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Sample records for adults showed significantly

  1. Life satisfaction in young adults 10 or more years after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for childhood malignant and nonmalignant diseases does not show significant impairment compared with healthy controls: a case-matched study.

    PubMed

    Uderzo, Cornelio; Corti, Paola; Pappalettera, Marco; Baldini, Valentina; Lucchini, Giovanna; Meani, Dario; Rovelli, Attilio

    2012-11-01

    Patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) may experience physical and psychological deterioration that impairs their life satisfaction (LS). This study focused on LS in long-term survivors at 10 or more years after HSCT. Fifty-five patients (39 males, median age 25 years) undergoing allogeneic HSCT for childhood malignant (n = 52) or nonmalignant diseases (n = 3) were enrolled. A control group of 98 young adults (59 males, median age 24 years) was considered. A questionnaire with a modified Satisfaction Life Domain Scale was administered. We assessed such domains as education, employment, leisure time, social relationships, and perception of physical status with a 30-item questionnaire. To investigate the association between the domains and the probability of diminished LS, we performed a logistical procedure using the maximum likelihood method. Predictive factors of LS were adjusted for sociodemographic variables. In the multivariate analysis, the participant's level of LS was not significantly correlated with sociodemographic factors or with HSCT status. The same analysis showed a slight trend in favor of the control group (P = .06) for body perception. Our data suggest that the patients who undergo HSCT in childhood have no significant difference in long-term LS compared with healthy controls.

  2. Coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tas, Faruk; Kilic, Leyla; Duranyildiz, Derya

    2014-06-01

    Activated coagulation and fibrinolytic system in cancer patients is associated with tumor stroma formation and metastasis in different cancer types. The aim of this study is to explore the correlation of blood coagulation assays for various clinicopathologic factors in breast cancer patients. A total of 123 female breast cancer patients were enrolled into the study. All the patients were treatment naïve. Pretreatment blood coagulation tests including PT, APTT, PTA, INR, D-dimer, fibrinogen levels, and platelet counts were evaluated. Median age of diagnosis was 51 years old (range 26-82). Twenty-two percent of the group consisted of metastatic breast cancer patients. The plasma level of all coagulation tests revealed statistically significant difference between patient and control group except for PT (p<0.001 for all variables except for PT; p=0.08). Elderly age (>50 years) was associated with higher D-dimer levels (p=0.003). Metastatic patients exhibited significantly higher D-dimer values when compared with early breast cancer patients (p=0.049). Advanced tumor stage (T3 and T4) was associated with higher INR (p=0.05) and lower PTA (p=0.025). In conclusion, coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.

  3. Human-directed social behaviour in dogs shows significant heritability.

    PubMed

    Persson, M E; Roth, L S V; Johnsson, M; Wright, D; Jensen, P

    2015-04-01

    Through domestication and co-evolution with humans, dogs have developed abilities to attract human attention, e.g. in a manner of seeking assistance when faced with a problem solving task. The aims of this study were to investigate within breed variation in human-directed contact seeking in dogs and to estimate its genetic basis. To do this, 498 research beagles, bred and kept under standardized conditions, were tested in an unsolvable problem task. Contact seeking behaviours recorded included both eye contact and physical interactions. Behavioural data was summarized through a principal component analysis, resulting in four components: test interactions, social interactions, eye contact and physical contact. Females scored significantly higher on social interactions and physical contact and age had an effect on eye contact scores. Narrow sense heritabilities (h(2) ) of the two largest components were estimated at 0.32 and 0.23 but were not significant for the last two components. These results show that within the studied dog population, behavioural variation in human-directed social behaviours was sex dependent and that the utilization of eye contact seeking increased with age and experience. Hence, heritability estimates indicate a significant genetic contribution to the variation found in human-directed social interactions, suggesting that social skills in dogs have a genetic basis, but can also be shaped and enhanced through individual experiences. This research gives the opportunity to further investigate the genetics behind dogs' social skills, which could also play a significant part into research on human social disorders such as autism.

  4. Human-directed social behaviour in dogs shows significant heritability.

    PubMed

    Persson, M E; Roth, L S V; Johnsson, M; Wright, D; Jensen, P

    2015-04-01

    Through domestication and co-evolution with humans, dogs have developed abilities to attract human attention, e.g. in a manner of seeking assistance when faced with a problem solving task. The aims of this study were to investigate within breed variation in human-directed contact seeking in dogs and to estimate its genetic basis. To do this, 498 research beagles, bred and kept under standardized conditions, were tested in an unsolvable problem task. Contact seeking behaviours recorded included both eye contact and physical interactions. Behavioural data was summarized through a principal component analysis, resulting in four components: test interactions, social interactions, eye contact and physical contact. Females scored significantly higher on social interactions and physical contact and age had an effect on eye contact scores. Narrow sense heritabilities (h(2) ) of the two largest components were estimated at 0.32 and 0.23 but were not significant for the last two components. These results show that within the studied dog population, behavioural variation in human-directed social behaviours was sex dependent and that the utilization of eye contact seeking increased with age and experience. Hence, heritability estimates indicate a significant genetic contribution to the variation found in human-directed social interactions, suggesting that social skills in dogs have a genetic basis, but can also be shaped and enhanced through individual experiences. This research gives the opportunity to further investigate the genetics behind dogs' social skills, which could also play a significant part into research on human social disorders such as autism. PMID:25703740

  5. Significance of Adult Pedestrian Torso Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ivarsson, B. Johan; Henary, Basem; Crandall, Jeff R.; Longhitano, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    The current paper uses data from two trauma registries to evaluate the significance of adult pedestrian torso injury relative to head and lower extremity injuries and to determine the relative importance of injuries to individual torso organs/structures. Analyses are conducted with and without adjusting for striking vehicle body type (car versus LTV). Although the incidence of torso injury is approximately 50% higher in pedestrians struck by LTVs than in those struck by cars, torso injury appears to be as an important contributor to the overall cost of pedestrian morbidity as is lower extremity injury. The most frequently injured torso organs/structures include the rib cage, lung & pleura, and liver. The results indicate a need for an increased focus on the prevention of torso injury in the design of pedestrian safety countermeasures. PMID:16179153

  6. Education for Older Adults: A Synthesis of Significant Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura-Merkel, Catherine; Worthy, Edmund H., Jr.

    Despite the record numbers of older learners today and the probable future growth of these numbers, older people today are underrepresented in adult education. Furthermore, a significant segment of older people has serious educational deficiencies hindering their ability to cope in the contemporary world. Surveys show that the characteristics that…

  7. The adaptive significance of adult neurogenesis: an integrative approach

    PubMed Central

    Konefal, Sarah; Elliot, Mick; Crespi, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis in mammals is predominantly restricted to two brain regions, the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb (OB), suggesting that these two brain regions uniquely share functions that mediate its adaptive significance. Benefits of adult neurogenesis across these two regions appear to converge on increased neuronal and structural plasticity that subserves coding of novel, complex, and fine-grained information, usually with contextual components that include spatial positioning. By contrast, costs of adult neurogenesis appear to center on potential for dysregulation resulting in higher risk of brain cancer or psychological dysfunctions, but such costs have yet to be quantified directly. The three main hypotheses for the proximate functions and adaptive significance of adult neurogenesis, pattern separation, memory consolidation, and olfactory spatial, are not mutually exclusive and can be reconciled into a simple general model amenable to targeted experimental and comparative tests. Comparative analysis of brain region sizes across two major social-ecological groups of primates, gregarious (mainly diurnal haplorhines, visually-oriented, and in large social groups) and solitary (mainly noctural, territorial, and highly reliant on olfaction, as in most rodents) suggest that solitary species, but not gregarious species, show positive associations of population densities and home range sizes with sizes of both the hippocampus and OB, implicating their functions in social-territorial systems mediated by olfactory cues. Integrated analyses of the adaptive significance of adult neurogenesis will benefit from experimental studies motivated and structured by ecologically and socially relevant selective contexts. PMID:23882188

  8. Significance of Individuation in Adult Child--Parent Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buhl, Heike M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the significance of adult children's individuation for the adult child--parent relationship. Following Youniss, individuation was assessed via its dimensions of both connectedness and individuality. A sample of 349 participants between 20 and 47 years of age were given questionnaires containing scales from the Network of…

  9. Adolescent earthquake survivors' show increased prefrontal cortex activation to masked earthquake images as adults.

    PubMed

    Du, Xue; Wei, Dongtao; Ganzel, Barbara L; Kim, Pilyoung; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-03-01

    The great Sichuan earthquake in China on May 12, 2008 was a traumatic event to many who live near the earthquake area. However, at present, there are few studies that explore the long-term impact of the adolescent trauma exposure on adults' brain function. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the brain activation evoked by masked trauma-related stimuli (earthquake versus neutral images) in 14 adults who lived near the epicenter of the great Sichuan earthquake when they were adolescents (trauma-exposed group) and 14 adults who lived farther from the epicenter of the earthquake when they were adolescents (control group). Compared with the control group, the trauma-exposed group showed significant elevation of activation in the right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) in response to masked earthquake-related images. In the trauma-exposed group, the right ACC activation was negatively correlated with the frequency of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These findings differ markedly from the long-term effects of trauma exposure in adults. This suggests that trauma exposure during adolescence may have a unique long-term impact on ACC/MPFC function, top-down modulation of trauma-related information, and subsequent symptoms of PTSD.

  10. 47 CFR 76.54 - Significantly viewed signals; method to be followed for special showings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Significantly viewed signals; method to be followed for special showings. 76.54 Section 76.54 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of...

  11. 47 CFR 76.54 - Significantly viewed signals; method to be followed for special showings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Significantly viewed signals; method to be followed for special showings. 76.54 Section 76.54 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of...

  12. 47 CFR 76.54 - Significantly viewed signals; method to be followed for special showings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Significantly viewed signals; method to be followed for special showings. 76.54 Section 76.54 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of...

  13. 47 CFR 76.54 - Significantly viewed signals; method to be followed for special showings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Significantly viewed signals; method to be followed for special showings. 76.54 Section 76.54 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of...

  14. 47 CFR 76.54 - Significantly viewed signals; method to be followed for special showings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Significantly viewed signals; method to be followed for special showings. 76.54 Section 76.54 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of...

  15. PCOS women show significantly higher homocysteine level, independent to glucose and E2 level

    PubMed Central

    Eskandari, Zahra; Sadrkhanlou, Rajab-Ali; Nejati, Vahid; Tizro, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is reasonable to think that some biochemical characteristics of follicular fluid (FF) surrounding the oocyte may play a critical role in determining the quality of oocyte and the subsequent potential needed to achieve fertilization and embryo development. Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the levels of FF homocysteine (Hcy) in IVF candidate polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women and any relationships with FF glucose and estradiol (E2) levels. Materials and Methods: In this case control study which was performed in Dr. Tizro Day Care and IVF Center 70 infertile patients were enrolled in two groups: comprising 35 PCOS and 35 non PCOS women. Long protocol was performed for all patients. FF Hcy, glucose and E2 levels were analyzed at the time of oocyte retrieval. Results: It was observed that FF Hcy level was significantly higher in PCOS patients compared with non PCOSs (p<0.01). Observations demonstrated that in PCOS group, the Hcy level increased independent to E2, glucose levels, BMI and age, while the PCOS group showed significantly higher BMI compared with non-PCOS group (p=0.03). However, no significant differences were revealed between groups for FF glucose and E2 levels. Conclusion: Present data showed that although FF glucose and E2 levels were constant in PCOS and non PCOS patients, but the FF Hcy levels in PCOS were significantly increased (p=0.01). PMID:27679823

  16. PCOS women show significantly higher homocysteine level, independent to glucose and E2 level

    PubMed Central

    Eskandari, Zahra; Sadrkhanlou, Rajab-Ali; Nejati, Vahid; Tizro, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is reasonable to think that some biochemical characteristics of follicular fluid (FF) surrounding the oocyte may play a critical role in determining the quality of oocyte and the subsequent potential needed to achieve fertilization and embryo development. Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the levels of FF homocysteine (Hcy) in IVF candidate polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women and any relationships with FF glucose and estradiol (E2) levels. Materials and Methods: In this case control study which was performed in Dr. Tizro Day Care and IVF Center 70 infertile patients were enrolled in two groups: comprising 35 PCOS and 35 non PCOS women. Long protocol was performed for all patients. FF Hcy, glucose and E2 levels were analyzed at the time of oocyte retrieval. Results: It was observed that FF Hcy level was significantly higher in PCOS patients compared with non PCOSs (p<0.01). Observations demonstrated that in PCOS group, the Hcy level increased independent to E2, glucose levels, BMI and age, while the PCOS group showed significantly higher BMI compared with non-PCOS group (p=0.03). However, no significant differences were revealed between groups for FF glucose and E2 levels. Conclusion: Present data showed that although FF glucose and E2 levels were constant in PCOS and non PCOS patients, but the FF Hcy levels in PCOS were significantly increased (p=0.01).

  17. The Significance of the Work-Place for Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackie, Karl

    1983-01-01

    Recognition of the importance of the workplace derives from the pervasive influence of work on adult development, the substantial scale of education and training carried out at work, changes in the nature of work and occupations, and new forms and content in worker education. (SK)

  18. Administration of vaccinia virus complement control protein shows significant cognitive improvement in a mild injury model.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Nirvana S; Kellaway, Laurie A; Kotwal, Girish J

    2005-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that traumatic mild brain injury in a rat model is accompanied by breakdown of the blood brain barrier and the accumulation of inflammatory cells. A therapeutic agent, vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP), inhibits both the classic and the alternative pathways of the complement system and, in so doing, prevents cell death and inflammation. With the use of a rat mild injury model, the effects of VCP on spatial learning and memory were tested. Training in a Morris water maze consisted of a total of 16 trials over a 2-day period before rats were anesthetized and subjected to mild (1.0-1.1 atm) lateral fluid percussion injury (FPI) 3.0 mm lateral to the sagittal suture and 4.5 mm posterior to bregma. Ten microl of VCP (1.7 mg/ml) was injected into the injury site immediately after FPI. Two weeks post-FPI the rats were assessed in the Morris water maze for spatial learning and memory. Neurologic motor function tests were carried out after FPI for 14 consecutive days and again after 28 days. The Morris water maze data show that FPI plus saline-injected rats spent a significantly (P <0.05) larger amount of time in one of the incorrect quadrants than did the FPI plus VCP-injected group. Neurologic evaluations 24 hours postinjury revealed differences in sensorimotor function between groups. The results suggest that in a mild injury model, VCP influences neurologic outcome and offers some enhancement in spatial memory and learning.

  19. Motivationally Significant Stimuli Show Visual Prior Entry: Evidence for Attentional Capture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Greg L.; Anderson, Adam A. K.; Pratt, Jay

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies that have found attentional capture effects for stimuli of motivational significance do not directly measure initial attentional deployment, leaving it unclear to what extent these items produce attentional capture. Visual prior entry, as measured by temporal order judgments (TOJs), rests on the premise that allocated attention…

  20. A DNA adenine methylase mutant of Shigella flexneri shows no significant attenuation of virulence.

    PubMed

    Honma, Yasuko; Fernández, Reinaldo E; Maurelli, Anthony T

    2004-04-01

    Mutants of Salmonella defective in DNA adenine methylase (dam) have been reported to be attenuated for virulence and to provide protective immunity when used as vaccine strains. To determine whether these observations could be extended to Shigella, a dam mutant of Shigella flexneri 2a was characterized and examined for the role of dam in pathogenesis. The Shigella dam mutant showed some unique characteristics; however, it retained virulence in vivo as well as in vitro. The mutant invaded cultured L2 monolayer cells as efficiently as the wild-type parent, but its intracellular growth was suppressed up to 7 h post-invasion. Furthermore, the invading dam mutant formed smaller plaques in cell monolayers compared to the parent strain. However, the mutant produced keratoconjunctivitis in the Sereny test in guinea pigs only slightly more slowly than the wild-type. While the effect of the dam mutation on virulence was modest, the rate of spontaneous mutation in the dam mutant was 1000-fold greater compared with the wild-type. The virulence and high mutability displayed by the dam mutant of Sh. flexneri suggest that a general anti-bacterial pathogen vaccine strategy based on mutations in dam needs to be re-evaluated.

  1. On the significance of adult play: what does social play tell us about adult horse welfare?

    PubMed

    Hausberger, Martine; Fureix, Carole; Bourjade, Marie; Wessel-Robert, Sabine; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick

    2012-04-01

    Play remains a mystery and adult play even more so. More typical of young stages in healthy individuals, it occurs rarely at adult stages but then more often in captive/domestic animals, which can imply spatial, social and/or feeding deprivations or restrictions that are challenging to welfare, than in animals living in natural conditions. Here, we tested the hypothesis that adult play may reflect altered welfare states and chronic stress in horses, in which, as in several species, play rarely occurs at adult stages in natural conditions. We observed the behaviour (in particular, social play) of riding school horses during occasional outings in a paddock and measured several stress indicators when these horses were in their individual home boxes. Our results revealed that (1) the number of horses and rates of adult play appeared very high compared to field report data and (2) most stress indicators measured differed between 'players' and 'non-players', revealing that most 'playful' animals were suffering from more chronic stress than 'non-playful' horses. Frequency of play behaviour correlated with a score of chronic stress. This first discovery of a relationship between adult play and altered welfare opens new lines of research that certainly deserves comparative studies in a variety of species.

  2. On the significance of adult play: what does social play tell us about adult horse welfare?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausberger, Martine; Fureix, Carole; Bourjade, Marie; Wessel-Robert, Sabine; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick

    2012-04-01

    Play remains a mystery and adult play even more so. More typical of young stages in healthy individuals, it occurs rarely at adult stages but then more often in captive/domestic animals, which can imply spatial, social and/or feeding deprivations or restrictions that are challenging to welfare, than in animals living in natural conditions. Here, we tested the hypothesis that adult play may reflect altered welfare states and chronic stress in horses, in which, as in several species, play rarely occurs at adult stages in natural conditions. We observed the behaviour (in particular, social play) of riding school horses during occasional outings in a paddock and measured several stress indicators when these horses were in their individual home boxes. Our results revealed that (1) the number of horses and rates of adult play appeared very high compared to field report data and (2) most stress indicators measured differed between `players' and `non-players', revealing that most `playful' animals were suffering from more chronic stress than `non-playful' horses. Frequency of play behaviour correlated with a score of chronic stress. This first discovery of a relationship between adult play and altered welfare opens new lines of research that certainly deserves comparative studies in a variety of species.

  3. [Mutation and expression of LEF1 in adult acute lymphocytic leukemia and their clinical significance].

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan; Guo, Xing; Ge, Zheng; Zhang, Run; Xu, Jing-Yan; Li, Min; Wu, Yu-Jie; Qiao, Chun; Qiu, Hai-Rong; Zhang, Jian-Fu; Li, Jian-Yong

    2014-10-01

    Lymphoid enhancer factor 1 (LEF1) is a key transcription factor in Wingless-type (Wnt) pathway. The present study was aimed to explore the genetic mutation and expression of LEF1, and their clinical significance in adult patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). Genomic DNA was amplified and sequenced to detect the mutation of LEF1 in 131 newly diagnosed adult patients with ALL. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed to detect the expression of LEF1. Moreover, the correlations between mutations and expression of LEF1 with clinical characteristics were analyzed. The results showed that the frequency of LEF1 mutation in adult ALL was 3.1% (4/131) and all of them were point mutations located in exon 2 and 3; the median white blood cell count and median percentage of blasts at diagnosis were significantly higher in LEF1 high expression group than in low expression group (70.6 × 10⁹/L vs 26.2 × 10⁹/L)(P = 0.010); (81.0% vs 57.0%) (P = 0.014); in addition, the percentage of patients with Philadelphia chromosome positive and patients in high-risk group significantly increased in LEF1 high expression group compared with that in low expression group (66.7% vs 36.5%) (P = 0.038); (79.2% vs 56.2%) (P = 0.044). It is concluded that high expression of LEF1 may play an important role on development of adult ALL.

  4. [Expression and clinical significance of caudal type homeobox transcription factor-2 in adult acute lymphocytic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Lu, Hai-Yan; Xia, Hai-Long; Chen, Xiao-Wen; Zhu, Li-Xin; Wang, Qing-Yi; Cheng, Xin

    2011-04-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the expression and clinical significance of CDX1, CDX2 and CDX4 genes in acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). Expressions of CDX1, CDX2, and CDX4 in 51 adult acute lymphocytic leukemia patients and 14 healthy subjects were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results indicated that CDX1, CDX2 and CDX4 were not expressed in 14 healthy persons and 15 CR ALL patients, the positive expression rate of CDX2 gene in de novo ALL patients was 60.8%, while it obviously decreased in patients with complete remission (CR) (p < 0.05); the expression of CDX2 was increased again in relapsed patients (81.8%). When the expression of CDX2 was analyzed in different risk groups of ALL patients, the CDX2 expression rate in high risk (HR) patients was 91.7%, and that in the standard risk (SR) group was 45.7%. Furthermore, analyses of CDX1 and CDX4 expression in series of ALL samples did not show the expression of these genes. In patients with adult ALL at diagnosis and relapse, the CR rate of patients with CDX2 positive expression was lower than that of patients with CDX2 negative expression (p < 0.05). The median survival time in CDX2 positive expression patients was shorter than that in negative expression patient. It is concluded that expression of CDX2 may correlated with pathogenesis and relapse of adult ALL, but the expression of CDX1 and CDX4 don' t associated with pathogenesis and relapse of adult ALL; the CR rate and prognosis of patients with CDX2 positive expression is lower and poor. The expression of CDX2 may be used as a marker for occurrence, relapse and poor prognosis of adult ALL patients.

  5. Astrocytes from adult Wistar rats aged in vitro show changes in glial functions.

    PubMed

    Souza, Débora Guerini; Bellaver, Bruna; Raupp, Gustavo Santos; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Quincozes-Santos, André

    2015-11-01

    Astrocytes, the most versatile cells of the central nervous system, play an important role in the regulation of neurotransmitter homeostasis, energy metabolism, antioxidant defenses and the anti-inflammatory response. Recently, our group characterized cortical astrocyte cultures from adult Wistar rats. In line with that work, we studied glial function using an experimental in vitro model of aging astrocytes (30 days in vitro after reaching confluence) from newborn (NB), adult (AD) and aged (AG) Wistar rats. We evaluated metabolic parameters, such as the glucose uptake, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, and glutathione (GSH) content, as well as the GFAP, GLUT-1 and xCT expression. AD and AG astrocytes take up less glucose than NB astrocytes and had decreased GLUT1 expression levels. Furthermore, AD and AG astrocytes exhibited decreased GS activity compared to NB cells. Simultaneously, AD and AG astrocytes showed an increase in GSH levels, along with an increase in xCT expression. NB, AD and AG astrocytes presented similar morphology; however, differences in GFAP levels were observed. Taken together, these results improve the knowledge of cerebral senescence and represent an innovative tool for brain studies of aging. PMID:26210720

  6. Sacral chordoma in an adult showing an aggressive clinical course: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ENDO, KOJI; YAMASHITA, HIDEKI; NAGASHIMA, HIDEKI; TESHIMA, RYOTA

    2014-01-01

    The current report presents a case of a 78-year-old male with sacral chordoma, showing an aggressive clinical course. The patient underwent sacral resection, however, nine months later, multiple metastases were detected by magnetic resonance imaging. The metastases progressed rapidly and 15 months following surgery the patient succumbed to respiratory dysfunction. An autopsy revealed multiple metastases of the lung, liver, heart, kidneys and vertebrae. Pathologically, the tumors did not show proliferation of anaplastic cells or dedifferentiation; however, the metastatic tumor cells were smaller than the primary tumor cells. The Ki-67 labeling indices were <5% in all of the patient’s tumors, therefore, the capacity for cellular proliferation of the tumors was considered to be low. Chordoma in adults are generally slow-growing tumors and are associated with a relatively prolonged course and frequent local recurrences. Therefore, it must be recognized that chordoma may grow rapidly and show an aggressive clinical course, even when the Ki-67 labeling index is low. PMID:24765153

  7. Older Adults Show Deficits in Retrieving and Decoding Associative Mediators Generated at Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzog, Christopher; Fulton, Erika K.; Mandviwala, Lulua; Dunlosky, John

    2013-01-01

    We instructed the use of mediators to encode paired-associate items, and then measured both cued recall of targets and mediators. Older adults (n = 49) and younger adults (n = 57) studied a mixed list of concrete and abstract noun pairs under instructions to either generate a sentence or an image to form a new association between normatively…

  8. Older adults show a self-reference effect for narrative information.

    PubMed

    Carson, Nicole; Murphy, Kelly J; Moscovitch, Morris; Rosenbaum, R Shayna

    2016-10-01

    The self-reference effect (SRE), enhanced memory for information encoded through self-related processing, has been established in younger and older adults using single trait adjective words. We sought to examine the generality of this phenomenon by studying narrative information in these populations. Additionally, we investigated retrieval experience at recognition and whether valence of stimuli influences memory differently in young and older adults. Participants encoded trait adjectives and narratives in self-reference, semantic, or structural processing conditions, followed by tests of recall and recognition. Experiment 1 revealed an SRE for trait adjective recognition and narrative cued recall in both age groups, although the existence of an SRE for narrative recognition was unclear due to ceiling effects. Experiment 2 revealed an SRE on an adapted test of narrative recognition. Self-referential encoding was shown to enhance recollection for both trait adjectives and narrative material in Experiment 1, whereas similar estimates of recollection for self-reference and semantic conditions were found in Experiment 2. Valence effects were inconsistent but generally similar in young and older adults when they were found. Results demonstrate that the self-reference technique extends to narrative information in young and older adults and may provide a valuable intervention tool for those experiencing age-related memory decline.

  9. Older adults show a self-reference effect for narrative information.

    PubMed

    Carson, Nicole; Murphy, Kelly J; Moscovitch, Morris; Rosenbaum, R Shayna

    2016-10-01

    The self-reference effect (SRE), enhanced memory for information encoded through self-related processing, has been established in younger and older adults using single trait adjective words. We sought to examine the generality of this phenomenon by studying narrative information in these populations. Additionally, we investigated retrieval experience at recognition and whether valence of stimuli influences memory differently in young and older adults. Participants encoded trait adjectives and narratives in self-reference, semantic, or structural processing conditions, followed by tests of recall and recognition. Experiment 1 revealed an SRE for trait adjective recognition and narrative cued recall in both age groups, although the existence of an SRE for narrative recognition was unclear due to ceiling effects. Experiment 2 revealed an SRE on an adapted test of narrative recognition. Self-referential encoding was shown to enhance recollection for both trait adjectives and narrative material in Experiment 1, whereas similar estimates of recollection for self-reference and semantic conditions were found in Experiment 2. Valence effects were inconsistent but generally similar in young and older adults when they were found. Results demonstrate that the self-reference technique extends to narrative information in young and older adults and may provide a valuable intervention tool for those experiencing age-related memory decline. PMID:26360612

  10. Do Adults with Mental Retardation Show Pictorial Superiority Effects in Recall and Recognition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Katie E.; Applegate, Heather; Reese, Celinda M.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined memory for pictures and words in 16 adults with mental retardation and 24 controls. Pictorial superiority effects occurred in free recall and recognition for both intelligence-level groups. Correlational analyses indicated working memory span was primarily related to recall performance, irrespective of stimulus format. (Contains…

  11. Do Adults Show an Effect of Delayed First Language Acquisition When Calculating Scalar Implicatures?

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Kathryn; Mayberry, Rachel I

    2015-01-01

    Language acquisition involves learning not only grammatical rules and a lexicon, but also what someone is intending to convey with their utterance: the semantic/pragmatic component of language. In this paper we separate the contributions of linguistic development and cognitive maturity to the acquisition of the semantic/pragmatic component of language by comparing deaf adults who had either early or late first exposure to their first language (ASL). We focus on the particular type of meaning at the semantic/pragmatic interface called scalar implicature, for which preschool-age children typically differ from adults. Children's behavior has been attributed to either their not knowing appropriate linguistic alternatives to consider or to cognitive developmental differences between children and adults. Unlike children, deaf adults with late language exposure are cognitively mature, although they never fully acquire some complex linguistic structures, and thus serve as a test for the role of language in such interpretations. Our results indicate an overall high performance by late learners, especially when implicatures are not based on conventionalized items. However, compared to early language learners, late language learners compute fewer implicatures when conventionalized linguistic alternatives are involved (e.g. ). We conclude that (i) in general, Gricean pragmatic reasoning does not seem to be impacted by delayed first language acquisition and can account for multiple quantity implicatures, but (ii) the creation of a scale based on lexical items can lead to ease in alternative creation that may be advantageously learned early in life, and that this may be one of several factors contributing to differences between adults and children on scalar implicature tasks. PMID:26997850

  12. Depressive symptoms and pain evaluations among persons with chronic pain: catastrophizing, but not pain acceptance, shows significant effects.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Elizabeth J; Ness, Timothy J; Doleys, Daniel M; Baños, James H; Cianfrini, Leanne; Richards, J Scott

    2009-12-15

    Cognitive factors such as catastrophic thoughts regarding pain, and conversely, one's acceptance of that pain, may affect emotional functioning among persons with chronic pain conditions. The aims of the present study were to examine the effects of both catastrophizing and acceptance on affective ratings of experimentally induced ischemic pain and also self-reports of depressive symptoms. Sixty-seven individuals with chronic back pain completed self-report measures of catastrophizing, acceptance, and depressive symptoms. In addition, participants underwent an ischemic pain induction procedure and were asked to rate the induced pain. Catastrophizing showed significant effects on sensory and intensity but not affective ratings of the induced pain. Acceptance did not show any significant associations, when catastrophizing was also in the model, with any form of ratings of the induced pain. Catastrophizing, but not acceptance, was also significantly associated with self-reported depressive symptoms when these two variables were both included in a regression model. Overall, results indicate negative thought patterns such as catastrophizing appear to be more closely related to outcomes of perceived pain severity and affect in persons with chronic pain exposed to an experimental laboratory pain stimulus than does more positive patterns as reflected in measures of acceptance.

  13. The Developmental Significance of Late Adolescent Substance Use for Early Adult Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englund, Michelle M.; Siebenbruner, Jessica; Oliva, Elizabeth M.; Egeland, Byron; Chung, Chu-Ting; Long, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the predictive significance of late adolescent substance use groups (i.e., abstainers, experimental users, at-risk users, and abusers) for early adult adaptation. Participants (N = 159) were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of first-born children of low-income mothers. At 17.5 years of age, participants were assigned…

  14. Preterm birth and unintentional injuries: risks to children, adolescents and young adults show no consistent pattern

    PubMed Central

    Calling, Susanna; Palmér, Karolina; Jönsson, Lena; Sundquist, Jan; Winkleby, Marilyn; Sundquist, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Aim Preterm birth is associated with a number of physical and mental health issues. The aim of this study was to find out if there was also any association between individuals born preterm in Sweden between 1984 and 2006 and the risk of unintentional injuries during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. Methods The study followed 2,297,134 individuals, including 5.9% born preterm, from 1985 to 2007 for unintentional injuries leading to hospitalisation or death (n=244,021). The males and females were divided into four age groups: 1–5 years, 6–12 years, 13–18 years and 19–23 years. Hazard ratios were calculated for falls, transport injuries and other injuries. Results After adjusting for a comprehensive set of covariates, some of the preterm subgroups demonstrated slightly increased risks of unintentional injuries, while others showed slightly decreased risks. However, most of the estimates were borderline or non-significant in both males and females. In addition, the absolute risk differences between individuals born preterm and full term were small. Conclusion Despite the association between preterm birth and a variety of physical and mental health consequences, this study shows that there is no consistent risk pattern between preterm birth and unintentional injuries in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:23181809

  15. A case of adult moyamoya disease showing progressive angiopathy on cerebral angiography.

    PubMed

    Shirane, R; Mikawa, S; Ebina, T

    1999-09-01

    In moyamoya disease, progression of carotid occlusive lesion in an adult patient is very rare. We report a case of adult moyamoya disease with acute angiographical stage progression and hemodynamic deterioration. A 56-year-old female complaining of left motor weakness visited our department. On MRI, infarct lesion was found in the right white matter. On cerebral angiography, occlusive lesions in the bilateral internal carotid arterial siphons and moyamoya vessels were found. The right side was stage V and the left side was stage III. On IMP-SPECT, decreased cerebral hemodynamic reserve of the right cerebral hemisphere was found. In this patient, right STA-MCA anastomosis was performed. After operation, she became possible to walk and discharged to home. Five months after operation, good collateral formation and improvement of hemodynamic reserve in the right hemisphere were found. However, on left carotid arteriography, the anterior and middle cerebral arteries were only slightly imaged, and the disease state progressed to stage IV. In addition, decreased blood flow and hemodynamic reserve were appeared in the left hemisphere.

  16. Analysis of a large dataset of mycorrhiza inoculation field trials on potato shows highly significant increases in yield.

    PubMed

    Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    An increasing human population requires more food production in nutrient-efficient systems in order to simultaneously meet global food needs while reducing the environmental footprint of agriculture. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have the potential to enhance crop yield, but their efficiency has yet to be demonstrated in large-scale crop production systems. This study reports an analysis of a dataset consisting of 231 field trials in which the same AMF inoculant (Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198) was applied to potato over a 4-year period in North America and Europe under authentic field conditions. The inoculation was performed using a liquid suspension of AMF spores that was sprayed onto potato seed pieces, yielding a calculated 71 spores per seed piece. Statistical analysis showed a highly significant increase in marketable potato yield (ANOVA, P < 0.0001) for inoculated fields (42.2 tons/ha) compared with non-inoculated controls (38.3 tons/ha), irrespective of trial year. The average yield increase was 3.9 tons/ha, representing 9.5 % of total crop yield. Inoculation was profitable with a 0.67-tons/ha increase in yield, a threshold reached in almost 79 % of all trials. This finding clearly demonstrates the benefits of mycorrhizal-based inoculation on crop yield, using potato as a case study. Further improvements of these beneficial inoculants will help compensate for crop production deficits, both now and in the future.

  17. FICTION-TSA analysis of the B-cell compartment in myeloma shows no significant expansion of myeloma precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Davies, F E; Rawstron, A C; Pratt, G; O'Connor, S; Su'ut, L; Blythe, D; Fenton, J; Claydon, D; Child, J A; Jack, A S; Morgan, G J

    1999-07-01

    Studies utilizing flow cytometry and PCR have shown that the B-cell compartment in myeloma contains cells which are clonally related to the myelomatous plasma cells. Current data, however, remains inconclusive regarding the extent of this involvement. By combining fluorescent immunophenotyping, tyramine signal amplification and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FICTION-TSA), we have used the presence of numerical chromosomal abnormalities within plasma cells as a clonal marker to examine the CD20+ B-cell compartment for the presence of aneuploidy. A series of 54 cases of myeloma were screened for the presence of numerical abnormalities of chromosomes 3 and 11. FICTION-TSA was performed on 13 cases with either trisomy 3 or 11 and on a control group of six cases known to be disomic for the two chromosomes. B-cell numbers were reduced in the myeloma cases compared to the normal controls (median 1.8% v 3.0%, P = 0.05). In the cases with a chromosomal marker, three signals were seen in a median of 1.88% of CD20+ B cells compared to 2.58% within the control group. Comparison of the two groups using a Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney U test showed no statistical significant difference. Using this data set, it was possible to exclude a 3.03% expansion of clonally related B cells (95% confidence level). We conclude that the B-cell compartment in myeloma does not represent the major site of clonal expansion, and if clonally related cells are present then the numbers are few. PMID:10444161

  18. Ubiquitous Geometry: Some Examples Showing the Significance of Size and Shape in the Works of Man and Nature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman, C. H.

    1988-01-01

    Presents examples to show the ubiquitous nature of geometry. Illustrates the relationship between the perimeter and area of two-dimensional objects and between the area and volume of three-dimensional objects. Provides examples of distribution systems, optimum shapes, structural strength, biological heat engines, man's size, and reflection and…

  19. Age distribution of human gene families shows significant roles of both large- and small-scale duplications in vertebrate evolution.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xun; Wang, Yufeng; Gu, Jianying

    2002-06-01

    The classical (two-round) hypothesis of vertebrate genome duplication proposes two successive whole-genome duplication(s) (polyploidizations) predating the origin of fishes, a view now being seriously challenged. As the debate largely concerns the relative merits of the 'big-bang mode' theory (large-scale duplication) and the 'continuous mode' theory (constant creation by small-scale duplications), we tested whether a significant proportion of paralogous genes in the contemporary human genome was indeed generated in the early stage of vertebrate evolution. After an extensive search of major databases, we dated 1,739 gene duplication events from the phylogenetic analysis of 749 vertebrate gene families. We found a pattern characterized by two waves (I, II) and an ancient component. Wave I represents a recent gene family expansion by tandem or segmental duplications, whereas wave II, a rapid paralogous gene increase in the early stage of vertebrate evolution, supports the idea of genome duplication(s) (the big-bang mode). Further analysis indicated that large- and small-scale gene duplications both make a significant contribution during the early stage of vertebrate evolution to build the current hierarchy of the human proteome.

  20. Age distribution of human gene families shows significant roles of both large- and small-scale duplications in vertebrate evolution.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xun; Wang, Yufeng; Gu, Jianying

    2002-06-01

    The classical (two-round) hypothesis of vertebrate genome duplication proposes two successive whole-genome duplication(s) (polyploidizations) predating the origin of fishes, a view now being seriously challenged. As the debate largely concerns the relative merits of the 'big-bang mode' theory (large-scale duplication) and the 'continuous mode' theory (constant creation by small-scale duplications), we tested whether a significant proportion of paralogous genes in the contemporary human genome was indeed generated in the early stage of vertebrate evolution. After an extensive search of major databases, we dated 1,739 gene duplication events from the phylogenetic analysis of 749 vertebrate gene families. We found a pattern characterized by two waves (I, II) and an ancient component. Wave I represents a recent gene family expansion by tandem or segmental duplications, whereas wave II, a rapid paralogous gene increase in the early stage of vertebrate evolution, supports the idea of genome duplication(s) (the big-bang mode). Further analysis indicated that large- and small-scale gene duplications both make a significant contribution during the early stage of vertebrate evolution to build the current hierarchy of the human proteome. PMID:12032571

  1. Not all water mazes are created equal: cyclin D2 knockout mice with constitutively suppressed adult hippocampal neurogenesis do show specific spatial learning deficits.

    PubMed

    Garthe, A; Huang, Z; Kaczmarek, L; Filipkowski, R K; Kempermann, G

    2014-04-01

    Studies using the Morris water maze to assess hippocampal function in animals, in which adult hippocampal neurogenesis had been suppressed, have yielded seemingly contradictory results. Cyclin D2 knockout (Ccnd2(-/-)) mice, for example, have constitutively suppressed adult hippocampal neurogenesis but had no overt phenotype in the water maze. In other paradigms, however, ablation of adult neurogenesis was associated with specific deficits in the water maze. Therefore, we hypothesized that the neurogenesis-related phenotype might also become detectable in Ccnd2(-/-) mice, if we used the exact setup and protocol that in our previous study had revealed deficits in mice with suppressed adult neurogenesis. Ccnd2(-/-) mice indeed learned the task and developed a normal preference for the goal quadrant, but were significantly less precise for the exact goal position and were slower in acquiring efficient and spatially more precise search strategies. Upon goal reversal (when the hidden platform was moved to a new position) Ccnd2(-/-) mice showed increased perseverance at the former platform location, implying that they were less flexible in updating the previously learned information. Both with respect to adult neurogenesis and behavioral performance, Ccnd2(+/-) mice ranged between wild types and knockouts. Importantly, hippocampus-dependent learning was not generally impaired by the mutation, but specifically functional aspects relying on precise and flexible encoding were affected. Whether ablation of adult neurogenesis causes a specific behavioral phenotype thus also depends on the actual task demands. The test parameters appear to be important variables influencing whether a task can pick up a contribution of adult neurogenesis to test performance.

  2. Human and Animal Isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica Show Significant Serotype-Specific Colonization and Host-Specific Immune Defense Properties

    PubMed Central

    Schaake, Julia; Kronshage, Malte; Uliczka, Frank; Rohde, Manfred; Knuuti, Tobias; Strauch, Eckhard; Fruth, Angelika; Wos-Oxley, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a human pathogen that is ubiquitous in livestock, especially pigs. The bacteria are able to colonize the intestinal tract of a variety of mammalian hosts, but the severity of induced gut-associated diseases (yersiniosis) differs significantly between hosts. To gain more information about the individual virulence determinants that contribute to colonization and induction of immune responses in different hosts, we analyzed and compared the interactions of different human- and animal-derived isolates of serotypes O:3, O:5,27, O:8, and O:9 with murine, porcine, and human intestinal cells and macrophages. The examined strains exhibited significant serotype-specific cell binding and entry characteristics, but adhesion and uptake into different host cells were not host specific and were independent of the source of the isolate. In contrast, survival and replication within macrophages and the induced proinflammatory response differed between murine, porcine, and human macrophages, suggesting a host-specific immune response. In fact, similar levels of the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) were secreted by murine bone marrow-derived macrophages with all tested isolates, but the equivalent interleukin-8 (IL-8) response of porcine bone marrow-derived macrophages was strongly serotype specific and considerably lower in O:3 than in O:8 strains. In addition, all tested Y. enterocolitica strains caused a considerably higher level of secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 by porcine than by murine macrophages. This could contribute to limiting the severity of the infection (in particular of serotype O:3 strains) in pigs, which are the primary reservoir of Y. enterocolitica strains pathogenic to humans. PMID:23959720

  3. Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma (PMA) Shows Significant Differences in Gene Expression vs. Pilocytic Astrocytoma (PA) and Variable Tendency Toward Maturation to PA.

    PubMed

    Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, Bette K; Donson, Andrew M; Vogel, Hannes; Foreman, Nicholas K

    2015-07-01

    Pilomyxoid astrocytomas (PMAs) manifest a more aggressive clinical course than pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs). Development of effective therapies demands a better biological understanding of PMA. We first conducted gene expression microarray analysis of 9 PMA and 13 PA from infra- and supratentorial sites. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis demonstrated that tumors are grouped according to anatomic site, not diagnosis. Gene expression profiles were then contrasted between eight PMAs and six PAs, all supratentorial/hypothalamic/chiasmal. Clinical outcome of PMAs varied, with four out of four patients with diencephalic syndrome succumbing to disease, one of whom showed bulky metastatic leptomeningeal spread at autopsy, with bimodal maturation to PA in some areas and de-differentiation to glioblastoma in others. A surviving child has undergone multiple surgical debulking, with progressive maturation to PA over time. Ontology-enrichment analysis identified overexpression in PMAs of extracellular matrix and mitosis-related genes. Genes overexpressed in PMA vs. PA, ranked according to fold-change, included developmental genes H19, DACT2, extracellular matrix collagens (COL2A1; COL1A1) and IGF2BP3 (IMP3), the latter previously identified as an adverse prognostic factor in PMA and PA.

  4. Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) shows significant differences in gene expression versus pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) and variable tendency toward maturation to PA

    PubMed Central

    Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, B.K.; Donson, Andrew M.; Vogel, Hannes; Foreman, Nicholas K.

    2015-01-01

    Pilomyxoid astrocytomas (PMAs) manifest a more aggressive clinical course than pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs). Development of effective therapies demands a better biological understanding of PMA. We first conducted gene expression microarray analysis of 9 PMA and 13 PA from infra- and supra-tentorial sites. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis demonstrated that tumors grouped according to anatomic site, not diagnosis. Gene expression profiles were then contrasted between 8 PMAs and 6 PAs, all supratentorial/hypothalamic/chiasmal. Clinical outcome of PMAs varied, with 4/4 patients with diencephalic syndrome succumbing to disease, one of whom showed bulky metastatic leptomeningeal spread at autopsy, with bimodal maturation to PA in some areas and de-differentiation to glioblastoma in others. A surviving child has undergone multiple surgical debulkings, with progressive maturation to PA over time. Ontology-enrichment analysis identified overexpression in PMAs of extracellular matrix and mitosis-related genes. Genes overexpressed in PMA versus PA, ranked according to fold-change, included developmental genes H19, DACT2, extracellular matrix collagens (COL2A1;COL1A1) and IGF2BP3 (IMP3), the latter previously identified as an adverse prognostic factor in PMA and PA. PMID:25521223

  5. The ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord differs from other species and shows ependymoma-like features.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel; Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Florensa-Vila, José; Ferrer, Isidro; Grassner, Lukas; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo

    2015-06-01

    Several laboratories have described the existence of undifferentiated precursor cells that may act like stem cells in the ependyma of the rodent spinal cord. However, there are reports showing that this region is occluded and disassembled in humans after the second decade of life, although this has been largely ignored or interpreted as a post-mortem artefact. To gain insight into the patency, actual structure, and molecular properties of the adult human spinal cord ependymal region, we followed three approaches: (i) with MRI, we estimated the central canal patency in 59 control subjects, 99 patients with traumatic spinal cord injury, and 26 patients with non-traumatic spinal cord injuries. We observed that the central canal is absent from the vast majority of individuals beyond the age of 18 years, gender-independently, throughout the entire length of the spinal cord, both in healthy controls and after injury; (ii) with histology and immunohistochemistry, we describe morphological properties of the non-lesioned ependymal region, which showed the presence of perivascular pseudorosettes, a common feature of ependymoma; and (iii) with laser capture microdissection, followed by TaqMan® low density arrays, we studied the gene expression profile of the ependymal region and found that it is mainly enriched in genes compatible with a low grade or quiescent ependymoma (53 genes); this region is enriched only in 14 genes related to neurogenic niches. In summary, we demonstrate here that the central canal is mainly absent in the adult human spinal cord and is replaced by a structure morphologically and molecularly different from that described for rodents and other primates. The presented data suggest that the ependymal region is more likely to be reminiscent of a low-grade ependymoma. Therefore, a direct translation to adult human patients of an eventual therapeutic potential of this region based on animal models should be approached with caution. PMID:25882650

  6. The ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord differs from other species and shows ependymoma-like features.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel; Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Florensa-Vila, José; Ferrer, Isidro; Grassner, Lukas; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo

    2015-06-01

    Several laboratories have described the existence of undifferentiated precursor cells that may act like stem cells in the ependyma of the rodent spinal cord. However, there are reports showing that this region is occluded and disassembled in humans after the second decade of life, although this has been largely ignored or interpreted as a post-mortem artefact. To gain insight into the patency, actual structure, and molecular properties of the adult human spinal cord ependymal region, we followed three approaches: (i) with MRI, we estimated the central canal patency in 59 control subjects, 99 patients with traumatic spinal cord injury, and 26 patients with non-traumatic spinal cord injuries. We observed that the central canal is absent from the vast majority of individuals beyond the age of 18 years, gender-independently, throughout the entire length of the spinal cord, both in healthy controls and after injury; (ii) with histology and immunohistochemistry, we describe morphological properties of the non-lesioned ependymal region, which showed the presence of perivascular pseudorosettes, a common feature of ependymoma; and (iii) with laser capture microdissection, followed by TaqMan® low density arrays, we studied the gene expression profile of the ependymal region and found that it is mainly enriched in genes compatible with a low grade or quiescent ependymoma (53 genes); this region is enriched only in 14 genes related to neurogenic niches. In summary, we demonstrate here that the central canal is mainly absent in the adult human spinal cord and is replaced by a structure morphologically and molecularly different from that described for rodents and other primates. The presented data suggest that the ependymal region is more likely to be reminiscent of a low-grade ependymoma. Therefore, a direct translation to adult human patients of an eventual therapeutic potential of this region based on animal models should be approached with caution.

  7. Dietary Mannoheptulose Does Not Significantly Alter Daily Energy Expenditure in Adult Labrador Retrievers.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Leslie L; Root-McCaig, Jared; Wright, David; Davenport, Gary M; France, James; Shoveller, Anna Kate

    2015-01-01

    Mannoheptulose (MH), a sugar found in avocados that inhibits glycolysis in vitro, has been preliminarily investigated as a novel food ingredient for dogs. This study aimed to determine the effects of dietary MH, delivered as an extract of un-ripened avocado, on energy expenditure (EE) in healthy adult Labrador Retriever dogs (total of 12 dogs, 26.99 ± 0.634 kg, 4.9 ± 0.2 y). The study was a double-blind, cross-over with each dog receiving both dietary treatments, control (CON) and MH (400 mg/kg of diet; 6 mg/kg BW), in random order. Resting and post-prandial (10 h) EE and respiratory quotient (RQ) were determined by indirect calorimetry (d 42). The following day, body composition was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Continuous activity monitoring was conducted using an Atical® accelerometer (d 43-47). A vastus lateralis muscle biopsy was obtained prior to the morning meal (d 49) and 4 h after consumption of their meal (d 56) to determine the protein content and phosphorylation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Diet did not affect body weight, resting EE or skeletal muscle AMPK phosphorylation. Dogs fed MH had significantly lower post-prandial RQ (p = 0.02) and ratio of fat to lean body mass (p = 0.02). Physical activity during light time periods (but not dark) was lower in dogs fed MH (p < 0.05) during weekends, but not on weekdays. These results suggest that MH affects energy balance of adult dogs, but that these effects are not dose dependent and not due to physical activity. PMID:26656105

  8. Dietary Mannoheptulose Does Not Significantly Alter Daily Energy Expenditure in Adult Labrador Retrievers.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Leslie L; Root-McCaig, Jared; Wright, David; Davenport, Gary M; France, James; Shoveller, Anna Kate

    2015-01-01

    Mannoheptulose (MH), a sugar found in avocados that inhibits glycolysis in vitro, has been preliminarily investigated as a novel food ingredient for dogs. This study aimed to determine the effects of dietary MH, delivered as an extract of un-ripened avocado, on energy expenditure (EE) in healthy adult Labrador Retriever dogs (total of 12 dogs, 26.99 ± 0.634 kg, 4.9 ± 0.2 y). The study was a double-blind, cross-over with each dog receiving both dietary treatments, control (CON) and MH (400 mg/kg of diet; 6 mg/kg BW), in random order. Resting and post-prandial (10 h) EE and respiratory quotient (RQ) were determined by indirect calorimetry (d 42). The following day, body composition was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Continuous activity monitoring was conducted using an Atical® accelerometer (d 43-47). A vastus lateralis muscle biopsy was obtained prior to the morning meal (d 49) and 4 h after consumption of their meal (d 56) to determine the protein content and phosphorylation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Diet did not affect body weight, resting EE or skeletal muscle AMPK phosphorylation. Dogs fed MH had significantly lower post-prandial RQ (p = 0.02) and ratio of fat to lean body mass (p = 0.02). Physical activity during light time periods (but not dark) was lower in dogs fed MH (p < 0.05) during weekends, but not on weekdays. These results suggest that MH affects energy balance of adult dogs, but that these effects are not dose dependent and not due to physical activity.

  9. Dietary Mannoheptulose Does Not Significantly Alter Daily Energy Expenditure in Adult Labrador Retrievers

    PubMed Central

    McKnight, Leslie L.; Root-McCaig, Jared; Wright, David; Davenport, Gary M.; France, James; Shoveller, Anna Kate

    2015-01-01

    Mannoheptulose (MH), a sugar found in avocados that inhibits glycolysis in vitro, has been preliminarily investigated as a novel food ingredient for dogs. This study aimed to determine the effects of dietary MH, delivered as an extract of un-ripened avocado, on energy expenditure (EE) in healthy adult Labrador Retriever dogs (total of 12 dogs, 26.99 ± 0.634 kg, 4.9 ± 0.2 y). The study was a double-blind, cross-over with each dog receiving both dietary treatments, control (CON) and MH (400 mg/kg of diet; 6 mg/kg BW), in random order. Resting and post-prandial (10 h) EE and respiratory quotient (RQ) were determined by indirect calorimetry (d 42). The following day, body composition was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Continuous activity monitoring was conducted using an Atical® accelerometer (d 43–47). A vastus lateralis muscle biopsy was obtained prior to the morning meal (d 49) and 4 h after consumption of their meal (d 56) to determine the protein content and phosphorylation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Diet did not affect body weight, resting EE or skeletal muscle AMPK phosphorylation. Dogs fed MH had significantly lower post-prandial RQ (p = 0.02) and ratio of fat to lean body mass (p = 0.02). Physical activity during light time periods (but not dark) was lower in dogs fed MH (p < 0.05) during weekends, but not on weekdays. These results suggest that MH affects energy balance of adult dogs, but that these effects are not dose dependent and not due to physical activity. PMID:26656105

  10. Adult acclimation to combined temperature and pH stressors significantly enhances reproductive outcomes compared to short-term exposures.

    PubMed

    Suckling, Coleen C; Clark, Melody S; Richard, Joelle; Morley, Simon A; Thorne, Michael A S; Harper, Elizabeth M; Peck, Lloyd S

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the effects of long-term culture under altered conditions on the Antarctic sea urchin, Sterechinus neumayeri. Sterechinus neumayeri was cultured under the combined environmental stressors of lowered pH (-0.3 and -0.5 pH units) and increased temperature (+2 °C) for 2 years. This time-scale covered two full reproductive cycles in this species and analyses included studies on both adult metabolism and larval development. Adults took at least 6-8 months to acclimate to the altered conditions, but beyond this, there was no detectable effect of temperature or pH. Animals were spawned after 6 and 17 months exposure to altered conditions, with markedly different outcomes. At 6 months, the percentage hatching and larval survival rates were greatest in the animals kept at 0 °C under current pH conditions, whilst those under lowered pH and +2 °C performed significantly less well. After 17 months, performance was not significantly different across treatments, including controls. However, under the altered conditions urchins produced larger eggs compared with control animals. These data show that under long-term culture adult S. neumayeri appear to acclimate their metabolic and reproductive physiology to the combined stressors of altered pH and increased temperature, with relatively little measureable effect. They also emphasize the importance of long-term studies in evaluating effects of altered pH, particularly in slow developing marine species with long gonad maturation times, as the effects of altered conditions cannot be accurately evaluated unless gonads have fully matured under the new conditions. PMID:25491898

  11. Adult acclimation to combined temperature and pH stressors significantly enhances reproductive outcomes compared to short-term exposures.

    PubMed

    Suckling, Coleen C; Clark, Melody S; Richard, Joelle; Morley, Simon A; Thorne, Michael A S; Harper, Elizabeth M; Peck, Lloyd S

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the effects of long-term culture under altered conditions on the Antarctic sea urchin, Sterechinus neumayeri. Sterechinus neumayeri was cultured under the combined environmental stressors of lowered pH (-0.3 and -0.5 pH units) and increased temperature (+2 °C) for 2 years. This time-scale covered two full reproductive cycles in this species and analyses included studies on both adult metabolism and larval development. Adults took at least 6-8 months to acclimate to the altered conditions, but beyond this, there was no detectable effect of temperature or pH. Animals were spawned after 6 and 17 months exposure to altered conditions, with markedly different outcomes. At 6 months, the percentage hatching and larval survival rates were greatest in the animals kept at 0 °C under current pH conditions, whilst those under lowered pH and +2 °C performed significantly less well. After 17 months, performance was not significantly different across treatments, including controls. However, under the altered conditions urchins produced larger eggs compared with control animals. These data show that under long-term culture adult S. neumayeri appear to acclimate their metabolic and reproductive physiology to the combined stressors of altered pH and increased temperature, with relatively little measureable effect. They also emphasize the importance of long-term studies in evaluating effects of altered pH, particularly in slow developing marine species with long gonad maturation times, as the effects of altered conditions cannot be accurately evaluated unless gonads have fully matured under the new conditions.

  12. Women as Learners: The Significance of Gender in Adult Learning. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Elisabeth; Flannery, Daniele D.

    This book is intended to address the need for information and understanding about adult women's learning and education. It gathers knowledge about women and their learning and places women's learning experiences in the contexts of where women live. The book also promotes an understanding of women's diversity and makes recommendations for future…

  13. High Frequency of Clinically Significant Bacteremia in Adults Hospitalized With Falciparum Malaria.

    PubMed

    Nyein, Phyo Pyae; Aung, Ne Myo; Kyi, Tint Tint; Htet, Zaw Win; Anstey, Nicholas M; Kyi, Mar Mar; Hanson, Josh

    2016-01-01

    Background.  African children with severe falciparum malaria commonly have concomitant Gram-negative bacteremia, but co-infection has been thought to be relatively rare in adult malaria. Methods.  Adults with a diagnosis of falciparum malaria hospitalized at 4 tertiary referral hospitals in Myanmar had blood cultures collected at admission. The frequency of concomitant bacteremia and the clinical characteristics of the patients, with and without bacteremia, were explored. Results.  Of 67 adults hospitalized with falciparum malaria, 9 (13% [95% confidence interval, 5.3%-21.6%]) were also bacteremic on admission, 7 (78%) with Gram-negative enteric organisms (Escherichia coli [n = 3], typhoidal Salmonella species [n = 3], nontyphoidal Salmonella [n = 1]). Bacteremic adults had more severe disease (median Respiratory Coma Acidosis Malaria [RCAM] score 3; interquartile range [IQR], 1-4) than those without bacteremia (median RCAM score 1; IQR, 1-2) and had a higher frequency of acute kidney injury (50% vs 16%, P = .03). Although 35 (52%) were at high risk of death (RCAM score ≥2), all 67 patients in the study survived, 51 (76%) of whom received empirical antibiotics on admission. Conclusions.  Bacteremia was relatively frequent in adults hospitalized with falciparum malaria in Myanmar. Like children in high transmission settings, bacteremic adults in this low transmission setting were sicker than nonbacteremic adults, and were often difficult to identify at presentation. Empirical antibiotics may also be appropriate in adults hospitalized with falciparum malaria in low transmission settings, until bacterial infection is excluded.

  14. Appendicular Fractures: A Significant Problem among Institutionalized Adults with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryder, K. M.; Williams, J.; Womack, C.; Nayak, N. G.; Nasef, S.; Bush, A.; Tylavsky, F. A.; Carbone, L.

    2003-01-01

    This study found a high incidence of nontraumatic fractures in adults with developmental disabilities living in a state-run facility, a 7.3% incidence among 391 adults. Factors associated with fractures included use of antiepileptic medication. Although bone mineral density (BMD) by heel ultrasound did not predict fracture, values were much lower…

  15. Serotonin axons of the neostriatum show a higher affinity for striatal than for ventral mesencephalic transplants: a quantitative study in adult and immature recipient rats.

