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  1. Sertoli cell dedifferentiation in human cryptorchidism and gender reassignment shows similarities between fetal environmental and adult medical treatment estrogen and antiandrogen exposure.

    PubMed

    Nistal, Manuel; Gonzalez-Peramato, Pilar; De Miguel, Maria P

    2013-12-01

    Studies over the last years show an increase in testicular cancer, hypospadias and cryptorchidism in industrial countries, leading to the concept of testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). It is hypothesized that TDS is caused by estrogen and antiandrogen exposure during fetal life, accompanied by incomplete maturation of testicular Sertoli cells (SC). However, it is not known if SC disruption is a primary cause or a response to fetal Leydig cell testosterone production changes. To determine if SC differentiation is directly affected by estrogens, we compared SC maturation between adult gender reassignment cases exposed to estrogen and antiandrogen therapy, and those of typical TDS in adult cryptorchidism. We found similar expression of immature SC markers M2A antigen, inhibin bodies and Anti Mullerian Hormone, and the absence of maturation marker androgen receptor in SC of both types of patients. These data supports the occurrence of true SC dedifferentiation caused by estrogen exposure in adult humans. Our data also suggests that SC maturation is directly disrupted in TDS.

  2. Face and body recognition show similar improvement during childhood.

    PubMed

    Bank, Samantha; Rhodes, Gillian; Read, Ainsley; Jeffery, Linda

    2015-09-01

    Adults are proficient in extracting identity cues from faces. This proficiency develops slowly during childhood, with performance not reaching adult levels until adolescence. Bodies are similar to faces in that they convey identity cues and rely on specialized perceptual mechanisms. However, it is currently unclear whether body recognition mirrors the slow development of face recognition during childhood. Recent evidence suggests that body recognition develops faster than face recognition. Here we measured body and face recognition in 6- and 10-year-old children and adults to determine whether these two skills show different amounts of improvement during childhood. We found no evidence that they do. Face and body recognition showed similar improvement with age, and children, like adults, were better at recognizing faces than bodies. These results suggest that the mechanisms of face and body memory mature at a similar rate or that improvement of more general cognitive and perceptual skills underlies improvement of both face and body recognition.

  3. Liberals and conservatives can show similarities in negativity bias.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Mark J; Wetherell, Geoffrey; Reyna, Christine

    2014-06-01

    Negativity bias may underlie the development of political ideologies, but liberals and conservatives are likely to respond to threats similarly. We review evidence from research on intolerance, motivated reasoning, and basic psychological threats that suggest liberals and conservatives are more similar than different when confronting threatening groups, situations, and information. PMID:24970429

  4. Adult age similarities in free recall output order and strategies.

    PubMed

    Wright, R E

    1982-01-01

    Adult age differences on a variety of free recall measures were examined. Although primary memory capacity was found to be the same in young and old adults, there was a smaller recency effect in the older group. Recall of primacy items was also less for that group. However, the pattern of serial position effects was the same for the two age groups. Similarly, there was no age difference in the development of the strategy of recalling recency items early in the output sequence. Young adults showed the typical negative recency effect in final free recall, and old adults the absence of a positive recency effect. The results indicate that the lower level of recall of old, relative to young, adults cannot be attributed to a qualitative difference in the way the two age groups approach a free recall task.

  5. Learning categories via rules and similarity: comparing adults and children.

    PubMed

    Rabi, Rahel; Miles, Sarah J; Minda, John Paul

    2015-03-01

    Two experiments explored the different strategies used by children and adults when learning new perceptual categories. Participants were asked to learn a set of categories for which both a single-feature rule and overall similarity would allow for perfect performance. Other rules allowed for suboptimal performance. Transfer stimuli (Experiments 1 and 2) and single features (Experiment 2) were presented after training to help determine how the categories were learned. In both experiments, we found that adults made significantly more optimal rule-based responses to the test stimuli than children. Children showed a variety of categorization styles, with a few relying on the optimal rules, many relying on suboptimal single-feature rules, and only a few relying on overall family resemblance. We interpret these results within a multiple systems framework, and we argue that children show the pattern they do because they lack the necessary cognitive resources to fully engage in hypothesis testing, rule selection, and verbally mediated category learning.

  6. Similarities and Differences for Swimming in Larval and Adult Lampreys.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Andrew D; Pale, Timothée; Messina, J Alex; Buso, Scott; Shebib, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The spinal locomotor networks controlling swimming behavior in larval and adult lampreys may have some important differences. As an initial step in comparing the locomotor systems in lampreys, in larval animals the relative timing of locomotor movements and muscle burst activity were determined and compared to those previously published for adults. In addition, the kinematics for free swimming in larval and adult lampreys was compared in detail for the first time. First, for swimming in larval animals, the neuromechanical phase lag between the onsets or terminations of muscle burst activity and maximum concave curvature of the body increased with increasing distance along the body, similar to that previously shown in adults. Second, in larval lampreys, but not adults, absolute swimming speed (U; mm s(-1)) increased with animal length (L). In contrast, normalized swimming speed (U'; body lengths [bl] s(-1)) did not increase with L in larval or adult animals. In both larval and adult lampreys, U' and normalized wave speed (V') increased with increasing tail-beat frequency. Wavelength and mechanical phase lag did not vary significantly with tail-beat frequency but were significantly different in larval and adult animals. Swimming in larval animals was characterized by a smaller U/V ratio, Froude efficiency, and Strouhal number than in adults, suggesting less efficient swimming for larval animals. In addition, during swimming in larval lampreys, normalized lateral head movements were larger and normalized lateral tail movements were smaller than for adults. Finally, larval animals had proportionally smaller lateral surface areas of the caudal body and fin areas than adults. These differences are well suited for larval sea lampreys that spend most of the time buried in mud/sand, in which swimming efficiency is not critical, compared to adults that would experience significant selection pressure to evolve higher-efficiency swimming to catch up to and attach to fish for

  7. [Invasive fungal infections in children: similarities and differences with adults].

    PubMed

    Ramos, J T; Francisco, L; Daoud, Z

    2016-09-01

    Invasive fungal infections (IFI) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised adults and children. The purpose of this review was to update the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic options in children, and to compare them with the adult population. Although there are important differences, the epidemiology, clinical features and risk factors for IFI have many similarities. Patient at risk include neutropenic hematology children, in whom Candida spp. y Aspergillus spp. predominate; primary immunodeficiencies, particularly chronic granulomatous disease with high susceptibility for Aspergillus spp.; and extremely premature infants, in whom C. albicans y C. parapsilosis are more prevalent. Premature babies are prone to dissemination, including the central nervous system. There are peculiarities in radiology and diagnostic biomarkers in children. In pulmonary aspergillosis, clasical signs in CT are usually absent. There is scant information on PCR and beta-D-glucan in children, and more limited on the performance of galactomannan enzyme immunoassay, that does not appear to be much different in neutropenic patients. There is a delay in the development of antifungals, limiting their use in children. Most azoles require therapeutic drug monitoring in children to optimize its safety and effectiveness. Pediatric treatment recommendations are mainly extrapolated from results of clinical trials performed in adults. There is no evidence for the benefit of preemptive therapy in children. It is necessary to foster specific pediatric studies with current and new antifungals to evaluate their pharmacokinetics, safety, and effectiveness at different ages in the pediatric population. PMID:27608317

  8. Similar Representations of Sequence Knowledge in Young and Older Adults: A Study of Effector Independent Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Barnhoorn, Jonathan S.; Döhring, Falko R.; Van Asseldonk, Edwin H. F.; Verwey, Willem B.

    2016-01-01

    Older adults show reduced motor performance and changes in motor skill development. To better understand these changes, we studied differences in sequence knowledge representations between young and older adults using a transfer task. Transfer, or the ability to apply motor skills flexibly, is highly relevant in day-to-day motor activity and facilitates generalization of learning to new contexts. By using movement types that are completely unrelated in terms of muscle activation and response location, we focused on transfer facilitated by the early, visuospatial system. We tested 32 right-handed older adults (65–75) and 32 young adults (18–30). During practice of a discrete sequence production task, participants learned two six-element sequences using either unimanual key-presses (KPs) or by moving a lever with lower arm flexion-extension (FE) movements. Each sequence was performed 144 times. They then performed a test phase consisting of familiar and random sequences performed with the type of movements not used during practice. Both age groups displayed transfer from FE to KP movements as indicated by faster performance on the familiar sequences in the test phase. Only young adults transferred their sequence knowledge from KP to FE movements. In both directions, the young showed higher transfer than older adults. These results suggest that the older participants, like the young, represented their sequences in an abstract visuospatial manner. Transfer was asymmetric in both age groups: there was more transfer from FE to KP movements than vice versa. This similar asymmetry is a further indication that the types of representations that older adults develop are comparable to those that young adults develop. We furthermore found that older adults improved less during FE practice, gained less explicit knowledge, displayed a smaller visuospatial working memory capacity and had lower processing speed than young adults. Despite the many differences between young and

  9. Similar Representations of Sequence Knowledge in Young and Older Adults: A Study of Effector Independent Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Barnhoorn, Jonathan S.; Döhring, Falko R.; Van Asseldonk, Edwin H. F.; Verwey, Willem B.

    2016-01-01

    Older adults show reduced motor performance and changes in motor skill development. To better understand these changes, we studied differences in sequence knowledge representations between young and older adults using a transfer task. Transfer, or the ability to apply motor skills flexibly, is highly relevant in day-to-day motor activity and facilitates generalization of learning to new contexts. By using movement types that are completely unrelated in terms of muscle activation and response location, we focused on transfer facilitated by the early, visuospatial system. We tested 32 right-handed older adults (65–75) and 32 young adults (18–30). During practice of a discrete sequence production task, participants learned two six-element sequences using either unimanual key-presses (KPs) or by moving a lever with lower arm flexion-extension (FE) movements. Each sequence was performed 144 times. They then performed a test phase consisting of familiar and random sequences performed with the type of movements not used during practice. Both age groups displayed transfer from FE to KP movements as indicated by faster performance on the familiar sequences in the test phase. Only young adults transferred their sequence knowledge from KP to FE movements. In both directions, the young showed higher transfer than older adults. These results suggest that the older participants, like the young, represented their sequences in an abstract visuospatial manner. Transfer was asymmetric in both age groups: there was more transfer from FE to KP movements than vice versa. This similar asymmetry is a further indication that the types of representations that older adults develop are comparable to those that young adults develop. We furthermore found that older adults improved less during FE practice, gained less explicit knowledge, displayed a smaller visuospatial working memory capacity and had lower processing speed than young adults. Despite the many differences between young and

  10. Similar Representations of Sequence Knowledge in Young and Older Adults: A Study of Effector Independent Transfer.

    PubMed

    Barnhoorn, Jonathan S; Döhring, Falko R; Van Asseldonk, Edwin H F; Verwey, Willem B

    2016-01-01

    Older adults show reduced motor performance and changes in motor skill development. To better understand these changes, we studied differences in sequence knowledge representations between young and older adults using a transfer task. Transfer, or the ability to apply motor skills flexibly, is highly relevant in day-to-day motor activity and facilitates generalization of learning to new contexts. By using movement types that are completely unrelated in terms of muscle activation and response location, we focused on transfer facilitated by the early, visuospatial system. We tested 32 right-handed older adults (65-75) and 32 young adults (18-30). During practice of a discrete sequence production task, participants learned two six-element sequences using either unimanual key-presses (KPs) or by moving a lever with lower arm flexion-extension (FE) movements. Each sequence was performed 144 times. They then performed a test phase consisting of familiar and random sequences performed with the type of movements not used during practice. Both age groups displayed transfer from FE to KP movements as indicated by faster performance on the familiar sequences in the test phase. Only young adults transferred their sequence knowledge from KP to FE movements. In both directions, the young showed higher transfer than older adults. These results suggest that the older participants, like the young, represented their sequences in an abstract visuospatial manner. Transfer was asymmetric in both age groups: there was more transfer from FE to KP movements than vice versa. This similar asymmetry is a further indication that the types of representations that older adults develop are comparable to those that young adults develop. We furthermore found that older adults improved less during FE practice, gained less explicit knowledge, displayed a smaller visuospatial working memory capacity and had lower processing speed than young adults. Despite the many differences between young and older

  11. Global mammal beta diversity shows parallel assemblage structure in similar but isolated environments.

    PubMed

    Penone, Caterina; Weinstein, Ben G; Graham, Catherine H; Brooks, Thomas M; Rondinini, Carlo; Hedges, S Blair; Davidson, Ana D; Costa, Gabriel C

    2016-08-31

    The taxonomic, phylogenetic and trait dimensions of beta diversity each provide us unique insights into the importance of historical isolation and environmental conditions in shaping global diversity. These three dimensions should, in general, be positively correlated. However, if similar environmental conditions filter species with similar trait values, then assemblages located in similar environmental conditions, but separated by large dispersal barriers, may show high taxonomic, high phylogenetic, but low trait beta diversity. Conversely, we expect lower phylogenetic diversity, but higher trait biodiversity among assemblages that are connected but are in differing environmental conditions. We calculated all pairwise comparisons of approximately 110 × 110 km grid cells across the globe for more than 5000 mammal species (approx. 70 million comparisons). We considered realms as units representing geographical distance and historical isolation and biomes as units with similar environmental conditions. While beta diversity dimensions were generally correlated, we highlight geographical regions of decoupling among beta diversity dimensions. Our analysis shows that assemblages from tropical forests in different realms had low trait dissimilarity while phylogenetic beta diversity was significantly higher than expected, suggesting potential convergent evolution. Low trait beta diversity was surprisingly not found between isolated deserts, despite harsh environmental conditions. Overall, our results provide evidence for parallel assemblage structure of mammal assemblages driven by environmental conditions at a global scale. PMID:27559061

  12. Consider the Source: Adolescents and Adults Similarly Follow Older Adult Advice More than Peer Advice

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Gloria A.; Dellarco, Danielle V.; Casey, B. J.; Hartley, Catherine A.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals learn which of their actions are likely to be rewarded through trial and error. This form of learning is critical for adapting to new situations, which adolescents frequently encounter. Adolescents are also greatly influenced by their peers. The current study tested the extent to which adolescents rely on peer advice to guide their actions. Adolescent and young adult participants completed a probabilistic learning task in which they chose between four pairs of stimuli with different reinforcement probabilities, with one stimulus in each pair more frequently rewarded. Participants received advice about two of these pairs, once from a similarly aged peer and once from an older adult. Crucially, this advice was inaccurate, enabling the dissociation between experience-based and instruction-based learning. Adolescents and adults learned equally well from experience and no age group difference was evident in the overall influence of advice on choices. Surprisingly, when considering the source of advice, there was no evident influence of peer advice on adolescent choices. However, both adolescents and adults were biased toward choosing the stimulus recommended by the older adult. Contrary to conventional wisdom, these data suggest that adolescents may prioritize the advice of older adults over that of peers in certain decision-making contexts. PMID:26030134

  13. Regular Fat and Reduced Fat Dairy Products Show Similar Associations with Markers of Adolescent Cardiometabolic Health.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Therese A; Bremner, Alexandra P; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Wilson, Charlotte; Hafekost, Katherine; Ambrosini, Gina L; Huang, Rae Chi; Oddy, Wendy H

    2016-01-02

    Reduced fat dairy products are generally recommended for adults and children over the age of two years. However, emerging evidence suggests that dairy fat may not have detrimental health effects. We aimed to investigate prospective associations between consumption of regular versus reduced fat dairy products and cardiometabolic risk factors from early to late adolescence. In the West Australian Raine Study, dairy intake was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in 860 adolescents at 14 and 17-year follow-ups; 582 of these also had blood biochemistry at both points. Using generalized estimating equations, we examined associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Models incorporated reduced fat and regular fat dairy together (in serves/day) and were adjusted for a range of factors including overall dietary pattern. In boys, there was a mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 0.66 mmHg (95% CI 0.23-1.09) per serve of reduced fat dairy and an independent, additional reduction of 0.47 mmHg (95% CI 0.04-0.90) per serve of regular fat dairy. Each additional serve of reduced fat dairy was associated with a 2% reduction in HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.97-0.995) and a 2% increase in total: HDL-cholesterol ratio (95% CI 1.002-1.03); these associations were not observed with regular fat products. In girls, there were no significant independent associations observed in fully adjusted models. Although regular fat dairy was associated with a slightly better cholesterol profile in boys, overall, intakes of both regular fat and reduced fat dairy products were associated with similar cardiometabolic associations in adolescents.

  14. Regular Fat and Reduced Fat Dairy Products Show Similar Associations with Markers of Adolescent Cardiometabolic Health

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Therese A.; Bremner, Alexandra P.; Mori, Trevor A.; Beilin, Lawrence J.; Wilson, Charlotte; Hafekost, Katherine; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Huang, Rae Chi; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced fat dairy products are generally recommended for adults and children over the age of two years. However, emerging evidence suggests that dairy fat may not have detrimental health effects. We aimed to investigate prospective associations between consumption of regular versus reduced fat dairy products and cardiometabolic risk factors from early to late adolescence. In the West Australian Raine Study, dairy intake was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in 860 adolescents at 14 and 17-year follow-ups; 582 of these also had blood biochemistry at both points. Using generalized estimating equations, we examined associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Models incorporated reduced fat and regular fat dairy together (in serves/day) and were adjusted for a range of factors including overall dietary pattern. In boys, there was a mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 0.66 mmHg (95% CI 0.23–1.09) per serve of reduced fat dairy and an independent, additional reduction of 0.47 mmHg (95% CI 0.04–0.90) per serve of regular fat dairy. Each additional serve of reduced fat dairy was associated with a 2% reduction in HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.97–0.995) and a 2% increase in total: HDL-cholesterol ratio (95% CI 1.002–1.03); these associations were not observed with regular fat products. In girls, there were no significant independent associations observed in fully adjusted models. Although regular fat dairy was associated with a slightly better cholesterol profile in boys, overall, intakes of both regular fat and reduced fat dairy products were associated with similar cardiometabolic associations in adolescents. PMID:26729163

  15. Bipolar I disorder and major depressive disorder show similar brain activation during depression

    PubMed Central

    Cerullo, Michael A; Eliassen, James C; Smith, Christopher T; Fleck, David E; Nelson, Erik B; Strawn, Jeffrey R; Lamy, Martine; DelBello, Melissa P; Adler, Caleb M; Strakowski, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Despite different treatments and course of illness, depressive symptoms appear similar in major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar I disorder (BP-I). This similarity of depressive symptoms suggests significant overlap in brain pathways underlying neurovegetative, mood, and cognitive symptoms of depression. These shared brain regions might be expected to exhibit similar activation in individuals with MDD and BP-I during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods fMRI was used to compare regional brain activation in participants with BP-I (n = 25) and MDD (n = 25) during a depressive episode as well as 25 healthy comparison (HC) participants. During the scans, participants performed an attentional task that incorporated emotional pictures. Results During the viewing of emotional images, subjects with BP-I showed decreased activation in the middle occipital gyrus, lingual gyrus, and middle temporal gyrus compared to both subjects with MDD and HC participants. During attentional processing, participants with MDD had increased activation in the parahippocampus, parietal lobe, and postcentral gyrus. However, among these regions, only the postcentral gyrus also showed differences between MDD and HC participants. Conclusions No differences in cortico-limbic regions were found between participants with BP-I and MDD during depression. Instead, the major differences occurred in primary and secondary visual processing regions with decreased activation in these regions in BP-I compared to major depression. These differences were driven by abnormal decreases in activation seen in the participants with BP-I. Posterior activation changes are a common finding in studies across mood states in participants with BP-I. PMID:24990479

  16. FTIR spectroscopy shows structural similarities between photosystems II from cyanobacteria and spinach.

    PubMed

    Remy, André; Niklas, Jens; Kuhl, Helena; Kellers, Petra; Schott, Thomas; Rögner, Matthias; Gerwert, Klaus

    2004-02-01

    Photosystem II (PSII), an essential component of oxygenic photosynthesis, is a membrane-bound pigment protein complex found in green plants and cyanobacteria. Whereas the molecular structure of cyanobacterial PSII has been resolved with at least medium resolution [Zouni, A., Witt, H.-T., Kern, J., Fromme, P., Krauss, N., Saenger, W. & Orth, P. (2001) Nature (London) 409, 739-743; Kamiya, N. & Shen, J.R. (2003) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 100, 98-103], the structure of higher plant PSII is only known at low resolution. Therefore Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) difference spectroscopy was used to compare PSII from both Thermosynechococcus elongatus and Synechocystis PCC6803 core complexes with PSII-enriched membranes from spinach (BBY). FTIR difference spectra of T. elongatus core complexes are presented for several different intermediates. As the FTIR difference spectra show close similarities among the three species, the structural arrangement of cofactors in PSII and their interactions with the protein microenvironment during photosynthetic charge separation must be very similar in higher plant PSII and cyanobacterial PSII. A structural model of higher plant PSII can therefore be predicted from the structure of cyanobacterial PSII.

  17. Similarity of scattering rates in metals showing T-linear resistivity.

    PubMed

    Bruin, J A N; Sakai, H; Perry, R S; Mackenzie, A P

    2013-02-15

    Many exotic compounds, such as cuprate superconductors and heavy fermion materials, exhibit a linear in temperature (T) resistivity, the origin of which is not well understood. We found that the resistivity of the quantum critical metal Sr(3)Ru(2)O(7) is also T-linear at the critical magnetic field of 7.9 T. Using the precise existing data for the Fermi surface topography and quasiparticle velocities of Sr(3)Ru(2)O(7), we show that in the region of the T-linear resistivity, the scattering rate per kelvin is well approximated by the ratio of the Boltzmann constant to the Planck constant divided by 2π. Extending the analysis to a number of other materials reveals similar results in the T-linear region, in spite of large differences in the microscopic origins of the scattering.

  18. Fathers Show Modifications of Infant-Directed Action Similar to that of Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, M. D.; Przednowek, Malgorzata

    2012-01-01

    Mothers' actions are more enthusiastic, simple, and repetitive when demonstrating novel object properties to their infants than to adults, a behavioral modification called "infant-directed action" by Brand and colleagues (2002). The current study tested whether fathers also tailor their behavior when interacting with infants and whether this…

  19. Plant defenses against parasitic plants show similarities to those induced by herbivores and pathogens.

    PubMed

    Runyon, Justin B; Mescher, Mark C; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2010-08-01

    Herbivores and pathogens come quickly to mind when one thinks of the biotic challenges faced by plants. Important but less appreciated enemies are parasitic plants, which can have important consequences for the fitness and survival of their hosts. Our knowledge of plant perception, signaling, and response to herbivores and pathogens has expanded rapidly in recent years, but information is generally lacking for parasitic species. In a recent paper we reported that some of the same defense responses induced by herbivores and pathogens--notably increases in jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), and a hypersensitive-like response (HLR)--also occur in tomato plants upon attack by the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona (field dodder). Parasitism induced a distinct pattern of JA and SA accumulation, and growth trials using genetically-altered tomato hosts suggested that both JA and SA govern effective defenses against the parasite, though the extent of the response varied with host plant age. Here we discuss similarities between the induced responses we observed in response to Cuscuta parasitism to those previously described for herbivores and pathogens and present new data showing that trichomes should be added to the list of plant defenses that act against multiple enemies and across Kingdoms.

  20. Post-cranial skeletons of hypothyroid cretins show a similar anatomical mosaic as Homo floresiensis.

    PubMed

    Oxnard, Charles; Obendorf, Peter J; Kefford, Ben J

    2010-01-01

    Human remains, some as recent as 15 thousand years, from Liang Bua (LB) on the Indonesian island of Flores have been attributed to a new species, Homo floresiensis. The definition includes a mosaic of features, some like modern humans (hence derived: genus Homo), some like modern apes and australopithecines (hence primitive: not species sapiens), and some unique (hence new species: floresiensis). Conversely, because only modern humans (H. sapiens) are known in this region in the last 40 thousand years, these individuals have also been suggested to be genetic human dwarfs. Such dwarfs resemble small humans and do not show the mosaic combination of the most complete individuals, LB1 and LB6, so this idea has been largely dismissed. We have previously shown that some features of the cranium of hypothyroid cretins are like those of LB1. Here we examine cretin postcrania to see if they show anatomical mosaics like H. floresiensis. We find that hypothyroid cretins share at least 10 postcranial features with Homo floresiensis and unaffected humans not found in apes (or australopithecines when materials permit). They share with H. floresiensis, modern apes and australopithecines at least 11 postcranial features not found in unaffected humans. They share with H. floresiensis, at least 8 features not found in apes, australopithecines or unaffected humans. Sixteen features can be rendered metrically and multivariate analyses demonstrate that H. floresiensis co-locates with cretins, both being markedly separate from humans and chimpanzees (P<0.001: from analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) over all variables, ANOSIM, global R>0.999). We therefore conclude that LB1 and LB6, at least, are, most likely, endemic cretins from a population of unaffected Homo sapiens. This is consistent with recent hypothyroid endemic cretinism throughout Indonesia, including the nearby island of Bali. PMID:20885948

  1. Post-Cranial Skeletons of Hypothyroid Cretins Show a Similar Anatomical Mosaic as Homo floresiensis

    PubMed Central

    Oxnard, Charles; Obendorf, Peter J.; Kefford, Ben J.

    2010-01-01

    Human remains, some as recent as 15 thousand years, from Liang Bua (LB) on the Indonesian island of Flores have been attributed to a new species, Homo floresiensis. The definition includes a mosaic of features, some like modern humans (hence derived: genus Homo), some like modern apes and australopithecines (hence primitive: not species sapiens), and some unique (hence new species: floresiensis). Conversely, because only modern humans (H. sapiens) are known in this region in the last 40 thousand years, these individuals have also been suggested to be genetic human dwarfs. Such dwarfs resemble small humans and do not show the mosaic combination of the most complete individuals, LB1 and LB6, so this idea has been largely dismissed. We have previously shown that some features of the cranium of hypothyroid cretins are like those of LB1. Here we examine cretin postcrania to see if they show anatomical mosaics like H. floresiensis. We find that hypothyroid cretins share at least 10 postcranial features with Homo floresiensis and unaffected humans not found in apes (or australopithecines when materials permit). They share with H. floresiensis, modern apes and australopithecines at least 11 postcranial features not found in unaffected humans. They share with H. floresiensis, at least 8 features not found in apes, australopithecines or unaffected humans. Sixteen features can be rendered metrically and multivariate analyses demonstrate that H. floresiensis co-locates with cretins, both being markedly separate from humans and chimpanzees (P<0.001: from analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) over all variables, ANOSIM, global R>0.999). We therefore conclude that LB1 and LB6, at least, are, most likely, endemic cretins from a population of unaffected Homo sapiens. This is consistent with recent hypothyroid endemic cretinism throughout Indonesia, including the nearby island of Bali. PMID:20885948

  2. Post-cranial skeletons of hypothyroid cretins show a similar anatomical mosaic as Homo floresiensis.

    PubMed

    Oxnard, Charles; Obendorf, Peter J; Kefford, Ben J

    2010-09-27

    Human remains, some as recent as 15 thousand years, from Liang Bua (LB) on the Indonesian island of Flores have been attributed to a new species, Homo floresiensis. The definition includes a mosaic of features, some like modern humans (hence derived: genus Homo), some like modern apes and australopithecines (hence primitive: not species sapiens), and some unique (hence new species: floresiensis). Conversely, because only modern humans (H. sapiens) are known in this region in the last 40 thousand years, these individuals have also been suggested to be genetic human dwarfs. Such dwarfs resemble small humans and do not show the mosaic combination of the most complete individuals, LB1 and LB6, so this idea has been largely dismissed. We have previously shown that some features of the cranium of hypothyroid cretins are like those of LB1. Here we examine cretin postcrania to see if they show anatomical mosaics like H. floresiensis. We find that hypothyroid cretins share at least 10 postcranial features with Homo floresiensis and unaffected humans not found in apes (or australopithecines when materials permit). They share with H. floresiensis, modern apes and australopithecines at least 11 postcranial features not found in unaffected humans. They share with H. floresiensis, at least 8 features not found in apes, australopithecines or unaffected humans. Sixteen features can be rendered metrically and multivariate analyses demonstrate that H. floresiensis co-locates with cretins, both being markedly separate from humans and chimpanzees (P<0.001: from analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) over all variables, ANOSIM, global R>0.999). We therefore conclude that LB1 and LB6, at least, are, most likely, endemic cretins from a population of unaffected Homo sapiens. This is consistent with recent hypothyroid endemic cretinism throughout Indonesia, including the nearby island of Bali.

  3. High pressure spray with water shows similar efficiency to trimming in controlling microorganisms on poultry carcasses.

    PubMed

    Giombelli, Audecir; Hammerschmitt, Dandara; Cerutti, Marisete F; Chiarini, Eb; Landgraf, Mariza; Franco, Bernardete D G M; Destro, Maria T

    2015-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate a high pressure spray (HPS) with water as an alternative to trimming to remove gastrointestinal contamination on poultry carcasses and improve microbiological quality. The study was conducted under commercial conditions in 5 slaughter plants with one plant presenting approximately 5% of carcasses with visible gastrointestinal contamination (VGC), and the others showing approximately 12% of VGC. In all 5 plants, carcasses were sampled from the slaughter line and separated into 6 groups corresponding to 3 different treatments: A) carcasses with VGC before and after trimming; B) carcasses with VGC before and after HPS; and C) carcasses with no VGC before and after HPS. At the end of Trial A and prior to Trials B and C, an HPS equipment was installed before the end of the slaughter line. The HPS equipment was operated with 10 kgf/cm² of pressure and 1.5 L of potable water per carcass. Carcasses were analyzed using a rinsing procedure, and the following microbiological parameters were evaluated: the prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter, the abundance of Escherichia coli (EC), Enterobacteriaceae (EB), and the Total Viable Count (TVC). Salmonella was found in all plants at a prevalence ranging from 0.8% (plant 1) to 17.3% (plant 5), and the difference between plants was significant (P < 0.05%). The prevalence of Campylobacter ranged from 2.1 (plant 1) to 18.6% (plant 4) (P < 0.05%). The prevalence of Campylobacter was similar in plants 2, 3, and 5, and a significant difference (P < 0.05%) was observed compared to plants 1 and 4. In all plants, the EC, EB, and TVC counts did not show a significant difference (P > 0.05%) in any treatments. These results demonstrate that HPS with water is an alternative method for removing VGC and improving or maintaining the microbiological quality and safety of broiler carcasses.

  4. High pressure spray with water shows similar efficiency to trimming in controlling microorganisms on poultry carcasses.

