The Camargue (France) and Fuente de Piedra (Spain) are large and saturated colonies while Molentargius (Sardinia) is a recent and growing colony. 3. We used a 20-year capture-mark-resighting dataset of 4900 flamingos ringed as chicks in Camargue and Fuente de Piedra and breeding at the three colonies. We assessed the effects of natal colony and breeding experience (first-time observed breeders versus confirmed experienced breeders) on dispersal using multistate capture-recapture models. Dispersal to an unobservable state accounted for temporary emigration. 4. Fidelity was higher at the natal colony (>84%) than elsewhere. Fidelity increased with experience in the two large colonies (Camargue and Fuente de Piedra) suggesting a large-scale experience-related despotic distribution. Breeding dispersal was significant (up to 61% and 52% for first-time breeders and experienced breeders, respectively) so that colony dynamics is affected by exchanges with other colonies. Except for Fuente-born breeders leaving Molentargius, dispersal to the natal colony was higher than to any other colonies. 5. Survival was not higher at the natal colony. Inexperienced birds likely had lower breeding success at the

  15. A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Stein, Ross S; Toda, Shinji; Parsons, Tom; Grunewald, Elliot

    2006-08-15

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105,000 lives. Fuelled by greater Tokyo's rich seismological record, but challenged by its magnificent complexity, our joint Japanese-US group carried out a new study of the capital's earthquake hazards. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M approximately 8 shocks in the past 7000 years), a newly digitized dataset of historical shaking (10000 observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300,000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and Japan's GeoNet array (150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years) to reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates and estimate their earthquake frequency. We propose that a dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath the Kanto plain on which Tokyo sits. We suggest that the Kanto fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behaviour for large earthquakes, including the damaging 1855 M approximately 7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, events with magnitude and location similar to the M approximately 7.3 Ansei-Edo event have a ca 20% likelihood in an average 30 year period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for the great M > or = 7.9 plate boundary shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30 year probability of ca 10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (ca 0.9 g peak ground acceleration (PGA)) in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ca 30%. The long historical record in Kanto also affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner exclusively from intensity observations

  16. A tale of two communities: Neotropical butterfly assemblages show higher beta diversity in the canopy compared to the understory.

    PubMed

    Fordyce, James A; DeVries, Philip J

    2016-05-01

    Tropical fruit-feeding nymphalid butterflies generally restrict adult foraging exclusively to either the canopy or understory strata. We compared canopy and understory butterfly communities using data from four long-term studies in Central and South America. At all study sites we found little similarity in species composition between canopy and understory, with most species showing a strong affinity for one of the two habitats. There was a consistent phylogenetic signal for canopy and understory association, suggesting a substantial evolutionary history with these habitats. In addition to compositional differences, we found different patterns of beta diversity between canopy and understory communities. Across all study sites, the canopy had greater temporal and spatial beta diversity compared to the understory. Although these two communities are composed of the same feeding guild and separated only by a relatively small vertical space, each has its own stratum-specific species composition and community dynamics. PMID:26815366

  17. A tale of two communities: Neotropical butterfly assemblages show higher beta diversity in the canopy compared to the understory.

    PubMed

    Fordyce, James A; DeVries, Philip J

    2016-05-01

    Tropical fruit-feeding nymphalid butterflies generally restrict adult foraging exclusively to either the canopy or understory strata. We compared canopy and understory butterfly communities using data from four long-term studies in Central and South America. At all study sites we found little similarity in species composition between canopy and understory, with most species showing a strong affinity for one of the two habitats. There was a consistent phylogenetic signal for canopy and understory association, suggesting a substantial evolutionary history with these habitats. In addition to compositional differences, we found different patterns of beta diversity between canopy and understory communities. Across all study sites, the canopy had greater temporal and spatial beta diversity compared to the understory. Although these two communities are composed of the same feeding guild and separated only by a relatively small vertical space, each has its own stratum-specific species composition and community dynamics.

  18. Differences in correlates of condom use between young adults and adults attending sexually transmitted infection clinics.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Amanda R; Blood, Emily A; Crosby, Richard A; Shrier, Lydia A

    2015-07-01

    Despite developmental differences between young adults and adults, studies of condom use have not typically considered young adults as a distinct age group. This study sought to examine how condom use and its correlates differed between high-risk young adults and adults. Sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic patients (n = 763) reported STI history, contraception, negative condom attitudes, fear of partner reaction to condom use and risky behaviours. Past 3-month condom use was examined as unprotected vaginal sex (UVS) acts, proportional condom use and consistent condom use. Regression models tested associations of age group and potential correlates with each condom use outcome. Interaction models tested whether associations differed by age group. Proportional condom use was greater in young adults than adults (mean 0.55 vs. 0.47); UVS and consistent condom use were similar between age groups. Young adults with a recent STI reported less condom use, whereas for older adults, a distant STI was associated with less condom use, compared to others in their age groups. Negative condom attitudes were more strongly linked to UVS acts for younger versus older adults. STI prevention efforts for younger adults may be improved by intensifying counselling about condom use immediately following STI diagnosis and targeting negative condom attitudes.

  19. Age and grip strength predict hand dexterity in adults.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jason A; Ramsay, Jill; Hughes, Christopher; Peters, Derek M; Edwards, Martin G

    2015-01-01

    In the scientific literature, there is much evidence of a relationship between age and dexterity, where increased age is related to slower, less nimble and less smooth, less coordinated and less controlled performances. While some suggest that the relationship is a direct consequence of reduced muscle strength associated to increased age, there is a lack of research that has systematically investigated the relationships between age, strength and hand dexterity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the associations between age, grip strength and dexterity. 107 adults (range 18-93 years) completed a series of hand dexterity tasks (i.e. steadiness, line tracking, aiming, and tapping) and a test of maximal grip strength. We performed three phases of analyses. Firstly, we evaluated the simple relationships between pairs of variables; replicating the existing literature; and found significant relationships of increased age and reduced strength; increased age and reduced dexterity, and; reduced strength and reduced dexterity. Secondly, we used standard Multiple Regression (MR) models to determine which of the age and strength factors accounted for the greater variance in dexterity. The results showed that both age and strength made significant contributions to the data variance, but that age explained more of the variance in steadiness and line tracking dexterity, whereas strength explained more of the variance in aiming and tapping dexterity. In a third phase of analysis, we used MR analyses to show an interaction between age and strength on steadiness hand dexterity. Simple Slopes post-hoc analyses showed that the interaction was explained by the middle to older aged adults showing a relationship between reduced strength and reduced hand steadiness, whereas younger aged adults showed no relationship between strength and steadiness hand dexterity. The results are discussed in terms of how age and grip strength predict different types of hand dexterity in

  20. Normal and clinical haematology of greater and lesser flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus and Phoeniconaias minor).

    PubMed

    Hawkey, C M; Hart, M G; Samour, H J

    1985-10-01

    Normal haematological reference values were obtained for Greater and Lesser flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus, Phoeniconaias minor). Statistically significant differences in the total white cell count and the absolute heterophil count were found in the two species. The reference values were used to identify abnormalities in the blood of five sick birds. Three of these were anaemic, all showed red cell hypochromia and four had heterophilia. The findings suggested that haematological testing is of potential diagnostic value in the species.

  1. Marking adult mosquitoes using an aerially applied fluorescent pigment.

    PubMed

    Meek, C L; Broussard, B B; Andis, M D

    1987-09-01

    A water soluble, fluorescent pigment was aerially applied to caged Culex quinquefasciatus adults in a south Louisiana marshland pasture. Mosquitoes held in cages on 1 m stakes were greater than 90% marked. This number was significantly greater (P less than 0.01) than the number of marked mosquitoes held in cages that were placed in dense vegetation (greater than or equal to 0.5 m high) near the ground surface (70% marked). In a second aerial test with caged Aedes sollicitans in an open, grassy area of the marshland pasture, the pigment marked 100% of the adult mosquitoes held in cages 1 m above the ground and 98% of the caged mosquitoes on the ground surface. Greater than 96% of the adults collected from an emerging population of Ae. sollicitans within the test area were marked as well as 100% of wild caught deer fly adults, Chrysops flavidus complex, in the test area. PMID:2904958

  2. Malaria Modeling and Surveillance for the Greater Mekong Subregion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Richard; Adimi, Farida; Soika, Valerii; Nigro, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    At 4,200 km, the Mekong River is the tenth longest river in the world. It directly and indirectly influences the lives of hundreds of millions of inhabitants in its basin. The riparian countries - Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and a small part of China - form the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). This geographical region has the misfortune of being the world's epicenter of falciparum malaria, which is the most severe form of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Depending on the country, approximately 50 to 90% of all malaria cases are due to this species. In the Malaria Modeling and Surveillance Project, we have been developing techniques to enhance public health's decision capability for malaria risk assessments and controls. The main objectives are: 1) Identifying the potential breeding sites for major vector species; 2) Implementing a malaria transmission model to identify the key factors that sustain or intensify malaria transmission; and 3) Implementing a risk algorithm to predict the occurrence of malaria and its transmission intensity. The potential benefits are: 1) Increased warning time for public health organizations to respond to malaria outbreaks; 2) Optimized utilization of pesticide and chemoprophylaxis; 3) Reduced likelihood of pesticide and drug resistance; and 4) Reduced damage to environment. Environmental parameters important to malaria transmission include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and vegetation conditions. These parameters are extracted from NASA Earth science data sets. Hindcastings based on these environmental parameters have shown good agreement to epidemiological records.

  3. Vaccine preventability of meningococcal clone, Greater Aachen Region, Germany.

    PubMed

    Elias, Johannes; Schouls, Leo M; van de Pol, Ingrid; Keijzers, Wendy C; Martin, Diana R; Glennie, Anne; Oster, Philipp; Frosch, Matthias; Vogel, Ulrich; van der Ende, Arie

    2010-03-01

    Emergence of serogroup B meningococci of clonal complex sequence type (ST) 41/44 can cause high levels of disease, as exemplified by a recent epidemic in New Zealand. Multiplication of annual incidence rates (3.1 cases/100,000 population) of meningococcal disease in a defined German region, the city of Aachen and 3 neighboring countries (Greater Aachen) prompted us to investigate and determine the source and nature of this outbreak. Using molecular typing and geographic mapping, we analyzed 1,143 strains belonging to ST41/44 complex, isolated from persons with invasive meningococcal disease over 6 years (2001-2006) from 2 German federal states (total population 26 million) and the Netherlands. A spatially slowly moving clone with multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis type 19, ST42, and antigenic profile B:P1.7-2,4:F1-5 was responsible for the outbreak. Bactericidal activity in serum samples from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccination campaign confirmed vaccine preventability. Because this globally distributed epidemic strain spreads slowly, vaccination efforts could possibly eliminate meningococcal disease in this area.

  4. Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Piscitella, R.R.

    1991-12-31

    In 1985, Public Law 99-240 (Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985) made the Department of Energy (DOE) responsible for the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW). DOE strategies for storage and disposal of GTCC LLW required characterization of volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms. Data from existing literature, disposal records, and original research were used to estimate characteristics, project volumes, and determine radionuclide activities to the years 2035 and 2055. Twenty-year life extensions for 70% of the operating nuclear reactors were assumed to calculate the GTCC LLW available in 2055. The following categories of GTCC LLW were addressed: Nuclear Utilities Waste; Potential Sealed Sources GTCC LLW; DOE-Held Potential GTCC LLW; and Other Generator Waste. It was determined that the largest volume of these wastes, approximately 57%, is generated by nuclear utilities. The Other Generator Waste category contributes approximately 10% of the total GTCC LLW volume projected to the year 2035. DOE-Held Potential GTCC LLW accounts for nearly 33% of all waste projected to the year 2035. Potential Sealed Sources GTCC LLW is less than 0.2% of the total projected volume. The base case total projected volume of GTCC LLW for all categories was 3,250 cubic meters. This was substantially less than previous estimates.