    PubMed

    Pierret, P; Vallée, A; Bosler, O; Dorais, M; Moukhles, H; Abbaszadeh, R; Lepage, Y; Doucet, G

    1998-07-01

    We previously showed that grafts of fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue are practically not innervated by host serotonin (5-HT) axons after implantation into the striatum of rats aged more than 14 days, at variance with transplants of cortical or striatal tissue into the adult striatum, which are well innervated by these axons. Using 5-HT immunohistochemistry and in vitro [3H]5-HT uptake/autoradiography, we have examined and quantified the innervation of ventral mesencephalic versus striatal grafts several months after implantation into the striatum of neonatal (postnatal day 5 or P5), juvenile (P15), and adult rats. Ventral mesencephalic grafts implanted in P5 rats received a moderate 5-HT innervation, while similar grafts implanted in P15 or adult recipients were almost free of any 5-HT fibers (-80%, compared to P5). The density of 5-HT innervation showed a tendency toward higher values in striatal than in ventral mesencephalic grafts (1.6-2 times higher in P5 and adult recipients; 4 times higher in P15 recipients). The difference was more striking, and significant, when only the true striatal portions of the striatal grafts were considered, i.e., DARPP-32-immunopositive areas (4-5 times higher in P5 and adult recipients; 10 times higher in P15 recipients). Accordingly, these DARPP-32-positive areas were also more densely innervated than the DARPP-32-negative zones of the same grafts (3 times higher at any age). The 5-HT innervation density also decreased with increasing age of the recipients in DARPP-32-positive, as well as DARPP-32-negative compartments of the striatal grafts (-75% in adults), but this decrease appeared more gradual (-50% in juveniles) than with mesencephalic grafts. It is concluded that the 5-HT axons innervating the neostriatum have a better affinity for striatal grafts than for ventral mesencephalic grafts or the nonstriatal portions of striatal grafts. In adulthood, the relative affinity of these axons for the different types of grafts is

  16. High Frequency of Clinically Significant Bacteremia in Adults Hospitalized With Falciparum Malaria.

    PubMed

    Nyein, Phyo Pyae; Aung, Ne Myo; Kyi, Tint Tint; Htet, Zaw Win; Anstey, Nicholas M; Kyi, Mar Mar; Hanson, Josh

    2016-01-01

    Background.  African children with severe falciparum malaria commonly have concomitant Gram-negative bacteremia, but co-infection has been thought to be relatively rare in adult malaria. Methods.  Adults with a diagnosis of falciparum malaria hospitalized at 4 tertiary referral hospitals in Myanmar had blood cultures collected at admission. The frequency of concomitant bacteremia and the clinical characteristics of the patients, with and without bacteremia, were explored. Results.  Of 67 adults hospitalized with falciparum malaria, 9 (13% [95% confidence interval, 5.3%-21.6%]) were also bacteremic on admission, 7 (78%) with Gram-negative enteric organisms (Escherichia coli [n = 3], typhoidal Salmonella species [n = 3], nontyphoidal Salmonella [n = 1]). Bacteremic adults had more severe disease (median Respiratory Coma Acidosis Malaria [RCAM] score 3; interquartile range [IQR], 1-4) than those without bacteremia (median RCAM score 1; IQR, 1-2) and had a higher frequency of acute kidney injury (50% vs 16%, P = .03). Although 35 (52%) were at high risk of death (RCAM score ≥2), all 67 patients in the study survived, 51 (76%) of whom received empirical antibiotics on admission. Conclusions.  Bacteremia was relatively frequent in adults hospitalized with falciparum malaria in Myanmar. Like children in high transmission settings, bacteremic adults in this low transmission setting were sicker than nonbacteremic adults, and were often difficult to identify at presentation. Empirical antibiotics may also be appropriate in adults hospitalized with falciparum malaria in low transmission settings, until bacterial infection is excluded. PMID:26989752

  17. High Frequency of Clinically Significant Bacteremia in Adults Hospitalized With Falciparum Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Nyein, Phyo Pyae; Aung, Ne Myo; Kyi, Tint Tint; Htet, Zaw Win; Anstey, Nicholas M.; Kyi, Mar Mar; Hanson, Josh

    2016-01-01

    Background. African children with severe falciparum malaria commonly have concomitant Gram-negative bacteremia, but co-infection has been thought to be relatively rare in adult malaria. Methods. Adults with a diagnosis of falciparum malaria hospitalized at 4 tertiary referral hospitals in Myanmar had blood cultures collected at admission. The frequency of concomitant bacteremia and the clinical characteristics of the patients, with and without bacteremia, were explored. Results. Of 67 adults hospitalized with falciparum malaria, 9 (13% [95% confidence interval, 5.3%–21.6%]) were also bacteremic on admission, 7 (78%) with Gram-negative enteric organisms (Escherichia coli [n = 3], typhoidal Salmonella species [n = 3], nontyphoidal Salmonella [n = 1]). Bacteremic adults had more severe disease (median Respiratory Coma Acidosis Malaria [RCAM] score 3; interquartile range [IQR], 1–4) than those without bacteremia (median RCAM score 1; IQR, 1–2) and had a higher frequency of acute kidney injury (50% vs 16%, P = .03). Although 35 (52%) were at high risk of death (RCAM score ≥2), all 67 patients in the study survived, 51 (76%) of whom received empirical antibiotics on admission. Conclusions. Bacteremia was relatively frequent in adults hospitalized with falciparum malaria in Myanmar. Like children in high transmission settings, bacteremic adults in this low transmission setting were sicker than nonbacteremic adults, and were often difficult to identify at presentation. Empirical antibiotics may also be appropriate in adults hospitalized with falciparum malaria in low transmission settings, until bacterial infection is excluded. PMID:26989752

  18. New Hippocampal Neurons Are Not Obligatory for Memory Formation; Cyclin D2 Knockout Mice with No Adult Brain Neurogenesis Show Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaholkowski, Piotr; Kiryk, Anna; Jedynak, Paulina; Abdallah, Nada M. Ben; Knapska, Ewelina; Kowalczyk, Anna; Piechal, Agnieszka; Blecharz-Klin, Kamilla; Figiel, Izabela; Lioudyno, Victoria; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, Ewa; Wilczynski, Grzegorz M.; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Kaczmarek, Leszek; Filipkowski, Robert K.

    2009-01-01

    The role of adult brain neurogenesis (generating new neurons) in learning and memory appears to be quite firmly established in spite of some criticism and lack of understanding of what the new neurons serve the brain for. Also, the few experiments showing that blocking adult neurogenesis causes learning deficits used irradiation and various drugs…

  19. Children's Drawings of Significant Figures for a Peer or an Adult Audience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkitt, Esther; Watling, Dawn; Murray, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    The present study assessed if children would present different information in their drawings of emotion eliciting stimuli when they believed that an adult or a child audience would view their drawings. Seventy-five 6-year-olds (44 boys and 31 girls) were allocated to three groups: the reference group, the child audience group and the adult…

  20. Significance of metabolite extraction method for evaluating sulfamethazine toxicity in adult zebrafish using metabolomics.

    PubMed

    De Sotto, Ryan; Medriano, Carl; Cho, Yunchul; Seok, Kwang-Seol; Park, Youngja; Kim, Sungpyo

    2016-05-01

    Recently, environmental metabolomics has been introduced as a next generation environmental toxicity method which helps in evaluating toxicity of bioactive compounds to non-target organisms. In general, efficient metabolite extraction from target cells is one of the keys to success to better understand the effects of toxic substances to organisms. In this regard, the aim of this study is (1) to compare two sample extraction methods in terms of abundance and quality of metabolites and (2) investigate how this could lead to difference in data interpretation using pathway analysis. For this purpose, the antibiotic sulfamethazine and zebrafish (Danio rerio) were selected as model toxic substance and target organism, respectively. The zebrafish was exposed to four different sulfamethazine concentrations (0, 10, 30, and 50mg/L) for 72h. Metabolites were extracted using two different methods (Bligh and Dyer and solid-phase extraction). A total of 13,538 and 12,469 features were detected using quadrupole time-of-flight liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (QTOF LC-MS). Of these metabolites, 4278 (Bligh and Dyer) and 332 (solid phase extraction) were found to be significant after false discovery rate adjustment at a significance threshold of 0.01. Metlin and KEGG pathway analysis showed comprehensive information from fish samples extracted using Bligh and Dyer compared to solid phase extraction. This study shows that proper selection of sample extraction method is critically important for interpreting and analyzing the toxicity data of organisms when metabolomics is applied. PMID:26827276

  1. The significance of childhood competence and problems for adult success in work: a developmental cascade analysis.

    PubMed

    Masten, Ann S; Desjardins, Christopher David; McCormick, Christopher M; Kuo, Sally I-Chun; Long, Jeffrey D

    2010-08-01

    Success in the domain of work is a salient developmental task of adulthood and a key indicator of adaptive function in the evaluation of health and psychopathology. Yet few studies have examined pathways to work competence, especially with strategies testing for cumulative cascade effects over time. Cascade models spanning 20 years were tested via structural equation modeling, linking work competence in early adulthood to antecedent competence in work and other domains of competence in childhood and emerging adulthood. Data were drawn from the Project Competence longitudinal study of 205 school children followed for 20 years. Relative fit of alternative models was evaluated by the Bayesian information criterion. As hypothesized, the effectiveness of adaptive behavior in earlier age-salient developmental task domains forecasted later work competence, which also showed strong concurrent links to competence in other domains. Results suggest there are numerous pathways by which success or failure in major developmental task domains in childhood and adolescence may influence adaptation in other domains and eventually work competence, both concurrently and cumulatively over time. Cascade effects highlight the potential significance for later work competence of childhood conduct (antisocial vs. rule-abiding behavior) and social competence with peers, in addition to the ongoing role that academic attainment may have for work success. Work competence also showed considerable stability over a 10-year period during early adulthood. Implications and applications for future research and intervention are discussed.

  2. Younger Adults Show Long-Term Effects of Cognitive Training on Broad Cognitive Abilities over 2 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmiedek, Florian; Lövdén, Martin; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2014-01-01

    In the COGITO study (Schmiedek, Lövdén, & Lindenberger, 2010), 101 younger adults practiced 12 tests of perceptual speed, working memory, and episodic memory for over 100 daily 1-hr sessions. The intervention resulted in positive transfer to broad cognitive abilities, including reasoning and episodic memory. Here, we examine whether these…

  3. Preschoolers with Down Syndrome Do Not yet Show the Learning and Memory Impairments Seen in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Lynette V.; Richmond, Jenny L.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) exhibit a behavioral phenotype of specific strengths and weaknesses, in addition to a generalized cognitive delay. In particular, adults with DS exhibit specific deficits in learning and memory processes that depend on the hippocampus, and there is some suggestion of impairments on executive function tasks that…

  4. Concise Review: Quiescence in Adult Stem Cells: Biological Significance and Relevance to Tissue Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Rumman, Mohammad; Dhawan, Jyotsna; Kassem, Moustapha

    2015-10-01

    Adult stem cells (ASCs) are tissue resident stem cells responsible for tissue homeostasis and regeneration following injury. In uninjured tissues, ASCs exist in a nonproliferating, reversibly cell cycle-arrested state known as quiescence or G0. A key function of the quiescent state is to preserve stemness in ASCs by preventing precocious differentiation, and thus maintaining a pool of undifferentiated ASCs. Recent evidences suggest that quiescence is an actively maintained state and that excessive or defective quiescence may lead to compromised tissue regeneration or tumorigenesis. The aim of this review is to provide an update regarding the biological mechanisms of ASC quiescence and their role in tissue regeneration.

  5. Does age at onset have clinical significance in older adults with bipolar disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Chu, David; Gildengers, Ariel G.; Houck, Patricia R.; Anderson, Stewart J.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Kupfer, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective While age at onset may be useful in explaining some of the heterogeneity of bipolar disorder (BD) in large, mixed age groups, investigations to date have found few meaningful clinical differences between early versus late age at onset in older adults with BD. Methods Data were collected from sixty-one subjects aged 60 years and older, mean (SD) age 67.6 (7.0), with BD I (75%) and II (25%). Subjects were grouped by early (<40 years; n=43) versus late (≥40 years; n=18) age at onset. Early versus late onset groups were compared on psychiatric comorbidity, medical burden, and percentage of days well during study participation. Results Except for family history of major psychiatric illnesses, there were no differences between the groups on demographic or clinical variables. Patients with early and late onset experienced similar percentages of days well; however, those with early onset had slightly more percentage of days depressed than those with late onset (22% versus 13%) Conclusion Distinguishing older adults with BD by early or late age at onset has limited clinical usefulness. PMID:20082348

  6. Impaired Autophagy in Adult Bone Marrow CD34+ Cells of Patients with Aplastic Anemia: Possible Pathogenic Significance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jinbo; Ge, Meili; Lu, Shihong; Shi, Jun; Yu, Wei; Li, Xingxin; Wang, Min; Zhang, Jizhou; Feng, Sizhou; Dong, Shuxu; Cheng, Xuelian; Zheng, Yizhou

    2016-01-01

    Aplastic anemia (AA) is a bone marrow failure syndrome that is caused largely by profound quantitative and qualitative defects of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. However, the mechanisms underlying these defects remain unclear. Under conditions of stress, autophagy acts as a protective mechanism for cells. We therefore postulated that autophagy in CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) from AA patients might be impaired and play a role in the pathogenesis of AA. To test this hypothesis, we tested autophagy in CD34+ cells from AA samples and healthy controls and investigated the effect of autophagy on the survival of adult human bone marrow CD34+ cells. We found that the level of autophagy in CD34+ cells from AA patients was significantly lower than in age/sex-matched healthy controls, and lower in cases of severe AA than in those with non-severe AA. Autophagy in CD34+ cells improved upon amelioration of AA but, compared to healthy controls, was still significantly reduced even in AA patients who had achieved a complete, long-term response. We also showed that although the basal autophagy in CD34+ cells was low, the autophagic response of CD34+ cells to "adversity" was rapid. Finally, impaired autophagy resulted in reduced differentiation and proliferation of CD34+ cells and sensitized them to death and apoptosis. Thus, our results confirm that autophagy in CD34+ cells from AA patients is impaired, that autophagy is required for the survival of CD34+ cells, and that impaired autophagy in CD34+ HPCs may play an important role in the pathogenesis of AA. PMID:26930650

  7. Night eating syndrome in young adults: delineation from other eating disorders and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sophia; Meyer, Andrea H; Hermann, Ernst; Tuch, Alex; Munsch, Simone

    2012-12-30

    The Night Eating Syndrome (NES) is a recently described disordered eating style whose status in current diagnostic systems needs to be further clarified. The aim of this study was to increase knowledge about the clinical features of NES in a sample of 1514 young adults aged 18-26 years from the general population who participated in an anonymous Internet survey. We first examined characteristics of NES and tried to delineate it from healthy controls as well as from other eating disorders in terms of socio-demography, eating disorder pathology and general psychopathology. Second, we attempted to further clarify the clinical utility of the NES by assessing the degree of distress as well as impairment. Twenty (1.3%) participants with NES were identified and there was only modest overlap between NES and both Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and Bulimia nervosa (BN) according to questionnaire-based DSM-IV criteria. Compared to healthy controls, NES individuals reported more pronounced eating disorder pathology as well as general psychopathology (depressive symptoms, chronic social stress). NES seems to be associated with considerable distress and impairment. Implications for the validity and classification of NES are discussed.

  8. Cell adhesion molecule pathway genes are regulated by cis-regulatory SNPs and show significantly altered expression in Alzheimer's disease brains.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xinjie; Liu, Gengfeng; Jiang, Yongshuai; Jiang, Qinghua; Liao, Mingzhi; Feng, Rennan; Zhang, Liangcai; Ma, Guoda; Zhang, Shuyan; Chen, Zugen; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Renzhi; Li, Keshen; Liu, Guiyou

    2015-10-01

    We previously identified the cell adhesion molecule (CAM) pathway as a consistent signal in 2 Alzheimer's disease (AD) genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, the genetic mechanisms of the CAM pathway in AD are unclear. Here, we conducted pathway analysis using (1) Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and Gene Ontology pathways; (2) 4 brain expression GWAS datasets; and (3) 2 whole-genome AD case-control expression datasets. Using the 4 brain expression GWAS datasets, we identified that genes regulated by cis-regulatory single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were significantly enriched in the CAM pathway (p = 2.05E-06, p = 6.10E-07, p = 2.05E-06, and p = 1.47E-07 for each dataset). Interestingly, CAM is a significantly enriched pathway using down-regulated genes (raw p = 0.0235 and adjusted p = 0.0305) and all differentially expressed genes (raw p = 0.0105 and adjusted p = 0.0156) in dataset 5, and all differentially expressed genes (raw p = 0.0041 and adjusted p = 0.0062) in dataset 6. Collectively, our results show that CAM pathway genes are regulated by cis-regulatory SNPs and show significantly altered expression in AD. We believe that our results advance the understanding of AD mechanisms and will be useful for future genetic studies of AD.

  9. Adolescents in Institutional Care: Significant Adults, Resilience and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mota, Catarina Pinheiro; Matos, Paula Mena

    2015-01-01

    Background: Attachment theory states the importance of secure relationships with significant figures for the development of resilience and well-being. The institutional care context represents a particular environment where relationships beyond the family should be attended for. Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyse the relationship…

  10. Vitamin D, folate, and potential early lifecycle environmental origin of significant adult phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Lucock, Mark; Yates, Zoë; Martin, Charlotte; Choi, Jeong-Hwa; Boyd, Lyndell; Tang, Sa; Naumovski, Nenad; Furst, John; Roach, Paul; Jablonski, Nina; Chaplin, George; Veysey, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives: Vitamin D and folate are highly UV sensitive, and critical for maintaining health throughout the lifecycle. This study examines whether solar irradiance during the first trimester of pregnancy influences vitamin D receptor (VDR) and nuclear folate gene variant occurrence, and whether affected genes influence late-life biochemical/clinical phenotypes. Methodology: 228 subjects were examined for periconceptional exposure to solar irradiance, variation in vitamin D/folate genes (polymerase chain reaction (PCR)), dietary intake (food frequency questionnaire (FFQ)) and important adult biochemical/clinical phenotypes. Results: Periconceptional solar irradiance was associated with VDR-BsmI (P = 0.0008wk7), TaqI (P = 0.0014wk7) and EcoRV (P = 0.0030wk6) variant occurrence between post-conceptional weeks 6–8, a period when ossification begins. Similar effects were detected for other VDR gene polymorphisms. Periconceptional solar irradiance was also associated with 19 bp del-DHFR (P = 0.0025wk6), and to a lesser extent C1420T-SHMT (P = 0.0249wk6), a folate-critical time during embryogenesis. These same genes were associated with several late-life phenotypes: VDR-BsmI, TaqI and ApaI determined the relationship between dietary vitamin D and both insulin (P < 0.0001/BB, 0.0007/tt and 0.0173/AA, respectively) and systolic blood pressure (P = 0.0290/Bb, 0.0299/Tt and 0.0412/AA, respectively), making them important early and late in the lifecycle. While these and other phenotype associations were found for the VDR variants, folate polymorphism associations in later-life were limited to C1420T-SHMT (P = 0.0037 and 0.0297 for fasting blood glucose and HbA1c levels, respectively). We additionally report nutrient–gene relationships with body mass index, thiol/folate metabolome, cognition, depression and hypertension. Furthermore, photoperiod at conception influenced occurrence of VDR-Tru9I and 2R3R-TS genotypes (P = 0.0120 and 0.0360, respectively

  11. Evolution of EF-hand calcium-modulated proteins. III. Exon sequences confirm most dendrograms based on protein sequences: calmodulin dendrograms show significant lack of parallelism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakayama, S.; Kretsinger, R. H.

    1993-01-01

    In the first report in this series we presented dendrograms based on 152 individual proteins of the EF-hand family. In the second we used sequences from 228 proteins, containing 835 domains, and showed that eight of the 29 subfamilies are congruent and that the EF-hand domains of the remaining 21 subfamilies have diverse evolutionary histories. In this study we have computed dendrograms within and among the EF-hand subfamilies using the encoding DNA sequences. In most instances the dendrograms based on protein and on DNA sequences are very similar. Significant differences between protein and DNA trees for calmodulin remain unexplained. In our fourth report we evaluate the sequences and the distribution of introns within the EF-hand family and conclude that exon shuffling did not play a significant role in its evolution.

  12. Gedunin and photogedunin of Xylocarpus granatum show significant anti-secretory effects and protect the gastric mucosa of peptic ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, V; Singh, N; Shrivastva, S; Mishra, S K; Dharmani, P; Mishra, V; Palit, G

    2010-07-01

    In the present study, the gastroprotective mechanism of Xylocarpus granatum fruit and its active constituents gedunin and photogedunin was investigated. Chloroform fraction (Fr-CHCl(3)) of X. granatum fruit was evaluated against cold restraint (CRU), aspirin (AS), alcohol (AL) and pyloric ligation (PL) induced gastric ulcer models in rats and histamine (HA) induced duodenal ulcer model in guinea pigs. Potential anti-ulcer activity of Fr-CHCl(3) was observed against CRU (58.28%), AS (67.81%), AL (84.38%), PL (65.66%) and HA (61.93%) induced ulcer models. The standard drug omeprazole (10mg/kg, p.o.) showed 68.25% protection against CRU, 57.08% against AS and 69.42% against PL model and 70.79% against HA induced duodenal ulcer. Sucralfate, another standard drug (500 mg/kg, p.o.) showed 62.72% protection in AL induced ulcer model. Fr-CHCl(3) significantly reduced free acidity (51.42%), total acidity (30.76%) and upregulated mucin secretion by 58.37% respectively. Phytochemical investigations of Fr-CHCl(3) yielded gedunin (36%), photogedunin (2%). Further, Fr-CHCl(3) and its compounds gedunin and photogedunin significantly inhibited H(+) K(+)-ATPase activity in vitro with IC(50) of 89.37, 56.86 and 66.54 microg/ml respectively as compared to the IC(50) value of omeprazole (30.24 microg/ml) confirming their anti-secretory activity. Conclusively, Fr-CHCl(3) of Xylocarpus granatum was found to possess anti-ulcerogenic activity which might be due to its anti-secretory activity and subsequent strengthening of the defensive mechanism. This study is the first of its kind to show significant anti-secretory effect of gedunin and photogedunin. Therefore it could act as a potent therapeutic agent against peptic ulcer disease. PMID:19962286

  13. Does head posture have a significant effect on the hyoid bone position and sternocleidomastoid electromyographic activity in young adults?

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Saúl; Miralles, Rodolfo; Ravera, María José; Zúñiga, Claudia; Santander, Hugo; Ferrer, Marcelo; Nakouzi, Jorge

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between head posture (head extension, normal head posture, and head flexion) and anteroposterior head position, hyoid bone position, and the sternocleidomastoid integrated electromyographic (IEMG) activity in a sample of young adults. The study included 50 individuals with natural dentition and bilateral molar support. A lateral craniocervical radiograph was taken for each subject and a cephalometric analysis was performed. Head posture was measured by means of the craniovertebral angle formed by the MacGregor plane and the odontoid plane. According to the value of this angle, the sample was divided into the following three groups: head extension (less than 95 degrees); normal head posture (between 95 degrees and 106 degrees); and head flexion (more than 106 degrees). The following cephalometric measurements were taken to compare the three groups: anteroposterior head position (true vertical plane/pterygoid distance), anteroposterior hyoid bone position (true vertical plane-Ha distance), vertical hyoid bone position (H-H' distance in the hyoid triangle), and CO-C2 distance. In the three groups, IEMG recordings at rest and during swallowing of saliva and maximal voluntary clenching were performed by placing bipolar surface electrodes on the right and left sternocleidomastoid muscles. In addition, the condition with/without craniomandibular dysfunction (CMD) in each group was also assessed. Head posture showed no significant association with anteroposterior head position, anteroposterior hyoid bone position, vertical hyoid bone position, or sternocleidomastoid IEMG activity. There was no association to head posture with/without the condition of CMD. Clinical relevance of the results is discussed.

  14. Pharmacology of Ultrasonic Vocalizations in adult Rats: Significance, Call Classification and Neural Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Brudzynski, Stefan M.

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological studies of emotional arousal and initiation of emotional states in rats measured by their ultrasonic vocalizations are reviewed. It is postulated that emission of vocalizations is an inseparable feature of emotional states and it evolved from mother-infant interaction. Positive emotional states are associated with emission of 50 kHz vocalizations that could be induced by rewarding situations and dopaminergic activation of the nucleus accumbens and are mediated by D1, D2, and partially D3 dopamine receptors. Three biologically significant subtypes of 50 kHz vocalizations have been identified, all expressing positive emotional states: (1) flat calls without frequency modulation that serve as contact calls during social interactions; (2) frequencymodulated calls without trills that signal rewarding and significantly motivated situation; and (3) frequency-modulated calls with trills or trills themselves that are emitted in highly emotional situations associated with intensive affective state. Negative emotional states are associated with emission of 22 kHz vocalizations that could be induced by aversive situations, muscarinic cholinergic activation of limbic areas of medial diencephalon and forebrain, and are mediated by M2 muscarinic receptors. Two biologically significant subtypes of 22 kHz vocalizations have been identified, both expressing negative emotional sates: (1) long calls that serve as alarm calls and signal external danger; and (2) short calls that express a state of discomfort without external danger. The positive and negative states with emission of vocalizations are initiated by two ascending reticular activating subsystems: the mesolimbic dopaminergic subsystem as a specific positive arousal system, and the mesolimbic cholinergic subsystem as a specific negative arousal system. PMID:26411761

  15. Pharmacology of Ultrasonic Vocalizations in adult Rats: Significance, Call Classification and Neural Substrate.

    PubMed

    Brudzynski, Stefan M

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological studies of emotional arousal and initiation of emotional states in rats measured by their ultrasonic vocalizations are reviewed. It is postulated that emission of vocalizations is an inseparable feature of emotional states and it evolved from mother-infant interaction. Positive emotional states are associated with emission of 50 kHz vocalizations that could be induced by rewarding situations and dopaminergic activation of the nucleus accumbens and are mediated by D1, D2, and partially D3 dopamine receptors. Three biologically significant subtypes of 50 kHz vocalizations have been identified, all expressing positive emotional states: (1) flat calls without frequency modulation that serve as contact calls during social interactions; (2) frequencymodulated calls without trills that signal rewarding and significantly motivated situation; and (3) frequency-modulated calls with trills or trills themselves that are emitted in highly emotional situations associated with intensive affective state. Negative emotional states are associated with emission of 22 kHz vocalizations that could be induced by aversive situations, muscarinic cholinergic activation of limbic areas of medial diencephalon and forebrain, and are mediated by M2 muscarinic receptors. Two biologically significant subtypes of 22 kHz vocalizations have been identified, both expressing negative emotional sates: (1) long calls that serve as alarm calls and signal external danger; and (2) short calls that express a state of discomfort without external danger. The positive and negative states with emission of vocalizations are initiated by two ascending reticular activating subsystems: the mesolimbic dopaminergic subsystem as a specific positive arousal system, and the mesolimbic cholinergic subsystem as a specific negative arousal system.

  16. Clinical Significance and Characterization of Streptococcus tigurinus Isolates in an Adult Population.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, Lori; Clarridge, J E

    2015-11-01

    Streptococcus tigurinus is a newly described member of the Streptococcus mitis group. Due to the difficulty in distinguishing viridans group streptococci (VGS) by phenotype, analysis of 16S rRNA sequences is necessary for the accurate identification of most species. Through a laboratory policy of analyzing all clinically significant isolates from the VGS group by16S rRNA gene sequencing, we identified 14 S. tigurinus isolates from 11 patients. The Vitek 2 system most commonly gave an excellent rating to an incorrect identification (e.g., Streptococcus mitis), as did matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) (e.g., Streptococcus oralis). S. tigurinus strains were recovered from numerous body sites, including the blood, peritoneal fluid, bone, synovial fluid, a perianal abscess, and an arm wound. Retrospective chart review indicated that most isolates were clinically significant, with bacteremia (n = 5), soft tissue infections (n = 3) osteomyelitis (n = 2), infected joint prosthesis (n = 2), and peritonitis (n = 2) being the most common, thus expanding the spectrum of disease associated with S. tigurinus.

  17. Effects of the short-term learned significance of task-irrelevant sounds on involuntary attention in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Wetzel, Nicole

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to test effects of unexpected task-irrelevant environmental sounds, that were short-term learned to be significant, on deviance-related brain activity (event-related potentials; ERPs) and performance in children aged 9-10 years and young adults. Participants performed three conditions. In the first ignore condition an oddball paradigm was presented including two neutral deviant sounds. In the second learning condition significance was attributed to one of the two deviant sounds by defining it as target. In the third condition participants then performed a version of an oddball paradigm, embedded in a narrative, that included the neutral and the now significant but task-irrelevant deviant sound. Results revealed decreased reaction times and hit rates elicited by significant compared to neutral deviant sounds in both age groups whereas P3a, an indicator of orienting of attention and novelty evaluation, was not affected by deviant's learned significance. In contrast, post-deviant processing, reflected by hit rates and ERPs in trials following a significant deviant compared to those following a neutral deviant, was differently modulated in children and adults. Moreover, a clear P3a was observed in the attend condition in both age groups but in the ignore condition in children only. Results indicate that the short-term learned significance of task-irrelevant sounds modulates performance but not orienting and evaluation processes associated with the P3a. Importantly, results demonstrate children's increased susceptibility to task-irrelevant but significant sounds and the ongoing maturation of attention control in the late childhood.

  18. Significant Improvements in the Practice Patterns of Adult Related Donor Care in US Transplantation Centers.

    PubMed

    Anthias, Chloe; Shaw, Bronwen E; Kiefer, Deidre M; Liesveld, Jane L; Yared, Jean; Kamble, Rammurti T; D'Souza, Anita; Hematti, Peiman; Seftel, Matthew D; Norkin, Maxim; DeFilipp, Zachariah; Kasow, Kimberly A; Abidi, Muneer H; Savani, Bipin N; Shah, Nirali N; Anderlini, Paolo; Diaz, Miguel A; Malone, Adriana K; Halter, Joerg P; Lazarus, Hillard M; Logan, Brent R; Switzer, Galen E; Pulsipher, Michael A; Confer, Dennis L; O'Donnell, Paul V

    2016-03-01

    Recent investigations have found a higher incidence of adverse events associated with hematopoietic cell donation in related donors (RDs) who have morbidities that if present in an unrelated donor (UD) would preclude donation. In the UD setting, regulatory standards ensure independent assessment of donors, one of several crucial measures to safeguard donor health and safety. A survey conducted by the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) Donor Health and Safety Working Committee in 2007 reported a potential conflict of interest in >70% of US centers, where physicians had simultaneous responsibility for RDs and their recipients. Consequently, several international organizations have endeavored to improve practice through regulations and consensus recommendations. We hypothesized that the changes in the 2012 Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy and the Joint Accreditation Committee-International Society for Cellular Therapy and European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation standards resulting from the CIBMTR study would have significantly impacted practice. Accordingly, we conducted a follow-up survey of US transplantation centers to assess practice changes since 2007, and to investigate additional areas where RD care was predicted to differ from UD care. A total of 73 centers (53%), performing 79% of RD transplantations in the United States, responded. Significant improvements were observed since the earlier survey; 62% centers now ensure separation of RD and recipient care (P < .0001). This study identifies several areas where RD management does not meet international donor care standards, however. Particular concerns include counseling and assessment of donors before HLA typing, with 61% centers first disclosing donor HLA results to an individual other than the donor, the use of unlicensed mobilization agents, and the absence of long-term donor follow-up. Recommendations for improvement are made.

  19. Quantitative short-day photoperiodic response in larval development and its adaptive significance in an adult-overwintering cerambycid beetle, Phytoecia rufiventris.

    PubMed

    Shintani, Yoshinori

    2011-07-01

    The chrysanthemum longicorn beetle, Phytoecia rufiventris, overwinters in the adult stage and reproduces in spring. Larvae of this beetle develop during summer inside a host stem or root. In the present study, photoperiodic control of larval development and its adaptive significance were examined in this beetle using an artificial diet. Larvae showed a short-day photoperiodic response at 25°C with a critical day length of around 14 h; larvae reared under short-day conditions pupated, whereas those reared under long-day conditions entered summer diapause with some supernumerary molts and did not pupate. A similar response was found at 30°C, but with a shorter critical day length. Below the critical day length, a shorter day length corresponded to a shorter larval period. Larvae transferred from long-day conditions to various photoperiods showed a similar quantitative response. Field rearing of larvae starting at various times of year showed that pupation occurs within a relatively short period in early autumn. Field rearing of pupae and adults at various times indicated that only pupation in early autumn results in a high survival rate until winter. Earlier or later pupation led to a low survival rate due to death before overwintering in the adult and pupal stages, respectively. Thus, in P. rufiventris, timing of pupation regulated by the quantitative short-day photoperiodic response is vital for survival. Relatively lower developmental threshold in the pupal stage supports this hypothesis.

  20. A dual acting compound releasing nitric oxide (NO) and ibuprofen, NCX 320, shows significant therapeutic effects in a mouse model of muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Sciorati, Clara; Miglietta, Daniela; Buono, Roberta; Pisa, Viviana; Cattaneo, Dario; Azzoni, Emanuele; Brunelli, Silvia; Clementi, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    A resolutive therapy for muscular dystrophies, a heterogeneous group of genetic diseases leading to muscular degeneration and in the severe forms to death, is still lacking. Since inflammation and defects in nitric oxide generation are recognized key pathogenic events in muscular dystrophy, we have analysed the effects of a derivative of ibuprofen, NCX 320, belonging to the class of cyclooxygenase inhibiting nitric oxide donator (CINOD), in the α-sarcoglycan null mice, a severe mouse model of dystrophy. NCX 320 was administered daily in the diet for 8 months starting 1 month from weaning. Muscle functional recovery was evaluated by free wheel and treadmill tests at 8 months. Serum creatine kinase activity, as well as the number of diaphragm inflammatory infiltrates and necrotic fibres, was measured as indexes of skeletal muscle damage. Muscle regeneration was evaluated in diaphragm and tibialis anterior muscles, measuring the numbers of centronucleated fibres and of myogenic precursor cells. NCX 320 mitigated muscle damage, reducing significantly serum creatine kinase activity, the number of necrotic fibres and inflammatory infiltrates. Moreover, NCX 320 stimulated muscle regeneration increasing significantly the number of myogenic precursor cells and regenerating fibres. All these effects concurred in inducing a significant improvement of muscle function, as assessed by both free wheel and treadmill tests. These results describe the properties of a new compound incorporating nitric oxide donation together with anti-inflammatory properties, showing that it is effective in slowing muscle dystrophy progression long term. Of importance, this new compound deserves specific attention for its potential in the therapy of muscular dystrophy given that ibuprofen is well tolerated in paediatric patients and with a profile of safety that makes it suitable for chronic treatment such as the one required in muscular dystrophies. PMID:21609764

  1. A human intervention study with foods containing natural Ah-receptor agonists does not significantly show AhR-mediated effects as measured in blood cells and urine.

    PubMed

    de Waard, Pim W J; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Baykus, Hakan; Aarts, Jac M M J G; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Schooten, Frederik J; de Kok, Theo M C M

    2008-10-22

    Binding and activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is thought to be an essential step in the toxicity of the environmental pollutants dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs. However, also a number of natural compounds, referred to as NAhRAs (natural Ah-receptor agonists), which are present in, for example, fruits and vegetables, can bind and activate this receptor. To study their potential effects in humans, we first investigated the effect of the prototypical AhR agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on gene expression in ex vivo exposed freshly isolated human lymphocytes, and compared the resulting gene expression profile with those caused by the well-known NAhRA indolo[3,2-b]carbazole (ICZ), originating from cruciferous vegetables, and by a hexane extract of NAhRA-containing grapefruit juice (GJE). Only ICZ induced a gene expression profile similar to TCDD in the lymphocytes, and both significantly up-regulated CYP1B1 and TIPARP (TCDD-inducible poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase) mRNA. Next, we performed a human intervention study with NAhRA-containing cruciferous vegetables and grapefruit juice. The expression of the prototypical AhR-responsive genes CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and NQO1 in whole blood cells and in freshly isolated lymphocytes was not significantly affected. Also enzyme activities of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) and xanthine oxidase (XO), as judged by caffeine metabolites in urine, were unaffected, except for a small down-regulation of NAT2 activity by grapefruit juice. Examination of blood plasma with DR CALUX showed a 12% increased AhR agonist activity 3 and 24 h after consumption of cruciferous vegetables, but did not show a significant effect of grapefruit juice consumption. We conclude that intake of NAhRAs from food may result in minor AhR-related effects measurable in human blood and urine. PMID:18762178

  2. Yearly variation of spontaneous somatic mutation frequency in the stamen hairs of Tradescantia clone KU 9 grown outdoors, which showed a significant increase after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, S; Nakano, A; Kenmochi, M; Yamamoto, I; Murai, M; Takahashi, E; Yamaguchi, A; Watanabe, K; Tomiyama, M; Sugiyama, K; Yogo, A; Yazaki, T; Okumura, M; Shima, N; Satoh, M; Yoshimoto, M; Xiao, L Z

    1996-02-01

    Scoring of spontaneous somatic pink mutation frequency in the stamen hairs of Tradescantia clone KU 9, a heterozygote for flower color (blue/pink; the blue color being dominant), was carried out for 11 years on plants grown outdoors, during the period of May 11-31 (for 3 weeks) in every year from 1982 to 1992. Weekly and yearly variations of the spontaneous mutation frequency were observed, and such variations could mostly be correlated to the difference in temperature. That is, the mutation frequency was generally higher in the weeks and years when the temperature was relatively low, showing the strongest negative correlation with the average minimum temperature. The variations were also correlated to the diurnal temperature difference, the mutation frequency being higher with larger diurnal temperature difference in general. However, the mutation frequency observed in 1986 was exceptionally higher than that expected from the temperature for this year, and was very significantly higher than for other years. The scoring of mutation frequency was thus continued in 1986 for an additional 4 weeks (June 1-28), and it was confirmed that such higher mutation frequencies lasted for 6 weeks in total. The exceptionally high mutation frequency seemed to be related to the radioactive fallout which occurred in early to mid May of 1986, even in Japan, after the serious nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl, and also to the biological concentrations of radioactive nuclides which subsequently occurred, although it was difficult to conclude this definitely. The mutation frequency in 1987 was second highest, and was also significantly higher than the lowest mutation frequency observed in 1990. PMID:8600356

  3. Yearly variation of spontaneous somatic mutation frequency in the stamen hairs of Tradescantia clone KU 9 grown outdoors, which showed a significant increase after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, S; Nakano, A; Kenmochi, M; Yamamoto, I; Murai, M; Takahashi, E; Yamaguchi, A; Watanabe, K; Tomiyama, M; Sugiyama, K; Yogo, A; Yazaki, T; Okumura, M; Shima, N; Satoh, M; Yoshimoto, M; Xiao, L Z

    1996-02-01

    Scoring of spontaneous somatic pink mutation frequency in the stamen hairs of Tradescantia clone KU 9, a heterozygote for flower color (blue/pink; the blue color being dominant), was carried out for 11 years on plants grown outdoors, during the period of May 11-31 (for 3 weeks) in every year from 1982 to 1992. Weekly and yearly variations of the spontaneous mutation frequency were observed, and such variations could mostly be correlated to the difference in temperature. That is, the mutation frequency was generally higher in the weeks and years when the temperature was relatively low, showing the strongest negative correlation with the average minimum temperature. The variations were also correlated to the diurnal temperature difference, the mutation frequency being higher with larger diurnal temperature difference in general. However, the mutation frequency observed in 1986 was exceptionally higher than that expected from the temperature for this year, and was very significantly higher than for other years. The scoring of mutation frequency was thus continued in 1986 for an additional 4 weeks (June 1-28), and it was confirmed that such higher mutation frequencies lasted for 6 weeks in total. The exceptionally high mutation frequency seemed to be related to the radioactive fallout which occurred in early to mid May of 1986, even in Japan, after the serious nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl, and also to the biological concentrations of radioactive nuclides which subsequently occurred, although it was difficult to conclude this definitely. The mutation frequency in 1987 was second highest, and was also significantly higher than the lowest mutation frequency observed in 1990.

  4. Cytochrome c oxidase response to changes in cerebral oxygen delivery in the adult brain shows higher brain-specificity than haemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Kolyva, Christina; Ghosh, Arnab; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Highton, David; Cooper, Chris E; Smith, Martin; Elwell, Clare E

    2014-01-15

    The redox state of cerebral mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase monitored with near-infrared spectroscopy (Δ[oxCCO]) is a signal with strong potential as a non-invasive, bedside biomarker of cerebral metabolic status. We hypothesised that the higher mitochondrial density of brain compared to skin and skull would lead to evidence of brain-specificity of the Δ[oxCCO] signal when measured with a multi-distance near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system. Measurements of Δ[oxCCO] as well as of concentration changes in oxygenated (Δ[HbO2]) and deoxygenated haemoglobin (Δ[HHb]) were taken at multiple source-detector distances during systemic hypoxia and hypocapnia (decrease in cerebral oxygen delivery), and hyperoxia and hypercapnia (increase in cerebral oxygen delivery) from 15 adult healthy volunteers. Increasing source-detector spacing is associated with increasing light penetration depth and thus higher sensitivity to cerebral changes. An increase in Δ[oxCCO] was observed during the challenges that increased cerebral oxygen delivery and the opposite was observed when cerebral oxygen delivery decreased. A consistent pattern of statistically significant increasing amplitude of the Δ[oxCCO] response with increasing light penetration depth was observed in all four challenges, a behaviour that was distinctly different from that of the haemoglobin chromophores, which did not show this statistically significant depth gradient. This depth-dependence of the Δ[oxCCO] signal corroborates the notion of higher concentrations of CCO being present in cerebral tissue compared to extracranial components and highlights the value of NIRS-derived Δ[oxCCO] as a brain-specific signal of cerebral metabolism, superior in this aspect to haemoglobin. PMID:23707584

  5. Cytochrome c oxidase response to changes in cerebral oxygen delivery in the adult brain shows higher brain-specificity than haemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Kolyva, Christina; Ghosh, Arnab; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Highton, David; Cooper, Chris E; Smith, Martin; Elwell, Clare E

    2014-01-15

    The redox state of cerebral mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase monitored with near-infrared spectroscopy (Δ[oxCCO]) is a signal with strong potential as a non-invasive, bedside biomarker of cerebral metabolic status. We hypothesised that the higher mitochondrial density of brain compared to skin and skull would lead to evidence of brain-specificity of the Δ[oxCCO] signal when measured with a multi-distance near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system. Measurements of Δ[oxCCO] as well as of concentration changes in oxygenated (Δ[HbO2]) and deoxygenated haemoglobin (Δ[HHb]) were taken at multiple source-detector distances during systemic hypoxia and hypocapnia (decrease in cerebral oxygen delivery), and hyperoxia and hypercapnia (increase in cerebral oxygen delivery) from 15 adult healthy volunteers. Increasing source-detector spacing is associated with increasing light penetration depth and thus higher sensitivity to cerebral changes. An increase in Δ[oxCCO] was observed during the challenges that increased cerebral oxygen delivery and the opposite was observed when cerebral oxygen delivery decreased. A consistent pattern of statistically significant increasing amplitude of the Δ[oxCCO] response with increasing light penetration depth was observed in all four challenges, a behaviour that was distinctly different from that of the haemoglobin chromophores, which did not show this statistically significant depth gradient. This depth-dependence of the Δ[oxCCO] signal corroborates the notion of higher concentrations of CCO being present in cerebral tissue compared to extracranial components and highlights the value of NIRS-derived Δ[oxCCO] as a brain-specific signal of cerebral metabolism, superior in this aspect to haemoglobin.

  6. Serum Vitamin D Is Significantly Inversely Associated with Disease Severity in Caucasian Adults with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kerley, Conor P.; Hutchinson, Katrina; Bolger, Kenneth; McGowan, Aisling; Faul, John; Cormican, Liam

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and possible relationships to OSAS severity, sleepiness, lung function, nocturnal heart rate (HR), and body composition. We also aimed to compare the 25(OH)D status of a subset of OSAS patients compared to controls matched for important determinants of both OSAS and vitamin D deficiency (VDD). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at an urban, clinical sleep medicine outpatient center. We recruited newly diagnosed, Caucasian adults who had recently undergone nocturnal polysomnography. We compared body mass index (BMI), body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis), neck circumference, sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale), lung function, and vitamin D status (serum 25-hydrpoxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) across OSAS severity categories and non-OSAS subjects. Next, using a case-control design, we compared measures of serum 25(OH)D from OSAS cases to non-OSAS controls who were matched for age, gender, skin pigmentation, sleepiness, season, and BMI. Results: 106 adults (77 male; median age = 54.5; median BMI = 34.3 kg/m2) resident in Dublin, Ireland (latitude 53°N) were recruited and categorized as non-OSAS or mild/moderate/severe OSAS. 98% of OSAS cases had insufficient 25(OH)D (< 75 nmol/L), including 72% with VDD (< 50 nmol/L). 25(OH)D levels decreased with OSAS severity (P = 0.003). 25(OH)D was inversely correlated with BMI, percent body fat, AHI, and nocturnal HR. Subsequent multivariate regression analysis revealed that 25(OH)D was independently associated with both AHI (P = 0.016) and nocturnal HR (P = 0.0419). Our separate case-control study revealed that 25(OH)D was significantly lower in OSAS cases than matched, non-OSAS subjects (P = 0.001). Conclusions: We observed widespread vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in a Caucasian, OSAS population. There were significant, independent, inverse relationships between 25(OH)D and AHI as well as

  7. In utero/lactational and adult exposures to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) show differential effects on craniofacial development and growth in rats.

    PubMed

    Sholts, Sabrina B; Korkalainen, Merja; Simanainen, Ulla; Miettinen, Hanna M; Håkansson, Helen; Viluksela, Matti

    2015-11-01

    In a previous study of female Han/Wistar (H/W) and Long-Evans (L-E) rats, we found that adult exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was associated with size decreases in the cranium and especially the face. In this study we compared these crania to those from male and female Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats with in utero/lactational exposure to TCDD, using morphometric variables of size, shape, and fluctuating asymmetry to quantify the effects of dose on craniofacial development and growth. At the highest levels of exposure, in utero/lactational and adult TCDD exposures both resulted in small but significant reductions in facial size parameters (i.e., 3-5%) in only females and minor effects on facial shape in both sexes. The shape effects of in utero/lactational exposure were most significant at the sutural intersections, whereas adult exposure to TCDD corresponded to dose-dependent changes of decreasing facial length and vault breadth. Fluctuating asymmetry in general explained a relatively small amount of shape variation compared with other effects, and only increased significantly in female L-E rats with high levels of adult exposure to TCDD. These results indicate that TCDD-related changes in cranial development and growth in rats can vary with the timing and duration of exposure, and with sex. Further investigations of other dioxin-like compounds and animal species will broaden our understanding of how chemicals exposure can influence the development and growth of the mammalian skeleton.

  8. Fever of unknown origin caused by adult juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: the diagnostic significance of double quotidian fevers and elevated serum ferritin levels.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A

    2004-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) in adults is a commonly encountered clinical problem. Treatable causes of FUO in the adult should be the primary focus of the diagnostic workup. Neoplasms have replaced infectious diseases as being the most common cause of FUO in adults, and collagen vascular diseases are now relatively rare. The most important collagen vascular diseases presenting as an FUO include Takayasu's arteritis, Kikuchi's disease, polymyalgia rheumatica, and adult juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) (adult Still's disease). There are no specific diagnostic tests for these disorders, which commonly present as prolonged fevers that are not easily diagnosed (i.e., FUO). Adult JRA is a rare but important cause of FUO in adults. Typically, patients with adult Still's disease present with liver/spleen involvement, posi-articular arthritis, ocular involvement, and evanescent salmon-colored truncal rash. An important diagnostic finding in adult JRA is the presence of a double quotidian fever, which occurs in few other disorders. Only visceral leishmaniasis and adult JRA are causes of FUO in adults associated with double quotidian fevers. Highly elevated serum ferritin levels are the most important nonspecific diagnostic finding associated with adult JRA. We present a case of FUO caused by adult JRA presenting with diffuse polyarticular migrating arthritis, evanescent rash, and splenomegaly. The diagnosis of adult JRA was suggested by these findings in association with a double quotidian fever and a highly elevated serum ferritin level. Clinicians should appreciate the diagnostic significance of fever patterns and the diagnostic significance of elevated serum ferritin levels in patients with FUO.

  9. A randomized trial in a massive online open course shows people don't know what a statistically significant relationship looks like, but they can learn.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Aaron; Anderson, G Brooke; Peng, Roger; Leek, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Scatterplots are the most common way for statisticians, scientists, and the public to visually detect relationships between measured variables. At the same time, and despite widely publicized controversy, P-values remain the most commonly used measure to statistically justify relationships identified between variables. Here we measure the ability to detect statistically significant relationships from scatterplots in a randomized trial of 2,039 students in a statistics massive open online course (MOOC). Each subject was shown a random set of scatterplots and asked to visually determine if the underlying relationships were statistically significant at the P < 0.05 level. Subjects correctly classified only 47.4% (95% CI [45.1%-49.7%]) of statistically significant relationships, and 74.6% (95% CI [72.5%-76.6%]) of non-significant relationships. Adding visual aids such as a best fit line or scatterplot smooth increased the probability a relationship was called significant, regardless of whether the relationship was actually significant. Classification of statistically significant relationships improved on repeat attempts of the survey, although classification of non-significant relationships did not. Our results suggest: (1) that evidence-based data analysis can be used to identify weaknesses in theoretical procedures in the hands of average users, (2) data analysts can be trained to improve detection of statistically significant results with practice, but (3) data analysts have incorrect intuition about what statistically significant relationships look like, particularly for small effects. We have built a web tool for people to compare scatterplots with their corresponding p-values which is available here: http://glimmer.rstudio.com/afisher/EDA/. PMID:25337457

  10. A randomized trial in a massive online open course shows people don’t know what a statistically significant relationship looks like, but they can learn

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Aaron; Anderson, G. Brooke; Peng, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Scatterplots are the most common way for statisticians, scientists, and the public to visually detect relationships between measured variables. At the same time, and despite widely publicized controversy, P-values remain the most commonly used measure to statistically justify relationships identified between variables. Here we measure the ability to detect statistically significant relationships from scatterplots in a randomized trial of 2,039 students in a statistics massive open online course (MOOC). Each subject was shown a random set of scatterplots and asked to visually determine if the underlying relationships were statistically significant at the P < 0.05 level. Subjects correctly classified only 47.4% (95% CI [45.1%–49.7%]) of statistically significant relationships, and 74.6% (95% CI [72.5%–76.6%]) of non-significant relationships. Adding visual aids such as a best fit line or scatterplot smooth increased the probability a relationship was called significant, regardless of whether the relationship was actually significant. Classification of statistically significant relationships improved on repeat attempts of the survey, although classification of non-significant relationships did not. Our results suggest: (1) that evidence-based data analysis can be used to identify weaknesses in theoretical procedures in the hands of average users, (2) data analysts can be trained to improve detection of statistically significant results with practice, but (3) data analysts have incorrect intuition about what statistically significant relationships look like, particularly for small effects. We have built a web tool for people to compare scatterplots with their corresponding p-values which is available here: http://glimmer.rstudio.com/afisher/EDA/. PMID:25337457

  11. Sertoli cell dedifferentiation in human cryptorchidism and gender reassignment shows similarities between fetal environmental and adult medical treatment estrogen and antiandrogen exposure.

    PubMed

    Nistal, Manuel; Gonzalez-Peramato, Pilar; De Miguel, Maria P

    2013-12-01

    Studies over the last years show an increase in testicular cancer, hypospadias and cryptorchidism in industrial countries, leading to the concept of testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). It is hypothesized that TDS is caused by estrogen and antiandrogen exposure during fetal life, accompanied by incomplete maturation of testicular Sertoli cells (SC). However, it is not known if SC disruption is a primary cause or a response to fetal Leydig cell testosterone production changes. To determine if SC differentiation is directly affected by estrogens, we compared SC maturation between adult gender reassignment cases exposed to estrogen and antiandrogen therapy, and those of typical TDS in adult cryptorchidism. We found similar expression of immature SC markers M2A antigen, inhibin bodies and Anti Mullerian Hormone, and the absence of maturation marker androgen receptor in SC of both types of patients. These data supports the occurrence of true SC dedifferentiation caused by estrogen exposure in adult humans. Our data also suggests that SC maturation is directly disrupted in TDS.

  12. Prognostic Significance of Clinical/Pathological Stage IA Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Showing Partially Solid or Solid Tumours on Radiological Exam

    PubMed Central

    Matsuura, Yosuke; Nakao, Masayuki; Mun, Mingyon; Nakagawa, Ken; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Okumura, Sakae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Although curative resection is expected to be effective in patients with clinical (c-) stage IA/pathological (p-) stage IA non-small-cell lung cancers, recurrence is often observed. Hence, the aim of this study was to identify predictors of recurrence. Methods: Between 2005 and 2009, 138 patients with c-stage IA/p-stage IA non-small-cell lung cancers underwent resection. Recurrence and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were compared with clinical, radiographic and pathological findings. Results: The 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 97% and the RFS rate was 89% at a median follow-up time of 91 months. Recurrence was observed in 10 patients (7.2%). Significant differences were observed in RFS according to tumour dimensions on the mediastinal window image (>1.5 cm), serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels (>5.0 ng/mL), maximum standardised uptake values (SUVmax >2.5) and angiolymphatic invasion. Patients were grouped according to the number of risk factors for poor RFS. Patients with 0–1 of the identified risk factors had an RFS of 97%, where those with 2–4 factors had an RFS of 68% (p <0.001). Conclusion: Prognosis of patients exhibiting more than two of these risk factors is considerably poor. Thus, close observation and individualised adjuvant therapy may be beneficial to these patients. PMID:25740451

  13. The Brazos River (Texas) Sequence Shows Significant Cooling in the Waning Stages of the Tsunami Surges Caused by the Chicxulub Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, J.; Vellekoop, J.

    2013-05-01

    The Brazos river K-Pg sequences are among the best preserved and studied in the world, yet any interpretation remains highly controversial. Most researchers, however, agree that the coarse clastic deposits are the direct result of a train of Chicxulub impact triggered tsunami surges. Alternative interpretations such as low stand deposits or (super) storm deposits lack sedimentological support. The entire impact related deposit starts with a strong ground shaking from the impact-induced earthquake, disintegrating unconsolidated uppermost Maastrichtian muds, and opening 0.5m deep and 5 m long fissures filled with spherule-rich debris. The disintegrated debris has been taken up in a coarse mass-flow, just underlying the first coarse tsunami deposit containing impact spherules from Chicxulub. One to four distinct tsunami surges follow the basal surge, each leaving a graded coarse to medium sand deposit assembled from coarse debris strewn on the local seafloor such as glauconitic pellets, fish-debris and near coastal foraminifers. The medium-grained sand layers are typically cross-bedded in linguoid and linguoid-climbing current-ripple sets, indicating a dominant S to SE seaward directed flow. Such climbing ripple-sets are found in most tsunami deposits in NE Mexico. These climbing ripples indicate an extremely high suspension load, quickly settling on the seafloor in the waning tsunami surge backflow-currents. Occasionally, the climbing ripple directions are reversed, showing the upflow direction of the incoming tsunami surge. Such linguoid climbing ripple sets have often been mistaken for storm-wave induced hummocky cross-bedding (HCS), leading to storm-deposit hypotheses. The final phase of settling out of the tsunami surges, may be re-suspension due to impact-triggered storms in the Gulf, is represented by continuously graded, very fine-grained sand to silt deposit. This is initially a hard 10 cm thick silty lime-mudstone layer with plant debris, grading into drab

  14. A Newly Emergent Turkey Arthritis Reovirus Shows Dominant Enteric Tropism and Induces Significantly Elevated Innate Antiviral and T Helper-1 Cytokine Responses

    PubMed Central

    Sharafeldin, Tamer A.; Mor, Sunil K.; Sobhy, Nader M.; Xing, Zheng; Reed, Kent M.; Goyal, Sagar M.; Porter, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Newly emergent turkey arthritis reoviruses (TARV) were isolated from tendons of lame 15-week-old tom turkeys that occasionally had ruptured leg tendons. Experimentally, these TARVs induced remarkable tenosynovitis in gastrocnemius tendons of turkey poults. The current study aimed to characterize the location and the extent of virus replication as well as the cytokine response induced by TARV during the first two weeks of infection. One-week-old male turkeys were inoculated orally with TARV (O’Neil strain). Copy numbers of viral genes were estimated in intestines, internal organs and tendons at ½, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 14 days Post inoculation (dpi). Cytokine profile was measured in intestines, spleen and leg tendons at 0, 4, 7 and 14 dpi. Viral copy number peaked in jejunum, cecum and bursa of Fabricius at 4 dpi. Copy numbers increased dramatically in leg tendons at 7 and 14 dpi while minimal copies were detected in internal organs and blood during the same period. Virus was detected in cloacal swabs at 1–2 dpi, and peaked at 14 dpi indicating enterotropism of the virus and its early shedding in feces. Elevation of IFN-α and IFN-β was observed in intestines at 7 dpi as well as a prominent T helper-1 response (IFN-γ) at 7 and 14 dpi. IFN-γ and IL-6 were elevated in gastrocnemius tendons at 14 dpi. Elevation of antiviral cytokines in intestines occurred at 7dpi when a significant decline of viral replication in intestines was observed. T helper-1 response in intestines and leg tendons was the dominant T-helper response. These results suggest the possible correlation between viral replication and cytokine response in early infection of TARV in turkeys. Our findings provide novel insights which help elucidate viral pathogenesis in turkey tendons infected with TARV. PMID:26659460

  15. Fine Resolution Analysis of Lake Malawi Sediment Record Shows No Significant Climatic Impacts from the Mount Toba Super-Eruption of ~75ky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, L. J.; Stone, J.; Cohen, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    Debate over long, and short-term climatic impacts of the Mt. Toba super-eruption circa 75ky is often focused on East Africa. A severe drop in anatomically modern human populations has been hypothesized to be synchronous with a volcanic winter caused by the Toba super-eruption. If the Toba eruption caused a volcanic winter in East Africa, climatologically-sensitive ecosystems, such as Lake Malawi and its immediate watershed should show a direct and observable response in the sediment record. Cooler temperatures would cause a reduction of density contrast between epilimnion and hypolimnion waters, allowing for increased mixing and oxygenation of normally anoxic bottom waters. Enhanced mixing would cause noticeable changes in lake fly and algal communities. Cooler temperatures might also affect precipitation and the fire regime in the surrounding watershed. We analyzed two Lake Malawi cores at the finest practical resolution. Core 2A-10H-2 was analyzed in less than 6-year intervals and core 1C-8H-1 in 7-year intervals surrounding the Youngest Toba Tephra (YTT) for microfaunal abundance and variability, sediment composition, and evidence of changes in the occurrence of fires or watershed precipitation. Our analysis included point counts of diatoms and other algae, lake flies, charcoal, and siliciclastics. Changes in microfossil assemblage, variability, and abundance, as well as sediment composition around the YTT in Core 2A and 1C do not indicate that increased mixing or cooler temperatures occurred in either the central or northern basins of Lake Malawi. Similarly, charcoal counts do not suggest a change in fire regime. Our results indicate that at a subdecadal scale there was no substantial response in Lake Malawi or its immediate watershed to the Mt. Toba super-eruption, in contrast to predictions from the volcanic winter hypothesis.

