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Sample records for adults showed increased

  1. Adolescent earthquake survivors' show increased prefrontal cortex activation to masked earthquake images as adults.

    PubMed

    Du, Xue; Wei, Dongtao; Ganzel, Barbara L; Kim, Pilyoung; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-03-01

    The great Sichuan earthquake in China on May 12, 2008 was a traumatic event to many who live near the earthquake area. However, at present, there are few studies that explore the long-term impact of the adolescent trauma exposure on adults' brain function. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the brain activation evoked by masked trauma-related stimuli (earthquake versus neutral images) in 14 adults who lived near the epicenter of the great Sichuan earthquake when they were adolescents (trauma-exposed group) and 14 adults who lived farther from the epicenter of the earthquake when they were adolescents (control group). Compared with the control group, the trauma-exposed group showed significant elevation of activation in the right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) in response to masked earthquake-related images. In the trauma-exposed group, the right ACC activation was negatively correlated with the frequency of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These findings differ markedly from the long-term effects of trauma exposure in adults. This suggests that trauma exposure during adolescence may have a unique long-term impact on ACC/MPFC function, top-down modulation of trauma-related information, and subsequent symptoms of PTSD.

  2. Worldwide trends show oropharyngeal cancer rates increasing

    Cancer.gov

    NCI scientists report that the incidence of oropharyngeal cancer significantly increased during the period 1983-2002 among people in countries that are economically developed. Oropharyngeal cancer occurs primarily in the middle part of the throat behind t

  3. Investigation of infectivity of neonates and adults from different rat strains to Toxoplasma gondii Prugniaud shows both variation which correlates with iNOS and Arginase-1 activity and increased susceptibility of neonates to infection.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jiang-Mei; Yi, Si-Qi; Wu, Ming-Shui; Geng, Guo-Qing; Shen, Ji-Long; Lu, Fang-Li; Hide, Geoff; Lai, De-Hua; Lun, Zhao-Rong

    2015-02-01

    Mouse models differ considerably from humans with regard to clinical symptoms of toxoplasmosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii and, by comparison, the rat model is more representative of this disease in humans. In the present study, we found that different strains of adult and newborn rats (Lewis, Wistar, Sprague Dawley, Brown Norway and Fischer 344) exhibited remarkable variation in the number of brain cysts following inoculation with the T.gondii Prugniaud strain. In adult rats, large numbers of cysts (1231 ± 165.6) were observed in Fischer 344, but none in the other four. This situation was different in newborn rats aged from 5 to 20 days old. All Fischer 344 and Brown Norway newborns were cyst-positive while cyst-positive infection in Sprague Dawley neonates ranged from 54.5% to 60% depending on their age at infection. In Wistar and Lewis rat neonates, however, cyst-positivity rates of 0-42.9% and 0-25% were found respectively. To investigate whether rat strain differences in infectivity could be related to inherent strain and genetic differences in the host immune response, we correlated our data with previously reported strain differences in iNOS/Arginase ratio in adult rats and found them to be linked. These results show that interactions between host genetic background and age of rat influence T.gondii infection.

  4. PARK2 patient neuroprogenitors show increased mitochondrial sensitivity to copper

    PubMed Central

    Aboud, Asad A.; Tidball, Andrew M.; Kumar, Kevin K.; Neely, M. Diana; Han, Bingying; Ess, Kevin C.; Hong, Charles C.; Erikson, Keith M.; Hedera, Peter; Bowman, Aaron B.

    2014-01-01

    Poorly-defined interactions between environmental and genetic risk factors underlie Parkinson’s disease (PD) etiology. Here we tested the hypothesis that human stem cell derived forebrain neuroprogenitors from patients with known familial risk for early onset PD will exhibit enhanced sensitivity to PD environmental risk factors compared to healthy control subjects without a family history of PD. Two male siblings (SM and PM) with biallelic loss-of-function mutations in PARK2 were identified. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from SM, PM, and four control subjects with no known family histories of PD or related neurodegenerative diseases were utilized. We tested the hypothesis that hiPSC-derived neuroprogenitors from patients with PARK2 mutations would show heightened cell death, mitochondrial dysfunction, and reactive oxygen species generation compared to control cells as a result of exposure to heavy metals (PD environmental risk factors). We report that PARK2 mutant neuroprogenitors showed increased cytotoxicity with copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) exposure but not manganese (Mn) or methyl mercury (MeHg) relative to control neuroprogenitors. PARK2 mutant neuroprogenitors also showed a substantial increase in mitochondrial fragmentation, initial ROS generation, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential following Cu exposure. Our data substantiate Cu exposure as an environmental risk factor for PD. Furthermore, we report a shift in the lowest observable effect level (LOEL) for greater sensitivity to Cu-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction in patients SM and PM relative to controls, correlating with their increased genetic risk for PD. PMID:25315681

  5. Impact Factors Show Increased Use of AGU Journals in 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Barbara Meyers

    2009-07-01

    The latest numbers released from Journal Citation Reports (JCR), published annually by Thomson Reuters, show large increases in the impact factor (IF) for several AGU journals. IFs are one way for publishers to know that readers have found their journals useful and of value in research. A journal's IF is calculated by taking the total number of citations to articles published by a given journal in the past 2 years and dividing it by the total number of papers published by the journal in the same time period. More generally, it can be seen as the frequency with which articles in a journal have been cited over the past year. The numbers speak for themselves (see Table 1).

  6. MTBE catalyst shows increased conversion in commercial unit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-10

    Rising demand for methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) has spawned interest in finding a cost-effective means of increasing production from existing units. A commercial trial of an improved MTBE catalyst was conducted recently at Lyondell Petrochemical Co.'s Channelview, Tex., plant. The new catalyst called Amberlyst 35 Wet, enhanced oxygenate production in the Lyondell trial. The new catalyst changes the activity coefficients of at least one of the components of the MTBE reaction, resulting in higher equilibrium conversion relative to its first-generation counterpart. Key catalyst properties are: particle size, 0.4--1.25 mm; Apparent density, 0.82 g/ml; Surface area, 44 sq m/g; Moisture content, 56%; Concentration of acid sites, 1.9 meq/ml (5.4 meq/g); Porosity, 0.35 cc/g; and Average pore diameter, 300 [angstrom]. Suggested operating conditions are: maximum temperature, 284 F (140 C); minimum bed depth, 24 in. (0.61 m); and liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV), 1--5 hr[sup [minus]1].

  7. Increasing Employment Opportunities for Disadvantaged Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossain, Farhana; Terwelp, Emily

    2015-01-01

    In the past four decades, profound changes in the U.S. economy--including falling wages, widening inequality, and the polarization of jobs at the top and bottom of the education and wage distributions--have had dramatic implications for the labor-market fortunes of young adults. Only about half of young people ages 16 to 24 held jobs in 2014, and…

  8. Second language processing shows increased native-like neural responses after months of no exposure.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Short, Kara; Finger, Ingrid; Grey, Sarah; Ullman, Michael T

    2012-01-01

    Although learning a second language (L2) as an adult is notoriously difficult, research has shown that adults can indeed attain native language-like brain processing and high proficiency levels. However, it is important to then retain what has been attained, even in the absence of continued exposure to the L2--particularly since periods of minimal or no L2 exposure are common. This event-related potential (ERP) study of an artificial language tested performance and neural processing following a substantial period of no exposure. Adults learned to speak and comprehend the artificial language to high proficiency with either explicit, classroom-like, or implicit, immersion-like training, and then underwent several months of no exposure to the language. Surprisingly, proficiency did not decrease during this delay. Instead, it remained unchanged, and there was an increase in native-like neural processing of syntax, as evidenced by several ERP changes--including earlier, more reliable, and more left-lateralized anterior negativities, and more robust P600s, in response to word-order violations. Moreover, both the explicitly and implicitly trained groups showed increased native-like ERP patterns over the delay, indicating that such changes can hold independently of L2 training type. The results demonstrate that substantial periods with no L2 exposure are not necessarily detrimental. Rather, benefits may ensue from such periods of time even when there is no L2 exposure. Interestingly, both before and after the delay the implicitly trained group showed more native-like processing than the explicitly trained group, indicating that type of training also affects the attainment of native-like processing in the brain. Overall, the findings may be largely explained by a combination of forgetting and consolidation in declarative and procedural memory, on which L2 grammar learning appears to depend. The study has a range of implications, and suggests a research program with

  9. Second language processing shows increased native-like neural responses after months of no exposure.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Short, Kara; Finger, Ingrid; Grey, Sarah; Ullman, Michael T

    2012-01-01

    Although learning a second language (L2) as an adult is notoriously difficult, research has shown that adults can indeed attain native language-like brain processing and high proficiency levels. However, it is important to then retain what has been attained, even in the absence of continued exposure to the L2--particularly since periods of minimal or no L2 exposure are common. This event-related potential (ERP) study of an artificial language tested performance and neural processing following a substantial period of no exposure. Adults learned to speak and comprehend the artificial language to high proficiency with either explicit, classroom-like, or implicit, immersion-like training, and then underwent several months of no exposure to the language. Surprisingly, proficiency did not decrease during this delay. Instead, it remained unchanged, and there was an increase in native-like neural processing of syntax, as evidenced by several ERP changes--including earlier, more reliable, and more left-lateralized anterior negativities, and more robust P600s, in response to word-order violations. Moreover, both the explicitly and implicitly trained groups showed increased native-like ERP patterns over the delay, indicating that such changes can hold independently of L2 training type. The results demonstrate that substantial periods with no L2 exposure are not necessarily detrimental. Rather, benefits may ensue from such periods of time even when there is no L2 exposure. Interestingly, both before and after the delay the implicitly trained group showed more native-like processing than the explicitly trained group, indicating that type of training also affects the attainment of native-like processing in the brain. Overall, the findings may be largely explained by a combination of forgetting and consolidation in declarative and procedural memory, on which L2 grammar learning appears to depend. The study has a range of implications, and suggests a research program with

  10. Longitudinal Increase in Anisometropia in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Haegerstrom-Portnoy, Gunilla; Schneck, Marilyn E.; Lott, Lori A.; Hewlett, Susan E.; Brabyn, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Anisometropia shows an exponential increase in prevalence with increasing age based on cross-sectional studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate longitudinal changes in anisometropia in all refractive components in older observers and to assess the influence of early cataract development. Methods Refractive error was assessed at two time points separated by ~12 years in 118 older observers (ages 67.1 and 79.3 years at the two test times). Anisometropia defined as ≥1.00 D was calculated for all refractive components. The subjects had intact ocular lenses in both eyes throughout the study. Lens evaluations were performed at the second test using LOCS III. Results All refractive components approximately doubled in prevalence of anisometropia. Spherical equivalent anisometropia changed from 16.1% to 32.2%. Similar changes were found for spherical error (17% to 38.1%), primary astigmatism (7.6% to 17.8%) and oblique astigmatism (14.4% to 29.7%). Many who did not have anisometropia at the first visit subsequently developed anisometropia (for ex. 26.3% for spherical error and 22.9% for oblique cylinder). The onset of anisometropia occurred at all ages within the studied age range with no particular preference for any one age. A small number lost anisometropia over time. Individual comparisons of refractive error changes in the two eyes in combination with nuclear lens changes showed that early changes in nuclear sclerosis in the two eyes could account for a large proportion of anisometropia (~40%) but unequal hyperopic shift in the spherical component in the two eyes was the primary cause of the anisometropia. Conclusions Anisometropia is at least 10 times more common in the elderly than in children and anisometropia develops in all refractive components in the oldest observers. Clinicians need to be aware of this common condition that could lead to binocular vision problems and potentially cause falls in the elderly. PMID:24276578

  11. NIH study shows increased risk for two types of myotonic muscular dystrophy

    Cancer.gov

    Adults with a form of muscular dystrophy called myotonic muscular dystrophy (MMD) may be at increased risk of developing cancer, according to a study by investigators at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health.

  12. Increased post-operative haemorrhage seen in adult coblation tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Noon, A P; Hargreaves, S

    2003-09-01

    Coblation is a new soft tissue surgical technique that is being used for tonsillectomy. Published results show a significant decrease in the amount of post-operative pain experienced by patients undergoing coblation tonsillectomy. There has been no published work to date on the incidence of post-operative haemorrhage. From August 2001 to November 2002 one surgeon performed 36 coblation tonsillectomies on adults. On another list he performed 29 by his standard method of dissection and bipolar coagulation. Retrospective analysis found a significant increase in the secondary haemorrhage rate in adult patients undergoing coblation tonsillectomy (22.2 vs. 3.4 per cent). At our department coblation tonsillectomy has been abandoned until further work into its safety has been published.

  13. Second Language Processing Shows Increased Native-Like Neural Responses after Months of No Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Morgan-Short, Kara; Finger, Ingrid; Grey, Sarah; Ullman, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Although learning a second language (L2) as an adult is notoriously difficult, research has shown that adults can indeed attain native language-like brain processing and high proficiency levels. However, it is important to then retain what has been attained, even in the absence of continued exposure to the L2—particularly since periods of minimal or no L2 exposure are common. This event-related potential (ERP) study of an artificial language tested performance and neural processing following a substantial period of no exposure. Adults learned to speak and comprehend the artificial language to high proficiency with either explicit, classroom-like, or implicit, immersion-like training, and then underwent several months of no exposure to the language. Surprisingly, proficiency did not decrease during this delay. Instead, it remained unchanged, and there was an increase in native-like neural processing of syntax, as evidenced by several ERP changes—including earlier, more reliable, and more left-lateralized anterior negativities, and more robust P600s, in response to word-order violations. Moreover, both the explicitly and implicitly trained groups showed increased native-like ERP patterns over the delay, indicating that such changes can hold independently of L2 training type. The results demonstrate that substantial periods with no L2 exposure are not necessarily detrimental. Rather, benefits may ensue from such periods of time even when there is no L2 exposure. Interestingly, both before and after the delay the implicitly trained group showed more native-like processing than the explicitly trained group, indicating that type of training also affects the attainment of native-like processing in the brain. Overall, the findings may be largely explained by a combination of forgetting and consolidation in declarative and procedural memory, on which L2 grammar learning appears to depend. The study has a range of implications, and suggests a research program with

  14. Differential Outcomes of Adult Education on Adult Learners' Increase in Social Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Greef, Maurice; Verté, Dominique; Segers, Mien

    2015-01-01

    To date a significant share of the European population can be considered at risk of social exclusion. It has been argued that adult education programmes are a powerful tool to support vulnerable adults increasing their social inclusion. This study aims to answer the question if and which subgroups of vulnerable adults experience an increase in…

  15. Astrocytes from adult Wistar rats aged in vitro show changes in glial functions.

    PubMed

    Souza, Débora Guerini; Bellaver, Bruna; Raupp, Gustavo Santos; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Quincozes-Santos, André

    2015-11-01

    Astrocytes, the most versatile cells of the central nervous system, play an important role in the regulation of neurotransmitter homeostasis, energy metabolism, antioxidant defenses and the anti-inflammatory response. Recently, our group characterized cortical astrocyte cultures from adult Wistar rats. In line with that work, we studied glial function using an experimental in vitro model of aging astrocytes (30 days in vitro after reaching confluence) from newborn (NB), adult (AD) and aged (AG) Wistar rats. We evaluated metabolic parameters, such as the glucose uptake, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, and glutathione (GSH) content, as well as the GFAP, GLUT-1 and xCT expression. AD and AG astrocytes take up less glucose than NB astrocytes and had decreased GLUT1 expression levels. Furthermore, AD and AG astrocytes exhibited decreased GS activity compared to NB cells. Simultaneously, AD and AG astrocytes showed an increase in GSH levels, along with an increase in xCT expression. NB, AD and AG astrocytes presented similar morphology; however, differences in GFAP levels were observed. Taken together, these results improve the knowledge of cerebral senescence and represent an innovative tool for brain studies of aging. PMID:26210720

  16. Prolonged Hypoxia Increases Survival Even in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Showing Cardiac Arrhythmia

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, Renate; Bauer, Ines; Ramalingam, Anil; Egg, Margit; Schwerte, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Tolerance towards hypoxia is highly pronounced in zebrafish. In this study even beneficial effects of hypoxia, specifically enhanced survival of zebrafish larvae, could be demonstrated. This effect was actually more pronounced in breakdance mutants, which phenotypically show cardiac arrhythmia. Breakdance mutants (bre) are characterized by chronically reduced cardiac output. Despite an about 50% heart rate reduction, they become adults, but survival rate significantly drops to 40%. Normoxic bre animals demonstrate increased hypoxia inducible factor 1 a (Hif-1α) expression, which indicates an activated hypoxic signaling pathway. Consequently, cardiovascular acclimation, like cardiac hypertrophy and increased erythrocyte concentration, occurs. Thus, it was hypothesized, that under hypoxic conditions survival might be even more reduced. When bre mutants were exposed to hypoxic conditions, they surprisingly showed higher survival rates than under normoxic conditions and even reached wildtype values. In hypoxic wildtype zebrafish, survival yet exceeded normoxic control values. To specify physiological acclimation, cardiovascular and metabolic parameters were measured before hypoxia started (3 dpf), when the first differences in survival rate occurred (7 dpf) and when survival rate plateaued (15 dpf). Hypoxic animals expectedly demonstrated Hif-1α accumulation and consequently enhanced convective oxygen carrying capacity. Moreover, bre animals showed a significantly enhanced heart rate under hypoxic conditions, which reached normoxic wildtype values. This improvement in convective oxygen transport ensured a sufficient oxygen and nutrient supply and was also reflected in the significantly higher mitochondrial activity. The highly optimized energy metabolism observed in hypoxic zebrafish larvae might be decisive for periods of higher energy demand due to organ development, growth and increased activity. However, hypoxia increased survival only during a short period of

  17. Increases in cerebrovascular impedance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong-Sheng; Tseng, Benjamin Y; Shibata, Shigeki; Levine, Benjamin D; Zhang, Rong

    2011-08-01

    This study explored a novel method for measuring cerebrovascular impedance to quantify the relationship between pulsatile changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and arterial pressure. Arterial pressure in the internal or common carotid artery (applanation tonometry), CBF velocity in the middle cerebral artery (transcranial Doppler), and end-tidal CO(2) (capnography) were measured in six young (28 ± 4 yr) and nine elderly subjects (70 ± 6 yr). Transfer function method was used to estimate cerebrovascular impedance. Under supine resting conditions, CBF velocity was reduced in the elderly despite the fact that they had higher arterial pressure than young subjects. As expected, cerebrovascular resistance index was increased in the elderly. In both young and elderly subjects, impedance modulus was reduced gradually in the frequency range of 0.78-8 Hz. Phase was negative in the range of 0.78-4.3 Hz and fluctuated at high frequencies. Compared with the young, impedance modulus increased by 38% in the elderly in the range of 0.78-2 Hz and by 39% in the range of 2-4 Hz (P < 0.05). Moreover, increases in impedance were correlated with reductions in CBF velocity. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the feasibility of assessing cerebrovascular impedance using the noninvasive method developed in this study. The estimated impedance modulus and phase are similar to those observed in the systemic circulation and other vascular beds. Moreover, increases in impedance in the elderly suggest that arterial stiffening, besides changes in cerebrovascular resistance, contributes to reduction in CBF with age.

  18. Increased activity in frontal motor cortex compensates impaired speech perception in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yi; Buchsbaum, Bradley R.; Grady, Cheryl L.; Alain, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Understanding speech in noisy environments is challenging, especially for seniors. Although evidence suggests that older adults increasingly recruit prefrontal cortices to offset reduced periphery and central auditory processing, the brain mechanisms underlying such compensation remain elusive. Here we show that relative to young adults, older adults show higher activation of frontal speech motor areas as measured by functional MRI during a syllable identification task at varying signal-to-noise ratios. This increased activity correlates with improved speech discrimination performance in older adults. Multivoxel pattern classification reveals that despite an overall phoneme dedifferentiation, older adults show greater specificity of phoneme representations in frontal articulatory regions than auditory regions. Moreover, older adults with stronger frontal activity have higher phoneme specificity in frontal and auditory regions. Thus, preserved phoneme specificity and upregulation of activity in speech motor regions provide a means of compensation in older adults for decoding impoverished speech representations in adverse listening conditions. PMID:27483187

  19. Heterozygous caveolin-3 mice show increased susceptibility to palmitate-induced insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Talukder, M A Hassan; Preda, Marilena; Ryzhova, Larisa; Prudovsky, Igor; Pinz, Ilka M

    2016-03-01

    Insulin resistance and diabetes are comorbidities of obesity and affect one in 10 adults in the United States. Despite the high prevalence, the mechanisms of cardiac insulin resistance in obesity are still unclear. We test the hypothesis that the insulin receptor localizes to caveolae and is regulated through binding to caveolin-3 (CAV3). We further test whether haploinsufficiency forCAV3 increases the susceptibility to high-fat-induced insulin resistance. We used in vivo and in vitro studies to determine the effect of palmitate exposure on global insulin resistance, contractile performance of the heart in vivo, glucose uptake in the heart, and on cellular signaling downstream of theIR We show that haploinsufficiency forCAV3 increases susceptibility to palmitate-induced global insulin resistance and causes cardiomyopathy. On the basis of fluorescence energy transfer (FRET) experiments, we show thatCAV3 andIRdirectly interact in cardiomyocytes. Palmitate impairs insulin signaling by a decrease in insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt that corresponds to an 87% decrease in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake inHL-1 cardiomyocytes. Despite loss of Akt phosphorylation and lower glucose uptake, palmitate increased insulin-independent serine phosphorylation ofIRS-1 by 35%. In addition, we found lipid induced downregulation ofCD36, the fatty acid transporter associated with caveolae. This may explain the problem the diabetic heart is facing with the simultaneous impairment of glucose uptake and lipid transport. Thus, these findings suggest that loss ofCAV3 interferes with downstream insulin signaling and lipid uptake, implicatingCAV3 as a regulator of theIRand regulator of lipid uptake in the heart. PMID:27033451

  20. Thematic Solutions Using Young Adult Literature to Increase Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jill; Bushman, John H.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss thematic solutions using young adult literature to increase reading comprehension. Here, they emphasize that prior knowledge plays a very important role in the reading process. As students read, they actively "construct meaning through the integration of existing and new knowledge and the flexible use of…

  1. Increasing phonological complexity reveals heightened instability in inter-articulatory coordination in adults who stutter

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Anne; Sadagopan, Neeraja; Walsh, Bridget; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2010-01-01

    The potential role of phonological complexity in destabilizing the speech motor systems of adults who stutter was explored by assessing the performance of 17 adults who stutter and 17 matched control participants on a nonword repetition task. The nonwords varied in length and phonological complexity. Behavioral results revealed no differences between the stuttering and normally fluent groups on accuracy of nonword repetition. In contrast, dramatic differences between groups were observed in the kinematic data. Indices of the consistency of inter-articulator coordination revealed that adults who stutter were much less consistent in their coordinative patterns over repeated productions. With increasing length and complexity of the nonwords, between-group differences in coordinative consistency were more pronounced. Coordination consistency measures revealed that adults who stutter (but not normally fluent adults) showed within-session practice effects; their coordinative consistency improved in five later compared to five earlier productions. Adults who stutter produced the nonwords at a slower rate, but both groups showed increased rates of production on the later trials, indicating a practice effect for duration for both groups. We conclude that, though the adults who stutter performed behaviorally with the same accuracy as normally fluent adults, the nonword repetition task reveals remarkable differences in the speech motor dynamics underlying fluent speech production in adults who stutter compared to their normally fluent peers. These results support a multifactorial, dynamic model of stuttering in which linguistic complexity and utterance length are factors that contribute to the probability of breakdown of the speech motor system. PMID:20412979

  2. The immature human ovary shows loss of abnormal follicles and increasing follicle developmental competence through childhood and adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, R.A.; McLaughlin, M.; Wallace, W.H.B.; Albertini, D.F.; Telfer, E.E.

    2014-01-01

    from pre-pubertal ovary showed limited growth (P < 0.05 versus both pubertal and adult follicles) and no change in oocyte diameter over that period. Follicles from pubertal ovaries showed increased growth; this was still reduced compared with follicles from adult women (P < 0.05) but oocyte growth was proportionate to follicle size. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION These data derive from only a small number of ovarian biopsies, although large numbers of follicles were analysed. It is unclear whether the differences between groups are related to puberty, or just age. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS These findings show that follicles from girls of all ages can be induced to grow in vitro, which has important implications for some patients who are at high risk of malignant contamination of their ovarian tissue. The reduced growth of isolated follicles indicates that there are true intrafollicular differences in addition to potential differences in their local environment, and that there are maturational processes occurring in the ovary through childhood and adolescence, which involve the loss of abnormal follicles, and increasing follicle developmental competence. Study funding/competing interest(s) Funded by MRC grants G0901839 and G1100357. No competing interests. PMID:24135076

  3. Prenatal Ethanol Exposure Increases Brain Cholesterol Content in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Barceló-Coblijn, Gwendolyn; Wold, Loren E.; Ren, Jun; Murphy, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most severe expression of the fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Although alterations in fetal and neonate brain fatty acid composition and cholesterol content is known to change in animal models of FASD, the persistence of these alterations into adulthood is unknown. To address this question, we determined the effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on individual phospholipid class fatty acid composition, individual phospholipid class mass, and cholesterol mass in brains from 25-week-old rats that were exposed to ethanol during gestation beginning at gestational day 2. While total phospholipid mass was unaffected, phosphatidylinositol and cardiolipin mass was decreased 14 and 43%, respectively. Exposure to prenatal ethanol modestly altered brain phospholipid fatty acid composition, and the most consistent change was a significant 1.1-fold increase in total PUFA, in the n-3/n-6 ratio, and in the 22:6 n-3 content in ethanolamine glycerophospholipids and in phosphatidylserine. In contrast, prenatal ethanol consumption significantly increased brain cholesterol mass 1.4-fold and the phospholipid to cholesterol ratio was significantly increased 1.3-fold. These results indicate that brain cholesterol mass was significantly increased in adult rats exposed prenatally to ethanol, but changes in phospholipid mass and phospholipid fatty acid composition were extremely limited. Importantly, suppression of post-natal ethanol consumption was not sufficient to reverse the large increase in cholesterol observed in the adult rats. PMID:23996454

  4. Endolymphatic Sac Tumor Showing Increased Activity on 68Ga DOTATATE PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Georgios Z; Millo, Corina; Sadowski, Samira M; Bagci, Ulas; Patronas, Nicholas J

    2016-10-01

    Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELSTs) are rare tumors arising from the epithelium of the endolymphatic sac and duct that can be either sporadic or associated with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. We report a case of a VHL patient with histologically proven residual ELST who underwent Ga DOTATATE PET/CT showing increased activity (SUVmax, 6.29) by the ELST. The presented case of a VHL-associated ELST with increased Ga DOTATATE uptake indicates cell-surface expression of somatostatin receptors by this tumor, suggesting the potential application of somatostatin receptor imaging using Ga DOTA-conjugated peptides in the workup and management of these patients. PMID:27454593

  5. Sacral chordoma in an adult showing an aggressive clinical course: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ENDO, KOJI; YAMASHITA, HIDEKI; NAGASHIMA, HIDEKI; TESHIMA, RYOTA

    2014-01-01

    The current report presents a case of a 78-year-old male with sacral chordoma, showing an aggressive clinical course. The patient underwent sacral resection, however, nine months later, multiple metastases were detected by magnetic resonance imaging. The metastases progressed rapidly and 15 months following surgery the patient succumbed to respiratory dysfunction. An autopsy revealed multiple metastases of the lung, liver, heart, kidneys and vertebrae. Pathologically, the tumors did not show proliferation of anaplastic cells or dedifferentiation; however, the metastatic tumor cells were smaller than the primary tumor cells. The Ki-67 labeling indices were <5% in all of the patient’s tumors, therefore, the capacity for cellular proliferation of the tumors was considered to be low. Chordoma in adults are generally slow-growing tumors and are associated with a relatively prolonged course and frequent local recurrences. Therefore, it must be recognized that chordoma may grow rapidly and show an aggressive clinical course, even when the Ki-67 labeling index is low. PMID:24765153

  6. Monocytes from HIV+ individuals show impaired cholesterol efflux and increased foam cell formation after transendothelial migration

    PubMed Central

    MAISA, Anna; HEARPS, Anna C.; ANGELOVICH, Thomas A.; PEREIRA, Candida F.; ZHOU, Jingling; SHI, Margaret D.Y.; PALMER, Clovis S.; MULLER, William A.; CROWE, Suzanne M.; JAWOROWSKI, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Design HIV+ individuals have an increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease which is independent of antiretroviral therapy and traditional risk factors. Monocytes play a central role in the development of atherosclerosis, and HIV-related chronic inflammation and monocyte activation may contribute to increased atherosclerosis, but the mechanisms are unknown. Methods Using an in vitro model of atherosclerotic plaque formation, we measured the transendothelial migration of purified monocytes from age-matched HIV+ and uninfected donors and examined their differentiation into foam cells. Cholesterol efflux and the expression of cholesterol metabolism genes were also assessed. Results Monocytes from HIV+ individuals showed increased foam cell formation compared to controls (18.9% vs 0% respectively, p=0.004) and serum from virologically suppressed HIV+ individuals potentiated foam cell formation by monocytes from both uninfected and HIV+ donors. Plasma TNF levels were increased in HIV+ vs control donors (5.9 vs 3.5 pg/ml, p=0.02) and foam cell formation was inhibited by blocking antibodies to TNF receptors, suggesting a direct effect on monocyte differentiation to foam cells. Monocytes from virologically suppressed HIV+ donors showed impaired cholesterol efflux and decreased expression of key genes regulating cholesterol metabolism, including the cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (p=0.02). Conclusions Monocytes from HIV+ individuals show impaired cholesterol efflux and are primed for foam cell formation following trans-endothelial migration. Factors present in HIV+ serum, including elevated TNF levels, further enhance foam cell formation. The pro-atherogenic phenotype of monocytes persists in virologically suppressed HIV+ individuals and may contribute mechanistically to increased atherosclerosis in this population. PMID:26244384

  7. Increased Akt signaling in the mosquito fat body increases adult survivorship

    PubMed Central

    Arik, Anam J.; Hun, Lewis V.; Quicke, Kendra; Piatt, Michael; Ziegler, Rolf; Scaraffia, Patricia Y.; Badgandi, Hemant; Riehle, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Akt signaling regulates diverse physiologies in a wide range of organisms. We examine the impact of increased Akt signaling in the fat body of 2 mosquito species, the Asian malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi and the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Overexpression of a myristoylated and active form of A. stephensi and Ae. aegypti Akt in the fat body of transgenic mosquitoes led to activation of the downstream signaling molecules forkhead box O (FOXO) and p70 S6 kinase in a tissue and blood meal–specific manner. In both species, increased Akt signaling in the fat body after blood feeding significantly increased adult survivorship relative to nontransgenic sibling controls. In A. stephensi, survivorship was increased by 15% to 45%, while in Ae. aegypti, it increased 14% to 47%. Transgenic mosquitoes fed only sugar, and thus not expressing active Akt, had no significant difference in survivorship relative to nontransgenic siblings. Expression of active Akt also increased expression of fat body vitellogenin, but the number of viable eggs did not differ significantly between transgenic and nontransgenic controls. This work demonstrates a novel mechanism of enhanced survivorship through increased Akt signaling in the fat bodies of multiple mosquito genera and provides new tools to unlock the molecular underpinnings of aging in eukaryotic organisms.—Arik, A. J., Hun, L. V., Quicke, K., Piatt, M., Ziegler, R., Scaraffia, P. Y., Badgandi H., Riehle, M. A. Increased Akt signaling in the mosquito fat body increases adult survivorship. PMID:25550465

  8. Not only amblyopic but also dominant eye in subjects with strabismus show increased saccadic latency.

    PubMed

    Perdziak, Maciej; Witkowska, Dagmara K; Gryncewicz, Wojciech; Ober, Jan K

    2016-08-01

    Amblyopia is a developmental disorder of vision usually associated with the presence of strabismus and/or anisometropia during early childhood. Subject literature has shown that both the amblyopic and fellow eyes (especially in strabismic subjects) may manifest a variety of perceptual and oculomotor deficits. Previous studies using simple saccadic responses (pro-saccades) showed an increased saccadic latency only for the amblyopic eye viewing conditions. So far, there have appeared no saccadic latency studies in strabismic amblyopia for more complex volitional saccades. In order to maximize the contribution of the central retina in the process of saccade initiation, we decided to use delayed saccadic responses in order to test the hypothesis about saccadic latency increase in both eyes in strabismic amblyopes. The results from our study have shown that saccadic latency is increased both in the dominant and amblyopic eyes. In addition, the amblyopic eye in the strabismic group showed greater increase in saccadic latency compared to an amblyopic eye in the anisometropic group from our previous study. The observed increase in saccadic reaction time for the dominant eye is novel and provides further evidence that the visual pathway associated with the dominant eye might be also impaired in strabismic amblyopia. Since an abnormal binocular input during visual system development may affect gaze stability in both eyes, we speculate that unsteady fixation accompanied with subtle perceptual deficits contribute to an increase in saccadic latency that is observed in the dominant eye. Moreover, it appears that the cortical processes related to saccade decisions are delayed both for amblyopic and fellow eyes in strabismic subjects. PMID:27559718

  9. Life expectancy without depression increases among Brazilian older adults

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Flávia Cristina Drumond; Wu, Fan; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate life expectancy with and without depressive symptoms in older adults for the years 2000 and 2010. METHODS We evaluated individuals aged 60 years or older (n = 1,862 in 2000 and n = 1,280 in 2010), participants of the Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE – Health, Wellbeing and Aging) study in in Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. Depression was measured using the shorter version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15); respondents scoring ≥ 6 were classified as having depression. Estimates of life expectancy with and without depression were obtained using the Sullivan method. RESULTS Data from 2000 indicate that 60-year-old men could expect to live, on average, 14.7 years without depression and 60-year-old women could expect to live 16.5 years without depression. By 2010, life expectancy without depression had increased to 16.7 years for men and 17.8 years for women. Expected length of life with depression differed by sex, with women expected to live more years with depression than men. CONCLUSIONS Between 2000 and 2010, life expectancy without depression in Sao Paulo increased. However, older adults in Brazil, especially older women, still face a serious burden of mental illness. PMID:27143612

  10. Mothers Do Not Show Increased Offspring Avoidance and Elevated Corticosterone Levels during Weaning Conflict in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Charlotte; Hager, Reinmar

    2016-01-01

    Parent-offspring conflict is predicted to occur because offspring will demand more parental investment than is optimal for the parent, and is said to be strongest during weaning when parents reduce nursing while offspring continue to demand parental care. While weaning conflict has been shown to be stressful in offspring, little is known about the effects of weaning conflict on mothers. We hypothesized that during weaning mothers have higher levels of stress hormone (corticosterone) compared to early lactation because of increased offspring demand. Further, we predicted that if mothers are given the option to avoid offspring solicitation they would do so and show lower corticosterone levels. We tested our hypotheses in an experimental population of rats in which one group of females was given the opportunity to avoid offspring solicitation. We measured faecal corticosterone metabolite levels using a non-invasive approach, and maternal and offspring behaviours during weaning. In contrast to our predictions, we detected lower levels of corticosterone metabolites during weaning than before, irrespective of cage type. Further, during weaning mothers did not show increased offspring avoidance behaviour although offspring solicitation increased significantly. Our results therefore cast doubt on the generally accepted notion of weaning conflict as a stressful period for mothers characterized by overt offspring solicitation. PMID:27662366

  11. The neurodevelopmental differences of increasing verbal working memory demand in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Vogan, V M; Morgan, B R; Powell, T L; Smith, M L; Taylor, M J

    2016-02-01

    Working memory (WM) - temporary storage and manipulation of information in the mind - is a key component of cognitive maturation, and structural brain changes throughout development are associated with refinements in WM. Recent functional neuroimaging studies have shown that there is greater activation in prefrontal and parietal brain regions with increasing age, with adults showing more refined, localized patterns of activations. However, few studies have investigated the neural basis of verbal WM development, as the majority of reports examine visuo-spatial WM. We used fMRI and a 1-back verbal WM task with six levels of difficulty to examine the neurodevelopmental changes in WM function in 40 participants, twenty-four children (ages 9-15 yr) and sixteen young adults (ages 20-25 yr). Children and adults both demonstrated an opposing system of cognitive processes with increasing cognitive demand, where areas related to WM (frontal and parietal regions) increased in activity, and areas associated with the default mode network decreased in activity. Although there were many similarities in the neural activation patterns associated with increasing verbal WM capacity in children and adults, significant changes in the fMRI responses were seen with age. Adults showed greater load-dependent changes than children in WM in the bilateral superior parietal gyri, inferior frontal and left middle frontal gyri and right cerebellum. Compared to children, adults also showed greater decreasing activation across WM load in the bilateral anterior cingulate, anterior medial prefrontal gyrus, right superior lateral temporal gyrus and left posterior cingulate. These results demonstrate that while children and adults activate similar neural networks in response to verbal WM tasks, the extent to which they rely on these areas in response to increasing cognitive load evolves between childhood and adulthood. PMID:26615571

  12. The neurodevelopmental differences of increasing verbal working memory demand in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Vogan, V M; Morgan, B R; Powell, T L; Smith, M L; Taylor, M J

    2016-02-01

    Working memory (WM) - temporary storage and manipulation of information in the mind - is a key component of cognitive maturation, and structural brain changes throughout development are associated with refinements in WM. Recent functional neuroimaging studies have shown that there is greater activation in prefrontal and parietal brain regions with increasing age, with adults showing more refined, localized patterns of activations. However, few studies have investigated the neural basis of verbal WM development, as the majority of reports examine visuo-spatial WM. We used fMRI and a 1-back verbal WM task with six levels of difficulty to examine the neurodevelopmental changes in WM function in 40 participants, twenty-four children (ages 9-15 yr) and sixteen young adults (ages 20-25 yr). Children and adults both demonstrated an opposing system of cognitive processes with increasing cognitive demand, where areas related to WM (frontal and parietal regions) increased in activity, and areas associated with the default mode network decreased in activity. Although there were many similarities in the neural activation patterns associated with increasing verbal WM capacity in children and adults, significant changes in the fMRI responses were seen with age. Adults showed greater load-dependent changes than children in WM in the bilateral superior parietal gyri, inferior frontal and left middle frontal gyri and right cerebellum. Compared to children, adults also showed greater decreasing activation across WM load in the bilateral anterior cingulate, anterior medial prefrontal gyrus, right superior lateral temporal gyrus and left posterior cingulate. These results demonstrate that while children and adults activate similar neural networks in response to verbal WM tasks, the extent to which they rely on these areas in response to increasing cognitive load evolves between childhood and adulthood.

  13. Older Adults Show Deficits in Retrieving and Decoding Associative Mediators Generated at Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzog, Christopher; Fulton, Erika K.; Mandviwala, Lulua; Dunlosky, John

    2013-01-01

    We instructed the use of mediators to encode paired-associate items, and then measured both cued recall of targets and mediators. Older adults (n = 49) and younger adults (n = 57) studied a mixed list of concrete and abstract noun pairs under instructions to either generate a sentence or an image to form a new association between normatively…

  14. Lithium inclusion in indium metal-organic frameworks showing increased surface area and hydrogen adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Bosch, Mathieu; Zhang, Muwei; Feng, Dawei; Yuan, Shuai; Wang, Xuan; Chen, Ying-Pin; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2014-12-01

    Investigation of counterion exchange in two anionic In-Metal-Organic Frameworks (In-MOFs) showed that partial replacement of disordered ammonium cations was achieved through the pre-synthetic addition of LiOH to the reaction mixture. This resulted in a surface area increase of over 1600% in (Li [In(1,3 − BDC){sub 2}]){sub n} and enhancement of the H{sub 2} uptake of approximately 275% at 80 000 Pa at 77 K. This method resulted in frameworks with permanent lithium content after repeated solvent exchange as confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Lithium counterion replacement appears to increase porosity after activation through replacement of bulkier, softer counterions and demonstrates tuning of pore size and properties in MOFs.

  15. Aggressive human neuroblastomas show a massive increase in the numbers of autophagic vacuoles and damaged mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Samardzija, Gordana; Stevovic, Tamara Kravic; Djuricic, Slavisa; Djokic, Dragomir; Djurisic, Marina; Ciric, Darko; Martinovic, Tamara; Bumbasirevic, Vladimir; Vujic, Dragana

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is activated in cancer cells in response to multiple stresses and has been demonstrated to promote tumor cell survival and drug resistance in neuroblastoma (NB). This study was conducted to analyze the ultrastructural features of peripheral neuroblastic tumors (pNTs) and identify the relation of the types of NTs, the proliferation rate, and MYCN gene amplification with a number of autophagic vacuoles. Our results indicate that aggressive human NBs show a massive increase in the number of autophagic vacuoles associated with proliferation rate and that alteration of the mitochondria might be an important factor for the induction of autophagy in NTs. PMID:27669398

  16. Female rats exposed to stress and alcohol show impaired memory and increased depressive-like behaviors.

    PubMed

    Gomez, J L; Luine, V N

    2014-01-17

    Exposure to daily life stressors is associated with increases in anxiety, depression, and overall negative affect. Alcohol or other psychoactive drugs are often used to alleviate stress effects. While females are more than twice as likely to develop mood disorders and are more susceptible to dependency than males, they are infrequently examined. In this study, female rats received no stress/no alcohol control (CON), alcohol alone (ALC), stress alone (STR), or stress plus alcohol (STR+ALC). Stress consisted of restraint for 6h/day/7days, and alcohol was administered immediately following restraint via gastric gavage at a dose of 2.0g/kg. Dependent measures included tests utilizing object recognition (OR), Y-maze, elevated plus maze (EPM), forced swim (FST), blood alcohol content, corticosterone levels, and body weights. ALC, STR+ALC, but not stress alone, impaired memory on OR. All treatments impaired spatial memory on the Y-maze. Anxiety was not affected on the EPM, but rats treated with alcohol or in combination with stress showed increased immobility on the FST, suggestive of alcohol-induced depression. Previously, we found alcohol reversed deleterious effects of stress on memory and mood in males, but current results show that females reacted negatively when the two treatments were combined. Thus, responses to alcohol, stress and their combination suggest that sex specific treatments are needed for stress-induced behavioral changes and that self-medicating with alcohol to cope with stress maybe deleterious in females.

  17. European lactase persistence genotype shows evidence of association with increase in body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Kettunen, Johannes; Silander, Kaisa; Saarela, Olli; Amin, Najaf; Müller, Martina; Timpson, Nicholas; Surakka, Ida; Ripatti, Samuli; Laitinen, Jaana; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Pouta, Anneli; Lahermo, Päivi; Anttila, Verneri; Männistö, Satu; Jula, Antti; Virtamo, Jarmo; Salomaa, Veikko; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Gieger, Christian; Wichmann, Erich H.; Van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Smith, George Davey; McCarthy, Mark I.; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Perola, Markus; Peltonen, Leena

    2010-01-01

    The global prevalence of obesity has increased significantly in recent decades, mainly due to excess calorie intake and increasingly sedentary lifestyle. Here, we test the association between obesity measured by body mass index (BMI) and one of the best-known genetic variants showing strong selective pressure: the functional variant in the cis-regulatory element of the lactase gene. We tested this variant since it is presumed to provide nutritional advantage in specific physical and cultural environments. We genetically defined lactase persistence (LP) in 31 720 individuals from eight European population-based studies and one family study by genotyping or imputing the European LP variant (rs4988235). We performed a meta-analysis by pooling the β-coefficient estimates of the relationship between rs4988235 and BMI from the nine studies and found that the carriers of the allele responsible for LP among Europeans showed higher BMI (P = 7.9 × 10−5). Since this locus has been shown to be prone to population stratification, we paid special attention to reveal any population substructure which might be responsible for the association signal. The best evidence of exclusion of stratification came from the Dutch family sample which is robust for stratification. In this study, we highlight issues in model selection in the genome-wide association studies and problems in imputation of these special genomic regions. PMID:20015952

  18. Female Rats Exposed to Stress and Alcohol Show Impaired Memory and Increased Depressive-like Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, J.L.; Luine, V.N.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to daily life stressors is associated with increases in anxiety, depression, and overall negative affect. Alcohol or other psychoactive drugs are often used to alleviate stress effects. While females are more than twice as likely to develop mood disorders and are more susceptible to dependency than males, they are infrequently examined. In this study, female rats received no stress/no alcohol control (CON), alcohol alone (ALC), stress alone (STR), or stress plus alcohol (STR+ALC). Stress consisted of restraint for 6hr/day/7days, and alcohol was administered immediately following restraint via gastric gavage at a dose of 2.0 g/kg. Dependent measures included tests utilizing object recognition (OR), Y-maze, elevated plus maze (EPM), forced swim (FST), blood alcohol content, corticosterone levels, and body weights. ALC, STR+ALC, but not stress alone, impaired memory on OR. All treatments impaired spatial memory on the Y-maze. Anxiety was not affected on the EPM, but rats treated with alcohol or in combination with stress showed increased immobility on the FST, suggestive of alcohol-induced depression. Previously, we found alcohol reversed deleterious effects of stress on memory and mood in males, but current results show females reacted negatively when the two treatments were combined. Thus, responses to alcohol, stress and their combination suggest that sex specific treatments are needed for stress-induced behavioral changes and that self-medicating with alcohol to cope with stress maybe deleterious in females. PMID:24096191

  19. Using the Natural Language Paradigm (NLP) to increase vocalizations of older adults with cognitive impairments.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Linda A; Geiger, Kaneen B; Sautter, Rachael A; Sidener, Tina M

    2007-01-01

    The Natural Language Paradigm (NLP) has proven effective in increasing spontaneous verbalizations for children with autism. This study investigated the use of NLP with older adults with cognitive impairments served at a leisure-based adult day program for seniors. Three individuals with limited spontaneous use of functional language participated in a multiple baseline design across participants. Data were collected on appropriate and inappropriate vocalizations with appropriate vocalizations coded as prompted or unprompted during baseline and treatment sessions. All participants experienced increases in appropriate speech during NLP with variable response patterns. Additionally, the two participants with substantial inappropriate vocalizations showed decreases in inappropriate speech. Implications for intervention in day programs are discussed.

  20. Increased susceptibility to proactive interference in adults with dyslexia?

    PubMed

    Bogaerts, Louisa; Szmalec, Arnaud; Hachmann, Wibke M; Page, Mike P A; Woumans, Evy; Duyck, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings show that people with dyslexia have an impairment in serial-order memory. Based on these findings, the present study aimed to test the hypothesis that people with dyslexia have difficulties dealing with proactive interference (PI) in recognition memory. A group of 25 adults with dyslexia and a group of matched controls were subjected to a 2-back recognition task, which required participants to indicate whether an item (mis)matched the item that had been presented 2 trials before. PI was elicited using lure trials in which the item matched the item in the 3-back position instead of the targeted 2-back position. Our results demonstrate that the introduction of lure trials affected 2-back recognition performance more severely in the dyslexic group than in the control group, suggesting greater difficulty in resisting PI in dyslexia.

  1. Telling true from false: cannabis users show increased susceptibility to false memories

    PubMed Central

    Riba, J; Valle, M; Sampedro, F; Rodríguez-Pujadas, A; Martínez-Horta, S; Kulisevsky, J; Rodríguez-Fornells, A

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on the neurocognitive impact of cannabis use have found working and declarative memory deficits that tend to normalize with abstinence. An unexplored aspect of cognitive function in chronic cannabis users is the ability to distinguish between veridical and illusory memories, a crucial aspect of reality monitoring that relies on adequate memory function and cognitive control. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that abstinent cannabis users have an increased susceptibility to false memories, failing to identify lure stimuli as events that never occurred. In addition to impaired performance, cannabis users display reduced activation in areas associated with memory processing within the lateral and medial temporal lobe (MTL), and in parietal and frontal brain regions involved in attention and performance monitoring. Furthermore, cannabis consumption was inversely correlated with MTL activity, suggesting that the drug is especially detrimental to the episodic aspects of memory. These findings indicate that cannabis users have an increased susceptibility to memory distortions even when abstinent and drug-free, suggesting a long-lasting compromise of memory and cognitive control mechanisms involved in reality monitoring. PMID:25824306

  2. Serum Sclerostin Increases in Healthy Adult Men during Bed Rest

    PubMed Central

    Fields, E. E.; Yu, E. W.; Pajevic, P. Divieti; Bouxsein, M. L.; Sibonga, J. D.; Zwart, S. R.; Smith, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Animal models and human studies suggest that osteocytes regulate the skeleton's response to mechanical unloading in part by an increase in sclerostin. However, few studies have reported changes in serum sclerostin in humans exposed to reduced mechanical loading. Objective: We determined changes in serum sclerostin and bone turnover markers in healthy adult men undergoing controlled bed rest. Design, Setting, and Participants: Seven healthy adult men (31 ± 3 yr old) underwent 90 d of 6° head down tilt bed rest at the University of Texas Medical Branch Institute for Translational Sciences-Clinical Research Center. Outcomes: Serum sclerostin, PTH, vitamin D, bone resorption and formation markers, urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, and 24-h pooled urinary markers of bone resorption were evaluated before bed rest [baseline (BL)] and at bed rest d 28 (BR-28), d 60 (BR-60), and d 90 (BR-90). Bone mineral density was measured at BL, BR-60, and 5 d after the end of the study (BR+5). Data are reported as mean ± sd. Results: Consistent with prior reports, bone mineral density declined significantly (1–2% per month) at weight-bearing skeletal sites. Serum sclerostin was elevated above BL at BR-28 (+29 ± 20%; P = 0.003) and BR-60 (+42 ± 31%; P < 0.001), with a lesser increase at BR-90 (+22 ± 21%; P = 0.07). Serum PTH levels were reduced at BR-28 (−17 ± 16%; P = 0.02) and BR-60 (−24 ± 14%; P = 0.03) and remained lower than BL at BR-90 (−21 ± 21%; P = 0.14), but did not reach statistical significance. Serum bone turnover markers were unchanged; however, urinary bone resorption markers and calcium were significantly elevated at all time points after bed rest (P < 0.01). Conclusions: In healthy men subjected to controlled bed rest for 90 d, serum sclerostin increased, with a peak at 60, whereas serum PTH declined, and urinary calcium and bone resorption markers increased. PMID:22767636

  3. Convergent and Divergent fMRI Responses in Children and Adults to Increasing Language Production Demands

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Saloni; Leech, Robert; Mercure, Evelyne; Lloyd-Fox, Sarah; Dick, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    In adults, patterns of neural activation associated with perhaps the most basic language skill—overt object naming—are extensively modulated by the psycholinguistic and visual complexity of the stimuli. Do children's brains react similarly when confronted with increasing processing demands, or they solve this problem in a different way? Here we scanned 37 children aged 7–13 and 19 young adults who performed a well-normed picture-naming task with 3 levels of difficulty. While neural organization for naming was largely similar in childhood and adulthood, adults had greater activation in all naming conditions over inferior temporal gyri and superior temporal gyri/supramarginal gyri. Manipulating naming complexity affected adults and children quite differently: neural activation, especially over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, showed complexity-dependent increases in adults, but complexity-dependent decreases in children. These represent fundamentally different responses to the linguistic and conceptual challenges of a simple naming task that makes no demands on literacy or metalinguistics. We discuss how these neural differences might result from different cognitive strategies used by adults and children during lexical retrieval/production as well as developmental changes in brain structure and functional connectivity. PMID:24907249

  4. Captive European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in breeding condition show an increased cardiovascular stress response to intruders.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Molly J; Nephew, Benjamin C; Romero, L Michael

    2006-01-01

    European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) alter their physiology and behavior between seasons, becoming territorial during the spring/summer and flocking during the fall/winter. We used captive male starlings in breeding (photostimulated to 18L : 6D) and nonbreeding (11L : 13D) conditions to determine whether changing physiology and behavior alters their reaction to crowding. One or five intruders entered a resident's cage without human disturbance. A subcutaneous heart rate transmitter recorded cardiovascular output in residents. Corticosterone and testosterone were measured in plasma samples taken before and after the intrusion. While corticosterone concentrations did not change, heart rate changed significantly, indicating that these responses can be regulated independently. Long-day birds showed a significantly elevated heart rate response to the single-bird intrusion compared to short-day birds. Whereas five intruders elicited an identical peak response in both groups, long-day birds also demonstrated an equivalent response to one intruder. In addition, one intruder induced longer elevation in heart rate for long-day birds. Male starlings in breeding condition, therefore, demonstrate an increased sensitivity to additional conspecifics. This seasonal shift in response suggests that a higher tolerance for intrusion (i.e., considering a nearby starling as less stressful) may facilitate flocking behavior, while a lower tolerance may aid in territoriality. PMID:16927240

  5. Older adults show a self-reference effect for narrative information.

    PubMed

    Carson, Nicole; Murphy, Kelly J; Moscovitch, Morris; Rosenbaum, R Shayna

    2016-10-01

    The self-reference effect (SRE), enhanced memory for information encoded through self-related processing, has been established in younger and older adults using single trait adjective words. We sought to examine the generality of this phenomenon by studying narrative information in these populations. Additionally, we investigated retrieval experience at recognition and whether valence of stimuli influences memory differently in young and older adults. Participants encoded trait adjectives and narratives in self-reference, semantic, or structural processing conditions, followed by tests of recall and recognition. Experiment 1 revealed an SRE for trait adjective recognition and narrative cued recall in both age groups, although the existence of an SRE for narrative recognition was unclear due to ceiling effects. Experiment 2 revealed an SRE on an adapted test of narrative recognition. Self-referential encoding was shown to enhance recollection for both trait adjectives and narrative material in Experiment 1, whereas similar estimates of recollection for self-reference and semantic conditions were found in Experiment 2. Valence effects were inconsistent but generally similar in young and older adults when they were found. Results demonstrate that the self-reference technique extends to narrative information in young and older adults and may provide a valuable intervention tool for those experiencing age-related memory decline.

  6. Older adults show a self-reference effect for narrative information.

    PubMed

    Carson, Nicole; Murphy, Kelly J; Moscovitch, Morris; Rosenbaum, R Shayna

    2016-10-01

    The self-reference effect (SRE), enhanced memory for information encoded through self-related processing, has been established in younger and older adults using single trait adjective words. We sought to examine the generality of this phenomenon by studying narrative information in these populations. Additionally, we investigated retrieval experience at recognition and whether valence of stimuli influences memory differently in young and older adults. Participants encoded trait adjectives and narratives in self-reference, semantic, or structural processing conditions, followed by tests of recall and recognition. Experiment 1 revealed an SRE for trait adjective recognition and narrative cued recall in both age groups, although the existence of an SRE for narrative recognition was unclear due to ceiling effects. Experiment 2 revealed an SRE on an adapted test of narrative recognition. Self-referential encoding was shown to enhance recollection for both trait adjectives and narrative material in Experiment 1, whereas similar estimates of recollection for self-reference and semantic conditions were found in Experiment 2. Valence effects were inconsistent but generally similar in young and older adults when they were found. Results demonstrate that the self-reference technique extends to narrative information in young and older adults and may provide a valuable intervention tool for those experiencing age-related memory decline. PMID:26360612

  7. Do Adults with Mental Retardation Show Pictorial Superiority Effects in Recall and Recognition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Katie E.; Applegate, Heather; Reese, Celinda M.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined memory for pictures and words in 16 adults with mental retardation and 24 controls. Pictorial superiority effects occurred in free recall and recognition for both intelligence-level groups. Correlational analyses indicated working memory span was primarily related to recall performance, irrespective of stimulus format. (Contains…

  8. Valproic Acid Increases CD133 Positive Cells that Show Low Sensitivity to Cytostatics in Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Mohamed Ashraf; Hraběta, Jan; Groh, Tomáš; Procházka, Pavel; Doktorová, Helena; Eckschlager, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is a well-known antiepileptic drug that exhibits antitumor activities through its action as a histone deacetylase inhibitor. CD133 is considered to be a cancer stem cell marker in several tumors including neuroblastoma. CD133 transcription is strictly regulated by epigenetic modifications. We evaluated the epigenetic effects of treatment with 1mM VPA and its influence on the expression of CD133 in four human neuroblastoma cell lines. Chemoresistance and cell cycle of CD133+ and CD133− populations were examined by flow cytometry. We performed bisulfite conversion followed by methylation-sensitive high resolution melting analysis to assess the methylation status of CD133 promoters P1 and P3. Our results revealed that VPA induced CD133 expression that was associated with increased acetylation of histones H3 and H4. On treatment with VPA and cytostatics, CD133+ cells were mainly detected in the S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle and they showed less activated caspase-3 compared to CD133− cells. UKF-NB-3 neuroblastoma cells which express CD133 displayed higher colony and neurosphere formation capacities when treated with VPA, unlike IMR-32 which lacks for CD133 protein. Induction of CD133 in UKF-NB-3 was associated with increased expression of phosphorylated Akt and pluripotency transcription factors Nanog, Oct-4 and Sox2. VPA did not induce CD133 expression in cell lines with methylated P1 and P3 promoters, where the CD133 protein was not detected. Applying the demethylating agent 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine to the cell lines with methylated promoters resulted in CD133 re-expression that was associated with a drop in P1 and P3 methylation level. In conclusion, CD133 expression in neuroblastoma can be regulated by histone acetylation and/or methylation of its CpG promoters. VPA can induce CD133+ cells which display high proliferation potential and low sensitivity to cytostatics in neuroblastoma. These results give new insight into the possible

  9. Valproic Acid Increases CD133 Positive Cells that Show Low Sensitivity to Cytostatics in Neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mohamed Ashraf; Hraběta, Jan; Groh, Tomáš; Procházka, Pavel; Doktorová, Helena; Eckschlager, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is a well-known antiepileptic drug that exhibits antitumor activities through its action as a histone deacetylase inhibitor. CD133 is considered to be a cancer stem cell marker in several tumors including neuroblastoma. CD133 transcription is strictly regulated by epigenetic modifications. We evaluated the epigenetic effects of treatment with 1mM VPA and its influence on the expression of CD133 in four human neuroblastoma cell lines. Chemoresistance and cell cycle of CD133+ and CD133- populations were examined by flow cytometry. We performed bisulfite conversion followed by methylation-sensitive high resolution melting analysis to assess the methylation status of CD133 promoters P1 and P3. Our results revealed that VPA induced CD133 expression that was associated with increased acetylation of histones H3 and H4. On treatment with VPA and cytostatics, CD133+ cells were mainly detected in the S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle and they showed less activated caspase-3 compared to CD133- cells. UKF-NB-3 neuroblastoma cells which express CD133 displayed higher colony and neurosphere formation capacities when treated with VPA, unlike IMR-32 which lacks for CD133 protein. Induction of CD133 in UKF-NB-3 was associated with increased expression of phosphorylated Akt and pluripotency transcription factors Nanog, Oct-4 and Sox2. VPA did not induce CD133 expression in cell lines with methylated P1 and P3 promoters, where the CD133 protein was not detected. Applying the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine to the cell lines with methylated promoters resulted in CD133 re-expression that was associated with a drop in P1 and P3 methylation level. In conclusion, CD133 expression in neuroblastoma can be regulated by histone acetylation and/or methylation of its CpG promoters. VPA can induce CD133+ cells which display high proliferation potential and low sensitivity to cytostatics in neuroblastoma. These results give new insight into the possible

  10. Valproic Acid Increases CD133 Positive Cells that Show Low Sensitivity to Cytostatics in Neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mohamed Ashraf; Hraběta, Jan; Groh, Tomáš; Procházka, Pavel; Doktorová, Helena; Eckschlager, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is a well-known antiepileptic drug that exhibits antitumor activities through its action as a histone deacetylase inhibitor. CD133 is considered to be a cancer stem cell marker in several tumors including neuroblastoma. CD133 transcription is strictly regulated by epigenetic modifications. We evaluated the epigenetic effects of treatment with 1mM VPA and its influence on the expression of CD133 in four human neuroblastoma cell lines. Chemoresistance and cell cycle of CD133+ and CD133- populations were examined by flow cytometry. We performed bisulfite conversion followed by methylation-sensitive high resolution melting analysis to assess the methylation status of CD133 promoters P1 and P3. Our results revealed that VPA induced CD133 expression that was associated with increased acetylation of histones H3 and H4. On treatment with VPA and cytostatics, CD133+ cells were mainly detected in the S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle and they showed less activated caspase-3 compared to CD133- cells. UKF-NB-3 neuroblastoma cells which express CD133 displayed higher colony and neurosphere formation capacities when treated with VPA, unlike IMR-32 which lacks for CD133 protein. Induction of CD133 in UKF-NB-3 was associated with increased expression of phosphorylated Akt and pluripotency transcription factors Nanog, Oct-4 and Sox2. VPA did not induce CD133 expression in cell lines with methylated P1 and P3 promoters, where the CD133 protein was not detected. Applying the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine to the cell lines with methylated promoters resulted in CD133 re-expression that was associated with a drop in P1 and P3 methylation level. In conclusion, CD133 expression in neuroblastoma can be regulated by histone acetylation and/or methylation of its CpG promoters. VPA can induce CD133+ cells which display high proliferation potential and low sensitivity to cytostatics in neuroblastoma. These results give new insight into the possible

  11. A mechanically-induced colon cancer cell population shows increased metastatic potential

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Metastasis accounts for the majority of deaths from cancer. Although tumor microenvironment has been shown to have a significant impact on the initiation and/or promotion of metastasis, the mechanism remains elusive. We previously reported that HCT-8 colon cancer cells underwent a phenotypic transition from an adhesive epithelial type (E-cell) to a rounded dissociated type (R-cell) via soft substrate culture, which resembled the initiation of metastasis. The objective of current study was to investigate the molecular and metabolic mechanisms of the E-R transition. Methods Global gene expressions of HCT-8 E and R cells were measured by RNA Sequencing (RNA-seq); and the results were further confirmed by real-time PCR. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), anoikis resistance, enzyme activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 family, member A1 (ALDH3A1), and in vitro invasion assay were tested on both E and R cells. The deformability of HCT-8 E and R cells was measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). To study the in vivo invasiveness of two cell types, athymic nude mice were intra-splenically injected with HCT-8 E or R cells and sacrificed after 9 weeks. Incidences of tumor development and metastasis were histologically evaluated and analyzed with Fisher’s exact test. Results Besides HCT-8, E-R transition on soft substrates was also seen in three other cancer cell lines (HCT116, SW480 colon and DU145 prostate cancer). The expression of some genes, such as ALDH3A1, TNS4, CLDN2, and AKR1B10, which are known to play important roles in cancer cell migration, invasion, proliferation and apoptosis, were increased in HCT-8 R cells. R cells also showed higher ALDH3A1 enzyme activity, higher ROS, higher anoikis resistance, and higher softness than E cells. More importantly, in vitro assay and in vivo animal models revealed that HCT-8 R cells were more invasive than E cells. Conclusions Our comprehensive comparison of HCT-8 E and R cells revealed differences of molecular

  12. Do Adults Show an Effect of Delayed First Language Acquisition When Calculating Scalar Implicatures?

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Kathryn; Mayberry, Rachel I

    2015-01-01

    Language acquisition involves learning not only grammatical rules and a lexicon, but also what someone is intending to convey with their utterance: the semantic/pragmatic component of language. In this paper we separate the contributions of linguistic development and cognitive maturity to the acquisition of the semantic/pragmatic component of language by comparing deaf adults who had either early or late first exposure to their first language (ASL). We focus on the particular type of meaning at the semantic/pragmatic interface called scalar implicature, for which preschool-age children typically differ from adults. Children's behavior has been attributed to either their not knowing appropriate linguistic alternatives to consider or to cognitive developmental differences between children and adults. Unlike children, deaf adults with late language exposure are cognitively mature, although they never fully acquire some complex linguistic structures, and thus serve as a test for the role of language in such interpretations. Our results indicate an overall high performance by late learners, especially when implicatures are not based on conventionalized items. However, compared to early language learners, late language learners compute fewer implicatures when conventionalized linguistic alternatives are involved (e.g. ). We conclude that (i) in general, Gricean pragmatic reasoning does not seem to be impacted by delayed first language acquisition and can account for multiple quantity implicatures, but (ii) the creation of a scale based on lexical items can lead to ease in alternative creation that may be advantageously learned early in life, and that this may be one of several factors contributing to differences between adults and children on scalar implicature tasks. PMID:26997850

  13. Dividing Attention Lowers Children's but Increases Adults' False Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otgaar, Henry; Peters, Maarten; Howe, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of divided attention on children's and adults' neutral and negative true and false memories in a standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm. Children (7- and 11-year-olds; n = 126) and adults (n = 52) received 5 neutral and 5 negative Deese/Roediger-McDermott word lists; half of each group also received a…

  14. Telomerase gene therapy in adult and old mice delays aging and increases longevity without increasing cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes de Jesus, Bruno; Vera, Elsa; Schneeberger, Kerstin; Tejera, Agueda M; Ayuso, Eduard; Bosch, Fatima; Blasco, Maria A

    2012-01-01

    A major goal in aging research is to improve health during aging. In the case of mice, genetic manipulations that shorten or lengthen telomeres result, respectively, in decreased or increased longevity. Based on this, we have tested the effects of a telomerase gene therapy in adult (1 year of age) and old (2 years of age) mice. Treatment of 1- and 2-year old mice with an adeno associated virus (AAV) of wide tropism expressing mouse TERT had remarkable beneficial effects on health and fitness, including insulin sensitivity, osteoporosis, neuromuscular coordination and several molecular biomarkers of aging. Importantly, telomerase-treated mice did not develop more cancer than their control littermates, suggesting that the known tumorigenic activity of telomerase is severely decreased when expressed in adult or old organisms using AAV vectors. Finally, telomerase-treated mice, both at 1-year and at 2-year of age, had an increase in median lifespan of 24 and 13%, respectively. These beneficial effects were not observed with a catalytically inactive TERT, demonstrating that they require telomerase activity. Together, these results constitute a proof-of-principle of a role of TERT in delaying physiological aging and extending longevity in normal mice through a telomerase-based treatment, and demonstrate the feasibility of anti-aging gene therapy. PMID:22585399

  15. Sphaeropsidin A shows promising activity against drug-resistant cancer cells by targeting regulatory volume increase.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Véronique; Chantôme, Aurélie; Lefranc, Florence; Cimmino, Alessio; Miklos, Walter; Paulitschke, Verena; Mohr, Thomas; Maddau, Lucia; Kornienko, Alexander; Berger, Walter; Vandier, Christophe; Evidente, Antonio; Delpire, Eric; Kiss, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Despite the recent advances in the treatment of tumors with intrinsic chemotherapy resistance, such as melanoma and renal cancers, their prognosis remains poor and new chemical agents with promising activity against these cancers are urgently needed. Sphaeropsidin A, a fungal metabolite whose anticancer potential had previously received little attention, was isolated from Diplodia cupressi and found to display specific anticancer activity in vitro against melanoma and kidney cancer subpanels in the National Cancer Institute (NCI) 60-cell line screen. The NCI data revealed a mean LC50 of ca. 10 µM and a cellular sensitivity profile that did not match that of any other agent in the 765,000 compound database. Subsequent mechanistic studies in melanoma and other multidrug-resistant in vitro cancer models showed that sphaeropsidin A can overcome apoptosis as well as multidrug resistance by inducing a marked and rapid cellular shrinkage related to the loss of intracellular Cl(-) and the decreased HCO3 (-) concentration in the culture supernatant. These changes in ion homeostasis and the absence of effects on the plasma membrane potential were attributed to the sphaeropsidin A-induced impairment of regulatory volume increase (RVI). Preliminary results also indicate that depending on the type of cancer, the sphaeropsidin A effects on RVI could be related to Na-K-2Cl electroneutral cotransporter or Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) anion exchanger(s) targeting. This study underscores the modulation of ion-transporter activity as a promising therapeutic strategy to combat drug-resistant cancers and identifies the fungal metabolite, sphaeropsidin A, as a lead to develop anticancer agents targeting RVI in cancer cells. PMID:25868554

  16. Sphaeropsidin A shows promising activity against drug-resistant cancer cells by targeting regulatory volume increase

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Véronique; Chantôme, Aurélie; Lefranc, Florence; Cimmino, Alessio; Miklos, Walter; Paulitschke, Verena; Mohr, Thomas; Maddau, Lucia; Kornienko, Alexander; Berger, Walter; Vandier, Christophe; Evidente, Antonio; Delpire, Eric; Kiss, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Despite the recent advances in the treatment of tumors with intrinsic chemotherapy resistance, such as melanoma and renal cancers, their prognosis remains poor and new chemical agents with promising activity against these cancers are urgently needed. Sphaeropsidin A, a fungal metabolite whose anticancer potential had previously received little attention, was isolated from Diplodia cupressi and found to display specific anticancer activity in vitro against melanoma and kidney cancer subpanels in the National Cancer Institute (NCI) 60-cell line screen. The NCI data revealed a mean LC50 of ca. 10 μM and a cellular sensitivity profile that did not match that of any other agent in the 765,000 compound database. Subsequent mechanistic studies in melanoma and other multidrug-resistant in vitro cancer models showed that sphaeropsidin A can overcome apoptosis as well as multidrug resistance by inducing a marked and rapid cellular shrinkage related to the loss of intracellular Cl− and the decreased HCO3− concentration in the culture supernatant. These changes in ion homeostasis and the absence of effects on the plasma membrane potential were attributed to the sphaeropsidin A-induced impairment of regulatory volume increase (RVI). Preliminary results also indicate that depending on the type of cancer, the sphaeropsidin A effects on RVI could be related to Na–K–2Cl electroneutral cotransporter or Cl−/HCO3− anion exchanger(s) targeting. This study underscores the modulation of ion-transporter activity as a promising therapeutic strategy to combat drug-resistant cancers and identifies the fungal metabolite, sphaeropsidin A, as a lead to develop anticancer agents targeting RVI in cancer cells. PMID:25868554

  17. Male rats show an indifference-avoidance response for increasing concentrations of the artificial sweetener sucralose.

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Nicholas T.; Hajnal, Andras

    2006-01-01

    Sucralose is a non-nutritive halogenated sucrose derivative that has been described by humans as tasting predominately sweet with little or no aftertaste. In this study we examined the preference for sucralose in adult male Sprague Dawley rats. A standard 24 hr two-bottle test was used to compare a wide range of sucralose concentrations (0.0003–10g/L; 0.8 μM–25 mM) with water. The rats did not prefer sucralose to water at low concentrations (0.0003–0.3 g/L) and avoided sucralose at high concentrations (1–10g/L). Although there are many similarities in the taste preference of humans, mice, and rats, these results suggest that male rats do not prefer sucralose and avoid it at high concentrations. An awareness of the potential species differences in preference testing for novel sweeteners is critical for the taste and nutritional research communities. PMID:16810335

  18. Preterm birth and unintentional injuries: risks to children, adolescents and young adults show no consistent pattern

    PubMed Central

    Calling, Susanna; Palmér, Karolina; Jönsson, Lena; Sundquist, Jan; Winkleby, Marilyn; Sundquist, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Aim Preterm birth is associated with a number of physical and mental health issues. The aim of this study was to find out if there was also any association between individuals born preterm in Sweden between 1984 and 2006 and the risk of unintentional injuries during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. Methods The study followed 2,297,134 individuals, including 5.9% born preterm, from 1985 to 2007 for unintentional injuries leading to hospitalisation or death (n=244,021). The males and females were divided into four age groups: 1–5 years, 6–12 years, 13–18 years and 19–23 years. Hazard ratios were calculated for falls, transport injuries and other injuries. Results After adjusting for a comprehensive set of covariates, some of the preterm subgroups demonstrated slightly increased risks of unintentional injuries, while others showed slightly decreased risks. However, most of the estimates were borderline or non-significant in both males and females. In addition, the absolute risk differences between individuals born preterm and full term were small. Conclusion Despite the association between preterm birth and a variety of physical and mental health consequences, this study shows that there is no consistent risk pattern between preterm birth and unintentional injuries in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:23181809

  19. Downscaling CMIP5 climate models shows increased tropical cyclone activity over the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    Emanuel, Kerry A.

    2013-01-01

    A recently developed technique for simulating large [O(104)] numbers of tropical cyclones in climate states described by global gridded data is applied to simulations of historical and future climate states simulated by six Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) global climate models. Tropical cyclones downscaled from the climate of the period 1950–2005 are compared with those of the 21st century in simulations that stipulate that the radiative forcing from greenhouse gases increases by over preindustrial values. In contrast to storms that appear explicitly in most global models, the frequency of downscaled tropical cyclones increases during the 21st century in most locations. The intensity of such storms, as measured by their maximum wind speeds, also increases, in agreement with previous results. Increases in tropical cyclone activity are most prominent in the western North Pacific, but are evident in other regions except for the southwestern Pacific. The increased frequency of events is consistent with increases in a genesis potential index based on monthly mean global model output. These results are compared and contrasted with other inferences concerning the effect of global warming on tropical cyclones. PMID:23836646

  20. Downscaling CMIP5 climate models shows increased tropical cyclone activity over the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Emanuel, Kerry A

    2013-07-23

    A recently developed technique for simulating large [O(10(4))] numbers of tropical cyclones in climate states described by global gridded data is applied to simulations of historical and future climate states simulated by six Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) global climate models. Tropical cyclones downscaled from the climate of the period 1950-2005 are compared with those of the 21st century in simulations that stipulate that the radiative forcing from greenhouse gases increases by over preindustrial values. In contrast to storms that appear explicitly in most global models, the frequency of downscaled tropical cyclones increases during the 21st century in most locations. The intensity of such storms, as measured by their maximum wind speeds, also increases, in agreement with previous results. Increases in tropical cyclone activity are most prominent in the western North Pacific, but are evident in other regions except for the southwestern Pacific. The increased frequency of events is consistent with increases in a genesis potential index based on monthly mean global model output. These results are compared and contrasted with other inferences concerning the effect of global warming on tropical cyclones.

  1. A case of adult moyamoya disease showing progressive angiopathy on cerebral angiography.

    PubMed

    Shirane, R; Mikawa, S; Ebina, T

    1999-09-01

    In moyamoya disease, progression of carotid occlusive lesion in an adult patient is very rare. We report a case of adult moyamoya disease with acute angiographical stage progression and hemodynamic deterioration. A 56-year-old female complaining of left motor weakness visited our department. On MRI, infarct lesion was found in the right white matter. On cerebral angiography, occlusive lesions in the bilateral internal carotid arterial siphons and moyamoya vessels were found. The right side was stage V and the left side was stage III. On IMP-SPECT, decreased cerebral hemodynamic reserve of the right cerebral hemisphere was found. In this patient, right STA-MCA anastomosis was performed. After operation, she became possible to walk and discharged to home. Five months after operation, good collateral formation and improvement of hemodynamic reserve in the right hemisphere were found. However, on left carotid arteriography, the anterior and middle cerebral arteries were only slightly imaged, and the disease state progressed to stage IV. In addition, decreased blood flow and hemodynamic reserve were appeared in the left hemisphere.