    PubMed

    Giombelli, Audecir; Hammerschmitt, Dandara; Cerutti, Marisete F; Chiarini, Eb; Landgraf, Mariza; Franco, Bernardete D G M; Destro, Maria T

    2015-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate a high pressure spray (HPS) with water as an alternative to trimming to remove gastrointestinal contamination on poultry carcasses and improve microbiological quality. The study was conducted under commercial conditions in 5 slaughter plants with one plant presenting approximately 5% of carcasses with visible gastrointestinal contamination (VGC), and the others showing approximately 12% of VGC. In all 5 plants, carcasses were sampled from the slaughter line and separated into 6 groups corresponding to 3 different treatments: A) carcasses with VGC before and after trimming; B) carcasses with VGC before and after HPS; and C) carcasses with no VGC before and after HPS. At the end of Trial A and prior to Trials B and C, an HPS equipment was installed before the end of the slaughter line. The HPS equipment was operated with 10 kgf/cm² of pressure and 1.5 L of potable water per carcass. Carcasses were analyzed using a rinsing procedure, and the following microbiological parameters were evaluated: the prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter, the abundance of Escherichia coli (EC), Enterobacteriaceae (EB), and the Total Viable Count (TVC). Salmonella was found in all plants at a prevalence ranging from 0.8% (plant 1) to 17.3% (plant 5), and the difference between plants was significant (P < 0.05%). The prevalence of Campylobacter ranged from 2.1 (plant 1) to 18.6% (plant 4) (P < 0.05%). The prevalence of Campylobacter was similar in plants 2, 3, and 5, and a significant difference (P < 0.05%) was observed compared to plants 1 and 4. In all plants, the EC, EB, and TVC counts did not show a significant difference (P > 0.05%) in any treatments. These results demonstrate that HPS with water is an alternative method for removing VGC and improving or maintaining the microbiological quality and safety of broiler carcasses. PMID:26286999

  5. Lens specific RLIP76 transgenic mice show a phenotype similar to microphthalmia.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Mukesh; Sharma, Rajendra; Yadav, Sushma; Wakamiya, Maki; Chaudhary, Pankaj; Awasthi, Sanjay; Awasthi, Yogesh C

    2014-01-01

    RALBP1/RLIP76 is a ubiquitously expressed protein, involved in promotion and regulation of functions initiated by Ral and R-Ras small GTPases. Presence of multiple domains in its structure enables RLIP76 to be involved in a number of physiological processes such as endocytosis, exocytosis, mitochondrial fission, actin cytoskeleton remodeling, and transport of exogenous and endogenous toxicants. Previously, we have established that RLIP76 provides protection to ocular tissues against oxidative stress by transporting the glutathione-conjugates of the toxic, electrophilic products of lipid peroxidation generated during oxidative stress. Therefore, we developed lens specific RLIP76 transgenic mice (lensRLIP76 Tg) to elucidate the role of RLIP76 in protection against oxidative stress, but these transgenic mice showed impaired lens development and a phenotype with small eyes similar to that observed in microphthalmia. These findings prompted us to investigate the mechanisms via which RLIP76 affects lens and eye development. In the present study, we report engineering of lensRLIP76 Tg mice, characterization of the associated phenotype, and the possible molecular mechanisms that lead to the impaired development of eye and lens in these mice. The results of microarray array analysis indicate that the genes involved in pathways for G-Protein signaling, actin cytoskeleton reorganization, endocytosis, and apoptosis are affected in these transgenic mice. The expression of transcription factors, Pax6, Hsf1, and Hsf4b known to be involved in lens development is down regulated in the lens of these Tg mice. However, the expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps), the downstream targets of Hsfs, is differentially affected in the lens showing down regulation of Hsp27, Hsp40, up regulation of Hsp60, and no effect on Hsp70 and Hsp90 expression. The disruption in the organization of actin cytoskeleton of these Tg mice was associated with the inhibition of the activation of Cdc42 and

  6. Slc:Wistar outbred rats show close genetic similarity with F344 inbred rats.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Satoshi; Serikawa, Tadao; Kuramoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Although Slc:Wistar rats are used widely in biomedical research as outbred rats, close similarities in growth curves, survival rates, and immunological and biochemical phenotypes have been reported between Slc:Wistar and F344 inbred rats. We reported previously that nine genetic variations that were fixed in Slc:Wistar rats had identical genotypes in F344 rats. Here, we examined the genetic characteristics of Slc:Wistar rats using 27 simple-sequence length polymorphism (SSLP) markers and compared them with other Wistar stocks available in Japan and with some F344 strains. Among 27 SSLP loci, 23 (85%) were fixed in the Slc:Wistar rats, which was the highest among the other Wistar stocks. The 23 fixed loci shared identical genotypes with corresponding loci in F344 rats. Further, the predominant allele types in the unfixed loci had allele frequencies as high as 80%, and these alleles were identical in the F344 rats. When the nine genetic variations reported previously are added, a total of 32 (89%) out of the 36 loci examined were fixed and identical in the Slc:Wistar and F344 rat genomes. These findings indicate the low genetic variation in Slc:Wistar rats and the high genetic similarity between the Slc:Wistar and F344 inbred rats. This study demonstrates the importance of characterizing outbred rats and the need to pay ample attention to the genetic characteristics the Slc:Wistar rats for their proper use.

  7. De Novo Genome Assembly Shows Genome Wide Similarity between Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense

    PubMed Central

    Sistrom, Mark; Evans, Benjamin; Benoit, Joshua; Balmer, Oliver; Aksoy, Serap; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2016-01-01

    Background Trypanosoma brucei is a eukaryotic pathogen which causes African trypanosomiasis. It is notable for its variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) coat, which undergoes antigenic variation enabled by a large suite of VSG pseudogenes, allowing for persistent evasion of host adaptive immunity. While Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (Tbr) and T. b gambiense (Tbg) are human infective, related T. b. brucei (Tbb) is cleared by human sera. A single gene, the Serum Resistance Associated (SRA) gene, confers Tbr its human infectivity phenotype. Potential genetic recombination of this gene between Tbr and non-human infective Tbb strains has significant epidemiological consequences for Human African Trypanosomiasis outbreaks. Results Using long and short read whole genome sequencing, we generated a hybrid de novo assembly of a Tbr strain, producing 4,210 scaffolds totaling approximately 38.8 megabases, which comprise a significant proportion of the Tbr genome, and thus represents a valuable tool for a comparative genomics analyses among human and non-human infective T. brucei and future complete genome assembly. We detected 5,970 putative genes, of which two, an alcohol oxidoreductase and a pentatricopeptide repeat-containing protein, were members of gene families common to all T. brucei subspecies, but variants specific to the Tbr strain sequenced in this study. Our findings confirmed the extremely high level of genomic similarity between the two parasite subspecies found in other studies. Conclusions We confirm at the whole genome level high similarity between the two Tbb and Tbr strains studied. The discovery of extremely minor genomic differentiation between Tbb and Tbr suggests that the transference of the SRA gene via genetic recombination could potentially result in novel human infective strains, thus all genetic backgrounds of T. brucei should be considered potentially human infective in regions where Tbr is prevalent. PMID:26910229

  8. Ulysses transposable element of Drosophila shows high structural similarities to functional domains of retroviruses.

    PubMed

    Evgen'ev, M B; Corces, V G; Lankenau, D H

    1992-06-01

    We have determined the DNA structure of the Ulysses transposable element of Drosophila virilis and found that this transposon is 10,653 bp and is flanked by two unusually large direct repeats 2136 bp long. Ulysses shows the characteristic organization of LTR-containing retrotransposons, with matrix and capsid protein domains encoded in the first open reading frame. In addition, Ulysses contains protease, reverse transcriptase, RNase H and integrase domains encoded in the second open reading frame. Ulysses lacks a third open reading frame present in some retrotransposons that could encode an env-like protein. A dendrogram analysis based on multiple alignments of the protease, reverse transcriptase, RNase H, integrase and tRNA primer binding site of all known Drosophila LTR-containing retrotransposon sequences establishes a phylogenetic relationship of Ulysses to other retrotransposons and suggests that Ulysses belongs to a new family of this type of elements.

  9. Older and younger adults' first impressions from faces: similar in agreement but different in positivity.

    PubMed

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A; Franklin, Robert G; Hillman, Suzanne; Boc, Henry

    2013-03-01

    People readily form first impressions from faces, with consensual judgments that have significant social consequences. Similar impressions are shown by children, young adults (YA), and people from diverse cultures. However, this is the first study to systematically investigate older adults' (OA) impressions. OA and YA showed similar levels of within-age agreement in their impressions of competence, health, hostility, and trustworthiness. Both groups also showed stronger within- than between-age agreement. Consistent with other evidence for age-related increases in positivity, OA showed more positive impressions of the health, hostility, and trustworthiness of faces. These effects tended to be strongest for the most negatively valenced faces, suggesting that they derive from OA lesser processing of negative cues rather than greater processing of positive cues. An own-age bias in impressions was limited to greater OA positivity in impressions of the hostility of older faces, but not younger ones. Although OA and YA differed in vision and executive function, only OA slower processing speed contributed to age differences in impression positivity. Positivity effects in OA have not been previously linked to processing speed, and research investigating possible explanations for this effect would be worthwhile. PMID:23276216

  10. Older and younger adults' first impressions from faces: similar in agreement but different in positivity.

    PubMed

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A; Franklin, Robert G; Hillman, Suzanne; Boc, Henry

    2013-03-01

    People readily form first impressions from faces, with consensual judgments that have significant social consequences. Similar impressions are shown by children, young adults (YA), and people from diverse cultures. However, this is the first study to systematically investigate older adults' (OA) impressions. OA and YA showed similar levels of within-age agreement in their impressions of competence, health, hostility, and trustworthiness. Both groups also showed stronger within- than between-age agreement. Consistent with other evidence for age-related increases in positivity, OA showed more positive impressions of the health, hostility, and trustworthiness of faces. These effects tended to be strongest for the most negatively valenced faces, suggesting that they derive from OA lesser processing of negative cues rather than greater processing of positive cues. An own-age bias in impressions was limited to greater OA positivity in impressions of the hostility of older faces, but not younger ones. Although OA and YA differed in vision and executive function, only OA slower processing speed contributed to age differences in impression positivity. Positivity effects in OA have not been previously linked to processing speed, and research investigating possible explanations for this effect would be worthwhile.

  11. iPads and LCDs show similar performance in the detection of pulmonary nodules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntee, Mark F.; Lowe, Joanna; Butler, Marie Louise; Pietrzyk, Mariusz; Evanoff, Michael G.; Ryan, John; Brennan, Patrick C.; Rainford, Louise A.

    2012-02-01

    In February 2011 the University of Chicago Medical School distributed iPads to its trainee doctors for use when reviewing clinical information and images on the ward or clinics. The use of tablet computing devices is becoming widespread in medicine with Apple™ heralding them as "revolutionary" in medicine. The question arises, just because it is technical achievable to use iPads for clinical evaluation of images, should we do so? The current work assesses the diagnostic efficacy of iPads when compared with LCD secondary display monitors for identifying lung nodules on chest x-rays. Eight examining radiologists of the American Board of Radiology were involved in the assessment, reading chest images on both the iPad and the an off-the-shelf LCD monitor. Thirty chest images were shown to each observer, of which 15 had one or more lung nodules. Radiologists were asked to locate the nodules and score how confident they were with their decision on a scale of 1-5. An ROC and JAFROC analysis was performed and modalities were compared using DBM MRMC. The results demonstrate no significant differences in performance between the iPad and the LCD for the ROC AUC (p<0.075) or JAFROC FOM (p<0.059) for random readers and random cases. Sample size estimation showed that this result is significant at a power of 0.8 and an effect size of 0.05 for ROC and 0.07 for JAFROC. This work demonstrates that for the task of identifying pulmonary nodules, the use of the iPad does not significantly change performance compared to an off-the-shelf LCD.

  12. Similarities in speech and white matter characteristics in idiopathic developmental stuttering and adult-onset stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Soo-Eun; Synnestvedt, Anna; Ostuni, John

    2009-01-01

    Adult-onset stuttering (AS) typically occurs following neurological and/or psychological trauma, considered different from developmental stuttering (DS), which starts during early childhood with few if any new cases reported after adolescence. Here we report four cases of AS, two with apparent psychological trigger and two without, none with evidence of neurological injury, and none conforming to previously reported characteristics of psychogenic stuttering. We asked whether this group of AS would have similar speech and neuroanatomical characteristics to those with DS. We conducted blinded analyses of speech samples in both AS cases and 14 cases of DS on type, frequency, and loci of disfluencies. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was conducted to compare white matter tracts using fractional anisotropy (FA). We found that AS did not differ significantly from DS in any of the speech characteristics measured. On DTI, DS had significantly increased FA relative to controls in the right superior longitudinal tract. AS cases showed a similar trend for increases in these regions when compared to controls. The results of this study suggest that symptoms of idiopathic stuttering can begin during adulthood, and that similar neuroanatomical differences from controls may be associated with both developmental and adult onset idiopathic stuttering. PMID:20640049

  13. Lineage mapping identifies molecular and architectural similarities between the larval and adult Drosophila central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Lacin, Haluk; Truman, James W

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenesis in Drosophila occurs in two phases, embryonic and post-embryonic, in which the same set of neuroblasts give rise to the distinct larval and adult nervous systems, respectively. Here, we identified the embryonic neuroblast origin of the adult neuronal lineages in the ventral nervous system via lineage-specific GAL4 lines and molecular markers. Our lineage mapping revealed that neurons born late in the embryonic phase show axonal morphology and transcription factor profiles that are similar to the neurons born post-embryonically from the same neuroblast. Moreover, we identified three thorax-specific neuroblasts not previously characterized and show that HOX genes confine them to the thoracic segments. Two of these, NB2-3 and NB3-4, generate leg motor neurons. The other neuroblast is novel and appears to have arisen recently during insect evolution. Our findings provide a comprehensive view of neurogenesis and show how proliferation of individual neuroblasts is dictated by temporal and spatial cues. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13399.001 PMID:26975248

  14. Phonological Similarity Influences Word Learning in Adults Learning Spanish as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamer, Melissa K.; Vitevitch, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Neighborhood density--the number of words that sound similar to a given word (Luce & Pisoni, 1998)--influences word learning in native English-speaking children and adults (Storkel, 2004; Storkel, Armbruster & Hogan, 2006): novel words with many similar sounding English words (i.e., dense neighborhood) are learned more quickly than novel words…

  15. High similarity in physicochemical properties of chitin and chitosan from nymphs and adults of a grasshopper.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Sevil; Kaya, Murat

    2016-08-01

    This is the first study to explain the differences in the physicochemical properties of chitin and chitosan obtained from the nymphs and adults of Dociostaurus maroccanus using the same method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and x-ray diffraction analysis results demonstrated that the chitins from both the adults and nymphs were in the α-form. The chitin contents of the adults (14%) and nymphs (12%) were of the same order of magnitude. The crystalline index values of chitins from the adult and nymph grasshoppers were 71% and 74%, respectively. Thermal stabilities of the chitins and chitosans from adult and nymph grasshoppers were close to each other. Both the adult (7.2kDa) and nymph (5.6kDa) chitosans had low molar masses. Environmental scanning electron microscopy revealed that the surface morphologies of both chitins consisted of nanofibers and nanopores together, and they were very similar to each other. Consequently, it was determined that the physicochemical properties of the chitins and chitosans from adults and nymphs of D. maroccanus were not very different, so it can be hypothesized that the development of the chitin structure in the nymph has almost been completed and the nymph chitin has the same characteristics as the adult. PMID:27112982

  16. Two cases of pediatric bone disease (eosinophilic granuloma and Brodie's abscess) showing similar scintigraphic and radiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, M; Sugawara, Y; Kikuchi, T; Nakata, S; Mochizuki, T; Ikezoe, J; Sakayama, K

    2000-12-01

    Two 9-year-old patients with femoral bone lesions were referred to the authors' institution within a few days of each other. Both showed similar radiographic, magnetic resonance imaging, and scintigraphic findings. The radiographs showed osteolytic lesions in the right femoral diaphyses, and gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging revealed inhomogeneous enhancement. Tc-99m HMDP showed marked linear accumulation with relatively low central uptake in the right femoral shafts, and TI-201 scintigraphy showed considerable uptake corresponding to the area seen with Tc-99m HMDP. Histologic analysis confirmed eosinophilic granuloma in the first patient and Brodie's abscess in the second. The radiographic and scintigraphic findings in Brodie's abscess may be similar to those in eosinophilic granuloma.

  17. Astrocytes from adult Wistar rats aged in vitro show changes in glial functions.

    PubMed

    Souza, Débora Guerini; Bellaver, Bruna; Raupp, Gustavo Santos; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Quincozes-Santos, André

    2015-11-01

    Astrocytes, the most versatile cells of the central nervous system, play an important role in the regulation of neurotransmitter homeostasis, energy metabolism, antioxidant defenses and the anti-inflammatory response. Recently, our group characterized cortical astrocyte cultures from adult Wistar rats. In line with that work, we studied glial function using an experimental in vitro model of aging astrocytes (30 days in vitro after reaching confluence) from newborn (NB), adult (AD) and aged (AG) Wistar rats. We evaluated metabolic parameters, such as the glucose uptake, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, and glutathione (GSH) content, as well as the GFAP, GLUT-1 and xCT expression. AD and AG astrocytes take up less glucose than NB astrocytes and had decreased GLUT1 expression levels. Furthermore, AD and AG astrocytes exhibited decreased GS activity compared to NB cells. Simultaneously, AD and AG astrocytes showed an increase in GSH levels, along with an increase in xCT expression. NB, AD and AG astrocytes presented similar morphology; however, differences in GFAP levels were observed. Taken together, these results improve the knowledge of cerebral senescence and represent an innovative tool for brain studies of aging. PMID:26210720

  18. Adult versus pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis: important differences and similarities for the clinician to understand.

    PubMed

    Lucendo, Alfredo J; Sánchez-Cazalilla, Marta

    2012-11-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is recognized as a common, allergy-associated cause of chronic esophageal symptoms affecting both children and adults. Research has begun to shed light on its epidemiology with consistent results from various geographical areas. Differences in clinical presentation, endoscopic aspects and response to treatment have all been reported for patients of different ages, and the question as to whether adult and pediatric EoE are manifestations of a single entity or in fact two distinct disorders has been posed. The most relevant differences between pediatric and adult EoE come from evolutionary changes in the consequences of the disease, including fibrous remodeling, and the ability to express symptoms. However, most studies support a common pathogenesis and similar histopathological features for adult and pediatric patients, being the same diagnostic criteria applied to them. This article comprehensively reviews the most recently published information and addresses important questions about the natural history of EoE.

  19. The Influence of Phonological Similarity in Adults Learning Words in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamer, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Neighborhood density refers to the number of similar sounding words to a target word (Luce & Pisoni, 1998) and influences first language word learning in adults learning English (Storkel, Armbruster, & Hogan, 2006). There are two processes in word learning: lexical configuration and lexical engagement (Leach & Samuel, 2007). Lexical configuration…

  20. Phonological similarity influences word learning in adults learning Spanish as a foreign language.

    PubMed

    Stamer, Melissa K; Vitevitch, Michael S

    2012-07-01

    Neighborhood density-the number of words that sound similar to a given word (Luce & Pisoni, 1998)-influences word-learning in native English speaking children and adults (Storkel, 2004; Storkel, Armbruster, & Hogan, 2006): novel words with many similar sounding English words (i.e., dense neighborhood) are learned more quickly than novel words with few similar sounding English words (i.e., sparse neighborhood). The present study examined how neighborhood density influences word-learning in native English speaking adults learning Spanish as a foreign language. Students in their third-semester of Spanish language classes learned advanced Spanish words that sounded similar to many known Spanish words (i.e., dense neighborhood) or sounded similar to few known Spanish words (i.e., sparse neighborhood). In three word-learning tasks, performance was better for Spanish words with dense rather than sparse neighborhoods. These results suggest that a similar mechanism may be used to learn new words in a native and a foreign language.

  1. Diabetic foot ulcer calluses show histological similarities to HPV infection without evidence of HPV involvement by nested PCR.

    PubMed

    Li, Lucy; Iwamoto, Satori; Jisun Cha; Falanga, Vincent

    2010-06-01

    A number of studies have reported an association between callus formation and the development of foot ulcers in diabetic patients. However, it has been noted that calluses may continue to form in spite of bed rest and, presumably, excellent patient compliance with offloading. Additionally, the authors have noted that, histologically, calluses in the diabetic foot often resemble lesions induced by human papillomavirus (HPV). As diabetes is associated with immune depression, the authors hypothesized that HPV may play at least a partial role in the pathogenesis of calluses in diabetic patients. The objective of the reported study was to determine whether calluses around diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers are associated with HPV infection. The authors carried out biopsies on 11 independent calluses from 6 patients with diabetic foot ulcers and analyzed each sample by histology and by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), screening for the presence of DNA from HPV-1, -2, -3, -4, -6, -10, -11, -16, -18, -27, -28, -29, -31, -41, -50, -57, -60, -63, -65, and -77. The callus biopsy specimens showed histological evidence of koilocytes, papillary hyperplasia, hypergranulosis, and hyperkeratosis, a picture very similar to HPV cutaneous infection. However, nested PCR using positive and negative controls did not show detectable levels of HPV DNA. The authors therefore conclude that HPV infection is unlikely to play a significant role in diabetic foot callus pathogenesis, in spite of histological findings similar to those seen with verruca vulgaris.

  2. Older adults show a self-reference effect for narrative information.

    PubMed

    Carson, Nicole; Murphy, Kelly J; Moscovitch, Morris; Rosenbaum, R Shayna

    2016-10-01

    The self-reference effect (SRE), enhanced memory for information encoded through self-related processing, has been established in younger and older adults using single trait adjective words. We sought to examine the generality of this phenomenon by studying narrative information in these populations. Additionally, we investigated retrieval experience at recognition and whether valence of stimuli influences memory differently in young and older adults. Participants encoded trait adjectives and narratives in self-reference, semantic, or structural processing conditions, followed by tests of recall and recognition. Experiment 1 revealed an SRE for trait adjective recognition and narrative cued recall in both age groups, although the existence of an SRE for narrative recognition was unclear due to ceiling effects. Experiment 2 revealed an SRE on an adapted test of narrative recognition. Self-referential encoding was shown to enhance recollection for both trait adjectives and narrative material in Experiment 1, whereas similar estimates of recollection for self-reference and semantic conditions were found in Experiment 2. Valence effects were inconsistent but generally similar in young and older adults when they were found. Results demonstrate that the self-reference technique extends to narrative information in young and older adults and may provide a valuable intervention tool for those experiencing age-related memory decline.

  3. Older adults show a self-reference effect for narrative information.

    PubMed

    Carson, Nicole; Murphy, Kelly J; Moscovitch, Morris; Rosenbaum, R Shayna

    2016-10-01

    The self-reference effect (SRE), enhanced memory for information encoded through self-related processing, has been established in younger and older adults using single trait adjective words. We sought to examine the generality of this phenomenon by studying narrative information in these populations. Additionally, we investigated retrieval experience at recognition and whether valence of stimuli influences memory differently in young and older adults. Participants encoded trait adjectives and narratives in self-reference, semantic, or structural processing conditions, followed by tests of recall and recognition. Experiment 1 revealed an SRE for trait adjective recognition and narrative cued recall in both age groups, although the existence of an SRE for narrative recognition was unclear due to ceiling effects. Experiment 2 revealed an SRE on an adapted test of narrative recognition. Self-referential encoding was shown to enhance recollection for both trait adjectives and narrative material in Experiment 1, whereas similar estimates of recollection for self-reference and semantic conditions were found in Experiment 2. Valence effects were inconsistent but generally similar in young and older adults when they were found. Results demonstrate that the self-reference technique extends to narrative information in young and older adults and may provide a valuable intervention tool for those experiencing age-related memory decline. PMID:26360612

  4. Activity/inactivity circadian rhythm shows high similarities between young obesity-induced rats and old rats.

    PubMed

    Bravo Santos, R; Delgado, J; Cubero, J; Franco, L; Ruiz-Moyano, S; Mesa, M; Rodríguez, A B; Uguz, C; Barriga, C

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare differences between elderly rats and young obesity-induced rats in their activity/inactivity circadian rhythm. The investigation was motivated by the differences reported previously for the circadian rhythms of both obese and elderly humans (and other animals), and those of healthy, young or mature individuals. Three groups of rats were formed: a young control group which was fed a standard chow for rodents; a young obesity-induced group which was fed a high-fat diet for four months; and an elderly control group with rats aged 2.5 years that was fed a standard chow for rodents. Activity/inactivity data were registered through actimetry using infrared actimeter systems in each cage to detect activity. Data were logged on a computer and chronobiological analysis were performed. The results showed diurnal activity (sleep time), nocturnal activity (awake time), amplitude, acrophase, and interdaily stability to be similar between the young obesity-induced group and the elderly control group, but different in the young control group. We have concluded that obesity leads to a chronodisruption status in the body similar to the circadian rhythm degradation observed in the elderly. PMID:27030628

  5. Activity/inactivity circadian rhythm shows high similarities between young obesity-induced rats and old rats.

    PubMed

    Bravo Santos, R; Delgado, J; Cubero, J; Franco, L; Ruiz-Moyano, S; Mesa, M; Rodríguez, A B; Uguz, C; Barriga, C

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare differences between elderly rats and young obesity-induced rats in their activity/inactivity circadian rhythm. The investigation was motivated by the differences reported previously for the circadian rhythms of both obese and elderly humans (and other animals), and those of healthy, young or mature individuals. Three groups of rats were formed: a young control group which was fed a standard chow for rodents; a young obesity-induced group which was fed a high-fat diet for four months; and an elderly control group with rats aged 2.5 years that was fed a standard chow for rodents. Activity/inactivity data were registered through actimetry using infrared actimeter systems in each cage to detect activity. Data were logged on a computer and chronobiological analysis were performed. The results showed diurnal activity (sleep time), nocturnal activity (awake time), amplitude, acrophase, and interdaily stability to be similar between the young obesity-induced group and the elderly control group, but different in the young control group. We have concluded that obesity leads to a chronodisruption status in the body similar to the circadian rhythm degradation observed in the elderly.

  6. Younger and Older Adults Weigh Multiple Cues in a Similar Manner to Generate Judgments of Learning

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Jarrod C.; Hertzog, Christopher; Touron, Dayna R.

    2015-01-01

    One's memory for past test performance (MPT) is a key piece of information individuals use when deciding how to restudy material. We used a multi-trial recognition memory task to examine adult age differences in the influence of MPT (measured by actual Trial 1 memory accuracy and subjective confidence judgments, CJs) along with Trial 1 judgments of learning (JOLs), objective and participant-estimated recognition fluencies, and Trial 2 study time on Trial 2 JOLs. We found evidence of simultaneous and independent influences of multiple objective and subjective (i.e., metacognitive) cues on Trial 2 JOLs, and these relationships were highly similar for younger and older adults. Individual differences in Trial 1 recognition accuracy and CJs on Trial 2 JOLs indicate that individuals may vary in the degree to which they rely on each MPT cue when assessing subsequent memory confidence. Aging appears to spare the ability to access multiple cues when making JOLs. PMID:25827630

  7. Kainate administered to adult zebrafish causes seizures similar to those in rodent models.

    PubMed

    Alfaro, Juan M; Ripoll-Gómez, Jorge; Burgos, Javier S

    2011-04-01

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system in vertebrates. Excitotoxicity, caused by over-stimulation of the glutamate receptors, is a major cause of neuron death in several brain diseases, including epilepsy. We describe here how behavioural seizures can be triggered in adult zebrafish by the administration of kainate and are very similar to those observed in rodent models. Kainate induced a dose-dependent sequence of behavioural changes culminating in clonus-like convulsions. Behavioural seizures were suppressed by DNQX (6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione) dose-dependently, whilst MK-801 (a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist) had a lesser effect. Kainate triggers seizures in adult zebrafish, and thus this species can be considered as a new model for studying seizures and subsequent excitotoxic brain injury.

  8. An indica rice genotype showed a similar yield enhancement to that of hybrid rice under free air carbon dioxide enrichment.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chunwu; Xu, Xi; Wang, Dan; Zhu, Jianguo; Liu, Gang

    2015-07-31

    Although the rice growth response to FACE (free-air CO2 enrichment) has been widely studied and is considered important within the scientific community, few studies have attempted to examine the effects of FACE on the yield of indica rice, which is typically the parent of indica hybrids in China. The effects of FACE on the yield, yield components, biomass, N uptake and leaf photosynthesis of Yangdao 6 Hao (an indica rice) in China were examined over 2 years. The grain yield increased over 30%, the panicle number increased 12.4% on average, and the spikelet number per panicle also showed an average increase of 8.2% at elevated CO2. FACE caused a significant enhancement in both the filled spikelet percentage (+5.9%) and the individual grain weight (+3.0%). Compared with three prior FACE studies on rice, a similar enhancement of yield in hybrid indica was shown under FACE, with much a higher value than for the japonica rice cultivar (approximately + 13%) because of indica's stronger sink generation and N uptake capacity, which help coordinate the C/N balance to avoid photosynthetic acclimation. The high enhancement of the indica rice yield under FACE holds promise for improved cultivar selection for future food security.

  9. An indica rice genotype showed a similar yield enhancement to that of hybrid rice under free air carbon dioxide enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chunwu; Xu, Xi; Wang, Dan; Zhu, Jianguo; Liu, Gang

    2015-07-01

    Although the rice growth response to FACE (free-air CO2 enrichment) has been widely studied and is considered important within the scientific community, few studies have attempted to examine the effects of FACE on the yield of indica rice, which is typically the parent of indica hybrids in China. The effects of FACE on the yield, yield components, biomass, N uptake and leaf photosynthesis of Yangdao 6 Hao (an indica rice) in China were examined over 2 years. The grain yield increased over 30%, the panicle number increased 12.4% on average, and the spikelet number per panicle also showed an average increase of 8.2% at elevated CO2. FACE caused a significant enhancement in both the filled spikelet percentage (+5.9%) and the individual grain weight (+3.0%). Compared with three prior FACE studies on rice, a similar enhancement of yield in hybrid indica was shown under FACE, with much a higher value than for the japonica rice cultivar (approximately + 13%) because of indica’s stronger sink generation and N uptake capacity, which help coordinate the C/N balance to avoid photosynthetic acclimation. The high enhancement of the indica rice yield under FACE holds promise for improved cultivar selection for future food security.