  16. Indirect ultrasound measurement of humeral torsion in adolescent baseball players and non-athletic adults: reliability and significance.

    PubMed

    Whiteley, Rod; Ginn, Karen; Nicholson, Leslie; Adams, Roger

    2006-08-01

    Accurate clinical interpretation of shoulder rotation range requires knowledge of the contribution of humeral torsion. This study compares the reliability of indirectly measuring humeral torsion using ultrasound visualisation with direct palpation and compares the degree of humeral torsion in a non-throwing adult population with a population of elite adolescent baseballers. The reliability of a novel method of indirectly measuring humeral torsion using palpation and ultrasound was established prior to using the ultrasound method to determine the amount of humeral torsion in both humeri of a group of 16 non-throwing subjects and 36 elite adolescent baseball players. Excellent inter-tester reliability was found for the ultrasound method of measuring humeral torsion in each arm (ICC 2,1: 0.98 and 0.94) but poor reliability for the direct palpation method (ICC 2,1: 0.51 and 0.49). Using the ultrasound method, side-to-side differences in humeral torsion ranged from 0 to 13 degrees for the non-throwing group and 0 to 29 degrees for the baseball players. This side-to-side difference was significant in the baseball players (p<0.001) but not significant in the non-throwing group (p=0.43). Whilst side-to-side differences in humeral torsion were noted between all subjects irrespective of arm dominance, only throwers demonstrated consistently greater humeral retrotorsion in their throwing arm. A reliable clinical tool for estimating humeral torsion, such as that employed in this study, will allow for a more valid prescription of interventions for the treatment of shoulder dysfunction.

  17. "Glass fairies" and "bone children": adolescents and young adults with anorexia nervosa show positive reactions towards extremely emaciated body pictures measured by the startle reflex paradigm.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Valeska A; Schneider, Nora; Grünewald, Barbara; Kienast, Thorsten; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Korte, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the emotional processing of extremely emaciated body cues in adolescents and young adults with (n  =  36) and without (n =  36) anorexia nervosa (AN), introducing a new picture type, which was taken from websites that promote extreme thinness and is targeted specifically at adolescents interested in extreme thinness. A startle reflex paradigm was used for implicit reactions, while a self-assessment instrument was used for subjective responses. We found a significant group difference with a startle inhibition (appetitive response) among the patients and a startle potentiation (aversive response) among the controls, whereas no such difference for subjective measures was found. The results are in contrast to previous studies, which proposed a general failure to activate the appetitive motivational system in AN, but in keeping with findings from other addictions, where the same response pattern has been found. Implications for prevention and therapy are discussed.

  18. Associations between hurtful weight-related comments by family and significant other and the development of disordered eating behaviors in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Marla E.; Berge, Jerica M.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Background Research has found that weight-teasing is associated with disordered eating in adolescents. This study expands on the existing research by examining associations between hurtful weight comments by family and a significant other and disordered eating in young adults. Methods Data come from 1,902 young adults (mean age 25) who completed surveys in 1998, 2003 and 2009. Correlations were examined between receiving hurtful comments from family and significant others, and four disordered eating behaviors in young adulthood, adjusting for prior disordered eating and prior teasing. Results Disordered eating behaviors were common in young adulthood, and were associated with hearing hurtful weight-related comments from family members and a significant other, for both females and males. Conclusion Disordered eating prevention activities, which include messages about the potential harm associated with hurtful weight-related comments, should be expanded to address young adults, and programs may want to target relationship partners. PMID:21898148

  19. Adult Trade Apprentices: Exploring the Significance of Recognition of Prior Learning and Skill Sets for Earlier Completion. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Jo; Blomberg, Davinia

    2015-01-01

    The nature of apprenticeships is changing. Increasing proportions of adult apprentices are prompting demand for various alternative pathways to completion. One option for an alternative pathway to accelerate completion is the use of recognition of prior learning (RPL) to identify existing skills and knowledge in combination with gap training. This…

  20. An Evidence-Based Education Program for Adults about Child Sexual Abuse (“Prevent It!”) That Significantly Improves Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Erin K.; Silverstone, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe the development of an evidence-based education program for adults about childhood sexual abuse (CSA), called Prevent It! Uniquely, the primary goal of this program was to change the behavior of participants, as well as to increase knowledge about CSA and positive attitudes toward it. A comprehensive review shows no previous similar approach. The program includes a detailed manual to allow standardized administration by trained facilitators, as well as multiple video segments from CSA survivors and professionals. A total of 23 program workshops were run, with 366 adults participating. Of these, 312 (85%) agreed to take part in the study. All completed baseline ratings prior to the program and 195 (63% of study sample) completed follow-up assessments at 3-months. There were no significant differences between the demographic make-up of the baseline group and the follow-up group. Assessments included demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and several measures of behavior (our primary outcome variable). Behavioral questions asked individuals to select behaviors used in the previous 3-months from a list of options. Questions also included asking “how many times in the previous 3-months” have you “talked about healthy sexual development or Child sexual abuse (CSA) with a child you know”; “suspected a child was sexually abused”; “taken steps to protect a child”; or “reported suspected sexual abuse to police or child welfare”? The majority of attendees were women, with the commonest age group being between 30 and 39 years old. Approximately 33% had experienced CSA themselves. At 3-month follow-up there were highly statistically significant improvements in several aspects of behavior and knowledge, and attitudes regarding CSA. For example, the number of subjects actively looking for evidence of CSA increased from 46% at baseline to 81% at follow-up, while the number of subjects who actively took steps to protect children increased from

  1. An Evidence-Based Education Program for Adults about Child Sexual Abuse (“Prevent It!”) That Significantly Improves Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Erin K.; Silverstone, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe the development of an evidence-based education program for adults about childhood sexual abuse (CSA), called Prevent It! Uniquely, the primary goal of this program was to change the behavior of participants, as well as to increase knowledge about CSA and positive attitudes toward it. A comprehensive review shows no previous similar approach. The program includes a detailed manual to allow standardized administration by trained facilitators, as well as multiple video segments from CSA survivors and professionals. A total of 23 program workshops were run, with 366 adults participating. Of these, 312 (85%) agreed to take part in the study. All completed baseline ratings prior to the program and 195 (63% of study sample) completed follow-up assessments at 3-months. There were no significant differences between the demographic make-up of the baseline group and the follow-up group. Assessments included demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and several measures of behavior (our primary outcome variable). Behavioral questions asked individuals to select behaviors used in the previous 3-months from a list of options. Questions also included asking “how many times in the previous 3-months” have you “talked about healthy sexual development or Child sexual abuse (CSA) with a child you know”; “suspected a child was sexually abused”; “taken steps to protect a child”; or “reported suspected sexual abuse to police or child welfare”? The majority of attendees were women, with the commonest age group being between 30 and 39 years old. Approximately 33% had experienced CSA themselves. At 3-month follow-up there were highly statistically significant improvements in several aspects of behavior and knowledge, and attitudes regarding CSA. For example, the number of subjects actively looking for evidence of CSA increased from 46% at baseline to 81% at follow-up, while the number of subjects who actively took steps to protect children increased from

  2. An Evidence-Based Education Program for Adults about Child Sexual Abuse ("Prevent It!") That Significantly Improves Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Martin, Erin K; Silverstone, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe the development of an evidence-based education program for adults about childhood sexual abuse (CSA), called Prevent It! Uniquely, the primary goal of this program was to change the behavior of participants, as well as to increase knowledge about CSA and positive attitudes toward it. A comprehensive review shows no previous similar approach. The program includes a detailed manual to allow standardized administration by trained facilitators, as well as multiple video segments from CSA survivors and professionals. A total of 23 program workshops were run, with 366 adults participating. Of these, 312 (85%) agreed to take part in the study. All completed baseline ratings prior to the program and 195 (63% of study sample) completed follow-up assessments at 3-months. There were no significant differences between the demographic make-up of the baseline group and the follow-up group. Assessments included demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and several measures of behavior (our primary outcome variable). Behavioral questions asked individuals to select behaviors used in the previous 3-months from a list of options. Questions also included asking "how many times in the previous 3-months" have you "talked about healthy sexual development or Child sexual abuse (CSA) with a child you know"; "suspected a child was sexually abused"; "taken steps to protect a child"; or "reported suspected sexual abuse to police or child welfare"? The majority of attendees were women, with the commonest age group being between 30 and 39 years old. Approximately 33% had experienced CSA themselves. At 3-month follow-up there were highly statistically significant improvements in several aspects of behavior and knowledge, and attitudes regarding CSA. For example, the number of subjects actively looking for evidence of CSA increased from 46% at baseline to 81% at follow-up, while the number of subjects who actively took steps to protect children increased from 25% at baseline to 48

  3. An Evidence-Based Education Program for Adults about Child Sexual Abuse ("Prevent It!") That Significantly Improves Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Martin, Erin K; Silverstone, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe the development of an evidence-based education program for adults about childhood sexual abuse (CSA), called Prevent It! Uniquely, the primary goal of this program was to change the behavior of participants, as well as to increase knowledge about CSA and positive attitudes toward it. A comprehensive review shows no previous similar approach. The program includes a detailed manual to allow standardized administration by trained facilitators, as well as multiple video segments from CSA survivors and professionals. A total of 23 program workshops were run, with 366 adults participating. Of these, 312 (85%) agreed to take part in the study. All completed baseline ratings prior to the program and 195 (63% of study sample) completed follow-up assessments at 3-months. There were no significant differences between the demographic make-up of the baseline group and the follow-up group. Assessments included demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and several measures of behavior (our primary outcome variable). Behavioral questions asked individuals to select behaviors used in the previous 3-months from a list of options. Questions also included asking "how many times in the previous 3-months" have you "talked about healthy sexual development or Child sexual abuse (CSA) with a child you know"; "suspected a child was sexually abused"; "taken steps to protect a child"; or "reported suspected sexual abuse to police or child welfare"? The majority of attendees were women, with the commonest age group being between 30 and 39 years old. Approximately 33% had experienced CSA themselves. At 3-month follow-up there were highly statistically significant improvements in several aspects of behavior and knowledge, and attitudes regarding CSA. For example, the number of subjects actively looking for evidence of CSA increased from 46% at baseline to 81% at follow-up, while the number of subjects who actively took steps to protect children increased from 25% at baseline to 48

  4. Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder Show Normal Attention to Eye-Gaze Information--Evidence from a New Change Blindness Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher-Watson, Sue; Leekam, Susan R.; Findlay, John M.; Stanton, Elaine C.

    2008-01-01

    Other people's eye-gaze is a powerful social stimulus that captures and directs visual attention. There is evidence that this is not the case for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), although less is known about attention to eye-gaze in adults. We investigated whether young adults would detect a change to the direction of eye-gaze in…

  5. Fractional anisotropy shows differential reduction in frontal-subcortical fiber bundles—A longitudinal MRI study of 76 middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Vik, Alexandra; Hodneland, Erlend; Haász, Judit; Ystad, Martin; Lundervold, Astri J.; Lundervold, Arvid

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the frontal- and white matter (WM) retrogenesis hypotheses and the assumptions that fronto-striatal circuits are especially vulnerable in normal aging, the goal of the present study was to identify fiber bundles connecting subcortical nuclei and frontal areas and obtain site-specific information about age related fractional anisotropy (FA) changes. Multimodal magnetic resonance image acquisitions [3D T1-weighted and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI)] were obtained from healthy older adults (N = 76, range 49–80 years at inclusion) at two time points, 3 years apart. A subset of the participants (N = 24) was included at a third time-point. In addition to the frontal-subcortical fibers, the anterior callosal fiber (ACF) and the corticospinal tract (CST) was investigated by its mean FA together with tract parameterization analysis. Our results demonstrated fronto-striatal structural connectivity decline (reduced FA) in normal aging with substantial inter-individual differences. The tract parameterization analysis showed that the along tract FA profiles were characterized by piece-wise differential changes along their extension rather than being uniformly affected. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first longitudinal study detecting age-related changes in frontal-subcortical WM connections in normal aging. PMID:26029102

  6. Effects of Multimedia Social Stories on Knowledge of Adult Outcomes and Opportunities among Transition-Aged Youth with Significant Cognitive Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Sharon; Test, David

    2011-01-01

    Students with significant cognitive disabilities typically experience poor post-school outcomes as adults. Federal legislation and recent research reflect the importance of teaching self-determination skills as a strategy to improve post-school outcomes. However, the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS-2) reported that individuals with…

  7. Varying protein source and quantity does not significantly improve weight loss, fat loss, or satiety in reduced energy diets among midlife adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This pilot study tested whether varying protein source and quantity in a reduced energy diet would result in significant differences in weight, body composition, and renin angiotensin aldosterone system activity in midlife adults. Eighteen subjects enrolled in a 5 month weight reduction study, invol...

  8. Full genome sequence of a novel circo-like virus detected in an adult European eel Anguilla anguilla showing signs of cauliflower disease.

    PubMed

    Doszpoly, Andor; Tarján, Zoltán L; Glávits, Róbert; Müller, Tamás; Benkő, Mária

    2014-05-13

    An adult European eel Anguilla anguilla, showing typical signs of the so-called cauliflower disease, was subjected to pathological and molecular virological examinations. Samples taken from internal organs and the polypoid proliferative tissue from the mouth were examined by PCR for the detection of several viruses. Positive results were obtained with a nested PCR targeting the rep gene of circoviruses. Analysis of the partial rep sequence indicated the presence of a putative novel circovirus, but attempts to isolate it remained unsuccessful. The missing part of the genome was acquired by an inverse nested PCR with 2 specific primer pairs, designed from the newly determined rep sequence, followed by genome walking. The circular full genome was found to consist of 1378 nt (GenBank accession no. KC469701). Two oppositely oriented open reading frames (ORFs) were present, of which one was unambiguously identified as a circoviral rep gene. However, the predicted product of the other ORF, though it is a clear positional counterpart of the cap genes, showed no obvious homology to any known circoviral capsid proteins. A stem-loop-like element in the intergenic region between the 5' ends of the ORFs was also found. Phylogenetic calculations indicated that the novel virus belongs to the genus Circovirus in the family Circoviridae. The relative amount of the viral DNA in the organ samples was estimated by quantitative real-time PCR. The results suggested that the examined fish was caught in an active viremic state, although the role of this circovirus in the etiology of the cauliflower diseases could not be ascertained.

  9. Vitamin and mineral supplements have a nutritionally significant impact on micronutrient intakes of older adults attending senior centers.

    PubMed

    Weeden, Allisha; Remig, Valentina; Holcomb, Carol Ann; Herald, Thomas J; Baybutt, Richard C

    2010-04-01

    Older adults frequently report use of vitamin and mineral (VM) supplements, although the impact of supplements on dietary adequacy remains largely unknown. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate micronutrient intakes of older adults with emphasis on identifying nutrients most improved by VM supplements, nutrients most likely to remain inadequate, and nutrients most likely consumed in excess. Community-based volunteers were recruited from senior centers and completed a questionnaire querying demographic data, current health status, and VM supplement use. Participants (n = 263) were then contacted by telephone to complete two 24-hour diet recalls and confirm VM supplement use. Dietary adequacy was determined by comparing the ratio of mean dietary intake to the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Dietary consumption was lowest for vitamins D and E, calcium, and magnesium. VM supplementation most improved intakes of vitamins E, D, B(6), folic acid, and calcium. Participants were most likely to exceed the Tolerable Upper Limit with supplementation of niacin, folic acid, and vitamin A.

  10. The Clinical Significance of Glycoprotein Phospholipase D Levels in Distinguishing Early Stage Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Wen; Liang, Yu-Zhen; Qin, Bao-Yu; Zhang, Jia-Li; Xia, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Autoantibodies have been widely used as markers of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA); however, the specificity and sensitivity of autoantibodies as markers of LADA are weak compared with those found in type 1 diabetes (T1DM). In this study, we aimed to identify other plasma proteins as potential candidates that can be used effectively to determine early stage LADA and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment. These issues were addressed by studying new-onset ‘classic’ T1DM (n = 156), LADA (n = 174), T2DM (n = 195) and healthy cohorts (n = 166). Plasma samples were obtained from the four cohorts. We employed isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) together with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to identify plasma proteins with significant changes in LADA. The changes were validated by Western blot and ELISA analyses. Among the four cohorts, 311 unique proteins were identified in three iTRAQ runs, with 157 present across the three data sets. Among them, 49/311 (16.0%) proteins had significant changes in LADA compared with normal controls, including glycoprotein phospholipase D (GPLD1), which was upregulated in LADA. Western blot and ELISA analyses showed that GPLD1 levels were higher in both LADA and T1DM cohorts than in both T2DM and healthy cohorts, while there were no significant differences in the plasma concentrations of GPLD1 between the LADA and T1DM cohorts. GPLD1 is implicated as a potential candidate plasma protein for determining early stage LADA and T2DM. PMID:27351175

  11. Specific combinations of the chromatin-modifying enzyme modulators significantly attenuate glioblastoma cell proliferation and viability while exerting minimal effect on normal adult stem cells growth.

    PubMed

    Alexanian, Arshak R; Huang, Yi-Wen

    2015-11-01

    The discoveries of recent decade showed that all critical changes in cancer cells, such as silencing of tumor-suppressor genes and activation of oncogenes, are caused not only by genetic but also by epigenetic mechanisms. Although epigenetic changes are somatically heritable, in contrast to genetic changes, they are potentially reversible, making them good targets for therapeutic intervention. Covalent modifications of chromatin such as methylation and acetylation of histones and methylation of DNA are the important components of epigenetic machinery. In this study, we investigated the effect of different modulators of DNA and histone covalent-modifying enzymes on the proliferation and viability of normal adult stem cells, such as human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), and on malignant tumor cells, such as glioblastoma (GB) D54 cells. Results demonstrated that specific combinations of histone methyltransferases and deacetylases inhibitors significantly attenuated D54 cells viability but having only a small effect on hMSCs growth. Taken together, these studies suggest that specific combinations of histone covalent modifiers could be an effective treatment option for the most aggressive type of primary brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme.

  12. Clinical significance of high c-MYC and low MYCBP2 expression and their association with Ikaros dysfunction in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zheng; Guo, Xing; Li, Jianyong; Hartman, Melanie; Kawasawa, Yuka Imamura; Dovat, Sinisa; Song, Chunhua

    2015-12-01

    Increased expression of c-MYC is observed in both Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) and T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (T-ALL). MYC binding protein 2 (MYCBP2) is a probable E3 ubiquitin ligase and its function in leukemia is unknown. IKZF1 deletion is associated with the development and poor outcome of ALL. Here, we observed significant high c-MYC expression and low MYCBP2 expression in adult ALL patients. Patients with high c-MYC expression and/or low MYCBP2 expression had higher WBC counts and a higher percentage of CD34+ or CD33+ cells, as well as splenomegaly, liver infiltration, higher BM blasts, and lower CR rate. Ikaros bound to the regulatory regions of c-MYC and MYCBP2, suppressed c-MYC and increased MYCBP2 expression in ALL cells. Expression of c-MYC mRNA was significantly higher in patients with IKZF1 deletion; conversely MYCBP2 mRNA expression was significantly lower in those patients. A CK2 inhibitor, which acts as an Ikaros activator, also suppressed c-MYC and increased MYCBP2 expression in an Ikaros (IKZF1) dependent manner in the ALL cells. In summary, our data indicated the correlation of high c-MYC expression, low MYCBP2 expression and high c-MYC plus low MYCBP2 expression with high-risk factors and proliferation markers in adult ALL patients. Our data also revealed an oncogenic role for an Ikaros/MYCBP2/c-MYC axis in adult ALL, providing a mechanism of target therapies that activate Ikaros in adult ALL.

  13. A nondiapausing variant of the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata, that shows arrhythmic adult eclosion and elevated expression of two circadian clock genes, period and timeless.

    PubMed

    Goto, Shin G; Han, Bing; Denlinger, David L

    2006-01-01

    We describe a variant of the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata, which fails to enter pupal diapause in response to short daylength and low temperatures. This fly also has an arrhythmic adult eclosion pattern: rather than eclosing in early photophase, the variant ecloses arrhythmically throughout the photophase and scotophase. The loss of both diapause (photoperiodic response) and the gating of adult eclosion (presumably a circadian response) suggests that the same clock system is involved in these two responses. An examination of the expression patterns of the clock genes period and timeless demonstrates that both genes are present in the nondiapausing variant, but surprisingly, both genes are expressed at higher levels. This abnormality we observe, possibly the consequence of an upstream clock gene malfunction or a malfunction of the autoregulatory loop, results in disruption of a component of the clock system that is apparently needed for both photoperiodism and circadian rhythmicity.

  14. Use of Context in the Word Recognition Process by Adults with a Significant History of Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkett, Julie K.; Parrila, Rauno

    2008-01-01

    We examined whether university students who report a significant history of reading difficulties (RD; n=24) differed from university students with no history of reading difficulties (NRD; n=31) in how sentence context affects word recognition. Experiment 1 found no differences in how congruent sentence primes or syntactic manipulations of the…

  15. The Majority of Adult Pneumococcal Invasive Infections in Portugal Are Still Potentially Vaccine Preventable in Spite of Significant Declines of Serotypes 1 and 5

    PubMed Central

    Horácio, Andreia N.; Diamantino-Miranda, Jorge; Aguiar, Sandra I.; Ramirez, Mário; Melo-Cristino, José

    2013-01-01

    In Portugal, pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have been administered to children outside of the national immunization plan since 2001. We determined the serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility of 1265 isolates responsible for adult invasive pneumococcal infections (IPD) between 2009 and 2011 and compared the results with previously published data from 1999 to 2008. Serotypes 3 (12.6%), 7F (10.0%), 19A (9.1%), 14 (8.4%), 1 (6.9%) and 8 (6.2%) were the most frequent and together accounted for 53.2% of adult IPD. Serotypes 1 and 5 declined significantly while serotype 34, not included in any vaccine, increased. Taken together, the serotypes included in the 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13) peaked among adult IPD isolates in 2008 (70.2%) and declined since then reaching 53.5% in 2011. The decline in the serotypes included in the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine since 2007 was also significant but much more modest with 79.2% of the isolates causing IPD in 2011 expressing these serotypes. Since the changes in serotypes causing IPD in adults coincided with the 10-valent and PCV13 introduction in children, it is unlikely that vaccination triggered these changes although it may have accelerated them. The proportion of IPD caused by serotypes included in the 7-valent conjugate vaccine remained stable (19.0%). Both penicillin non-susceptibility and erythromycin resistance increased in the study period, with serotypes 14 and 19A accounting for the majority of resistant isolates. PMID:24066064

  16. Characterization and Genetic Analysis of a Novel Light-Dependent Lesion Mimic Mutant, lm3, Showing Adult-Plant Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Common Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; Wu, Wenying; Wang, Dongzhi; Yang, Wenlong; Sun, Jiazhu; Liu, Dongcheng; Zhang, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Lesion mimics (LMs) that exhibit spontaneous disease-like lesions in the absence of pathogen attack might confer enhanced plant disease resistance to a wide range of pathogens. The LM mutant, lm3 was derived from a single naturally mutated individual in the F1 population of a 3-1/Jing411 cross, backcrossed six times with 3–1 as the recurrent parent and subsequently self-pollinated twice. The leaves of young seedlings of the lm3 mutant exhibited small, discrete white lesions under natural field conditions. The lesions first appeared at the leaf tips and subsequently expanded throughout the entire leaf blade to the leaf sheath. The lesions were initiated through light intensity and day length. Histochemical staining revealed that lesion formation might reflect programmed cell death (PCD) and abnormal accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The chlorophyll content in the mutant was significantly lower than that in wildtype, and the ratio of chlorophyll a/b was increased significantly in the mutant compared with wildtype, indicating that lm3 showed impairment of the biosynthesis or degradation of chlorophyll, and that Chlorophyll b was prone to damage during lesion formation. The lm3 mutant exhibited enhanced resistance to wheat powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici; Bgt) infection, which was consistent with the increased expression of seven pathogenesis-related (PR) and two wheat chemically induced (WCI) genes involved in the defense-related reaction. Genetic analysis showed that the mutation was controlled through a single partially dominant gene, which was closely linked to Xbarc203 on chromosome 3BL; this gene was delimited to a 40 Mb region between SSR3B450.37 and SSR3B492.6 using a large derived segregating population and the available Chinese Spring chromosome 3B genome sequence. Taken together, our results provide information regarding the identification of a novel wheat LM gene, which will facilitate the additional fine-mapping and

  17. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the state's best…

  18. The significance of the host inflammatory response on the therapeutic efficacy of cell therapies utilising human adult stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, Melba; Pu, Fanrong; Hunt, John A.

    2012-02-15

    Controlling the fate of implanted hMSCs is one of the major drawbacks to be overcome to realize tissue engineering strategies. In particular, the effect of the inflammatory environment on hMSCs behaviour is poorly understood. Studying and mimicking the inflammatory process in vitro is a very complex and challenging task that involves multiple variables. This research addressed the questions using in vitro co-cultures of primary derived hMSCs together with human peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMCs); the latter are key agents in the inflammatory process. This work explored the in vitro phenotypic changes of hMSCs in co-culture direct contact with monocytes and lymphocytes isolated from blood using both basal and osteogenic medium. Our findings indicated that hMSCs maintained their undifferentiated phenotype and pluripotency despite the contact with PBMCs. Moreover, hMSCs demonstrated increased proliferation and were able to differentiate specifically down the osteogenic lineage pathway. Providing significant crucial evidence to support the hypothesis that inflammation and host defence mechanisms could be utilised rather than avoided and combated to provide for the successful therapeutic application of stem cell therapies.

  19. Significant correlations of dermal total carotenoids and dermal lycopene with their respective plasma levels in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Scarmo, Stephanie; Cartmel, Brenda; Lin, Haiqun; Leffell, David J.; Welch, Erin; Bhosale, Prakash; Bernstein, Paul S.; Mayne, Susan T.

    2010-01-01

    Carotenoids in skin have been known to play a role in photoprotection against UV radiation. We performed dermal biopsies of healthy humans (N=27) and collected blood samples for pair-wise correlation analyses of total and individual carotenoid content by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The hydrocarbon carotenoids (lycopene and beta-carotene) made up the majority of carotenoids in both skin and plasma, and skin was somewhat enriched in these carotenoids relative to plasma. Beta-cryptoxanthin, a monohydroxycarotenoid, was found in similar proportions in skin as in plasma. In contrast, the dihydroxycarotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, were relatively lacking in human skin in absolute and relative levels as compared to plasma. Total carotenoids were significantly correlated in skin and plasma (r = 0.53, p<0.01). Our findings suggest that human skin is relatively enriched in lycopene and beta-carotene, compared to lutein and zeaxanthin, possibly reflecting a specific function of hydrocarbon carotenoids in human skin photoprotection. PMID:20637178

  20. Community perceptions on the significant extension of life: an exploratory study among urban adults in Brisbane, Australia.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Mair; Bartlett, Helen P; Partridge, Brad; Lucke, Jayne; Hall, Wayne D

    2009-02-01

    Some researchers in the field of ageing claim that significant extension of the human lifespan will be possible in the near future. While many of these researchers have assumed that the community will welcome this technology, there has been very little research on community attitudes to life extension. This paper presents the results of an in-depth qualitative study of community attitudes to life extension across age groups and religious boundaries. There were 57 individual interviews, and 8 focus groups (totalling 72 focus group participants) conducted with community members in Brisbane, Australia. Community attitudes to life extension were more varied and complex than have been assumed by some biogerontologists and bioethicists. While some participants would welcome the opportunity to extend their lives others would not even entertain the possibility. This paper details these differences of opinion and reveals contrasting positions that reflect individualism or social concern among community members. The findings also highlight the relationship between Christianity, in particular belief in an afterlife, and attitudes to life extension technology. Overall, the study raises questions about the relationship between interest in life extension, the medicalisation of ageing and the increasing acceptability of enhancement technologies that need to be addressed in more representative samples of the community.

  1. Genome-wide significant results identified for plasma apolipoprotein H levels in middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Karen A.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Song, Fei; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Poljak, Anne; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; McEvoy, Mark; Kwok, John B.; Assareh, Amelia A.; Reppermund, Simone; Kochan, Nicole A.; Lee, Teresa; Ames, David; Wright, Margaret J.; Trollor, Julian N.; Schofield, Peter W.; Brodaty, Henry; Scott, Rodney J.; Schofield, Peter R.; Attia, John R.; Sachdev, Perminder S.

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein H (ApoH) is a multi-functional plasma glycoprotein that has been associated with negative health outcomes. ApoH levels have high heritability. We undertook a genome-wide association study of ApoH levels using the largest sample to date and replicated the results in an independent cohort (total N = 1,255). In the discovery phase, a meta-analysis of two cohorts, the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study (Sydney MAS) and the Older Australian Twins Study (OATS) (n = 942) revealed genome-wide significant results in or near the APOH gene on chromosome 17 (top SNP, rs7211380, p = 1 × 10−11). The results were replicated in an independent cohort, the Hunter Community Study (p < 0.002) (n = 313). Conditional and joint analysis (COJO) confirmed the association of the chromosomal 17 region with ApoH levels. The set of independent SNPs identified by COJO explained 23% of the variance. The relationships between the top SNPs and cardiovascular/lipid/cognition measures and diabetes were assessed in Sydney MAS, with suggestive results observed for diabetes and cognitive performance. However, replication of these results in the smaller OATS cohort was not found. This work provides impetus for future research to better understand the contribution of genetics to ApoH levels and its possible impacts on health. PMID:27030319

  2. Genome-wide significant results identified for plasma apolipoprotein H levels in middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Mather, Karen A; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Song, Fei; Armstrong, Nicola J; Poljak, Anne; Holliday, Elizabeth G; McEvoy, Mark; Kwok, John B; Assareh, Amelia A; Reppermund, Simone; Kochan, Nicole A; Lee, Teresa; Ames, David; Wright, Margaret J; Trollor, Julian N; Schofield, Peter W; Brodaty, Henry; Scott, Rodney J; Schofield, Peter R; Attia, John R; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein H (ApoH) is a multi-functional plasma glycoprotein that has been associated with negative health outcomes. ApoH levels have high heritability. We undertook a genome-wide association study of ApoH levels using the largest sample to date and replicated the results in an independent cohort (total N = 1,255). In the discovery phase, a meta-analysis of two cohorts, the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study (Sydney MAS) and the Older Australian Twins Study (OATS) (n = 942) revealed genome-wide significant results in or near the APOH gene on chromosome 17 (top SNP, rs7211380, p = 1 × 10(-11)). The results were replicated in an independent cohort, the Hunter Community Study (p < 0.002) (n = 313). Conditional and joint analysis (COJO) confirmed the association of the chromosomal 17 region with ApoH levels. The set of independent SNPs identified by COJO explained 23% of the variance. The relationships between the top SNPs and cardiovascular/lipid/cognition measures and diabetes were assessed in Sydney MAS, with suggestive results observed for diabetes and cognitive performance. However, replication of these results in the smaller OATS cohort was not found. This work provides impetus for future research to better understand the contribution of genetics to ApoH levels and its possible impacts on health. PMID:27030319

  3. In Utero and Lactational Exposure to PCBs in Mice: Adult Offspring Show Altered Learning and Memory Depending on Cyp1a2 and Ahr Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Christine P.; Genter, Mary Beth; Patel, Krishna V.; Schaefer, Tori L.; Skelton, Matthew R.; Williams, Michael T.; Vorhees, Charles V.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Both coplanar and noncoplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exhibit neurotoxic effects in animal studies, but individual congeners do not always produce the same effects as PCB mixtures. Humans genetically have > 60-fold differences in hepatic cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2)-uninduced basal levels and > 12-fold variability in aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)affinity; because CYP1A2 is known to sequester coplanar PCBs and because AHR ligands include coplanar PCBs, both genotypes can affect PCB response. Objectives: We aimed to develop a mouse paradigm with extremes in Cyp1a2 and Ahr genotypes to explore genetic susceptibility to PCB-induced developmental neurotoxicity using an environmentally relevant mixture of PCBs. Methods: We developed a mixture of eight PCBs to simulate human exposures based on their reported concentrations in human tissue, breast milk, and food supply. We previously characterized specific differences in PCB congener pharmacokinetics and toxicity, comparing high-affinity–AHR Cyp1a2 wild-type [Ahrb1_Cyp1a2(+/+)], poor-affinity–AHR Cyp1a2 wild-type [Ahrd_Cyp1a2(+/+)], and high-affinity–AHR Cyp1a2 knockout [Ahrb1_Cyp1a2(–/–)] mouse lines [Curran CP, Vorhees CV, Williams MT, Genter MB, Miller ML, Nebert DW. 2011. In utero and lactational exposure to a complex mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls: toxicity in pups dependent on the Cyp1a2 and Ahr genotypes. Toxicol Sci 119:189–208]. Dams received a mixture of three coplanar and five noncoplanar PCBs on gestational day 10.5 and postnatal day (PND) 5. In the present study we conducted behavioral phenotyping of exposed offspring at PND60, examining multiple measures of learning, memory, and other behaviors. Results: We observed the most significant deficits in response to PCB treatment in Ahrb1_Cyp1a2(–/–) mice, including impaired novel object recognition and increased failure rate in the Morris water maze. However, all PCB-treated genotypes showed significant differences on

  4. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis demonstrates a significant association of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFA) with primary immune thrombocytopenia among Caucasian adults.

    PubMed

    Sarpatwari, Ameet; Bussel, James B; Ahmed, Momin; Erqou, Sebhat; Semple, John W; Newland, Adrian C; Bennett, Dimitri; Pharoah, Paul; Provan, Drew

    2011-07-01

    T-helper 1 polarization in patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is well documented. However, the genetic contribution to this imbalance remains unclear. To address this question, we selected six candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms within cytokine or cytokine receptor genes for association testing among Caucasian adults. Patients from the United Kingdom Adult ITP Registry were gender-matched (1:3) with healthy controls from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. Variants IL10 -819 c>t, TNFA -308 g>a, TGFB1 -509 c>t, IL1A -889 c>t, IL10 -592 c>t, and IL4R q576r were measured in cases and retrieved for controls from the European Genome-phenome Archive. Associations were evaluated using logistic regression models. In total, 206 patients with primary ITP were matched with 618 controls. A significant per allele odds ratio of 1·34 (95% confidence interval, 1·03-1·75; P = 0·03) was observed for TNFA -308 g>a, implicating an increased disease susceptibility among Caucasian carriers of the rare allele.

  5. BMI, HOMA-IR, and Fasting Blood Glucose Are Significant Predictors of Peripheral Nerve Dysfunction in Adult Overweight and Obese Nondiabetic Nepalese Individuals: A Study from Central Nepal.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Lekhjung; Rana, P V S

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Nondiabetic obese individuals have subclinical involvement of peripheral nerves. We report the factors predicting peripheral nerve function in overweight and obese nondiabetic Nepalese individuals. Methodology. In this cross-sectional study, we included 50 adult overweight and obese nondiabetic volunteers without features of peripheral neuropathy and 50 healthy volunteers to determine the normative nerve conduction data. In cases of abnormal function, the study population was classified on the basis of the number of nerves involved, namely, "<2" or "≥2." Multivariable logistic regression analysis was carried out to predict outcomes. Results. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) was the significant predictor of motor nerve dysfunction (P = 0.039, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.003-1.127). Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was the significant predictor (P = 0.019, 96% CI = 1.420-49.322) of sensory nerve dysfunction. Body mass index (BMI) was the significant predictor (P = 0.034, 95% CI = 1.018-1.577) in case of ≥2 mixed nerves' involvement. Conclusion. FBG, HOMA-IR, and BMI were significant predictors of peripheral nerve dysfunction in overweight and obese Nepalese individuals. PMID:27200189

  6. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a Framework for Providing Patient- and Family-Centered Audiological Care for Older Adults and Their Significant Others.

    PubMed

    Grenness, Caitlin; Meyer, Carly; Scarinci, Nerina; Ekberg, Katie; Hickson, Louise

    2016-08-01

    Hearing impairment is highly prevalent in the older population, and it impacts communication and quality of life for both the people with the hearing difficulties and their significant others. In this article, typical audiological assessment and management of an older adult is contrasted with a best practice approach wherein the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework is applied. The aim of the comparison is to demonstrate how the ICF expands our focus: rather than merely focusing on impairment, we also consider the activities, participation, and contextual factors for both the person with the hearing impairment and his or her family. A case example of an older patient and her spouse is provided, and their shared experience of the patient's hearing impairment is mapped onto the ICF framework. Family-centered hearing care is recommended for individualizing care and improving outcomes for older patients and their families. PMID:27489398

  7. The Gamma-Glutamyl-Transpeptidase to Platelet Ratio Does not Show Advantages than APRI and Fib-4 in Diagnosing Significant Fibrosis and Cirrhosis in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Song, Jie; Huang, Yuxian; Li, Xinyan; Zhuo, Qibin; Li, Weixia; Chen, Chong; Lu, Chuan; Qi, Xun; Chen, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase to platelet ratio (GPR) is a new liver fibrosis model, which is reported to be more accurate than aspartate transaminase (AST) to platelet ratio index (APRI) and fibrosis index based on the four factors (Fib-4) for diagnosing significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in West Africa. The aim of this study is to assess the diagnostic accuracy of GPR for significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in Chinese CHB patients, and explore whether GPR deserves to be popularized in China. A total of 372 CHB patients who underwent liver biopsies and routine laboratory tests were retrospectively studied. The Scheuer scoring system was adopted as the pathological standard of liver fibrosis. Using liver histology as a gold standard, the diagnostic accuracies of GPR, APRI, and Fib-4 for significant fibrosis and cirrhosis are evaluated and compared by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the area under the ROC curves (AUROCs). Of these 372 patients, 176 (47.3%), 129 (34.7%), and 72 (19.4%) were classified as having significant fibrosis (≥ S2), severe fibrosis (≥ S3), and cirrhosis (S4), respectively. The AUROCs of GPR for significant fibrosis (0.72 vs. 0.78; P = 0.01), severe fibrosis (0.75 vs. 0.80; P = 0.04), and cirrhosis (0.78 vs. 0.83; P = 0.02) were lower than those of APRI. The AUROCs of GPR and Fib-4 for diagnosing significant fibrosis (0.72 vs. 0.70; P = 0.29), severe fibrosis (0.75 vs. 0.73; P = 0.33), and cirrhosis (0.78 vs. 0.75; P = 0.38) were comparable. GPR is a new serum diagnostic model for liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, but does not show advantages than APRI and Fib-4 in identifying significant fibrosis, severe fibrosis, and cirrhosis in CHB patients in China. PMID:27100421

  8. The Gamma-Glutamyl-Transpeptidase to Platelet Ratio Does not Show Advantages than APRI and Fib-4 in Diagnosing Significant Fibrosis and Cirrhosis in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B: A Retrospective Cohort Study in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Song, Jie; Huang, Yuxian; Li, Xinyan; Zhuo, Qibin; Li, Weixia; Chen, Chong; Lu, Chuan; Qi, Xun; Chen, Liang

    2016-04-01

    The gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase to platelet ratio (GPR) is a new liver fibrosis model, which is reported to be more accurate than aspartate transaminase (AST) to platelet ratio index (APRI) and fibrosis index based on the four factors (Fib-4) for diagnosing significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in West Africa. The aim of this study is to assess the diagnostic accuracy of GPR for significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in Chinese CHB patients, and explore whether GPR deserves to be popularized in China. A total of 372 CHB patients who underwent liver biopsies and routine laboratory tests were retrospectively studied. The Scheuer scoring system was adopted as the pathological standard of liver fibrosis. Using liver histology as a gold standard, the diagnostic accuracies of GPR, APRI, and Fib-4 for significant fibrosis and cirrhosis are evaluated and compared by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the area under the ROC curves (AUROCs). Of these 372 patients, 176 (47.3%), 129 (34.7%), and 72 (19.4%) were classified as having significant fibrosis (≥ S2), severe fibrosis (≥ S3), and cirrhosis (S4), respectively. The AUROCs of GPR for significant fibrosis (0.72 vs. 0.78; P = 0.01), severe fibrosis (0.75 vs. 0.80; P = 0.04), and cirrhosis (0.78 vs. 0.83; P = 0.02) were lower than those of APRI. The AUROCs of GPR and Fib-4 for diagnosing significant fibrosis (0.72 vs. 0.70; P = 0.29), severe fibrosis (0.75 vs. 0.73; P = 0.33), and cirrhosis (0.78 vs. 0.75; P = 0.38) were comparable. GPR is a new serum diagnostic model for liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, but does not show advantages than APRI and Fib-4 in identifying significant fibrosis, severe fibrosis, and cirrhosis in CHB patients in China. PMID:27100421

  9. The Gamma-Glutamyl-Transpeptidase to Platelet Ratio Does not Show Advantages than APRI and Fib-4 in Diagnosing Significant Fibrosis and Cirrhosis in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B: A Retrospective Cohort Study in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Song, Jie; Huang, Yuxian; Li, Xinyan; Zhuo, Qibin; Li, Weixia; Chen, Chong; Lu, Chuan; Qi, Xun; Chen, Liang

    2016-04-01

    The gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase to platelet ratio (GPR) is a new liver fibrosis model, which is reported to be more accurate than aspartate transaminase (AST) to platelet ratio index (APRI) and fibrosis index based on the four factors (Fib-4) for diagnosing significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in West Africa. The aim of this study is to assess the diagnostic accuracy of GPR for significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in Chinese CHB patients, and explore whether GPR deserves to be popularized in China. A total of 372 CHB patients who underwent liver biopsies and routine laboratory tests were retrospectively studied. The Scheuer scoring system was adopted as the pathological standard of liver fibrosis. Using liver histology as a gold standard, the diagnostic accuracies of GPR, APRI, and Fib-4 for significant fibrosis and cirrhosis are evaluated and compared by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the area under the ROC curves (AUROCs). Of these 372 patients, 176 (47.3%), 129 (34.7%), and 72 (19.4%) were classified as having significant fibrosis (≥ S2), severe fibrosis (≥ S3), and cirrhosis (S4), respectively. The AUROCs of GPR for significant fibrosis (0.72 vs. 0.78; P = 0.01), severe fibrosis (0.75 vs. 0.80; P = 0.04), and cirrhosis (0.78 vs. 0.83; P = 0.02) were lower than those of APRI. The AUROCs of GPR and Fib-4 for diagnosing significant fibrosis (0.72 vs. 0.70; P = 0.29), severe fibrosis (0.75 vs. 0.73; P = 0.33), and cirrhosis (0.78 vs. 0.75; P = 0.38) were comparable. GPR is a new serum diagnostic model for liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, but does not show advantages than APRI and Fib-4 in identifying significant fibrosis, severe fibrosis, and cirrhosis in CHB patients in China.

  10. A novel underuse model shows that inactivity but not ovariectomy determines the deteriorated material properties and geometry of cortical bone in the tibia of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Kazuaki; Kozai, Yusuke; Ito, Yumi; Furuhama, Takami; Naruse, Kouji; Nonaka, Kiichi; Nagai, Yumiko; Yamato, Hideyuki; Kashima, Isamu; Ohya, Keiichi; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Mikuni-Takagaki, Yuko

    2011-07-01

    Our goal in this study was to determine to what extent the physiologic consequences of ovariectomy (OVX) in bones are exacerbated by a lack of daily activity such as walking. We forced 14-week-old female rats to be inactive for 15 weeks with a unique experimental system that prevents standing and walking while allowing other movements. Tibiae, femora, and 4th lumbar vertebrae were analyzed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), microfocused X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT), histology, histomorphometry, Raman spectroscopy, and the three-point bending test. Contrary to our expectation, the exacerbation was very much limited to the cancellous bone parameters. Parameters of femur and tibia cortical bone were affected by the forced inactivity but not by OVX: (1) cross-sectional moment of inertia was significantly smaller in Sham-Inactive rat bones than that of their walking counterparts; (2) the number of sclerostin-positive osteocytes per unit cross-sectional area was larger in Sham-Inactive rat bones than in Sham-Walking rat bones; and (3) material properties such as ultimate stress of inactive rat tibia was lower than that of their walking counterparts. Of note, the additive effect of inactivity and OVX was seen only in a few parameters, such as the cancellous bone mineral density of the lumbar vertebrae and the structural parameters of cancellous bone in the lumbar vertebrae/tibiae. It is concluded that the lack of daily activity is detrimental to the strength and quality of cortical bone in the femur and tibia of rats, while lack of estrogen is not. Our inactive rat model, with the older rats, will aid the study of postmenopausal osteoporosis, the etiology of which may be both hormonal and mechanical. PMID:21127921

  11. Varying protein source and quantity does not significantly improve weight loss, fat loss, or satiety in reduced energy diets amongmidlife adults.1

    PubMed Central

    Aldrich, Noel D; Reicks, Marla M; Sibley, Shalamar D; Redmon, J Bruce; Thomas, William; Raatz, Susan K

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesized that a whey protein diet would result in greater weight loss and improved body compositioncompared to standard weight loss diets. Weight change, body composition, and renin angiotensin aldosterone system activity in midlife adults was compared between diet groups. Eighteen subjects enrolled ina5 month study of8 weeks controlled food intake followed by 12 weeks ad libitum intake. Subjects were randomized to one of three treatment groups: control diet (CD) (55% carbohydrate: 15% protein: 30% fat), mixed protein (MP) (40% carbohydrate: 30% protein: 30% fat), or whey protein (WP) (40% carbohydrate: 15% mixed protein: 15% whey protein: 30% fat). Measurements included weight, metabolic measures, body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and resting energy expenditure. No statistically significant differences in total weight loss or total fat loss were observed between treatments, however, a trend toward greater total weight loss (p = 0.08) and total fat loss (p=0.09) was observed in the WP group compared to the CD group. Fat loss in the leg and gynoid regions was greater (p < 0.05) in the WP group than the CD group. No RAAS mediated response was observed, but a decrease in systolic blood pressure was significantly greater (p <0.05) in the WP group compared to the CD group. In summary, increased whey protein intake did not result in statistically significant differences in weight loss or in total fat loss, but significant differences in regional fat loss and in decreased blood pressure were observed in the WP group. PMID:21419314

  12. No significant brain volume decreases or increases in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder and above average intelligence: a voxel-based morphometric study.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Andreas; Maier, Simon; Ulbrich, Melanie; Biscaldi, Monica; Ebert, Dieter; Fangmeier, Thomas; Perlov, Evgeniy; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger

    2014-08-30

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is increasingly being recognized as an important issue in adult psychiatry and psychotherapy. High intelligence indicates overall good brain functioning and might thus present a particularly good opportunity to study possible cerebral correlates of core autistic features in terms of impaired social cognition, communication skills, the need for routines, and circumscribed interests. Anatomical MRI data sets for 30 highly intelligent patients with high-functioning autism and 30 pairwise-matched control subjects were acquired and analyzed with voxel-based morphometry. The gray matter volume of the pairwise-matched patients and the controls did not differ significantly. When correcting for total brain volume influences, the patients with ASD exhibited smaller left superior frontal volumes on a trend level. Heterogeneous volumetric findings in earlier studies might partly be explained by study samples biased by a high inclusion rate of secondary forms of ASD, which often go along with neuronal abnormalities. Including only patients with high IQ scores might have decreased the influence of secondary forms of ASD and might explain the absence of significant volumetric differences between the patients and the controls in this study. PMID:24953998

  13. Prognostic Significance of the European LeukemiaNet Standardized System for Reporting Cytogenetic and Molecular Alterations in Adults With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Mrózek, Krzysztof; Marcucci, Guido; Nicolet, Deedra; Maharry, Kati S.; Becker, Heiko; Whitman, Susan P.; Metzeler, Klaus H.; Schwind, Sebastian; Wu, Yue-Zhong; Kohlschmidt, Jessica; Pettenati, Mark J.; Heerema, Nyla A.; Block, AnneMarie W.; Patil, Shivanand R.; Baer, Maria R.; Kolitz, Jonathan E.; Moore, Joseph O.; Carroll, Andrew J.; Stone, Richard M.; Larson, Richard A.; Bloomfield, Clara D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prognostic significance of the international European LeukemiaNet (ELN) guidelines for reporting genetic alterations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Patients and Methods We analyzed 1,550 adults with primary AML, treated on Cancer and Leukemia Group B first-line trials, who had pretreatment cytogenetics and, for cytogenetically normal patients, mutational status of NPM1, CEBPA, and FLT3 available. We compared complete remission (CR) rates, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) among patients classified into the four ELN genetic groups (favorable, intermediate-I, intermediate-II, adverse) separately for 818 younger (age < 60 years) and 732 older (age ≥ 60 years) patients. Results The percentages of younger versus older patients in the favorable (41% v 20%; P < .001), intermediate-II (19% v 30%; P < .001), and adverse (22% v 31%; P < .001) genetic groups differed. The favorable group had the best and the adverse group the worst CR rates, DFS, and OS in both age groups. Both intermediate groups had significantly worse outcomes than the favorable but better than the adverse group. Intermediate-I and intermediate-II groups in older patients had similar outcomes, whereas the intermediate-II group in younger patients had better OS but not better CR rates or DFS than the intermediate-I group. The prognostic significance of ELN classification was confirmed by multivariable analyses. For each ELN group, older patients had worse outcomes than younger patients. Conclusion The ELN classification clearly separates the genetic groups by outcome, supporting its use for risk stratification in clinical trials. Because they have different proportions of genetic alterations and outcomes, younger and older patients should be reported separately when using the ELN classification. PMID:22987078

  14. Consumption of a healthy dietary pattern results in significant reductions in C-reactive protein levels in adults: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Neale, E P; Batterham, M J; Tapsell, L C

    2016-05-01

    Consumption of healthy dietary patterns has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Dietary intervention targets disease prevention, so studies increasingly use biomarkers of underlying inflammation and metabolic syndrome progression to examine the diet-health relationship. The extent to which these biomarkers contribute to the body of evidence on healthy dietary patterns is unknown. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of healthy dietary patterns on biomarkers associated with adiposity, insulin resistance, and inflammation in adults. A systematic search of Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (all years to April 2015) was conducted. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials; effects of dietary patterns assessed on C-reactive protein (CRP), total adiponectin, high-molecular-weight adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-α, adiponectin:leptin, resistin, or retinol binding protein 4. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to assess the weighted mean differences in change or final mean values for each outcome. Seventeen studies were included in the review. These reflected research on dietary patterns associated with the Mediterranean diet, Nordic diet, Tibetan diet, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet. Consumption of a healthy dietary pattern was associated with significant reductions in CRP (weighted mean difference, -0.75 [-1.16, -0.35]; P = .0003). Non-significant changes were found for all other biomarkers. This analysis found evidence for favorable effects of healthy dietary patterns on CRP, with limited evidence for other biomarkers. Future research should include additional randomized controlled trials incorporating a greater range of dietary patterns and biomarkers. PMID:27101757

  15. Investigation of infectivity of neonates and adults from different rat strains to Toxoplasma gondii Prugniaud shows both variation which correlates with iNOS and Arginase-1 activity and increased susceptibility of neonates to infection.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jiang-Mei; Yi, Si-Qi; Wu, Ming-Shui; Geng, Guo-Qing; Shen, Ji-Long; Lu, Fang-Li; Hide, Geoff; Lai, De-Hua; Lun, Zhao-Rong

    2015-02-01

    Mouse models differ considerably from humans with regard to clinical symptoms of toxoplasmosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii and, by comparison, the rat model is more representative of this disease in humans. In the present study, we found that different strains of adult and newborn rats (Lewis, Wistar, Sprague Dawley, Brown Norway and Fischer 344) exhibited remarkable variation in the number of brain cysts following inoculation with the T.gondii Prugniaud strain. In adult rats, large numbers of cysts (1231 ± 165.6) were observed in Fischer 344, but none in the other four. This situation was different in newborn rats aged from 5 to 20 days old. All Fischer 344 and Brown Norway newborns were cyst-positive while cyst-positive infection in Sprague Dawley neonates ranged from 54.5% to 60% depending on their age at infection. In Wistar and Lewis rat neonates, however, cyst-positivity rates of 0-42.9% and 0-25% were found respectively. To investigate whether rat strain differences in infectivity could be related to inherent strain and genetic differences in the host immune response, we correlated our data with previously reported strain differences in iNOS/Arginase ratio in adult rats and found them to be linked. These results show that interactions between host genetic background and age of rat influence T.gondii infection.

  16. Significant long-term, but not short-term, hippocampal-dependent memory impairment in adult rats exposed to alcohol in early postnatal life.

    PubMed

    Goodfellow, Molly J; Lindquist, Derick H

    2014-09-01

    In rodents, ethanol exposure in early postnatal life is known to induce structural and functional impairments throughout the brain, including the hippocampus. Herein, rat pups were administered one of three ethanol doses over postnatal days (PD) 4-9, a period of brain development comparable to the third trimester of human pregnancy. As adults, control and ethanol rats were trained and tested in a variant of hippocampal-dependent one-trial context fear conditioning. In Experiment 1, subjects were placed into a novel context and presented with an immediate footshock (i.e., within ∼8 sec). When re-exposed to the same context 24 hr later low levels of conditioned freezing were observed. Context pre-exposure 24 hr prior to the immediate shock reversed the deficit in sham-intubated and unintubated control rats, enhancing freezing behavior during the context retention test. Even with context pre-exposure, however, significant dose-dependent reductions in contextual freezing were seen in ethanol rats. In Experiment 2, the interval between context pre-exposure and the immediate shock was shortened to 2 hr, in addition to the standard 24 hr. Ethanol rats trained with the 2 hr, but not 24 hr, interval displayed retention test freezing levels roughly equal to controls. Results suggest the ethanol rats can encode a short-term context memory and associate it with the aversive footshock 2 hr later. In the 24 hr ethanol rats the short-term context memory is poorly transferred or consolidated into long-term memory, we propose, impeding the memory's subsequent retrieval and association with shock.

  17. Maurice Gee's Brilliant Borrowings of Maurice Gee and Significant Others: Realism and Postmodernism in Gee's Books for Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rij, Vivien

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the work of one of New Zealand's most acclaimed writers, Maurice Gee, and the use of his children's fiction as an experimental ground for postmodernist techniques further developed in his writing for adults. In particular, it considers Gee's borrowings of his own and others' non-fictional and fictional…

  18. HISTONE DEACETYLASE6-Defective Mutants Show Increased Expression and Acetylation of ENHANCER OF TRIPTYCHON AND CAPRICE1 and GLABRA2 with Small But Significant Effects on Root Epidermis Cellular Pattern1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dong-Xu; Chen, Wen-Qian; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Bai, Shu-Nong

    2015-01-01

    Cellular patterning in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) root epidermis is dependent on positional information, the transmission of which involves histone acetylation. Here, we report that HISTONE DEACETYLASE6 (HDA6) has significant effects on this cellular patterning. Mutation of HDA6 led to ectopic hair cells in the nonhair positions of root epidermis in Arabidopsis, based on an analysis of paraffin sections stained with Toluidine Blue. While HDA6 was present throughout the root tip, epidermis-specific complementation with HDA6 could rescue the hda6 phenotype. Both transcript levels and expression patterns of ENHANCER OF TRIPTYCHON AND CAPRICE1 (ETC1) and GLABRA2 (GL2) in the root tip were affected in hda6. Consistent with these changes in expression, HDA6 directly bound to the promoter regions of ETC1 and GL2, and acetylation of histone H3 on these promoter regions and acetylation of histone H4 on the ETC1 promoter region was increased in the hda6 mutant. Taken together, these results indicate that HDA6 affects the cellular patterning of Arabidopsis root epidermis through altering the histone acetylation status of ETC1 and GL2 promoters and thereby affects the expression of these two components of the core transcription factor network determining epidermal cell fates. Our findings thus provide new insights into the role of histone acetylation in root epidermis cell patterning. PMID:26143251

  19. The norepinephrine transporter (NET) radioligand (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2 shows significant decreases in NET density in the human brain in Alzheimer's disease: a post-mortem autoradiographic study.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Balázs; Brockschnieder, Damian; Nag, Sangram; Pavlova, Elena; Kása, Péter; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Légrádi, Adám; Gulya, Károly; Thiele, Andrea; Dyrks, Thomas; Halldin, Christer

    2010-01-01

    Earlier post-mortem histological and autoradiographic studies have indicated a reduction of cell numbers in the locus coeruleus (LC) and a corresponding decrease in norepinephrine transporter (NET) in brains obtained from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients as compared to age-matched healthy controls. In order to test the hypothesis that the regional decrease of NET is a disease specific biomarker in AD and as such, it can be used in PET imaging studies for diagnostic considerations, regional differences in the density of NET in various anatomical structures were measured in whole hemisphere human brain slices obtained from AD patients and age-matched control subjects in a series of autoradiographic experiments using the novel selective PET radioligand for NET (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D(2). (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D(2) appears to be a useful imaging biomarker for quantifying the density of NET in various brain structures, including the LC and the thalamus wherein the highest densities are found in physiological conditions. In AD significant decreases of NET densities can be demonstrated with the radioligand in both structures as compared to age-matched controls. The decreases in AD correlate with the progress of the disease as indicated by Braak grades. As the size of the LC is below the spatial resolution of the PET scanners, but the size of the thalamus can be detected with appropriate spatial accuracy in advanced scanners, the present findings confirm our earlier observations with PET that the in vivo imaging of NET with (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D(2) in the thalamus is viable. Nevertheless, further studies are warranted to assess the usefulness of such an imaging approach for the early detection of changes in thalamic NET densities as a disease-specific biomarker and the possible use of (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D(2) as a molecular imaging biomarker in AD. PMID:20211213

  20. In silico docking of methyl isocyanate (MIC) and its hydrolytic product (1, 3-dimethylurea) shows significant interaction with DNA Methyltransferase 1 suggests cancer risk in Bhopal-Gas- Tragedy survivors.