  2. An intertidal snail shows a dramatic size increase over the past century.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jonathan A D; Rhile, Erika C; Liu, Harrison; Petraitis, Peter S

    2009-03-31

    Changes in the shell architecture of marine snails enhance defenses and greatly improve survival against predators. In the northwest Atlantic Ocean, shorter and thicker shells have been reported for several species following the introduction of predatory Carcinus maenas crabs early in the 20th century. But we report that the shell lengths of Nucella lapillus actually increased by an average of 22.6% over the past century, with no evidence of shell thickening after correcting for shell length. The increases in shell length were greatest on sheltered shores, highlighting the interaction between wave exposure and the sampling period. Comparisons were based on archived shells collected in 1915-1922 from sites that were resampled in 2007. N. lapillus is an important member of North Atlantic marine ecosystems, and our results suggest that the impacts of historical changes in species' key morphological traits on marine ecosystems remain underappreciated. PMID:19307561

  3. An intertidal snail shows a dramatic size increase over the past century.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jonathan A D; Rhile, Erika C; Liu, Harrison; Petraitis, Peter S

    2009-03-31

    Changes in the shell architecture of marine snails enhance defenses and greatly improve survival against predators. In the northwest Atlantic Ocean, shorter and thicker shells have been reported for several species following the introduction of predatory Carcinus maenas crabs early in the 20th century. But we report that the shell lengths of Nucella lapillus actually increased by an average of 22.6% over the past century, with no evidence of shell thickening after correcting for shell length. The increases in shell length were greatest on sheltered shores, highlighting the interaction between wave exposure and the sampling period. Comparisons were based on archived shells collected in 1915-1922 from sites that were resampled in 2007. N. lapillus is an important member of North Atlantic marine ecosystems, and our results suggest that the impacts of historical changes in species' key morphological traits on marine ecosystems remain underappreciated.

  4. An intertidal snail shows a dramatic size increase over the past century

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jonathan A. D.; Rhile, Erika C.; Liu, Harrison; Petraitis, Peter S.

    2009-01-01

    Changes in the shell architecture of marine snails enhance defenses and greatly improve survival against predators. In the northwest Atlantic Ocean, shorter and thicker shells have been reported for several species following the introduction of predatory Carcinus maenas crabs early in the 20th century. But we report that the shell lengths of Nucella lapillus actually increased by an average of 22.6% over the past century, with no evidence of shell thickening after correcting for shell length. The increases in shell length were greatest on sheltered shores, highlighting the interaction between wave exposure and the sampling period. Comparisons were based on archived shells collected in 1915–1922 from sites that were resampled in 2007. N. lapillus is an important member of North Atlantic marine ecosystems, and our results suggest that the impacts of historical changes in species' key morphological traits on marine ecosystems remain underappreciated. PMID:19307561

  5. Intervention to increase physical activity in irritable bowel syndrome shows long-term positive effects

    PubMed Central

    Johannesson, Elisabet; Ringström, Gisela; Abrahamsson, Hasse; Sadik, Riadh

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the long-term effects of physical activity on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms and on quality of life, fatigue, depression and anxiety. METHODS: Seventy-six patients from a previous randomized controlled interventional study on increased physical activity in IBS were asked to participate in this long-term follow-up study. The included patients attended one visit in which they filled out questionnaires and they underwent a submaximal cycle ergometer test. The primary end point was the change in the IBS Severity Scoring System (IBS-SSS) at baseline, i.e., before the intervention and at follow-up. The secondary endpoints were changes in quality of life, fatigue, depression and anxiety. RESULTS: A total of 39 [32 women, median age 45 (28-61) years] patients were included in this follow-up. Median follow-up time was 5.2 (range: 3.8-6.2) years. The IBS symptoms were improved compared with baseline [IBS-SSS: 276 (169-360) vs 218 (82-328), P = 0.001]. This was also true for the majority of the dimensions of psychological symptoms such as disease specific quality of life, fatigue, depression and anxiety. The reported time of physical activity during the week before the visit had increased from 3.2 (0.0-10.0) h at baseline to 5.2 (0.0-15.0) h at follow-up, P = 0.019. The most common activities reported were walking, aerobics and cycling. There was no significant difference in the oxygen uptake 31.8 (19.7-45.8) mL per min per kg at baseline vs 34.6 (19.0-54.6) mL/min per kg at follow-up. CONCLUSION: An intervention to increase physical activity has positive long-term effects on IBS symptoms and psychological symptoms. PMID:25593485

  6. Big data integration shows Australian bush-fire frequency is increasing significantly.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Ritaban; Das, Aruneema; Aryal, Jagannath

    2016-02-01

    Increasing Australian bush-fire frequencies over the last decade has indicated a major climatic change in coming future. Understanding such climatic change for Australian bush-fire is limited and there is an urgent need of scientific research, which is capable enough to contribute to Australian society. Frequency of bush-fire carries information on spatial, temporal and climatic aspects of bush-fire events and provides contextual information to model various climate data for accurately predicting future bush-fire hot spots. In this study, we develop an ensemble method based on a two-layered machine learning model to establish relationship between fire incidence and climatic data. In a 336 week data trial, we demonstrate that the model provides highly accurate bush-fire incidence hot-spot estimation (91% global accuracy) from the weekly climatic surfaces. Our analysis also indicates that Australian weekly bush-fire frequencies increased by 40% over the last 5 years, particularly during summer months, implicating a serious climatic shift. PMID:26998312

  7. Big data integration shows Australian bush-fire frequency is increasing significantly.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Ritaban; Das, Aruneema; Aryal, Jagannath

    2016-02-01

    Increasing Australian bush-fire frequencies over the last decade has indicated a major climatic change in coming future. Understanding such climatic change for Australian bush-fire is limited and there is an urgent need of scientific research, which is capable enough to contribute to Australian society. Frequency of bush-fire carries information on spatial, temporal and climatic aspects of bush-fire events and provides contextual information to model various climate data for accurately predicting future bush-fire hot spots. In this study, we develop an ensemble method based on a two-layered machine learning model to establish relationship between fire incidence and climatic data. In a 336 week data trial, we demonstrate that the model provides highly accurate bush-fire incidence hot-spot estimation (91% global accuracy) from the weekly climatic surfaces. Our analysis also indicates that Australian weekly bush-fire frequencies increased by 40% over the last 5 years, particularly during summer months, implicating a serious climatic shift.

  8. Big data integration shows Australian bush-fire frequency is increasing significantly

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Ritaban; Das, Aruneema; Aryal, Jagannath

    2016-01-01

    Increasing Australian bush-fire frequencies over the last decade has indicated a major climatic change in coming future. Understanding such climatic change for Australian bush-fire is limited and there is an urgent need of scientific research, which is capable enough to contribute to Australian society. Frequency of bush-fire carries information on spatial, temporal and climatic aspects of bush-fire events and provides contextual information to model various climate data for accurately predicting future bush-fire hot spots. In this study, we develop an ensemble method based on a two-layered machine learning model to establish relationship between fire incidence and climatic data. In a 336 week data trial, we demonstrate that the model provides highly accurate bush-fire incidence hot-spot estimation (91% global accuracy) from the weekly climatic surfaces. Our analysis also indicates that Australian weekly bush-fire frequencies increased by 40% over the last 5 years, particularly during summer months, implicating a serious climatic shift. PMID:26998312

  9. Genes identified by visible mutant phenotypes show increased bias toward one of two subgenomes of maize.

    PubMed

    Schnable, James C; Freeling, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Not all genes are created equal. Despite being supported by sequence conservation and expression data, knockout homozygotes of many genes show no visible effects, at least under laboratory conditions. We have identified a set of maize (Zea mays L.) genes which have been the subject of a disproportionate share of publications recorded at MaizeGDB. We manually anchored these "classical" maize genes to gene models in the B73 reference genome, and identified syntenic orthologs in other grass genomes. In addition to proofing the most recent version 2 maize gene models, we show that a subset of these genes, those that were identified by morphological phenotype prior to cloning, are retained at syntenic locations throughout the grasses at much higher levels than the average expressed maize gene, and are preferentially found on the maize1 subgenome even with a duplicate copy is still retained on the opposite subgenome. Maize1 is the subgenome that experienced less gene loss following the whole genome duplication in maize lineage 5-12 million years ago and genes located on this subgenome tend to be expressed at higher levels in modern maize. Links to the web based software that supported our syntenic analyses in the grasses should empower further research and support teaching involving the history of maize genetic research. Our findings exemplify the concept of "grasses as a single genetic system," where what is learned in one grass may be applied to another.

  10. Atlantic halibut experimentally infected with nodavirus shows increased levels of T-cell marker and IFNγ transcripts.

    PubMed

    Overgård, Aina-Cathrine; Nerland, Audun Helge; Fiksdal, Ingrid Uglenes; Patel, Sonal

    2012-05-01

    The transcript levels of viral RNAs, selected T-cell marker and cytokine genes, toll like receptor (TLR) 7, and two interferon stimulated genes (ISG) were analysed in sexually immature adult Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) experimentally infected with nodavirus. The expression of the T-cell markers, TLR7 and the cytokine genes was further explored in in vitro stimulated anterior kidney leucocytes (AK leucocytes) isolated from the experiment fish and from additional untreated non-injected fish. The levels of viral RNA1 and RNA2 were increasing in brain and eye at around 4 and 8weeks post injection (wpi), respectively, and still increasing at the end of the experiment, especially in eye. Immuno-positive cells and signs of vacuolisation in both brain and eye were seen at 14wpi. Increased transcript levels of TCRβ, CD4-2, CD4, CD8α, and Lck in brain and eye of the experimentally infected halibut suggested an involvement of halibut T-cells in the immune response against nodavirus. Interestingly, a similar expression pattern of TCRβ, CD4 and Lck was seen in both brain and eye. However, compared to brain that showed elevated transcript levels of TCRβ, CD4 and Lck mainly at 10 and 14wpi, the increase appeared earlier between 3 and 4wpi in the eye. Yet, an increase in the transcript level of IFNγ was seen at 10 and 14wpi in both organs. Moreover, elevated levels of TLR7, IL-1β, IL-6, ISG15 and Mx were detected in vivo. The in vitro experiments, stimulating AK leucocytes with ConA-PMA, imiquimod or nodavirus, further supported an involvement of IL-6 and IFNγ in the immune response against nodavirus and the involvement of CD8β(+) cells. Results from the present study thus indicate an importance of T-cells, IFNγ and the analysed ISGs in the immune response against nodavirus in Atlantic halibut, and would be of great help in future vaccination trials giving the possibility to monitor the immune response rather than mortality during post

  11. Scleroderma fibroblasts show increased responsiveness to endothelial cell-derived IL-1 and bFGF.

    PubMed

    Denton, C P; Xu, S; Black, C M; Pearson, J D

    1997-03-01

    Fibroblasts cultured from lesional skin in scleroderma (systemic sclerosis) demonstrate an activated phenotype that may be important in pathogenesis. Endothelial cell-derived cytokines can modulate fibroblast properties, and endothelial cell changes occur early in scleroderma. Thus, endothelial cell and fibroblast dysfunction may be linked through the paracrine activity of soluble endothelial cell products. We have explored endothelial cell-fibroblast interactions in vitro by investigating the modulation of scleroderma and control fibroblast properties by endothelial cell-conditioned medium (EC-CM). EC-CM caused a concentration-dependent stimulation of fibroblast DNA and protein synthesis and upregulation of cell surface ICAM-1 expression. Scleroderma fibroblasts showed consistently greater responses than control cells. Medium conditioned by mechanically wounded endothelial cells had a greater effect than that from resting endothelial cells. Pre-incubation of EC-CM with anti-bFGF significantly reduced the promotion of fibroblast thymidine incorporation but did not affect endothelial cell-induced leucine incorporation. Conversely, anti-IL-1 antibodies abrogated EC-CM-induced leucine incorporation and ICAM-1 expression but did not diminish thymidine incorporation. Recombinant bFGF or IL-1 modulated fibroblast properties similarly. These data demonstrate that endothelial cell-derived IL-1 and bFGF modulate fibroblast properties independently and that lesional scleroderma strains are more responsive than control fibroblasts to endothelial cell-induced modulation, which supports the hypothesis that altered endothelial cell-fibroblast communication may be involved in the pathogenesis of scleroderma.

  12. Lingual Kinematic Strategies Used to Increase Speech Rate: Comparison between Younger and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goozee, Justine V.; Stephenson, Dayna K.; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Darnell, Ross E.; Lapointe, Leonard L.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the lingual kinematic strategies used by younger and older adults to increase rate of speech. It was hypothesised that the strategies used by the older adults would differ from the young adults either as a direct result of, or in response to a need to compensate for, age-related changes in the…

  13. California Adults Increase Fruit and Vegetable Consumption from 1997-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugerman, Sharon; Foerster, Susan B.; Gregson, Jennifer; Linares, Amanda; Hudes, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether fruit and vegetable consumption among California adults significantly increased from 1997-2007. Design: Biennial telephone surveillance surveys of California adults' dietary practices. Participants: California adults (n = 9,105 total all 6 surveys). Intervention: Surveillance data reporting. Main Outcome Measures:…

  14. Methylphenidate treatment increases Na(+), K (+)-ATPase activity in the cerebrum of young and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Emilene B S; Matté, Cristiane; Ferreira, Andréa G K; Gomes, Karin M; Comim, Clarissa M; Mattos, Cristiane; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L; Wyse, Angela T S

    2009-12-01

    Methylphenidate is a central nervous system stimulant used for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Na(+), K(+)-ATPase is a membrane-bound enzyme necessary to maintain neuronal excitability. Considering that methylphenidate effects on central nervous system metabolism are poorly known and that Na(+), K(+)-ATPase is essential to normal brain function, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of this drug on Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in the cerebrum of young and adult rats. For acute administration, a single injection of methylphenidate (1.0, 2.0, or 10.0 mg/Kg) or saline was given to rats on postnatal day 25 or postnatal day 60, in the young and adult groups, respectively. For chronic administration, methylphenidate (1.0, 2.0, or 10.0 mg/Kg) or saline injections were given to young rats starting at postnatal day 25 once daily for 28 days. In adult rats, the same regimen was performed starting at postnatal day 60. Our results showed that acute methylphenidate administration increased Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and striatum of young and adult rats. In young rats, chronic administration of methylphenidate also enhanced Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, but not in striatum. When tested in adult rats, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity was increased in all cerebral structures studied. The present findings suggest that increased Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity may be associated with neuronal excitability caused by methylphenidate.

  15. Increased Risk Taking in Relation to Chronic Stress in Adults.

    PubMed

    Ceccato, Smarandita; Kudielka, Brigitte M; Schwieren, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress is a public health problem that affects a significant part of the population. While the physiological damage it causes is under ongoing scrutiny, its behavioral effects have been overlooked. This is one of the first studies to examine the relation between chronic stress and decision-making, using a standard lottery paradigm. We measured risk taking in the gain domain through binary choices between financially incentivized lotteries. We then measured self-reported chronic stress with the Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress (TICS). We additionally collected hair samples in a subsample of volunteers, in order to quantify accumulation of the stress hormone cortisol. We discovered a significant positive, though modest, correlation between self-reported chronic stress and risk taking that is stronger for women than for men. This confirms part of the findings in acute stress research that show a connection between higher stress and increased risk taking. However, unlike the biologically-based results from acute stress research, we did not identify a significant relation between hair cortisol and behavior. In line with previous literature, we found a clear gender difference in risk taking and self-reports: women generally take less risk and report slightly higher stress levels than men. We conclude that perceived chronic stress can impact behavior in risky situations. PMID:26858663

  16. Increased Risk Taking in Relation to Chronic Stress in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ceccato, Smarandita; Kudielka, Brigitte M.; Schwieren, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress is a public health problem that affects a significant part of the population. While the physiological damage it causes is under ongoing scrutiny, its behavioral effects have been overlooked. This is one of the first studies to examine the relation between chronic stress and decision-making, using a standard lottery paradigm. We measured risk taking in the gain domain through binary choices between financially incentivized lotteries. We then measured self-reported chronic stress with the Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress (TICS). We additionally collected hair samples in a subsample of volunteers, in order to quantify accumulation of the stress hormone cortisol. We discovered a significant positive, though modest, correlation between self-reported chronic stress and risk taking that is stronger for women than for men. This confirms part of the findings in acute stress research that show a connection between higher stress and increased risk taking. However, unlike the biologically-based results from acute stress research, we did not identify a significant relation between hair cortisol and behavior. In line with previous literature, we found a clear gender difference in risk taking and self-reports: women generally take less risk and report slightly higher stress levels than men. We conclude that perceived chronic stress can impact behavior in risky situations. PMID:26858663

  17. Drinking to Distraction: Does Alcohol Increase Attentional Bias in Adults with ADHD?

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Walter; Fillmore, Mark T.; Milich, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that social drinkers continue to show attentional bias towards alcohol-related stimuli even after consuming a moderate dose of alcohol. In contrast, little is known about how alcohol acutely affects attentional bias in groups at risk to develop alcohol-related problems, such as adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Such individuals may show increased attentional bias following alcohol relative to nonclinical controls. The present study tested this hypothesis by examining acute alcohol effects on attentional bias in 20 social drinkers with ADHD and 20 social drinkers with no history of ADHD. Participants performed a visual-probe task after receiving the following doses of alcohol: 0.64 g/kg, 0.32 g/kg, and 0.0 g/kg (placebo). Those in the ADHD group showed increased attentional bias under active alcohol doses, whereas attentional bias was similar across doses in the control group. Attentional bias predicted ad libitum alcohol consumption during a taste-rating session. This relation was observed only in the ADHD group. These findings indicate that an acute alcohol dose increases attentional bias in adults with ADHD. Further, attentional bias appears to be a predictor of ad libitum consumption in this group. PMID:22121850

  18. Drinking to distraction: does alcohol increase attentional bias in adults with ADHD?

    PubMed

    Roberts, Walter; Fillmore, Mark T; Milich, Richard

    2012-04-01

    Previous research has shown that social drinkers continue to show attentional bias toward alcohol-related stimuli even after consuming a moderate dose of alcohol. In contrast, little is known about how alcohol acutely affects attentional bias in groups at risk to develop alcohol-related problems, such as adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Such individuals may show increased attentional bias following alcohol relative to nonclinical controls. The present study tested this hypothesis by examining acute alcohol effects on attentional bias in 20 social drinkers with ADHD and 20 social drinkers with no history of ADHD. Participants performed a visual-probe task after receiving the following doses of alcohol: 0.64 g/kg, 0.32 g/kg, and 0.0 g/kg (placebo). Those in the ADHD group showed increased attentional bias under active alcohol doses, whereas attentional bias was similar across doses in the control group. Attentional bias predicted ad libitum alcohol consumption during a taste-rating session. This relation was observed only in the ADHD group. These findings indicate that an acute alcohol dose increases attentional bias in adults with ADHD. Further, attentional bias appears to be a predictor of ad libitum consumption in this group.

  19. Increasing body size among adult cook islanders between 1966 and 1996.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, S J

    2001-01-01

    There is limited evidence of a secular trend toward increased body size among populations in the Pacific Region, although some populations have shown a clear rise in overweight and obesity across the past 30 years or so. Mean height, weight and body mass index (BMI) of adults surveyed in 1996 on Rarotonga, the Cook Islands, are reported by age group and compared with data collected in 1966 by Evans and Prior, to determine the extent to which a secular trend in increasing body size has taken place across this 30-year period. In addition, a comparison of these anthropometric variables between subjects born on the most modernized island of Rarotonga with those born on other less-modernized islands is made, to determine the extent to which adult body size differs according to place of origin. Comparing the sample of those born on Rarotonga, the most modernized island, with those born on other, less modernized islands shows those born on Rarotonga to be taller, but not relatively heavier than those born elsewhere in the Cook Islands. Both males and females of the 1996 sample of adults are significantly taller, heavier, with higher BMI compared with the 1966 sample, indicating a secular trend toward increased body size across this 30-year period. The mean BMIs of the younger age groups in 1996 are greater than those of the same age groups in 1966, indicating a secular trend toward greater body fatness. There has been a significant increase in obesity among both males and females. In 1966, 14% of males had a BMI greater than 30, while in 1996, the proportion was 52%. Among females, 44% of those measured in 1966 had a BMI greater than 30, while in 1996 the proportion was 57%. The higher mean stature of younger adult males relative to older ones suggests that the secular trend toward increasing height may have been underway prior to 1966. The mean statures and weights of adults aged 60 years and older in the 1996 sample are more similar to values given for most age groups

  20. Not all water mazes are created equal: cyclin D2 knockout mice with constitutively suppressed adult hippocampal neurogenesis do show specific spatial learning deficits.

    PubMed

    Garthe, A; Huang, Z; Kaczmarek, L; Filipkowski, R K; Kempermann, G

    2014-04-01

    Studies using the Morris water maze to assess hippocampal function in animals, in which adult hippocampal neurogenesis had been suppressed, have yielded seemingly contradictory results. Cyclin D2 knockout (Ccnd2(-/-)) mice, for example, have constitutively suppressed adult hippocampal neurogenesis but had no overt phenotype in the water maze. In other paradigms, however, ablation of adult neurogenesis was associated with specific deficits in the water maze. Therefore, we hypothesized that the neurogenesis-related phenotype might also become detectable in Ccnd2(-/-) mice, if we used the exact setup and protocol that in our previous study had revealed deficits in mice with suppressed adult neurogenesis. Ccnd2(-/-) mice indeed learned the task and developed a normal preference for the goal quadrant, but were significantly less precise for the exact goal position and were slower in acquiring efficient and spatially more precise search strategies. Upon goal reversal (when the hidden platform was moved to a new position) Ccnd2(-/-) mice showed increased perseverance at the former platform location, implying that they were less flexible in updating the previously learned information. Both with respect to adult neurogenesis and behavioral performance, Ccnd2(+/-) mice ranged between wild types and knockouts. Importantly, hippocampus-dependent learning was not generally impaired by the mutation, but specifically functional aspects relying on precise and flexible encoding were affected. Whether ablation of adult neurogenesis causes a specific behavioral phenotype thus also depends on the actual task demands. The test parameters appear to be important variables influencing whether a task can pick up a contribution of adult neurogenesis to test performance.

  1. Communal nesting increases pup growth but has limited effects on adult behavior and neurophysiology in inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Heiderstadt, Kathleen M; Vandenbergh, David J; Gyekis, Joseph P; Blizard, David A

    2014-03-01

    Laboratory mice preferentially rear their offspring in communal nests (CN), with all mothers contributing to maternal care and feeding of all the pups. Previous studies using primarily outbred mice have shown that offspring reared under CN conditions may display increased preweaning growth rates and differences in adult behavior and neurobiology compared with mice reared under single-nesting (SN; one dam with her litter) conditions. Here we compared pup mortality; weaning and adult body weights; adult behavior; and gene expression in the hippocampus and frontal cortex between C57BL/6J, DBA/2J and 129x1/SvJ mice reared by using CN (3 dams and their litters sharing a single nest) or SN. Male and female pups of all 3 strains reared in CN cages showed higher body weight at weaning than did SN pups of the same strain, with no significant difference in pup mortality between groups. Adult male offspring reared in CN showed no differences in any behavioral test when compared with SN offspring. Combining CN dams and litters after parturition revealed greater cortical brain-derived neurotropic factor expression in adult male C57BL/6J offspring and cortical glucocorticoid receptor expression in adult male C57BL/6J and 129x1/SvJ offspring as compared with SN offspring of the same strain. Communal rearing can enhance juvenile growth rates but does not change adult behavior in inbred mouse strains, although potential effects on adult neurophysiology are possible.

  2. Juvenile Galápagos Pelicans Increase Their Foraging Success by Copying Adult Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Brumm, Henrik; Teschke, Irmgard

    2012-01-01

    Social learning is the building block of culture and traditions in humans and nonhuman animals, and its study has a long history. Most investigations have addressed either the causation or the function of social learning. Though much is known about the underlying mechanisms of social learning, demonstrations of its adaptive value in a natural setting are lacking. Here we show that juvenile brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis) can increase their foraging efficiency by copying adult diving behaviour, suggesting that social learning helps juveniles to find profitable food patches. Our findings demonstrate the potential fitness consequences of behavioural copying and thus highlight the possible adaptive importance of social learning. PMID:23251646

  3. Juvenile ethanol exposure increases rewarding properties of cocaine and morphine in adult DBA/2J mice.

    PubMed

    Molet, Jenny; Hervé, Denis; Thiébot, Marie-Hélène; Hamon, Michel; Lanfumey, Laurence

    2013-12-01

    Convergent data showed that ethanol exposure during adolescence can alter durably ethanol-related behaviour at adulthood. However, the consequences of juvenile ethanol exposure on the reinforcing effects of other drugs of abuse remain unclear. In the present work, we evaluated in adult male DBA/2J mice the effects of early ethanol exposure on the sensitivity to the incentive effects of cocaine and morphine, and on extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation in response to cocaine. Juvenile male mice received intragastric administration of ethanol (2×2.5g/kg/day) or water for 5 days starting on postnatal day 28. When reaching adult age (10 week-old), animals were subjected to an unbiased procedure to assess conditioned place preference (CPP) to cocaine or morphine. In addition, activation of ERK in response to an acute injection of cocaine was investigated using immunoblotting in the striatum and the nucleus accumbens. Mice that have been subjected to early ethanol exposure developed CPP to doses of cocaine (5mg/kg) or morphine (10mg/kg) below the threshold doses to induce CPP in water pre-exposed mice. In addition, early ethanol administration significantly increased striatal ERK phosphorylation normally induced by acute cocaine (10 and 20mg/kg) in adult mice. These results show that, in DBA/2J mice, early exposure to ethanol enhanced the perception of the incentive effects of cocaine and morphine. Ethanol pre-exposure also induced a positive modulation of striatal ERK signalling, in line with the inference that juvenile ethanol intake may contribute to the development of addictive behaviour at adult age. PMID:23619165

  4. Chronic prenatal ethanol exposure increases disinhibition and perseverative responding in the adult guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Olmstead, Mary C; Martin, Amanda; Brien, James F; Reynolds, James N

    2009-09-01

    Cognitive and behavioural deficits, including increased impulsivity and perseveration, are associated with chronic prenatal ethanol exposure (CPEE) in humans. We tested whether these same deficits occur in the guinea pig after CPEE treatment. Pregnant guinea pigs received oral administration of ethanol (4 g/kg maternal body weight/day), or isocaloric-sucrose/pair-feeding throughout gestation. Young adult offspring were trained in lever-pressing paradigms to work for a sucrose-pellet food reward. CPEE increased No-Go, but not Go, responses in the Go/No-Go paradigm, indicative of a disinhibition deficit in these animals. Perseverative responses in the Cued Alternation task were also increased in CPEE offspring. These data show that CPEE induces behavioural deficits in the guinea pig that are remarkably similar to the executive function deficits that follow prenatal ethanol exposure in humans.

  5. Increasing Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis is Sufficient to Reduce Anxiety and Depression-Like Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hill, Alexis S; Sahay, Amar; Hen, René

    2015-09-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is increased by antidepressants, and is required for some of their behavioral effects. However, it remains unclear whether expanding the population of adult-born neurons is sufficient to affect anxiety and depression-related behavior. Here, we use an inducible transgenic mouse model in which the pro-apoptotic gene Bax is deleted from neural stem cells and their progeny in the adult brain, and thereby increases adult neurogenesis. We find no effects on baseline anxiety and depression-related behavior; however, we find that increasing adult neurogenesis is sufficient to reduce anxiety and depression-related behaviors in mice treated chronically with corticosterone (CORT), a mouse model of stress. Thus, neurogenesis differentially affects behavior under baseline conditions and in a model of chronic stress. Moreover, we find no effect of increased adult hippocampal neurogenesis on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation, either at baseline or following chronic CORT administration, suggesting that increasing adult hippocampal neurogenesis can affect anxiety and depression-related behavior through a mechanism independent of the HPA axis. The use of future techniques to specifically inhibit BAX in the hippocampus could be used to augment adult neurogenesis, and may therefore represent a novel strategy to promote antidepressant-like behavioral effects.

  6. Increasing Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis is Sufficient to Reduce Anxiety and Depression-Like Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hill, Alexis S; Sahay, Amar; Hen, René

    2015-09-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is increased by antidepressants, and is required for some of their behavioral effects. However, it remains unclear whether expanding the population of adult-born neurons is sufficient to affect anxiety and depression-related behavior. Here, we use an inducible transgenic mouse model in which the pro-apoptotic gene Bax is deleted from neural stem cells and their progeny in the adult brain, and thereby increases adult neurogenesis. We find no effects on baseline anxiety and depression-related behavior; however, we find that increasing adult neurogenesis is sufficient to reduce anxiety and depression-related behaviors in mice treated chronically with corticosterone (CORT), a mouse model of stress. Thus, neurogenesis differentially affects behavior under baseline conditions and in a model of chronic stress. Moreover, we find no effect of increased adult hippocampal neurogenesis on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation, either at baseline or following chronic CORT administration, suggesting that increasing adult hippocampal neurogenesis can affect anxiety and depression-related behavior through a mechanism independent of the HPA axis. The use of future techniques to specifically inhibit BAX in the hippocampus could be used to augment adult neurogenesis, and may therefore represent a novel strategy to promote antidepressant-like behavioral effects. PMID:25833129

  7. Tooth hardness increases with zinc-content in mandibles of young adult leaf-cutter ants.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Robert M S; Nesson, Michael H; Richardson, Kathleen A

    2002-12-01

    A wide variety of arthropods and members of other phyla have elevated concentrations of Zn, Mn, other heavy metals and halogens in their jaws, leg claws, and other "tools" for interacting with the environment. While measured Zn concentrations reach 25% of dry mass in scorpion stings, concentrations are often lower than this and the enriched structures are not heavily biomineralized like vertebrate teeth and the radula of mollusks. For this reason, the degree to which the inorganic components of these structures modify their mechanical properties is in question. Here we address this problem by measuring hardness during the development of Zn accumulations in ant mandibles. We found that Zn is incorporated into the mandibular teeth of leaf-cutter ants during early adult life, reaching concentrations of about 16% of dry mass. We show that the hardness of the mandibular teeth increases nearly three-fold as the adults age and that hardness correlates with Zn content ( r=0.91). We suggest that young adults rarely cut leaves partly because their mandibles are not yet rich in Zn. Zinc enrichment (along with enrichment by other heavy metals and halogens) may play an unrecognized role in the behavioral ecology and evolution of a wide variety of invertebrates.

  8. Tooth hardness increases with zinc-content in mandibles of young adult leaf-cutter ants.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Robert M S; Nesson, Michael H; Richardson, Kathleen A

    2002-12-01

    A wide variety of arthropods and members of other phyla have elevated concentrations of Zn, Mn, other heavy metals and halogens in their jaws, leg claws, and other "tools" for interacting with the environment. While measured Zn concentrations reach 25% of dry mass in scorpion stings, concentrations are often lower than this and the enriched structures are not heavily biomineralized like vertebrate teeth and the radula of mollusks. For this reason, the degree to which the inorganic components of these structures modify their mechanical properties is in question. Here we address this problem by measuring hardness during the development of Zn accumulations in ant mandibles. We found that Zn is incorporated into the mandibular teeth of leaf-cutter ants during early adult life, reaching concentrations of about 16% of dry mass. We show that the hardness of the mandibular teeth increases nearly three-fold as the adults age and that hardness correlates with Zn content ( r=0.91). We suggest that young adults rarely cut leaves partly because their mandibles are not yet rich in Zn. Zinc enrichment (along with enrichment by other heavy metals and halogens) may play an unrecognized role in the behavioral ecology and evolution of a wide variety of invertebrates. PMID:12536282

  9. Safety margins in older adults increase with improved control of a dynamic object.

    PubMed

    Hasson, Christopher J; Sternad, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    Older adults face decreasing motor capabilities due to pervasive neuromuscular degradations. As a consequence, errors in movement control increase. Thus, older individuals should maintain larger safety margins than younger adults. While this has been shown for object manipulation tasks, several reports on whole-body activities, such as posture and locomotion, demonstrate age-related reductions in safety margins. This is despite increased costs for control errors, such as a fall. We posit that this paradox could be explained by the dynamic challenge presented by the body or also an external object, and that age-related reductions in safety margins are in part due to a decreased ability to control dynamics. To test this conjecture we used a virtual ball-in-cup task that had challenging dynamics, yet afforded an explicit rendering of the physics and safety margin. The hypotheses were: (1) When manipulating an object with challenging dynamics, older adults have smaller safety margins than younger adults. (2) Older adults increase their safety margins with practice. Nine young and 10 healthy older adults practiced moving the virtual ball-in-cup to a target location in exactly 2 s. The accuracy and precision of the timing error quantified skill, and the ball energy relative to an escape threshold quantified the safety margin. Compared to the young adults, older adults had increased timing errors, greater variability, and decreased safety margins. With practice, both young and older adults improved their ability to control the object with decreased timing errors and variability, and increased their safety margins. These results suggest that safety margins are related to the ability to control dynamics, and may explain why in tasks with simple dynamics older adults use adequate safety margins, but in more complex tasks, safety margins may be inadequate. Further, the results indicate that task-specific training may improve safety margins in older adults.

  10. Safety margins in older adults increase with improved control of a dynamic object

    PubMed Central

    Hasson, Christopher J.; Sternad, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    Older adults face decreasing motor capabilities due to pervasive neuromuscular degradations. As a consequence, errors in movement control increase. Thus, older individuals should maintain larger safety margins than younger adults. While this has been shown for object manipulation tasks, several reports on whole-body activities, such as posture and locomotion, demonstrate age-related reductions in safety margins. This is despite increased costs for control errors, such as a fall. We posit that this paradox could be explained by the dynamic challenge presented by the body or also an external object, and that age-related reductions in safety margins are in part due to a decreased ability to control dynamics. To test this conjecture we used a virtual ball-in-cup task that had challenging dynamics, yet afforded an explicit rendering of the physics and safety margin. The hypotheses were: (1) When manipulating an object with challenging dynamics, older adults have smaller safety margins than younger adults. (2) Older adults increase their safety margins with practice. Nine young and 10 healthy older adults practiced moving the virtual ball-in-cup to a target location in exactly 2 s. The accuracy and precision of the timing error quantified skill, and the ball energy relative to an escape threshold quantified the safety margin. Compared to the young adults, older adults had increased timing errors, greater variability, and decreased safety margins. With practice, both young and older adults improved their ability to control the object with decreased timing errors and variability, and increased their safety margins. These results suggest that safety margins are related to the ability to control dynamics, and may explain why in tasks with simple dynamics older adults use adequate safety margins, but in more complex tasks, safety margins may be inadequate. Further, the results indicate that task-specific training may improve safety margins in older adults. PMID:25071566

  11. Community-based exergaming program increases physical activity and perceived wellness in older adults.

    PubMed

    Strand, Kara A; Francis, Sarah L; Margrett, Jennifer A; Franke, Warren D; Peterson, Marc J

    2014-07-01

    Exergaming may be an effective strategy to increase physical activity participation among rural older adults. This pilot project examined the effects of a 24-wk exergaming and wellness program (8 wk onsite exergaming, 16-wk wellness newsletter intervention) on physical activity participation and subjective health in 46 rural older adults. Sociodemographic data and self-reported physical activity were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Cochran's Q, respectively. Qualitative data were reviewed, categorized on the basis of theme, and tabulated for frequency. Increased physical activity and perceived health were the most reported perceived positive changes. Significant increases in physical activity participation were maintained among participants who were physically inactive at baseline. Best-liked features were physical activity and socialization. Findings suggest that this pilot exergaming and wellness program is effective in increasing physical activity in sedentary rural older adults, increasing socialization, and increasing subjective physical health among rural older adults.

  12. The ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord differs from other species and shows ependymoma-like features.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel; Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Florensa-Vila, José; Ferrer, Isidro; Grassner, Lukas; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo

    2015-06-01

    Several laboratories have described the existence of undifferentiated precursor cells that may act like stem cells in the ependyma of the rodent spinal cord. However, there are reports showing that this region is occluded and disassembled in humans after the second decade of life, although this has been largely ignored or interpreted as a post-mortem artefact. To gain insight into the patency, actual structure, and molecular properties of the adult human spinal cord ependymal region, we followed three approaches: (i) with MRI, we estimated the central canal patency in 59 control subjects, 99 patients with traumatic spinal cord injury, and 26 patients with non-traumatic spinal cord injuries. We observed that the central canal is absent from the vast majority of individuals beyond the age of 18 years, gender-independently, throughout the entire length of the spinal cord, both in healthy controls and after injury; (ii) with histology and immunohistochemistry, we describe morphological properties of the non-lesioned ependymal region, which showed the presence of perivascular pseudorosettes, a common feature of ependymoma; and (iii) with laser capture microdissection, followed by TaqMan® low density arrays, we studied the gene expression profile of the ependymal region and found that it is mainly enriched in genes compatible with a low grade or quiescent ependymoma (53 genes); this region is enriched only in 14 genes related to neurogenic niches. In summary, we demonstrate here that the central canal is mainly absent in the adult human spinal cord and is replaced by a structure morphologically and molecularly different from that described for rodents and other primates. The presented data suggest that the ependymal region is more likely to be reminiscent of a low-grade ependymoma. Therefore, a direct translation to adult human patients of an eventual therapeutic potential of this region based on animal models should be approached with caution. PMID:25882650

  13. The ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord differs from other species and shows ependymoma-like features.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel; Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Florensa-Vila, José; Ferrer, Isidro; Grassner, Lukas; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo

    2015-06-01

    Several laboratories have described the existence of undifferentiated precursor cells that may act like stem cells in the ependyma of the rodent spinal cord. However, there are reports showing that this region is occluded and disassembled in humans after the second decade of life, although this has been largely ignored or interpreted as a post-mortem artefact. To gain insight into the patency, actual structure, and molecular properties of the adult human spinal cord ependymal region, we followed three approaches: (i) with MRI, we estimated the central canal patency in 59 control subjects, 99 patients with traumatic spinal cord injury, and 26 patients with non-traumatic spinal cord injuries. We observed that the central canal is absent from the vast majority of individuals beyond the age of 18 years, gender-independently, throughout the entire length of the spinal cord, both in healthy controls and after injury; (ii) with histology and immunohistochemistry, we describe morphological properties of the non-lesioned ependymal region, which showed the presence of perivascular pseudorosettes, a common feature of ependymoma; and (iii) with laser capture microdissection, followed by TaqMan® low density arrays, we studied the gene expression profile of the ependymal region and found that it is mainly enriched in genes compatible with a low grade or quiescent ependymoma (53 genes); this region is enriched only in 14 genes related to neurogenic niches. In summary, we demonstrate here that the central canal is mainly absent in the adult human spinal cord and is replaced by a structure morphologically and molecularly different from that described for rodents and other primates. The presented data suggest that the ependymal region is more likely to be reminiscent of a low-grade ependymoma. Therefore, a direct translation to adult human patients of an eventual therapeutic potential of this region based on animal models should be approached with caution.

  14. Using the Natural Language Paradigm (NLP) to Increase Vocalizations of Older Adults with Cognitive Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Linda A.; Geiger, Kaneen B.; Sautter, Rachael A.; Sidener, Tina M.

    2007-01-01

    The Natural Language Paradigm (NLP) has proven effective in increasing spontaneous verbalizations for children with autism. This study investigated the use of NLP with older adults with cognitive impairments served at a leisure-based adult day program for seniors. Three individuals with limited spontaneous use of functional language participated…

  15. Effects of Increased Mobility Skills on Meaningful Life Participation for an Adult with Severe Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whinnery, Stacie B.; Whinnery, Keith W.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a case study of an adult with severe, multiple disabilities and discusses issues affecting meaningful life participation. Emphasis is placed on the role of functional mobility skills to increase active engagement in age-appropriate activities and opportunities to make informed choices. MOVE for Adults (Mobility Opportunities…

  16. Different collagen types show distinct rates of increase from early to late stages of hepatitis C-related liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Rock, Jonathan B; Yearsley, Martha M; Ferrell, Linda D; Frankel, Wendy L

    2014-01-01

    During progression from normal liver to cirrhosis, total collagen increases nearly 10-fold with an abnormal increase in fibril-forming collagen and other extracellular matrix molecules. However, little is known regarding the changes each collagen type undergoes during fibrogenesis. We assessed the different collagen types by immunohistochemistry at various stages of hepatitis C-related liver fibrosis in core biopsies and compared changes in each with trichrome stain to better understand fibrogenesis. The possible utility in staging fibrosis was investigated. We found collagens III, IV, V, VI, vitronectin, and trichrome all showed statistically significant increases from early to late stages of fibrosis, but with temporal and quantitative differences. During the transition from early to late fibrosis, trichrome (stains primarily collagen I) and collagen IV showed the steepest increase and appear to be the most useful discriminators between early and late stages of fibrosis. Collagens V and VI have strong reactivity even in stage 1, which may be helpful in identifying early fibrosis when trichrome is weak or negative. Collagen III and vitronectin showed the most gradual increase. Interestingly, collagen V also showed increased staining in areas around inflammation/edema, which may overestimate established fibrosis as compared with trichrome.

  17. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 adapted to 2-phenoxyethanol shows cross-resistance to dissimilar biocides and increased susceptibility to antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Abdel Malek, S M A; Badran, Y R

    2010-11-01

    The growth adaptability to increasing concentration of the biocide 2-phenoxyethanol (PE) was determined in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 (P.a.) as part of efforts to understand and control the biocide tolerance and its effect on cross-resistance to other biocides and resistance to antibiotics. After repeated subculturing in media containing increasing sub-minimum-inhibitory PE concentration, P.a. exhibited an adaptive resistance indicated by two-fold increase in MIC at the 10th passage. The resistance was stable and remained after passaging the strain in further 7 successive passages in PE-free growth media. The strain showed cross-resistance towards dissimilar biocides and displayed increased susceptibility to antibiotics, which was not influenced by the presence of the efflux inhibitor 'carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone'. Outer membranes of adapted strain showed altered protein profile when examined by SDS-PAGE.

  18. A low α-linolenic intake during early life increases adiposity in the adult guinea pig

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The composition of dietary fatty acids (FA) during early life may impact adult adipose tissue (AT) development. We investigated the effects of α-linolenic acid (ALA) intake during the suckling/weaning period on AT development and metabolic markers in the guinea pig (GP). Methods Newborn GP were fed a 27%-fat diet (w/w %) with high (10%-ALA group), moderate (2.4%-ALA group) or low (0.8%-ALA group) ALA content (w/w % as total FA) until they were 21 days old (d21). Then all animals were switched to a 15%-fat diet containing 2% ALA (as total FA) until 136 days of age (d136). Results ALA and docosapentaenoic acid measured in plasma triglycerides (TG) at d21 decreased with decreasing ALA intake. Total body fat mass was not different between groups at d21. Adipose tissue TG synthesis rates and proliferation rate of total adipose cells, as assessed by 2H2O labelling, were unchanged between groups at d21, while hepatic de novo lipogenesis was significantly 2-fold increased in the 0.8%-ALA group. In older GP, the 0.8%-ALA group showed a significant 15-%-increased total fat mass (d79 and d107, p < 0.01) and epididymal AT weight (d136) and tended to show higher insulinemia compared to the 10%-ALA group. In addition, proliferation rate of cells in the subcutaneous AT was higher in the 0.8%-ALA (15.2 ± 1.3% new cells/5d) than in the 10%-ALA group (8.6 ± 1.7% new cells/5d, p = 0.021) at d136. AT eicosanoid profiles were not associated with the increase of AT cell proliferation. Conclusion A low ALA intake during early postnatal life promotes an increased adiposity in the adult GP. PMID:20205840

  19. Electromyographically assessed empathic concern and empathic happiness predict increased prosocial behavior in adults.

    PubMed

    Light, Sharee N; Moran, Zachary D; Swander, Lena; Le, Van; Cage, Brandi; Burghy, Cory; Westbrook, Cecilia; Greishar, Larry; Davidson, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    The relation between empathy subtypes and prosocial behavior was investigated in a sample of healthy adults. "Empathic concern" and "empathic happiness", defined as negative and positive vicarious emotion (respectively) combined with an other-oriented feeling of "goodwill" (i.e. a thought to do good to others/see others happy), were elicited in 68 adult participants who watched video clips extracted from the television show Extreme Makeover: Home Edition. Prosocial behavior was quantified via performance on a non-monetary altruistic decision-making task involving book selection and donation. Empathic concern and empathic happiness were measured via self-report (immediately following each video clip) and via facial electromyography recorded from corrugator (active during frowning) and zygomatic (active during smiling) facial regions. Facial electromyographic signs of (a) empathic concern (i.e. frowning) during sad video clips, and (b) empathic happiness (i.e. smiling) during happy video clips, predicted increased prosocial behavior in the form of increased goodwill-themed book selection/donation.

  20. Learning new color names produces rapid increase in gray matter in the intact adult human cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Veronica; Niu, Zhendong; Kay, Paul; Zhou, Ke; Mo, Lei; Jin, Zhen; So, Kwok-Fai; Tan, Li Hai

    2011-01-01

    The human brain has been shown to exhibit changes in the volume and density of gray matter as a result of training over periods of several weeks or longer. We show that these changes can be induced much faster by using a training method that is claimed to simulate the rapid learning of word meanings by children. Using whole-brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) we show that learning newly defined and named subcategories of the universal categories green and blue in a period of 2 h increases the volume of gray matter in V2/3 of the left visual cortex, a region known to mediate color vision. This pattern of findings demonstrates that the anatomical structure of the adult human brain can change very quickly, specifically during the acquisition of new, named categories. Also, prior behavioral and neuroimaging research has shown that differences between languages in the boundaries of named color categories influence the categorical perception of color, as assessed by judgments of relative similarity, by response time in alternative forced-choice tasks, and by visual search. Moreover, further behavioral studies (visual search) and brain imaging studies have suggested strongly that the categorical effect of language on color processing is left-lateralized, i.e., mediated by activity in the left cerebral hemisphere in adults (hence “lateralized Whorfian” effects). The present results appear to provide a structural basis in the brain for the behavioral and neurophysiologically observed indices of these Whorfian effects on color processing. PMID:21464316

  1. Eliminating Medicaid adult dental coverage in California led to increased dental emergency visits and associated costs.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Astha; Caplan, Daniel J; Jones, Michael P; Momany, Elizabeth T; Kuthy, Raymond A; Buresh, Christopher T; Isman, Robert; Damiano, Peter C

    2015-05-01

    Dental coverage for adults is an elective benefit under Medicaid. As a result of budget constraints, California Medicaid eliminated its comprehensive adult dental coverage in July 2009. We examined the impact of this policy change on emergency department (ED) visits by Medicaid-enrolled adults for dental problems in the period 2006-11. We found that the policy change led to a significant and immediate increase in dental ED use, amounting to more than 1,800 additional dental ED visits per year. Young adults, members of racial/ethnic minority groups, and urban residents were disproportionately affected by the policy change. Average yearly costs associated with dental ED visits increased by 68 percent. The California experience provides evidence that eliminating Medicaid adult dental benefits shifts dental care to costly EDs that do not provide definitive dental care. The population affected by the Medicaid adult dental coverage policy is increasing as many states expand their Medicaid programs under the ACA. Hence, such evidence is critical to inform decisions regarding adult dental coverage for existing Medicaid enrollees and expansion populations. PMID:25941275

  2. Obesity in older adults is associated with an increased prevalence and incidence of pain.

    PubMed

    Heim, Noor; Snijder, Marieke B; Deeg, Dorly J H; Seidell, Jaap C; Visser, Marjolein

    2008-11-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest an association between BMI and pain. This prospective study investigated the associations of measured BMI and waist circumference with prevalent and incident pain in older adults. The study included participants of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam, aged 55-85 years at baseline (1992-1993). Pain was assessed using a subscale of the Nottingham Health Profile at baseline (N = 2,000), after 3 years (N = 1,478) and 6 years (N = 1,271) of follow-up. The overall prevalence of pain was 32.7% at baseline and increased significantly with higher quartiles of BMI or waist circumference. After adjustment for age, education, depression, smoking, physical activity, and chronic diseases, multiple logistic regression analyses showed odds ratios (ORs (95% confidence interval)) for prevalent pain of 2.16 (1.32-3.54) in men and 1.93 (1.26-2.95) in women comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of BMI. Of the participants without pain at baseline, those in the highest quartile of BMI had a twofold increased odds for incident pain after 3 years of follow-up. After 6 years of follow-up, ORs for incident pain were 2.34 (1.17-4.72) in men and 2.78 (1.36-5.70) in women. Additional adjustment for weight change did not change these associations. Similar results were found for the associations between waist circumference and pain. Exploring the reversed causal relation, analyses showed no significant associations between prevalent pain and weight gain. In conclusion, the prevalence of pain is higher among obese older men and women compared to their normal-weight peers. Furthermore, obese older adults are at increased odds to develop pain. PMID:18787527

  3. A 32-kDa tyrosine-phosphorylated protein shows a protease-dependent increase in dead boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Tomohito; Shidara, Osamu; Harayama, Hiroshi

    2008-12-01

    Boar sperm TyrP32 is a 32-kDa tyrosine-phosphorylated protein that increases during the capacitation and acrosome reaction and during cryocapacitation. However, it is still unclear whether the increase in TyrP32 is an event that is limited to the process of sperm fertilization, including cryocapacitation. The aims of the present study were to demonstrate that TyrP32 is increased in dead spermatozoa after freeze-thawing without a cryoprotectant and to find the causal factors for this increase. Washed spermatozoa were resuspended in a salt solution and then frozen. The frozen samples were rapidly thawed in a warm water bath and then used for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE)/Western blotting to detect TyrP32, SDS-PAGE/silver staining of sperm proteins and staining of acrosomal contents with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated peanut agglutinin (PNA). In the samples before freezing, TyrP32 was barely detectable, and the distribution of the acrosomal contents was normal in most spermatozoa. One cycle of freeze-thawing induced an increase in TyrP32, a decrease in major sperm proteins and disorder in the acrosomal contents. However, the addition of a protease inhibitor (APMSF, 1 mM) suppressed the increase in TyrP32 and the decrease in the major sperm proteins, although it did not have any influence on the disorder in the acrosomal contents. Additionally, the spermatozoa did not exhibit any flagellar movement after freeze-thawing, which showed that almost all of them were dead. These results indicate that TyrP32 can show a protease-dependent increase in dead spermatozoa after freeze-thawing without a cryoprotectant even though the dead spermatozoa do not undergo cryocapacitation. PMID:18787309

  4. Serotonin axons of the neostriatum show a higher affinity for striatal than for ventral mesencephalic transplants: a quantitative study in adult and immature recipient rats.

    PubMed

    Pierret, P; Vallée, A; Bosler, O; Dorais, M; Moukhles, H; Abbaszadeh, R; Lepage, Y; Doucet, G

    1998-07-01

    We previously showed that grafts of fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue are practically not innervated by host serotonin (5-HT) axons after implantation into the striatum of rats aged more than 14 days, at variance with transplants of cortical or striatal tissue into the adult striatum, which are well innervated by these axons. Using 5-HT immunohistochemistry and in vitro [3H]5-HT uptake/autoradiography, we have examined and quantified the innervation of ventral mesencephalic versus striatal grafts several months after implantation into the striatum of neonatal (postnatal day 5 or P5), juvenile (P15), and adult rats. Ventral mesencephalic grafts implanted in P5 rats received a moderate 5-HT innervation, while similar grafts implanted in P15 or adult recipients were almost free of any 5-HT fibers (-80%, compared to P5). The density of 5-HT innervation showed a tendency toward higher values in striatal than in ventral mesencephalic grafts (1.6-2 times higher in P5 and adult recipients; 4 times higher in P15 recipients). The difference was more striking, and significant, when only the true striatal portions of the striatal grafts were considered, i.e., DARPP-32-immunopositive areas (4-5 times higher in P5 and adult recipients; 10 times higher in P15 recipients). Accordingly, these DARPP-32-positive areas were also more densely innervated than the DARPP-32-negative zones of the same grafts (3 times higher at any age). The 5-HT innervation density also decreased with increasing age of the recipients in DARPP-32-positive, as well as DARPP-32-negative compartments of the striatal grafts (-75% in adults), but this decrease appeared more gradual (-50% in juveniles) than with mesencephalic grafts. It is concluded that the 5-HT axons innervating the neostriatum have a better affinity for striatal grafts than for ventral mesencephalic grafts or the nonstriatal portions of striatal grafts. In adulthood, the relative affinity of these axons for the different types of grafts is

  5. Neonatal glucocorticoid treatment increased depression-like behaviour in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ko, Meng-Chang; Hung, Yu-Hui; Ho, Pei-Yin; Yang, Yi-Ling; Lu, Kwok-Tung

    2014-12-01

    Synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX) is frequently used as a therapeutic agent to lessen the morbidity of chronic lung disease in premature infants. Previous studies suggested that neonatal DEX treatment altered brain development and cognitive function. It has been recognized that the amygdala is involved in emotional processes and also a critical site of neuronal plasticity for fear conditioning. Little is known about the possible long-term adverse effect of neonatal DEX treatment on amygdala function. The present study was aimed to evaluate the possible effect of neonatal DEX treatment on the synaptic function of amygdala in adult rats. Newborn Wistar rats were subjected to subcutaneous tapering-dose injections of DEX (0.5, 0.3 and 0.1 mg/kg) from post-natal day one to three, PN1-PN3. Animals were then subjected to a forced swimming test (FST) and electrophysiological recording aged eight weeks. The results of the FST showed neonatal DEX treatment increased depression-like behaviour in adulthood. After acute stress evoking, the percentage of time spent free floating is significantly increased in the DEX treated group compared with the control animals. Furthermore, neonatal DEX treatment elevated long-term potentiation (LTP) response and the phosphorylation level of MAPK in the lateral nucleus of amygdala (LA). Intracerebroventricular infusion of the MAPK inhibitor, PD98059, showed significant rescue effects including reduced depression-like behaviour and restoration of LTP to within normal range. In conclusion, our results suggested that MAPK signalling cascade in the LA plays an important role in the adverse effect of neonatal DEX treatment on amygdala function, which may result in adverse consequences in adult age, such as the enhancement of susceptibility for a depressive disorder in later life. PMID:24945924

  6. Sertoli cell dedifferentiation in human cryptorchidism and gender reassignment shows similarities between fetal environmental and adult medical treatment estrogen and antiandrogen exposure.

    PubMed

    Nistal, Manuel; Gonzalez-Peramato, Pilar; De Miguel, Maria P

    2013-12-01

    Studies over the last years show an increase in testicular cancer, hypospadias and cryptorchidism in industrial countries, leading to the concept of testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). It is hypothesized that TDS is caused by estrogen and antiandrogen exposure during fetal life, accompanied by incomplete maturation of testicular Sertoli cells (SC). However, it is not known if SC disruption is a primary cause or a response to fetal Leydig cell testosterone production changes. To determine if SC differentiation is directly affected by estrogens, we compared SC maturation between adult gender reassignment cases exposed to estrogen and antiandrogen therapy, and those of typical TDS in adult cryptorchidism. We found similar expression of immature SC markers M2A antigen, inhibin bodies and Anti Mullerian Hormone, and the absence of maturation marker androgen receptor in SC of both types of patients. These data supports the occurrence of true SC dedifferentiation caused by estrogen exposure in adult humans. Our data also suggests that SC maturation is directly disrupted in TDS.

  7. Gestational Hypothyroidism Increases the Severity of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Albornoz, Eduardo A.; Carreño, Leandro J.; Cortes, Claudia M.; Gonzalez, Pablo A.; Cisternas, Pablo A.; Cautivo, Kelly M.; Catalán, Tamara P.; Opazo, M. Cecilia; Eugenin, Eliseo A.; Berman, Joan W.; Bueno, Susan M.; Kalergis, Alexis M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Maternal thyroid hormones play a fundamental role in appropriate fetal development during gestation. Offspring that have been gestated under maternal hypothyroidism suffer cognitive impairment. Thyroid hormone deficiency during gestation can significantly impact the central nervous system by altering the migration, differentiation, and function of neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes. Given that gestational hypothyroidism alters the immune cell ratio in offspring, it is possible that this condition could result in higher sensitivity for the development of autoimmune diseases. Methods: Adult mice gestated under hypothyroidism were induced with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Twenty-one days after EAE induction, the disease score, myelin content, immune cell infiltration, and oligodendrocyte death were evaluated. Results: We observed that mice gestated under hypothyroidism showed higher EAE scores after disease induction during adulthood compared to mice gestated in euthyroidism. In addition, spinal cord sections of mice gestated under hypothyroidism that suffered EAE in adulthood showed higher demyelination, CD4+ and CD8+ infiltration, and increased oligodendrocyte death. Conclusions: These results show for the first time that a deficiency in maternal thyroid hormones during gestation can influence the outcome of a central nervous system inflammatory disease, such as EAE, in their offspring. These data strongly support evaluating thyroid hormones in pregnant women and treating hypothyroidism during pregnancy to prevent increased susceptibility to inflammatory diseases in the central nervous system of offspring. PMID:23777566

  8. Transient increase of interleukin-1β after prolonged febrile seizures promotes adult epileptogenesis through long-lasting upregulating endocannabinoid signaling

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Bo; Tang, Yangshun; Chen, Bin; Xu, Cenglin; Wang, Yi; Dai, Yunjian; Wu, Dengchang; Zhu, Junmin; Wang, Shuang; Zhou, Yudong; Shi, Liyun; Hu, Weiwei; Zhang, Xia; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    It remains unclear how infantile febrile seizures (FS) enhance adult seizure susceptibility. Here we showed that the transient increase of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) after prolonged FS promoted adult seizure susceptibility, which was blocked by interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) within a critical time window. Postnatal administered IL-1β alone mimicked the effect of FS on adult seizure susceptibility. IL-1R1 knockout mice were not susceptible to adult seizure after prolonged FS or IL-1β treatment. Prolonged FS or early-life IL-1β treatment increased the expression of cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R) for over 50 days, which was blocked by IL-1Ra or was absent in IL-1R1 knockout mice. CB1R antagonist, knockdown and endocannabinoid synthesis inhibitor abolished FS or IL-1β-enhanced seizure susceptibility. Thus, this work identifies a pathogenic role of postnatal IL-1β/IL-1R1 pathway and subsequent prolonged prominent increase of endocannabinoid signaling in adult seizure susceptibility following prolonged FS, and highlights IL-1R1 as a potential therapeutic target for preventing the development of epilepsy after infantile FS. PMID:26902320

  9. Analysis of a large dataset of mycorrhiza inoculation field trials on potato shows highly significant increases in yield.

    PubMed

    Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    An increasing human population requires more food production in nutrient-efficient systems in order to simultaneously meet global food needs while reducing the environmental footprint of agriculture. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have the potential to enhance crop yield, but their efficiency has yet to be demonstrated in large-scale crop production systems. This study reports an analysis of a dataset consisting of 231 field trials in which the same AMF inoculant (Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198) was applied to potato over a 4-year period in North America and Europe under authentic field conditions. The inoculation was performed using a liquid suspension of AMF spores that was sprayed onto potato seed pieces, yielding a calculated 71 spores per seed piece. Statistical analysis showed a highly significant increase in marketable potato yield (ANOVA, P < 0.0001) for inoculated fields (42.2 tons/ha) compared with non-inoculated controls (38.3 tons/ha), irrespective of trial year. The average yield increase was 3.9 tons/ha, representing 9.5 % of total crop yield. Inoculation was profitable with a 0.67-tons/ha increase in yield, a threshold reached in almost 79 % of all trials. This finding clearly demonstrates the benefits of mycorrhizal-based inoculation on crop yield, using potato as a case study. Further improvements of these beneficial inoculants will help compensate for crop production deficits, both now and in the future.

  10. Epididymal Cystadenomas in von Hippel-Lindau Disease Showing Increased Activity on 68Ga DOTATATE PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Georgios Z; Millo, Corina; Sadowski, Samira M; Bagci, Ulas; Patronas, Nicholas J

    2016-10-01

    von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a familial cancer syndrome characterized by the development of a variety of malignant and benign tumors, including epididymal cystadenomas. We report a case of a VHL patient with bilateral epididymal cystadenomas who was evaluated with Ga DOTATATE PET/CT, showing intensely increased activity (SUVmax, 21.6) associated with the epididymal cystadenomas, indicating cell-surface overexpression of somatostatin receptors. The presented case supports the usefulness of somatostatin receptor imaging using Ga DOTA-conjugated peptides for detection and follow-up of VHL manifestations, as well as surveillance of asymptomatic gene carriers. PMID:27454594

  11. Perinatal exposure to bisphenol a increases adult mammary gland progesterone response and cell number.

    PubMed

    Ayyanan, Ayyakkannu; Laribi, Ouahiba; Schuepbach-Mallepell, Sonia; Schrick, Christina; Gutierrez, Maria; Tanos, Tamara; Lefebvre, Gregory; Rougemont, Jacques; Yalcin-Ozuysal, Ozden; Brisken, Cathrin

    2011-11-01

    Bisphenol A [BPA, 2,2,-bis (hydroxyphenyl) propane] is one of the highest-volume chemicals produced worldwide. It is detected in body fluids of more than 90% of the human population. Originally synthesized as an estrogenic compound, it is currently utilized to manufacture food and beverage containers resulting in uptake with food and drinks. There is concern that exposure to low doses of BPA, defined as less than or equal to 5 mg/kg body weight /d, may have developmental effects on various hormone-responsive organs including the mammary gland. Here, we asked whether perinatal exposure to a range of low doses of BPA is sufficient to alter mammary gland hormone response later on in life, with a possible impact on breast cancer risk. To mimic human exposure, we added BPA to the drinking water of C57/Bl6 breeding pairs. Analysis of the mammary glands of their daughters at puberty showed that estrogen-dependent transcriptional events were perturbed and the number of terminal end buds, estrogen-induced proliferative structures, was altered in a dose-dependent fashion. Importantly, adult females showed an increase in mammary epithelial cell numbers comparable to that seen in females exposed to diethylbestrol, a compound exposure to which was previously linked to increased breast cancer risk. Molecularly, the mRNAs encoding Wnt-4 and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand, two key mediators of hormone function implicated in control of mammary stem cell proliferation and carcinogenesis, showed increased induction by progesterone in the mammary tissue of exposed mice. Thus, perinatal exposure to environmentally relevant doses of BPA alters long-term hormone response that may increase the propensity to develop breast cancer.

  12. New Hippocampal Neurons Are Not Obligatory for Memory Formation; Cyclin D2 Knockout Mice with No Adult Brain Neurogenesis Show Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaholkowski, Piotr; Kiryk, Anna; Jedynak, Paulina; Abdallah, Nada M. Ben; Knapska, Ewelina; Kowalczyk, Anna; Piechal, Agnieszka; Blecharz-Klin, Kamilla; Figiel, Izabela; Lioudyno, Victoria; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, Ewa; Wilczynski, Grzegorz M.; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Kaczmarek, Leszek; Filipkowski, Robert K.

    2009-01-01

    The role of adult brain neurogenesis (generating new neurons) in learning and memory appears to be quite firmly established in spite of some criticism and lack of understanding of what the new neurons serve the brain for. Also, the few experiments showing that blocking adult neurogenesis causes learning deficits used irradiation and various drugs…

  13. Using targeted messaging to increase physical activity in older adults: a review.

    PubMed

    Ostrander, Rachel E; Thompson, Hilaire J; Demiris, George

    2014-09-01

    Physical activity has many benefits for older adults; however, motivating older adults to engage in and maintain optimal levels of physical activity can be challenging for health care providers. A comprehensive literature review was performed to determine whether any evidence-based methods of delivery or particular content for targeted messaging exist that result in actual improvements in physical activity of older adults. Findings of the review demonstrate that messaging directed toward older adults to be physically active resulted in improvements in physical activity up to 1 year. Across studies many different modes of message delivery were shown to be effective. Message content, whether tailored or not, resulted in significant increases in physical activity. There is evidence to support the use of environmentally mediated messaging (i.e., local walking paths) for stronger results. Targeting the client's stage of change, having an activity partner if preferred, and scheduling physical activity also contribute to improved effects.

  14. Do adult Little Egrets respond to disturbance at their nest by increased breeding dispersal?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henry, P.-Y.; Bennetts, R.E.; Kayser, Y.; Hafner, H.

    2004-01-01

    When studying breeding dispersal with marked individuals, manipulation-induced disturbance should not affect movement patterns. As part of a study on the Little Egret (Egretta garzetta), we tested whether the capture of breeding adults at their nest and handling (i.e., disturbance) increased their probability to move to a new colony in the subsequent breeding season (i.e., breeding dispersal). The proportion of adults disturbed in a given year that had changed colony in the subsequent breeding season was compared with the dispersal of adults observed during at least two consecutive years at colonies and not disturbed on the previous year: (1) birds marked as chicks and (2) birds marked as aduhs and observed ??? two years after capture at the nest. Disturbed birds were not found to have an increased propensity to disperse. We conclude that, for this species, capture did not increase the subsequent breeding dispersal.

  15. The vascular disrupting agent ZD6126 shows increased antitumor efficacy and enhanced radiation response in large, advanced tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Siemann, Dietmar W. . E-mail: siemadw@ufl.edu; Rojiani, Amyn M.

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: ZD6126 is a vascular-targeting agent that induces selective effects on the morphology of proliferating and immature endothelial cells by disrupting the tubulin cytoskeleton. The efficacy of ZD6126 was investigated in large vs. small tumors in a variety of animal models. Methods and Materials: Three rodent tumor models (KHT, SCCVII, RIF-1) and three human tumor xenografts (Caki-1, KSY-1, SKBR3) were used. Mice bearing leg tumors ranging in size from 0.1-2.0 g were injected intraperitoneally with a single 150 mg/kg dose of ZD6126. The response was assessed by morphologic and morphometric means as well as an in vivo to in vitro clonogenic cell survival assay. To examine the impact of tumor size on the extent of enhancement of radiation efficacy by ZD6126, KHT sarcomas of three different sizes were irradiated locally with a range of radiation doses, and cell survival was determined. Results: All rodent tumors and human tumor xenografts evaluated showed a strong correlation between increasing tumor size and treatment effect as determined by clonogenic cell survival. Detailed evaluation of KHT sarcomas treated with ZD6126 showed a reduction in patent tumor blood vessels that was {approx}20% in small (<0.3 g) vs. >90% in large (>1.0 g) tumors. Histologic assessment revealed that the extent of tumor necrosis after ZD6126 treatment, although minimal in small KHT sarcomas, became more extensive with increasing tumor size. Clonogenic cell survival after ZD6126 exposure showed a decrease in tumor surviving fraction from approximately 3 x 10{sup -1} to 1 x 10{sup -4} with increasing tumor size. When combined with radiotherapy, ZD6126 treatment resulted in little enhancement of the antitumor effect of radiation in small (<0.3 g) tumors but marked increases in cell kill in tumors larger than 1.0 g. Conclusions: Because bulky neoplastic disease is typically the most difficult to manage, the present findings provide further support for the continued development of vascular

  16. Long-term hypoxia increases calcium affinity of BK channels in ovine fetal and adult cerebral artery smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xiaoxiao; Lin, Mike T; Thorington, Glyne U; Wilson, Sean M; Longo, Lawrence D; Hessinger, David A

    2015-04-01

    Acclimatization to high-altitude, long-term hypoxia (LTH) reportedly alters cerebral artery contraction-relaxation responses associated with changes in K(+) channel activity. We hypothesized that to maintain oxygenation during LTH, basilar arteries (BA) in the ovine adult and near-term fetus would show increased large-conductance Ca(2+) activated potassium (BK) channel activity. We measured BK channel activity, expression, and cell surface distribution by use of patch-clamp electrophysiology, flow cytometry, and confocal microscopy, respectively, in myocytes from normoxic control and LTH adult and near-term fetus BA. Electrophysiological data showed that BK channels in LTH myocytes exhibited 1) lowered Ca(2+) set points, 2) left-shifted activation voltages, and 3) longer dwell times. BK channels in LTH myocytes also appeared to be more dephosphorylated. These differences collectively make LTH BK channels more sensitive to activation. Studies using flow cytometry showed that the LTH fetus exhibited increased BK β1 subunit surface expression. In addition, in both fetal groups confocal microscopy revealed increased BK channel clustering and colocalization to myocyte lipid rafts. We conclude that increased BK channel activity in LTH BA occurred in association with increased channel affinity for Ca(2+) and left-shifted voltage activation. Increased cerebrovascular BK channel activity may be a mechanism by which LTH adult and near-term fetal sheep can acclimatize to long-term high altitude hypoxia. Our findings suggest that increasing BK channel activity in cerebral myocytes may be a therapeutic target to ameliorate the adverse effects of high altitude in adults or of intrauterine hypoxia in the fetus.

  17. An observational study identifying obese subgroups among older adults at increased risk of mobility disability: do perceptions of the neighborhood environment matter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is an increasingly prevalent condition among older adults, yet relatively little is known about how built environment variables may be associated with obesity in older age groups. This is particularly the case for more vulnerable older adults already showing functional limitation...

  18. Chimpanzees Show a Developmental Increase in Susceptibility to Contagious Yawning: A Test of the Effect of Ontogeny and Emotional Closeness on Yawn Contagion

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Elainie Alenkær; Persson, Tomas; Sayehli, Susan; Lenninger, Sara; Sonesson, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Contagious yawning has been reported for humans, dogs and several non-human primate species, and associated with empathy in humans and other primates. Still, the function, development and underlying mechanisms of contagious yawning remain unclear. Humans and dogs show a developmental increase in susceptibility to yawn contagion, with children showing an increase around the age of four, when also empathy-related behaviours and accurate identification of others’ emotions begin to clearly evince. Explicit tests of yawn contagion in non-human apes have only involved adult individuals and examined the existence of conspecific yawn contagion. Here we report the first study of heterospecific contagious yawning in primates, and the ontogeny of susceptibility thereto in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus. We examined whether emotional closeness, defined as attachment history with the yawning model, affected the strength of contagion, and compared the contagiousness of yawning to nose-wiping. Thirty-three orphaned chimpanzees observed an unfamiliar and familiar human (their surrogate human mother) yawn, gape and nose-wipe. Yawning, but not nose-wiping, was contagious for juvenile chimpanzees, while infants were immune to contagion. Like humans and dogs, chimpanzees are subject to a developmental trend in susceptibility to contagious yawning, and respond to heterospecific yawn stimuli. Emotional closeness with the model did not affect contagion. The familiarity-biased social modulatory effect on yawn contagion previously found among some adult primates, seem to only emerge later in development, or be limited to interactions with conspecifics. The influence of the ‘chameleon effect’, targeted vs. generalised empathy, perspective-taking and visual attention on contagious yawning is discussed. PMID:24146848

  19. Chimpanzees show a developmental increase in susceptibility to contagious yawning: a test of the effect of ontogeny and emotional closeness on yawn contagion.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Elainie Alenkær; Persson, Tomas; Sayehli, Susan; Lenninger, Sara; Sonesson, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Contagious yawning has been reported for humans, dogs and several non-human primate species, and associated with empathy in humans and other primates. Still, the function, development and underlying mechanisms of contagious yawning remain unclear. Humans and dogs show a developmental increase in susceptibility to yawn contagion, with children showing an increase around the age of four, when also empathy-related behaviours and accurate identification of others' emotions begin to clearly evince. Explicit tests of yawn contagion in non-human apes have only involved adult individuals and examined the existence of conspecific yawn contagion. Here we report the first study of heterospecific contagious yawning in primates, and the ontogeny of susceptibility thereto in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus. We examined whether emotional closeness, defined as attachment history with the yawning model, affected the strength of contagion, and compared the contagiousness of yawning to nose-wiping. Thirty-three orphaned chimpanzees observed an unfamiliar and familiar human (their surrogate human mother) yawn, gape and nose-wipe. Yawning, but not nose-wiping, was contagious for juvenile chimpanzees, while infants were immune to contagion. Like humans and dogs, chimpanzees are subject to a developmental trend in susceptibility to contagious yawning, and respond to heterospecific yawn stimuli. Emotional closeness with the model did not affect contagion. The familiarity-biased social modulatory effect on yawn contagion previously found among some adult primates, seem to only emerge later in development, or be limited to interactions with conspecifics. The influence of the 'chameleon effect', targeted vs. generalised empathy, perspective-taking and visual attention on contagious yawning is discussed. PMID:24146848

  20. Chimpanzees show a developmental increase in susceptibility to contagious yawning: a test of the effect of ontogeny and emotional closeness on yawn contagion.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Elainie Alenkær; Persson, Tomas; Sayehli, Susan; Lenninger, Sara; Sonesson, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Contagious yawning has been reported for humans, dogs and several non-human primate species, and associated with empathy in humans and other primates. Still, the function, development and underlying mechanisms of contagious yawning remain unclear. Humans and dogs show a developmental increase in susceptibility to yawn contagion, with children showing an increase around the age of four, when also empathy-related behaviours and accurate identification of others' emotions begin to clearly evince. Explicit tests of yawn contagion in non-human apes have only involved adult individuals and examined the existence of conspecific yawn contagion. Here we report the first study of heterospecific contagious yawning in primates, and the ontogeny of susceptibility thereto in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus. We examined whether emotional closeness, defined as attachment history with the yawning model, affected the strength of contagion, and compared the contagiousness of yawning to nose-wiping. Thirty-three orphaned chimpanzees observed an unfamiliar and familiar human (their surrogate human mother) yawn, gape and nose-wipe. Yawning, but not nose-wiping, was contagious for juvenile chimpanzees, while infants were immune to contagion. Like humans and dogs, chimpanzees are subject to a developmental trend in susceptibility to contagious yawning, and respond to heterospecific yawn stimuli. Emotional closeness with the model did not affect contagion. The familiarity-biased social modulatory effect on yawn contagion previously found among some adult primates, seem to only emerge later in development, or be limited to interactions with conspecifics. The influence of the 'chameleon effect', targeted vs. generalised empathy, perspective-taking and visual attention on contagious yawning is discussed.