  10. An indica rice genotype showed a similar yield enhancement to that of hybrid rice under free air carbon dioxide enrichment.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chunwu; Xu, Xi; Wang, Dan; Zhu, Jianguo; Liu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Although the rice growth response to FACE (free-air CO2 enrichment) has been widely studied and is considered important within the scientific community, few studies have attempted to examine the effects of FACE on the yield of indica rice, which is typically the parent of indica hybrids in China. The effects of FACE on the yield, yield components, biomass, N uptake and leaf photosynthesis of Yangdao 6 Hao (an indica rice) in China were examined over 2 years. The grain yield increased over 30%, the panicle number increased 12.4% on average, and the spikelet number per panicle also showed an average increase of 8.2% at elevated CO2. FACE caused a significant enhancement in both the filled spikelet percentage (+5.9%) and the individual grain weight (+3.0%). Compared with three prior FACE studies on rice, a similar enhancement of yield in hybrid indica was shown under FACE, with much a higher value than for the japonica rice cultivar (approximately + 13%) because of indica's stronger sink generation and N uptake capacity, which help coordinate the C/N balance to avoid photosynthetic acclimation. The high enhancement of the indica rice yield under FACE holds promise for improved cultivar selection for future food security. PMID:26228872

  11. Contrasting arbuscular mycorrhizal communities colonizing different host plants show a similar response to a soil phosphorus concentration gradient

    PubMed Central

    Gosling, Paul; Mead, Andrew; Proctor, Maude; Hammond, John P; Bending, Gary D

    2013-01-01

    High soil phosphorus (P) concentration is frequently shown to reduce root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, but the influence of P on the diversity of colonizing AM fungi is uncertain. We used terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of 18S rDNA and cloning to assess diversity of AM fungi colonizing maize (Zea mays), soybean (Glycene max) and field violet (Viola arvensis) at three time points in one season along a P gradient of 10–280 mg l−1 in the field. Percentage AM colonization changed between sampling time points but was not reduced by high soil P except in maize. There was no significant difference in AM diversity between sampling time points. Diversity was reduced at concentrations of P > 25 mg l−1, particularly in maize and soybean. Both cloning and T-RFLP indicated differences between AM communities in the different host species. Host species was more important than soil P in determining the AM community, except at the highest P concentration. Our results show that the impact of soil P on the diversity of AM fungi colonizing plants was broadly similar, despite the fact that different plants contained different communities. However, subtle differences in the response of the AM community in each host were evident. PMID:23421495

  12. Meta-Analysis of Quantification Methods Shows that Archaea and Bacteria Have Similar Abundances in the Subseafloor

    PubMed Central

    May, Megan K.; Kevorkian, Richard T.; Steen, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    There is no universally accepted method to quantify bacteria and archaea in seawater and marine sediments, and different methods have produced conflicting results with the same samples. To identify best practices, we compiled data from 65 studies, plus our own measurements, in which bacteria and archaea were quantified with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), catalyzed reporter deposition FISH (CARD-FISH), polyribonucleotide FISH, or quantitative PCR (qPCR). To estimate efficiency, we defined “yield” to be the sum of bacteria and archaea counted by these techniques divided by the total number of cells. In seawater, the yield was high (median, 71%) and was similar for FISH, CARD-FISH, and polyribonucleotide FISH. In sediments, only measurements by CARD-FISH in which archaeal cells were permeabilized with proteinase K showed high yields (median, 84%). Therefore, the majority of cells in both environments appear to be alive, since they contain intact ribosomes. In sediments, the sum of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene qPCR counts was not closely related to cell counts, even after accounting for variations in copy numbers per genome. However, qPCR measurements were precise relative to other qPCR measurements made on the same samples. qPCR is therefore a reliable relative quantification method. Inconsistent results for the relative abundance of bacteria versus archaea in deep subsurface sediments were resolved by the removal of CARD-FISH measurements in which lysozyme was used to permeabilize archaeal cells and qPCR measurements which used ARCH516 as an archaeal primer or TaqMan probe. Data from best-practice methods showed that archaea and bacteria decreased as the depth in seawater and marine sediments increased, although archaea decreased more slowly. PMID:24096423

  13. Meta-analysis of quantification methods shows that archaea and bacteria have similar abundances in the subseafloor.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Karen G; May, Megan K; Kevorkian, Richard T; Steen, Andrew D

    2013-12-01

    There is no universally accepted method to quantify bacteria and archaea in seawater and marine sediments, and different methods have produced conflicting results with the same samples. To identify best practices, we compiled data from 65 studies, plus our own measurements, in which bacteria and archaea were quantified with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), catalyzed reporter deposition FISH (CARD-FISH), polyribonucleotide FISH, or quantitative PCR (qPCR). To estimate efficiency, we defined "yield" to be the sum of bacteria and archaea counted by these techniques divided by the total number of cells. In seawater, the yield was high (median, 71%) and was similar for FISH, CARD-FISH, and polyribonucleotide FISH. In sediments, only measurements by CARD-FISH in which archaeal cells were permeabilized with proteinase K showed high yields (median, 84%). Therefore, the majority of cells in both environments appear to be alive, since they contain intact ribosomes. In sediments, the sum of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene qPCR counts was not closely related to cell counts, even after accounting for variations in copy numbers per genome. However, qPCR measurements were precise relative to other qPCR measurements made on the same samples. qPCR is therefore a reliable relative quantification method. Inconsistent results for the relative abundance of bacteria versus archaea in deep subsurface sediments were resolved by the removal of CARD-FISH measurements in which lysozyme was used to permeabilize archaeal cells and qPCR measurements which used ARCH516 as an archaeal primer or TaqMan probe. Data from best-practice methods showed that archaea and bacteria decreased as the depth in seawater and marine sediments increased, although archaea decreased more slowly.

  14. Invasive and Non-Invasive Congeners Show Similar Trait Shifts between Their Same Native and Non-Native Ranges

    PubMed Central

    García, Yedra; Callaway, Ragan M.; Diaconu, Alecu; Montesinos, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Differences in morphological or ecological traits expressed by exotic species between their native and non-native ranges are often interpreted as evidence for adaptation to new conditions in the non-native ranges. In turn this adaptation is often hypothesized to contribute to the successful invasion of these species. There is good evidence for rapid evolution by many exotic invasives, but the extent to which these evolutionary changes actually drive invasiveness is unclear. One approach to resolving the relationship between adaptive responses and successful invasion is to compare traits between populations from the native and non-native ranges for both exotic invaders and congeners that are exotic but not invasive. We compared a suite of morphological traits that are commonly tested in the literature in the context of invasion for three very closely related species of Centaurea, all of which are sympatric in the same native and non-native ranges in Europe and North America. Of these, C. solstitialis is highly invasive whereas C. calcitrapa and C. sulphurea are not. For all three species, plants from non-native populations showed similar shifts in key traits that have been identified in other studies as important putative adaptive responses to post-introduction invasion. For example, for all three species plants from populations in non-native ranges were (i) larger and (ii) produced seeds that germinated at higher rates. In fact, the non-invasive C. calcitrapa showed the strongest trait shift between ranges. Centaurea solstitialis was the only species for which plants from the non-native range increased allocation to defensive spines, and allocated proportionally less resources to reproduction, patterns contrary to what would be predicted by theory and other empirical studies to enhance invasion. Our results suggest caution when interpreting the commonly observed increase in size and reproductive capacity as factors that cause exotics to become invaders. PMID

  15. Invasive and non-invasive congeners show similar trait shifts between their same native and non-native ranges.

    PubMed

    García, Yedra; Callaway, Ragan M; Diaconu, Alecu; Montesinos, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Differences in morphological or ecological traits expressed by exotic species between their native and non-native ranges are often interpreted as evidence for adaptation to new conditions in the non-native ranges. In turn this adaptation is often hypothesized to contribute to the successful invasion of these species. There is good evidence for rapid evolution by many exotic invasives, but the extent to which these evolutionary changes actually drive invasiveness is unclear. One approach to resolving the relationship between adaptive responses and successful invasion is to compare traits between populations from the native and non-native ranges for both exotic invaders and congeners that are exotic but not invasive. We compared a suite of morphological traits that are commonly tested in the literature in the context of invasion for three very closely related species of Centaurea, all of which are sympatric in the same native and non-native ranges in Europe and North America. Of these, C. solstitialis is highly invasive whereas C. calcitrapa and C. sulphurea are not. For all three species, plants from non-native populations showed similar shifts in key traits that have been identified in other studies as important putative adaptive responses to post-introduction invasion. For example, for all three species plants from populations in non-native ranges were (i) larger and (ii) produced seeds that germinated at higher rates. In fact, the non-invasive C. calcitrapa showed the strongest trait shift between ranges. Centaurea solstitialis was the only species for which plants from the non-native range increased allocation to defensive spines, and allocated proportionally less resources to reproduction, patterns contrary to what would be predicted by theory and other empirical studies to enhance invasion. Our results suggest caution when interpreting the commonly observed increase in size and reproductive capacity as factors that cause exotics to become invaders. PMID

  16. Child psychopharmacology: Is it more similar than different from adult psychopharmacology?

    PubMed

    Sareen, Himanshu; Trivedi, Jitendra Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Despite having a large chunk of human population, Asian countries face shortage of mental health professionals. There is further shortage of doctors dealing with special groups of population like the children, the elderly, and the medically ill. However, in this era of super-specializations, are the basic principles of general psychopharmacology being forgotten? Dealing with child population is different and often more difficult than adult population but are management guidelines for the two populations vastly divergent? A close look at this paints a different picture. Psychotherapies applied in adults and those in children and adolescents are disparate owing to cognitive, social, emotional, and physical immaturation in children and adolescents. But the drugs for the treatment of pediatric psychiatric disorders are mostly similar to those prescribed for adults (case in point -bipolar disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, schizophrenia). Rather than focusing energy on propagating the differences in assorted subgroups of population, honing of skills regarding intricacies of psychopharmacology is required to be emphasized. Detailed history taking, careful evaluation of the patient, sound diagnostic formulation, and prescribing medications which are tailor made to the patient will all go a long way in ensuring a functional recovery of the patients irrespective of the group they belong to.

  17. Parcellation in Left Lateral Parietal Cortex Is Similar in Adults and Children

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Steven M.; Cohen, Alexander L.; Power, Jonathan D.; Coalson, Rebecca S.; Miezin, Francis M.; Vogel, Alecia C.; Dubis, Joseph W.; Church, Jessica A.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2012-01-01

    A key question in developmental neuroscience involves understanding how and when the cerebral cortex is partitioned into distinct functional areas. The present study used functional connectivity MRI mapping and graph theory to identify putative cortical areas and generate a parcellation scheme of left lateral parietal cortex (LLPC) in 7 to 10-year-old children and adults. Results indicated that a majority of putative LLPC areas could be matched across groups (mean distance between matched areas across age: 3.15 mm). Furthermore, the boundaries of children's putative LLPC areas respected the boundaries generated from the adults' parcellation scheme for a majority of children's areas (13/15). Consistent with prior research, matched LLPC areas showed age-related differences in functional connectivity strength with other brain regions. These results suggest that LLPC cortical parcellation and functional connectivity mature along different developmental trajectories, with adult-like boundaries between LLPC areas established in school-age children prior to adult-like functional connectivity. PMID:21810781

  18. Prepubertal goat oocytes from large follicles result in similar blastocyst production and embryo ploidy than those from adult goats.

    PubMed

    Romaguera, R; Moll, X; Morató, R; Roura, M; Palomo, M J; Catalá, M G; Jiménez-Macedo, A R; Hammami, S; Izquierdo, D; Mogas, T; Paramio, M T

    2011-07-01

    Developmental competence of oocytes from prepubertal females is lower than those from adult females. Oocyte development competence is positively related to follicular diameter. Most of the follicles of prepubertal goat ovaries are smaller than 3 mm. The aim of this study was to compare oocytes of two follicle sizes (< 3 mm and ≥ 3 mm) from prepubertal goats with oocytes from adult goats in relation to their in vitro production and quality of blastocysts. Oocytes from prepubertal goats were obtained from slaughterhouse ovaries and selected according to the follicle diameter whereas oocytes from adult goats were recovered in vivo by LOPU technique without prior selection of follicle size. COCs were IVM for 27 h, IVF at the conventional conditions with fresh semen and presumptive zygotes were cultured in SOF medium for 8 days. Blastocysts obtained were vitrified and after warming their blastocoele re-expansion and the ploidy by FISH technique were assessed. We found significant differences between blastocysts yield of oocytes recovered from follicles smaller than 3 mm of prepubertal goats compared to those from adult goats (5.45% vs 20. 83%, respectively) however, these differences disappear if oocytes were recovered form large follicles (18.07%). A total of 28 blastocysts were analysed and 96.43% showed mixoploidy. Age did not affect the number of embryos with abnormal ploidy or blastocyst re-expansion after warming. Furthermore, the percentage of diploid blastomeres per embryo was similar in the 3 groups studied, adult, prepubertal from follicles ≥ 3 mm and < 3 mm (68.6%, 80.8% and 73.6%, respectively). In conclusion, IVP of blastocysts coming from follicles larger than 3 mm of goats 45 days old were not different to the blastocysts produced from adult goats, both in terms of quantity and quality.

  19. Adolescent earthquake survivors' show increased prefrontal cortex activation to masked earthquake images as adults.

    PubMed

    Du, Xue; Wei, Dongtao; Ganzel, Barbara L; Kim, Pilyoung; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-03-01

    The great Sichuan earthquake in China on May 12, 2008 was a traumatic event to many who live near the earthquake area. However, at present, there are few studies that explore the long-term impact of the adolescent trauma exposure on adults' brain function. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the brain activation evoked by masked trauma-related stimuli (earthquake versus neutral images) in 14 adults who lived near the epicenter of the great Sichuan earthquake when they were adolescents (trauma-exposed group) and 14 adults who lived farther from the epicenter of the earthquake when they were adolescents (control group). Compared with the control group, the trauma-exposed group showed significant elevation of activation in the right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) in response to masked earthquake-related images. In the trauma-exposed group, the right ACC activation was negatively correlated with the frequency of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These findings differ markedly from the long-term effects of trauma exposure in adults. This suggests that trauma exposure during adolescence may have a unique long-term impact on ACC/MPFC function, top-down modulation of trauma-related information, and subsequent symptoms of PTSD.

  20. Myofilament proteins in the synchronous flight muscles of Manduca sexta show both similarities and differences to Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Ayme-Southgate, Agnes; Feldman, Samuel; Fulmer, Diana

    2015-07-01

    Insect flight muscles have been classified as either synchronous or asynchronous based on the coupling between excitation and contraction. In the moth Manduca sexta, the flight muscles are synchronous and do not display stretch activation, which is a property of asynchronous muscles. We annotated the M. sexta genes encoding the major myofibrillar proteins and analyzed their isoform pattern and expression. Comparison with the homologous genes in Drosophila melanogaster indicates both difference and similarities. For proteins such as myosin heavy chain, tropomyosin, and troponin I the availability and number of potential variants generated by alternative spicing is mostly conserved between the two insects. The exon usage associated with flight muscles indicates that some exon sets are similarly used in the two insects, whereas others diverge. For actin the number of individual genes is different and there is no evidence for a flight muscle specific isoform. In contrast for troponin C, the number of genes is similar, as well as the isoform composition in flight muscles despite the different calcium regulation. Both troponin I and tropomyosin can include COOH-terminal hydrophobic extensions similar to tropomyosinH and troponinH found in D. melanogaster and the honeybee respectively. PMID:25797474

  1. Myofilament proteins in the synchronous flight muscles of Manduca sexta show both similarities and differences to Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Ayme-Southgate, Agnes; Feldman, Samuel; Fulmer, Diana

    2015-07-01

    Insect flight muscles have been classified as either synchronous or asynchronous based on the coupling between excitation and contraction. In the moth Manduca sexta, the flight muscles are synchronous and do not display stretch activation, which is a property of asynchronous muscles. We annotated the M. sexta genes encoding the major myofibrillar proteins and analyzed their isoform pattern and expression. Comparison with the homologous genes in Drosophila melanogaster indicates both difference and similarities. For proteins such as myosin heavy chain, tropomyosin, and troponin I the availability and number of potential variants generated by alternative spicing is mostly conserved between the two insects. The exon usage associated with flight muscles indicates that some exon sets are similarly used in the two insects, whereas others diverge. For actin the number of individual genes is different and there is no evidence for a flight muscle specific isoform. In contrast for troponin C, the number of genes is similar, as well as the isoform composition in flight muscles despite the different calcium regulation. Both troponin I and tropomyosin can include COOH-terminal hydrophobic extensions similar to tropomyosinH and troponinH found in D. melanogaster and the honeybee respectively.

  2. Immunogenetics shows that not all MBL are equal: the larger the clone, the more similar to CLL.

    PubMed

    Vardi, Anna; Dagklis, Antonis; Scarfò, Lydia; Jelinek, Diane; Newton, Darren; Bennett, Fiona; Almeida, Julia; Rodriguez-Caballero, Arancha; Allgood, Sallie; Lanasa, Mark; Cortelezzi, Agostino; Orlandi, Ester; Veronese, Silvio; Montillo, Marco; Rawstron, Andy; Shanafelt, Tait; Orfao, Alberto; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Ghia, Paolo

    2013-05-30

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) -like monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) shares common immunophenotype and cytogenetic abnormalities with CLL, from which it is discriminated by a cutoff value of 5 × 10(9)/L circulating clonal B cells. However, the clonal size in MBL is extremely variable and allows discrimination of two distinct entities (high-count [HC] and low-count [LC]-MBL) based on a cutoff value of 0.5 × 10(9)/L clonal B cells. HC-MBL is associated with lymphocytosis and progresses to CLL requiring treatment at a rate of 1.1% per year, whereas LC-MBL is found in the general population only through high-sensitivity techniques and carries limited, if any, risk of progression. We performed an immunogenetic profiling of 333 cases with CLL-like MBL supplemented by detailed comparisons with CLL, focusing especially on CLL Rai stage 0 (CLL-0). LC- and HC-MBL had similar somatic hypermutation status, yet different IGHV gene repertoires and frequencies of B-cell receptor (BcR) stereotypy. In particular, stereotyped BcRs were infrequent in LC-MBL and were often not CLL specific. In contrast, HC-MBL exhibited clear immunogenetic similarities to CLL-0. These findings indicate that LC-MBL may not represent a true preleukemic condition, thus differing from HC-MBL/CLL-0 in which the identification of factors endowing malignant potential is strongly warranted.

  3. Stomatal Responses to Light and Leaf-Air Water Vapor Pressure Difference Show Similar Kinetics in Sugarcane and Soybean 1

    PubMed Central

    Grantz, David A.; Zeiger, Eduardo

    1986-01-01

    Stomatal responses to light and humidity (vapor pressure difference, VPD) are important determinants of stomatal conductance. Stomatal movements induced by light are the result of a transduction of the light stimulus into modulated ion fluxes in guard cells and concomitant osmotic adjustments and turgor changes. It is generally assumed that this transduction process is a general stomatal property, with different environmental stimuli integrated into guard cell metabolism through their modulation of ion fluxes. In contrast with this notion, the VPD response, which is unique because both its triggering signal and the turgor changes required for aperture modulations involve water molecules, has been considered to be hydropassive and thus independent of guard cell metabolism. We used a kinetic approach to compare the light and VPD responses in order to test the hypothesis that hydropassive changes in guard cell turgor could be faster than the metabolism-dependent light responses. Changes in stomatal conductance in intact leaves of sugarcane and soybean were measured after application of step changes in VPD and in light. In spite of a 5-fold difference in overall rates between the two species, the response rates following light or VPD steps were similar. Although a coincidental kinetic similarity between two mechanistically different responses cannot be ruled out, the data suggest a common mechanism controlling stomatal movements, with the VPD stimulus inducing metabolic modulations of ion fluxes analogous to other stomatal responses. PMID:16664916

  4. Time, number and length: similarities and differences in discrimination in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Clément, Angélique; Fayol, Michel

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to focus on similarities in the discrimination of three different quantities--time, number, and line length--using a bisection task involving children aged 5 and 8 years and adults, when number and length were presented nonsequentially (Experiment 1) and sequentially (Experiment 2). In the nonsequential condition, for all age groups, although to a greater extent in the younger children, the psychophysical functions were flatter, and the Weber ratio higher for time than for number and length. Number and length yielded similar psychophysical functions. Thus, sensitivity to time was lower than that to the other quantities, whether continuous or not. However, when number and length were presented sequentially (Experiment 2), the differences in discrimination performance between time, number, and length disappeared. Furthermore, the Weber ratio values as well as the bisection points for all quantities presented sequentially appeared to be close to that found for duration in the nonsequential condition. The results are discussed within the framework of recent theories suggesting a common mechanism for all analogical quantities. PMID:19031154

  5. Similar specificities of symbiont uptake by adults and larvae in an anemone model system for coral biology.

    PubMed

    Hambleton, Elizabeth A; Guse, Annika; Pringle, John R

    2014-05-01

    Reef-building corals depend for much of their energy on photosynthesis by symbiotic dinoflagellate algae (genus Symbiodinium) that live within their gastrodermal cells. However, the cellular mechanisms underpinning this ecologically critical symbiosis, including those governing the specificity of symbiont uptake by the host, remain poorly understood, in part because of the difficulties of working with corals in the laboratory. Here, we used the small symbiotic sea anemone Aiptasia as an experimentally tractable model system to analyze the specificity and timing of symbiosis onset in larval and adult animals under controlled laboratory conditions. Using four clonal, axenic Symbiodinium strains, we found no difference in uptake specificity between larvae (even when very young) and adults. Although both compatible and incompatible algal strains were found within the larval guts, only the former appeared to be internalized by gastrodermal cells, and they (but not incompatible algae) proliferated rapidly within the larvae in the absence of detectable exchange with other larvae. Older larvae showed reduced ingestion of both compatible and incompatible algae, and the addition of food failed to promote the uptake of an incompatible algal strain. Thus, Aiptasia adults and larvae appear to have similar mechanisms for discriminating between compatible and incompatible dinoflagellate types prior to phagocytosis by host gastrodermal cells. Whether a particular algal strain is compatible or incompatible appears to be stable during years of axenic culture in the absence of a host. These studies provide a foundation for future analyses of the mechanisms of symbiont-uptake specificity in this emerging model system. PMID:24526722

  6. Genome characteristics of a novel phage from Bacillus thuringiensis showing high similarity with phage from Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yihui; Gao, Meiying; Wu, Dandan; Liu, Pengming; Wu, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is an important entomopathogenic bacterium belongs to the Bacillus cereus group, which also includes B. anthracis and B. cereus. Several genomes of phages originating from this group had been sequenced, but no genome of Siphoviridae phage from B. thuringiensis has been reported. We recently sequenced and analyzed the genome of a novel phage, BtCS33, from a B. thuringiensis strain, subsp. kurstaki CS33, and compared the gneome of this phage to other phages of the B. cereus group. BtCS33 was the first Siphoviridae phage among the sequenced B. thuringiensis phages. It produced small, turbid plaques on bacterial plates and had a narrow host range. BtCS33 possessed a linear, double-stranded DNA genome of 41,992 bp with 57 putative open reading frames (ORFs). It had a typical genome structure consisting of three modules: the "late" region, the "lysogeny-lysis" region and the "early" region. BtCS33 exhibited high similarity with several phages, B. cereus phage Wβ and some variants of Wβ, in genome organization and the amino acid sequences of structural proteins. There were two ORFs, ORF22 and ORF35, in the genome of BtCS33 that were also found in the genomes of B. cereus phage Wβ and may be involved in regulating sporulation of the host cell. Based on these observations and analysis of phylogenetic trees, we deduced that B. thuringiensis phage BtCS33 and B. cereus phage Wβ may have a common distant ancestor.

  7. Genome Characteristics of a Novel Phage from Bacillus thuringiensis Showing High Similarity with Phage from Bacillus cereus

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yihui; Gao, Meiying; Wu, Dandan; Liu, Pengming; Wu, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is an important entomopathogenic bacterium belongs to the Bacillus cereus group, which also includes B. anthracis and B. cereus. Several genomes of phages originating from this group had been sequenced, but no genome of Siphoviridae phage from B. thuringiensis has been reported. We recently sequenced and analyzed the genome of a novel phage, BtCS33, from a B. thuringiensis strain, subsp. kurstaki CS33, and compared the gneome of this phage to other phages of the B. cereus group. BtCS33 was the first Siphoviridae phage among the sequenced B. thuringiensis phages. It produced small, turbid plaques on bacterial plates and had a narrow host range. BtCS33 possessed a linear, double-stranded DNA genome of 41,992 bp with 57 putative open reading frames (ORFs). It had a typical genome structure consisting of three modules: the “late” region, the “lysogeny-lysis” region and the “early” region. BtCS33 exhibited high similarity with several phages, B. cereus phage Wβ and some variants of Wβ, in genome organization and the amino acid sequences of structural proteins. There were two ORFs, ORF22 and ORF35, in the genome of BtCS33 that were also found in the genomes of B. cereus phage Wβ and may be involved in regulating sporulation of the host cell. Based on these observations and analysis of phylogenetic trees, we deduced that B. thuringiensis phage BtCS33 and B. cereus phage Wβ may have a common distant ancestor. PMID:22649540

  8. Selection Indices and Multivariate Analysis Show Similar Results in the Evaluation of Growth and Carcass Traits in Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Brito Lopes, Fernando; da Silva, Marcelo Corrêa; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhôa; Goncalves Narciso, Marcelo; Sainz, Roberto Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated a multivariate approach as an alternative tool for the purpose of selection regarding expected progeny differences (EPDs). Data were fitted using a multi-trait model and consisted of growth traits (birth weight and weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age) and carcass traits (longissimus muscle area (LMA), back-fat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF)), registered over 21 years in extensive breeding systems of Polled Nellore cattle in Brazil. Multivariate analyses were performed using standardized (zero mean and unit variance) EPDs. The k mean method revealed that the best fit of data occurred using three clusters (k = 3) (P < 0.001). Estimates of genetic correlation among growth and carcass traits and the estimates of heritability were moderate to high, suggesting that a correlated response approach is suitable for practical decision making. Estimates of correlation between selection indices and the multivariate index (LD1) were moderate to high, ranging from 0.48 to 0.97. This reveals that both types of indices give similar results and that the multivariate approach is reliable for the purpose of selection. The alternative tool seems very handy when economic weights are not available or in cases where more rapid identification of the best animals is desired. Interestingly, multivariate analysis allowed forecasting information based on the relationships among breeding values (EPDs). Also, it enabled fine discrimination, rapid data summarization after genetic evaluation, and permitted accounting for maternal ability and the genetic direct potential of the animals. In addition, we recommend the use of longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness as selection criteria, to allow estimation of breeding values before the first mating season in order to accelerate the response to individual selection. PMID:26789008

  9. Sex Differences in Facial Scanning: Similarities and Dissimilarities between Infants and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennels, Jennifer L.; Cummings, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    When face processing studies find sex differences, male infants appear better at face recognition than female infants, whereas female adults appear better at face recognition than male adults. Both female infants and adults, however, discriminate emotional expressions better than males. To investigate if sex and age differences in facial scanning…

  10. Do human brain areas involved in visuomotor actions show a preference for real tools over visually similar non-tools?

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Scott N; Culham, Jody C

    2015-10-01

    Neuroimaging has revealed a left-lateralized network of brain areas implicated in understanding the conceptual and sensorimotor aspects of tool perception and tool use. Often this network of areas is identified by contrasting brain activity when participants view pictures of tools vs. pictures of non-tools (e.g., animals or buildings). It is unclear, however, what aspect of tools drive activity in the tool network as both tools and non-tools tend to differ in their low-level features. For instance, areas in the tool network may simply activate to elongated objects or to handheld objects over round or ungraspable objects irrespective of object category. To test whether tools indeed drive activity in tool-selective areas over non-tools, participants passively viewed real tools and non-tools matched on low-level features during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To maximize the potential for action, participants saw real-tools as opposed to pictures of tools. The non-tools were created by chopping the business ends of tools into pieces and attaching the pieces to both ends of the original tool handles. In doing so, the tools and non-tools were matched for elongation and real-world size. Importantly, tools and non-tools were viewed directly without the use of mirrors and placed within the participants' reach. Stimuli were presented at two opposite horizontal orientations to investigate whether areas that are selective for tools also show greater activation when the tool's handle is directed towards the hand as opposed to away from it. Our results showed that, even after the low-level differences between tools and non-tools were controlled, tools evoked more activation in the tool network as well as in sensorimotor areas. The orientation of the tool handles did not mediate effects within these sensorimotor areas. In sum, when we passively view tools, even without an intent to act, functional associations are automatically evoked and these associations are not

  11. Affordable Care Act Provision Had Similar, Positive Impacts For Young Adults With And Without Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Porterfield, Shirley L; Huang, Jin

    2016-05-01

    Beginning in 2010 the Affordable Care Act (ACA) allowed young adults (ages 19-25) to remain on their parents' private health insurance plans, even if they were not full-time students. This study investigated the impact of the ACA on health insurance coverage for young adults with disabilities, comparing their experience with that of young adults without disabilities and that of a group of older adults (ages 26-34) with disabilities. We analyzed the periods 2006-09 and 2011-14, which were before and after implementation of the dependent coverage provision in the ACA, respectively. Coverage gains for older adults with disabilities were entirely attributable to changes in public insurance. Gains for young adults overall were driven by changes in private insurance. Both young adults with and without disabilities experienced a 4-percentage-point increase in private health insurance coverage between the two time periods, so the gap in private coverage between the two groups did not change significantly over time. Gains in coverage affected perhaps 2.9 million young adults overall and nearly 300,000 young adults with disabilities. PMID:27140994

  12. Affordable Care Act Provision Had Similar, Positive Impacts For Young Adults With And Without Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Porterfield, Shirley L; Huang, Jin

    2016-05-01

    Beginning in 2010 the Affordable Care Act (ACA) allowed young adults (ages 19-25) to remain on their parents' private health insurance plans, even if they were not full-time students. This study investigated the impact of the ACA on health insurance coverage for young adults with disabilities, comparing their experience with that of young adults without disabilities and that of a group of older adults (ages 26-34) with disabilities. We analyzed the periods 2006-09 and 2011-14, which were before and after implementation of the dependent coverage provision in the ACA, respectively. Coverage gains for older adults with disabilities were entirely attributable to changes in public insurance. Gains for young adults overall were driven by changes in private insurance. Both young adults with and without disabilities experienced a 4-percentage-point increase in private health insurance coverage between the two time periods, so the gap in private coverage between the two groups did not change significantly over time. Gains in coverage affected perhaps 2.9 million young adults overall and nearly 300,000 young adults with disabilities.