    PubMed

    Khan, Inbesat; Senthilkumar, Chinnu Sugavanam; Upadhyay, Nisha; Singh, Hemant; Sachdeva, Meenu; Jatawa, Suresh Kumar; Tiwari, Archana

    2015-01-01

    DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) is a relatively large protein family responsible for maintenance of normal methylation, cell growth and survival in mammals. Toxic industrial chemical exposure associated methylation misregulation has been shown to have epigenetic influence. Such misregulation could effectively contribute to cancer development and progression. Methyl isocyanate (MIC) is a noxious industrial chemical used extensively in the production of carbamate pesticides. We here applied an in silico molecular docking approach to study the interaction of MIC with diverse domains of DNMT1, to predict cancer risk in the Bhopal population exposed to MIC during 1984. For the first time, we investigated the interaction of MIC and its hydrolytic product (1,3-dimethylurea) with DNMT1 interacting (such as DMAP1, RFTS, and CXXC) and catalytic (SAM, SAH, and Sinefungin) domains using computer simulations. The results of the present study showed a potential interaction of MIC and 1,3-dimethylurea with these domains. Obviously, strong binding of MIC with DNMT1 interrupting normal methylation will lead to epigenetic alterations in the exposed humans. We suggest therefore that the MIC- exposed individuals surviving after 1984 disaster have excess risk of cancer, which can be attributed to alterations in their epigenome. Our findings will help in better understanding the underlying epigenetic mechanisms in humans exposed to MIC. PMID:26625778

  1. The crystal structure of the streptococcal collagen-like protein 2 globular domain from invasive M3-type group A Streptococcus shows significant similarity to immunomodulatory HIV protein gp41.

    PubMed

    Squeglia, Flavia; Bachert, Beth; De Simone, Alfonso; Lukomski, Slawomir; Berisio, Rita

    2014-02-21

    The arsenal of virulence factors deployed by streptococci includes streptococcal collagen-like (Scl) proteins. These proteins, which are characterized by a globular domain and a collagen-like domain, play key roles in host adhesion, host immune defense evasion, and biofilm formation. In this work, we demonstrate that the Scl2.3 protein is expressed on the surface of invasive M3-type strain MGAS315 of Streptococcus pyogenes. We report the crystal structure of Scl2.3 globular domain, the first of any Scl. This structure shows a novel fold among collagen trimerization domains of either bacterial or human origin. Despite there being low sequence identity, we observed that Scl2.3 globular domain structurally resembles the gp41 subunit of the envelope glycoprotein from human immunodeficiency virus type 1, an essential subunit for viral fusion to human T cells. We combined crystallographic data with modeling and molecular dynamics techniques to gather information on the entire lollipop-like Scl2.3 structure. Molecular dynamics data evidence a high flexibility of Scl2.3 with remarkable interdomain motions that are likely instrumental to the protein biological function in mediating adhesive or immune-modulatory functions in host-pathogen interactions. Altogether, our results provide molecular tools for the understanding of Scl-mediated streptococcal pathogenesis and important structural insights for the future design of small molecular inhibitors of streptococcal invasion.

  2. In silico docking of methyl isocyanate (MIC) and its hydrolytic product (1, 3-dimethylurea) shows significant interaction with DNA Methyltransferase 1 suggests cancer risk in Bhopal-Gas- Tragedy survivors.

    PubMed

    Khan, Inbesat; Senthilkumar, Chinnu Sugavanam; Upadhyay, Nisha; Singh, Hemant; Sachdeva, Meenu; Jatawa, Suresh Kumar; Tiwari, Archana

    2015-01-01

    DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) is a relatively large protein family responsible for maintenance of normal methylation, cell growth and survival in mammals. Toxic industrial chemical exposure associated methylation misregulation has been shown to have epigenetic influence. Such misregulation could effectively contribute to cancer development and progression. Methyl isocyanate (MIC) is a noxious industrial chemical used extensively in the production of carbamate pesticides. We here applied an in silico molecular docking approach to study the interaction of MIC with diverse domains of DNMT1, to predict cancer risk in the Bhopal population exposed to MIC during 1984. For the first time, we investigated the interaction of MIC and its hydrolytic product (1,3-dimethylurea) with DNMT1 interacting (such as DMAP1, RFTS, and CXXC) and catalytic (SAM, SAH, and Sinefungin) domains using computer simulations. The results of the present study showed a potential interaction of MIC and 1,3-dimethylurea with these domains. Obviously, strong binding of MIC with DNMT1 interrupting normal methylation will lead to epigenetic alterations in the exposed humans. We suggest therefore that the MIC- exposed individuals surviving after 1984 disaster have excess risk of cancer, which can be attributed to alterations in their epigenome. Our findings will help in better understanding the underlying epigenetic mechanisms in humans exposed to MIC.

  3. A case report of motor neuron disease in a patient showing significant level of DDTs, HCHs and organophosphate metabolites in hair as well as levels of hexane and toluene in blood

    SciTech Connect

    Kanavouras, Konstantinos; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N.; Mastorodemos, Vasileios; Plaitakis, Andreas; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M.

    2011-11-15

    Motor neuron disease is a devastating neurodegenerative condition, with the majority of sporadic, non-familial cases being of unknown etiology. Several epidemiological studies have suggested that occupational exposure to chemicals may be associated with disease pathogenesis. We report the case of a patient developing progressive motor neuron disease, who was chronically exposed to pesticides and organic solvents. The patient presented with leg spasticity and developed gradually clinical signs suggestive of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which was supported by the neurophysiologic and radiological findings. Our report is an evidence based case of combined exposure to organochlorine (DDTs), organophosphate pesticides (OPs) and organic solvents as confirmed by laboratory analysis in samples of blood and hair confirming systematic exposure. The concentration of non-specific dialkylphosphates metabolites (DAPs) of OPs in hair (dimethyphopshate (DMP) 1289.4 pg/mg and diethylphosphate (DEP) 709.4 pg/mg) and of DDTs (opDDE 484.0 pg/mg, ppDDE 526.6 pg/mg, opDDD 448.4 pg/mg, ppDDD + opDDT 259.9 pg/mg and ppDDT 573.7 pg/mg) were considerably significant. Toluene and n-hexane were also detected in blood on admission at hospital and quantified (1.23 and 0.87 {mu}g/l, respectively), while 3 months after hospitalization blood testing was found negative for toluene and n-hexane and hair analysis was provided decrease levels of HCHs, DDTs and DAPs. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exposure to pesticides and organic solvents might be a risk factor for sporadic MND. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report a patient who developed progressive upper and lower motor neuron disease. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The patient had a history of occupational exposure to pesticides and solvents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High DDTs' levels and increased levels of DMP and DEP were measured in his hair. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The patients' exposure to chemicals might have played

  4. The F4/AS01B HIV-1 Vaccine Candidate Is Safe and Immunogenic, But Does Not Show Viral Efficacy in Antiretroviral Therapy-Naive, HIV-1-Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dinges, Warren; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Podzamczer, Daniel; Brockmeyer, Norbert H.; García, Felipe.; Harrer, Thomas; Lelievre, Jean-Daniel; Frank, Ian; Colin De Verdière, Nathalie; Yeni, Guy-Patrick; Ortega Gonzalez, Enrique; Rubio, Rafael; Clotet Sala, Bonaventura; DeJesus, Edwin; Pérez-Elias, Maria Jesus; Launay, Odile; Pialoux, Gilles; Slim, Jihad; Weiss, Laurence; Bouchaud, Olivier; Felizarta, Franco; Meurer, Anja; Raffi, François; Esser, Stefan; Katlama, Christine; Koletar, Susan L.; Mounzer, Karam; Swindells, Susan; Baxter, John D.; Schneider, Stefan; Chas, Julie; Molina, Jean-Michel; Koutsoukos, Marguerite; Collard, Alix; Bourguignon, Patricia; Roman, François

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The impact of the investigational human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) F4/AS01B vaccine on HIV-1 viral load (VL) was evaluated in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive HIV-1 infected adults. This phase IIb, observer-blind study (NCT01218113), included ART-naive HIV-1 infected adults aged 18 to 55 years. Participants were randomized to receive 2 (F4/AS01B_2 group, N = 64) or 3 (F4/AS01B_3 group, N = 62) doses of F4/AS01B or placebo (control group, N = 64) at weeks 0, 4, and 28. Efficacy (HIV-1 VL, CD4+ T-cell count, ART initiation, and HIV-related clinical events), safety, and immunogenicity (antibody and T-cell responses) were evaluated during 48 weeks. At week 48, based on a mixed model, no statistically significant difference in HIV-1 VL change from baseline was demonstrated between F4/AS01B_2 and control group (0.073 log10 copies/mL [97.5% confidence interval (CI): −0.088; 0.235]), or F4/AS01B_3 and control group (−0.096 log10 copies/mL [97.5% CI: −0.257; 0.065]). No differences between groups were observed in HIV-1 VL change, CD4+ T-cell count, ART initiation, or HIV-related clinical events at intermediate timepoints. Among F4/AS01B recipients, the most frequent solicited symptoms were pain at injection site (252/300 doses), fatigue (137/300 doses), myalgia (105/300 doses), and headache (90/300 doses). Twelve serious adverse events were reported in 6 participants; 1 was considered vaccine-related (F4/AS01B_2 group: angioedema). F4/AS01B induced polyfunctional F4-specific CD4+ T-cells, but had no significant impact on F4-specific CD8+ T-cell and anti-F4 antibody levels. F4/AS01B had a clinically acceptable safety profile, induced F4-specific CD4+ T-cell responses, but did not reduce HIV-1 VL, impact CD4+ T-cells count, delay ART initiation, or prevent HIV-1 related clinical events. PMID:26871794

  5. The F4/AS01B HIV-1 Vaccine Candidate Is Safe and Immunogenic, But Does Not Show Viral Efficacy in Antiretroviral Therapy-Naive, HIV-1-Infected Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Dinges, Warren; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Podzamczer, Daniel; Brockmeyer, Norbert H; García, Felipe; Harrer, Thomas; Lelievre, Jean-Daniel; Frank, Ian; Colin De Verdière, Nathalie; Yeni, Guy-Patrick; Ortega Gonzalez, Enrique; Rubio, Rafael; Clotet Sala, Bonaventura; DeJesus, Edwin; Pérez-Elias, Maria Jesus; Launay, Odile; Pialoux, Gilles; Slim, Jihad; Weiss, Laurence; Bouchaud, Olivier; Felizarta, Franco; Meurer, Anja; Raffi, François; Esser, Stefan; Katlama, Christine; Koletar, Susan L; Mounzer, Karam; Swindells, Susan; Baxter, John D; Schneider, Stefan; Chas, Julie; Molina, Jean-Michel; Koutsoukos, Marguerite; Collard, Alix; Bourguignon, Patricia; Roman, François

    2016-02-01

    The impact of the investigational human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) F4/AS01B vaccine on HIV-1 viral load (VL) was evaluated in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive HIV-1 infected adults.This phase IIb, observer-blind study (NCT01218113), included ART-naive HIV-1 infected adults aged 18 to 55 years. Participants were randomized to receive 2 (F4/AS01B_2 group, N = 64) or 3 (F4/AS01B_3 group, N = 62) doses of F4/AS01B or placebo (control group, N = 64) at weeks 0, 4, and 28. Efficacy (HIV-1 VL, CD4 T-cell count, ART initiation, and HIV-related clinical events), safety, and immunogenicity (antibody and T-cell responses) were evaluated during 48 weeks.At week 48, based on a mixed model, no statistically significant difference in HIV-1 VL change from baseline was demonstrated between F4/AS01B_2 and control group (0.073 log10 copies/mL [97.5% confidence interval (CI): -0.088; 0.235]), or F4/AS01B_3 and control group (-0.096 log10 copies/mL [97.5% CI: -0.257; 0.065]). No differences between groups were observed in HIV-1 VL change, CD4 T-cell count, ART initiation, or HIV-related clinical events at intermediate timepoints. Among F4/AS01B recipients, the most frequent solicited symptoms were pain at injection site (252/300 doses), fatigue (137/300 doses), myalgia (105/300 doses), and headache (90/300 doses). Twelve serious adverse events were reported in 6 participants; 1 was considered vaccine-related (F4/AS01B_2 group: angioedema). F4/AS01B induced polyfunctional F4-specific CD4 T-cells, but had no significant impact on F4-specific CD8 T-cell and anti-F4 antibody levels.F4/AS01B had a clinically acceptable safety profile, induced F4-specific CD4 T-cell responses, but did not reduce HIV-1 VL, impact CD4 T-cells count, delay ART initiation, or prevent HIV-1 related clinical events.

  6. The F4/AS01B HIV-1 Vaccine Candidate Is Safe and Immunogenic, But Does Not Show Viral Efficacy in Antiretroviral Therapy-Naive, HIV-1-Infected Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Dinges, Warren; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Podzamczer, Daniel; Brockmeyer, Norbert H; García, Felipe; Harrer, Thomas; Lelievre, Jean-Daniel; Frank, Ian; Colin De Verdière, Nathalie; Yeni, Guy-Patrick; Ortega Gonzalez, Enrique; Rubio, Rafael; Clotet Sala, Bonaventura; DeJesus, Edwin; Pérez-Elias, Maria Jesus; Launay, Odile; Pialoux, Gilles; Slim, Jihad; Weiss, Laurence; Bouchaud, Olivier; Felizarta, Franco; Meurer, Anja; Raffi, François; Esser, Stefan; Katlama, Christine; Koletar, Susan L; Mounzer, Karam; Swindells, Susan; Baxter, John D; Schneider, Stefan; Chas, Julie; Molina, Jean-Michel; Koutsoukos, Marguerite; Collard, Alix; Bourguignon, Patricia; Roman, François

    2016-02-01

    The impact of the investigational human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) F4/AS01B vaccine on HIV-1 viral load (VL) was evaluated in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive HIV-1 infected adults.This phase IIb, observer-blind study (NCT01218113), included ART-naive HIV-1 infected adults aged 18 to 55 years. Participants were randomized to receive 2 (F4/AS01B_2 group, N = 64) or 3 (F4/AS01B_3 group, N = 62) doses of F4/AS01B or placebo (control group, N = 64) at weeks 0, 4, and 28. Efficacy (HIV-1 VL, CD4 T-cell count, ART initiation, and HIV-related clinical events), safety, and immunogenicity (antibody and T-cell responses) were evaluated during 48 weeks.At week 48, based on a mixed model, no statistically significant difference in HIV-1 VL change from baseline was demonstrated between F4/AS01B_2 and control group (0.073 log10 copies/mL [97.5% confidence interval (CI): -0.088; 0.235]), or F4/AS01B_3 and control group (-0.096 log10 copies/mL [97.5% CI: -0.257; 0.065]). No differences between groups were observed in HIV-1 VL change, CD4 T-cell count, ART initiation, or HIV-related clinical events at intermediate timepoints. Among F4/AS01B recipients, the most frequent solicited symptoms were pain at injection site (252/300 doses), fatigue (137/300 doses), myalgia (105/300 doses), and headache (90/300 doses). Twelve serious adverse events were reported in 6 participants; 1 was considered vaccine-related (F4/AS01B_2 group: angioedema). F4/AS01B induced polyfunctional F4-specific CD4 T-cells, but had no significant impact on F4-specific CD8 T-cell and anti-F4 antibody levels.F4/AS01B had a clinically acceptable safety profile, induced F4-specific CD4 T-cell responses, but did not reduce HIV-1 VL, impact CD4 T-cells count, delay ART initiation, or prevent HIV-1 related clinical events. PMID:26871794

  7. Obesity in show cats.

    PubMed

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. PMID:24612018

  8. Early Hospital Mortality among Adult Trauma Patients Significantly Declined between 1998-2011: Three Single-Centre Cohorts from Mumbai, India

    PubMed Central

    Gerdin, Martin; Roy, Nobhojit; Dharap, Satish; Kumar, Vineet; Khajanchi, Monty; Tomson, Göran; Tsai, Li Felländer; Petzold, Max; von Schreeb, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Background Traumatic injury causes more than five million deaths each year of which about 90% occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Hospital trauma mortality has been significantly reduced in high-income countries, but to what extent similar results have been achieved in LMIC has not been studied in detail. Here, we assessed if early hospital mortality in patients with trauma has changed over time in an urban lower middle-income setting. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of patients admitted due to trauma in 1998, 2002, and 2011 to a large public hospital in Mumbai, India. Our outcome measure was early hospital mortality, defined as death between admission and 24-hours. We used multivariate logistic regression to assess the association between time and early hospital mortality, adjusting for patient case-mix. Injury severity was quantified using International Classification of Diseases-derived Injury Severity Score (ICISS). Major trauma was defined as ICISS<0.90. Results We analysed data on 4189 patients out of which 86.5% were males. A majority of patients were between 15 and 55 years old and 36.5% had major trauma. Overall early hospital mortality was 8.9% in 1998, 6.0% in 2002, and 8.1% in 2011. Among major trauma patients, early hospital mortality was 13.4%, in 1998, 11.3% in 2002, and 10.9% in 2011. Compared to trauma patients admitted in 1998, those admitted in 2011 had lower odds for early hospital mortality (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.41–0.76) including those with major trauma (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.41–0.78). Conclusions We observed a significant reduction in early hospital mortality among patients with major trauma between 1998 and 2011. Improved survival was evident only after we adjusted for patient case-mix. This finding highlights the importance of risk-adjustment when studying longitudinal mortality trends. PMID:24594775

  9. Randomised, single-masked non-inferiority trial of femtosecond laser-assisted versus manual phacoemulsification cataract surgery for adults with visually significant cataract: the FACT trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    Day, Alexander C; Burr, Jennifer M; Bunce, Catey; Doré, Caroline J; Sylvestre, Yvonne; Wormald, Richard P L; Round, Jeff; McCudden, Victoria; Rubin, Gary; Wilkins, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cataract is one of the leading causes of low vision in the westernised world, and cataract surgery is one of the most commonly performed operations. Laser platforms for cataract surgery are now available, the anticipated advantages of which are broad and may include better visual outcomes through greater precision and reproducibility, and improved safety. FACT is a randomised single masked non-inferiority trial to establish whether laser-assisted cataract surgery is as good as or better than standard manual phacoemulsification. Methods and analysis 808 patients aged 18 years and over with visually significant cataract will be randomised to manual phacoemulsification cataract surgery (standard care) or laser-assisted cataract surgery (intervention arm). Outcomes will be measured at 3 and 12 months after surgery. The primary clinical outcome is uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA, logMAR) at 3 months in the study eye recorded by an observer masked to the trial group. Secondary outcomes include UDVA at 12 months, corrected distance visual acuity at 3 and 12 months, complications, endothelial cell loss, patient-reported outcome measures and a health economic analysis conforming to National Institute for Health and Care Excellence standards. Ethics and dissemination Research Ethics Committee Approval was obtained on 6 February 2015, ref: 14/LO/1937. Current protocol: v2.0 (08/04/2015). Study findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number ISRCTN: 77602616. PMID:26614627

  10. Obesity in show dogs.

    PubMed

    Corbee, R J

    2013-10-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a growing incidence. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, and decreases life span, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain breeds is often suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, we investigated 1379 dogs of 128 different breeds by determining their body condition score (BCS). Overall, 18.6% of the show dogs had a BCS >5, and 1.1% of the show dogs had a BCS>7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be correlated to the breed standards. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and judges in order to come to different interpretations of the standards to prevent overweight conditions from being the standard of beauty. PMID:22882163

  11. Gender and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in MTHFR, BHMT, SPTLC1, CRBP2, CETP, and SCARB1 Are Significant Predictors of Plasma Homocysteine Normalized by RBC Folate in Healthy Adults123

    PubMed Central

    Clifford, Andrew J.; Chen, Kehui; McWade, Laura; Rincon, Gonzalo; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Holstege, Dirk M.; Owens, Janel E.; Liu, Bitao; Müller, Hans-Georg; Medrano, Juan F.; Fadel, James G.; Moshfegh, Alanna J.; Baer, David J.; Novotny, Janet A.

    2012-01-01

    Using linear regression models, we studied the main and 2-way interaction effects of the predictor variables gender, age, BMI, and 64 folate/vitamin B-12/homocysteine (Hcy)/lipid/cholesterol-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on log-transformed plasma Hcy normalized by RBC folate measurements (nHcy) in 373 healthy Caucasian adults (50% women). Variable selection was conducted by stepwise Akaike information criterion or least angle regression and both methods led to the same final model. Significant predictors (where P values were adjusted for false discovery rate) included type of blood sample [whole blood (WB) vs. plasma-depleted WB; P < 0.001] used for folate analysis, gender (P < 0.001), and SNP in genes SPTLC1 (rs11790991; P = 0.040), CRBP2 (rs2118981; P < 0.001), BHMT (rs3733890; P = 0.019), and CETP (rs5882; P = 0.017). Significant 2-way interaction effects included gender × MTHFR (rs1801131; P = 0.012), gender × CRBP2 (rs2118981; P = 0.011), and gender × SCARB1 (rs83882; P = 0.003). The relation of nHcy concentrations with the significant SNP (SPTLC1, BHMT, CETP, CRBP2, MTHFR, and SCARB1) is of interest, especially because we surveyed the main and interaction effects in healthy adults, but it is an important area for future study. As discussed, understanding Hcy and genetic regulation is important, because Hcy may be related to inflammation, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus. We conclude that gender and SNP significantly affect nHcy. PMID:22833659

  12. Gender and single nucleotide polymorphisms in MTHFR, BHMT, SPTLC1, CRBP2, CETP, and SCARB1 are significant predictors of plasma homocysteine normalized by RBC folate in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Andrew J; Chen, Kehui; McWade, Laura; Rincon, Gonzalo; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Holstege, Dirk M; Owens, Janel E; Liu, Bitao; Müller, Hans-Georg; Medrano, Juan F; Fadel, James G; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Baer, David J; Novotny, Janet A

    2012-09-01

    Using linear regression models, we studied the main and 2-way interaction effects of the predictor variables gender, age, BMI, and 64 folate/vitamin B-12/homocysteine (Hcy)/lipid/cholesterol-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on log-transformed plasma Hcy normalized by RBC folate measurements (nHcy) in 373 healthy Caucasian adults (50% women). Variable selection was conducted by stepwise Akaike information criterion or least angle regression and both methods led to the same final model. Significant predictors (where P values were adjusted for false discovery rate) included type of blood sample [whole blood (WB) vs. plasma-depleted WB; P < 0.001] used for folate analysis, gender (P < 0.001), and SNP in genes SPTLC1 (rs11790991; P = 0.040), CRBP2 (rs2118981; P < 0.001), BHMT (rs3733890; P = 0.019), and CETP (rs5882; P = 0.017). Significant 2-way interaction effects included gender × MTHFR (rs1801131; P = 0.012), gender × CRBP2 (rs2118981; P = 0.011), and gender × SCARB1 (rs83882; P = 0.003). The relation of nHcy concentrations with the significant SNP (SPTLC1, BHMT, CETP, CRBP2, MTHFR, and SCARB1) is of interest, especially because we surveyed the main and interaction effects in healthy adults, but it is an important area for future study. As discussed, understanding Hcy and genetic regulation is important, because Hcy may be related to inflammation, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus. We conclude that gender and SNP significantly affect nHcy. PMID:22833659

  13. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  14. Computational models of adult neurogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecchi, Guillermo A.; Magnasco, Marcelo O.

    2005-10-01

    Experimental results in recent years have shown that adult neurogenesis is a significant phenomenon in the mammalian brain. Little is known, however, about the functional role played by the generation and destruction of neurons in the context of an adult brain. Here, we propose two models where new projection neurons are incorporated. We show that in both models, using incorporation and removal of neurons as a computational tool, it is possible to achieve a higher computational efficiency that in purely static, synapse-learning-driven networks. We also discuss the implication for understanding the role of adult neurogenesis in specific brain areas like the olfactory bulb and the dentate gyrus.

  15. The Great Cometary Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave

  16. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  17. The Ozone Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

  18. Show What You Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eccleston, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Big things come in small packages. This saying came to the mind of the author after he created a simple math review activity for his fourth grade students. Though simple, it has proven to be extremely advantageous in reinforcing math concepts. He uses this activity, which he calls "Show What You Know," often. This activity provides the perfect…

  19. Showing What They Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

  20. Stage a Water Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

  1. What Do Maps Show?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

    This curriculum packet, appropriate for grades 4-8, features a teaching poster which shows different types of maps (different views of Salt Lake City, Utah), as well as three reproducible maps and reproducible activity sheets which complement the maps. The poster provides teacher background, including step-by-step lesson plans for four geography…

  2. Show Me the Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicks, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    Because today's students have grown up steeped in video games and the Internet, most of them expect feedback, and usually gratification, very soon after they expend effort on a task. Teachers can get quick feedback to students by showing them videotapes of their learning performances. The author, a 3rd grade teacher describes how the seemingly…

  3. The Art Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scolarici, Alicia

    2004-01-01

    This article describes what once was thought to be impossible--a formal art show extravaganza at an elementary school with 1,000 students, a Department of Defense Dependent School (DODDS) located overseas, on RAF Lakenheath, England. The dream of this this event involved the transformation of the school cafeteria into an elegant art show…

  4. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  5. Computer acceptance of older adults.

    PubMed

    Nägle, Sibylle; Schmidt, Ludger

    2012-01-01

    Even though computers play a massive role in everyday life of modern societies, older adults, and especially older women, are less likely to use a computer, and they perform fewer activities on it than younger adults. To get a better understanding of the factors affecting older adults' intention towards and usage of computers, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Usage of Technology (UTAUT) was applied as part of a more extensive study with 52 users and non-users of computers, ranging in age from 50 to 90 years. The model covers various aspects of computer usage in old age via four key constructs, namely performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influences, and facilitating conditions, as well as the variables gender, age, experience, and voluntariness it. Interestingly, next to performance expectancy, facilitating conditions showed the strongest correlation with use as well as with intention. Effort expectancy showed no significant correlation with the intention of older adults to use a computer.

  6. "I Remember the Whole Board Being Full of Different Calculations and Trying to Make Some Sense of It." The Influence of Significant Moments in Adult Numeracy Teachers' Own Learning Experiences on Their Teaching Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    In researching how adult numeracy teachers actively motivate and enable learners to apply the numeracy skills they learn to their own real life practices, a case study of two adult numeracy teachers and their learner groups was undertaken. This paper compares the teachers' contrasting personal experiences of mathematics learning to consider how…

  7. Electrophysiological entropy in younger adults, older controls and older cognitively declined adults.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Michael J; Kilmartin, Liam; Keane, Michael; Collins, Peter; Staff, Roger T; Kaiser, Jochen; Lai, Robert; Upton, Neil

    2012-03-22

    The current study examined electrophysiological entropy in younger adults, older adults, and older cognitively declined adults across four experimental conditions - eyes closed, eyes open, and during both encoding and recognition of words in a memory task. We hypothesised reduced entropy in older declined adults relative to both older controls and younger adults, with the largest group differences in entropy expected during the encoding and recognition phases of the experiment. We also hypothesised greater hemispheric asymmetry in younger adults compared with older controls and older declined adults. Results revealed significant increases in entropy from eyes closed to eyes open to task. Young adults showed higher entropy in the right relative to the left hemisphere in the temporal lobe and higher entropy in the left relative to the right hemisphere in the parietal lobe. Old cognitively declined adults showed no significant differences between right and left hemisphere entropy. There was a trend whereby older declined adults showed lower entropy than older controls in the frontal lobe, this difference being largest in the left hemisphere during the encoding phase of the experiment. Results indicate that measures of entropy are sensitive to information processing demands and that higher cognitive performance may not be a simple function of entropy level, but rather a combination of level and range, or differentiated range of entropy states across the brain.

  8. Taking in a Show.

    PubMed

    Boden, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Many medical practices have cut back on education and staff development expenses, especially those costs associated with conventions and conferences. But there are hard-to-value returns on your investment in these live events--beyond the obvious benefits of acquired knowledge and skills. Major vendors still exhibit their services and wares at many events, and the exhibit hall is a treasure-house of information and resources for the savvy physician or administrator. Make and stick to a purposeful plan to exploit the trade show. You can compare products, gain new insights and ideas, and even negotiate better deals with representatives anxious to realize returns on their exhibition investments. PMID:27249887

  9. Taking in a Show.

    PubMed

    Boden, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Many medical practices have cut back on education and staff development expenses, especially those costs associated with conventions and conferences. But there are hard-to-value returns on your investment in these live events--beyond the obvious benefits of acquired knowledge and skills. Major vendors still exhibit their services and wares at many events, and the exhibit hall is a treasure-house of information and resources for the savvy physician or administrator. Make and stick to a purposeful plan to exploit the trade show. You can compare products, gain new insights and ideas, and even negotiate better deals with representatives anxious to realize returns on their exhibition investments.

  10. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show. PMID:23631336

  11. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show.

  12. Public medical shows.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre. PMID:25273491

  13. Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    This pair of images from the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity served as initial confirmation that the two-year-old rover is within sight of 'Victoria Crater,' which it has been approaching for more than a year. Engineers on the rover team were unsure whether Opportunity would make it as far as Victoria, but scientists hoped for the chance to study such a large crater with their roving geologist. Victoria Crater is 800 meters (nearly half a mile) in diameter, about six times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' where Opportunity spent several months in 2004 examining rock layers affected by ancient water.

    When scientists using orbital data calculated that they should be able to detect Victoria's rim in rover images, they scrutinized frames taken in the direction of the crater by the panoramic camera. To positively characterize the subtle horizon profile of the crater and some of the features leading up to it, researchers created a vertically-stretched image (top) from a mosaic of regular frames from the panoramic camera (bottom), taken on Opportunity's 804th Martian day (April 29, 2006).

    The stretched image makes mild nearby dunes look like more threatening peaks, but that is only a result of the exaggerated vertical dimension. This vertical stretch technique was first applied to Viking Lander 2 panoramas by Philip Stooke, of the University of Western Ontario, Canada, to help locate the lander with respect to orbiter images. Vertically stretching the image allows features to be more readily identified by the Mars Exploration Rover science team.

    The bright white dot near the horizon to the right of center (barely visible without labeling or zoom-in) is thought to be a light-toned outcrop on the far wall of the crater, suggesting that the rover can see over the low rim of Victoria. In figure 1, the northeast and southeast rims are labeled

  14. Adult Books for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Betty

    1997-01-01

    Considers the differences between young adult and adult books and maintains that teachers must be familiar with young adults' tastes for both. Suggests that traffic between these publishing divisions is a two-way street, with young adults reading adult books and adults reading young adult books. (TB)

  15. Fostering significant learning in graduate nursing education.

    PubMed

    Marrocco, Geraldine F

    2014-03-01

    Faculty who want to energize graduate students with creative classes that lead to long-lasting learning will benefit by designing course objectives, learning activities, and assessment tools using Fink's taxonomy of significant learning and Wiggins's insights on performance-based or educative assessments. Research shows that course designs relying on content-driven lectures and written examinations do not promote significant learning among adult learners. This article reviews six types of significant learning using Fink's taxonomy and examines Wiggins's "backward" approach to designing courses using performance-based assessments that gauge true learning and learning that promotes a lasting change. When designing courses, educators should ask: "What do I really want students to get out of this course?" The answers will direct the design of objectives, learning activities, and assessment tools. Designing graduate courses using Fink's taxonomy and Wiggins's backward approach can lead to significant learning to better prepare nurse practitioners for the future of health care.

  16. Adult Cancers in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Laurence, Valérie; Marples, Maria; Stark, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of cancer seen in young people changes with increasing age, transitioning from childhood- to adult-type cancer in adolescence and the third decade. The risk factors, presentation and biology of cancer in young adults differ from those in the older adult population. Factors of particular significance in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) include genetic predisposition to adult-type cancer, diagnostic uncertainty, long-term morbidity and considerations of fertility. New systemic therapies are being introduced that can prolong life and even increase the chance of cure, but the impact on AYAs is uncertain, as these patients are often under-represented in clinical trials. Here, we discuss the management of AYAs with 3 of the most common cancers affecting adults, when they emerge in the AYA populations, and therefore are currently met by medical oncologists - breast cancer, colorectal cancer and melanoma. PMID:27595357

  17. [Parasitologic significance of the alteration of the causative Anisakidae worm and of the Pseudoterranova decipiens female immature adult worm, casting off the cuticles, and excreted from human in Kanazawa City].

    PubMed

    Ishikura, H; Kikuchi, K; Akao, N; Doutei, M; Yagi, K; Takahashi, S; Sato, N

    1995-09-01

    We have been studying Anisakidae larvae, their intermediate hosts and their final hosts in the northern Japan Sea area. These larvae cause anisakidosis. According to the investigation, the recent burst of pseudoterranovosis in this area can be attributed to the increased presence of sea lions, which proliferate in the Arctic region, then migrate to the northern Japan Sea and eat the intermediate host fish. In a stomach of a male sea lion that was captured in February 1995, we found more than 4,500 Pseudoterranova decipiens. Although there is no known circumstance in which a human would consume an adult worm of Anisakis nematode, an astonishing case of this was found in Kanazawa; a female young adult Pseudoterranova decipiens undergoing the final metamorphosis was emitted from a patient. This indicates that the Anisakis larva can mature into the adult worm in humans. It is postulated that the Pseudoterranova decipiens larva is in the process of adapting to use humans as the final host. PMID:8543275

  18. Dreaming, Stealing, Dancing, Showing Off.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavender, Peter; Taylor, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Lessons learned from British projects to delivery literacy, numeracy, and English as a second language through community agencies included the following: (1) innovation and measured risks are required to attract hard-to-reach adults; (2) good practice needs to be shared; and (3) projects worked best when government funds were managed by community…

  19. [Adult twins].

    PubMed

    Charlemaine, Christiane

    2006-12-31

    This paper explores the deep roots of closeness that twins share in their youngest age and their effect on their destiny at the adult age. Psychologists believe the bond between twins begins in utero and develops throughout the twins' lives. The four patterns of twinship described show that the twin bond is determined by the quality of parenting that twins receive in their infancy and early childhood. Common problems of adult twins bring about difficulties to adapt in a non-twin world. The nature versus nurture controversy has taken on new life focusing on inter-twin differences and the importance of parent-child interaction as fundamental to the growth and development of personality. PMID:17352324

  20. The Significance of Bradycardia in Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Yahalom, Malka; Spitz, Marcelo; Sandler, Ludmila; Heno, Nawaf; Roguin, Nathan; Turgeman, Yoav

    2013-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a life-threatening condition, with a significant risk for death, due to cardiovascular complications. It is characterized by abnormal eating behavior and has the highest mortality rate of all psychiatric disorders. It has been associated with bradycardia (a heart rate [HR] of less than 60 beats per minute) (up to 95%), hypotension, mitral valve prolapse, and heart failure. The diagnosis of AN can be elusive, and more than half of all cases are undetected. The purpose of this study was to raise and improve awareness to the possible diagnosis of AN in adolescent and young adult patients with weight loss displaying bradycardia and new cardiac disorders. Clinical characteristics, HR, and electrocardiographic data of 23 consecutive patients (20 females) with AN and of 10 young adults (8 females) without AN, between the years 2006 and 2009, were recorded and summarized. At presentation 16/23 (69.6%) showed HR < 50 bpm. The mean lowest HR of all patients was 44 ± 6 (range 26 to 68) bpm. No patient needed pacemaker therapy. Bradycardia in young adults, especially females with weight loss, should raise the possible diagnosis of AN, so it can be treated early in-time, and thus prevent premature death. PMID:24436590

  1. Plan Showing Cross Bracing Under Upper Stringers, Typical Section Showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plan Showing Cross Bracing Under Upper Stringers, Typical Section Showing End Framing, Plan Showing Cross Bracing Under Lower Stringers, End Elevation - Covered Bridge, Spanning Contoocook River, Hopkinton, Merrimack County, NH

  2. Snacking on Television: A Content Analysis of Adolescents’ Favorite Shows

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Nicole I.; Gollust, Sarah E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Snacking is a complex behavior that may be influenced by entertainment media. Research suggests that snacking and unhealthy foods are commonly shown in programming that targets young audiences, but shows selected for study have been limited. We conducted a content analysis on shows that were named as favorites by adolescents to characterize portrayals of snacking on popular television. Methods A diverse sample of 2,130 adolescents (mean age, 14.3 y) listed 3 favorite television shows in a 2010 school-based survey. Three episodes each of the 25 most popular shows were coded for food-related content, including healthfulness, portion size, screen time use, setting, and social context. We also analyzed the characteristics of characters involved in eating incidents, the show type, and the show rating. We used χ2 tests, binomial tests, and multilevel regression models to compare incidence of snacks versus meals, the characteristics of those involved, and snacking across show characteristics. Results Almost half of food incidents on television shows were snacks. Snacks were significantly more likely than meals to be “mostly unhealthy” (69.3% vs 22.6%, P < .001) and were more likely to include screen time use (25.0% of snacking incidents vs 4.0% of meals, P < .001). Young characters and those coded as being of low socioeconomic status or overweight were overrepresented in snacking incidents. Sitcoms and shows rated for a youth audience were significantly more likely to portray snacking than were shows for adult audiences. Conclusion Media awareness and literacy programs should include foods and snacking behaviors among the issues they address. More healthful portrayals of food and dietary intake in entertainment shows’ content would create a healthier media environment for youth. PMID:27197079

  3. Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate in Combination with a Twice-Daily Lopinavir-Ritonavir-Based Regimen in HIV-Infected Women Showed Effective Contraception and a Lack of Clinically Significant Interactions, with Good Safety and Tolerability: Results of the ACTG 5283 Study

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Susan E.; Park, Jeong-Gun; Cramer, Yoninah; Weinberg, Adriana; Livingston, Elizabeth; Klingman, Karin L.; Aweeka, Francesca; Watts, D. Heather

    2015-01-01

    We conducted an open-label, steady-state pharmacokinetic (PK) study of drug-drug interactions between depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and twice-daily lopinavir (LPV) plus low-dose ritonavir (RTV) (LPV/r) among 24 HIV-infected women and compared the results to those for HIV-infected women receiving DMPA while on no antiretroviral therapy or on nucleosides only (n = 14 subjects from the control arm of AIDS Clinical Trials Group [ACTG] study 5093). The objectives of the study were to address the effect of LPV/r on DMPA and to address the effect of DMPA on LPV/r therapy. PK parameters were estimated using noncompartmental analysis with between-group comparisons of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) PKs and within-subject comparisons of LPV and RTV PKs before and 4 weeks after DMPA dosing. Plasma progesterone concentrations were measured every 2 weeks after DMPA dosing through week 12. Although the MPA area under the concentration-time curve and maximum concentration of drug in plasma were statistically significantly increased in the study women on LPV/r compared to those in the historical controls, these increases were not considered clinically significant. There were no changes in LPV or RTV exposure after DMPA. DMPA was well tolerated, and suppression of ovulation was maintained. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01296152.) PMID:25624326

  4. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in CETP, SLC46A1, SLC19A1, CD36, BCOM1, APOA5, and ABCA1 are significant predictors of plasma HDL in healthy adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a marker-trait association study we estimated the statistical significance of 65 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 23 candidate genes on HDL levels of two independent Caucasian populations. Each population consisted of men and women and their HDL levels were adjusted for gender and body we...

  5. A genome-wide scan shows significant linkage between bipolar disorder and chromosome 12q24.3 and suggestive linkage to chromosomes 1p22-21, 4p16, 6q14-22, 10q26 and 16p13.3.

    PubMed

    Ewald, H; Flint, T; Kruse, T A; Mors, O

    2002-01-01

    The present study reports a genomewide scan using linkage analysis for risk genes involved in bipolar disorder with 613 microsatellite markers including additional testing of promising regions. As previously published significant linkage was obtained at chromosome 12q24.3 with a two-point parametric lod score of 3.42 at D12S1639 including all members in both families (empirical P-value 0.00004, genome-wide P-value 0.0417). The multipoint parametric lod score at D12S1639 was 3.63 (genome-wide P-value 0.0265). At chromosome 1p22-p21 a parametric, affecteds-only two-point lod score of 2.75 at marker D1S216 was found (empirical P-value 0.0002, genome-wide P-value 0.1622). A three-point lod score of 2.98 (genome-wide P-value 0.1022) at D1S216, and a multipoint non-parametric analysis with a maximum NPL-all score of 17.60 (P-value 0.00079) at D1S216 further supported this finding. A number of additional loci on chromosomes 4p16, 6q14-q22, 10q26 and 16p13.3 yielded parametric lod scores around or above 2.

  6. Rural Adult Education: Current Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchey, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    "Context". The word pervades the literature on adult and continuing education. For adult education practitioners and researchers alike, understanding the beliefs and actions of their educational place continues to be of significant concern, and rightfully so. That adults wish to have their histories, experiences, and abilities appreciated and…

  7. 8. Detail showing concrete abutment, showing substructure of bridge, specifically ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail showing concrete abutment, showing substructure of bridge, specifically west side of arch and substructure. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  8. 28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS LINCOLN BOULEVARD, BIG LOST RIVER, AND NAVAL REACTORS FACILITY. F.C. TORKELSON DRAWING NUMBER 842-ARVFS-101-2. DATED OCTOBER 12, 1965. INEL INDEX CODE NUMBER: 075 0101 851 151969. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. Talker intelligibility: Child and adult listener performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markham, Duncan; Hazan, Valerie

    2002-05-01

    In a study of talker intelligibility, 45 voices (adults, 11-12 year old children) were presented to 135 listeners (adults, 11-12, and 7-8 year olds). Word materials were presented in a ``single-word'' condition, and in a ``triplet'' condition, where a ``normalizing'' precursor sentence preceded three keywords. In both conditions, voices were randomized, with no consecutive presentations from the same speaker. The specially designed word-set consisted of 124 words chosen to maximize consonant confusions. Adult female speakers were significantly more intelligible than other groups, as predicted by previous research, but the difference was small. The error rates for 7-8 year olds were slightly but significantly higher than those for the older children and adults. The effect of presentation condition, however, was not significant for any listener group. Across all listener groups, rankings of speakers by error rates were strikingly consistent, with a distinct cluster of eight low-intelligibility speakers common to all listener groups. This suggests that speaker intelligibility is little influenced by listener-related factors. In terms of their perception of speaker characteristics, children aged seven and above are showing similar patterns of behavior to adults, even though the younger children showed marginally higher error rates. [Work funded by the Wellcome Trust.

  10. Adult immunization

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Bharti; Chawla, Sumit; Kumar Dharma, Vijay; Jindal, Harashish; Bhatt, Bhumika

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is recommended throughout life to prevent vaccine-preventable diseases and their sequel. The primary focus of vaccination programs has historically been directed to childhood immunizations. For adults, chronic diseases have been the primary focus of preventive and medical health care, though there has been increased emphasis on preventing infectious diseases. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains low for most of the routinely recommended vaccines. Though adults are less susceptible to fall prey to traditional infectious agents, the probability of exposure to infectious agents has increased manifold owing to globalization and increasing travel opportunities both within and across the countries. Thus, there is an urgent need to address the problem of adult immunization. The adult immunization enterprise is more complex, encompassing a wide variety of vaccines and a very diverse target population. There is no coordinated public health infrastructure to support an adult immunization program as there is for children. Moreover, there is little coordination among adult healthcare providers in terms of vaccine provision. Substantial improvement in adult vaccination is needed to reduce the health consequences of vaccine-preventable diseases among adults. Routine assessment of adult patient vaccination needs, recommendation, and offer of needed vaccines for adults should be incorporated into routine clinical care of adults. PMID:24128707

  11. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in CETP, SLC46A1, SLC19A1, CD36, BCMO1, APOA5, and ABCA1 are significant predictors of plasma HDL in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In a marker-trait association study we estimated the statistical significance of 65 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 23 candidate genes on HDL levels of two independent Caucasian populations. Each population consisted of men and women and their HDL levels were adjusted for gender and body weight. We used a linear regression model. Selected genes corresponded to folate metabolism, vitamins B-12, A, and E, and cholesterol pathways or lipid metabolism. Methods Extracted DNA from both the Sacramento and Beltsville populations was analyzed using an allele discrimination assay with a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry platform. The adjusted phenotype, y, was HDL levels adjusted for gender and body weight only statistical analyses were performed using the genotype association and regression modules from the SNP Variation Suite v7. Results Statistically significant SNP (where P values were adjusted for false discovery rate) included: CETP (rs7499892 and rs5882); SLC46A1 (rs37514694; rs739439); SLC19A1 (rs3788199); CD36 (rs3211956); BCMO1 (rs6564851), APOA5 (rs662799), and ABCA1 (rs4149267). Many prior association trends of the SNP with HDL were replicated in our cross-validation study. Significantly, the association of SNP in folate transporters (SLC46A1 rs37514694 and rs739439; SLC19A1 rs3788199) with HDL was identified in our study. Conclusions Given recent literature on the role of niacin in the biogenesis of HDL, focus on status and metabolism of B-vitamins and metabolites of eccentric cleavage of β-carotene with lipid metabolism is exciting for future study. PMID:23656756

  12. Significance of Lead Residues in Mallard Tissues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; Locke, L.N.; Bagley, G.E.; Andrews, R.

    1974-01-01

    Tissues of adult, lead-dosed mallards that either died or were sacrificed were analyzed for lead. Lead levels in brains, tibiae, and breast muscle of ducks that died and in tibiae of ducks that were sacrificed increased significantly from dosage until death. Lead in the heart, lung, and blood from sacrificed ducks decreased significantly from dosage until death. Lead concentrations in tissues from ducks in the two groups were not significantly different except for the liver, kidney, and lung. Average lead levels in the livers and kidneys of ducks that died were significantly higher than those in ducks that were sacrificed. The mean concentration of lead in the lungs of the ducks sacrificed was significantly higher than the mean level in the lungs of ducks that died. Measurements of the lead concentrations in this study, when compared with lead levels reported in the literature for avian and non-avian species, showed that arbitrary diagnostic levels indicating lead poisoning could be set. In mallard ducks, lead levels exceeding 3 ppm in the brain, 6 to 20 ppm in the kidney or liver, or 10 ppm in clotted blood from the heart indicated acute exposure to lead.

  13. Mosquito, adult (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This illustration shows an adult southern house mosquito. This mosquito feeds on blood and is the carrier of many diseases, such as encephalitis, West Nile, dengue fever, yellow fever, and others. ( ...

  14. What Do Blood Tests Show?

    MedlinePlus

    ... shows the ranges for blood glucose levels after 8 to 12 hours of fasting (not eating). It shows the normal range and the abnormal ranges that are a sign of prediabetes or diabetes. Plasma Glucose Results (mg/dL)* Diagnosis 70 to 99 ...

  15. Satellite Movie Shows Erika Dissipate

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite from Aug. 27 to 29 shows Tropical Storm Erika move through the Eastern Caribbean Sea and dissipate near eastern Cuba. ...

  16. Face and body recognition show similar improvement during childhood.

    PubMed

    Bank, Samantha; Rhodes, Gillian; Read, Ainsley; Jeffery, Linda

    2015-09-01

    Adults are proficient in extracting identity cues from faces. This proficiency develops slowly during childhood, with performance not reaching adult levels until adolescence. Bodies are similar to faces in that they convey identity cues and rely on specialized perceptual mechanisms. However, it is currently unclear whether body recognition mirrors the slow development of face recognition during childhood. Recent evidence suggests that body recognition develops faster than face recognition. Here we measured body and face recognition in 6- and 10-year-old children and adults to determine whether these two skills show different amounts of improvement during childhood. We found no evidence that they do. Face and body recognition showed similar improvement with age, and children, like adults, were better at recognizing faces than bodies. These results suggest that the mechanisms of face and body memory mature at a similar rate or that improvement of more general cognitive and perceptual skills underlies improvement of both face and body recognition.

  17. Big data integration shows Australian bush-fire frequency is increasing significantly.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Ritaban; Das, Aruneema; Aryal, Jagannath

    2016-02-01

    Increasing Australian bush-fire frequencies over the last decade has indicated a major climatic change in coming future. Understanding such climatic change for Australian bush-fire is limited and there is an urgent need of scientific research, which is capable enough to contribute to Australian society. Frequency of bush-fire carries information on spatial, temporal and climatic aspects of bush-fire events and provides contextual information to model various climate data for accurately predicting future bush-fire hot spots. In this study, we develop an ensemble method based on a two-layered machine learning model to establish relationship between fire incidence and climatic data. In a 336 week data trial, we demonstrate that the model provides highly accurate bush-fire incidence hot-spot estimation (91% global accuracy) from the weekly climatic surfaces. Our analysis also indicates that Australian weekly bush-fire frequencies increased by 40% over the last 5 years, particularly during summer months, implicating a serious climatic shift. PMID:26998312

  18. Big data integration shows Australian bush-fire frequency is increasing significantly.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Ritaban; Das, Aruneema; Aryal, Jagannath

    2016-02-01

    Increasing Australian bush-fire frequencies over the last decade has indicated a major climatic change in coming future. Understanding such climatic change for Australian bush-fire is limited and there is an urgent need of scientific research, which is capable enough to contribute to Australian society. Frequency of bush-fire carries information on spatial, temporal and climatic aspects of bush-fire events and provides contextual information to model various climate data for accurately predicting future bush-fire hot spots. In this study, we develop an ensemble method based on a two-layered machine learning model to establish relationship between fire incidence and climatic data. In a 336 week data trial, we demonstrate that the model provides highly accurate bush-fire incidence hot-spot estimation (91% global accuracy) from the weekly climatic surfaces. Our analysis also indicates that Australian weekly bush-fire frequencies increased by 40% over the last 5 years, particularly during summer months, implicating a serious climatic shift.

  19. Big data integration shows Australian bush-fire frequency is increasing significantly

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Ritaban; Das, Aruneema; Aryal, Jagannath

    2016-01-01

    Increasing Australian bush-fire frequencies over the last decade has indicated a major climatic change in coming future. Understanding such climatic change for Australian bush-fire is limited and there is an urgent need of scientific research, which is capable enough to contribute to Australian society. Frequency of bush-fire carries information on spatial, temporal and climatic aspects of bush-fire events and provides contextual information to model various climate data for accurately predicting future bush-fire hot spots. In this study, we develop an ensemble method based on a two-layered machine learning model to establish relationship between fire incidence and climatic data. In a 336 week data trial, we demonstrate that the model provides highly accurate bush-fire incidence hot-spot estimation (91% global accuracy) from the weekly climatic surfaces. Our analysis also indicates that Australian weekly bush-fire frequencies increased by 40% over the last 5 years, particularly during summer months, implicating a serious climatic shift. PMID:26998312

  20. National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Jimenez Sheri Raborn, CPA; Tom Baker

    2008-03-31

    National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration created a 400KW Photovoltaic self-generation plant at the National Orange Show Events Center (NOS). The NOS owns a 120-acre state fairground where it operates an events center and produces an annual citrus fair known as the Orange Show. The NOS governing board wanted to employ cost-saving programs for annual energy expenses. It is hoped the Photovoltaic program will result in overall savings for the NOS, help reduce the State's energy demands as relating to electrical power consumption, improve quality of life within the affected grid area as well as increase the energy efficiency of buildings at our venue. In addition, the potential to reduce operational expenses would have a tremendous effect on the ability of the NOS to service its community.

  1. Arches showing UV flaring activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    The UVSP data obtained in the previous maximum activity cycle show the frequent appearance of flaring events in the UV. In many cases these flaring events are characterized by at least two footpoints which show compact impulsive non-simultaneous brightenings and a fainter but clearly observed arch developes between the footpoints. These arches and footpoints are observed in line corresponding to different temperatures, as Lyman alpha, N V, and C IV, and when observed above the limb display large Doppler shifts at some stages. The size of the arches can be larger than 20 arcsec.

  2. Create a Polarized Light Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, William H.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson that introduces students to polarized light using a problem-solving approach. After illustrating the concept using a slinky and poster board with a vertical slot, students solve the problem of creating a polarized light show using Polya's problem-solving methods. (MDH)

  3. Pembrolizumab Shows Promise for NSCLC.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    Data from the KEYNOTE-001 trial show that pembrolizumab improves clinical outcomes for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer, and is well tolerated. PD-L1 expression in at least 50% of tumor cells correlated with improved efficacy.

  4. Cardiac imaging in adults

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffe, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    This book approaches adult cardiac disease from the correlative imaging perspective. It includes chest X-rays and angiographs, 2-dimensional echocardiograms with explanatory diagrams for clarity, plus details on digital radiology, nuclear medicine techniques, CT and MRI. It also covers the normal heart, valvular heart disease, myocardial disease, pericardial disease, bacterial endocarditis, aortic aneurysm, cardiac tumors, and congenital heart disease of the adult. It points out those aspects where one imaging technique has significant superiority.

  5. Statistical or biological significance?

    PubMed

    Saxon, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Oat plants grown at an agricultural research facility produce higher yields in Field 1 than in Field 2, under well fertilised conditions and with similar weather exposure; all oat plants in both fields are healthy and show no sign of disease. In this study, the authors hypothesised that the soil microbial community might be different in each field, and these differences might explain the difference in oat plant growth. They carried out a metagenomic analysis of the 16 s ribosomal 'signature' sequences from bacteria in 50 randomly located soil samples in each field to determine the composition of the bacterial community. The study identified >1000 species, most of which were present in both fields. The authors identified two plant growth-promoting species that were significantly reduced in soil from Field 2 (Student's t-test P < 0.05), and concluded that these species might have contributed to reduced yield. PMID:26541972

  6. Magic Carpet Shows Its Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The upper left image in this display is from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, showing the 'Magic Carpet' region near the rover at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Sol 7, the seventh martian day of its journey (Jan. 10, 2004). The lower image, also from the panoramic camera, is a monochrome (single filter) image of a rock in the 'Magic Carpet' area. Note that colored portions of the rock correlate with extracted spectra shown in the plot to the side. Four different types of materials are shown: the rock itself, the soil in front of the rock, some brighter soil on top of the rock, and some dust that has collected in small recesses on the rock face ('spots'). Each color on the spectra matches a line on the graph, showing how the panoramic camera's different colored filters are used to broadly assess the varying mineral compositions of martian rocks and soils.

  7. Reading difficulties in Spanish adults with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies show that dyslexia persists into adulthood, even in highly educated and well-read people. The main characteristic that adults with dyslexia present is a low speed when reading. In Spanish, a shallow orthographic system, no studies about adults with dyslexia are available; and it is possible that the consistency of the orthographic system favours the reading fluency. The aim of this study was to get an insight of the reading characteristics of Spanish adults with dyslexia and also to infer the reading strategies that they are using. For that purpose, a group of 30 dyslexics (M age = 32 years old) and an age-matched group of 30 adults without reading disabilities completed several phonological and reading tasks: phonological awareness tasks, rapid automatic naming, lexical decision, word and pseudoword reading, letter detection and text reading. The results showed that highly educated Spanish dyslexics performed significantly worse than the control group in the majority of the tasks. Specifically, they showed difficulties reading long pseudowords, indicating problems in automating the grapheme-phoneme rules, but they also seem to present difficulties reading words, which indicate problems with the lexical route. It seems that the Spanish dyslexic adults, as in deep orthographies, continue having difficulties in phonological awareness tasks, rapid naming and reading.

  8. Reading difficulties in Spanish adults with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies show that dyslexia persists into adulthood, even in highly educated and well-read people. The main characteristic that adults with dyslexia present is a low speed when reading. In Spanish, a shallow orthographic system, no studies about adults with dyslexia are available; and it is possible that the consistency of the orthographic system favours the reading fluency. The aim of this study was to get an insight of the reading characteristics of Spanish adults with dyslexia and also to infer the reading strategies that they are using. For that purpose, a group of 30 dyslexics (M age = 32 years old) and an age-matched group of 30 adults without reading disabilities completed several phonological and reading tasks: phonological awareness tasks, rapid automatic naming, lexical decision, word and pseudoword reading, letter detection and text reading. The results showed that highly educated Spanish dyslexics performed significantly worse than the control group in the majority of the tasks. Specifically, they showed difficulties reading long pseudowords, indicating problems in automating the grapheme-phoneme rules, but they also seem to present difficulties reading words, which indicate problems with the lexical route. It seems that the Spanish dyslexic adults, as in deep orthographies, continue having difficulties in phonological awareness tasks, rapid naming and reading. PMID:25836629

  9. Care of adults with developmental disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Balogh, Robert; Wood, Jessica; Lunsky, Yona; Isaacs, Barry; Ouellette-Kuntz, Hélène; Sullivan, William

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the effects of an interdisciplinary, guideline-based continuing education course on measures related to the care of adults with developmental disabilities (DD). Design Before-and-after study with a control group. Setting Ontario. Participants Forty-seven primary care providers (physicians, registered nurses, and nurse practitioners). Intervention Participants either only received reference material about primary care of people with DD (control group) or participated in a continuing education course on primary care of people with DD in addition to receiving the reference material (intervention group). Main outcome measures Participants reported on 5 key measures related to care of adults with DD: frequency of using guidelines, frequency of performing periodic health examinations, frequency of assessing patients who present with behaviour changes, level of comfort while caring for adults with DD, and knowledge of primary care related to adults with DD. Results Over time, the intervention group showed significant increases in 4 of the 5 key measures of care compared with the control group: the frequency of guideline use (P < .001), frequency of assessment of patients’ behaviour change (P = .03), comfort level in caring for people with DD (P = .01), and knowledge of primary care related to adults with DD (P = .01). Conclusion A continuing education course on primary care of adults with DD is a useful interdisciplinary model to train health professionals who provide primary care services to these patients. PMID:26380855

  10. Graphene Oxides Show Angiogenic Properties.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sudip; Sriram, Pavithra; Barui, Ayan Kumar; Nethi, Susheel Kumar; Veeriah, Vimal; Chatterjee, Suvro; Suresh, Kattimuttathu Ittara; Patra, Chitta Ranjan

    2015-08-01

    Angiogenesis, a process resulting in the formation of new capillaries from the pre-existing vasculature plays vital role for the development of therapeutic approaches for cancer, atherosclerosis, wound healing, and cardiovascular diseases. In this report, the synthesis, characterization, and angiogenic properties of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have been demonstrated, observed through several in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays. The results here demonstrate that the intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species as well as activation of phospho-eNOS and phospho-Akt might be the plausible mechanisms for GO and rGO induced angiogenesis. The results altogether suggest the possibilities for the development of alternative angiogenic therapeutic approach for the treatment of cardiovascular related diseases where angiogenesis plays a significant role.