  5. Evaluation and management of greater trochanter pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Edward P; Middleton, Emily F; Brunette, Meredith

    2015-08-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is an enigmatic but common cause of lateral hip symptoms in middle-aged active women. The most common manifestation of this syndrome is a degenerative tendinopathy of the hip abductors similar to the intrinsic changes seen with rotator cuff pathology in the shoulder. There are no definitive tests to isolate the underlying pathology and palpation is a non-specific means by which to differentiate the source of the pain generator. The physical examination must comprehensively evaluate for a cluster of potential impairments and contributing factors that will need to be addressed to effectively manage the likely functional limitations and activity challenges the syndrome presents to the patient. Compressive forces through increased tension in the iliotibial band should be avoided. Intervention strategies should include education regarding postural avoidance, activity modifications, improvement of lumbopelvic control, and a patient approach to resolving hip joint restrictions and restoring the tensile capabilities of the deep rotators and abductors of the hip. A number of reliable and validated hip-specific self-report outcome tools are available to baseline a patient's status and monitor their progress. Further investigations to identify the epidemiological risk factors, establish effective treatment strategies, and predict prognosis are warranted. PMID:25497431

  6. Status on disposal of greater-than-Class C

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, T.L.

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a plan for the management and disposal of commercially generated greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 made DOE responsible for disposal of GTCC waste. The act requires that GTCC waste be disposed in a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-licensed facility. The NRC has amended 10 CFR 61 to express a preference for geologic disposal of GTCC waste. Based on reassessment studies, legislative guidance, and stakeholder involvement, a revised plan has been formulated to provide for total management of GTCC waste. The plan has four major thrusts: (1) plan for GTCC waste storage at the generator site until disposal is available, (2) establish storage for GTCC sealed sources posing health and safety risk to the public, (3) facilitate storage for other GTCC waste posing health and safety risk to the public, and (4) plan for co-disposal of GTCC waste in a geologic disposal site with similar waste types. The revised plan focuses on applying available resources to near- and long-term needs.

  7. The Shifting Climate Portfolio of the Greater Yellowstone Area.

    PubMed

    Sepulveda, Adam J; Tercek, Michael T; Al-Chokhachy, Robert; Ray, Andrew M; Thoma, David P; Hossack, Blake R; Pederson, Gregory T; Rodman, Ann W; Olliff, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of climatic variability at small spatial extents (< 50 km) is needed to assess vulnerabilities of biological reserves to climate change. We used empirical and modeled weather station data to test if climate change has increased the synchrony of surface air temperatures among 50 sites within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) of the interior western United States. This important biological reserve is the largest protected area in the Lower 48 states and provides critical habitat for some of the world's most iconic wildlife. We focused our analyses on temporal shifts and shape changes in the annual distributions of seasonal minimum and maximum air temperatures among valley-bottom and higher elevation sites from 1948-2012. We documented consistent patterns of warming since 1948 at all 50 sites, with the most pronounced changes occurring during the Winter and Summer when minimum and maximum temperature distributions increased. These shifts indicate more hot temperatures and less cold temperatures would be expected across the GYA. Though the shifting statistical distributions indicate warming, little change in the shape of the temperature distributions across sites since 1948 suggest the GYA has maintained a diverse portfolio of temperatures within a year. Spatial heterogeneity in temperatures is likely maintained by the GYA's physiographic complexity and its large size, which encompasses multiple climate zones that respond differently to synoptic drivers. Having a diverse portfolio of temperatures may help biological reserves spread the extinction risk posed by climate change.

  8. Are the obese at greater risk for depression?

    PubMed

    Roberts, R E; Kaplan, G A; Shema, S J; Strawbridge, W J

    2000-07-15

    Two waves of data from a community-based study (Alameda County Study, 1994-1995) were used to investigate the association between obesity and depression. Depression was measured with 12 items covering Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for major depressive episode. Following US Public Health Service criteria, obese subjects were defined as those with body mass index scores at the 85th percentile or higher. Covariates were age, sex, education, marital status, social isolation and social support, chronic medical conditions, functional impairment, life events, and financial strain. Results were mixed. In cross-sectional analyses, greater odds for depression in 1994 were observed for the obese, with and without adjustment for covariates. When obesity and depression were examined prospectively, controlling for other variables, obesity in 1994 predicted depression in 1995 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 2.87). When the data were analyzed with obesity defined as a body mass index of > or = 30, cross-sectional results were the same. However, the prospective multivariate analyses were not significant (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 0.85, 2.43). Although these data do not resolve the role of obesity as a risk factor for depression, overall the results suggest an association between obesity and depression. The authors found no support for the "jolly fat" hypothesis (obesity reduces risk of depression). However, there has been sufficient disparity of results thus far to justify continued research.

  9. Distribution of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, C.C.; Haroldson, M.A.; Gunther, K.; Moody, D.

    2006-01-01

    The US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) proposed delisting the Yellowstone grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) in November 2005. Part of that process required knowledge of the most current distribution of the species. Here, we update an earlier estimate of occupied range (1990–2000) with data through 2004. We used kernel estimators to develop distribution maps of occupied habitats based on initial sightings of unduplicated females (n = 481) with cubs of the year, locations of radiomarked bears (n = 170), and spatially unique locations of conflicts, confrontations, and mortalities (n = 1,075). Although each data set was constrained by potential sampling bias, together they provided insight into areas in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) currently occupied by grizzly bears. The current distribution of 37,258 km2 (1990–2004) extends beyond the distribution map generated with data from 1990–2000 (34,416 km2 ). Range expansion is particularly evident in parts of the Caribou–Targhee National Forest in Idaho and north of Spanish Peaks on the Gallatin National Forest in Montana.

  10. Galactic Diffuse Gamma Ray Emission Is Greater than 10 Gev

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Stanley D.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    AGILE and Gamma-ray Large Area Telescope (GLAST) are the next high-energy gamma-ray telescopes to be flown in space. These instruments will have angular resolution about 5 times better than Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) above 10 GeV and much larger field of view. The on-axis effective area of AGILE will be about half that of EGRET, whereas GLAST will have about 6 times greater effective area than EGRET. The capabilities of ground based very high-energy telescopes are also improving, e.g. Whipple, and new telescopes, e.g. Solar Tower Atmospheric Cerenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE), Cerenkov Low Energy Sampling and Timing Experiment (CELESTE), and Mars Advanced Greenhouse Integrated Complex (MAGIC) are expected to have low-energy thresholds and sensitivities that will overlap the GLAST sensitivity above approximately 10 GeV. In anticipation of the results from these new telescopes, our current understanding of the galactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, including the matter and cosmic ray distributions is reviewed. The outstanding questions are discussed and the potential of future observations with these new instruments to resolve these questions is examined.

  11. The Shifting Climate Portfolio of the Greater Yellowstone Area.

    PubMed

    Sepulveda, Adam J; Tercek, Michael T; Al-Chokhachy, Robert; Ray, Andrew M; Thoma, David P; Hossack, Blake R; Pederson, Gregory T; Rodman, Ann W; Olliff, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of climatic variability at small spatial extents (< 50 km) is needed to assess vulnerabilities of biological reserves to climate change. We used empirical and modeled weather station data to test if climate change has increased the synchrony of surface air temperatures among 50 sites within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) of the interior western United States. This important biological reserve is the largest protected area in the Lower 48 states and provides critical habitat for some of the world's most iconic wildlife. We focused our analyses on temporal shifts and shape changes in the annual distributions of seasonal minimum and maximum air temperatures among valley-bottom and higher elevation sites from 1948-2012. We documented consistent patterns of warming since 1948 at all 50 sites, with the most pronounced changes occurring during the Winter and Summer when minimum and maximum temperature distributions increased. These shifts indicate more hot temperatures and less cold temperatures would be expected across the GYA. Though the shifting statistical distributions indicate warming, little change in the shape of the temperature distributions across sites since 1948 suggest the GYA has maintained a diverse portfolio of temperatures within a year. Spatial heterogeneity in temperatures is likely maintained by the GYA's physiographic complexity and its large size, which encompasses multiple climate zones that respond differently to synoptic drivers. Having a diverse portfolio of temperatures may help biological reserves spread the extinction risk posed by climate change. PMID:26674185

  12. Evaluation and management of greater trochanter pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Edward P; Middleton, Emily F; Brunette, Meredith

    2015-08-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is an enigmatic but common cause of lateral hip symptoms in middle-aged active women. The most common manifestation of this syndrome is a degenerative tendinopathy of the hip abductors similar to the intrinsic changes seen with rotator cuff pathology in the shoulder. There are no definitive tests to isolate the underlying pathology and palpation is a non-specific means by which to differentiate the source of the pain generator. The physical examination must comprehensively evaluate for a cluster of potential impairments and contributing factors that will need to be addressed to effectively manage the likely functional limitations and activity challenges the syndrome presents to the patient. Compressive forces through increased tension in the iliotibial band should be avoided. Intervention strategies should include education regarding postural avoidance, activity modifications, improvement of lumbopelvic control, and a patient approach to resolving hip joint restrictions and restoring the tensile capabilities of the deep rotators and abductors of the hip. A number of reliable and validated hip-specific self-report outcome tools are available to baseline a patient's status and monitor their progress. Further investigations to identify the epidemiological risk factors, establish effective treatment strategies, and predict prognosis are warranted.

  13. The shifting climate portfolio of the Greater Yellowstone Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Adam; Tercek, Mike T; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Ray, Andrew; Thoma, David P.; Hossack, Blake R.; Pederson, Gregory T.; Rodman, Ann; Olliff, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of climatic variability at small spatial extents (< 50 km) is needed to assess vulnerabilities of biological reserves to climate change. We used empirical and modeled weather station data to test if climate change has increased the synchrony of surface air temperatures among 50 sites within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) of the interior western United States. This important biological reserve is the largest protected area in the Lower 48 states and provides critical habitat for some of the world’s most iconic wildlife. We focused our analyses on temporal shifts and shape changes in the annual distributions of seasonal minimum and maximum air temperatures among valley-bottom and higher elevation sites from 1948–2012. We documented consistent patterns of warming since 1948 at all 50 sites, with the most pronounced changes occurring during the Winter and Summer when minimum and maximum temperature distributions increased. These shifts indicate more hot temperatures and less cold temperatures would be expected across the GYA. Though the shifting statistical distributions indicate warming, little change in the shape of the temperature distributions across sites since 1948 suggest the GYA has maintained a diverse portfolio of temperatures within a year. Spatial heterogeneity in temperatures is likely maintained by the GYA’s physiographic complexity and its large size, which encompasses multiple climate zones that respond differently to synoptic drivers. Having a diverse portfolio of temperatures may help biological reserves spread the extinction risk posed by climate change.

  14. The Shifting Climate Portfolio of the Greater Yellowstone Area

    PubMed Central

    Sepulveda, Adam J.; Tercek, Michael T.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert; Ray, Andrew M.; Thoma, David P.; Hossack, Blake R.; Pederson, Gregory T.; Rodman, Ann W.; Olliff, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of climatic variability at small spatial extents (< 50 km) is needed to assess vulnerabilities of biological reserves to climate change. We used empirical and modeled weather station data to test if climate change has increased the synchrony of surface air temperatures among 50 sites within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) of the interior western United States. This important biological reserve is the largest protected area in the Lower 48 states and provides critical habitat for some of the world’s most iconic wildlife. We focused our analyses on temporal shifts and shape changes in the annual distributions of seasonal minimum and maximum air temperatures among valley-bottom and higher elevation sites from 1948–2012. We documented consistent patterns of warming since 1948 at all 50 sites, with the most pronounced changes occurring during the Winter and Summer when minimum and maximum temperature distributions increased. These shifts indicate more hot temperatures and less cold temperatures would be expected across the GYA. Though the shifting statistical distributions indicate warming, little change in the shape of the temperature distributions across sites since 1948 suggest the GYA has maintained a diverse portfolio of temperatures within a year. Spatial heterogeneity in temperatures is likely maintained by the GYA’s physiographic complexity and its large size, which encompasses multiple climate zones that respond differently to synoptic drivers. Having a diverse portfolio of temperatures may help biological reserves spread the extinction risk posed by climate change. PMID:26674185

  15. Integrating Alpine Adventure and Citizen Science in the Greater Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mix, H.

    2014-12-01

    As earth scientists, we are drawn together by our fascination with the natural world. On alpine climbing expeditions in the Greater Ranges of Asia during 2012-14, I had the opportunity to contribute to the scientific understanding and stewardship of the places I visit for personal fulfillment. Using the "matchmaking" services of Adventurers and Scientists for Conservation, I was connected with researchers to conduct field studies in some of the world's highest and most remote mountains. Here, I present work from two projects: 1) Assessing the role of biological weathering in shaping high altitude landscapes in the Pamir Mountains of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, and 2) Understanding the effects of anthropogenic biomass burning on glacial thinning in the Everest Region, Nepal. Both collaborative efforts succeeded in collecting valuable data from challenging environments using a small research budget. As a scientist with expertise in terrestrial paleoclimate and stable isotope geochemistry, these projects served to expand my research horizons and areas of professional interest. Citizen science can not only add a sense of value to otherwise selfish endeavors such as high altitude climbing, but also serve to connect scientists with the communities who appreciate their efforts most.