  1. Hunting Increases Phosphorylation of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II in Adult Barn Owls

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Grant S.; DeBello, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile barn owls readily adapt to prismatic spectacles, whereas adult owls living under standard aviary conditions do not. We previously demonstrated that phosphorylation of the cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) provides a readout of the instructive signals that guide plasticity in juveniles. Here we investigated phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (pCaMKII) in both juveniles and adults. In contrast to CREB, we found no differences in pCaMKII expression between prism-wearing and control juveniles within the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICX), the major site of plasticity. For prism-wearing adults that hunted live mice and are capable of adaptation, expression of pCaMKII was increased relative to prism-wearing adults that fed passively on dead mice and are not capable of adaptation. This effect did not bear the hallmarks of instructive information: it was not localized to rostral ICX and did not exhibit a patchy distribution reflecting discrete bimodal stimuli. These data are consistent with a role for CaMKII as a permissive rather than an instructive factor. In addition, the paucity of pCaMKII expression in passively fed adults suggests that the permissive default setting is “off” in adults. PMID:25789177

  2. Combination of glycosphingosomes and liposomal doxorubicin shows increased activity against dimethyl-α-benzanthracene-induced fibrosarcoma in mice

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Masood A; Aljarbou, Ahmed N; Aldebasi, Yousef H; Alorainy, Mohammed S; Khan, Arif

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the antitumor effect of glycosphingolipid-incorporated liposomes (glycosphingosomes) in combination with liposomal doxorubicin (Lip-Dox) in a mouse model of fibrosarcoma. Glycosphingosomes were prepared by incorporating glycosphingolipids isolated from Sphingomonas paucimobilis into the liposomes of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, cholesterol, and cardiolipin. Tumors were induced by administering dimethyl-α-benzanthracene, and tumor-bearing mice were treated with various formulations of Dox, including free Dox, Lip-Dox, or glycosphingosomes + Lip-Dox. Mice were observed for 90 days to monitor their survival and tumor size. Free Dox, but not Lip-Dox or a combination of glycosphingosomes and Lip-Dox, caused the substantial depletion of leukocytes and significantly increased the levels of lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase in mice. Tumor-bearing mice treated with a combination of glycosphingosomes and Lip-Dox showed restricted tumor growth and increased survival when compared to those treated with free Dox or Lip-Dox. The results of the present study suggest that a combination of glycosphingosomes and Lip-Dox may prove to be very effective in the treatment of tumors. PMID:26504383

  3. Young adults with head and neck cancer express increased susceptibility to mutagen-induced chromosome damage

    SciTech Connect

    Schantz, S.P.; Hsu, T.C.; Ainslie, N.; Moser, R.P. )

    1989-12-15

    Factors that contribute to an increased prevalence of squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract among young adults in the United States remain unknown. A potential etiologic factor may relate to a genetically controlled sensitivity to environmental carcinogens. This study, therefore, examined 20 young adult patients who had squamous cell carcinoma for mutagen-induced chromosome sensitivity. Lymphocytes from respective patients were cultured, exposed to the clastogen bleomycin, arrested during metaphase, and examined quantitatively for chromosome breakage. The young adult population with squamous cell carcinoma expressed a significantly increased number of bleomycin-induced chromosome breaks per cell. Furthermore, among the study patients, chromosome sensitivity was most apparent in the non-tobacco users and in patients less than 30 years of age. The expression of such chromosome fragility following mutagen exposure should be considered in epidemiologic studies that intend to define risk factors for development of head and neck cancer.

  4. Running increases cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult mouse dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    van Praag, H; Kempermann, G; Gage, F H

    1999-03-01

    Exposure to an enriched environment increases neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of adult rodents. Environmental enrichment, however, typically consists of many components, such as expanded learning opportunities, increased social interaction, more physical activity and larger housing. We attempted to separate components by assigning adult mice to various conditions: water-maze learning (learner), swim-time-yoked control (swimmer), voluntary wheel running (runner), and enriched (enriched) and standard housing (control) groups. Neither maze training nor yoked swimming had any effect on bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cell number. However, running doubled the number of surviving newborn cells, in amounts similar to enrichment conditions. Our findings demonstrate that voluntary exercise is sufficient for enhanced neurogenesis in the adult mouse dentate gyrus.

  5. Low Molecular Weight Hyaluronan-Pulsed Human Dendritic Cells Showed Increased Migration Capacity and Induced Resistance to Tumor Chemoattraction

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Manglio; Bayo, Juan; Piccioni, Flavia; Malvicini, Mariana; Fiore, Esteban; Peixoto, Estanislao; García, Mariana G.; Aquino, Jorge B.; Gonzalez Campaña, Ariel; Podestá, Gustavo; Terres, Marcelo; Andriani, Oscar; Alaniz, Laura; Mazzolini, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    We have shown that ex vivo pre-conditioning of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DC) with low molecular weight hyaluronan (LMW HA) induces antitumor immunity against colorectal carcinoma (CRC) in mice. In the present study we investigated the effects of LMW HA priming on human-tumor-pulsed monocytes-derived dendritic cells (DC/TL) obtained from healthy donors and patients with CRC. LMW HA treatment resulted in an improved maturation state of DC/TL and an enhanced mixed leucocyte reaction activity in vivo. Importantly, pre-conditioning of DC/TL with LMW HA increased their ability to migrate and reduced their attraction to human tumor derived supernatants. These effects were associated with increased CCR7 expression levels in DC. Indeed, a significant increase in migratory response toward CCL21 was observed in LMW HA primed tumor-pulsed monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC/TL/LMW HA) when compared to LWM HA untreated cells (DC/TL). Moreover, LMW HA priming modulated other mechanisms implicated in DC migration toward lymph nodes such as the metalloproteinase activity. Furthermore, it also resulted in a significant reduction in DC migratory capacity toward tumor supernatant and IL8 in vitro. Consistently, LMW HA dramatically enhanced in vivo DC recruitment to tumor-regional lymph nodes and reduced DC migration toward tumor tissue. This study shows that LMW HA –a poorly immunogenic molecule- represents a promising candidate to improve human DC maturation protocols in the context of DC-based vaccines development, due to its ability to enhance their immunogenic properties as well as their migratory capacity toward lymph nodes instead of tumors. PMID:25238610

  6. Calf exercise-induced vasodilation is blunted in healthy older adults with increased walking performance fatigue.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Joaquin U; Defferari, Elizabeth; Fisher, Amy; Shephard, Jordan; Proctor, David N

    2014-09-01

    Vascular aging as measured by central arterial stiffness contributes to slow walking speed in older adults, but the impact of age-related changes in peripheral vascular function on walking performance is unclear. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that calf muscle-specific vasodilator responses are associated with walking performance fatigue in healthy older adults. Forty-five older (60-78yrs) adults performed a fast-paced 400m walk test. Twelve of these adults exhibited fatigue as defined by slowing of walking speed (≥0.02m/s) measured during the first and last 100m segments of the 400m test. Peak calf vascular conductance was measured following 10min of arterial occlusion using strain-gauge plethysmography. Superficial femoral artery (SFA) vascular conductance response to graded plantar-flexion exercise was measured using Doppler ultrasound. No difference was found for peak calf vascular conductance between adults that slowed walking speed and those that maintained walking speed (p>0.05); however, older adults that slowed walking speed had a lower SFA vascular conductance response to calf exercise (at highest workload: slowed group, 2.4±0.9 vs. maintained group, 3.6±0.9ml/kg/min/mmHg; p<0.01). Moreover, the initial increase in SFA vascular conductance from rest to exercise was positively correlated with the change in walking speed for all adults (rho=0.41, p=0.005). In conclusion, these results suggest that calf exercise hemodynamics are associated with walking performance fatigability in older adults. PMID:24786722

  7. Fluoxetine increases plasticity and modulates the proteomic profile in the adult mouse visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Perera, L.; Muniz, M.; Vierci, G.; Bornia, N.; Baroncelli, L.; Sale, A.; Rossi, F.M.

    2015-01-01

    The scarce functional recovery of the adult CNS following injuries or diseases is largely due to its reduced potential for plasticity, the ability to reorganize neural connections as a function of experience. Recently, some new strategies restoring high levels of plasticity in the adult brain have been identified, especially in the paradigmatic model of the visual system. A chronic treatment with the anti-depressant fluoxetine reinstates plasticity in the adult rat primary visual cortex, inducing recovery of vision in amblyopic animals. The molecular mechanisms underlying this effect remain largely unknown. Here, we explored fluoxetine effects on mouse visual cortical plasticity, and exploited a proteomic approach to identify possible candidates mediating the outcome of the antidepressant treatment on adult cortical plasticity. We showed that fluoxetine restores ocular dominance plasticity in the adult mouse visual cortex, and identified 31 differentially expressed protein spots in fluoxetine-treated animals vs. controls. MALDITOF/TOF mass spectrometry identification followed by bioinformatics analysis revealed that these proteins are involved in the control of cytoskeleton organization, endocytosis, molecular transport, intracellular signaling, redox cellular state, metabolism and protein degradation. Altogether, these results indicate a complex effect of fluoxetine on neuronal signaling mechanisms potentially involved in restoring plasticity in the adult brain. PMID:26205348

  8. Increasing metabolic rate despite declining body weight in an adult parasitoid wasp.

    PubMed

    Casas, Jérôme; Body, Mélanie; Gutzwiller, Florence; Giron, David; Lazzari, Claudio R; Pincebourde, Sylvain; Richard, Romain; Llandres, Ana L

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic rate is a positive function of body weight, a rule valid for most organisms and the basis of several theories of metabolic ecology. For adult insects, however, the diversity of relationships between body mass and respiration remains unexplained. The aim of this study is to relate the respiratory metabolism of a parasitoid with body weight and foraging activity. We compared the metabolic rate of groups of starving and host-fed females of the parasitoid Eupelmus vuilleti recorded with respirometry for 7days, corresponding to the mean lifetime of starving females and over half of the lifetime of foraging females. The dynamics of carbohydrate, lipid and protein in the body of foraging females were quantified with biochemical techniques. Body mass and all body nutrients declined sharply from the first day onwards. By contrast, the CO2 produced and the O2 consumed increased steadily. Starving females showed the opposite trend, identifying foraging as the reason for the respiration increase of feeding females. Two complementary physiological processes explain the unexpected relationship between increasing metabolic rate and declining body weight. First, host hemolymph is a highly unbalanced food, and the excess nutrients (protein and carbohydrate) need to be voided, partially through excretion and partially through respiration. Second, a foraging young female produces eggs at an increasing rate during the first half of its lifetime, a process that also increases respiration. We posit that the time-varying metabolic rate contributions of the feeding and reproductive processes supplements the contribution of the structural mass and lead to the observed trend. We extend our explanations to other insect groups and discuss the potential for unification using Dynamic Energy Budget theory.

  9. Sustained observations in the Weddell Sea spanning more than 20 years show gradual increase of the deep water heat content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strass, Volker; Rohardt, Gerd; Hoppema, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Beginning in 1989, Eberhard Fahrbach established and maintained until his premature death an observational programme in the Weddell Sea, which outstandingly contributed to alleviate the grave problem of undersampling of the Southern Ocean. Continuation of his legacy by the Alfred-Wegener-Institut has yielded a time series that now extends into 2013, hence covers almost 24 years. Here we analyse this data set for long-term changes of the heat content in the deep Weddell Sea. We exclusively evaluate the calibrated temperature records obtained with ship-lowered CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth sonde) casts at repeated hydrographic stations and along repeated sections. Using this approach we avoid introducing potential temperature offsets that can result from combination of different measurement technologies and potential biases resultant from differences in geographic positions. Our results show that the deep water masses below 700 m gradually warmed over the past two decades by 0.001 - 0.004 K a-1. Superimposed inter-annual to multi-annual variations appear as largely uncorrelated horizontally across the Weddell Gyre. The long-term (21 - 24 years) trends of increasing temperatures in different depth layers below 700 m at all stations and sections can be approximated by linear regression that explains between 27 and 91 % of the variance, where the coefficients of correlation tend to increase with depth. No significant trends are found in the top 700 m. The heating rate of the water masses below 700 m is estimated to 0.79 ± 0.14 W m-2, which is more than twice as high as determined for the global deep ocean in general. Our results hence corroborate the view that Southern Ocean processes make an above-average contribution to the deep ocean warming, and so add to bring global estimates of the deep ocean heating rate and of the net energy flux into the Earth's climate system at the top of the atmosphere of 0.5 - 1 W m-2 closer in line with each other. Thus they help

  10. Media multitasking is associated with distractibility and increased prefrontal activity in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Moisala, M; Salmela, V; Hietajärvi, L; Salo, E; Carlson, S; Salonen, O; Lonka, K; Hakkarainen, K; Salmela-Aro, K; Alho, K

    2016-07-01

    The current generation of young people indulges in more media multitasking behavior (e.g., instant messaging while watching videos) in their everyday lives than older generations. Concerns have been raised about how this might affect their attentional functioning, as previous studies have indicated that extensive media multitasking in everyday life may be associated with decreased attentional control. In the current study, 149 adolescents and young adults (aged 13-24years) performed speech-listening and reading tasks that required maintaining attention in the presence of distractor stimuli in the other modality or dividing attention between two concurrent tasks. Brain activity during task performance was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We studied the relationship between self-reported daily media multitasking (MMT), task performance and brain activity during task performance. The results showed that in the presence of distractor stimuli, a higher MMT score was associated with worse performance and increased brain activity in right prefrontal regions. The level of performance during divided attention did not depend on MMT. This suggests that daily media multitasking is associated with behavioral distractibility and increased recruitment of brain areas involved in attentional and inhibitory control, and that media multitasking in everyday life does not translate to performance benefits in multitasking in laboratory settings. PMID:27063068

  11. Media multitasking is associated with distractibility and increased prefrontal activity in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Moisala, M; Salmela, V; Hietajärvi, L; Salo, E; Carlson, S; Salonen, O; Lonka, K; Hakkarainen, K; Salmela-Aro, K; Alho, K

    2016-07-01

    The current generation of young people indulges in more media multitasking behavior (e.g., instant messaging while watching videos) in their everyday lives than older generations. Concerns have been raised about how this might affect their attentional functioning, as previous studies have indicated that extensive media multitasking in everyday life may be associated with decreased attentional control. In the current study, 149 adolescents and young adults (aged 13-24years) performed speech-listening and reading tasks that required maintaining attention in the presence of distractor stimuli in the other modality or dividing attention between two concurrent tasks. Brain activity during task performance was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We studied the relationship between self-reported daily media multitasking (MMT), task performance and brain activity during task performance. The results showed that in the presence of distractor stimuli, a higher MMT score was associated with worse performance and increased brain activity in right prefrontal regions. The level of performance during divided attention did not depend on MMT. This suggests that daily media multitasking is associated with behavioral distractibility and increased recruitment of brain areas involved in attentional and inhibitory control, and that media multitasking in everyday life does not translate to performance benefits in multitasking in laboratory settings.

  12. Processing speed training increases the efficiency of attentional resource allocation in young adults.

    PubMed

    Burge, Wesley K; Ross, Lesley A; Amthor, Franklin R; Mitchell, William G; Zotov, Alexander; Visscher, Kristina M

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive training has been shown to improve performance on a range of tasks. However, the mechanisms underlying these improvements are still unclear. Given the wide range of transfer effects, it is likely that these effects are due to a factor common to a wide range of tasks. One such factor is a participant's efficiency in allocating limited cognitive resources. The impact of a cognitive training program, Processing Speed Training (PST), on the allocation of resources to a set of visual tasks was measured using pupillometry in 10 young adults as compared to a control group of a 10 young adults (n = 20). PST is a well-studied computerized training program that involves identifying simultaneously presented central and peripheral stimuli. As training progresses, the task becomes increasingly more difficult, by including peripheral distracting stimuli and decreasing the duration of stimulus presentation. Analysis of baseline data confirmed that pupil diameter reflected cognitive effort. After training, participants randomized to PST used fewer attentional resources to perform complex visual tasks as compared to the control group. These pupil diameter data indicated that PST appears to increase the efficiency of attentional resource allocation. Increases in cognitive efficiency have been hypothesized to underlie improvements following experience with action video games, and improved cognitive efficiency has been hypothesized to underlie the benefits of PST in older adults. These data reveal that these training schemes may share a common underlying mechanism of increasing cognitive efficiency in younger adults. PMID:24151461

  13. Increasing Adult Learner Persistence and Completion Rates: A Guide for Student Affairs Leaders and Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culp, Marguerite McGann, Ed.; Dungy, Gwendolyn Jordan, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    More than a third of all undergraduate students are 25 or older, and their presence on college and university campuses is growing. However, institutions of higher learning are struggling to meet the needs of, and improve persistence and completion rates for, this significant student population. "Increasing Adult Learner Persistence and…

  14. Langerhans cells increase in the dermal lesions of adult T cell leukaemia in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Shamoto, M

    1983-01-01

    In cases of adult T cell leukaemia neoplastic T cell infiltration in the skin was accompanied by an increase in Langerhans cells. This is in keeping with the view that Langerhans cells may induce antigen-specific and allogenic T cell activation. Images PMID:6600750

  15. Pedometers and Brief E-Counseling: Increasing Physical Activity for Overweight Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanWormer, Jeffrey J.

    2004-01-01

    Physical inactivity has emerged as a public health epidemic and is associated with the rising obesity rate. A multiple-treatments reversal design was utilized to test whether pedometer-aided self-monitoring and brief e-counseling could help 3 overweight adults increase their physical activity. Dependent measures were taken for pedometer steps and…

  16. PREPUBERTAL EXPOSURES TO COMPOUNDS THAT INCREASE PROLACTIN SECRETION IN THE MALE RAT: EFFECTS ON ADULT PROSTATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prepubertal exposure to compounds that increase prolactin secretion in the male rat: effects on the adult prostate.

    Stoker TE, Robinette CL, Britt BH, Laws SC, Cooper RL.

    Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effec...

  17. Improving Oral Reading in Mentally Handicapped Adults through Increased Opportunity and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillette, Tracy L.

    A project developed a plan to improve oral reading in 12 mentally handicapped adults by stressing observation of punctuation marks, reading in phrases, using proper volume, and increasing confidence levels. Identifying the parts of a book and identifying new words were also included. The 12 students were reading below their potential, as shown by…

  18. Prenatal lipopolysaccharide exposure increases depression-like behaviors and reduces hippocampal neurogenesis in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Lung; Wang, Sabrina

    2014-02-01

    Major depression is one of the most prevalent mental disorders in the population. In addition to genetic influences, disturbances in fetal nervous system development might be a contributing factor. Maternal infection during pregnancy may affect fetal brain development and consequently lead to neurological and mental disorders. Previously, we used low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure on embryonic day 10.5 to mimic mild maternal infection in rats and found that dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons were reduced in the offspring. The offspring also showed more anxiety-like behavior and an enhanced stress response. In the present study we used forced swim test and chronic mild stress challenge to assess depression-like behaviors in the affected offspring and examined their adult hippocampal neurogenesis and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentration. Our results showed that prenatally LPS-exposed rats (LPS rats) displayed more depression-like behaviors and had reduced adult neurogenesis and BDNF. The behavioral abnormalities and reduction in adult neurogenesis could be reversed by chronic fluoxetine (FLX) treatment. This study demonstrates that during the critical time of embryonic development LPS exposure can produce long-term behavioral changes and reduction in adult neurogenesis. The findings of enhanced depression-like behaviors, reduced adult neurogenesis, and their responsiveness to chronic antidepressant treatment suggest that prenatal LPS exposure could serve as an animal model of depression.

  19. Non-expert listeners show decreased heart rate and increased blood pressure (fear bradycardia) in response to atonal music

    PubMed Central

    Proverbio, Alice M.; Manfrin, Luigi; Arcari, Laura A.; De Benedetto, Francesco; Gazzola, Martina; Guardamagna, Matteo; Lozano Nasi, Valentina; Zani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that listening to different types of music may modulate differently psychological mood and physiological responses associated with the induced emotions. In this study the effect of listening to instrumental classical vs. atonal contemporary music was examined in a group of 50 non-expert listeners. The subjects’ heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressure values were measured while they listened to music of different style and emotional typologies. Pieces were selected by asking a group of composers and conservatory professors to suggest a list of the most emotional music pieces (from Renaissance to present time). A total of 214 suggestions from 20 respondents were received. Then it was asked them to identify which pieces best induced in the listener feelings of agitation, joy or pathos and the number of suggested pieces per style was computed. Atonal pieces were more frequently indicated as agitating, and tonal pieces as joyful. The presence/absence of tonality in a musical piece did not affect the affective dimension of pathos (being touching). Among the most frequently cited six pieces were selected that were comparable for structure and style, to represent each emotion and style. They were equally evaluated as unfamiliar by an independent group of 10 students of the same cohort) and were then used as stimuli for the experimental session in which autonomic parameters were recorded. Overall, listening to atonal music (independent of the pieces’ emotional characteristics) was associated with a reduced heart rate (fear bradycardia) and increased blood pressure (both diastolic and systolic), possibly reflecting an increase in alertness and attention, psychological tension, and anxiety. This evidence fits with the results of the esthetical assessment showing how, overall, atonal music is perceived as more agitating and less joyful than tonal one. PMID:26579029

  20. Non-expert listeners show decreased heart rate and increased blood pressure (fear bradycardia) in response to atonal music.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice M; Manfrin, Luigi; Arcari, Laura A; De Benedetto, Francesco; Gazzola, Martina; Guardamagna, Matteo; Lozano Nasi, Valentina; Zani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that listening to different types of music may modulate differently psychological mood and physiological responses associated with the induced emotions. In this study the effect of listening to instrumental classical vs. atonal contemporary music was examined in a group of 50 non-expert listeners. The subjects' heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressure values were measured while they listened to music of different style and emotional typologies. Pieces were selected by asking a group of composers and conservatory professors to suggest a list of the most emotional music pieces (from Renaissance to present time). A total of 214 suggestions from 20 respondents were received. Then it was asked them to identify which pieces best induced in the listener feelings of agitation, joy or pathos and the number of suggested pieces per style was computed. Atonal pieces were more frequently indicated as agitating, and tonal pieces as joyful. The presence/absence of tonality in a musical piece did not affect the affective dimension of pathos (being touching). Among the most frequently cited six pieces were selected that were comparable for structure and style, to represent each emotion and style. They were equally evaluated as unfamiliar by an independent group of 10 students of the same cohort) and were then used as stimuli for the experimental session in which autonomic parameters were recorded. Overall, listening to atonal music (independent of the pieces' emotional characteristics) was associated with a reduced heart rate (fear bradycardia) and increased blood pressure (both diastolic and systolic), possibly reflecting an increase in alertness and attention, psychological tension, and anxiety. This evidence fits with the results of the esthetical assessment showing how, overall, atonal music is perceived as more agitating and less joyful than tonal one.

  1. Non-expert listeners show decreased heart rate and increased blood pressure (fear bradycardia) in response to atonal music.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice M; Manfrin, Luigi; Arcari, Laura A; De Benedetto, Francesco; Gazzola, Martina; Guardamagna, Matteo; Lozano Nasi, Valentina; Zani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that listening to different types of music may modulate differently psychological mood and physiological responses associated with the induced emotions. In this study the effect of listening to instrumental classical vs. atonal contemporary music was examined in a group of 50 non-expert listeners. The subjects' heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressure values were measured while they listened to music of different style and emotional typologies. Pieces were selected by asking a group of composers and conservatory professors to suggest a list of the most emotional music pieces (from Renaissance to present time). A total of 214 suggestions from 20 respondents were received. Then it was asked them to identify which pieces best induced in the listener feelings of agitation, joy or pathos and the number of suggested pieces per style was computed. Atonal pieces were more frequently indicated as agitating, and tonal pieces as joyful. The presence/absence of tonality in a musical piece did not affect the affective dimension of pathos (being touching). Among the most frequently cited six pieces were selected that were comparable for structure and style, to represent each emotion and style. They were equally evaluated as unfamiliar by an independent group of 10 students of the same cohort) and were then used as stimuli for the experimental session in which autonomic parameters were recorded. Overall, listening to atonal music (independent of the pieces' emotional characteristics) was associated with a reduced heart rate (fear bradycardia) and increased blood pressure (both diastolic and systolic), possibly reflecting an increase in alertness and attention, psychological tension, and anxiety. This evidence fits with the results of the esthetical assessment showing how, overall, atonal music is perceived as more agitating and less joyful than tonal one. PMID:26579029

  2. Piper betle shows antioxidant activities, inhibits MCF-7 cell proliferation and increases activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the focus on finding chemotherapeutic agents have recently shifted to natural products. Piper betle is a medicinal plant with various biological activities. However, not much data is available on the anti-cancer effects of P. betle on breast cancer. Due to the current interest in the potential effects of antioxidants from natural products in breast cancer treatment, we investigated the antioxidant activities of the leaves of P. betle and its inhibitory effect on the proliferation of the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. Methods The leaves of P. betle were extracted with solvents of varying polarities (water, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane) and their phenolic and flavonoid content were determined using colorimetric assays. Phenolic composition was characterized using HPLC. Antioxidant activities were measured using FRAP, DPPH, superoxide anion, nitric oxide and hyroxyl radical scavenging assays. Biological activities of the extracts were analysed using MTT assay and antioxidant enzyme (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) assays in MCF-7 cells. Results Overall, the ethyl acetate extract showed the highest ferric reducing activity and radical scavenging activities against DPPH, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radicals. This extract also contained the highest phenolic content implying the potential contribution of phenolics towards the antioxidant activities. HPLC analyses revealed the presence of catechin, morin and quercetin in the leaves. The ethyl acetate extract also showed the highest inhibitory effect against the proliferation of MCF-7 cells (IC50=65 μg/ml). Treatment of MCF-7 cells with the plant extract increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Conclusions Ethyl acetate is the optimal solvent for the extraction of compounds with antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities. The increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase in the treated cells

  3. Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice show increased titers of serum anti-nuclear and anti-dsDNA antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuehai; Huang, Ziyang; Lu, Huixia; Lin, Huili; Wang, Zhenhua; Chen, Xiaoqing; Ouyang, Qiufang; Tang, Mengxiong; Hao, Panpan; Ni, Jingqin; Xu, Dongming; Zhang, Mingxiang; Zhang, Qunye; Lin, Ling; and others

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Titers of ANA and anti-dsDNA antibodies were higher in ApoE{sup -/-} than C57B6/L mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spleen was greater and splenocyte apoptosis lower in ApoE{sup -/-} than B6 mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Level of TLR4 was lower in spleen tissue of ApoE{sup -/-} than B6 mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TLR4 pathway may participate in maintaining the balance of splenocyte apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TLR4 pathway may participate in antibody production in spleen tissue. -- Abstract: Apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE{sup -/-}) mice, atherosclerosis-prone mice, show an autoimmune response, but the pathogenesis is not fully understood. We investigated the pathogenesis in female and male ApoE{sup -/-} mice. The spleens of all ApoE{sup -/-} and C57BL/6 (B6) mice were weighed. The serum IgG level and titers of anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibody were assayed by ELISA. Apoptosis of spleen tissue was evaluated by TUNEL. TLR4 level in spleen tissue was tested by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Levels of MyD88, p38, phosphorylated p38 (pp38), interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) in spleen tissue were detected by Western blot analysis. We also survey the changes of serum autoantibodies, spleen weight, splenocyte apoptosis and the expressions of TLR4, MyD88, pp38, IRF3 and Bax in spleen tissue in male ApoE{sup -/-} mice after 4 weeks of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Toll-like receptor 4 ligand, administration. ApoE{sup -/-} mice showed splenomegaly and significantly increased serum level of IgG and titers of ANA and anti-dsDNA antibody as compared with B6 mice. Splenocyte apoptosis and the expression of TLR4, MyD88, pp38, IRF3 and Bax in spleen tissue were significantly lower in ApoE{sup -/-} than B6 mice. The expression of TLR4, MyD88, IRF3, pp38, and Bax differed by sex in ApoE{sup -/-} spleen tissue. The

  4. Langerhans cell histiocytosis in Chinese adults: absence of BRAF mutations and increased FOXP3+ regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Chunguang; Jia, Xingyuan; Jia, Yanjun; He, Yanling

    2014-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disorder characterized by the proliferation of abnormal Langerhans cells. Previous studies mainly focused on children with LCH. However, there is limited information on the clinical and pathological aspects of LCH in adults. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the clinical and pathological aspects of LCH in Chinese adults. The results showed that the average age of 18 LCH patients was 35.22 ± 16.57 years old. The ratio of male to female was 3.5:1.14 patients (77.8%) had single-system involvement and 4 patients (22.2%) had multi-system diseases. The skin (38.9%) and lungs (44.4%) were the mainly affected organs. No BRAF mutations were detected in the lesions of 18 cases. The number of FOXP3+ Tregs was significantly increased in LCH. In conclusion, clinical features of LCH in adults are distinct from those in children. Adult LCH has a relatively good prognosis and presents as a benign disease. Immune regulation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of adult LCH. PMID:25031736

  5. Leg and trunk muscle coordination and postural sway during increasingly difficult standing balance tasks in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Donath, Lars; Kurz, Eduard; Roth, Ralf; Zahner, Lukas; Faude, Oliver

    2016-09-01

    Ageing impairs body balance and increases older adults' fall risk. Balance training can improve intrinsic fall risk factors. However, age comparisons of muscle activity responses during balance tasks are lacking. This study investigated relative muscle activity, muscle coordination and postural sway during various recommended static balance training tasks. Muscle activity (%MVC), amplitude ratios (AR) and co-activity (CAI) were determined during standing tasks for 30s (1: double limb stance on a foam surface, eyes open; 2: double limb stance on firm ground, eyes closed; 3: double limb stance, feet in step position on a foam surface, eyes open; 4: double limb stance, feet in step position on firm ground, eyes closed; 5: single limb stance on firm ground, eyes open) in 20 healthy young adults (24±2 y) and 20 older adults (73±6 y). Surface electromyography (SEMG) was applied (SENIAM guidelines) to ankle (tibialis anterior, soleus, medial gastrocnemius, peroneus longus) and thigh (vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, biceps femoris, semitendinosus) muscles (non-dominant leg). Electrodes over trunk (multifidus and internal oblique) muscles were applied bilaterally. Two- to six-fold higher levels of relative muscle activity were found in older adults for ankle (0.0002adults for the trunk (0.001adults for the ankle (0.009adults had higher electrophysiological costs for all stance conditions. Muscle coordination showed inverse activity patterns at the ankle and trunk. Optimal balance and strength training programs should take into account age-specific alterations in muscle activity.

  6. Younger Adults Show Long-Term Effects of Cognitive Training on Broad Cognitive Abilities over 2 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmiedek, Florian; Lövdén, Martin; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2014-01-01

    In the COGITO study (Schmiedek, Lövdén, & Lindenberger, 2010), 101 younger adults practiced 12 tests of perceptual speed, working memory, and episodic memory for over 100 daily 1-hr sessions. The intervention resulted in positive transfer to broad cognitive abilities, including reasoning and episodic memory. Here, we examine whether these…

  7. Preschoolers with Down Syndrome Do Not yet Show the Learning and Memory Impairments Seen in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Lynette V.; Richmond, Jenny L.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) exhibit a behavioral phenotype of specific strengths and weaknesses, in addition to a generalized cognitive delay. In particular, adults with DS exhibit specific deficits in learning and memory processes that depend on the hippocampus, and there is some suggestion of impairments on executive function tasks that…

  8. Assessment of first and second degree relatives of individuals with bipolar disorder shows increased genetic risk scores in both affected relatives and young At‐Risk Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Koller, Daniel L.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Foroud, Tatiana; Liu, Hai; Glowinski, Anne L.; McInnis, Melvin G.; Wilcox, Holly C.; Frankland, Andrew; Roberts, Gloria; Schofield, Peter R.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Nurnberger, John I.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed the polygenic nature of bipolar disorder (BP), and identified common risk variants associated with illness. However, the role of common polygenic risk in multiplex families has not previously been examined. The present study examined 249 European‐ancestry families from the NIMH Genetics Initiative sample, comparing subjects with narrowly defined BP (excluding bipolar II and recurrent unipolar depression; n = 601) and their adult relatives without BP (n = 695). Unrelated adult controls (n = 266) were from the NIMH TGEN control dataset. We also examined a prospective cohort of young (12–30 years) offspring and siblings of individuals with BPI and BPII disorder (at risk; n = 367) and psychiatrically screened controls (n = 229), ascertained from five sites in the US and Australia and assessed with standardized clinical protocols. Thirty‐two disease‐associated SNPs from the PGC‐BP Working Group report (2011) were genotyped and additive polygenic risk scores (PRS) derived. We show increased PRS in adult cases compared to unrelated controls (P = 3.4 × 10−5, AUC = 0.60). In families with a high‐polygenic load (PRS score ≥32 in two or more subjects), PRS distinguished cases with BPI/SAB from other relatives (P = 0.014, RR = 1.32). Secondly, a higher PRS was observed in at‐risk youth, regardless of affected status, compared to unrelated controls (GEE‐χ2 = 5.15, P = 0.012). This report is the first to explore common polygenic risk in multiplex families, albeit using only a small number of robustly associated risk variants. We show that individuals with BP have a higher load of common disease‐associated variants than unrelated controls and first‐degree relatives, and illustrate the potential utility of PRS assessment in a family context. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID

  9. Adult Neuroblastoma Complicated by Increased Intracranial Pressure: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Patrick L.; Johnson, Douglas B.; Thompson, Mary Ann; Keedy, Vicki L.; Frangoul, Haydar A.; Snyder, Kristen M.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the third most commonly occurring malignancy of the pediatric population, although it is extremely rare in the adult population. In adults, neuroblastoma is often metastatic and portends an extremely poor overall survival. Our case report documents metastatic neuroblastoma occurring in a healthy 29-year-old woman whose course was complicated by an unusual presentation of elevated intracranial pressures. The patient was treated with systemic chemotherapy, I131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) radiotherapy, and autologous stem cell transplant (SCT). Unfortunately the patient's response to therapy was limited and she subsequently died. We aim to review neuroblastoma in the context of increased intracranial pressure and the limited data of neuroblastoma occurring in the adult population, along with proposed treatment options. PMID:25328733

  10. Arterial stiffness is higher in older adults with increased perceived fatigue and fatigability during walking.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Joaquin U; Wiberg, Matthew; Defferari, Elizabeth; Proctor, David N

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether central and/or peripheral arterial stiffness contributes to increased perceived fatigue during walking in mobility-intact older adults. Arterial stiffness of the common carotid artery and superficial femoral artery (SFA) was measured using Doppler-ultrasound in 45 community-dwelling women and men (60-78yrs). The change in perceived fatigue was measured after a fast-pace 400meter walk test. Adults that rated feeling more tired after walking (n=10) had higher SFA stiffness (p<0.01), but not carotid artery stiffness, than adults that reported feeling more energetic after walking (n=22). The change in perceived fatigue rating was normalized to energy expenditure during walking to determine perceived fatigability. Adults were divided into lower and higher perceived fatigability groups (n=22 per group). Carotid artery stiffness was not different between perceived fatigability groups after adjusting for age, sex, body fat, systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, daily physical activity levels, and resting diameter. However, SFA stiffness was significantly elevated in the higher as compared to lower perceived fatigability group (β-index: 20.7±1.3 vs. 15.3±1.4U; p=0.02) after adjusting for the abovementioned variables. Moreover, stepwise regression identified SFA β-index to be an independent predictor of perceived fatigability (r(2)=0.38, p<0.01). These results suggest that peripheral arterial stiffness is independently associated with perceived fatigue and fatigability in older adults. PMID:25482474

  11. Salivary testosterone and immunoglobulin A were increased by resistance training in adults with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fornieles, G; Rosety, M A; Elosegui, S; Rosety, J M; Alvero-Cruz, J R; Garcia, N; Rosety, M; Rodriguez-Pareja, T; Toro, R; Rosety-Rodriguez, M; Ordonez, F J; Rosety, I

    2014-04-01

    This study was designed to assess the influence of resistance training on salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels and hormone profile in sedentary adults with Down syndrome (DS). A total of 40 male adults with DS were recruited for the trial through different community support groups for people with intellectual disabilities. All participants had medical approval for participation in physical activity. Twenty-four adults were randomly assigned to perform resistance training in a circuit with six stations, 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Training intensity was based on functioning in the eight-repetition maximum (8RM) test for each exercise. The control group included 16 age-, gender-, and BMI-matched adults with DS. Salivary IgA, testosterone, and cortisol levels were measured by ELISA. Work task performance was assessed using the repetitive weighted-box-stacking test. Resistance training significantly increased salivary IgA concentration (P=0.0120; d=0.94) and testosterone levels (P=0.0088; d=1.57) in the exercising group. Furthermore, it also improved work task performance. No changes were seen in the controls who had not exercised. In conclusion, a short-term resistance training protocol improved mucosal immunity response as well as salivary testosterone levels in sedentary adults with DS.

  12. Low birth weight may increase body fat mass in adult women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Minooee, Sonia; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women engaged with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), as the commonest endocrine disorder, are known to have a specific type of adiposity. Birth weight is among different contributors reported to be responsible for this diversity. Objective: We aimed to compare the relation between birth weight and body fat mass (BFM)/ body lean mass (BLM) in PCOS and their age and body mass index (BMI) matched normal controls. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, a total number of 70 reproductive aged women, diagnosed with PCOS and 70 age- BMI matched healthy women without hirsutism and/or ovulatory dysfunction were recruited., control group had no polycystic ovaries in ultrasonographic scans. A detailed history of birth weight was taken and was divided into the following categories: <2,500 (low birth weight, LBW) and 2,500-4,000 (normal birth weight; NBW). Results: Results showed that LBW prevalence was higher in women with PCOS than in controls (19.3% (27) vs. 15.7% (22)). Also body fat and lean mass (BFM, BLM) have increased in adult women with PCOS who were born underweight compared to their normal (19.8±9.05 vs. 12.9±4.5, p=0.001 and 48.9±6.9 vs. 43.2±5.8, p=0.004 respectively). Conclusion: Fetal birth weight influences on the adulthood obesity, BFM and BLM. This impact is different among women with and without PCOS. PMID:27326419

  13. Myocardial infarction induces cognitive impairment by increasing the production of hydrogen peroxide in adult rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunhua; Liu, Ye; Yang, Zhuo

    2014-02-01

    Accumulating clinical evidence has shown a causal relationship between heart diseases and cognitive impairment in clinical, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, rats with myocardial infarction (MI) were used to investigate cognition-related synaptic function and proteins. Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to MI by ligating of left anterior descending artery (LAD) and the infarct size of rat heart was measured by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazoium chloride (TTC) staining. In this study, results showed that compared with control group, long-term potentiation was suppressed in dentate gyrus area, the contents of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde were significantly increased, whereas the Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase activity and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit 2B were attenuated in hippocampus of MI rats. Interestingly, it was observed that the PI3K/Akt pathway was activated in MI rats. Therefore, this study suggests that H2O2 plays an important role in cognitive dysfunction induced by MI.

  14. Increased arterial stiffness in young adults with end-stage renal disease since childhood.

    PubMed

    Groothoff, Jaap W; Gruppen, Mariken P; Offringa, Martin; de Groot, Eric; Stok, Willem; Bos, Willem Jan; Davin, Jean Claude; Lilien, Marc R; Van de Kar, Nicole Caj; Wolff, Eric D; Heymans, Hugo S

    2002-12-01

    Increased arterial stiffness is a risk factor for mortality in adults over 40 yr of age with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). As no data exist on vascular changes in young adults with ESRD since childhood, a long-term outcome study was performed. All living Dutch adult patients with onset of ESRD between 1972 and 1992 at age 0 to 14 yr were invited for carotid artery and cardiac ultrasound and BP measurements. Data on clinical characteristics were collected by review of all medical charts. Carotid ultrasound data were compared with those of 48 age-matched and gender-matched healthy controls. Carotid artery and cardiac ultrasound was performed in 130 out of 187 eligible patients. Mean age was 29.0 (20.7 to 40.6) yr. Compared with controls, patients had a similar intima media thickness but a reduced mean arterial wall distensibility DC (40.0 versus 45.0 kPa(-1). 10(-3); 95% CI, -9.1 to -0.8; P < 0.001), an increased stiffness parameter beta (4.2 versus 3.8; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.68; P = 0.02), an increased elastic incremental modulus E(inc) (0.35 versus 0.27 kPa. 10(3); 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.12; P < 0.001). Multiple regression analyses in all subjects revealed that ESRD was associated with an increase in beta and E(inc). Arterial wall properties of patients currently on dialysis and transplanted patients were comparable. In all patients, current systolic hypertension was associated with increased E(inc) and decreased DC. In conclusion, carotid arterial wall stiffness is increased in young adult patients with pediatric ESRD. Hypertension is a main determinant and might be a target for treatment of these potentially lethal arterial wall changes.

  15. Increased Marijuana Use and Gender Predict Poorer Cognitive Functioning in Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lisdahl, Krista M.; Price, Jenessa S.

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to characterize neuropsychological functioning in MJ-using adolescents and emerging adults (ages 18–26) and to investigate whether gender moderated these effects. Data were collected from 59 teens and emerging adults including MJ users (n = 23, 56% female) and controls (n = 35, 50% female) aged 18–26 (M = 21 years). Exclusionary criteria included independent Axis I disorders (besides SUD), and medical and neurologic disorders. After controlling for reading ability, gender, subclinical depressive symptoms, body mass index, and alcohol and other drug use, increased MJ use was associated with slower psychomotor speed/sequencing ability (p< .01), less efficient sustained attention (p< .05), and increased cognitive inhibition errors (p< .03). Gender significantly moderated the effects of MJ on psychomotor speed/sequencing ability (p< .003) in that males had a more robust negative relationship. The current study demonstrated that MJ exposure was associated with poorer psychomotor speed, sustained attention and cognitive inhibition in a dose-dependent manner in young adults, findings that are consistent with other samples of adolescent MJ users. Male MJ users demonstrated greater cognitive slowing than females. Future studies need to examine the neural substrates underlying with these cognitive deficits and whether cognitive rehabilitation or exercise interventions may serve as a viable treatments of cognitive deficits in emerging adult MJ users. PMID:22613255

  16. Anosmin-1 over-expression increases adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone and neuroblast migration to the olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    García-González, Diego; Murcia-Belmonte, Verónica; Esteban, Pedro F; Ortega, Felipe; Díaz, David; Sánchez-Vera, Irene; Lebrón-Galán, Rafael; Escobar-Castañondo, Laura; Martínez-Millán, Luis; Weruaga, Eduardo; García-Verdugo, José Manuel; Berninger, Benedikt; de Castro, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    New subventricular zone (SVZ)-derived neuroblasts that migrate via the rostral migratory stream are continuously added to the olfactory bulb (OB) of the adult rodent brain. Anosmin-1 (A1) is an extracellular matrix protein that binds to FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) to exert its biological effects. When mutated as in Kallmann syndrome patients, A1 is associated with severe OB morphogenesis defects leading to anosmia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Here, we show that A1 over-expression in adult mice strongly increases proliferation in the SVZ, mainly with symmetrical divisions, and produces substantial morphological changes in the normal SVZ architecture, where we also report the presence of FGFR1 in almost all SVZ cells. Interestingly, for the first time we show FGFR1 expression in the basal body of primary cilia in neural progenitor cells. Additionally, we have found that A1 over-expression also enhances neuroblast motility, mainly through FGFR1 activity. Together, these changes lead to a selective increase in several GABAergic interneuron populations in different OB layers. These specific alterations in the OB would be sufficient to disrupt the normal processing of sensory information and consequently alter olfactory memory. In summary, this work shows that FGFR1-mediated A1 activity plays a crucial role in the continuous remodelling of the adult OB. PMID:25300351

  17. Cytochrome c oxidase response to changes in cerebral oxygen delivery in the adult brain shows higher brain-specificity than haemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Kolyva, Christina; Ghosh, Arnab; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Highton, David; Cooper, Chris E; Smith, Martin; Elwell, Clare E

    2014-01-15

    The redox state of cerebral mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase monitored with near-infrared spectroscopy (Δ[oxCCO]) is a signal with strong potential as a non-invasive, bedside biomarker of cerebral metabolic status. We hypothesised that the higher mitochondrial density of brain compared to skin and skull would lead to evidence of brain-specificity of the Δ[oxCCO] signal when measured with a multi-distance near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system. Measurements of Δ[oxCCO] as well as of concentration changes in oxygenated (Δ[HbO2]) and deoxygenated haemoglobin (Δ[HHb]) were taken at multiple source-detector distances during systemic hypoxia and hypocapnia (decrease in cerebral oxygen delivery), and hyperoxia and hypercapnia (increase in cerebral oxygen delivery) from 15 adult healthy volunteers. Increasing source-detector spacing is associated with increasing light penetration depth and thus higher sensitivity to cerebral changes. An increase in Δ[oxCCO] was observed during the challenges that increased cerebral oxygen delivery and the opposite was observed when cerebral oxygen delivery decreased. A consistent pattern of statistically significant increasing amplitude of the Δ[oxCCO] response with increasing light penetration depth was observed in all four challenges, a behaviour that was distinctly different from that of the haemoglobin chromophores, which did not show this statistically significant depth gradient. This depth-dependence of the Δ[oxCCO] signal corroborates the notion of higher concentrations of CCO being present in cerebral tissue compared to extracranial components and highlights the value of NIRS-derived Δ[oxCCO] as a brain-specific signal of cerebral metabolism, superior in this aspect to haemoglobin. PMID:23707584

  18. Cytochrome c oxidase response to changes in cerebral oxygen delivery in the adult brain shows higher brain-specificity than haemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Kolyva, Christina; Ghosh, Arnab; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Highton, David; Cooper, Chris E; Smith, Martin; Elwell, Clare E

    2014-01-15

    The redox state of cerebral mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase monitored with near-infrared spectroscopy (Δ[oxCCO]) is a signal with strong potential as a non-invasive, bedside biomarker of cerebral metabolic status. We hypothesised that the higher mitochondrial density of brain compared to skin and skull would lead to evidence of brain-specificity of the Δ[oxCCO] signal when measured with a multi-distance near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system. Measurements of Δ[oxCCO] as well as of concentration changes in oxygenated (Δ[HbO2]) and deoxygenated haemoglobin (Δ[HHb]) were taken at multiple source-detector distances during systemic hypoxia and hypocapnia (decrease in cerebral oxygen delivery), and hyperoxia and hypercapnia (increase in cerebral oxygen delivery) from 15 adult healthy volunteers. Increasing source-detector spacing is associated with increasing light penetration depth and thus higher sensitivity to cerebral changes. An increase in Δ[oxCCO] was observed during the challenges that increased cerebral oxygen delivery and the opposite was observed when cerebral oxygen delivery decreased. A consistent pattern of statistically significant increasing amplitude of the Δ[oxCCO] response with increasing light penetration depth was observed in all four challenges, a behaviour that was distinctly different from that of the haemoglobin chromophores, which did not show this statistically significant depth gradient. This depth-dependence of the Δ[oxCCO] signal corroborates the notion of higher concentrations of CCO being present in cerebral tissue compared to extracranial components and highlights the value of NIRS-derived Δ[oxCCO] as a brain-specific signal of cerebral metabolism, superior in this aspect to haemoglobin.

  19. Association Between Increased Vascular Nitric Oxide Bioavailability and Progression to Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever in Adults.

    PubMed

    Thein, Tun-Linn; Wong, Joshua; Leo, Yee-Sin; Ooi, Eng-Eong; Lye, David; Yeo, Tsin W

    2015-09-01

    In a prospective longitudinal adult study, vascular nitric oxide bioavailability measured as reactive hyperemia index was significantly higher at enrollment in patients who developed dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) (n = 11), compared with the non-DHF group (n = 63) and those with other febrile illnesses (n = 25) (P = .01). After adjustment for age, fever day, and body mass index, enrollment reactive hyperemia index was associated with a 4-fold increased risk for DHF, and predicted DHF with an area under the receiver operating curve of 0.86. Increased vascular nitric oxide in dengue is associated with increased vascular permeability and impaired homeostasis and may have utility as a predictor of DHF.

  20. Blood-brain barrier permeability is increased after acute adult stroke but not neonatal stroke in the rat.

    PubMed

    Fernández-López, David; Faustino, Joel; Daneman, Richard; Zhou, Lu; Lee, Sarah Y; Derugin, Nikita; Wendland, Michael F; Vexler, Zinaida S

    2012-07-11

    The immaturity of the CNS at birth greatly affects injury after stroke but the contribution of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to the differential response to stroke in adults and neonates is poorly understood. We asked whether the structure and function of the BBB is disrupted differently in neonatal and adult rats by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. In adult rats, albumin leakage into injured regions was markedly increased during 2-24 h reperfusion but leakage remained low in the neonates. Functional assays employing intravascular tracers in the neonates showed that BBB permeability to both large (70 kDa dextran) and small (3 kDa dextran), gadolinium (III)-diethyltriaminepentaacetic acid tracers remained largely undisturbed 24 h after reperfusion. The profoundly different functional integrity of the BBB was associated with the largely nonoverlapping patterns of regulated genes in endothelial cells purified from injured and uninjured adult and neonatal brain at 24 h (endothelial transcriptome, 31,042 total probe sets). Within significantly regulated 1266 probe sets in injured adults and 361 probe sets in neonates, changes in the gene expression of the basal lamina components, adhesion molecules, the tight junction protein occludin, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were among the key differences. The protein expression of collagen-IV, laminin, claudin-5, occludin, and zonula occludens protein 1 was also better preserved in neonatal rats. Neutrophil infiltration remained low in acutely injured neonates but neutralization of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 in the systemic circulation enhanced neutrophil infiltration, BBB permeability, and injury. The markedly more integrant BBB in neonatal brain than in adult brain after acute stroke may have major implications for the treatment of neonatal stroke. PMID:22787045

  1. The current age of youthful melancholia. Evidence for increase in depression among adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Klerman, G L

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of a rise in rates of depression among adolescents and young adults was first reported in the 1970s. Particular note was taken of the emergence of childhood depression and the increase in suicide attempts and death among adolescents and young adults. Data from large-sample family studies and community epidemiological surveys have been reviewed and reanalysed, using life-table statistical methodology. Evidence for secular trends are presented, and the problems of disentangling period and cohort effect are discussed. It appears that the 'baby boomers' - those born in the years after World War II - have had increased rates of depression and other related illnesses, including drug abuse and alcoholism. The theoretical aspects of this are discussed, particularly for gene-environment interactions.

  2. Increased presence of capillaries next to remodeling sites in adult human cancellous bone.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Helene Bjoerg; Andersen, Thomas Levin; Marcussen, Niels; Rolighed, Lars; Delaisse, Jean-Marie

    2013-03-01

    Vascularization is a prerequisite for osteogenesis in a number of situations, including bone development, fracture healing, and cortical bone remodeling. It is unknown whether a similar link exists between cancellous bone remodeling and vascularization. Here, we show an association between remodeling sites, capillaries, proliferative cells, and putative osteoblast progenitors. Iliac crest biopsies from normal human individuals were subjected to histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry to identify the respective positions of bone remodeling sites, CD34-positive capillaries, smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive putative osteoblast progenitors, including pericytes, Ki67-positive proliferative cells, and bone remodeling compartment (BRC) canopies. The BRC canopy is a recently described structure separating remodeling sites from the bone marrow, consisting of CD56-positive osteoblasts at an early differentiation stage. We found that bone remodeling sites were associated with a significantly increased presence of capillaries, putative osteoblast progenitors, and proliferative cells in a region within 50 µm of the bone or the canopy surface. The increases were the highest above eroded surfaces and at the level of the light-microscopically assessed contact of these three entities with the bone or canopy surfaces. Between 51 and 100 µm, their densities leveled to that found above quiescent surfaces. Electron microscopy asserted the close proximity between BRC canopies and capillaries lined by pericytes. Furthermore, the BRC canopy cells were found to express SMA. These ordered distributions support the existence of an osteogenic-vascular interface in adult human cancellous bone. The organization of this interface fits the current knowledge on the mode of action of vasculature on osteogenesis, and points to the BRC canopy as a central player in this mechanism. We propose a model where initiation of bone remodeling coincides with the induction of proximity of the

  3. Increased reports of measles in a low endemic region during a rubella outbreak in adult populations.

    PubMed

    Kurata, Takako; Kanbayashi, Daiki; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Komano, Jun; Kase, Tetsuo; Takahashi, Kazuo

    2015-06-01

    In 2013, a rubella outbreak was observed in Japan, Romania, and Poland. The outbreak in Japan was accompanied by an increase of measles reports, especially from a region where measles is highly controlled. This was attributed to the adult populations affected by this rubella outbreak, similarity of clinical signs between rubella and measles, sufficiently small impact of measles outbreaks from neighboring nations, and elimination levels of measles endemicity. Current and future concerns for measles control are discussed.

  4. Pedometers and brief e-counseling: increasing physical activity for overweight adults.

    PubMed Central

    VanWormer, Jeffrey J

    2004-01-01

    Physical inactivity has emerged as a public health epidemic and is associated with the rising obesity rate. A multiple-treatments reversal design was utilized to test whether pedometer-aided self-monitoring and brief e-counseling could help 3 overweight adults increase their physical activity. Dependent measures were taken for pedometer steps and weight. Two participants approximately doubled their daily step totals and lost a modest amount of weight by study end. PMID:15529901

  5. Effects of increasing physical activity on foot structure and ankle muscle strength in adults with obesity

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaoguang; Tsujimoto, Takehiko; Kim, Bokun; Katayama, Yasutomi; Wakaba, Kyousuke; Wang, Zhennan; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of increasing physical activity on foot structure and ankle muscle strength in adults with obesity and to verify whether the rate of change in foot structure is related to that in ankle muscle strength. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-seven adults with obesity completed a 12-week program in which the intensity of physical activity performed was gradually increased. Physical activity was monitored using a three-axis accelerometer. Foot structure was assessed using a three-dimensional foot scanner, while ankle muscle strength was measured using a dynamometry. [Results] With the increasing physical activity, the participants’ feet became thinner (the rearfoot width, instep height, and girth decreased) and the arch became higher (the arch height index increased) and stiffer (the arch stiffness index increased); the ankle muscle strength also increased after the intervention. Additionally, the changes in the arch height index and arch stiffness index were not associated with changes in ankle muscle strength. [Conclusion] Increasing physical activity may be one possible approach to improve foot structure and function in individuals with obesity.

  6. Effects of increasing physical activity on foot structure and ankle muscle strength in adults with obesity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoguang; Tsujimoto, Takehiko; Kim, Bokun; Katayama, Yasutomi; Wakaba, Kyousuke; Wang, Zhennan; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of increasing physical activity on foot structure and ankle muscle strength in adults with obesity and to verify whether the rate of change in foot structure is related to that in ankle muscle strength. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-seven adults with obesity completed a 12-week program in which the intensity of physical activity performed was gradually increased. Physical activity was monitored using a three-axis accelerometer. Foot structure was assessed using a three-dimensional foot scanner, while ankle muscle strength was measured using a dynamometry. [Results] With the increasing physical activity, the participants' feet became thinner (the rearfoot width, instep height, and girth decreased) and the arch became higher (the arch height index increased) and stiffer (the arch stiffness index increased); the ankle muscle strength also increased after the intervention. Additionally, the changes in the arch height index and arch stiffness index were not associated with changes in ankle muscle strength. [Conclusion] Increasing physical activity may be one possible approach to improve foot structure and function in individuals with obesity. PMID:27630426

  7. Effects of increasing physical activity on foot structure and ankle muscle strength in adults with obesity

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaoguang; Tsujimoto, Takehiko; Kim, Bokun; Katayama, Yasutomi; Wakaba, Kyousuke; Wang, Zhennan; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of increasing physical activity on foot structure and ankle muscle strength in adults with obesity and to verify whether the rate of change in foot structure is related to that in ankle muscle strength. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-seven adults with obesity completed a 12-week program in which the intensity of physical activity performed was gradually increased. Physical activity was monitored using a three-axis accelerometer. Foot structure was assessed using a three-dimensional foot scanner, while ankle muscle strength was measured using a dynamometry. [Results] With the increasing physical activity, the participants’ feet became thinner (the rearfoot width, instep height, and girth decreased) and the arch became higher (the arch height index increased) and stiffer (the arch stiffness index increased); the ankle muscle strength also increased after the intervention. Additionally, the changes in the arch height index and arch stiffness index were not associated with changes in ankle muscle strength. [Conclusion] Increasing physical activity may be one possible approach to improve foot structure and function in individuals with obesity. PMID:27630426

  8. Maximal exercise does not increase ventilation heterogeneity in healthy trained adults.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, Jeremy P; Ellis, Matthew J; Kee, Kirk; Stuart-Andrews, Christopher R; Thompson, Bruce R

    2016-04-01

    The effect of exercise on ventilation heterogeneity has not been investigated. We hypothesized that a maximal exercise bout would increase ventilation heterogeneity. We also hypothesized that increased ventilation heterogeneity would be associated with exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH). Healthy trained adult males were prospectively assessed for ventilation heterogeneity using lung clearance index (LCI), Scond, and Sacinat baseline, postexercise and at recovery, using the multiple breath nitrogen washout technique. The maximal exercise bout consisted of a maximal, incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test at 25 watt increments. Eighteen subjects were recruited with mean ± SDage of 35 ± 9 years. There were no significant changes inLCI, Scond, or Sacinfollowing exercise or at recovery. While there was an overall reduction in SpO2with exercise (99.3 ± 1 to 93.7 ± 3%,P < 0.0001), the reduction in SpO2was not associated with changes inLCI, Scondor Sacin Ventilation heterogeneity is not increased following a maximal exercise bout in healthy trained adults. Furthermore,EIAHis not associated with changes in ventilation heterogeneity in healthy trained adults.

  9. NIH-funded study shows increased prostate cancer risk from vitamin E supplements | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Men who took 400 international units (I.U.) of vitamin E daily had more prostate cancers compared to men who took a placebo, according to an updated review of data from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). The findings showed that, per 1,000 men, there were 76 prostate cancers in men who took only vitamin E supplements, vs. |

  10. Interaction between asthma and smoking increases the risk of adult airway obstruction.

    PubMed

    Aanerud, Marianne; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Sunyer, Jordi; Dratva, Julia; Gislason, Thorarinn; Jarvis, Deborah; deMarco, Roberto; Raherison, Chantal; Wjst, Matthias; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Svanes, Cecilie

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the interaction between asthma and smoking in the risk of adult airway obstruction, accounting for atopy. In the European Community Respiratory Health Survey, 15 668 persons aged 20-56 years underwent spirometry in 1991-1993 and 9 years later (n=8916). Risk of airway obstruction and lung function decline associated with smoking and early-onset (<10 years of age) and late-onset (>10 years of age) asthma were analysed with generalised estimating equation models and random-effect linear models, adjusting for covariates. Interaction of asthma with smoking was expressed as relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI). A 20-fold increase in adult airway obstruction was found among those with early-onset asthma independently of smoking status (never-smokers: OR 21.0, 95% CI 12.7-35; current smokers: OR 23.7, 95% CI 13.9-40.6). Late-onset asthma was associated with airway obstruction, with a stronger association among current smokers (OR 25.6, 95% CI 15.6-41.9) than among never-smokers (OR 11.2, 95% CI 6.8-18.6) (RERI 12.02, 95% CI 1.96-22.07). Stratifying by atopy, the association between smoking and asthma was most pronounced among nonatopics. Early- and late-onset asthma were associated with 10-20-fold increased risk of adult airway obstruction. Smoking increased the risk of adult airway obstruction in subjects with asthma onset after age 10 years. Investigation of measures potentially preventive of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease development following asthma is urgently needed.

  11. Increased GABA Levels in Medial Prefrontal Cortex of Young Adults with Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seog Ju; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Lee, Yujin S.; Sung, Young Hoon; Kim, Hengjun J.; Kim, Jihyun H.; Kim, Kye Hyun; Jeong, Do-Un

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: To explore absolute concentrations of brain metabolites including gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA) in the medial prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia of young adults with narcolepsy. Design: Proton magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy centered on the medial prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia was acquired. The absolute concentrations of brain metabolites including GABA and glutamate were assessed and compared between narcoleptic patients and healthy comparison subjects. Setting: Sleep and Chronobiology Center at Seoul National University Hospital; A high strength 3.0 Tesla MR scanner in the Department of Radiology at Seoul National University Hospital. Patients or Participants: Seventeen young adults with a sole diagnosis of HLA DQB1 0602 positive narcolepsy with cataplexy (25.1 ± 4.6 years old) and 17 healthy comparison subjects (26.8 ± 4.8 years old). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Relative to comparison subjects, narcoleptic patients had higher GABA concentration in the medial prefrontal cortex (t = 4.10, P <0.001). Narcoleptic patients with nocturnal sleep disturbance had higher GABA concentration in the medial prefrontal cortex than those without nocturnal sleep disturbance (t = 2.45, P= 0.03), but had lower GABA concentration than comparison subjects (t = 2.30, P = 0.03). Conclusions: The current study reports that young adults with narcolepsy had a higher GABA concentration in the medial prefrontal cortex, which was more prominent in patients without nocturnal sleep disturbance. Our findings suggest that the medial prefrontal GABA level may be increased in narcolepsy, and the increased medial prefrontal GABA might be a compensatory mechanism to reduce nocturnal sleep disturbances in narcolepsy. Citation: Kim SJ; Lyoo IK; Lee YS; Sung YH; Kim HJ; Kim JH; Kim KH; Jeong DU. Increased GABA levels in medial prefrontal cortex of young adults with narcolepsy. SLEEP 2008;31(3):342-347. PMID:18363310

  12. Increased carboxyhemoglobin in adult falciparum malaria is associated with disease severity and mortality.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Tsin W; Lampah, Daniel A; Kenangalem, Enny; Tjitra, Emiliana; Price, Ric N; Anstey, Nicholas M

    2013-09-01

    Heme oxygenase 1 expression is increased in pediatric patients with malaria. The carboxyhemoglobin level (a measure of heme oxygenase 1 activity) has not been assessed in adult patients with malaria. Results of pulse co-oximetry revealed that the mean carboxyhemoglobin level was elevated in 29 Indonesian adults with severe falciparum malaria (10%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8%-13%) and in 20 with severe sepsis (8%; 95% CI, 5%-12%), compared with the mean levels in 32 patients with moderately severe malaria (7%; 95% CI, 5%-8%) and 36 controls (3.6%; 95% CI, 3%-5%; P < .001). An increased carboxyhemoglobin level was associated with an increased odds of death among patients with severe malaria (odds ratio, 1.2 per percentage point increase; 95% CI, 1.02-1.5). While also associated with severity and fatality, methemoglobin was only modestly increased in patients with severe malaria. Increased carboxyhemoglobin levels during severe malaria and sepsis may exacerbate organ dysfunction by reducing oxygen carriage and cautions against the use of adjunctive CO therapy, which was proposed on the basis of mouse models.

  13. Modeling the Potential Impact of a Prescription Drug Copayment Increase on the Adult Asthmatic Medicaid Population

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Seung Jin; Paltiel, A. David; Fuhlbrigge, Anne L.; Weiss, Scott T.; Kuntz, Karen M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The Commonwealth of Massachusetts increased the copayment for prescription drugs by $1.50 for Medicaid (MassHealth) beneficiaries in 2003. We sought to determine the likely health outcomes and cost shifts attributable to this copayment increase using the example of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) use among adult asthmatic Medicaid beneficiaries. Method We compared the predicted costs and health outcomes projected over a 1-year time horizon with and without the increase in copayment from the perspective of MassHealth, providers, pharmacies, and MassHealth beneficiaries by employing decision analysis simulation model. Results In a target population of 17,500 adult asthmatics, increased copayments from 50¢ to $2.00 would result in an additional 646 acute events per year, caused by increased drug nonadherence. Annual combined net savings for the state and federal governments would be $2.10 million. Projected MassHealth savings are attributable to both decreased drug utilization and lower pharmacy reimbursement rates; these more than offset the additional costs of more frequent acute exacerbations. Pharmacies would lose $1.98 million in net revenues, MassHealth beneficiaries would pay an additional $0.28 million, and providers would receive additional $0.16 million. Conclusion Over its first year of implementation, increase in the prescription drug copayment is expected to produce more frequent acute exacerbations among asthmatic MassHealth beneficiaries who use ICS and to shift the financial burden from government to other stakeholders. PMID:18237365

  14. Adult-brain-derived neural stem cells grafting into a vein bridge increases postlesional recovery and regeneration in a peripheral nerve of adult pig.

    PubMed

    Liard, Olivier; Segura, Stéphanie; Sagui, Emmanuel; Nau, André; Pascual, Aurélie; Cambon, Melissa; Darlix, Jean-Luc; Fusai, Thierry; Moyse, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    We attempted transplantation of adult neural stem cells (ANSCs) inside an autologous venous graft following surgical transsection of nervis cruralis with 30 mm long gap in adult pig. The transplanted cell suspension was a primary culture of neurospheres from adult pig subventricular zone (SVZ) which had been labeled in vitro with BrdU or lentivirally transferred fluorescent protein. Lesion-induced loss of leg extension on the thigh became definitive in controls but was reversed by 45-90 days after neurosphere-filled vein grafting. Electromyography showed stimulodetection recovery in neurosphere-transplanted pigs but not in controls. Postmortem immunohistochemistry revealed neurosphere-derived cells that survived inside the venous graft from 10 to 240 post-lesion days and all displayed a neuronal phenotype. Newly formed neurons were distributed inside the venous graft along the severed nerve longitudinal axis. Moreover, ANSC transplantation increased CNPase expression, indicating activation of intrinsic Schwann cells. Thus ANSC transplantation inside an autologous venous graft provides an efficient repair strategy. PMID:22448170

  15. Adult-Brain-Derived Neural Stem Cells Grafting into a Vein Bridge Increases Postlesional Recovery and Regeneration in a Peripheral Nerve of Adult Pig

    PubMed Central

    Liard, Olivier; Segura, Stéphanie; Sagui, Emmanuel; Nau, André; Pascual, Aurélie; Cambon, Melissa; Darlix, Jean-Luc; Fusai, Thierry; Moyse, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    We attempted transplantation of adult neural stem cells (ANSCs) inside an autologous venous graft following surgical transsection of nervis cruralis with 30 mm long gap in adult pig. The transplanted cell suspension was a primary culture of neurospheres from adult pig subventricular zone (SVZ) which had been labeled in vitro with BrdU or lentivirally transferred fluorescent protein. Lesion-induced loss of leg extension on the thigh became definitive in controls but was reversed by 45–90 days after neurosphere-filled vein grafting. Electromyography showed stimulodetection recovery in neurosphere-transplanted pigs but not in controls. Postmortem immunohistochemistry revealed neurosphere-derived cells that survived inside the venous graft from 10 to 240 post-lesion days and all displayed a neuronal phenotype. Newly formed neurons were distributed inside the venous graft along the severed nerve longitudinal axis. Moreover, ANSC transplantation increased CNPase expression, indicating activation of intrinsic Schwann cells. Thus ANSC transplantation inside an autologous venous graft provides an efficient repair strategy. PMID:22448170

  16. Pegylated Trastuzumab Fragments Acquire an Increased in Vivo Stability but Show a Largely Reduced Affinity for the Target Antigen.

    PubMed

    Selis, Fabio; Focà, Giuseppina; Sandomenico, Annamaria; Marra, Carla; Di Mauro, Concetta; Saccani Jotti, Gloria; Scaramuzza, Silvia; Politano, Annalisa; Sanna, Riccardo; Ruvo, Menotti; Tonon, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    PEGylation of biomolecules is a major approach to increase blood stream half-life, stability and solubility of biotherapeutics and to reduce their immunogenicity, aggregation potential and unspecific interactions with other proteins and tissues. Antibodies have generally long half-lives due to high molecular mass and stability toward proteases, however their size lowers to some extent their potential because of a reduced ability to penetrate tissues, especially those of tumor origin. Fab or otherwise engineered smaller fragments are an alternative but are less stable and are much less well retained in circulation. We have here investigated the effects of various PEGylations on the binding properties and in vivo half-life of Fab fragments derived from the enzymatic splitting of Trastuzumab. We find that PEGylation increases the half-life of the molecules but also strongly affects the ability to recognize the target antigen in a way that is dependent on the extent and position of the chemical modification. Data thus support the concept that polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugation on Trastuzumab Fabs increases half-life but reduces their affinity and this is a fine balance, which must be carefully considered for the design of strategies based on the use of antibody fragments. PMID:27043557

  17. Pegylated Trastuzumab Fragments Acquire an Increased in Vivo Stability but Show a Largely Reduced Affinity for the Target Antigen.

    PubMed

    Selis, Fabio; Focà, Giuseppina; Sandomenico, Annamaria; Marra, Carla; Di Mauro, Concetta; Saccani Jotti, Gloria; Scaramuzza, Silvia; Politano, Annalisa; Sanna, Riccardo; Ruvo, Menotti; Tonon, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    PEGylation of biomolecules is a major approach to increase blood stream half-life, stability and solubility of biotherapeutics and to reduce their immunogenicity, aggregation potential and unspecific interactions with other proteins and tissues. Antibodies have generally long half-lives due to high molecular mass and stability toward proteases, however their size lowers to some extent their potential because of a reduced ability to penetrate tissues, especially those of tumor origin. Fab or otherwise engineered smaller fragments are an alternative but are less stable and are much less well retained in circulation. We have here investigated the effects of various PEGylations on the binding properties and in vivo half-life of Fab fragments derived from the enzymatic splitting of Trastuzumab. We find that PEGylation increases the half-life of the molecules but also strongly affects the ability to recognize the target antigen in a way that is dependent on the extent and position of the chemical modification. Data thus support the concept that polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugation on Trastuzumab Fabs increases half-life but reduces their affinity and this is a fine balance, which must be carefully considered for the design of strategies based on the use of antibody fragments.

  18. Physical skill training increases the number of surviving new cells in the adult hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Curlik, Daniel M; Maeng, Lisa Y; Agarwal, Prateek R; Shors, Tracey J

    2013-01-01

    The dentate gyrus is a major site of plasticity in the adult brain, giving rise to thousands of new neurons every day, through the process of adult neurogenesis. Although the majority of these cells die within two weeks of their birth, they can be rescued from death by various forms of learning. Successful acquisition of select types of associative and spatial memories increases the number of these cells that survive. Here, we investigated the possibility that an entirely different form of learning, physical skill learning, could rescue new hippocampal cells from death. To test this possibility, rats were trained with a physically-demanding and technically-difficult version of a rotarod procedure. Acquisition of the physical skill greatly increased the number of new hippocampal cells that survived. The number of surviving cells positively correlated with performance on the task. Only animals that successfully mastered the task retained the cells that would have otherwise died. Animals that failed to learn, and those that did not learn well did not retain any more cells than those that were untrained. Importantly, acute voluntary exercise in activity wheels did not increase the number of surviving cells. These data suggest that acquisition of a physical skill can increase the number of surviving hippocampal cells. Moreover, learning an easier version of the task did not increase cell survival. These results are consistent with previous reports revealing that learning only rescues new neurons from death when acquisition is sufficiently difficult to achieve. Finally, complete hippocampal lesions did not disrupt acquisition of this physical skill. Therefore, physical skill training that does not depend on the hippocampus can effectively increase the number of surviving cells in the adult hippocampus, the vast majority of which become mature neurons.

  19. Increased excitability and molecular changes in adult rats after a febrile seizure.

    PubMed

    Reid, Aylin Y; Riazi, Kiarash; Campbell Teskey, G; Pittman, Quentin J

    2013-04-01

    Both early life inflammation and prolonged febrile seizures have been associated with increased excitation in the adult brain. We hypothesized this may be due in part to changes in the cation-chloride cotransporter system. Rat pups received saline or lipopolysaccharide/kainic acid (LPS/KA) resulting in inflammation, followed by a behavioral febrile seizure (FS) in approximately 50% of rats. Adult animals from the saline, inflammation, or inflammation + FS groups underwent the following: (1) in vitro electrophysiologic studies; (2) Western blotting or polymerase chain reaction; or (3) application of the Na-K-Cl cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) blocker bumetanide to determine its effect on reversing increased excitability in vitro. The inflammation and inflammation + FS groups demonstrated increased excitability in vitro and increased hippocampal protein expression of NR2B and GABAA α5 receptor subunits and mRNA expression of NKCC1. The inflammation + FS group also had decreased protein expression of GluR2 and GABAA α1 receptor subunits and mRNA and protein expression of KCC2. Bumetanide decreased in vitro 4-aminopyridine-induced inter-ictal activity in the inflammation and inflammation + FS groups. The results demonstrate early-life inflammation with or without a behavioral FS can lead to long-lasting molecular changes and increased excitability in the adult rat hippocampus, although some changes are more extensive when inflammation is accompanied by behavioral seizure activity. Bumetanide is effective in reversing increased excitability in vitro, providing evidence for a causal role for cation-chloride cotransporters and suggesting this drug may prove useful for treating epilepsy that develops after a FS. PMID:23293960

  20. Hydraulic conductance and water potential gradients in squash leaves showing mycorrhiza-induced increases in stomatal conductance.

    PubMed

    Augé, Robert M; Toler, Heather D; Sams, Carl E; Nasim, Ghazala

    2008-03-01

    Stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration rates vary widely across plant species. Leaf hydraulic conductance (k leaf) tends to change with g (s), to maintain hydraulic homeostasis and prevent wide and potentially harmful fluctuations in transpiration-induced water potential gradients across the leaf (Delta Psi leaf). Because arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis often increases gs in the plant host, we tested whether the symbiosis affects leaf hydraulic homeostasis. Specifically, we tested whether k leaf changes with gs to maintain Delta Psi leaf or whether Delta Psi leaf differs when gs differs in AM and non-AM plants. Colonization of squash plants with Glomus intraradices resulted in increased gs relative to non-AM controls, by an average of 27% under amply watered, unstressed conditions. Stomatal conductance was similar in AM and non-AM plants with exposure to NaCl stress. Across all AM and NaCl treatments, k leaf did change in synchrony with gs (positive correlation of gs and k leaf), corroborating leaf tendency toward hydraulic homeostasis under varying rates of transpirational water loss. However, k leaf did not increase in AM plants to compensate for the higher gs of unstressed AM plants relative to non-AM plants. Consequently, Delta Psi leaf did tend to be higher in AM leaves. A trend toward slightly higher Delta Psi leaf has been observed recently in more highly evolved plant taxa having higher productivity. Higher Delta Psi leaf in leaves of mycorrhizal plants would therefore be consistent with the higher rates of gas exchange that often accompany mycorrhizal symbiosis and that are presumed to be necessary to supply the carbon needs of the fungal symbiont.

  1. Children's Increased Emotional Egocentricity Compared to Adults Is Mediated by Age-Related Differences in Conflict Processing.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Ferdinand; Singer, Tania; Steinbeis, Nikolaus

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the cognitive mechanisms underlying age-related differences in emotional egocentricity bias (EEB) between children (aged 7-12 years, n = 30) and adults (aged 20-30 years, n = 30) using a novel paradigm of visuogustatory stimulation to induce pleasant and unpleasant emotions. Both children and adults showed an EBB, but that of children was larger. The EEB did not correlate with other measures of egocentricity. Crucially, the developmental differences in EEB were mediated by age-related changes in conflict processing and not visual perspective taking, response inhibition, or processing speed. This indicates that different types of egocentricity develop independently of one another and that the increased ability to overcome EEB can be explained by age-related improvements in conflict processing.

  2. Next-generation sequencing-based method shows increased mutation detection sensitivity in an Indian retinoblastoma cohort

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jaya; Mishra, Avshesh; Pandian, Arunachalam Jayamuruga; Mallipatna, Ashwin C.; Khetan, Vikas; Sripriya, S.; Kapoor, Suman; Agarwal, Smita; Sankaran, Satish; Katragadda, Shanmukh; Veeramachaneni, Vamsi; Hariharan, Ramesh; Subramanian, Kalyanasundaram

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Retinoblastoma (Rb) is the most common primary intraocular cancer of childhood and one of the major causes of blindness in children. India has the highest number of patients with Rb in the world. Mutations in the RB1 gene are the primary cause of Rb, and heterogeneous mutations are distributed throughout the entire length of the gene. Therefore, genetic testing requires screening of the entire gene, which by conventional sequencing is time consuming and expensive. Methods In this study, we screened the RB1 gene in the DNA isolated from blood or saliva samples of 50 unrelated patients with Rb using the TruSight Cancer panel. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was done on the Illumina MiSeq platform. Genetic variations were identified using the Strand NGS software and interpreted using the StrandOmics platform. Results We were able to detect germline pathogenic mutations in 66% (33/50) of the cases, 12 of which were novel. We were able to detect all types of mutations, including missense, nonsense, splice site, indel, and structural variants. When we considered bilateral Rb cases only, the mutation detection rate increased to 100% (22/22). In unilateral Rb cases, the mutation detection rate was 30% (6/20). Conclusions Our study suggests that NGS-based approaches increase the sensitivity of mutation detection in the RB1 gene, making it fast and cost-effective compared to the conventional tests performed in a reflex-testing mode. PMID:27582626

  3. Virulent strain of Lichtheimia corymbifera shows increased phagocytosis by macrophages as revealed by automated microscopy image analysis.