  11. Effects of a Tourism Awareness Program on the Attitudes and Knowledge of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Lynn L.; Daniel, Larry G.

    1998-01-01

    A group of 94 older adults attended a lecture and film on tourism; immediate and one-month posttest data were compared to 109 controls. Results showed older adults can learn from incidental exposure to information and retain it. However, there was less significant change in attitudes. (SK)

  12. Urinary tract infection - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Bladder infection - adults; UTI - adults; Cystitis - bacterial - adults; Pyelonephritis - adults; Kidney infection - adults ... to the hospital if you: Are an older adult Have kidney stones or changes in the anatomy ...

  13. What Does It Take to Be an Adult in Austria? Views of Adulthood in Austrian Adolescents, Emerging Adults, and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirsch, Ulrike; Dreher, Eva; Mayr, Eva; Willinger, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the defining features of emerging adulthood, subjects' conceptions of the transition to adulthood, and the perceived adult status in Austria. The sample consisted of 775 subjects (226 adolescents, 317 emerging adults, 232 adults). Results showed that most Austrian emerging adults feel themselves to be between adolescence…

  14. UPJ Obstruction in the Adult Population: Are Crossing Vessels Significant?

    PubMed Central

    Grasso, Michael; Caruso, Robert P; Phillips, Courtney K

    2001-01-01

    Ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction describes various causes of impaired drainage at the UPJ. Regardless of the cause, the end result is the same: impedance in the normal flow of urine from the renal pelvis into the proximal ureter, resulting in caliectasis and hydronephrosis. This may lead to progressive deterioration of renal function and, thus, often requires intervention to relieve the obstruction and restore the normal flow of urine. Defining the pertinent anatomy, the degree of obstruction, and differential renal function is key to determining whether and when intervention is necessary. PMID:16985690

  15. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  16. "Show me" bioethics and politics.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Myra J

    2007-10-01

    Missouri, the "Show Me State," has become the epicenter of several important national public policy debates, including abortion rights, the right to choose and refuse medical treatment, and, most recently, early stem cell research. In this environment, the Center for Practical Bioethics (formerly, Midwest Bioethics Center) emerged and grew. The Center's role in these "cultural wars" is not to advocate for a particular position but to provide well researched and objective information, perspective, and advocacy for the ethical justification of policy positions; and to serve as a neutral convener and provider of a public forum for discussion. In this article, the Center's work on early stem cell research is a case study through which to argue that not only the Center, but also the field of bioethics has a critical role in the politics of public health policy.

  17. ShowMe3D

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less

  18. Anthropological significance of phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Saugstad, L F

    1975-01-01

    The highest incidence rates of phenylketonuria (PKU) have been observed in Ireland and Scotlant. Parents heterozygous for PKU in Norway differ significantly from the general population in the Rhesus, Kell and PGM systems. The parents investigated showed an excess of Rh negative, Kell plus and PGM type 1 individuals, which makes them similar to the present populations in Ireland and Scotlant. It is postulated that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated sub-population of Celtic origin, who came or were brought here, 1ooo years ago. Bronze objects of Western European (Scottish, Irish) origin, found in Viking graves widely distributed in Norway, have been taken as evidence of Vikings returning with loot (including a number of Celts) from Western Viking settlements. The continuity of residence since the Viking age in most habitable parts of Norway, and what seems to be a nearly complete regional relationship between the sites where Viking graves contain western imported objects and the birthplaces of grandparents of PKUs identified in Norway, lend further support to the hypothesis that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated subpopulation. The remarkable resemblance between Iceland and Ireland, in respect of several genetic markers (including the Rhesus, PGM and Kell systems), is considered to be an expression of a similar proportion of people of Celtic origin in each of the two countries. Their identical, high incidence rates of PKU are regarded as further evidence of this. The significant decline in the incidence of PKU when one passes from Ireland, Scotland and Iceland, to Denmark and on to Norway and Sweden, is therefore explained as being related to a reduction in the proportion of inhabitants of Celtic extraction in the respective populations.

  19. Anthropometry of Malaysian young adults.

    PubMed

    Karmegam; Karuppiah; Salit, Mohd Sapuan; Ismail, Mohd Yusof; Ismail, Napsiah; Tamrin, Shamsul Bahri Mohd; Gobalakrishnan, Krishnan; Palanimuthu, Seetha; Palaniandy, Thiyagu

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents the results of an anthropometric data collected from polytechnic students in Malaysia. A total of 1032 (595 males and 437 females) students participated in the study. Their ages ranged from 18 to 24 years. A total of 34 anthropometric dimensions were measured. Descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, standard error of mean, coefficient of variation, minimum, maximum and percentile for each parameter were estimated. In addition, the comparison between Malaysia anthropometric data and Thailand (South) anthropometric data were also presented. The results show that there is a total of 12 and 11 (of dimensions parameters) significant differences (p < 0.05) between the male and female adults respectively.

  20. Pea Plants Show Risk Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Dener, Efrat; Kacelnik, Alex; Shemesh, Hagai

    2016-07-11

    Sensitivity to variability in resources has been documented in humans, primates, birds, and social insects, but the fit between empirical results and the predictions of risk sensitivity theory (RST), which aims to explain this sensitivity in adaptive terms, is weak [1]. RST predicts that agents should switch between risk proneness and risk aversion depending on state and circumstances, especially according to the richness of the least variable option [2]. Unrealistic assumptions about agents' information processing mechanisms and poor knowledge of the extent to which variability imposes specific selection in nature are strong candidates to explain the gap between theory and data. RST's rationale also applies to plants, where it has not hitherto been tested. Given the differences between animals' and plants' information processing mechanisms, such tests should help unravel the conflicts between theory and data. Measuring root growth allocation by split-root pea plants, we show that they favor variability when mean nutrient levels are low and the opposite when they are high, supporting the most widespread RST prediction. However, the combination of non-linear effects of nitrogen availability at local and systemic levels may explain some of these effects as a consequence of mechanisms not necessarily evolved to cope with variance [3, 4]. This resembles animal examples in which properties of perception and learning cause risk sensitivity even though they are not risk adaptations [5]. PMID:27374342

  1. Casimir experiments showing saturation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Sernelius, Bo E.

    2009-10-15

    We address several different Casimir experiments where theory and experiment disagree. First out is the classical Casimir force measurement between two metal half spaces; here both in the form of the torsion pendulum experiment by Lamoreaux and in the form of the Casimir pressure measurement between a gold sphere and a gold plate as performed by Decca et al.; theory predicts a large negative thermal correction, absent in the high precision experiments. The third experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between a metal plate and a laser irradiated semiconductor membrane as performed by Chen et al.; the change in force with laser intensity is larger than predicted by theory. The fourth experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between an atom and a wall in the form of the measurement by Obrecht et al. of the change in oscillation frequency of a {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate trapped to a fused silica wall; the change is smaller than predicted by theory. We show that saturation effects can explain the discrepancies between theory and experiment observed in all these cases.

  2. Philippines: decentralized approach shows results.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    In the Philippines several steps have been taken to meet the challenge of increasing population growth. Commencing with the Republic Act 6365, known as the Population Act (1971) program directives focus on achieving and maintaining population levels most conducive to the national welfare. In 1978 a Special Committee was constituted by the President to review the population program. Pursuant to the Committee's findings certain changes were adopted. The thrust is now towards longterm planning to ensure a more significant and perceptible demographic impact of development programs and policies. Increasing attention is paid to regional development and spatial distribution in the country. The 1978-82 Development Plan states more clearly the interaction between population and development. The National Economic and Development Authority, the central policy and planning agency of the government, takes charge of formulation and coordinating the broader aspects of population policy and integrating population with socioeconomic plans and policies. At present the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) is implementing a project known as the Population/Development Planning and Research (PDPR) project with financial support from the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). This project promotes and facilitates the integration of the population dimension in the planning process. It does this by maintaining linkages and instituting collaborative mechanisms with the different NEDA regional offices and sectoral ministries. It also trains government planners in ways of integrating population concerns into the development plan. PDPR promotes the use of population and development research for planning purposes and policy formation. The Philippine Development Plan, 1978-82, recognized that an improvement in the level of 1 sector reinforces the performance of the other sectors. Since the establishment of the National Population Program 12 years ago, population and family

  3. "I will guide you" The indirect link between overparenting and young adults' adjustment.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Sofie; Scharf, Miri

    2015-08-30

    This study addresses knowledge gaps regarding family dynamics, and identifies young adults at-risk for psychopathological symptoms. In particular, we examined overparenting and its associations with young adults' adjustment (distress and interpersonal sensitivity). Both direct and indirect relations were assessed, the latter through young adults' relational characteristics (attachment, psychological control perception, and boundaries diffusion perception). Also, the contribution of gender of parents and young adults was addressed. Questionnaires were collected from 89 Jewish-Israeli intact families. Mothers reported significantly more use of overparenting than fathers. More overparenting of fathers had a direct relation with less adjustment in young adults. This direct relation was partially mediated by higher levels of young adults' attachment anxiety (for the dependent variables distress and interpersonal sensitivity) and young adults' perceptions of parental psychological control (for the dependent variable distress). More overparenting of mothers was related to less interpersonal sensitivity for male young adults and for young adults who reported less parental psychological control. This study showed that parenting qualities and their interplay with young adults' relational characteristics continue to play an important role in the lives of young adult offspring. Therefore, clinicians dealing with young adults at risk for, or suffering from, psychopathology, should be attentive to overparenting and its possible implications.

  4. Mimas Showing False Colors #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    False color images of Saturn's moon, Mimas, reveal variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

    During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

    The image at the left is a narrow angle clear-filter image, which was separately processed to enhance the contrast in brightness and sharpness of visible features. The image at the right is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined into a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences. This 'color map' was then superimposed over the clear-filter image at the left.

    The combination of color map and brightness image shows how the color differences across the Mimas surface materials are tied to geological features. Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

    Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of each image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in

  5. Do Adults with High Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome Differ in Empathy and Emotion Recognition?

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Charlotte B; Allison, Carrie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Cassidy, Sarah; Langdon, Peter E; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined whether adults with high functioning autism (HFA) showed greater difficulties in (1) their self-reported ability to empathise with others and/or (2) their ability to read mental states in others' eyes than adults with Asperger syndrome (AS). The Empathy Quotient (EQ) and 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' Test (Eyes Test) were compared in 43 adults with AS and 43 adults with HFA. No significant difference was observed on EQ score between groups, while adults with AS performed significantly better on the Eyes Test than those with HFA. This suggests that adults with HFA may need more support, particularly in mentalizing and complex emotion recognition, and raises questions about the existence of subgroups within autism spectrum conditions.

  6. Do Adults with High Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome Differ in Empathy and Emotion Recognition?

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Charlotte B; Allison, Carrie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Cassidy, Sarah; Langdon, Peter E; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined whether adults with high functioning autism (HFA) showed greater difficulties in (1) their self-reported ability to empathise with others and/or (2) their ability to read mental states in others' eyes than adults with Asperger syndrome (AS). The Empathy Quotient (EQ) and 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' Test (Eyes Test) were compared in 43 adults with AS and 43 adults with HFA. No significant difference was observed on EQ score between groups, while adults with AS performed significantly better on the Eyes Test than those with HFA. This suggests that adults with HFA may need more support, particularly in mentalizing and complex emotion recognition, and raises questions about the existence of subgroups within autism spectrum conditions. PMID:26883645

  7. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults: an overview.

    PubMed

    Faraone, S V; Biederman, J; Spencer, T; Wilens, T; Seidman, L J; Mick, E; Doyle, A E

    2000-07-01

    To assess the validity of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we reviewed clinical, family, psychopharmacologic, neurobiological, and outcome studies. We found multiple reports describing adults with clinical features highly reminiscent of the childhood ADHD. These adults, who are impulsive, inattentive, and restless, have the clinical "look and feel" of ADHD children. As with their childhood counterparts, many adults with ADHD suffer from antisocial, depressive, and anxiety disorders. They also show clinically significant impairments--histories of school failure, occupational problems, and traffic accidents. Studies of biological features show correspondences between child and adult cases of ADHD. Both show familial aggregation and a characteristic profile of neuropsychologic deficits; an emerging neuroimaging literature suggests that abnormalities in the same brain regions underlie both the child and adult forms of the disorder. Although these converging lines of evidence support the validity of ADHD in adults, follow-up studies of ADHD children have yielded ambiguous results. This ambiguity is in part due to differences in how researchers define the persistence of ADHD, a problem that suggests future research focus on how best to diagnose ADHD in adulthood.

  8. Children's Art Show: An Educational Family Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakerlis, Julienne

    2007-01-01

    In a time of seemingly rampant budget cuts in the arts in school systems throughout the country, a children's art show reaps many rewards. It can strengthen family-school relationships and community ties and stimulate questions and comments about the benefits of art and its significance in the development of young children. In this photo essay of…

  9. State Data Show Gains in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2007-01-01

    Schools taking part in the federal Reading First program are showing significant progress in boosting students' reading fluency and comprehension, according to state-reported data compiled and released by the U.S. Department of Education last week. In releasing for the first time detailed, multiyear data on how Reading First schools are performing…

  10. Adult Education at the Crossroads: Learning Our Way Out. Global Perspectives on Adult Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finger, Matthias; Asun, Jose Manuel

    This book assesses the current state of adult education, including the traditions out of which adult education comes, its current problems, and its possible futures. It begins with an overview of Ivan Illich's theory and explains its significance for adult education. Part 1 examines the main historical traditions in adult education, including the…

  11. Optimal Dose of Vitamin D3 400 I.U. for Average Adults has A Significant Anti-Cancer Effect, While Widely Used 2000 I.U. or Higher Promotes Cancer: Marked Reduction of Taurine & 1α, 25(OH)2D3 Was Found In Various Cancer Tissues and Oral Intake of Optimal Dose of Taurine 175mg for Average Adults, Rather Than 500mg, Was Found to Be A New Potentially Safe and More Effective Method of Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Lu, Dominic; Jones, Marilyn K; Nihrane, Abdallah; Duvvi, Harsha; Yapor, Dario; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu

    2016-01-01

    During the past 10 years, the author had found that the optimal dose of Vitamin D3 400 I.U. has safe & effective anticancer effects, while commonly used 2000-5000 I.U. of Vit. D3 often creates a 2-3 time increase in cancer markers. We examined the concentration of Taurine in normal internal organs and in cancer using Bi-Digital O-Ring Test. We found that Taurine levels in normal tissue are 4-6ng. But, the amount of Taurine of average normal value of 5.0-5.25ng was strikingly reduced to 0.0025-0.0028ng in this study of several examples in adenocarcinomas of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, colon, prostate, and lung, as well as breast cancer. The lowest Taurine levels of 0.0002-0.0005ng were found in so called Zika virus infected babies from Brazil with microcephaly. While Vitamin D3 receptor stimulant 1α, 25 (OH)2D3 in normal tissues was 0.45-0.53ng, they were reduced to 0.025-0.006ng in cancers (1/100th-1/200th of normal value), particularly in various adenocarcinomas. All of these adenocarcinomas had about 1500ng HPV-16 viral infection. In 500 breast cancers, about 97% had HPV-16. The optimal dose of Taurine for average adult has been found to be about 175mg, rather than the widely used 500mg. In addition, since Taurine is markedly reduced to close to 1/1000th-1/2000th of its normal value in these cancer tissues, we examined the effect of the optimal dose of Taurine on cancer patients. Optimal dose of Taurine produced a very significant decrease in cancer-associated parameters, such as Oncogene C-fosAb2 & Integrin α5β1 being reduced to less than 1/1,000th, and 8-OH-dG (which increases in the presence of DNA mutation) reduced to less than 1/10th. The optimal dose of Taurine 175mg for average adult various cancer patient 3 times a day alone provide beneficial effects with very significant anti-cancer effects with strikingly increased urinary excretion of bacteria, viruses, & funguses, asbestos, toxic metals & other toxic substances. However, optimal doses of

  12. Optimal Dose of Vitamin D3 400 I.U. for Average Adults has A Significant Anti-Cancer Effect, While Widely Used 2000 I.U. or Higher Promotes Cancer: Marked Reduction of Taurine & 1α, 25(OH)2D3 Was Found In Various Cancer Tissues and Oral Intake of Optimal Dose of Taurine 175mg for Average Adults, Rather Than 500mg, Was Found to Be A New Potentially Safe and More Effective Method of Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Lu, Dominic; Jones, Marilyn K; Nihrane, Abdallah; Duvvi, Harsha; Yapor, Dario; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu

    2016-01-01

    During the past 10 years, the author had found that the optimal dose of Vitamin D3 400 I.U. has safe & effective anticancer effects, while commonly used 2000-5000 I.U. of Vit. D3 often creates a 2-3 time increase in cancer markers. We examined the concentration of Taurine in normal internal organs and in cancer using Bi-Digital O-Ring Test. We found that Taurine levels in normal tissue are 4-6ng. But, the amount of Taurine of average normal value of 5.0-5.25ng was strikingly reduced to 0.0025-0.0028ng in this study of several examples in adenocarcinomas of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, colon, prostate, and lung, as well as breast cancer. The lowest Taurine levels of 0.0002-0.0005ng were found in so called Zika virus infected babies from Brazil with microcephaly. While Vitamin D3 receptor stimulant 1α, 25 (OH)2D3 in normal tissues was 0.45-0.53ng, they were reduced to 0.025-0.006ng in cancers (1/100th-1/200th of normal value), particularly in various adenocarcinomas. All of these adenocarcinomas had about 1500ng HPV-16 viral infection. In 500 breast cancers, about 97% had HPV-16. The optimal dose of Taurine for average adult has been found to be about 175mg, rather than the widely used 500mg. In addition, since Taurine is markedly reduced to close to 1/1000th-1/2000th of its normal value in these cancer tissues, we examined the effect of the optimal dose of Taurine on cancer patients. Optimal dose of Taurine produced a very significant decrease in cancer-associated parameters, such as Oncogene C-fosAb2 & Integrin α5β1 being reduced to less than 1/1,000th, and 8-OH-dG (which increases in the presence of DNA mutation) reduced to less than 1/10th. The optimal dose of Taurine 175mg for average adult various cancer patient 3 times a day alone provide beneficial effects with very significant anti-cancer effects with strikingly increased urinary excretion of bacteria, viruses, & funguses, asbestos, toxic metals & other toxic substances. However, optimal doses of

  13. Learning from a dive show in an aquarium setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Lori M.

    A study was conducted at an aquarium next to a theme park to understand information recalled from two versions of shows viewed at the largest display. The goal of this research was to determine if learning was enhanced by having a diver in water as the treatment group. This project focused on the knowledge recalled about shark and ray feeding adaptations, the information recalled about the mentioned conservation message about sustainable seafood and the potential of the two shows to make memorable experiences. During the project, 30 adult participants from each group were given a survey with five open-ended questions. Results suggest that the diver might distract from biological content information, or that the diver is such a novel element that it interferes with recall. While guests seemed to recall information about rays and sharks, the amount of information was not substantial. It appears that the diver does not affect content messaging but does impact whether guests attend to Seafood Watch messaging. The diver may have been so novel that the treatment group could not attend to the conservation message that was delivered, regardless of topic, or the control group recalled the message because the guests were not distracted by the diver or feeding. The absence of a diver seems to allow the guests to better attend to what is happening outside of the tank. While adding a diver increases photo opportunities and may bring guests to a show, the results seem to indicate that it does not significantly increase recall. The results of this study show that guests in a theme park setting can recall information from an educational program. Guests may not enter this hybrid aquarium with the intention of learning, but recall, one of the components in learning, does occur.

  14. [Comparison of serum trace element spectrum of liver cancer patients and healthy adults].

    PubMed

    Yin, D Z

    1990-05-01

    The contents of 15 trace elements in the sera of 30 liver cancer patients and 30 healthy adults were assayed by ICP-AES method. The data obtained were analysed by routine statistical tests, multi-variate discrimination analysis, multi-variate stepwise regression analysis and non-linear mapping algorithm. The results showed that the contents of copper, vanadium, cadmium, stannum, cobalt, nickel in liver cancer patients were significantly higher than those in healthy adults. The serum trace element spectrum of liver cancer patients was different from that of healthy adults. Hence, the liver cancer patients could be differentiated from healthy adults by serum trace element spectrum. PMID:2249593

  15. Adult intussusception.

    PubMed Central

    Azar, T; Berger, D L

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objectives were to review adult intussusception, its diagnosis, and its treatment. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Adult intussusception represents 1% of all bowel obstructions, 5% of all intussusceptions, and 0.003%-0.02% of all hospital admissions. Intussusception is a different entity in adults than it is in children. METHODS: The records of all patients 18 years and older with the postoperative diagnosis of intussusception at the Massachusetts General Hospital during the years 1964 through 1993 were reviewed retrospectively. The 58 patients were divided into those with benign enteric, malignant enteric, benign colonic, and malignant colonic lesions associated with their intussusception. The diagnosis and treatment of each were reviewed. RESULTS: In 30 years at the Massachusetts General Hospital, there are 58 cases of surgically proven adult intussusception. The patients' mean age was 54.4 years. Most patients presented with symptoms consistent with bowel obstruction. There were 44 enteric and 14 colonic intussusceptions. Ninety-three percent of the intussusceptions were associated with a pathologic lesion. Forty-eight percent of the enteric lesions were malignant and 52% were benign. Forty-three percent of the colonic lesions were malignant and 57% were benign. CONCLUSIONS: Intussusception occurs rarely in adults. It presents with a variety of acute, intermittent, and chronic symptoms, thus making its preoperative diagnosis difficult. Computed tomography scanning proved to be the most useful diagnostic radiologic method. The diagnosis and treatment of adult intussusception are surgical. Surgical resection of the intussusception without reduction is the preferred treatment in adults, as almost half of both colonic and enteric intussusceptions are associated with malignancy. PMID:9296505

  16. Travel and Adult Transformative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Steven K.

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological research study examines the lived experience of individual adult transformation in the context of travel. Adults throughout history have experienced profound personal and perception changes as a result of significant travel events. Transformative learning occurs through experience, crisis, and reflection, all of which are…

  17. Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Ronald W.

    1987-01-01

    Presents analysis of adult children of alcoholics, their experience and adjustment in relation to the severity and type of alcoholism, age considerations and perceptions as a child, and existence and nature of significant others. Discusses alcoholics' and others' family issues, focusing on roles taken, and personality characteristics. Emphasizes…

  18. In vitro pairing of Echinostoma revolutum (trematoda) metacercariae and adults, and characterization of worm products involved in chemoattraction.

    PubMed

    Fried, B; Tancer, R B; Fleming, S J

    1980-12-01

    In vitro pairing studies were done on chemically excysted metacercariae and on adults of Echinostoma revolutum maintained in vitro in agar-Locke's petri dish cultures at 39 +/- 1 C for up to 24 hr. Whereas newly excysted metacercariae did not pair, both immature and mature adults showed significant pairing. Adult echinostomes confined in dialysis sacs emitted excretory-secretory (EC) products which significantly attracted single echinostome adults in vitro. Only the lipophilic fraction of ES products was found to elicit attraction. Preparative TLC analysis of adult echinostomes produced three major bands as follows: I (phospholipids); II (free sterols); and III (free fatty acids + triglycerides). When tested in vitro, only the free sterol fraction significantly attracted single adult echinostomes. TLC and GLC analyses of free sterols of E. revolutum have indicated that cholesterol is the major free sterol. PMID:7218094

  19. Do Inequalities in Adult Learning Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Fiona; Iain Murray; Berry, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    The National Institute of Adult Continuing Education (NIACE) Adult Participation in Learning Survey 10 years ago showed that two-fifths of the adult population said that they had taken part in learning in the last three years. A decade later, the 2012 survey shows that little has changed--active participation in learning remains a minority…

  20. The significance of research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-02-01

    When promoting the value of their research or procuring funding, researchers often need to explain the significance of their work to the community -- something that can be just as tricky as the research itself.

  1. The behavioural response of adult Petromyzon marinus to damage-released alarm and predator cues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Imre, István; Di Rocco, Richard; Belanger, Cowan; Brown, Grant; Johnson, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    Using semi-natural enclosures, this study investigated (1) whether adult sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus show avoidance of damage-released conspecific cues, damage-released heterospecific cues and predator cues and (2) whether this is a general response to injured heterospecific fishes or a specific response to injured P. marinus. Ten replicate groups of 10 adult P. marinus, separated by sex, were exposed to one of the following nine stimuli: deionized water (control), extracts prepared from adult P. marinus, decayed adult P. marinus (conspecific stimuli), sympatric white sucker Catostomus commersonii, Amazon sailfin catfish Pterygoplichthys pardalis (heterospecific stimuli), 2-phenylethylamine (PEA HCl) solution, northern water snake Nerodia sipedon washing, human saliva (predator cues) and an adult P. marinus extract and human saliva combination (a damage-released conspecific cue and a predator cue). Adult P. marinus showed a significant avoidance response to the adult P. marinus extract as well as to C. commersonii, human saliva, PEA and the adult P. marinus extract and human saliva combination. For mobile P. marinus, the N. sipedon washing induced behaviour consistent with predator inspection. Exposure to the P. pardalis extract did not induce a significant avoidance response during the stimulus release period. Mobile adult female P. marinus showed a stronger avoidance behaviour than mobile adult male P. marinus in response to the adult P. marinus extract and the adult P. marinus extract and human saliva combination. The findings support the continued investigation of natural damage-released alarm cue and predator-based repellents for the behavioural manipulation of P. marinus populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  2. Prevalence and Determinants of Adult Under-Nutrition in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Letamo, Gobopamang; Navaneetham, Kannan

    2014-01-01

    Background To estimate the prevalence and determinants of adult under-nutrition in Botswana. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted where a nationally representative sample of people aged 20 to 49 years was used for the analysis. The outcome measure of under-nutrition was measured as BMI<18.5 kg/m2. Results Of the total sample, 19.5% of males and 10.1% of females were underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2). The wealth index showed that 30.9% of the adult population with low a BMI belongs to the poorest 20% of the households while only 9.6% comprised of the richest 20% of the households. Results from logistic regression analysis indicated that both adult men and women who had no education and belonged to the low socioeconomic group had a statistically significant association with low BMI. Among the female adult population, being young and not having watched TV at least once a week were significantly associated with low BMI. For the male adult population, being unmarried was significantly associated with low BMI. Conclusions Programme interventions aimed at improving the nutritional status of adults can use these findings to make appropriate policy, to establish baselines and study nutritional changes over time and its covariates. PMID:25054546

  3. Significant lexical relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, T.; Kayaalp, M.; Bruce, R.

    1996-12-31

    Statistical NLP inevitably deals with a large number of rare events. As a consequence, NLP data often violates the assumptions implicit in traditional statistical procedures such as significance testing. We describe a significance test, an exact conditional test, that is appropriate for NLP data and can be performed using freely available software. We apply this test to the study of lexical relationships and demonstrate that the results obtained using this test are both theoretically more reliable and different from the results obtained using previously applied tests.

  4. Tough Times for Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckett, Alan; Aldridge, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    The key message of NIACE's 2011 survey of adult participation in learning is that recession is bad for lifelong learning for anyone over the age of 25. The survey highlights the central importance of workplaces as sites of adult learning--and the challenges posed to a learning society when opportunities to learn reduce. It shows that the gap…

  5. Design of instructions for evacuating disabled adults.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Michael W; Al-Awar Smither, Janan; Fisher, Daniel O; Hancock, P A

    2017-01-01

    We investigated how the design of instructions can affect performance in preparing emergency stair travel devices for the evacuation of disable individuals. We had three hypotheses: 1) Design of instructions would account for a significant portion of explained performance variance, 2) Improvements in design of instructions would reduce time on task across device type and age group, and 3) There would be a performance decrement for older adults compared to younger adults based on the slowing of older adult information processing abilities. Results showed that design of instructions does indeed account for a large portion of explained variance in the operation of emergency stair travel devices, and that improvements in design of instructions can reduce time on task across device type and age group. However, encouragingly for real-world operations, results did not indicate any significant differences between older versus younger adults. We look to explore ways that individuals with disabilities can exploit these insights to enhance the performance of emergency stair travel devices for use. PMID:27633197

  6. Design of instructions for evacuating disabled adults.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Michael W; Al-Awar Smither, Janan; Fisher, Daniel O; Hancock, P A

    2017-01-01

    We investigated how the design of instructions can affect performance in preparing emergency stair travel devices for the evacuation of disable individuals. We had three hypotheses: 1) Design of instructions would account for a significant portion of explained performance variance, 2) Improvements in design of instructions would reduce time on task across device type and age group, and 3) There would be a performance decrement for older adults compared to younger adults based on the slowing of older adult information processing abilities. Results showed that design of instructions does indeed account for a large portion of explained variance in the operation of emergency stair travel devices, and that improvements in design of instructions can reduce time on task across device type and age group. However, encouragingly for real-world operations, results did not indicate any significant differences between older versus younger adults. We look to explore ways that individuals with disabilities can exploit these insights to enhance the performance of emergency stair travel devices for use.

  7. The Effects of Interactive Images on Language Acquisition for Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abed, Farough

    1996-01-01

    Progression is an interactive mnemonic strategy using a series of five panels: the first displaying a stimulus item, the last, a response item, and the intermediate panels showing a metamorphosis from the first to the last. Adults viewing progressive displays of foreign words had significantly greater recall of meaning than those viewing…

  8. What Do Adult Learners Experience in a Teacher Certification Program?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Foster; Abi-Nader, Jeannette; Poutiatine, Michael I.

    2005-01-01

    The field of teacher education has seen a significant rise in the number of non-traditional students entering teacher preparation programs. Research shows these learners come to teaching with varying attitudes, motivations, and dispositions. This qualitative study examined a population of adult, non-traditional learners who have chosen a 22-month…

  9. High rates of inapparent dengue in older adults in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Yap, Grace; Li, Chenny; Mutalib, Adeliza; Lai, Yee-Ling; Ng, Lee-Ching

    2013-06-01

    Although the dengue iceberg phenomenon is well known, there is a paucity of data on inapparent dengue. Results from a seroepidemiological study conducted during a dengue epidemic in 2007 in Singapore showed a seroprevalence of 65.9% and an inapparent dengue rate of 78%. Older adults (> 45 years old) had significantly higher rates of inapparent dengue infections (P < 0.05).

  10. Adult Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Billie H.

    This document contains a brief bibliography of peer-reviewed literature, with abstracts, on adult children. It is one of 12 bibliographies on aging prepared by the National Agricultural Library for its "Pathfinders" series of publications. Topics covered by the other 11 bibliographies include aging parents, dementia and Alzheimer's disease in the…

  11. Adult Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bischof, Ledford J.

    This volume comprehensively reviews the research on the psychology of the middle aged (ages 40-65). Topics include the concept of maturity and maturation models, the measurement and influences of adult self image; marriage and sexual patterns; intergenerational relationships between and children; vocations and avocations (work, retirement, play,…

  12. Significance of brown dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    The significance of brown dwarfs for resolving some major problems in astronomy is discussed. The importance of brown dwarfs for models of star formation by fragmentation of molecular clouds and for obtaining independent measurements of the ages of stars in binary systems is addressed. The relationship of brown dwarfs to planets is considered.

  13. Statistical Significance Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, James E., Ed.; Kaufman, Alan S., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The controversy about the use or misuse of statistical significance testing has become the major methodological issue in educational research. This special issue contains three articles that explore the controversy, three commentaries on these articles, an overall response, and three rejoinders by the first three authors. They are: (1)…

  14. Adult onset retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Sabyasachi; Pan, Utsab; Khetan, Vikas

    2016-07-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common primary malignant intraocular tumor of childhood presenting usually before 5 years of age. RB in adults older than 20 years is extremely rare. A literature search using PubMed/PubMed Central, Scopus, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases revealed only 45 cases till date. Over the past decade, there has been a significant increase in the number of such reports, indicating heightened level of suspicion among ophthalmologists. Compared to its pediatric counterpart, adult onset RB poses unique challenges in diagnosis and treatment. This article summarizes available literature on adult onset RB and its clinical and pathologic profile, genetics, association with retinocytoma, diagnostics, treatment, and outcomes. PMID:27609158

  15. Adult onset retinoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Sabyasachi; Pan, Utsab; Khetan, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common primary malignant intraocular tumor of childhood presenting usually before 5 years of age. RB in adults older than 20 years is extremely rare. A literature search using PubMed/PubMed Central, Scopus, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases revealed only 45 cases till date. Over the past decade, there has been a significant increase in the number of such reports, indicating heightened level of suspicion among ophthalmologists. Compared to its pediatric counterpart, adult onset RB poses unique challenges in diagnosis and treatment. This article summarizes available literature on adult onset RB and its clinical and pathologic profile, genetics, association with retinocytoma, diagnostics, treatment, and outcomes. PMID:27609158

  16. Eye movement correlates of younger and older adults' strategies for complex addition.

    PubMed

    Green, Heather J; Lemaire, Patrick; Dufau, Stéphane

    2007-07-01

    This study examined performance measures and eye movements associated with complex arithmetic strategies in young and older adults. Participants added pairs of three-digit numbers using two different strategies, under choice and no-choice conditions. Older adults made more errors but were not significantly slower than young adults, and response times and errors showed no interaction between age and the number of carries. Older adults chose strategies less adaptively than young adults. Eye movements were consistent with use of required strategies on no-choice trials and reported strategies on choice trials. Eye movement data also suggested that young adults more successfully distinguished between strategies. Implications of these findings for understanding aging effects in complex arithmetic are discussed.

  17. Factors influencing immunologic response to hepatitis B vaccine in adults

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shigui; Tian, Guo; Cui, Yuanxia; Ding, Cheng; Deng, Min; Yu, Chengbo; Xu, Kaijin; Ren, Jingjing; Yao, Jun; Li, Yiping; Cao, Qing; Chen, Ping; Xie, Tiansheng; Wang, Chencheng; Wang, Bing; Mao, Chen; Ruan, Bing; Jiang, Tian’an; Li, Lanjuan

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B was still a worldwide health problem. This study aimed to conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess a more precise estimation of factors that influence the response to hepatitis B vaccine in adults. Our included studies examined seroprotection rates close to the end of vaccination schedules in healthy adult populations. This meta-analysis including 21053 adults in 37 articles showed that a significantly decreased response to hepatitis B vaccine appeared in adults (age ≥ 40) (RR:1.86, 95% CI:1.55–2.23), male adults (RR:1.40, 95% CI:1.22–1.61), BMI ≥ 25 adults (RR:1.56, 95% CI:1.12–2.17), smoker (RR:1.53, 95% CI:1.21–1.93), and adults with concomitant disease (RR:1.39, 95% CI:1.04–1.86). Meanwhile, we further found a decreased response to hepatitis B vaccine appeared in adults (age ≥ 30) (RR:1.77, 95% CI:1.48–2.10), and adults (age ≥ 60) (RR:1.30, 95% CI:1.01–1.68). However, there were no difference in response to hepatitis B vaccine both in alcoholic (RR:0.90, 95% CI:0.64–1.26) and 0-1-12 vs. 0-1-6 vaccination schedule (RR:1.39, 95% CI:0.41–4.67). Pooling of these studies recommended the sooner the better for adult hepatitis B vaccine strategy. More vaccine doses, supplemental/additional strengthening immunity should be emphasized on the susceptible population of increasing aged, male, BMI ≥ 25, smoking and concomitant disease. The conventional 0-1-6 vaccination schedule could be still worth to be recommended. PMID:27324884

  18. Epidermal cytoplasmic antibodies. (Incidence and clinical significance).

    PubMed

    Betterle, C; Peserico, A; Bersani, G; Rigon, F; Del Prete, G

    1977-01-01

    Antibodies to epidermal cytoplasmic antigens were detected by the indirect immunofluorescence (IF) technique in 36% of 100 adult healthy subjects and in 17.6% of 17 normal newborn infants. This type of autoantibody occurred in 33% of 100 cases with vitiligo, in 32.5% of 40 cases with psoriasis, in 55.3% of patients with malignant tumours and in 72.7% of subjects with malignant melanoma. The frequency of the autoimmune reactions was statistically significant only in patients with malignant neoplasms. In the majority of positive cases the IF pattern involved the upper layers of the epidermal cells (U-CYT). The basal layer was generally negative. Only a few cases showed a pattern involving both the upper and the basal layers (G-CYT). However, a wide variation in staining was noted when sera were tested on different skin specimens or different sections of the same skin. To identify the nature of the target antigen(s), absorption experiments of sera were attempted with lyophilized and particulate antigens. Animal and human blood cells and lyophilized homogenates of malignant tumours failed to absorb the autoimmune activity of positive sera. Only a powder preparation of keratin induced a decrease in antibody titres. It is postulated that they are the result of an antigenic stimulation by exogenous substances commonly present in the environment.

  19. Life satisfaction of older Chinese adults living in rural communities.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Chi, Iris; Xu, Ling

    2013-06-01

    Guided by the socio-environmental theoretical framework, this study examined factors associated with life satisfaction experienced by older Chinese adults living in rural communities. The data used in this study were extracted from the Sample Survey on Aged Population in Urban/Rural China conducted by the China Research Center on Aging in 2000. This study included 10,084 rural older adults in mainland China. In this study 60.2 % of rural older adults were satisfied with their lives. Results from a multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that life satisfaction reported by rural older Chinese adults was significantly related to education, financial resources, self-rated health, financial support from children, satisfaction with children's support, house sitting for their children, visiting neighbors, and being invited to dinner by neighbors. Research and policy implications of these findings are also discussed.

  20. Haptic object matching by blind and sighted adults and children.

    PubMed

    Withagen, Ans; Kappers, Astrid M L; Vervloed, Mathijs P J; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2012-02-01

    The present study describes a tactual object matching task based on the study of Lederman and Klatzky (1987) for the dimensions Exact shape, Weight, Volume and Texture. Participants were congenitally blind children and their sighted classmates, congenitally blind adults and sighted adults. To study a possible effect of familiarity the task was performed four times. Based on Millar's CAPIN (Convergent Active Processes in Interrelated Networks) model of spatial processing (Millar, 1994) it was thought that this manipulation would add redundant information to the experiment from which the children and blind participants could benefit. The results showed that accuracy was affected more by age than visual status, especially for the dimension Exact Shape. With regard to response times, children were in most cases faster than adults, especially the sighted adults. Familiarization had a significant effect on response times for all dimensions. Extra exercise only increased accuracy for the dimension Texture. These results were generally in line with the CAPIN model.

  1. Significant Tsunami Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  2. Adult Skills Training Center: Feasibility Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skalski, John M.; Baratta, Anthony N.

    A 4-phase project, this study was conducted to determine the feasibility of a bilingual vocational skill training program for out-of-school youth and adults of the Perth Amboy Hispanic community. Sampled were 494 out-of-school youth and adults in the area. Findings include: (1) There is a significant need for an adult vocational skills training…

  3. Empowering the Older Adult through Folklore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Dorothy Anne

    2006-01-01

    An opportunity exists for those working with older adults in nursing homes to significantly encourage independence in the older adult using a creative approach. The use of folklore is suggested as a means for assisting the older adult toward a reconnection with the individuation process.

  4. Mentoring during Adolescence and Adult Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakacki, Pola Christina

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a significant relationship between mentoring and adult resilience, specifically adults that were mentored as adolescents. The study sample comprised of 657 adults from various locations across the country. For this quantitative study, they completed a two-part questionnaire made up of the…

  5. Adults as Learners: Proceedings of a Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bortner, Rayman W., Ed.; And Others

    The proceedings consist of 11 papers grouped in two major categories: the context of adult learning (social significance and fact and fiction about adult learning) and the utilization of learning models for adult instruction. Contributors are Floyd B. Fischer, George L. Maddox, Rolf H. Monge, Eric F. Gardner, Arthur W. Combs, William J. Hoyer,…

  6. Substance abuse treatment characteristics of probation-referred young adults in a community-based outpatient program.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rajita; Easton, Caroline; Kemp, Kathleen

    2003-08-01

    Although rates of substance abuse continue to rise among young adults ages 18-25, there is little information on the clinical characteristics of young adults referred to treatment, their readiness to change substance use behaviors, and treatment outcomes. These aspects were examined in young (18-25 years old) and older adult (26-45 years old) substance abusers entering treatment at a large, urban, outpatient substance abuse treatment facility. All clients were referred for outpatient treatment by the local Offices of Adult Probation during 1998-1999. The demographic and substance use characteristics, motivation level/readiness to change substance use behaviors, treatment attendance, completion, and "drug-free" status based on patient self-report and urine/breathalyzer data were assessed. Results. Substance-abusing young adult probationers were more likely to be African-American, with a significantly earlier age of onset of primary substance use. They were more likely to have a marijuana use disorder as compared with older adults, who in turn, were more likely to meet criteria for alcohol use disorders. Furthermore, as compared with older adults, young adults had significantly higher scores on precontemplation, and significantly lower scores on contemplation, determination, action, and maintenance subscales of motivation/change readiness. A significantly higher number of young adults did not complete outpatient treatment and were "drug-positive" at discharge, as compared with older adults. Conclusions. Young adult probationers referred to substance abuse treatment show significantly different substance abuse and treatment characteristics as compared with their older adult counterparts. The findings suggest that specialized treatment approaches that focus on enhancing treatment readiness and motivation to change substance use behaviors may be of particular benefit to substance abusing young adults. PMID:14510042

  7. ADULT EDUCATION OF MIGRANT ADULTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BEAL, CATHERINE; AND OTHERS

    UNITS ON MIGRANT ADULT EDUCATION, AND A UNIT ON ORGANIZING INFORMAL GROUPS OF MIGRANT WOMEN TO DISCUSS MAINTAINING AND IMPROVING THEIR TEMPORARY HOMES, ARE PRESENTED. THE GOALS OF THE UNIT ON EDUCATION FOR MIGRANT MEN ARE ECONOMIC INDEPENDENCE, BETTER HEALTH AND WELL-BEING, AND BETTER HANDLING OF RESPONSIBILITIES. THE MAIN DIVISIONS OF THE…

  8. Tales of significance.

    PubMed

    Bell, Graham

    2016-01-01

    In this experiment, the authors were interested in testing the effect of a small molecule inhibitor on the ratio of males and females in the offspring of their model Dipteran species. The authors report that in a wild-type population, ~50 % of offspring are male. They then test the effect of treating females with the chemical, which they think might affect the male:female ratio compared with the untreated group. They claim that there is a statistically significant increase in the percentage of males produced and conclude that the drug affects sex ratios. PMID:27338560

  9. Ostreid herpesvirus type 1 replication and host response in adult Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Segarra, Amélie; Baillon, Laury; Tourbiez, Delphine; Benabdelmouna, Abdellah; Faury, Nicole; Bourgougnon, Nathalie; Renault, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    Since 2008, massive mortality outbreaks associated with OsHV-1 detection have been reported in Crassostrea gigas spat and juveniles in several countries. Nevertheless, adult oysters do not demonstrate mortality in the field related to OsHV-1 detection and were thus assumed to be more resistant to viral infection. Determining how virus and adult oyster interact is a major goal in understanding why mortality events are not reported among adult Pacific oysters. Dual transcriptomics of virus-host interactions were explored by real-time PCR in adult oysters after a virus injection. Thirty-nine viral genes and five host genes including MyD88, IFI44, IkB2, IAP and Gly were measured at 0.5, 10, 26, 72 and 144 hours post infection (hpi). No viral RNA among the 39 genes was detected at 144 hpi suggesting the adult oysters are able to inhibit viral replication. Moreover, the IAP gene (oyster gene) shows significant up-regulation in infected adults compared to control adults. This result suggests that over-expression of IAP could be a reaction to OsHV-1 infection, which may induce the apoptotic process. Apoptosis could be a main mechanism involved in disease resistance in adults. Antiviral activity of haemolymph against herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) was not significantly different between infected adults versus control. PMID:25294338

  10. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your ...

  11. Effective literacy instruction for adults with specific learning disabilities: implications for adult educators.

    PubMed

    Hock, Michael F

    2012-01-01

    Adults with learning disabilities (LD) attending adult basic education, GED programs, or community colleges are among the lowest performers on measures of literacy. For example, on multiple measures of reading comprehension, adults with LD had a mean reading score at the third grade level, whereas adults without LD read at the fifth grade level. In addition, large numbers of adults perform at the lowest skill levels on quantitative tasks. Clearly, significant instructional challenges exist for adults who struggle with literacy issues, and those challenges can be greater for adults with LD. In this article, the literature on adults with LD is reviewed, and evidenced-based instructional practices that significantly narrow the literacy achievement gap for this population are identified. Primary attention is given to instructional factors that have been shown to affect literacy outcomes for adults with LD. These factors include the use of explicit instruction, instructional technology, and intensive tutoring in skills and strategies embedded in authentic contexts.

  12. Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes The table below shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

  13. Audiovocal Integration in Adults Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucks, Torrey; Chon, HeeCheong; Han, Woojae

    2012-01-01

    Background: Altered auditory feedback can facilitate speech fluency in adults who stutter. However, other findings suggest that adults who stutter show anomalies in "audiovocal integration", such as longer phonation reaction times to auditory stimuli and less effective pitch tracking. Aims: To study audiovocal integration in adults who stutter…

  14. Older Adults and Gambling: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the social cognitive theory model to review the literature on older adult gambling, and related personal and environment characteristics. Results show that lottery is the kind of gambling most frequently played by older adults, followed by casino games. Older adults take trips to casinos to socialize, find excitement, and win…

  15. Early life trauma predicts self-reported levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms in nonclinical community adults: relative contributions of early life stressor types and adult trauma exposure.

    PubMed

    Chu, Denise A; Williams, Leanne M; Harris, Anthony W F; Bryant, Richard A; Gatt, Justine M

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to early life trauma is a known risk factor for depression and anxiety disorders in adulthood. This study aimed to evaluate the relative contributions of early life versus adult trauma in predicting levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms in nonclinical community adults. 1209 nonclinical community adults (18-70 years; 45% male) were assessed for mental health status, early life stressors, lifetime trauma exposure, and self-reported levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms. A subset of the full sample subjected to group comparisons (n = 1088) indicated that early life stressor exposure primarily accounted for significantly higher depressive and anxiety symptom scores when compared against adults reporting to be free of childhood stressor or adult trauma exposure. Subsequent hierarchical multiple regression analyses of this subset using five distinct early life stressor types, namely 'Interpersonal violation', 'Family breakup', 'Disasters/war', 'Familial health trauma/death' and 'Personal health trauma' derived from principal component analysis of a wide range of self-reported early stressor events in the full sample, showed childhood 'Interpersonal violation' differentially predicted higher self-reported depressive and anxiety symptom scores in both males and females. Adult trauma exposure did not significantly predict these symptom scores. These findings underline the relative importance of exposure to 'interpersonal violation' relative to other types of early life stressors and adult trauma in the risk of depressive and anxiety symptoms in nonclinical community adults.

  16. Teaching Adults. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Alan

    The question of how adult educators can make their teaching of adults more effective is explored in the context of recent work on adult lifelong learning. The following are among the topics discussed: (1) modes of adult education and the shift in focus from adult education to lifelong learning; (2) the contract between adult student and adult…

  17. Motor regulation problems and pain in adults diagnosed with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most children who are diagnosed with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have moderate-to-severe motor problems using the Motor Function Neurological Assessment battery (MFNU). The MFNU focuses on specific muscle adjustment problems associated with ADHD, especially motor inhibition problems and high muscle tone. Here we investigated whether adults with ADHD/hyperkinetic disorder (HKD) have similar motor problems. In our clinical experience, adults with ADHD often complain about back, shoulder, hip, and leg pain. We also investigate reported pain in adults with ADHD. Methods Twenty-five adult outpatients diagnosed with ADHD/HKD who were responders to methylphenidate (MPH) were compared to 23 non-ADHD controls on 16 MFNU subtests and using a ‘total score’ (‘TS’) parameter. The MFNU test leader was blinded to group identity. The two groups were also compared using the Pain Drawing and Numerical Pain Rating Scale. Results The adult ADHD group had significantly (p < .001) more motor problems (higher TS) than controls. On the muscle regulation subtests, 36–96% of the ADHD group showed ‘moderate’ to ‘severe’ problems compared to 13–52% of the control group, and 80% of the ADHD group reported widespread pain. Highly significant differences were found between the ADHD and control groups for the variables ‘pain level’ (p < .001) and ‘pain location’ (p < .001). Significant correlations were found between TS and ‘pain location’ and between TS and ‘pain level’. Conclusions These findings suggest that similar to children with ADHD, adults diagnosed with ADHD also have motor inhibition problems and heightened muscle tone. The presence of significantly higher pain levels and more widespread pain in the ADHD group compared to non-ADHD controls might indicate that pain is a long-term secondary effect of heightened muscle tone and restricted movement that can be demonstrated in children and adults by the MFNU

  18. Chronic Eccentric Exercise and the Older Adult.

    PubMed

    Gluchowski, Ashley; Harris, Nigel; Dulson, Deborah; Cronin, John

    2015-10-01

    Eccentric exercise has gained increasing attention as a suitable and promising intervention to delay or mitigate the known physical and physiological declines associated with aging. Determining the relative efficacy of eccentric exercise when compared with the more conventionally prescribed traditional resistance exercise will support evidence-based prescribing for the aging population. Thus, original research studies incorporating chronic eccentric exercise interventions in the older adult population were included in this review. The effects of a range of eccentric exercise modalities on muscular strength, functional capacity, body composition, muscle architecture, markers of muscle damage, the immune system, cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and rating of perceived exertion were all reviewed as outcomes of particular interest in the older adult. Muscular strength was found to increase most consistently compared with results from traditional resistance exercise. Functional capacity and body composition showed significant improvements with eccentric endurance protocols, especially in older, frail or sedentary cohorts. Muscle damage was avoided with the gradual progression of novel eccentric exercise, while muscle damage from intense acute bouts was significantly attenuated with repeated sessions. Eccentric exercise causes little cardiovascular stress; thus, it may not generate the overload required to elicit cardiovascular adaptations. An anabolic state may be achievable following eccentric exercise, while improvements to insulin sensitivity have not been found. Finally, rating of perceived exertion during eccentric exercise was often significantly lower than during traditional resistance exercise. Overall, evidence supports the prescription of eccentric exercise for the majority of outcomes of interest in the diverse cohorts of the older adult population.

  19. Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors

  20. Rhinitis in older adults.

    PubMed

    Nyenhuis, Sharmilee M; Mathur, Sameer K

    2013-04-01

    Rhinitis symptoms of rhinorrhea, congestion, sneezing, nasal/ocular pruritis, and postnasal drainage can significantly affect the quality of life for older adults. As the US population ages, it will be increasingly important for health-care providers to effectively diagnose and manage rhinitis. Rhinitis is categorized broadly into allergic rhinitis and non-allergic rhinitis. Environmental changes and avoidance measures are a primary means of intervention. In addition, there are several topical therapies (nasal sprays) that can be effective for symptom control.

  1. Mutational spectrum of adult T-ALL.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Martin; Vosberg, Sebastian; Schlee, Cornelia; Heesch, Sandra; Schwartz, Stefan; Gökbuget, Nicola; Hoelzer, Dieter; Graf, Alexander; Krebs, Stefan; Bartram, Isabelle; Blum, Helmut; Brüggemann, Monika; Hecht, Jochen; Bohlander, Stefan K; Greif, Philipp A; Baldus, Claudia D

    2015-02-20

    Novel target discovery is warranted to improve treatment in adult T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) patients. We provide a comprehensive study on mutations to enhance the understanding of therapeutic targets and studied 81 adult T-ALL patients. NOTCH1 exhibitedthe highest mutation rate (53%). Mutation frequencies of FBXW7 (10%), WT1 (10%), JAK3 (12%), PHF6 (11%), and BCL11B (10%) were in line with previous reports. We identified recurrent alterations in transcription factors DNM2, and RELN, the WNT pathway associated cadherin FAT1, and in epigenetic regulators (MLL2, EZH2). Interestingly, we discovered novel recurrent mutations in the DNA repair complex member HERC1, in NOTCH2, and in the splicing factor ZRSR2. A frequently affected pathway was the JAK/STAT pathway (18%) and a significant proportion of T-ALL patients harboured mutations in epigenetic regulators (33%), both predominantly found in the unfavourable subgroup of early T-ALL. Importantly, adult T-ALL patients not only showed a highly heterogeneous mutational spectrum, but also variable subclonal allele frequencies implicated in therapy resistance and evolution of relapse. In conclusion, we provide novel insights in genetic alterations of signalling pathways (e.g. druggable by γ-secretase inhibitors, JAK inhibitors or EZH2 inhibitors), present in over 80% of all adult T-ALL patients, that could guide novel therapeutic approaches.

  2. Mutational spectrum of adult T-ALL.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Martin; Vosberg, Sebastian; Schlee, Cornelia; Heesch, Sandra; Schwartz, Stefan; Gökbuget, Nicola; Hoelzer, Dieter; Graf, Alexander; Krebs, Stefan; Bartram, Isabelle; Blum, Helmut; Brüggemann, Monika; Hecht, Jochen; Bohlander, Stefan K; Greif, Philipp A; Baldus, Claudia D

    2015-02-20

    Novel target discovery is warranted to improve treatment in adult T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) patients. We provide a comprehensive study on mutations to enhance the understanding of therapeutic targets and studied 81 adult T-ALL patients. NOTCH1 exhibitedthe highest mutation rate (53%). Mutation frequencies of FBXW7 (10%), WT1 (10%), JAK3 (12%), PHF6 (11%), and BCL11B (10%) were in line with previous reports. We identified recurrent alterations in transcription factors DNM2, and RELN, the WNT pathway associated cadherin FAT1, and in epigenetic regulators (MLL2, EZH2). Interestingly, we discovered novel recurrent mutations in the DNA repair complex member HERC1, in NOTCH2, and in the splicing factor ZRSR2. A frequently affected pathway was the JAK/STAT pathway (18%) and a significant proportion of T-ALL patients harboured mutations in epigenetic regulators (33%), both predominantly found in the unfavourable subgroup of early T-ALL. Importantly, adult T-ALL patients not only showed a highly heterogeneous mutational spectrum, but also variable subclonal allele frequencies implicated in therapy resistance and evolution of relapse. In conclusion, we provide novel insights in genetic alterations of signalling pathways (e.g. druggable by γ-secretase inhibitors, JAK inhibitors or EZH2 inhibitors), present in over 80% of all adult T-ALL patients, that could guide novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:25595890

  3. Aged rats show dominant modulation of lower frequency hippocampal theta rhythm during running.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-Yi; Kuo, Terry B J; Yang, Cheryl C H

    2016-10-01

    Aging causes considerable decline in both physiological and mental functions, particularly cognitive function. The hippocampal theta rhythm (4-12Hz) is related to both cognition and locomotion. Aging-related findings of the frequency and amplitude of hippocampal theta oscillations are inconsistent and occasionally contradictory. This inconsistency may be due to the effects of the sleep/wake state and different frequency subbands being overlooked. We assumed that aged rats have lower responses of the hippocampal theta rhythm during running, which is mainly due to the dominant modulation of theta frequency subbands related to cognition. By simultaneously recording electroencephalography, physical activity (PA), and the heart rate (HR), this experiment explored the theta oscillations before, during, and after treadmill running at a constant speed in 8-week-old (adult) and 60-week-old (middle-aged) rats. Compared with adult rats, the middle-aged rats exhibited lower theta activity in all frequency ranges before running. Running increased the theta frequency (Frq, 4-12Hz), total activity of the whole theta band (total power, TP), activity of the middle theta frequency (MT, 6.5-9.5Hz), and PA in both age groups. However, the middle-aged rats still showed fewer changes in these parameters during the whole running process. After the waking baseline values were substracted, middle-aged rats showed significantly fewer differences in ΔFrq, ΔTP, and ΔMT but significantly more differences in low-frequency theta activity (4.0-6.5Hz) and HR than the adult rats did. Therefore, the decreasing activity and response of the whole theta band in the middle-aged rats resulted in dominant modulation of the middle to lower frequency (4.0-9.5Hz) theta rhythm. The different alterations in the theta rhythm during treadmill running in the two groups may reflect that learning decline with age.