  13. Second Language Acquisition and First Language Loss in Adult Early Bilinguals: Exploring Some Differences and Similarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina

    2005-01-01

    This study compares the linguistic knowledge of adult second language (L2) learners, who learned the L2 after puberty, with the potentially "eroded" first language (L1) grammars of adult early bilinguals who were exposed to the target language since birth and learned the other language simultaneously, or early in childhood (before age 5). I make…

  14. Sacral chordoma in an adult showing an aggressive clinical course: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ENDO, KOJI; YAMASHITA, HIDEKI; NAGASHIMA, HIDEKI; TESHIMA, RYOTA

    2014-01-01

    The current report presents a case of a 78-year-old male with sacral chordoma, showing an aggressive clinical course. The patient underwent sacral resection, however, nine months later, multiple metastases were detected by magnetic resonance imaging. The metastases progressed rapidly and 15 months following surgery the patient succumbed to respiratory dysfunction. An autopsy revealed multiple metastases of the lung, liver, heart, kidneys and vertebrae. Pathologically, the tumors did not show proliferation of anaplastic cells or dedifferentiation; however, the metastatic tumor cells were smaller than the primary tumor cells. The Ki-67 labeling indices were <5% in all of the patient’s tumors, therefore, the capacity for cellular proliferation of the tumors was considered to be low. Chordoma in adults are generally slow-growing tumors and are associated with a relatively prolonged course and frequent local recurrences. Therefore, it must be recognized that chordoma may grow rapidly and show an aggressive clinical course, even when the Ki-67 labeling index is low. PMID:24765153

  15. Older Adults Show Deficits in Retrieving and Decoding Associative Mediators Generated at Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzog, Christopher; Fulton, Erika K.; Mandviwala, Lulua; Dunlosky, John

    2013-01-01

    We instructed the use of mediators to encode paired-associate items, and then measured both cued recall of targets and mediators. Older adults (n = 49) and younger adults (n = 57) studied a mixed list of concrete and abstract noun pairs under instructions to either generate a sentence or an image to form a new association between normatively…

  16. Similarities and differences between pediatric and adult patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Tarr, T; Dérfalvi, B; Győri, N; Szántó, A; Siminszky, Z; Malik, A; Szabó, A J; Szegedi, G; Zeher, M

    2015-07-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease with highest prevalence among women of childbearing age. However, children younger than 16 years also can develop SLE (childhood-onset lupus/juvenile-type SLE). The aim of our study was to compare the clinical course of adult and pediatric-onset SLE. Data from 342 adult patients followed at the University of Debrecen, Hungary, and 79 children documented in the Hungarian National Pediatric SLE registry were analyzed using hospital medical records. Organ manifestations, laboratory parameters, and immunoserological characteristics were reviewed and the results were evaluated using SPSS for Windows software.Gender distribution was not significantly different between groups with disease starting in childhood vs adulthood. The prevalence of the following manifestations was significantly higher for pediatric than for adult-onset disease including: lupus nephritis (43% pediatric vs 26.4% for adult-onset), hematological disorders (57% vs 36.4%), photosensitivity (20% vs 9%), butterfly rash (61% vs 35.5%) and mucosal ulceration (11.4% vs 4%). For adult-onset SLE, neurological symptoms (30% vs 6%) and polyarthritis (86% vs 68%) occurred significantly more frequently than in children. Anti-SSA, anti-SSB and antiphospholipid antibodies were detected at significantly higher levels in adult-onset patients compared to those in pediatrics. Children were more commonly given high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin treatment (6.3% vs 0.6%) and mycophenolate mofetil (15.2% vs 5.3%) than adults.These results suggest that pediatric and adult-onset SLE differ in multiple aspects, and it is important to recognize these differences for optimal treatment and prognosis of these patients.

  17. Global Similarities and Multifaceted Differences in the Production of Partner-Specific Referential Pacts by Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Nadig, Aparna; Seth, Shivani; Sasson, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Over repeated reference conversational partners tend to converge on preferred terms or referential pacts. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by pragmatic difficulties that are best captured by less structured tasks. To this end we tested adults with ASD who did not have language or intellectual impairments, and neurotypical comparison participants in a referential communication task. Participants were directors, describing unlexicalized, complex novel stimuli over repeated rounds of interaction. Group comparisons with respect to referential efficiency showed that directors with ASD demonstrated typical lexical entrainment: they became faster over repeated rounds and used shortened referential forms. ASD and neurotypical groups did not differ with respect to the number of descriptors they provided or the number of exchanges needed for matchers to identify figures. Despite these similarities the ASD group was slightly slower overall. We examined partner-specific effects by manipulating the common ground shared with the matcher. As expected, neurotypical directors maintained referential precedents when speaking to the same matcher but not with a new matcher. Directors with ASD were qualitatively similar but displayed a less pronounced distinction between matchers. However, significant differences and different patterns of reference emerged over time; neurotypical directors incorporated the new matcher's contributions into descriptions, whereas directors with ASD were less likely to do so. PMID:26733897

  18. Global Similarities and Multifaceted Differences in the Production of Partner-Specific Referential Pacts by Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Nadig, Aparna; Seth, Shivani; Sasson, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Over repeated reference conversational partners tend to converge on preferred terms or referential pacts. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by pragmatic difficulties that are best captured by less structured tasks. To this end we tested adults with ASD who did not have language or intellectual impairments, and neurotypical comparison participants in a referential communication task. Participants were directors, describing unlexicalized, complex novel stimuli over repeated rounds of interaction. Group comparisons with respect to referential efficiency showed that directors with ASD demonstrated typical lexical entrainment: they became faster over repeated rounds and used shortened referential forms. ASD and neurotypical groups did not differ with respect to the number of descriptors they provided or the number of exchanges needed for matchers to identify figures. Despite these similarities the ASD group was slightly slower overall. We examined partner-specific effects by manipulating the common ground shared with the matcher. As expected, neurotypical directors maintained referential precedents when speaking to the same matcher but not with a new matcher. Directors with ASD were qualitatively similar but displayed a less pronounced distinction between matchers. However, significant differences and different patterns of reference emerged over time; neurotypical directors incorporated the new matcher's contributions into descriptions, whereas directors with ASD were less likely to do so. PMID:26733897

  19. Despite Differences in Cytosolic Calcium Regulation, Lidocaine Toxicity Is Similar in Adult and Neonatal Rat Dorsal Root Ganglia in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Lisa V.; Eydlin, Olga; Piskoun, Boris; Kline, Richard P; Recio-Pinto, Esperanza; Rosenberg, Andrew D; Blanck, Thomas JJ; Xu, Fang

    2013-01-01

    Background Neuraxial local anesthetics may have neurological complications thought to be due to neurotoxicity. A primary site of action for local anesthetics is the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neuron. Physiologic differences have been noted between young and adult DRG neurons; hence, we examined whether there were differences in lidocaine-induced changes in calcium and lidocaine toxicity in neonatal and adult rat DRG neurons. Methods DRG neurons were cultured from postnatal day 7 (P7) and adult rats. Lidocaine-induced changes in cytosolic calcium were examined with the calcium indicator Fluo-4. Cells were incubated with varying concentrations of lidocaine and examined for viability using calcein AM and ethidium homodimer-1 staining. Live imaging of caspase-3/7 activation was performed after incubation with lidocaine. Results The mean KCl-induced calcium transient was greater in P7 neurons (p < 0.05), and lidocaine significantly inhibited KCl-induced calcium responses in both ages (p < 0.05). Frequency distribution histograms of KCl-evoked calcium increases were more heterogeneous in P7 than in adult neurons. With lidocaine, KCl-induced calcium transients in both ages became more homogeneous but remained different between the groups. Interestingly cell viability was decreased by lidocaine in a dose-dependent manner similarly in both ages. Lidocaine treatment also activated caspase-3/7 in a dose- and time-dependent manner similarly in both ages. Conclusions Despite physiological differences in P7 and adult DRG neurons, lidocaine cytotoxicity is similar in P7 and adult DRG neurons in vitro. Differences in lidocaine- and KCl-evoked calcium responses suggest the similarity in lidocaine cytotoxicity involves other actions in addition to lidocaine-evoked effects on cytosolic calcium responses. PMID:23851347

  20. Working Memory in Children: A Time-Constrained Functioning Similar to Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portrat, Sophie; Camos, Valerie; Barrouillet, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Within the time-based resource-sharing (TBRS) model, we tested a new conception of the relationships between processing and storage in which the core mechanisms of working memory (WM) are time constrained. However, our previous studies were restricted to adults. The current study aimed at demonstrating that these mechanisms are present and…

  1. Children with Autism Detect Targets at Very Rapid Presentation Rates with Similar Accuracy as Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagmann, Carl Erick; Wyble, Bradley; Shea, Nicole; LeBlanc, Megan; Kates, Wendy R.; Russo, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced perception may allow for visual search superiority by individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), but does it occur over time? We tested high-functioning children with ASD, typically developing (TD) children, and TD adults in two tasks at three presentation rates (50, 83.3, and 116.7 ms/item) using rapid serial visual presentation.…

  2. Childhood- and adult-onset lupus: an update of similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Papadimitraki, Eva D; Isenberg, David A

    2009-07-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multifactorial autoimmune rheumatic disease. Although its highest prevalence is among women of childbearing age, the disease is not confined within this population. A total of 15-20% of cases of SLE are diagnosed in children younger than 16 years (childhood-onset lupus). Although there have been few studies directly comparing childhood- to adult-onset lupus, there is substantial evidence to suggest that pediatric lupus patients display some differences in their disease profile compared with adult-onset populations. Overall, an increased male-to-female ratio, a higher prevalence of nephritis and CNS involvement necessitating a more sustained need for steroids and immnosuppressive drugs, and a higher prevalence of progression to end-stage renal disease are distinguishing features of childhood-onset lupus. In contrast, a higher prevalence of pulmonary involvement, arthritis and discoid lupus are reported in adult-onset SLE patients. Furthermore, childhood-onset lupus patients may experience a serious negative impact on their psychosocial and physical development, issues that pose extra challenges to healthcare providers. Growth delay, osteoporosis, the psychological effect of steroid-induced alterations of the physical image, and often poor treatment compliance are the issues that need to be addressed in pediatric lupus populations. In this review, we compare the epidemiological, clinical and laboratory features, and treatment options of childhood- and adult-onset lupus, and comment on the applicability of the instruments that measure activity, severity and cumulative disease damage in childhood-onset disease. In addition, we highlight special issues of concern for pediatric lupus patients, discussing the significance in the transition from pediatric to adult rheumatology care.

  3. Visual search for real world targets under conditions of high target-background similarity: Exploring training and transfer in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Neider, Mark B; Boot, Walter R; Kramer, Arthur F

    2010-05-01

    Real world visual search tasks often require observers to locate a target that blends in with its surrounding environment. However, studies of the effect of target-background similarity on search processes have been relatively rare and have ignored potential age-related differences. We trained younger and older adults to search displays comprised of real world objects on either homogenous backgrounds or backgrounds that camouflaged the target. Training was followed by a transfer session in which participants searched for novel camouflaged objects. Although older adults were slower to locate the target compared to younger adults, all participants improved substantially with training. Surprisingly, camouflage-trained younger and older adults showed no performance decrements when transferred to novel camouflage displays, suggesting that observers learned age-invariant, generalizable skills relevant for searching under conditions of high target-background similarity. Camouflage training benefits at transfer for older adults appeared to be related to improvements in attentional guidance and target recognition rather than a more efficient search strategy.

  4. Do Adults with Mental Retardation Show Pictorial Superiority Effects in Recall and Recognition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Katie E.; Applegate, Heather; Reese, Celinda M.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined memory for pictures and words in 16 adults with mental retardation and 24 controls. Pictorial superiority effects occurred in free recall and recognition for both intelligence-level groups. Correlational analyses indicated working memory span was primarily related to recall performance, irrespective of stimulus format. (Contains…

  5. Do Adults Show an Effect of Delayed First Language Acquisition When Calculating Scalar Implicatures?

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Kathryn; Mayberry, Rachel I

    2015-01-01

    Language acquisition involves learning not only grammatical rules and a lexicon, but also what someone is intending to convey with their utterance: the semantic/pragmatic component of language. In this paper we separate the contributions of linguistic development and cognitive maturity to the acquisition of the semantic/pragmatic component of language by comparing deaf adults who had either early or late first exposure to their first language (ASL). We focus on the particular type of meaning at the semantic/pragmatic interface called scalar implicature, for which preschool-age children typically differ from adults. Children's behavior has been attributed to either their not knowing appropriate linguistic alternatives to consider or to cognitive developmental differences between children and adults. Unlike children, deaf adults with late language exposure are cognitively mature, although they never fully acquire some complex linguistic structures, and thus serve as a test for the role of language in such interpretations. Our results indicate an overall high performance by late learners, especially when implicatures are not based on conventionalized items. However, compared to early language learners, late language learners compute fewer implicatures when conventionalized linguistic alternatives are involved (e.g. ). We conclude that (i) in general, Gricean pragmatic reasoning does not seem to be impacted by delayed first language acquisition and can account for multiple quantity implicatures, but (ii) the creation of a scale based on lexical items can lead to ease in alternative creation that may be advantageously learned early in life, and that this may be one of several factors contributing to differences between adults and children on scalar implicature tasks. PMID:26997850

  6. Stimulus Similarity and Encoding Time Influence Incidental Recognition Memory in Adult Monkeys with Selective Hippocampal Lesions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeamer, Alyson; Meunier, Martine; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2011-01-01

    Recognition memory impairment after selective hippocampal lesions in monkeys is more profound when measured with visual paired-comparison (VPC) than with delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS). To clarify this issue, we assessed the impact of stimuli similarity and encoding duration on the VPC performance in monkeys with hippocampal lesions and…

  7. Acute and fractionated exposure to high-LET (56)Fe HZE-particle radiation both result in similar long-term deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Phillip D; Shih, Hung-Ying; Leblanc, Junie A; Cole, Mara G; Amaral, Wellington Z; Mukherjee, Shibani; Zhang, Shichuan; Lucero, Melanie J; Decarolis, Nathan A; Chen, Benjamin P C; Eisch, Amelia J

    2013-12-01

    Astronauts on multi-year interplanetary missions will be exposed to a low, chronic dose of high-energy, high-charge particles. Studies in rodents show acute, nonfractionated exposure to these particles causes brain changes such as fewer adult-generated hippocampal neurons and stem cells that may be detrimental to cognition and mood regulation and thus compromise mission success. However, the influence of a low, chronic dose of these particles on neurogenesis and stem cells is unknown. To examine the influence of galactic cosmic radiation on neurogenesis, adult-generated stem and progenitor cells in Nestin-CreER(T2)/R26R-YFP transgenic mice were inducibly labeled to allow fate tracking. Mice were then sham exposed or given one acute 100 cGy (56)Fe-particle exposure or five fractionated 20 cGy (56)Fe-particle exposures. Adult-generated hippocampal neurons and stem cells were quantified 24 h or 3 months later. Both acute and fractionated exposure decreased the amount of proliferating cells and immature neurons relative to sham exposure. Unexpectedly, neither acute nor fractionated exposure decreased the number of adult neural stem cells relative to sham expsoure. Our findings show that single and fractionated exposures of (56)Fe-particle irradiation are similarly detrimental to adult-generated neurons. Implications for future missions and ground-based studies in space radiation are discussed. PMID:24320054

  8. Acute and Fractionated Exposure to High-LET 56Fe HZE-Particle Radiation Both Result in Similar Long-Term Deficits in Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Phillip D.; Shih, Hung-Ying; LeBlanc, Junie A.; Cole, Mara G.; Amaral, Wellington Z.; Mukherjee, Shibani; Zhang, Shichuan; Lucero, Melanie J.; DeCarolis, Nathan A.; Chen, Benjamin P. C.; Eisch, Amelia J.

    2014-01-01

    Astronauts on multi-year interplanetary missions will be exposed to a low, chronic dose of high-energy, high-charge particles. Studies in rodents show acute, nonfractionated exposure to these particles causes brain changes such as fewer adult-generated hippocampal neurons and stem cells that may be detrimental to cognition and mood regulation and thus compromise mission success. However, the influence of a low, chronic dose of these particles on neurogenesis and stem cells is unknown. To examine the influence of galactic cosmic radiation on neurogenesis, adult-generated stem and progenitor cells in Nestin-CreERT2/R26R-YFP transgenic mice were inducibly labeled to allow fate tracking. Mice were then sham exposed or given one acute 100 cGy 56Fe-particle exposure or five fractionated 20 cGy 56Fe-particle exposures. Adult-generated hippocampal neurons and stem cells were quantified 24 h or 3 months later. Both acute and fractionated exposure decreased the amount of proliferating cells and immature neurons relative to sham exposure. Unexpectedly, neither acute nor fractionated exposure decreased the number of adult neural stem cells relative to sham expsoure. Our findings show that single and fractionated exposures of 56Fe-particle irradiation are similarly detrimental to adult-generated neurons. Implications for future missions and ground-based studies in space radiation are discussed. PMID:24320054

  9. A case of adult moyamoya disease showing progressive angiopathy on cerebral angiography.

    PubMed

    Shirane, R; Mikawa, S; Ebina, T

    1999-09-01

    In moyamoya disease, progression of carotid occlusive lesion in an adult patient is very rare. We report a case of adult moyamoya disease with acute angiographical stage progression and hemodynamic deterioration. A 56-year-old female complaining of left motor weakness visited our department. On MRI, infarct lesion was found in the right white matter. On cerebral angiography, occlusive lesions in the bilateral internal carotid arterial siphons and moyamoya vessels were found. The right side was stage V and the left side was stage III. On IMP-SPECT, decreased cerebral hemodynamic reserve of the right cerebral hemisphere was found. In this patient, right STA-MCA anastomosis was performed. After operation, she became possible to walk and discharged to home. Five months after operation, good collateral formation and improvement of hemodynamic reserve in the right hemisphere were found. However, on left carotid arteriography, the anterior and middle cerebral arteries were only slightly imaged, and the disease state progressed to stage IV. In addition, decreased blood flow and hemodynamic reserve were appeared in the left hemisphere.

  10. Alcohol-related expectancies in adults and adolescents: Similarities and disparities.

    PubMed

    Monk, Rebecca L; Heim, Derek

    2016-03-02

    This study aimed to contrast student and not student outcome expectancies, and explore the diversity of alcohol-related cognitions within a wider student sample. Participants (n=549) were college students (higher education-typically aged 15-18 years), university students (further education-typically aged 18-22 years) and business people (white collar professionals <50 years) who completed questionnaires in their place of work or education. Overall positive expectancies were higher in the college students than in the business or university samples. However, not all expectancy subcategories followed this pattern. Participant groups of similar age were therefore alike in some aspects of their alcohol-related cognitions but different in others. Similarly, participant groups whom are divergent in age appeared to be alike in some of their alcohol-related cognitions, such as tension reduction expectancies. Research often homogenises students as a specific sub-set of the population, this paper hi-lights that this may be an over-simplification. Furthermore, the largely exclusive focus on student groups within research in this area may also be an oversight, given the diversity of the findings demonstrated between these groups.

  11. Alcohol-related expectancies in adults and adolescents: Similarities and disparities.

    PubMed

    Monk, Rebecca L; Heim, Derek

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to contrast student and not student outcome expectancies, and explore the diversity of alcohol-related cognitions within a wider student sample. Participants (n=549) were college students (higher education-typically aged 15-18 years), university students (further education-typically aged 18-22 years) and business people (white collar professionals <50 years) who completed questionnaires in their place of work or education. Overall positive expectancies were higher in the college students than in the business or university samples. However, not all expectancy subcategories followed this pattern. Participant groups of similar age were therefore alike in some aspects of their alcohol-related cognitions but different in others. Similarly, participant groups whom are divergent in age appeared to be alike in some of their alcohol-related cognitions, such as tension reduction expectancies. Research often homogenises students as a specific sub-set of the population, this paper hi-lights that this may be an over-simplification. Furthermore, the largely exclusive focus on student groups within research in this area may also be an oversight, given the diversity of the findings demonstrated between these groups. PMID:26990388

  12. Reforestation sites show similar and nested AMF communities to an adjacent pristine forest in a tropical mountain area of South Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Haug, Ingeborg; Setaro, Sabrina; Suárez, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizae are important for growth and survival of tropical trees. We studied the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a tropical mountain rain forest and in neighbouring reforestation plots in the area of Reserva Biológica San Francisco (South Ecuador). The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were analysed with molecular methods sequencing part of the 18 S rDNA. The sequences were classified as Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). We found high fungal species richness with OTUs belonging to Glomerales, Diversisporales and Archaeosporales. Despite intensive sampling, the rarefaction curves are still unsaturated for the pristine forest and the reforestation plots. The communities consisted of few frequent and many rare species. No specific interactions are recognizable. The plant individuals are associated with one to ten arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and mostly with one to four. The fungal compositions associated with single plant individuals show a great variability and variety within one plant species. Planted and naturally occurring plants show high similarities in their fungal communities. Pristine forest and reforestation plots showed similar richness, similar diversity and a significantly nested structure of plant-AMF community. The results indicate that small-scale fragmentation presently found in this area has not destroyed the natural AMF community, at least yet. Thus, the regeneration potential of natural forest vegetation at the tested sites is not inhibited by a lack of appropriate mycobionts.

  13. Reforestation sites show similar and nested AMF communities to an adjacent pristine forest in a tropical mountain area of South Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Haug, Ingeborg; Setaro, Sabrina; Suárez, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizae are important for growth and survival of tropical trees. We studied the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a tropical mountain rain forest and in neighbouring reforestation plots in the area of Reserva Biológica San Francisco (South Ecuador). The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were analysed with molecular methods sequencing part of the 18 S rDNA. The sequences were classified as Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). We found high fungal species richness with OTUs belonging to Glomerales, Diversisporales and Archaeosporales. Despite intensive sampling, the rarefaction curves are still unsaturated for the pristine forest and the reforestation plots. The communities consisted of few frequent and many rare species. No specific interactions are recognizable. The plant individuals are associated with one to ten arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and mostly with one to four. The fungal compositions associated with single plant individuals show a great variability and variety within one plant species. Planted and naturally occurring plants show high similarities in their fungal communities. Pristine forest and reforestation plots showed similar richness, similar diversity and a significantly nested structure of plant-AMF community. The results indicate that small-scale fragmentation presently found in this area has not destroyed the natural AMF community, at least yet. Thus, the regeneration potential of natural forest vegetation at the tested sites is not inhibited by a lack of appropriate mycobionts. PMID:23671682

  14. Rotenone exerts similar stimulatory effects on H2O2 production by isolated brain mitochondria from young-adult and old rats.

    PubMed

    Michelini, Luiz G B; Figueira, Tiago R; Siqueira-Santos, Edilene S; Castilho, Roger F

    2015-03-01

    Chronic and systemic treatment of rodents with rotenone, a classical inhibitor of mitochondrial respiratory complex I, results in neurochemical, behavioral, and neuropathological features of Parkinson's disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether brain mitochondria from old rats (24 months old) would be more susceptible to rotenone-induced inhibition of oxygen consumption and increased generation of H2O2 than mitochondria from young-adult rats (3-4 months old). Isolated brain mitochondria were incubated in the presence of different rotenone concentrations (5, 10, and 100nM), and oxygen consumption and H2O2 production were measured during respiratory states 3 (ADP-stimulated respiration) and 4 (resting respiration). Respiratory state 3 and citrate synthase activity were significantly lower in mitochondria from old rats. Mitochondria from young-adult and old rats showed similar sensitivity to rotenone-induced inhibition of oxygen consumption. Similarly, H2O2 production rates by both types of mitochondria were dose-dependently stimulated to the same extent by increasing concentrations of rotenone. We conclude that rotenone exerts similar effects on oxygen consumption and H2O2 production by isolated brain mitochondria from young-adult and old rats. Therefore, aging does not increase the mitochondrial H2O2 generation in response to complex I inhibition.

  15. Similarities and Differences in Chinese and Caucasian Adults' Use of Facial Cues for Trustworthiness Judgments

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fen; Wu, Dingcheng; Toriyama, Rie; Ma, Fengling; Itakura, Shoji; Lee, Kang

    2012-01-01

    Background All cultural groups in the world place paramount value on interpersonal trust. Existing research suggests that although accurate judgments of another's trustworthiness require extensive interactions with the person, we often make trustworthiness judgments based on facial cues on the first encounter. However, little is known about what facial cues are used for such judgments and what the bases are on which individuals make their trustworthiness judgments. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that individuals may use facial attractiveness cues as a “shortcut” for judging another's trustworthiness due to the lack of other more informative and in-depth information about trustworthiness. Using data-driven statistical models of 3D Caucasian faces, we compared facial cues used for judging the trustworthiness of Caucasian faces by Caucasian participants who were highly experienced with Caucasian faces, and the facial cues used by Chinese participants who were unfamiliar with Caucasian faces. We found that Chinese and Caucasian participants used similar facial cues to judge trustworthiness. Also, both Chinese and Caucasian participants used almost identical facial cues for judging trustworthiness and attractiveness. Conclusions/Significance The results suggest that without opportunities to interact with another person extensively, we use the less racially specific and more universal attractiveness cues as a “shortcut” for trustworthiness judgments. PMID:22514680

  16. Developmental exposure of mice to TCDD elicits a similar uterine phenotype in adult animals as observed in women with endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Nayyar, Tultul; Bruner-Tran, Kaylon L; Piestrzeniewicz-Ulanska, Dagmara; Osteen, Kevin G

    2007-01-01

    Whether environmental toxicants impact an individual woman's risk for developing endometriosis remains uncertain. Although the growth of endometrial glands and stroma at extra-uterine sites is associated with retrograde menstruation, our studies suggest that reduced responsiveness to progesterone may increase the invasive capacity of endometrial tissue in women with endometriosis. Interestingly, our recent studies using isolated human endometrial cells in short-term culture suggest that experimental exposure to the environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetracholorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) can alter the expression of progesterone receptor isotypes. Compared to adult exposure, toxicant exposure during development can exert a significantly greater biological impact, potentially affecting the incidence of endometriosis in adults. To address this possibility, we exposed mice to TCDD at critical developmental time points and subsequently examined uterine progesterone receptor expression and steroid responsive transforming growth factor-beta2 expression in adult animals. We find that the uterine phenotype of toxicant-exposed mice is markedly similarly to the endometrial phenotype of women with endometriosis.

  17. Different Context but Similar Cognitive Structures: Older Adults in Rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sternäng, Ola; Lövdén, Martin; Kabir, Zarina N; Hamadani, Jena D; Wahlin, Åke

    2016-06-01

    Most research in cognitive aging is based on literate participants from high-income and Western populations. The extent to which findings generalize to low-income and illiterate populations is unknown. The main aim was to examine the structure of between-person differences in cognitive functions among elderly from rural Bangladesh. We used data from the Poverty and Health in Aging (PHA) project in Bangladesh. The participants (n = 452) were in the age range 60-92 years. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the fit of a five-factor model (episodic recall, episodic recognition, verbal fluency, semantic knowledge, processing speed) and to examine whether the model generalized across age, sex, and literacy. This study demonstrates that an established model of cognition is valid also among older persons from rural Bangladesh. The model demonstrated strong (or scalar) invariance for age, and partial strong invariance for sex and literacy. Semantic knowledge and processing speed showed weak (or metric) sex invariance, and semantic knowledge demonstrated also sensitivity to illiteracy. In general, women performed poorer on all abilities. The structure of individual cognitive differences established in Western populations also fits a population in rural Bangladesh well. This is an important prerequisite for comparisons of cognitive functioning (e.g., declarative memory) across cultures. It is also worth noting that absolute sex differences in cognitive performance among rural elderly in Bangladesh differ from those usually found in Western samples. PMID:26860478

  18. Mouse gastric tumor models with prostaglandin E2 pathway activation show similar gene expression profiles to intestinal-type human gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Gastric cancers are generally classified into better differentiated intestinal-type tumor and poorly differentiated diffuse-type one according to Lauren's histological categorization. Although induction of prostaglandin E2 pathway promotes gastric tumors in mice in cooperation with deregulated Wnt or BMP signalings, it has remained unresolved whether the gastric tumor mouse models recapitulate either of human gastric cancer type. This study assessed the similarity in expression profiling between gastric tumors of transgenic mice and various tissues of human cancers to find best-fit human tumors for the transgenic mice models. Results Global expression profiling initially found gastric tumors from COX-2/mPGES-1 (C2mE)-related transgenic mice (K19-C2mE, K19-Wnt1/C2mE, and K19-Nog/C2mE) resembled gastric cancers among the several tissues of human cancers including colon, breast, lung and gastric tumors. Next, classification of the C2mE-related transgenic mice by a gene signature to distinguish human intestinal- and diffuse-type tumors showed C2mE-related transgenic mice were more similar to intestinal-type compared with diffuse one. We finally revealed that induction of Wnt pathway cooperating with the prostaglandin E2 pathway in mice (K19-Wnt1/C2mE mice) further reproduce features of human gastric intestinal-type tumors. Conclusion We demonstrated that C2mE-related transgenic mice show significant similarity to intestinal-type gastric cancer when analyzed by global expression profiling. These results suggest that the C2mE-related transgenic mice, especially K19-Wnt1/C2mE mice, serve as a best-fit model to study molecular mechanism underlying the tumorigenesis of human gastric intestinal-type cancers. PMID:20015407

  19. The E. coli NusA carboxy-terminal domains are structurally similar and show specific RNAP- and lambdaN interaction.

    PubMed

    Eisenmann, Anke; Schwarz, Sabine; Prasch, Stefan; Schweimer, Kristian; Rösch, Paul

    2005-08-01

    The carboxy-terminal domain of the transcription factor Escherichia coli NusA, NusACTD, interacts with the protein N of bacteriophage lambda, lambdaN, and the carboxyl terminus of the E. coli RNA polymerase alpha subunit, alphaCTD. We solved the solution structure of the unbound NusACTD with high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Additionally, we investigated the binding sites of lambdaN and alphaCTD on NusACTD using NMR titrations. The solution structure of NusACTD shows two structurally similar subdomains, NusA(353-416) and NusA(431-490), matching approximately two homologous acidic sequence repeats. Further characterization of NusACTD with 15N NMR relaxation data suggests that the interdomain region is only weakly structured and that the subdomains are not interacting. Both subdomains adopt an (HhH)2 fold. These folds are normally involved in DNA-protein and protein-protein interactions. NMR titration experiments show clear differences of the interactions of these two domains with alphaCTD and lambdaN, in spite of their structural similarity.