  16. Perspectives on housing among homeless emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Tiffany N; Thompson, Sanna J

    2013-02-01

    Homeless emerging adults need the safety and stability of housing programs if they are to avoid the elements and victimization of the streets, however, barriers to obtaining housing are numerous. This study identified factors associated with perspectives of housing services among 29 homeless emerging adults (ages 18-23 years) through one-on-one interviews. Data were gathered and analyzed using grounded theory methodology for qualitative information. Major themes of peer support and positive personal and programmatic interactions in the context of emerging adult development were noted as important factors in housing service utilization. These major themes should be taken into consideration for current housing programs, due to homeless emerging adults' oscillation between their desire for formal support and personal independence. Greater emphasis on services that do not require long term commitments and are more flexible in addressing specific barriers to housing for homeless emerging adults may increase use.

  17. To leave or not to leave: survival trade-offs between different migratory strategies in the greater flamingo.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Aguilar, Ana; Béchet, Arnaud; Germain, Christophe; Johnson, Alan R; Pradel, Roger

    2012-11-01

    1. The balance between costs and benefits of migration under different environmental, density-dependent and individual conditions may promote a broad range of migratory behaviours. We studied the factors influencing first-year migration and subsequent fidelity or dispersal among wintering areas, and the survival costs of different wintering behaviours in the greater flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus). 2. We analysed by multievent capture-recapture modelling among-site dispersal/fidelity and site-dependent survival probabilities from 22 671 flamingos ringed in the Camargue (France) between 1977 and 2010 and resighted subsequently in their wintering grounds classified as France, Iberian Peninsula, Italy and North Africa. 3. We found that first- and second-year birds either resident or wintering at medium distances from their birth place, survived better than those wintering further afield. However, under severe winter conditions (extremely cold winter 1984-1985), individuals with the sedentary strategy suffered the highest levels of mortality. From the third winter onwards, the pattern of survival reversed: the long-distance wintering individuals (i.e. North Africa) survived better. 4. The proportion of first-year birds migrating for wintering was highly variable among cohorts and increased with favourable environmental conditions (wet years). After the first winter, birds showed high fidelity (>90%) to their previous wintering area and wintered preferably near their natal colony when they became adults (>2 years). 5. Survival estimates suggest that long-distance migration was costly for young and inexperienced individuals. Nonetheless, for adults, the most southern wintering areas seem to offer the most favourable local conditions for overwinter survival. 6. The higher availability of intermediate stopover sites during wet years may facilitate first-year migration. Then, once they have some wintering experience, flamingos appear to favour the known wintering grounds

  18. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - adults - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive airways disease - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive lung disease - adults - discharge; Chronic bronchitis - adults - discharge; Emphysema - adults - ...

  19. Circumpolar variation in morphological characteristics of Greater White-fronted Geese Anser albifrons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, C.R.; Fox, A.D.; Alisauskas, R.T.; Andreev, A.; Bromley, R.G.; Degtyarev, A.G.; Ebbinge, B.; Gurtovaya, E.N.; Kerbes, R.; Kondratyev, A.V.; Kostin, I.; Krechmar, A.V.; Litvin, K.E.; Miyabayashi, Y.; Moou, J.H.; Oates, R.M.; Orthmeyer, D.L.; Sabano, Yutaka; Simpson, S.G.; Solovieva, D.V.; Spindler, Michael A.; Syroechkovsky, Y.V.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Walsh, A.

    2005-01-01

    Capsule: Greater White-fronted Geese show significant variation in body size from sampling locations throughout their circumpolar breeding range. Aims: To determine the degree of geographical variation in body size of Greater White-fronted Geese and identify factors contributing to any apparent patterns in variation. Methods: Structural measures of >3000 geese from 16 breeding areas throughout the Holarctic breeding range of the species were compared statistically. Results: Palearctic forms varied clinally, and increased in size from the smallest forms on the Kanin and Taimyr peninsulas in western Eurasia to the largest forms breeding in the Anadyr Lowlands of eastern Chukotka. Clinal variation was less apparent in the Nearctic, as both the smallest form in the Nearctic and the largest form overall (the Tule Goose) were from different breeding areas in Alaska. The Tule Goose was 25% larger than the smallest form. Birds from Greenland (A. a. flavirostris) were the second largest, although only slightly larger than geese from several North American populations. Body size was not correlated with breeding latitude but was positively correlated with temperature on the breeding grounds, breeding habitat, and migration distance. Body mass of Greater White-fronted Geese from all populations remained relatively constant during the period of wing moult. Morphological distinctness of eastern and western Palearctic forms concurs with earlier findings of complete range disjunction. Conclusions: Patterns of morphological variation in Greater White-fronted Geese across the Holarctic can be generally attributed to adaptation to variable breeding environments, migration requirements, and phylo-geographical histories. 

  20. Disorganized attachment in infancy predicts greater amygdala volume in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lyons-Ruth, K; Pechtel, P; Yoon, S A; Anderson, C M; Teicher, M H

    2016-07-15

    Early life stress in rodents is associated with increased amygdala volume in adulthood. In humans, the amygdala develops rapidly during the first two years of life. Thus, disturbed care during this period may be particularly important to amygdala development. In the context of a 30-year longitudinal study of impoverished, highly stressed families, we assessed whether disorganization of the attachment relationship in infancy was related to amygdala volume in adulthood. Amygdala volumes were assessed among 18 low-income young adults (8M/10F, 29.33±0.49years) first observed in infancy (8.5±5.6months) and followed longitudinally to age 29. In infancy (18.58±1.02mos), both disorganized infant attachment behavior and disrupted maternal communication were assessed in the standard Strange Situation Procedure (SSP). Increased left amygdala volume in adulthood was associated with both maternal and infant components of disorganized attachment interactions at 18 months of age (overall r=0.679, p<0.004). Later stressors, including childhood maltreatment and attachment disturbance in adolescence, were not significantly related to left amygdala volume. Left amygdala volume was further associated with dissociation and limbic irritability in adulthood. Finally, left amygdala volume mediated the prediction from attachment disturbance in infancy to limbic irritability in adulthood. Results point to the likely importance of quality of early care for amygdala development in human children as well as in rodents. The long-term prediction found here suggests that the first two years of life may be an early sensitive period for amygdala development during which clinical intervention could have particularly important consequences for later child outcomes.

  1. Disorganized attachment in infancy predicts greater amygdala volume in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lyons-Ruth, K; Pechtel, P; Yoon, S A; Anderson, C M; Teicher, M H

    2016-07-15

    Early life stress in rodents is associated with increased amygdala volume in adulthood. In humans, the amygdala develops rapidly during the first two years of life. Thus, disturbed care during this period may be particularly important to amygdala development. In the context of a 30-year longitudinal study of impoverished, highly stressed families, we assessed whether disorganization of the attachment relationship in infancy was related to amygdala volume in adulthood. Amygdala volumes were assessed among 18 low-income young adults (8M/10F, 29.33±0.49years) first observed in infancy (8.5±5.6months) and followed longitudinally to age 29. In infancy (18.58±1.02mos), both disorganized infant attachment behavior and disrupted maternal communication were assessed in the standard Strange Situation Procedure (SSP). Increased left amygdala volume in adulthood was associated with both maternal and infant components of disorganized attachment interactions at 18 months of age (overall r=0.679, p<0.004). Later stressors, including childhood maltreatment and attachment disturbance in adolescence, were not significantly related to left amygdala volume. Left amygdala volume was further associated with dissociation and limbic irritability in adulthood. Finally, left amygdala volume mediated the prediction from attachment disturbance in infancy to limbic irritability in adulthood. Results point to the likely importance of quality of early care for amygdala development in human children as well as in rodents. The long-term prediction found here suggests that the first two years of life may be an early sensitive period for amygdala development during which clinical intervention could have particularly important consequences for later child outcomes. PMID:27060720

  2. An apparent contradiction: increasing variability to achieve greater precision?

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Noah J; Hurt, Christopher P; Latash, Mark L; Grabiner, Mark D

    2014-02-01

    To understand the relationship between variability of foot placement in the frontal plane and stability of gait patterns, we explored how constraining mediolateral foot placement during walking affects the structure of kinematic variance in the lower-limb configuration space during the swing phase of gait. Ten young subjects walked under three conditions: (1) unconstrained (normal walking), (2) constrained (walking overground with visual guides for foot placement to achieve the measured unconstrained step width) and, (3) beam (walking on elevated beams spaced to achieve the measured unconstrained step width). The uncontrolled manifold analysis of the joint configuration variance was used to quantify two variance components, one that did not affect the mediolateral trajectory of the foot in the frontal plane ("good variance") and one that affected this trajectory ("bad variance"). Based on recent studies, we hypothesized that across conditions (1) the index of the synergy stabilizing the mediolateral trajectory of the foot (the normalized difference between the "good variance" and "bad variance") would systematically increase and (2) the changes in the synergy index would be associated with a disproportionate increase in the "good variance." Both hypotheses were confirmed. We conclude that an increase in the "good variance" component of the joint configuration variance may be an effective method of ensuring high stability of gait patterns during conditions requiring increased control of foot placement, particularly if a postural threat is present. Ultimately, designing interventions that encourage a larger amount of "good variance" may be a promising method of improving stability of gait patterns in populations such as older adults and neurological patients. PMID:24162866

  3. Computational models of adult neurogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecchi, Guillermo A.; Magnasco, Marcelo O.

    2005-10-01

    Experimental results in recent years have shown that adult neurogenesis is a significant phenomenon in the mammalian brain. Little is known, however, about the functional role played by the generation and destruction of neurons in the context of an adult brain. Here, we propose two models where new projection neurons are incorporated. We show that in both models, using incorporation and removal of neurons as a computational tool, it is possible to achieve a higher computational efficiency that in purely static, synapse-learning-driven networks. We also discuss the implication for understanding the role of adult neurogenesis in specific brain areas like the olfactory bulb and the dentate gyrus.

  4. Adult flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Toullec, E

    2015-02-01

    Adult flatfoot is defined as a flattening of the medial arch of the foot in weight-bearing and lack of a propulsive gait. The 3 lesion levels are the talonavicular, tibiotarsal and midfoot joints. The subtalar joint is damaged by the consequent rotational defects. Clinical examination determines deformity and reducibility, and assesses any posterior tibialis muscle deficit, the posterior tibialis tendon and spring ligament being frequently subject to degenerative lesions. Radiographic examination in 3 incidences in weight-bearing is essential, to determine the principal level of deformity. Tendon (posterior tibialis tendon) and ligamentous lesions (spring ligament and interosseous ligament) are analyzed on MRI or ultrasound. In fixed deformities, CT explores for arthritic evolution or specific etiologies. 3D CT reconstruction can analyze bone and joint morphology and contribute to the planning of any osteotomy. Medical management associates insoles and physiotherapy. Acute painful flatfoot requires strict cast immobilization. Surgical treatment associates numerous combinations of procedures, currently under assessment for supple flatfoot: for the hindfoot: medial slide calcaneal osteotomy, calcaneal lengthening osteotomy, or arthroereisis; for the midfoot: arthrodesis on one or several rays, or first cuneiform or first metatarsal osteotomy; for the ankle: medial collateral ligament repair with tendon transfer. Fixed deformities require arthrodesis of one or several joint-lines in the hindfoot; for the ankle, total replacement after realignment of the foot, or tibiotalocalcaneal fusion or ankle and hindfoot fusion; and, for the midfoot, cuneonavicular or cuneometatarsal fusion. Tendinous procedures are often associated. Specific etiologies may need individualized procedures. In conclusion, adult flatfoot tends to be diagnosed and managed too late, with consequent impact on the ankle, the management of which is complex and poorly codified.