  4. Aged rats show dominant modulation of lower frequency hippocampal theta rhythm during running.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-Yi; Kuo, Terry B J; Yang, Cheryl C H

    2016-10-01

    Aging causes considerable decline in both physiological and mental functions, particularly cognitive function. The hippocampal theta rhythm (4-12Hz) is related to both cognition and locomotion. Aging-related findings of the frequency and amplitude of hippocampal theta oscillations are inconsistent and occasionally contradictory. This inconsistency may be due to the effects of the sleep/wake state and different frequency subbands being overlooked. We assumed that aged rats have lower responses of the hippocampal theta rhythm during running, which is mainly due to the dominant modulation of theta frequency subbands related to cognition. By simultaneously recording electroencephalography, physical activity (PA), and the heart rate (HR), this experiment explored the theta oscillations before, during, and after treadmill running at a constant speed in 8-week-old (adult) and 60-week-old (middle-aged) rats. Compared with adult rats, the middle-aged rats exhibited lower theta activity in all frequency ranges before running. Running increased the theta frequency (Frq, 4-12Hz), total activity of the whole theta band (total power, TP), activity of the middle theta frequency (MT, 6.5-9.5Hz), and PA in both age groups. However, the middle-aged rats still showed fewer changes in these parameters during the whole running process. After the waking baseline values were substracted, middle-aged rats showed significantly fewer differences in ΔFrq, ΔTP, and ΔMT but significantly more differences in low-frequency theta activity (4.0-6.5Hz) and HR than the adult rats did. Therefore, the decreasing activity and response of the whole theta band in the middle-aged rats resulted in dominant modulation of the middle to lower frequency (4.0-9.5Hz) theta rhythm. The different alterations in the theta rhythm during treadmill running in the two groups may reflect that learning decline with age. PMID:27496645

  5. Implicit Motor Sequence Learning and Working Memory Performance Changes Across the Adult Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, Sarah Nadine; Keitel, Ariane; Südmeyer, Martin; Pollok, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Although implicit motor sequence learning is rather well understood in young adults, effects of aging on this kind of learning are controversial. There is first evidence that working memory (WM) might play a role in implicit motor sequence learning in young adults as well as in adults above the age of 65. However, the knowledge about the development of these processes across the adult life span is rather limited. As the average age of our population continues to rise, a better understanding of age-related changes in motor sequence learning and potentially mediating cognitive processes takes on increasing significance. Therefore, we investigated aging effects on implicit motor sequence learning and WM. Sixty adults (18–71 years) completed verbal and visuospatial n-back tasks and were trained on a serial reaction time task (SRTT). Randomly varying trials served as control condition. To further assess consolidation indicated by off-line improvement and reduced susceptibility to interference, reaction times (RTs) were determined 1 h after initial learning. Young and older but not middle-aged adults showed motor sequence learning. Nine out of 20 older adults (compared to one young/one middle-aged) exhibited some evidence of sequence awareness. After 1 h, young and middle-aged adults showed off-line improvement. However, RT facilitation was not specific to sequence trials. Importantly, susceptibility to interference was reduced in young and older adults indicating the occurrence of consolidation. Although WM performance declined in older participants when load was high, it was not significantly related to sequence learning. The data reveal a decline in motor sequence learning in middle-aged but not in older adults. The use of explicit learning strategies in older adults might account for the latter result. PMID:27199736

  6. Mesenchymal stem cells show radioresistance in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sarvpreet; Kloss, Frank R; Brunauer, Regina; Schimke, Magdalena; Jamnig, Angelika; Greiderer-Kleinlercher, Brigitte; Klima, Günter; Rentenberger, Julia; Auberger, Thomas; Hächl, Oliver; Rasse, Michael; Gassner, Robert; Lepperdinger, Günter

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Irradiation impacts on the viability and differentiation capacity of tissue-borne mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), which play a pivotal role in bone regeneration. As a consequence of radiotherapy, bones may develop osteoradionecrosis. When irradiating human bone-derived MSC in vitro with increasing doses, the cells’ self-renewal capabilities were greatly reduced. Mitotically stalled cells were still capable of differentiating into osteoblasts and pre-adipocytes. As a large animal model comparable to the clinical situation, pig mandibles were subjected to fractionized radiation of 2 χ 9 Gy within 1 week. This treatment mimics that of a standardized clinical treatment regimen of head and neck cancer patients irradiated 30 χ 2 Gy. In the pig model, fractures which had been irradiated, showed delayed osseous healing. When isolating MSC at different time points post-irradiation, no significant changes regarding proliferation capacity and osteogenic differentiation potential became apparent. Therefore, pig mandibles were irradiated with a single dose of either 9 or 18 Gy in vivo, and MSC were isolated immediately afterwards. No significant differences between the untreated and 9 Gy irradiated bone with respect to proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were unveiled. Yet, cells isolated from 18 Gy irradiated specimens exhibited a reduced osteogenic differentiation capacity, and during the first 2 weeks proliferation rates were greatly diminished. Thereafter, cells recovered and showed normal proliferation behaviour. These findings imply that MSC can effectively cope with irradiation up to high doses in vivo. This finding should thus be implemented in future therapeutic concepts to protect regenerating tissue from radiation consequences. PMID:21762375

  7. Thematic relations in adults' concepts.

    PubMed

    Lin, E L; Murphy, G L

    2001-03-01

    Concepts can be organized by their members' similarities, forming a kind (e.g., animal), or by their external relations within scenes or events (e.g., cake and candles). This latter type of relation, known as the thematic relation, is frequently found to be the basis of children's but not adults' classification. However, 10 experiments found that when thematic relations are meaningful and salient, they have significant influence on adults' category construction (sorting), inductive reasoning, and verification of category membership. The authors conclude that concepts function closely with knowledge of scenes and events and that this knowledge has a role in adults' conceptual representations. PMID:11293459

  8. Adult outcomes of preterm children.

    PubMed

    Hack, Maureen

    2009-10-01

    The survivors of the initial years of neonatal intensive care of preterm infants reached adulthood during the last decade. Reports of their adult outcomes examined have included neurodevelopmental, behavioral and health outcomes as well as social functioning and reproduction. Despite statistically significant differences between preterm young adults and controls in most outcomes studied, the majority of preterm survivors do well and live fairly normal lives. The two major predictors of adult outcomes are lower gestational age that reflect perinatal injury and family sociodemographic status which reflects both genetic and environmental effects.

  9. The Role of Rainfall in Sternechus subsignatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Adult Emergence From the Soil After Its Winter Dormant Period.

    PubMed

    Guillermina Socías, M; Van Nieuwenhove, Guido; Casmuz, Augusto S; Willink, Eduardo; Liljesthröm, Gerardo G

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we report the effect of rainfall on Sternechus subsignatus Boheman, 1836, adult emergence after winter dormancy. This weevil is a univoltine soybean pest found in northwestern Argentina, a subtropical region with dry winters and rainy summers. Before harvest, fully grown larvae burrow into the soil where they overwinter. In the spring, they emerge as adults and recolonize the crop during its planting and early vegetative stages. Our study examines the seasonal timing of adult emergence with the aim of improving chemical control strategies and avoiding unnecessary pesticide applications. To do so, we developed a regression model to predict adult emergence onset as a function of cumulated rainfall after 1st November. The regression with the highest coefficient of determination between cumulated rainfall and adult emergence onset was Emergence onset (Julian day) = -7.98 Ln(cumulative rainfall) + 65.7. The negative relationship showed that adults emerged earlier in wet years than in dry years. Also it was observed that adults emerged from late November to mid-March, in pulses following periods of rainfall. Males were more abundant than females at first, but then the reverse was true toward the end of the period. In most cases, there was a suggestion of relationship (though not significantly) between peaks of adult emergence with peaks of rainfall 15 d before adult emergence. These results reveal that rainfall has a significant impact on the beginning and dynamics of adult emergence from the soil. PMID:27235846

  10. Service patterns of adult survivors of childhood versus adult sexual assault/abuse.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Susan F; Lundy, Marta; Bertrand, Cathy; Ortiz, Cynthia; Tomas-Tolentino, Grace; Ritzema, Kim; Matson, Julia

    2009-11-01

    This analysis compared the characteristics and service patterns of adult survivors of childhood sexual assault/abuse and adult survivors of adult sexual assault/abuse. Utilizing data from sexual assault crisis centers serving survivors in a Midwestern state over a six year period and controlling for revictimization, we describe and compare the demographic characteristics, referral sources, and service patterns of the two groups. Results indicate that paths into service differ for the two groups. Furthermore, adult survivors of childhood sexual assault/abuse obtain significantly more hours of service and service contacts on average than adult survivors of adult sexual assault/abuse. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. PMID:20183424

  11. Root Caries in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Dick; Hyde, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Older adults are retaining an increasing number of natural teeth, and nearly half of all individuals aged 75 and older have experienced root caries. Root caries is a major cause of tooth loss in older adults, and tooth loss is the most significant negative impact on oral health-related quality of life for the elderly. The need for improved preventive efforts and treatment strategies for this population is acute.

  12. Root Caries in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Dick; Hyde, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Older adults are retaining an increasing number of natural teeth, and nearly half of all individuals aged 75 and older have experienced root caries. Root caries is a major cause of tooth loss in older adults, and tooth loss is the most significant negative impact on oral health-related quality of life for the elderly. The need for improved preventive efforts and treatment strategies for this population is acute. PMID:26357814

  13. Differential Outcomes of Adult Education on Adult Learners' Increase in Social Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Greef, Maurice; Verté, Dominique; Segers, Mien

    2015-01-01

    To date a significant share of the European population can be considered at risk of social exclusion. It has been argued that adult education programmes are a powerful tool to support vulnerable adults increasing their social inclusion. This study aims to answer the question if and which subgroups of vulnerable adults experience an increase in…

  14. Dimensions of Problem Drinking among Young Adult Restaurant Workers

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Roland S.; Cunradi, Carol B.; Duke, Michael R.; Ames, Genevieve M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Nationwide surveys identify food service workers as heavy alcohol users. Objectives This article analyzes dimensions and correlates of problem drinking among young adult food service workers. Methods A telephone survey of national restaurant chain employees yielded 1294 completed surveys. Results Hazardous alcohol consumption patterns were seen in 80% of men and 64% of women. Multivariate analysis showed that different dimensions of problem drinking measured by the AUDIT were associated with workers' demographic characteristics, smoking behavior and job category. Conclusions & Scientific Significance These findings offer evidence of extremely high rates of alcohol misuse among young adult restaurant workers. PMID:20180660

  15. The hypercorrection effect in younger and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Eich, Teal S.; Stern, Yaakov; Metcalfe, Janet

    2012-01-01

    The hypercorrection effect, which refers to the finding that errors committed with high confidence are more likely to be corrected than are low confidence errors, has been replicated many times, and with both young adults and children. In the present study, we contrasted older with younger adults. Participants answered general-information questions, made confidence ratings about their answers, were given corrective feedback, and then were retested on questions that they had gotten wrong. While younger adults showed the hypercorrection effect, older adults, despite higher overall accuracy on the general-information questions and excellent basic metacognitive ability, showed a diminished hypercorrection effect. Indeed, the correspondence between their confidence in their errors and the probability of correction was not significantly greater than zero, showing, for the first time, that a particular participant population is selectively impaired on this error-correction task. These results potentially offer leverage both on the mechanisms underlying the hypercorrection effect and on reasons for older adults' memory impairments, as well as on memory functions that are spared. PMID:23241028

  16. Nodule Regression in Adults With Nodular Gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Wan; Lee, Sun-Young; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Sung, In-Kyung; Park, Hyung Seok; Shim, Chan-Sup; Han, Hye Seung

    2015-01-01

    Background Nodular gastritis (NG) is associated with the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection, but there are controversies on nodule regression in adults. The aim of this study was to analyze the factors that are related to the nodule regression in adults diagnosed as NG. Methods Adult population who were diagnosed as NG with H. pylori infection during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) at our center were included. Changes in the size and location of the nodules, status of H. pylori infection, upper gastrointestinal (UGI) symptom, EGD and pathology findings were analyzed between the initial and follow-up tests. Results Of the 117 NG patients, 66.7% (12/18) of the eradicated NG patients showed nodule regression after H. pylori eradication, whereas 9.9% (9/99) of the non-eradicated NG patients showed spontaneous nodule regression without H. pylori eradication (P < 0.001). Nodule regression was more frequent in NG patients with antral nodule location (P = 0.010), small-sized nodules (P = 0.029), H. pylori eradication (P < 0.001), UGI symptom (P = 0.007), and a long-term follow-up period (P = 0.030). On the logistic regression analysis, nodule regression was inversely correlated with the persistent H. pylori infection on the follow-up test (odds ratio (OR): 0.020, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.003 - 0.137, P < 0.001) and short-term follow-up period < 30.5 months (OR: 0.140, 95% CI: 0.028 - 0.700, P = 0.017). Conclusions In adults with NG, H. pylori eradication is the most significant factor associated with nodule regression. Long-term follow-up period is also correlated with nodule regression, but is less significant than H. pylori eradication. Our findings suggest that H. pylori eradication should be considered to promote nodule regression in NG patients with H. pylori infection.

  17. Creating Significant Learning Experiences across Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Laura E.; Fallahi, Carolyn R.; Nicoll-Senft, Joan M.; Tessier, Jack T.; Watson, Cheryl L.; Wood, Rebecca M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use Fink's (2003) taxonomy of significant learning to redesign courses and assess student learning. Significant improvements were found across the semester for students in the six courses, but there were differences in which taxa showed improvement in each course. The meta-analysis showed significant, positive…

  18. Periodontal implications of orthodontic treatment in adults with reduced or normal periodontal tissues versus those of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Boyd, R L; Leggott, P J; Quinn, R S; Eakle, W S; Chambers, D

    1989-09-01

    This longitudinal study monitored periodontal status in 20 adults and 20 adolescents undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Ten adults had generalized periodontitis and received periodontal treatment, including periodontal surgery, before orthodontic treatment. They also received periodontal maintenance at 3-month intervals during orthodontic treatment. The other 10 adults had normal periodontal tissues. Neither these latter adults nor the adolescents received periodontal maintenance during orthodontic treatment. Periodontal status was determined (1) at six standard sites before fixed appliances were placed (baseline), (2) at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months after appliances had been placed, and (3) 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after appliances had been removed. At each of these visits, these sites were assessed for plaque index, gingival index, bleeding tendency, and pocket depth. Loss of attachment between baseline and 3 months after appliances were removed and tooth loss were also determined. Complete data were obtained for 15 adolescents and 14 adults. During orthodontic treatment the adolescent group showed significantly more (p less than 0.05) periodontal inflammation and supragingival plaque than the adults; after appliances were removed, this pattern was no longer statistically significant. For loss of attachment, there were no significant differences among adolescents, adults with normal periodontal tissues, or adults with reduced but healthy periodontal tissues who had undergone treatment for periodontal disease. For tooth loss, three nonstudy site teeth with pockets deeper than 6 mm and/or furcation involvements were lost because of periodontal abscesses in the adult group treated for periodontal disease. PMID:2773862

  19. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - adults - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive airways disease - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive lung disease - adults - discharge; Chronic bronchitis - adults - discharge; Emphysema - adults - ...

  20. Comparison of immune response to nerve allograft segments in fetal and adult rabbits: a histological study.

    PubMed

    Ağaoğlu, G; Kayikçioğlu, A; Sargon, M; Erk, Y; Mavili, E

    2000-04-01

    Fetuses, as opposed to adults, are immature immunologically and it has been proved that they can tolerate allograft materials much better than adults. In this study the rejection phenomenon of nerve allografts was compared histologically in fetuses and adults. The study was performed in 60 New Zealand rabbits (30 pregnant and 30 nonpregnant), and allograft nerve segments were obtained from Chinchilla rabbits. The animals were divided into fetal and adult groups. Each group was studied at various time periods. Nerve allografts were placed under the panniculus carnosus in the interscapular region of the fetuses and adults. In both fetal and adult groups, the nerve allograft segments were assessed histologically after 1, 7, and 30 days. The criteria used during the evaluation were the degenerative findings in the myelinated axons (large, medium, and small axons), changes in Schwann's cells, and the quantity of infiltrating cells. The changes were graded microscopically from 0 (no change) to 3 (severe destruction and cellular infiltration). Cellular infiltration was more extensive in the adult groups than in the fetal groups. Earlier fetal groups showed minimal infiltration, but the response became more extensive in the later fetal groups. This is probably related to the removal of the fetuses from their intrauterine environment. When comparing fetal and adult groups, the results were significant (p < 0.05). The fetuses tolerated the nerve allograft segments better than the adults. This may be related to the immature immune system of the fetuses.

  1. Adult flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Toullec, E

    2015-02-01

    Adult flatfoot is defined as a flattening of the medial arch of the foot in weight-bearing and lack of a propulsive gait. The 3 lesion levels are the talonavicular, tibiotarsal and midfoot joints. The subtalar joint is damaged by the consequent rotational defects. Clinical examination determines deformity and reducibility, and assesses any posterior tibialis muscle deficit, the posterior tibialis tendon and spring ligament being frequently subject to degenerative lesions. Radiographic examination in 3 incidences in weight-bearing is essential, to determine the principal level of deformity. Tendon (posterior tibialis tendon) and ligamentous lesions (spring ligament and interosseous ligament) are analyzed on MRI or ultrasound. In fixed deformities, CT explores for arthritic evolution or specific etiologies. 3D CT reconstruction can analyze bone and joint morphology and contribute to the planning of any osteotomy. Medical management associates insoles and physiotherapy. Acute painful flatfoot requires strict cast immobilization. Surgical treatment associates numerous combinations of procedures, currently under assessment for supple flatfoot: for the hindfoot: medial slide calcaneal osteotomy, calcaneal lengthening osteotomy, or arthroereisis; for the midfoot: arthrodesis on one or several rays, or first cuneiform or first metatarsal osteotomy; for the ankle: medial collateral ligament repair with tendon transfer. Fixed deformities require arthrodesis of one or several joint-lines in the hindfoot; for the ankle, total replacement after realignment of the foot, or tibiotalocalcaneal fusion or ankle and hindfoot fusion; and, for the midfoot, cuneonavicular or cuneometatarsal fusion. Tendinous procedures are often associated. Specific etiologies may need individualized procedures. In conclusion, adult flatfoot tends to be diagnosed and managed too late, with consequent impact on the ankle, the management of which is complex and poorly codified.

  2. Adult flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Toullec, E

    2015-02-01

    Adult flatfoot is defined as a flattening of the medial arch of the foot in weight-bearing and lack of a propulsive gait. The 3 lesion levels are the talonavicular, tibiotarsal and midfoot joints. The subtalar joint is damaged by the consequent rotational defects. Clinical examination determines deformity and reducibility, and assesses any posterior tibialis muscle deficit, the posterior tibialis tendon and spring ligament being frequently subject to degenerative lesions. Radiographic examination in 3 incidences in weight-bearing is essential, to determine the principal level of deformity. Tendon (posterior tibialis tendon) and ligamentous lesions (spring ligament and interosseous ligament) are analyzed on MRI or ultrasound. In fixed deformities, CT explores for arthritic evolution or specific etiologies. 3D CT reconstruction can analyze bone and joint morphology and contribute to the planning of any osteotomy. Medical management associates insoles and physiotherapy. Acute painful flatfoot requires strict cast immobilization. Surgical treatment associates numerous combinations of procedures, currently under assessment for supple flatfoot: for the hindfoot: medial slide calcaneal osteotomy, calcaneal lengthening osteotomy, or arthroereisis; for the midfoot: arthrodesis on one or several rays, or first cuneiform or first metatarsal osteotomy; for the ankle: medial collateral ligament repair with tendon transfer. Fixed deformities require arthrodesis of one or several joint-lines in the hindfoot; for the ankle, total replacement after realignment of the foot, or tibiotalocalcaneal fusion or ankle and hindfoot fusion; and, for the midfoot, cuneonavicular or cuneometatarsal fusion. Tendinous procedures are often associated. Specific etiologies may need individualized procedures. In conclusion, adult flatfoot tends to be diagnosed and managed too late, with consequent impact on the ankle, the management of which is complex and poorly codified. PMID:25595429

  3. Adult idiopathic scoliosis: the tethered spine.

    PubMed

    Whyte Ferguson, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an observational and treatment study using three case histories to describe common patterns of muscle and fascial asymmetry in adults with idiopathic scoliosis (IS) who have significant scoliotic curvatures that were not surgically corrected and who have chronic pain. Rather than being located in the paraspinal muscles, the myofascial trigger points (TrPs) apparently responsible for the pain were located at some distance from the spine, yet referred pain to locations throughout the thoracolumbar spine. Asymmetries in these muscles appear to tether the spine in such a way that they contribute to scoliotic curvatures. Evaluation also showed that each of these individuals had major ligamentous laxity and this may also have contributed to development of scoliotic curvatures. Treatment focused on release of TrPs found to refer pain into the spine, release of related fascia, and correction of related joint dysfunction. Treatment resulted in substantial relief of longstanding chronic pain. Treatment thus validated the diagnostic hypothesis that myofascial and fascial asymmetries were to some extent responsible for pain in adults with significant scoliotic curvatures. Treatment of these patterns of TrPs and muscle and fascial asymmetries and related joint dysfunction was also effective in relieving pain in each of these individuals after they were injured in auto accidents. Treatment of myofascial TrPs and asymmetrical fascial tension along with treatment of accompanying joint dysfunction is proposed as an effective approach to treating both chronic and acute pain in adults with scoliosis that has not been surgically corrected.

  4. Relationships of individual, social, and physical environmental factors with older adults' television viewing time.

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; De Donder, Liesbeth; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Owen, Neville; Dury, Sarah; De Witte, Nico; Buffel, Tine; Verté, Dominique; Deforche, Benedicte

    2014-10-01

    Sedentary behaviors (involving prolonged sitting) can be associated detrimentally with health outcomes. Older adults, the most sedentary age group, are especially at risk due to their high levels of television viewing time. This study examined individual, social, and physical environmental correlates of older adults' television viewing. Data on daily television viewing time, plus individual, social, and physical environmental factors were collected from 50,986 noninstitutionalized older adults (≥ 65 years) in Flanders (Belgium). The results showed significant relationships between television viewing time and individual, social, and physical environmental factors. Subgroups at risk for high levels of television viewing were those who were functionally limited, less educated, widowed, and (semi)urban-dwelling older adults. Our findings illustrate a cross-sectional link between older adults' television viewing time and social composition of their neighborhood, formal participation, access to alternative activities, and safety from crime.

  5. Compulsive buying: Earlier illicit drug use, impulse buying, depression, and adult ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Brook, Judith S; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W; Leukefeld, Carl G

    2015-08-30

    This longitudinal study examined the association between psychosocial antecedents, including illicit drug use, and adult compulsive buying (CB) across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants originally came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant's earlier psychosocial antecedents and adult CB in the fifth decade of life. The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses showed that gender (female), earlier adult impulse buying (IB), depressive mood, illicit drug use, and concurrent ADHD symptoms were all significantly associated with adult CB at mean age 43. It is important that clinicians treating CB in adults should consider the role of drug use, symptoms of ADHD, IB, depression, and family factors in CB.

  6. Compulsive Buying: Earlier Illicit Drug Use, Impulse Buying, Depression, and Adult ADHD Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W.; Leukefeld, Carl G.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the association between psychosocial antecedents, including illicit drug use, and adult compulsive buying (CB) across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants originally came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant’s earlier psychosocial antecedents and adult CB in the fifth decade of life. The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses showed that gender (female), earlier adult impulse buying (IB), depressive mood, illicit drug use, and concurrent ADHD symptoms were all significantly associated with adult CB at mean age 43. It is important that clinicians treating CB in adults should consider the role of drug use, symptoms of ADHD, IB, depression, and family factors in CB. PMID:26165963

  7. Children Age 7 Complete Complex Gait and Postural Tasks Differently Than Adults Under Dual-Task Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Dorelle C; Vallis, Lori Ann

    2016-01-01

    Healthy children (7 years old) and adults (20 years old) completed a simultaneous balancing, reaching, and cognitive task while standing and during gait. Cognitive accuracy rate for children and adults was similar for both postures; however, response latency was greater for children than adults. While standing, trunk, upper arm, and forearm segments moved as individual segments in adults; however, articulated control of the upper arm and forearm in children was not evident. Adults and children showed evidence of articulated segmental control during gait. Absolute gait velocity (m/s) was significantly slower for children; however, there was no effect of age on step length. Children 7 years old can perform a simultaneous motor and cognitive task but their performance strategies do not yet match young adults. PMID:26305113

  8. Older adults challenged financially when adult children move home.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Steven P; Padilla-Frausto, D Imelda

    2014-02-01

    This policy brief looks at the financial burdens imposed on older Californians when adult children return home, often due to a crisis not of their own making, to live with their parents. The findings show that on average in California, the amount of money that older adults need in order to maintain a minimally decent standard of living while supporting one adult child in their home increases their expenses by a minimum of 50 percent. Low-income older adults are usually on fixed incomes, so helping an adult child can provide the child with a critical safety net but at the cost of the parents' own financial well-being. Policy approaches to assisting this vulnerable population of older adults include implementing reforms to increase Supplemental Security Income (SSI), improving the availability of affordable housing, assuring that all eligible nonelderly adults obtain health insurance through health care reform's expansion of Medi-Cal and subsidies, and increasing food assistance through SNAP and senior meal programs. PMID:24804354

  9. Hemispatial Neglect Shows That "Before" Is "Left".

    PubMed

    Bonato, Mario; Saj, Arnaud; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has led to the hypothesis that events which unfold in time might be spatially represented in a left-to-right fashion, resembling writing direction. Here we studied fourteen right-hemisphere damaged patients, with or without neglect, a disorder of spatial awareness affecting contralesional (here left) space processing and representation. We reasoned that if the processing of time-ordered events is spatial in nature, it should be impaired in the presence of neglect and spared in its absence. Patients categorized events of a story as occurring before or after a central event, which acted as a temporal reference. An asymmetric distance effect emerged in neglect patients, with slower responses to events that took place before the temporal reference. The event occurring immediately before the reference elicited particularly slow responses, closely mirroring the pattern found in neglect patients performing numerical comparison tasks. Moreover, the first item elicited significantly slower responses than the last one, suggesting a preference for a left-to-right scanning/representation of events in time. Patients without neglect showed a regular and symmetric distance effect. These findings further suggest that the representation of events order is spatial in nature and provide compelling evidence that ordinality is similarly represented within temporal and numerical domains. PMID:27313902

  10. Giant pandas failed to show mirror self-recognition.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaozan; Jin, Yuan; Luo, Bo; Zhang, Guiquan; Wei, Rongping; Liu, Dingzhen

    2015-05-01

    Mirror self-recognition (MSR), i.e., the ability to recognize oneself in a mirror, is considered a potential index of self-recognition and the foundation of individual development. A wealth of literature on MSR is available for social animals, such as chimpanzees, Asian elephants and dolphins, yet little is known about MSR in solitary mammalian species. We aimed to evaluate whether the giant panda can recognize itself in the mirror, and whether this capacity varies with age. Thirty-four captive giant pandas (F:M = 18:16; juveniles, sub-adults and adults) were subjected to four mirror tests: covered mirror tests, open mirror tests, water mark control tests, and mark tests. The results showed that, though adult, sub-adult and juvenile pandas exposed to mirrors spent similar amounts of time in social mirror-directed behaviors (χ(2) = 0.719, P = 0.698), none of them used the mirror to touch the mark on their head, a self-directed behavior suggesting MSR. Individuals of all age groups initially displayed attacking, threatening, foot scraping and backwards walking behaviors when exposed to their self-images in the mirror. Our data indicate that, regardless of age, the giant pandas did not recognize their self-image in the mirror, but instead considered the image to be a conspecific. Our results add to the available information on mirror self-recognition in large mammals, provide new information on a solitary species, and will be useful for enclosure design and captive animal management. PMID:25609263

  11. Giant pandas failed to show mirror self-recognition.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaozan; Jin, Yuan; Luo, Bo; Zhang, Guiquan; Wei, Rongping; Liu, Dingzhen

    2015-05-01

    Mirror self-recognition (MSR), i.e., the ability to recognize oneself in a mirror, is considered a potential index of self-recognition and the foundation of individual development. A wealth of literature on MSR is available for social animals, such as chimpanzees, Asian elephants and dolphins, yet little is known about MSR in solitary mammalian species. We aimed to evaluate whether the giant panda can recognize itself in the mirror, and whether this capacity varies with age. Thirty-four captive giant pandas (F:M = 18:16; juveniles, sub-adults and adults) were subjected to four mirror tests: covered mirror tests, open mirror tests, water mark control tests, and mark tests. The results showed that, though adult, sub-adult and juvenile pandas exposed to mirrors spent similar amounts of time in social mirror-directed behaviors (χ(2) = 0.719, P = 0.698), none of them used the mirror to touch the mark on their head, a self-directed behavior suggesting MSR. Individuals of all age groups initially displayed attacking, threatening, foot scraping and backwards walking behaviors when exposed to their self-images in the mirror. Our data indicate that, regardless of age, the giant pandas did not recognize their self-image in the mirror, but instead considered the image to be a conspecific. Our results add to the available information on mirror self-recognition in large mammals, provide new information on a solitary species, and will be useful for enclosure design and captive animal management.

  12. Genome-wide association study of blood lead shows multiple associations near ALAD

    PubMed Central

    Warrington, Nicole M.; Zhu, Gu; Dy, Veronica; Heath, Andrew C.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Hemani, Gibran; Kemp, John P.; Mcmahon, George; St Pourcain, Beate; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Taylor, Caroline M.; Golding, Jean; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Steer, Colin; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Davey Smith, George; Evans, David M.; Whitfield, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of environmental lead, or biomarker evidence of high body lead content, is associated with anaemia, developmental and neurological deficits in children, and increased mortality in adults. Adverse effects of lead still occur despite substantial reduction in environmental exposure. There is genetic variation between individuals in blood lead concentration but the polymorphisms contributing to this have not been defined. We measured blood or erythrocyte lead content, and carried out genome-wide association analysis, on population-based cohorts of adult volunteers from Australia and UK (N = 5433). Samples from Australia were collected in two studies, in 1993–1996 and 2002–2005 and from UK in 1991–1992. One locus, at ALAD on chromosome 9, showed consistent association with blood lead across countries and evidence for multiple independent allelic effects. The most significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs1805313 (P = 3.91 × 10−14 for lead concentration in a meta-analysis of all data), is known to have effects on ALAD expression in blood cells but other SNPs affecting ALAD expression did not affect blood lead. Variants at 12 other loci, including ABO, showed suggestive associations (5 × 10−6 > P > 5 × 10−8). Identification of genetic polymorphisms affecting blood lead reinforces the view that genetic factors, as well as environmental ones, are important in determining blood lead levels. The ways in which ALAD variation affects lead uptake or distribution are still to be determined. PMID:25820613

  13. Infantile autism: adult outcome.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, B

    2000-07-01

    Although the core features of autism do not change qualitatively, a gradual overall symptomatic improvement including an increase in adaptive skills is observed in most cases with age. Follow-up studies show that the diagnostic features, the differential diagnosis, and clinical problems of adult autistics differ substantially from that of autistic children. The differential diagnosis of older autistics include personality disorders, learning disabilities, and mood disorder. Depression, epilepsy, and behavioral problems such as aggression and agitation may be major clinical problems during adolescence. The early indicators of a better outcome include a higher level of IQ and language. Among the neuropsychological variables, measures of flexibility and cognitive shift are important as prognostic factors. Early behavioral and educational intervention may especially increase the adaptive skills of the patients and promote the in-family communication. The outcome studies of autism are particularly helpful in addressing the appropriate and most effective programs of remediation for adult autistics.

  14. Adult Still's disease

    MedlinePlus

    Still's disease - adult; AOSD ... than 1 out of 100,000 people develop adult-onset Still's disease each year. It affects women more often than men. The cause of adult Still's disease is unknown. No risk factors for ...

  15. Electrophysiological evidence for adult age-related sparing and decrements in emotion perception and attention

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Joshua W.; Khoja, Nadia; Kaut, Kevin P.; Lien, Mei-Ching; Allen, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined adult age differences in processing emotional faces using a psychological refractory period paradigm. We used both behavioral and event-related potential (P1 component) measures. Task 1 was tone discrimination (fuzzy vs. pure tones) and Task 2 was emotional facial discrimination (“happy” vs. “angry” faces). The stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between the two tasks was 100, 300, and 900 ms. Earlier research observed larger age deficits in emotional facial discrimination for negative (angry) than for positive (happy) faces (Baena et al., 2010). Thus, we predicted that older adults would show decreased attentional efficiency in carrying out dual-task processing on the P1 (a component linked to amygdalar modulation of visual perception; Rotshtein et al., 2010). Both younger and older groups showed significantly higher P1 amplitudes at 100- and 300-ms SOAs than at the 900-ms SOA, and this suggests that both age groups could process Task 2 faces without central attention. Also, younger adults showed significantly higher P1 activations for angry than for happy faces, but older adults showed no difference. These results are consistent with the idea that younger adults exhibited amygdalar modulation of visual perception, but that older adults did not. PMID:22936901

  16. Electrophysiological evidence for adult age-related sparing and decrements in emotion perception and attention.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Joshua W; Khoja, Nadia; Kaut, Kevin P; Lien, Mei-Ching; Allen, Philip A

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined adult age differences in processing emotional faces using a psychological refractory period paradigm. We used both behavioral and event-related potential (P1 component) measures. Task 1 was tone discrimination (fuzzy vs. pure tones) and Task 2 was emotional facial discrimination ("happy" vs. "angry" faces). The stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between the two tasks was 100, 300, and 900 ms. Earlier research observed larger age deficits in emotional facial discrimination for negative (angry) than for positive (happy) faces (Baena et al., 2010). Thus, we predicted that older adults would show decreased attentional efficiency in carrying out dual-task processing on the P1 (a component linked to amygdalar modulation of visual perception; Rotshtein et al., 2010). Both younger and older groups showed significantly higher P1 amplitudes at 100- and 300-ms SOAs than at the 900-ms SOA, and this suggests that both age groups could process Task 2 faces without central attention. Also, younger adults showed significantly higher P1 activations for angry than for happy faces, but older adults showed no difference. These results are consistent with the idea that younger adults exhibited amygdalar modulation of visual perception, but that older adults did not. PMID:22936901

  17. Differences in Liver Impairment Between Adults and Children with Dengue Infection.

    PubMed

    Martínez Vega, Rosario; Phumratanaprapin, Weerapong; Phonrat, Benjaluck; Dhitavat, Jittima; Sutherat, Maleerat; Choovichian, Vorada

    2016-05-01

    Dengue infection (DI) is a major vector-borne disease in southeast Asia and an important cause of morbidity. The complications such as hepatic impairment are common, and because the physiology of the liver differs between children and adults, the DI-associated liver impairments might be expected to differ as well. This study aims to compare the differences in liver impairment between adults and children with DI. We retrospectively studied 158 adults and 79 children with serologically confirmed DI admitted to the Bangkok Hospital for Tropical Diseases from 2008 to 2012. In total, 93% of adults and 87% of children exhibited abnormal liver enzyme levels during hospitalization. Overall, 76 (42.4%) adults and 16 (20.3%) children had dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Compared with children, adults with dengue fever (DF) presented a significantly higher incidence of liver function impairment (alanine transaminase [ALT] > 2 × upper limit of normal [ULN]) (47.1% versus 25.5%), hepatitis (ALT > 4 × ULN) (29.4% versus 12.8%), and severe hepatitis (aspartate transaminase [AST]/ALT > 10 × ULN) (16.5% versus 4.3%). Children with DHF showed a significantly higher incidence of liver function impairment due to AST derangement than did adults (100% versus 73%). There were no differences in the total bilirubin, albumin, or total protein levels between adults and children. Liver enzymes normalized significantly more slowly in adults, and AST recovery was faster than ALT. In conclusion, liver function impairment was more common among adults than children with DF. As the severity progressed to DHF, liver injury became more common in children.

  18. Age differences in physique of adult males aged 30 to 86 years in Rarotonga, the Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, S J

    2000-07-01

    In the Pacific Region, some adult populations have shown a steady rise in overweight and obesity across the 1970s and into the 1990s. While younger adults have been shown to have lower body mass index (BMI) than older ones in both the least and most modernised Samoan populations, among intermediately modernised Samoan populations, BMI has been found to be higher in younger adults than in older ones. A survey in the Cook Islands carried out in 1966 showed no age group differences in height, weight and BMI among adult males, but significantly higher mean weight and BMI among adult males aged 30 years and above. The present analysis gives mean height, weight, BMI and skinfolds of adult males above 30 years of age on Rarotonga in 1996, and examines whether the BMI-age group relationship now shows a similar transitional pattern to that observed on American Samoa. In addition, the 1996 values are compared with values obtained in 1986, to determine whether changes in physique have taken place across this time. In the 1996 volunteer sample of 142 male Cook Islanders, older adults are significantly shorter, lighter, with lower BMI than younger adults. Furthermore, the younger adults of the 1996 survey are significantly heavier, with greater BMI than the 1986 sample. This suggests that the adult male Rarotongan population is in an intermediate position with respect to lifestyle transition, the secular trend in body size and increasing prevalence of obesity, and that there has been a rapid increase in body fatness prevalence among younger adults. PMID:11027034

  19. Panic Disorder among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  20. Bipolar Disorder Among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  1. Major Depression Among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  2. The interplay of subjective social status and essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging on cortisol reactivity to challenge in older adults.

    PubMed

    Weiss, David; Weiss, Mona

    2016-08-01

    Older adults are more likely than younger adults to experience stress when confronted with cognitive challenges. However, little is known about individual differences that might explain why some older adults exhibit stronger stress responses than others. We examined the interplay of two social-cognitive factors to explain older adults' cortisol reactivity: (1) subjective social status, and (2) essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging. We hypothesized that, depending on whether older adults believe that aging-related cognitive decline is inevitable versus modifiable, low subjective social status should lead to stronger or weaker cortisol reactivity. Using longitudinal data, we assessed the impact of cognitive challenges on stress reactivity in a sample of older adults (N = 389; 61-86 years). As predicted, regression analyses confirmed that 44 min after cognitively challenging tasks, older adults exhibited a significantly different cortisol reactivity depending on their subjective social status and their essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging. Specifically, older adults with low subjective social status and high essentialist beliefs showed a significantly elevated cortisol reactivity. We discuss the role of essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging to predict when and why high versus low subjective social status leads to stress responses in older adults.

  3. Patterns of implicit and explicit attitudes in children and adults: tests in the domain of religion.

    PubMed

    Heiphetz, Larisa; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Banaji, Mahzarin R

    2013-08-01

    Among the most replicated results in social cognition is the split between explicit and implicit attitudes; adults demonstrate weaker group-based preferences on explicit rather than implicit measures. However, the developmental origins of this pattern remain unclear. If implicit attitudes develop over a protracted period of time, children should not demonstrate the implicit preferences observed among adults. Additionally, unlike adults, children may report group-based preferences due to their lesser concern with social desirability. In Study 1, Christian adults showed the expected pattern of robust implicit preference but no explicit preference. In 4 additional experiments, 6- to 8-year-old children whose parents identified them as Christian viewed characters described as belonging to 2 starkly different religious groups ("strong religious difference") or 2 relatively similar religious groups ("weak religious difference"). Participants then completed explicit and implicit (IAT) measures of attitude toward Christians and either Hindus (Study 2) or Jews (Studies 3-5). Three main results emerged. First, like adults, children showed significant implicit pro-Christian preferences across all studies. Second, unlike adults, children in the "strong religious difference" case reported preferences of approximately the same magnitude as their implicit attitudes (i.e., no dissociation). Third, even in the "weak religious difference" case, children showed implicit pro-Christian preferences (although, like adults, their explicit attitudes were not sensitive to intergroup difference). These data suggest that the seeds of implicit religious preferences are sown early and that children's explicit preferences are influenced by the social distance between groups.

  4. Characterization of motor units in behaving adult mice shows a wide primary range.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Laura K; Tresch, Matthew C; Heckman, C J; Manuel, Marin; Tysseling, Vicki M

    2014-08-01

    The mouse is essential for genetic studies of motor function in both normal and pathological states. Thus it is important to consider whether the structure of motor output from the mouse is in fact analogous to that recorded in other animals. There is a striking difference in the basic electrical properties of mouse motoneurons compared with those in rats, cats, and humans. The firing evoked by injected currents produces a unique frequency-current (F-I) function that emphasizes recruitment of motor units at their maximum force. These F-I functions, however, were measured in anesthetized preparations that lacked two key components of normal synaptic input: high levels of synaptic noise and neuromodulatory inputs. Recent studies suggest that the alterations in the F-I function due to these two components are essential for recreating firing behavior of motor units in human subjects. In this study we provide the first data on firing patterns of motor units in the awake mouse, focusing on steady output in quiet stance. The resulting firing patterns did not match the predictions from the mouse F-I behaviors but instead revealed rate modulation across a remarkably wide range (10-60 Hz). The low end of the firing range may be due to changes in the F-I relation induced by synaptic noise and neuromodulatory inputs. The high end of the range may indicate that, unlike other species, quiet standing in the mouse involves recruitment of relatively fast-twitch motor units. PMID:24805075

  5. Do Adults Show an Effect of Delayed First Language Acquisition When Calculating Scalar Implicatures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Kathryn; Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2015-01-01

    Language acquisition involves learning not only grammatical rules and a lexicon but also what people are intending to convey with their utterances: the semantic/pragmatic component of language. In this article we separate the contributions of linguistic development and cognitive maturity to the acquisition of the semantic/pragmatic component of…

  6. Young Adult Female Fragile X Premutation Carriers Show Age- and Genetically-Modulated Cognitive Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich-Hunsaker, Naomi J.; Wong, Ling M.; McLennan, Yingratana; Srivastava, Siddharth; Tassone, Flora; Harvey, Danielle; Rivera, Susan M.; Simon, Tony J.

    2011-01-01

    The high frequency of the fragile X premutation in the general population and its emerging neurocognitive implications highlight the need to investigate the effects of the premutation on lifespan cognitive development. Until recently, cognitive function in fragile X premutation carriers (fXPCs) was presumed to be unaffected by the mutation. Here…

  7. Using interactive family science shows to improve public knowledge on antibiotic resistance: does it work?

    PubMed

    Lecky, Donna M; Hawking, Meredith K D; Verlander, Neville Q; McNulty, Cliodna A M

    2014-01-01

    The public plays an important role in controlling the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance. A large British survey showed that there is still public misunderstanding about microbes and antibiotics. e-Bug, a European DG Sanco sponsored project, aims to disseminate a school antibiotic and hygiene educational pack and website across Europe. Interactive science shows based on the e-Bug educational packs were developed to take the key health and hygiene messages from the e-Bug school resources to families. The science show was evaluated to assess public knowledge and understanding of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance pre and post intervention. An interactive stall comprised of a 3×2 m backing stand with background information, an interactive activity and discussions with a trained demonstrator was on display at a family holiday resort. Pre-piloted knowledge questionnaires were completed by parents and children pre and post intervention. Adult (≥19 years) baseline knowledge regarding antibiotics and antibiotic resistance was high although significant knowledge improvement was observed where baseline knowledge was low. Children's (5-11 years) knowledge around antibiotics and antibiotic resistance was significantly improved for all questions. The science show can be viewed as a success in improving parents' and children's knowledge of antibiotic use thereby highlighting the importance of educating the public through interaction. PMID:25162505

  8. Using Interactive Family Science Shows to Improve Public Knowledge on Antibiotic Resistance: Does It Work?

    PubMed Central

    Lecky, Donna M.; Hawking, Meredith K. D.; Verlander, Neville Q.; McNulty, Cliodna A. M.

    2014-01-01

    The public plays an important role in controlling the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance. A large British survey showed that there is still public misunderstanding about microbes and antibiotics. e-Bug, a European DG Sanco sponsored project, aims to disseminate a school antibiotic and hygiene educational pack and website across Europe. Interactive science shows based on the e-Bug educational packs were developed to take the key health and hygiene messages from the e-Bug school resources to families. The science show was evaluated to assess public knowledge and understanding of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance pre and post intervention. An interactive stall comprised of a 3×2 m backing stand with background information, an interactive activity and discussions with a trained demonstrator was on display at a family holiday resort. Pre-piloted knowledge questionnaires were completed by parents and children pre and post intervention. Adult (≥19 years) baseline knowledge regarding antibiotics and antibiotic resistance was high although significant knowledge improvement was observed where baseline knowledge was low. Children's (5–11 years) knowledge around antibiotics and antibiotic resistance was significantly improved for all questions. The science show can be viewed as a success in improving parents' and children's knowledge of antibiotic use thereby highlighting the importance of educating the public through interaction. PMID:25162505

  9. "No-Shows": A Vexing Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, John; And Others

    1980-01-01

    What can we learn about the applicants who do not show up on campus to register? This study suggests both a method for learning more about "no-shows" and the reasons why they change their mind. (Author)

  10. Alzheimer's Gene May Show Effects in Childhood

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159854.html Alzheimer's Gene May Show Effects in Childhood Brain scans ... 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A gene related to Alzheimer's disease may start to show effects on brain ...

  11. Characterizing upper limb muscle volume and strength in older adults: a comparison with young adults.

    PubMed

    Vidt, Meghan E; Daly, Melissa; Miller, Michael E; Davis, Cralen C; Marsh, Anthony P; Saul, Katherine R

    2012-01-10

    Aging is associated with the loss of muscle volume (MV) and force leading to difficulties with activities of daily living. However, the relationship between upper limb MV and joint strength has not been characterized for older adults. Quantifying this relationship may help our understanding of the functional declines of the upper limb that older adults experience. Our objective was to assess the relationship between upper limb MV and maximal isometric joint moment-generating capacity (IJM) in a single cohort of healthy older adults (age ≥ 65 years) for 6 major functional groups (32 muscles). MV was determined from MRI for 18 participants (75.1±4.3 years). IJM at the shoulder (abduction/adduction), elbow (flexion/extension), and wrist (flexion/extension) was measured. MV and IJM measurements were compared to previous reports for young adults (28.6±4.5 years). On average older adults had 16.5% less total upper limb MV compared to young adults. Additionally, older adult wrist extensors composed a significantly increased percentage of upper limb MV. Older adult IJM was reduced across all joints, with significant differences for shoulder abductors (p<0.0001), adductors (p=0.01), and wrist flexors (p<0.0001). Young adults were strongest at the shoulder, which was not the case for older adults. In older adults, 40.6% of the variation in IJM was accounted for by MV changes (p≤0.027), compared to 81.0% in young adults. We conclude that for older adults, MV and IJM are, on average, reduced but the significant linear relationship between MV and IJM is maintained. These results suggest that older adult MV and IJM cannot be simply scaled from young adults.

  12. Do oral health conditions adversely impact young adults?

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Joana C; Mestrinho, Heliana D; Stevens, Sophie; van Wijk, Arjen J

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the extent to which clinically measured oral health conditions, adjusted for sociodemographic and oral health behavior determinants, impact adversely on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in a sample of Belgian young adults. The null hypothesis was that, among young adults, the oral health conditions would have no impact on their quality of life. The participants were 611 new patients aged 16-32 years seeking consultation at the Saint-Luc University Hospital in Brussels in 2010-2011. The patients (56.0% female) were examined for their oral health conditions and answered a validated questionnaire about sociodemographic and oral health behavior determinants in addition to questions about their OHRQoL. The abridged Oral Health Impact Profile-14 was used to assess the OHRQoL. Interexaminer reliability for caries was 0.86 (95% CI 0.84-0.89, nonweighted κ). The outcome was a high score on the OHRQoL (median split). Hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that young adults with clinical absolute D1MFS scores between 9 and 16 (OR = 2.14, p = 0.031) and between 17 and 24 (OR = 3.10, p = 0.003) were significantly more likely to report a high impact on their quality of life than those with lower scores. Also, periodontal conditions compromised significantly (OR = 1.79, p = 0.011) the quality of life of young adults. In conclusion, this study identified oral health conditions with a significant adverse effect on the OHRQoL of young adults. However, the prevalence of young adults reporting impacts on at least 1 performance affected fairly often or very often was limited to 18.7% of the sample. PMID:25832802

  13. Significance of postshunt ventricular asymmetries.

    PubMed

    Linder, M; Diehl, J T; Sklar, F H

    1981-08-01

    Ventricular asymmetries after shunt surgery were studied. Right and left ventricular areas from pre-and postoperative computerized tomography scans were measured with a computer digitizing technique, and the respective areas were expressed as a ratio. Measurements were made from the scans of 15 hydrocephalic children selected at random. Ages at surgery ranged from 1 to 101 weeks. The results indicate a significantly greater decrease in ventricular size on the side of the ventricular shunt catheter. Multiple regression analysis showed no relationship between the magnitude of change in ventricular size and either the patients' age orn the time intervals between surgery and follow-up scans. Possible mechanisms for these postshunt ventricular asymmetries are discussed.

  14. Career and Technical Education: Show Us the Buck, We'll Show You the Bang!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whetstone, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Adult and CTE programs in California have been cut by about 60 percent over the past three years. A number of school districts have summarily eliminated these programs to preserve funding for other educational endeavors. The author says part of the problem has been the community's inability to communicate quantifiable results. One of the hottest…

  15. Dissociative Symptoms and Mother's Marital Status in Young Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Bob, Petr; Selesova, Petra; Raboch, Jiri; Kukla, Lubomir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Current findings suggest that mother's marital status indicating father's absence or conflicting relationship to father may be specifically related to dissociation and other stress-related symptoms. We have assessed relationships of mother's marital status, dissociative symptoms, and other psychopathological manifestations in a sample of 19 years’ old young adults (N = 364) participating in European longitudinal study (European Longitudinal Study of Parenthood and Childhood). The results show clinically significant manifestations of dissociative symptoms in young adult men whose mothers were fatherless and in women whose mothers were re-married. Other psychopathological symptoms did not reach clinically significant manifestations. The results suggest that significant factor related to high level of dissociative symptoms in men growing in fatherless families might be linked with disturbed and conflicting attachment to a father's figure and pathological dependent attachment to mother. In women dissociative symptoms likely are linked to conflicting relationship between mother and daughter associated with stepfather’ presence in the family. PMID:25590849

  16. "The Cosby Show": The View from the Black Middle Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inniss, Leslie B.; Feagin, Joe R.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the black middle-class response to "The Cosby Show." The study asked about the portrayal of blacks in the media, but did not specifically ask about "The Cosby Show." Results from 100 respondents revealed two significant aspects: that the show renders black problems as irrelevant and that it fosters hope and optimism that the black…

  17. Functional differences between neonatal and adult fibroblasts and keratinocytes: Donor age affects epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Mateu, Rosana; Živicová, Veronika; Krejčí, Eliška Drobná; Grim, Miloš; Strnad, Hynek; Vlček, Čestmír; Kolář, Michal; Lacina, Lukáš; Gál, Peter; Borský, Jiří; Smetana, Karel; Dvořánková, Barbora

    2016-01-01

    Clinical evidence suggests that healing is faster and almost scarless at an early neonatal age in comparison with that in adults. In this study, the phenotypes of neonatal and adult dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes (nestin, smooth muscle actin, keratin types 8, 14 and 19, and fibronectin) were compared. Furthermore, functional assays (proliferation, migration, scratch wound closure) including mutual epithelial-mesenchymal interactions were also performed to complete the series of experiments. Positivity for nestin and α smooth muscle actin was higher in neonatal fibroblasts (NFs) when compared with their adult counterparts (adult fibroblasts; AFs). Although the proliferation of NFs and AFs was similar, they significantly differed in their migration potential. The keratinocyte experiments revealed small, poorly differentiated cells (positive for keratins 8, 14 and 19) in primary cultures isolated from neonatal tissues. Moreover, the neonatal keratinocytes exhibited significantly faster rates of healing the experimentally induced in vitro defects in comparison with adult cells. Notably, the epithelial/mesenchymal interaction studies showed that NFs in co-culture with adult keratinocytes significantly stimulated the adult epithelial cells to acquire the phenotype of small, non-confluent cells expressing markers of poor differentiation. These results indicate the important differences between neonatal and adult cells that may be associated with improved wound healing during the early neonatal period. PMID:27513730

  18. Significance of biofilms in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Wróblewska, Marta; Strużycka, Izabela; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades significant scientific progress has taken place in the knowledge about biofilms. They constitute multilayer conglomerates of bacteria and fungi, surrounded by carbohydrates which they produce, as well as substances derived from saliva and gingival fluid. Modern techniques showed significant diversity of the biofilm environment and a system of microbial communication (quorum sensing), enhancing their survival. At present it is believed that the majority of infections, particularly chronic with exacerbations, are a result of biofilm formation, particularly in the presence of biomaterials. It should be emphasised that penetration of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents into deeper layers of a biofilm is poor, causing therapeutic problems and necessitating sometimes removal of the implant or prosthesis. Biofilms play an increasing role in dentistry as a result of more and more broad use in dental practice of plastic and implantable materials. Biofilms are produced on the surfaces of teeth as dental plaque, in the para-nasal sinuses, on prostheses, dental implants, as well as in waterlines of a dental unit, constituting a particular risk for severely immunocompromised patients. New methods of therapy and prevention of infections linked to biofilms are under development.

  19. Japanese adult's and children's production and perception of English fricatives: A longitudinal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Katsura; Guion, Susan; Yamada, Tsuneo; Akahane-Yamada, Reiko

    2002-05-01

    This study examined the production and perception of English fricatives by native Japanese (NJ) adults and children (16 per group, mean age=40 and 10 years), and age-matched native English (NE) adults and children (16 per group). The subjects were tested two times (T1, T2) 1 year apart. (At T1, the NJ subjects' mean length of residence in the U.S. was 0.5 year.) A picture-naming task was used to elicit the production of English words beginning with /s/ and /θ/, and intelligibility scores were obtained for both. The intelligibility scores of the NJ children but not adults improved significantly from T1 to T2. The NJ children obtained significantly lower scores than the NJ adults did at T1, but at T2 the adult-child difference was nonsignificant. The perception of /s/ and /θ/ was tested by a categorial discrimination task. Although the NJ adult's and children's scores improved from T1 to T2, the T1-T2 differences were nonsignificant. Thus, the results showed that the NJ children's production scores improved significantly from T1 to T2, while there was no significant change for the perception scores on the discrimination of /s/-/θ/. The relationship between production and perception in L2 speech learning will be discussed. [Work supported by NIH.

  20. Intolerance of uncertainty and adult separation anxiety.

    PubMed

    Boelen, Paul A; Reijntjes, Albert; Carleton, R Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU)-the tendency to react negatively to situations that are uncertain-is involved in different anxiety disorders and depression. No studies have yet examined the association between IU and symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder. However, it is possible that greater difficulties tolerating uncertainties that can occur in relationships with attachment figures inflate fears and worries about the consequences of being separated from these attachment figures. The current study examined the possible role of IU in symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder, relative to its role in symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), social anxiety, and depression, using self-reported data from 215 undergraduates (92% women) with elevated separation anxiety. Findings showed that IU was significantly associated with symptom levels of separation anxiety disorder, GAD, OCD, social anxiety, and depression (rs > .30). IU continued to explain variance in OCD, social anxiety, and depression (but not GAD and separation anxiety) when controlling for the association of neuroticism, attachment anxiety, and attachment avoidance with these symptoms. Additional findings indicated that IU is more strongly associated with symptoms of GAD, OCD, and social anxiety than symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder and depression.

  1. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder outcome in adults].

    PubMed

    Bange, F

    2011-07-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood. Although some symptoms of ADHD may diminish this does not mean that functioning is unimpaired in adults. Follow-up studies of children with ADHD show that it persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. Due to genetic factors high rates of ADHD exist among the parents of children with ADHD. More females are identified and become diagnosed in adulthood. There is a greater persistence of inattentive than of hyperactive/impulsive childhood symptoms of ADHD in adulthood. Some experts conceptualise ADHD as primarily a deficit of executive functions impairing planification, time perception and emotional regulation. ADHD often presents as a lifelong condition in adults associated with a range of clinical and psychosocial impairments. Young adults with comorbid antisocial or substance use disorder in adolescence are at significantly increased risk for criminal behaviors. Some predictors of the outcome have been identified such as childhood symptom profile and severity, comorbidity and childhood family adversities.

  2. Immigration, income, drinking and obesity in African American adults.

    PubMed

    Ade, Julius N; Rohrer, Jim; Rea, Nancy K

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between immigration status, income, drinking and overweight and obesity in African American adults residing in the United States using an internet web based survey. Data on 303 adult African American immigrants and non-immigrants was collected using a self-administered web based survey. Respondents were recruited using a snowball sampling technique to obtain a convenience sample. Multiple logistic regression analysis were used to test the independent effects of the immigration status while controlling for confounding effects of demographic, social and behavioral variables. The results of the study showed no significant difference between obesity and immigration status in black adults residing in the US (adjusted odds ration = 1.1095, P = 0.7489). Significance at the P < 0.05 level was demonstrated for obesity and two independent variables: age (OR = 1.0332, P = 0.0298) and days per month consumed more than 5 alcoholic beverages (OR = 1.7735, P = 0.0001). Adult African American immigrants in this study sample were not at risk of being obese due to their immigration status. However, age and days in a month in which more than 5 alcoholic beverages are consumed were significant risk factors for obesity. Primary care providers should be alert for obesity and alcohol consumption in this population.

  3. Sentence comprehension following moderate closed head injury in adults.

    PubMed

    Leikin, Mark; Ibrahim, Raphiq; Aharon-Peretz, Judith

    2012-09-01

    The current study explores sentence comprehension impairments among adults following moderate closed head injury. It was hypothesized that if the factor of syntactic complexity significantly affects sentence comprehension in these patients, it would testify to the existence of syntactic processing deficit along with working-memory problems. Thirty-six adults (18 closed head injury patients and 18 healthy controls matched in age, gender, and IQ) participated in the study. A picture-sentence matching task together with various tests for memory, language, and reading abilities were used to explore whether sentence comprehension impairments exist as a result of a deficit in syntactic processing or of working-memory dysfunction. Results indicate significant impairment in sentence comprehension among adults with closed head injury compared with their non-head-injured peers. Results also reveal that closed head injury patients demonstrate considerable decline in working memory, short-term memory, and semantic knowledge. Analysis of the results shows that memory impairment and syntactic complexity contribute significantly to sentence comprehension difficulties in closed head injury patients. At the same time, the presentation mode (spoken or written language) was found to have no effect on comprehension among adults with closed head injury, and their reading abilities appear to be relatively intact.

  4. Predictors of child molestation: adult attachment, cognitive distortions, and empathy.

    PubMed

    Wood, Eric; Riggs, Shelley

    2008-02-01

    A conceptual model derived from attachment theory was tested by examining adult attachment style, cognitive distortions, and both general and victim empathy in a sample of 61 paroled child molesters and 51 community controls. Results of logistic multiple regression showed that attachment anxiety, cognitive distortions, high general empathy but low victim empathy significantly increased the odds of child molester status. Findings supported theoretically based hypotheses, suggesting that attachment theory may be useful in the conceptualization and treatment of child molesters.

  5. Adult Recruitment Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Juliet, Ed.; And Others

    Findings of an American College Testing Program 1981 survey on college recruitment of adult students are summarized, and 12 articles on adult recruitment are presented. Titles and authors are as follows: "Adult Recruitment Practices: A Report of a National Survey" (Patricia Spratt, Juliet Kaufmann, Lee Noel); "Three Programs for Adults in Shopping…

  6. Sphagnum mosses from 21 ombrotrophic bogs in the athabasca bituminous sands region show no significant atmospheric contamination of "heavy metals".