  20. The E. coli NusA carboxy-terminal domains are structurally similar and show specific RNAP- and lambdaN interaction.

    PubMed

    Eisenmann, Anke; Schwarz, Sabine; Prasch, Stefan; Schweimer, Kristian; Rösch, Paul

    2005-08-01

    The carboxy-terminal domain of the transcription factor Escherichia coli NusA, NusACTD, interacts with the protein N of bacteriophage lambda, lambdaN, and the carboxyl terminus of the E. coli RNA polymerase alpha subunit, alphaCTD. We solved the solution structure of the unbound NusACTD with high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Additionally, we investigated the binding sites of lambdaN and alphaCTD on NusACTD using NMR titrations. The solution structure of NusACTD shows two structurally similar subdomains, NusA(353-416) and NusA(431-490), matching approximately two homologous acidic sequence repeats. Further characterization of NusACTD with 15N NMR relaxation data suggests that the interdomain region is only weakly structured and that the subdomains are not interacting. Both subdomains adopt an (HhH)2 fold. These folds are normally involved in DNA-protein and protein-protein interactions. NMR titration experiments show clear differences of the interactions of these two domains with alphaCTD and lambdaN, in spite of their structural similarity. PMID:15987884

  1. Preterm birth and unintentional injuries: risks to children, adolescents and young adults show no consistent pattern

    PubMed Central

    Calling, Susanna; Palmér, Karolina; Jönsson, Lena; Sundquist, Jan; Winkleby, Marilyn; Sundquist, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Aim Preterm birth is associated with a number of physical and mental health issues. The aim of this study was to find out if there was also any association between individuals born preterm in Sweden between 1984 and 2006 and the risk of unintentional injuries during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. Methods The study followed 2,297,134 individuals, including 5.9% born preterm, from 1985 to 2007 for unintentional injuries leading to hospitalisation or death (n=244,021). The males and females were divided into four age groups: 1–5 years, 6–12 years, 13–18 years and 19–23 years. Hazard ratios were calculated for falls, transport injuries and other injuries. Results After adjusting for a comprehensive set of covariates, some of the preterm subgroups demonstrated slightly increased risks of unintentional injuries, while others showed slightly decreased risks. However, most of the estimates were borderline or non-significant in both males and females. In addition, the absolute risk differences between individuals born preterm and full term were small. Conclusion Despite the association between preterm birth and a variety of physical and mental health consequences, this study shows that there is no consistent risk pattern between preterm birth and unintentional injuries in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:23181809

  2. Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and encephalomyelitis disseminata/multiple sclerosis show remarkable levels of similarity in phenomenology and neuroimmune characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background ‘Encephalomyelitis disseminata’ (multiple sclerosis) and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) are both classified as diseases of the central nervous system by the World Health Organization. This review aims to compare the phenomenological and neuroimmune characteristics of MS with those of ME/CFS. Discussion There are remarkable phenomenological and neuroimmune overlaps between both disorders. Patients with ME/CFS and MS both experience severe levels of disabling fatigue and a worsening of symptoms following exercise and resort to energy conservation strategies in an attempt to meet the energy demands of day-to-day living. Debilitating autonomic symptoms, diminished cardiac responses to exercise, orthostatic intolerance and postural hypotension are experienced by patients with both illnesses. Both disorders show a relapsing-remitting or progressive course, while infections and psychosocial stress play a large part in worsening of fatigue symptoms. Activated immunoinflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative (O+NS) pathways and autoimmunity occur in both illnesses. The consequences of O+NS damage to self-epitopes is evidenced by the almost bewildering and almost identical array of autoantibodies formed against damaged epitopes seen in both illnesses. Mitochondrial dysfunctions, including lowered levels of ATP, decreased phosphocreatine synthesis and impaired oxidative phosphorylation, are heavily involved in the pathophysiology of both MS and ME/CFS. The findings produced by neuroimaging techniques are quite similar in both illnesses and show decreased cerebral blood flow, atrophy, gray matter reduction, white matter hyperintensities, increased cerebral lactate and choline signaling and lowered acetyl-aspartate levels. Summary This review shows that there are neuroimmune similarities between MS and ME/CFS. This further substantiates the view that ME/CFS is a neuroimmune illness and that patients with MS are immunologically primed to

  3. Phenobarbital and propiconazole toxicogenomic profiles in mice show major similarities consistent with the key role that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation plays in their mode of action

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Richard A.; Peffer, Richard C.; Goetz, Amber K.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Goodman, Jay I.

    2014-01-01

    Toxicogenomics (TGx) is employed frequently to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of the compound of interest and, thus, has become an aid to mode of action determination. However, the results and interpretation of a TGx dataset are influenced by the experimental design and methods of analysis employed. This article describes an evaluation and reanalysis, by two independent laboratories, of previously published TGx mouse liver microarray data for a triazole fungicide, propiconazole (PPZ), and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB). Propiconazole produced an increase incidence of liver tumors in male CD-1 mice only at a dose that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (2500 ppm). Firstly, we illustrate how experimental design differences between two in vivo studies with PPZ and PB may impact the comparisons of TGx results. Secondly, we demonstrate that different researchers using different pathway analysis tools can come to different conclusions on specific mechanistic pathways, even when using the same datasets. Finally, despite these differences the results across three different analyses also show a striking degree of similarity observed for PPZ and PB treated livers when the expression data are viewed as major signaling pathways and cell processes affected. Additional studies described here show that the postulated key event of hepatocellular proliferation was observed in CD-1 mice for both PPZ and PB, and that PPZ is also a potent activator of the mouse CAR nuclear receptor. Thus, with regard to the events which are hallmarks of CAR-induced effects that are key events in the mode of action (MOA) of mouse liver carcinogenesis with PB, PPZ-induced tumors can be viewed as being promoted by a similar PB-like CAR-dependent MOA. PMID:24675475

  4. From genus to phylum: large-subunit and internal transcribed spacer rRNA operon regions show similar classification accuracies influenced by database composition.

    PubMed

    Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Liu, Kuan-Liang; Kuske, Cheryl R; Xie, Gary

    2014-02-01

    We compared the classification accuracy of two sections of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, individually and combined, and the 5' section (about 600 bp) of the large-subunit rRNA (LSU), using a naive Bayesian classifier and BLASTN. A hand-curated ITS-LSU training set of 1,091 sequences and a larger training set of 8,967 ITS region sequences were used. Of the factors evaluated, database composition and quality had the largest effect on classification accuracy, followed by fragment size and use of a bootstrap cutoff to improve classification confidence. The naive Bayesian classifier and BLASTN gave similar results at higher taxonomic levels, but the classifier was faster and more accurate at the genus level when a bootstrap cutoff was used. All of the ITS and LSU sections performed well (>97.7% accuracy) at higher taxonomic ranks from kingdom to family, and differences between them were small at the genus level (within 0.66 to 1.23%). When full-length sequence sections were used, the LSU outperformed the ITS1 and ITS2 fragments at the genus level, but the ITS1 and ITS2 showed higher accuracy when smaller fragment sizes of the same length and a 50% bootstrap cutoff were used. In a comparison using the larger ITS training set, ITS1 and ITS2 had very similar accuracy classification for fragments between 100 and 200 bp. Collectively, the results show that any of the ITS or LSU sections we tested provided comparable classification accuracy to the genus level and underscore the need for larger and more diverse classification training sets.

  5. Phenobarbital and propiconazole toxicogenomic profiles in mice show major similarities consistent with the key role that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation plays in their mode of action.

    PubMed

    Currie, Richard A; Peffer, Richard C; Goetz, Amber K; Omiecinski, Curtis J; Goodman, Jay I

    2014-07-01

    Toxicogenomics (TGx) is employed frequently to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of the compound of interest and, thus, has become an aid to mode of action determination. However, the results and interpretation of a TGx dataset are influenced by the experimental design and methods of analysis employed. This article describes an evaluation and reanalysis, by two independent laboratories, of previously published TGx mouse liver microarray data for a triazole fungicide, propiconazole (PPZ), and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB). Propiconazole produced an increase incidence of liver tumors in male CD-1 mice only at a dose that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (2500 ppm). Firstly, we illustrate how experimental design differences between two in vivo studies with PPZ and PB may impact the comparisons of TGx results. Secondly, we demonstrate that different researchers using different pathway analysis tools can come to different conclusions on specific mechanistic pathways, even when using the same datasets. Finally, despite these differences the results across three different analyses also show a striking degree of similarity observed for PPZ and PB treated livers when the expression data are viewed as major signaling pathways and cell processes affected. Additional studies described here show that the postulated key event of hepatocellular proliferation was observed in CD-1 mice for both PPZ and PB, and that PPZ is also a potent activator of the mouse CAR nuclear receptor. Thus, with regard to the events which are hallmarks of CAR-induced effects that are key events in the mode of action (MOA) of mouse liver carcinogenesis with PB, PPZ-induced tumors can be viewed as being promoted by a similar PB-like CAR-dependent MOA.

  6. Similar ventral occipito-temporal cortex activations in literate and illiterate adults during the Chinese character matching task: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Qi, Geqi; Li, Xiujun; Yan, Tianyi; Wang, Bin; Yang, Jiajia; Wu, Jinglong; Guo, Qiyong

    2014-04-30

    Visual word expertise is typically associated with enhanced ventral occipito-temporal (vOT) cortex activation in response to written words. Previous study utilized a passive viewing task and found that vOT response to written words was significantly stronger in literate compared to the illiterate subjects. However, recent neuroimaging findings have suggested that vOT response properties are highly dependent upon the task demand. Thus, it is unknown whether literate adults would show stronger vOT response to written words compared to illiterate adults during other cognitive tasks, such as perceptual matching. We addressed this issue by comparing vOT activations between literate and illiterate adults during a Chinese character and simple figure matching task. Unlike passive viewing, a perceptual matching task requires active shape comparison, therefore minimizing automatic word processing bias. We found that although the literate group performed better at Chinese character matching task, the two subject groups showed similar strong vOT responses during this task. Overall, the findings indicate that the vOT response to written words is not affected by expertise during a perceptual matching task, suggesting that the association between visual word expertise and vOT response may depend on the task demand. PMID:24582905

  7. Learning of a simple grapho-motor task by young children and adults: similar acquisition but age-dependent retention

    PubMed Central

    Julius, Mona S.; Adi-Japha, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Many new skills are acquired during early childhood. Typical laboratory skill learning tasks are not applicable for developmental studies that involve children younger than 8 years of age. It is not clear whether young children and adults share a basic underlying skill learning mechanism. In the present study, the learning and retention of a simple grapho-motor pattern were studied in three age groups: 5–6, 7–8, and 19–29 years. Each block of the task consists of identical patterns arranged in a spaced writing array. Progression across the block involves on-page movements while producing the pattern, and off-page movements between patterns. The participants practiced the production of the pattern using a digitizing tablet and were tested at 24 h and 2 weeks post-practice. All age groups produced the task blocks more quickly with practice, and the learning rate was inversely related to the initial production time. All groups exhibited additional gains 24 h post-practice that were well-retained 2 weeks later. The accuracy of the participants was maintained throughout the 2-weeks period. These findings suggest that young children and young adults use a similar mechanism when learning the task. Nevertheless, the 6-years-old spent more time off-page during retention testing than when tested at 24 h post-practice, thus supporting the notion that an age advantage may exists in the long-term retention of skills due to planning-dependent aspects. PMID:25798120

  8. Transmission of a 2009 pandemic influenza virus shows a sensitivity to temperature and humidity similar to that of an H3N2 seasonal strain.

    PubMed

    Steel, John; Palese, Peter; Lowen, Anice C

    2011-02-01

    In temperate regions of the world, influenza epidemics follow a highly regular seasonal pattern, in which activity peaks in midwinter. Consistently with this epidemiology, we have shown previously that the aerosol transmission of a seasonal H3N2 influenza virus is most efficient under cold, dry conditions. With the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, an exception to the standard seasonality of influenza developed: during 2009 in the Northern Hemisphere, an unusually high level of influenza virus activity over the spring and summer months was followed by a widespread epidemic which peaked in late October, approximately 2.5 months earlier than usual. Herein we show that aerosol transmission of a 2009 pandemic strain shows a dependence on relative humidity and temperature very similar to that of a seasonal H3N2 influenza virus. Our data indicate that the observed differences in the timings of outbreaks with regard to the seasons are most likely not due to intrinsic differences in transmission between the pandemic H1N1 and seasonal H3N2 influenza viruses.

  9. Faith-Based and Graduate Adult Educators' Negotiation of Similarities and Differences among People as an Indicator of Their Multicultural Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elizabeth Conerly

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between adult educators' multicultural effectiveness scores and their negotiation of similarities and differences scores. The participants were in faith-based institutions, specifically Christian churches and in graduate adult education programs of universities and colleges in the United States. Multicultural…

  10. Cloning and characterization of the rad4 gene of Schizosaccharomyces pombe; a gene showing short regions of sequence similarity to the human XRCC1 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Fenech, M; Carr, A M; Murray, J; Watts, F Z; Lehmann, A R

    1991-01-01

    The rad4.116 mutant of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is temperature-sensitive for growth, as well as being sensitive to the killing actions of both ultraviolet light and ionizing radiation. We have cloned the rad4 gene by complementation of the temperature sensitive phenotype of the rad4.116 mutant with a S. pombe gene bank. The rad4 gene fully complemented the UV sensitivity of the rad4.116 mutant. The gene is predicted to encode a protein of 579 amino acids with a basic tail, a possible zinc finger and a nuclear location signal. The amino terminal part of the predicted rad4 ORF contains two short regions of similarity to the C-terminal part of the human XRCC1 gene. Codon usage suggests that the gene is very poorly expressed, and this was confirmed by RNA studies. Gene disruption showed that the rad4 gene was essential for the mitotic growth of S. pombe. Images PMID:1762905

  11. Functional and biochemical properties of Mal de Río Cuarto virus (Fijivirus, Reoviridae) P9-1 viroplasm protein show further similarities to animal reovirus counterparts.

    PubMed

    Maroniche, Guillermo A; Mongelli, Vanesa C; Peralta, Andrea V; Distéfano, Ana J; Llauger, Gabriela; Taboga, Oscar A; Hopp, Esteban H; del Vas, Mariana

    2010-09-01

    Mal de Río Cuarto virus (MRCV) is a plant virus of the genus Fijivirus within the family Reoviridae that infects several monocotyledonous species and is transmitted by planthoppers in a persistent and propagative manner. Other members of the family replicate in viral inclusion bodies (VIBs) termed viroplasms that are formed in the cytoplasm of infected plant and insect cells. In this study, the protein coded by the first ORF of MRCV segment S9 (P9-1) was shown to establish cytoplasmic inclusion bodies resembling viroplasms after transfection of Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells. In accordance, MRCV P9-1 self-associates giving rise to high molecular weight complexes when expressed in bacteria. Strong self-interaction was also evidenced by yeast two-hybrid assays. Furthermore, biochemical characterization showed that MRCV P9-1 bound single stranded RNA and had ATPase activity. Finally, the MRCV P9-1 region required for the formation of VIB-like structures was mapped to the protein carboxy-terminal half. This extensive functional and biochemical characterization of MRCV P9-1 revealed further similarities between plant and animal reovirus viroplasm proteins.

  12. Human Gyrovirus Apoptin shows a similar subcellular distribution pattern and apoptosis induction as the chicken anaemia virus derived VP3/Apoptin

    PubMed Central

    Bullenkamp, J; Cole, D; Malik, F; Alkhatabi, H; Kulasekararaj, A; Odell, E W; Farzaneh, F; Gäken, J; Tavassoli, M

    2012-01-01

    The chicken anaemia virus-derived protein Apoptin/VP3 (CAV-Apoptin) has the important ability to induce tumour-selective apoptosis in a variety of human cancer cells. Recently the first human Gyrovirus (HGyV) was isolated from a human skin swab. It shows significant structural and organisational resemblance to CAV and encodes a homologue of CAV-Apoptin/VP3. Using overlapping primers we constructed a synthetic human Gyrovirus Apoptin (HGyV-Apoptin) fused to green fluorescent protein in order to compare its apoptotic function in various human cancer cell lines to CAV-Apoptin. HGyV-Apoptin displayed a similar subcellular expression pattern as observed for CAV-Apoptin, marked by translocation to the nucleus of cancer cells, although it is predominantly located in the cytosol of normal human cells. Furthermore, expression of either HGyV-Apoptin or CAV-Apoptin in several cancer cell lines triggered apoptosis at comparable levels. These findings indicate a potential anti-cancer role for HGyV-Apoptin. PMID:22495351

  13. Oolong tea made from tea plants from different locations in Yunnan and Fujian, China showed similar aroma but different taste characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Lv, Shidong; Wu, Yuanshuang; Gao, Xuemei; Li, Jiangbing; Zhang, Wenrui; Meng, Qingxiong

    2016-01-01

    Consistent aroma characteristics are important for tea products. However, understanding the formation of tea aroma flavor and correspondingly proposing applicable protocols to control tea quality and consistency remain major challenges. Oolong tea is one of the most popular teas with a distinct flavor. Generally, oolong tea is processed with the leaves of tea trees belonging to different subspecies and grown in significantly different regions. In this study, Yunnan and Fujian oolong teas, green tea, black tea, and Pu-erh tea were collected from major tea estates across China. Their sensory evaluation, main water-soluble and volatile compounds were identified and measured. The sensory evaluation, total polysaccharide, caffeine, and catechin content of Yunnan oolong tea was found to be different from that of Fujian oolong tea, a result suggesting that the kinds of tea leaves used in Yunnan and Fujian oolong teas were naturally different. However, according to their aroma compounds, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) of the volatile compounds showed that the two types of oolong teas were similar and cannot be clearly distinguished from each other; they are also different from green, black, and Pu-erh teas, a result indicating that the same oolong tea processing technology applied to different tea leaves results in consistent aroma characteristics. The PCA analysis results also indicated that benzylalcohol, indole, safranal, linalool oxides, β-ionone, and hexadecanoic acid methyl ester highly contributed to the distinct aroma of oolong tea compared with the other three types of teas. This study proved that the use of the same processing technology on two kinds of tea leaves resulted in a highly consistent tea aroma. PMID:27247873

  14. An alphabaculovirus isolated from dead Lymantria dispar larvae shows high genetic similarity to baculovirus previously isolated from Lymantria monacha - An example of adaptation to a new host.

    PubMed

    Rabalski, Lukasz; Krejmer-Rabalska, Martyna; Skrzecz, Iwona; Wasag, Bartosz; Szewczyk, Boguslaw

    2016-09-01

    A new isolate of baculovirus, Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus-BNP (LdMNPV-BNP), was found in dead gypsy moth (L. dispar) caterpillars collected in the Biebrzanski National Park in Poland. Here, we examined its biological activity, structure, genetic content and phylogeny. Multiple nucleocapsids of LdMNPV-BNP are enveloped together in 2-26 virions embedded in occluded bodies (OBs) very similar to the OBs previously described in viruses infecting Lymantriinae. This isolate kills pest larvae in a relatively short time (LT50 of approximately 9days for a dose of 2×10(7)OBs/ml), highlighting the possibility for its use as a biopesticide. Next-generation sequencing of LdMNPV-BNP revealed gene content (e.g. DNA photolyase) that is not present in any LdMNPV isolate sequenced to date. The genome is 157,270 base pairs long and has a notably lower G+C content in comparison to other LdMNPVs (50.3% G+C content compared to an average of 57.4% among other LdMNPVs). According to our phylogenetic analysis based on 37 core genes, LdMNPV-BNP is a member of group II alphabaculoviruses, which are closely related to LdMNPV and LyxyMNPV (Lymantria xylina multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus). Molecular evolution inference based on the partial sequence of lef-8, lef-9 and polh genes shows that LdMNPV-BNP and isolates of Lymantria monacha nucleopolyhedrovirus (LymoNPV) may share a very recent common ancestor or be isolates of the same virus species. LdMNPV-BNP, like other baculoviruses, could be beneficial as an active component of biopesticides that can be used during forest integrated pest management. PMID:27451947

  15. Oolong tea made from tea plants from different locations in Yunnan and Fujian, China showed similar aroma but different taste characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Lv, Shidong; Wu, Yuanshuang; Gao, Xuemei; Li, Jiangbing; Zhang, Wenrui; Meng, Qingxiong

    2016-01-01

    Consistent aroma characteristics are important for tea products. However, understanding the formation of tea aroma flavor and correspondingly proposing applicable protocols to control tea quality and consistency remain major challenges. Oolong tea is one of the most popular teas with a distinct flavor. Generally, oolong tea is processed with the leaves of tea trees belonging to different subspecies and grown in significantly different regions. In this study, Yunnan and Fujian oolong teas, green tea, black tea, and Pu-erh tea were collected from major tea estates across China. Their sensory evaluation, main water-soluble and volatile compounds were identified and measured. The sensory evaluation, total polysaccharide, caffeine, and catechin content of Yunnan oolong tea was found to be different from that of Fujian oolong tea, a result suggesting that the kinds of tea leaves used in Yunnan and Fujian oolong teas were naturally different. However, according to their aroma compounds, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) of the volatile compounds showed that the two types of oolong teas were similar and cannot be clearly distinguished from each other; they are also different from green, black, and Pu-erh teas, a result indicating that the same oolong tea processing technology applied to different tea leaves results in consistent aroma characteristics. The PCA analysis results also indicated that benzylalcohol, indole, safranal, linalool oxides, β-ionone, and hexadecanoic acid methyl ester highly contributed to the distinct aroma of oolong tea compared with the other three types of teas. This study proved that the use of the same processing technology on two kinds of tea leaves resulted in a highly consistent tea aroma.

  16. The ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord differs from other species and shows ependymoma-like features.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel; Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Florensa-Vila, José; Ferrer, Isidro; Grassner, Lukas; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo

    2015-06-01

    Several laboratories have described the existence of undifferentiated precursor cells that may act like stem cells in the ependyma of the rodent spinal cord. However, there are reports showing that this region is occluded and disassembled in humans after the second decade of life, although this has been largely ignored or interpreted as a post-mortem artefact. To gain insight into the patency, actual structure, and molecular properties of the adult human spinal cord ependymal region, we followed three approaches: (i) with MRI, we estimated the central canal patency in 59 control subjects, 99 patients with traumatic spinal cord injury, and 26 patients with non-traumatic spinal cord injuries. We observed that the central canal is absent from the vast majority of individuals beyond the age of 18 years, gender-independently, throughout the entire length of the spinal cord, both in healthy controls and after injury; (ii) with histology and immunohistochemistry, we describe morphological properties of the non-lesioned ependymal region, which showed the presence of perivascular pseudorosettes, a common feature of ependymoma; and (iii) with laser capture microdissection, followed by TaqMan® low density arrays, we studied the gene expression profile of the ependymal region and found that it is mainly enriched in genes compatible with a low grade or quiescent ependymoma (53 genes); this region is enriched only in 14 genes related to neurogenic niches. In summary, we demonstrate here that the central canal is mainly absent in the adult human spinal cord and is replaced by a structure morphologically and molecularly different from that described for rodents and other primates. The presented data suggest that the ependymal region is more likely to be reminiscent of a low-grade ependymoma. Therefore, a direct translation to adult human patients of an eventual therapeutic potential of this region based on animal models should be approached with caution. PMID:25882650

  17. The ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord differs from other species and shows ependymoma-like features.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel; Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Florensa-Vila, José; Ferrer, Isidro; Grassner, Lukas; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo

    2015-06-01

    Several laboratories have described the existence of undifferentiated precursor cells that may act like stem cells in the ependyma of the rodent spinal cord. However, there are reports showing that this region is occluded and disassembled in humans after the second decade of life, although this has been largely ignored or interpreted as a post-mortem artefact. To gain insight into the patency, actual structure, and molecular properties of the adult human spinal cord ependymal region, we followed three approaches: (i) with MRI, we estimated the central canal patency in 59 control subjects, 99 patients with traumatic spinal cord injury, and 26 patients with non-traumatic spinal cord injuries. We observed that the central canal is absent from the vast majority of individuals beyond the age of 18 years, gender-independently, throughout the entire length of the spinal cord, both in healthy controls and after injury; (ii) with histology and immunohistochemistry, we describe morphological properties of the non-lesioned ependymal region, which showed the presence of perivascular pseudorosettes, a common feature of ependymoma; and (iii) with laser capture microdissection, followed by TaqMan® low density arrays, we studied the gene expression profile of the ependymal region and found that it is mainly enriched in genes compatible with a low grade or quiescent ependymoma (53 genes); this region is enriched only in 14 genes related to neurogenic niches. In summary, we demonstrate here that the central canal is mainly absent in the adult human spinal cord and is replaced by a structure morphologically and molecularly different from that described for rodents and other primates. The presented data suggest that the ependymal region is more likely to be reminiscent of a low-grade ependymoma. Therefore, a direct translation to adult human patients of an eventual therapeutic potential of this region based on animal models should be approached with caution.

  18. Serotonin axons of the neostriatum show a higher affinity for striatal than for ventral mesencephalic transplants: a quantitative study in adult and immature recipient rats.

    PubMed

    Pierret, P; Vallée, A; Bosler, O; Dorais, M; Moukhles, H; Abbaszadeh, R; Lepage, Y; Doucet, G

    1998-07-01

    We previously showed that grafts of fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue are practically not innervated by host serotonin (5-HT) axons after implantation into the striatum of rats aged more than 14 days, at variance with transplants of cortical or striatal tissue into the adult striatum, which are well innervated by these axons. Using 5-HT immunohistochemistry and in vitro [3H]5-HT uptake/autoradiography, we have examined and quantified the innervation of ventral mesencephalic versus striatal grafts several months after implantation into the striatum of neonatal (postnatal day 5 or P5), juvenile (P15), and adult rats. Ventral mesencephalic grafts implanted in P5 rats received a moderate 5-HT innervation, while similar grafts implanted in P15 or adult recipients were almost free of any 5-HT fibers (-80%, compared to P5). The density of 5-HT innervation showed a tendency toward higher values in striatal than in ventral mesencephalic grafts (1.6-2 times higher in P5 and adult recipients; 4 times higher in P15 recipients). The difference was more striking, and significant, when only the true striatal portions of the striatal grafts were considered, i.e., DARPP-32-immunopositive areas (4-5 times higher in P5 and adult recipients; 10 times higher in P15 recipients). Accordingly, these DARPP-32-positive areas were also more densely innervated than the DARPP-32-negative zones of the same grafts (3 times higher at any age). The 5-HT innervation density also decreased with increasing age of the recipients in DARPP-32-positive, as well as DARPP-32-negative compartments of the striatal grafts (-75% in adults), but this decrease appeared more gradual (-50% in juveniles) than with mesencephalic grafts. It is concluded that the 5-HT axons innervating the neostriatum have a better affinity for striatal grafts than for ventral mesencephalic grafts or the nonstriatal portions of striatal grafts. In adulthood, the relative affinity of these axons for the different types of grafts is

  19. Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Demonstrates Similar Nanostructure in Cortical Bone from Young Adult Animals of Different Species.

    PubMed

    Kaspersen, Jørn Døvling; Turunen, Mikael Juhani; Mathavan, Neashan; Lages, Sebastian; Pedersen, Jan Skov; Olsson, Ulf; Isaksson, Hanna

    2016-07-01

    Despite the vast amount of studies focusing on bone nanostructure that have been performed for several decades, doubts regarding the detailed structure of the constituting hydroxyapatite crystal still exist. Different experimental techniques report somewhat different sizes and locations, possibly due to different requirements for the sample preparation. In this study, small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering is used to investigate the nanostructure of femur samples from young adult ovine, bovine, porcine, and murine cortical bone, including three different orthogonal directions relative to the long axis of the bone. The radially averaged scattering from all samples reveals a remarkable similarity in the entire q range, which indicates that the nanostructure is essentially the same in all species. Small differences in the data from different directions confirm that the crystals are elongated in the [001] direction and that this direction is parallel to the long axis of the bone. A model consisting of thin plates is successfully employed to describe the scattering and extract the plate thicknesses, which are found to be in the range of 20-40 Å for most samples but 40-60 Å for the cow samples. It is demonstrated that the mineral plates have a large degree of polydispersity in plate thickness. Additionally, and equally importantly, the scattering data and the model are critically evaluated in terms of model uncertainties and overall information content.

  20. In utero exposure to helminth and mycobacterial antigens generates cytokine responses similar to that observed in adults.

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, I; Ouma, J; Wamachi, A; Kioko, J; Mungai, P; Omollo, A; Elson, L; Koech, D; Kazura, J W; King, C L

    1997-01-01

    Neonates exposed to parasite antigens (Ags) in utero may develop altered fetal immunity that could affect subsequent responses to infection. We hypothesized that cord blood lymphocytes (CBL) from offspring of mothers residing in an area highly endemic for schistosomiasis, filariasis, and tuberculosis in Kenya would either fail to respond or generate a predominantly Th2-associated cytokine response to helminth and mycobacterial antigens (PPD) in vitro compared to maternal PBMC. Kenyan CBL generated helminth Ag-specific IL-5 (range 29-194 pg/ml), IL-10 (121-2,115 pg/ml), and/or IFN-gamma (78 pg/ml-10.6 ng/ml) in 26, 46, and 57% of neonates, respectively (n = 40). PPD induced IFN-gamma in 30% of Kenyan CBL (range 79-1,896 pg/ml), but little or no IL-4 or IL-5. No Ag-specific IL-4, IL-5, or IFN-gamma release was detected by CBL obtained in the United States (n = 11). Ag-driven cytokine production was primarily CD4-dependent. Cytokine responses to helminth and mycobacterial Ags by maternal PBMC mirrored that observed in neonates. CBL from helminth infected and/or PPD-sensitized mothers produced more Ag-specific cytokines compared to CBL from uninfected mothers (P < 0.05). These data demonstrate that the human fetus develops similar patterns of cytokine production observed in adults and indicates that prenatal exposure may not lead to tolerance or altered fetal immunity. . PMID:9120021

  1. Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Demonstrates Similar Nanostructure in Cortical Bone from Young Adult Animals of Different Species.

    PubMed

    Kaspersen, Jørn Døvling; Turunen, Mikael Juhani; Mathavan, Neashan; Lages, Sebastian; Pedersen, Jan Skov; Olsson, Ulf; Isaksson, Hanna

    2016-07-01

    Despite the vast amount of studies focusing on bone nanostructure that have been performed for several decades, doubts regarding the detailed structure of the constituting hydroxyapatite crystal still exist. Different experimental techniques report somewhat different sizes and locations, possibly due to different requirements for the sample preparation. In this study, small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering is used to investigate the nanostructure of femur samples from young adult ovine, bovine, porcine, and murine cortical bone, including three different orthogonal directions relative to the long axis of the bone. The radially averaged scattering from all samples reveals a remarkable similarity in the entire q range, which indicates that the nanostructure is essentially the same in all species. Small differences in the data from different directions confirm that the crystals are elongated in the [001] direction and that this direction is parallel to the long axis of the bone. A model consisting of thin plates is successfully employed to describe the scattering and extract the plate thicknesses, which are found to be in the range of 20-40 Å for most samples but 40-60 Å for the cow samples. It is demonstrated that the mineral plates have a large degree of polydispersity in plate thickness. Additionally, and equally importantly, the scattering data and the model are critically evaluated in terms of model uncertainties and overall information content. PMID:26914607

  2. Information Processing Differences and Similarities in Adults with Dyslexia and Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder during a Continuous Performance Test: A Study of Cortical Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhar, Monica; Been, Pieter H.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Althaus, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Twenty male adults with ADHD, 16 dyslexic adults, 15 comorbid adults, and 16 normal controls were compared on performance and underlying brain responses, during a cued Continuous Performance Test (O-X CPT), with the aim of discovering features of information processing differentiating between the groups. The study evaluated both cue- and…

  3. Cross-sectional survey shows that follow-up formula and growing-up milks are labelled similarly to infant formula in four low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Catherine; Ford, Rosalyn; Feeley, Alison B; Sweet, Lara; Badham, Jane; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    This cross-sectional survey assessed the characteristics of labels of follow-up formula (FUF) and growing-up milk (GUM) compared with infant formula (IF), including cross-promotion practices between FUF/GUM and IF manufactured by the same company, sold in Phnom Penh, Cambodia; Kathmandu Valley, Nepal; Dakar Department, Senegal; and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. All products were imported. A wide recommended age/age range for introduction was provided by manufacturers across all sites, with products with an age recommendation of 0-6 months being most prevalent in three sites, representing over a third of all products. Various age categories (e.g. 1, 1+ and Stage 1) commonly appeared on labels. A number of descriptive names (e.g. infant formula and milk formula) per category of age of introduction were used with some appearing across more than one category. Images of feeding bottles were found on most labels across all age categories, but prevalence decreased with older age categories. The majority of FUF/GUM manufactured by IF companies across all sites displayed at least one example of cross-promotion with one or more of the company's IF: two-thirds or more contained similar colour schemes/designs and similar brand names; 20-85% had similar slogans/mascots/symbols. A wide and potentially confusing range of ages/categories of introduction and descriptive names were found, and cross-promotion with IF was common on FUF/GUM labels. Global guidance from normative bodies forms the basis of most low and middle income countries policies and should provide specific guidance to prohibit cross-promotion between FUF/GUM and IF, and all three categories should be classified as breastmilk substitutes. PMID:27061959

  4. Cross-sectional survey shows that follow-up formula and growing-up milks are labelled similarly to infant formula in four low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Catherine; Ford, Rosalyn; Feeley, Alison B; Sweet, Lara; Badham, Jane; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    This cross-sectional survey assessed the characteristics of labels of follow-up formula (FUF) and growing-up milk (GUM) compared with infant formula (IF), including cross-promotion practices between FUF/GUM and IF manufactured by the same company, sold in Phnom Penh, Cambodia; Kathmandu Valley, Nepal; Dakar Department, Senegal; and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. All products were imported. A wide recommended age/age range for introduction was provided by manufacturers across all sites, with products with an age recommendation of 0-6 months being most prevalent in three sites, representing over a third of all products. Various age categories (e.g. 1, 1+ and Stage 1) commonly appeared on labels. A number of descriptive names (e.g. infant formula and milk formula) per category of age of introduction were used with some appearing across more than one category. Images of feeding bottles were found on most labels across all age categories, but prevalence decreased with older age categories. The majority of FUF/GUM manufactured by IF companies across all sites displayed at least one example of cross-promotion with one or more of the company's IF: two-thirds or more contained similar colour schemes/designs and similar brand names; 20-85% had similar slogans/mascots/symbols. A wide and potentially confusing range of ages/categories of introduction and descriptive names were found, and cross-promotion with IF was common on FUF/GUM labels. Global guidance from normative bodies forms the basis of most low and middle income countries policies and should provide specific guidance to prohibit cross-promotion between FUF/GUM and IF, and all three categories should be classified as breastmilk substitutes.