    PubMed

    Kraibooj, Kaswara; Park, Hea-Reung; Dahse, Hans-Martin; Skerka, Christine; Voigt, Kerstin; Figge, Marc Thilo

    2014-12-01

    Lichtheimia corymbifera is a ubiquitous soilborne zygomycete fungus, which is an opportunistic human pathogen in immunocompromised patients. The fungus can cause life-threatening diseases by attacking the lung during early stages of invasion and by disseminating during later phases causing systemic infection. Since infections have drastically increased during the last decades, it is a major goal to investigate the mechanisms underlying pathogenicity of L. corymbifera. One of the first barriers, which the fungus needs to cope with in the lung tissue, is phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages. Here, we report on phagocytosis assays for murine alveolar macrophages co-incubated with resting, swollen and opsonised spores of a virulent and an attenuated L. corymbifera strain. A major finding of this study is the significantly increased phagocytosis ratio of the virulent strain if compared to the attenuated strain. We quantify the phagocytosis by performing automated analysis of fluorescence microscopy images and by computing ratios for (i) fungal phagocytosis, (ii) fungal adhesion to phagocytes and (iii) fungal aggregation and spore cluster distribution in space. Automation of the image analysis yields objective results that overcome the disadvantages of manual analyses being time consuming, error-prone and subjective. Therefore, it can be expected that automated image analysis of confrontation assays will play a crucial role in future investigations of host-pathogen interactions.

  4. PET-Scan Shows Peripherally Increased Neurokinin 1 Receptor Availability in Chronic Tennis Elbow: Visualizing Neurogenic Inflammation?

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Magnus; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Appel, Lieuwe; Engler, Henry; Aarnio, Mikko; Gordh, Torsten; Långström, Bengt; Sörensen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    In response to pain, neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor availability is altered in the central nervous system. The NK1 receptor and its primary agonist, substance P, also play a crucial role in peripheral tissue in response to pain, as part of neurogenic inflammation. However, little is known about alterations in NK1 receptor availability in peripheral tissue in chronic pain conditions and very few studies have been performed on human beings. Ten subjects with chronic tennis elbow were therefore examined by positron emission tomography (PET) with the NK1 specific radioligand [11C]GR205171 before and after treatment with graded exercise. The radioligand signal intensity was higher in the affected arm as compared with the unaffected arm, measured as differences between the arms in volume of voxels and signal intensity of this volume above a reference threshold set as 2.5 SD above mean signal intensity of the unaffected arm before treatment. In the eight subjects examined after treatment, pain ratings decreased in all subjects but signal intensity decreased in five and increased in three. In conclusion, NK1 receptors may be activated, or up-regulated in the peripheral, painful tissue of a chronic pain condition. This up-regulation does, however, have moderate correlation to pain ratings. The increased NK1 receptor availability is interpreted as part of ongoing neurogenic inflammation and may have correlation to the pathogenesis of chronic tennis elbow. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00888225 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ PMID:24155873

  5. Increased load computerized dynamic posturography in prefrail and nonfrail community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Biggan, John R; Melton, Forest; Horvat, Michael A; Ricard, Mark; Keller, David; Ray, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of prefrail and nonfrail older adults' postural control with and without increased environmental and cognitive stress is imperative to the development of targeted interventions to decrease fall risk within these populations. Thirty-eight individuals participated in this study. Postural control testing included the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) on a NeuroCom EquiTest. Cognitive and environmental load testing was performed during Condition 6 of the SOT. Though there were no group differences on composite equilibrium score (p = .06), the cognitive task (Stroop task) impaired equilibrium scores more than the auditory or visual distracter tasks (p < .05 and p < .01) for both groups. These results suggest that both prefrail and nonfrail older adults' postural control is reduced in demanding environments. Given these findings, the need for multimodal exercise interventions to target both physical and cognitive factors is apparent. PMID:23416307

  6. Transgenic tobacco overexpressing Brassica juncea HMG-CoA synthase 1 shows increased plant growth, pod size and seed yield.

    PubMed

    Liao, Pan; Wang, Hui; Wang, Mingfu; Hsiao, An-Shan; Bach, Thomas J; Chye, Mee-Len

    2014-01-01

    Seeds are very important not only in the life cycle of the plant but they represent food sources for man and animals. We report herein a mutant of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase (HMGS), the second enzyme in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway that can improve seed yield when overexpressed in a phylogenetically distant species. In Brassica juncea, the characterisation of four isogenes encoding HMGS has been previously reported. Enzyme kinetics on recombinant wild-type (wt) and mutant BjHMGS1 had revealed that S359A displayed a 10-fold higher enzyme activity. The overexpression of wt and mutant (S359A) BjHMGS1 in Arabidopsis had up-regulated several genes in sterol biosynthesis, increasing sterol content. To quickly assess the effects of BjHMGS1 overexpression in a phylogenetically more distant species beyond the Brassicaceae, wt and mutant (S359A) BjHMGS1 were expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi) of the family Solanaceae. New observations on tobacco OEs not previously reported for Arabidopsis OEs included: (i) phenotypic changes in enhanced plant growth, pod size and seed yield (more significant in OE-S359A than OE-wtBjHMGS1) in comparison to vector-transformed tobacco, (ii) higher NtSQS expression and sterol content in OE-S359A than OE-wtBjHMGS1 corresponding to greater increase in growth and seed yield, and (iii) induction of NtIPPI2 and NtGGPPS2 and downregulation of NtIPPI1, NtGGPPS1, NtGGPPS3 and NtGGPPS4. Resembling Arabidopsis HMGS-OEs, tobacco HMGS-OEs displayed an enhanced expression of NtHMGR1, NtSMT1-2, NtSMT2-1, NtSMT2-2 and NtCYP85A1. Overall, increased growth, pod size and seed yield in tobacco HMGS-OEs were attributed to the up-regulation of native NtHMGR1, NtIPPI2, NtSQS, NtSMT1-2, NtSMT2-1, NtSMT2-2 and NtCYP85A1. Hence, S359A has potential in agriculture not only in improving phytosterol content but also seed yield, which may be desirable in food crops. This work further demonstrates HMGS function in plant reproduction

  7. Transgenic Tobacco Overexpressing Brassica juncea HMG-CoA Synthase 1 Shows Increased Plant Growth, Pod Size and Seed Yield

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Pan; Wang, Hui; Wang, Mingfu; Hsiao, An-Shan; Bach, Thomas J.; Chye, Mee-Len

    2014-01-01

    Seeds are very important not only in the life cycle of the plant but they represent food sources for man and animals. We report herein a mutant of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase (HMGS), the second enzyme in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway that can improve seed yield when overexpressed in a phylogenetically distant species. In Brassica juncea, the characterisation of four isogenes encoding HMGS has been previously reported. Enzyme kinetics on recombinant wild-type (wt) and mutant BjHMGS1 had revealed that S359A displayed a 10-fold higher enzyme activity. The overexpression of wt and mutant (S359A) BjHMGS1 in Arabidopsis had up-regulated several genes in sterol biosynthesis, increasing sterol content. To quickly assess the effects of BjHMGS1 overexpression in a phylogenetically more distant species beyond the Brassicaceae, wt and mutant (S359A) BjHMGS1 were expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi) of the family Solanaceae. New observations on tobacco OEs not previously reported for Arabidopsis OEs included: (i) phenotypic changes in enhanced plant growth, pod size and seed yield (more significant in OE-S359A than OE-wtBjHMGS1) in comparison to vector-transformed tobacco, (ii) higher NtSQS expression and sterol content in OE-S359A than OE-wtBjHMGS1 corresponding to greater increase in growth and seed yield, and (iii) induction of NtIPPI2 and NtGGPPS2 and downregulation of NtIPPI1, NtGGPPS1, NtGGPPS3 and NtGGPPS4. Resembling Arabidopsis HMGS-OEs, tobacco HMGS-OEs displayed an enhanced expression of NtHMGR1, NtSMT1-2, NtSMT2-1, NtSMT2-2 and NtCYP85A1. Overall, increased growth, pod size and seed yield in tobacco HMGS-OEs were attributed to the up-regulation of native NtHMGR1, NtIPPI2, NtSQS, NtSMT1-2, NtSMT2-1, NtSMT2-2 and NtCYP85A1. Hence, S359A has potential in agriculture not only in improving phytosterol content but also seed yield, which may be desirable in food crops. This work further demonstrates HMGS function in plant reproduction

  8. Plant-Adapted Escherichia coli Show Increased Lettuce Colonizing Ability, Resistance to Oxidative Stress and Chemotactic Response

    PubMed Central

    Dublan, Maria de los Angeles; Ortiz-Marquez, Juan Cesar Federico; Lett, Lina; Curatti, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Background Escherichia coli is a widespread gut commensal and often a versatile pathogen of public health concern. E. coli are also frequently found in different environments and/or alternative secondary hosts, such as plant tissues. The lifestyle of E. coli in plants is poorly understood and has potential implications for food safety. Methods/Principal Findings This work shows that a human commensal strain of E. coli K12 readily colonizes lettuce seedlings and produces large microcolony-like cell aggregates in leaves, especially in young leaves, in proximity to the vascular tissue. Our observations strongly suggest that those cell aggregates arise from multiplication of single bacterial cells that reach those spots. We showed that E. coli isolated from colonized leaves progressively colonize lettuce seedlings to higher titers, suggesting a fast adaptation process. E. coli cells isolated from leaves presented a dramatic rise in tolerance to oxidative stress and became more chemotactic responsive towards lettuce leaf extracts. Mutant strains impaired in their chemotactic response were less efficient lettuce colonizers than the chemotactic isogenic strain. However, acclimation to oxidative stress and/or minimal medium alone failed to prime E. coli cells for enhanced lettuce colonization efficiency. Conclusion/Significance These findings help to understand the physiological adaptation during the alternative lifestyle of E. coli in/on plant tissues. PMID:25313845

  9. In situ hybridization of nucleus basalis neurons shows increased. beta. -amyloid mRNA in Alzheimer disease

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.L.; Golde, T.E.; Usiak, M.F.; Younkin, L.H.; Younkin, S.G.

    1988-02-01

    To determine which cells within the brain produce ..beta..-amyloid mRNA and to assess expression of the ..beta..-amyloid gene in Alzheimer disease, the authors analyzed brain tissue from Alzheimer and control patients by in situ hybridization. The results demonstrate that ..beta..-amyloid mRNA is produced by neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert and cerebral cortex and that nuclues basalis perikarya from Alzheimer patients consistently hybridize more ..beta..-amyloid probe than those from controls. These observations support the hypothesis that increased expression of the ..beta..-amyloid gene plays an important role in the deposition of amyloid in the brains of patients with Alzheimer disease.

  10. Exposure to dim light at night during early development increases adult anxiety-like responses.

    PubMed

    Borniger, Jeremy C; McHenry, Zachary D; Abi Salloum, Bachir A; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-06-22

    Early experiences produce effects that may persist throughout life. Therefore, to understand adult phenotype, it is important to investigate the role of early environmental stimuli in adult behavior and health. Artificial light at night (LAN) is an increasingly common phenomenon throughout the world. However, animals, including humans, evolved under dark night conditions. Many studies have revealed affective, immune, and metabolic alterations provoked by aberrant light exposure and subsequent circadian disruption. Pups are receptive to entraining cues from the mother and then light early during development, raising the possibility that the early life light environment may influence subsequent behavior. Thus, to investigate potential influences of early life exposure to LAN on adult phenotype, we exposed mice to dim (~5 lux; full spectrum white light) or dark (~0 lux) nights pre- and/or postnatally. After weaning at 3 weeks of age, all mice were maintained in dark nights until adulthood (9 weeks of age) when behavior was assessed. Mice exposed to dim light in early life increased anxiety-like behavior and fearful responses on the elevated plus maze and passive avoidance tests. These mice also displayed reduced growth rates, which ultimately normalized during adolescence. mRNA expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin previously linked to early life environment and adult phenotype, was not altered in the prefrontal cortex or hippocampus by early life LAN exposure. Serum corticosterone concentrations were similar between groups at weaning, suggesting that early life LAN does not elicit a long-term physiologic stress response. Dim light exposure did not influence behavior on the open field, novel object, sucrose anhedonia, or forced swim tests. Our data highlight the potential deleterious consequences of low levels of light during early life to development and subsequent behavior. Whether these changes are due to altered maternal behavior

  11. Human Ischemic Cardiomyopathy Shows Cardiac Nos1 Translocation and its Increased Levels are Related to Left Ventricular Performance

    PubMed Central

    Roselló-Lletí, Esther; Carnicer, Ricardo; Tarazón, Estefanía; Ortega, Ana; Gil-Cayuela, Carolina; Lago, Francisca; González-Juanatey, Jose Ramón; Portolés, Manuel; Rivera, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The role of nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1) as a major modulator of cardiac function has been extensively studied in experimental models; however, its role in human ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) has never been analysed. Thus, the objectives of this work are to study NOS1 and NOS-related counterparts involved in regulating physiological function of myocyte, to analyze NOS1 localisation, activity, dimerisation, and its relationship with systolic function in ICM. The study has been carried out on left ventricular tissue obtained from explanted human hearts. Here we demonstrate that the upregulation of cardiac NOS1 is not accompanied by an increase in NOS activity, due in part to the alterations found in molecules involved in the regulation of its activity. We observed partial translocation of NOS1 to the sarcolemma in ischemic hearts, and a direct relationship between its protein levels and systolic ventricular function. Our findings indicate that NOS1 may be significant in the pathophysiology of human ischemic heart disease with a preservative role in maintaining myocardial homeostasis. PMID:27041589

  12. Anabaena sp. PCC7120 transformed with glycine methylation genes from Aphanothece halophytica synthesized glycine betaine showing increased tolerance to salt.

    PubMed

    Waditee-Sirisattha, Rungaroon; Singh, Meenakshi; Kageyama, Hakuto; Sittipol, Daungjai; Rai, Ashwani K; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2012-11-01

    Photosynthetic, nitrogen-fixing Anabaena strains play an important role in the carbon and nitrogen cycles in tropical paddy fields although they are salt sensitive. Improvement in salt tolerance of Anabaena cells by expressing glycine betaine-synthesizing genes is an interesting subject. Due to the absence of choline in cyanobacteria, choline-oxidizing enzyme could not be used for the synthesis of glycine betaine. Here, the genes encoding glycine-sarcosine and dimethylglycine methyltransferases (ApGSMT-DMT) from a halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica were expressed in Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120. The ApGSMT-DMT-expressing Anabaena cells were capable of synthesizing glycine betaine without the addition of any substance. The accumulation level of glycine betaine in Anabaena increased with rise of salt concentration. The transformed cells exhibited an improved growth and more tolerance to salinity than the control cells. The present work provides a prospect to engineer a nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium having enhanced tolerance to stress by manipulating de novo synthesis of glycine betaine.

  13. African Americans show increased risk for pressure ulcers: a retrospective analysis of acute care hospitals in America.

    PubMed

    Fogerty, Mary; Guy, Jeffrey; Barbul, Adrian; Nanney, Lillian B; Abumrad, Naji N

    2009-01-01

    In an earlier study, we reported a significantly increased risk of pressure ulcer hospital discharge diagnoses in African Americans, higher age groups, and those with certain medical conditions. The objectives of the present study were to: (a) investigate the demographics associated with a higher odds ratio (OR) in African Americans and (b) determine whether African Americans have different rates of medical risk factors. The 2003 Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was queried. Patients with pressure ulcers were identified by discharge diagnoses using ICD-9 codes 707.0-707.09. Discharge diagnosis was examined using the agency for healthcare research and quality clinical classifications software (CCS). The present study used identified CCS discharge diagnoses present in at least 5% of all patients, with an OR>2. African Americans exhibited a higher incidence of an OR>2 for 28 identified CCS risk factors for pressure ulcers. The pressure ulcer diagnoses tended to occur at younger ages in African Americans. No significant differences were noted in African Americans with pressure ulcers when a subanalysis was conducted by zip code income quartile, region of the country, or teaching status of the hospital. Hospitalized African Americans exhibit an age-dependent, higher prevalence of pressure ulcers compared with Caucasians. Socioeconomic factors tracked within the Nationwide Inpatient Sample do not provide an explanation for this phenomenon.

  14. Odour enrichment increases adult-born dopaminergic neurons in the mouse olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Bonzano, Sara; Bovetti, Serena; Fasolo, Aldo; Peretto, Paolo; De Marchis, Silvia

    2014-11-01

    The olfactory bulb (OB) is the first brain region involved in the processing of olfactory information. In adult mice, the OB is highly plastic, undergoing cellular/molecular dynamic changes that are modulated by sensory experience. Odour deprivation induces down-regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in OB dopaminergic interneurons located in the glomerular layer (GL), resulting in decreased dopamine in the OB. Although the effect of sensory deprivation is well established, little is known about the influence of odour enrichment on dopaminergic cells. Here we report that prolonged odour enrichment on C57BL/6J strain mice selectively increases TH-immunopositive cells in the GL by nearly 20%. Following odour enrichment on TH-green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice, in which GFP identified both mature TH-positive cells and putative immature dopaminergic cells expressing TH mRNA but not TH protein, we found a similar 20% increase in GFP-expressing cells, with no changes in the ratio between TH-positive and TH-negative cells. These data suggest that enriched conditions induce an expansion in the whole dopaminergic lineage. Accordingly, by using 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine injections to label adult-generated cells in the GL of TH-GFP mice, we found an increase in the percentage of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine-positive dopaminergic cells in enriched compared with control conditions, whereas no differences were found for calretinin- and calbindin-positive subtypes. Strikingly, the fraction of newborn cells among the dopaminergic population doubled in enriched conditions. On the whole, our results demonstrate that odour enrichment drives increased integration of adult-generated dopaminergic cells that could be critical to adapt the OB circuits to the environmental incoming information.

  15. Increased expression of estrogen-related receptor β during adaptation of adult cardiomyocytes to sustained hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Kathryn F; Beeson, Gyda C; Beeson, Craig C; McDermott, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen-related Receptors (ERR) are members of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily of transcription factors that regulate expression of genes required for energy metabolism including mitochondrial biogenesis, fatty acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation. While ERRα and EPPγ isoforms are known to share a wide array of target genes in the adult myocardium, the function of ERRβ has not been characterized in cardiomyocytes. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of ERRβ in regulating energy metabolism in adult cardiomyocytes in primary culture. Adult feline cardiomyocytes were electrically stimulated to contract in either hypoxia (0.5% O2) or normoxia (21% O2). As compared to baseline values measured in normoxia, ERRβ mRNA levels increased significantly after 8 hours of hypoxia and remained elevated over 24 h. Conversely, ERRβ mRNA decreased to normoxic levels after 4 hours of reoxygenation. Hypoxia increased expression of the α and β isoforms of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Coactivator-1 (PGC-1) mRNA by 6-fold and 3-fold, respectively. Knockdown of ERRβ expression via adenoviral-mediated delivery of ERRβ shRNA blocked hypoxia-induced increases in PGC-1β mRNA, but not PGC-1α mRNA. Loss of ERRβ had no effect on mtDNA content as measured after 24 h of hypoxia. To determine whether loss of ERRβ affected mitochondrial function, oxygen consumption rates (OCR) were measured in contracting versus quiescent cardiomyocytes in normoxia. OCR was significantly lower in contracting cardiomyocytes expressing ERRβ shRNA than scrambled shRNA controls. Maximal OCR also was reduced by ERRβ knockdown. In conclusion: 1) hypoxia increases in ERRβ mRNA expression in contracting cardiomyocytes; 2) ERRβ is required for induction of the PGC-1β isoform in response to hypoxia; 3) ERRβ expression is required to sustain OCR in normoxic conditions. PMID:27335690

  16. Cost-Effectiveness of Increasing Influenza Vaccination Coverage in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Akın, Levent; Macabéo, Bérengère; Caliskan, Zafer; Altinel, Serdar; Satman, Ilhan

    2016-01-01

    Objective In Turkey, the prevalence of diabetes is high but the influenza vaccination coverage rate (VCR) is low (9.1% in 2014), despite vaccination being recommended and reimbursed. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of increasing the influenza VCR of adults with type 2 diabetes in Turkey to 20%. Methods A decision-analytic model was adapted to Turkey using data derived from published sources. Direct medical costs and indirect costs due to productivity loss were included in the societal perspective. The time horizon was set at 1 year to reflect the seasonality of influenza. Results Increasing the VCR for adults with type 2 diabetes to 20% is predicted to avert an additional 19,777 influenza cases, 2376 hospitalizations, and 236 deaths. Associated influenza costs avoided were estimated at more than 8.3 million Turkish Lira (TRY), while the cost of vaccination would be more than TRY 8.4 million. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was estimated at TRY 64/quality-adjusted life years, which is below the per capita gross domestic product of TRY 21,511 and therefore very cost-effective according to World Health Organization guidelines. Factors most influencing the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio were the excess hospitalization rate, inpatient cost, vaccine effectiveness against hospitalization, and influenza attack rate. Increasing the VCR to >20% was also estimated to be very cost-effective. Conclusions Increasing the VCR for adults with type 2 diabetes in Turkey to ≥20% would be very cost-effective. PMID:27322384

  17. Trans Fatty Acid Derived Phospholipids Show Increased Membrane Cholesterol and Reduced Receptor Activation as Compared to Their Cis Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Shui-Lin; Mitchell, Drake C.; Litman, Burton J.

    2005-01-01

    The consumption of trans fatty acid (TFA) is linked to the elevation of LDL cholesterol and is considered to be a major health risk factor for coronary heart disease. Despite several decades of extensive research on this subject, the underlying mechanism of how TFA modulates serum cholesterol levels remains elusive. In this study, we examined the molecular interaction of TFA-derived phospholipid with cholesterol and the membrane receptor rhodopsin in model membranes. Rhodopsin is a prototypical member of the G-protein coupled receptor family. It has a well-characterized structure and function and serves as a model membrane receptor in this study. Phospholipid–cholesterol affinity was quantified by measuring cholesterol partition coefficients. Phospholipid–receptor interactions were probed by measuring the level of rhodopsin activation. Our study shows that phospholipid derived from TFA had a higher membrane cholesterol affinity than their cis analogues. TFA phospholipid membranes also exhibited a higher acyl chain packing order, which was indicated by the lower acyl chain packing free volume as determined by DPH fluorescence and the higher transition temperature for rhodopsin thermal denaturation. The level of rhodopsin activation was diminished in TFA phospholipids. Since membrane cholesterol level and membrane receptors are involved in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis, the combination of higher cholesterol content and reduced receptor activation associated with the presence of TFA–phospholipid could be factors contributing to the elevation of LDL cholesterol. PMID:15766276

  18. Evaluation of a Fotonovela to Increase Depression Knowledge and Reduce Stigma Among Hispanic Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Molina, Gregory B.; Contreras, Sandra; Baron, Melvin

    2013-01-01

    Fotonovelas—small booklets that portray a dramatic story using photographs and captions—represent a powerful health education tool for low-literacy and ethnic minority audiences. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a depression fotonovela in increasing depression knowledge, decreasing stigma, increasing self-efficacy to recognize depression, and increasing intentions to seek treatment, relative to a text pamphlet. Hispanic adults attending a community adult school (N = 157, 47.5 % female, mean age = 35.8 years, 84 % immigrants, 63 % with less than high school education) were randomly assigned to read the fotonovela or a low-literacy text pamphlet about depression. They completed surveys before reading the material, immediately after reading the material, and 1 month later. The fotonovela and text pamphlet both produced significant improvements in depression knowledge and self-efficacy to identify depression, but the fotonovela produced significantly larger reductions in antidepressant stigma and mental health care stigma. The fotonovela also was more likely to be passed on to family or friends after the study, potentially increasing its reach throughout the community. Results indicate that fotonovelas can be useful for improving health literacy among underserved populations, which could reduce health disparities. PMID:22485012

  19. Connexin30-deficient mice show increased emotionality and decreased rearing activity in the open-field along with neurochemical changes.

    PubMed

    Dere, E; De Souza-Silva, M A; Frisch, C; Teubner, B; Söhl, G; Willecke, K; Huston, J P

    2003-08-01

    Gap-junction channels in the brain, formed by connexin (Cx) proteins with a distinct regional/cell-type distribution, allow intercellular electrical and metabolic communication. In astrocytes, mainly the connexins 43, 26 and 30 are expressed. In addition, connexin30 is expressed in ependymal and leptomeningeal cells, as well as in skin and cochlea. The functional implications of the astrocytic gap-junctional network are not well understood and evidence regarding their behavioural relevance is lacking. Thus, we have tested groups of Cx30-/-, Cx30+/-, and Cx30+/+ mice in the open-field, an object exploration task, in the graded anxiety test and on the rotarod. The Cx30-/- mice showed reduced exploratory activity in terms of rearings but not locomotion in the open-field and object exploration task. Furthermore, Cx30-/- mice exhibited anxiogenic behaviour as shown by higher open-field centre avoidance and corner preference. Graded anxiety test and rotarod performance was similar across groups. The Cx30-/- mice had elevated choline levels in the ventral striatum, possibly related to their aberrant behavioural phenotypes. The Cx30+/- mice had lower dopamine and metabolite levels in the amygdala and ventral striatum and lower hippocampal 5-hydroxyindole acid (5-HIAA) concentrations relative to Cx30+/+ mice. Furthermore, the Cx30+/- mice had lower acetylcholine concentrations in the ventral striatum and higher choline levels in the neostriatum, relative to Cx30+/+ mice. Our data suggest that the elimination of connexin30 can alter the reactivity to novel environments, pointing to the importance of gap-junctional signalling in behavioural processes.

  20. Observations of net soil exchange of CO2 in a dryland show experimental warming increases carbon losses in biocrust soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darrouzet-Nardi, Anthony N.; Reed, Sasha C.; Grote, Ed; Belnap, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Many arid and semiarid ecosystems have soils covered with well-developed biological soil crust communities (biocrusts) made up of mosses, lichens, cyanobacteria, and heterotrophs living at the soil surface. These communities are a fundamental component of dryland ecosystems, and are critical to dryland carbon (C) cycling. To examine the effects of warming temperatures on soil C balance in a dryland ecosystem, we used infrared heaters to warm biocrust-dominated soils to 2 °C above control conditions at a field site on the Colorado Plateau, USA. We monitored net soil exchange (NSE) of CO2 every hour for 21 months using automated flux chambers (5 control and 5 warmed chambers), which included the CO2 fluxes of the biocrusts and the soil beneath them. We observed measurable photosynthesis in biocrust soils on 12 % of measurement days, which correlated well with precipitation events and soil wet-up. These days included several snow events, providing what we believe to be the first evidence of substantial photosynthesis underneath snow by biocrust organisms in drylands. Overall, biocrust soils in both control and warmed plots were net CO2 sources to the atmosphere, with control plots losing 62 ± 8 g C m−2 (mean ± SE) over the first year of measurement and warmed plots losing 74 ± 9 g C m−2. Between control and warmed plots, the difference in soil C loss was uncertain over the course of the entire year due to large and variable rates in spring, but on days during which soils were wet and crusts were actively photosynthesizing, biocrusts that were warmed by 2 °C had a substantially more negative C balance (i.e., biocrust soils took up less C and/or lost more C in warmed plots). Taken together, our data suggest a substantial risk of increased C loss from biocrust soils with higher future temperatures, and highlight a robust capacity to predict CO2 exchange in biocrust soils using easily measured environmental parameters.

  1. A conjugate of methotrexate and an analog of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone shows increased efficacy against prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shengsheng; Wang, Qinxia; Jiang, Juan; Luo, Yongwei; Sun, Zuyue

    2016-01-01

    LHRH receptor, is over-expressed in a variety of human tumors and, is a potential binding site for targeted metastatic prostate cancer therapy. The objectives of our study were to synthesize a bioconjugate of the LHRH analog [DLys6]-LHRH and the anti-tumor agent methotrexate and test the hypothesis that [DLys6]-LHRH-MTX targets and inhibits prostate cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. The results of in vitro studies, showed that both [DLys6]-LHRH-MTX and MTX displayed superior cytotoxicity against prostate cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manners, with IC50 concentrations for PC-3 cells of, 1.02 ± 0.18 μmol/L and 6.34 ± 1.01 μmol/L; for DU-145 cells, 1.53 ± 0.27 μmol/L and 8.03 ± 1.29 μmol/L; and for LNCaP cells, 1.93 ± 0.19 μmol/L and 9.68 ± 1.24 μmol/L, respectively. The IC50 values of [DLys6]-LHRH-MTX and MTX were 110.77 ± 15.31 μmol/L and 42.33 ± 7.25 μmol/L, respectively. Finally, [DLys6]-LHRH-MTX significantly improved the anti-tumor activity of MTX in nude mice bearing PC-3 tumor xenografts. The inhibition ratios of tumor volume and tumor weight in the [DLys6]-LHRH-MTX treated group were significantly higher than those in the MTX-treated group. Tumor volume doubling time was also significantly extended from 6.13 days in control animals to 9.67 days in mice treated with [DLys6]-LHRH-MTX. In conclusion, [DLys6]-LHRH -MTX may be useful in treating prostate cancer. PMID:27654169

  2. Using function-focused care to increase physical activity among older adults.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Barbara; Galik, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Despite the known benefits of physical activity for older adults, adherence to regular physical activity recommendations is poor. Less than half of adults in this country meet physical activity recommendations with reasons for lack of adherence including such things as access, motivation, pain, fear, comorbidities, among others. To overcome these challenges, function-focused care was developed. Function-focused care is a philosophy of care that focuses on evaluating the older adult's underlying capability with regard to function and physical activity and helping him or her optimize and maintain physical function and ability and continually increase time spent in physical activity. Examples of function-focused care include such things as using verbal cues during bathing, so the older individual performs the tasks rather than the caregiver bathing the individual; walking a resident or patient to the bathroom rather than using a urinal, or taking a resident to an exercise class. There are now over 20 studies supporting the benefits of function-focused care approaches across all settings and different types of patient groups (i.e, those with mild versus moderate-to-severe cognitive impairment). The approaches for implementation of function-focused care have also been well supported and have moved beyond establishing effectiveness to considering dissemination and implementation of this approach into real world clinical settings. The process of dissemination and implementation has likewise been articulated and supported, and ongoing work needs to continue in this venue across all care settings. PMID:24894140

  3. Impulsive Social Influence Increases Impulsive Choices on a Temporal Discounting Task in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Jodi M.; Curran, Max T.; Calderon, Vanessa; Stoeckel, Luke E.; Evins, A. Eden

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults who affiliate with friends who engage in impulsive behavior are more likely to engage in impulsive behaviors themselves, and those who associate with prosocial (i.e. more prudent, future oriented) peers are more likely to engage in prosocial behavior. However, it is difficult to disentangle the contribution of peer influence vs. peer selection (i.e., whether individuals choose friends with similar traits) when interpreting social behaviors. In this study, we combined a novel social manipulation with a well-validated delay discounting task assessing impulsive behavior to create a social influence delay discounting task, in which participants were exposed to both impulsive (smaller, sooner or SS payment) and non-impulsive (larger, later or LL payment) choices from their peers. Young adults in this sample, n = 51, aged 18–25 had a higher rate of SS choices after exposure to impulsive peer influence than after exposure to non-impulsive peer influence. Interestingly, in highly susceptible individuals, the rate of non-impulsive choices did not increase after exposure to non-impulsive influence. There was a positive correlation between self-reported suggestibility and degree of peer influence on SS choices. These results suggest that, in young adults, SS choices appear to be influenced by the choices of same-aged peers, especially for individuals who are highly susceptible to influence. PMID:24988440

  4. Stroke Increases Neural Stem Cells and Angiogenesis in the Neurogenic Niche of the Adult Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui Lan; Chopp, Michael; Roberts, Cynthia; Liu, Xianshuang; Wei, Min; Nejad-Davarani, Siamak P.; Wang, Xinli; Zhang, Zheng Gang

    2014-01-01

    The unique cellular and vascular architecture of the adult ventricular-subventricular zone (V/SVZ) neurogenic niche plays an important role in regulating neural stem cell function. However, the in vivo identification of neural stem cells and their relationship to blood vessels within this niche in response to stroke remain largely unknown. Using whole-mount preparation of the lateral ventricle wall, we examined the architecture of neural stem cells and blood vessels in the V/SVZ of adult mouse over the course of 3 months after onset of focal cerebral ischemia. Stroke substantially increased the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) positive neural stem cells that are in contact with the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) via their apical processes at the center of pinwheel structures formed by ependymal cells residing in the lateral ventricle. Long basal processes of these cells extended to blood vessels beneath the ependymal layer. Moreover, stroke increased V/SVZ endothelial cell proliferation from 2% in non-ischemic mice to 12 and 15% at 7 and 14 days after stroke, respectively. Vascular volume in the V/SVZ was augmented from 3% of the total volume prior to stroke to 6% at 90 days after stroke. Stroke-increased angiogenesis was closely associated with neuroblasts that expanded to nearly encompass the entire lateral ventricular wall in the V/SVZ. These data indicate that stroke induces long-term alterations of the neural stem cell and vascular architecture of the adult V/SVZ neurogenic niche. These post-stroke structural changes may provide insight into neural stem cell mediation of stroke-induced neurogenesis through the interaction of neural stem cells with proteins in the CSF and their sub-ependymal neurovascular interaction. PMID:25437857

  5. Leg and trunk muscle coordination and postural sway during increasingly difficult standing balance tasks in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Donath, Lars; Kurz, Eduard; Roth, Ralf; Zahner, Lukas; Faude, Oliver

    2016-09-01

    Ageing impairs body balance and increases older adults' fall risk. Balance training can improve intrinsic fall risk factors. However, age comparisons of muscle activity responses during balance tasks are lacking. This study investigated relative muscle activity, muscle coordination and postural sway during various recommended static balance training tasks. Muscle activity (%MVC), amplitude ratios (AR) and co-activity (CAI) were determined during standing tasks for 30s (1: double limb stance on a foam surface, eyes open; 2: double limb stance on firm ground, eyes closed; 3: double limb stance, feet in step position on a foam surface, eyes open; 4: double limb stance, feet in step position on firm ground, eyes closed; 5: single limb stance on firm ground, eyes open) in 20 healthy young adults (24±2 y) and 20 older adults (73±6 y). Surface electromyography (SEMG) was applied (SENIAM guidelines) to ankle (tibialis anterior, soleus, medial gastrocnemius, peroneus longus) and thigh (vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, biceps femoris, semitendinosus) muscles (non-dominant leg). Electrodes over trunk (multifidus and internal oblique) muscles were applied bilaterally. Two- to six-fold higher levels of relative muscle activity were found in older adults for ankle (0.0002adults for the trunk (0.001adults for the ankle (0.009adults had higher electrophysiological costs for all stance conditions. Muscle coordination showed inverse activity patterns at the ankle and trunk. Optimal balance and strength training programs should take into account age-specific alterations in muscle activity. PMID:27451322

  6. Occupations with an increased prevalence of self-reported asthma in Indian adults

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Neil; Millett, Christopher; Subramanian, S.V.; Ebrahim, Shah

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Occupational asthma remains relatively under-recognized in India with little or no information regarding preventable causes. We studied occupations with an increased prevalence of self-reported asthma among adult men and women in India. Methods Analysis is based on 64 725 men aged 15–54 years and 52 994 women aged 15–49 years who participated in India’s third National Family Health Survey, 2005–2006, and reported their current occupation. Prevalence odds ratios (ORs) for specific occupations and asthma were estimated using multivariate logistic regression, separately for men and women, adjusting for age, education, household wealth index, current tobacco smoking, cooking fuel use, rural/urban residence and access to healthcare. Results The prevalence of asthma among the working population was 1.9%. The highest odds ratios for asthma were found among men in the plant and machine operators and assemblers major occupation category (OR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.14–2.45; p = 0.009). Men working in occupation subcategories of machine operators and assemblers (OR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.24–2.76; p = 0.002) and mining, construction, manufacturing and transport (OR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.00–1.77; p = 0.051) were at the highest risk of asthma. Reduced odds of asthma prevalence in men was observed among extraction and building trades workers (OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.53–0.97; p = 0.029). Among women none of the occupation categories or subcategories was found significant for asthma risk. Men and women employed in high-risk occupations were not at a higher risk of asthma when compared with those in low-risk occupations. Conclusions This large population-based, nationally representative cross-sectional study has confirmed findings from high income countries showing high prevalence of asthma in men in a number of occupational categories and subcategories; however, with no evidence of increased risks for women in the same occupations. PMID:24712498

  7. Adaptive peripheral immune response increases proliferation of neural precursor cells in the adult hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Susanne A; Steiner, Barbara; Wengner, Antje; Lipp, Martin; Kammertoens, Thomas; Kempermann, Gerd

    2009-09-01

    To understand the link between peripheral immune activation and neuronal precursor biology, we investigated the effect of T-cell activation on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in female C57Bl/6 mice. A peripheral adaptive immune response triggered by adjuvant-induced rheumatoid arthritis (2 microg/microl methylated BSA) or staphylococcus enterotoxin B (EC(50) of 0.25 microg/ml per 20 g body weight) was associated with a transient increase in hippocampal precursor cell proliferation and neurogenesis as assessed by immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. Both treatments were paralleled by an increase in corticosterone levels in the hippocampus 1- to 2-fold over the physiological amount measured by quantitative radioimmunoassay. In contrast, intraperitoneal administration of the innate immune response activator lipopolysaccaride (EC(50) of 0.5 microg/ml per 20 g body weight) led to a chronic 5-fold increase of hippocampal glucocorticoid levels and a decrease of adult neurogenesis. In vitro exposure of murine neuronal progenitor cells to corticosterone triggered either cell death at high (1.5 nM) or proliferation at low (0.25 nM) concentrations. This effect could be blocked using a viral vector system expressing a transdomain of the glucocorticoid receptor. We suggest an evolutionary relevant communication route for the brain to respond to environmental stressors like inflammation mediated by glucocorticoid levels in the hippocampus.

  8. Increase or Decrease of fMRI Activity in Adult Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder: Does It Depend on Task Difficulty?

    PubMed Central

    Merz, Christian J.; Dresler, Thomas; Heupel, Julia; Reichert, Susanne; Jacob, Christian P.; Deckert, Jürgen; Herrmann, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder has been shown to affect working memory, and fMRI studies in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder report hypoactivation in task-related attentional networks. However, studies with adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients addressing this issue as well as the effects of clinically valid methylphenidate treatment are scarce. This study contributes to closing this gap. Methods: Thirty-five adult patients were randomized to 6 weeks of double-blind placebo or methylphenidate treatment. Patients completed an fMRI n-back working memory task both before and after the assigned treatment, and matched healthy controls were tested and compared to the untreated patients. Results: There were no whole-brain differences between any of the groups. However, when specified regions of interest were investigated, the patient group showed enhanced BOLD responses in dorsal and ventral areas before treatment. This increase was correlated with performance across all participants and with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in the patient group. Furthermore, we found an effect of treatment in the right superior frontal gyrus, with methylphenidate-treated patients exhibiting increased activation, which was absent in the placebo-treated patients. Conclusions: Our results indicate distinct activation differences between untreated adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients and matched healthy controls during a working memory task. These differences might reflect compensatory efforts by the patients, who are performing at the same level as the healthy controls. We furthermore found a positive effect of methylphenidate on the activation of a frontal region of interest. These observations contribute to a more thorough understanding of adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and provide impulses for the evaluation of therapy-related changes. PMID:27207920

  9. Resistance training increases total energy expenditure and free-living physical activity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Hunter, G R; Wetzstein, C J; Fields, D A; Brown, A; Bamman, M M

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what effects 26 wk of resistance training have on resting energy expenditure (REE), total free-living energy expenditure (TEE), activity-related energy expenditure (AEE), engagement in free-living physical activity as measured by the activity-related time equivalent (ARTE) index, and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in 61- to 77-yr-old men (n = 8) and women (n = 7). Before and after training, body composition (four-compartment model), strength, REE, TEE (doubly labeled water), AEE (TEE - REE + thermic response to meals), and ARTE (AEE adjusted for energy cost of standard activities) were evaluated. Strength (36%) and fat-free mass (2 kg) significantly increased, but body weight did not change. REE increased 6.8%, whereas resting RER decreased from 0.86 to 0.83. TEE (12%) and ARTE (38%) increased significantly, and AEE (30%) approached significance (P = 0.06). The TEE increase remained significant even after adjustment for the energy expenditure of the resistance training. In response to resistance training, TEE increased and RER decreased. The increase in TEE occurred as a result of increases in both REE and physical activity. These results suggest that resistance training may have value in increasing energy expenditure and lipid oxidation rates in older adults, thereby improving their metabolic profiles.

  10. Psychological stress in adolescent and adult mice increases neuroinflammation and attenuates the response to LPS challenge

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is ample evidence that psychological stress adversely affects many diseases. Recent evidence has shown that intense stressors can increase inflammation within the brain, a known mediator of many diseases. However, long-term outcomes of chronic psychological stressors that elicit a neuroinflammatory response remain unknown. Methods To address this, we have modified previously described models of rat/mouse predatory stress (PS) to increase the intensity of the interaction. We postulated that these modifications would enhance the predator-prey experience and increase neuroinflammation and behavioral dysfunction in prey animals. In addition, another group of mice were subjected to a modified version of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), an often-used model of chronic stress that utilizes a combination of stressors that include physical, psychological, chemical, and other. The CUS model has been shown to exacerbate a number of inflammatory-related diseases via an unknown mechanism. Using these two models we sought to determine: 1) whether chronic PS or CUS modulated the inflammatory response as a proposed mechanism by which behavioral deficits might be mediated, and 2) whether chronic exposure to a pure psychological stressor (PS) leads to deficits similar to those produced by a CUS model containing psychological and physical stressors. Finally, to determine whether acute PS has neuroinflammatory consequences, adult mice were examined at various time-points after PS for changes in inflammation. Results Adolescent mice subjected to chronic PS had increased basal expression of inflammation within the midbrain. CUS and chronic PS mice also had an impaired inflammatory response to a subsequent lipopolysaccharide challenge and PS mice displayed increased anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors following chronic stress. Finally, adult mice subjected to acute predatory stress had increased gene expression of inflammatory factors. Conclusion Our results

  11. Increased Skeletal Muscle Capillarization After Aerobic Exercise Training and Weight Loss Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Adults With IGT

    PubMed Central

    Prior, Steven J.; Blumenthal, Jacob B.; Katzel, Leslie I.; Goldberg, Andrew P.; Ryan, Alice S.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Transcapillary transport of insulin is one determinant of glucose uptake by skeletal muscle; thus, a reduction in capillary density (CD) may worsen insulin sensitivity. Skeletal muscle CD is lower in older adults with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) compared with those with normal glucose tolerance and may be modifiable through aerobic exercise training and weight loss (AEX+WL). We tested the hypothesis that 6-month AEX+WL would increase CD to improve insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in older adults with IGT. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Sixteen sedentary, overweight-obese (BMI 27–35 kg/m2), older (63 ± 2 years) men and women with IGT underwent hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps to measure insulin sensitivity, oral glucose tolerance tests, exercise and body composition testing, and vastus lateralis muscle biopsies to determine CD before and after 6-month AEX+WL. RESULTS Insulin sensitivity (M) and 120-min postprandial glucose (G120) correlated with CD at baseline (r = 0.58 and r = −0.60, respectively, P < 0.05). AEX+WL increased maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) 18% (P = 0.02) and reduced weight and fat mass 8% (P < 0.02). CD increased 15% (264 ± 11 vs. 304 ± 14 capillaries/mm2, P = 0.01), M increased 21% (42.4 ± 4.0 vs. 51.4 ± 4.3 µmol/kg FFM/min, P < 0.05), and G120 decreased 16% (9.35 ± 0.5 vs. 7.85 ± 0.5 mmol/L, P = 0.008) after AEX+WL. Regression analyses showed that the AEX+WL-induced increase in CD independently predicted the increase in M (r = 0.74, P < 0.01) as well as the decrease in G120 (r = −0.55, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Six-month AEX+WL increases skeletal muscle CD in older adults with IGT. This represents one mechanism by which AEX+WL improves insulin sensitivity in older adults with IGT. PMID:24595633

  12. Infrasound increases intracellular calcium concentration and induces apoptosis in hippocampi of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaohui; Gong, Li; Li, Xiaofang; Ye, Lin; Wang, Bin; Liu, Jing; Qiu, Jianyong; Jiao, Huiduo; Zhang, Wendong; Chen, Jingzao; Wang, Jiuping

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we determined the effect of infrasonic exposure on apoptosis and intracellular free Ca²⁺ ([Ca²⁺]i) levels in the hippocampus of adult rats. Adult rats were randomly divided into the control and infrasound exposure groups. For infrasound treatment, animals received infrasonic exposure at 90 (8 Hz) or 130 dB (8 Hz) for 2 h per day. Hippocampi were dissected, and isolated hippocampal neurons were cultured. The [Ca²⁺]i levels in hippocampal neurons from adult rat brains were determined by Fluo-3/AM staining with a confocal microscope system on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 following infrasonic exposure. Apoptosis was evaluated by Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide double staining. Positive cells were sorted and analyzed by flow cytometry. Elevated [Ca²⁺]i levels were observed on days 14 and 21 after rats received daily treatment with 90 or 130 dB sound pressure level (SPL) infrasonic exposure (p<0.01 vs. control). The highest levels of [Ca²⁺]i were detected in the 130 dB SPL infrasonic exposure group. Meanwhile, apoptosis in hippocampal neurons was found to increase on day 7 following 90 dB SPL infrasound exposure, and significantly increased on day 14. Upon 130 dB infrasound treatment, apoptosis was first observed on day 14, whereas the number of apoptotic cells gradually decreased thereafter. Additionally, a marked correlation between cell apoptosis and [Ca²⁺]i levels was found on day 14 and 21 following daily treatment with 90 and 130 dB SPL, respectively. These results demonstrate that a period of infrasonic exposure induced apoptosis and upregulated [Ca²⁺]i levels in hippocampal neurons, suggesting that infrasound may cause damage to the central nervous system (CNS) through the Ca²⁺‑mediated apoptotic pathway in hippocampal neurons. PMID:21946944

  13. Testosterone increases repertoire size in an open-ended learner: an experimental study using adult male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Van Hout, Alain J-M; Pinxten, Rianne; Darras, Veerle M; Eens, Marcel

    2012-11-01

    Song in songbirds is a learned secondary sexual behavior, first acquired during a sensitive phase of juvenile development, which is affected by hormones such as testosterone (T). While the latter has received much attention, the potential involvement of T in the adult repertoire changes observed in a number of species is much less understood. Yet, this may prove essential to understand the role of song as a sexually selected trait. We therefore performed a T-implantation experiment during the non-breeding season (when T is basal), using adult male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), a songbird species in which song repertoire size (and composition) changes seasonally and increases with age. Repertoire size increased rapidly in T-males, but not in control males, indicating a role for T in repertoire size changes. This increase resulted from a lower proportion of dropped song types in T-males than in control males, while the proportion of added song types did not differ between both groups. Interestingly, the observed repertoire turnover (adding and removing song types from the repertoire) in both groups, suggests that elevated plasma T levels were not essential for changes in repertoire composition (contrary to repertoire size). Finally, T-males (but not control males) significantly increased their song rate, while neither group showed a significant change in their song bout length and phrase repetition rate. Taken together, our results suggest a role for T in adult song learning and provide new insights into the information content of repertoire size and song bout length as sexually selected traits. PMID:23036784

  14. Acute social defeat stress increases the conditioned rewarding effects of cocaine in adult but not in adolescent mice.

    PubMed

    Montagud-Romero, S; Aguilar, M A; Maldonado, C; Manzanedo, C; Miñarro, J; Rodríguez-Arias, M

    2015-08-01

    Stressful experiences modify activity in areas of the brain involved in the rewarding effects of psychostimulants. In the present study we evaluated the influence of acute social defeat (ASD) on the conditioned rewarding effects of cocaine in adolescent (PND 29-32) and adult (PND 50-53) male mice in the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Experimental mice were exposed to social defeat in an agonistic encounter before each session of conditioning with 1mg/kg or 25mg/kg of cocaine. The effects of social defeat on corticosterone levels were also evaluated. Adult mice exposed to ASD showed an increase in the conditioned reinforcing effects of cocaine. Only these mice developed cocaine-induced CPP with the subthreshold dose of cocaine, and they needed a higher number of extinction sessions for the 25mg/kg cocaine-induced CPP to be extinguished. In adolescent mice, on the other hand, ASD reduced the conditioned reinforcing effects of cocaine, since CPP was not produced with the lower dose of cocaine and was extinguished faster when they were conditioned with 25mg/kg. Adult mice exposed to social defeat displayed higher levels of corticosterone than their controls and adolescent mice. Our results confirm that the effect of social defeat stress on the acquisition and reinstatement of the CPP induced by cocaine varies depending on the age at which this stress is experienced.

  15. Neurotoxic Methamphetamine Doses Increase LINE-1 Expression in the Neurogenic Zones of the Adult Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Moszczynska, Anna; Flack, Amanda; Qiu, Ping; Muotri, Alysson R.; Killinger, Bryan A.

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a widely abused psychostimulant with the potential to cause neurotoxicity in the striatum and hippocampus. Several epigenetic changes have been described after administration of METH; however, there are no data regarding the effects of METH on the activity of transposable elements in the adult brain. The present study demonstrates that systemic administration of neurotoxic METH doses increases the activity of Long INterspersed Element (LINE-1) in two neurogenic niches in the adult rat brain in a promoter hypomethylation-independent manner. Our study also demonstrates that neurotoxic METH triggers persistent decreases in LINE-1 expression and increases the LINE-1 levels within genomic DNA in the striatum and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, and that METH triggers LINE-1 retrotransposition in vitro. We also present indirect evidence for the involvement of glutamate (GLU) in LINE-1 activation. The results suggest that LINE-1 activation might occur in neurogenic areas in human METH users and might contribute to METH abuse-induced hippocampus-dependent memory deficits and impaired performance on several cognitive tasks mediated by the striatum. PMID:26463126

  16. Neurotoxic Methamphetamine Doses Increase LINE-1 Expression in the Neurogenic Zones of the Adult Rat Brain.

    PubMed

    Moszczynska, Anna; Flack, Amanda; Qiu, Ping; Muotri, Alysson R; Killinger, Bryan A

    2015-10-14

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a widely abused psychostimulant with the potential to cause neurotoxicity in the striatum and hippocampus. Several epigenetic changes have been described after administration of METH; however, there are no data regarding the effects of METH on the activity of transposable elements in the adult brain. The present study demonstrates that systemic administration of neurotoxic METH doses increases the activity of Long INterspersed Element (LINE-1) in two neurogenic niches in the adult rat brain in a promoter hypomethylation-independent manner. Our study also demonstrates that neurotoxic METH triggers persistent decreases in LINE-1 expression and increases the LINE-1 levels within genomic DNA in the striatum and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, and that METH triggers LINE-1 retrotransposition in vitro. We also present indirect evidence for the involvement of glutamate (GLU) in LINE-1 activation. The results suggest that LINE-1 activation might occur in neurogenic areas in human METH users and might contribute to METH abuse-induced hippocampus-dependent memory deficits and impaired performance on several cognitive tasks mediated by the striatum.

  17. Combination of erythritol and fructose increases gastrointestinal symptoms in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeonsoo; Park, Sonhee C; Wolf, Bryan W; Hertzler, Steven R

    2011-11-01

    Consumption of a large amount of dietary fructose induces gastrointestinal intolerance, and glucose has been known as an enhancer of fructose absorption. Erythritol is a nonglycemic sugar alcohol, and it has been suggested that erythritol is absorbed paracellularly. It was hypothesized that paracellular absorption of erythritol could also enhance paracellular absorption of fructose in healthy adults. This is one of the proposed pathways for how additional glucose enhances the absorption of fructose. Thirty-seven nondiabetic, healthy adults participated in a randomized, double-masked, controlled crossover study. After an overnight fast, participants consumed beverages containing either 50 g fructose and 50 g glucose, 50 g fructose and 33.3 g erythritol (an equimolar concentration of fructose), or 50 g fructose alone. Breath hydrogen response was determined for 8 hours postprandially. Gastrointestinal intolerance symptoms and the number and consistency of bowel movements were recorded for 24 hours postprandially. The breath hydrogen area under the curve (AUC) of the fructose and erythritol beverage was 2 times the AUC of the fructose beverage and 8.75 times the AUC of the fructose and glucose beverage (P < .001, respectively). Compared with fructose and glucose beverage and fructose alone, frequency of watery stools increased (P < .05) and gastrointestinal tolerance worsened (P < .05) when participants consumed fructose and erythritol. These data suggest that coingestion of equimolar concentrations of fructose and erythritol increased carbohydrate malabsorption.

  18. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Linlong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  19. Increased Eating Frequency Is Associated with Lower Obesity Risk, But Higher Energy Intake in Adults: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-Qiao; Zhang, Yun-Quan; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Yi-Wen; Li, Rui; Chen, Guo-Xun

    2016-01-01

    Body weight is regulated by energy intake which occurs several times a day in humans. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated whether eating frequency (EF) is associated with obesity risk and energy intake in adults without any dietary restriction. Experimental and observational studies published before July 2015 were selected through English-language literature searches in several databases. These studies reported the association between EF and obesity risk (odd ratios, ORs) in adults who were not in dietary restriction. R software was used to perform statistical analyses. Ten cross-sectional studies, consisting of 65,742 participants, were included in this analysis. ORs were considered as effect size for the analysis about the effect of EF on obesity risk. Results showed that the increase of EF was associated with 0.83 time lower odds of obesity (i.e., OR = 0.83, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.70-0.99, p = 0.040). Analysis about the effect of EF on differences in participants' energy intake revealed that increased EF was associated with higher energy intake (β = 125.36, 95% CI 21.76-228.97, p = 0.017). We conclude that increased EF may lead to lower obesity risk but higher energy intake. Clinical trials are warranted to confirm these results and to assess the clinical practice applicability. PMID:27322302

  20. Increased Eating Frequency Is Associated with Lower Obesity Risk, But Higher Energy Intake in Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-Qiao; Zhang, Yun-Quan; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Yi-Wen; Li, Rui; Chen, Guo-Xun

    2016-01-01

    Body weight is regulated by energy intake which occurs several times a day in humans. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated whether eating frequency (EF) is associated with obesity risk and energy intake in adults without any dietary restriction. Experimental and observational studies published before July 2015 were selected through English-language literature searches in several databases. These studies reported the association between EF and obesity risk (odd ratios, ORs) in adults who were not in dietary restriction. R software was used to perform statistical analyses. Ten cross-sectional studies, consisting of 65,742 participants, were included in this analysis. ORs were considered as effect size for the analysis about the effect of EF on obesity risk. Results showed that the increase of EF was associated with 0.83 time lower odds of obesity (i.e., OR = 0.83, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.70–0.99, p = 0.040). Analysis about the effect of EF on differences in participants’ energy intake revealed that increased EF was associated with higher energy intake (β = 125.36, 95% CI 21.76–228.97, p = 0.017). We conclude that increased EF may lead to lower obesity risk but higher energy intake. Clinical trials are warranted to confirm these results and to assess the clinical practice applicability. PMID:27322302

  1. Voluntary running prevents progressive memory decline and increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis and growth factor expression after whole-brain irradiation.

    PubMed

    Wong-Goodrich, Sarah J E; Pfau, Madeline L; Flores, Catherine T; Fraser, Jennifer A; Williams, Christina L; Jones, Lee W

    2010-11-15

    Whole-brain irradiation (WBI) therapy produces progressive learning and memory deficits in patients with primary or secondary brain tumors. Exercise enhances memory and adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the intact brain, so we hypothesized that exercise may be an effective treatment to alleviate consequences of WBI. Previous studies using animal models to address this issue have yielded mixed results and have not examined potential molecular mechanisms. We investigated the short- and long-term effects of WBI on spatial learning and memory retention and determined whether voluntary running after WBI aids recovery of brain and cognitive function. Forty adult female C57Bl/6 mice given a single dose of 5 Gy or sham WBI were trained 2.5 weeks and up to 4 months after WBI in a Barnes maze. Half of the mice received daily voluntary wheel access starting 1 month after sham or WBI. Daily running following WBI prevented the marked decline in spatial memory retention observed months after irradiation. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) immunolabeling and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay indicated that this behavioral rescue was accompanied by a partial restoration of newborn BrdUrd+/NeuN+ neurons in the dentate gyrus and increased hippocampal expression of brain-derived vascular endothelial growth factor and insulin-like growth factor-1, and occurred despite irradiation-induced elevations in hippocampal proinflammatory cytokines. WBI in adult mice produced a progressive memory decline consistent with what has been reported in cancer patients receiving WBI therapy. Our findings show that running can abrogate this memory decline and aid recovery of adult hippocampal plasticity, thus highlighting exercise as a potential therapeutic intervention.

  2. Water Consumption Increases Weight Loss During a Hypocaloric Diet Intervention in Middle-aged and Older adults

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Elizabeth A.; Dengo, Ana Laura; Comber, Dana L.; Flack, Kyle D.; Savla, Jyoti; Davy, Kevin P.; Davy, Brenda M.

    2010-01-01

    Water consumption acutely reduces meal energy intake (EI) among middle-aged and older adults. Our objectives were to determine if premeal water consumption facilitates weight loss among overweight/obese middle-aged and older adults, and to determine if the ability of premeal water consumption to reduce meal EI is sustained after a 12-week period of increased water consumption. Adults (n = 48; 55–75 years, BMI 25–40 kg/m2) were assigned to one of two groups: (i) hypocaloric diet + 500 ml water prior to each daily meal (water group), or (ii) hypocaloric diet alone (nonwater group). At baseline and week 12, each participant underwent two ad libitum test meals: (i) no preload (NP), and (ii) 500 ml water preload (WP). Meal EI was assessed at each test meal and body weight was assessed weekly for 12 weeks. Weight loss was ~2 kg greater in the water group than in the nonwater group, and the water group (β = −0.87, P < 0.001) showed a 44% greater decline in weight over the 12 weeks than the nonwater group (β = −0.60, P < 0.001). Test meal EI was lower in the WP than NP condition at baseline, but not at week 12 (baseline: WP 498 ± 25 kcal, NP 541 ± 27 kcal, P = 0.009; 12-week: WP 480 ± 25 kcal, NP 506 ± 25 kcal, P = 0.069). Thus, when combined with a hypocaloric diet, consuming 500 ml water prior to each main meal leads to greater weight loss than a hypocaloric diet alone in middle-aged and older adults. This may be due in part to an acute reduction in meal EI following water ingestion. PMID:19661958

  3. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Linlong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE+ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE+HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE+HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a "two-programming" hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is "the first programming", and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as "the second programming".

  4. Viewing Our Aged Selves: Age Progression Simulations Increase Young Adults' Aging Anxiety and Negative Stereotypes of Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Rittenour, Christine E; Cohen, Elizabeth L

    2016-04-01

    This experiment tests the effect of an old-age progression simulation on young adults' (N = 139) reported aging anxiety and perceptions about older adults as a social group. College students were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: self-aged simulation, stranger-aged simulation, or a control group. Compared with the control group, groups exposed to an age progression experienced more negative affect, and individuals in the self-aged condition reported greater aging anxiety. In accordance with stereotype activation theorizing, the self-age simulation group also perceived older adults as less competent and expressed more pity and less envy for older adults. Compared to the stranger-aged group, participants who observed their own age progression were also the more likely to deny the authenticity of their transformed image.These findings highlight potential negative social and psychological consequences of using age simulations to affect positive health outcomes, and they shed light on how virtual experiences can affect stereotyping of older adults. PMID:27076488

  5. Impact of Increasing Age on Outcomes of Spinal Fusion in Adult Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Verla, Terence; Adogwa, Owoicho; Toche, Ulysses; Farber, S. Harrison; Petraglia, Frank; Murphy, Kelly R.; Thomas, Steven; Fatemi, Parastou; Gottfried, Oren; Bagley, Carlos A.; Lad, Shivanand P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of advancing age on postoperative complications and revision surgery after fusion for scoliosis. Methods A retrospective, cohort study was performed using the Thomson Reuters MarketScan database, examining patients with adult scoliosis who underwent spinal fusion from 2000 to 2009. Primary outcomes included infection, hemorrhage and pulmonary embolism (PE) within 90 days of surgery, and refusion. The effect of increasing age was estimated using the odds ratio (OR) of complications in a multivariate logistic regression analysis, and a Cox proportional hazard model estimated the hazard ratio of refusion. Results A total of 8432 patients were included in this study. Overall, the average age was 53.3 years, with 26.90% males and 39% with a Charlson Comorbidity Score of ≥1. Most patients had commercial insurance (66.81%), with 26.03% and 7.16% covered by Medicare and Medicaid, respectively. Increasing age (per 5-year increment) was a significant predictor of hemorrhagic complication (OR, 1.06; confidence interval [CI], 1.01–1.11; P = 0.0196), PE (OR, 1.09; CI, 1.03–1.16; P = 0.0031), infection (OR, 1.04; CI, 1.01–1.07; P = 0.0053), and refusion (hazard ratio, 1.07; CI, 1.02–1.13; P = 0.0103). Conclusions In this study, age was associated with increased risk of hemorrhage, PE, infection, and refusion. With the aging population, the role of patient age on postoperative healing and outcomes deserves deeper investigation after repair of adult idiopathic scoliosis. PMID:26546999

  6. Eat Smart, Live Strong intervention increases fruit and vegetable consumption among low-income older adults.

    PubMed

    Hersey, James C; Cates, Sheryl C; Blitstein, Jonathan L; Kosa, Katherine M; Santiago Rivera, Olga J; Contreras, Dawn A; Long, Valerie A; Singh, Anita; Berman, Danielle A

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a four-session interactive nutrition education program-Eat Smart, Live Strong (ESLS)-on the consumption of fruit and vegetables by low-income older adults. A pre-post quasi-experimental design study was conducted with a longitudinal sample of 614 low-income Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants and those eligible for SNAP, aged 60 to 80 years, in 17 intervention and 16 comparison senior centers in Michigan. The study compared participants' self-reports of their consumption of fruit and vegetables using a modified version of the University of California Cooperative Extension Food Behavior Checklist. ESLS increased participants' average daily consumption of fruit by 0.2 cups (P < 0.05) and vegetables by 0.31 cups (P < 0.01). ESLS, a four-session, cognitive-behavioral nutrition education program is an effective curriculum for helping low-income older adults eat more fruit and vegetables.

  7. Vegetable variety: an effective strategy to increase vegetable intake in adults.

    PubMed

    Meengs, Jennifer S; Roe, Liane S; Rolls, Barbara J

    2012-08-01

    Effective strategies are needed to increase vegetable intake in accordance with health recommendations. Previous research has shown that increasing the variety of foods leads to increased consumption, yet this strategy has not been investigated for promoting vegetable intake. This crossover study, conducted in 2008 and 2009, tested whether filling half the plate with a variety of vegetables influences vegetable consumption and meal energy intake. Once a week for 4 weeks, a meal of pasta and cooked vegetables was consumed ad libitum by 66 adults (34 women, 32 men). The meals were varied in the type of vegetables offered: at three meals 600 g of a single vegetable was served (broccoli, carrots, or snap peas) and at one meal 200 g of each of the three vegetables was served side by side. Data were analyzed using a mixed linear model with repeated measures. In this study, serving a variety of vegetables increased vegetable intake at the meal (P<0.0001). Subjects ate more vegetables when served the variety than when served any single type; the mean increase was 48±6 g, or more than one-half serving. This increase remained significant when intake of the variety of vegetables was compared with the preferred vegetable of each participant (mean 25±8 g; P=0.002). Vegetable intake was not significantly related to energy intake at the meal. The results of this study demonstrate that increasing the variety of low-energy-dense vegetables served at a meal can be used as a strategy to increase vegetable intake.

  8. A synthesized mating pheromone component increases adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) trap capture in management scenarios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Siefkes, Michael J.; Wagner, C. Michael; Dawson, Heather; Wang, Huiyong; Steeves, Todd; Twohey, Michael; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Application of chemical cues to manipulate adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) behavior is among the options considered for new sea lamprey control techniques in the Laurentian Great Lakes. A male mating pheromone component, 7a,12a,24-trihydroxy-3-one-5a-cholan-24-sulfate (3kPZS), lures ovulated female sea lamprey upstream into baited traps in experimental contexts with no odorant competition. A critical knowledge gap is whether this single pheromone component influences adult sea lamprey behavior in management contexts containing free-ranging sea lampreys. A solution of 3kPZS to reach a final in-stream concentration of 10-12 mol·L-1 was applied to eight Michigan streams at existing sea lamprey traps over 3 years, and catch rates were compared between paired 3kPZS-baited and unbaited traps. 3kPZS-baited traps captured significantly more sexually immature and mature sea lampreys, and overall yearly trapping efficiency within a stream averaged 10% higher during years when 3kPZS was applied. Video analysis of a trap funnel showed that the likelihood of sea lamprey trap entry after trap encounter was higher when the trap was 3kPZS baited. Our approach serves as a model for the development of similar control tools for sea lamprey and other aquatic invaders.

  9. Aberrant Neural Stem Cell Proliferation and Increased Adult Neurogenesis in Mice Lacking Chromatin Protein HMGB2

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Avanish S.; Maletic-Savatic, Mirjana; Aguirre, Adan; Tsirka, Stella E.

    2013-01-01

    Neural stem and progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs) are distinct groups of cells found in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Previously we determined that members of the High Mobility Group (HMG) B family of chromatin structural proteins modulate NSC proliferation and self-renewal. Among them HMGB2 was found to be dynamically expressed in proliferating and differentiating NSCs, suggesting that it may regulate NSC maintenance. We report now that Hmgb2−/− mice exhibit SVZ hyperproliferation, increased numbers of SVZ NSCs, and a trend towards aberrant increases in newly born neurons in the olfactory bulb (OB) granule cell layer. Increases in the levels of the transcription factor p21 and the Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), along with down-regulation of the transcription/pluripotency factor Oct4 in the Hmgb2−/− SVZ point to a possible pathway for this increased proliferation/differentiation. Our findings suggest that HMGB2 functions as a modulator of neurogenesis in young adult mice through regulation of NSC proliferation, and identify a potential target via which CNS repair could be amplified following trauma or disease-based neuronal degeneration. PMID:24391977

  10. The GH secretagogues ipamorelin and GH-releasing peptide-6 increase bone mineral content in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Svensson, J; Lall, S; Dickson, S L; Bengtsson, B A; Rømer, J; Ahnfelt-Rønne, I; Ohlsson, C; Jansson, J O

    2000-06-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is of importance for normal bone remodelling. A recent clinical study demonstrated that MK-677, a member of a class of GH secretagogues (GHSs), increases serum concentrations of biochemical markers of bone formation and bone resorption. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the GHSs, ipamorelin (IPA) and GH-releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6), increase bone mineral content (BMC) in young adult female rats. Thirteen-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were given IPA (0.5 mg/kg per day; n=7), GHRP-6 (0.5 mg/kg per day; n=8), GH (3.5 mg/kg per day; n=7), or vehicle administered continuously s.c. via osmotic minipumps for 12 weeks. The animals were followed in vivo by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements every 4th week. After the animals were killed, femurs were analysed in vitro by mid-diaphyseal peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) scans. After this, excised femurs and vertebrae L6 were analysed by the use of Archimedes' principle and by determinations of ash weights. All treatments increased body weight and total tibial and vertebral BMC measured by DXA in vivo compared with vehicle-treated controls. However, total BMC corrected for the increase in body weight (total BMC:body weight ratio) was unaffected. Tibial area bone mineral density (BMD, BMC/area) was increased, but total and vertebral area BMDs were unchanged. The pQCT measurements in vitro revealed that the increase in the cortical BMC was due to an increased cross-sectional bone area, whereas the cortical volumetric BMD was unchanged. Femur and vertebra L6 volumes were increased but no effect was seen on the volumetric BMDs as measured by Archimedes' principle. Ash weight was increased by all treatments, but the mineral concentration was unchanged. We conclude that treatment of adult female rats with the GHSs ipamorelin and GHRP-6 increases BMC as measured by DXA in vivo. The results of in vitro measurements using pQCT and Archimedes' principle, in

  11. The Evidence for Increased L1 Activity in the Site of Human Adult Brain Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kurnosov, Alexey A.; Ustyugova, Svetlana V.; Nazarov, Vadim I.; Minervina, Anastasia A.; Komkov, Alexander Yu.; Shugay, Mikhail; Pogorelyy, Mikhail V.; Khodosevich, Konstantin V.; Mamedov, Ilgar Z.; Lebedev, Yuri B.

    2015-01-01

    Retroelement activity is a common source of polymorphisms in human genome. The mechanism whereby retroelements contribute to the intraindividual genetic heterogeneity by inserting into the DNA of somatic cells is gaining increasing attention. Brain tissues are suspected to accumulate genetic heterogeneity as a result of the retroelements somatic activity. This study aims to expand our understanding of the role retroelements play in generating somatic mosaicism of neural tissues. Whole-genome Alu and L1 profiling of genomic DNA extracted from the cerebellum, frontal cortex, subventricular zone, dentate gyrus, and the myocardium revealed hundreds of somatic insertions in each of the analyzed tissues. Interestingly, the highest concentration of such insertions was detected in the dentate gyrus—the hotspot of adult neurogenesis. Insertions of retroelements and their activity could produce genetically diverse neuronal subsets, which can be involved in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. PMID:25689626

  12. Increasing the Availability of Physical Activity Programs for Older Adults: Lessons Learned From Texercise Stakeholders.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Alan B; Thiel, Shannon B; Thorud, Jennifer L; Smith, Matthew Lee; Howell, Doris; Cargill, Jessica; Swierc, Suzanne M; Ory, Marcia G

    2016-01-01

    Many initiatives have been developed to facilitate older adults' engagement in physical activity (PA) and document its benefits. One example is Texercise, a 12-week program with a focus on increasing participants' self-efficacy. The goal of this paper is to augment the knowledgebase of PA program implementation and dissemination by elucidating the experience of Texercise implementation as perceived by multiple stakeholders. We conducted 28 semistructured stakeholder interviews and categorized the responses into four preset themes: (1) program delivery and advocacy; (2) value/merit of the program; (3) successes/challenges of offering and sustaining the program; and (4) recommendations for enhancing implementation and delivery. We identified emergent subthemes through further analysis. Many perceptions that are broadly applicable to community organizations emerged. Our findings highlight the importance of stakeholder support when embedding PA programs in communities. Furthermore, the findings are crucial to understanding underlying processes that support widespread program dissemination and sustainability.

  13. Selection for tameness, a key behavioral trait of domestication, increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis in foxes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shihhui; Slomianka, Lutz; Farmer, Andrew J; Kharlamova, Anastasiya V; Gulevich, Rimma G; Herbeck, Yury E; Trut, Lyudmila N; Wolfer, David P; Amrein, Irmgard

    2015-08-01

    Work on laboratory and wild rodents suggests that domestication may impact on the extent of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and its responsiveness to regulatory factors. There is, however, no model of laboratory rodents and their nondomesticated conspecifics that would allow a controlled comparison of the effect of domestication. Here, we present a controlled within-species comparison of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in farm-bred foxes (Vulpes vulpes) that differ in their genetically determined degree of tameness. Quantitative comparisons of cell proliferation (Ki67) and differentiating cells of neuronal lineage (doublecortin, DCX) in the hippocampus of foxes were performed as a proxy for neurogenesis. Higher neurogenesis was observed in tameness-selected foxes, notably in an extended subgranular zone of the middle and temporal compartments of the hippocampus. Increased neurogenesis is negatively associated with aggressive behavior. Across all animals, strong septotemporal gradients were found, with higher numbers of proliferating cells and young neurons relative to resident granule cells in the temporal than in the septal hippocampus. The opposite gradient was found for the ratio of DCX/Ki67- positive cells. When tameness-selected and unselected foxes are compared with rodents and primates, proliferation is similar, while the number of young neurons is higher. The difference may be mediated by an extended period of differentiation or higher rate of survival. On the background of this species-specific neurogenic pattern, selection of foxes for a single behavioral trait key to domestication, i.e., genetic tameness, is accompanied by global and region-specific increases in neurogenesis.

  14. Hippocampal neuroligin-2 links early-life stress with impaired social recognition and increased aggression in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Christine; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Grosse, Jocelyn; Fournier, Céline; Harbich, Daniela; Westerholz, Sören; Li, Ji-Tao; Bacq, Alexandre; Sippel, Claudia; Hausch, Felix; Sandi, Carmen; Schmidt, Mathias V

    2015-05-01

    Early-life stress is a key risk factor for the development of neuropsychiatric disorders later in life. Neuronal cell adhesion molecules have been strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders and in modulating social behaviors associated with these diseases. Neuroligin-2 is a synaptic cell adhesion molecule, located at the postsynaptic membrane of inhibitory GABAergic synapses, and is involved in synaptic stabilization and maturation. Alterations in neuroligin-2 expression have previously been associated with changes in social behavior linked to psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and autism. In this study, we show that early-life stress, induced by limited nesting and bedding material, leads to impaired social recognition and increased aggression in adult mice, accompanied by increased expression levels of hippocampal neuroligin-2. Viral overexpression of hippocampal neuroligin-2 in adulthood mimics early-life stress-induced alterations in social behavior and social cognition. Moreover, viral knockdown of neuroligin-2 in the adult hippocampus attenuates the early-life stress-induced behavioral changes. Our results highlight the importance of neuroligin-2 in mediating early-life stress effects on social behavior and social cognition and its promising role as a novel therapeutic target for neuropsychiatric disorders.