    PubMed

    Shotyk, William; Belland, Rene; Duke, John; Kempter, Heike; Krachler, Michael; Noernberg, Tommy; Pelletier, Rick; Vile, Melanie A; Wieder, Kelman; Zaccone, Claudio; Zhang, Shuangquan

    2014-11-01

    Sphagnum moss was collected from 21 ombrotrophic (rain-fed) peat bogs surrounding open pit mines and upgrading facilities of Athabasca bituminous sands in Alberta (AB). In comparison to contemporary Sphagnum moss from four bogs in rural locations of southern Germany (DE), the AB mosses yielded lower concentrations of Ag, Cd, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Tl, similar concentrations of Mo, but greater concentrations of Ba, Th, and V. Except for V, in comparison to the "cleanest", ancient peat samples ever tested from the northern hemisphere (ca. 6000-9000 years old), the concentrations of each of these metals in the AB mosses are within a factor of 3 of "natural, background" values. The concentrations of "heavy metals" in the mosses, however, are proportional to the concentration of Th (a conservative, lithophile element) and, therefore, contributed to the plants primarily in the form of mineral dust particles. Vanadium, the single most abundant trace metal in bitumen, is the only anomaly: in the AB mosses, V exceeds that of ancient peat by a factor of 6; it is therefore enriched in the mosses, relative to Th, by a factor of 2. In comparison to the surface layer of peat cores collected in recent years from across Canada, from British Columbia to New Brunswick, the Pb concentrations in the mosses from AB are far lower.

  7. Action potential waveform voltage clamp shows significance of different Ca2+ channel types in developing ascidian muscle

    PubMed Central

    Dallman, Julia E; Dorman, Jennie B; Moody, William J

    2000-01-01

    Early in development, ascidian muscle cells generate spontaneous, long-duration action potentials that are mediated by a high-threshold, inactivating Ca2+ current. This spontaneous activity is required for appropriate physiological development.Mature muscle cells generate brief action potentials only in response to motor neuron input. The mature action potential is mediated by a high-threshold sustained Ca2+ current.Action potentials recorded from these two stages were imposed as voltage-clamp commands on cells of the same and different stages from which they were recorded. This strategy allowed us to study how immature and mature Ca2+ currents are optimized to their particular functions.Total Ca2+ entry during an action potential did not change during development. The developmental increase in Ca2+ current density exactly compensated for decreased spike duration. This compensation was a function purely of Ca2+ current density, not of the transition from immature to mature Ca2+ current types.In immature cells, Ca2+ entry was spread out over the entire waveform of spontaneous activity, including the interspike voltage trajectory. This almost continuous Ca2+ entry may be important in triggering Ca2+-dependent developmental programmes, and is a function of the slightly more negative voltage dependence of the immature Ca2+ current.In contrast, Ca2+ entry in mature cells was confined to the action potential itself, because of the slightly more positive voltage dependence of the mature Ca2+ current. This may be important in permitting rapid contraction-relaxation cycles during larval swimming.The inactivation of the immature Ca2+ current serves to limit the frequency and burst duration of spontaneous activity. The sustained kinetics of the mature Ca2+ current permit high-frequency firing during larval swimming. PMID:10766919

  8. Methylamphetamine synthesized from cold medication as precursor source via two different routes show significantly different stable isotope signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaram, S.; Daeid, N. Nic; Kerr, W. J.; Kemp, H. F.; Meier-Augenstein, W.

    2012-04-01

    This work exposes the variation in light element stable isotopic abundance values of 13C, 2H and 15N) derived from the analysis of methylamphetamine synthesized via 2 different synthetic routes popular with clandestine laboraties, the Hypophosphorous and the Moscow route. We repeatedly prepared the final product using known clandestine synthetic methods where the precursors, catalysts and reducing agents have themselves been derived from house hold products and commonly available cold medications. Methylamphetamine was prepared from both lab grade pseudoephedrine and pseudoephedrine extracted (using three different solvent systems) from Sudafed®, an over-the-counter cold medication widely available in the United Kingdom. Six repetitive batches of the final product were produced in each case to provide within and between batch variations thus yielding a total of 48 samples (24 for each route). We have demonstrated that stable isotope analysis by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) is potentially useful in the comparison and discrimination of batches of methylamphetamine produced for each route and for each precursor depending on the solvent used for extracting the pseudoephedrine starting material. To our knowledge this is the first time multivariate stable isotope analysis has been applied to methylamphetamine samples synthesized from pseudoephedrine extracted from over-the-counter cold medications.

  9. Cuba shows jump in HIV positives.

    PubMed

    Cuba experienced a substantial increase in the number of HIV cases in 1996 due primarily to a growth of foreign tourism and an increase in prostitution, health officials said. The Juventud Rebelde newspaper said that since HIV/AIDS testing began in 1985, government-run hospitals and clinics have detected 1609 HIV-positive cases. In 1995 the total was reported at 1196, meaning that 413 new cases were detected in 1996. This compared with only 97 new cases reported during 1995. HIV infection among the island's 11 million inhabitants has remained relatively low due to a massive testing program and a public health infrastructure that provides universal and free medical treatment. Cuba was a pioneer in the use of interferon on those testing HIV-positive. Cuba produces its own interferon, which prolongs the life expectancy of patients, and also reagents for AIDS testing. There are special sanitariums for AIDS patients in most of Cuba's 12 provinces. Cuban adults who test HIV-positive are required to enter the sanitarium in a policy reminiscent of the way tuberculosis patients were tested in the US earlier in this century. Officials said the isolation of patients in sanitariums has been somewhat relaxed over past years by introducing greater flexibility in allowing persons who are considered reliable to live at home or make prolonged visits.

  10. Variations of plasma leptin in show horses during a work season.

    PubMed

    Amato, C; Martin, L; Dumon, H; Jaillardon, L; Nguyen, P; Siliart, B

    2012-10-01

    Leptin is an adipocytokine mainly expressed by adipose tissue. Secretion of leptin in healthy animals is closely related to fat mass and metabolic activity. The aim of this study was to investigate plasma leptin variations, in relation to nutritional and exercise parameters in adult show horses during a work season. EDTA-blood samples were taken at rest from 37 Iberian horses. Body weight, body condition score and fat percentage determined by ultrasonic measurement of rump fat thickness were measured. Plasma leptin was determined with a multi-species RIA kit. Linear mixed effects model was used to assess relationship between plasma leptin and other biological parameters. Plasma leptin concentration was <12.6 ng/ml (mean = 2.8 ± 1.6 ng/ml) and was significantly higher during training periods (p < 0.0001) (4.5 ± 1.7 ng/ml) than in show periods (2.0 ± 1.1 ng/ml), despite a significant increase (p < 0.0001) in energy intake. The body weight remained almost constant. The plasma leptin concentrations were significantly affected by exercise (p < 0.0001), body weight (p = 0.04) and BCS (p < 0.0001), but were not affected by percentage of fat. In conclusion, the marked decrease in leptin values observed during a period of intense (i.e. excessive) exercise could result from an adaptation to cumulative alterations in energy balance, to exercise per se or to a combination of both.

  11. “Gambling disorder in older adults: a cross-cultural perspective”

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Gustavo Costa; Leppink, Eric; Yaemi, Ana; Mariani, Mirella; Tavares, Hermano; Grant, Jon

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Gambling Disorder (GD) in older adults is significantly increasing and became an important public health issue in different countries. However, little is known regarding GD in older adults. The prevalence and acceptance of gambling varies among different cultures and this raises the question of how and to what extent culture affects older gamblers. The majority of the important studies regarding GD in older adults have been conducted mainly in Anglo-Saxon cultures and little information is available regarding GD in other cultures. The objective of this paper is to perform the first standardized cross-cultural comparison regarding older adults presenting GD. METHODS The total studied sample involved 170 subjects: 89 from the Brazilian (BR) sample and 81 from the American (US) sample. It consisted of 67 men and 103, women (average age = 64.42, standard deviation = ±3,86). They were evaluated for socio-demographics, gambling behavior variables and psychiatric antecedents. RESULTS Overall, there were significant differences between BR and US older adults gamblers in marital status, onset of gambling activity, onset of GD and urge scores. DISCUSSION This study showed that there are important differences in gambling course, gambling behavior and personal antecedents between two samples of older adults presenting GD from countries with different social-cultural background. It weakens the possibility of generalization of results found in Anglo-Saxon countries to other cultures and reinforces for the need for development of research on GD in older adults outside the Anglo-Saxon culture. PMID:25612901

  12. Worldwide trends show oropharyngeal cancer rates increasing

    Cancer.gov

    NCI scientists report that the incidence of oropharyngeal cancer significantly increased during the period 1983-2002 among people in countries that are economically developed. Oropharyngeal cancer occurs primarily in the middle part of the throat behind t

  13. The Language of Show Biz: A Dictionary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sergel, Sherman Louis, Ed.

    This dictionary of the language of show biz provides the layman with definitions and essays on terms and expressions often used in show business. The overall pattern of selection was intended to be more rather than less inclusive, though radio, television, and film terms were deliberately omitted. Lengthy explanations are sometimes used to express…

  14. Serving Up Activities for TV Cooking Shows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katchen, Johanna E.

    This paper documents a presentation given on the use of English-language television cooking shows in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) and English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) classrooms in Taiwan. Such shows can be ideal for classroom use, since they have a predictable structure consisting of short segments, are of interest to most students,…

  15. The Physics of Equestrian Show Jumping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinner, Art

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the kinematics and dynamics of equestrian show jumping. For some time I have attended a series of show jumping events at Spruce Meadows, an international equestrian center near Calgary, Alberta, often referred to as the "Wimbledon of equestrian jumping." I have always had a desire to write an article such as this…

  16. Cable Technology: A Challenge for Adult Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palchinsky, Jo

    The penetration of cable television throughout American communities makes it a potentially significant tool for improving the quality and accessibility of adult education. As cities begin to include in the cable franchise allotment monies for access by community members, adult educators need to become actively involved during the development of a…

  17. Arnold Hely and Australian Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Arnold Hely (1907-1967) was a most significant figure in the history of adult education in New Zealand, in Australia and internationally. Arnold Hely, a New Zealander, Director of Tutorial Classes (later Adult Education) at the University of Adelaide from 1957 to 1965, was the prime mover in the establishment in 1964 of the Asian South Pacific…

  18. Predictors of Transience among Homeless Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J.

    2014-01-01

    This study identified predictors of transience among homeless emerging adults in three cities. A total of 601 homeless emerging adults from Los Angeles, Austin, and Denver were recruited using purposive sampling. Ordinary least squares regression results revealed that significant predictors of greater transience include White ethnicity, high…

  19. Radical Agendas? The Politics of Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westwood, Sallie, Ed.; Thomas, J. E., Ed.

    This book brings together eight of the most significant papers published in the journal "Studies in the Education of Adults" from the 1970s and 1980s, together with three new essays that place the earlier material in context. It examines the changes in British adult education between 1970 and 1990 and is concerned with the place of radicalism in…

  20. Career Indecision in Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skorupa, Jessica; Agresti, Albert A.

    1998-01-01

    Utilizes a sample of community college students to investigate differences in career indecision of adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and adult children of non-alcoholics. Although both groups were similar in their overall levels of career indecision, there were significant relationships among irrational thinking, trait anxiety, and career…

  1. [Innovative Programs in Adult Education: Foreign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Education, Inc., New York, NY.

    The six descriptive position papers were prepared after selection for the Multi-National Workshop on Basic and Functional Education for Adults. Those selected are significant innovative programs of adult education in other countries that may have direct applicability to improving program practices in various parts of the world. The six programs…

  2. Perception of Individual and Joint Action in Infants and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Keitel, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang; Daum, Moritz M.

    2014-01-01

    Infants and adults frequently observe actions performed jointly by more than one person. Research in action perception, however, has focused largely on actions performed by an individual person. Here, we explore how 9- and 12-month-old infants and adults perceive a block-stacking action performed by either one agent (individual condition) or two agents (joint condition). We used eye tracking to measure the latency of participants’ gaze shifts towards action goals. Adults anticipated goals in both conditions significantly faster than infants, and their gaze latencies did not differ between conditions. By contrast, infants showed faster anticipation of goals in the individual condition than in the joint condition. This difference was more pronounced in 9-month-olds. Further analyses of fixations examined the role of visual attention in action perception. These findings are cautiously interpreted in terms of low-level processing in infants and higher-level processing in adults. More precisely, our results suggest that adults are able to infer the overarching joint goal of two agents, whereas infants are not yet able to do so and might rely primarily on visual cues to infer the respective sub-goals. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the perception of joint action in infants develops differentially from that of individual action. PMID:25202914

  3. Intertemporal Choice Behavior in Emerging Adults and Adults: Effects of Age Interact with Alcohol Use and Family History Status

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christopher T.; Steel, Eleanor A.; Parrish, Michael H.; Kelm, Mary K.; Boettiger, Charlotte A.

    2015-01-01

    Adults with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) show marked immediate reward selection (or “Now”) bias in intertemporal choice tasks. This Now bias persists long into abstinence, suggesting an irreversible consequence of chronic alcohol abuse or a pre-existing AUD intermediate phenotype. However, some data show substantial Now bias among emerging adults (18–25), regardless of drinking behavior, suggesting age-dependent effects on Now bias. The objectives of the present study were to determine (1) whether Now bias is greater among emerging adults relative to adults, (2) whether any such age effect on Now bias is diminished in sub-clinical heavy alcohol users, and (3) whether having a problem drinking first degree relative is independently associated with elevated Now bias. To achieve these objectives, we used an intertemporal choice task to quantify Now bias in n = 237 healthy participants (ages 18–40; 50% female), and a wide range of non-zero alcohol use, based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). We found that among non-heavy drinkers, Now bias inversely correlated with age; this relationship was not present among heavy drinkers. We found no significant relationship between AUDIT score and Now bias among emerging adults, but AUDIT scores and Now bias were positively correlated among 26–40 year olds. Additionally, non-heavy drinking adults who reported a problem drinking first degree relative showed greater Now bias compared to those not reporting familial problem drinking. While not definitive, these findings lend support for elevated Now bias in adulthood as an intermediate phenotype for AUDs. Moreover, non-additive effects of age and heavy drinking on Now bias suggest perturbations in largely common neural circuits in both groups. PMID:26635580

  4. Does cannibalism of larvae by adults affect settlement and connectivity of mussel populations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porri, Francesca; Jordaan, Tembisa; McQuaid, Christopher D.

    2008-09-01

    Intertidal population dynamics are driven by a complex series of processes, including larval supply and the possibility of larval predation by benthic animals such as filter-feeders. We hypothesised that cannibalism by adults could play a major role in the population connectivity of mussel populations by removing larvae as they attempt to settle in the adult habitat. Specifically, we tested hypotheses that consumption of mussel larvae by adults removes a significant proportion of potential settlers and is influenced by both settlement intensity and tidal state (flooding or ebbing). Predation of mussel larvae by adult mussels was investigated on incoming and ebbing tides during four spring tides by analysing the gut contents of adult Perna perna and Mytilus galloprovincialis collected from the low intertidal mussel zone between October 2005 and January 2006. Consumption rates were then compared with estimates of successful settler densities on natural beds. The results showed that mortality of competent mussel larvae through adult ingestion removes up to 77% a of potential settlers. Rates of larval consumption were highest during months of intense settlement, suggesting that mussels feed opportunistically, filtering a relatively fixed volume of water and removing particles, including larvae, in proportion to their densities in the water. Rates of larviphagy were also higher during receding than incoming tides. We suggest that this is due to changes in larval density or, more probably, in adult filtration efficiency that are related to the state of the tide. Despite significant effects of both tidal state and settlement intensity on rates of larval ingestion, neither had a significant effect on the proportion of potential settlers removed. During settlement more than half of all potential settlers are lost through cannibalism, with potentially serious consequences for population maintenance. The results highlight the paradoxical nature of the evolution of settlement

  5. [Specific features of rhino-sinusogenic brain abscesses in adults and children].

    PubMed

    Blagoveshchenskaia, N S; Mukhamedzhanov, N Z

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of observations of 49 patients with rhinosinusogenic brain abscesses revealed differences in their development between adults and children. This pathology occurs in adults more frequently than in children, particularly young children. In adults, brain abscesses usually develop as a result of chronic frontal- or polysinusitis, while in children they typically occur after maxillary sinusitis and in early age children also after acute suppuration in the nasal cavity. For adults, the contact pathway of infection is characteristic, whereas for children, the hematogenic-metastatic pathway is typical. Adults show single abscesses while children show both single, multiple and multichamber abscesses accompanied by separation of cranial sutures, thinning of calvaria, and protrusion and tension of the cranial fontanel. In children, abscesses may grow very large. In adults, the hypertensive syndrome is very distinct, while in children, the hydrocephalic-hypertensive syndrome comes to the foreground. In children, infectious-toxic symptoms are more significant. In adults, focal neurological symptoms become more serious than in children in whom they are also more labile.

  6. Assessing Adult Literacy by Telephone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sticht, Thomas G.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Hofstetter, Carolyn H.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the construct and action validity of the use of simple checklists to assess the declarative knowledge component of adult's literacy by telephone. Finds significant relationships among knowledge when assessed either by listening (telephone) or by reading (mailed questionnaire) modality. Concludes that the telephone method may provide a…

  7. Adult Learning in Traditional Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This study is based on interviews carried out with 13 adult learners of traditional fiddle playing. The average age of the learners was 56 and they had been learning to play for between 2 and 20 years. All of the interviewees had taken music at school but none of them had been stimulated to participate further in any significant sense. The…

  8. Not just scenery: Viewing nature pictures improves executive attention in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, Katherine R.; Howard, James H.; Howard, Darlene V.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Study Context Attention Restoration Theory (Kaplan, 1995) suggests that exposure to nature improves attention. Berman, Jonides and Kaplan (2008) showed that simply viewing nature pictures improves executive attention in young adults. The present study is the first to investigate this Nature Effect in older adults. We investigated whether executive attention could be improved in healthy older adults following brief exposure to nature pictures. Methods Thirty healthy older adults (64–79 years old) and 26 young university students (18–25 years old) participated. They completed the Attention Network Test before and after six minutes of viewing either nature or urban pictures, with random assignment into a picture type. Attention immediately before (most fatigued) and after (most restored) picture viewing was measured, and change in attention was compared between age groups and picture types. Results Results showed that viewing nature, but not urban, pictures significantly improved executive attention in both older and young adults as measured by the Attention Network Test, with similar effects seen in the two age groups. Alerting and orienting attention scores were not affected by picture-viewing. Conclusion This was the first study to show that viewing nature pictures improves attention in older adults, and to show that it is executive attention, specifically, that is improved. Among a growing number of interventions, nature exposure offers a quick, inexpensive, and enjoyable means to provide a temporary boost in executive attention. PMID:25321942

  9. Comparison of Weather Shows in Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najman, M.

    2009-09-01

    Comparison of Weather Shows in Eastern Europe Television weather shows in Eastern Europe have in most cases in the high graphical standard. There is though a wast difference in duration and information content in the weather shows. There are few signs and regularities by which we can see the character of the weather show. The main differences are mainly caused by the income structure of the TV station. Either it is a fully privately funded TV relying on the TV commercials income. Or it is a public service TV station funded mainly by the national budget or fixed fee structure/tax. There are wast differences in duration and even a graphical presentation of the weather. Next important aspect is a supplier of the weather information and /or the processor. Shortly we can say, that when the TV show is produced by the national met office, the TV show consists of more scientific terms, synoptic maps, satellite imagery, etc. If the supplier is the private meteorological company, the weather show is more user-friendly, laical with less scientific terms. We are experiencing a massive shift in public weather knowledge and demand for information. In the past, weather shows consisted only of maps with weather icons. In todaýs world, even the laic weather shows consist partly of numerical weather model outputs - they are of course designed to be understandable and graphically attractive. Outputs of the numerical weather models used to be only a part of daily life of a professional meteorologist, today they are common part of life of regular people. Video samples are a part of this presentation.

  10. Conservation Project Shows Substantial Reduction in Home Water Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, William E.; Smith, Donald

    1978-01-01

    Describes a water use study-conservation project conducted by the Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission in Maryland. Results show a significant decrease in the amount of water used by home customers over a ten-year period. (Author/MA)

  11. Immigration and adult transitions.

    PubMed

    Rumbaut, Rubén G; Komaie, Golnaz

    2010-01-01

    Almost 30 percent of the more than 68 million young adults aged eighteen to thirty-four in the United States today are either foreign born or of foreign parentage. As these newcomers make their transitions to adulthood, say Rubén Rumbaut and Golnaz Komaie, they differ significantly not only from one another but also from their native-parentage counterparts, including blacks and whites. The authors document the demographic changes in the United States over the past forty years and describe the ways in which generation and national origin shape the experiences of these newcomers as they become adults. Rumbaut and Komaie point out that immigrant groups experience gaps in social, economic, and legal status that are even greater than the gaps between native whites and blacks. By far the most-educated (Indians) and the least-educated (Mexicans) groups in the United States today are first-generation immigrants, as are the groups with the lowest poverty rate (Filipinos) and the highest poverty rate (Dominicans). These social and economic divides reflect three very different ways immigrants enter the country: through regular immigration channels, without legal authorization, or as state-sponsored refugees. For many ethnic groups, significant progress takes place from the first to the second generation. But, say the authors, for millions of young immigrants, a lack of legal permanent residency status blocks their prospects for social mobility. Having an undocumented status has become all the more consequential with the failure of Congress to pass comprehensive federal immigration reforms. In the coming two decades, as the U.S. native-parentage labor force continues to shrink, immigrants and their children are expected to account for most of the growth of the nation's labor force, with the fastest-growing occupations requiring college degrees. Rumbaut and Komaie stress that one key to the nation's future will be how it incorporates young adults of immigrant origin in its

  12. GOES Satellite Data Shows Tornado Development

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of NOAA's GOES-East satellite data shows the development and movement of the weather system that spawned tornadoes affecting the southern and eastern U.S. states on April 27-29, 2014...

  13. TRMM Satellite Shows Heavy Rainfall in Cristina

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's TRMM satellite rainfall data was overlaid on an enhanced visible/infrared image from NOAA's GOES-East satellite showing cloud and rainfall extent. Green areas indicate rainfall at over 20 mm...

  14. Spacecraft Image Mashup Shows Galactic Collision

    NASA Video Gallery

    This new composite image from the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the Hubble Space Telescope, and the Spitzer Space Telescope shows two colliding galaxies more than a 100 million years after they first ...

  15. Career development at London Vet Show.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Are you considering a career change? Perhaps you want help to develop within your current role? Either way, you will find a relevant session in the BVA Career Development stream at the London Vet Show in November. PMID:27585901

  16. The significance of growth in Chironomus tentans sediment toxicity tests: Relationship to reproduction and demographic endpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Sibley, P.K.; Benoit, D.A.; Ankley, G.T.

    1995-12-31

    This study assessed the biological relevance of growth, as used in sediment toxicity bioassessment, through evaluation of the relationship between growth and reproduction in the midge C. tentans. Newly-hatched larvae were fed one of six food levels (3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0 mg Tetrafin fish food) on a daily basis for one complete generation. Larvae were exposed in 300 ml beakers containing 100 ml of 75/{micro}m sand housed within an intermittent water renewal system. Food supply had no effect on larval (65--82%), pupal (93--95%), or adult (90--98%) survivorship. Larval growth and adult weight decreased significantly (p{<=}0.05) with decreasing food supply (r{sup 2} = 0.92, 0.91 respectively). The data suggest that a threshold larval dry weight of approximately 0.6 mg must be obtained for emergence to occur. This value also corresponded to the approximate minimum adult weight observed in this study. Emergence rate and total emergence were delayed at lower feeding levels; however, total emergence was not less than 60% for any treatment. Egg mass production, oviposition rate, and mean number of eggs produced per female declined significantly with reduced food supply. Larval growth and adult weight were significantly correlated with age-specific fecundity (r{sup 2} = 0.96). Application of the reproductive data in a demographic model showed that the expected number of offspring recruited to subsequent generations declined significantly with a decrease in food supply. The results of this study demonstrate a direct relationship between growth and reproduction in C. tentans and clearly emphasize the biological and ecological relevance of the growth endpoint in sediment toxicity bioassessment.

  17. Pain management in older adults.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Margo L

    2003-05-01

    Pain is a common complaint of older adults. Persistent pain has a significant negative impact on elderly individuals' sense of well being, physical function, and quality of life. Increasing age and cognitive impairment are risk factors for undertreatment of persistent pain. Safe and effective therapy is available for pain syndromes that commonly affect older adults. Recognition of failure of health providers to appropriately assess and manage persistent pain has led to the recent development and adoption of regulatory guidelines for the implementation of effective pain management programs.

  18. Category learning strategies in younger and older adults: Rule abstraction and memorization.

    PubMed

    Wahlheim, Christopher N; McDaniel, Mark A; Little, Jeri L

    2016-06-01

    Despite the fundamental role of category learning in cognition, few studies have examined how this ability differs between younger and older adults. The present experiment examined possible age differences in category learning strategies and their effects on learning. Participants were trained on a category determined by a disjunctive rule applied to relational features. The utilization of rule- and exemplar-based strategies was indexed by self-reports and transfer performance. Based on self-reported strategies, the frequencies of rule- and exemplar-based learners were not significantly different between age groups, but there was a significantly higher frequency of intermediate learners (i.e., learners not identifying with a reliance on either rule- or exemplar-based strategies) in the older than younger adult group. Training performance was higher for younger than older adults regardless of the strategy utilized, showing that older adults were impaired in their ability to learn the correct rule or to remember exemplar-label associations. Transfer performance converged with strategy reports in showing higher fidelity category representations for younger adults. Younger adults with high working memory capacity were more likely to use an exemplar-based strategy, and older adults with high working memory capacity showed better training performance. Age groups did not differ in their self-reported memory beliefs, and these beliefs did not predict training strategies or performance. Overall, the present results contradict earlier findings that older adults prefer rule- to exemplar-based learning strategies, presumably to compensate for memory deficits. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26950225

  19. Category learning strategies in younger and older adults: Rule abstraction and memorization.

    PubMed

    Wahlheim, Christopher N; McDaniel, Mark A; Little, Jeri L

    2016-06-01

    Despite the fundamental role of category learning in cognition, few studies have examined how this ability differs between younger and older adults. The present experiment examined possible age differences in category learning strategies and their effects on learning. Participants were trained on a category determined by a disjunctive rule applied to relational features. The utilization of rule- and exemplar-based strategies was indexed by self-reports and transfer performance. Based on self-reported strategies, the frequencies of rule- and exemplar-based learners were not significantly different between age groups, but there was a significantly higher frequency of intermediate learners (i.e., learners not identifying with a reliance on either rule- or exemplar-based strategies) in the older than younger adult group. Training performance was higher for younger than older adults regardless of the strategy utilized, showing that older adults were impaired in their ability to learn the correct rule or to remember exemplar-label associations. Transfer performance converged with strategy reports in showing higher fidelity category representations for younger adults. Younger adults with high working memory capacity were more likely to use an exemplar-based strategy, and older adults with high working memory capacity showed better training performance. Age groups did not differ in their self-reported memory beliefs, and these beliefs did not predict training strategies or performance. Overall, the present results contradict earlier findings that older adults prefer rule- to exemplar-based learning strategies, presumably to compensate for memory deficits. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Vijee; Gupta, Soni; Thomas, Sherinmol; Mickey, Hanjabam; Charakana, Chaitanya; Chauhan, Vineeta Singh; Sharma, Kapil; Kumar, Rakesh; Tyagi, Kamal; Sarma, Supriya; Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Kumari, Alka; Gupta, Prateek; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2016-01-01

    Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS), carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1) involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima’D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future. PMID:27077652

  1. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Vijee; Gupta, Soni; Thomas, Sherinmol; Mickey, Hanjabam; Charakana, Chaitanya; Chauhan, Vineeta Singh; Sharma, Kapil; Kumar, Rakesh; Tyagi, Kamal; Sarma, Supriya; Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Kumari, Alka; Gupta, Prateek; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2016-01-01

    Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS), carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1) involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima'D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future.

  2. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    PubMed

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  3. Educational Outreach: The Space Science Road Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, N. L. J.

    2002-01-01

    The poster presented will give an overview of a study towards a "Space Road Show". The topic of this show is space science. The target group is adolescents, aged 12 to 15, at Dutch high schools. The show and its accompanying experiments would be supported with suitable educational material. Science teachers at schools can decide for themselves if they want to use this material in advance, afterwards or not at all. The aims of this outreach effort are: to motivate students for space science and engineering, to help them understand the importance of (space) research, to give them a positive feeling about the possibilities offered by space and in the process give them useful knowledge on space basics. The show revolves around three main themes: applications, science and society. First the students will get some historical background on the importance of space/astronomy to civilization. Secondly they will learn more about novel uses of space. On the one hand they will learn of "Views on Earth" involving technologies like Remote Sensing (or Spying), Communication, Broadcasting, GPS and Telemedicine. On the other hand they will experience "Views on Space" illustrated by past, present and future space research missions, like the space exploration missions (Cassini/Huygens, Mars Express and Rosetta) and the astronomy missions (Soho and XMM). Meanwhile, the students will learn more about the technology of launchers and satellites needed to accomplish these space missions. Throughout the show and especially towards the end attention will be paid to the third theme "Why go to space"? Other reasons for people to get into space will be explored. An important question in this is the commercial (manned) exploration of space. Thus, the questions of benefit of space to society are integrated in the entire show. It raises some fundamental questions about the effects of space travel on our environment, poverty and other moral issues. The show attempts to connect scientific with

  4. Sexual dimorphism in newborns and adults.

    PubMed

    Antoszewska, A; Wolański, N

    1992-01-01

    A total of 1034 newborns were used to analyze sexual dimorphism with respect to 37 somatic traits and ratios between them, describing body shape. Arithmetic means and standard deviations were calculated for both sexes. Similarly, sexual dimorphism of adults was analyzed. Sexual differences in newborns were statistically significant for most measurements but only for some body proportions (relative chest size, foot shape, relative lower extremity length, and the ratio of head to chest circumference). The highest degree of sexual dimorphism in newborns was shown by the index standardized on the mean (dsex/mean) of such traits as the thickness of subcutaneous fat tissue on the thigh, subscapular fat tissue and fat tissue on the 10th rib, body weight, hand breadth, and relative chest size (Marty index). A moderate dimorphism was found for the length of upper extremities, forearm with the hand, head with the neck, hand and trunk, the size of the nose and foot, the breadth of hips and mandible, and the upper-face height. A low dimorphism was found for body length, circumference and breadth of head, face diameter, chest circumference, foot shape, relative length of lower extremities, and proportion between head and chest circumferences. Sexual differences (dsex/mean) for all the somatic traits examined in adults were statistically significant. The dimorphism of all the traits (except hip breadth) was higher in adults than in newborns. The highest increase in sexual dimorphism was noted for chest breadth (ca 55 times), then for chest depth (ca 17 times), thickness of subcutaneous fat tissue on arm (ca. 17 times), and the length of lower extremities (ca 15 times). Sexual differences in proportions (shape) of the body were also better pronounced in adults than in newborns. Sexual dimorphism standardized for dispersion (dsex/SD) in newborns differed from that in adults with respect to the degree of its expression and the sequence of the traits showing the highest and the

  5. "Clinical" Significance: "Clinical" Significance and "Practical" Significance are NOT the Same Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Lisa S.

    2008-01-01

    Clinical significance is an important concept in research, particularly in education and the social sciences. The present article first compares clinical significance to other measures of "significance" in statistics. The major methods used to determine clinical significance are explained and the strengths and weaknesses of clinical significance…

  6. Liquid Crystal Research Shows Deformation By Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    These images, from David Weitz's liquid crystal research, show ordered uniform sized droplets (upper left) before they are dried from their solution. After the droplets are dried (upper right), they are viewed with crossed polarizers that show the deformation caused by drying, a process that orients the bipolar structure of the liquid crystal within the droplets. When an electric field is applied to the dried droplets (lower left), and then increased (lower right), the liquid crystal within the droplets switches its alignment, thereby reducing the amount of light that can be scattered by the droplets when a beam is shone through them.

  7. Bender Gestalt Performance of Normal Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacks, Patricia; Storandt, Martha

    1982-01-01

    Provides normative data on the Bender Gestalt Test (BGT) with a sample of 334 normal older adults. Showed that these older adults do not perform on the BGT in a manner that can be called brain damaged. Use of the cut-off score developed with younger persons appears appropriate. (Author)

  8. Reading Difficulties in Spanish Adults with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies show that dyslexia persists into adulthood, even in highly educated and well-read people. The main characteristic that adults with dyslexia present is a low speed when reading. In Spanish, a shallow orthographic system, no studies about adults with dyslexia are available; and it is possible that the consistency of the orthographic…

  9. Adult Metacomprehension: Judgment Processes and Accuracy Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Qin; Linderholm, Tracy

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review and synthesize two interrelated topics in the adult metacomprehension literature: the bases of metacomprehension judgment and the constraints on metacomprehension accuracy. Our review shows that adult readers base their metacomprehension judgments on different types of information, including experiences…

  10. Africa Adult Education. Chronologies in Commonwealth Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, James A., Ed.

    In this document, leading educators from 12 African Commonwealth countries trace the development of adult education in Africa and show how providers of adult education outside the formal education system (including government and nongovernment organizations, trade unions, women's groups, and religious organizations) have met the needs of their…

  11. Sensitivity of adult, embryonic, and larval crayfish Procambarus clarkii to copper

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, D.W. Jr.; Harrison, F.L.

    1982-11-01

    The copper sensitivity of adult, embryonic, and larval stages of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii was determined with flow-through bioassay methods. The P. clarkii adults, embryos, and larvae were exposed continuously to copper concentrations that ranged from those producing an immediate effect to those producing none. From the family of curves of cumulative mortality versus duration of exposure, median lethal times were determined and used to construct comparative toxicity curves. The 20-d (480-h) median lethal concentrations show the order of copper sensitivity of P. clarkii life-history stages: larvae (120 ..mu..g Cu/L) > adults (1300 ..mu..g Cu/L) > embryos (3700 ..mu..g Cu/L). In addition, comparisons in percent hatching were made between P. clarkii embryos exposed early and late during embryological development. Embryos exposed to copper concentrations as low as 250 ..mu..g Cu/L 600 h prior to hatching showed only 17% hatching, whereas embryos exposed to as high as 2840 ..mu..g Cu/L 250 h prior showed 100% hatching. Larvae exposed to copper as embryos were less sensitive than those exposed after hatching. Copper concentrations in adult crayfish tissues were analyzed. The remains of adult crayfish showed exposure-related increases in copper accumulation. The P. clarkii muscle, gill, liver, and kidney showed no dose-related increases in copper accumulation, though gills showed significant increases in copper accumulation at doses of 480 ..mu..g Cu/L and higher.

  12. Eight-Week Traditional Mat Pilates Training-Program Effects on Adult Fitness Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Kate; Gibson, Ann L.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated responses of adult, novice practitioners (n = 9) to an 8-week traditional mat Pilates program (P) that met 1 hr/day three times/week. Classes consisted primarily of beginner and intermediate level exercises. Compared to an active control group (C; n = 13) that showed no improvements, those in P significantly (p less than 0.05)…

  13. A Clinical Application of Applied Humanism for Young Adults with Severe and Profound Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzelli, AnnaMaria; Polirstok, Susan Rovet; Dana, Lawrence; Buono, Serafina; Mongelli, Vita; Trubia, Grazia; Ayala, Giovanni

    2000-01-01

    Describes an intensive habilitation program in Sicily for young adults with severe and profound retardation. Participants in the program showed significant improvement in functional skills and an accompanying reduction in maladaptive and stereotypic behaviors, without complex behavior plans; punishing contingencies; or high dose neuroleptic,…

  14. Health and Social Care Interventions Which Promote Social Participation for Adults with Learning Disabilities: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howarth, Sharon; Morris, David; Newlin, Meredith; Webber, Martin

    2016-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are among the most socially excluded in society. There is a significant gap in research evidence showing how health and social care workers can intervene to improve the social participation of adults with learning disabilities. A systematic review and modified narrative synthesis was used to appraise the quality…

  15. The Impact of Continuing Education on the Health of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panayotoff, Karen G.

    1993-01-01

    When a sample of 114 older adult participants in continuing education completed the Self-Evaluation of Life Function scale, three health factors (depression, social satisfaction, and aging symptoms) showed significant changes following instruction. However, these effects did not persist six weeks after instruction. (SK)

  16. Manipulation of Length and Lexicality Localizes the Functional Neuroanatomy of Phonological Processing in Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Jessica A.; Balota, David A.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study of single word reading, regions in the left supramarginal gyrus and left angular gyrus showed positive BOLD activity in children but significantly less activity in adults for high-frequency words [Church, J. A., Coalson, R. S., Lugar, H. M., Petersen, S. E., & Schlaggar, B. L. "A developmental fMRI study of reading and…

  17. The Effect of Implicit and Explicit Motivation on Recall among Old and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, David C.; Scioli, Anthony; Weaver, Suzanne

    1998-01-01

    Sixty-eight elderly subjects and 77 young adults were compared on implicit and explicit motive levels and on recall of introductions and working memory. Significantly fewer of the elderly scored high in the implicit motives. The elderly participants showed major recall deficits on both tasks but the implicit motives studied enhanced recall for the…

  18. Problem-Solving in Retarded Adolescents and Young Adults: Findings of a Group Psychotherapy Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyder, Dietrich W.; And Others

    To compare differences in skills and self concept among mentally handicapped young adults, and to show the significance of the admission age and quality of special educational opportunities, a study was made involving 27 persons who had attended regular and/or special education classes. The educational experiences of the groups were organized in…

  19. Into the Future: Adult Professional Groups and the 21st Century Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Museum programs for working adults in their workplace groups are an interesting and important recent development. These programs have the potential to contribute significantly to the future health of museums. This article shows that these programs link to and build on three important trends in museums--customized experiences, deep engagement, and…

  20. Factors Associated with Subjective Quality of Life of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Report vs. Maternal Reports

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jinkuk; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Smith, Leann; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2015-01-01

    We examined factors related to subjective quality of life (QoL) of adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) aged 25 to 55 (n = 60), using the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF). We used three different assessment methods: adult self-report, maternal proxy-report, and maternal report. Reliability analysis showed that adults with ASD rated their own QoL reliably. QoL scores derived from adult self-reports were more closely related to those from maternal proxy-report than from maternal report. Subjective factors such as perceived stress and having been bullied frequently were associated with QoL based on adult self-reports. In contrast, level of independence in daily activities and physical health were significant predictors of maternal reports of their son or daughter’s QoL. PMID:26707626

  1. Showing R-Rated Videos in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1990, there have been at least six published court decisions concerning teachers' use of controversial videos in public schools. A relevant district policy led the Colorado Supreme Court to uphold a teacher's termination for showing 12th graders an R-rated 1900 Bertolucci film on fascism. Implications are discussed. (MLH)

  2. Show Them You Really Want the Job

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

  3. Showing Enantiomorphous Crystals of Tartaric Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade-Gamboa, Julio

    2007-01-01

    Most of the articles and textbooks that show drawings of enantiomorphous crystals use an inadequate view to appreciate the fact that they are non-superimposable mirror images of one another. If a graphical presentation of crystal chirality is not evident, the main attribute of crystal enantiomorphism can not be recognized by students. The classic…

  4. A Talk Show from the Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Arlene F.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a two-day activity in which elementary students examine voting rights, the right to assemble, and women's suffrage. Explains the game, "Assemble, Reassemble," and a student-produced talk show with five students playing the roles of leaders of the women's suffrage movement. Profiles Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony,…

  5. Tilapia show immunization response against Ich

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compares the immune response of Nile tilapia and red tilapia against parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) using a cohabitation challenge model. Both Nile and red tilapia showed strong immune response post immunization with live Ich theronts by IP injection or immersion. Blood serum...

  6. Age and grip strength predict hand dexterity in adults.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jason A; Ramsay, Jill; Hughes, Christopher; Peters, Derek M; Edwards, Martin G

    2015-01-01

    In the scientific literature, there is much evidence of a relationship between age and dexterity, where increased age is related to slower, less nimble and less smooth, less coordinated and less controlled performances. While some suggest that the relationship is a direct consequence of reduced muscle strength associated to increased age, there is a lack of research that has systematically investigated the relationships between age, strength and hand dexterity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the associations between age, grip strength and dexterity. 107 adults (range 18-93 years) completed a series of hand dexterity tasks (i.e. steadiness, line tracking, aiming, and tapping) and a test of maximal grip strength. We performed three phases of analyses. Firstly, we evaluated the simple relationships between pairs of variables; replicating the existing literature; and found significant relationships of increased age and reduced strength; increased age and reduced dexterity, and; reduced strength and reduced dexterity. Secondly, we used standard Multiple Regression (MR) models to determine which of the age and strength factors accounted for the greater variance in dexterity. The results showed that both age and strength made significant contributions to the data variance, but that age explained more of the variance in steadiness and line tracking dexterity, whereas strength explained more of the variance in aiming and tapping dexterity. In a third phase of analysis, we used MR analyses to show an interaction between age and strength on steadiness hand dexterity. Simple Slopes post-hoc analyses showed that the interaction was explained by the middle to older aged adults showing a relationship between reduced strength and reduced hand steadiness, whereas younger aged adults showed no relationship between strength and steadiness hand dexterity. The results are discussed in terms of how age and grip strength predict different types of hand dexterity in

  7. Communal nesting increases pup growth but has limited effects on adult behavior and neurophysiology in inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Heiderstadt, Kathleen M; Vandenbergh, David J; Gyekis, Joseph P; Blizard, David A

    2014-03-01

    Laboratory mice preferentially rear their offspring in communal nests (CN), with all mothers contributing to maternal care and feeding of all the pups. Previous studies using primarily outbred mice have shown that offspring reared under CN conditions may display increased preweaning growth rates and differences in adult behavior and neurobiology compared with mice reared under single-nesting (SN; one dam with her litter) conditions. Here we compared pup mortality; weaning and adult body weights; adult behavior; and gene expression in the hippocampus and frontal cortex between C57BL/6J, DBA/2J and 129x1/SvJ mice reared by using CN (3 dams and their litters sharing a single nest) or SN. Male and female pups of all 3 strains reared in CN cages showed higher body weight at weaning than did SN pups of the same strain, with no significant difference in pup mortality between groups. Adult male offspring reared in CN showed no differences in any behavioral test when compared with SN offspring. Combining CN dams and litters after parturition revealed greater cortical brain-derived neurotropic factor expression in adult male C57BL/6J offspring and cortical glucocorticoid receptor expression in adult male C57BL/6J and 129x1/SvJ offspring as compared with SN offspring of the same strain. Communal rearing can enhance juvenile growth rates but does not change adult behavior in inbred mouse strains, although potential effects on adult neurophysiology are possible.

  8. Hourly analysis of cerebrospinal fluid glucose shows large diurnal fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Verbeek, Marcel M; Leen, Wilhelmina G; Willemsen, Michèl A; Slats, Diane; Claassen, Jurgen A

    2016-05-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid analysis is important in the diagnostics of many neurological disorders. Since the influence of food intake on the cerebrospinal fluid glucose concentration and the cerebrospinal fluid/plasma glucose ratio is largely unknown, we studied fluctuations in these parameters in healthy adult volunteers during a period of 36 h. Our observations show large physiological fluctuations of cerebrospinal fluid glucose and the cerebrospinal fluid/plasma glucose ratio, and their relation to food intake. These findings provide novel insights into the physiology of cerebral processes dependent on glucose levels such as energy formation (e.g. glycolysis), enzymatic reactions (e.g. glycosylation), and non-enzymatic reactions (e.g. advanced endproduct glycation).

  9. Modifiers of epigenetic reprogramming show paternal effects in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Suyinn; Vickaryous, Nicola; Ashe, Alyson; Zamudio, Natasha; Youngson, Neil; Hemley, Sarah; Stopka, Tomas; Skoultchi, Arthur; Matthews, Jacqui; Scott, Hamish S; de Kretser, David; O’Bryan, Moira; Blewitt, Marnie; Whitelaw, Emma

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that epigenetic information can be inherited across generations in mammals, despite extensive reprogramming both in the gametes and in the early developing embryo. One corollary to this is that disrupting the establishment of epigenetic state in the gametes of a parent, as a result of heterozygosity for mutations in genes involved in reprogramming, could affect the phenotype of offspring that do not inherit the mutant allele. Here we show that such effects do occur following paternal inheritance in the mouse. We detected changes to transcription and chromosome ploidy in adult animals. Paternal effects of this type have not been reported previously in mammals and suggest that the untransmitted genotype of male parents can influence the phenotype of their offspring. PMID:17450140

  10. Increased post-operative haemorrhage seen in adult coblation tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Noon, A P; Hargreaves, S

    2003-09-01

    Coblation is a new soft tissue surgical technique that is being used for tonsillectomy. Published results show a significant decrease in the amount of post-operative pain experienced by patients undergoing coblation tonsillectomy. There has been no published work to date on the incidence of post-operative haemorrhage. From August 2001 to November 2002 one surgeon performed 36 coblation tonsillectomies on adults. On another list he performed 29 by his standard method of dissection and bipolar coagulation. Retrospective analysis found a significant increase in the secondary haemorrhage rate in adult patients undergoing coblation tonsillectomy (22.2 vs. 3.4 per cent). At our department coblation tonsillectomy has been abandoned until further work into its safety has been published.

  11. Mechanically induced orientation of adult rat cardiac myocytes in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samuel, J.-L.; Vandenburgh, H. H.

    1990-01-01

    The present study describes the spatial orientation of a population of freshly isolated adult rat cardiac myocytes using a computerized mechanical cell stimulator device for tissue cultured cells. A continuous unidirectional stretch of the substratum at 60 to 400 microns/min for 120 to 30 min, respectively, during the cell attachment period in a serum-free medium was found to induce a significant threefold increase in the number of rod-shaped myocytes oriented parallel to the direction of movement. The myocytes orient less well with unidirectional substratum stretching after their adhesion to the substratum. Adult myocytes plated onto a substratum undergoing continuous 10-percent stretch-relaxation cycling show no significant change in the myocyte orientation or cytoskeletal organization. In addition to the type of mechanical activity, orientation of rod-shaped myocytes is dependent on the speed of the substratum, the final stretch amplitude, and the timing between initiation of substratum stretching and adhesion of myocytes to the substratum.

  12. Insomnia and physical activity in adults with prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Chasens, Eileen R; Yang, Kyeongra

    2012-08-01

    This secondary analysis study examines the relationship between physical activity and symptoms of insomnia among adults with prediabetes (N = 958) from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The sample of participants were generally obese, middle-aged, and racially diverse. NHANES questions included symptoms of insomnia, sleep duration, and sleep latency. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from measured height and weight; at least 2 days of ActiGraph activity monitor data determined mean steps walked. Men walked more steps than women; however, women had more insomnia symptoms. There were significant associations between insomnia symptoms and increased sleep latency and decreased sleep duration. Multiple regression analysis showed that younger age, lower BMI, higher self-rated health, high school education, and fewer insomnia symptoms were significantly related to increased steps walked. The findings indicate that insomnia in adults with prediabetes may be a barrier to their adapting an active lifestyle. PMID:21788447

  13. Toxicity of 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in larval and adult forms of Rana catesbeiana.

    PubMed

    Beatty, P W; Holscher, M A; Neal, R A

    1976-11-01

    Varying doses of TCDD ranging from 25 to 1000 mug/kg were administered to the larval and adult forms of the American bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana. Doses of TCDD as high as 1 mg/kg failed to have any significant effect upon survival or completion of metamorphosis in tadpole and doses of up to 500 mug/kg had no effect on survival of adult frogs. Histopathological examination of various tissues from the metamorphosed tadpoles and adult frogs failed to show any abnormalities.

  14. Attitudes toward older adults: A matter of cultural values or personal values?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Xing, Cai; Guan, Yanjun; Song, Xuan; Melloy, Robert; Wang, Fei; Jin, Xiaoyu

    2016-02-01

    The current research aimed to address the inconsistent findings regarding cultural differences in attitudes toward older adults by differentiating the effects of personal and cultural values. In Study 1, we used data from the sixth wave of the World Values Survey to examine attitudes toward older adults across cultures, and how different personal values (i.e., communal vs. agentic) and cultural values (i.e., individualism) predicted these attitudes. The results of hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed that after controlling for potential covariates, personal communal values positively correlated with positive attitudes toward older adults; however, cultural individualistic values did not. To further examine the causal effects of personal values (vs. cultural values), we conducted an experimental study and confirmed that priming personal values rather than cultural values had significant effects on ageism attitudes. The present studies help to reconcile conflicting results on cultural differences in attitudes toward older adults.

  15. Use of song as an effective teaching strategy for nutrition education in older adults.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Jacquelyn W; Jayaratne, K S U; Bird, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore whether singing an educational song would be effective in improving older adults' knowledge about nutrition. We used a randomized controlled design to determine whether singing an educational song would result in increased nutrition knowledge in a low-income population of older adults compared to a control group of similar adults who did not sing the song. Eighteen congregate nutrition sites were randomly assigned to the treatment or control group. Analysis via independent samples t -test showed the knowledge gain mean scores for the treatment group were significantly ( P  < 0.05) greater than those of the control group. This study supports a unique new approach to increasing nutrition knowledge of older adults by using music. PMID:25803602

  16. Attitudes toward older adults: A matter of cultural values or personal values?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Xing, Cai; Guan, Yanjun; Song, Xuan; Melloy, Robert; Wang, Fei; Jin, Xiaoyu

    2016-02-01

    The current research aimed to address the inconsistent findings regarding cultural differences in attitudes toward older adults by differentiating the effects of personal and cultural values. In Study 1, we used data from the sixth wave of the World Values Survey to examine attitudes toward older adults across cultures, and how different personal values (i.e., communal vs. agentic) and cultural values (i.e., individualism) predicted these attitudes. The results of hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed that after controlling for potential covariates, personal communal values positively correlated with positive attitudes toward older adults; however, cultural individualistic values did not. To further examine the causal effects of personal values (vs. cultural values), we conducted an experimental study and confirmed that priming personal values rather than cultural values had significant effects on ageism attitudes. The present studies help to reconcile conflicting results on cultural differences in attitudes toward older adults. PMID:26691301

  17. Behavioral and neural differences during two versions of cognitive shifting tasks in young children and adults.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Yusuke; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2014-05-01

    The present study examined how young children and adult participants activated inferior prefrontal regions when they were given different cognitive shifting tasks. Children and adults were given two versions of the Dimensional Change Card Sort task (the standard and advanced versions), and brain activations during the tasks were examined using near infrared spectroscopy. On the behavioral level, the performance of both children and adults deteriorated during the advanced version as compared to the standard version. On the neural level, adults exhibited similar bilateral inferior prefrontal activations during the advanced version and the standard version. On the other hand, children showed the significant differences of the activations between the regions during the advanced version, but not during the standard version. The results indicated that children recruited different inferior prefrontal areas depending on the demands of cognitive shifting. PMID:23765326

  18. Social Capital and Sexual Risk-Taking Behaviors Among Older Adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Amin, Iftekhar

    2016-09-01

    Using the General Social Survey (GSS) 2012, a national household-based probability sample of non-institutionalized U.S. adults, this study examined the association of social capital and sexual risk behaviors among older adults aged 55 years and older. Of the 547 respondents, 87% reported not using condoms during their last intercourse, and nearly 15% reported engaging in sexual risk behaviors, such as casual sex, paid sex, male to male sex, and drug use. Binary logistic regression results showed that age, gender, marital status, education, race, sexual orientation, and sexual frequencies were significant predictors of older adults' unprotected sex. Social capital was not a predictor of unprotected sex but was positively associated with other human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted disease (HIV/STD) risk behaviors such as sex with strangers, having multiple sex partners, injecting drugs, and having male to male sex. Findings of this study highlight the importance of HIV/STD prevention programs for older adults.

  19. Adult bone marrow: which stem cells for cellular therapy protocols in neurodegenerative disorders?

    PubMed

    Wislet-Gendebien, Sabine; Laudet, Emerence; Neirinckx, Virginie; Rogister, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    The generation of neuronal cells from stem cells obtained from adult bone marrow is of significant clinical interest in order to design new cell therapy protocols for several neurological disorders. The recent identification in adult bone marrow of stem cells derived from the neural crests (NCSCs) might explain the neuronal phenotypic plasticity shown by bone marrow cells. However, little information is available about the nature of these cells compared to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this paper, we will review all information available concerning NCSC from adult tissues and their possible use in regenerative medicine. Moreover, as multiple recent studies showed the beneficial effect of bone marrow stromal cells in neurodegenerative diseases, we will discuss which stem cells isolated from adult bone marrow should be more suitable for cell replacement therapy.

  20. Water intoxication in adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Naoya; Ofuji, Sosuke; Abe, Sakae; Tanaka, Ai; Uematsu, Masami; Ogata, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Water intoxication is a common disorder in calves and is usually characterized by transient hemoglobinuria. In contrast, the condition is very rare in adult cattle, with few reports on naturally occurring cases. In the present report, four female Japanese Black cattle, aged 16-25 months, showed neurological signs when they drank water following a water outage. Hemoglobinuria was not grossly observed, while severe hyponatremia was revealed by laboratory tests. Autopsy indicated cerebral edema with accumulation of serous fluid in expanded Virchow-Robin spaces. These results indicate the possibility of water intoxication associated with cerebral edema due to severe dilutional hyponatremia in adult cattle.

  1. Water intoxication in adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Naoya; Ofuji, Sosuke; Abe, Sakae; Tanaka, Ai; Uematsu, Masami; Ogata, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Water intoxication is a common disorder in calves and is usually characterized by transient hemoglobinuria. In contrast, the condition is very rare in adult cattle, with few reports on naturally occurring cases. In the present report, four female Japanese Black cattle, aged 16-25 months, showed neurological signs when they drank water following a water outage. Hemoglobinuria was not grossly observed, while severe hyponatremia was revealed by laboratory tests. Autopsy indicated cerebral edema with accumulation of serous fluid in expanded Virchow-Robin spaces. These results indicate the possibility of water intoxication associated with cerebral edema due to severe dilutional hyponatremia in adult cattle. PMID:27506091

  2. Idaho State University Physics Road Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shropshire, Steve

    2009-05-01

    The ISU Physics Road Show services over 40 schools and 12,000 students each year. Exciting and informative demonstration shows are conducted during assemblies at elementary, middle, and junior high schools. Discussion will focus on efforts taken to maximize the educational impact to students and teachers. These efforts include supplemental information and materials provided to teachers, teacher workshops, and careful catering of subject material to state and national education standards. A few sample demonstrations will be performed, including the boiling green water sucker, a magnet strongly repelled from a cooled copper disc, an artificial geyser that shoots water 6 meters, and a few liquid nitrogen tricks. This program is supported in part by a grant from the Idaho Community Foundation.

  3. Research shows targeted HIV prevention succeeds.

    PubMed

    2002-03-01

    Systematic reviews of HIV prevention intervention literature for the target populations of African-Americans, Latinos, youths, and men who have sex with men in the United States shows that targeted interventions work in reducing HIV risk behaviors. Interventions that succeeded were culturally sensitive, of longer duration, and included skills training, according to a project supported by the Surgeon General's Leadership Campaign on AIDS and teh California HealthCare Foundation in Oakland. PMID:12206092

  4. The Physics of Equestrian Show Jumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stinner, Art

    2014-04-01

    This article discusses the kinematics and dynamics of equestrian show jumping. For some time I have attended a series of show jumping events at Spruce Meadows, an international equestrian center near Calgary, Alberta, often referred to as the "Wimbledon of equestrian jumping." I have always had a desire to write an article such as this one, but when I searched the Internet for information and looked at YouTube presentations, I could only find simplistic references to Newton's laws and the conservation of mechanical energy principle. Nowhere could I find detailed calculations. On the other hand, there were several biomechanical articles with empirical reports of the results of kinetic and dynamic investigations of show jumping using high-speed digital cameras and force plates. They summarize their results in tables that give information about the motion of a horse jumping over high fences (1.40 m) and the magnitudes of the forces encountered when landing. However, they do not describe the physics of these results.

  5. Significance of selected lineaments in Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drahovzal, J. A.; Neathery, T. L.; Wielchowsky, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    Four lineaments in the Alabama Appalachians that appear on ERTS-1 imagery have been geologically analysed. Two of the lineaments appear to have regional geologic significance, showing relationships to structural and stratigraphic frameworks, water and mineral resources, geophysical anomalies, and seismicity. The other two lineaments are of local geologic significance, but, nevertheless, have important environmental implications.

  6. Adult Congenital Heart Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... survivable, manageable, yet in the routine years between infancy and adulthood, sometimes forgettable. The Adult Congenital Heart ... understand the continuum of the disease from its infancy. The Adult Congential Heart Association brings together valuable ...

  7. Immunization Schedules for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedules for Adults in Easy-to-read Formats ... previous immunizations. View or Print a Schedule Recommended Immunizations for Adults (19 Years and Older) by Age ...

  8. Differences in alarm calls of juvenile and adult European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus): Findings on permanently marked animals from a semi-natural enclosure.

    PubMed

    Schneiderov, Irena; Schnitzerov, Petra; Uhlikov, Jitka; Brandl, Pavel; Zouhar, Jan; Matejů, Jan

    2015-11-01

    The European ground squirrel (Spermophilus citellus) emits alarm calls that warn conspecifics of potential danger. Although it has been observed that inexperienced juveniles of this species emit alarm calls that sound similar to those of adults, studies focusing on juvenile alarm calls are lacking. We analyzed the acoustic structure of alarm calls emitted by six permanently marked European ground squirrels living in a semi-natural enclosure when they were juveniles and after 1 year as adults. We found that the acoustic structure of the juvenile alarm calls was significantly different from those of adults and that the alarm calls underwent nearly the same changes in all studied individuals. All juveniles emitted alarm calls consisting of one element with almost constant frequency, but their alarm calls included a second frequency-modulated element after their first hibernation as adults. Our data show that the duration of the first element is significantly shorter in adults than in juveniles. Additionally, the frequency of the first element is significantly higher in adults than in juveniles. Similar to previous findings in other Palearctic ground squirrel species, our data are inconsistent with the assumption that juvenile mammals emit vocalizations with higher fundamental frequencies than adults. However, our results do not support the previously suggested hypothesis that juvenile ground squirrels conceal information regarding their age in their alarm calls because we found significant differences in alarm calls of juveniles and adults.