  5. Adult flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Toullec, E

    2015-02-01

    Adult flatfoot is defined as a flattening of the medial arch of the foot in weight-bearing and lack of a propulsive gait. The 3 lesion levels are the talonavicular, tibiotarsal and midfoot joints. The subtalar joint is damaged by the consequent rotational defects. Clinical examination determines deformity and reducibility, and assesses any posterior tibialis muscle deficit, the posterior tibialis tendon and spring ligament being frequently subject to degenerative lesions. Radiographic examination in 3 incidences in weight-bearing is essential, to determine the principal level of deformity. Tendon (posterior tibialis tendon) and ligamentous lesions (spring ligament and interosseous ligament) are analyzed on MRI or ultrasound. In fixed deformities, CT explores for arthritic evolution or specific etiologies. 3D CT reconstruction can analyze bone and joint morphology and contribute to the planning of any osteotomy. Medical management associates insoles and physiotherapy. Acute painful flatfoot requires strict cast immobilization. Surgical treatment associates numerous combinations of procedures, currently under assessment for supple flatfoot: for the hindfoot: medial slide calcaneal osteotomy, calcaneal lengthening osteotomy, or arthroereisis; for the midfoot: arthrodesis on one or several rays, or first cuneiform or first metatarsal osteotomy; for the ankle: medial collateral ligament repair with tendon transfer. Fixed deformities require arthrodesis of one or several joint-lines in the hindfoot; for the ankle, total replacement after realignment of the foot, or tibiotalocalcaneal fusion or ankle and hindfoot fusion; and, for the midfoot, cuneonavicular or cuneometatarsal fusion. Tendinous procedures are often associated. Specific etiologies may need individualized procedures. In conclusion, adult flatfoot tends to be diagnosed and managed too late, with consequent impact on the ankle, the management of which is complex and poorly codified. PMID:25595429

  6. The osmotic stability of lysosomes from adult and foetal guinea-pig liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, J M; Neil, M W

    1969-02-01

    1. Lysosome-rich fractions were obtained from foetal liver tissues as early as 35 days uterine age. Foetal lysosomes showed the same ;structure-linked latency' and acid hydrolytic potentiality characteristic of their adult counterparts. 2. The osmotic stability of lysosome-rich fraction from foetal guinea-pig liver tissue was greater than that of the corresponding adult lysosome fractions, p-nitrophenyl-phosphatase being used as marker enzyme. 3. The observation was confirmed by using beta-glycerophosphatase and phenolphthalein beta-glucuronidase as alternative marker enzymes. p-Nitrophenyl phosphate and beta-glycerophosphate appear to act as substrates for the same enzyme. 4. By using p-nitrophenylphosphatase activity measurements it was shown that the osmotic stability of foetal lysosomal fractions decreased with increasing foetal age, but at no time achieved the degree of osmotic instability characteristic of adult lysosomal fractions. 5. The correlation of these findings with the intracellular environment of lysosomes is discussed.

  7. Effect of Pictograph-Based Discharge Instructions on Older Adults' Comprehension and Recall: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeungok

    2016-01-01

    Many older adults return home with limited comprehension of hospital discharge instructions because current text-based instructions are difficult to understand. To address this issue, the author developed discharge instructions using pictographs (i.e., simple line drawings showing step-by-step discharge actions) for older adults under care of hip replacement surgery. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of pictograph-based discharge instructions on comprehension and recall of older adults with low literacy skills. A posttest-only comparison group design was used to compare pictograph-based (n = 21) to text-only (n = 21) discharge instructions at 4 weeks after discharge instruction education. Significantly greater improvements in scores on comprehension and recall were demonstrated by the pictograph group than the text-only group. A follow-up, full-scale study is suggested to examine the effect of pictograph-based instructions on adherence to instructions and health outcomes.

  8. Do Losses Loom Larger for Children than Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Luking, Katherine R.; Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2015-01-01

    The large impact of loss of reward on behavior has been well documented in adult populations. However, whether responsiveness to loss relative to gain is similarly elevated in child versus adult populations remains unclear. It is also unclear whether relations between incentive behaviors and self-reported reward/punishment sensitivity are similar within different developmental stages. To investigate these questions, 7–10-year-old children (N=70) and young adults (N=70) completed the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) Scale, along with two probabilistic incentive tasks assessing gain approach and loss avoidance behavior. BIS/BAS subscales were calculated per Pagliaccio, Luking et al. 2015, which established an age invariant model of the BIS/BAS. Bias towards responses more frequently followed by gain feedback and away from responses more frequently followed by loss feedback, approach and avoidance behavior respectively, were quantified via signal detection statistics. Gain approach behavior did not differ across age groups, however children exhibited significantly elevated loss avoidance relative to adults. Children also showed greater reductions in accuracy and slower reaction times specifically following loss feedback relative to adults. Interestingly, despite age group differences in loss avoidance behavior, relations between self-report measures and approach/avoidance behaviors were similar across age groups. Participants reporting elevated motivation (BAS Drive) showed both elevated gain approach and elevated loss avoidance, with both types of behavior predicting unique variance in BAS Drive. Results highlight the often-neglected developmental and motivational roles of responsiveness to loss of reward. PMID:26524484

  9. Do losses loom larger for children than adults?

    PubMed

    Luking, Katherine R; Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L; Barch, Deanna M

    2016-04-01

    The large impact of loss of reward on behavior has been well documented in adult populations. However, whether responsiveness to loss relative to gain is similarly elevated in child versus adult populations remains unclear. It is also unclear whether relations between incentive behaviors and self-reported reward/punishment sensitivity are similar within different developmental stages. To investigate these questions, 7- to 10-year-old children (N = 70) and young adults (N = 70) completed the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scale, along with 2 probabilistic incentive tasks assessing gain approach and loss avoidance behavior. BIS/BAS subscales were calculated per Pagliaccio et al. (2015), which established an age invariant model of the BIS/BAS. Bias toward responses more frequently followed by gain feedback and away from responses more frequently followed by loss feedback, approach, and avoidance behavior, respectively, were quantified via signal detection statistics. Gain approach behavior did not differ across age groups; however, children exhibited significantly elevated loss avoidance relative to adults. Children also showed greater reductions in accuracy and slower RTs specifically following loss feedback relative to adults. Interestingly, despite age group differences in loss avoidance behavior, relations between self-report measures and approach/avoidance behaviors were similar across age groups. Participants reporting elevated motivation (BAS Drive) showed both elevated gain approach and elevated loss avoidance, with both types of behavior predicting unique variance in BAS Drive. Results highlight the often-neglected developmental and motivational roles of responsiveness to loss of reward. PMID:26524484

  10. Computer acceptance of older adults.

    PubMed

    Nägle, Sibylle; Schmidt, Ludger

    2012-01-01

    Even though computers play a massive role in everyday life of modern societies, older adults, and especially older women, are less likely to use a computer, and they perform fewer activities on it than younger adults. To get a better understanding of the factors affecting older adults' intention towards and usage of computers, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Usage of Technology (UTAUT) was applied as part of a more extensive study with 52 users and non-users of computers, ranging in age from 50 to 90 years. The model covers various aspects of computer usage in old age via four key constructs, namely performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influences, and facilitating conditions, as well as the variables gender, age, experience, and voluntariness it. Interestingly, next to performance expectancy, facilitating conditions showed the strongest correlation with use as well as with intention. Effort expectancy showed no significant correlation with the intention of older adults to use a computer.

  11. Characterization of Fetal Keratinocytes, Showing Enhanced Stem Cell-Like Properties: A Potential Source of Cells for Skin Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Kenneth K.B.; Salgado, Giorgiana; Connolly, John E.; Chan, Jerry K.Y.; Lane, E. Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    Summary Epidermal stem cells have been in clinical application as a source of culture-generated grafts. Although applications for such cells are increasing due to aging populations and the greater incidence of diabetes, current keratinocyte grafting technology is limited by immunological barriers and the time needed for culture amplification. We studied the feasibility of using human fetal skin cells for allogeneic transplantation and showed that fetal keratinocytes have faster expansion times, longer telomeres, lower immunogenicity indicators, and greater clonogenicity with more stem cell indicators than adult keratinocytes. The fetal cells did not induce proliferation of T cells in coculture and were able to suppress the proliferation of stimulated T cells. Nevertheless, fetal keratinocytes could stratify normally in vitro. Experimental transplantation of fetal keratinocytes in vivo seeded on an engineered plasma scaffold yielded a well-stratified epidermal architecture and showed stable skin regeneration. These results support the possibility of using fetal skin cells for cell-based therapeutic grafting. PMID:25254345

  12. tDCS selectively improves working memory in older adults with more education.

    PubMed

    Berryhill, Marian E; Jones, Kevin T

    2012-07-19

    Cognitive performance, including performance on working memory (WM) tasks declines with age. Changes in brain activations are one presumed contributor to WM decline in the healthy aging population. In particular, neuroimaging studies show that when older adults perform WM tasks there tends to be greater bilateral frontal activity than in younger adults. We hypothesized that stimulating the prefrontal cortex in healthy older adults would improve WM performance. To test this hypothesis we employed transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a neurostimulation technique in which small amounts of electrical current are applied to the scalp with the intent of modulating the activity in underlying neurons. Across three testing sessions we applied sham stimulation or anodal tDCS to the left (F3) or right (F4) prefrontal cortex to healthy older adults as they performed trials of verbal and visual 2-back WM tasks. Surprisingly, tDCS was uniformly beneficial across site and WM task, but only in older adults with more education. In the less educated group, tDCS provided no benefit to verbal or visual WM performance. We interpret these findings as evidence for differential frontal recruitment as a function of strategy when older adults perform WM tasks.

  13. Endothelium dependency of contractile activity differs in infant and adult vertebral arteries.

    PubMed Central

    Charpie, J R; Schreur, K D; Papadopoulos, S M; Webb, R C

    1994-01-01

    Contractions to serotonin (5-HT) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in infant (0-2 yr) and adult (38-71 yr) vertebral arteries were examined in the presence of either the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin or NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), an inhibitor of nitric oxide production. In addition, endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine were characterized in arteries contracted with agonist. The results showed that: (a) Contractions of infant arteries to 5-HT or ET-1 decreased to 44 +/- 8% and 27 +/- 13%, respectively, within 10 min. Indomethacin or removal of endothelium abolished this decreased response, whereas L-NMMA had no effect. (b) Adult arteries produced sustained contractions to 5-HT or ET-1 that were unaffected by indomethacin, endothelium denudation, or L-NMMA. (c) Endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine were greater in infant than adult arteries and were abolished by indomethacin (but not L-NMMA) in infants and L-NMMA (but not indomethacin) in adults. Thus, endothelium-dependent responses in infant arteries are attenuated because of increased prostaglandin activity not observed in adult tissues. Additionally, there is an age-dependent change in the primary mechanism responsible for acetylcholine-induced vasodilation. Apparently, endothelium dependency of acetylcholine-induced relaxation is highly dependent on cyclooxygenase activity in the infant vertebral artery, but in the adult artery, nitric oxide is linked to the vasodilator response. Images PMID:8132776

  14. Convergent and Divergent fMRI Responses in Children and Adults to Increasing Language Production Demands

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Saloni; Leech, Robert; Mercure, Evelyne; Lloyd-Fox, Sarah; Dick, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    In adults, patterns of neural activation associated with perhaps the most basic language skill—overt object naming—are extensively modulated by the psycholinguistic and visual complexity of the stimuli. Do children's brains react similarly when confronted with increasing processing demands, or they solve this problem in a different way? Here we scanned 37 children aged 7–13 and 19 young adults who performed a well-normed picture-naming task with 3 levels of difficulty. While neural organization for naming was largely similar in childhood and adulthood, adults had greater activation in all naming conditions over inferior temporal gyri and superior temporal gyri/supramarginal gyri. Manipulating naming complexity affected adults and children quite differently: neural activation, especially over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, showed complexity-dependent increases in adults, but complexity-dependent decreases in children. These represent fundamentally different responses to the linguistic and conceptual challenges of a simple naming task that makes no demands on literacy or metalinguistics. We discuss how these neural differences might result from different cognitive strategies used by adults and children during lexical retrieval/production as well as developmental changes in brain structure and functional connectivity. PMID:24907249

  15. Comparative analysis of semantic localization accuracies between adult and pediatric DICOM CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Duncan; Pathak, Sayan D.; Criminisi, Antonio; White, Steve; Haynor, David; Chen, Oliver; Siddiqui, Khan

    2012-02-01

    Existing literature describes a variety of techniques for semantic annotation of DICOM CT images, i.e. the automatic detection and localization of anatomical structures. Semantic annotation facilitates enhanced image navigation, linkage of DICOM image content and non-image clinical data, content-based image retrieval, and image registration. A key challenge for semantic annotation algorithms is inter-patient variability. However, while the algorithms described in published literature have been shown to cope adequately with the variability in test sets comprising adult CT scans, the problem presented by the even greater variability in pediatric anatomy has received very little attention. Most existing semantic annotation algorithms can only be extended to work on scans of both adult and pediatric patients by adapting parameters heuristically in light of patient size. In contrast, our approach, which uses random regression forests ('RRF'), learns an implicit model of scale variation automatically using training data. In consequence, anatomical structures can be localized accurately in both adult and pediatric CT studies without the need for parameter adaptation or additional information about patient scale. We show how the RRF algorithm is able to learn scale invariance from a combined training set containing a mixture of pediatric and adult scans. Resulting localization accuracy for both adult and pediatric data remains comparable with that obtained using RRFs trained and tested using only adult data.