  15. Weight loss during oligofructose supplementation is associated with decreased ghrelin and increased peptide YY in overweight and obese adults2

    PubMed Central

    Parnell, Jill A; Reimer, Raylene A

    2013-01-01

    Background Rodent studies show that oligofructose promotes weight loss, stimulates satiety hormone secretion, reduces energy intake, and improves lipid profiles. Objective Our objective was to examine the effects of oligofructose supplementation on body weight and satiety hormone concentrations in overweight and obese adults. Design This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Forty-eight otherwise healthy adults with a body mass index (in kg/m2) > 25 were randomly assigned to receive 21 g oligo-fructose/d or a placebo (maltodextrin) for 12 wk. Body composition (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry); meal tolerance tests, including satiety hormone response; food intake; and subjective appetite ratings were determined. Results There was a reduction in body weight of 1.03 ±0.43 kg with oligofructose supplementation, whereas the control group experienced an increase in body weight of 0.45 ± 0.31 kg over 12 wk (P = 0.01). A lower area under the curve (AUC) for ghrelin (P = 0.004) and a higher AUC for peptide YY (PYY) with oligofructose (P = 0.03) coincided with a reduction in self-reported caloric intake (P ≤ 0.05). Glucose decreased in the oligofructose group and increased in the control group between initial and final tests (P ≤ 0.05). Insulin concentrations mirrored this pattern (P ≤ 0.05). Oligofructose supplementation did not affect plasma active glucagon-like peptide 1 secretion. According to a visual analog scale designed to assess side effects, oligofructose was well tolerated. Conclusions Independent of other lifestyle changes, oligofructose supplementation has the potential to promote weight loss and improve glucose regulation in overweight adults. Suppressed ghrelin and enhanced PYY may contribute in part to the reduction in energy intake. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00522353. PMID:19386741

  16. Increased Difficulties in Managing Stairs in Visually Impaired Older Adults: A Community-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hong-Peng; Xu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Managing stairs is a challenging aspect of daily activities of living for older people. We assessed whether older adults with visual impairment (VI) have greater difficulties of managing stairs in daily lives. Methods The study was designed as a community-based cross-sectional study based on a Chinese cohort aged 60 years and older in rural China. Visual acuity (VA) was measured in both eyes using a retro-illuminated Snellen chart with tumbling-E optotypes. VI (including blindness) was defined as presenting VA of worse than 20/60 in either eye. Having any difficulties in managing stairs was self-reported based on a question drawn from the Barthel Index. Information on participants’ socioeconomic status, lifestyle-related factors, diseases histories and medication intake was collected using a questionnaire. Results The Barthel Index, Activities of Daily Living questionnaire was completed by 4597 (99.7%) participants including 2218 men and 2379 women. The age of the participants ranged from 60 to 93 years with a mean of 67.6 ± 6.3 years. In age and gender adjusted models, adults with VI had a higher likelihood of having difficulties in managing stairs (odds ratio [OR] = 2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.0, 3.7) compared with those without. The association of VI with the likelihood of having difficulties in managing stairs was stronger in older adults who lived alone (OR = 3.2; 95%CI 1.8, 4.5) compared with those who lived with other family members (OR = 2.0; 95%CI 1.3, 4.3). Compared with hypertension, diabetes, obesity and cognitive dysfunction, VI had the greatest impact on people's abilities of managing stairs. Conclusion VI was associated with an increased likelihood of having difficulties in managing stairs, especially in those who lived alone. However, whether the finding could be extrapolated to other populations warrants further studies as different environmental exposures such as illumination and types of stairs may alter the association

  17. Early adolescent Depo-Provera exposure increases stillbirths in adult sooty mangabeys.

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, Maurand; Ethun, Kelly; Meeker, Tracy; Von Scherr, Gretchen; Wallen, Kim

    2015-12-01

    The 3-month injectable contraceptive medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; Depo-Provera) is a synthetic progestin that protects against pregnancy by suppressing ovulation. Studies have focused on the resumption of ovulation after MPA-treatment cessation but neglected potential long-term effects of MPA exposure on future successful reproduction. MPA is frequently administered to adolescent girls; however, long-term fertility effects of adolescent MPA exposure have not been explored. We investigated fertility after extended MPA exposure in a species of old world primate, the sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys). Female sooty mangabeys (n=31) received chronic MPA-treatment for 4-8 years. At MPA-treatment onset, subjects were either parous adults (n=14) or nulliparous adolescents (n=17), with adolescent-treated subjects being further divided into those who had reached first ovulation (n=10) and those who had not (n=7). After MPA-treatment cessation, adolescent-treated females had a significantly higher incidence of stillbirth than did age-matched and parity-matched controls, whereas adult-treated females did not differ from their matched controls. Females placed on MPA-treatment prior to first ovulation had a significantly higher incidence of stillbirth post-treatment than did females placed on MPA-treatment after first ovulation. Diabetic females had an increased incidence of stillbirth as compared to nondiabetic females; however, when controlling for diabetes, MPA exposure prior to first ovulation was still a significant positive predictor of stillbirth. These findings suggest that the post-treatment fertility effects of chronic MPA exposure vary with the developmental timing of treatment onset and raise concern about the use of MPA as a contraceptive for adolescent girls.

  18. In utero/lactational and adult exposures to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) show differential effects on craniofacial development and growth in rats.

    PubMed

    Sholts, Sabrina B; Korkalainen, Merja; Simanainen, Ulla; Miettinen, Hanna M; Håkansson, Helen; Viluksela, Matti

    2015-11-01

    In a previous study of female Han/Wistar (H/W) and Long-Evans (L-E) rats, we found that adult exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was associated with size decreases in the cranium and especially the face. In this study we compared these crania to those from male and female Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats with in utero/lactational exposure to TCDD, using morphometric variables of size, shape, and fluctuating asymmetry to quantify the effects of dose on craniofacial development and growth. At the highest levels of exposure, in utero/lactational and adult TCDD exposures both resulted in small but significant reductions in facial size parameters (i.e., 3-5%) in only females and minor effects on facial shape in both sexes. The shape effects of in utero/lactational exposure were most significant at the sutural intersections, whereas adult exposure to TCDD corresponded to dose-dependent changes of decreasing facial length and vault breadth. Fluctuating asymmetry in general explained a relatively small amount of shape variation compared with other effects, and only increased significantly in female L-E rats with high levels of adult exposure to TCDD. These results indicate that TCDD-related changes in cranial development and growth in rats can vary with the timing and duration of exposure, and with sex. Further investigations of other dioxin-like compounds and animal species will broaden our understanding of how chemicals exposure can influence the development and growth of the mammalian skeleton.

  19. Fruits and stir-fried vegetables increase plasma carotenoids in young adults.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Chien, Yi-Wen; Yang, Shwu-Huey; Cheng, Hsing-Hsien

    2007-01-01

    We examined the plasma levels of carotenoids in young adults after a dietary intervention composed of increased intakes of fruits and stir-fried vegetables from a Taiwanese mixed diet. Thirty-four apparently healthy, non-smoking subjects who normally ingested less than two and a half servings of fruits and vegetables daily were selected for the study. Meals changed were lunch and dinner on weekdays for a period of 4 weeks. The test meal consisted of three servings of stir-fried vegetables and two servings of fresh fruits. Plasma carotenoid levels in subjects significantly increased from 19%-32% for beta-carotene, 15%-47% for lycopene and 59%-88% for beta-crytoxanthin (p < 0.05) from week 1 to 4. However, these concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene significantly decreased after stopping the consumption of the test meals. This study reveals the importance of a continuous consumption of carotenoid rich foods in order to maintain high levels of plasma carotenoids for the potential prevention of chronic diseases in individuals. PMID:18042520

  20. Nicotine-Cadmium Interaction Alters Exploratory Motor Function and Increased Anxiety in Adult Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chris Ajonijebu, Duyilemi; Adeyemi Adeniyi, Philip; Oloruntoba Adekeye, Adeshina; Peter Olatunji, Babawale; Olakunle Ishola, Azeez; Michael Ogundele, Olalekan

    2014-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the time dependence in cadmium-nicotine interaction and its effect on motor function, anxiety linked behavioural changes, serum electrolytes, and weight after acute and chronic treatment in adult male mice. Animals were separated randomly into four groups of n = 6 animals each. Treatment was done with nicotine, cadmium, or nicotine-cadmium for 21 days. A fourth group received normal saline for the same duration (control). Average weight was determined at 7-day interval for the acute (D1-D7) and chronic (D7-D21) treatment phases. Similarly, the behavioural tests for exploratory motor function (open field test) and anxiety were evaluated. Serum electrolytes were measured after the chronic phase. Nicotine, cadmium, and nicotine-cadmium treatments caused no significant change in body weight after the acute phase while cadmium-nicotine and cadmium caused a decline in weight after the chronic phase. This suggests the role of cadmium in the weight loss observed in tobacco smoke users. Both nicotine and cadmium raised serum Ca2+ concentration and had no significant effect on K+ ion when compared with the control. In addition, nicotine-cadmium treatment increased bioaccumulation of Cd2+ in the serum which corresponded to a decrease in body weight, motor function, and an increase in anxiety. PMID:26317007

  1. Drinking orange juice increases total antioxidant status and decreases lipid peroxidation in adults.

    PubMed

    Foroudi, Shahrzad; Potter, Andrew S; Stamatikos, Alexis; Patil, Bhimanagouda S; Deyhim, Farzad

    2014-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the world and is the primary cause of mortality among Americans. One of the many reasons for the pathogenesis of CVD is attributed to eating diets high in saturated fat and refined carbohydrates and low in fruits and vegetables. Epidemiological evidence has supported a strong association between eating diets rich in fruits and vegetables and cardiovascular health. An experiment was conducted utilizing 24 adults with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia to evaluate the impact of drinking 20 fl oz of freshly squeezed orange juice daily for 90 days on blood pressure, lipid panels, plasma antioxidant capacity, metabolic hormones, lipid peroxidation, and inflammatory markers. Except for addition of drinking orange juice, subjects did not modify their eating habits. The findings suggested that drinking orange juice does not affect (P>.1) blood pressure, lipid panels, metabolic hormones, body fat percentage, or inflammatory markers. However, total plasma antioxidant capacity was significantly increased (P<.05) and lipid peroxidation was significantly decreased (P<.05) after orange juice consumption. Drinking orange juice may protect the cardiovascular system by increasing total plasma antioxidant status and by lowering lipid peroxidation independent of other cardiovascular risk markers evaluated in this study.

  2. Sleep Disruption is Associated with Increased Ventricular Ectopy and Cardiac Arrest in Hospitalized Adults

    PubMed Central

    Miner, Steven Edward Stuart; Pahal, Dev; Nichols, Laurel; Darwood, Amanda; Nield, Lynne Elizabeth; Wulffhart, Zaev

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine whether sleep disruption increases ventricular ectopy and the risk of cardiac arrest in hospitalized patients. Methods: Hospital emergency codes (HEC) trigger multiple hospital-wide overhead announcements. In 2014 an electronic “code white” program was instituted to protect staff from violent patients. This resulted in an increase in nocturnal HEC. Telemetry data was examined between September 14 and October 2, 2014. The frequency of nocturnal announcements was correlated with changes in frequency of premature ventricular complexes per hour (PVC/h). Cardiac arrest data were examined over a 3-y period. All HEC were assumed to have triggered announcements. The relationship between nocturnal HEC and the incidence of subsequent cardiac arrest was examined. Results: 2,603 hours of telemetry were analyzed in 87 patients. During nights with two or fewer announcements, PVC/h decreased 33% and remained 30% lower the next day. On nights with four or more announcements, PVC/h increased 23% (P < 0.001) and further increased 85% the next day (P = 0.001). In 2014, following the introduction of the code white program, the frequency of all HEC increased from 1.1/day to 6.2/day (P < 0.05). The frequency of cardiac arrest/24 h rose from 0.46/day in 2012–2013 to 0.62/day in 2014 (P = 0.001). During daytime hours (06:00–22:00), from 2012 through 2014, the frequency of cardiac arrest following zero, one or at least two nocturnal HEC were 0.331 ± 0.03, 0.396 ± 0.04 and 0.471 ± 0.09 respectively (R2 = 0.99, P = 0.03). Conclusions: Sleep disruption is associated with increased ventricular ectopy and increased frequency of cardiac arrest. Citation: Miner SE, Pahal D, Nichols L, Darwood A, Nield LE, Wulffart Z. Sleep disruption is associated with increased ventricular ectopy and cardiac arrest in hospitalized adults. SLEEP 2016;39(4):927–935. PMID:26715226

  3. Acute and chronic caffeine administration increases physical activity in sedentary adults.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Patrick; Panek, Leah M; Temple, Jennifer L

    2013-06-01

    Caffeine is a commonly used stimulant thought to have ergogenic properties. Most studies on the ergogenic effects of caffeine have been conducted in athletes. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that caffeine reduces ratings of perceived exertion and increases liking of physical activity in sedentary adults. Participants completed treadmill walking at 60% to 70% of their maximal heart rate at baseline and for 6 subsequent visits, during which half of the participants were given caffeine (3 mg/kg) and half given placebo in a sports drink vehicle. To investigate the potential synergistic effects of acute and chronic caffeine on self-determined exercise duration, participants were rerandomized to either the same or different condition for the last visit, creating 4 chronic/acute treatment groups (placebo/placebo, placebo/caffeine, caffeine/placebo, caffeine/caffeine). Participants rated how much they liked the activity and perceived exertion at each visit. There was a main effect of time on liking of physical activity, with liking increasing over time and an interaction of sex and caffeine treatment on liking, with liking of activity increasing in female participants treated with caffeine, but not with placebo. There was no effect of caffeine on ratings of perceived exertion. Individuals who received caffeine on the final test day exercised for significantly longer than those who received placebo. These data suggest that repeated exposure to physical activity significantly increases liking of exercise and reduces ratings of perceived exertion and that caffeine does little to further modify these effects.

  4. The effects of increased fluid viscosity on stationary characteristics of EEG signal in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Jestrović, I; Coyle, J L; Sejdić, E

    2014-11-17

    Electroencephalography (EEG) systems can enable us to study cerebral activation patterns during performance of swallowing tasks and possibly infer about the nature of abnormal neurological conditions causing swallowing difficulties. While it is well known that EEG signals are non-stationary, there are still open questions regarding the stationarity of EEG during swallowing activities and how the EEG stationarity is affected by different viscosities of the fluids that are swallowed by subjects during these swallowing activities. In the present study, we investigated the EEG signal collected during swallowing tasks by collecting data from 55 healthy adults (ages 18-65). Each task involved the deliberate swallowing of boluses of fluids of different viscosities. Using time-frequency tests with surrogates, we showed that the EEG during swallowing tasks could be considered non-stationary. Furthermore, the statistical tests and linear regression showed that the parameters of fluid viscosity, sex, and different brain regions significantly influenced the index of non-stationarity values. Therefore, these parameters should be considered in future investigations which use EEG during swallowing activities.

  5. Chronically reinforced, operant olfactory conditioning increases the number of newborn GABAergic olfactory periglomerular neurons in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Tapia-Rodríguez, Miguel; Esquivelzeta-Rabell, José F; Gutiérrez-Ospina, Gabriel

    2012-12-01

    The mammalian brain preserves the ability to replace olfactory periglomerular cells (PGC) throughout life. Even though we have detailed a great deal the mechanisms underlying stem and amplifying cells maintenance and proliferation, as well as those modulating migration and differentiation, our knowledge on PGC phenotypic plasticity is at best fragmented and controversial. Here we explored whether chronically reinforced olfactory conditioning influences the phenotype of newborn PGC. Accordingly, olfactory conditioned rats showed increased numbers of GAD 65/67 positive PGC. Because such phenotypic change was not accompanied neither by increments in the total number of PGC, or periglomerular cell nuclei labeled with bromodeoxyuridine, nor by reductions in the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), calbindin (CB) or calretinin (CR) immunoreactive PGC, we speculate that increments in the number of GABAergic PGC occur at the expense of other PGC phenotypes. In any event, these results support that adult newborn PGC phenotype may be subjected to phenotypic plasticity influenced by sensory stimulation.

  6. Longer genotypically-estimated leukocyte telomere length is associated with increased adult glioma risk.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kyle M; Codd, Veryan; Rice, Terri; Nelson, Christopher P; Smirnov, Ivan V; McCoy, Lucie S; Hansen, Helen M; Elhauge, Edward; Ojha, Juhi; Francis, Stephen S; Madsen, Nils R; Bracci, Paige M; Pico, Alexander R; Molinaro, Annette M; Tihan, Tarik; Berger, Mitchel S; Chang, Susan M; Prados, Michael D; Jenkins, Robert B; Wiemels, Joseph L; Samani, Nilesh J; Wiencke, John K; Wrensch, Margaret R

    2015-12-15

    Telomere maintenance has emerged as an important molecular feature with impacts on adult glioma susceptibility and prognosis. Whether longer or shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is associated with glioma risk remains elusive and is often confounded by the effects of age and patient treatment. We sought to determine if genotypically-estimated LTL is associated with glioma risk and if inherited single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with LTL are glioma risk factors. Using a Mendelian randomization approach, we assessed differences in genotypically-estimated relative LTL in two independent glioma case-control datasets from the UCSF Adult Glioma Study (652 patients and 3735 controls) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (478 non-overlapping patients and 2559 controls). LTL estimates were based on a weighted linear combination of subject genotype at eight SNPs, previously associated with LTL in the ENGAGE Consortium Telomere Project. Mean estimated LTL was 31bp (5.7%) longer in glioma patients than controls in discovery analyses (P = 7.82x10-8) and 27bp (5.0%) longer in glioma patients than controls in replication analyses (1.48x10-3). Glioma risk increased monotonically with each increasing septile of LTL (O.R.=1.12; P = 3.83x10-12). Four LTL-associated SNPs were significantly associated with glioma risk in pooled analyses, including those in the telomerase component genes TERC (O.R.=1.14; 95% C.I.=1.03-1.28) and TERT (O.R.=1.39; 95% C.I.=1.27-1.52), and those in the CST complex genes OBFC1 (O.R.=1.18; 95% C.I.=1.05-1.33) and CTC1 (O.R.=1.14; 95% C.I.=1.02-1.28). Future work is needed to characterize the role of the CST complex in gliomagenesis and further elucidate the complex balance between ageing, telomere length, and molecular carcinogenesis.

  7. Longer genotypically-estimated leukocyte telomere length is associated with increased adult glioma risk

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kyle M.; Codd, Veryan; Rice, Terri; Nelson, Christopher P.; Smirnov, Ivan V.; McCoy, Lucie S.; Hansen, Helen M.; Elhauge, Edward; Ojha, Juhi; Francis, Stephen S.; Madsen, Nils R.; Bracci, Paige M.; Pico, Alexander R.; Molinaro, Annette M.; Tihan, Tarik; Berger, Mitchel S.; Chang, Susan M.; Prados, Michael D.; Jenkins, Robert B.; Wiemels, Joseph L.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Wiencke, John K.; Wrensch, Margaret R.

    2015-01-01

    Telomere maintenance has emerged as an important molecular feature with impacts on adult glioma susceptibility and prognosis. Whether longer or shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is associated with glioma risk remains elusive and is often confounded by the effects of age and patient treatment. We sought to determine if genotypically-estimated LTL is associated with glioma risk and if inherited single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with LTL are glioma risk factors. Using a Mendelian randomization approach, we assessed differences in genotypically-estimated relative LTL in two independent glioma case-control datasets from the UCSF Adult Glioma Study (652 patients and 3735 controls) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (478 non-overlapping patients and 2559 controls). LTL estimates were based on a weighted linear combination of subject genotype at eight SNPs, previously associated with LTL in the ENGAGE Consortium Telomere Project. Mean estimated LTL was 31bp (5.7%) longer in glioma patients than controls in discovery analyses (P = 7.82×10-8) and 27bp (5.0%) longer in glioma patients than controls in replication analyses (1.48×10-3). Glioma risk increased monotonically with each increasing septile of LTL (O.R.=1.12; P = 3.83×10-12). Four LTL-associated SNPs were significantly associated with glioma risk in pooled analyses, including those in the telomerase component genes TERC (O.R.=1.14; 95% C.I.=1.03-1.28) and TERT (O.R.=1.39; 95% C.I.=1.27-1.52), and those in the CST complex genes OBFC1 (O.R.=1.18; 95% C.I.=1.05-1.33) and CTC1 (O.R.=1.14; 95% C.I.=1.02-1.28). Future work is needed to characterize the role of the CST complex in gliomagenesis and further elucidate the complex balance between ageing, telomere length, and molecular carcinogenesis. PMID:26646793

  8. Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Targets for Increasing Victimization, a Call for a Preemptive Screening Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasser, Sheryl; O'Quin, Karen; Price, Thomas; Leyda, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The aging population is a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Isolation, limited autonomy, and declining physical and mental health render many older adults vulnerable to abuse, neglect, and exploitation. As the population grows, so does the need for Adult Protective Services (APS). This article highlights an ultrasensitive subgroup…

  9. Violent Crime Victimization Increases the Risk of Nursing Home Placement in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachs, Mark; Bachman, Ronet; Williams, Christianna S.; Kossack, Alice; Bove, Carolyn; O'Leary, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: We estimate the independent contribution of crime victimization to nursing home placement in a cohort of older adults who were community dwelling at baseline. Design and Methods: The data come from an observational cohort study of 2,321 community-residing older adults who were members of the New Haven Established Populations for…

  10. Running increases neurogenesis without retinoic acid receptor activation in the adult mouse dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Aberg, Elin; Perlmann, Thomas; Olson, Lars; Brené, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Both vitamin A deficiency and high doses of retinoids can result in learning and memory impairments, depression as well as decreases in cell proliferation, neurogenesis and cell survival. Physical activity enhances hippocampal neurogenesis and can also exert an antidepressant effect. Here we elucidate a putative link between running, retinoid signaling, and neurogenesis in hippocampus. Adult transgenic reporter mice designed to detect ligand-activated retinoic acid receptors (RAR) or retinoid X receptors (RXR) were used to localize the distribution of activated RAR or RXR at the single-cell level in the brain. Two months of voluntary wheel-running induced an increase in hippocampal neurogenesis as indicated by an almost two-fold increase in doublecortin-immunoreactive cells. Running activity was correlated with neurogenesis. Under basal conditions a distinct pattern of RAR-activated cells was detected in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus (DG), thalamus, and cerebral cortex layers 3-4 and to a lesser extent in hippocampal pyramidal cell layers CA1-CA3. Running did not change the number of RAR-activated cells in the DG. There was no correlation between running and RAR activation or between RAR activation and neurogenesis in the DG of hippocampus. Only a few scattered activated retinoid X receptors were found in the DG under basal conditions and after wheel-running, but RXR was detected in other areas such as in the hilus region of hippocampus and in layer VI of cortex cerebri. RAR agonists affect mood in humans and reduce neurogenesis, learning and memory in animal models. In our study, long-term running increased neurogenesis but did not alter RAR ligand activation in the DG in individually housed mice. Thus, our data suggest that the effects of exercise on neurogenesis and other plasticity changes in the hippocampal formation are mediated by mechanisms that do not involve retinoid receptor activation.

  11. Developmental fluoxetine exposure increases behavioral despair and alters epigenetic regulation of the hippocampal BDNF gene in adult female offspring.

    PubMed

    Boulle, Fabien; Pawluski, Jodi L; Homberg, Judith R; Machiels, Barbie; Kroeze, Yvet; Kumar, Neha; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Kenis, Gunter; van den Hove, Daniel L A

    2016-04-01

    A growing number of infants are exposed to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medications during the perinatal period. Perinatal exposure to SSRI medications alter neuroplasticity and increase depressive- and anxiety-related behaviors, particularly in male offspring as little work has been done in female offspring to date. The long-term effects of SSRI on development can also differ with previous exposure to prenatal stress, a model of maternal depression. Because of the limited work done on the role of developmental SSRI exposure on neurobehavioral outcomes in female offspring, the aim of the present study was to investigate how developmental fluoxetine exposure affects anxiety and depression-like behavior, as well as the regulation of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling in the hippocampus of adult female offspring. To do this female Sprague-Dawley rat offspring were exposed to prenatal stress and fluoxetine via the dam, for a total of four groups of female offspring: 1) No Stress+Vehicle, 2) No Stress+Fluoxetine, 3) Prenatal Stress+Vehicle, and 4) Prenatal Stress+Fluoxetine. Primary results show that, in adult female offspring, developmental SSRI exposure significantly increases behavioral despair measures on the forced swim test, decreases hippocampal BDNF exon IV mRNA levels, and increases levels of the repressive histone 3 lysine 27 tri-methylated mark at the corresponding promoter. There was also a significant negative correlation between hippocampal BDNF exon IV mRNA levels and immobility in the forced swim test. No effects of prenatal stress or developmental fluoxetine exposure were seen on tests of anxiety-like behavior. This research provides important evidence for the long-term programming effects of early-life exposure to SSRIs on female offspring, particularily with regard to affect-related behaviors and their underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:26844865

  12. The sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe2 (slc4a5) expressed in human renal proximal tubules shows increased apical expression under high-salt conditions.

    PubMed

    Gildea, John J; Xu, Peng; Carlson, Julia M; Gaglione, Robert T; Bigler Wang, Dora; Kemp, Brandon A; Reyes, Camellia M; McGrath, Helen E; Carey, Robert M; Jose, Pedro A; Felder, Robin A

    2015-12-01

    The electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe2) is encoded by SLC4A5, variants of which have been associated with salt sensitivity of blood pressure, which affects 25% of the adult population. NBCe2 is thought to mediate sodium bicarbonate cotransport primarily in the renal collecting duct, but NBCe2 mRNA is also found in the rodent renal proximal tubule (RPT). The protein expression or function of NBCe2 has not been demonstrated in the human RPT. We validated an NBCe2 antibody by shRNA and Western blot analysis, as well as overexpression of an epitope-tagged NBCe2 construct in both RPT cells (RPTCs) and human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. Using this validated NBCe2 antibody, we found NBCe2 protein expression in the RPT of fresh and frozen human kidney slices, RPTCs isolated from human urine, and isolated RPTC apical membrane. Under basal conditions, NBCe2 was primarily found in the Golgi, while NBCe1 was primarily found at the basolateral membrane. Following an acute short-term increase in intracellular sodium, NBCe2 expression was increased at the apical membrane in cultured slices of human kidney and polarized, immortalized RPTCs. Sodium bicarbonate transport was increased by monensin and overexpression of NBCe2, decreased by NBCe2 shRNA, but not by NBCe1 shRNA, and blocked by 2,2'-(1,2-ethenediyl)bis[5-isothiocyanato-benzenesulfonic acid]. NBCe2 could be important in apical sodium and bicarbonate cotransport under high-salt conditions; the implication of the ex vivo studies to the in vivo situation when salt intake is increased remains unclear. Therefore, future studies will examine the role of NBCe2 in mediating increased renal sodium transport in humans whose blood pressures are elevated by an increase in sodium intake. PMID:26447209

  13. The sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe2 (slc4a5) expressed in human renal proximal tubules shows increased apical expression under high-salt conditions.

    PubMed

    Gildea, John J; Xu, Peng; Carlson, Julia M; Gaglione, Robert T; Bigler Wang, Dora; Kemp, Brandon A; Reyes, Camellia M; McGrath, Helen E; Carey, Robert M; Jose, Pedro A; Felder, Robin A

    2015-12-01

    The electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe2) is encoded by SLC4A5, variants of which have been associated with salt sensitivity of blood pressure, which affects 25% of the adult population. NBCe2 is thought to mediate sodium bicarbonate cotransport primarily in the renal collecting duct, but NBCe2 mRNA is also found in the rodent renal proximal tubule (RPT). The protein expression or function of NBCe2 has not been demonstrated in the human RPT. We validated an NBCe2 antibody by shRNA and Western blot analysis, as well as overexpression of an epitope-tagged NBCe2 construct in both RPT cells (RPTCs) and human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. Using this validated NBCe2 antibody, we found NBCe2 protein expression in the RPT of fresh and frozen human kidney slices, RPTCs isolated from human urine, and isolated RPTC apical membrane. Under basal conditions, NBCe2 was primarily found in the Golgi, while NBCe1 was primarily found at the basolateral membrane. Following an acute short-term increase in intracellular sodium, NBCe2 expression was increased at the apical membrane in cultured slices of human kidney and polarized, immortalized RPTCs. Sodium bicarbonate transport was increased by monensin and overexpression of NBCe2, decreased by NBCe2 shRNA, but not by NBCe1 shRNA, and blocked by 2,2'-(1,2-ethenediyl)bis[5-isothiocyanato-benzenesulfonic acid]. NBCe2 could be important in apical sodium and bicarbonate cotransport under high-salt conditions; the implication of the ex vivo studies to the in vivo situation when salt intake is increased remains unclear. Therefore, future studies will examine the role of NBCe2 in mediating increased renal sodium transport in humans whose blood pressures are elevated by an increase in sodium intake.

  14. The ironic effect of guessing: increased false memory for mediated lists in younger and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Coane, Jennifer H.; Huff, Mark J.; Hutchison, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    Younger and older adults studied lists of words directly (e.g., creek, water) or indirectly (e.g., beaver, faucet) related to a nonpresented critical lure (CL; e.g., river). Indirect (i.e., mediated) lists presented items that were only related to CLs through nonpresented mediators (i.e., directly related items). Following study, participants completed a condition-specific task, math, a recall test with or without a warning about the CL, or tried to guess the CL. On a final recognition test, warnings (vs. math and recall without warning) decreased false recognition for direct lists, and guessing increased mediated false recognition (an ironic effect of guessing) in both age groups. The observed age-invariance of the ironic effect of guessing suggests that processes involved in mediated false memory are preserved in aging and confirms the effect is largely due to activation in semantic networks during encoding and to the strengthening of these networks during the interpolated tasks. PMID:26393390

  15. Silencing of Dok-7 in Adult Rat Muscle Increases Susceptibility to Passive Transfer Myasthenia Gravis.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Alejandro M; Stevens, Jo A A; Mané-Damas, Marina; Molenaar, Peter; Duimel, Hans; Verheyen, Fons; Cossins, Judith; Beeson, David; De Baets, Marc H; Losen, Mario; Martinez-Martinez, Pilar

    2016-10-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease mediated by autoantibodies that target proteins at the neuromuscular junction, primarily the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) and the muscle-specific kinase. Because downstream of kinase 7 (Dok-7) is essential for the full activation of muscle-specific kinase and consequently for dense clustering of AChRs, we hypothesized that reduced levels of Dok-7 increase the susceptibility to passive transfer MG. To test this hypothesis, Dok-7 expression was reduced by transfecting shRNA-coding plasmids into the tibialis anterior muscle of adult rats by in vivo electroporation. Subclinical MG was subsequently induced with a low dose of anti-AChR monoclonal antibody 35. Neuromuscular transmission was significantly impaired in Dok-7-siRNA-electroporated legs compared with the contralateral control legs, which correlated with a reduction of AChR protein levels at the neuromuscular junction (approximately 25%) in Dok-7-siRNA-electroporated muscles, compared with contralateral control muscles. These results suggest that a reduced expression of Dok-7 may play a role in the susceptibility to passive transfer MG, by rendering AChR clusters less resistant to the autoantibody attack. PMID:27658713

  16. How does increasingly plainer cigarette packaging influence adult smokers’ perceptions about brand image? An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, M A; Germain, D; Durkin, S J

    2008-01-01

    Background: Cigarette packaging is a key marketing strategy for promoting brand image. Plain packaging has been proposed to limit brand image, but tobacco companies would resist removal of branding design elements. Method: A 3 (brand types) × 4 (degree of plain packaging) between-subject experimental design was used, using an internet online method, to expose 813 adult Australian smokers to one randomly selected cigarette pack, after which respondents completed ratings of the pack. Results: Compared with current cigarette packs with full branding, cigarette packs that displayed progressively fewer branding design elements were perceived increasingly unfavourably in terms of smokers’ appraisals of the packs, the smokers who might smoke such packs, and the inferred experience of smoking a cigarette from these packs. For example, cardboard brown packs with the number of enclosed cigarettes displayed on the front of the pack and featuring only the brand name in small standard font at the bottom of the pack face were rated as significantly less attractive and popular than original branded packs. Smokers of these plain packs were rated as significantly less trendy/stylish, less sociable/outgoing and less mature than smokers of the original pack. Compared with original packs, smokers inferred that cigarettes from these plain packs would be less rich in tobacco, less satisfying and of lower quality tobacco. Conclusion: Plain packaging policies that remove most brand design elements are likely to be most successful in removing cigarette brand image associations. PMID:18827035

  17. The Utilization of an iPad for Increasing Work-Related Behaviors in Adults with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sarah; Bucholz, Jessica L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an iPad to increase work related behaviors for one adult with disabilities in a vocational setting. A multiple baseline across behaviors single subject research design was used to determine if an iPad helped to increase independence in three identified behaviors, which included…

  18. Prenatal Exposure to Autism-Specific Maternal Autoantibodies Alters Proliferation of Cortical Neural Precursor Cells, Enlarges Brain, and Increases Neuronal Size in Adult Animals.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica; Camacho, Jasmin; Fox, Elizabeth; Miller, Elaine; Ariza, Jeanelle; Kienzle, Devon; Plank, Kaela; Noctor, Stephen C; Van de Water, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) affect up to 1 in 68 children. Autism-specific autoantibodies directed against fetal brain proteins have been found exclusively in a subpopulation of mothers whose children were diagnosed with ASD or maternal autoantibody-related autism. We tested the impact of autoantibodies on brain development in mice by transferring human antigen-specific IgG directly into the cerebral ventricles of embryonic mice during cortical neurogenesis. We show that autoantibodies recognize radial glial cells during development. We also show that prenatal exposure to autism-specific maternal autoantibodies increased stem cell proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the embryonic neocortex, increased adult brain size and weight, and increased the size of adult cortical neurons. We propose that prenatal exposure to autism-specific maternal autoantibodies directly affects radial glial cell development and presents a viable pathologic mechanism for the maternal autoantibody-related prenatal ASD risk factor.

  19. Intake of grape procyanidins during gestation and lactation impairs reverse cholesterol transport and increases atherogenic risk indexes in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Del Bas, Josep Maria; Crescenti, Anna; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Oms-Oliu, Gemma; Arola, Lluís; Caimari, Antoni

    2015-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the most prevalent noncommunicable diseases in humans. Different studies have identified dietary procyanidins as bioactive compounds with beneficial properties against CVD by improving lipid homeostasis, among other mechanisms. The aim of this work was to assess whether grape seed procyanidin consumption at a physiological dose during the perinatal period could influence the CVD risk of the offspring. Wistar rat dams were treated with a grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE; 25mg/kg of body weight per day) or vehicle during gestation and lactation. The adult male offspring of GSPE-treated dams presented decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, increased total cholesterol-to-HDL-C ratios and an exacerbated fasting triglyceride-to-HDL-C ratios (atherogenic index of plasma) compared to the control group. Impaired reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) was evidenced by the accumulation of cholesterol in skeletal muscle and by decreased fecal excretion of cholesterol and bile acids, which was consistent with the observed mRNA down-regulation of the rate-limiting enzyme in the hepatic bile acid synthesis pathway Cyp7A1. Conversely, GSPE programming also resulted in up-regulated gene expression of different key components of the RCT process, such as hepatic Npc1, Abcg1, Abca1, Lxra, Srebp2, Lcat, Scarb1 and Pltp, and the repression of microRNA miR-33a expression, a key negative controller of hepatic RCT at the gene expression level. Our results show that maternal intake of grape procyanidins during the perinatal period impacts different components of the RCT process, resulting in increased CVD risk in the adult offspring. PMID:26365577

  20. Prenatal alcohol exposure and adolescent stress increase sensitivity to stress and gonadal hormone influences on cognition in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Comeau, Wendy L; Lee, Kristen; Anderson, Katie; Weinberg, Joanne

    2015-09-01

    Abnormal activity of stress hormone (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [HPA]), and gonadal hormone (hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal [HPG]) systems is reported following prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). PAE increases vulnerability of brain regions involved in regulation of these systems to stressors or challenges during sensitive periods of development, such as adolescence. In addition, HPA and HPG functions are linked to higher order functions such as executive function (EF), with dysregulation of either system adversely affecting EF processes, including attention and response inhibition, that influence cognition. However, how HPA and HPG systems interact to influence cognitive performance in individuals with an FASD is not fully understood. To investigate, we used a rat model of moderate PAE. Adolescent female PAE and control offspring were exposed to 10days of chronic mild stress (CMS) and cognitive function was assessed on the radial arm maze (RAM) in adulthood. On the final test day, animals were sacrificed, with blood collected for hormone analyses, and vaginal smears taken to assess estrus stage at the time of termination. Analyses showed that adolescent CMS significantly increased levels of CORT and RAM errors during proestrus in adult PAE but not control females. Moreover, CORT levels were correlated with estradiol levels and with RAM errors, but only in PAE females, with outcome dependent on adolescent CMS condition. These results suggest that PAE increases sensitivity to the influences of stress and gonadal hormones on cognition, and thus, in turn, that HPA and HPG dysregulation may underlie some of the deficits in executive function described previously in PAE females.

  1. An increased incidence of Hodgkin's lymphoma in patients with adult-onset sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sarcomas are rare, often fatal malignancies of connective tissues that can occur in genetic predisposition syndromes or result from carcinogen exposure. Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is not known to contribute to any recognised familial cancer syndrome comprising sarcomas, but is known to be associated with a variety of second cancers, including sarcomas. This study describes the prevalence of HL in families affected by sarcoma. Methods The International Sarcoma Kindred Study (ISKS) is a prospective cohort of 561 families ascertained via a proband with adult-onset sarcoma. Cancer-specific standardised incidence ratios (SIR) for multiple primary malignancies in probands were estimated. Clinical characteristics of individuals reporting both sarcoma and HL were described. Standardised incidence ratios for the occurrence of cancer in ISKS families were also estimated. Results Multiple primary cancers were reported in 16% of probands, significantly higher than in the general population. The risk of HL in probands was increased 15.8-fold (95%CI 7.9-31.6) and increased risks were also seen for breast cancer (SIR 2.9, 95%CI 1.9-4.4) and thyroid cancer (SIR 8.4, 95%CI 4.2-16.8). In 8 probands with both HL and sarcoma, the diagnosis of HL preceded that of sarcoma in 7 cases, and occurred synchronously in one case. Only 3 cases of sarcoma occurred in or close to prior radiotherapy fields. The overall incidence of HL in the ISKS cohort was not significantly increased by comparison with age- and gender-specific population estimates (SIR 1.63, 95%CI 1.05-2.43), suggesting that the association between HL and sarcomas did not extend to other family members. The age of onset of non-sarcoma, non-HL cancers in families affected by both HL and sarcoma was younger than the general population (56.2 y vs 65.6 y, P < 0.0001). Conclusions The basis for the association between HL and sarcomas may include the carcinogenic effects of therapy combined with excellent survival rates for HL

  2. Using a family history questionnaire to identify adult patients with increased genetic risk for sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Schiavi, A.; Lavigne, J.; Turcotte, R.; Kasprzak, L.; Dumas, N.; Chong, G.; Freeman, C.; Alameldin, M.; Galiatsatos, P.; Palma, L.; Foulkes, W.D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sarcomas in adults can be associated with hereditary cancer syndromes characterized by early-onset predisposition to numerous types of cancer. Because of variability in familial presentation and the largely unexplained genetic basis of sarcomas, ascertainment of patients for whom a genetics evaluation is most indicated poses challenges. We assessed the utility of a Sarcoma Clinic Genetic Screening (scgs) questionnaire in facilitating that task. Methods Between 2008 and 2012, 169 patients (median age: 53 years; range: 17–88 years) completed a self-administered scgs questionnaire. A retrospective chart review was completed for all respondents, and descriptive statistics were reported. Probands were divided into two groups depending on whether they did or did not report a family history of Li–Fraumeni syndrome–type cancers. Results A family history of cancer (as far as 3rd-degree relatives) was reported in 113 of 163 sarcoma patients (69%). Eeles Li–Fraumeni–like (lfl) criteria were fulfilled in 46 probands (28%), Chompret lfl in 21 (13%), Birch lfl in 8 (5%), and classic Li–Fraumeni in none. In the 10 probands tested for TP53 mutations, 1 pathogenic mutation was found. Further investigation of selected families led to the discovery of germline mutations in MLH1, MSH2, and APC genes in 3 individuals. Conclusions The scgs questionnaire was useful for ascertaining probands with sarcoma who could benefit from a genetic assessment. The tool allowed us to identify high-risk families fitting the criteria for lfl and, surprisingly, other hereditary cancer syndromes. Similar questionnaires could be used in other cancer-specific clinics to increase awareness of the genetic component of these cancers. PMID:26628864

  3. Pigs fed cholesterol neonatally have increased cerebrum cholesterol as young adults.

    PubMed

    Boleman, S L; Graf, T L; Mersmann, H J; Su, D R; Krook, L P; Savell, J W; Park, Y W; Pond, W G

    1998-12-01

    Sixty-eight female neonatal pigs selected for seven (Experiment 1) or eight (Experiment 2) generations for high (HG) or low (LG) plasma cholesterol were used to test the hypothesis that neonatal dietary cholesterol fed during the first 4 or 8 wk of postnatal life increases the cholesterol content of the cerebrum in young adulthood following free access to a high-fat (15%), high-cholesterol (0.5%) diet from 8 to 20 or 24 wk of age. Pigs were removed from their dams at 1 d of age and given free access to a sow-milk replacer diet containing 9.5% coconut fat and 0 or 0.5 % cholesterol. All pigs (except four HG and four LG pigs in Experiment 2, which were deprived of cholesterol throughout the study) were fed the high-fat, high-cholesterol diet from 8 wk to termination at 20 or 24 wk of age. Cerebrum weight and cholesterol concentration were higher in pigs fed cholesterol neonatally than in those deprived of cholesterol neonatally in both experiments, but weight and cholesterol concentration were unaffected by genetic line. Cholesterol concentrations in longissimus and semitendinosus muscles and in subcutaneous fat were unaffected by diet or genetic line. We conclude that dietary cholesterol deprivation during the first 4 to 8 wk of life in piglets is associated with lower cholesterol concentration and total content in the young adult cerebrum than in pigs supplemented with cholesterol in early life. These data support previous observations and suggest the possibility of a metabolic need for neonatal dietary cholesterol in normal brain development. PMID:9868199

  4. Increasing Steps/Day Predicts Improvement in Physical Function and Pain Interference in Adults with Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Kaleth, Anthony S.; Slaven, James E.; Ang, Dennis C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the concurrent and predictive associations between the number of steps taken per day (steps/day) and clinical outcomes in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). Methods 199 adults with FM [mean age = 46.1 yr; 95% females] enrolled in a randomized clinical trial wore a hip-mounted accelerometer for 1 week and completed self-report measures of physical function [Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire-Physical Impairment (FIQ-PI), SF-36 physical component score (SF-36 PCS)], pain intensity and interference (Brief Pain Inventory; BPI), and depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-8; PHQ-8) as part of their baseline and follow-up assessments. Associations of steps/day with self-report clinical measures were evaluated from baseline to week 12 using multivariate regression models adjusted for demographic and baseline covariates. Results Study participants were primarily sedentary, averaging 4,019 ± 1,530 steps/day. Our findings demonstrate a linear relationship between the change in steps/day and improvement in health outcomes for FM. Incremental increases on the order of 1,000 steps/day were significantly associated with (and predictive of) improvements in FIQ-PI, SF-36 PCS, BPI pain interference, and PHQ-8 (all p<0.05). Although higher step counts were associated with lower FIQ and BPI pain intensity scores, these were not statistically significant. Conclusion Step counts is an easily obtained and understood objective measure of daily physical activity. An exercise prescription that includes recommendations to gradually accumulate at least 5,000 additional steps/day may result in clinically significant improvements in outcomes relevant to patients with FM. Future studies are needed to elucidate the dose-response relationship between steps/day and patient outcomes in FM. PMID:25049001

  5. Concurrent Sexual Partnerships Among Young Heterosexual Adults at Increased HIV Risk: Types and Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Jocelyn T.; Harvey, S. Marie; Washburn, Isaac Joel; Sanchez, Diana Maria; Schoenbach, Victor J.; Agnew, Christopher R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The impact of concurrency on STI transmission depends upon coital frequency, condom use, duration of relationship overlap, and number of partners. Previous research has identified distinct concurrency types; however, little is known about their risk characteristics. Methods Men (n=261) and women (n=275) ages 18-30 years at increased risk of acquiring HIV were recruited from community locations in Los Angeles. Participants completed four in-person interviews over 12 months. Partnership data were used to characterize the prevalence of four types of concurrency: transitional (two overlapping relationships in which the first relationship ended before the second); single day (a second relationship of one day's duration during the course of another relationship); contained (a second relationship longer than 1 day began and ended during the course of another); and multiple (three or more overlapping relationships). Multilevel random intercept models were used to estimate mean coital frequency, proportion of condom-protected acts, total duration of overlap, and lifetime sex partners. Results At baseline, 47% of male and 32% of female participants reported any type of concurrency in the previous 4 months, and 26% of men and 10% of women reported multipleconcurrencies. Condom use ranged from 56% - 64%, with the highest use in transitional concurrency (61% for men, 68% for women) and the lowest in contained (52% for men, 54% for women). Coital frequency, total overlap, and lifetime sex partners also varied by concurrency type. Conclusions Inconsistent condom use and repeated opportunities for exposure characterize common types of concurrency among high-risk young adults. PMID:25763670

  6. Intrauterine metabolic programming alteration increased susceptibility to non-alcoholic adult fatty liver disease in prenatal caffeine-exposed rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linlong; Shen, Lang; Ping, Jie; Zhang, Li; Liu, Zhongfen; Wu, Yong; Liu, Yansong; Huang, Hegui; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-30

    An increase in susceptibility to metabolic syndromes (MetS) in rat offspring that experienced prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) has been previously demonstrated. The present study aimed to clarify this increased susceptibility and elucidate the mechanism of foetal origin that causes or contributes to adult non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as a result of PCE. Based on the results from both foetal and adult studies of rats that experienced PCE (120 mg/kgd), the foetal weight and serum triglyceride levels decreased significantly and hepatocellular ultrastructure was altered. Foetal livers exhibited inhibited insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), enhanced lipogenesis and reduced lipid output. In adult female offspring of PCE+lab chow, lipid synthesis, oxidation and output were enhanced, whereas lipogenesis was inhibited in their male conterparters. Furthermore, in adult offspring of PCE+ high-fat diet, catch-up growth appeared obvious with enhanced hepatic IGF-1, especially in females. Both males and females showed increased lipid synthesis and reduced output, which were accompanied by elevated serum triglyceride. Severe NAFLD appeared with higher Kleiner scores. Gluconeogenesis was continuously enhanced in females. Therefore, increased susceptibility to diet-induced NAFLD in PCE offspring was confirmed, and it appears to be mediated by intrauterine glucose and alterations in lipid metabolic programming. This altered programming enhanced foetal hepatic lipogenesis and reduced lipid output in utero, which continued into the postnatal phase and reappeared in adulthood with the introduction of a high-fat diet, thereby aggravating hepatic lipid accumulation and causing NAFLD.

  7. Getting Grandma Online: Are Tablets the Answer for Increasing Digital Inclusion for Older Adults in the U.S.?

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Hsin-yi Sandy; Shillair, Ruth; Cotten, Shelia R.; Winstead, Vicki; Yost, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Using information and communication technologies (ICTs) can improve older adults’ quality of life. ICT use is associated with decreased feelings of loneliness and depression, along with increased feelings of independence and personal growth. However, limited access and low technological self-efficacy are key reasons why some groups, especially older adults, are excluded from being fully engaged in the digital world. In this study, we focus on older adults’ technological self-efficacy, which is related to their actual use of technology and the second level digital divide. Specifically, we examine: 1) how older adults decide to use a new technology, tablet computers; 2) how they conquer the barrier of technological self-efficacy through using tablets; and 3) the impacts of using this new technology in their lives. Twenty-one in-depth interviews were conducted with older adults residing in independent living communities in a medium-sized city in the Deep South region of the United States. Observational and enactive learning played important roles for older adults in using tablets. Seeing others use tablets, getting recommendations from family members, or having tablets given to them were the primary reasons they started to use tablet computers. The ease of use feature of tablets helped solve the problem of lacking technological self-efficacy. Using tablets helped increase a sense of connectedness. Tablet computers may be one way to increase digital inclusion among older adults. PMID:26877583

  8. Changing Epidemiological Characteristics of Hepatitis A in Zhejiang Province, China: Increased Susceptibility in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhifang; Chen, Yaping; Xie, Shuyun; Lv, Huakun

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis A is a common acute hepatitis caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV). Annually, it affects 1.4 million people worldwide. Between 1991 and 1994, HAV infections were highly endemic in Zhejiang Province (China), with 78,720 reported HAV infections per year. Hepatitis A vaccine came on the market in 1995 and was implemented for voluntary immunization. Since 2008, hepatitis A vaccine has been integrated into the national childhood routine immunization program. Objective To understand the current epidemiological profile of hepatitis A in Zhejiang Province since hepatitis A vaccine has been available for nearly two decades. Methods This study used the 2005–2014 National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System data to evaluate the incidence rate of notified hepatitis A cases in Zhejiang Province. Results The overall trend of incidence rate of notified hepatitis A cases significantly decreased from 2005 to 2014 (P< 0.001). During the study period, the reported incidence rate in individuals aged ≤19 years declined to the historically lowest record in 2014. Compared with individuals aged ≤19 years, those aged ≥20 years showed the highest incidence rate (P< 0.001). Majority of HAV infected cases were Laborers, accounting for approximately 70% of reported cases. Conclusions Childhood immunization strategy with hepatitis A vaccine seemed to be effective in decreasing notified hepatitis A incidence rate in individuals aged ≤19 years. Those aged ≥20 years were observed to be the most susceptible population. The vast majority of hepatitis A cases were notified among Laborers. Therefore, we strongly suggest that future preventive and control measures should focus more on adults, particularly Laborers, in addition to the current childhood hepatitis A vaccination programme. PMID:27093614

  9. A history of chronic morphine exposure during adolescence increases despair-like behaviour and strain-dependently promotes sociability in abstinent adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, PE; Reiss, D; Ouagazzal, AM; Kieffer, BL

    2013-01-01

    A crucial issue in treating opiate addiction, a chronic relapsing disorder, is to maintain a drug-free abstinent state. Prolonged abstinence associates with mood disorders, strongly contributing to relapse. In particular, substance use disorders occurring during adolescence predispose to depression later in adulthood. Using our established mouse model of opiate abstinence, we characterized emotional consequences into adulthood of morphine exposure during adolescence. Our results indicate that morphine treatment in adolescent mice has no effect on anxiety-like behaviours in adult mice, after abstinence. In contrast, morphine treatment during adolescence increases behavioural despair in adult mice. We also show that morphine exposure strain-dependently enhances sociability in adult mice. Additional research will be required to understand where and how morphine acts during brain maturation to affect emotional and social behaviours into adulthood. PMID:23295400

  10. Self-Reports of Increased Prospective and Retrospective Memory Problems in Adults with Developmental Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Smith-Spark, James H; Zięcik, Adam P; Sterling, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    Short-term and working memory problems in dyslexia are well-documented, but other memory domains have received little empirical scrutiny, despite some evidence to suggest that they might be impaired. Prospective memory is memory for delayed intentions, whilst retrospective memory relates to memory for personally experienced past events. To gain an understanding of subjective everyday memory experience, a self-report measure designed to tap prospective and retrospective memory was administered to 28 adults with dyslexia and 26 IQ-matched adults without dyslexia. Adults with dyslexia reported experiencing significantly more frequent problems with memory than the adults without dyslexia. Group differences were found across seven out of the eight questionnaire scales. Further to these analyses, the participants' own ratings were compared with proxy ratings provided by close associates. The perception of poorer memory abilities in the participants did not differ between respondent types. The self-reported difficulties are, thus, unlikely to be the result of lowered self-esteem or metacognitive awareness. More frequent difficulties with both types of memory would seem, therefore, to be experienced by adults with dyslexia in everyday life. Further laboratory-based research is recommended to explore both memory domains in dyslexia and to identify the cognitive mechanisms by which these problems occur. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Self-Reports of Increased Prospective and Retrospective Memory Problems in Adults with Developmental Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Smith-Spark, James H; Zięcik, Adam P; Sterling, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    Short-term and working memory problems in dyslexia are well-documented, but other memory domains have received little empirical scrutiny, despite some evidence to suggest that they might be impaired. Prospective memory is memory for delayed intentions, whilst retrospective memory relates to memory for personally experienced past events. To gain an understanding of subjective everyday memory experience, a self-report measure designed to tap prospective and retrospective memory was administered to 28 adults with dyslexia and 26 IQ-matched adults without dyslexia. Adults with dyslexia reported experiencing significantly more frequent problems with memory than the adults without dyslexia. Group differences were found across seven out of the eight questionnaire scales. Further to these analyses, the participants' own ratings were compared with proxy ratings provided by close associates. The perception of poorer memory abilities in the participants did not differ between respondent types. The self-reported difficulties are, thus, unlikely to be the result of lowered self-esteem or metacognitive awareness. More frequent difficulties with both types of memory would seem, therefore, to be experienced by adults with dyslexia in everyday life. Further laboratory-based research is recommended to explore both memory domains in dyslexia and to identify the cognitive mechanisms by which these problems occur. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27121331

  12. Increasing opportunities for the productive engagement of older adults: a response to population aging.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Ernest; Matz-Costa, Christina; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2015-04-01

    "Productive aging" puts forward the fundamental view that the capacity of older adults must be better developed and utilized in activities that make economic contributions to society-working, caregiving, volunteering. It is suggested that productive engagement can lead to multiple positive ends: offsetting fiscal strains of a larger older population, contributing to the betterment of families and civil society, and maintaining the health and economic security of older adults. Advocates claim that outdated social structures and discriminatory behaviors limit participation of older adults in these important social roles as well as prevent the optimization of outcomes for older adults, families, and society. We ask two important questions: (a) How can we shape policies and programs to optimally engage the growing resources of an aging population for the sake of society and older adults themselves? and (b) How can policies pertaining to productive engagement reduce health and economic disparities? We answer these questions by first describing the current state of engagement in each of the three productive activities and summarize some current policies and programs that affect engagement. Next we highlight challenges that cross-cut productive engagement. Finally, we provide policy recommendations to address these challenges. PMID:26035601

  13. White bread enriched with polyphenol extracts shows no effect on glycemic response or satiety, yet may increase postprandial insulin economy in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Coe, Shelly; Ryan, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    Extracts from different plant sources have been shown to modify starch digestion from carbohydrate-rich foods and lower resulting glycemia. It was hypothesized that extracts rich in polyphenols, added to white bread, would improve the glycemic response and insulin response and increase satiety in healthy participants. An in vitro dose-response analysis was performed to determine the optimal dose of a variety of extracts (baobab fruit extract, green tea extract, grape seed extract, and resveratrol) for reducing rapidly digestible starch in white bread. The 2 extracts with the greatest sugar reducing potential were then used for the human study in which 13 volunteers (9 female and 4 male) were recruited for a crossover trial of 3 different meals. On separate days, participants consumed a control white bread, white bread with green tea extract (0.4%), and white bread with baobab fruit extract (1.88%). Glycemic response, insulin response, and satiety were measured 3 hours postprandially. Although enriched breads did not reduce glycemic response or hunger, white bread with added baobab fruit extract significantly (P < .05) reduced the total (0-180 minutes) and segmental insulin area under the curve at 0 to 90, 0 to 120, and 0 to 150 minutes, and therefore reduced the amount of insulin needed for a given blood glucose response. This preliminary research suggests that there is potential for baobab fruit extract added into white bread to improve insulin economy in healthy adults. PMID:26612114

  14. Pathbreaking CBO Study Shows Dramatic Increases in Income Disparities in 1980s and 1990s: An Analysis of the CBO Data. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Isaac; Greenstein, Robert; Primus, Wendell

    A study by the Congressional Budget Office of income and tax trends since 1979 showed dramatic increases in income disparities, especially between the wealthiest one percent of Americans and the rest of society, in the 1980s and 1990s. The percentage of income Americans paid in federal taxes declined for every income group between 1979-97. The…

  15. Periostin deficiency increases bone damage and impairs injury response to fatigue loading in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Nicolas; Gineyts, Evelyne; Ammann, Patrick; Conway, Simon J; Garnero, Patrick; Ferrari, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Bone damage removal and callus formation in response to fatigue loading are essential to prevent fractures. Periostin (Postn) is a matricellular protein that mediates adaptive response of cortical bone to loading. Whether and how periostin influences damage and the injury response to fatigue remains unknown. We investigated the skeletal response of Postn(-/-) and Postn(+/+) mice after fatigue stimulus by axial compression of their tibia. In Postn(+/+) mice, cracks number and surface (CsNb, CsS) increased 1h after fatigue, with a decrease in strength compared to non-fatigued tibia. At 15 days, CsNb had started to decline, while CtTV and CtBV increased in fatigued vs non-fatigued tibia, reflecting a woven bone response that was present in 75% of the fatigued bones. Cortical porosity and remodelling also prominently increased in the fatigued tibia of Postn(+/+) mice. At 30 days, paralleling a continuous removal of cortical damage, strength of the fatigued tibia was similar to the non-fatigue tibia. In Postn(-/-) mice, cracks were detectable even in the absence of fatigue, while the amount of collagen crosslinks and tissue hardness was decreased compared to Postn(+/+). Fatigue significantly increased CsNb and CsS in Postn(-/-), but was not associated with changes in CtTV and CtBV, as only 16% of the fatigued bones formed some woven bone. Cortical porosity and remodelling did not increase either after fatigue in Postn(-/-), and the level of damage remained high even after 30 days. As a result, strength remained compromised in Postn(-/-) mice. Contrary to Postn(+/+), which osteocytic lacunae showed a change in the degree of anisotropy (DA) after fatigue, Postn(-/-) showed no DA change. Hence periostin appears to influence bone materials properties, damage accumulation and repair, including local modeling/remodeling processes in response to fatigue. These observations suggest that the level of periostin expression could influence the propensity to fatigue fractures. PMID

  16. Explosive Resistance Training Increases Rate of Force Development in Ankle Dorsiflexors and Gait Function in Adults With Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Henrik; Geertsen, Svend S; Lorentzen, Jakob; Krarup, Kasper B; Bandholm, Thomas; Nielsen, Jens B

    2016-10-01

    Kirk, H, Geertsen, SS, Lorentzen, J, Krarup, KB, Bandholm, T, and Nielsen, JB. Explosive resistance training increases rate of force development in ankle dorsiflexors and gait function in adults with cerebral palsy. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2749-2760, 2016-Alterations in passive elastic properties of muscles and reduced ability to quickly generate muscle force contribute to impaired gait function in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). In this study, we investigated whether 12 weeks of explosive and progressive heavy-resistance training (PRT) increases rate of force development of ankle dorsiflexors (RFDdf), improves gait function, and affects passive ankle joint stiffness in adults with CP. Thirty-five adults (age: 36.5; range: 18-59 years) with CP were nonrandomly assigned to a PRT or nontraining control (CON) group in this explorative trial. The PRT group trained ankle dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, leg press, hamstring curls, abdominal curls, and back extension 3 days per week for 12 weeks, with 3 sets per exercise and progressing during the training period from 12 to 6 repetition maximums. RFDdf, 3-dimensional gait analysis, functional performance, and ankle joint passive and reflex-mediated muscle stiffness were evaluated before and after. RFDdf increased significantly after PRT compared to CON. PRT also caused a significant increase in toe lift late in swing and a significantly more dorsiflexed ankle joint at ground contact and during stance. The increased toe-lift amplitude was correlated to the increased RFDdf (r = 0.73). No other between-group differences were observed. These findings suggest that explosive PRT may increase RFDdf and facilitate larger range of movement in the ankle joint during gait. Explosive PRT should be tested in clinical practice as part of a long-term training program for adults with CP.

  17. Tricyclic Antidepressant Amitriptyline Indirectly Increases the Proliferation of Adult Dentate Gyrus-Derived Neural Precursors: An Involvement of Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Boku, Shuken; Hisaoka-Nakashima, Kazue; Nakagawa, Shin; Kato, Akiko; Kajitani, Naoto; Inoue, Takeshi; Kusumi, Ichiro; Takebayashi, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    Antidepressants increase the proliferation of neural precursors in adult dentate gyrus (DG), which is considered to be involved in the therapeutic action of antidepressants. However, the mechanism underlying it remains unclear. By using cultured adult rat DG-derived neural precursors (ADP), we have already shown that antidepressants have no direct effects on ADP. Therefore, antidepressants may increase the proliferation of neural precursors in adult DG via unknown indirect mechanism. We have also shown that amitriptyline (AMI), a tricyclic antidepressant, induces the expressions of GDNF, BDNF, FGF2 and VEGF, common neurogenic factors, in primary cultured astrocytes (PCA). These suggest that AMI-induced factors in astrocytes may increase the proliferation of neural precursors in adult DG. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of AMI-induced factors and conditioned medium (CM) from PCA treated with AMI on ADP proliferation. The effects of CM and factors on ADP proliferation were examined with BrdU immunocytochemistry. AMI had no effect on ADP proliferation, but AMI-treated CM increased it. The receptors of GDNF, BDNF and FGF2, but not VEGF, were expressed in ADP. FGF2 significantly increased ADP proliferation, but not BDNF and GDNF. In addition, both of a specific inhibitor of FGF receptors and anti-FGF2 antibody significantly counteracted the increasing effect of CM on ADP proliferation. In addition, FGF2 in brain is mainly derived from astrocytes that are key components of the neurogenic niches in adult DG. These suggest that AMI may increase ADP proliferation indirectly via PCA and that FGF2 may a potential candidate to mediate such an indirect effect of AMI on ADP proliferation via astrocytes. PMID:24260208

  18. A Strong Immune Response in Young Adult Honeybees Masks Their Increased Susceptibility to Infection Compared to Older Bees

    PubMed Central

    Bull, James C.; Ryabov, Eugene V.; Prince, Gill; Mead, Andrew; Zhang, Cunjin; Baxter, Laura A.; Pell, Judith K.; Osborne, Juliet L.; Chandler, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Honeybees, Apis mellifera, show age-related division of labor in which young adults perform maintenance (“housekeeping”) tasks inside the colony before switching to outside foraging at approximately 23 days old. Disease resistance is an important feature of honeybee biology, but little is known about the interaction of pathogens and age-related division of labor. We tested a hypothesis that older forager bees and younger “house” bees differ in susceptibility to infection. We coupled an infection bioassay with a functional analysis of gene expression in individual bees using a whole genome microarray. Forager bees treated with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae s.l. survived for significantly longer than house bees. This was concomitant with substantial differences in gene expression including genes associated with immune function. In house bees, infection was associated with differential expression of 35 candidate immune genes contrasted with differential expression of only two candidate immune genes in forager bees. For control bees (i.e. not treated with M. anisopliae) the development from the house to the forager stage was associated with differential expression of 49 candidate immune genes, including up-regulation of the antimicrobial peptide gene abaecin, plus major components of the Toll pathway, serine proteases, and serpins. We infer that reduced pathogen susceptibility in forager bees was associated with age-related activation of specific immune system pathways. Our findings contrast with the view that the immunocompetence in social insects declines with the onset of foraging as a result of a trade-off in the allocation of resources for foraging. The up-regulation of immune-related genes in young adult bees in response to M. anisopliae infection was an indicator of disease susceptibility; this also challenges previous research in social insects, in which an elevated immune status has been used as a marker of increased disease

  19. Tree ring proxies show physiological responses of eastern red cedar to increased CO2 and SO4 concentrations over the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R. B.; Spal, S.; Maxwell, S.; Nippert, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    We examined the relationships between tree growth during the past century and the ratio of internal carbon dioxide concentration to atmospheric CO2 concentration (ci/ca) and instantaneous water-use efficiency (iWUE) by analyzing δ13C in tree rings of Juniperus virginiana growing on a limestone outcrop in West Virginia, US. Tree rings from years 1909 to 2008 from five Juniperus virginiana trees that ranged from 116 years to over 300 years in age were measured for basal area growth and used for isotopic analysis. Instantaneous WUE increased from approximately 75 to 112μmol mmol-1 over the past century, representing a 49% increase. In addition, we found a positive relationship between iWUE and the basal area increase over this time period, suggesting the increase in WUE translated into greater growth of the Juniperus trees. Typically, we might expect that increased growth of these trees reflects increased photosynthetic rates and decreased stomatal conductance rates resulting from increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, this area of the central Appalachian Mountains has historically received some of the highest rates of acid deposition in the nation resulting from being downwind from an abundance of coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River valley. Our results show that ci/ca declined 14% between 1909 and 1980, but increased 9.6% between 1980 and 2009. We hypothesize that the directional change in ci/ca that occurred around 1980 was due to a reduction in sulfur emissions imposed by the Clean Air Act, environmental legislation enacted in 1970 and amended in 1990. Sulfur deposition measured by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) in West Virginia near our Juniperus site shows a 53% decline between 1979 and 2009 and these NADP data show a highly significant negative correlation with ci/ca of Juniperus over this time period. Previously, experimental studies have shown that acidic sulfur mist leaches calcium from leaves causing a reduction in

  20. Chronic neonatal nicotine exposure increases excitation in the young adult rat hippocampus in a sex-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Damborsky, Joanne C.; Griffith, William H.; Winzer-Serhan, Ursula H.

    2012-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy exposes the fetus to nicotine, resulting in nicotine-stimulated neurotransmitter release. Recent evidence suggests that the hippocampus develops differently in males and females with delayed maturation in males. We show that chronic nicotine exposure during the first postnatal week has sex-specific long-term effects. Neonatal rat pups were chronically treated with nicotine (6 mg/kg/day) (CNN) from postnatal day 1 to 7 or milk only (Controls), and hippocampal slices were prepared from Control- and CNN-treated young adults. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) or population spikes (PSs) were recorded from the CA1 hippocampus following CA1 s. radiatum stimulation. Input/Output curves constructed from fEPSP data indicated that CNN-males, but not females, had significantly increased excitatory responses compared to Controls (p<0.05, n=10 Con, n=11 CNN). Long-term potentiation (LTP) was not significantly changed by CNN. In the presence of bicuculline, which blocks inhibitory GABAA receptors, an epileptiform burst consisting of a series of PSs was evoked. The amplitude of the first PS was significantly larger in CNN-males and females compared to Controls (males: p<0.01, n=8 Con, n=8 CNN; females: p<0.05, n=9 Con, n=7 CNN). Only CNN-males also had significantly larger second PSs (p<0.05, n=8 con, n=8 CNN). Epileptiform activity evoked by zero Mg2+ incubation did not differ in amplitude or duration of bursts in CNN-males or females compared to Controls. These data indicate that neonatal nicotine exposure has long lasting effects and results in increased excitation within the CA1 hippocampus in adulthood, with males showing increased sensitivity to nicotine's effects. PMID:22119395

  1. A microenvironment approach to reducing sedentary time and increasing physical activity of children and adults at a playground

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective. Test whether a micro-environment park intervention in Grand Forks, ND, movement of seating away from a playground, would increase the physical activity and length of stay of park users. Method. STUDY 1, summer 2012: physical activity of children and adults was assessed during baseline (...

  2. Social behaviors increase more when children with ASD are imitated by their mother vs. an unfamiliar adult.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, Virginia; Ong, Su Sen

    2014-10-01

    Previous research suggests that being imitated by an adult increases the social behaviors of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In the current study, we examined whether familiarity with the imitating social partner modulates this effect. Ten children with ASD and their mothers participated. The children's social behaviors were observed prior to and following a 3-min period in which an adult social partner imitated everything they did. In one condition the partner was the child's mother, and in the other condition the partner was an unfamiliar experimenter. The results revealed significant increases in distal social behaviors (gazes toward the adult, vocalizing) following imitation by both partners. There was a significantly greater increase in proximal social behaviors (including approach, being physically close, and touching) and a greater decrease in playing alone when the imitator was the child's mother as opposed to the experimenter. The findings suggest that the experience of being imitated creates an atmosphere of mutuality and rapport between children with ASD and their social partners, which increases their sociability even in interactions with already familiar adults. PMID:24903832

  3. Mindfulness Training Increases Momentary Positive Emotions and Reward Experience in Adults Vulnerable to Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geschwind, Nicole; Peeters, Frenk; Drukker, Marjan; van Os, Jim; Wichers, Marieke

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) increases momentary positive emotions and the ability to make use of natural rewards in daily life. Method: Adults with a life-time history of depression and current residual depressive symptoms (mean age = 43.9 years, SD = 9.6; 75% female; all Caucasian) were randomized to…

  4. Getting Grandma Online: Are Tablets the Answer for Increasing Digital Inclusion for Older Adults in the U.S.?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Hsin-yi Sandy; Shillair, Ruth; Cotten, Shelia R.; Winstead, Vicki; Yost, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Using information and communication technologies (ICTs) can improve older adults' quality of life. ICT use is associated with decreased feelings of loneliness and depression, along with increased feelings of independence and personal growth. However, limited access and low technological self-efficacy are key reasons why some groups, especially…

  5. Increased levels of hyper-stable protein aggregates in plasma of older adults.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ke; Trasatti, Hannah; Wymer, James P; Colón, Wilfredo

    2016-06-01

    Proteins that misfold into hyper-stable/degradation-resistant species during aging may accumulate and disrupt protein homeostasis (i.e., proteostasis), thereby posing a survival risk to any organism. Using the method diagonal two-dimensional (D2D) SDS-PAGE, which separates hyper-stable SDS-resistant proteins at a proteomics level, we analyzed the plasma of healthy young (<30 years) and older (60-80 years) adults. We discovered the presence of soluble SDS-resistant protein aggregates in the plasma of older adults, but found significantly lower levels in the plasma of young adults. We identified the inflammation-related chaperone protein haptoglobin as the main component of the hyper-stable aggregates. This observation is consistent with the growing link between accumulations of protein aggregates and aging across many organisms. It is plausible higher amounts of SDS-resistant protein aggregates in the plasma of older adults may reflect a compromise in proteostasis that may potentially indicate cellular aging and/or disease risk. The results of this study have implications for further understanding the link between aging and the accumulation of protein aggregates, as well as potential for the development of aging-related biomarkers. More broadly, this novel application of D2D SDS-PAGE may be used to identify, quantify, and characterize the degradation-resistant protein aggregates in human plasma or any biological system. PMID:27179971

  6. Increasing the effectiveness of intracerebral injections in adult and neonatal mice: a neurosurgical point of view.

    PubMed

    Mathon, Bertrand; Nassar, Mérie; Simonnet, Jean; Le Duigou, Caroline; Clemenceau, Stéphane; Miles, Richard; Fricker, Desdemona

    2015-12-01

    Intracerebral injections of tracers or viral constructs in rodents are now commonly used in the neurosciences and must be executed perfectly. The purpose of this article is to update existing protocols for intracerebral injections in adult and neonatal mice. Our procedure for stereotaxic injections in adult mice allows the investigator to improve the effectiveness and safety, and save time. Furthermore, for the first time, we describe a two-handed procedure for intracerebral injections in neonatal mice that can be performed by a single operator in a very short time. Our technique using the stereotaxic arm allows a higher precision than freehand techniques previously described. Stereotaxic injections in adult mice can be performed in 20 min and have >90% efficacy in targeting the injection site. Injections in neonatal mice can be performed in 5 min. Efficacy depends on the difficulty of precisely localizing the injection sites, due to the small size of the animal. We describe an innovative, effortless, and reproducible surgical protocol for intracerebral injections in adult and neonatal mice.

  7. Increasing Writing Self-Efficacy of Adult Learners: Different Approaches, Different Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plakhotnik, Maria S.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2016-01-01

    To help graduate students with academic writing, a college of education at a large university implemented a new service, Writing Support Circles. Based on the results of the first series of this service, we changed its design. The purpose of this article is to share how changes in the design affected these adult learners' writing self-efficacy and…

  8. A Case Study: Increase Enrollment by Reducing Dropout Rates in Adult Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chyung, Yonnie; Winiecki, Donald J.; Fenner, Jo Ann

    The Instructional and Performance Technology Department at Boise State University (Idaho) offers a master's degree program via distance education to prepare adult students for careers in the areas of instructional design, job performance improvement, human resources, organizational redesign, training, and training management. Most students attend…

  9. Review of what youth programs do to increase the connectedness of youth with adults.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Jean B; Bulle, Meridel J

    2006-12-01

    Common sense and psychological research tell us that connections to adults--parents and others--are integral to the process of normal human development. A substantial research literature exists on the role of the parent-child relationship in development, and there is a smaller, but growing body of research that explores the effects of nonparental relationships. Adolescents, in particular, are open to nonparental adults as they strive to create for themselves lives more independent from their parents while still valuing advice from those more experienced than they. The most commonly examined nonparental relationship is that of a teacher and a student. One of the less explored areas of investigation is the importance of relationships youth have with adults they find in their weekend and after-school activities. This article examines field research that has been conducted over the past 15 years on youth programs, to address what has been learned about "connectedness" as it manifests itself in the field. By connectedness, we mean primarily the attachment youth have to the adults in the programs.

  10. Susceptibility to the Flash-Beep Illusion Is Increased in Children Compared to Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Innes-Brown, Hamish; Barutchu, Ayla; Shivdasani, Mohit N.; Crewther, David P.; Grayden, David B.; Paolini, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Audio-visual integration was studied in children aged 8-17 (N = 30) and adults (N = 22) using the "flash-beep illusion" paradigm, where the presentation of two beeps causes a single flash to be perceived as two flashes ("fission" illusion), and a single beep causes two flashes to be perceived as one flash ("fusion" illusion). Children reported…

  11. Adaptive Memory: Survival Processing Increases Both True and False Memory in Adults and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otgaar, Henry; Smeets, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that processing information in a survival context can enhance the information's memorability. The current study examined whether survival processing can also decrease the susceptibility to false memories and whether the survival advantage can be found in children. In Experiment 1, adults rated semantically related words in a…

  12. Evaluation of Two Instruction Methods to Increase Employment Options for Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Raymond V.; Andersen, Melissa N.; Bowen, Scott L.; Howard, Monica R.; Allen, Keith D.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of a vocational training program including behavioral skills training, and a "performance cue system" (i.e., a proprietary iPhone application adapted for the study) to teach targeted social-vocational skills to six young adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. In two separate studies, participants were employed…

  13. Increasing the Probability of Stimulus Equivalence with Adults with Mild Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Richard R.; McEntee, Julie, E.

    2004-01-01

    In Experiment 1, 6 adults with mild mental retardation were taught 3 overlapping conditional discriminations in a linear series structure, establishing the possibility of the emergence of 2 stimulus equivalence classes of 4 stimuli per class. Training employed balanced trial types in which the discriminative stimuli were presented in fixed pairs…

  14. Basil oil fumigation increases radiation sensitivity in adult Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biological activity of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) oil was tested against the stored product pest rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae(L.). Adult weevils were exposed to seven different concentrations of basil oil ranging from 0.12 µl/ml-0.60 µl/ml in Petri dishes and mortality was assessed at 3,4 and...