  5. Tianeptine, olanzapine and fluoxetine show similar restoring effects on stress induced molecular changes in mice brain: An FT-IR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türker-Kaya, Sevgi; Mutlu, Oğuz; Çelikyurt, İpek K.; Akar, Furuzan; Ulak, Güner

    2016-05-01

    Chronic stress which can cause a variety of disorders and illness ranging from metabolic and cardiovascular to mental leads to alterations in content, structure and dynamics of biomolecules in brain. The determination of stress-induced changes along with the effects of antidepressant treatment on these parameters might bring about more effective therapeutic strategies. In the present study, we investigated unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS)-induced changes in biomolecules in mouse brain and the restoring effects of tianeptine (TIA), olanzapine (OLZ) and fluoxetine (FLX) on these variations, by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results revealed that chronic stress causes different membrane packing and an increase in lipid peroxidation, membrane fluidity. A significant increment for lipid/protein, Cdbnd O/lipid, CH3/lipid, CH2/lipid, PO-2/lipid, COO-/lipid and RNA/protein ratios but a significant decrease for lipid/protein ratios were also obtained. Additionally, altered protein secondary structure components were estimated, such as increment in random coils and beta structures. The administration of TIA, OLZ and FLX drugs restored these stress-induced variations except for alterations in protein structure and RNA/protein ratio. This may suggest that these drugs have similar restoring effects on the consequences of stress activity in brain, in spite of the differences in their action mechanisms. All findings might have importance in understanding molecular mechanisms underlying chronic stress and contribute to studies aimed for drug development.

  6. Tianeptine, olanzapine and fluoxetine show similar restoring effects on stress induced molecular changes in mice brain: An FT-IR study.

    PubMed

    Türker-Kaya, Sevgi; Mutlu, Oğuz; Çelikyurt, İpek K; Akar, Furuzan; Ulak, Güner

    2016-05-15

    Chronic stress which can cause a variety of disorders and illness ranging from metabolic and cardiovascular to mental leads to alterations in content, structure and dynamics of biomolecules in brain. The determination of stress-induced changes along with the effects of antidepressant treatment on these parameters might bring about more effective therapeutic strategies. In the present study, we investigated unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS)-induced changes in biomolecules in mouse brain and the restoring effects of tianeptine (TIA), olanzapine (OLZ) and fluoxetine (FLX) on these variations, by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results revealed that chronic stress causes different membrane packing and an increase in lipid peroxidation, membrane fluidity. A significant increment for lipid/protein, C=O/lipid, CH3/lipid, CH2/lipid, PO(-)2/lipid, COO(-)/lipid and RNA/protein ratios but a significant decrease for lipid/protein ratios were also obtained. Additionally, altered protein secondary structure components were estimated, such as increment in random coils and beta structures. The administration of TIA, OLZ and FLX drugs restored these stress-induced variations except for alterations in protein structure and RNA/protein ratio. This may suggest that these drugs have similar restoring effects on the consequences of stress activity in brain, in spite of the differences in their action mechanisms. All findings might have importance in understanding molecular mechanisms underlying chronic stress and contribute to studies aimed for drug development.

  7. Does cross-taxon analysis show similarity in diversity patterns between vascular plants and bryophytes? Some answers from a literature review.

    PubMed

    Bagella, Simonetta

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the taxon surrogacy hypothesis relative to vascular plants and bryophytes. A literature review was conducted to obtain papers that met the following criteria: (i) they examined species richness values; or (ii) they evaluated the species richness within the same study sites, or under the same spatial variation conditions. Twenty-seven papers were accessed. The richness of the two taxa, compared in 32 cases, positively co-varied in about half of the comparisons. The response to the spatial variation in environmental or human-induced factors of the two taxa in terms of species richness was rather variable. Based on current knowledge, the main documented findings regard forest habitats and nival gradients. In forest habitats, co-variation in species richness is likely when similar environments are analysed and seems to be strengthened for boreal forests. Along the nival gradient, a different response in terms of richness of the two taxa suggests that vascular plants cannot be considered good surrogates for bryophytes.

  8. Crystal Structure of the Bovine lactadherin C2 Domain, a Membrane Binding Motif, Shows Similarity to the C2 Domains of Factor V and Factor VIII

    SciTech Connect

    Lin,L.

    2007-01-01

    Lactadherin, a glycoprotein secreted by a variety of cell types, contains two EGF domains and two C domains with sequence homology to the C domains of blood coagulation proteins factor V and factor VIII. Like these proteins, lactadherin binds to phosphatidylserine (PS)-containing membranes with high affinity. We determined the crystal structure of the bovine lactadherin C2 domain (residues 1 to 158) at 2.4 {angstrom}. The lactadherin C2 structure is similar to the C2 domains of factors V and VIII (rmsd of C{sub {alpha}} atoms of 0.9 {angstrom} and 1.2 {angstrom}, and sequence identities of 43% and 38%, respectively). The lactadherin C2 domain has a discoidin-like fold containing two {beta}-sheets of five and three antiparallel {beta}-strands packed against one another. The N and C termini are linked by a disulfide bridge between Cys1 and Cys158. One {beta}-turn and two loops containing solvent-exposed hydrophobic residues extend from the C2 domain {beta}-sandwich core. In analogy with the C2 domains of factors V and VIII, some or all of these solvent-exposed hydrophobic residues, Trp26, Leu28, Phe31, and Phe81, likely participate in membrane binding. The C2 domain of lactadherin may serve as a marker of cell surface phosphatidylserine exposure and may have potential as a unique anti-thrombotic agent.

  9. Tianeptine, olanzapine and fluoxetine show similar restoring effects on stress induced molecular changes in mice brain: An FT-IR study.

    PubMed

    Türker-Kaya, Sevgi; Mutlu, Oğuz; Çelikyurt, İpek K; Akar, Furuzan; Ulak, Güner

    2016-05-15

    Chronic stress which can cause a variety of disorders and illness ranging from metabolic and cardiovascular to mental leads to alterations in content, structure and dynamics of biomolecules in brain. The determination of stress-induced changes along with the effects of antidepressant treatment on these parameters might bring about more effective therapeutic strategies. In the present study, we investigated unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS)-induced changes in biomolecules in mouse brain and the restoring effects of tianeptine (TIA), olanzapine (OLZ) and fluoxetine (FLX) on these variations, by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results revealed that chronic stress causes different membrane packing and an increase in lipid peroxidation, membrane fluidity. A significant increment for lipid/protein, C=O/lipid, CH3/lipid, CH2/lipid, PO(-)2/lipid, COO(-)/lipid and RNA/protein ratios but a significant decrease for lipid/protein ratios were also obtained. Additionally, altered protein secondary structure components were estimated, such as increment in random coils and beta structures. The administration of TIA, OLZ and FLX drugs restored these stress-induced variations except for alterations in protein structure and RNA/protein ratio. This may suggest that these drugs have similar restoring effects on the consequences of stress activity in brain, in spite of the differences in their action mechanisms. All findings might have importance in understanding molecular mechanisms underlying chronic stress and contribute to studies aimed for drug development. PMID:26952787

  10. A New Orbivirus Isolated from Mosquitoes in North-Western Australia Shows Antigenic and Genetic Similarity to Corriparta Virus but Does Not Replicate in Vertebrate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Jessica J.; Warrilow, David; McLean, Breeanna J.; Watterson, Daniel; O’Brien, Caitlin A.; Colmant, Agathe M.G.; Johansen, Cheryl A.; Barnard, Ross T.; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Davis, Steven S.; Hall, Roy A.; Hobson-Peters, Jody

    2016-01-01

    The discovery and characterisation of new mosquito-borne viruses provides valuable information on the biodiversity of vector-borne viruses and important insights into their evolution. In this study, a broad-spectrum virus screening system, based on the detection of long double-stranded RNA in inoculated cell cultures, was used to investigate the presence of novel viruses in mosquito populations of northern Australia. We detected and isolated a new virus (tentatively named Parry’s Lagoon virus, PLV) from Culex annulirostris, Culex pullus, Mansonia uniformis and Aedes normanensis mosquitoes that shares genomic sequence similarities to Corriparta virus (CORV), a member of the Orbivirus genus of the family Reoviridae. Despite moderate to high (72.2% to 92.2%) amino acid identity across all proteins when compared to CORV, and demonstration of antigenic relatedness, PLV did not replicate in several vertebrate cell lines that were permissive to CORV. This striking phenotypic difference suggests that PLV has evolved to have a very restricted host range, indicative of a mosquito-only life cycle. PMID:27213426

  11. Candida tropicalis from veterinary and human sources shows similar in vitro hemolytic activity, antifungal biofilm susceptibility and pathogenesis against Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Oliveira, Jonathas Sales de; Evangelista, Antônio José de Jesus; Serpa, Rosana; Silva, Aline Lobão da; Aguiar, Felipe Rodrigues Magalhães de; Pereira, Vandbergue Santos; Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Pereira-Neto, Waldemiro Aquino; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2016-08-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro hemolytic activity and biofilm antifungal susceptibility of veterinary and human Candida tropicalis strains, as well as their pathogenesis against Caenorhabditis elegans. Twenty veterinary isolates and 20 human clinical isolates of C. tropicalis were used. The strains were evaluated for their hemolytic activity and biofilm production. Biofilm susceptibility to itraconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin was assessed using broth microdilution assay. The in vivo evaluation of strain pathogenicity was investigated using the nematode C. elegans. Hemolytic factor was observed in 95% of the strains and 97.5% of the isolates showed ability to form biofilm. Caspofungin and amphotericin B showed better results than azole antifungals against mature biofilms. Paradoxical effect on mature biofilm metabolic activity was observed at elevated concentrations of caspofungin (8-64μg/mL). Azole antifungals were not able to inhibit mature C. tropicalis biofilms, even at the higher tested concentrations. High mortality rates of C. elegans were observed when the worms were exposed to with C. tropicalis strains, reaching up to 96%, 96h after exposure of the worms to C. tropicalis strains. These results reinforce the high pathogenicity of C. tropicalis from veterinary and human sources and show the effectiveness of caspofungin and amphotericin B against mature biofilms of this species. PMID:27527785

  12. SU-E-I-31: Differences Observed in Radiation Doses Across 2 Similar CT Scanners From Adult Brain-Neck CT Angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, K; McMillan, K; Bostani, M; Cagnon, C; McNitt-Gray, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate the difference in radiation doses from adult Brain-Neck CT angiography (CTA) between two CT scanners. Methods: We collected CT dose index data (CTDIvol, DLP) from adult Brain-Neck CTA performed with two CT scanners (Sensation 64 (S64) and Definition AS (AS), Siemens Healthcare) performed at two of our facilities from Jan 1st to Dec 31th, 2014. X-ray dose management software (Radmetrics, Bayer Healthcare) was used to mine these data. All exams were performed with Tube Current Modulation (Care Dose 4D), tube voltage of 120 kVp, quality reference mAs of 300, beam collimation of 64*0.6 mm. The rotation time was set to 0.5 sec for S64 and 1.0 sec for AS. We also scanned an anthropomorphic skull and chest phantom under routine Brain-Neck CTA protocol with the two scanners and extracted the tube current values from the raw projection data. Results: The mean CTDIvol and DLP in Brain-Neck CTA was 72 mGy and 2554 mGy*cm for AS, which was substantially larger than the mean values of 46 mGy and 1699 mGy*cm for S64. The maximum tube current was 583 mA for most cases on the S64 while the maximum was 666 mA for AS even though the rotation time set for AS was 1.0 sec. Measurements obtained with the anthropomorphic phantom showed that the tube current reached 583 mA at the shoulder region for S64 while it reached to 666 mA for AS. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that substantially different CT doses can Result from Brain-Neck CTA protocols even when similar scanners and similar settings are used. Though both scanners have a similar maximum mA rating, differences in mA were observed through the shoulders, resulting in substantially different CTDIvol values.

  13. New Hippocampal Neurons Are Not Obligatory for Memory Formation; Cyclin D2 Knockout Mice with No Adult Brain Neurogenesis Show Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaholkowski, Piotr; Kiryk, Anna; Jedynak, Paulina; Abdallah, Nada M. Ben; Knapska, Ewelina; Kowalczyk, Anna; Piechal, Agnieszka; Blecharz-Klin, Kamilla; Figiel, Izabela; Lioudyno, Victoria; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, Ewa; Wilczynski, Grzegorz M.; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Kaczmarek, Leszek; Filipkowski, Robert K.

    2009-01-01

    The role of adult brain neurogenesis (generating new neurons) in learning and memory appears to be quite firmly established in spite of some criticism and lack of understanding of what the new neurons serve the brain for. Also, the few experiments showing that blocking adult neurogenesis causes learning deficits used irradiation and various drugs…

  14. Identification of Acoustically Similar and Dissimilar Vowels in Profoundly Deaf Adults Who Use Hearing Aids and/or Cochlear Implants: Some Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    Hay-McCutcheon, Marcia J.; Peterson, Nathaniel R.; Rosado, Christian A.; Pisoni, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In this study, the authors examined the effects of aging and residual hearing on the identification of acoustically similar and dissimilar vowels in adults with postlingual deafness who use hearing aids (HAs) and/or cochlear implants (CIs). Method The authors used two groups of acoustically similar and dissimilar vowels to assess vowel identification. Also, the Consonant–Nucleus–Consonant Word Recognition Test (Peterson & Lehiste, 1962) and sentences from the Hearing in Noise Test (Nilsson, Soli, & Sullivan, 1994) were administered. Forty CI recipients with postlingual deafness (ages 31–81 years) participated in the study. Results Acoustically similar vowels were more difficult to identify than acoustically dissimilar vowels. With increasing age, performance deteriorated when identifying acoustically similar vowels. Vowel identification was also affected by the use of a contralateral HA and the degree of residual hearing prior to implantation. Moderate correlations were found between speech perception and vowel identification performance. Conclusions Identification performance was affected by the acoustic similarity of the vowels. Older adults experienced more difficulty identifying acoustically similar confusable vowels than did younger adults. The findings might lend support to the ease of language understanding model (Ronnberg, Rudner, Foo, & Lunner, 2008), which proposes that the quality and perceptual robustness of acoustic input affects speech perception. PMID:23824440

  15. The Yeast Hrs1 Gene Is Involved in Positive and Negative Regulation of Transcription and Shows Genetic Characteristics Similar to Sin4 and Gal11

    PubMed Central

    Piruat, J. I.; Chavez, S.; Aguilera, A.

    1997-01-01

    We provide genetic evidence that HRS1/PGD1, a yeast gene previously identified as a suppressor of the hyper-recombination phenotype of hpr1, has positive and negative roles in transcriptional regulation. We have analyzed three differently regulated promoters, GAL1, PHO5 and HSP26, by β-galactosidase assays of lacZ-fused promoters and by Northern analysis of the endogenous genes. Transcription of these promoters was derepressed in hrs1δ mutants under conditions in which it is normally repressed in wild type. Under induced conditions it was either strongly reduced or significantly enhanced depending on the promoter system analyzed. Constitutive transcription was not affected, as determined in ADH1 and TEF2. In addition, Hrs1p was required for mating-factor expression, telomere-linked DNA silencing and DNA supercoiling of plasmids. Furthermore, hrs1δ suppressed Ty-insertion mutations and conferred a Gal(-) phenotype. Many of these phenotypes also result from mutations in GAL11, SIN4 or RGR1, which encode proteins of the RNA polII mediator. We also show that gal11δ and sin4δ partially suppress the hyper-rec phenotype of hpr1 mutants, although to a lesser extent than hrs1δ. Our results provide new evidence for the connection between hpr1δ-induced deletions and transcription. We discuss the possibility that Hrs1p might be a component of the RNA polII transcription machinery. PMID:9409823

  16. Dual-Task Processing in Younger and Older Adults: Similarities and Differences Revealed by fMRI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Alan A.; Jonides, John; Sylvester, Ching-Yune C.

    2011-01-01

    fMRI was used to explore age differences in the neural substrate of dual-task processing. Brain activations when there was a 100 ms SOA between tasks, and task overlap was high, were contrasted with activations when there was a 1000 ms SOA, and first task processing was largely complete before the second task began. Younger adults (M = 21 yrs)…

  17. Gender across Generations: Patterns of Similarity between Young Adults and Their Middle-Aged and Aging Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huyck, Margaret Hellie; And Others

    Biological sex remains a powerful source of differential socialization and experience. These studies were designed to enhance the understanding of gender identity, the psychosocial aspects of sexual differentiation. The focus was upon changes and continuities, in terms of development along the adult life course and as reflective of social change.…

  18. Brain Activity in Adults Who Stutter: Similarities across Speaking Tasks and Correlations with Stuttering Frequency and Speaking Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingham, Roger J.; Grafton, Scott T.; Bothe, Anne K.; Ingham, Janis C.

    2012-01-01

    Many differences in brain activity have been reported between persons who stutter (PWS) and typically fluent controls during oral reading tasks. An earlier meta-analysis of imaging studies identified stutter-related regions, but recent studies report less agreement with those regions. A PET study on adult dextral PWS (n = 18) and matched fluent…

  19. Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels.

    PubMed

    Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Batista, Bruna Aparecida Melo; Neves, Alice Magagnin; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) can lead to weight gain, but evidence regarding their real effect in body weight and satiety is still inconclusive. Using a rat model, the present study compares the effect of saccharin and aspartame to sucrose in body weight gain and in caloric intake. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats received plain yogurt sweetened with 20% sucrose, 0.3% sodium saccharin or 0.4% aspartame, in addition to chow and water ad libitum, while physical activity was restrained. Measurements of cumulative body weight gain, total caloric intake, caloric intake of chow and caloric intake of sweetened yogurt were performed weekly for 12 weeks. Results showed that addition of either saccharin or aspartame to yogurt resulted in increased weight gain compared to addition of sucrose, however total caloric intake was similar among groups. In conclusion, greater weight gain was promoted by the use of saccharin or aspartame, compared with sucrose, and this weight gain was unrelated to caloric intake. We speculate that a decrease in energy expenditure or increase in fluid retention might be involved.

  20. Continuous-eligibility policies stabilize Medicaid coverage for children and could be extended to adults with similar results.

    PubMed

    Ku, Leighton; Steinmetz, Erika; Bruen, Brian K

    2013-09-01

    A key method of stabilizing Medicaid coverage is to provide beneficiaries with twelve months of continuous eligibility. Following the passage of the Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act in 2009, seven states adopted the continuous-eligibility option for children. That policy change led to a 1.8-percentage-point increase in the average length of child enrollment during fiscal year 2010 and increased annual costs for children by about 2.2 percent. The Medicaid and CHIP Payment and Access Commission has recommended offering states the option of giving adults twelve-month continuous eligibility for Medicaid. Our findings suggest that continuous eligibility could promote more stable coverage for adults enrolled in Medicaid at a modest cost. PMID:24019362

  1. Younger Adults Show Long-Term Effects of Cognitive Training on Broad Cognitive Abilities over 2 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmiedek, Florian; Lövdén, Martin; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2014-01-01

    In the COGITO study (Schmiedek, Lövdén, & Lindenberger, 2010), 101 younger adults practiced 12 tests of perceptual speed, working memory, and episodic memory for over 100 daily 1-hr sessions. The intervention resulted in positive transfer to broad cognitive abilities, including reasoning and episodic memory. Here, we examine whether these…

  2. Preschoolers with Down Syndrome Do Not yet Show the Learning and Memory Impairments Seen in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Lynette V.; Richmond, Jenny L.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) exhibit a behavioral phenotype of specific strengths and weaknesses, in addition to a generalized cognitive delay. In particular, adults with DS exhibit specific deficits in learning and memory processes that depend on the hippocampus, and there is some suggestion of impairments on executive function tasks that…

  3. Racial and Ethnic Similarities and Differences in Beliefs about Intergenerational Assistance to Older Adults after Divorce and Remarriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence H.; Rothrauff, Tanja C.

    2006-01-01

    We examined beliefs about intergenerational responsibilities to assist older kin with a national sample of 362 Latinos, 492 African Americans, 121 Asian Americans, and 2,122 White European Americans using multiple-segment factorial vignettes. More similarities than differences existed between ethnic groups, but Asian Americans and African…

  4. The influence of sexually explicit Internet material and peers on stereotypical beliefs about women's sexual roles: similarities and differences between adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Peter, Jochen; Valkenburg, Patti M

    2011-09-01

    Previous research on the influence of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) on adolescents' stereotypical beliefs about women's sexual roles has three shortcomings. First, the role of peers has been neglected; second, stereotypical beliefs have rarely been studied as causing the use of SEIM and the selection of specific peers; and third, it is unclear whether adolescents are more vulnerable to the effects of SEIM than adults. We used data from two nationally representative two-wave panel surveys among 1,445 Dutch adolescents and 833 Dutch adults, focusing on the stereotypical belief that women engage in token resistance to sex (i.e., the notion that women say "no" when they actually intend to have sex). Structural equation modeling showed that peers who supported traditional gender roles elicited, both among adolescents and adults, stronger beliefs that women use token resistance to sex. Further, the belief that women engage in token resistance predicted adolescents' and adults' selection of gender-role traditional peers, but it did not predict adolescents' and adults' use of SEIM. Finally, adults, but not adolescents, were susceptible to the impact of SEIM on beliefs that women engage in token resistance to sex. PMID:21332367

  5. Similarities and Differences in the Determinants of Trips Outdoors Performed by UK Urban- and Rural-Living Older Adults.

    PubMed

    de Koning, Jolanthe L; Stathi, Afroditi; Fox, Kenneth R

    2015-10-01

    The frequency of trips outdoors is a strong indicator of older adults' physical activity levels. This qualitative study compared and contrasted determinants of trips outdoors between rural- (n = 13) and urban-living (n = 15) people aged 65 and older living in England. Interview transcripts were analyzed through directed and summative content analysis employing the Ecological Model framework. Some personal-level determinants (age-related barriers) and environment-level factors (car dependence, bus services) were shared across samples. The main differences were seen in how a community-based social network instigated trips outdoors for rural participants while family ties mostly led to trips outdoors for urban-living participants. Urban participants used and valued recreational facilities, but rural participants did not report them as important in determining trips outdoors. Strategies to improve public transport and minimize age-related barriers may translate from urban to rural contexts. However, social and/or physical environment interventions could be more effective if they were rural-grounded, not urban-translated. PMID:25562468

  6. Oesophageal stricturing secondary to adult Stevens-Johnson syndrome: similarities in presentation and management to corrosive injury.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, A; Bramble, M G; Shehade, S; Dean, J

    2003-05-01

    Clinical decisions often have to be made in the absence of evidence. In some cases, it is appropriate to use evidence from similar but more common conditions for which studies have resulted in evidence-based practice. This report describes a case of oesophageal stricture following Stevens-Johnson syndrome illustrating this concept, although it is likely that there are many other conditions in which the same principle will stand the clinician in good stead. Dilatation led to long-standing relief of dysphagia in our case. PMID:12701021

  7. Not all water mazes are created equal: cyclin D2 knockout mice with constitutively suppressed adult hippocampal neurogenesis do show specific spatial learning deficits.

    PubMed

    Garthe, A; Huang, Z; Kaczmarek, L; Filipkowski, R K; Kempermann, G

    2014-04-01

    Studies using the Morris water maze to assess hippocampal function in animals, in which adult hippocampal neurogenesis had been suppressed, have yielded seemingly contradictory results. Cyclin D2 knockout (Ccnd2(-/-)) mice, for example, have constitutively suppressed adult hippocampal neurogenesis but had no overt phenotype in the water maze. In other paradigms, however, ablation of adult neurogenesis was associated with specific deficits in the water maze. Therefore, we hypothesized that the neurogenesis-related phenotype might also become detectable in Ccnd2(-/-) mice, if we used the exact setup and protocol that in our previous study had revealed deficits in mice with suppressed adult neurogenesis. Ccnd2(-/-) mice indeed learned the task and developed a normal preference for the goal quadrant, but were significantly less precise for the exact goal position and were slower in acquiring efficient and spatially more precise search strategies. Upon goal reversal (when the hidden platform was moved to a new position) Ccnd2(-/-) mice showed increased perseverance at the former platform location, implying that they were less flexible in updating the previously learned information. Both with respect to adult neurogenesis and behavioral performance, Ccnd2(+/-) mice ranged between wild types and knockouts. Importantly, hippocampus-dependent learning was not generally impaired by the mutation, but specifically functional aspects relying on precise and flexible encoding were affected. Whether ablation of adult neurogenesis causes a specific behavioral phenotype thus also depends on the actual task demands. The test parameters appear to be important variables influencing whether a task can pick up a contribution of adult neurogenesis to test performance.

  8. The capsule biosynthesis locus of Haemophilus influenzae shows conspicuous similarity to the corresponding locus in Haemophilus sputorum and may have been recruited from this species by horizontal gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Signe M; de Gier, Camilla; Dimopoulou, Chrysoula; Gupta, Vikas; Hansen, Lars H; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels

    2015-06-01

    The newly described species Haemophilus sputorum has been cultured from the upper respiratory tract of humans and appears to have little pathogenic potential. The species encodes a capsular biosynthesis locus of approximately 12  kb composed of three distinct regions. Region I and III genes, involved in export and processing of the capsular material, show high similarity to the corresponding genes in capsulate lineages of the pathogenic species Haemophilus influenzae; indeed, standard bexA and bexB PCRs for detection of capsulated strains of H. influenzae give positive results with strains of H. sputorum. Three ORFs are present in region II of the sequenced strain of H. sputorum, of which a putative phosphotransferase showed homology with corresponding genes from H. influenzae serotype c and f. Phylogenetic analysis of housekeeping genes from 24 Pasteurellaceae species showed that H. sputorum was only distantly related to H. influenzae. In contrast to H. influenzae, the capsule locus in H. sputorum is not associated with transposases or other transposable elements. Our data suggest that the capsule locus of capsulate lineages of H. influenzae may have been recruited relatively recently from the commensal species H. sputorum by horizontal gene transfer.

  9. High Expression of Intestinal Homing Receptor CD103 in Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma, Similar to 2 Other CD8+ T-Cell Lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Hideki; Nimura, Satoshi; Ishitsuka, Kenji; Mihashi, Yasuhito; Mizoguchi, Mikio; Nakamura, Shotaro; Okamura, Seiichi; Momosaki, Seiya; Aoyagi, Kunihiko; Sakisaka, Shotaro; Takeshita, Morishige

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the expression of the αEβ7 integrin (CD103)-intestinal homing receptor of T-intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) in 130 cases of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). We detected CD103 lymphoma cells in 55% (31/56) of mainly gastrointestinal (GI)-involved ATLL cases. Among them, lymphoma cells of 18 cases located in other involved organs had similar CD103 expression patterns. Histologically, we found (a) increased reactive IELs in non-neoplastic mucosal layers in 28% (5/18) of surgical and mucosal resection cases, (b) preserved epithelial glands, and (c) numerous small intraepithelial ATLL nests in involved lesions in 36 (69%) and 21 (40%), respectively, of the 52 examined cases. These 3 patterns were common in intestinal type II enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma but were rare in intestinal EBV nasal-type/like T/natural killer (NK)-cell lymphoma. We detected CD103 tumor cells in 41% (16/39) of lymph node-involved ATLL, in 31% (11/35) of skin-involved ATLL, in 68% (21/31) of type II CD4 enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma cases, in 36% (8/22) of primary gastric T/NK-cell lymphomas, and in 77% (7/9) of CD8 epidermotropic mycosis fungoides. CD103 ATLL prefers involving the GI tract over the skin (P<0.05). CD103 expression in GI-involved and/or total ATLL cases was significantly higher than in other 9 T/NK-cell lymphoma groups (P<0.05 or 0.01). Only ATLL cases were commonly CD103 in CD4 T/NK-cell lymphoma groups (P<0.05 or 0.01). Human T-lymphotropic virus-1-infected CD103 T-IELs and mucosal T cells may be important sources of ATLL. PMID:26813744

  10. Short Research Note: The Beginning Spanish Lexicon--A Web-Based Interface to Calculate Phonological Similarity among Spanish Words in Adults Learning Spanish as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitevitch, Michael S.; Stamer, Melissa K.; Kieweg, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    A number of resources provide psycholinguistic researchers with information about the words that the typical child or adult knows in a variety of languages. What is currently not available is a resource that provides information about the words that a typical adult learning a foreign language knows. We created such a resource for Spanish: The…

  11. Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder Show Normal Attention to Eye-Gaze Information--Evidence from a New Change Blindness Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher-Watson, Sue; Leekam, Susan R.; Findlay, John M.; Stanton, Elaine C.

    2008-01-01

    Other people's eye-gaze is a powerful social stimulus that captures and directs visual attention. There is evidence that this is not the case for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), although less is known about attention to eye-gaze in adults. We investigated whether young adults would detect a change to the direction of eye-gaze in…

  12. Convection-enhancement delivery of liposomal formulation of oxaliplatin shows less toxicity than oxaliplatin yet maintains a similar median survival time in F98 glioma-bearing rat model.