  9. The State of Adult and Continuing Education in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indabawa, Sabo A., Ed.; Oduaran, Akpovire, Ed.; Afrik, Tai, Ed.; Walters, Shirley, Ed.

    This document contains 21 papers examining the state of adult and continuing education in Africa. The following papers are included: "Introduction: An Overview of the State of Adult and Continuing Education in Africa" (Akpovire Oduaran); "Setting the Tone of Adult and Continuing Education in Africa" (Michael A. Omolewa); "Significant Post…

  10. Higher Education Journals' Discourse about Adult Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Joe F.; Townsend, Barbara K.

    2007-01-01

    In 1999-2000, 7.1 million adults age 24 or older constituted 43% of all undergraduates in U.S. institutions of higher education, compared to 5.73 million adult students enrolled a decade earlier (1989-1990). The growing proportion of adult undergraduates has become a significant source of enrollment and income for numerous institutions for which…

  11. Adult Education and the Postmodern Challenge. Learning beyond the Limits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usher, Robin; Bryant, Ian; Johnston, Rennie

    This book examines the relationship among theory, practice, and research in adult education. Chapter 1 analyzes key features of modernity and postmodernity to highlight significant contemporary socioeconomic and cultural changes that have an impact on adult education. Chapter 2 sketches what a contemporary adult education for citizenship might…

  12. New and Effective Approaches to Adult Basic Skills Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, David J.

    2016-01-01

    US public adult basic skills education, as adult education researcher Thomas Sticht has often pointed out, is on the margins of public education. By many measures, in the past decade it has experienced significant further decline. In the last decade and a half, according to Sticht's (2015) analysis, "enrollments in the Adult Education and…

  13. Neural plasticity in adults with amblyopia.

    PubMed Central

    Levi, D M; Polat, U

    1996-01-01

    Amblyopia is a neuronal abnormality of vision that is often considered irreversible in adults. We found strong and significant improvement of Vernier acuity in human adults with naturally occurring amblyopia following practice. Learning was strongest at the trained orientation and did not transfer to an untrained task (detection), but it did transfer partially to the untrained eye (primarily at the trained orientation). We conclude that this perceptual learning reflects alterations in early neural processes that are localized beyond the site of convergence of the two eyes. Our results suggest a significant degree of plasticity in the visual system of adults with amblyopia. PMID:8692904

  14. Adult idiopathic scoliosis: the tethered spine.

    PubMed

    Whyte Ferguson, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an observational and treatment study using three case histories to describe common patterns of muscle and fascial asymmetry in adults with idiopathic scoliosis (IS) who have significant scoliotic curvatures that were not surgically corrected and who have chronic pain. Rather than being located in the paraspinal muscles, the myofascial trigger points (TrPs) apparently responsible for the pain were located at some distance from the spine, yet referred pain to locations throughout the thoracolumbar spine. Asymmetries in these muscles appear to tether the spine in such a way that they contribute to scoliotic curvatures. Evaluation also showed that each of these individuals had major ligamentous laxity and this may also have contributed to development of scoliotic curvatures. Treatment focused on release of TrPs found to refer pain into the spine, release of related fascia, and correction of related joint dysfunction. Treatment resulted in substantial relief of longstanding chronic pain. Treatment thus validated the diagnostic hypothesis that myofascial and fascial asymmetries were to some extent responsible for pain in adults with significant scoliotic curvatures. Treatment of these patterns of TrPs and muscle and fascial asymmetries and related joint dysfunction was also effective in relieving pain in each of these individuals after they were injured in auto accidents. Treatment of myofascial TrPs and asymmetrical fascial tension along with treatment of accompanying joint dysfunction is proposed as an effective approach to treating both chronic and acute pain in adults with scoliosis that has not been surgically corrected. PMID:24411157

  15. Learning categories via rules and similarity: comparing adults and children.

    PubMed

    Rabi, Rahel; Miles, Sarah J; Minda, John Paul

    2015-03-01

    Two experiments explored the different strategies used by children and adults when learning new perceptual categories. Participants were asked to learn a set of categories for which both a single-feature rule and overall similarity would allow for perfect performance. Other rules allowed for suboptimal performance. Transfer stimuli (Experiments 1 and 2) and single features (Experiment 2) were presented after training to help determine how the categories were learned. In both experiments, we found that adults made significantly more optimal rule-based responses to the test stimuli than children. Children showed a variety of categorization styles, with a few relying on the optimal rules, many relying on suboptimal single-feature rules, and only a few relying on overall family resemblance. We interpret these results within a multiple systems framework, and we argue that children show the pattern they do because they lack the necessary cognitive resources to fully engage in hypothesis testing, rule selection, and verbally mediated category learning.

  16. Sentence comprehension in young adults with developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Wiseheart, Rebecca; Altmann, Lori J P; Park, Heeyoung; Lombardino, Linda J

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of syntactic complexity on written sentence comprehension in compensated adults with dyslexia. Because working memory (WM) plays a key role in processing complex sentences, and individuals with dyslexia often demonstrate persistent deficits in WM, we hypothesized that individuals with dyslexia would perform more poorly on tasks designed to assess the comprehension of syntactic structures that are especially taxing on WM (e.g., passives, sentences with relative clauses). Compared to their nondyslexic peers, individuals with dyslexia were significantly less accurate and marginally slower on passive sentences. For sentences containing relative clauses, the dyslexic group was also less accurate but did not differ in response times. Covarying WM and word reading in both analyses eliminated group differences showing that syntactic deficits in adults with dyslexia are constrained by both WM and word-reading ability. These findings support previous research showing that syntactic processing deficits are characteristic of dyslexia, even among high-achieving students.

  17. The relationship between adenovirus-36 seropositivity, obesity and metabolic profile in Turkish children and adults.

    PubMed

    Karamese, M; Altoparlak, U; Turgut, A; Aydogdu, S; Karamese, S Aksak

    2015-12-01

    Obesity potentially arising from viral infection is known as 'infectobesity'. The latest reports suggest that adenovirus-36 (Adv36) is related to obesity in adults and children. Our aim was not only to determine the Adv36 seropositivity in both obese and non-obese children and adults, but also to investigate correlations between antibody positivity and serum lipid profiles. Both Adv36 positivity and tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha, leptin and interleukin-6 levels were detected in blood samples collected from 146 children and 130 adults by ELISA. Fasting plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels were also measured. Adv36 positivity was determined to be 27·1% and 6% in obese and non-obese children and 17·5% and 4% in obese and non-obese adults, respectively. There was no difference with regard to total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha and interleukin-6 levels (P > 0·05). However, there was a significant difference between groups in terms of leptin levels (P < 0·05). We determined the prevalence of Adv36 positivity in obese children and adults. Our results showed that Adv36 may be an obesity agent for both adults and children, parallel with current literature data. However, the available data on a possible relationship between Adv36 infection and obesity both in children and adults do not completely solve the problem.

  18. A new method to estimate adult age-at-death using the acetabulum.

    PubMed

    Calce, Stephanie E

    2012-05-01

    Rissech et al. (J Forensic Sci 51 (2006) 213-229) described a method to estimate age-at-death of adult males using seven traits of the fused acetabulum. This study simplifies Rissech et al.'s technique and extends its application to adult females. Rissech et al.'s original scoring method was applied to a sample of 100 known-aged adults, three variables were selected based on stepwise multiple regression, and ages were collapsed into three broad ranges: young adult (17-39 years), middle adult (40-64 years), and old adult (65+ years). The revised method was applied to 249 new known-aged individuals from two other samples. To minimize observer bias, highlight the most critical traits, and encompass more age-related variation, unique digital renderings accompany morphological descriptions of age categories instead of photos. Three statistically significant characteristics highly correlated with age (P < 0.05) are capable of estimating age-at-death with 81% accuracy, both sexes combined. For misidentified individuals the tendency was to underestimate age. Results of both intraobserver error testing and inter-rater reliability demonstrated a moderate to substantial agreement in scoring between observers. When estimating the degree of development of features osteophyte development of the acetabular rim was the most inconsistent between observers. The revised acetabular method shows promise in estimating age for adults, particularly for those over the age of 65 years.

  19. Markers of Resilience and Risk: Adult Lives in a Vulnerable Population

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Stuart T.; Stott, Cori; Billings, Rebecca L.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2006-01-01

    In this report, we drew on data from an ongoing longitudinal study that began in 1978 (Hauser, Powers, Noam, Jacobson, Weiss, & Folansbee, 1984). Focusing on late, young-adult life among individuals who were psychiatrically hospitalized during adolescence, we examined markers of resilience empirically defined in terms of adult success and well-being. The study includes a demographically similar group recruited from a public high school. Major goals were to (a) develop preliminary models of adaptive functioning among adults in their 30s, (b) examine the extent to which adults with histories of serious mental disorders can be characterized by these models, and (c) explore predictors of successful adult lives from indicators of individuals' psychosocial adjustment at age 25. Results showed significant cohort effects on indexes of adaptive functioning, especially for men. Findings suggest that social relations as well as self-views of competence and relatedness play important roles in characterizing adjustment during the adult years. In addition, indexes of psychosocial adjustment as well as symptoms of psychiatric distress and hard drug use at age 25 made a difference in adult social functioning and well-being, providing hints of possible mechanisms likely to facilitate the ability to “bounce back” after a difficult adolescence. PMID:16951709

  20. Software for portable laser light show system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buruchin, Dmitrey J.; Leonov, Alexander F.

    1995-04-01

    Portable laser light show system LS-3500-10M is connected to the parallel port of IBM PC/AT compatible computer. Computer performs output of digital control data describing images. Specially designed control device is used to convert digital data coming from parallel port to the analog signal driving scanner. Capabilities of even cost nothing 286 computer are quite enough for laser graphics control. Technology of scanning used in laser graphics system LS-3500-10M essentially differs from widely spread systems based on galvanometers with mobile core or with mobile magnet. Such devices are based on the same principle of work as electrically driven servo-mechanism. As scanner we use elastic system with hydraulic dampen oscillations and opened loop. For most of applications of laser graphics such system provides satisfactory precision and speed of scanning. LS-3500-10M software gives user ability to create on PC and play his own laser graphics demonstrations. It is possible to render recognizable text and pictures using different styles, 3D and abstract animation. All types of demonstrations can be mixed in slide-show. Time synchronization is supported. Software has the following features: (1) Different types of text output. Built-in text editor for typing and editing of textural information. Different fonts can be used to display text. User can create his own fonts using specially developed font editor. (2) Editor of 3D animation with library of predefined shapes. (3) Abstract animation provided by software routines. (4) Support of different graphics files formats (PCX or DXF). Original algorithm of raster image tracing was implemented. (5) Built-in slide-show editor.

  1. Multitasking in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Gawrilow, Caterina; Merkt, Julia; Goossens-Merkt, Heinrich; Bodenburg, Sebastian; Wendt, Mike

    2011-09-01

    Adults with ADHD have problems in everyday multitasking situations presumably because of deficits in executive functions. The present study aims to find out (a) whether adults with ADHD show deficient multitasking performance in a standardized task, (b) how they perceive the multitasking situation, and (c) which task structure might be beneficial for them as compared with adults without ADHD. Therefore, we experimentally compared task performance, mood, and motivation in a group of 45 men with ADHD (M-age = 34.47, SD = 9.95) with a comparison group of 42 men without ADHD (M-age = 31.12, SD = 10.59) in three conditions: (a) a multitasking paradigm, (b) an interleaving condition in which tasks had to be performed without planning or monitoring, and (c) a non-interleaving condition. Our results showed no impaired multitasking performance in adults with ADHD. However, they showed better mood and more motivation in the non-interleaving condition.

  2. Latest European coelacanth shows Gondwanan affinities.

    PubMed

    Cavin, Lionel; Forey, Peter L; Buffetaut, Eric; Tong, Haiyan

    2005-06-22

    The last European fossil occurrence of a coelacanth is from the Mid-Cretaceous of the English Chalk (Turonian, 90 million years ago). Here, we report the discovery of a coelacanth from Late Cretaceous non-marine rocks in southern France. It consists of a left angular bone showing structures that imply close phylogenetic affinities with some extinct Mawsoniidae. The closest relatives are otherwise known from Cretaceous continental deposits of southern continents and suggest that the dispersal of freshwater organisms from Africa to Europe occurred in the Late Cretaceous.

  3. Asteroid Ida - 6 Views Showing Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This composite image shows the asteroid 243 Ida as seen from the Galileo spacecraft during its approach on August 28, 1993. The six views were shuttered through the camera's green filter and show Ida's rotation over a period of about 3 hours 18 minutes. The asteroid makes a complete rotation every 4 hours 38 minutes; therefore, this set of images spans about 3/4 of Ida's rotation period and shows most of Ida's surface. By combining the information in these views with that from the highest resolution images returned from the spacecraft in September 1993, the size and shape of this irregular body can now be determined accurately The asteroid appears to be about 58 kilometers (36 miles) long and about 23 kilometers wide, with a very irregular shape and volume of some 16,000 cubic kilometers. The images are arranged in chronological order from a time 3 hours 51 minutes before closest approach (upper left), through upper right, middle left, middle right lower left and lower right (33 minutes before closest approach). The six images show Ida at the same scale throughout. Ida's rotation axis is roughly vertical in these images, and the rotation causes the right-hand end of Ida to move toward the viewer as time progresses. The first image was taken from a range of about 171,000 km (106,000 miles) and provides an image resolution of about 1,700 meters per pixel (the highest resolution achieved for Ida is about 25 meters per pixel). The second, taken 70 minutes later, is from 119,000 kilometers, followed by 102,000 kilometers, 85,000 kilometers, 50,000 kilometers, and 25,000 kilometers. The features on Ida are less sharp in the earlier views because of the greater distances. Prominent in the middle three views is a deep depression across the short axis of the Asteroid. This feature tends to support the idea that Ida may have originally been formed from two or more separate large objects that collided softly and stuck together. Also visible in the lower left view is an

  4. Liberal Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toiviainen, Timo

    1988-01-01

    Discusses providers of and the concept of liberal adult education in Finland. Providers include (1) folk high schools, (2) adult education centers, (3) voluntary popular organizations, (4) public libraries, (5) evening schools, (6) cooperative groups formed of universities and other adult education providers, (7) summer universities, and (8)…

  5. Comparing Adult Education Worldwide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charters, Alexander N.; And Others

    Comparative international adult education, defined as that field in which adult educators from various countries compare their own institutions and practices with those of their counterparts in other nations, is examined. Provided is an account of adult education in nine European socialist countries (including the Soviet Union), as well as…

  6. Adult Numeracy Core Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steeds, Andrew, Ed.

    Designed primarily for adult literacy teachers and tutors, this curriculum describes the content of what should be taught in numeracy programs in order to meet the individual needs of adults through the selection and teaching of skills appropriate to those adults' needs. An introduction describes national standards and qualifications, learners,…

  7. Adult Educators' Core Competences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    Which competences do professional adult educators need? This research note discusses the topic from a comparative perspective, finding that adult educators' required competences are wide-ranging, heterogeneous and complex. They are subject to context in terms of national and cultural environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned…

  8. Adults Learning. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Jenny

    Aimed at anyone who wants to know how to teach adults, this guide aims to build confidence, offer practical advice, and give the real-life flavor of helping fellow adults develop. Chapter 1 addresses adult learners: mindsets, motivation, and learning (learning cycle, learning styles, relevance, reinforcement and practice, experience, learning to…

  9. Adult Education in Hungary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csoma, Gyula; And Others

    Beginning with a brief survey of the national system, this work covers provisions since 1945 for adult education in Hungary. Educational objectives and other theoretical aspects of adult education in Hungarian society are described, together with the eight year elementary program, technical and vocational adult schools, general and professional…

  10. An Adult ESL Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Literacy Resource Center, Columbia.

    This curriculum framework for adult literacy was written by 21 South Carolina adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instructors, as submitted to the South Carolina Literacy Resource Center. It is based on current theories in the fields of adult education and second language acquisition and is designed to be flexible so that it may be adapted to…

  11. Dimensions of Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Griff, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This broad introduction to adult and postcompulsory education offers an overview of the field for students, adult educators and workplace trainers. The book establishes an analytical framework to emphasize the nature of learning and agency of learners; examines the core knowledge and skills that adult educators need; discusses policy, research and…

  12. Canadian Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooke, W. Michael, Comp.

    "Trends," a publication of the Canadian Association for Adult Education, is a collection of abstracts on selected subjects affecting adult education; this issue is on adult basic education (ABE). It covers teachers and teacher training, psychological factors relating to the ABE teacher and students, manuals for teachers, instructional materials,…

  13. Adult Learning Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine Knowles' theory of andragogy and his six assumptions of how adults learn while providing evidence to support two of his assumptions based on the theory of andragogy. As no single theory explains how adults learn, it can best be assumed that adults learn through the accumulation of formal and informal…

  14. Adult Education in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkos, Alexios

    2008-01-01

    The central aim of this article is to analyse the current situation of adult education in Greece. The article focuses on the following points: (a) the degree of participation in programmes of continuing professional training and general adult education courses, (b) the quality and the outcomes of the adult education provision in Greece, and (c)…

  15. Adults Role in Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notar, Charles E.; Padgett, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Do adults play a role in bullying? Do parents, teachers, school staff, and community adult leaders influence bullying behavior in children and teenagers? This article will focus on research regarding all adults who have almost daily contact with children and teens and their part in how bullying is identified, addressed, and prevented. This article…

  16. Adult Survival Skills Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsko, Gregory M.

    The purpose of this instrument is to supplement data from the Adult Basic Learning Examination in assessing the functional level of adults in daily situations. It may also be used as a teaching tool for adults requesting tutoring in specific concepts and skills presented in the instrument. This instrument is an informal assessment instrument and…

  17. Adult Learning: A Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Peter, Ed.

    This book on adult learning is divided into six sections. Section 1, Cognitive Processes, includes the following chapters: "Cognitive Processes: Contemporary Paradigms of Learning" (Jack Mezirow); "Information Processing, Memory, Age and Adult Learning" (Gillian Boulton-Lewis); "Adult Learners' Metacognitive Behaviour in Higher Education" (Barry…

  18. Kids Who Outwit Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seita, John R.; Brendtro, Larry K.

    Kids who distrust adults are highly skilled at hiding their real nature and resisting change. Most adults shun such youths or get mired in conflict with them. Punitive get tough practices as well as traditional flaw-fixing treatment are reactive strategies that often drive these youths further from adult bonds and reinforce oppositional and…

  19. Adults Learning for Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Alan

    This book, drawing on 30 years of adult education experience in England, Ireland, India, and other countries, contrasts the individualistic approach to adult education in the West with the social responsibility view of adult education in the developing world. The book's thesis is that the gulf between the approach of the West and that of…

  20. Young Adult Services Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boegen, Anne, Ed.

    Designed to offer guidelines, ideas and help to those who provide library service to young adults, this manual includes information about the provision of young adult (YA) services in six sections. The first section, which addresses planning and administration, includes a definition of a young adult and a checklist for determining community needs…

  1. The Adult Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Janet

    The 14 chapters of this textbook chronicle adult development from youth through old age, emphasizing both research and interviews with adults at various stages in their lives. Topics covered include the following: (1) the academic field of adult development; (2) theories and research methods; (3) aging and disease prevention; (4) sexuality and…

  2. Adult Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miser, Rifat; Ural, Ozana; Ünlühisarýklý, Özlem

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the situation and practices of adult education in Turkey in terms of (a) participants, (b) providers, and (c) program areas. The data were derived from published statistical data and one-to-one interaction with adult education providers when such data are unavailable. Turkey has a long tradition of adult education with…

  3. Secondary hypertension in adults

    PubMed Central

    Puar, Troy Hai Kiat; Mok, Yingjuan; Debajyoti, Roy; Khoo, Joan; How, Choon How; Ng, Alvin Kok Heong

    2016-01-01

    Secondary hypertension occurs in a significant proportion of adult patients (~10%). In young patients, renal causes (glomerulonephritis) and coarctation of the aorta should be considered. In older patients, primary aldosteronism, obstructive sleep apnoea and renal artery stenosis are more prevalent than previously thought. Primary aldosteronism can be screened by taking morning aldosterone and renin levels, and should be considered in patients with severe, resistant or hypokalaemia-associated hypertension. Symptoms of obstructive sleep apnoea should be sought. Worsening of renal function after starting an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor suggests the possibility of renal artery stenosis. Recognition, diagnosis and treatment of secondary causes of hypertension lead to good clinical outcomes and the possible reversal of end-organ damage, in addition to blood pressure control. As most patients with hypertension are managed at the primary care level, it is important for primary care physicians to recognise these conditions and refer patients appropriately. PMID:27211205

  4. Through the Looking Glass: Adult Education through the Lens of the Australian Journal of Adult Learning over Fifty Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Roger; Morrison, Anne

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we review fifty years of articles published in Australian Journal of Adult Learning in its various iterations. We examine the different roles of the journal: to illuminate the history and trends of adult education authors; to be the flagship of the adult education profession in Australia; to reflect on significant national events;…

  5. Trematode hemoglobins show exceptionally high oxygen affinity.

    PubMed

    Kiger, L; Rashid, A K; Griffon, N; Haque, M; Moens, L; Gibson, Q H; Poyart, C; Marden, M C

    1998-08-01

    Ligand binding studies were made with hemoglobin (Hb) isolated from trematode species Gastrothylax crumenifer (Gc), Paramphistomum epiclitum (Pe), Explanatum explanatum (Ee), parasitic worms of water buffalo Bubalus bubalis, and Isoparorchis hypselobagri (Ih) parasitic in the catfish Wallago attu. The kinetics of oxygen and carbon monoxide binding show very fast association rates. Whereas oxygen can be displaced on a millisecond time scale from human Hb at 25 degrees C, the dissociation of oxygen from trematode Hb may require a few seconds to over 20 s (for Hb Pe). Carbon monoxide dissociation is faster, however, than for other monomeric hemoglobins or myoglobins. Trematode hemoglobins also show a reduced rate of autoxidation; the oxy form is not readily oxidized by potassium ferricyanide, indicating that only the deoxy form reacts rapidly with this oxidizing agent. Unlike most vertebrate Hbs, the trematodes have a tyrosine residue at position E7 instead of the usual distal histidine. As for Hb Ascaris, which also displays a high oxygen affinity, the trematodes have a tyrosine in position B10; two H-bonds to the oxygen molecule are thought to be responsible for the very high oxygen affinity. The trematode hemoglobins display a combination of high association rates and very low dissociation rates, resulting in some of the highest oxygen affinities ever observed.

  6. Show Me the Invisible: Visualizing Hidden Content.

    PubMed

    Geymayer, Thomas; Steinberger, Markus; Lex, Alexander; Streit, Marc; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Content on computer screens is often inaccessible to users because it is hidden, e.g., occluded by other windows, outside the viewport, or overlooked. In search tasks, the efficient retrieval of sought content is important. Current software, however, only provides limited support to visualize hidden occurrences and rarely supports search synchronization crossing application boundaries. To remedy this situation, we introduce two novel visualization methods to guide users to hidden content. Our first method generates awareness for occluded or out-of-viewport content using see-through visualization. For content that is either outside the screen's viewport or for data sources not opened at all, our second method shows off-screen indicators and an on-demand smart preview. To reduce the chances of overlooking content, we use visual links, i.e., visible edges, to connect the visible content or the visible representations of the hidden content. We show the validity of our methods in a user study, which demonstrates that our technique enables a faster localization of hidden content compared to traditional search functionality and thereby assists users in information retrieval tasks. PMID:25325078

  7. Cathepsin B-dependent motor neuron death after nerve injury in the adult mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Li; Wu, Zhou; Baba, Masashi; Peters, Christoph; Uchiyama, Yasuo; Nakanishi, Hiroshi

    2010-08-27

    Research highlights: {yields} Cathepsin B (CB), a lysosomal cysteine protease, is expressed in neuron and glia. {yields} CB increased in hypogrossal nucleus neurons after nerve injury in adult mice. {yields} CB-deficiency significantly increased the mean survival ratio of injured neurons. {yields} Thus, CB plays a critical role in axotomy-induced neuronal death in adult mice. -- Abstract: There are significant differences in the rate of neuronal death after peripheral nerve injury between species. The rate of neuronal death of motor neurons after nerve injury in the adult rats is very low, whereas that in adult mice is relatively high. However, the understanding of the mechanism underlying axotomy-induced motor neuron death in adult mice is limited. Cathepsin B (CB), a typical cysteine lysosomal protease, has been implicated in three major morphologically distinct pathways of cell death; apoptosis, necrosis and autophagic cell death. The possible involvement of CB in the neuronal death of hypogrossal nucleus (HGN) neurons after nerve injury in adult mice was thus examined. Quantitative analyses showed the mean survival ratio of HGN neurons in CB-deficient (CB-/-) adult mice after nerve injury was significantly greater than that in the wild-type mice. At the same time, proliferation of microglia in the injured side of the HGN of CB-/- adult mice was markedly reduced compared with that in the wild-type mice. On the injured side of the HGN in the wild-type adult mice, both pro- and mature forms of CB markedly increased in accordance with the increase in the membrane-bound form of LC3 (LC3-II), a marker protein of autophagy. Furthermore, the increase in CB preceded an increase in the expression of Noxa, a major executor for axotomy-induced motor neuron death in the adult mouse. Conversely, expression of neither Noxa or LC3-II was observed in the HGN of adult CB-/- mice after nerve injury. These observations strongly suggest that CB plays a critical role in axotomy

  8. Prolonged Hypoxia Increases Survival Even in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Showing Cardiac Arrhythmia

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, Renate; Bauer, Ines; Ramalingam, Anil; Egg, Margit; Schwerte, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Tolerance towards hypoxia is highly pronounced in zebrafish. In this study even beneficial effects of hypoxia, specifically enhanced survival of zebrafish larvae, could be demonstrated. This effect was actually more pronounced in breakdance mutants, which phenotypically show cardiac arrhythmia. Breakdance mutants (bre) are characterized by chronically reduced cardiac output. Despite an about 50% heart rate reduction, they become adults, but survival rate significantly drops to 40%. Normoxic bre animals demonstrate increased hypoxia inducible factor 1 a (Hif-1α) expression, which indicates an activated hypoxic signaling pathway. Consequently, cardiovascular acclimation, like cardiac hypertrophy and increased erythrocyte concentration, occurs. Thus, it was hypothesized, that under hypoxic conditions survival might be even more reduced. When bre mutants were exposed to hypoxic conditions, they surprisingly showed higher survival rates than under normoxic conditions and even reached wildtype values. In hypoxic wildtype zebrafish, survival yet exceeded normoxic control values. To specify physiological acclimation, cardiovascular and metabolic parameters were measured before hypoxia started (3 dpf), when the first differences in survival rate occurred (7 dpf) and when survival rate plateaued (15 dpf). Hypoxic animals expectedly demonstrated Hif-1α accumulation and consequently enhanced convective oxygen carrying capacity. Moreover, bre animals showed a significantly enhanced heart rate under hypoxic conditions, which reached normoxic wildtype values. This improvement in convective oxygen transport ensured a sufficient oxygen and nutrient supply and was also reflected in the significantly higher mitochondrial activity. The highly optimized energy metabolism observed in hypoxic zebrafish larvae might be decisive for periods of higher energy demand due to organ development, growth and increased activity. However, hypoxia increased survival only during a short period of

  9. Color Voyager 2 Image Showing Crescent Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This image shows a crescent Uranus, a view that Earthlings never witnessed until Voyager 2 flew near and then beyond Uranus on January 24, 1986. This planet's natural blue-green color is due to the absorption of redder wavelengths in the atmosphere by traces of methane gas. Uranus' diameter is 32,500 miles, a little over four times that of Earth. The hazy blue-green atmosphere probably extends to a depth of around 5,400 miles, where it rests above what is believed to be an icy or liquid mixture (an 'ocean') of water, ammonia, methane, and other volatiles, which in turn surrounds a rocky core perhaps a little smaller than Earth.

  10. Star Shows It Has The Right Stuff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-01-01

    Astronomers have used an observation by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory to make the best case yet that a star can be engulfed by its companion star and survive. This discovery will help astronomers better understand how closely coupled stars, and perhaps even stars and planets, evolve when one of the stars expands enormously in its red giant phase. The binary star system known as V471 Tauri comprises a white dwarf star (the primary) in a close orbit -- one thirtieth of the distance between Mercury and the Sun -- with a normal Sun-like star (the secondary). Chandra's data showed that the hot upper atmosphere of the secondary star has a deficit of carbon atoms relative to nitrogen atoms. "This deficit of carbon atoms is the first clear observational evidence that the normal star was engulfed by its companion in the past," according to Jeremy Drake of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, MA, who coauthored an article on V471 in The Astrophysical Journal Letters with Marek Sarna of the N. Copernicus Astronomical Center in Poland. The white dwarf star was once a star several times as massive as the Sun. Nuclear fusion reactions in the core of such a star convert carbon into nitrogen over a period of about a billion years. When the fuel in the core of the star is exhausted, the core collapses, triggering more energetic nuclear reactions that cause the star to expand and transform into a red giant before eventually collapsing to become a white dwarf. The carbon-poor material in the core of the red giant is mixed with outer part of the star, so its atmosphere shows a deficit of carbon, as compared with Sun-like stars. The X-ray spectra of a red giant star (top panel) and a Sun-like star (bottom panel) show the large difference in the peaks due to carbon atoms in the two stars. Theoretical calculations indicate that a red giant in a binary system can completely envelop its companion star and dramatically affect its evolution. During this common envelope

  11. New AIDS estimates show demographic changes.

    PubMed

    1995-06-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the HIV epidemic's rate of increase has slowed to about three percent per year, with the incidence of AIDS cases estimated to have decreased in the West. The latest epidemic figures, reported through 1994 in the CDC's HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, puts the total of reported AIDS cases in the United States at 441,528. The implementation of the new AIDS definition in 1993 has distorted surveillance trends--six out of ten AIDS cases are now reported using the new CD4 criterion instead of the pre-1993 case definitions. An unpublished analysis of the epidemic shows a shift toward fewer gay men, more injection drug users, and more women becoming infected. However, the CDC contends that more heterosexuals are being infected and more racial and ethnic minorities are being infected. PMID:11362433

  12. Wolf spiders show graded antipredator behavior in the presence of chemical cues from different sized predators.

    PubMed

    Persons, M H; Rypstra, A L

    2001-12-01

    The wolf spider, Pardosa milvina, displays effective antipredator behavior (reduced activity) in the presence of silk and excreta cues from adults of another cooccurring wolf spider, Hogna helluo. However, Pardosa and Hogna engage in size-structured intraguild predation, where Pardosa may be either the prey or predator of Hogna. We tested the ability of adult female Pardosa to vary antipredator responses toward kairomones produced by Hogna that vary in size. Hogna were maintained on filter paper for 24 hr. We then presented the paper to adult female Pardosa simultaneously paired with a blank sheet of paper. One treatment had two sheets of blank paper to serve as a control. The Hogna stimulus treatments were as follows (N = 15/treatment): (1) 1 Hogna half the mass of Pardosa; (2) 1 Hogna of equal mass of a Pardosa; (3) 1 adult Hogna, 30 times the mass of Pardosa; and (4) 8 Hogna each 0.25 the mass of Pardosa. Pardosa decreased activity in the presence of kairomones from Hogna of equal or larger size, but showed no change in activity in the presence of a blank control or from a single Hogna smaller than itself. Pardosa showed a reduction in activity in the presence of cues from eight small Hogna. Pardosa avoided substrates with adult Hogna cues, but showed no avoidance response to any other treatment. These results suggest that Pardosa is showing graded antipredator behavior relative to the quantity of predator kairomones present rather than directly discriminating among the different sizes of the predator.

  13. The influence of age on lip-line cant in adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung Hwan; Kim, Jung Suk; Kim, Cheol Soon

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to assess the direction and degree of lip-line cant in Korean adult orthodontic patients and to identify the effects of sex and age on changes in the cant severity. Methods In this cross-sectional retrospective study, lip-line cant was measured in the frontal photographs of 585 Korean patients (92 men and 493 women) aged 18-48 years. The outcome variables (direction and degree of lip-line cant) were assessed in terms of predictor variables (sex, age, sagittal skeletal relationship, and menton deviation angle). Results The direction of lip-line cant did not differ according to sex, age, or skeletal classification. Patients had 1.6° of lip-line cant on average before orthodontic treatment. Middle-aged adults displayed a significant trend toward a lower degree of lip-line cant compared to younger adults (p < 0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the degree of lip-line cant was weakly negatively correlated with age (p < 0.001). Conclusions While the direction of lip-line cant did not differ according to the parameters explored here, the degree of cant was correlated with age in adults, independent of menton deviation. Specifically, middle-aged adults tended to display significantly lower degrees of lip-line cant than did younger adults. PMID:27019822

  14. VLA Shows "Boiling" in Atmosphere of Betelgeuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-04-01

    A team of astronomers says that observations with the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope show that a neighboring bloated star has giant convective plumes propelling gas from its surface (photosphere) up into the star's atmosphere. This new information contradicts long-held ideas that such stellar atmospheres are more uniform, and may resolve questions about how the star's atmosphere attains its enormous size as well as how dust and gas is driven away from the star. Jeremy Lim of the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics in Taiwan; Chris Carilli, Anthony Beasley, and Ralph Marson of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM; and Stephen White of the University of Maryland studied the red-supergiant star Betelgeuse, about 430 light-years away in the constellation Orion. They reported their findings in the April 9 issue of the scientific journal Nature. "These radio-telescope images confirm that Betelgeuse -- already more than 600 times larger than our Sun -- has a dense atmosphere that extends to many times larger still than the star itself," said Lim. "The highest-resolution image shows the star's atmosphere to have a remarkably complex structure." "To our surprise," added White, "the images also show that most of the gas in the atmosphere is only about as hot as that on the surface. Previously, all of it was thought to be very much hotter." The astronomers used the VLA to make images of Betelgeuse at a variety of radio frequencies. The series of radio observations measured the temperature of the star's atmosphere at different heights. Previous observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) at ultraviolet wavelengths showed that the star's atmosphere contains very hot gas at about twice the surface temperature. The VLA images showed that there also is lower-temperature gas throughout the atmosphere. This gas is near the surface temperature at low heights and decreases in temperature

  15. [Preparing for retirement. Aspects of didactic adult education].

    PubMed

    Tschentscher, G

    1989-01-01

    The beginning of the post-professional lifetime is one of the most significant transition points in human biography. Adult education is a central institution which prepares people for important changes of their living conditions after retirement. This article gives a description of motivations for an institutional preparation for retirement and shows its possible limitations. It introduces the elementary didactic categories of a differential pedagogical concept as participant-orientation and experience-orientation and shows their effects on planning, arrangement, and practice of special educational offers.

  16. Vaccinations for Adults with HIV Infection

    MedlinePlus

    Vaccinations for Adults with HIV Infection The table below shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

  17. Vaccinations for Adults with Hepatitis C Infection

    MedlinePlus

    Vaccinations for Adults with Hepatitis C Infection This table shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

  18. NASA GIBS Use in Live Planetarium Shows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmart, C. B.

    2015-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History's Hayden Planetarium was rebuilt in year 2000 as an immersive theater for scientific data visualization to show the universe in context to our planet. Specific astrophysical movie productions provide the main daily programming, but interactive control software, developed at AMNH allows immersive presentation within a data aggregation of astronomical catalogs called the Digital Universe 3D Atlas. Since 2006, WMS globe browsing capabilities have been built into a software development collaboration with Sweden's Linkoping University (LiU). The resulting Uniview software, now a product of the company SCISS, is operated by about fifty planetariums around that world with ability to network amongst the sites for global presentations. Public presentation of NASA GIBS has allowed authoritative narratives to be presented within the range of data available in context to other sources such as Science on a Sphere, NASA Earth Observatory and Google Earth KML resources. Specifically, the NOAA supported World Views Network conducted a series of presentations across the US that focused on local ecological issues that could then be expanded in the course of presentation to national and global scales of examination. NASA support of for GIBS resources in an easy access multi scale streaming format like WMS has tremendously enabled particularly facile presentations of global monitoring like never before. Global networking of theaters for distributed presentations broadens out the potential for impact of this medium. Archiving and refinement of these presentations has already begun to inform new types of documentary productions that examine pertinent, global interdependency topics.

  19. Temperature Data Shows Warming in 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    TThe figure above depicts how much air temperatures near the Earth's surface changed relative to the global mean temperature from 1951 to 1980. NASA researchers used maps of urban areas derived from city lights data to account for the 'heat island' effect of cities. The red and orange colors show that temperatures are warmer in most regions of the world when compared to the 1951 to 1980 'normal' temperatures. Warming around the world has been widespread, but it is not present everywhere. The largest warming is in Northern Canada, Alaska and Siberia, as indicated by the deeper red colors. The lower 48 United States have become warmer recently, but only enough to make the temperatures comparable to what they were in the 1930s. The scale on the bottom of these temperature anomaly images represent degrees in Celsius. The negative numbers represent cooling and the positive numbers depict warming. Overall, the air temperature near the Earth's surface has warmed by 1oF (0.6oC) globally, on average, over the last century. For more information and additional images, read Satellites Shed Light on a Warmer World. Image courtesy Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS).

  20. NTZIP antisense plants show reduced chlorophyll levels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Yang, Yu-Tao; Liu, Han-Hua; Yang, Guo-Dong; Zhang, Nai-Hua; Zheng, Cheng Chao

    2004-04-01

    We have isolated and characterized a new photosynthetic tissue-specific gene NTZIP (Nicotiana tabacum leucine zipper) from tobacco (N. tabacum). Its deduced amino acid sequence has two highly conserved regions, leucine zipper and [EX(n)DEXRH](2) motifs, which are related to the gene's biochemical functions. NTZIP was expressed in leaves and stems, but was not detected in roots or flowers, suggesting that its physiological functions might be associated with photosynthesis. Northern blot analysis showed that NTZIP mRNA accumulation was induced by light signals, increased greatly under low temperatures and was repressed by strong light illumination. Furthermore, a number of homologs of NTZIP were isolated from cucumber (Cucumis sativus), rape (Brassica napus), clover (Trifolium repens), willow (Salix babylonica), rosebush (Rusa dovurica), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea), proving the ubiquitous existence of the NTZIP-like genes in higher plants. Transgenic tobaccos constitutively expressing antisense RNA to NTZIP displayed chlorosis and a lack of ability to turn green even under normal growth conditions. The chlorophyll deficiency was further confirmed by chlorophyll content determination and gas exchange analysis. Based on these observations, we propose that NTZIP may be involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis, and might define a novel family of evolutionarily conserved proteins with its homologs in other plant species.

  1. Motivation to Learn among Older Adults in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Dian-Fu; Lin, Sung-Po

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed the survey on adults administered by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan in 2008, and logistic regression analysis showed a close relationship between learning motivations of older adults. The finding revealed that the higher age or the lower education attainment of older adults, the lower their learning motivation. The…

  2. Connecting the Canon to Current Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rybakova, Katie; Roccanti, Rikki

    2016-01-01

    In this article we discuss the respective roles of young adult literature and literary texts in the secondary level English Language Arts classroom and explore the connections that can be made between popular young adult books and the traditional canon. We provide examples showing how young adult literature bestsellers such as "The Book…

  3. Using the Pragmatic Progressive Philosophy in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Marsha L.

    2012-01-01

    Using a pragmatic approach of progressive philosophy when educating adult learners utilizes the knowledge of history, to connect reality with current experiences through facilitated learning. The purpose of this paper is an attempt to show how adult education that uses a pragmatic progressive philosophy encompasses adult experiences,…

  4. Value Preferences Predicting Narcissistic Personality Traits in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gungor, Ibrahim Halil; Eksi, Halil; Aricak, Osman Tolga

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at showing how the value preferences of young adults could predict the narcissistic characteristics of young adults according to structural equation modeling. 133 female (59.6%) and 90 male (40.4%), total 223 young adults participated the study (average age: 25.66, ranging from 20 to 38). Ratio group sampling method was used while…

  5. Associative memory advantage in grapheme-color synesthetes compared to older, but not young adults

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, Gaby; Rothen, Nicolas; Ward, Jamie; Chan, Dennis; Sigala, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    People with grapheme-color synesthesia perceive enriched experiences of colors in response to graphemes (letters, digits). In this study, we examined whether these synesthetes show a generic associative memory advantage for stimuli that do not elicit a synesthetic color. We used a novel between group design (14 young synesthetes, 14 young, and 14 older adults) with a self-paced visual associative learning paradigm and subsequent retrieval (immediate and delayed). Non-synesthesia inducing, achromatic fractal pair-associates were manipulated in visual similarity (high and low) and corresponded to high and low memory load conditions. The main finding was a learning and retrieval advantage of synesthetes relative to older, but not to younger, adults. Furthermore, the significance testing was supported with effect size measures and power calculations. Differences between synesthetes and older adults were found during dissimilar pair (high memory load) learning and retrieval at immediate and delayed stages. Moreover, we found a medium size difference between synesthetes and young adults for similar pair (low memory load) learning. Differences between young and older adults were also observed during associative learning and retrieval, but were of medium effect size coupled with low power. The results show a subtle associative memory advantage in synesthetes for non-synesthesia inducing stimuli, which can be detected against older adults. They also indicate that perceptual mechanisms (enhanced in synesthesia, declining as part of the aging process) can translate into a generic associative memory advantage, and may contribute to associative deficits accompanying healthy aging. PMID:25071664

  6. Associative memory advantage in grapheme-color synesthetes compared to older, but not young adults.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Gaby; Rothen, Nicolas; Ward, Jamie; Chan, Dennis; Sigala, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    People with grapheme-color synesthesia perceive enriched experiences of colors in response to graphemes (letters, digits). In this study, we examined whether these synesthetes show a generic associative memory advantage for stimuli that do not elicit a synesthetic color. We used a novel between group design (14 young synesthetes, 14 young, and 14 older adults) with a self-paced visual associative learning paradigm and subsequent retrieval (immediate and delayed). Non-synesthesia inducing, achromatic fractal pair-associates were manipulated in visual similarity (high and low) and corresponded to high and low memory load conditions. The main finding was a learning and retrieval advantage of synesthetes relative to older, but not to younger, adults. Furthermore, the significance testing was supported with effect size measures and power calculations. Differences between synesthetes and older adults were found during dissimilar pair (high memory load) learning and retrieval at immediate and delayed stages. Moreover, we found a medium size difference between synesthetes and young adults for similar pair (low memory load) learning. Differences between young and older adults were also observed during associative learning and retrieval, but were of medium effect size coupled with low power. The results show a subtle associative memory advantage in synesthetes for non-synesthesia inducing stimuli, which can be detected against older adults. They also indicate that perceptual mechanisms (enhanced in synesthesia, declining as part of the aging process) can translate into a generic associative memory advantage, and may contribute to associative deficits accompanying healthy aging. PMID:25071664

  7. Astronomical Significance of Ancient Monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonia, I.

    2011-06-01

    Astronomical significance of Gokhnari megalithic monument (eastern Georgia) is considered. Possible connection of Amirani ancient legend with Gokhnari monument is discussed. Concepts of starry practicality and solar stations are proposed.

  8. [Forensic significance of depressive syndromes].

    PubMed

    Lammel, M

    1987-10-01

    The three chief problems arising when an expert opinion is to be given are dealt with in brief, and the forensic significance of the depressive syndrome is described, without entering into the question of giving an opinion as to responsibility.

  9. Baby, you light-up my face: culture-general physiological responses to infants and culture-specific cognitive judgements of adults.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Gianluca; Nakazawa, Jun; Ogawa, Shota; Stival, Rita; Kawashima, Akiko; Putnick, Diane L; Bornstein, Marc H

    2014-01-01

    Infants universally elicit in adults a set of solicitous behaviors that are evolutionarily important for the survival of the species. However, exposure, experience, and prejudice appear to govern adults' social choice and ingroup attitudes towards other adults. In the current study, physiological arousal and behavioral judgments were assessed while adults processed unfamiliar infant and adult faces of ingroup vs. outgroup members in two contrasting cultures, Japan and Italy. Physiological arousal was investigated using the novel technique of infrared thermography and behavioral judgments using ratings. We uncovered a dissociation between physiological and behavioral responses. At the physiological level, both Japanese and Italian adults showed significant activation (increase of facial temperature) for both ingroup and outgroup infant faces. At the behavioral level, both Japanese and Italian adults showed significant preferences for ingroup adults. Arousal responses to infants appear to be mediated by the autonomic nervous system and are not dependent on direct caregiving exposure, but behavioral responses appear to be mediated by higher-order cognitive processing based on social acceptance and cultural exposure.

  10. Baby, You Light-Up My Face: Culture-General Physiological Responses to Infants and Culture-Specific Cognitive Judgements of Adults

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Gianluca; Nakazawa, Jun; Ogawa, Shota; Stival, Rita; Kawashima, Akiko; Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2014-01-01

    Infants universally elicit in adults a set of solicitous behaviors that are evolutionarily important for the survival of the species. However, exposure, experience, and prejudice appear to govern adults' social choice and ingroup attitudes towards other adults. In the current study, physiological arousal and behavioral judgments were assessed while adults processed unfamiliar infant and adult faces of ingroup vs. outgroup members in two contrasting cultures, Japan and Italy. Physiological arousal was investigated using the novel technique of infrared thermography and behavioral judgments using ratings. We uncovered a dissociation between physiological and behavioral responses. At the physiological level, both Japanese and Italian adults showed significant activation (increase of facial temperature) for both ingroup and outgroup infant faces. At the behavioral level, both Japanese and Italian adults showed significant preferences for ingroup adults. Arousal responses to infants appear to be mediated by the autonomic nervous system and are not dependent on direct caregiving exposure, but behavioral responses appear to be mediated by higher-order cognitive processing based on social acceptance and cultural exposure. PMID:25353362

  11. Statistical Significance vs. Practical Significance: An Exploration through Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Brittany L.; DeMaria, Andrea L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences between statistical and practical significance, including strengths and criticisms of both methods, as well as provide information surrounding the application of various effect sizes and confidence intervals within health education research. Provided are recommendations, explanations and…

  12. Caution, the Use of Humor May Lead to Confusion: Evaluation of a Video Podcast of the Midwest Teen Sex Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campo, Shelly; Askelson, Natoshia M.; Spies, Erica L.; Losch, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Web sites about sexual health lack the interactivity, humor, and "viral" nature required to attract young adults. The Midwest Teen Sex Show (www.midwestteensexshow.com) is an interactive, humor-based Web site that provides sexual health information to young adults. One episode from the Web site was shown to six focus groups of young women, ages…

  13. Response inhibition in adults with autism spectrum disorder compared to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Kate; Madden, Anya K; Bramham, Jessica; Russell, Ailsa J

    2011-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are hypothesised to involve core deficits in executive function. Previous studies have found evidence of a double dissociation between the disorders on specific executive functions (planning and response inhibition). To date most research has been conducted with children. No studies have directly compared the stable cognitive profile of adults. It was hypothesised that adults with ASD would show generally intact response inhibition whereas those with ADHD would show more global impairment. Participants were 24 adults aged 18-55 with high functioning ASD, 24 with ADHD, and 14 age and IQ matched controls. Participants completed three standardised measures of response inhibition. Participants with ASD had generally intact response inhibition but slow response latencies, possibly due to deficits in response initiation. Adults with ADHD did not show the more global impairments hypothesised. There were some significant differences between the clinical groups across measures of inhibition. In terms of performance style, adults with ASD were slow and accurate whilst those with ADHD showed an impulsive style.

  14. Astrobiological Significance of Microbial Extremophiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    The microflora of the cryosphere of planet Earth provides the best analogs for life forms that might be found in the permafrost or polar ice caps of Mars, near the surface of the cometary nuclei, or in the liquid water beneath and the ice crusts of icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The importance of study alkaliphilic microorganisms for astrobiology was enhanced by the findings of abundant carbonates and carbonate globules rimmed with possibly biogenic magnetites in association with the putative microfossils in the ALH84001 meteorite. Although the ALH84001 "nanofossils" were to small and simple to be unambiguously recognized as biogenic, they stimulated Astrobiology research and studies of microbial extremophiles and biomarkers in ancient rocks and meteorites. Recent studies of CI and CM carbonaceous meteorites have resulted in the detection of the well-preserved mineralized remains of coccoidal and filamentous microorganisms in cyanobacterial mats. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis has shown anomalous biogenic element ratios clearly indicating they are not recent biological contaminants. This paper reviews microbial extremophiles in context of their significance to Astrobiology. The study of halophilic microorganisms was started from work with saline soils and lakes, and one of the record of good growth for Haloferax mediterranei was shown at 30 percent NaC1. Although alkali-tolerant nitrifying bacteria had previously been reported, the first described alkaliphilic microorganism was the bacterium Streptococcus faecalis. Halophilic and alkaliphilic forms are relevant to conditions that might be found in closed impact basins and craters on Mars filled with evaporite deposits. The first obligately acidophilic bacterium described was Acidithiobacillus ferrooxydans (formally Thiobacillus ferrooxidans). Later thermophilic lithotrophic acidophiles were found, and the hyperacidophilic moderately thermophilic species of the genus Picrophilus were found to grow at negative p

  15. Contextual fear conditioning differs for infant, adolescent, and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Esmorís-Arranz, Francisco J; Méndez, Cástor; Spear, Norman E

    2008-07-01

    Contextual fear conditioning was tested in infant, adolescent, and adult rats in terms of Pavlovian-conditioned suppression. When a discrete auditory-conditioned stimulus (CS) was paired with footshock (unconditioned stimulus, US) within the largely olfactory context, infants and adolescents conditioned to the context with substantial effectiveness, but adult rats did not. When unpaired presentations of the CS and US occurred within the context, contextual fear conditioning was strong for adults, weak for infants, but about as strong for adolescents as when pairings of CS and US occurred in the context. Nonreinforced presentations of either the CS or context markedly reduced contextual fear conditioning in infants, but, in adolescents, CS extinction had no effect on contextual fear conditioning, although context extinction significantly reduced it. Neither CS extinction nor context extinction affected responding to the CS-context compound in infants, suggesting striking discrimination between the compound and its components. Female adolescents showed the same lack of effect of component extinction on response to the compound as infants, but CS extinction reduced responding to the compound in adolescent males, a sex difference seen also in adults. Theoretical implications are discussed for the development of perceptual-cognitive processing and hippocampus role.

  16. A Transgenic Rat for Specifically Inhibiting Adult Neurogenesis123

    PubMed Central

    Grigereit, Laura; Pickel, James

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The growth of research on adult neurogenesis and the development of new models and tools have greatly advanced our understanding of the function of newborn neurons in recent years. However, there are still significant limitations in the ability to identify the functions of adult neurogenesis in available models. Here we report a transgenic rat (TK rat) that expresses herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase in GFAP+ cells. Upon treating TK rats with the antiviral drug valganciclovir, granule cell neurogenesis can be completely inhibited in adulthood, in both the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. Interestingly, neurogenesis in the glomerular and external plexiform layers of the olfactory bulb was only partially inhibited, suggesting that some adult-born neurons in these regions derive from a distinct precursor population that does not express GFAP. Within the hippocampus, blockade of neurogenesis was rapid and nearly complete within 1 week of starting treatment. Preliminary behavioral analyses indicate that general anxiety levels and patterns of exploration are generally unaffected in neurogenesis-deficient rats. However, neurogenesis-deficient TK rats showed reduced sucrose preference, suggesting deficits in reward-related behaviors. We expect that TK rats will facilitate structural, physiological, and behavioral studies that complement those possible in existing models, broadly enhancing understanding of the function of adult neurogenesis. PMID:27257630

  17. [Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and the Treatment of ADHD in Adults].

    PubMed

    Auclair, Vickie; Harvey, Philippe-Olivier; Lepage, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background The international prevalence of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is estimated at 2.5%. ADHD is associated with serious impairment in academic, occupational, social and emotional functioning. Despite the debilitating nature of this disorder, few individuals with ADHD receive appropriate help. Further, although psychopharmacology is considered the first-line treatment of adults with ADHD, it is now recognized that medication alone may be insufficient. Thus, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a promising approach.Objectives This study aimed to review literature and investigate the efficacy of CBT, in reducing ADHD symptoms and comorbid conditions such anxiety and depression for adults with ADHD, by several studies through a meta-analysis.Methods We searched the literature from 1946 through 2015 using especially MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO. We used a random-effects model, Odds Ratios (OR) and Hedge's g.Results Data from 12 randomized controlled studies were included, totaling 575 subjects. The results showed a significant reduction in ADHD symptoms (Hedge's g = 0.95) and comorbid anxiety (Hedge's g = 0.39) and depression (Hedge's g = 0.30) for the CBT group in comparison with controls. Following the end of treatment, ADHD symptoms continue to improve, but not the comorbid conditions.Conclusion In summary, in adults with ADHD, CBT appears to be a promising treatment. PMID:27570962

  18. Do Losses Loom Larger for Children than Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Luking, Katherine R.; Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2015-01-01

    The large impact of loss of reward on behavior has been well documented in adult populations. However, whether responsiveness to loss relative to gain is similarly elevated in child versus adult populations remains unclear. It is also unclear whether relations between incentive behaviors and self-reported reward/punishment sensitivity are similar within different developmental stages. To investigate these questions, 7–10-year-old children (N=70) and young adults (N=70) completed the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) Scale, along with two probabilistic incentive tasks assessing gain approach and loss avoidance behavior. BIS/BAS subscales were calculated per Pagliaccio, Luking et al. 2015, which established an age invariant model of the BIS/BAS. Bias towards responses more frequently followed by gain feedback and away from responses more frequently followed by loss feedback, approach and avoidance behavior respectively, were quantified via signal detection statistics. Gain approach behavior did not differ across age groups, however children exhibited significantly elevated loss avoidance relative to adults. Children also showed greater reductions in accuracy and slower reaction times specifically following loss feedback relative to adults. Interestingly, despite age group differences in loss avoidance behavior, relations between self-report measures and approach/avoidance behaviors were similar across age groups. Participants reporting elevated motivation (BAS Drive) showed both elevated gain approach and elevated loss avoidance, with both types of behavior predicting unique variance in BAS Drive. Results highlight the often-neglected developmental and motivational roles of responsiveness to loss of reward. PMID:26524484

  19. Frontal networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Catani, Marco; Dell’Acqua, Flavio; Budisavljevic, Sanja; Howells, Henrietta; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Froudist-Walsh, Seán; D’Anna, Lucio; Thompson, Abigail; Sandrone, Stefano; Bullmore, Edward T.; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V.; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Ruigrok, Amber N. V.; Leemans, Alexander; Ecker, Christine; Consortium, MRC AIMS; Craig, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    It has been postulated that autism spectrum disorder is underpinned by an ‘atypical connectivity’ involving higher-order association brain regions. To test this hypothesis in a large cohort of adults with autism spectrum disorder we compared the white matter networks of 61 adult males with autism spectrum disorder and 61 neurotypical controls, using two complementary approaches to diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. First, we applied tract-based spatial statistics, a ‘whole brain’ non-hypothesis driven method, to identify differences in white matter networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Following this we used a tract-specific analysis, based on tractography, to carry out a more detailed analysis of individual tracts identified by tract-based spatial statistics. Finally, within the autism spectrum disorder group, we studied the relationship between diffusion measures and autistic symptom severity. Tract-based spatial statistics revealed that autism spectrum disorder was associated with significantly reduced fractional anisotropy in regions that included frontal lobe pathways. Tractography analysis of these specific pathways showed increased mean and perpendicular diffusivity, and reduced number of streamlines in the anterior and long segments of the arcuate fasciculus, cingulum and uncinate—predominantly in the left hemisphere. Abnormalities were also evident in the anterior portions of the corpus callosum connecting left and right frontal lobes. The degree of microstructural alteration of the arcuate and uncinate fasciculi was associated with severity of symptoms in language and social reciprocity in childhood. Our results indicated that autism spectrum disorder is a developmental condition associated with abnormal connectivity of the frontal lobes. Furthermore our findings showed that male adults with autism spectrum disorder have regional differences in brain anatomy, which correlate with specific aspects of autistic symptoms

  20. Frontal networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Catani, Marco; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Budisavljevic, Sanja; Howells, Henrietta; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Froudist-Walsh, Seán; D'Anna, Lucio; Thompson, Abigail; Sandrone, Stefano; Bullmore, Edward T; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V; Wheelwright, Sally J; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Leemans, Alexander; Ecker, Christine; Consortium, Mrc Aims; Craig, Michael C; Murphy, Declan G M

    2016-02-01

    It has been postulated that autism spectrum disorder is underpinned by an 'atypical connectivity' involving higher-order association brain regions. To test this hypothesis in a large cohort of adults with autism spectrum disorder we compared the white matter networks of 61 adult males with autism spectrum disorder and 61 neurotypical controls, using two complementary approaches to diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. First, we applied tract-based spatial statistics, a 'whole brain' non-hypothesis driven method, to identify differences in white matter networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Following this we used a tract-specific analysis, based on tractography, to carry out a more detailed analysis of individual tracts identified by tract-based spatial statistics. Finally, within the autism spectrum disorder group, we studied the relationship between diffusion measures and autistic symptom severity. Tract-based spatial statistics revealed that autism spectrum disorder was associated with significantly reduced fractional anisotropy in regions that included frontal lobe pathways. Tractography analysis of these specific pathways showed increased mean and perpendicular diffusivity, and reduced number of streamlines in the anterior and long segments of the arcuate fasciculus, cingulum and uncinate--predominantly in the left hemisphere. Abnormalities were also evident in the anterior portions of the corpus callosum connecting left and right frontal lobes. The degree of microstructural alteration of the arcuate and uncinate fasciculi was associated with severity of symptoms in language and social reciprocity in childhood. Our results indicated that autism spectrum disorder is a developmental condition associated with abnormal connectivity of the frontal lobes. Furthermore our findings showed that male adults with autism spectrum disorder have regional differences in brain anatomy, which correlate with specific aspects of autistic symptoms. Overall these