  15. Increasing dopamine D2 receptor expression in the adult nucleus accumbens enhances motivation.

    PubMed

    Trifilieff, P; Feng, B; Urizar, E; Winiger, V; Ward, R D; Taylor, K M; Martinez, D; Moore, H; Balsam, P D; Simpson, E H; Javitch, J A

    2013-09-01

    A decrease in dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) binding in the striatum is one of the most common findings in disorders that involve a dysregulation of motivation, including obesity, addiction and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. As disruption of D2R signaling in the ventral striatum--including the nucleus accumbens (NAc)--impairs motivation, we sought to determine whether potentiating postsynaptic D2R-dependent signaling in the NAc would improve motivation. In this study, we used a viral vector strategy to overexpress postsynaptic D2Rs in either the NAc or the dorsal striatum. We investigated the effects of D2R overexpression on instrumental learning, willingness to work, use of reward value representations and modulation of motivation by reward associated cues. Overexpression of postsynaptic D2R in the NAc selectively increased motivation without altering consummatory behavior, the representation of the value of the reinforcer, or the capacity to use reward associated cues in flexible ways. In contrast, D2R overexpression in the dorsal striatum did not alter performance on any of the tasks. Thus, consistent with numerous studies showing that reduced D2R signaling impairs motivated behavior, our data show that postsynaptic D2R overexpression in the NAc specifically increases an animal's willingness to expend effort to obtain a goal. Taken together, these results provide insight into the potential impact of future therapeutic strategies that enhance D2R signaling in the NAc. PMID:23711983

  16. Aerobic exercise improves hippocampal function and increases BDNF in the serum of young adult males.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Éadaoin W; Mullally, Sinéad; Foley, Carole; Warmington, Stuart A; O'Mara, Shane M; Kelly, Aine M

    2011-10-24

    Physical activity has been reported to improve cognitive function in humans and rodents, possibly via a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-regulated mechanism. In this study of human subjects, we have assessed the effects of acute and chronic exercise on performance of a face-name matching task, which recruits the hippocampus and associated structures of the medial temporal lobe, and the Stroop word-colour task, which does not, and have assessed circulating concentrations of BDNF and IGF-1 in parallel. The results show that a short period of high-intensity cycling results in enhancements in performance of the face-name matching, but not the Stroop, task. These changes in cognitive function were paralleled by increased concentration of BDNF, but not IGF-1, in the serum of exercising subjects. 3 weeks of cycling training had no effect on cardiovascular fitness, as assessed by VO2 scores, cognitive function, or serum BDNF concentration. Increases in fitness, cognitive function and serum BDNF response to acute exercise were observed following 5 weeks of aerobic training. These data indicate that both acute and chronic exercise improve medial temporal lobe function concomitant with increased concentrations of BDNF in the serum, suggesting a possible functional role for this neurotrophic factor in exercise-induced cognitive enhancement in humans. PMID:21722657

  17. Aerobic exercise improves hippocampal function and increases BDNF in the serum of young adult males.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Éadaoin W; Mullally, Sinéad; Foley, Carole; Warmington, Stuart A; O'Mara, Shane M; Kelly, Aine M

    2011-10-24

    Physical activity has been reported to improve cognitive function in humans and rodents, possibly via a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-regulated mechanism. In this study of human subjects, we have assessed the effects of acute and chronic exercise on performance of a face-name matching task, which recruits the hippocampus and associated structures of the medial temporal lobe, and the Stroop word-colour task, which does not, and have assessed circulating concentrations of BDNF and IGF-1 in parallel. The results show that a short period of high-intensity cycling results in enhancements in performance of the face-name matching, but not the Stroop, task. These changes in cognitive function were paralleled by increased concentration of BDNF, but not IGF-1, in the serum of exercising subjects. 3 weeks of cycling training had no effect on cardiovascular fitness, as assessed by VO2 scores, cognitive function, or serum BDNF concentration. Increases in fitness, cognitive function and serum BDNF response to acute exercise were observed following 5 weeks of aerobic training. These data indicate that both acute and chronic exercise improve medial temporal lobe function concomitant with increased concentrations of BDNF in the serum, suggesting a possible functional role for this neurotrophic factor in exercise-induced cognitive enhancement in humans.

  18. Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder Show Normal Attention to Eye-Gaze Information--Evidence from a New Change Blindness Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher-Watson, Sue; Leekam, Susan R.; Findlay, John M.; Stanton, Elaine C.

    2008-01-01

    Other people's eye-gaze is a powerful social stimulus that captures and directs visual attention. There is evidence that this is not the case for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), although less is known about attention to eye-gaze in adults. We investigated whether young adults would detect a change to the direction of eye-gaze in…

  19. Social support sources matter: Increased cellular aging among adults with unsupportive spouses.

    PubMed

    Barger, Steven D; Cribbet, Matthew R

    2016-03-01

    Social support is associated with better health but it is unknown whether the health advantages of social support depend on the support source. Using a probability sample of older U.S. adults (n=1430) we compared leukocyte telomere length, a biomarker of cellular aging, between married adults whose support sources either did or did not include their spouse. Despite having social support from other sources, participants who lacked spousal support had shorter telomeres relative to those with spousal support. The size of this telomere difference was comparable to differences between men and women and was independent of sociodemographic variables, coronary heart disease risk, diagnosed chronic disease and other social relationship resources such as the number of support sources, the number of friends, or the availability of financial support. Our findings suggest that relative to other sources of social support, spousal support may be especially important for cellular aging, a general biological mechanism that is implicated in age-related chronic disease risk.

  20. Increased Intraregional Synchronized Neural Activity in Adult Brain After Prolonged Adaptation to High-Altitude Hypoxia: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ji; Fan, Cunxiu; Li, Jinqiang; Han, Qiaoqing; Lin, Jianzhong; Yang, Tianhe; Zhang, Jiaxing

    2016-03-01

    The human brain is intrinsically plastic such that its functional architecture can be reorganized in response to environmental pressures and physiological changes. However, it remains unclear whether a compensatory modification of spontaneous neural activity occurs in adult brain during prolonged high-altitude (HA) adaptation. In this study, we obtained resting-state functional magnetic resonance (MR) images in 16 adults who have immigrated to Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (2300-4400 m) for 2 years and in 16 age-matched sea level (SL) controls. A validated regional homogeneity (Reho) method was employed to investigate the local synchronization of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals. Seed connectivity analysis was carried out subsequently. Cognitive and physiological assessments were made and correlated with the image metrics. Compared with SL controls, global mean Reho was significantly increased in HA immigrants as well as a regional increase in the right inferolateral sensorimotor cortex. Furthermore, mean z-Reho value extracted within the inferolateral sensorimotor area showed trend-level significant inverse correlation with memory search reaction time in HA immigrants. These observations, for the first time, provide evidence of adult brain resilience of spontaneous neural activity after long-term HA exposure without inherited and developmental effects. Resting-state fMRI could yield valuable information for central mechanisms underlying respiratory and cognitive compensations in adults during prolonged environmentally hypoxic adaptation, paving the way for future HA-adaptive training.

  1. Testosterone depletion in adult male rats increases mossy fiber transmission, LTP, and sprouting in area CA3 of hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Skucas, Vanessa A.; Duffy, Aine M.; Harte-Hargrove, Lauren; Magagna-Poveda, Alejandra; Radman, Thomas; Chakraborty, Goutam; Schroeder, Charles E.; MacLusky, Neil J.; Scharfman, H.E.

    2013-01-01

    Androgens have dramatic effects on neuronal structure and function in hippocampus. However, androgen depletion does not always lead to hippocampal impairment. To address this apparent paradox, we evaluated the hippocampus of adult male rats after gonadectomy (Gdx) or sham surgery. Surprisingly, Gdx rats showed increased synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP) of the mossy fiber (MF) pathway. Gdx rats also exhibited increased excitability and MF sprouting. We then addressed the possible underlying mechanisms, and found that Gdx induced a long-lasting upregulation of MF brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) immunoreactivity. Antagonism of Trk receptors, which bind neurotrophins such as BDNF, reversed the increase in MF transmission, excitability and LTP in Gdx rats, but there were no effects of Trk antagonism in sham controls. To determine which androgens were responsible, the effects of testosterone metabolites dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol were examined. Exposure of slices to 50 nM DHT decreased the effects of Gdx on MF transmission but 50 nM 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol had no effect. Remarkably, there was no effect of DHT in control males. The data suggest that a Trk- and androgen receptor-sensitive form of MF transmission and synaptic plasticity emerges after Gdx. We suggest that androgens may normally be important in area CA3 to prevent hyperexcitability and aberrant axon outgrowth, but limit MF synaptic transmission and some forms of plasticity. The results also suggest a potential explanation for the maintenance of hippocampal-dependent cognitive function after androgen depletion: a reduction in androgens may lead to compensatory upregulation of MF transmission and plasticity. PMID:23392664

  2. Increased affective ultrasonic communication during fear learning in adult male rats exposed to maternal immune activation.

    PubMed

    Yee, Nicole; Schwarting, Rainer K W; Fuchs, Eberhard; Wöhr, Markus

    2012-09-01

    Maternal exposure to infection during pregnancy greatly increases the risk of psychopathology in the offspring. In support of clinical findings, rodent models of maternal immune activation (MIA) show that prenatal exposure to pathogens can induce phenotypic changes in the offspring associated with schizophrenia, autism, depression and anxiety. In the current study, we investigated the effects of MIA via polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) on emotional behavior and communication in rats. Pregnant rats were administered poly I:C or saline on gestation day 15 and male offspring were tested in an auditory fear conditioning paradigm in early adulthood. We found that prenatal poly I:C exposure significantly altered affective signaling, namely, the production of aversive 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), in terms of call number, structure and temporal patterning. MIA led to an increase in aversive 22-kHz USVs to 300% of saline controls. Offspring exposed to MIA not only emitted more 22-kHz USVs, but also emitted calls that were shorter in duration and occurred in bouts containing more calls. The production of appetitive 50-kHz USVs and audible calls was not affected. Intriguingly, alterations in aversive 22-kHz USV emission were observed despite no obvious changes in overt defensive behavior, which highlights the importance of assessing USVs as an additional measure of fear. Aversive 22-kHz USVs are a prominent part of the rat's defensive behavioral repertoire and serve important communicative functions, most notably as alarm calls. The observed changes in aversive 22-kHz USVs show that MIA has long-term effects on emotional behavior and communication in exposed rat offspring.

  3. Maternal Obesity in Sheep Increases Fatty Acid Synthesis, Upregulates Nutrient Transporters, and Increases Adiposity in Adult Male Offspring after a Feeding Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Long, Nathan M.; Rule, Daniel C.; Tuersunjiang, Nuermaimaiti; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Ford, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Maternal obesity in women is increasing worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in adipose tissue metabolism and function in adult male offspring from obese and control fed mothers subjected to an ad libitum feeding challenge. We developed a model in which obese ewes were fed 150% of feed provided for controls from 60 days before mating to term. All ewes were fed to requirements during lactation. After weaning, F1 male offspring were fed only to maintenance requirements until adulthood (control = 7, obese = 6), when they were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks with intake monitored. At the end of the feeding challenge offspring were given an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), necropsied, and adipose tissue collected. During the feeding trial F1obese males consumed more (P < 0.01), gained more weight (P < 0.01) and became heavier (P < 0.05) than F1control males. During IVGTT, Obese F1 offspring were hyperglycemic and hypoinsulinemic (P < 0.01) compared to F1 control F1. At necropsy perirenal and omental adipose depots weights were 47% and 58% greater respectively and subcutaneous fat thickness 41% greater in F1obese vs F1control males (P < 0.05). Adipocyte diameters were greater (P ≤ 0.04) in perirenal, omental and subcutaneous adipose depots in F1obese males (11, 8 and 7% increase vs. control, respectively). When adipose tissue was incubated for 2 hrs with C-14 labeled acetate, subcutaneous, perirenal, and omental adipose tissue of F1 obese males exhibited greater incorporation (290, 83, and 90% increase vs. control, respectively P < 0.05) of acetate into lipids. Expression of fatty acid transporting, binding, and syntheses mRNA and protein was increased (P < 0.05) compared to F1 control offspring. Maternal obesity increased appetite and adiposity associated with increased adipocyte diameters and increased fatty acid synthesis in over-nourished adult male offspring. PMID:25875659

  4. Increased anxiety and impaired spatial memory in young adult rats following adolescent exposure to methylone.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Jollee J; Hughes, Robert N

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility that treatment of adolescent rats with the substituted cathinone, 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone), might result in heightened anxiety and/or impaired memory during early adulthood, as has been shown for other designer drugs. For 10 consecutive days from 35days after birth (PND35-44, early adolescence) or 45days after birth (PND45-54, late adolescence), male and female PVG/c rats were administered saline or 8.0mg/kg methylone via intraperitoneal injection. When 90days old (early adulthood), their anxiety-related behavior was recorded in an open field and a light/dark box. Acoustic startle amplitude was also measured as well as their spatial memory which was determined by their ability to detect which arm of a Y maze had changed in brightness between an acquisition and a retention trial. Previously methylone-treated rats showed increased anxiety-related behavior only in the open field as reflected in decreased ambulation, and increased corner occupancy and defecation. In the latter two cases, the increases depended on the age of treatment. Also, for defecation, only male rats were affected. In addition, methylone-treated rats displayed signs of impaired spatial memory, independent of anxiety, through their reduced ability to detect a novel changed Y-maze arm. The results of the study suggested some possible consequences in adulthood of methylone use during adolescence. There were also several examples of female rats exhibiting higher overall frequencies of activity and anxiety-related responding than males that were consistent with them being the more active and less anxious of the two sexes. PMID:27178814

  5. Developmental Exposure to Second-Hand Smoke Increases Adult Atherogenesis and Alters Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number and Deletions in apoE−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fetterman, Jessica L.; Pompilius, Melissa; Westbrook, David G.; Uyeminami, Dale; Brown, Jamelle; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Ballinger, Scott W.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. While many studies have focused upon the effects of adult second-hand smoke exposure on cardiovascular disease development, disease development occurs over decades and is likely influenced by childhood exposure. The impacts of in utero versus neonatal second-hand smoke exposure on adult atherosclerotic disease development are not known. The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of in utero versus neonatal exposure to a low dose (1 mg/m3 total suspended particulate) of second-hand smoke on adult atherosclerotic lesion development using the apolipoprotein E null mouse model. Consequently, apolipoprotein E null mice were exposed to either filtered air or second-hand smoke: (i) in utero from gestation days 1–19, or (ii) from birth until 3 weeks of age (neonatal). Subsequently, all animals were exposed to filtered air and sacrificed at 12–14 weeks of age. Oil red-O staining of whole aortas, measures of mitochondrial damage, and oxidative stress were performed. Results show that both in utero and neonatal second-hand smoke exposure significantly increased adult atherogenesis in mice compared to filtered air controls. These changes were associated with changes in aconitase and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase activities consistent with increased oxidative stress in the aorta, changes in mitochondrial DNA copy number and deletion levels. These studies show that in utero or neonatal exposure to second-hand smoke significantly influences adult atherosclerotic lesion development and results in significant alterations to the mitochondrion and its genome that may contribute to atherogenesis. PMID:23825571

  6. Increased energy density of the home-delivered lunch meal improves 24-hour nutrient intakes in older adults.

    PubMed

    Silver, Heidi J; Dietrich, Mary S; Castellanos, Victoria H

    2008-12-01

    As food intake declines with aging, older adults develop energy and nutrient inadequacies. It is important to design practical approaches to combat insufficient dietary intakes to decrease risk for acute and chronic diseases, illness, and injury. Manipulating the energy density of meals has improved energy intakes in institutional settings, but the effects on community-residing older adults who are at nutrition risk have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine whether enhancing the energy density of food items regularly served in a home-delivered meals program would increase lunch and 24-hour energy and nutrient intakes. In a randomized crossover counterbalanced design, 45 older adult Older American Act Nutrition Program participants received a regular and enhanced version of a lunch meal on alternate weeks. The types of foods, portion sizes (gram weight), and appearance of the lunch meal was held constant. Consumption of the enhanced meal increased average lunch energy intakes by 86% (P<0.001) and 24-hour energy intakes by 453 kcal (from 1,423.1+/-62.2 to 1,876.2+/-78.3 kcal, P<0.001). The 24-hour intakes of several key macronutrients and micronutrients also improved. These data suggest that altering the energy density of regularly served menu items is an effective strategy to improve dietary intakes of free-living older adults.

  7. Fractional anisotropy shows differential reduction in frontal-subcortical fiber bundles—A longitudinal MRI study of 76 middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Vik, Alexandra; Hodneland, Erlend; Haász, Judit; Ystad, Martin; Lundervold, Astri J.; Lundervold, Arvid

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the frontal- and white matter (WM) retrogenesis hypotheses and the assumptions that fronto-striatal circuits are especially vulnerable in normal aging, the goal of the present study was to identify fiber bundles connecting subcortical nuclei and frontal areas and obtain site-specific information about age related fractional anisotropy (FA) changes. Multimodal magnetic resonance image acquisitions [3D T1-weighted and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI)] were obtained from healthy older adults (N = 76, range 49–80 years at inclusion) at two time points, 3 years apart. A subset of the participants (N = 24) was included at a third time-point. In addition to the frontal-subcortical fibers, the anterior callosal fiber (ACF) and the corticospinal tract (CST) was investigated by its mean FA together with tract parameterization analysis. Our results demonstrated fronto-striatal structural connectivity decline (reduced FA) in normal aging with substantial inter-individual differences. The tract parameterization analysis showed that the along tract FA profiles were characterized by piece-wise differential changes along their extension rather than being uniformly affected. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first longitudinal study detecting age-related changes in frontal-subcortical WM connections in normal aging. PMID:26029102

  8. Increased Frequency of Micronuclei in Adults with a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Discordant Monozygotic Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    York, Timothy P.; Brumelle, Jenni; Juusola, Jane; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Eaves, Lindon J.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Aggen, Steven H.; Jones, Kimberly H.; Ferreira-Gonzalez, Andrea; Jackson-Cook, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a traumatic life event associated with an increased lifetime risk for psychopathology/morbidity. The long-term biological consequences of CSA-elicited stress on chromosomal stability in adults are unknown. The primary aim of this study was to determine if the rate of acquired chromosomal changes, measured using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay on stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes, differs in adult female monozygotic twins discordant for CSA. Methods Monozygotic twin pairs discordant for CSA were identified from a larger population-based sample of female adult twins for whom the experience of CSA was assessed by self-report (51 individuals including a reference sample). Micronuclei (MN) contain chromatin from structurally normal or abnormal chromosomes that are excluded from the daughter nuclei during cell division and serve as a biomarker to assess acquired chromosomal instability. Results Female twins exposed to CSA exhibited a 1.63-fold average increase in their frequency of MN compared to their nonexposed genetically identical cotwins (Paired t-test, t16 = 2.65, P = 0.017). No additional effects of familial factors were detected after controlling for the effect of CSA exposure. A significant interaction between CSA history and age was observed, suggesting that the biological effects of CSA on MN formation may be cumulative. Conclusions These data support a direct link between CSA exposure and MN formation measured in adults that is not attributable to genetic or environmental factors shared by siblings. Further research is warranted to understand the biological basis for the observed increase in acquired chromosomal findings in people exposed to CSA and to determine if acquired somatic chromosomal abnormalities/somatic clonal mosaicism might mediate the adult pathology associated with CSA. PMID:23383158

  9. Increased Susceptibility to Metabolic Alterations in Young Adult Females Exposed to Early Malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    del Carmen Miñana-Solis, María; Escobar, Carolina

    2007-01-01

    Early malnutrition during gestation and lactation modifies growth and metabolism permanently. Follow up studies using a nutritional rehabilitation protocol have reported that early malnourished rats exhibit hyperglycemia and/or hyperinsulinemia, suggesting that the effects of early malnutrition are permanent and produce a “programming” effect on metabolism. Deleterious effects have mainly been observed when early-malnutrition is followed by a high-carbohydrate or a high-fat diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether following a balanced diet subsequent to malnutrition can deter the expression of metabolic disease and lead rats to exhibit metabolic responses, similar to those of well-nourished controls. Young rats, born from dams malnourished during gestation and lactation with a low protein diet, were provided with a regular balanced chow diet upon weaning. At 90 days of age, the effects of rehabilitation were determined under three different feeding conditions: ad libitum, fasting or fasting-reefed satiated. Early-malnourished rats showed an increased rate of body weight gain. Males under ad libitum conditions showed an elevated concentration of hepatic glycogen and low values of insulin. In the fasting-reefed satiated condition, only early-malnourished females showed an alteration in glucose response and glucagon level, compared with their well-nourished controls. Data indicate that a balanced diet along life after early malnutrition can mask the expression of metabolic disorders and that a metabolic challenges due to a prolonged fasting and reefed state unmask metabolic deficiencies in early-malnourished females. PMID:17200687

  10. Illumina MiSeq Phylogenetic Amplicon Sequencing Shows a Large Reduction of an Uncharacterised Succinivibrionaceae and an Increase of the Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii Clade in Feed Restricted Cattle.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Matthew Sean; Cormican, Paul; Keogh, Kate; O'Connor, Aaron; O'Hara, Eoin; Palladino, Rafael Alejandro; Kenny, David Anthony; Waters, Sinéad Mary

    2015-01-01

    Periodic feed restriction is used in cattle production to reduce feed costs. When normal feed levels are resumed, cattle catch up to a normal weight by an acceleration of normal growth rate, known as compensatory growth, which is not yet fully understood. Illumina Miseq Phylogenetic marker amplicon sequencing of DNA extracted from rumen contents of 55 bulls showed that restriction of feed (70% concentrate, 30% grass silage) for 125 days, to levels that caused a 60% reduction of growth rate, resulted in a large increase of relative abundance of Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii clade (designated as OTU-M7), and a large reduction of an uncharacterised Succinivibrionaceae species (designated as OTU-S3004). There was a strong negative Spearman correlation (ρ = -0.72, P = <1x10(-20)) between relative abundances of OTU-3004 and OTU-M7 in the liquid rumen fraction. There was also a significant increase in acetate:propionate ratio (A:P) in feed restricted animals that showed a negative Spearman correlation (ρ = -0.69, P = <1x10(-20)) with the relative abundance of OTU-S3004 in the rumen liquid fraction but not the solid fraction, and a strong positive Spearman correlation with OTU-M7 in the rumen liquid (ρ = 0.74, P = <1x10(-20)) and solid (ρ = 0.69, P = <1x10(-20)) fractions. Reduced A:P ratios in the rumen are associated with increased feed efficiency and reduced production of methane which has a global warming potential (GWP 100 years) of 28. Succinivibrionaceae growth in the rumen was previously suggested to reduce methane emissions as some members of this family utilise hydrogen, which is also utilised by methanogens for methanogenesis, to generate succinate which is converted to propionate. Relative abundance of OTU-S3004 showed a positive Spearman correlation with propionate (ρ = 0.41, P = <0.01) but not acetate in the liquid rumen fraction.

  11. Increases in plasma lutein through supplementation are correlated with increases in physical activity and reductions in sedentary time in older adults.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Rebecca L; Coates, Alison M; Howe, Peter R C; Bryan, Janet; Matsumoto, Megumi; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2014-03-03

    Cross-sectional studies have reported positive relationships between serum lutein concentrations and higher physical activity levels. The purpose of the study was to determine whether increasing plasma lutein levels increases physical activity. Forty-four older adults (BMI, 25.3 ± 2.6 kg/m²; age, 68.8 ± 6.4 year) not meeting Australian physical activity guidelines (150 min/week of moderate to vigorous activity) were randomized to consume capsules containing 21 mg of lutein or placebo with 250 mL of full-cream milk per day for 4 weeks and encouraged to increase physical activity. Physical activity was assessed by self-report, pedometry and accelerometry (daily activity counts and sedentary time). Exercise self-efficacy was assessed by questionnaire. Thirty-nine participants competed the study (Lutein = 19, Placebo = 20). Lutein increased plasma lutein concentrations compared with placebo (p < 0.001). Absolute and percentage changes in plasma lutein were inversely associated with absolute (r = -0.36, p = 0.03) and percentage changes (r = -0.39, p = 0.02) in sedentary time. Percentage change in plasma lutein was positively associated with the percentage change in average daily activity counts (r = 0.36, p = 0.03). Exercise self-efficacy did not change (p = 0.16). Lutein increased plasma lutein, which was associated with increased physical activity and reduced sedentary time in older adults. Larger trials should evaluate whether Lutein can provide health benefits over the longer term.

  12. Full genome sequence of a novel circo-like virus detected in an adult European eel Anguilla anguilla showing signs of cauliflower disease.

    PubMed

    Doszpoly, Andor; Tarján, Zoltán L; Glávits, Róbert; Müller, Tamás; Benkő, Mária

    2014-05-13

    An adult European eel Anguilla anguilla, showing typical signs of the so-called cauliflower disease, was subjected to pathological and molecular virological examinations. Samples taken from internal organs and the polypoid proliferative tissue from the mouth were examined by PCR for the detection of several viruses. Positive results were obtained with a nested PCR targeting the rep gene of circoviruses. Analysis of the partial rep sequence indicated the presence of a putative novel circovirus, but attempts to isolate it remained unsuccessful. The missing part of the genome was acquired by an inverse nested PCR with 2 specific primer pairs, designed from the newly determined rep sequence, followed by genome walking. The circular full genome was found to consist of 1378 nt (GenBank accession no. KC469701). Two oppositely oriented open reading frames (ORFs) were present, of which one was unambiguously identified as a circoviral rep gene. However, the predicted product of the other ORF, though it is a clear positional counterpart of the cap genes, showed no obvious homology to any known circoviral capsid proteins. A stem-loop-like element in the intergenic region between the 5' ends of the ORFs was also found. Phylogenetic calculations indicated that the novel virus belongs to the genus Circovirus in the family Circoviridae. The relative amount of the viral DNA in the organ samples was estimated by quantitative real-time PCR. The results suggested that the examined fish was caught in an active viremic state, although the role of this circovirus in the etiology of the cauliflower diseases could not be ascertained.

  13. Nutrition education effective in increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Meredith G; Rhee, Yeong; Honrath, Kerrie; Blodgett Salafia, Elizabeth H; Terbizan, Donna

    2016-05-01

    Despite the benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption on weight and decreased risk for chronic disease, Americans' intake of fruits and vegetables is well below the recommended daily servings. While previous studies have assessed fruit and vegetable consumption and the influence of educational interventions on fruit and vegetable intake, no studies to date have examined the effects of nutrition education combined with provision of fruits and vegetables on changes in fruit and vegetable consumption among overweight and obese adults. The objectives of this study were to evaluate fruit and vegetable consumption patterns, including intake of antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables, provide education about benefits of consuming fruits and vegetables, expose participants to different varieties of fruits and vegetables, and improve fruit and vegetable consumption. Fifty-four adults (19 men/35 women; 44.7 ± 12.1 y) were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups. The control group received no intervention, the education group attended weekly nutrition lessons focused on benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, and the fruit and vegetable group attended weekly nutrition lessons and received one serving of fruits and two servings of vegetables per day for 10 weeks. Intake of fruits and vegetables was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires and three-day food records. Findings suggested that while the majority of participants failed to consume the recommended number of servings of fruits and vegetables per day, nutrition education was helpful in improving the consumption frequency of antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables among overweight and obese adults.

  14. [Increasing immunization coverage in adults and elderly by creating structural relationships with general practitioners].

    PubMed

    Conversano, M; Busatta, M; Cipriani, R; Battista, T; Sponselli, G M; Caputi, G; Pesare, A

    2012-01-01

    In order to reach vaccination coverage in adults, the elderly and in high risk subjects, a tight network of collaboration between preventive medicine specialists and general practitioners must be created in the same way that they must be created with pediatricians. In fact, this strategy has brought about very high coverage rates in childhood vaccinations. The solution to propose once again would thus be to develop partnerships between the protagonists of the network (community health district, department of prevention, general practitioners, primary care physicians) so that synergies may be created which permit the realisation of common and specific training programs.

  15. Transgenic plants expressing the AaIT/GNA fusion protein show increased resistance and toxicity to both chewing and sucking pests.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-Min; Li, Jie; Zhu, Jin-Qi; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Cheng-Shu; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Chen, Xue-Xin; Li, Sheng

    2016-04-01

    The adoption of pest-resistant transgenic plants to reduce yield losses and decrease pesticide use has been successful. To achieve the goal of controlling both chewing and sucking pests in a given transgenic plant, we generated transgenic tobacco, Arabidopsis, and rice plants expressing the fusion protein, AaIT/GNA, in which an insecticidal scorpion venom neurotoxin (Androctonus australis toxin, AaIT) is fused to snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, GNA). Compared with transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis plants expressing AaIT or GNA, transgenic plants expressing AaIT/GNA exhibited increased resistance and toxicity to one chewing pest, the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Transgenic tobacco and rice plants expressing AaIT/GNA showed increased resistance and toxicity to two sucking pests, the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, and the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, respectively. Moreover, in the field, transgenic rice plants expressing AaIT/GNA exhibited a significant improvement in grain yield when infested with N. lugens. This study shows that expressing the AaIT/GNA fusion protein in transgenic plants can be a useful approach for controlling pests, particularly sucking pests which are not susceptible to the toxin in Bt crops. PMID:25641865

  16. A Validated Age-Related Normative Model for Male Total Testosterone Shows Increasing Variance but No Decline after Age 40 Years

    PubMed Central

    Kelsey, Thomas W.; Li, Lucy Q.; Mitchell, Rod T.; Whelan, Ashley; Anderson, Richard A.; Wallace, W. Hamish B.

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of hypogonadism in human males includes identification of low serum testosterone levels, and hence there is an underlying assumption that normal ranges of testosterone for the healthy population are known for all ages. However, to our knowledge, no such reference model exists in the literature, and hence the availability of an applicable biochemical reference range would be helpful for the clinical assessment of hypogonadal men. In this study, using model selection and validation analysis of data identified and extracted from thirteen studies, we derive and validate a normative model of total testosterone across the lifespan in healthy men. We show that total testosterone peaks [mean (2.5–97.5 percentile)] at 15.4 (7.2–31.1) nmol/L at an average age of 19 years, and falls in the average case [mean (2.5–97.5 percentile)] to 13.0 (6.6–25.3) nmol/L by age 40 years, but we find no evidence for a further fall in mean total testosterone with increasing age through to old age. However we do show that there is an increased variation in total testosterone levels with advancing age after age 40 years. This model provides the age related reference ranges needed to support research and clinical decision making in males who have symptoms that may be due to hypogonadism. PMID:25295520

  17. Diurnal Cortisol Rhythm Is Associated With Increased Risky Decision Making in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Weller, Joshua A.; Buchanan, Tony W.; Shackleford, Crystal; Morganstern, Arielle; Hartman, Joshua J.; Yuska, Jonathan; Denburg, Natalie L.

    2014-01-01

    Although past research has suggested a link between chronic stress and both physical and mental well-being in older adults, less is known about the degree to which neuroendocrine markers of stress are associated with higher-order cognitive processes such as decision-making. In a sample of healthy older adults (55–85 years), we tested the degree to which variation in the diurnal cortisol rhythm, an index of hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary axis dynamics, was related to differences in risky decision making. We found that diurnal cortisol fall predicted performance on the Cups Task, a risky decision making task that independently tests risk taking to achieve gains and risk taking to avoid losses. For potential gains, we found that greater risk-taking was associated with lower diurnal cortisol fall, independent of age or sex of the participant. For risks to avoid potential losses, we found that lower diurnal fall selectively was associated with suboptimal decision-making for men only. Compared to males with more typical diurnal fall, those who displayed lower diurnal fall made more risky choices and demonstrated lower sensitivity to the expected value of the risky choice. We integrate these results with the extant literature on the effects of stress on cognitive aging. PMID:24955995

  18. Increased Expression of the Large Conductance, Calcium-Activated K+ (BK) Channel in Adult-Onset Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis

    PubMed Central

    Donnelier, Julien; Braun, Samuel T.; Dolzhanskaya, Natalia; Ahrendt, Eva; Braun, Andrew P.; Velinov, Milen; Braun, Janice E. A.

    2015-01-01

    Cysteine string protein (CSPα) is a presynaptic J protein co-chaperone that opposes neurodegeneration. Mutations in CSPα (i.e., Leu115 to Arg substitution or deletion (Δ) of Leu116) cause adult neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (ANCL), a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease. We have previously demonstrated that CSPα limits the expression of large conductance, calcium-activated K+ (BK) channels in neurons, which may impact synaptic excitability and neurotransmission. Here we show by western blot analysis that expression of the pore-forming BKα subunit is elevated ~2.5 fold in the post-mortem cortex of a 36-year-old patient with the Leu116∆ CSPα mutation. Moreover, we find that the increase in BKα subunit level is selective for ANCL and not a general feature of neurodegenerative conditions. While reduced levels of CSPα are found in some postmortem cortex specimens from Alzheimer’s disease patients, we find no concomitant increase in BKα subunit expression in Alzheimer’s specimens. Both CSPα monomer and oligomer expression are reduced in synaptosomes prepared from ANCL cortex compared with control. In a cultured neuronal cell model, CSPα oligomers are short lived. The results of this study indicate that the Leu116∆ mutation leads to elevated BKα subunit levels in human cortex and extend our initial work in rodent models demonstrating the modulation of BKα subunit levels by the same CSPα mutation. While the precise sequence of pathogenic events still remains to be elucidated, our findings suggest that dysregulation of BK channels may contribute to neurodegeneration in ANCL. PMID:25905915

  19. Transcriptomic analysis of Clostridium thermocellum Populus hydrolysate-tolerant mutant strain shows increased cellular efficiency in response to Populus hydrolysate compared to the wild type strain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The thermophilic, anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium thermocellum is a model organism for consolidated processing due to its efficient fermentation of cellulose. Constituents of dilute acid pretreatment hydrolysate are known to inhibit C. thermocellum and other microorganisms. To evaluate the biological impact of this type of hydrolysate, a transcriptomic analysis of growth in hydrolysate-containing medium was conducted on 17.5% v/v Populus hydrolysate-tolerant mutant (PM) and wild type (WT) strains of C. thermocellum. Results In two levels of Populus hydrolysate medium (0% and 10% v/v), the PM showed both gene specific increases and decreases of gene expression compared to the wild-type strain. The PM had increased expression of genes in energy production and conversion, and amino acid transport and metabolism in both standard and 10% v/v Populus hydrolysate media. In particular, expression of the histidine metabolism increased up to 100 fold. In contrast, the PM decreased gene expression in cell division and sporulation (standard medium only), cell defense mechanisms, cell envelope, cell motility, and cellulosome in both media. The PM downregulated inorganic ion transport and metabolism in standard medium but upregulated it in the hydrolysate media when compared to the WT. The WT differentially expressed 1072 genes in response to the hydrolysate medium which included increased transcription of cell defense mechanisms, cell motility, and cellulosome, and decreased expression in cell envelope, amino acid transport and metabolism, inorganic ion transport and metabolism, and lipid metabolism, while the PM only differentially expressed 92 genes. The PM tolerates up to 17.5% v/v Populus hydrolysate and growth in it elicited 489 genes with differential expression, which included increased expression in energy production and conversion, cellulosome production, and inorganic ion transport and metabolism and decreased expression in transcription and cell

  20. Increased COUP-TFII expression in adult hearts induces mitochondrial dysfunction resulting in heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Wu, San-Pin; Kao, Chung-Yang; Wang, Leiming; Creighton, Chad J.; Yang, Jin; Donti, Taraka R.; Harmancey, Romain; Vasquez, Hernan G.; Graham, Brett H.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Chang, Ching-Pin; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Tsai, Sophia Y.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic remodelling are pivotal in the development of cardiomyopathy. Here, we show that myocardial COUP-TFII overexpression causes heart failure in mice, suggesting a causal effect of elevated COUP-TFII levels on development of dilated cardiomyopathy. COUP-TFII represses genes critical for mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activity, oxidative stress detoxification and mitochondrial dynamics, resulting in increased levels of reactive oxygen species and lower rates of oxygen consumption in mitochondria. COUP-TFII also suppresses the metabolic regulator PGC-1 network and decreases the expression of key glucose and lipid utilization genes, leading to a reduction in both glucose and oleate oxidation in the hearts. These data suggest that COUP-TFII affects mitochondrial function, impairs metabolic remodelling and has a key role in dilated cardiomyopathy. Last, COUP-TFII haploinsufficiency attenuates the progression of cardiac dilation and improves survival in a calcineurin transgenic mouse model, indicating that COUP-TFII may serve as a therapeutic target for the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy. PMID:26356605

  1. Increased COUP-TFII expression in adult hearts induces mitochondrial dysfunction resulting in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Wu, San-Pin; Kao, Chung-Yang; Wang, Leiming; Creighton, Chad J; Yang, Jin; Donti, Taraka R; Harmancey, Romain; Vasquez, Hernan G; Graham, Brett H; Bellen, Hugo J; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Chang, Ching-Pin; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Tsai, Sophia Y

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic remodelling are pivotal in the development of cardiomyopathy. Here, we show that myocardial COUP-TFII overexpression causes heart failure in mice, suggesting a causal effect of elevated COUP-TFII levels on development of dilated cardiomyopathy. COUP-TFII represses genes critical for mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activity, oxidative stress detoxification and mitochondrial dynamics, resulting in increased levels of reactive oxygen species and lower rates of oxygen consumption in mitochondria. COUP-TFII also suppresses the metabolic regulator PGC-1 network and decreases the expression of key glucose and lipid utilization genes, leading to a reduction in both glucose and oleate oxidation in the hearts. These data suggest that COUP-TFII affects mitochondrial function, impairs metabolic remodelling and has a key role in dilated cardiomyopathy. Last, COUP-TFII haploinsufficiency attenuates the progression of cardiac dilation and improves survival in a calcineurin transgenic mouse model, indicating that COUP-TFII may serve as a therapeutic target for the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy. PMID:26356605

  2. The impact of a national strategy to increase physical activity among older adults on national organizations.

    PubMed

    Park, Chae-Hee; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek; Ory, Marcia G; Gleason-Senior, Jane; Bazzarre, Terry L; Mockenhaupt, Robin

    2010-10-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the impact of the National Blueprint (NB) on the policies, programs, and organizational culture of selected national organizations. The theoretical model selected to assess the impact of the NB on organizational behavior was Burke's system theory of organizational change. Three organizations, AARP, the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), and the Administration on Aging (AoA), were selected for the study. Two individuals in each of these organizations were selected for interview. Semistructured interviews and document reviews were used in the data-collection process. Findings showed that the publication and establishment of the NB resulted in changes in the operating procedures of AARP, ACSM, and AoA. The results were broadly consistent with Burke's system theory of organizational change. The publication of the NB was shown to affect the behavior of organizational leaders, organizational culture, policies, programs, and individual and organizational performance. The new information generated has increased our understanding of the impact of health campaigns on organizational behavior.

  3. Outcome analysis of aromatase inhibitor therapy to increase adult height in males with predicted short adult stature and/or rapid pubertal progress: a retrospective chart review

    PubMed Central

    Shams, Kim; Cameo, Tamara; Fennoy, Ilene; Hassoun, Abeer A.; Lerner, Shulamit E.; Aranoff, Gaya S.; Sopher, Aviva B.; Yang, Christine; McMahon, Donald J.; Oberfield, Sharon E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) have been used off-label to increase adult height in short adolescent males. Studies have shown that AIs increase the predicted adult height (PAH) while delaying bone age (BA) maturation. We sought to determine whether AI therapy increases PAH in boys with short stature or rapid pubertal progression, and to evaluate any untoward effects. Methods The charts of 27 boys with BA ≥ 13 and short stature [height ≥ 2 standard deviation (SD) below the mean or ≥ 2 SD below mid-parental target height (MPTH)] or rapid pubertal progress, treated with anastrozole were reviewed. Outcome measures included anthropomorphic, hormonal, and metabolic data. Results The AI therapy averaged 21 months (range 14–30 months) for all, with Rx group 1 receiving < 18 months therapy (n = 7) and Rx group 2 receiving 18–30 months therapy (n = 20). Post-therapy, in Rx group 1 and all subjects, there was no significant change in the PAH, height SDS, or BA/chronological age (CA). In Rx group 2, there was a small, nonsignificant increase in PAH, no change in height SDS, and a small decrease in BA/CA. Post-therapy PAH was different from MPTH in all and in both Rx groups 1 and 2, p < 0.02. Eight of them achieved near-final height, averaging 6.73 ± 1.40 cm less than MPTH and 1.91 ± 0.86 cm less than the pre-therapy PAH. Post-therapy, the initially decreased estradiol did not persist but mildly increased testosterone and decreased high-density lipoprotein were noted, as was an increase in hematocrit, and decrease in growth velocity. Conclusions We suggest that although bone age progression may be slightly delayed with longer duration of therapy, an overall short-term AI therapy does not lead to a final height that is greater than the predicted pre-therapy height. PMID:24756052

  4. Illumina MiSeq Phylogenetic Amplicon Sequencing Shows a Large Reduction of an Uncharacterised Succinivibrionaceae and an Increase of the Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii Clade in Feed Restricted Cattle.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Matthew Sean; Cormican, Paul; Keogh, Kate; O'Connor, Aaron; O'Hara, Eoin; Palladino, Rafael Alejandro; Kenny, David Anthony; Waters, Sinéad Mary

    2015-01-01

    Periodic feed restriction is used in cattle production to reduce feed costs. When normal feed levels are resumed, cattle catch up to a normal weight by an acceleration of normal growth rate, known as compensatory growth, which is not yet fully understood. Illumina Miseq Phylogenetic marker amplicon sequencing of DNA extracted from rumen contents of 55 bulls showed that restriction of feed (70% concentrate, 30% grass silage) for 125 days, to levels that caused a 60% reduction of growth rate, resulted in a large increase of relative abundance of Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii clade (designated as OTU-M7), and a large reduction of an uncharacterised Succinivibrionaceae species (designated as OTU-S3004). There was a strong negative Spearman correlation (ρ = -0.72, P = <1x10(-20)) between relative abundances of OTU-3004 and OTU-M7 in the liquid rumen fraction. There was also a significant increase in acetate:propionate ratio (A:P) in feed restricted animals that showed a negative Spearman correlation (ρ = -0.69, P = <1x10(-20)) with the relative abundance of OTU-S3004 in the rumen liquid fraction but not the solid fraction, and a strong positive Spearman correlation with OTU-M7 in the rumen liquid (ρ = 0.74, P = <1x10(-20)) and solid (ρ = 0.69, P = <1x10(-20)) fractions. Reduced A:P ratios in the rumen are associated with increased feed efficiency and reduced production of methane which has a global warming potential (GWP 100 years) of 28. Succinivibrionaceae growth in the rumen was previously suggested to reduce methane emissions as some members of this family utilise hydrogen, which is also utilised by methanogens for methanogenesis, to generate succinate which is converted to propionate. Relative abundance of OTU-S3004 showed a positive Spearman correlation with propionate (ρ = 0.41, P = <0.01) but not acetate in the liquid rumen fraction. PMID:26226343

  5. Illumina MiSeq Phylogenetic Amplicon Sequencing Shows a Large Reduction of an Uncharacterised Succinivibrionaceae and an Increase of the Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii Clade in Feed Restricted Cattle

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, Matthew Sean; Cormican, Paul; Keogh, Kate; O’Connor, Aaron; O’Hara, Eoin; Palladino, Rafael Alejandro; Kenny, David Anthony; Waters, Sinéad Mary

    2015-01-01

    Periodic feed restriction is used in cattle production to reduce feed costs. When normal feed levels are resumed, cattle catch up to a normal weight by an acceleration of normal growth rate, known as compensatory growth, which is not yet fully understood. Illumina Miseq Phylogenetic marker amplicon sequencing of DNA extracted from rumen contents of 55 bulls showed that restriction of feed (70% concentrate, 30% grass silage) for 125 days, to levels that caused a 60% reduction of growth rate, resulted in a large increase of relative abundance of Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii clade (designated as OTU-M7), and a large reduction of an uncharacterised Succinivibrionaceae species (designated as OTU-S3004). There was a strong negative Spearman correlation (ρ = -0.72, P = <1x10-20) between relative abundances of OTU-3004 and OTU-M7 in the liquid rumen fraction. There was also a significant increase in acetate:propionate ratio (A:P) in feed restricted animals that showed a negative Spearman correlation (ρ = -0.69, P = <1x10-20) with the relative abundance of OTU-S3004 in the rumen liquid fraction but not the solid fraction, and a strong positive Spearman correlation with OTU-M7 in the rumen liquid (ρ = 0.74, P = <1x10-20) and solid (ρ = 0.69, P = <1x10-20) fractions. Reduced A:P ratios in the rumen are associated with increased feed efficiency and reduced production of methane which has a global warming potential (GWP 100 years) of 28. Succinivibrionaceae growth in the rumen was previously suggested to reduce methane emissions as some members of this family utilise hydrogen, which is also utilised by methanogens for methanogenesis, to generate succinate which is converted to propionate. Relative abundance of OTU-S3004 showed a positive Spearman correlation with propionate (ρ = 0.41, P = <0.01) but not acetate in the liquid rumen fraction. PMID:26226343

  6. Very preterm birth is a risk factor for increased systolic blood pressure at a young adult age.

    PubMed

    Keijzer-Veen, Mandy G; Dülger, Arzu; Dekker, Friedo W; Nauta, Jeroen; van der Heijden, Bert J

    2010-03-01

    Children born very prematurely who show intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) are suggested to be at risk of developing high blood pressure as adults. Renal function may already be impaired by young adult age. To study whether very preterm birth affects blood pressure in young adults, we measured 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (Spacelabs 90207 device) and renin concentration in 50 very premature individuals (<32 weeks of gestation), either small (SGA) or appropriate (AGA) for gestational age (21 SGA, 29 AGA), and 30 full-term controls who all were aged 20 years at time of measurement. The mean (standard deviation) daytime systolic blood pressure in SGA and AGA prematurely born individuals, respectively, was 122.7 (8.7) and 123.1 (8.5) mmHg. These values were, respectively, 3.6 mmHg [95% confidence interval (CI) -0.9 to 8.0] and 4.2 mmHg (95% CI 0.4-8.0) higher than in controls [119.6 (7.6)]. Daytime diastolic blood pressure and nighttime blood pressure did not differ between groups. We conclude that individuals born very preterm have higher daytime systolic blood pressure and higher risk of hypertension at a young adult age. PMID:20012998

  7. Salinity treatment shows no effects on photosystem II photochemistry, but increases the resistance of photosystem II to heat stress in halophyte Suaeda salsa.

    PubMed

    Lu, Congming; Qiu, Nianwei; Wang, Baoshan; Zhang, Jianhua

    2003-02-01

    Photosynthetic gas exchange, modulated chlorophyll fluorescence, rapid fluorescence induction kinetics, and the polyphasic fluorescence transients were used to evaluate PSII photochemistry in the halophyte Suaeda salsa exposed to a combination of high salinity (100-400 mM NaCl) and heat stress (35-47.5 degrees C, air temperature). CO(2) assimilation rate increased slightly with increasing salt concentration up to 300 mM NaCl and showed no decrease even at 400 mM NaCl. Salinity treatment showed neither effects on the maximal efficiency of PSII photochemistry (F(v)/F(m)), the rapid fluorescence induction kinetics, and the polyphasic fluorescence transients in dark-adapted leaves, nor effects on the efficiency of excitation energy capture by open PSII reaction centres (F(v)'/F(m)') and the actual PSII effciency (Phi(PSII)), photochemical quenching (q(P)), and non-photochemical quenching (q(N)) in light-adapted leaves. The results indicate that high salinity had no effects on PSII photochemistry either in a dark-adapted state or in a light-adapted state. With increasing temperature, CO(2) assimilation rate decreased significantly and no net CO(2) assimilation was observed at 47.5 degrees C. Salinity treatment had no effect on the response of CO(2) assimilation to high temperature when temperature was below 40 degrees C. At 45 degrees C, CO(2) assimilation rate in control plants decreased to zero, but the salt-adapted plants still maintained some CO(2) assimilation capacity. On the other hand, the responses of PSII photochemistry to heat stress was modified by salinity treatment. When temperature was above 35 degrees C, the declines in F(v)/F(m), Phi(PSII), F(v)'/F(m)', and q(P) were smaller in salt-adapted leaves compared to control leaves. This increased thermostability was independent of the degree of salinity, since no significant changes in the above-described fluorescence parameters were observed among the plants treated with different concentrations of Na

  8. High Fetal Estrogen Concentrations: Correlation with Increased Adult Sexual Activity and Decreased Aggression in Male Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vom Saal, Frederick S.; Grant, William M.; McMullen, Carol W.; Laves, Kurt S.

    1983-06-01

    In the house mouse (Mus musculus), fetuses may develop in utero next to siblings of the same or opposite sex. The amniotic fluid of the female fetuses contains higher concentrations of estradiol than that of male fetuses. Male fetuses that developed in utero between female fetuses had higher concentrations of estradiol in their amniotic fluid than males that were located between other male fetusesw during intrauterine development. They were also more sexually active as adults, less aggressive, and had smaller seminal vesicles than males that had developed between other male fetuses in utero. These findings raise the possibility that during fetal life circulating estrogens may interact with circulating androgens both in regulating the development of sex differences between males and females and in producing variation in phenotype among males and among females.

  9. Increased pulmonary alveolar-capillary permeability in patients at risk for adult respiratory distress syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Tennenberg, S.D.; Jacobs, M.P.; Solomkin, J.S.; Ehlers, N.A.; Hurst, J.M.

    1987-04-01

    Two methods for predicting adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were evaluated prospectively in a group of 81 multitrauma and sepsis patients considered at clinical high risk. A popular ARDS risk-scoring method, employing discriminant analysis equations (weighted risk criteria and oxygenation characteristics), yielded a predictive accuracy of 59% and a false-negative rate of 22%. Pulmonary alveolar-capillary permeability (PACP) was determined with a radioaerosol lung-scan technique in 23 of these 81 patients, representing a statistically similar subgroup. Lung scanning achieved a predictive accuracy of 71% (after excluding patients with unilateral pulmonary contusion) and gave no false-negatives. We propose a combination of clinical risk identification and functional determination of PACP to assess a patient's risk of developing ARDS.

  10. Maternal hypertension programs increased cerebral tissue damage following stroke in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Nicole M; Jin, Albert Y; Tse, M Yat; Peterson, Nichole T; Andrew, R David; Mewburn, Jeffrey D; Pang, Stephen C

    2015-10-01

    The maternal system is challenged with many physiological changes throughout pregnancy to prepare the body to meet the metabolic needs of the fetus and for delivery. Many pregnancies, however, are faced with pathological stressors or complications that significantly impact maternal health. A shift in this paradigm is now beginning to investigate the implication of pregnancy complications on the fetus and their continued influence on offspring disease risk into adulthood. In this investigation, we sought to determine whether maternal hypertension during pregnancy alters the cerebral response of adult offspring to acute ischemic stroke. Atrial natriuretic peptide gene-disrupted (ANP(-/-)) mothers exhibit chronic hypertension that escalates during pregnancy. Through comparison of heterozygote offspring born from either normotensive (ANP(+/-WT)) or hypertensive (ANP(+/-KO)) mothers, we have demonstrated that offspring exposed to maternal hypertension exhibit larger cerebral infarct volumes following middle cerebral artery occlusion. Observation of equal baseline cardiovascular measures, cerebrovascular structure, and cerebral blood volumes between heterozygote offspring suggests no added influences on offspring that would contribute to adverse cerebral response post-stroke. Cerebral mRNA expression of endothelin and nitric oxide synthase vasoactive systems demonstrated up-regulation of Et-1 and Nos3 in ANP(+/-KO) mice and thus an enhanced acute vascular response compared to ANP(+/-WT) counterparts. Gene expression of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase channel isoforms, Atp1a1, Atp1a3, and Atp1b1, displayed no significant differences. These investigations are the first to demonstrate a fetal programming effect between maternal hypertension and adult offspring stroke outcome. Further mechanistic studies are required to complement epidemiological evidence of this phenomenon in the literature. PMID:26169981

  11. Lysogenic Streptococcus suis isolate SS2-4 containing prophage SMP showed increased mortality in zebra fish compared to the wild-type isolate.

    PubMed

    Tang, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Chengping

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) infection is considered to be a major problem in the swine industry worldwide. Based on the capsular type, 33 serotypes of S. suis have been described, with serotype 2 (SS2) being the most frequently isolated from diseased piglets. Little is known, however, about the pathogenesis and virulence factors of S. suis. Research on bacteriophages highlights a new area in S. suis research. A S. suis serotype 2 bacteriophage, designated SMP, has been previously isolated in our laboratory. Here, we selected a lysogenic isolate in which the SMP phage was integrated into the chromosome of strain SS2-4. Compared to the wild-type isolate, the lysogenic strain showed increased mortality in zebra fish. Moreover the sensitivity of the lysogenic strain to lysozyme was seven times higher than that of the wild-type. PMID:23326601

  12. Neonatal Nicotine Exposure Increases Excitatory Synaptic Transmission and Attenuates Nicotine-stimulated GABA release in the Adult Rat Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Damborsky, Joanne C.; Griffith, William H.; Winzer-Serhan, Ursula H.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental exposure to nicotine has been linked to long-lasting changes in synaptic transmission which may contribute to behavioral abnormalities seen in offspring of women who smoke during pregnancy. Here, we examined the long-lasting effects of developmental nicotine exposure on glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission, and on acute nicotine-induced glutamate and GABA release in the adult hippocampus, a structure important in cognitive and emotional behaviors. We utilized a chronic neonatal nicotine treatment model to administer nicotine (6 mg/kg/day) to rat pups from postnatal day (P) 1–7, a period that falls developmentally into the third human trimester. Using whole-cell voltage clamp recordings from CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices, we measured excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents in neonatally control- and nicotine-treated young adult males. Neonatal nicotine exposure significantly increased AMPA receptor-mediated spontaneous and evoked excitatory signaling, with no change in glutamate release probability in adults. Conversely, there was no increase in spontaneous GABAergic neurotransmission in nicotine-males. Chronic neonatal nicotine treatment had no effect on acute nicotine-stimulated glutamate release in adults, but acute nicotine-stimulated GABA release was significantly attenuated. Thus, neonatal nicotine exposure results in a persistent net increase in excitation and a concurrent loss of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-mediated regulation of presynaptic GABA but not glutamate release, which would exacerbate excitation following endogenous or exogenous nAChR activation. Our data underscore an important role for nAChRs in hippocampal excitatory synapse development, and suggest selective long-term changes at specific presynaptic nAChRs which together could explain some of the behavioral abnormalities associated with maternal smoking. PMID:24950455

  13. G2019S LRRK2 mutant fibroblasts from Parkinson's disease patients show increased sensitivity to neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium dependent of autophagy.

    PubMed

    Yakhine-Diop, Sokhna M S; Bravo-San Pedro, José M; Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Rodríguez-Arribas, Mario; Climent, Vicente; Aiastui, Ana; López de Munain, Adolfo; Fuentes, José M; González-Polo, Rosa A

    2014-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of unknown etiology. It is considered as a multifactorial disease dependent on environmental and genetic factors. Deregulation in cell degradation has been related with a significant increase in cell damage, becoming a target for studies on the PD etiology. In the present study, we have characterized the parkinsonian toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+))-induced damage in fibroblasts from Parkinson's patients with the mutation G2019S in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 protein (LRRK2) and control individuals without this mutation. The results reveal that MPP(+) induces mTOR-dependent autophagy in fibroblasts. Moreover, the effects of caspase-dependent cell death to MPP(+) were higher in cells with the G2019S LRRK2 mutation, which showed basal levels of autophagy due to the G2019S LRRK2 mutation (mTOR-independent). The inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) treatment reduces these sensitivity differences between both cell types, however, the inhibition of autophagosome-lysosome fusion by bafilomycin A1 (Baf A1) increases these differences. This data confirm the importance of the combination of genetic and environmental factors in the PD etiology. Thereby, the sensitivity to the same damage may be different in function of a genetic predisposition, reason why individuals with certain mutations can develop some early-onset diseases, such as individuals with G2019S LRRK2 mutation and PD.

  14. Victims of rape show increased cortisol responses to trauma reminders: a study in individuals with war- and torture-related PTSD.

    PubMed

    Gola, Hannah; Engler, Harald; Schauer, Maggie; Adenauer, Hannah; Riether, Carsten; Kolassa, Stephan; Elbert, Thomas; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2012-02-01

    Studies investigating cortisol responses to trauma-related stressors in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have yielded inconsistent results, demonstrating that cortisol responses were enhanced or unaffected when confronted with trauma reminders. This study investigated the effect of the type of trauma experienced on both salivary and plasma cortisol responses during confrontation with trauma-related material. Participants were 30 survivors of war and torture, with and without rape among the traumatic events experienced. Participants of both groups (raped vs. non-raped) fulfilled DSM-IV criteria of PTSD. Plasma and salivary cortisol levels were measured at three time points during a standardized clinical interview: once before and twice after assessing individual traumatic experiences. Results show that groups did not differ in basal plasma and salivary cortisol levels. However, differential salivary cortisol responses were observed in PTSD patients who had been raped compared to those who had not been raped (p<.05) but had experienced an equal number of traumatic events and showed equally high PTSD symptom severity. Whereas salivary cortisol levels decreased in the course of the interview for the group with no past experience of rape (p<.05), those PTSD patients who had been raped showed a significant cortisol increase when reminded of their traumatic events (p<.001). This effect was not found in plasma cortisol. Our results indicate that the type of traumatic stress experienced contributes to cortisol responses during the confrontation with trauma-related material. We hypothesize, that the nearness of the perpetrator during the traumatic event might shape later psychophysiological responding to trauma reminders.

  15. Evaluation of two instruction methods to increase employment options for young adults with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Burke, Raymond V; Andersen, Melissa N; Bowen, Scott L; Howard, Monica R; Allen, Keith D

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of a vocational training program including behavioral skills training, and a "performance cue system" (i.e., a proprietary iPhone application adapted for the study) to teach targeted social-vocational skills to six young adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. In two separate studies, participants were employed to assist in the delivery of a fire safety education program. Participants were asked to wear an inflatable firefighter WalkAround® mascot costume and to perform 63 scripted behaviors in coordination with a fire prevention specialist who was the lead program presenter. In Study 1, three participants were initially exposed to established company training procedures comprised of behavioral skills training components to determine whether they met mastery of the skills. If necessary to reach criteria, participants were then exposed to a performance cue system. In Study 2, three additional participants were provided with the performance cue system alone, and then behavioral skills training if required. A single case, multiple-baseline design across subjects was used to evaluate efficacy of each intervention. Results indicate that 5 of 6 participants reached criterion only after introduction of the cue system while the sixth reached criterion with behavioral skills training alone. The program received high satisfaction ratings from participants, their parents, and consumers. Implications and potential use of the PCS in other employment settings are discussed.

  16. Serum Carboxymethyl-lysine, an Advanced Glycation End Product, is Associated with Increased Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Semba, Richard D.; Najjar, Samer S.; Sun, Kai; Lakatta, Edward G.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2008-01-01

    Background The relationship between advanced glycation end products and arterial stiffness has previously been examined in highly selected groups of patients with diabetes or hypertension. Our aim was to determine whether elevated serum advanced glycation end products are associated with increased arterial stiffness in relatively healthy, community-dwelling adults. Methods Aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV), an index of aortic stiffness, and serum AGEs, as represented by the specific AGE, serum carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), were measured in 493 adults, aged 26-93 years, who participated in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Results Mean (SD) PWV (m/sec) was 6.6 (1.8) m/sec. Mean CML was 0.47 (0.13) μg/mL. Serum CML (per 1 Standard Deviation [S.D.]) was associated with PWV (beta = 0.16, standard error [S.E.] = 0.07, P = 0.02), adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, mean arterial pressure, fasting plasma glucose, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking, and other covariates. After excluding all diabetic patients, serum CML (per 1 S.D.) was associated with PWV (beta = 0.18, S.E. = 0.07, P = 0.009), adjusting for the same covariates. Conclusions Elevated AGEs are associated with increased arterial stiffness, a known predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes, among relatively healthy community-dwelling adults. Interventions to lower levels of AGEs, such as altering the pattern of dietary intake, warrant examination as putative novel strategies to lower arterial stiffness in adults. PMID:19023277

  17. Fish oil–derived n–3 PUFA therapy increases muscle mass and function in healthy older adults1

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gordon I; Julliand, Sophie; Reeds, Dominic N; Sinacore, David R; Klein, Samuel; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Age-associated declines in muscle mass and function are major risk factors for an impaired ability to carry out activities of daily living, falls, prolonged recovery time after hospitalization, and mortality in older adults. New strategies that can slow the age-related loss of muscle mass and function are needed to help older adults maintain adequate performance status to reduce these risks and maintain independence. Objective: We evaluated the efficacy of fish oil–derived n–3 (ω-3) PUFA therapy to slow the age-associated loss of muscle mass and function. Design: Sixty healthy 60–85-y-old men and women were randomly assigned to receive n–3 PUFA (n = 40) or corn oil (n = 20) therapy for 6 mo. Thigh muscle volume, handgrip strength, one-repetition maximum (1-RM) lower- and upper-body strength, and average power during isokinetic leg exercises were evaluated before and after treatment. Results: Forty-four subjects completed the study [29 subjects (73%) in the n–3 PUFA group; 15 subjects (75%) in the control group]. Compared with the control group, 6 mo of n–3 PUFA therapy increased thigh muscle volume (3.6%; 95% CI: 0.2%, 7.0%), handgrip strength (2.3 kg; 95% CI: 0.8, 3.7 kg), and 1-RM muscle strength (4.0%; 95% CI: 0.8%, 7.3%) (all P < 0.05) and tended to increase average isokinetic power (5.6%; 95% CI: −0.6%, 11.7%; P = 0.075). Conclusion: Fish oil–derived n–3 PUFA therapy slows the normal decline in muscle mass and function in older adults and should be considered a therapeutic approach for preventing sarcopenia and maintaining physical independence in older adults. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01308957. PMID:25994567

  18. One Adult Who Is Crazy about You: Can Natural Mentoring Relationships Increase Assets among Young Adults With and Without Foster Care Experience?

    PubMed Central

    Greeson, Johanna K.P.; Usher, Lynn; Grinstein-Weiss, Michal

    2014-01-01

    During emerging adulthood, most youth receive family support to help them weather the difficulties associated with transitioning to independence. When foster youth emancipate, they confront the challenges associated with emerging adulthood, and are at risk of having to transition without family support. Many are in danger of failing to meet minimal levels of self-sufficiency. A caring adult who offers social support is normative for adolescent development and protective for youth across many risk conditions. Natural mentoring can cultivate such relationships. This study examines the association between natural mentor relationship characteristics, and material hardship and asset-related outcomes during the emerging adulthood period in both a normative sample of young adults and young adults identified as former foster youth. This study also considers the potential mediating effect of future expectations. Data from Wave 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health that pertain to 15,197 respondents are used. Path models with categorical dependent variables were estimated using a Maximum Likelihood method with standard errors that are robust to non-normality and non-independence of observations. “Like a parent,” “role model,” and “guidance/advice” were significantly associated with assets among both groups. This study contributes to the growing body of literature on natural mentoring and former foster youth, and highlights the value of increasing our understanding of natural mentor roles for intervention development. The focus on assets-related outcomes is a novel approach to investigating the benefits of natural mentoring to the healthy development of youth. This paper is the first to consider the association between natural mentoring and assets building among both former and nonformer foster youth. PMID:24944430

  19. Impaired systemic tetrahydrobiopterin bioavailability and increased dihydrobiopterin in adult falciparum malaria: association with disease severity, impaired microvascular function and increased endothelial activation.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Tsin W; Lampah, Daniel A; Kenangalem, Enny; Tjitra, Emiliana; Price, Ric N; Weinberg, J Brice; Hyland, Keith; Granger, Donald L; Anstey, Nicholas M

    2015-03-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH₄) is a co-factor required for catalytic activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and amino acid-monooxygenases, including phenylalanine hydroxylase. BH4 is unstable: during oxidative stress it is non-enzymatically oxidized to dihydrobiopterin (BH₂), which inhibits NOS. Depending on BH₄ availability, NOS oscillates between NO synthase and NADPH oxidase: as the BH₄/BH₂ ratio decreases, NO production falls and is replaced by superoxide. In African children and Asian adults with severe malaria, NO bioavailability decreases and plasma phenylalanine increases, together suggesting possible BH₄ deficiency. The primary three biopterin metabolites (BH₄, BH₂ and B₀ [biopterin]) and their association with disease severity have not been assessed in falciparum malaria. We measured pterin metabolites in urine of adults with severe falciparum malaria (SM; n=12), moderately-severe malaria (MSM, n=17), severe sepsis (SS; n=5) and healthy subjects (HC; n=20) as controls. In SM, urinary BH₄ was decreased (median 0.16 ¼mol/mmol creatinine) compared to MSM (median 0.27), SS (median 0.54), and HC (median 0.34)]; p<0.001. Conversely, BH₂ was increased in SM (median 0.91 ¼mol/mmol creatinine), compared to MSM (median 0.67), SS (median 0.39), and HC (median 0.52); p<0.001, suggesting increased oxidative stress and insufficient recycling of BH2 back to BH4 in severe malaria. Overall, the median BH₄/BH₂ ratio was lowest in SM [0.18 (IQR: 0.04-0.32)] compared to MSM (0.45, IQR 0.27-61), SS (1.03; IQR 0.54-2.38) and controls (0.66; IQR 0.43-1.07); p<0.001. In malaria, a lower BH₄/BH₂ ratio correlated with decreased microvascular reactivity (r=0.41; p=0.03) and increased ICAM-1 (r=-0.52; p=0.005). Decreased BH4 and increased BH₂ in severe malaria (but not in severe sepsis) uncouples NOS, leading to impaired NO bioavailability and potentially increased oxidative stress. Adjunctive therapy to regenerate BH4 may have a role in improving NO

  20. Early enriched environment induces an increased conversion of proBDNF to BDNF in the adult rat's hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenyu; Duan, Juan; Wang, Xueqin; Zhong, Xiaolin; Hu, Zhaolan; Huang, Fulian; Wang, Hongtao; Zhang, Juan; Li, Fang; Zhang, Jianyi; Luo, Xuegang; Li, Chang-Qi

    2014-05-15

    An enriched environment has been shown to influence brain plasticity and function by involving the action of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF, which is synthesized as a precursor molecule (proBDNF) that undergoes proteolytic cleavage, plays an important role in synaptic plasticity and contributes to several brain functions such as memory, learning, and behavior. The neurotrophins and proneurotrophins often play opposite roles in the brain, suggesting that proteolytic cleavage of proneurotrophins controls the action of neurotrophins. However, few studies have focused on the expression and cleavage of proBDNF after exposure to an enriched environment. Our study aimed to explore the effects of an early-enriched environment on the conversion of proBDNF to BDNF in the adult rats' hippocampus. We found that there was no difference in the expression of proBDNF in the hippocampus between the SE (standard environment) and EE (enriched environment) rats, but a significantly increased BDNF protein level was found in the EE rats. Thus, a remarkably enhanced ratio of BDNF to proBDNF (BDNF/proBDNF) was observed in the EE rats. In addition, the EE resulted in a remarkably up-regulated matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in the hippocampus, which played a key role in converting proBDNF to BDNF in the extracellular space. Furthermore, the expression of synapse-related proteins (NR1 and NR2A) was analyzed, and the results indicated that EE could significantly increase the expression of NR1 and NR2A in the hippocampus. In addition, the behavioral results showed that EE reduced anxiety-like behavior in the elevated-plus maze test and reduced immobility time in the forced swimming test. Moreover, the EE resulted in an increased preference for sucrose compared to the SE. These results suggested that the EE up-regulated MMP-9 levels within the hippocampus, which might facilitate the conversion of proBDNF to BDNF, thereby contributing to the long lasting alterations of

  1. Increased locomotor response to novelty and propensity to intravenous amphetamine self-administration in adult offspring of stressed mothers.

    PubMed

    Deminière, J M; Piazza, P V; Guegan, G; Abrous, N; Maccari, S; Le Moal, M; Simon, H

    1992-07-17

    It is suggested that drug addiction is more likely to develop in individuals who are particularly sensitive to the reinforcing effects of drugs. Animal studies of intravenous drug self-administration (SA) have shown that rats display a large range of individual differences in the propensity to develop drug-seeking. Predisposed animals are characterized by a higher locomotor reactivity to both novelty and psychostimulants. In this report, we show that prenatal stress (restraint of the mother during the last week of pregnancy) may contribute to an individual's vulnerability to develop amphetamine self-administration. The adult offspring of stressed mothers exhibited: (i) a higher locomotor response to novelty and to an injection of amphetamine (0.3 mg/kg, i.v.); (ii) a higher level of amphetamine self-administration. The data indicate that individual predisposition to drug-seeking in the adult may be induced by prenatal events. PMID:1511342

  2. The Three Receptor Tyrosine Kinases c-KIT, VEGFR2 and PDGFRα, Closely Spaced at 4q12, Show Increased Protein Expression in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jansson, Sara; Bendahl, Pär-Ola; Grabau, Dorthe Aamand; Falck, Anna-Karin; Fernö, Mårten; Aaltonen, Kristina; Rydén, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Background Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous subgroup of breast cancer with poor prognosis and no targeted therapy available. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are emerging targets in anticancer therapy and many RTK-inhibiting drugs are currently being developed. The aim of this study was to elucidate if there is a correlation between the protein expression of three RTKs c-KIT, VEGFR2 and PDGFRα, their gene copy number, and prognosis in TNBC compared to non-TNBC. Methods Tumor tissue samples from patients diagnosed with primary breast cancer were stained with immunohistochemistry (IHC) for protein assessment, and with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for gene copy number determination. Breast cancer mortality (BCM), measured from the date of surgery to death, was used as endpoint. Results The cohort included 464 patients, out of which 34 (7.3%) had a TNBC. High expression of the three RTKs was more common in TNBC compared to non-TNBC: c-KIT 49% vs. 10% (P<0.001), PDGFRα 32% vs. 19% (P = 0.07) and VEGFR2 32% vs. 6% (P<0.001). The odds ratio (OR) of c-KIT, VEGFR2 and PDGFRα positivity, adjusted for tumor characteristics, was 6.8, 3.6 and 1.3 times higher for TNBC than for non-TNBC. 73.5% of the TNBC had high expression of at least one of the three investigated receptors, compared to 30.0% of the non-TNBC (P<0.001). Survival analysis showed no significant difference in BCM for TNBC patients with high vs. low c-KIT, PDGFRα or VEGFR2 protein expression. 193 (42%) tumors were evaluated with FISH. No correlation was seen between increased gene copy number and TNBC, or between increased gene copy number and high protein expression of the RTK. Conclusion c-KIT, VEGFR2 and PDGFRα show higher protein expression in TNBC compared to non-TNBC. Further investigation clarifying the importance of these RTKs in TNBC is encouraged, as they are possible targets for anticancer therapy. PMID:25025175

  3. Brain Metastases from Lung Cancer Show Increased Expression of DVL1, DVL3 and Beta-Catenin and Down-Regulation of E-Cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Kafka, Anja; Tomas, Davor; Beroš, Vili; Pećina, Hrvoje Ivan; Zeljko, Martina; Pećina-Šlaus, Nives

    2014-01-01

    The susceptibility of brain to secondary formation from lung cancer primaries is a well-known phenomenon. In contrast, the molecular basis for invasion and metastasis to the brain is largely unknown. In the present study, 31 brain metastases that originated from primary lung carcinomas were analyzed regarding over expression of Dishevelled-1 (DVL1), Dishevelled-3 (DVL3), E-cadherin (CDH1) and beta-catenin (CTNNB1). Protein expressions and localizations were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Genetic alterations of E-cadherin were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/loss of heterozygosity (LOH). Heteroduplex was used to investigate mutations in beta-catenin. DVL1 and DVL3 showed over expression in brain metastasis in 87.1% and 90.3% of samples respectively. Nuclear staining was observed in 54.8% of cases for DVL1 and 53.3% for DVL3. The main effector of the Wnt signaling, beta-catenin, was up-regulated in 56%, and transferred to the nucleus in 36% of metastases. When DVL1 and DVL3 were up-regulated the number of cases with nuclear beta-catenin significantly increased (p = 0.0001). Down-regulation of E-cadherin was observed in 80% of samples. Genetic analysis showed 36% of samples with LOH of the CDH1. In comparison to other lung cancer pathologies, the diagnoses adenocarcinoma and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were significantly associated to CDH1 LOH (p = 0.001). Microsatellite instability was detected in one metastasis from adenocarcinoma. Exon 3 of beta-catenin was not targeted. Altered expression of Dishevelled-1, Dishevelled-3, E-cadherin and beta-catenin were present in brain metastases which indicates that Wnt signaling is important and may contribute to better understanding of genetic profile conditioning lung cancer metastasis to the brain. PMID:24933634

  4. Brain metastases from lung cancer show increased expression of DVL1, DVL3 and beta-catenin and down-regulation of E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Kafka, Anja; Tomas, Davor; Beroš, Vili; Pećina, Hrvoje Ivan; Zeljko, Martina; Pećina-Šlaus, Nives

    2014-06-13

    The susceptibility of brain to secondary formation from lung cancer primaries is a well-known phenomenon. In contrast, the molecular basis for invasion and metastasis to the brain is largely unknown. In the present study, 31 brain metastases that originated from primary lung carcinomas were analyzed regarding over expression of Dishevelled-1 (DVL1), Dishevelled-3 (DVL3), E-cadherin (CDH1) and beta-catenin (CTNNB1). Protein expressions and localizations were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Genetic alterations of E-cadherin were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/loss of heterozygosity (LOH). Heteroduplex was used to investigate mutations in beta-catenin. DVL1 and DVL3 showed over expression in brain metastasis in 87.1% and 90.3% of samples respectively. Nuclear staining was observed in 54.8% of cases for DVL1 and 53.3% for DVL3. The main effector of the Wnt signaling, beta-catenin, was up-regulated in 56%, and transferred to the nucleus in 36% of metastases. When DVL1 and DVL3 were up-regulated the number of cases with nuclear beta-catenin significantly increased (p=0.0001). Down-regulation of E-cadherin was observed in 80% of samples. Genetic analysis showed 36% of samples with LOH of the CDH1. In comparison to other lung cancer pathologies, the diagnoses adenocarcinoma and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were significantly associated to CDH1 LOH (p=0.001). Microsatellite instability was detected in one metastasis from adenocarcinoma. Exon 3 of beta-catenin was not targeted. Altered expression of Dishevelled-1, Dishevelled-3, E-cadherin and beta-catenin were present in brain metastases which indicates that Wnt signaling is important and may contribute to better understanding of genetic profile conditioning lung cancer metastasis to the brain.

  5. Arabidopsis AtDjA3 Null Mutant Shows Increased Sensitivity to Abscisic Acid, Salt, and Osmotic Stress in Germination and Post-germination Stages

    PubMed Central

    Salas-Muñoz, Silvia; Rodríguez-Hernández, Aída A.; Ortega-Amaro, Maria A.; Salazar-Badillo, Fatima B.; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan F.