    PubMed

    Shi, Minghan; Fortin, David; Paquette, Benoit; Sanche, Léon

    2016-06-01

    Results of clinical trials with oxaliplatin in treating glioblastoma are dismal. Previous works showed that intravenous (i.v.) delivery of oxaliplatin did not increase the survival of F98 glioma-bearing Fisher rats. Low accumulation of the drug in tumor cells is presumed to be responsible for the lack of antitumor effect. In the present study, convection-enhanced delivery (CED) was used to directly inject oxaliplatin in brain tumor implanted in rats. Since CED can led to severe toxicity, the liposomal formulation of oxaliplatin (Lipoxal™) was also assessed. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of oxaliplatin was 10 μg, while that of Lipoxal™ was increased by 3-times reaching 30 μg. Median survival time (MeST) of F98 glioma-bearing rats injected with 10 μg oxaliplatin by CED was 31 days, 7.5 days longer than untreated control (p = 0.0002); while CED of 30 μg Lipoxal™ reached the same result. Compared to previous study on i.v. delivery of these drugs, their injection by CED significantly increased their tumoral accumulations as well as MeSTs in the F98 glioma bearing rat model. The addition of radiotherapy (15 Gy) to CED of oxaliplatin or Lipoxal™ increased the MeST by 4.0 and 3.0 days, respectively. The timing of radiotherapy (4 h or 24 h after CED) produced similar results. However, the treatment was better tolerated when radiotherapy was performed 24 h after CED. In conclusion, a better tumoral accumulation was achieved when oxaliplatin and Lipoxal™ were injected by CED. The liposomal encapsulation of oxaliplatin reduced its toxic, while maintaining its antitumor potential.

  13. Fractional anisotropy shows differential reduction in frontal-subcortical fiber bundles—A longitudinal MRI study of 76 middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Vik, Alexandra; Hodneland, Erlend; Haász, Judit; Ystad, Martin; Lundervold, Astri J.; Lundervold, Arvid

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the frontal- and white matter (WM) retrogenesis hypotheses and the assumptions that fronto-striatal circuits are especially vulnerable in normal aging, the goal of the present study was to identify fiber bundles connecting subcortical nuclei and frontal areas and obtain site-specific information about age related fractional anisotropy (FA) changes. Multimodal magnetic resonance image acquisitions [3D T1-weighted and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI)] were obtained from healthy older adults (N = 76, range 49–80 years at inclusion) at two time points, 3 years apart. A subset of the participants (N = 24) was included at a third time-point. In addition to the frontal-subcortical fibers, the anterior callosal fiber (ACF) and the corticospinal tract (CST) was investigated by its mean FA together with tract parameterization analysis. Our results demonstrated fronto-striatal structural connectivity decline (reduced FA) in normal aging with substantial inter-individual differences. The tract parameterization analysis showed that the along tract FA profiles were characterized by piece-wise differential changes along their extension rather than being uniformly affected. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first longitudinal study detecting age-related changes in frontal-subcortical WM connections in normal aging. PMID:26029102

  14. Full genome sequence of a novel circo-like virus detected in an adult European eel Anguilla anguilla showing signs of cauliflower disease.

    PubMed

    Doszpoly, Andor; Tarján, Zoltán L; Glávits, Róbert; Müller, Tamás; Benkő, Mária

    2014-05-13

    An adult European eel Anguilla anguilla, showing typical signs of the so-called cauliflower disease, was subjected to pathological and molecular virological examinations. Samples taken from internal organs and the polypoid proliferative tissue from the mouth were examined by PCR for the detection of several viruses. Positive results were obtained with a nested PCR targeting the rep gene of circoviruses. Analysis of the partial rep sequence indicated the presence of a putative novel circovirus, but attempts to isolate it remained unsuccessful. The missing part of the genome was acquired by an inverse nested PCR with 2 specific primer pairs, designed from the newly determined rep sequence, followed by genome walking. The circular full genome was found to consist of 1378 nt (GenBank accession no. KC469701). Two oppositely oriented open reading frames (ORFs) were present, of which one was unambiguously identified as a circoviral rep gene. However, the predicted product of the other ORF, though it is a clear positional counterpart of the cap genes, showed no obvious homology to any known circoviral capsid proteins. A stem-loop-like element in the intergenic region between the 5' ends of the ORFs was also found. Phylogenetic calculations indicated that the novel virus belongs to the genus Circovirus in the family Circoviridae. The relative amount of the viral DNA in the organ samples was estimated by quantitative real-time PCR. The results suggested that the examined fish was caught in an active viremic state, although the role of this circovirus in the etiology of the cauliflower diseases could not be ascertained.

  15. Sod1 gene ablation in adult mice leads to physiological changes at the neuromuscular junction similar to changes that occur in old wild-type mice.

    PubMed

    Ivannikov, Maxim V; Van Remmen, Holly

    2015-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are believed to be important mediators of muscle atrophy and weakness in aging and many degenerative conditions. However, the mechanisms and physiological processes specifically affected by elevated ROS in neuromuscular units that contribute to muscle weakness during aging are not well defined. Here we investigate the effects of chronic oxidative stress on neurotransmission and excitation-contraction (EC) coupling mechanisms in the levator auris longus (LAL) muscle from young (4-8 months) and old (22-28 months) wild-type mice and young adult Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase 1 knockout (Sod1(-/-)) mice. The frequency of spontaneous neurotransmitter release and the amplitude of evoked neurotransmitter release in young Sod1(-/-) and old wild-type LAL neuromuscular junctions were significantly reduced from the young wild-type values, and those declines were mirrored by decreases in synaptic vesicle pool size. Presynaptic cytosolic calcium concentration and mitochondrial calcium uptake amplitudes showed substantial increases in stimulated young Sod1(-/-) and old axon terminals. Surprisingly, LAL muscle fibers from old mice showed a greater excitability than fibers from either young wild-type or young Sod1(-/-) LAL. Both evoked excitatory junction potential (EJP) and spontaneous mini EJP amplitudes were considerably higher in LAL muscles from old mice than in fibers from young Sod1(-/-) LAL muscle. Despite a greater excitability, sarcoplasmic calcium influx in both old wild-type and young Sod1(-/-) LAL muscle fibers was significantly less. Sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium levels were also reduced in both old wild-type and young Sod1(-/-) mice, but the difference was not statistically significant in muscle fibers from old wild-type mice. The protein ratio of triad calcium channels RyR1/DHPR was not different in all groups. However, fibers from both young Sod1(-/-) and old mice had substantially elevated levels of protein carbonylation and S

  16. Heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine elicits similar antibody response as standard 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine in adult patients with RA treated with immunomodulating drugs.

    PubMed

    Kapetanovic, Meliha Crnkic; Roseman, Carmen; Jönsson, Göran; Truedsson, Lennart

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of the study were to compare antibody response in immunosuppressed patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) after vaccination with heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) to that of RA patients and healthy controls vaccinated with 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) and to study the impact of disease and/or treatment characteristics and type of vaccine on antibody response following pneumococcal vaccination in patients with RA. In total, 253 RA patients treated with methotrexate (MTX), anti-TNF blockers as monotherapy or anti-TNF + MTX were vaccinated with a single dose (0.5 ml) of PCV7. In addition, 149 RA patients receiving corresponding treatments and 47 healthy controls were vaccinated with a single dose (0.5 ml) of PPV23. Serotype-specific IgG to 23F and 6B were measured at vaccination and 4-6 weeks after vaccination using ELISA. Antibody response ratio (ARR), i.e. ratio between post-/prevaccination antibody levels, was compared between corresponding treatment groups. Differences in ARR were analysed using analysis of variance. Positive antibody response (posAR) was defined as equal to or greater than twofold increase in prevaccination antibody levels. Possible predictors of posAR were analysed using logistic regression model. Corresponding RA treatment groups showed similar ARR and posAR for both serotypes regardless of vaccine type. Higher age at vaccination and concomitant MTX were identified as predictors of impaired posAR for both serotypes tested, whereas type of vaccine did not influence posAR significantly. PCV7 elicits similar antibody response as PPV23 in patients with RA receiving immunosuppressive treatment. In RA patients, higher age and MTX treatment but not type of vaccine predicted impaired posAR.

  17. The Beginning Spanish Lexicon: A Web-based interface to calculate phonological similarity among Spanish words in adults learning Spanish as a foreign language

    PubMed Central

    Vitevitch, Michael S.; Stamer, Melissa K.; Kieweg, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    A number of resources provide psycholinguistic researchers with information about the words that the typical child or adult knows in a variety of languages. What is currently not available is a resource that provides information about the words that a typical adult learning a foreign language knows. We created such a resource for Spanish: The Beginning Spanish Lexicon. The present report describes the words contained in this web-accessible resource, and the information about those words provided by the interface. This information is freely accessible at: http://www.people.ku.edu/~mvitevit/BegSpanLex.html PMID:25342870

  18. The Beginning Spanish Lexicon: A Web-based interface to calculate phonological similarity among Spanish words in adults learning Spanish as a foreign language.

    PubMed

    Vitevitch, Michael S; Stamer, Melissa K; Kieweg, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    A number of resources provide psycholinguistic researchers with information about the words that the typical child or adult knows in a variety of languages. What is currently not available is a resource that provides information about the words that a typical adult learning a foreign language knows. We created such a resource for Spanish: The Beginning Spanish Lexicon. The present report describes the words contained in this web-accessible resource, and the information about those words provided by the interface. This information is freely accessible at: http://www.people.ku.edu/~mvitevit/BegSpanLex.html.

  19. Cytochrome c oxidase response to changes in cerebral oxygen delivery in the adult brain shows higher brain-specificity than haemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Kolyva, Christina; Ghosh, Arnab; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Highton, David; Cooper, Chris E; Smith, Martin; Elwell, Clare E

    2014-01-15

    The redox state of cerebral mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase monitored with near-infrared spectroscopy (Δ[oxCCO]) is a signal with strong potential as a non-invasive, bedside biomarker of cerebral metabolic status. We hypothesised that the higher mitochondrial density of brain compared to skin and skull would lead to evidence of brain-specificity of the Δ[oxCCO] signal when measured with a multi-distance near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system. Measurements of Δ[oxCCO] as well as of concentration changes in oxygenated (Δ[HbO2]) and deoxygenated haemoglobin (Δ[HHb]) were taken at multiple source-detector distances during systemic hypoxia and hypocapnia (decrease in cerebral oxygen delivery), and hyperoxia and hypercapnia (increase in cerebral oxygen delivery) from 15 adult healthy volunteers. Increasing source-detector spacing is associated with increasing light penetration depth and thus higher sensitivity to cerebral changes. An increase in Δ[oxCCO] was observed during the challenges that increased cerebral oxygen delivery and the opposite was observed when cerebral oxygen delivery decreased. A consistent pattern of statistically significant increasing amplitude of the Δ[oxCCO] response with increasing light penetration depth was observed in all four challenges, a behaviour that was distinctly different from that of the haemoglobin chromophores, which did not show this statistically significant depth gradient. This depth-dependence of the Δ[oxCCO] signal corroborates the notion of higher concentrations of CCO being present in cerebral tissue compared to extracranial components and highlights the value of NIRS-derived Δ[oxCCO] as a brain-specific signal of cerebral metabolism, superior in this aspect to haemoglobin. PMID:23707584

  20. Cytochrome c oxidase response to changes in cerebral oxygen delivery in the adult brain shows higher brain-specificity than haemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Kolyva, Christina; Ghosh, Arnab; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Highton, David; Cooper, Chris E; Smith, Martin; Elwell, Clare E

    2014-01-15

    The redox state of cerebral mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase monitored with near-infrared spectroscopy (Δ[oxCCO]) is a signal with strong potential as a non-invasive, bedside biomarker of cerebral metabolic status. We hypothesised that the higher mitochondrial density of brain compared to skin and skull would lead to evidence of brain-specificity of the Δ[oxCCO] signal when measured with a multi-distance near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system. Measurements of Δ[oxCCO] as well as of concentration changes in oxygenated (Δ[HbO2]) and deoxygenated haemoglobin (Δ[HHb]) were taken at multiple source-detector distances during systemic hypoxia and hypocapnia (decrease in cerebral oxygen delivery), and hyperoxia and hypercapnia (increase in cerebral oxygen delivery) from 15 adult healthy volunteers. Increasing source-detector spacing is associated with increasing light penetration depth and thus higher sensitivity to cerebral changes. An increase in Δ[oxCCO] was observed during the challenges that increased cerebral oxygen delivery and the opposite was observed when cerebral oxygen delivery decreased. A consistent pattern of statistically significant increasing amplitude of the Δ[oxCCO] response with increasing light penetration depth was observed in all four challenges, a behaviour that was distinctly different from that of the haemoglobin chromophores, which did not show this statistically significant depth gradient. This depth-dependence of the Δ[oxCCO] signal corroborates the notion of higher concentrations of CCO being present in cerebral tissue compared to extracranial components and highlights the value of NIRS-derived Δ[oxCCO] as a brain-specific signal of cerebral metabolism, superior in this aspect to haemoglobin.

  1. Reader-Responses of Pregnant Adolescents and Teenage Mothers to Young Adult Novels Portraying Protagonists with Problems Similar and Dissimilar to the Readers'.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poe, Elizabeth Ann

    Applying reader response theory, a study explored the responses of 19 pregnant adolescents and teenage mothers to two dissimilar young adult novels, one about teenage pregnancy and one about adolescent alcoholism. Quantitative analysis, using a modified version of the Purves-Rippere (1968) system, and qualitative analysis of written answers to…

  2. Categorization by Schema Relations and Perceptual Similarity in 5-Year-Olds and Adults: A Study in Vision and in Audition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Carole; Donnadieu, Sophie

    2006-01-01

    This research explores the way in which young children (5 years of age) and adults use perceptual and conceptual cues for categorizing objects processed by vision or by audition. Three experiments were carried out using forced-choice categorization tasks that allowed responses based on taxonomic relations (e.g., vehicles) or on schema category…

  3. Interpersonal attraction and personality: what is attractive--self similarity, ideal similarity, complementarity or attachment security?

    PubMed

    Klohnen, Eva C; Luo, Shanhong

    2003-10-01

    Little is known about whether personality characteristics influence initial attraction. Because adult attachment differences influence a broad range of relationship processes, the authors examined their role in 3 experimental attraction studies. The authors tested four major attraction hypotheses--self similarity, ideal-self similarity, complementarity, and attachment security--and examined both actual and perceptual factors. Replicated analyses across samples, designs, and manipulations showed that actual security and self similarity predicted attraction. With regard to perceptual factors, ideal similarity, self similarity, and security all were significant predictors. Whereas perceptual ideal and self similarity had incremental predictive power, perceptual security's effects were subsumed by perceptual ideal similarity. Perceptual self similarity fully mediated actual attachment similarity effects, whereas ideal similarity was only a partial mediator. PMID:14561124

  4. Genes co-regulated with LBD16 in nematode feeding sites inferred from in silico analysis show similarities to regulatory circuits mediated by the auxin/cytokinin balance in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Javier; Fenoll, Carmen; Escobar, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Plant endoparasitic nematodes, root-knot and cyst nematodes (RKNs and CNs) induce within the root vascular cylinder transfer cells used for nourishing, termed giant cells (GCs) and syncytia. Understanding the molecular mechanisms behind this process is essential to develop tools for nematode control. Based on the crucial role in gall development of LBD16, also a key component of the auxin pathway leading to the divisions in the xylem pole pericycle during lateral root (LR) formation, we investigated genes co-regulated with LBD16 in different transcriptomes and analyzed their similarities and differences with those of RKNs and CNs feeding sites (FS). This analysis confirmed LBD16 and its co-regulated genes, integrated in signaling cascades mediated by auxins during LR and callus formation, as a particular feature of RKN-FS distinct to CNs. However, LBD16, and its positively co-regulated genes, were repressed in syncytia, suggesting a selective down- regulation of the LBD16 auxin mediated pathways in CNs-FS. Interestingly, cytokinin-induced genes are enriched in syncytia and we encountered similarities between the transcriptome of shoot regeneration from callus, modulated by cytokinins, and that of syncytia. These findings establish differences in the regulatory networks leading to both FS formation, probably modulated by the auxin/cytokinin balance. PMID:25664644

  5. Genes co-regulated with LBD16 in nematode feeding sites inferred from in silico analysis show similarities to regulatory circuits mediated by the auxin/cytokinin balance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Javier; Fenoll, Carmen; Escobar, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Plant endoparasitic nematodes, root-knot and cyst nematodes (RKNs and CNs) induce within the root vascular cylinder transfer cells used for nourishing, termed giant cells (GCs) and syncytia. Understanding the molecular mechanisms behind this process is essential to develop tools for nematode control. Based on the crucial role in gall development of LBD16, also a key component of the auxin pathway leading to the divisions in the xylem pole pericycle during lateral root (LR) formation, we investigated genes co-regulated with LBD16 in different transcriptomes and analyzed their similarities and differences with those of RKNs and CNs feeding sites (FS). This analysis confirmed LBD16 and its co-regulated genes, integrated in signaling cascades mediated by auxins during LR and callus formation, as a particular feature of RKN-FS distinct to CNs. However, LBD16, and its positively co-regulated genes, were repressed in syncytia, suggesting a selective down- regulation of the LBD16 auxin mediated pathways in CNs-FS. Interestingly, cytokinin-induced genes are enriched in syncytia and we encountered similarities between the transcriptome of shoot regeneration from callus, modulated by cytokinins, and that of syncytia. These findings establish differences in the regulatory networks leading to both FS formation, probably modulated by the auxin/cytokinin balance.

  6. A nondiapausing variant of the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata, that shows arrhythmic adult eclosion and elevated expression of two circadian clock genes, period and timeless.

    PubMed

    Goto, Shin G; Han, Bing; Denlinger, David L

    2006-01-01

    We describe a variant of the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata, which fails to enter pupal diapause in response to short daylength and low temperatures. This fly also has an arrhythmic adult eclosion pattern: rather than eclosing in early photophase, the variant ecloses arrhythmically throughout the photophase and scotophase. The loss of both diapause (photoperiodic response) and the gating of adult eclosion (presumably a circadian response) suggests that the same clock system is involved in these two responses. An examination of the expression patterns of the clock genes period and timeless demonstrates that both genes are present in the nondiapausing variant, but surprisingly, both genes are expressed at higher levels. This abnormality we observe, possibly the consequence of an upstream clock gene malfunction or a malfunction of the autoregulatory loop, results in disruption of a component of the clock system that is apparently needed for both photoperiodism and circadian rhythmicity.

  7. In utero/lactational and adult exposures to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) show differential effects on craniofacial development and growth in rats.

    PubMed

    Sholts, Sabrina B; Korkalainen, Merja; Simanainen, Ulla; Miettinen, Hanna M; Håkansson, Helen; Viluksela, Matti

    2015-11-01

    In a previous study of female Han/Wistar (H/W) and Long-Evans (L-E) rats, we found that adult exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was associated with size decreases in the cranium and especially the face. In this study we compared these crania to those from male and female Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats with in utero/lactational exposure to TCDD, using morphometric variables of size, shape, and fluctuating asymmetry to quantify the effects of dose on craniofacial development and growth. At the highest levels of exposure, in utero/lactational and adult TCDD exposures both resulted in small but significant reductions in facial size parameters (i.e., 3-5%) in only females and minor effects on facial shape in both sexes. The shape effects of in utero/lactational exposure were most significant at the sutural intersections, whereas adult exposure to TCDD corresponded to dose-dependent changes of decreasing facial length and vault breadth. Fluctuating asymmetry in general explained a relatively small amount of shape variation compared with other effects, and only increased significantly in female L-E rats with high levels of adult exposure to TCDD. These results indicate that TCDD-related changes in cranial development and growth in rats can vary with the timing and duration of exposure, and with sex. Further investigations of other dioxin-like compounds and animal species will broaden our understanding of how chemicals exposure can influence the development and growth of the mammalian skeleton.

  8. Intranasal immunization with a formalin-inactivated human influenza A virus whole-virion vaccine alone and intranasal immunization with a split-virion vaccine with mucosal adjuvants show similar levels of cross-protection.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Shigefumi; Matsuoka, Sumiko; Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Haredy, Ahmad M; Tanimoto, Takeshi; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Toyokazu; Akagi, Takami; Akashi, Mitsuru; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Mori, Yasuko; Yamanishi, Koichi

    2012-07-01

    The antigenicity of seasonal human influenza virus changes continuously; thus, a cross-protective influenza vaccine design needs to be established. Intranasal immunization with an influenza split-virion (SV) vaccine and a mucosal adjuvant induces cross-protection; however, no mucosal adjuvant has been assessed clinically. Formalin-inactivated intact human and avian viruses alone (without adjuvant) induce cross-protection against the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. However, it is unknown whether seasonal human influenza formalin-inactivated whole-virion (WV) vaccine alone induces cross-protection against strains within a subtype or in a different subtype of human influenza virus. Furthermore, there are few reports comparing the cross-protective efficacy of the WV vaccine and SV vaccine-mucosal adjuvant mixtures. Here, we found that the intranasal human influenza WV vaccine alone induced both the innate immune response and acquired immune response, resulting in cross-protection against drift variants within a subtype of human influenza virus. The cross-protective efficacy conferred by the WV vaccine in intranasally immunized mice was almost the same as that conferred by a mixture of SV vaccine and adjuvants. The level of cross-protective efficacy was correlated with the cross-reactive neutralizing antibody titer in the nasal wash and bronchoalveolar fluids. However, neither the SV vaccine with adjuvant nor the WV vaccine induced cross-reactive virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity. These results suggest that the intranasal human WV vaccine injection alone is effective against variants within a virus subtype, mainly through a humoral immune response, and that the cross-protection elicited by the WV vaccine and the SV vaccine plus mucosal adjuvants is similar.

  9. Similar names for similar biologics.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Nicole; Felix, Thomas; Strober, Bruce E; Warnock, David G

    2014-10-01

    Approval of the first biosimilar in the USA may occur by the end of 2014, yet a naming approach for biosimilars has not been determined. Biosimilars are highly similar to their biologic reference product but are not identical to it, because of their structural complexity and variations in manufacturing processes among companies. There is a need for a naming approach that can distinguish a biosimilar from its reference product and other biosimilars and ensure accurate tracing of adverse events (AEs) to the administered product. In contrast, generic small-molecule drugs are identical to their reference product and, therefore, share the same nonproprietary name. Clinical trials required to demonstrate biosimilarity for approval may not detect rare AEs or those occurring after prolonged use, and the incidence of such events may differ between a biosimilar and its reference product. The need for precise biologic identification is further underscored by the possibility of biosimilar interchangeability, a US designation that will allow substitution without prescriber intervention. For several biologics, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has used a naming approach that adds a prefix to a common root nonproprietary name, enabling healthcare providers to distinguish between products, avoid medication errors, and facilitate pharmacovigilance. We recommend that the FDA implement a biosimilars naming policy that likewise would add a distinguishable prefix or suffix to the root nonproprietary name of the reference product. This approach would ensure that a biosimilar could be distinguished from its reference product and other biosimilars in patient records and pharmacovigilance databases/reports, facilitating accurate attribution of AEs. PMID:25001080

  10. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the state's best…

  11. The crystal structure of the streptococcal collagen-like protein 2 globular domain from invasive M3-type group A Streptococcus shows significant similarity to immunomodulatory HIV protein gp41.

    PubMed

    Squeglia, Flavia; Bachert, Beth; De Simone, Alfonso; Lukomski, Slawomir; Berisio, Rita

    2014-02-21

    The arsenal of virulence factors deployed by streptococci includes streptococcal collagen-like (Scl) proteins. These proteins, which are characterized by a globular domain and a collagen-like domain, play key roles in host adhesion, host immune defense evasion, and biofilm formation. In this work, we demonstrate that the Scl2.3 protein is expressed on the surface of invasive M3-type strain MGAS315 of Streptococcus pyogenes. We report the crystal structure of Scl2.3 globular domain, the first of any Scl. This structure shows a novel fold among collagen trimerization domains of either bacterial or human origin. Despite there being low sequence identity, we observed that Scl2.3 globular domain structurally resembles the gp41 subunit of the envelope glycoprotein from human immunodeficiency virus type 1, an essential subunit for viral fusion to human T cells. We combined crystallographic data with modeling and molecular dynamics techniques to gather information on the entire lollipop-like Scl2.3 structure. Molecular dynamics data evidence a high flexibility of Scl2.3 with remarkable interdomain motions that are likely instrumental to the protein biological function in mediating adhesive or immune-modulatory functions in host-pathogen interactions. Altogether, our results provide molecular tools for the understanding of Scl-mediated streptococcal pathogenesis and important structural insights for the future design of small molecular inhibitors of streptococcal invasion.

  12. Immunity in young adult survivors of childhood leukemia is similar to the elderly rather than age-matched controls: Role of cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Azanan, Mohamad Shafiq; Abdullah, Noor Kamila; Chua, Ling Ling; Lum, Su Han; Abdul Ghafar, Sayyidatul Syahirah; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul; Lewin, Sharon R; Woo, Yin Ling; Ariffin, Hany; Rajasuriar, Reena

    2016-07-01

    Many treatment complications that occur late in childhood cancer survivors resemble age-related comorbidities observed in the elderly. An immune phenotype characterized by increased immune activation, systemic inflammation, and accumulation of late-differentiated memory CD57(+) CD28(-) T cells has been associated with comorbidities in the elderly. Here, we explored if this phenotype was present in young adult leukemia survivors following an average of 19 years from chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy completion, and compared this with that in age-matched controls. We found that markers of systemic inflammation-IL-6 and human C-reactive protein and immune activation-CD38 and HLA-DR on T cells, soluble CD (sCD)163 from monocytes and macrophages-were increased in survivors compared to controls. T-cell responses specific to cytomegalovirus (CMV) were also increased in survivors compared to controls while CMV IgG levels in survivors were comparable to levels measured in the elderly (>50years) and correlated with IL-6, human C-reactive protein, sCD163, and CD57(+) CD28(-) memory T cells. Immune activation and inflammation markers correlated poorly with prior chemotherapy and radiotherapy exposure. These data suggest that CMV infection/reactivation is strongly correlated with the immunological phenotype seen in young childhood leukemia survivors and these changes may be associated with the early onset of age-related comorbidities in this group. PMID:27129782

  13. Pattern of carbon dioxide production and retention is similar in adult pigs when fed hourly, but not when fed a single meal

    PubMed Central

    Moehn, Soenke; Bertolo, Robert FP; Pencharz, Paul B; Ball, Ronald O

    2004-01-01

    Background The understanding of bicarbonate kinetics and CO2 retention in the body is necessary to conduct amino acid tracer oxidation studies in both humans and laboratory animals. Significant metabolic activity is associated with eating which can affect bicarbonate steady state kinetics. A study was conducted to assess the impact of feeding regimen on the recovery of labelled bicarbonate and energy expenditure in adult female pigs (sows). Five catheterized sows (235 ± 5 kg) were fed semi-synthetic diets as: a single meal 2 h into the infusion after an overnight fast, or in eight hourly meals starting 2 h before the infusion. Oxygen consumption, CO2 production and 14CO2 recovery (ie fraction not retained) were determined during primed, constant intravenous infusions of NaH14CO3. Results The 14CO2 recovery (%) after fasting (58.1 ± 4.8) was lower than that after single meal feeding (78.8 ± 5.9) or hourly meal feeding (81.0 ± 2.6, P = 0.03). CO2 production correlated with 14CO2 recovery during hourly feeding (r = 0.40, P = 0.01); this relationship was not significant after single meal feeding (P = 0.30), probably due to physical activity-associated CO2 production. Conclusions The correlation of CO2 retention factors with CO2 production during hourly feeding suggests that this regimen should be preferred for future amino acid kinetics studies. PMID:15242516

  14. "Glass fairies" and "bone children": adolescents and young adults with anorexia nervosa show positive reactions towards extremely emaciated body pictures measured by the startle reflex paradigm.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Valeska A; Schneider, Nora; Grünewald, Barbara; Kienast, Thorsten; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Korte, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the emotional processing of extremely emaciated body cues in adolescents and young adults with (n  =  36) and without (n =  36) anorexia nervosa (AN), introducing a new picture type, which was taken from websites that promote extreme thinness and is targeted specifically at adolescents interested in extreme thinness. A startle reflex paradigm was used for implicit reactions, while a self-assessment instrument was used for subjective responses. We found a significant group difference with a startle inhibition (appetitive response) among the patients and a startle potentiation (aversive response) among the controls, whereas no such difference for subjective measures was found. The results are in contrast to previous studies, which proposed a general failure to activate the appetitive motivational system in AN, but in keeping with findings from other addictions, where the same response pattern has been found. Implications for prevention and therapy are discussed.

  15. Similar L-dopa-stimulated motor activity in mice with adult-onset 6-hydroxydopamine-induced symmetric dopamine denervation and in transcription factor Pitx3 null mice with perinatal-onset symmetric dopamine denervation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Sagot, Ben; Zhou, Fu-Ming

    2015-07-30

    The transcription factor Pitx3 null mutant (Pitx3Null) mice have a constitutive perinatal-onset and symmetric bilateral dopamine (DA) loss in the striatum. In these mice l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-dopa) induces apparently normal horizontal movements (walking) but also upward movements consisting of the vertical body trunk and waving paws that are absent in normal animals and in animals with the classic unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion-induced DA denervation. Thus, a concern is that the perinatal timing of the DA loss and potential developmental abnormalities in Pitx3Null mice may underlie these upward movements, thus reducing the usefulness as a DA denervation model. Here we show that in normal wild-type (Pitx3WT) mice with adult-onset symmetric, bilateral 6-OHDA-induced DA lesion in the dorsal striatum, l-dopa induces normal horizontal movements and upward movements that are qualitatively identical to those in Pitx3Null mice. Furthermore, after unilateral 6-OHDA lesion of the residual DA innervation in the striatum in Pitx3Null mice, l-dopa induces contraversive rotation that is similar to that in Pitx3WT mice with the classic unilateral 6-OHDA lesion. These results indicate that in Pitx3Null mice, the bilateral symmetric DA denervation in the dorsal striatum is sufficient for expressing the l-dopa-induced motor phenotype and the perinatal timing of their DA loss is not a determining factor, providing further evidence that Pitx3Null mice are a convenient and suitable mouse model to study the consequences of DA loss and dopaminergic replacement therapy in Parkinson's disease.