  16. Deviance and resistance: Malaria elimination in the greater Mekong subregion.

    PubMed

    Lyttleton, Chris

    2016-02-01

    Malaria elimination rather than control is increasingly globally endorsed, requiring new approaches wherein success is not measured by timely treatment of presenting cases but eradicating all presence of infection. This shift has gained urgency as resistance to artemisinin-combination therapies spreads in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) posing a threat to global health security. In the GMS, endemic malaria persists in forested border areas and elimination will require calibrated approaches to remove remaining pockets of residual infection. A new public health strategy called 'positive deviance' is being used to improve health promotion and community outreach in some of these zones. However, outbreaks sparked by alternative understandings of appropriate behaviour expose the unpredictable nature of 'border malaria' and difficulties eradication faces. Using a recent spike in infections allegedly linked to luxury timber trade in Thai borderlands, this article suggests that opportunities for market engagement can cause people to see 'deviance' as a means to material advancement in ways that increase disease vulnerability. A malaria outbreak in Ubon Ratchathani was investigated during two-week field-visit in November 2014 as part of longer project researching border malaria in Thai provinces. Qualitative data were collected in four villages in Ubon's three most-affected districts. Discussions with villagers focused primarily on changing livelihoods, experience with malaria, and rosewood cutting. Informants included ten men and two women who had recently overnighted in the nearby forest. Data from health officials and villagers are used to frame Ubon's rise in malaria transmission within moral and behavioural responses to expanding commodity supply-chains. The article argues that elimination strategies in the GMS must contend with volatile outbreaks among border populations wherein 'infectiousness' and 'resistance' are not simply pathogen characteristics but also

  17. Dietary breadth of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gunther, Kerry A.; Shoemaker, Rebecca; Frey, Kevin L.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Cain, Steven L; van Manen, Frank T.; Fortin, Jennifer K.

    2014-01-01

    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) are opportunistic omnivores that eat a great diversity of plant and animal species. Changes in climate may affect regional vegetation, hydrology, insects, and fire regimes, likely influencing the abundance, range, and elevational distribution of the plants and animals consumed by GYE grizzly bears. Determining the dietary breadth of grizzly bears is important to document future changes in food resources and how those changes may affect the nutritional ecology of grizzlies. However, no synthesis exists of all foods consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We conducted a review of available literature and compiled a list of species consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We documented >266 species within 200 genera from 4 kingdoms, including 175 plant, 37 invertebrate, 34 mammal, 7 fungi, 7 bird, 4 fish, 1 amphibian, and 1 algae species as well as 1 soil type consumed by grizzly bears. The average energy values of the ungulates (6.8 kcal/g), trout (Oncorhynchus spp., 6.1 kcal/g), and small mammals (4.5 kcal/g) eaten by grizzlies were higher than those of the plants (3.0 kcal/g) and invertebrates (2.7 kcal/g) they consumed. The most frequently detected diet items were graminoids, ants (Formicidae), whitebark pine seeds (Pinus albicaulis), clover (Trifolium spp.), and dandelion (Taraxacum spp.). The most consistently used foods on a temporal basis were graminoids, ants, whitebark pine seeds, clover, elk (Cervus elaphus), thistle (Cirsium spp.), and horsetail (Equisetum spp.). Historically, garbage was a significant diet item for grizzlies until refuse dumps were closed. Use of forbs increased after garbage was no longer readily available. The list of foods we compiled will help managers of grizzly bears and their habitat document future changes in grizzly bear food habits and how bears respond to changing food resources.

  18. Interspecific nest parasitism by chukar on greater sage-grouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fearon, Michelle L.; Coates, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Nest parasitism occurs when a female bird lays eggs in the nest of another and the host incubates the eggs and may provide some form of parental care for the offspring (Lyon and Eadie 1991). Precocial birds (e.g., Galliformes and Anseriformes) are typically facultative nest parasites of both their own and other species (Lyon and Eadie 1991). This behavior increases a female’s reproductive success when she parasitizes other nests while simultaneously raising her own offspring. Both interspecific and conspecific nest parasitism have been well documented in several families of the order Galliformes, particularly the Phasianidae (Lyon and Eadie 1991, Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001, Krakauer and Kimball 2009). The Chukar (Alectoris chukar) has been widely introduced as a game bird to western North America from Eurasia and is now well established within the Great Basin from northeastern California east to Utah and north to Idaho and Oregon (Christensen 1996). Over much of this range the Chukar occurs with other phasianids, including the native Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), within sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) steppe (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999, Connelly et al. 2000). Chukar typically exploit a broader range of habitats than do sage-grouse, but both species use the same species of sagebrush and other shrubs for nesting cover (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999). Chukar are known to parasitize nests of other individuals of their own species (Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001), but we are unaware of reported evidence that Chukar may parasitize nests of sage-grouse. Here we describe a case of a Chukar parasitizing a sage-grouse nest in the sagebrush steppe of western Nevada.

  19. Greater involvement of people living with HIV in health care

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Greater Involvement of People Living with HIV/AIDS represents a mobilising and an organising principle for the involvement of people living with HIV in program and policy responses. People with HIV have been at the forefront of designing and implementing effective HIV treatment, care and prevention activities. However, governments and health systems have yet to act to fully harness the potential and resources of people living with HIV in addressing the epidemic. The lives and experiences of people living with HIV highlight the need for a shift in the existing paradigm of disease management. The high prevalence of HIV amongst health care providers in many countries, exacerbated by stigma towards those with HIV in the health care professions, is seriously undermining the capacity of health systems and signals the need to change the current nature of health care delivery. Moreover, the negative experiences of many people with HIV in relation to their health care as well as in their daily social interactions, coupled with the ever-limited current investment in treatment, care and support, demonstrate that the current system is drastically failing the majority of people with HIV. Current health management systems urgently need to be more effectively maximised, to increase the quality of standards of health care systems and services in resource poor countries. An integrated approach to health care based on a human rights framework, grounded in community realities and delivered in partnership and solidarity with people living with HIV, offers the most viable approach to overcoming the crisis of HIV in the health care system. PMID:19284672

  20. Deviance and resistance: Malaria elimination in the greater Mekong subregion.

    PubMed

    Lyttleton, Chris

    2016-02-01

    Malaria elimination rather than control is increasingly globally endorsed, requiring new approaches wherein success is not measured by timely treatment of presenting cases but eradicating all presence of infection. This shift has gained urgency as resistance to artemisinin-combination therapies spreads in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) posing a threat to global health security. In the GMS, endemic malaria persists in forested border areas and elimination will require calibrated approaches to remove remaining pockets of residual infection. A new public health strategy called 'positive deviance' is being used to improve health promotion and community outreach in some of these zones. However, outbreaks sparked by alternative understandings of appropriate behaviour expose the unpredictable nature of 'border malaria' and difficulties eradication faces. Using a recent spike in infections allegedly linked to luxury timber trade in Thai borderlands, this article suggests that opportunities for market engagement can cause people to see 'deviance' as a means to material advancement in ways that increase disease vulnerability. A malaria outbreak in Ubon Ratchathani was investigated during two-week field-visit in November 2014 as part of longer project researching border malaria in Thai provinces. Qualitative data were collected in four villages in Ubon's three most-affected districts. Discussions with villagers focused primarily on changing livelihoods, experience with malaria, and rosewood cutting. Informants included ten men and two women who had recently overnighted in the nearby forest. Data from health officials and villagers are used to frame Ubon's rise in malaria transmission within moral and behavioural responses to expanding commodity supply-chains. The article argues that elimination strategies in the GMS must contend with volatile outbreaks among border populations wherein 'infectiousness' and 'resistance' are not simply pathogen characteristics but also

  1. Greater sage-grouse winter habitat selection and energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, K.E.; Naugle, D.E.; Walker, B.L.; Graham, J.M.

    2008-01-15

    Recent energy development has resulted in rapid and large-scale changes to western shrub-steppe ecosystems without a complete understanding of its potential impacts on wildlife populations. We modeled winter habitat use by female greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming and Montana, USA, to 1) identify landscape features that influenced sage-grouse habitat selection, 2) assess the scale at which selection occurred, 3) spatially depict winter habitat quality in a Geographic Information System, and 4) assess the effect of coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) development on winter habitat selection. We developed a model of winter habitat selection based on 435 aerial relocations of 200 radiomarked female sage-grouse obtained during the winters of 2005 and 2006. Percent sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) cover on the landscape was an important predictor of use by sage-grouse in winter. Sage-grouse were 1.3 times more likely to occupy sagebrush habitats that lacked CBNG wells within a 4-km{sup 2} area, compared to those that had the maximum density of 12.3 wells per 4 km{sup 2} allowed on federal lands. We validated the model with 74 locations from 74 radiomarked individuals obtained during the winters of 2004 and 2007. This winter habitat model based on vegetation, topography, and CBNG avoidance was highly predictive (validation R{sup 2} = 0.984). Our spatially explicit model can be used to identify areas that provide the best remaining habitat for wintering sage-grouse in the PRB to mitigate impacts of energy development.

  2. Lancet dynamics in greater horseshoe bats, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum.

    PubMed

    He, Weikai; Pedersen, Scott C; Gupta, Anupam K; Simmons, James A; Müller, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Echolocating greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) emit their biosonar pulses nasally, through nostrils surrounded by fleshy appendages ('noseleaves') that diffract the outgoing ultrasonic waves. Movements of one noseleaf part, the lancet, were measured in live bats using two synchronized high speed video cameras with 3D stereo reconstruction, and synchronized with pulse emissions recorded by an ultrasonic microphone. During individual broadcasts, the lancet briefly flicks forward (flexion) and is then restored to its original position. This forward motion lasts tens of milliseconds and increases the curvature of the affected noseleaf surfaces. Approximately 90% of the maximum displacements occurred within the duration of individual pulses, with 70% occurring towards the end. Similar lancet motions were not observed between individual pulses in a sequence of broadcasts. Velocities of the lancet motion were too small to induce Doppler shifts of a biologically-meaningful magnitude, but the maximum displacements were significant in comparison with the overall size of the lancet and the ultrasonic wavelengths. Three finite element models were made from micro-CT scans of the noseleaf post mortem to investigate the acoustic effects of lancet displacement. The broadcast beam shapes were found to be altered substantially by the observed small lancet movements. These findings demonstrate that-in addition to the previously described motions of the anterior leaf and the pinna-horseshoe bat biosonar has a third degree of freedom for fast changes that can happen on the time scale of the emitted pulses or the returning echoes and could provide a dynamic mechanism for the encoding of sensory information. PMID:25853738

  3. Home range dynamics, habitat selection, and survival of Greater Roadrunners

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelley, S.W.; Ransom, D.; Butcher, J.A.; Schulz, G.G.; Surber, B.W.; Pinchak, W.E.; Santamaria, C.A.; Hurtado, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Greater Roadrunners (Geococcyx californianus) are common, poorly studied birds of arid and semi-arid ecosystems in the southwestern United States. Conservation of this avian predator requires a detailed understanding of their movements and spatial requirements that is currently lacking. From 2006 to 2009, we quantified home-range and core area sizes and overlap, habitat selection, and survival of roadrunners (N= 14 males and 20 females) in north-central Texas using radio-telemetry and fixed kernel estimators. Median home-range and core-area sizes were 90.4 ha and 19.2 ha for males and 80.1 ha and 16.7 ha for females, respectively. The size of home range and core areas did not differ significantly by either sex or season. Our home range estimates were twice as large (x??= 108.9 ha) as earlier published estimates based on visual observations (x??= 28-50 ha). Mean percent overlap was 38.4% for home ranges and 13.7% for core areas. Male roadrunners preferred mesquite woodland and mesquite savanna cover types, and avoided the grass-forb cover type. Female roadrunners preferred mesquite savanna and riparian woodland cover types, and avoided grass-forb habitat. Kaplan-Meier annual survival probabilities for females (0.452 ?? 0.118[SE]) were twice that estimated for males (0.210 ?? 0.108), but this difference was not significant. Mortality rates of male roadrunners were higher than those of females during the spring when males call from elevated perches, court females, and chase competing males. Current land use practices that target woody-shrub removal to enhance livestock forage production could be detrimental to roadrunner populations by reducing availability of mesquite woodland and mesquite savanna habitat required for nesting and roosting and increasing the amount of grass-forb habitat that roadrunners avoid. ??2011 The Authors. Journal of Field Ornithology ??2011 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  4. Hail events across the Greater Metropolitan Severe Thunderstorm Warning Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasuly, A. A.; Cheung, K. K. W.; McBurney, B.