    2016-01-01

    DnaJ proteins are essential co-chaperones involved in abiotic and biotic stress responses. Arabidopsis AtDjA3 gene encodes a molecular co-chaperone of 420 amino acids, which belongs to the J-protein family. In this study, we report the functional characterization of the AtDjA3 gene using the Arabidopsis knockout line designated j3 and the 35S::AtDjA3 overexpression lines. Loss of AtDjA3 function was associated with small seed production. In fact, j3 mutant seeds showed a reduction of 24% in seed weight compared to Col-0 seeds. Expression analysis showed that the AtDjA3 gene was modulated in response to NaCl, glucose, and abscisic acid (ABA). The j3 line had increased sensitivity to NaCl and glucose treatments in the germination and cotyledon development in comparison to parental Col-0. Furthermore, the j3 mutant line exhibited higher ABA sensitivity in comparison to parental Col-0 and 35S::AtDjA3 overexpression lines. In addition, we examined the expression of ABI3 gene, which is a central regulator in ABA signaling, in j3 mutant and 35S::AtDjA3 overexpression lines. Under 5 μM ABA treatment at 24 h, j3 mutant seedlings displayed higher ABI3 expression, whereas in 35S::AtDjA3 overexpression lines, ABI3 gene expression was repressed. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the AtDjA3 gene is involved in seed development and abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:26941772

  6. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis show increased outer membrane permeability to hydrophobic agents which correlates with lipopolysaccharide acyl-chain fluidity.

    PubMed

    Bengoechea, J A; Brandenburg, K; Seydel, U; Díaz, R; Moriyón, I

    1998-06-01

    The hydrophobic probe N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine accumulated less in non-pathogenic Yersinia spp. and non-pathogenic and pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica than in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis or Yersinia pestis. This was largely due to differences in the activity of efflux systems, but also to differences in outer membrane permeability because uptake of the probe in KCN/arsenate-poisoned cells was slower in the former group than in Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. pestis. The probe accumulation rate was higher in Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. pestis grown at 37 degrees C than at 26 degrees C and was always highest in Y. pestis. These yersiniae had LPSs with shorter polysaccharides than Y. enterocolitica, particularly when grown at 37 degrees C. Gel<-->liquid-crystalline phase transitions (Tc 28-31 degrees C) were observed in LPS aggregates of Y. enterocolitica grown at 26 and 37 degrees C, with no differences between non-pathogenic and pathogenic strains. Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. pestis LPSs showed no phase transitions and, although the fluidity of LPSs of Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica grown at 26 degrees C were close below the Tc of the latter, they were always in a more fluid state than Y. enterocolitica LPS. Comparison with previous studies of Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. choleraesuis serotype minnesota rough LPS showed that the increased fluidity and absence of transition of Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. pestis LPSs cannot be explained by their shorter polysaccharides and suggested differences at the lipid A/core level. It is proposed that differences in LPS-LPS interactions and efflux activity explain the above observations and reflect the adaptation of Yersinia spp. to different habitats.

  7. Arabidopsis AtDjA3 Null Mutant Shows Increased Sensitivity to Abscisic Acid, Salt, and Osmotic Stress in Germination and Post-germination Stages.

    PubMed

    Salas-Muñoz, Silvia; Rodríguez-Hernández, Aída A; Ortega-Amaro, Maria A; Salazar-Badillo, Fatima B; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan F

    2016-01-01

    DnaJ proteins are essential co-chaperones involved in abiotic and biotic stress responses. Arabidopsis AtDjA3 gene encodes a molecular co-chaperone of 420 amino acids, which belongs to the J-protein family. In this study, we report the functional characterization of the AtDjA3 gene using the Arabidopsis knockout line designated j3 and the 35S::AtDjA3 overexpression lines. Loss of AtDjA3 function was associated with small seed production. In fact, j3 mutant seeds showed a reduction of 24% in seed weight compared to Col-0 seeds. Expression analysis showed that the AtDjA3 gene was modulated in response to NaCl, glucose, and abscisic acid (ABA). The j3 line had increased sensitivity to NaCl and glucose treatments in the germination and cotyledon development in comparison to parental Col-0. Furthermore, the j3 mutant line exhibited higher ABA sensitivity in comparison to parental Col-0 and 35S::AtDjA3 overexpression lines. In addition, we examined the expression of ABI3 gene, which is a central regulator in ABA signaling, in j3 mutant and 35S::AtDjA3 overexpression lines. Under 5 μM ABA treatment at 24 h, j3 mutant seedlings displayed higher ABI3 expression, whereas in 35S::AtDjA3 overexpression lines, ABI3 gene expression was repressed. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the AtDjA3 gene is involved in seed development and abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:26941772

  8. Bioinsecticide and leaf litter combination increases oviposition and reduces adult recruitment to create an effective ovitrap for Culex mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Bellile, Katie G; Vonesh, James R

    2016-06-01

    Mosquito egg traps, aquatic habitats baited with oviposition attractant and insecticide, are important tools for surveillance and control efforts in integrated vector management programs. The bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is increasingly used as an environmentally friendly alternative to chemical insecticides and the combination of Bti with a simple oviposition attractant like leaf litter to create an effective egg trap seems appealing. However, previous research suggests that Bti may itself alter oviposition, and that leaf litter may dramatically reduce Bti toxicity. Here we present results from field experiment designed to link the effects of litter and Bti on mosquito oviposition habitat selection and post-colonization survival to production of adult mosquitoes. Tripling litter increased Culex spp. oviposition nearly nine-fold, while Bti had no effect on oviposition. Neither factor altered egg survival, thus larval abundance reflected the effects of litter on oviposition. Both Bti and litter reduced larval survival by ∼60%. We found no evidence that increased litter reduced Bti toxicity. Adult production was dependent upon both litter and Bti. In the absence of Bti, effects of litter on oviposition translated into three-fold more adults. However, in the presence of Bti, initial increases in oviposition were erased by the combined negative effects of Bti and litter on post-colonization survival. Thus, our study provides field evidence that combined litter and Bti application creates an effective ovitrap. This combined treatment had the highest oviposition and the lowest survival, and thus removed the greatest number of mosquitoes from the landscape. PMID:27232134

  9. Peripheral vascular disease prevalence increases exponentially withproximity to roadways in an adult cardiac catherization cohort.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Previous epidemiologic studies have suggested that residential proximity to traffic increases risk ofcardiovascular diseases (CVD) in major urban areas. Objectives: We examined the associations between mobile source air pollution and cardiovascular outcomes in a less ...

  10. Consuming breakfast and exercising longer during high school increases bone mineral density in young adult men.

    PubMed

    Ishimoto, Yuyu; Yoshida, Munehito; Nagata, Keiji; Yamada, Hiroshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Noriko

    2013-05-01

    We examined the bone mineral densities (BMDs) of young adult men and analyzed the factors associated with BMD differences. Between 1993 and 2002, all male freshmen in the Wakayama Medical University, Japan were recruited into the present study, which included a self-administrated questionnaire survey, anthropometric measurements, and BMD measurements of the spine and hip. Of a total of 387 freshmen, 382 (98.7 %; mean age, 20.3 years; age range, 18-29 years) completed the study. The mean BMDs of the spine (L2-4) and femoral neck (FN) were 1.21 (standard deviation, 0.13) g/cm(2) and 1.12 (0.14) g/cm(2), respectively. The L2-4 BMDs were not associated with age, while FN BMDs were significantly inversely associated with age. The BMDs at L2-4 and FN were significantly associated with body mass index (BMI). After adjustment for age and BMI, multivariate regression analysis indicated that BMDs at L2-4 and FN were associated with current longer exercise duration (L2-4, p = 0.024; FN, p = 0.001), those at L2-4 with milk intake (p = 0.024), and those at FN with consuming breakfast (p = 0.004). Similarly, habits of consuming breakfast and exercising longer (on a weekly basis) during high school were linked with significantly higher L2-4 and FN BMDs. High-impact activities during high school significantly influenced the later BMDs. In conclusion, to maximize peak bone mass, consuming breakfast and completing a longer duration of stronger exercise in the late high school years for at least 10 h per week is recommended.

  11. A multifaceted intervention increases epinephrine use in adult emergency department anaphylaxis patients

    PubMed Central

    Manivannan, Veena; Hess, Erik P.; Bellamkonda, Venkatesh R.; Nestler, David M.; Bellolio, M. Fernanda; Hagan, John B.; Sunga, Kharmene L.; Decker, Wyatt W.; Li, James T.C.; Scanlan-Hanson, Lori N.; Vukov, Samuel C.; Campbell, Ronna L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies have documented inconsistent emergency anaphylaxis care and low compliance with published guidelines. Objective To evaluate anaphylaxis management before and after implementation of an emergency department (ED) anaphylaxis order set and introduction of epinephrine auto-injectors and to measure the effect on anaphylaxis guideline adherence. Methods A cohort study was conducted from April 29, 2008-August 9, 2012. Adult ED patients diagnosed with anaphylaxis were included. ED management, disposition, self-injectable epinephrine prescriptions, allergy follow-up and incidence of biphasic reactions were evaluated. Results The study included 202 patients. Median age of patients was 45.3 years (IQR 31.3 – 56.4); 139 (69%) were female. Patients who presented after order set implementation were more likely to be treated with epinephrine (51% vs. 33%, OR 2.05, 95%CI 1.04- 4.04) and admitted to ED observation unit (EDOU) (65% vs. 44%, OR 2.38, 95%CI 1.23-4.60) and less likely to be dismissed home directly from ED (16% vs. 29%, OR: 0.47, 95%CI 0.22- 1.00). Eleven patients (5%) had a biphasic reaction. Of these, five (46%) had the biphasic reaction in EDOU; one patient was admitted to intensive care unit (ICU). Six patients (55%) had reactions within 6 hours of initial symptom resolution of whom two were admitted to ICU. Conclusion Significantly greater proportions of anaphylaxis patients received epinephrine and were admitted to EDOU after introduction of epinephrine auto-injectors and order set implementation. Slightly over half of the biphasic reactions occurred within recommended observation time of 4-6 hours. These data suggest that the multifaceted approach to changing anaphylaxis management described here improved guideline adherence. PMID:24811020

  12. Whole-body vibration increases upper and lower body muscle activity in older adults: potential use of vibration accessories.

    PubMed

    Marín, Pedro J; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Santin-Medeiros, Fernanda; Vicente-Rodriguez, German; Casajús, Jose A; Hazell, Tom J; Garatachea, Nuria

    2012-06-01

    The current study examined the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on upper and lower body muscle activity during static muscle contractions (squat and bicep curls). The use of WBV accessories such as hand straps attached to the platform and a soft surface mat were also evaluated. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was measured for the medial gastrocnemius (MG), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps brachii (BB) muscles in fourteen healthy older adults (74.8±4.5 years; mean±SD) with a WBV stimulus at an acceleration of 40 m s(-2) (30 Hz High, 2.5 mm or 46 Hz Low, 1.1 mm). WBV increased lower body (VL and MG) sEMG vs baseline (no WBV) though this was decreased with the use of the soft mat. The addition of the bicep curl with hand straps had no effect on lower body sEMG. WBV also increased BB sEMG vs baseline which was further increased when using the hand straps. There was no upper body effect of the soft mat. This study demonstrates WBV increases both lower and upper body muscle activity in healthy older adults. Moreover, WBV accessories such as hand straps attached to the platform or a soft surface mat may be used to alter exercise intensity.

  13. THE INCREASE OF DAIRY INTAKE IS THE MAIN DIETARY FACTOR ASSOCIATED WITH REDUCTION OF BODY WEIGHT IN OVERWEIGHT ADULTS AFTER LIFESTYLE CHANGE PROGRAM.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Erick Prado; Diegoli, Ana Carolina Mourão; Corrente, José Eduardo; McLellan, Kátia Cristina Portero; Burini, Roberto Carlos

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated which was the main nutritional change associated with weight reduction of overweight adult participants of a lifestyle change program. It was hypothesized that increases in dairy intake could be an important nutrition intervention in a lifestyle change program. 117 individuals, male (19.5%) and female (80.5%), with a minimum age of 36 years (54.2 ± 10.4). All study participants were enrolled in a lifestyle change program consisting of nutritional counseling and physical activity during 20 weeks. All participants were grouped in three groups according to Body Mass Index (BMI) delta median (-0.87 kg/m2) of individuals that showed weight loss: G1 - lost more than 0.87 kg/m2 of BMI (n = 38); G2 - lost 0 to 0.87 kg/m2 of BMI (n = 36); and G3 - increased BMI (n = 43). G1 increased dairy, fruit and vegetables intake and after forward stepwise multiple regression analysis, it was noted that an increase in dairy product intake of 0.40 servings per day had an impact of 9.6% on the loss of one kg/m2 of BMI. In conclusion, an increase in dairy product intake was the main dietary factor associated with reductions in body weight in overweight adults after 20 weeks of lifestyle change program.

  14. Diabetes's 'health shock' to schooling and earnings: increased dropout rates and lower wages and employment in young adults.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jason M; Richards, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    Despite a growing diabetes crisis, the nonmedical implications for young adults have gone virtually unexplored. We investigated the effects of diabetes on two key outcomes for this age group-schooling and earnings-and found that it delivers an increasingly common "health shock" to both. We identified effects in several measures of educational attainment, including a high school dropout rate that was six percentage points higher than among young adults without the disease. We also found lower employment and wages: A person with diabetes can conservatively expect to lose more than $160,000 over his or her working life, compared to a peer without the disease. For young adults with diabetes, having a parent with diabetes also leads to poorer outcomes than if one more parents do not have the disease-for example, reducing the likelihood of attending college by four to six percentage points, even after the child's health status is controlled for. These results highlight the urgency of attacking this growing health problem, as well as the need for measures such as in-school screening for whether diabetes's impact on individual learning and performance begins before the classic manifestations of clinical diabetes appear. PMID:22232091

  15. Diabetes's 'health shock' to schooling and earnings: increased dropout rates and lower wages and employment in young adults.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jason M; Richards, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    Despite a growing diabetes crisis, the nonmedical implications for young adults have gone virtually unexplored. We investigated the effects of diabetes on two key outcomes for this age group-schooling and earnings-and found that it delivers an increasingly common "health shock" to both. We identified effects in several measures of educational attainment, including a high school dropout rate that was six percentage points higher than among young adults without the disease. We also found lower employment and wages: A person with diabetes can conservatively expect to lose more than $160,000 over his or her working life, compared to a peer without the disease. For young adults with diabetes, having a parent with diabetes also leads to poorer outcomes than if one more parents do not have the disease-for example, reducing the likelihood of attending college by four to six percentage points, even after the child's health status is controlled for. These results highlight the urgency of attacking this growing health problem, as well as the need for measures such as in-school screening for whether diabetes's impact on individual learning and performance begins before the classic manifestations of clinical diabetes appear.

  16. Developmental dioxin exposure of either parent is associated with an increased risk of preterm birth in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Ding, Tianbing; McConaha, Melinda; Boyd, Kelli L; Osteen, Kevin G; Bruner-Tran, Kaylon L

    2011-04-01

    We have previously described diminished uterine progesterone response and increased uterine sensitivity to inflammation in adult female mice with a history of developmental exposure to TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin). Since parturition in mammals is an inflammatory process mediated in part by a decline in progesterone action, toxicant-mediated disruption of progesterone receptor (PR) expression at the maternal-fetal interface would likely impact the timing of birth. Therefore, in the current study, we examined pregnancy outcomes in adult female mice with a similar in utero exposure to TCDD. We also examined the impact of in utero TCDD exposure of male mice on pregnancy outcomes in unexposed females since the placenta, a largely paternally derived organ, plays a major role in the timing of normal parturition via inflammatory signaling. Our studies indicate that developmental exposure of either parent to TCDD is associated with preterm birth in a subsequent adult pregnancy due to altered PR expression and placental inflammation.

  17. A nondiapausing variant of the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata, that shows arrhythmic adult eclosion and elevated expression of two circadian clock genes, period and timeless.

    PubMed

    Goto, Shin G; Han, Bing; Denlinger, David L

    2006-01-01

    We describe a variant of the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata, which fails to enter pupal diapause in response to short daylength and low temperatures. This fly also has an arrhythmic adult eclosion pattern: rather than eclosing in early photophase, the variant ecloses arrhythmically throughout the photophase and scotophase. The loss of both diapause (photoperiodic response) and the gating of adult eclosion (presumably a circadian response) suggests that the same clock system is involved in these two responses. An examination of the expression patterns of the clock genes period and timeless demonstrates that both genes are present in the nondiapausing variant, but surprisingly, both genes are expressed at higher levels. This abnormality we observe, possibly the consequence of an upstream clock gene malfunction or a malfunction of the autoregulatory loop, results in disruption of a component of the clock system that is apparently needed for both photoperiodism and circadian rhythmicity.

  18. Prenatal Testosterone Exposure Decreases Aldosterone Production but Maintains Normal Plasma Volume and Increases Blood Pressure in Adult Female Rats.

    PubMed

    More, Amar S; Mishra, Jay S; Hankins, Gary D; Kumar, Sathish

    2016-08-01

    Plasma testosterone levels are elevated in pregnant women with preeclampsia and polycystic ovaries; their offspring are at increased risk for hypertension during adult life. We tested the hypothesis that prenatal testosterone exposure induces dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which is known to play an important role in water and electrolyte balance and blood pressure regulation. Female rats (6 mo old) prenatally exposed to testosterone were examined for adrenal expression of steroidogenic genes, telemetric blood pressure, blood volume and Na(+) and K(+) levels, plasma aldosterone, angiotensin II and vasopressin levels, and vascular responses to angiotensin II and arg(8)-vasopressin. The levels of Cyp11b2 (aldosterone synthase), but not the other adrenal steroidogenic genes, were decreased in testosterone females. Accordingly, plasma aldosterone levels were lower in testosterone females. Plasma volume and serum and urine Na(+) and K(+) levels were not significantly different between control and testosterone females; however, prenatal testosterone exposure significantly increased plasma vasopressin and angiotensin II levels and arterial pressure in adult females. In testosterone females, mesenteric artery contractile responses to angiotensin II were significantly greater, while contractile responses to vasopressin were unaffected. Angiotensin II type-1 receptor expression was increased, while angiotensin II type-2 receptor was decreased in testosterone arteries. These results suggest that prenatal testosterone exposure downregulates adrenal Cyp11b2 expression, leading to decreased plasma aldosterone levels. Elevated angiotensin II and vasopressin levels along with enhanced vascular responsiveness to angiotensin II may serve as an underlying mechanism to maintain plasma volume and Na(+) and K(+) levels and mediate hypertension in adult testosterone females. PMID:27385784

  19. Young adults with depression are at increased risk of sexually transmitted disease.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Wiley D; Botchway, Albert

    2016-07-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and depression impact millions of individuals each year in the United States, with direct medical costs exceeding $41 billion. While the interactions of these conditions are poorly understood, they are increasingly addressed in primary care whereas historically they have been addressed separately. We analyzed data associated with the 18-25year age group from the 2014 National Survey of Drug Use and Health, a cross-sectional survey of the civilian, non-institutionalized US population aged ≥12years for factors associated with past year diagnosis of STD (STDy). Independent variables included participant demographics; lifetime diagnosis of major depressive episode (MDE); participant behaviors associated with STD risk (patient-provided); and medical record data associated with mental illness treatment (clinically-observed). Of 18,142 participants, the prevalence of MDE and STD was 15.3% and 2.4%, respectively, with significant differences by gender and race. MDE was associated with increased risk of STDy among females (odds ratio [OR]=1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.18-2.20), males (OR=2.32; CI=1.15-4.70), those of white race (OR=3.02; CI=2.02-4.53), and lower income levels and insurance status. Univariate modeling found that receiving mental health treatment, and use of marijuana, alcohol, and illegal drugs were each associated with significantly increased STDy. In a multivariate logistic regression, receiving mental health treatment became protective for STDy (AOR=0.55; CI=0.32-0.95]). Individuals with a history of depression are at increased risk of STDy, with this risk modified by factors readily ascertained within primary care. As depression treatment is increasingly incorporated into primary care there are means to more effectively target intervention resources. PMID:27058942

  20. An mHealth Intervention Using a Smartphone App to Increase Walking Behavior in Young Adults: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Michael; Duggan, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is a growing concern for society and is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, obesity, and other chronic diseases. Objective This study aimed to determine the efficacy of the Accupedo-Pro Pedometer mobile phone app intervention, with the goal of increasing daily step counts in young adults. Methods Mobile phone users (n=58) between 17-26 years of age were randomized to one of two conditions (experimental and control). Both groups downloaded an app that recorded their daily step counts. Baseline data were recorded and followed-up at 5 weeks. Both groups were given a daily walking goal of 30 minutes, but the experimental group participants were told the equivalent goal in steps taken, via feedback from the app. The primary outcome was daily step count between baseline and follow-up. Results A significant time x group interaction effect was observed for daily step counts (P=.04). Both the experimental (P<.001) and control group (P=.03) demonstrated a significant increase in daily step counts, with the experimental group walking an additional 2000 steps per day. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that a mobile phone app can significantly increase physical activity in a young adult sample by setting specific goals, using self-monitoring, and feedback. PMID:27658677

  1. Hypothyroidism increases prolactin secretion and decreases the intromission threshold for induction of pseudopregnancy in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Tohei, A; Taya, K; Watanabe, G; Voogt, J L

    In order to understand the mechanism by which thyroid hormones alter prolactin (PRL) secretion, we investigated the role of tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurons and pituitary and hypothalamus vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in thiouracil- (0. 03% in drinking water for 16 days) induced-hypothyroid adult female rats. The intromission threshold for induction of pseudopregnancy also was examined to evaluate the PRL response to coital stimulation in hypothyroid rats. Hypothyroidism in adult female rats did not affect TIDA neuronal activity as measured by tyrosine hydroxylase activity (DOPA accumulation 30 min after administration of m-hydroxybenzylhydrazine dihydrochloride, 100 mg/kg, i.p.) in the stalk-median eminence compared with that in euthyroid rats, whereas pituitary concentration of VIP was dramatically increased. Plasma concentration of PRL was higher at 1100 h of proestrus and estrus in hypothyroid rats as compared with that of euthyroid rats. The proportion of female rats exhibiting pseudopregnancy was higher in hypothyroid animals (100%) receiving seven intromissions than in euthyroid animals (43%). Administration of L-thyroxine in hypothyroid rats decreased the proportion of pseudopregnancy (40%) to the level of euthyroid animals. These results indicate that the increased level of pituitary VIP probably affects PRL secretion in a paracrine or autocrine manner and account for the hyperprolactinemia induced in hypothyroid female rats. No role for TIDA neurons in PRL elevation can be ascribed. A decrease in the intromission threshold for induction of pseudopregnancy might be due to increased levels of PRL in hypothyroid female rats.

  2. School burnout: increased sympathetic vasomotor tone and attenuated ambulatory diurnal blood pressure variability in young adult women.

    PubMed

    May, Ross W; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; Fincham, Frank D

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined autonomic and cardiovascular functioning that may link school burnout to cardiovascular risk factors in young healthy adult females. Study 1 (N = 136) investigated whether school burnout was related to resting values of blood pressure (BP) and blood pressure variability (BPV) through laboratory beat-to-beat BP assessment. Study 2 (N = 94) examined the link between school burnout and diurnal BPV through ambulatory BP monitoring. Controlling for anxiety and depressive symptomatology, school burnout demonstrated strong positive relationships with indices of cardiac sympathovagal tone, sympathetic vasomotor tone, inefficient myocardial oxygen consumption, increased 24-h ambulatory heart rate and BP, blunted BP diurnal variability, and increased arterial stiffness. These studies establish cardiovascular biomarkers of school burnout and suggest that even in a seemingly healthy sample school burnout may predispose females to increased cardiovascular risk. Several future lines of research are outlined.

  3. Increasing dietary linoleic acid does not increase tissue arachidonic acid content in adults consuming Western-type diets: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Linoleic acid, with a DRI of 12-17 g/d, is the most highly consumed polyunsaturated fatty acid in the Western diet and is found in virtually all commonly consumed foods. The concern with dietary linoleic acid, being the metabolic precursor of arachidonic acid, is its consumption may enrich tissues with arachidonic acid and contribute to chronic and overproduction of bioactive eicosanoids. However, no systematic review of human trials regarding linoleic acid consumption and subsequent changes in tissue levels of arachidonic acid has been undertaken. Objective In this study, we reviewed the human literature that reported changes in dietary linoleic acid and its subsequent impact on changing tissue arachidonic acid in erythrocytes and plasma/serum phospholipids. Design We identified, reviewed, and evaluated all peer-reviewed published literature presenting data outlining changes in dietary linoleic acid in adult human clinical trials that reported changes in phospholipid fatty acid composition (specifically arachidonic acid) in plasma/serum and erythrocytes within the parameters of our inclusion/exclusion criteria. Results Decreasing dietary linoleic acid by up to 90% was not significantly correlated with changes in arachidonic acid levels in the phospholipid pool of plasma/serum (p = 0.39). Similarly, when dietary linoleic acid levels were increased up to six fold, no significant correlations with arachidonic acid levels were observed (p = 0.72). However, there was a positive relationship between dietary gamma-linolenic acid and dietary arachidonic acid on changes in arachidonic levels in plasma/serum phospholipids. Conclusions Our results do not support the concept that modifying current intakes of dietary linoleic acid has an effect on changing levels of arachidonic acid in plasma/serum or erythrocytes in adults consuming Western-type diets. PMID:21663641

  4. Association of increased monetary cost of dietary intake, diet quality and weight management in Spanish adults.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Helmut; Serra-Majem, Luis; Subirana, Isaac; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria; Fitó, Montserrat; Elosua, Roberto

    2016-03-14

    Higher monetary diet cost is associated with healthier food choices and better weight management. How changes in diet cost affect changes in diet quality and weight remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of changes in individual monetary diet cost on changes in diet quality, measured by the modified Mediterranean diet score recommendations (MDS-rec) and by energy density (ED), as well as changes in weight and BMI. We conducted a prospective, population-based study of 2181 male and female Spaniards aged between 25 and 74 years, who were followed up to the 2009-2010 academic year. We measured weight and height and recorded dietary data using a validated FFQ. Average food cost was calculated from official Spanish government data. We fitted multivariate linear and logistic regression models. The average daily diet cost increased from 3·68(SD0.0·89)€/8·36 MJ to 4·97(SD1·16)€/8·36 MJ during the study period. This increase was significantly associated with improvement in diet quality (Δ ED and Δ MDS-rec; P<0·0001). Each 1€ increase in monetary diet cost per 8·36 MJ was associated with a decrease of 0·3 kg in body weight (P=0·02) and 0·1 kg/m(2) in BMI (P=0·04). These associations were attenuated after adjusting for changes in diet quality indicators. An improvement in diet quality and better weight management were both associated with an increase in diet cost; this could be considered in food policy decisions. PMID:26758710

  5. Increased Skeletal Muscle Capillarization Independently Enhances Insulin Sensitivity in Older Adults After Exercise Training and Detraining.

    PubMed

    Prior, Steven J; Goldberg, Andrew P; Ortmeyer, Heidi K; Chin, Eva R; Chen, Dapeng; Blumenthal, Jacob B; Ryan, Alice S

    2015-10-01

    Intramuscular signaling and glucose transport mechanisms contribute to improvements in insulin sensitivity after aerobic exercise training. This study tested the hypothesis that increases in skeletal muscle capillary density (CD) also contribute to exercise-induced improvements in whole-body insulin sensitivity (insulin-stimulated glucose uptake per unit plasma insulin [M/I]) independent of other mechanisms. The study design included a 6-month aerobic exercise training period followed by a 2-week detraining period to eliminate short-term effects of exercise on intramuscular signaling and glucose transport. Before and after exercise training and detraining, 12 previously sedentary older (65 ± 3 years) men and women underwent research tests, including hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps and vastus lateralis biopsies. Exercise training increased Vo2max (2.2 ± 0.2 vs. 2.5 ± 0.2 L/min), CD (313 ± 13 vs. 349 ± 18 capillaries/mm(2)), and M/I (0.041 ± 0.005 vs. 0.051 ± 0.007 μmol/kg fat-free mass/min) (P < 0.05 for all). Exercise training also increased the insulin activation of glycogen synthase by 60%, GLUT4 expression by 16%, and 5' AMPK-α1 expression by 21%, but these reverted to baseline levels after detraining. Conversely, CD and M/I remained 15% and 18% higher after detraining, respectively (P < 0.05), and the changes in M/I (detraining minus baseline) correlated directly with changes in CD in regression analysis (partial r = 0.70; P = 0.02). These results suggest that an increase in CD is one mechanism contributing to sustained improvements in glucose metabolism after aerobic exercise training. PMID:26068543

  6. Increased Skeletal Muscle Capillarization Independently Enhances Insulin Sensitivity in Older Adults After Exercise Training and Detraining

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Andrew P.; Ortmeyer, Heidi K.; Chin, Eva R.; Chen, Dapeng; Blumenthal, Jacob B.; Ryan, Alice S.

    2015-01-01

    Intramuscular signaling and glucose transport mechanisms contribute to improvements in insulin sensitivity after aerobic exercise training. This study tested the hypothesis that increases in skeletal muscle capillary density (CD) also contribute to exercise-induced improvements in whole-body insulin sensitivity (insulin-stimulated glucose uptake per unit plasma insulin [M/I]) independent of other mechanisms. The study design included a 6-month aerobic exercise training period followed by a 2-week detraining period to eliminate short-term effects of exercise on intramuscular signaling and glucose transport. Before and after exercise training and detraining, 12 previously sedentary older (65 ± 3 years) men and women underwent research tests, including hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps and vastus lateralis biopsies. Exercise training increased Vo2max (2.2 ± 0.2 vs. 2.5 ± 0.2 L/min), CD (313 ± 13 vs. 349 ± 18 capillaries/mm2), and M/I (0.041 ± 0.005 vs. 0.051 ± 0.007 μmol/kg fat-free mass/min) (P < 0.05 for all). Exercise training also increased the insulin activation of glycogen synthase by 60%, GLUT4 expression by 16%, and 5′ AMPK-α1 expression by 21%, but these reverted to baseline levels after detraining. Conversely, CD and M/I remained 15% and 18% higher after detraining, respectively (P < 0.05), and the changes in M/I (detraining minus baseline) correlated directly with changes in CD in regression analysis (partial r = 0.70; P = 0.02). These results suggest that an increase in CD is one mechanism contributing to sustained improvements in glucose metabolism after aerobic exercise training. PMID:26068543

  7. A Serious Game to Increase Healthy Food Consumption in Overweight or Obese Adults: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is a growing global issue that is linked to cognitive and psychological deficits. Objective This preliminary study investigated the efficacy of training to improve inhibitory control (IC), a process linked to overeating, on consumption and cognitive control factors. Methods This study utilized a multisession mobile phone–based intervention to train IC in an overweight and obese population using a randomized waitlist-control design. A combination of self-assessment questionnaires and psychophysiological measures was used to assess the efficacy of the intervention in terms of improved general IC and modified food consumption after training. Attitudes toward food were also assessed to determine their mediating role in food choices. A total of 58 participants (47 female) completed 2 assessment sessions 3 weeks apart, with 2 weeks of intervention training for the training group during this time. The groups did not differ in baseline demographics including age, body mass index, and inhibitory control. Results Inhibitory control ability improved across the training sessions, with increases in P3 amplitude implying increased cognitive control over responses. Inhibitory control training was associated with increased healthy and reduced unhealthy food consumption in a taste test and in the week following training, as measured by the Healthy Eating Quiz and the food consumption test. Cognitive restraint was enhanced after training for the training but not the waitlist condition in the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, implying that attempts to avoid unhealthy foods in the future will be easier for the training group participants. Conclusions Inhibitory control training delivered via a purpose-designed mobile phone app is easy to complete, is convenient, and can increase cognitive restraint and reduce unhealthy food consumption. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12616000263493; http

  8. Association of increased monetary cost of dietary intake, diet quality and weight management in Spanish adults.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Helmut; Serra-Majem, Luis; Subirana, Isaac; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria; Fitó, Montserrat; Elosua, Roberto

    2016-03-14

    Higher monetary diet cost is associated with healthier food choices and better weight management. How changes in diet cost affect changes in diet quality and weight remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of changes in individual monetary diet cost on changes in diet quality, measured by the modified Mediterranean diet score recommendations (MDS-rec) and by energy density (ED), as well as changes in weight and BMI. We conducted a prospective, population-based study of 2181 male and female Spaniards aged between 25 and 74 years, who were followed up to the 2009-2010 academic year. We measured weight and height and recorded dietary data using a validated FFQ. Average food cost was calculated from official Spanish government data. We fitted multivariate linear and logistic regression models. The average daily diet cost increased from 3·68(SD0.0·89)€/8·36 MJ to 4·97(SD1·16)€/8·36 MJ during the study period. This increase was significantly associated with improvement in diet quality (Δ ED and Δ MDS-rec; P<0·0001). Each 1€ increase in monetary diet cost per 8·36 MJ was associated with a decrease of 0·3 kg in body weight (P=0·02) and 0·1 kg/m(2) in BMI (P=0·04). These associations were attenuated after adjusting for changes in diet quality indicators. An improvement in diet quality and better weight management were both associated with an increase in diet cost; this could be considered in food policy decisions.

  9. Measuring the Processes of Change for Increasing Blood Donation in Black Adults

    PubMed Central

    Amoyal, Nicole R.; Robbins, Mark L.; Paiva, Andrea L.; Burditt, Caitlin; Kessler, Debra; Shaz, Beth H.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Blacks have significantly lower blood donation (BD) rates than Whites. Many views, experiences, and behaviors associated with BD are unique to Black culture. Evidence suggests that culturally tailored health promotion programs help with increasing Black BD. To be effective, tailored interventions should be based on valid and reliable measures. The Transtheoretical Model's (TTM) Processes of Change (POC) construct provides an assessment of participants’ covert and overt activities and experiences in BD. This study describes development and validation of POC for increasing BD tailored to Blacks. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Cross-sectional measure development with online survey dissemination was used in 566 Blacks in Northeastern US. Factor analytic structural modeling procedures were used to examine validity of the POC measure. BD POC were examined in participants representing a range of BD history and intentions (non-donors, sometimes donors, regular donors) based on an established algorithm. RESULTS Confirmatory analyses replicated the theoretically expected structure of POC scales which is a ten-factor, fully correlated best fit model. Expected POC patterns by SOC based on theoretical and empirical predictions were confirmed. The range of effect sizes for 10 POC were η2= .04-.25; indicating that TTM POC are strong strategies in BD decision making for Blacks and can be applied to interventions to increase BD for a minority population. CONCLUSION POC measure was internally and externally valid in a sample of Blacks. Interventions can utilize the POC measure to guide stage matched interventions to encourage use of relevant experiential and behavioral strategies to increase blood donation. PMID:22928841

  10. Wearing a Bicycle Helmet Can Increase Risk Taking and Sensation Seeking in Adults.

    PubMed

    Gamble, Tim; Walker, Ian

    2016-02-01

    Humans adapt their risk-taking behavior on the basis of perceptions of safety; this risk-compensation phenomenon is typified by people taking increased risks when using protective equipment. Existing studies have looked at people who know they are using safety equipment and have specifically focused on changes in behaviors for which that equipment might reduce risk. Here, we demonstrated that risk taking increases in people who are not explicitly aware they are wearing protective equipment; furthermore, this happens for behaviors that could not be made safer by that equipment. In a controlled study in which a helmet, compared with a baseball cap, was used as the head mount for an eye tracker, participants scored significantly higher on laboratory measures of both risk taking and sensation seeking. This happened despite there being no risk for the helmet to ameliorate and despite it being introduced purely as an eye tracker. The results suggest that unconscious activation of safety-related concepts primes globally increased risk propensity.

  11. Wearing a Bicycle Helmet Can Increase Risk Taking and Sensation Seeking in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, Tim; Walker, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Humans adapt their risk-taking behavior on the basis of perceptions of safety; this risk-compensation phenomenon is typified by people taking increased risks when using protective equipment. Existing studies have looked at people who know they are using safety equipment and have specifically focused on changes in behaviors for which that equipment might reduce risk. Here, we demonstrated that risk taking increases in people who are not explicitly aware they are wearing protective equipment; furthermore, this happens for behaviors that could not be made safer by that equipment. In a controlled study in which a helmet, compared with a baseball cap, was used as the head mount for an eye tracker, participants scored significantly higher on laboratory measures of both risk taking and sensation seeking. This happened despite there being no risk for the helmet to ameliorate and despite it being introduced purely as an eye tracker. The results suggest that unconscious activation of safety-related concepts primes globally increased risk propensity. PMID:26740528

  12. Wearing a Bicycle Helmet Can Increase Risk Taking and Sensation Seeking in Adults.

    PubMed

    Gamble, Tim; Walker, Ian

    2016-02-01

    Humans adapt their risk-taking behavior on the basis of perceptions of safety; this risk-compensation phenomenon is typified by people taking increased risks when using protective equipment. Existing studies have looked at people who know they are using safety equipment and have specifically focused on changes in behaviors for which that equipment might reduce risk. Here, we demonstrated that risk taking increases in people who are not explicitly aware they are wearing protective equipment; furthermore, this happens for behaviors that could not be made safer by that equipment. In a controlled study in which a helmet, compared with a baseball cap, was used as the head mount for an eye tracker, participants scored significantly higher on laboratory measures of both risk taking and sensation seeking. This happened despite there being no risk for the helmet to ameliorate and despite it being introduced purely as an eye tracker. The results suggest that unconscious activation of safety-related concepts primes globally increased risk propensity. PMID:26740528

  13. Teriparatide Increases Bone Formation and Bone Mineral Density in Adult Women With Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Irene S.; Miller, Karen K.; Herzog, David B.; Misra, Madhusmita; Lee, Hang; Finkelstein, Joel S.; Bouxsein, Mary L.; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Context: Anorexia nervosa (AN), a prevalent psychiatric disorder predominantly affecting women, is characterized by self-induced starvation and low body weight. Increased clinical fractures are common, and most women have low bone mineral density (BMD). Previously investigated treatments have led to no or modest increases in BMD in AN. Objective: Our objective was to investigate the effect of teriparatide (TPT; human PTH[1–34]), an anabolic agent, on low bone mass in women with AN. Design, Setting, and Patients: This randomized, placebo-controlled trial at a clinical research center included 21 women with AN: 10 (mean age ± SEM, 47 ± 2.7 years) treated with TPT and 11 (47.1 ± 2.3 years) treated with placebo. Interventions: TPT (20 μg SC) or placebo was administered for 6 months. Main Outcome Measures: Our primary outcome measure was change in BMD of the spine and hip by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Secondary outcome measures included changes in serum N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP), C-terminal collagen cross-links, sclerostin, and IGF-1 levels. Results: At 6 months, spine BMD increased significantly more with TPT (posteroanterior spine, 6.0% ± 1.4%; lateral spine, 10.5% ± 2.5%) compared with placebo (posteroanterior spine, 0.2% ± 0.7%, P < .01; lateral spine, −0.6% ± 1.0%; P < .01). The results remained significant after controlling for baseline body mass index, P1NP, and IGF-1. Changes in femoral neck (P = .4) and total hip (P = 0.8) BMD were comparable in both groups, as were changes in weight. Serum P1NP levels increased after 3 months of TPT treatment and remained at this higher level at 6 months, whereas P1NP levels were unchanged in the placebo group (P = .02). TPT was well-tolerated by all subjects. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that TPT administration increases spine BMD substantially after only 6 months of therapy in women with AN. PMID:24456286

  14. Increased macrophage colony-stimulating factor in neonatal and adult autoimmune MRL-lpr mice.

    PubMed Central

    Yui, M. A.; Brissette, W. H.; Brennan, D. C.; Wuthrich, R. P.; Rubin-Kelley, V. E.

    1991-01-01

    Abnormal macrophages in MRL-lpr mice are implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease. These mice die of lupus nephritis by 5 to 6 months of age. This study reports that MRL-lpr mice have an increased level of circulating macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) detectable as early as 1 week of age. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor decreased between 2 and 4 months and then steadily increased beginning at 4 months of age. In contrast, M-CSF was not detected in sera from congenic MRL-++ mice, normal C3H/FeJ mice, two other mouse strains with the lpr gene (B6-lpr and C3H-lpr), or another lupus model, the NZB/W mouse. These observations indicate that the lpr gene alone is not responsible for inducing this growth factor, and elevated M-CSF is not required for all forms of murine lupus. The entire source of serum M-CSF is not clear. The unique T cells regulated by the lpr gene are not responsible for the increased serum M-CSF levels, as no M-CSFs could be detected in supernatants from cultured lymph nodes from MRL-lpr mice, and the steady-state levels of M-CSF mRNA in lymph nodes and spleens in MRL-lpr, C3H-lpr mice and in their respective congenic strains were similar. The steady-state M-CSF mRNA transcripts in liver, lung, and bone marrow in MRL-lpr, MRL-++, and C3H/FeJ mice were also similar. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor transcripts were clearly elevated in the kidneys of MRL-lpr mice, suggesting a renal source of circulating M-CSF. The increase of M-CSF might be responsible for the increased numbers and enhanced functions of macrophages, which in turn cause tissue destruction in MRL-lpr mice. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1867317

  15. Experimentally Increased Codon Bias in the Drosophila Adh Gene Leads to an Increase in Larval, But Not Adult, Alcohol Dehydrogenase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hense, Winfried; Anderson, Nathan; Hutter, Stephan; Stephan, Wolfgang; Parsch, John; Carlini, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Although most amino acids can be encoded by more than one codon, the synonymous codons are not used with equal frequency. This phenomenon is known as codon bias and appears to be a universal feature of genomes. The translational selection hypothesis posits that the use of optimal codons, which match the most abundant species of isoaccepting tRNAs, results in increased translational efficiency and accuracy. Previous work demonstrated that the experimental reduction of codon bias in the Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene led to a significant decrease in ADH protein expression. In this study we performed the converse experiment: we replaced seven suboptimal leucine codons that occur naturally in the Drosophila melanogaster Adh gene with the optimal codon. We then compared the in vivo ADH activities imparted by the wild-type and mutant alleles. The introduction of optimal leucine codons led to an increase in ADH activity in third-instar larvae. In adult flies, however, the introduction of optimal codons led to a decrease in ADH activity. There is no evidence that other selectively constrained features of the Adh gene, or its rate of transcription, were altered by the synonymous replacements. These results are consistent with translational selection for codon bias being stronger in the larval stage and suggest that there may be a selective conflict over optimal codon usage between different developmental stages. PMID:19966063

  16. Experimentally increased codon bias in the Drosophila Adh gene leads to an increase in larval, but not adult, alcohol dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Hense, Winfried; Anderson, Nathan; Hutter, Stephan; Stephan, Wolfgang; Parsch, John; Carlini, David B

    2010-02-01

    Although most amino acids can be encoded by more than one codon, the synonymous codons are not used with equal frequency. This phenomenon is known as codon bias and appears to be a universal feature of genomes. The translational selection hypothesis posits that the use of optimal codons, which match the most abundant species of isoaccepting tRNAs, results in increased translational efficiency and accuracy. Previous work demonstrated that the experimental reduction of codon bias in the Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene led to a significant decrease in ADH protein expression. In this study we performed the converse experiment: we replaced seven suboptimal leucine codons that occur naturally in the Drosophila melanogaster Adh gene with the optimal codon. We then compared the in vivo ADH activities imparted by the wild-type and mutant alleles. The introduction of optimal leucine codons led to an increase in ADH activity in third-instar larvae. In adult flies, however, the introduction of optimal codons led to a decrease in ADH activity. There is no evidence that other selectively constrained features of the Adh gene, or its rate of transcription, were altered by the synonymous replacements. These results are consistent with translational selection for codon bias being stronger in the larval stage and suggest that there may be a selective conflict over optimal codon usage between different developmental stages.

  17. Obesity increases free thyroxine proportionally to nonesterified fatty acid concentrations in adult neutered female cats.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, D C; Caffall, Z; Hoenig, M

    2007-08-01

    The obese cat is a model for the study of the progression toward type 2 diabetes. In this study, the impact of obesity on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis was examined in 21 domestic shorthair cats before and after the development of obesity, which significantly increased body mass index (BMI), % body fat (BF), and girth (P<0.0001 for all). Serum total thyroxine (TT(4)), tri-iodothyronine, free T(4) (FT(4)) by direct dialysis, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and leptin were measured, and FT(4) fraction (FFT(4)) was calculated. Serum thyrotropin (TSH) concentrations were measured in nine animals by validating a heterologous canine TSH assay with recombinant feline TSH as a standard. FT(4), FFT(4), NEFAs, and leptin were significantly higher in obese cats. FT(4) had the strongest positive correlation with obesity indices BF, BMI, girth, NEFA, and leptin. Fatty acids oleate and palmitate were shown to inhibit T(4) binding to pooled cat serum in vitro, suggesting the possibility that this mechanism was also relevant in vivo. Serum TT(4) and TSH did not rise significantly. The implications for thyroid hormone (TH) action are not yet clear, but fatty acids have been proposed to inhibit the cellular uptake of TH and/or pituitary TH receptor binding, leading to TH resistance. Increased leptin may also alter sensitivity to negative feedback of TH. In conclusion, feline obesity is associated with a significant increase in FT(4) within the normal range; future investigation into the cellular thyroid status will be necessary to establish cause and effect in this obesity model.

  18. Increasing Prevalence of Cirrhosis among US Adults Aware or Unaware of their Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Udompap, Prowpanga; Mannalithara, Ajitha; Heo, Naeyun; Kim, Donghee; Kim, W. Ray

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Cirrhosis from hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. We determine the prevalence of cirrhosis among HCV-infected American adults including those unaware of their infection. Methods Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data, we identified participants aged≥20 years with detectable serum HCV RNA. The prevalence of advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis was determined for Eras 1 (1988-94), 2 (1999-2006) and 3 (2007-12) by using FIB-4 > 3.25 and APRI > 2.0, respectively. Results Out of 52,644 NHANES examinees, 49,429 were tested for HCV, of whom 725 met the inclusion criteria (positive HCV RNA with available data for FIB-4 and APRI). Based on APRI, 6.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]:2.2-11.0) of HCV-infected adults in Era 1, 7.6% (95%CI:3.4-11.8) in Era 2 and 17.0% (95%CI:8.0-26.0) in Era 3 had cirrhosis. In the multivariable regression analysis, this era effect was attributable to increasing age (odds ratio [OR]:1.04, 95%CI:1.02-1.07), diabetes (OR:2.33, 95%CI:1.01-5.40) and obesity (OR:2.96, 95%CI:1.15-7.57). Cirrhosis was as common among respondents who were unaware of their infection as those who were aware (both 11%). Results were identical when FIB-4 was used. Conclusions Among HCV-infected American adults, the proportion with cirrhosis has increased rapidly. Cirrhosis prevalence remains high in individuals unaware of their HCV infection. These data highlight the urgency for HCV screening regardless of symptoms, systematic assessment for liver fibrosis in those with HCV infection and institution of antivirals to prevent advanced liver disease. PMID:26809112

  19. Increase in dicentric chromosome formation after a single CT scan in adults

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Yu; Miura, Tomisato; Yoshida, Mitsuaki A.; Ujiie, Risa; Kurosu, Yumiko; Kato, Nagisa; Katafuchi, Atsushi; Tsuyama, Naohiro; Ohba, Takashi; Inamasu, Tomoko; Shishido, Fumio; Noji, Hideyoshi; Ogawa, Kazuei; Yokouchi, Hiroshi; Kanazawa, Kenya; Ishida, Takashi; Muto, Satoshi; Ohsugi, Jun; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Kamiya, Kenji; Sakai, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Excess risk of leukemia and brain tumors after CT scans in children has been reported. We performed dicentric chromosome assay (DCAs) before and after CT scan to assess effects of low-dose ionizing radiation on chromosomes. Peripheral blood (PB) lymphocytes were collected from 10 patients before and after a CT scan. DCA was performed by analyzing either 1,000 or 2,000 metaphases using both Giemsa staining and centromere-fluorescence in situ hybridization (Centromere-FISH). The increment of DIC formation was compared with effective radiation dose calculated using the computational dosimetry system, WAZA-ARI and dose length product (DLP) in a CT scan. Dicentric chromosome (DIC) formation increased significantly after a single CT scan, and increased DIC formation was found in all patients. A good correlation between the increment of DIC formation determined by analysis of 2,000 metaphases using Giemsa staining and those by 2,000 metaphases using Centromere-FISH was observed. However, no correlation was observed between the increment of DIC formation and the effective radiation dose. Therefore, these results suggest that chromosome cleavage may be induced by one CT scan, and we recommend 2,000 or more metaphases be analyzed in Giemsa staining or Centromere-FISH for DCAs in cases of low-dose radiation exposure. PMID:26349546

  20. Increase in dicentric chromosome formation after a single CT scan in adults.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yu; Miura, Tomisato; Yoshida, Mitsuaki A; Ujiie, Risa; Kurosu, Yumiko; Kato, Nagisa; Katafuchi, Atsushi; Tsuyama, Naohiro; Ohba, Takashi; Inamasu, Tomoko; Shishido, Fumio; Noji, Hideyoshi; Ogawa, Kazuei; Yokouchi, Hiroshi; Kanazawa, Kenya; Ishida, Takashi; Muto, Satoshi; Ohsugi, Jun; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Kamiya, Kenji; Sakai, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Excess risk of leukemia and brain tumors after CT scans in children has been reported. We performed dicentric chromosome assay (DCAs) before and after CT scan to assess effects of low-dose ionizing radiation on chromosomes. Peripheral blood (PB) lymphocytes were collected from 10 patients before and after a CT scan. DCA was performed by analyzing either 1,000 or 2,000 metaphases using both Giemsa staining and centromere-fluorescence in situ hybridization (Centromere-FISH). The increment of DIC formation was compared with effective radiation dose calculated using the computational dosimetry system, WAZA-ARI and dose length product (DLP) in a CT scan. Dicentric chromosome (DIC) formation increased significantly after a single CT scan, and increased DIC formation was found in all patients. A good correlation between the increment of DIC formation determined by analysis of 2,000 metaphases using Giemsa staining and those by 2,000 metaphases using Centromere-FISH was observed. However, no correlation was observed between the increment of DIC formation and the effective radiation dose. Therefore, these results suggest that chromosome cleavage may be induced by one CT scan, and we recommend 2,000 or more metaphases be analyzed in Giemsa staining or Centromere-FISH for DCAs in cases of low-dose radiation exposure. PMID:26349546

  1. Adolescent social instability stress increases aggression in a food competition task in adult male Long-Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Cumming, Mark J; Thompson, Madison A; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2014-11-01

    Adolescent social instability stress (SS; daily 1 hr isolation + new cage partners postnatal days 30-45; thereafter with original cage partner, also in the SS condition) and control (CTL) rats competed for access to a preferred food in five sessions against their cage partner. In the first session, SS pairs displayed more aggression (face whacks, p = .02; rear attacks, p = .03), were less likely to relinquish access to the food voluntarily (p = .03), spent more time at the feeder than CTL pairs (p = .06), but did not differ in latency to access the feeder (p = .41). Pairs were considered in dominant-submissive relationships (DSR) if one rat spent significantly more time at the feeder than the other; 8 of 12 SS and 8 of 12 CTL pairs displayed DSRs (remaining: no-DSR). Aggression increased from the 1st to 5th session (p < .001), was greater in no-DSR than DSR pairs (p = .04; consistent with the proposed function of DSRs to be the reduction of aggression in groups), and was higher in SS than CTL pairs (p = .05). Because the increased aggression of SS compared with CTL pairs did not result in a significant increase in their time at the feeder, the increased aggression may be considered maladaptive, and may reflect an increased motivation for food reward. These results add to evidence that SS in adolescence modifies the adult social repertoire of rats and highlight the importance of adolescent social experiences for adult behavior.

  2. High sodium intake during postnatal phases induces an increase in arterial blood pressure in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Moreira, M C S; da Silva, E F; Silveira, L L; de Paiva, Y B; de Castro, C H; Freiria-Oliveira, A H; Rosa, D A; Ferreira, P M; Xavier, C H; Colombari, E; Pedrino, Gustavo R

    2014-12-28

    Epigenetic studies suggest that diseases that develop in adulthood are related to certain conditions to which the individual is exposed during the initial stages of life. Experimental evidence has demonstrated that offspring born to mothers maintained on high-Na diets during pregnancy have higher mean arterial pressure (MAP) in adulthood. Although these studies have demonstrated the importance of prenatal phases to hypertension development, no evidence regarding the role of high Na intake during postnatal phases in the development of this pathology has been reported. Therefore, in the present study, the effects of Na overload during childhood on induced water and Na intakes and on cardiovascular parameters in adulthood were evaluated. Experiments were carried out in two groups of 21-d-old rats: experimental group, maintained on hypertonic saline (0.3 m-NaCl) solution and food for 60 d, and control group, maintained on tap water and food. Later, both groups were given water and food for 15 d (recovery period). After the recovery period, chronic cannulation of the right femoral artery was performed in unanaesthetised rats to record baseline MAP and heart rate (HR). The experimental group was found to have increased basal MAP (98.6 (sem 2.6) v. 118.3 (sem 2.7) mmHg, P< 0.05) and HR (365.4 (sem 12.2) v. 398.2 (sem 7.5) beats per min, P< 0.05). There was a decrease in the baroreflex index in the experimental group when compared with that in the control group. A water and Na intake test was performed using furosemide. Na depletion was found to induce an increase in Na intake in both the control and experimental groups (12.1 (sem 0.6) ml and 7.8 (sem 1.1), respectively, P< 0.05); however, this increase was of lower magnitude in the experimental group. These results demonstrate that postnatal Na overload alters behavioural and cardiovascular regulation in adulthood.

  3. Justice-Involved Adults With Substance Use Disorders: Coverage Increased But Rates Of Treatment Did Not In 2014.

    PubMed

    Saloner, Brendan; Bandara, Sachini N; McGinty, Emma E; Barry, Colleen L

    2016-06-01

    More than one-third of US adults in the criminal justice system have substance use disorders, which contribute to health problems and recidivism. Health insurance and criminal justice reforms initiated in the last decade offer opportunities for increasing treatment access among justice-involved individuals. Using national survey data, we examined trends in treatment of substance use disorders from 2004 to 2014 among adults who reported past-year criminal justice contact and met screening criteria for substance use disorders. We found that the uninsurance rate was relatively unchanged in that population from 2004 to 2013. In 2014, the first year of the Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansion, the uninsurance rate among justice-involved individuals with substance use disorders declined from 38 percent to 28 percent. Although overall treatment rates did not increase in 2014, individuals receiving treatment were more likely to have their care paid for by Medicaid than in the prior decade. Medicaid reimbursement can be a critical lever for improving the quality and continuity of substance use disorder treatment for justice-involved populations. PMID:27269023

  4. Prehabilitation before total knee arthroplasty increases strength and function in older adults with severe osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Swank, Ann M; Kachelman, Joseph B; Bibeau, Wendy; Quesada, Peter M; Nyland, John; Malkani, Arthur; Topp, Robert V

    2011-02-01

    Preparing for the stress of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgery by exercise training (prehabilitation) may improve strength and function before surgery and, if effective, has the potential to contribute to postoperative recovery. Subjects with severe osteoarthritis (OA), pain intractable to medicine and scheduled for TKA were randomized into a usual care (UC) group (n = 36) or usual care and exercise (UC + EX) group (n = 35). The UC group maintained normal daily activities before their TKA. The UC + EX group performed a comprehensive prehabilitation program that included resistance training using bands, flexibility, and step training at least 3 times per week for 4-8 weeks before their TKA in addition to UC. Leg strength (isokinetic peak torque for knee extension and flexion) and ability to perform functional tasks (6-minute walk, 30 second sit-to-stand repetitions, and the time to ascend and descend 2 flights of stairs) were assessed before randomization at baseline (T1) and 1 week before the subject's TKA (T2). Repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated a significant group by time interaction (p < 0.05) for the 30-second sit-to-stand repetitions, time to ascend the first flight of stairs, and peak torque for knee extension in the surgical knee. Prehabilitation increased leg strength and the ability to perform functional tasks for UC + EX when compared to UC before TKA. Short term (4-8 weeks) of prehabilitation was effective for increasing strength and function for individuals with severe OA. The program studied is easily transferred to a home environment, and clinicians working with this population should consider prehabilitation before TKA.

  5. Strategies to increase vegetable or reduce energy and fat intake induce weight loss in adults.

    PubMed

    Tanumihardjo, Sherry A; Valentine, Ashley R; Zhang, Zhumin; Whigham, Leah D; Lai, HuiChuan J; Atkinson, Richard L

    2009-05-01

    For obese individuals seeking to optimize health and well-being, healthy dietary strategies are important. Vegetables and fruits contribute to a healthy diet, and increased consumption may cause weight reduction by displacing foods high in energy and fat. The objective of this study was to determine if advising high vegetable (8 servings) and moderate fruit (2-3 servings) consumption would result in weight reduction in obese individuals. We compared this to advising a more traditional strategy of reducing daily energy intake by 500 kcal (2.1 MJ)/d and limiting energy from fat to increasing vegetable intake can assist individuals to maintain weight. PMID:19234056

  6. Strategies to increase vegetable or reduce energy and fat intake induce weight loss in adults.

    PubMed

    Tanumihardjo, Sherry A; Valentine, Ashley R; Zhang, Zhumin; Whigham, Leah D; Lai, HuiChuan J; Atkinson, Richard L

    2009-05-01

    For obese individuals seeking to optimize health and well-being, healthy dietary strategies are important. Vegetables and fruits contribute to a healthy diet, and increased consumption may cause weight reduction by displacing foods high in energy and fat. The objective of this study was to determine if advising high vegetable (8 servings) and moderate fruit (2-3 servings) consumption would result in weight reduction in obese individuals. We compared this to advising a more traditional strategy of reducing daily energy intake by 500 kcal (2.1 MJ)/d and limiting energy from fat to increasing vegetable intake can assist individuals to maintain weight.

  7. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the state's best…

  8. Characterization and Genetic Analysis of a Novel Light-Dependent Lesion Mimic Mutant, lm3, Showing Adult-Plant Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Common Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; Wu, Wenying; Wang, Dongzhi; Yang, Wenlong; Sun, Jiazhu; Liu, Dongcheng; Zhang, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Lesion mimics (LMs) that exhibit spontaneous disease-like lesions in the absence of pathogen attack might confer enhanced plant disease resistance to a wide range of pathogens. The LM mutant, lm3 was derived from a single naturally mutated individual in the F1 population of a 3-1/Jing411 cross, backcrossed six times with 3–1 as the recurrent parent and subsequently self-pollinated twice. The leaves of young seedlings of the lm3 mutant exhibited small, discrete white lesions under natural field conditions. The lesions first appeared at the leaf tips and subsequently expanded throughout the entire leaf blade to the leaf sheath. The lesions were initiated through light intensity and day length. Histochemical staining revealed that lesion formation might reflect programmed cell death (PCD) and abnormal accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The chlorophyll content in the mutant was significantly lower than that in wildtype, and the ratio of chlorophyll a/b was increased significantly in the mutant compared with wildtype, indicating that lm3 showed impairment of the biosynthesis or degradation of chlorophyll, and that Chlorophyll b was prone to damage during lesion formation. The lm3 mutant exhibited enhanced resistance to wheat powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici; Bgt) infection, which was consistent with the increased expression of seven pathogenesis-related (PR) and two wheat chemically induced (WCI) genes involved in the defense-related reaction. Genetic analysis showed that the mutation was controlled through a single partially dominant gene, which was closely linked to Xbarc203 on chromosome 3BL; this gene was delimited to a 40 Mb region between SSR3B450.37 and SSR3B492.6 using a large derived segregating population and the available Chinese Spring chromosome 3B genome sequence. Taken together, our results provide information regarding the identification of a novel wheat LM gene, which will facilitate the additional fine-mapping and

  9. Meat Feeding Restricts Rapid Cold Hardening Response and Increases Thermal Activity Thresholds of Adult Blow Flies, Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Virtually all temperate insects survive the winter by entering a physiological state of reduced metabolic activity termed diapause. However, there is increasing evidence that climate change is disrupting the diapause response resulting in non-diapause life stages encountering periods of winter cold. This is a significant problem for adult life stages in particular, as they must remain mobile, periodically feed, and potentially initiate reproductive development at a time when resources should be diverted to enhance stress tolerance. Here we present the first evidence of protein/meat feeding restricting rapid cold hardening (RCH) ability and increasing low temperature activity thresholds. No RCH response was noted in adult female blow flies (Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy) fed a sugar, water and liver (SWL) diet, while a strong RCH response was seen in females fed a diet of sugar and water (SW) only. The RCH response in SW flies was induced at temperatures as high as 10°C, but was strongest following 3h at 0°C. The CTmin (loss of coordinated movement) and chill coma (final appendage twitch) temperature of SWL females (-0.3 ± 0.5°C and -4.9 ± 0.5°C, respectively) was significantly higher than for SW females (-3.2 ± 0.8°C and -8.5 ± 0.6°C). We confirmed this was not directly the result of altered extracellular K+, as activity thresholds of alanine-fed adults were not significantly different from SW flies. Instead we suggest the loss of cold tolerance is more likely the result of diverting resource allocation to egg development. Between 2009 and 2013 winter air temperatures in Birmingham, UK, fell below the CTmin of SW and SWL flies on 63 and 195 days, respectively, suggesting differential exposure to chill injury depending on whether adults had access to meat or not. We conclude that disruption of diapause could significantly impact on winter survival through loss of synchrony in the timing of active feeding and reproductive development with favourable

  10. Meat Feeding Restricts Rapid Cold Hardening Response and Increases Thermal Activity Thresholds of Adult Blow Flies, Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Coleman, Paul C; Bale, Jeffrey S; Hayward, Scott A L

    2015-01-01

    Virtually all temperate insects survive the winter by entering a physiological state of reduced metabolic activity termed diapause. However, there is increasing evidence that climate change is disrupting the diapause response resulting in non-diapause life stages encountering periods of winter cold. This is a significant problem for adult life stages in particular, as they must remain mobile, periodically feed, and potentially initiate reproductive development at a time when resources should be diverted to enhance stress tolerance. Here we present the first evidence of protein/meat feeding restricting rapid cold hardening (RCH) ability and increasing low temperature activity thresholds. No RCH response was noted in adult female blow flies (Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy) fed a sugar, water and liver (SWL) diet, while a strong RCH response was seen in females fed a diet of sugar and water (SW) only. The RCH response in SW flies was induced at temperatures as high as 10°C, but was strongest following 3h at 0°C. The CTmin (loss of coordinated movement) and chill coma (final appendage twitch) temperature of SWL females (-0.3 ± 0.5°C and -4.9 ± 0.5°C, respectively) was significantly higher than for SW females (-3.2 ± 0.8°C and -8.5 ± 0.6°C). We confirmed this was not directly the result of altered extracellular K+, as activity thresholds of alanine-fed adults were not significantly different from SW flies. Instead we suggest the loss of cold tolerance is more likely the result of diverting resource allocation to egg development. Between 2009 and 2013 winter air temperatures in Birmingham, UK, fell below the CTmin of SW and SWL flies on 63 and 195 days, respectively, suggesting differential exposure to chill injury depending on whether adults had access to meat or not. We conclude that disruption of diapause could significantly impact on winter survival through loss of synchrony in the timing of active feeding and reproductive development with favourable

  11. Increased longevity in HIV: caring for older HIV-infected adults.

    PubMed

    Ball, Susan C

    2014-01-01

    The demographics of the HIV-infected population in the United States have shifted in a way that few would have predicted 30 years ago when the tide of sick and dying patients largely consisted of young men. Effective ART has allowed those infected to live long, productive lives and to grow old with their disease. With the increase in life expectancy afforded by HIV treatment, the cause of death among HIV-infected individuals is far more likely to be from an HIV-associated non-AIDS condition. Nonetheless, HIV seems to accelerate the aging process, and care providers involved in the treatment of older patients with HIV need to be aware that their patients are at increased risk of developing various common disorders, compared to uninfected same-age patients. Clinicians need to remain vigilant to the possibility of a new diagnosis of HIV among their older patients. Awareness of current or distant risk, frank discussions of sexual practices, and willingness to offer routine testing are crucial to making this diagnosis, with the recognition that longevity for patients with HIV is directly linked to how soon they enter care. HIV infection adds another challenge to the management of older patients; geriatricians and HIV specialists need to coordinate their efforts to provide patients with comprehensive multidisciplinary care. Older patients with HIV also have social and psychological needs that extend beyond the medical office. Maintaining independence, acknowledging limitations, reducing risk of adverse events such as falls or medication errors, and supporting self-acceptance and awareness are only a few of the many areas where care providers outside the medical office can be important for patients' ongoing well-being. Accessing family support, community outreach, church affiliation, or other outpatient support networks can be useful for patients. The remarkable change in prognosis brought about by effective ART in the mid-1990s has meant that HIV is now, for many, a

  12. Using an adapted form of the picture exchange communication system to increase independent requesting in deafblind adults with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Bracken, Maeve; Rohrer, Nicole

    2014-02-01

    The current study assessed the effectiveness of an adapted form of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) in increasing independent requesting in deafblind adults with learning disabilities. PECS cards were created to accommodate individual needs, including adaptations such as enlarging photographs and using swelled images which consisted of images created on raised line drawing paper. Training included up to Phase III of PECS and procedures ensuring generalizations across individuals and contexts were included. The effects of the intervention were evaluated using a multiple baseline design across participants. Results demonstrated an increase in independent requesting with each of the participants reaching mastery criterion. These results suggest that PECS, in combination with some minor adaptations, may be an effective communicative alternative for individuals who are deafblind and have learning impairments. PMID:24316491

  13. Novel flavours paired with glutamate condition increased intake in older adults in the absence of changes in liking.

    PubMed

    Dermiki, Maria; Prescott, John; Sargent, Laura J; Willway, Joanne; Gosney, Margot A; Methven, Lisa

    2015-07-01

    Previous research on the repeat exposure to a novel flavour combined with monosodium glutamate (MSG) has shown an increase in liking and consumption for the particular flavour. The aim of the current work was to investigate whether this could also be observed in the case of older people, since they are most affected by undernutrition in the developed world and ways to increase consumption of food are of significant importance for this particular age group. For this study, 40 older adults (age 65-88) repeatedly consumed potato soup with two novel flavours (lemongrass and cumin) which were either with or without a high level of MSG (5% w/w). A randomized single blind within-subject design was implemented, where each participant was exposed to both soup flavours three times over 6 days, with one of the soup flavours containing MSG. After three repeat exposures, consumption increased significantly for the soups where the flavours had contained MSG during the repeated exposure (mean weight consumed increased from 123 to 164 g, p = 0.017), implying that glutamate conditioned for increased wanting and consumption, despite the fact that the liking for the soup had not increased.

  14. Glucocorticoids increase excitotoxic injury and inflammation in the hippocampus of adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Sorrells, Shawn F.; Munhoz, Carolina D.; Manley, Nathan C.; Yen, Sandra; Sapolsky, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Stress exacerbates neuron loss in many CNS injuries via the actions of adrenal glucocorticoid (GC) hormones. For some injuries, this GC-endangerment of neurons is accompanied by greater immune cell activation in the CNS, a surprising outcome given the potent immunosuppressive properties of GCs. Methods To determine whether the effects of GCs on inflammation contribute to neuron death or result from it, we tested whether non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs could protect neurons from GCs during kainic acid excitotoxicity in adrenalectomized male rats. We next measured GC effects on (i) chemokine production (CCL2, CINC-1), (ii) signals that suppress immune activation (CX3CL1, CD22, CD200, and TGF-b), and (iii) NF-kB activity. Results Concurrent treatment with minocycline but not indomethacin prevented GC-endangerment. GCs did not substantially affect CCL2, CINC-1, or baseline NF-kB activity, but they did suppress CX3CL1, CX3CR1, and CD22 expression in the hippocampus, factors that normally restrain inflammatory responses. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that cellular inflammation is not necessarily suppressed by GCs in the injured hippocampus; instead, GCs may worsen hippocampal neuron death, at least in part, by increasing the neurotoxicity of CNS inflammation. PMID:25228100

  15. Improving medication adherence for severely mentally ill adults by decreasing coercion and increasing cooperation.

    PubMed

    Danzer, Graham; Rieger, Sarah M

    2016-01-01

    Severe mental illnesses, mainly schizophrenia and bipolar disorders, often go untreated until the afflicted persons become dangerous to themselves or others. In such states, they must be hospitalized and medicated, often involuntarily due to the stigma and low insight into need for treatment that can be considered characteristic of severe illnesses. Hospitalization and medications can help the mentally ill stabilize. But these options also can have a demoralizing effect on future engagement with providers. Accordingly, the process of involuntary hospitalization and medication treatment must be maximally dignified and respectful of patient autonomy, within the limits of manifest illnesses. Literature that was reviewed and synthesized suggests best practice strategies for helping involuntary mentally ill patients grow into voluntary consumers of medication. In turn, risk of relapse is lowered and quality of life is enhanced. Best practice strategies included decreasing usage of coercive tactics, helping patients cope with medication side effects, and emphasizing the necessity of family involvement. The authors conclude with a review of the limitations of arguing for involuntary hospitalization and treatment as restoring patient autonomy, along with implications for future practice focusing on increasing the medication adherence of severely mentally ill populations. PMID:27028337

  16. Does arm swing emphasized deliberately increase the trunk stability during walking in the elderly adults?

    PubMed

    Nakakubo, Sho; Doi, Takehiko; Sawa, Ryuichi; Misu, Shogo; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Ono, Rei

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether trunk stability while walking changes when arm swing is deliberately altered in elderly individuals. Participants included 21 community-dwelling elderly individuals (7 men and 14 women; age, 81.8 ± 5.0 years). We measured trunk acceleration by using a wireless miniature sensor unit containing a tri-axial linear accelerometer under 3 walking conditions: normal walking (normal condition), deliberately walking without any arm swing (no swing condition), and walking with a deliberately emphasized arm swing (over swing condition). To evaluate trunk stability during walking, we calculated harmonic ratios (HRs) based on trunk tri-axial acceleration signals (anteroposterior: AP, vertical: VT, and mediolateral: ML). HR-AP and HR-VT were not significantly different across the 3 conditions, but HR-ML in the over swing condition was significantly higher than that in the other 2 conditions by generalized estimating equations (GEE) adjusted for walking speed (p<0.05). These findings indicate that trunk stability in the ML direction increased when the elderly individuals walked with a deliberately emphasized arm swing.

  17. Increased Amygdalar and Hippocampal Volumes in Young Adults with Social Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Machado-de-Sousa, João Paulo; Osório, Flávia de Lima; Jackowski, Andrea P.; Bressan, Rodrigo A.; Chagas, Marcos H. N.; Torro-Alves, Nelson; DePaula, André L. D.; Crippa, José A. S.; Hallak, Jaime E. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Functional neuroimaging studies have consistently shown abnormal limbic activation patterns in socially anxious individuals, but structural data on the amygdala and hippocampus of these patients are scarce. This study explored the existence of structural differences in the whole brain, amygdala, and hippocampus of subjects with clinical and subthreshold social anxiety compared to healthy controls. We hypothesized that there would be volumetric differences across groups, without predicting their direction (i.e. enlargement or reduction). Methods Subjects classified as having social anxiety disorder (n = 12), subthreshold social anxiety (n = 12) and healthy controls (n = 14) underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging scans. The amygdala and hippocampus were defined a priori as regions of interest and volumes were calculated by manual tracing. Whole brain volume was calculated using voxel-based morphometry. Results The bilateral amygdala and left hippocampus were enlarged in socially anxious individuals relative to controls. The volume of the right hippocampus was enlarged in subthreshold social anxiety participants relative to controls. No differences were found across groups in respect to total brain volume. Conclusions Our results show amygdalar and hippocampal volume alterations in social anxiety, possibly associated with symptom severity. The time course of such alterations and the cellular and molecular bases of limbic plasticity in social anxiety should be further investigated. PMID:24523911

  18. Prenatal stress increases the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis response in young and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Henry, C; Kabbaj, M; Simon, H; Le Moal, M; Maccari, S

    1994-06-01

    Prenatal stress is considered as an early epigenetic factor able to induce long-lasting alterations in brain structures and functions. It is still unclear whether prenatal stress can induce long-lasting modifications in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. To test this possibility the effects of restraint stress in pregnant rats during the third week of gestation were investigated in the functional properties of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and hippocampal type I and type II corticosteroid receptors in the male offspring at 3, 21 and 90 days of age. Plasma corticosterone was significantly elevated in prenatally-stressed rats at 3 and 21 days after exposure to novelty. At 90 days of age, prenatally-stressed rats showed a longer duration of corticosterone secretion after exposure to novelty. No change was observed for type I and type II receptor densities 3 days after birth, but both receptor subtypes were decreased in the hippocampus of prenatally-stressed offspring at 21 and 90 days of life. These findings suggest that prenatal stress produces long term changes in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in the offspring. PMID:7920600

  19. Oral Cooling and Carbonation Increase the Perception of Drinking and Thirst Quenching in Thirsty Adults

    PubMed Central

    Peyrot des Gachons, Catherine; Avrillier, Julie; Gleason, Michael; Algarra, Laure; Zhang, Siyu; Mura, Emi; Nagai, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Fluid ingestion is necessary for life, and thirst sensations are a prime motivator to drink. There is evidence of the influence of oropharyngeal stimulation on thirst and water intake in both animals and humans, but how those oral sensory cues impact thirst and ultimately the amount of liquid ingested is not well understood. We investigated which sensory trait(s) of a beverage influence the thirst quenching efficacy of ingested liquids and the perceived amount ingested. We deprived healthy individuals of liquid and food overnight (> 12 hours) to make them thirsty. After asking them to drink a fixed volume (400 mL) of an experimental beverage presenting one or two specific sensory traits, we determined the volume ingested of additional plain, ‘still’, room temperature water to assess their residual thirst and, by extension, the thirst-quenching properties of the experimental beverage. In a second study, participants were asked to drink the experimental beverages from an opaque container through a straw and estimate the volume ingested. We found that among several oro-sensory traits, the perceptions of coldness, induced either by cold water (thermally) or by l-menthol (chemically), and the feeling of oral carbonation, strongly enhance the thirst quenching properties of a beverage in water-deprived humans (additional water intake after the 400 ml experimental beverage was reduced by up to 50%). When blinded to the volume of liquid consumed, individual’s estimation of ingested volume is increased (~22%) by perceived oral cold and carbonation, raising the idea that cold and perhaps CO2 induced-irritation sensations are included in how we normally encode water in the mouth and how we estimate the quantity of volume swallowed. These findings have implications for addressing inadequate hydration state in populations such as the elderly. PMID:27685093

  20. Photo-assisted recall increases estimates of energy and macronutrient intake in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Ptomey, Lauren T; Herrmann, Stephen D; Lee, Jaehoon; Sullivan, Debra K; Rondon, Mary F; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2013-12-01

    Diet assessment of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities is challenging because of their limited cognitive abilities. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility and outcomes of combining photos with 24-hour dietary recalls for the assessment of energy and macronutrient intakes in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Participants used an iPad 2 tablet computer (Apple) to take photos of all food and beverages consumed before a standard, multiple-pass, 24-hour dietary recall. After the standard 24-hour diet recall, the photos were reviewed with the participant for clarification details (eg, portion size) and differences were recorded. The standard 24-hour recall and photo-assisted recall were entered separately into the Nutrition Data System for Research for computerized dietary analysis. Sixty-four eating occasions were entered from 23 participants (48% female; mean age 26.4±9.7 years). Participants captured photos for 66.5%±30.4% of all recorded eating occasions. Greater energy intake per eating occasion was reported with the photo-assisted recalls than the standard recalls (625.6±85.7 kcal vs 497.2±86.6 kcal; P=0.002) and a greater intake of grams of fat (P=0.006), protein (P=0.029), and carbohydrates (P=0.003). Photo-assisted 24-hour recalls provided a significant increase in total calories and macronutrient content compared with a standard 24-hour recall and may be a feasible method to enhance dietary assessment in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

  1. Photo-assisted recall increases estimates of energy and macronutrient intake in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Stephen D.; Lee, Jaehoon; Sullivan, Debra K.; Rondon, Mary F.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Diet assessment of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) is challenging due to their limited cognitive abilities. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility and outcomes of combining photos with 24-hour dietary recalls for the assessment of energy and macronutrient intake in adults with IDD. Participants used an iPad 2 tablet computer to take photos of all food and beverages consumed before a standard, multiple-pass, 24-hour dietary recall. Following the standard 24-hour diet recall, the photos were reviewed with the participant for clarification details (e.g., portion size, etc.) and differences were recorded. The standard 24-hour recall and the photo-assisted recall were entered separately into Nutrition Data System for Research for computerized dietary analysis. Sixty-four eating occasions were entered from 23 participants (48% female; mean age 26.4 ±9.7 years). Participants captured photos for 66.5% ± 30.4% of all recorded eating occasions. Greater energy intake per eating occasion was reported with the photo-assisted recalls than the standard recalls (625.6 ± 85.7 kcals vs. 497.2 ± 86.6 kcals, p=0.002) and a greater intake of grams of fat (p=0.006) protein (p=0.029) and carbohydrates (p=0.003). Photo-assisted 24-hour recalls provided a significant increase in total calories and macronutrient content compared to a standard 24-hour recall and may be a feasible method to enhance dietary assessment in adults with IDD. PMID:24095784

  2. Laboratory alcohol self-administration experiments do not increase subsequent real-life drinking in young adult social drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Christian; Seipt, Christian; Spreer, Maik; Blümke, Toni; Markovic, Alexandra; Jünger, Elisabeth; Plawecki, Martin H.; Zimmermann, Ulrich S.

    2015-01-01

    Background While the utility of experimental free-access alcohol self-administration paradigms is well-established, little data exist addressing the question of whether study participation influences subsequent natural alcohol consumption. We here present drinking reports of young adults before and after participation in intravenous alcohol self-administration studies. Methods Timeline Follow-back (TLFB) drinking reports for the 6 weeks immediately preceding the first, and the 6 weeks after the last experimental alcohol challenge were examined from subjects completing one of two similar alcohol self-administration paradigms. In study 1, eighteen social drinkers (9 females, mean age 24.1 years) participated in 3 alcohol self-infusion sessions up to a maximum blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 160 mg%. Study 2 involved 60 participants (30 females, mean age 18.3 years) of the Dresden Longitudinal Study on Alcohol Use in Young Adults (D-LAYA), who participated in 2 sessions of alcohol self-infusion up to a maximum BAC of 120 mg%, and a non-exposed age- matched control group of 42 (28 females, mean age 18.4 years) subjects. Results In study 1, participants reported (3.7%) fewer heavy drinking days as well as a decrease of 2.5 drinks per drinking day after study participation compared to pre-study levels (p<.05 respectively).. In study 2, alcohol-exposed participants reported 7.1% and non- alcohol-exposed controls 6.5% fewer drinking days at post-study measurement (p<.001), while percent heavy drinking days and drinks per drinking day did not differ. Conclusion These data suggest that participation in intravenous alcohol self-administration experiments does not increase subsequent real-life drinking of young adults. PMID:25903217

  3. Photo-assisted recall increases estimates of energy and macronutrient intake in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Ptomey, Lauren T; Herrmann, Stephen D; Lee, Jaehoon; Sullivan, Debra K; Rondon, Mary F; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2013-12-01

    Diet assessment of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities is challenging because of their limited cognitive abilities. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility and outcomes of combining photos with 24-hour dietary recalls for the assessment of energy and macronutrient intakes in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Participants used an iPad 2 tablet computer (Apple) to take photos of all food and beverages consumed before a standard, multiple-pass, 24-hour dietary recall. After the standard 24-hour diet recall, the photos were reviewed with the participant for clarification details (eg, portion size) and differences were recorded. The standard 24-hour recall and photo-assisted recall were entered separately into the Nutrition Data System for Research for computerized dietary analysis. Sixty-four eating occasions were entered from 23 participants (48% female; mean age 26.4±9.7 years). Participants captured photos for 66.5%±30.4% of all recorded eating occasions. Greater energy intake per eating occasion was reported with the photo-assisted recalls than the standard recalls (625.6±85.7 kcal vs 497.2±86.6 kcal; P=0.002) and a greater intake of grams of fat (P=0.006), protein (P=0.029), and carbohydrates (P=0.003). Photo-assisted 24-hour recalls provided a significant increase in total calories and macronutrient content compared with a standard 24-hour recall and may be a feasible method to enhance dietary assessment in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. PMID:24095784

  4. Increased objectively assessed vigorous-intensity exercise is associated with reduced stress, increased mental health and good objective and subjective sleep in young adults.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Herrmann, Christian; Colledge, Flora; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe

    2014-08-01

    The role of physical activity as a factor that protects against stress-related mental disorders is well documented. Nevertheless, there is still a dearth of research using objective measures of physical activity. The present study examines whether objectively assessed vigorous physical activity (VPA) is associated with mental health benefits beyond moderate physical activity (MPA). Particularly, this study examines whether young adults who accomplish the American College of Sports Medicine's (ACSM) vigorous-intensity exercise recommendations differ from peers below these standards with regard to their level of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, perceived pain, and subjective and objective sleep. A total of 42 undergraduate students (22 women, 20 men; M=21.24years, SD=2.20) volunteered to take part in the study. Stress, pain, depressive symptoms, and subjective sleep were assessed via questionnaire, objective sleep via sleep-EEG assessment, and VPA via actigraphy. Meeting VPA recommendations had mental health benefits beyond MPA. VPA was associated with less stress, pain, subjective sleep complaints and depressive symptoms. Moreover, vigorous exercisers had more favorable objective sleep pattern. Especially, they had increased total sleep time, more stage 4 and REM sleep, more slow wave sleep and a lower percentage of light sleep. Vigorous exercisers also reported fewer mental health problems if exposed to high stress. This study provides evidence that meeting the VPA standards of the ACSM is associated with improved mental health and more successful coping among young people, even compared to those who are meeting or exceeding the requirements for MPA.

  5. Increased objectively assessed vigorous-intensity exercise is associated with reduced stress, increased mental health and good objective and subjective sleep in young adults.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Herrmann, Christian; Colledge, Flora; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe

    2014-08-01

    The role of physical activity as a factor that protects against stress-related mental disorders is well documented. Nevertheless, there is still a dearth of research using objective measures of physical activity. The present study examines whether objectively assessed vigorous physical activity (VPA) is associated with mental health benefits beyond moderate physical activity (MPA). Particularly, this study examines whether young adults who accomplish the American College of Sports Medicine's (ACSM) vigorous-intensity exercise recommendations differ from peers below these standards with regard to their level of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, perceived pain, and subjective and objective sleep. A total of 42 undergraduate students (22 women, 20 men; M=21.24years, SD=2.20) volunteered to take part in the study. Stress, pain, depressive symptoms, and subjective sleep were assessed via questionnaire, objective sleep via sleep-EEG assessment, and VPA via actigraphy. Meeting VPA recommendations had mental health benefits beyond MPA. VPA was associated with less stress, pain, subjective sleep complaints and depressive symptoms. Moreover, vigorous exercisers had more favorable objective sleep pattern. Especially, they had increased total sleep time, more stage 4 and REM sleep, more slow wave sleep and a lower percentage of light sleep. Vigorous exercisers also reported fewer mental health problems if exposed to high stress. This study provides evidence that meeting the VPA standards of the ACSM is associated with improved mental health and more successful coping among young people, even compared to those who are meeting or exceeding the requirements for MPA. PMID:24905432

  6. "Glass fairies" and "bone children": adolescents and young adults with anorexia nervosa show positive reactions towards extremely emaciated body pictures measured by the startle reflex paradigm.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Valeska A; Schneider, Nora; Grünewald, Barbara; Kienast, Thorsten; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Korte, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the emotional processing of extremely emaciated body cues in adolescents and young adults with (n  =  36) and without (n =  36) anorexia nervosa (AN), introducing a new picture type, which was taken from websites that promote extreme thinness and is targeted specifically at adolescents interested in extreme thinness. A startle reflex paradigm was used for implicit reactions, while a self-assessment instrument was used for subjective responses. We found a significant group difference with a startle inhibition (appetitive response) among the patients and a startle potentiation (aversive response) among the controls, whereas no such difference for subjective measures was found. The results are in contrast to previous studies, which proposed a general failure to activate the appetitive motivational system in AN, but in keeping with findings from other addictions, where the same response pattern has been found. Implications for prevention and therapy are discussed.

  7. Evaluation of various substances to increase adult Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) collections on alsynite cylinder traps in north Florida.

    PubMed

    Cilek, J E

    1999-09-01

    During 1993-1995, field studies evaluated various volatile substances to increase the catch of adult stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans L., on adhesive-coated translucent fiberglass (Alsynite) cylinder traps. Dry ice, 1-octen-3-ol (referred to as octenol), acetone, 4:1:8 mixture of 1 octen-3-ol: 3-n-propylphenol: 4-methylphenol, and an eye gnat (Hippelates) attractant were tested. Using dry ice as a baseline, the latter 4 treatments also were considered as possible alternatives to carbon dioxide. Dry ice significantly increased fly collections on cylinders as much as 25-fold compared with cylinders with no odor. Although trap collections increased by approximately 4% with addition of octenol (release rate approximately 18.0 mg/h), it was not significantly different when compared with dry ice alone. Fly collections on cylinders baited with octenol only were significantly lower than dry ice and not significantly different from cylinders with no odor. Collections from Alsynite cylinders baited with either acetone released at approximately 62.0 mg/h or eye gnat bait plus sand caught significantly more stable flies than no odor. However, neither substance increased fly collections as much as dry ice. The 4:1:8 phenolic mixture (released at either 0.7 mg/h or 20.0 mg/h) significantly increased fly collection on cylinders nearly 6-fold compared with no odor and warrants further investigation as an alternative to carbon dioxide for sampling stable flies.

  8. Empowering Sedentary Adults to Reduce Sedentary Behavior and Increase Physical Activity Levels and Energy Expenditure: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Barwais, Faisal A.; Cuddihy, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 4-week intervention in which an online personal activity monitor (Gruve-Technologies™) was used to reduce sedentary behavior among sedentary adults. Method: Eighteen, sedentary adult volunteers (12 men, six women, mean age 29 ± 4.0 years) were recruited to participate in the study. Time spent in sedentary activities and light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity and energy expenditure were assessed during waking hours using the monitor and the 7-day SLIPA Log at both baseline and post-intervention. Results: A significant decrease of 33% (3.1 h/day; p < 0.001) was found between the time spent in sedentary activities measured at baseline (9.4 ± 1.1 h/day) and at the end of the 4-week intervention (6.3 ± 0.8 h/day). Consequent to the changes in sedentary time, significant increases were found in the amount of time spent in light- (45% (2.6 h/day), p < 0.001), moderate- (33% (1 h/day) p < 0.001), vigorous-intensity physical activity (39% (0.16 h/day), p < 0.001), and energy expenditure (47% (216.7 kcal/day), p < 0.001). Conclusion: This monitor contributes to a meaningful reduction in time spent in sedentary activities and has a large effect on energy expenditure and physical activity patterns. PMID:25568971

  9. Prolonged exposure to a low-dose of bisphenol A increases spontaneous motor activity in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Nojima, Kazuo; Takata, Tomoyo; Masuno, Hiroshi

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the effects of bisphenol A (BPA), an environmental endocrine-disrupting chemical, on spontaneous motor activity in adult male rats. The rats were implanted intraperitoneally with mini-osmotic pumps containing either BPA (50 μg/kg body weight per day) in sesame oil (BPA-treated group) or sesame oil only (vehicle-treated group). Spontaneous motor activity during a 24-h period was measured over 5 days from day 9 to day 13 after implantation using an animal movement analysis system. Spontaneous motor activity during the last 2 h of the dark phase and during the first 1-h of the light phase was increased in the BPA-treated group. Total spontaneous motor activity during the 12-h light phase, but not the 12-h dark phase, was higher in the BPA-treated group than in the vehicle-treated group. These findings suggest that BPA may induce hyperactivity in adult male rats during the 12-h light phase, especially during the 2 h immediately preceding sleep-onset and 1 h immediately following sleep-onset.

  10. Outcomes of a Behavioral Intervention to Increase Condom Use and Reduce HIV Risk Among Urban African American Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Henry Akintobi, Tabia; Trotter, Jennie; Zellner, Tiffany; Lenoir, Shelia; Evans, Donoria; Rollins, Latrice; Miller, Assia

    2016-09-01

    African Americans comprise nearly half of people in the United States living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) but compose one tenth of the population. Infection rate among young African American adults is 11 times that of Whites. The Color It Real Program was a seven-session, weekly administered, age-specific, and culturally tailored intervention designed to provide HIV education and address behavioral motivations (risk awareness, decisional balance exercises, partner negotiation, and attitudes) associated with HIV risk among African Americans ages 18 to 24 years in Atlanta, Georgia. Effectiveness was assessed through a quasi-experimental study design that consisted of intervention (n = 88) and control (n = 52) groups completing a 45-item survey. When controlling for gender and education, repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that the intervention group had significant increases in HIV transmission knowledge (F = 4.84, p = .0305), condom use, and intentions to use condoms (F = 4.38, p = .0385). Risky sexual behavior means did not significantly differ between groups (F = 1.44, p = .2331). Results indicate the value of culturally tailored educational strategies toward improved HIV knowledge and adoption of risk reduction strategies. Future studies investigating the differential impact of programs by gender and sexual orientation are also critical. Continued innovation and tailoring of risk reduction strategies for minority young adults will contribute to reducing HIV incidence and prevalence over the life course. PMID:27216874

  11. Engaging with Adults: The Case for Increased Support to Adult Basic Education in Sub-Saharan Africa. Africa Region Human Development Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauglo, Jon

    The impacts and cost-effectiveness of adult basic education (ABE) in Sub-Saharan Africa were examined in a review of the new generation of ABE programs in the region. African experts and other international resource persons examined documentation from recent adult literacy, numeracy, and other educational programs targeted toward individuals over…

  12. Recent trends of cancer mortality in Romanian adults: mortality is still increasing, although young adults do better than the middle-aged and elderly population.

    PubMed

    Tereanu, Carmen; Baili, Paolo; Berrino, Franco; Micheli, Andrea; Furtunescu, Florentina L; Minca, Dana G; Sant, Milena

    2013-05-01

    We analysed the mortality trends (1986-2009) for all cancers combined and selected cancers in adult Romanians by three age groups (15-49, 50-69 and older than 70 years of age) in comparison with 11 other European countries. We extracted mortality data from the WHO database and grouped the countries into four regions: central and eastern Europe (Romania, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary), Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania), western and northern Europe (Austria, the Netherlands and Finland), and southern Europe (Croatia and Slovenia). Mortality rates were age-standardized against the standard European population. Significant changes in mortality trends were identified by Joinpoint regression and annual percentage changes (APCs) were calculated for periods with uniform trends. Cancer mortality in Romania was among the lowest in Europe in 1986, but was higher than most countries by 2009. Despite the declining mortality (APC) in younger Romanians for all cancers combined (men-1.5% from 1997, women-1.2% 1997-2004 and -3.8% 2004-2009), male lung cancer (-2.8% from 1997), female breast (-3.5% from 1999) and cervical (-5.4% from 2004) cancers, mortality has increased in middle-aged and elderly patients for most cancers analysed. The exception was declining stomach cancer mortality in most Romanians, except elderly men. For most cancers analysed, mortality declined in the Baltic countries in young and middle-aged patients, and in western and northern countries for all ages. Lung cancer mortality in women increased in all countries except Latvia. We urge immediate steps to reverse the alarming increase in cancer mortality among middle-aged and elderly Romanians.

  13. Hepatocellular adenoma showing high uptake of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) via an increased expression of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT-2).

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Takaaki; Takayama, Yukihisa; Nishie, Akihiro; Asayama, Yoshiki; Baba, Shingo; Yamashita, Youichi; Shirabe, Ken; Kubo, Yuichiro; Hida, Tomoyuki; Honda, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) is a benign liver neoplasm composed of hepatocytes. We experienced HCA demonstrating a high uptake of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) on positron emission tomography-computed tomography, mimicking a malignant tumor. The mechanism underlying the uptake of FDG has not been identified. Here, we discuss that an enhancement of glucose metabolism via an increased expression of glucose transporter 2 may have a role in the high uptake of FDG shown by HCAs.

  14. Analysis of syncytial nuclear aggregates in preeclampsia shows increased sectioning artefacts and decreased inter-villous bridges compared to healthy placentas.

    PubMed

    Calvert, S J; Jones, C J P; Sibley, C P; Aplin, J D; Heazell, A E P

    2013-12-01

    Syncytial nuclear aggregates (SNAs) are increased in pregnancy complications and include 'true' syncytial knots and inter-villous bridges. Apparent nuclear overlay caused by sectioning artefacts are frequently counted from single sections. Haematoxylin and eosin stained serial sections were assessed for frequency of SNA subtypes in placentas from normal, preeclamptic and fetal growth restricted (FGR) pregnancies. There were more sectioning artefacts and syncytial knots and fewer bridges in samples from preeclampsia compared to controls. There were no significant differences between FGR and control samples. This suggests the villous tree in preeclampsia has less inherent structural support and trophoblast cell dynamics are different.

  15. Children and adults exposed to electromagnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: theoretical assessment of the induced peak temperature increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, J. F.; Paulides, M. M.; Neufeld, E.; Christ, A.; Kuster, N.; van Rhoon, G. C.

    2011-08-01

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels. Restrictions on induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SARwb) are provided to keep the whole-body temperature increase (Tbody, incr) under 1 °C during 30 min. Additional restrictions on the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR10g) are provided to prevent excessive localized tissue heating. The objective of this study is to assess the localized peak temperature increase (Tincr, max) in children upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite-difference time-domain modeling was used to calculate Tincr, max in six children and two adults exposed to orthogonal plane-wave configurations. We performed a sensitivity study and Monte Carlo analysis to assess the uncertainty of the results. Considering the uncertainties in the model parameters, we found that a peak temperature increase as high as 1 °C can occur for worst-case scenarios at the ICNIRP reference levels. Since the guidelines are deduced from temperature increase, we used Tincr, max as being a better metric to prevent excessive localized tissue heating instead of localized peak SAR. However, we note that the exposure time should also be considered in future guidelines. Hence, we advise defining limits on Tincr, max for specified durations of exposure.

  16. Children and adults exposed to electromagnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: theoretical assessment of the induced peak temperature increase.

    PubMed

    Bakker, J F; Paulides, M M; Neufeld, E; Christ, A; Kuster, N; van Rhoon, G C

    2011-08-01

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels. Restrictions on induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR(wb)) are provided to keep the whole-body temperature increase (T(body, incr)) under 1 °C during 30 min. Additional restrictions on the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR(10g)) are provided to prevent excessive localized tissue heating. The objective of this study is to assess the localized peak temperature increase (T(incr, max)) in children upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite-difference time-domain modeling was used to calculate T(incr, max) in six children and two adults exposed to orthogonal plane-wave configurations. We performed a sensitivity study and Monte Carlo analysis to assess the uncertainty of the results. Considering the uncertainties in the model parameters, we found that a peak temperature increase as high as 1 °C can occur for worst-case scenarios at the ICNIRP reference levels. Since the guidelines are deduced from temperature increase, we used T(incr, max) as being a better metric to prevent excessive localized tissue heating instead of localized peak SAR. However, we note that the exposure time should also be considered in future guidelines. Hence, we advise defining limits on T(incr, max) for specified durations of exposure.

  17. Neutrophils from pulmonary tuberculosis patients show augmented levels of chemokines MIP-1α, IL-8 and MCP-1 which further increase upon in vitro infection with mycobacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Hilda, J Nancy; Narasimhan, Meenakshi; Das, Sulochana D

    2014-08-01

    Neutrophils being innate cells initiate the immune defence against mycobacteria by sending signals to other immune cells. Chemokines being the vital link in signaling processes, it is of interest to study their secretion by neutrophils as a response to tuberculosis infection. The levels of various chemokines (MIP-1α, MCP-1, IL-8 and IP-10) and chemokine receptors (CXCR1, CXCR2 and CCR1) in neutrophils from healthy individuals and pulmonary tuberculosis patients were studied following infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains (clinical--S7 and S10 and laboratory--H37Rv). The release of MIP-1α, IL-8 and MCP-1 is found to be greatly increased in patient neutrophils. Mycobacterial strains differentially influenced neutrophils affecting the release of chemokines to different extent. H37Rv significantly increased the release of MIP-1α and IL-8 in both normals and tuberculosis patients, while S10 up regulated only the release of MIP-1α in patients. Thus, during tuberculosis, neutrophils undergo functional alteration to combat infection. While H37Rv is greatly recognized by neutrophils and triggers the release of chemokines, clinical strains by some means try to suppress immune activation of neutrophils in their favor.

  18. Nod factor-treated Medicago truncatula roots and seeds show an increased number of nodules when inoculated with a limiting population of Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed

    Macchiavelli, Raúl E; Brelles-Mariño, Graciela

    2004-12-01

    Medicago truncatula is a model legume plant that interacts symbiotically with Sinorhizobium meliloti, the alfalfa symbiont. This process involves a molecular dialogue between the bacterium and the plant. Legume roots exude flavonoids that induce the expression of a set of rhizobial genes, the nod genes, which are essential for nodulation and determination of the host range. In turn, nod genes control the synthesis of lipo-chito-oligosaccharides (LCOs), Nod factors, which are bacteria-to-plant signal molecules mediating recognition and nodule organogenesis. M. truncatula roots or seeds have been treated with Nod factors and hydroponically growing seedlings have been inoculated with a limiting population of S. meliloti. It has been shown that submicromolar concentrations of Nod factors increase the number of nodules per plant on M. truncatula. Compared with roots, this increase is more noticeable when seeds are treated. M. truncatula seeds are receptive to submicromolar concentrations of Nod factors, suggesting the possibility of a high affinity LCO perception system in seeds or embryos as well. PMID:15361530

  19. Impact of Increasing Dietary Calcium Levels on Calcium Excretion and Vitamin D Metabolites in the Blood of Healthy Adult Cats

    PubMed Central

    Paßlack, Nadine; Schmiedchen, Bettina; Raila, Jens; Schweigert, Florian J.; Stumpff, Friederike; Kohn, Barbara; Neumann, Konrad; Zentek, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Background Dietary calcium (Ca) concentrations might affect regulatory pathways within the Ca and vitamin D metabolism and consequently excretory mechanisms. Considering large variations in Ca concentrations of feline diets, the physiological impact on Ca homeostasis has not been evaluated to date. In the present study, diets with increasing concentrations of dicalcium phosphate were offered to ten healthy adult cats (Ca/phosphorus (P): 6.23/6.02, 7.77/7.56, 15.0/12.7, 19.0/17.3, 22.2/19.9, 24.3/21.6 g/kg dry matter). Each feeding period was divided into a 10-day adaptation and an 8-day sampling period in order to collect urine and faeces. On the last day of each feeding period, blood samples were taken. Results Urinary Ca concentrations remained unaffected, but faecal Ca concentrations increased (P < 0.001) with increasing dietary Ca levels. No effect on whole and intact parathyroid hormone levels, fibroblast growth factor 23 and calcitriol concentrations in the blood of the cats were observed. However, the calcitriol precursors 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3, which are considered the most useful indicators for the vitamin D status, decreased with higher dietary Ca levels (P = 0.013 and P = 0.033). Increasing dietary levels of dicalcium phosphate revealed an acidifying effect on urinary fasting pH (6.02) and postprandial pH (6.01) (P < 0.001), possibly mediated by an increase of urinary phosphorus (P) concentrations (P < 0.001). Conclusions In conclusion, calcitriol precursors were linearly affected by increasing dietary Ca concentrations. The increase in faecal Ca excretion indicates that Ca homeostasis of cats is mainly regulated in the intestine and not by the kidneys. Long-term studies should investigate the physiological relevance of the acidifying effect observed when feeding diets high in Ca and P. PMID:26870965

  20. In Utero and Lactational Exposure to PCBs in Mice: Adult Offspring Show Altered Learning and Memory Depending on Cyp1a2 and Ahr Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Christine P.; Genter, Mary Beth; Patel, Krishna V.; Schaefer, Tori L.; Skelton, Matthew R.; Williams, Michael T.; Vorhees, Charles V.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Both coplanar and noncoplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exhibit neurotoxic effects in animal studies, but individual congeners do not always produce the same effects as PCB mixtures. Humans genetically have > 60-fold differences in hepatic cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2)-uninduced basal levels and > 12-fold variability in aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)affinity; because CYP1A2 is known to sequester coplanar PCBs and because AHR ligands include coplanar PCBs, both genotypes can affect PCB response. Objectives: We aimed to develop a mouse paradigm with extremes in Cyp1a2 and Ahr genotypes to explore genetic susceptibility to PCB-induced developmental neurotoxicity using an environmentally relevant mixture of PCBs. Methods: We developed a mixture of eight PCBs to simulate human exposures based on their reported concentrations in human tissue, breast milk, and food supply. We previously characterized specific differences in PCB congener pharmacokinetics and toxicity, comparing high-affinity–AHR Cyp1a2 wild-type [Ahrb1_Cyp1a2(+/+)], poor-affinity–AHR Cyp1a2 wild-type [Ahrd_Cyp1a2(+/+)], and high-affinity–AHR Cyp1a2 knockout [Ahrb1_Cyp1a2(–/–)] mouse lines [Curran CP, Vorhees CV, Williams MT, Genter MB, Miller ML, Nebert DW. 2011. In utero and lactational exposure to a complex mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls: toxicity in pups dependent on the Cyp1a2 and Ahr genotypes. Toxicol Sci 119:189–208]. Dams received a mixture of three coplanar and five noncoplanar PCBs on gestational day 10.5 and postnatal day (PND) 5. In the present study we conducted behavioral phenotyping of exposed offspring at PND60, examining multiple measures of learning, memory, and other behaviors. Results: We observed the most significant deficits in response to PCB treatment in Ahrb1_Cyp1a2(–/–) mice, including impaired novel object recognition and increased failure rate in the Morris water maze. However, all PCB-treated genotypes showed significant differences on

  1. The characterization of the first anti-mouse Muc6 antibody shows an increased expression of the mucin in pancreatic tissue of Cftr-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Gouyer, Valérie; Leir, Shih-Hsing; Tetaert, Daniel; Liu, Yamin; Gottrand, Frédéric; Harris, Ann; Desseyn, Jean-Luc

    2010-05-01

    Gel-forming mucins are large high-molecular weight secreted O-glycoproteins responsible for the gel-properties of the mucus blanket. Five orthologous gel-forming mucins have been cloned in human and mouse. Among them, the mucin MUC6 has been less studied, particularly in rodents and no anti rodent-Muc6 antibody has been reported yet. In order to further study Muc6 in mice, our aims were to obtain a specific Muc6 antibody, to validate it and to test it in Cftr deficient mice. A polyclonal serum named CP4 was isolated from a rabbit immunized by a mouse Muc6 peptide. In Western blot experiments, the antibody detected a high-molecular weight molecule secreted by the gastric tissue. Using immunohistochemistry, we showed that the antibody reacted strongly with deep glands of duodenum and ileum and mucous neck cells of gastric body. CP4 also recognized Muc6 protein secreted at the surface of the stomach and renal collecting tubules. The centroacinar cells of pancreatic tissue also reacted with the antibody. Cftr-/- mice showed a higher expression of Muc6 at both protein and RNA levels compared with their control Cftr+/+ littermates suggesting that as in the human disease, Muc6 may contribute to the formation of materials that block pancreatic acini and ducts in mouse models of cystic fibrosis. The rabbit anti-mouse Muc6 polyclonal antibody seems highly specific to the mouse mucin and will be useful to study pancreatic pathology in cystic fibrosis.

  2. Impaired Renal Function Further Increases Odds of 6-Year Coronary Artery Calcification Progression in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Maahs, David M.; Jalal, Diana; Chonchol, Michel; Johnson, Richard J.; Rewers, Marian; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) independently predict coronary artery calcification (CAC) progression, and to determine how eGFR changes over 6 years in adults with type 1 diabetes compared with nondiabetic adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes study participants (n = 1,066) with complete data for eGFR assessment at baseline and 6 years were included. Three Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equations (serum creatinine, cystatin C, and both) were used to estimate eGFR. The association of baseline ACR and eGFR with CAC progression was analyzed using multiple logistic regression. RESULTS Increasing categorical baseline ACR (<10, 10–30, and >30 µg/mg) predicted CAC progression in participants with type 1 diabetes (odds ratio [OR], 2.15; 95% CI, 1.50–3.09; 7.19 [3.90–13.26]; and 18.09 [8.48–38.62]), respectively, compared with nondiabetic subjects. Baseline eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 also predicted CAC progression (OR, 5–7, compared with nondiabetic participants). ORs for CAC progression were higher in women than in men when using the cystatin C–based Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equations. Participants with type 1 diabetes had greater eGFR decreases over 6 years than nondiabetic participants using cystatin C–based equations. CONCLUSIONS Although increasing ACR or decreasing eGFR predicts CAC progression, coronary atherosclerosis progresses faster in people with type 1 diabetes even in the absence of diabetic kidney disease. These findings emphasize the interaction between kidney disease and cardiovascular disease in type 1 diabetes and highlight the public health importance of lowering cardiorenal risk in people with type 1 diabetes. PMID:23835686

  3. A systematic review of interventions aimed at increasing physical activity in adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain—protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic musculoskeletal pain is highly prevalent, affecting around one in five people across Europe. Osteoarthritis, low back pain, neck pain and other musculoskeletal disorders are leading causes of disability worldwide and the most common source of chronic pain. Exercise and/or physical activity interventions have the potential to address not only the pain and disability associated with chronic pain but also the increased risk of morbidity and mortality seen in this population. Although exercise and/or physical activity is widely recommended, there is currently a paucity of research that offers an evidence base upon which the development or optimisation of interventions can be based. This systematic review will investigate the components of interventions associated with changes in physical activity levels in adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Methods/Design This systematic review will be reported in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidance. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of interventions aimed at increasing physical activity in adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain will be included. Articles will be identified through a comprehensive search of the following databases: CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO and AMED. Two review authors will independently screen articles retrieved from the search for eligibility, extract relevant data on methodological issues and code interventions according to the behaviour change technique taxonomy (v1) of 93 hierarchically clustered techniques. As complex healthcare interventions can be modified by a wide variety of factors, data will be summarised statistically when the data are available, are sufficiently similar and are of sufficient quality. A narrative synthesis will be completed if there is insufficient data to permit a formal meta

  4. Urinary excretion of 5-L-oxoproline (pyroglutamic acid) is increased in normal adults consuming vegetarian or low protein diets.

    PubMed

    Jackson, A A; Persaud, C; Meakins, T S; Bundy, R

    1996-11-01

    A method for measuring 5-L-oxoproline in urine, which involves isolation by short-column chromatography, acid hydrolysis to glutamic acid and enzymic assay of glutamic acid, was used to measure the rate of excretion in normal adults, aged 20 to 45 y. There was no difference in the daily excretion between omnivorous males (217 micromol/d) and females (195 micromol/d). In vegetarian males, urinary 5-L-oxoproline (404 micromol/d) was significantly greater than in vegetarian females (267 micromol/d, P = 0.013). Compared with omnivorous males or females, excretion of 5-L-oxoproline was significantly greater in vegetarian males (P < 0.0001) and females (P= 0.005). When normal adults consumed a diet in which the protein content was controlled at either 4.0 or 6.2 g N/d for 5 d, there was a significant increase in urinary 5-L-oxoproline on d 5, compared with either d 1 or 4. There was a significant inverse linear relationship between the increased urinary 5-L-oxoproline on the fifth dietary day and the nitrogen content of the diet. On the basis of this relationship, when the urinary excretion of 5-L-oxoproline (320 micromol/d) for vegetarians was predicted from an estimate of their dietary intake of nitrogen, the estimate was, on average, close to the measured value (345 micromol/d). As a matter of course, vegetarians excrete more 5-L-oxoproline in urine than do omnivores, and we speculated that this difference might be accounted for by differences in dietary nitrogen and the endogenous capacity for de novo synthesis of glycine.

  5. Retinoic acid induced differentiated neuroblastoma cells show increased expression of the beta A4 amyloid gene of Alzheimer's disease and an altered splicing pattern.

    PubMed

    König, G; Masters, C L; Beyreuther, K

    1990-09-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) induced differentiation of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells is associated with more than a tenfold induction of total Alzheimer's disease beta A4 amyloid protein precursor (APP) mRNA as analyzed by Northern blot hybridisation. S1 nuclease protection experiments reveal that the splicing pattern of these differentiated cells is altered in favor of APP695 mRNA, coding for the shortest amyloidogenic beta A4 amyloid precursor protein. Induction of differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells with NGF leads to a fivefold increase of total APP mRNA without change in the splicing pattern. This suggests that RA but not NGF induces factor(s) which are responsible for an APP hnRNA splicing favoring APP695 mRNA.

  6. Rothmund-Thomson syndrome: two case reports show heterogeneous cutaneous abnormalities, an association with genetically programmed ageing changes, and increased chromosomal radiosensitivity.

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, B; Ashcroft, G S; Scott, D; Horan, M A; Ferguson, M W; Donnai, D

    1996-01-01

    Rothmund-Thomson syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder associated with characteristic cutaneous changes, sparse hair, juvenile cataracts, short stature, skeletal defects, dystrophic teeth and nails, and hypogonadism. Mental retardation is unusual. An increased incidence of certain malignancies has been reported. Clonal or mosaic chromosome abnormalities and abnormalities in DNA repair mechanisms have been reported in some cases. We report two cases of Rothmund-Thomson syndrome, both with intellectual handicap, associated in one with a previously undescribed histological appearance of involved skin, suggesting that the spectrum of abnormalities is even more heterogeneous than previously presumed. Both cases exhibited chromosomal radiosensitivity of lymphocytes which may be an indication of a DNA repair defect. This is the first report of an association between Rothmund-Thomson syndrome and unique, intrinsic, age related skin changes. Images PMID:8950673

  7. Rapid and Slow Progressors Show Increased IL-6 and IL-10 Levels in the Pre-AIDS Stage of HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    de Medeiros, Rúbia M.; Valverde-Villegas, Jacqueline M.; Junqueira, Dennis M.; Gräf, Tiago; Lindenau, Juliana D.; de Mello, Marineide G.; Vianna, Priscila; Almeida, Sabrina E. M.; Chies, Jose Artur B.

    2016-01-01

    Cytokines are intrinsically related to disease progression in HIV infection. We evaluated the plasma levels of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines in extreme progressors, including slow (SPs) and rapid (RPs) progressors, who were thus classified based on clinical and laboratory follow-up covering a period of time before the initiation of HAART, ranging from 93–136.5 months for SPs and 7.5–16.5 months for RPs. Analyses were also performed based on the different stages of HIV infection (chronic, pre-HAART individuals—subjects sampled before initiating HAART but who initiated therapy from 12 to 24 months—and those receiving HAART). The plasma cytokine levels of 16 HIV-infected rapid progressors and 25 slow progressors were measured using a Human Th1/Th2/Th17 CBA kit. The IL-6 and IL-10 plasma levels differed significantly between the stages of HIV infection. The IL-6 levels were higher in slow progressors pre-HAART than in chronically infected SPs and HIV-seronegative individuals. The IL-10 levels were higher in slow progressors pre-HAART than in slow progressors receiving HAART and HIV-seronegative controls, and in rapid progressors, the IL-10 levels were higher in pre-HAART subjects than in HIV-seronegative controls. The results reflect the changes in the cytokine profile occurring during different clinical stages in HIV+ subjects. Our results suggest an association between increased IL-6 and IL-10 levels and pre-HAART stages independent of the slow or rapid progression status of the subjects. Thus, increased IL-6 and IL-10 levels could indicate a global inflammatory status and could be used as markers of the disease course in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:27214135

  8. Adolescent exposure to cocaine increases anxiety-like behavior and induces morphologic and neurochemical changes in the hippocampus of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W; Mao, Z; Zhu, C; Li, M; Cao, C; Guan, Y; Yuan, J; Xie, G; Guan, X

    2016-01-28

    Repeated exposure to cocaine during adolescence may affect both physical and psychological conditions in the brain, and increase the risk of psychiatric disorders and addiction behaviors in adulthood. Adolescence represents a critical development period for the hippocampus. Moreover, different regions of the hippocampus are involved in different functions. Dorsal hippocampus (dHP) has been implicated in learning and memory, whereas ventral hippocampus (vHP) plays an important role in emotional processing. In this study, the rats that were exposed to cocaine during adolescence (postnatal days, P28-P42) showed higher anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze test in adulthood (P80), but displayed normal spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze test. Furthermore, repeated exposure to cocaine during adolescence lead to alterations in morphology of pyramidal neurons, activities of astrocytes, and levels of proteins that involved in synaptic transmission, apoptosis, inflammation and addiction in both dHP and vHP of adult rats. These findings suggest that repeated exposure to cocaine during adolescence in rats may elicit morphologic and neurochemical changes in the hippocampus when the animals reach adulthood. These changes may contribute to the increased susceptibility for psychiatric disorders and addiction seen in adults. PMID:26621120

  9. Adolescent exposure to cocaine increases anxiety-like behavior and induces morphologic and neurochemical changes in the hippocampus of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W; Mao, Z; Zhu, C; Li, M; Cao, C; Guan, Y; Yuan, J; Xie, G; Guan, X

    2016-01-28

    Repeated exposure to cocaine during adolescence may affect both physical and psychological conditions in the brain, and increase the risk of psychiatric disorders and addiction behaviors in adulthood. Adolescence represents a critical development period for the hippocampus. Moreover, different regions of the hippocampus are involved in different functions. Dorsal hippocampus (dHP) has been implicated in learning and memory, whereas ventral hippocampus (vHP) plays an important role in emotional processing. In this study, the rats that were exposed to cocaine during adolescence (postnatal days, P28-P42) showed higher anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze test in adulthood (P80), but displayed normal spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze test. Furthermore, repeated exposure to cocaine during adolescence lead to alterations in morphology of pyramidal neurons, activities of astrocytes, and levels of proteins that involved in synaptic transmission, apoptosis, inflammation and addiction in both dHP and vHP of adult rats. These findings suggest that repeated exposure to cocaine during adolescence in rats may elicit morphologic and neurochemical changes in the hippocampus when the animals reach adulthood. These changes may contribute to the increased susceptibility for psychiatric disorders and addiction seen in adults.

  10. Voluntary exercise followed by chronic stress strikingly increases mature adult-born hippocampal neurons and prevents stress-induced deficits in 'what-when-where' memory.

    PubMed

    Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Rosell-Valle, Cristina; Pedraza, Carmen; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo; Santín, Luis J

    2014-03-01

    We investigated whether voluntary exercise prevents the deleterious effects of chronic stress on episodic-like memory and adult hippocampal neurogenesis. After bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) administration, mice were assigned to receive standard housing, chronic intermittent restraint stress, voluntary exercise or a combination of both (stress starting on the seventh day of exercise). Twenty-four days later, mice were tested in a 'what-when-where' object recognition memory task. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis (proliferation, differentiation, survival and apoptosis) and c-Fos expression in the hippocampus and extra-hippocampal areas (medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, accumbens and perirhinal cortex) were assessed after behavior. Chronic intermittent restraint stress impaired neurogenesis and the 'when' memory, while exercise promoted neurogenesis and improved the 'where' memory. The 'when' and 'where' memories correlated with c-Fos expression in CA1 and the dentate gyrus, respectively. Furthermore, analysis suggested that each treatment induced a distinct pattern of functional connectivity among the areas analyzed for c-Fos. In the animals in which stress and exercise were combined, stress notably reduced the amount of voluntary exercise performed. Nevertheless, exercise still improved memory and counteracted the stress induced-deficits in neurogenesis and behavior. Interestingly, compared with the other three treatments, the stressed exercising animals showed a larger increase in cell survival, the maturation of new neurons and apoptosis in the dentate gyrus, with a considerable increase in the number of 24-day-old BrdU+cells that differentiated into mature neurons. The interaction between exercise and stress in enhancing the number of adult-born hippocampal neurons supports a role of exercise-induced neurogenesis in stressful conditions. PMID:24333647

  11. Increased cardiovascular reactivity to acute stress and salt-loading in adult male offspring of fat fed non-obese rats.

    PubMed

    Rudyk, Olena; Makra, Péter; Jansen, Eugene; Shattock, Michael J; Poston, Lucilla; Taylor, Paul D

    2011-01-01

    Diet-induced obesity in rat pregnancy has been shown previously to be associated with consistently raised blood pressure in the offspring, attributed to sympathetic over-activation, but the relative contributions to this phenotype of maternal obesity versus raised dietary fat is unknown. Sprague-Dawley female rats were fed either a control (4.3% fat, n = 11) or lard-enriched (23.6% fat, n = 16) chow 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and lactation. In conscious adult (9-month-old) offspring cardiovascular parameters were measured (radiotelemetry). The short period of fat-feeding did not increase maternal weight versus controls and the baseline blood pressure was similar in offspring of fat fed dams (OF) and controls (OC). However, adult male OF showed heightened cardiovascular reactivity to acute restraint stress (p<0.01; Δ systolic blood pressure (SBP) and Δheart rate (HR)) with a prolonged recovery time compared to male OC. α1/β-adrenergic receptor blockade normalised the response. Also, after dietary salt-loading (8%-NaCl ad libitum for 1 week) male OF demonstrated higher SBP (p<0.05) in the awake phase (night-time) and increased low/high frequency ratio of power spectral density of HR variability versus OC. Baroreflex gain and basal power spectral density components of the heart rate or blood pressure were similar in male OF and OC. Minor abnormalities were evident in female OF. Fat feeding in the absence of maternal obesity in pregnant rats leads to altered sympathetic control of cardiovascular function in adult male offspring, and hypertension in response to stressor stimuli.

  12. Utilizing the National Physical Activity Plan to create a disease-specific approach: Environmental and Policy Strategies to Increase Physical Activity Among Adults with Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Mary B; White, Patience H

    2014-03-01

    The Environmental and Policy Strategies to Increase Physical Activity Among Adults with Arthritis report focuses on the ways to make physical activity more convenient and accessible for adults with arthritis. The report is designed to engage 6 important sectors, which were adapted from the National Physical Activity Plan, as partners with a mutual interest in increasing physical activity among adults with arthritis using environmental and policy strategies. It serves as a call to action for each of these sectors to collaborate and focus more attention on helping people live well with arthritis and be a productive part of our society.

  13. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) shows increased public health risk associated with exposure to river water under conditions of riverbed sediment resuspension.

    PubMed

    Abia, Akebe Luther King; Ubomba-Jaswa, Eunice; Genthe, Bettina; Momba, Maggy Ndombo Benteke

    2016-10-01

    Although higher microbial concentrations have been reported in sediments than in the overlying water column, most quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) studies have not clearly indicated the contribution of sediment-borne pathogens to estimated risks. Thus, the present study aimed at determining the public health risk associated with exposure to pathogenic bacteria in polluted river water under undisturbed conditions and conditions of sediment resuspension in the Apies River, Gauteng, South Africa. Microbial pathogens were isolated and identified using culture and molecular methods. The beta-Poisson dose-response model was used to estimate the probability of infection (Pi) with the various pathogens, following accidental/intentional ingestion of 1mL or 100mL (or 50mL) of untreated river water. Mean wet season Escherichia coli counts ranged between 5.8E+01 and 8.8E+04MPN/100mL (water column) and between 2.40E+03 and 1.28E+05MPN/100mL (sediments). Mean dry season E. coli counts ranged between 5.11E+00 and 3.40E+03MPN/100mL (water column) and between 5.09E+00 and 6.30E+03MPN/100mL (sediments). Overall (water and sediments) Vibrio cholerae was the most detected pathogen (58.8%) followed by Salmonella spp. (23.9%) and Shigella (10.1%). Ingestion of 1mL of river water could lead to 0%-4% and 1%-74% Pi with E. coli during the dry and wet season, respectively. During the dry season, the Pi with V. cholerae, Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were 0%-1.39%, 0%-4.11% and 0%-0.16% respectively, depending on volume of water ingested. The risks of infections with all microorganisms increased during the wet season. A 2-log increase in water E. coli count following sediments disturbance led to approximately 10 times higher Pi with E. coli than when sediments were undisturbed. Therefore, the use of the untreated water from the Apies River for drinking, household purposes or recreational activities poses a potential health risk to the users of the river. PMID:27297265

  14. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) shows increased public health risk associated with exposure to river water under conditions of riverbed sediment resuspension.

    PubMed

    Abia, Akebe Luther King; Ubomba-Jaswa, Eunice; Genthe, Bettina; Momba, Maggy Ndombo Benteke

    2016-10-01

    Although higher microbial concentrations have been reported in sediments than in the overlying water column, most quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) studies have not clearly indicated the contribution of sediment-borne pathogens to estimated risks. Thus, the present study aimed at determining the public health risk associated with exposure to pathogenic bacteria in polluted river water under undisturbed conditions and conditions of sediment resuspension in the Apies River, Gauteng, South Africa. Microbial pathogens were isolated and identified using culture and molecular methods. The beta-Poisson dose-response model was used to estimate the probability of infection (Pi) with the various pathogens, following accidental/intentional ingestion of 1mL or 100mL (or 50mL) of untreated river water. Mean wet season Escherichia coli counts ranged between 5.8E+01 and 8.8E+04MPN/100mL (water column) and between 2.40E+03 and 1.28E+05MPN/100mL (sediments). Mean dry season E. coli counts ranged between 5.11E+00 and 3.40E+03MPN/100mL (water column) and between 5.09E+00 and 6.30E+03MPN/100mL (sediments). Overall (water and sediments) Vibrio cholerae was the most detected pathogen (58.8%) followed by Salmonella spp. (23.9%) and Shigella (10.1%). Ingestion of 1mL of river water could lead to 0%-4% and 1%-74% Pi with E. coli during the dry and wet season, respectively. During the dry season, the Pi with V. cholerae, Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were 0%-1.39%, 0%-4.11% and 0%-0.16% respectively, depending on volume of water ingested. The risks of infections with all microorganisms increased during the wet season. A 2-log increase in water E. coli count following sediments disturbance led to approximately 10 times higher Pi with E. coli than when sediments were undisturbed. Therefore, the use of the untreated water from the Apies River for drinking, household purposes or recreational activities poses a potential health risk to the users of the river.

  15. A novel strategy to increase the proliferative potential of adult human β-cells while maintaining their differentiated phenotype.

    PubMed

    Aly, Haytham; Rohatgi, Nidhi; Marshall, Connie A; Grossenheider, Tiffani C; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S; Matkovich, Scot J; McDaniel, Michael L

    2013-01-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that Wnt/GSK-3/β-catenin and mTOR signaling are necessary to stimulate proliferative processes in adult human β-cells. Direct inhibition of GSK-3, that engages Wnt signaling downstream of the Wnt receptor, increases β-catenin nuclear translocation and β-cell proliferation but results in lower insulin content. Our current goal was to engage canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling at the receptor level to significantly increase human β-cell proliferation while maintaining a β-cell phenotype in intact islets. We adopted a system that utilized conditioned medium from L cells that expressed Wnt3a, R-spondin-3 and Noggin (L-WRN conditioned medium). In addition we used a ROCK inhibitor (Y-27632) and SB-431542 (that results in RhoA inhibition) in these cultures. Treatment of intact human islets with L-WRN conditioned medium plus inhibitors significantly increased DNA synthesis ∼6 fold in a rapamycin-sensitive manner. Moreover, this treatment strikingly increased human β-cell proliferation ∼20 fold above glucose alone. Only the combination of L-WRN conditioned medium with RhoA/ROCK inhibitors resulted in substantial proliferation. Transcriptome-wide gene expression profiling demonstrated that L-WRN medium provoked robust changes in several signaling families, including enhanced β-catenin-mediated and β-cell-specific gene expression. This treatment also increased expression of Nr4a2 and Irs2 and resulted in phosphorylation of Akt. Importantly, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and content were not downregulated by L-WRN medium treatment. Our data demonstrate that engaging Wnt signaling at the receptor level by this method leads to necessary crosstalk between multiple signaling pathways including activation of Akt, mTOR, Wnt/β-catenin, PKA/CREB, and inhibition of RhoA/ROCK that substantially increase human β-cell proliferation while maintaining the β-cell phenotype.

  16. Increased lubricin/proteoglycan 4 gene expression and decreased modulus in medial collateral ligaments following ovariohysterectomy in the adult rabbit: Evidence consistent with aging.

    PubMed

    Lemmex, Devin B; Ono, Yohei; Reno, Carol R; Hart, David A; Lo, Ian K Y; Thornton, Gail M

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated whether ovariohysterectomy (OVH) surgery to induce menopause resulted in changes to modulus, failure strain and lubricin/proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) gene expression in rabbit medial collateral ligaments (MCLs), similar to aging (Thornton et al., 2015a). The MCLs from adult rabbits that underwent OVH surgery as adolescents (15-week-old) and adults (1-year-old) were compared by evaluating mechanical behaviour (adolescent OVH, n=8; adult OVH, n=7; normal, n=7), gene expression (adolescent OVH, n=9; adult OVH, n=8; normal, n=8), and collagen and glycosaminoglycan (adolescent OVH, n=9; adult OVH, n=8; normal, n=8) and water (adolescent OVH, n=9; adult OVH, n=8; normal, n=8) content. Mechanical behaviour evaluated cyclic, static and total creep strain, and ultimate tensile strength, modulus and failure strain. The RT-qPCR assessed mRNA levels for matrix regulatory genes. Adult OVH MCLs exhibited increased cyclic creep and failure strain, and decreased modulus with increased mRNA levels for lubricin/PRG4 and collagen I compared with normal MCLs. Adolescent OVH MCLs exhibited increased cyclic, static and total creep strain with decreased mRNA levels for the progesterone receptor. Lubricin/PRG4 plays a role in the lubrication of collagen fascicles which is likely related to the decreased modulus and increased failure strain observed in ligaments from adult OVH rabbits. Progesterone and its receptor are thought to play a role in the stretching of ligaments in pelvic organ prolapse and pregnancy which is likely related to the increase in creep strain observed in ligaments from adolescent OVH rabbits. Ovariohysterectomy in adult rabbits resulted in changes that were consistent with the aging MCL. PMID:26776933

  17. Increased lubricin/proteoglycan 4 gene expression and decreased modulus in medial collateral ligaments following ovariohysterectomy in the adult rabbit: Evidence consistent with aging.

    PubMed

    Lemmex, Devin B; Ono, Yohei; Reno, Carol R; Hart, David A; Lo, Ian K Y; Thornton, Gail M

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated whether ovariohysterectomy (OVH) surgery to induce menopause resulted in changes to modulus, failure strain and lubricin/proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) gene expression in rabbit medial collateral ligaments (MCLs), similar to aging (Thornton et al., 2015a). The MCLs from adult rabbits that underwent OVH surgery as adolescents (15-week-old) and adults (1-year-old) were compared by evaluating mechanical behaviour (adolescent OVH, n=8; adult OVH, n=7; normal, n=7), gene expression (adolescent OVH, n=9; adult OVH, n=8; normal, n=8), and collagen and glycosaminoglycan (adolescent OVH, n=9; adult OVH, n=8; normal, n=8) and water (adolescent OVH, n=9; adult OVH, n=8; normal, n=8) content. Mechanical behaviour evaluated cyclic, static and total creep strain, and ultimate tensile strength, modulus and failure strain. The RT-qPCR assessed mRNA levels for matrix regulatory genes. Adult OVH MCLs exhibited increased cyclic creep and failure strain, and decreased modulus with increased mRNA levels for lubricin/PRG4 and collagen I compared with normal MCLs. Adolescent OVH MCLs exhibited increased cyclic, static and total creep strain with decreased mRNA levels for the progesterone receptor. Lubricin/PRG4 plays a role in the lubrication of collagen fascicles which is likely related to the decreased modulus and increased failure strain observed in ligaments from adult OVH rabbits. Progesterone and its receptor are thought to play a role in the stretching of ligaments in pelvic organ prolapse and pregnancy which is likely related to the increase in creep strain observed in ligaments from adolescent OVH rabbits. Ovariohysterectomy in adult rabbits resulted in changes that were consistent with the aging MCL.

  18. Methylphenidate-elicited dopamine increases in ventral striatum are associated with long-term symptom improvement in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack; Tomasi, Dardo; Kollins, Scott H; Wigal, Tim L; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Telang, Frank W; Fowler, Joanna S; Logan, Jean; Wong, Christopher T; Swanson, James M

    2012-01-18

    Stimulant medications, such as methylphenidate, which are effective treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), enhance brain dopamine signaling. However, the relationship between regional brain dopamine enhancement and treatment response has not been evaluated. Here, we assessed whether the dopamine increases elicited by methylphenidate are associated with long-term clinical response. We used a prospective design to study 20 treatment-naive adults with ADHD who were evaluated before treatment initiation and after 12 months of clinical treatment with a titrated regimen of oral methylphenidate. Methylphenidate-induced dopamine changes were evaluated with positron emission tomography and [(11)C]raclopride (D(2)/D(3) receptor radioligand sensitive to competition with endogenous dopamine). Clinical responses were assessed using the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale and revealed a significant reduction in symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity with long-term methylphenidate treatment. A challenge dose of 0.5 mg/kg intravenous methylphenidate significantly increased dopamine in striatum (assessed as decreases in D(2)/D(3) receptor availability). In the ventral striatum, these dopamine increases were associated with the reductions in ratings of symptoms of inattention with clinical treatment. Statistical parametric mapping additionally showed dopamine increases in prefrontal and temporal cortices with intravenous methylphenidate that were also associated with decreases in symptoms of inattention. Our findings indicate that dopamine enhancement in ventral striatum (the brain region involved with reward and motivation) was associated with therapeutic response to methylphenidate, further corroborating the relevance of the dopamine reward/motivation circuitry in ADHD. It also provides preliminary evidence that methylphenidate-elicited dopamine increases in prefrontal and temporal cortices may also contribute to the clinical response.

  19. Methylphenidate-Elicited Dopamine Increases in Ventral Striatum Are Associated with Long-Term Symptom Improvement in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow N. D.; Wang G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Tomasi, D.; Kollins, S.H.; Wigal, T.L.; Newcorn, J.H.; Telang, F.W.; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J.; Wong, C.T.; Swanson, J.M.

    2012-01-18

    Stimulant medications, such as methylphenidate, which are effective treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), enhance brain dopamine signaling. However, the relationship between regional brain dopamine enhancement and treatment response has not been evaluated. Here, we assessed whether the dopamine increases elicited by methylphenidate are associated with long-term clinical response. We used a prospective design to study 20 treatment-naive adults with ADHD who were evaluated before treatment initiation and after 12 months of clinical treatment with a titrated regimen of oral methylphenidate. Methylphenidate-induced dopamine changes were evaluated with positron emission tomography and [{sup 11}C]raclopride (D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptor radioligand sensitive to competition with endogenous dopamine). Clinical responses were assessed using the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale and revealed a significant reduction in symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity with long-term methylphenidate treatment. A challenge dose of 0.5 mg/kg intravenous methylphenidate significantly increased dopamine in striatum (assessed as decreases in D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptor availability). In the ventral striatum, these dopamine increases were associated with the reductions in ratings of symptoms of inattention with clinical treatment. Statistical parametric mapping additionally showed dopamine increases in prefrontal and temporal cortices with intravenous methylphenidate that were also associated with decreases in symptoms of inattention. Our findings indicate that dopamine enhancement in ventral striatum (the brain region involved with reward and motivation) was associated with therapeutic response to methylphenidate, further corroborating the relevance of the dopamine reward/motivation circuitry in ADHD. It also provides preliminary evidence that methylphenidate-elicited dopamine increases in prefrontal and temporal cortices may also contribute to the clinical response.

  20. Chronic ethanol potentiates the effect of neuropeptide s in the basolateral amygdala and shows increased anxiolytic and anti-depressive effects.

    PubMed

    Enquist, Johan; Ferwerda, Madeline; Madhavan, Anuradha; Hok, Derek; Whistler, Jennifer L

    2012-10-01

    Alleviating anxiety and depression is pivotal for reducing the risk of relapse in alcoholics. Currently available anxiolytic treatments are limited by side effects, including reduced efficacy in alcoholics, addiction, and sedation. We examined whether the neuropeptide S receptor (NPSR) was effective at controlling ethanol consumption and the anxiety and depression produced by forced abstinence from ethanol. We found that the anxiolytic and anti-depressant effects of NPS are enhanced in acute ethanol abstinent mice. In addition, we found that NPS reduced ethanol consumption and is not in and of itself rewarding. We also provide evidence that ethanol consumption increases the ability of NPS to modulate neuronal activity in the basolateral amygdala. Finally, we found that local injection of NPS in the basolateral amygdala promotes anxiolysis after chronic ethanol consumption, thereby providing insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the changes in behavioral response to NPS. In light of the improved anxiolytic efficacy and benign side effects of NPS in ethanol-withdrawn animals, the NPSR may prove a suitable target for reducing relapse in alcoholism.

  1. Chronic ethanol potentiates the effect of neuropeptide s in the basolateral amygdala and shows increased anxiolytic and anti-depressive effects.

    PubMed

    Enquist, Johan; Ferwerda, Madeline; Madhavan, Anuradha; Hok, Derek; Whistler, Jennifer L

    2012-10-01

    Alleviating anxiety and depression is pivotal for reducing the risk of relapse in alcoholics. Currently available anxiolytic treatments are limited by side effects, including reduced efficacy in alcoholics, addiction, and sedation. We examined whether the neuropeptide S receptor (NPSR) was effective at controlling ethanol consumption and the anxiety and depression produced by forced abstinence from ethanol. We found that the anxiolytic and anti-depressant effects of NPS are enhanced in acute ethanol abstinent mice. In addition, we found that NPS reduced ethanol consumption and is not in and of itself rewarding. We also provide evidence that ethanol consumption increases the ability of NPS to modulate neuronal activity in the basolateral amygdala. Finally, we found that local injection of NPS in the basolateral amygdala promotes anxiolysis after chronic ethanol consumption, thereby providing insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the changes in behavioral response to NPS. In light of the improved anxiolytic efficacy and benign side effects of NPS in ethanol-withdrawn animals, the NPSR may prove a suitable target for reducing relapse in alcoholism. PMID:22739468

  2. Selective expression of a splice variant of decay-accelerating factor in c-erbB-2-positive mammary carcinoma cells showing increased transendothelial invasiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, Burkhard . E-mail: brandt@uni-muenster.de; Mikesch, Jan-Hendrik; Simon, Ronald; Roetger, Antje; Kemming, Dirk; Schier, Katrin; Sauter, Guido; Buerger, Horst

    2005-04-01

    By differential-display-PCR a subclone of the SK-BR-3 cell line with high in vitro transendothelial invasiveness was identified to express increased levels of a new alternative splice variant of decay-accelerating factor (DAF). DAF seems to play an important role in some malignant tumours since on the one hand the expression of complement inhibitors on the surface of tumour cells prevents the accumulation of complement factors and in consequence cell lysis. On the other hand, DAF has been identified as a ligand for the CD97 surface receptor which induces cell migration. Immunofluorescence procedures, Western blot analyses, and cDNA clone sequencing were employed to confirm the expression of DAF restricted to invasive tumour cells. Using a radioactive RNA-in situ hybridisation on freshly frozen tissue microarrays and RT-PCR on native tumour tissue, the expression of alternative spliced DAF mRNA was demonstrated in invasive breast cancer. Due to the fact that it could thereby not be detected in normal mammary tissues, it has to be confirmed in larger studies that the DAF splice variant might be a specific tumour marker for invasive breast cancer.

  3. Comparing tailored and narrative worksite interventions at increasing colonoscopy adherence in adults 50-75: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jakob D; King, Andy J; Carcioppolo, Nick; Krakow, Melinda; Samadder, N Jewel; Morgan, Susan

    2014-03-01

    Research has identified several communication strategies that could increase adherence to colorectal cancer screening recommendations. Two promising strategies are tailoring and narrative-based approaches. Tailoring is the personalization of information based on individual characteristics. Narrative-based approaches use stories about similar others to counter perceived barriers and cultivate self-efficacy. To compare these two approaches, a randomized controlled trial was carried out at 8 worksites in Indiana. Adults 50-75 (N = 209) received one of four messages about colorectal cancer screening: stock, narrative, tailored, tailored narrative. The primary outcome was whether participants filed a colonoscopy claim in the 18 months following the intervention. Individuals receiving narrative messages were 4 times more likely to screen than those not receiving narrative messages. Tailoring did not increase screening behavior overall. However, individuals with higher cancer information overload were 8 times more likely to screen if they received tailored messages. The results suggest that narrative-based approaches are more effective than tailoring at increasing colorectal cancer screening in worksite interventions. Tailoring may be valuable as a strategy for reaching individuals with high overload, perhaps as a follow-up effort to a larger communication campaign.

  4. Pilot testing of a mindfulness- and acceptance-based intervention for increasing cardiorespiratory fitness in sedentary adults: A feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Martin, E.C.; Galloway-Williams, N.; Cox, M.G.; Winett, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Vigorous physical activity (PA) has been promoted for improving cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). However, therapeutic techniques designed to engage participants in vigorous PA have fallen short; one reason for this may be the unpleasant physical sensations associated with vigorous exercise (e.g., temporary shortness of breath and mild muscle soreness). Mindfulness and acceptance-based therapies such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) may be helpful at improving adherence to vigorous PA levels. In this open clinical trial, we sought to demonstrate the feasibility and acceptability of a mindfulness- and acceptance-based intervention for increasing CRF in sedentary adults and to generate initial outcomes data. Design Participants (N=24) engaged in a 10-week fitness walking program while attending regular group sessions based on ACT. Main outcome measures and results The feasibility and acceptability of the intervention were demonstrated through high levels of walking adherence (89.30%) and group session attendance (85.50%). A large significant decrease in total 1-mile walk test time [t(18)=4.61, p=.0002, d=.64] and a moderate significant increase in estimated VO2max [t(18)=−4.05, p=.0007, d=−.43] were observed. Analyses indicated a large significant increase in exercise-related experiential acceptance [t(18)=−9.19, p <.0001, d=−2.09]. Conclusion This study demonstrates the feasibility and acceptability of an ACT-based intervention for supporting participation in vigorous PA in sedentary individuals. PMID:27104134

  5. Familial adenomatous patients with desmoid tumours show increased expression of miR-34a in serum and high levels in tumours

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Sarah-Jane; Lewis, Amy; Jeffery, Rosemary; Thompson, Hannah; Feakins, Roger; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Yau, Christopher; Lindsay, James O.; Clark, Susan K.; Silver, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is rare affecting 1 in 10,000 people and a subset (10%) are at risk of myofibroblastic desmoid tumours (DTs) after colectomy to prevent cancer. DTs are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The absence of markers to monitor progression and a lack of treatment options are significant limitations to clinical management. We investigated microRNAs (miRNA) levels in DTs and serum using expression array analysis on two independent cohorts of FAP patients (total, n=24). Each comprised equal numbers of patients who had formed DTs (cases) and those who had not (controls). All controls had absence of DTs confirmed by clinical and radiological assessment over at least three years post- colectomy. Technical qPCR validation was performed using an expanded cohort (29 FAP patients; 16 cases and 13 controls). The most significant elevated serum miRNA marker of DTs was miR-34a-5p and in-situ hybridisation (ISH) showed most DTs analysed (5/6) expressed miRNA-34a-5p. Exome sequencing of tumour and matched germline DNA did not detect mutations within the miR-34a-5p transcript sites or 3′-UTR of target genes that would alter functional miRNA activity. In conclusion, miR-34a-5p is a potential circulatory marker and therapy target. A large prospective world-wide multi-centre study is now warranted. PMID:27489864

  6. Class I-deficient resistant mice intracerebrally inoculated with Theiler's virus show an increased T cell response to viral antigens and susceptibility to demyelination.

    PubMed

    Pullen, L C; Miller, S D; Dal Canto, M C; Kim, B S

    1993-09-01

    Intracerebral inoculation of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) results in immune-mediated demyelination in susceptible mouse strains. The histology of TMEV-induced demyelination is similar to that seen in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis. It was previously shown that the susceptibility of mice to TMEV-induced demyelination in certain strain combinations is closely associated with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I locus. Here we examine disease susceptibility of beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2M)-deficient transgenic mice lacking class I expression and functional CD8+ T cells. In contrast to TMEV-infected parental C57BL/6 mice, the transgenics develop high levels of virus-specific DTH and T cell proliferation accompanied by an increased frequency of central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating lesions. However, clinical signs of demyelination were not noted. Neither antibody titer nor viral persistence were significantly affected in the beta 2M-deficient mice. These results suggest that in the absence of functional class I/CD8+ cells, the class II-restricted T cell response to TMEV is enhanced and CNS pathogenesis is heightened, although the level is not severe enough to result in clinical disease. When the TMEV-infected mice were subcutaneously immunized with virus, however, the beta 2M-deficient mice displayed clinical symptoms. Therefore, our results strongly suggest that CD8+ T cells do not directly contribute to CNS demyelination. In contrast, such T cells appear to be primarily involved in down-regulation of a potentially damaging CD4+ T cell response in resistant animals, although some of the T cells may play a role in clearing viral persistence in the CNS, resulting in the protection of the host from viral demyelination.

  7. Yearly variation of spontaneous somatic mutation frequency in the stamen hairs of Tradescantia clone KU 9 grown outdoors, which showed a significant increase after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, S; Nakano, A; Kenmochi, M; Yamamoto, I; Murai, M; Takahashi, E; Yamaguchi, A; Watanabe, K; Tomiyama, M; Sugiyama, K; Yogo, A; Yazaki, T; Okumura, M; Shima, N; Satoh, M; Yoshimoto, M; Xiao, L Z

    1996-02-01

    Scoring of spontaneous somatic pink mutation frequency in the stamen hairs of Tradescantia clone KU 9, a heterozygote for flower color (blue/pink; the blue color being dominant), was carried out for 11 years on plants grown outdoors, during the period of May 11-31 (for 3 weeks) in every year from 1982 to 1992. Weekly and yearly variations of the spontaneous mutation frequency were observed, and such variations could mostly be correlated to the difference in temperature. That is, the mutation frequency was generally higher in the weeks and years when the temperature was relatively low, showing the strongest negative correlation with the average minimum temperature. The variations were also correlated to the diurnal temperature difference, the mutation frequency being higher with larger diurnal temperature difference in general. However, the mutation frequency observed in 1986 was exceptionally higher than that expected from the temperature for this year, and was very significantly higher than for other years. The scoring of mutation frequency was thus continued in 1986 for an additional 4 weeks (June 1-28), and it was confirmed that such higher mutation frequencies lasted for 6 weeks in total. The exceptionally high mutation frequency seemed to be related to the radioactive fallout which occurred in early to mid May of 1986, even in Japan, after the serious nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl, and also to the biological concentrations of radioactive nuclides which subsequently occurred, although it was difficult to conclude this definitely. The mutation frequency in 1987 was second highest, and was also significantly higher than the lowest mutation frequency observed in 1990. PMID:8600356

  8. Dynamics of Long-Term Colonization of Respiratory Tract by Haemophilus influenzae in Cystic Fibrosis Patients Shows a Marked Increase in Hypermutable Strains

    PubMed Central

    Román, Federico; Cantón, Rafael; Pérez-Vázquez, María; Baquero, Fernando; Campos, José

    2004-01-01

    The persistence and variability of 188 Haemophilus influenzae isolates in respiratory tract of 30 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients over the course of 7 years was studied. Antibiotic susceptibility testing, DNA fingerprinting, and analysis of outer membrane protein profiles were performed on all isolates. A total of 115 distinct pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles were identified. Ninety percent of patients were cocolonized with two or more clones over the studied period. A third of the patients were cross-colonized with one or two H. influenzae strains; 11% of the clones persisted for 3 or more months. Biotype, outer membrane protein profiles, and resistance profiles showed variation along the studied period, even in persisting clones. Four isolates (2.1%) recovered from 3 patients were type f capsulate, with three of them belonging to the same clone. β-Lactamase production was detected in 23.9% of isolates while 7% of the β-lactamase-negative isolates presented diminished susceptibility to ampicillin (β-lactamase-negative ampicillin resistance phenotype). Remarkably, 21.3% of the H. influenzae isolates presented decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, which was mainly observed in persisting clones. Of the H. influenzae isolates from CF patients, 18 (14.5%) were found to be hypermutable in comparison with 1 (1.4%) from non-CF patients (P < 0.0001). Ten patients (33.3%) were colonized by hypermutable strains over the study period. A multiresistance phenotype and long-term clonal persistence were significantly associated in some cases for up to 7 years. These results suggest that H. influenzae bronchial colonization in CF patients is a dynamic process, but better-adapted clones can persist for long periods of time. PMID:15070988

  9. Illegal and Legal Parrot Trade Shows a Long-Term, Cross-Cultural Preference for the Most Attractive Species Increasing Their Risk of Extinction

    PubMed Central

    Tella, José L.; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Illegal trade constitutes a major threat for a variety of wildlife. A criminology framework has been recently applied to parrot poaching in Mexico, suggesting an opportunistic crime in which the most abundant and accessible species, and not the rare or highly priced species, were poached more often. We analyzed this information, together with additional long-term data (1981–2005) on both the legal and illegal trade of the 22 Mexican parrot species (n = 31,019 individuals), using multivariate statistics and hypothesis-testing approaches. Our results showed a selective capture of parrot species attending to their attractiveness. Parrot species widely differed in attractiveness to people (as reflected by their combined measures of body size, coloration, and ability to imitate human speech), and their attractiveness strongly correlated with their prices both in the Mexican and US markets. The most attractive and valuable species (amazons and macaws) were disproportionally caught attending to the number of years they were legally trapped. Similar patterns were found for parrots poached for the domestic Mexican market, for those smuggled to the USA, and for those legally exported before or after 1992, when the USA ban led parrot exports to be mostly directed to European countries. Finally, the long-term cross-cultural preference for the most attractive species has led them to be among the most threatened species today. Since current parrot poaching mostly responds to local demand, socio-ecological work is needed to reverse the long-standing pet-keeping tradition that may decimate the most desired species in Neotropical countries. PMID:25225808

  10. Stable isotope probing of acetate fed anaerobic batch incubations shows a partial resistance of acetoclastic methanogenesis catalyzed by Methanosarcina to sudden increase of ammonia level.

    PubMed

    Hao, Liping; Lü, Fan; Mazéas, Laurent; Desmond-Le Quéméner, Elie; Madigou, Céline; Guenne, Angéline; Shao, Liming; Bouchez, Théodore; He, Pinjing

    2015-02-01

    Ammonia inhibition represents a major operational issue for anaerobic digestion. In order to refine our understanding of the terminal catabolic steps in thermophilic anaerobic digestion under ammonia stress, we studied batch thermophilic acetate fed experiments at low (0.26 g L(-1)) and high (7.00 g L(-1)) Total Ammonia Nitrogen concentrations (TAN). Although methane production started immediately for all incubations and resulted in methane yields close to stoichiometric expectations, a 62-72% decrease of methanogenic rate was observed throughout the incubation at 7.00 g L(-1) of TAN compared to 0.26 g L(-1). Stable Isotope Probing analysis of active microbial communities in (13)C-acetate fed experiments coupled to automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and 16S rDNA pyrotag sequencing confirmed that microbial communities were similar for both TAN conditions. At both TAN levels, the (13)C-labeled bacterial community was mainly affiliated to Clostridia-relatives, with OPB54 bacteria being the most abundant sequence in the heavy DNA 16S rDNA pyrotag library. Sequences closely related to Methanosarcina thermophila were also abundantly retrieved in the heavy DNA fractions, showing that this methanogen was still actively assimilating labeled carbon from acetate at free ammonia nitrogen concentrations up to 916 mg L(-1). Stable isotopic signature analysis of biogas, measured in unlabeled acetate fed experiments that were conducted in parallel, confirmed that acetoclastic methanogenic pathway was dominant at both ammonia concentrations. Our work demonstrates that, besides the syntrophic acetate oxidation pathway, acetoclastic methanogenesis catalyzed by Methanosarcina can also play a major role in methane production at high ammonia levels.

  11. Illegal and legal parrot trade shows a long-term, cross-cultural preference for the most attractive species increasing their risk of extinction.

    PubMed

    Tella, José L; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Illegal trade constitutes a major threat for a variety of wildlife. A criminology framework has been recently applied to parrot poaching in Mexico, suggesting an opportunistic crime in which the most abundant and accessible species, and not the rare or highly priced species, were poached more often. We analyzed this information, together with additional long-term data (1981-2005) on both the legal and illegal trade of the 22 Mexican parrot species (n = 31,019 individuals), using multivariate statistics and hypothesis-testing approaches. Our results showed a selective capture of parrot species attending to their attractiveness. Parrot species widely differed in attractiveness to people (as reflected by their combined measures of body size, coloration, and ability to imitate human speech), and their attractiveness strongly correlated with their prices both in the Mexican and US markets. The most attractive and valuable species (amazons and macaws) were disproportionally caught attending to the number of years they were legally trapped. Similar patterns were found for parrots poached for the domestic Mexican market, for those smuggled to the USA, and for those legally exported before or after 1992, when the USA ban led parrot exports to be mostly directed to European countries. Finally, the long-term cross-cultural preference for the most attractive species has led them to be among the most threatened species today. Since current parrot poaching mostly responds to local demand, socio-ecological work is needed to reverse the long-standing pet-keeping tradition that may decimate the most desired species in Neotropical countries.

  12. Illegal and legal parrot trade shows a long-term, cross-cultural preference for the most attractive species increasing their risk of extinction.

    PubMed

    Tella, José L; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Illegal trade constitutes a major threat for a variety of wildlife. A criminology framework has been recently applied to parrot poaching in Mexico, suggesting an opportunistic crime in which the most abundant and accessible species, and not the rare or highly priced species, were poached more often. We analyzed this information, together with additional long-term data (1981-2005) on both the legal and illegal trade of the 22 Mexican parrot species (n = 31,019 individuals), using multivariate statistics and hypothesis-testing approaches. Our results showed a selective capture of parrot species attending to their attractiveness. Parrot species widely differed in attractiveness to people (as reflected by their combined measures of body size, coloration, and ability to imitate human speech), and their attractiveness strongly correlated with their prices both in the Mexican and US markets. The most attractive and valuable species (am