    2015-05-01

    This study addresses the recent climatology of hail occurrence in the Greater Metropolitan Severe Thunderstorm Warning Area (GMSTWA) of New South Wales (NSW). The study area is a sprawling suburban area with a population of nearly 4.7 million and one of Australia's largest metropoles. The main objective is to highlight the recent temporal-spatial fluctuations of hail event frequencies and magnitudes (sizes) for each of recognized and vastly inhabited local government areas (LGAs). The relevant hail event data from 1989 to 2013 were initially derived from the severe storm archive of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. A climatologically oriented GIS technique was then applied in the examining and mapping procedure of all hail events and hail days reported throughout the study area. By applying a specific criterion, severe hail (defined as 2 cm or more in diameter) was cautiously selected for relevant analysis. The database includes 357 hail events with sizes 2-11 cm which occurred in 169 hail days (a day in which a hail event at least more than 2 cm reported) across the region during the past 25 years. The hail distribution patterns are neither temporally nor spatially uniform in magnitude throughout the study area. Temporal analysis indicated that most of hail events occur predominately in the afternoons with peak time of 1-5 p.m. Australian eastern standard time (EST). They are particularly common in spring and summer, reaching maximum frequency in November and December. There is an average of 14.3 events per year, but a significant decreasing trend in hail frequency and associated magnitude in the recent years has been identified. In turn, spatial analyses also established three main distribution patterns over the study area which include the Sydney metropolitan, the coastal and the most pronounced topographic effects. Based on the understanding of the favorable factors for thunderstorm development in the GMSTWA, the potential impacts from climate variability

  5. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  6. Wise Detections of Known QSOS at Redshifts Greater Than Six

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blain, Andrew W.; Assef, Roberto; Stern, Daniel; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter; Bridge, Carrie; Benford, Dominic; Jarrett, Tom; Cutri, Roc; Petty, Sara; Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L.

    2013-01-01

    We present WISE All-Sky mid-infrared (IR) survey detections of 55 % (17/31) of the known QSOs at z greater than 6 from a range of surveys: the SDSS, the CFHT-LS, FIRST, Spitzer and UK1DSS. The WISE catalog thus provides a substantial increase in tiie quantity of IR data available for these sources: 17 are detected in the WISE Wl (3.4 micrometer) band, 16 in W2 (4.6 micrometers), 3 in W3 (12 micrometers) and 0 in W4 (22micrometers). This is particularly important with Spitzer in its warm-mission phase and no faint follow-up capability at wavelengths longwards of 5 micrometers until the launch of JWST. WISE thus provides a useful tool for understanding QSOs found in forthcoming large-area optical/IR sky surveys, using PanSTARRS, SkyMapper, VISTA, DES and LSST. The rest-UV properties of the WISE-detected and the WISE-non-detected samples differ: the detections have brighter i/z-band magnitudes and redder rest-UV colors. This suggests thai a more aggressive hunt for very-high-redshift QSOs, by combining WISE Wl and W2 data with red observed optical colors could be effective at least, for a subset of dusty candidate QSOs. Stacking the WISE images of the WISE-non-detected QSOs indicates that they are on average significantly fainter than the WISE-detccted examples, and are thus not narrowly missing detection in the WISE catalog. The WISE-catalog detection of three of our sample in the W3 band indicates that their mid-ID flux can be detected individually, although there is no stacked W3 detection of sources detected in Wl but not. W3. Stacking analyses of WISE data for large AGN samples will be a useful tool, and high-redshifl. QSOs of all types will be easy targets for JWST.

  7. Debris Flows Within The Greater Caucasus Northern Slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panova, S.

    Debris flows are recorded everywhere within the Greater Caucasus northern slope. In last decades studies of debris flows appeared to be very important due to an intensive anthropogenic activity in the mountainous areas. Debris flow spatial distribution, as well as their genesis and means of protection are critical, too. The studied terri- tory has significant absolute altitudes, especially in the central and eastern parts. Also large amount of atmospheric precipitation with maximum in a warm period is typical for the region. Modern glaciation with soil-covered moraine deposits of modern and Holocene age is developed in the region. Geological and geomorphological conditions lead to debris flows formation within the entire territory. However, the amount of atmospheric precipitation drastically decreases from west to east and in the eastern part (Dagestan) debris flow is less active than in the central even under the presence of enormous amounts of loose detrital material of different genesis. In the western part debris flows are less developed due to insignificant altitudes and considerable forest coverage and soil-cover. Powerful modern glaciation with vast development of purely moraine and fluvial-glacial deposits results in intensive debris flow activity in the central part of the northern slope (the Terek river basin). In the upper reaches of all the Terek tributaries moraine deposits reach up to several dozen meters. They are widespread at altitudes higher than 2000 m (above the forest boundary) and almost everywhere uncovered by soils. They are a key source of sediments under debris flow formation. Within the Greater Caucasus northern slope there are 1700 debris flow basins with the total area about 7000 km2. Their average area is 4.0 km2 with minimum 0.20 km2 and maximum 173.8 km2. Moreover, there are many riverbeds in the area where form mountain mud floods more than 3000 km long. Debris flows occur between January and October with clear altitudinal zoning

  8. Early life stress affects cerebral glucose metabolism in adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Parr, Lisa A; Boudreau, Matthew; Hecht, Erin; Winslow, James T; Nemeroff, Charles B; Sánchez, Mar M

    2012-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is a risk factor for anxiety, mood disorders and alterations in stress responses. Less is known about the long-term neurobiological impact of ELS. We used [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) to assess neural responses to a moderate stress test in adult monkeys that experienced ELS as infants. Both groups of monkeys showed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress-induced activations and cardiac arousal in response to the stressor. A whole brain analysis detected significantly greater regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCGM) in superior temporal sulcus, putamen, thalamus, and inferotemporal cortex of ELS animals compared to controls. Region of interest (ROI) analyses performed in areas identified as vulnerable to ELS showed greater activity in the orbitofrontal cortex of ELS compared to control monkeys, but greater hippocampal activity in the control compared to ELS monkeys. Together, these results suggest hyperactivity in emotional and sensory processing regions of adult monkeys with ELS, and greater activity in stress-regulatory areas in the controls. Despite these neural responses, no group differences were detected in neuroendocrine, autonomic or behavioral responses, except for a trend towards increased stillness in the ELS monkeys. Together, these data suggest hypervigilance in the ELS monkeys in the absence of immediate danger. PMID:22682736

  9. Older adults challenged financially when adult children move home.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Steven P; Padilla-Frausto, D Imelda

    2014-02-01

    This policy brief looks at the financial burdens imposed on older Californians when adult children return home, often due to a crisis not of their own making, to live with their parents. The findings show that on average in California, the amount of money that older adults need in order to maintain a minimally decent standard of living while supporting one adult child in their home increases their expenses by a minimum of 50 percent. Low-income older adults are usually on fixed incomes, so helping an adult child can provide the child with a critical safety net but at the cost of the parents' own financial well-being. Policy approaches to assisting this vulnerable population of older adults include implementing reforms to increase Supplemental Security Income (SSI), improving the availability of affordable housing, assuring that all eligible nonelderly adults obtain health insurance through health care reform's expansion of Medi-Cal and subsidies, and increasing food assistance through SNAP and senior meal programs. PMID:24804354

  10. Greater positive schizotypy relates to reduced N100 activity during rejection scenes.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, Preethi; Onwumere, Juliana; Wilson, Daniel; Sumich, Alexander; Castro, Antonio; Kumari, Veena; Kuipers, Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    Social anxiety due to rejection sensitivity (RS) exacerbates psychosis-like experiences in the general population. While reduced dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activity during social rejection in high schizotypy has suggested self-distancing from rejection, earlier stages of mental processing such as feature encoding could also contribute to psychosis-like experiences. This study aimed to determine the stage of mental processing of social rejection that relates to positive schizotypy. Forty-one healthy participants were assessed for schizotypy and RS. Event-related potential amplitudes (ERPs) were measured at frontal, temporal and parieto-occipital sites and their cortical sources (dACC, temporal pole and lingual gyrus) at early (N100) and late (P300 and late slow wave, LSW) timeframes during rejection, acceptance and neutral scenes. ERPs were compared between social interaction types. Correlations were performed between positive schizotypy (defined as the presence of perceptual aberrations, hallucinatory experiences and magical thinking), RS and ERPs during rejection. Amplitude was greater during rejection than acceptance or neutral conditions at the dACC-P300, parieto-occipital-P300, dACC-LSW and frontal-LSW. RS correlated positively with positive schizotypy. Reduced dACC N100 activity during rejection correlated with greater positive schizotypy and RS. Reduced dACC N100 activity and greater RS independently predicted positive schizotypy. An N100 deficit that indicates reduced feature encoding of rejection scenes increases with greater positive schizotypy and RS. Higher RS shows that a greater tendency to misattribute ambiguous social situations as rejecting also increases with positive schizotypy. These two processes, namely primary bottom-up sensory processing and secondary misattribution of rejection, combine to increase psychosis-like experiences. PMID:25010933

  11. Seasonal variation of serum KL-6 concentrations is greater in patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Serum KL-6 is a useful biomarker for the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases (ILD). However, KL-6 has not been used to discriminate different types of ILD. Serum KL-6 concentrations can vary depending on antigen exposure levels in patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP); however, seasonal changes in serum KL-6 concentrations in ILD have not been determined. We hypothesized that seasonal variation of serum KL-6 is greater in HP than for the other ILD. The aim of this study was to determine seasonal variation of serum KL-6 concentrations in various ILD. Methods Serum KL-6 concentrations in the summer season from June 1 to September 30 and the winter season from November 1 to February 28 were retrospectively analyzed in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, n = 16), non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP, n = 16), collagen vascular disease-associated interstitial pneumonia (CVD-IP, n = 33), house-related HP (House-HP, n = 9), bird-related HP (Bird-HP, n = 9), and combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE, n = 13). Results Bird-HP and House-HP showed greater seasonal serum KL-6 variation than the other ILD. Serum KL-6 concentrations in Bird-HP were significantly increased in the winter and KL-6 concentrations in House-HP were significantly increased in the summer. Serum KL-6 variation was significantly greater in acute HP than chronic HP. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that greater seasonal variation in serum KL-6 concentrations is diagnostic for Bird-HP. Conclusion HP should be considered in ILD with greater seasonal changes in serum KL-6 concentrations. PMID:25098177

  12. Nonword Repetition in Children and Adults: Effects on Movement Coordination

    PubMed Central

    Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Smith, Anne; Sadagopan, Neeraja; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Hearing and repeating novel phonetic sequences, or novel nonwords, is a task that taps many levels of processing, including auditory decoding, phonological processing, working memory, speech motor planning and execution. Investigations of nonword repetition abilities have been framed within models of psycholinguistic processing, while the motor aspects, which also are critical for task performance, have been largely ignored. We focused our investigation on both the behavioral and speech motor performance characteristics of this task as performed in a learning paradigm by 9- and-10 year-old children and young adults. Behavioral (percent correct productions) and kinematic (movement duration, lip aperture variability -an index of the consistency of inter-articulator coordination on repeated trials) measures were obtained in order to investigate the short-term (Day 1, first 5 vs. next 5 trials) and longer-term (Day 1 vs. Day 2, first 5 vs. next 5 trials) changes associated with practice within and between sessions. Overall, as expected, young adults showed higher levels of behavioral accuracy and greater levels of coordinative consistency than the children. Both groups, however, showed a learning effect, such that in general, later Day 1 trials and Day 2 trials were shorter in duration and more consistent in coordination patterns than Day 1 early trials. Phonemic complexity of the nonwords had a profound effect on both the behavioral and speech motor aspects of performance. The children showed marked learning effects on all nonwords that they could produce accurately, while adults’ performance improved only when challenged by the more complex nonword stimuli in the set. The findings point to a critical role for speech motor processes within models of nonword repetition and suggest that young adults, similar to children, show short- and longer-term improvements in coordinative consistency with repeated production of complex nonwords. There is also a clear

  13. Comparison of plasma vitamin A and E, copper and zinc levels in free-ranging and captive greater flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus) and their relation to pododermatitis.

    PubMed

    Wyss, F; Wolf, P; Wenker, C; Hoby, S; Schumacher, V; Béchet, A; Robert, N; Liesegang, A

    2014-12-01

    Pododermatitis is a worldwide problem in captive flamingos. Studies in domestic poultry showed that nutrition is a possible influencing factor for pododermatitis. Vitamin A and E, copper and zinc levels were analysed in two different diets (diet 1 = in-house mix and diet 2 = commercial diet) and in plasma of captive greater flamingos fed these diets and compared to those of free-ranging greater flamingos. Results were analysed with respect to type and severity of foot lesions of the individuals from the different groups. Juvenile and subadult/adult captive flamingos on diet 1 showed various types and severities of foot lesions, whereas no foot lesions were found at the time of blood sampling in juvenile captive flamingos on diet 2. Juvenile captive flamingos on diet 1 had significantly lower plasma zinc levels than juvenile captive flamingos on diet 2 and juvenile free-ranging flamingos; data were also lower than reference ranges for flamingos, poultry and cranes. There were no significant differences in plasma vitamin A, vitamin E, copper or zinc levels between animals with different types of foot lesions or with different severity scores. Shortly after the change to diet 2 (fed to juvenile captive flamingos that did not show any foot lesion), the flooring of the outdoor water pools was covered with fine granular sand. Because both factors (nutrition and flooring) were changed during the same evaluation period, it cannot be concluded which factor contributed in what extent to the reduction of foot lesions. While it is assumed that low plasma zinc levels identified in the group of juvenile captive flamingos on diet 1 were not directly responsible for foot lesions observed in these animals, they may have played a role in altering the skin integrity of the feet and predisposing them to pododermatitis. PMID:24661548

  14. Comparison of plasma vitamin A and E, copper and zinc levels in free-ranging and captive greater flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus) and their relation to pododermatitis.

    PubMed

    Wyss, F; Wolf, P; Wenker, C; Hoby, S; Schumacher, V; Béchet, A; Robert, N; Liesegang, A

    2014-12-01

    Pododermatitis is a worldwide problem in captive flamingos. Studies in domestic poultry showed that nutrition is a possible influencing factor for pododermatitis. Vitamin A and E, copper and zinc levels were analysed in two different diets (diet 1 = in-house mix and diet 2 = commercial diet) and in plasma of captive greater flamingos fed these diets and compared to those of free-ranging greater flamingos. Results were analysed with respect to type and severity of foot lesions of the individuals from the different groups. Juvenile and subadult/adult captive flamingos on diet 1 showed various types and severities of foot lesions, whereas no foot lesions were found at the time of blood sampling in juvenile captive flamingos on diet 2. Juvenile captive flamingos on diet 1 had significantly lower plasma zinc levels than juvenile captive flamingos on diet 2 and juvenile free-ranging flamingos; data were also lower than reference ranges for flamingos, poultry and cranes. There were no significant differences in plasma vitamin A, vitamin E, copper or zinc levels between animals with different types of foot lesions or with different severity scores. Shortly after the change to diet 2 (fed to juvenile captive flamingos that did not show any foot lesion), the flooring of the outdoor water pools was covered with fine granular sand. Because both factors (nutrition and flooring) were changed during the same evaluation period, it cannot be concluded which factor contributed in what extent to the reduction of foot lesions. While it is assumed that low plasma zinc levels identified in the group of juvenile captive flamingos on diet 1 were not directly responsible for foot lesions observed in these animals, they may have played a role in altering the skin integrity of the feet and predisposing them to pododermatitis.

  15. Greater neurobehavioral deficits occur in adult mice after repeated, as compared to single, mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI).

    PubMed

    Nichols, Jessica N; Deshane, Alok S; Niedzielko, Tracy L; Smith, Cory D; Floyd, Candace L

    2016-02-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) accounts for the majority of all brain injuries and affected individuals typically experience some extent of cognitive and/or neuropsychiatric deficits. Given that repeated mTBIs often result in worsened prognosis, the cumulative effect of repeated mTBIs is an area of clinical concern and on-going pre-clinical research. Animal models are critical in elucidating the underlying mechanisms of single and repeated mTBI-associated deficits, but the neurobehavioral sequelae produced by these models have not been well characterized. Thus, we sought to evaluate the behavioral changes incurred after single and repeated mTBIs in mice utilizing a modified impact-acceleration model. Mice in the mTBI group received 1 impact while the repeated mTBI group received 3 impacts with an inter-injury interval of 24h. Classic behavior evaluations included the Morris water maze (MWM) to assess learning and memory, elevated plus maze (EPM) for anxiety, and forced swim test (FST) for depression/helplessness. Additionally, species-typical behaviors were evaluated with the marble-burying and nestlet shredding tests to determine motivation and apathy. Non-invasive vibration platforms were used to examine sleep patterns post-mTBI. We found that the repeated mTBI mice demonstrated deficits in MWM testing and poorer performance on species-typical behaviors. While neither single nor repeated mTBI affected behavior in the EPM or FST, sleep disturbances were observed after both single and repeated mTBI. Here, we conclude that behavioral alterations shown after repeated mTBI resemble several of the deficits or disturbances reported by patients, thus demonstrating the relevance of this murine model to study repeated mTBIs.

  16. Ged® Completers' Perceptions of College Readiness and Social Capital: Linking Adult Literacy to a Greater Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Donalyn; O'Dell, Jade

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of general education development (GED®) acquisition and GED® completers' perceptions of college readiness and social capital using a quantitative methodology. Also, the study used a descriptive, cross-sectional research design framed by the social capital theoretical perspective. The conceptual framework developed…

  17. Greater neurobehavioral deficits occur in adult mice after repeated, as compared to single, mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI).

    PubMed

    Nichols, Jessica N; Deshane, Alok S; Niedzielko, Tracy L; Smith, Cory D; Floyd, Candace L

    2016-02-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) accounts for the majority of all brain injuries and affected individuals typically experience some extent of cognitive and/or neuropsychiatric deficits. Given that repeated mTBIs often result in worsened prognosis, the cumulative effect of repeated mTBIs is an area of clinical concern and on-going pre-clinical research. Animal models are critical in elucidating the underlying mechanisms of single and repeated mTBI-associated deficits, but the neurobehavioral sequelae produced by these models have not been well characterized. Thus, we sought to evaluate the behavioral changes incurred after single and repeated mTBIs in mice utilizing a modified impact-acceleration model. Mice in the mTBI group received 1 impact while the repeated mTBI group received 3 impacts with an inter-injury interval of 24h. Classic behavior evaluations included the Morris water maze (MWM) to assess learning and memory, elevated plus maze (EPM) for anxiety, and forced swim test (FST) for depression/helplessness. Additionally, species-typical behaviors were evaluated with the marble-burying and nestlet shredding tests to determine motivation and apathy. Non-invasive vibration platforms were used to examine sleep patterns post-mTBI. We found that the repeated mTBI mice demonstrated deficits in MWM testing and poorer performance on species-typical behaviors. While neither single nor repeated mTBI affected behavior in the EPM or FST, sleep disturbances were observed after both single and repeated mTBI. Here, we conclude that behavioral alterations shown after repeated mTBI resemble several of the deficits or disturbances reported by patients, thus demonstrating the relevance of this murine model to study repeated mTBIs. PMID:26542813

  18. Giant pandas failed to show mirror self-recognition.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaozan; Jin, Yuan; Luo, Bo; Zhang, Guiquan; Wei, Rongping; Liu, Dingzhen

    2015-05-01

    Mirror self-recognition (MSR), i.e., the ability to recognize oneself in a mirror, is considered a potential index of self-recognition and the foundation of individual development. A wealth of literature on MSR is available for social animals, such as chimpanzees, Asian elephants and dolphins, yet little is known about MSR in solitary mammalian species. We aimed to evaluate whether the giant panda can recognize itself in the mirror, and whether this capacity varies with age. Thirty-four captive giant pandas (F:M = 18:16; juveniles, sub-adults and adults) were subjected to four mirror tests: covered mirror tests, open mirror tests, water mark control tests, and mark tests. The results showed that, though adult, sub-adult and juvenile pandas exposed to mirrors spent similar amounts of time in social mirror-directed behaviors (χ(2) = 0.719, P = 0.698), none of them used the mirror to touch the mark on their head, a self-directed behavior suggesting MSR. Individuals of all age groups initially displayed attacking, threatening, foot scraping and backwards walking behaviors when exposed to their self-images in the mirror. Our data indicate that, regardless of age, the giant pandas did not recognize their self-image in the mirror, but instead considered the image to be a conspecific. Our results add to the available information on mirror self-recognition in large mammals, provide new information on a solitary species, and will be useful for enclosure design and captive animal management. PMID:25609263

  19. Giant pandas failed to show mirror self-recognition.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaozan; Jin, Yuan; Luo, Bo; Zhang, Guiquan; Wei, Rongping; Liu, Dingzhen

    2015-05-01

    Mirror self-recognition (MSR), i.e., the ability to recognize oneself in a mirror, is considered a potential index of self-recognition and the foundation of individual development. A wealth of literature on MSR is available for social animals, such as chimpanzees, Asian elephants and dolphins, yet little is known about MSR in solitary mammalian species. We aimed to evaluate whether the giant panda can recognize itself in the mirror, and whether this capacity varies with age. Thirty-four captive giant pandas (F:M = 18:16; juveniles, sub-adults and adults) were subjected to four mirror tests: covered mirror tests, open mirror tests, water mark control tests, and mark tests. The results showed that, though adult, sub-adult and juvenile pandas exposed to mirrors spent similar amounts of time in social mirror-directed behaviors (χ(2) = 0.719, P = 0.698), none of them used the mirror to touch the mark on their head, a self-directed behavior suggesting MSR. Individuals of all age groups initially displayed attacking, threatening, foot scraping and backwards walking behaviors when exposed to their self-images in the mirror. Our data indicate that, regardless of age, the giant pandas did not recognize their self-image in the mirror, but instead considered the image to be a conspecific. Our results add to the available information on mirror self-recognition in large mammals, provide new information on a solitary species, and will be useful for enclosure design and captive animal management.

  20. Changes in nutrient dynamics of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese during spring migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Alisauskas, Ray T.; Krapu, Gary L.; Cox, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    Waterfowl and other migratory birds commonly store nutrients at traditional staging areas during spring for later use during migration and reproduction. We investigated nutrient-storage dynamics in the midcontinent population of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons; hereafter white-fronted geese) at spring staging sites in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska during February-April and in southern Saskatchewan during April-May, 1998 and 1999. In Nebraska, lipid content of white-fronted geese did not increase, and protein content changed little over time for most age and sex categories. In Saskatchewan, lipids increased 11.4 g/day (SE = 1.7) and protein content increased 1.6 g/day (SE = 0.6) in the sample of adult geese collected over a 3-week period. A study conducted during 1979-1980 in the Rainwater Basin reported that white-fronted geese gained 8.8-17.7 g of lipids per day during spring, differing greatly from our results 2 decades later. In addition, lipid levels were less in the 1990s compared to spring 1980 for adult geese nearing departure from staging sites in Saskatchewan. This shift in where geese acquired nutrient stores from Nebraska to more northern staging sites coincided with a decrease in availability of waste corn in Nebraska, their primary food source while staging at that stopover site, and an increase in cultivation of high-energy pulse crops in Saskatchewan. White-fronted geese exhibited flexibility in nutrient dynamics during spring migration, likely in response to landscape-level variation in food availability caused by changes in agricultural trends and practices. Maintaining a wide distribution of wetlands in the Great Plains may allow springstaging waterfowl to disperse across the region and facilitate access to high-energy foods over a larger cropland base.

  1. Immigration and adult transitions.

    PubMed

    Rumbaut, Rubén G; Komaie, Golnaz

    2010-01-01

    Almost 30 percent of the more than 68 million young adults aged eighteen to thirty-four in the United States today are either foreign born or of foreign parentage. As these newcomers make their transitions to adulthood, say Rubén Rumbaut and Golnaz Komaie, they differ significantly not only from one another but also from their native-parentage counterparts, including blacks and whites. The authors document the demographic changes in the United States over the past forty years and describe the ways in which generation and national origin shape the experiences of these newcomers as they become adults. Rumbaut and Komaie point out that immigrant groups experience gaps in social, economic, and legal status that are even greater than the gaps between native whites and blacks. By far the most-educated (Indians) and the least-educated (Mexicans) groups in the United States today are first-generation immigrants, as are the groups with the lowest poverty rate (Filipinos) and the highest poverty rate (Dominicans). These social and economic divides reflect three very different ways immigrants enter the country: through regular immigration channels, without legal authorization, or as state-sponsored refugees. For many ethnic groups, significant progress takes place from the first to the second generation. But, say the authors, for millions of young immigrants, a lack of legal permanent residency status blocks their prospects for social mobility. Having an undocumented status has become all the more consequential with the failure of Congress to pass comprehensive federal immigration reforms. In the coming two decades, as the U.S. native-parentage labor force continues to shrink, immigrants and their children are expected to account for most of the growth of the nation's labor force, with the fastest-growing occupations requiring college degrees. Rumbaut and Komaie stress that one key to the nation's future will be how it incorporates young adults of immigrant origin in its

  2. Infantile autism: adult outcome.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, B

    2000-07-01

    Although the core features of autism do not change qualitatively, a gradual overall symptomatic improvement including an increase in adaptive skills is observed in most cases with age. Follow-up studies show that the diagnostic features, the differential diagnosis, and clinical problems of adult autistics differ substantially from that of autistic children. The differential diagnosis of older autistics include personality disorders, learning disabilities, and mood disorder. Depression, epilepsy, and behavioral problems such as aggression and agitation may be major clinical problems during adolescence. The early indicators of a better outcome include a higher level of IQ and language. Among the neuropsychological variables, measures of flexibility and cognitive shift are important as prognostic factors. Early behavioral and educational intervention may especially increase the adaptive skills of the patients and promote the in-family communication. The outcome studies of autism are particularly helpful in addressing the appropriate and most effective programs of remediation for adult autistics.

  3. Depressive symptoms and cognitive performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Park, Hyuntae; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Lee, Sangyoon; Suzuki, Takao

    2014-10-01

    Many longitudinal studies have found that older adults with depressive symptoms or depression have increased risk of cognitive impairment. We investigated the relationships between depressive symptoms or depression, cognitive function, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and volumetric MRI measurements in older adults. A total of 4352 individuals aged 65 years or older (mean age 72 years) participated in the study. We investigated medical history and geriatric depression scale-15 (GDS-15) items to determine depression and depressive symptoms. Cognitive tests included the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), story memory, word list memory, trail-making tests, and the symbol digit substitution task. Of the 4352 participants, 570 (13%) fulfilled the criteria for depressive symptoms (GDS-15: 6 + points) and 87 (2%) were diagnosed with depression. All cognitive tests showed significant differences between the 'no depressive symptoms', 'depressive symptoms', and 'depression' groups. The 'depressive symptoms' and 'depression' groups showed lower serum BDNF (p < 0.001) concentrations than the 'no depressive symptoms' group. The 'depressive symptoms' group exhibited greater atrophy of the right medial temporal lobe than did the 'no depressive symptoms' group (p = 0.023). These results suggest that memory, executive function, and processing speed examinations are useful to identify cognitive decline in older adults who have depressive symptoms and depression. Serum BDNF concentration and atrophy of the right medial temporal lobe may in part mediate the relationships between depressive symptoms and cognitive decline.

  4. Malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion: Heterogeneity and Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Cao, Yaming; Chen, Bin; Chen, Xiaoguang; Fan, Qi; Fang, Qiang; Jongwutiwes, Somchai; Parker, Daniel; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Su, Xin-zhuan; Yang, Henglin; Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Baomin; Xu, Jianwei; Zheng, Bin; Zhong, Daibin; Zhou, Guofa

    2011-01-01

    The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), comprised of six countries including Cambodia, China's Yunnan Province, Lao PDR, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand and Vietnam, is one of the most threatening foci of malaria. Since the initiation of the WHO's Mekong Malaria Program a decade ago, malaria situation in the GMS has greatly improved, reflected in the continuous decline in annual malaria incidence and deaths. However, as many nations are moving towards malaria elimination, the GMS nations still face great challenges. Malaria epidemiology in this region exhibits enormous geographical heterogeneity with Myanmar and Cambodia remaining high-burden countries. Within each country, malaria distribution is also patchy, exemplified by ‘border malaria’ and ‘forest malaria’ with high transmission occurring along international borders and in forests or forest fringes, respectively. ‘Border malaria’ is extremely difficult to monitor, and frequent malaria introductions by migratory human populations constitute a major threat to neighboring, malaria-eliminating countries. Therefore, coordination between neighboring countries is essential for malaria elimination from the entire region. In addition to these operational difficulties, malaria control in the GMS also encounters several technological challenges. Contemporary malaria control measures rely heavily on effective chemotherapy and insecticide control of vector mosquitoes. However, the spread of multidrug resistance and potential emergence of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum make resistance management a high priority in the GMS. This situation is further worsened by the circulation of counterfeit and substandard artemisinin-related drugs. In most endemic areas of the GMS, P. falciparum and P. vivax coexist, and in recent malaria control history, P. vivax has demonstrated remarkable resilience to control measures. Deployment of the only registered drug (primaquine) for the radical cure of vivax malaria is

  5. Selected Transistor Material for the Information-Seeking Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringold, Dorman R.

    This study was undertaken to identify and organize meaningful and useful basic materials on transistor principles and applications, and to explore some of the elements required for adult teaching. It was limited to the apparent needs of information-seeking adults in greater Los Angeles who desired occupational skills. A literature review…

  6. Andragogy: Implications for Secondary and Adult Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Norene F.

    The study of andragogy, a well developed science in Europe, is gaining greater acceptance in the United States. Malcolm Knowles introduced it to American adult educators in 1968 and has made it the central theme of his work since. The distinction between andragogy (the art and science of helping adults learn) and pedagogy (the art and science of…

  7. National Adult Student Priorities Report. Research Report, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Serving the needs of adult learners in today's economic environment is becoming a greater priority for colleges and universities. Student satisfaction is considered a core element for higher education institutions serving traditional-age students. More colleges and universities are expanding this assessment activity to adult students as well. As…

  8. Community Schools--Adults and Children: A Cumbrian AAE Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Linden

    1977-01-01

    Examines the role of the "community school", particularly in reference to Cumberland County, England. Notes that a greater effort needs to be made to ensure that the adult part of the community is adequately considered and provided for, and that the adult education center should not be regarded as merely an adjunct of the secondary school. (WL)

  9. Health-Related Variables and Functional Fitness among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkin, Linda D.; Haddock, Bryan L.

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the functional fitness of a convenient sample of older adults (greater than 70 years), to examine correlations between functional fitness and several other health-related variables and to compare with criterion performance data as established by Rikli and Jones (2001). One hundred and seven community-dwelling older adults with…

  10. Tracing Adult Student Satisfaction in a Large Traditional University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenland, Annette

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 181 adult students in a university's division of continuing education or university without walls (UWW) programs received 145 responses indicating greater satisfaction among the UWW students than those in traditional majors. Academic advising was especially satisfactory, because UWW advisors may be more aware of adult development…

  11. The Adult Community Education Administrator Position. A Job Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guglielmino, Lucy M.; And Others

    A research study was conducted to explore in depth the adult/community education administrator position as it exists in Florida in order to gain as much information as possible about the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to do the job well. A special focus was on the skills needed by adult/community educators to a greater extent than K-12…

  12. Correctional Sentence Plan: A Pathway to Adult Correctional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokoele, Matata

    2016-01-01

    In this essay, Matata Mokoele reflects on the importance of prisoner education, and notes that what is missing is official recognition of this or adult-specific components outlining an upper secondary school adult education diploma entitling holders to apply for higher education. Studies reporting a correlation between greater education and lower…

  13. Adult Education and Indigenous Peoples in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmelkes, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the educational situation of indigenous peoples in Latin America, and in particular their scant participation in adult education activities. It analyses the historical, structural and institutional barriers to their greater involvement in adult education. The article proposes to look at indigenous demands on education as a…

  14. Executive Function Impairments in High IQ Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Thomas E.; Reichel, Philipp C.; Quinlan, Donald M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To demonstrate that high IQ adults diagnosed with ADHD suffer from executive function (EF) impairments that: a) can be identified with a combination of standardized measures and self-report data; and b) occur more commonly in this group than in the general population. Method: 157 ADHD adults with IQ greater than or equal to 120 were…

  15. Adult Still's disease

    MedlinePlus

    Still's disease - adult; AOSD ... than 1 out of 100,000 people develop adult-onset Still's disease each year. It affects women more often than men. The cause of adult Still's disease is unknown. No risk factors for ...

  16. Expert Baseball Batters Have Greater Sensitivity in Making Swing Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Rob

    2010-01-01

    This study used signal detection theory to conceptualize the problem a baseball batter faces when deciding whether or not to swing at a pitch. It examined the launch angle (LA) criteria used by expert (college players) and less experienced (recreational league players) batters using a baseball batting simulation. This study showed that, although…

  17. Nephrolithiasis Greater Than 2 cm and Splenomegaly

    PubMed Central

    Sanguinetti, Horacio; Aguilar, Jorge; Alberó, Adolfo Alvarez; Bernardo, Norberto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A 67-year-old male presented with left kidney stones in renal pelvis, 15 mm length. Preoperative CT showed massive splenomegaly. Retrograde intrarenal surgery approach was decided to avoid splenic injury, achieving the absence of residual stones. PMID:27579384

  18. Slow rates of habituation predict greater zBMI gains over 12 months in lean children

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Leonard H.; Robinson, Jodie L.; Roemmich, James N.; Marusewski, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Slow rates of habituation are related to greater energy intake, and cross-sectionally to body weight. The present study is designed to assess whether slow rates of habituation are prospectively related to zBMI change over a 12 month period in 66 lean 8–12 year-old children, and whether the rate of habituation is a stable behavioral phenotype. Results showed slower rates of habituation predicted greater zBMI change, controlling for child sex, age, initial zBMI, dietary awareness and minority status. In addition, the rate of habituation was stable over the year of observation. These data suggest that slow rates of habituation may be a risk factor for weight gain and the development of obesity. Future research is needed to understand the mechanism for this effect, and assess whether the habituation phenotype interacts with other behavioral phenotypes, such as food reinforcement, to influence increases in zBMI. PMID:21741020

  19. Hydrology of the Greater Tongonan geothermal system, Philippines, as deduced from geochemical and isotopic data

    SciTech Connect

    Alvis-Isidro, R.R.; Solana, R.R.; D`amore, F.; Nuti, S.; Gonfiantini, R.

    1993-10-01

    Fluids in the Greater Tongonan geothermal system exhibit a large positive {sup 18}O shift from the Leyte meteoric water line. However, there is also a significant shift in {sup 2}H. The {delta}{sup 2}H-{delta}{sup 18}O plot shows that the geothermal fluids may be derived by the mixing of meteoric water with local magmatic water. The most enriched water in the Greater Tongonan system, in terms of {delta}{sup 18}O, {delta}{sup 2}H and Cl, is comprised of approximately 40% magmatic water. Baseline isotope results support a hydrogeochemical model in which there is increasing meteoric water dilution to the southeast, from Mahiao to Sambaloran and towards Malitbog. The Cl-{delta}{sup 18}O plot confirms that the geothermal fluid in Mahanagdong, further southeast, is distinct from that of the Mahiao-Sambaloran-Malitbog system.

  20. Aerobic fitness is associated with greater white matter integrity in children

    PubMed Central

    Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Erickson, Kirk I.; Holtrop, Joseph L.; Voss, Michelle W.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Raine, Lauren B.; Hillman, Charles H.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic fitness has been found to play a positive role in brain and cognitive health of children. Yet, many of the neural biomarkers related to aerobic fitness remain unknown. Here, using diffusion tensor imaging, we demonstrated that higher aerobic fitness was related to greater estimates of white matter microstructure in children. Higher fit 9- and 10-year-old children showed greater fractional anisotropy (FA) in sections of the corpus callosum, corona radiata, and superior longitudinal fasciculus, compared to lower fit children. The FA effects were primarily characterized by aerobic fitness differences in radial diffusivity, thereby raising the possibility that estimates of myelination may vary as a function of individual differences in fitness during childhood. White matter structure may be another potential neural mechanism of aerobic fitness that assists in efficient communication between gray matter regions as well as the integration of regions into networks. PMID:25191243