  16. Characterization and Genetic Analysis of a Novel Light-Dependent Lesion Mimic Mutant, lm3, Showing Adult-Plant Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Common Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; Wu, Wenying; Wang, Dongzhi; Yang, Wenlong; Sun, Jiazhu; Liu, Dongcheng; Zhang, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Lesion mimics (LMs) that exhibit spontaneous disease-like lesions in the absence of pathogen attack might confer enhanced plant disease resistance to a wide range of pathogens. The LM mutant, lm3 was derived from a single naturally mutated individual in the F1 population of a 3-1/Jing411 cross, backcrossed six times with 3–1 as the recurrent parent and subsequently self-pollinated twice. The leaves of young seedlings of the lm3 mutant exhibited small, discrete white lesions under natural field conditions. The lesions first appeared at the leaf tips and subsequently expanded throughout the entire leaf blade to the leaf sheath. The lesions were initiated through light intensity and day length. Histochemical staining revealed that lesion formation might reflect programmed cell death (PCD) and abnormal accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The chlorophyll content in the mutant was significantly lower than that in wildtype, and the ratio of chlorophyll a/b was increased significantly in the mutant compared with wildtype, indicating that lm3 showed impairment of the biosynthesis or degradation of chlorophyll, and that Chlorophyll b was prone to damage during lesion formation. The lm3 mutant exhibited enhanced resistance to wheat powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici; Bgt) infection, which was consistent with the increased expression of seven pathogenesis-related (PR) and two wheat chemically induced (WCI) genes involved in the defense-related reaction. Genetic analysis showed that the mutation was controlled through a single partially dominant gene, which was closely linked to Xbarc203 on chromosome 3BL; this gene was delimited to a 40 Mb region between SSR3B450.37 and SSR3B492.6 using a large derived segregating population and the available Chinese Spring chromosome 3B genome sequence. Taken together, our results provide information regarding the identification of a novel wheat LM gene, which will facilitate the additional fine-mapping and

  17. In Utero and Lactational Exposure to PCBs in Mice: Adult Offspring Show Altered Learning and Memory Depending on Cyp1a2 and Ahr Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Christine P.; Genter, Mary Beth; Patel, Krishna V.; Schaefer, Tori L.; Skelton, Matthew R.; Williams, Michael T.; Vorhees, Charles V.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Both coplanar and noncoplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exhibit neurotoxic effects in animal studies, but individual congeners do not always produce the same effects as PCB mixtures. Humans genetically have > 60-fold differences in hepatic cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2)-uninduced basal levels and > 12-fold variability in aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)affinity; because CYP1A2 is known to sequester coplanar PCBs and because AHR ligands include coplanar PCBs, both genotypes can affect PCB response. Objectives: We aimed to develop a mouse paradigm with extremes in Cyp1a2 and Ahr genotypes to explore genetic susceptibility to PCB-induced developmental neurotoxicity using an environmentally relevant mixture of PCBs. Methods: We developed a mixture of eight PCBs to simulate human exposures based on their reported concentrations in human tissue, breast milk, and food supply. We previously characterized specific differences in PCB congener pharmacokinetics and toxicity, comparing high-affinity–AHR Cyp1a2 wild-type [Ahrb1_Cyp1a2(+/+)], poor-affinity–AHR Cyp1a2 wild-type [Ahrd_Cyp1a2(+/+)], and high-affinity–AHR Cyp1a2 knockout [Ahrb1_Cyp1a2(–/–)] mouse lines [Curran CP, Vorhees CV, Williams MT, Genter MB, Miller ML, Nebert DW. 2011. In utero and lactational exposure to a complex mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls: toxicity in pups dependent on the Cyp1a2 and Ahr genotypes. Toxicol Sci 119:189–208]. Dams received a mixture of three coplanar and five noncoplanar PCBs on gestational day 10.5 and postnatal day (PND) 5. In the present study we conducted behavioral phenotyping of exposed offspring at PND60, examining multiple measures of learning, memory, and other behaviors. Results: We observed the most significant deficits in response to PCB treatment in Ahrb1_Cyp1a2(–/–) mice, including impaired novel object recognition and increased failure rate in the Morris water maze. However, all PCB-treated genotypes showed significant differences on

  18. Investigation of infectivity of neonates and adults from different rat strains to Toxoplasma gondii Prugniaud shows both variation which correlates with iNOS and Arginase-1 activity and increased susceptibility of neonates to infection.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jiang-Mei; Yi, Si-Qi; Wu, Ming-Shui; Geng, Guo-Qing; Shen, Ji-Long; Lu, Fang-Li; Hide, Geoff; Lai, De-Hua; Lun, Zhao-Rong

    2015-02-01

    Mouse models differ considerably from humans with regard to clinical symptoms of toxoplasmosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii and, by comparison, the rat model is more representative of this disease in humans. In the present study, we found that different strains of adult and newborn rats (Lewis, Wistar, Sprague Dawley, Brown Norway and Fischer 344) exhibited remarkable variation in the number of brain cysts following inoculation with the T.gondii Prugniaud strain. In adult rats, large numbers of cysts (1231 ± 165.6) were observed in Fischer 344, but none in the other four. This situation was different in newborn rats aged from 5 to 20 days old. All Fischer 344 and Brown Norway newborns were cyst-positive while cyst-positive infection in Sprague Dawley neonates ranged from 54.5% to 60% depending on their age at infection. In Wistar and Lewis rat neonates, however, cyst-positivity rates of 0-42.9% and 0-25% were found respectively. To investigate whether rat strain differences in infectivity could be related to inherent strain and genetic differences in the host immune response, we correlated our data with previously reported strain differences in iNOS/Arginase ratio in adult rats and found them to be linked. These results show that interactions between host genetic background and age of rat influence T.gondii infection.

  19. Prosody in Infant-Directed Speech Is Similar across Western and Traditional Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broesch, Tanya L.; Bryant, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    When speaking to infants, adults typically alter the acoustic properties of their speech in a variety of ways compared with how they speak to other adults; for example, they use higher pitch, increased pitch range, more pitch variability, and slower speech rate. Research shows that these vocal changes happen similarly across industrialized…

  20. Indexing Similar DNA Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Songbo; Lam, T. W.; Sung, W. K.; Tam, S. L.; Yiu, S. M.

    To study the genetic variations of a species, one basic operation is to search for occurrences of patterns in a large number of very similar genomic sequences. To build an indexing data structure on the concatenation of all sequences may require a lot of memory. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to index highly similar sequences by taking advantage of the similarity among the sequences. To store r sequences with k common segments, our index requires only O(n + NlogN) bits of memory, where n is the total length of the common segments and N is the total length of the distinct regions in all texts. The total length of all sequences is rn + N, and any scheme to store these sequences requires Ω(n + N) bits. Searching for a pattern P of length m takes O(m + m logN + m log(rk)psc(P) + occlogn), where psc(P) is the number of prefixes of P that appear as a suffix of some common segments and occ is the number of occurrences of P in all sequences. In practice, rk ≤ N, and psc(P) is usually a small constant. We have implemented our solution and evaluated our solution using real DNA sequences. The experiments show that the memory requirement of our solution is much less than that required by BWT built on the concatenation of all sequences. When compared to the other existing solution (RLCSA), we use less memory with faster searching time.

  1. Asperger's syndrome and memory: similarity to autism but not amnesia.

    PubMed

    Bowler, D M; Matthews, N J; Gardiner, J M

    1997-01-01

    Two experiments are described in which the memory of adults with Asperger's syndrome is compared with that of verbal IQ controls. The results of the first experiment showed that the Asperger subjects resembled autistic adults and children in their failure to use category information to aid their free recall. In the second experiment, both groups of subjects showed similar priming effects in an implicit stem completion task and similar performance on an explicit cued recall task. Moreover, both groups also showed more priming for items that they had read at study and better recall for items that they had to generate at study, suggesting that the cued recall of the Asperger subjects did not result from contamination by automatic or involuntary processes. PMID:8981378

  2. Methylation similarities of two CpG sites within exon 5 of human H19 between normal tissues and testicular germ cell tumours of adolescents and adults, without correlation with allelic and total level of expression.

    PubMed Central

    Gillis, A. J.; Verkerk, A. J.; Dekker, M. C.; van Gurp, R. J.; Oosterhuis, J. W.; Looijenga, L. H.

    1997-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) of adolescents and adults morphologically mimic different stages of embryogenesis. Established cell lines of these cancers are used as informative models to study early development. We found that, in contrast to normal development, TGCTs show a consistent biallelic expression of imprinted genes, including H19, irrespective of histology. Methylation of particular cytosine residues of H19 correlates with inhibition of expression, which has not been studied in TGCTs thus far. We investigated the methylation status of two CpG sites within the 3' region of H19 (exon 5: positions 3321 and 3324) both in normal tissues as well as in TGCTs. To obtain quantitative data of these specific sites, the ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction technique, instead of Southern blot analysis, was applied. The results were compared with the allelic status and the total level of expression of this gene. Additionally, the undifferentiated cells and differentiated derivatives of the TGCT-derived cell line NT2-D1 were analysed. While peripheral blood showed no H19 expression and complete methylation, a heterogeneous but consistent pattern of methylation and level of expression was found in the other normal tissues, without a correlation between the two. The separate histological entities of TGCTs resembled the pattern of their nonmalignant tissues. While the CpG sites remained completely methylated in NT2-D1, H19 expression was induced upon differentiation. These data indicate that methylation of the CpG sites within exon 5 of H19 is tissue dependent, without regulating allelic status and/or total level of expression. Of special note is the finding that, also regarding methylation of these particular sites of H19, TGCTs mimic their non-malignant counterparts, in spite of their consistent biallelic expression. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9310237

  3. Life satisfaction in young adults 10 or more years after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for childhood malignant and nonmalignant diseases does not show significant impairment compared with healthy controls: a case-matched study.

    PubMed

    Uderzo, Cornelio; Corti, Paola; Pappalettera, Marco; Baldini, Valentina; Lucchini, Giovanna; Meani, Dario; Rovelli, Attilio

    2012-11-01

    Patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) may experience physical and psychological deterioration that impairs their life satisfaction (LS). This study focused on LS in long-term survivors at 10 or more years after HSCT. Fifty-five patients (39 males, median age 25 years) undergoing allogeneic HSCT for childhood malignant (n = 52) or nonmalignant diseases (n = 3) were enrolled. A control group of 98 young adults (59 males, median age 24 years) was considered. A questionnaire with a modified Satisfaction Life Domain Scale was administered. We assessed such domains as education, employment, leisure time, social relationships, and perception of physical status with a 30-item questionnaire. To investigate the association between the domains and the probability of diminished LS, we performed a logistical procedure using the maximum likelihood method. Predictive factors of LS were adjusted for sociodemographic variables. In the multivariate analysis, the participant's level of LS was not significantly correlated with sociodemographic factors or with HSCT status. The same analysis showed a slight trend in favor of the control group (P = .06) for body perception. Our data suggest that the patients who undergo HSCT in childhood have no significant difference in long-term LS compared with healthy controls.

  4. Biosimilar Insulins: How Similar is Similar?

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Lutz; Hompesch, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Biosimilar insulins (BIs) are viewed as commercially attractive products by a number of companies. In order to obtain approval in the European Union or the United States, where there is not a single BI currently on the market, a manufacturer needs to demonstrate that a given BI has a safety and efficacy profile that is similar to that of the “original” insulin formulation that is already on the market. As trivial as this may appear at first glance, it is not trivial at all for a good number of reasons that will be discussed in this commentary. As with protein manufacturing, modifications in the structure of the insulin molecule can take place (which can have serious consequences for the biological effects induced), so a rigid and careful assessment is absolutely necessary. The example of Marvel's failed application with the European Medicines Agency provides insights into the regulatory and clinical challenges surrounding the matter of BI. Although a challenging BI approval process might be regarded as a hurdle to keep companies out of certain markets, it is fair to say that the potential safety and efficacy issues surrounding BI are substantial and relevant and do warrant a careful and evidence-driven approval process. PMID:21722590

  5. The gender similarities hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2005-09-01

    The differences model, which argues that males and females are vastly different psychologically, dominates the popular media. Here, the author advances a very different view, the gender similarities hypothesis, which holds that males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables. Results from a review of 46 meta-analyses support the gender similarities hypothesis. Gender differences can vary substantially in magnitude at different ages and depend on the context in which measurement occurs. Overinflated claims of gender differences carry substantial costs in areas such as the workplace and relationships. PMID:16173891

  6. The gender similarities hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2005-09-01

    The differences model, which argues that males and females are vastly different psychologically, dominates the popular media. Here, the author advances a very different view, the gender similarities hypothesis, which holds that males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables. Results from a review of 46 meta-analyses support the gender similarities hypothesis. Gender differences can vary substantially in magnitude at different ages and depend on the context in which measurement occurs. Overinflated claims of gender differences carry substantial costs in areas such as the workplace and relationships.

  7. Gender similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research.

  8. Multivariate Time Series Similarity Searching

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jimin; Zhu, Yuelong; Li, Shijin; Wan, Dingsheng; Zhang, Pengcheng

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate time series (MTS) datasets are very common in various financial, multimedia, and hydrological fields. In this paper, a dimension-combination method is proposed to search similar sequences for MTS. Firstly, the similarity of single-dimension series is calculated; then the overall similarity of the MTS is obtained by synthesizing each of the single-dimension similarity based on weighted BORDA voting method. The dimension-combination method could use the existing similarity searching method. Several experiments, which used the classification accuracy as a measure, were performed on six datasets from the UCI KDD Archive to validate the method. The results show the advantage of the approach compared to the traditional similarity measures, such as Euclidean distance (ED), cynamic time warping (DTW), point distribution (PD), PCA similarity factor (SPCA), and extended Frobenius norm (Eros), for MTS datasets in some ways. Our experiments also demonstrate that no measure can fit all datasets, and the proposed measure is a choice for similarity searches. PMID:24895665

  9. Multivariate time series similarity searching.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jimin; Zhu, Yuelong; Li, Shijin; Wan, Dingsheng; Zhang, Pengcheng

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate time series (MTS) datasets are very common in various financial, multimedia, and hydrological fields. In this paper, a dimension-combination method is proposed to search similar sequences for MTS. Firstly, the similarity of single-dimension series is calculated; then the overall similarity of the MTS is obtained by synthesizing each of the single-dimension similarity based on weighted BORDA voting method. The dimension-combination method could use the existing similarity searching method. Several experiments, which used the classification accuracy as a measure, were performed on six datasets from the UCI KDD Archive to validate the method. The results show the advantage of the approach compared to the traditional similarity measures, such as Euclidean distance (ED), cynamic time warping (DTW), point distribution (PD), PCA similarity factor (SPCA), and extended Frobenius norm (Eros), for MTS datasets in some ways. Our experiments also demonstrate that no measure can fit all datasets, and the proposed measure is a choice for similarity searches. PMID:24895665

  10. Multivariate Hypergeometric Similarity Measure

    PubMed Central

    Kaddi, Chanchala D.; Parry, R. Mitchell; Wang, May D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a similarity measure based on the multivariate hypergeometric distribution for the pairwise comparison of images and data vectors. The formulation and performance of the proposed measure are compared with other similarity measures using synthetic data. A method of piecewise approximation is also implemented to facilitate application of the proposed measure to large samples. Example applications of the proposed similarity measure are presented using mass spectrometry imaging data and gene expression microarray data. Results from synthetic and biological data indicate that the proposed measure is capable of providing meaningful discrimination between samples, and that it can be a useful tool for identifying potentially related samples in large-scale biological data sets. PMID:24407308

  11. The Qualitative Similarity Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Peter V.; Lee, Chongmin

    2010-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the qualitative similarity hypothesis (QSH) with respect to children and adolescents who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing. The primary focus is on the development of English language and literacy skills, and some information is provided on the acquisition of English as a second language. The QSH is briefly discussed within…

  12. Effects of language and similarity on comparison processing

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Susan A.; Raman, Lakshmi; Gentner, Dedre

    2010-01-01

    What factors promote conceptual (deep) processing in young children? In this research we examine two factors that seem likely to invite a focus on important conceptual information. The first is comparison processing: comparisons (such as “cats are like dogs”) involve a structural alignment that highlights common relational structure as well as differences connected to that structure. The second factor is the use of generic language (such as “cats have sharp teeth”), which invites a construal organized around information that is relatively central to the represented item. We ask whether these two forces can combine to foster deep processing in four-year-olds, as well as in adults. Our secondary goal is to test whether the process of comparison operates in the same way in preschool children as in adults. In two studies (N = 132), we examined preschool children's and adults’ comparison processing, by asking participants to produce either commonalities or differences for pairs of items while varying similarity (high vs. low) and wording (generic vs. specific). As predicted, for both ages, (1) high-similarity pairs generated both more commonalities and more alignable differences than low-similarity pairs; (2) generic wording differed from specific language in relatively more deep properties for both ages; and (3) the combination of generic language and high similarity was especially favorable for producing deep properties. The detailed parallels between age groups suggest that the same comparison processes hold for children as for adults. Most importantly, the results show that two ways of highlighting deep conceptual structure—generic language and structural alignment—can be combined to provide a source of insight for both children and adults. PMID:20216912

  13. What Difference Reveals about Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagi, Eyal; Gentner, Dedre; Lovett, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Detecting that two images are different is faster for highly dissimilar images than for highly similar images. Paradoxically, we showed that the reverse occurs when people are asked to describe "how" two images differ--that is, to state a difference between two images. Following structure-mapping theory, we propose that this disassociation arises…

  14. Outcome of Adult Brain Tumor Consortium (ABTC) prospective dose-finding trials of I-125 balloon brachytherapy in high-grade gliomas: challenges in clinical trial design and technology development when MRI treatment effect and recurrence appear similar

    PubMed Central

    Stieber, V.; Mikkelsen, T.; Judy, K.; Weingart, J.; Barnett, G.; Olson, J.; Desideri, S.; Ye, X.; Grossman, S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to define the maximal safe radiation dose to guide further study of the GliaSite balloon brachytherapy (GSBT) system in untreated newly diagnosed glioblastoma (NEW-GBM) and recurrent high-grade glioma (REC-HGG). GBST is a balloon placed in the resection cavity and later filled through a subcutaneous port with liquid I-125 Iotrex, providing radiation doses that diminish uniformly with distance from the balloon surface. Methods The Adult Brain Tumor Consortium initiated prospective dose-finding studies to determine maximum tolerated dose in NEW-GBM treated before standard RT or after surgery for REC-HGG. Patients were inevaluable if there was progression before the 90-day posttreatment toxicity evaluation point. Results Ten NEW-GBM patients had the balloon placed, and 2/10 reached the 90 day timepoint. Five REC-HGG enrolled and two were assessable at the 90-day evaluation endpoint. Imaging progression occurred before 90-day evaluation in 7/12 treated patients. The trials were closed as too few patients were assessable to allow dose escalation, although no dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were observed. Median survival from treatment was 15.3 months (95 % CI 7.1–23.6) for NEW-GBM and 12.8 months (95 % CI 4.2–20.9) for REC-HGG. Conclusion These trials failed to determine a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for further testing as early imaging changes, presumed to be progression, were common and interfered with the assessment of treatment-related toxicity. The survival outcomes in these and other related studies, although based on small populations, suggest that GSBT may be worthy of further study using clinical and survival endpoints, rather than standard imaging results. The implications for local therapy development are discussed.

  15. The F4/AS01B HIV-1 Vaccine Candidate Is Safe and Immunogenic, But Does Not Show Viral Efficacy in Antiretroviral Therapy-Naive, HIV-1-Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dinges, Warren; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Podzamczer, Daniel; Brockmeyer, Norbert H.; García, Felipe.; Harrer, Thomas; Lelievre, Jean-Daniel; Frank, Ian; Colin De Verdière, Nathalie; Yeni, Guy-Patrick; Ortega Gonzalez, Enrique; Rubio, Rafael; Clotet Sala, Bonaventura; DeJesus, Edwin; Pérez-Elias, Maria Jesus; Launay, Odile; Pialoux, Gilles; Slim, Jihad; Weiss, Laurence; Bouchaud, Olivier; Felizarta, Franco; Meurer, Anja; Raffi, François; Esser, Stefan; Katlama, Christine; Koletar, Susan L.; Mounzer, Karam; Swindells, Susan; Baxter, John D.; Schneider, Stefan; Chas, Julie; Molina, Jean-Michel; Koutsoukos, Marguerite; Collard, Alix; Bourguignon, Patricia; Roman, François

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The impact of the investigational human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) F4/AS01B vaccine on HIV-1 viral load (VL) was evaluated in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive HIV-1 infected adults. This phase IIb, observer-blind study (NCT01218113), included ART-naive HIV-1 infected adults aged 18 to 55 years. Participants were randomized to receive 2 (F4/AS01B_2 group, N = 64) or 3 (F4/AS01B_3 group, N = 62) doses of F4/AS01B or placebo (control group, N = 64) at weeks 0, 4, and 28. Efficacy (HIV-1 VL, CD4+ T-cell count, ART initiation, and HIV-related clinical events), safety, and immunogenicity (antibody and T-cell responses) were evaluated during 48 weeks. At week 48, based on a mixed model, no statistically significant difference in HIV-1 VL change from baseline was demonstrated between F4/AS01B_2 and control group (0.073 log10 copies/mL [97.5% confidence interval (CI): −0.088; 0.235]), or F4/AS01B_3 and control group (−0.096 log10 copies/mL [97.5% CI: −0.257; 0.065]). No differences between groups were observed in HIV-1 VL change, CD4+ T-cell count, ART initiation, or HIV-related clinical events at intermediate timepoints. Among F4/AS01B recipients, the most frequent solicited symptoms were pain at injection site (252/300 doses), fatigue (137/300 doses), myalgia (105/300 doses), and headache (90/300 doses). Twelve serious adverse events were reported in 6 participants; 1 was considered vaccine-related (F4/AS01B_2 group: angioedema). F4/AS01B induced polyfunctional F4-specific CD4+ T-cells, but had no significant impact on F4-specific CD8+ T-cell and anti-F4 antibody levels. F4/AS01B had a clinically acceptable safety profile, induced F4-specific CD4+ T-cell responses, but did not reduce HIV-1 VL, impact CD4+ T-cells count, delay ART initiation, or prevent HIV-1 related clinical events. PMID:26871794

  16. The F4/AS01B HIV-1 Vaccine Candidate Is Safe and Immunogenic, But Does Not Show Viral Efficacy in Antiretroviral Therapy-Naive, HIV-1-Infected Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Dinges, Warren; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Podzamczer, Daniel; Brockmeyer, Norbert H; García, Felipe; Harrer, Thomas; Lelievre, Jean-Daniel; Frank, Ian; Colin De Verdière, Nathalie; Yeni, Guy-Patrick; Ortega Gonzalez, Enrique; Rubio, Rafael; Clotet Sala, Bonaventura; DeJesus, Edwin; Pérez-Elias, Maria Jesus; Launay, Odile; Pialoux, Gilles; Slim, Jihad; Weiss, Laurence; Bouchaud, Olivier; Felizarta, Franco; Meurer, Anja; Raffi, François; Esser, Stefan; Katlama, Christine; Koletar, Susan L; Mounzer, Karam; Swindells, Susan; Baxter, John D; Schneider, Stefan; Chas, Julie; Molina, Jean-Michel; Koutsoukos, Marguerite; Collard, Alix; Bourguignon, Patricia; Roman, François

    2016-02-01

    The impact of the investigational human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) F4/AS01B vaccine on HIV-1 viral load (VL) was evaluated in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive HIV-1 infected adults.This phase IIb, observer-blind study (NCT01218113), included ART-naive HIV-1 infected adults aged 18 to 55 years. Participants were randomized to receive 2 (F4/AS01B_2 group, N = 64) or 3 (F4/AS01B_3 group, N = 62) doses of F4/AS01B or placebo (control group, N = 64) at weeks 0, 4, and 28. Efficacy (HIV-1 VL, CD4 T-cell count, ART initiation, and HIV-related clinical events), safety, and immunogenicity (antibody and T-cell responses) were evaluated during 48 weeks.At week 48, based on a mixed model, no statistically significant difference in HIV-1 VL change from baseline was demonstrated between F4/AS01B_2 and control group (0.073 log10 copies/mL [97.5% confidence interval (CI): -0.088; 0.235]), or F4/AS01B_3 and control group (-0.096 log10 copies/mL [97.5% CI: -0.257; 0.065]). No differences between groups were observed in HIV-1 VL change, CD4 T-cell count, ART initiation, or HIV-related clinical events at intermediate timepoints. Among F4/AS01B recipients, the most frequent solicited symptoms were pain at injection site (252/300 doses), fatigue (137/300 doses), myalgia (105/300 doses), and headache (90/300 doses). Twelve serious adverse events were reported in 6 participants; 1 was considered vaccine-related (F4/AS01B_2 group: angioedema). F4/AS01B induced polyfunctional F4-specific CD4 T-cells, but had no significant impact on F4-specific CD8 T-cell and anti-F4 antibody levels.F4/AS01B had a clinically acceptable safety profile, induced F4-specific CD4 T-cell responses, but did not reduce HIV-1 VL, impact CD4 T-cells count, delay ART initiation, or prevent HIV-1 related clinical events.

  17. The F4/AS01B HIV-1 Vaccine Candidate Is Safe and Immunogenic, But Does Not Show Viral Efficacy in Antiretroviral Therapy-Naive, HIV-1-Infected Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Dinges, Warren; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Podzamczer, Daniel; Brockmeyer, Norbert H; García, Felipe; Harrer, Thomas; Lelievre, Jean-Daniel; Frank, Ian; Colin De Verdière, Nathalie; Yeni, Guy-Patrick; Ortega Gonzalez, Enrique; Rubio, Rafael; Clotet Sala, Bonaventura; DeJesus, Edwin; Pérez-Elias, Maria Jesus; Launay, Odile; Pialoux, Gilles; Slim, Jihad; Weiss, Laurence; Bouchaud, Olivier; Felizarta, Franco; Meurer, Anja; Raffi, François; Esser, Stefan; Katlama, Christine; Koletar, Susan L; Mounzer, Karam; Swindells, Susan; Baxter, John D; Schneider, Stefan; Chas, Julie; Molina, Jean-Michel; Koutsoukos, Marguerite; Collard, Alix; Bourguignon, Patricia; Roman, François

    2016-02-01

    The impact of the investigational human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) F4/AS01B vaccine on HIV-1 viral load (VL) was evaluated in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive HIV-1 infected adults.This phase IIb, observer-blind study (NCT01218113), included ART-naive HIV-1 infected adults aged 18 to 55 years. Participants were randomized to receive 2 (F4/AS01B_2 group, N = 64) or 3 (F4/AS01B_3 group, N = 62) doses of F4/AS01B or placebo (control group, N = 64) at weeks 0, 4, and 28. Efficacy (HIV-1 VL, CD4 T-cell count, ART initiation, and HIV-related clinical events), safety, and immunogenicity (antibody and T-cell responses) were evaluated during 48 weeks.At week 48, based on a mixed model, no statistically significant difference in HIV-1 VL change from baseline was demonstrated between F4/AS01B_2 and control group (0.073 log10 copies/mL [97.5% confidence interval (CI): -0.088; 0.235]), or F4/AS01B_3 and control group (-0.096 log10 copies/mL [97.5% CI: -0.257; 0.065]). No differences between groups were observed in HIV-1 VL change, CD4 T-cell count, ART initiation, or HIV-related clinical events at intermediate timepoints. Among F4/AS01B recipients, the most frequent solicited symptoms were pain at injection site (252/300 doses), fatigue (137/300 doses), myalgia (105/300 doses), and headache (90/300 doses). Twelve serious adverse events were reported in 6 participants; 1 was considered vaccine-related (F4/AS01B_2 group: angioedema). F4/AS01B induced polyfunctional F4-specific CD4 T-cells, but had no significant impact on F4-specific CD8 T-cell and anti-F4 antibody levels.F4/AS01B had a clinically acceptable safety profile, induced F4-specific CD4 T-cell responses, but did not reduce HIV-1 VL, impact CD4 T-cells count, delay ART initiation, or prevent HIV-1 related clinical events. PMID:26871794

  18. Similarity interference in learning and retrieving arithmetic facts.

    PubMed

    De Visscher, A; Noël, M-P

    2016-01-01

    Storing the solution of simple calculations in long-term memory is an important learning in primary school that is subsequently essential in adult daily living. While most children succeed in storing arithmetic facts to which they have been trained at school, huge individual differences are reported, particularly in children with developmental dyscalculia, who show a severe and persistent deficit in arithmetic facts learning. This chapter reports important advances in the understanding of the development of an arithmetic facts network and focuses on the detrimental effect of similarity interference. First, at the retrieval stage, connectionist models highlighted that the similarity of the neighbor problems in the arithmetic facts network creates interference. More recently, the similarity interference during the learning stage was pointed out in arithmetic facts learning. The interference parameter, that captures the proactive interference that a problem receives from previously learned problems, was shown as a substantial determinant of the performance across multiplication problems. This proactive interference was found both in children and adults and showed that when a problem is highly similar to previously learned ones, it is more difficult to remember it. Furthermore, the sensitivity to this similarity interference determined individual differences in the learning and retrieving of arithmetic facts, giving new insights for interindividual differences. Regarding the atypical development, hypersensitivity-to-interference in memory was related to arithmetic facts deficit in a single case of developmental dyscalculia and in a group of fourth-grade children with low arithmetic facts knowledge. In sum, the impact of similarity interference is shown in the learning stage of arithmetic facts and concerns the typical and atypical development. PMID:27339011

  19. Sibling similarity in family formation.

    PubMed

    Raab, Marcel; Fasang, Anette Eva; Karhula, Aleksi; Erola, Jani

    2014-12-01

    Sibling studies have been widely used to analyze the impact of family background on socioeconomic and, to a lesser extent, demographic outcomes. We contribute to this literature with a novel research design that combines sibling comparisons and sequence analysis to analyze longitudinal family-formation trajectories of siblings and unrelated persons. This allows us to scrutinize in a more rigorous way whether sibling similarity exists in family-formation trajectories and whether siblings' shared background characteristics, such as parental education and early childhood family structure, can account for similarity in family formation. We use Finnish register data from 1987 through 2007 to construct longitudinal family-formation trajectories in young adulthood for siblings and unrelated dyads (N = 14,257 dyads). Findings show that family formation is moderately but significantly more similar for siblings than for unrelated dyads, also after controlling for crucial parental background characteristics. Shared parental background characteristics add surprisingly little to account for sibling similarity in family formation. Instead, gender and the respondents' own education are more decisive forces in the stratification of family formation. Yet, family internal dynamics seem to reinforce this stratification such that siblings have a higher probability to experience similar family-formation patterns. In particular, patterns that correspond with economic disadvantage are concentrated within families. This is in line with a growing body of research highlighting the importance of family structure in the reproduction of social inequality.

  20. Spleen cells from adult mice given total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) or from newborn mice have similar regulatory effects in the mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR). II. Generation of antigen-specific suppressor cells in the MLR after the addition of spleen cells from newborn mice

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, S.; Strober, S.

    1982-11-01

    Spleen cells from newborn BALB/c mice were added to the mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR) between a variety of responder and stimulator cells. The newborn cells nonspecifically suppressed the uptake of (/sup 3/H)-thymidine and the generation of cytolytic cells regardless of the responder-stimulator combination used. Suppressor cell activity fell rapidly during the first 4 days after birth, and could not be detected by day 20. Newborn spleen cells inhibited the generation of nonspecific suppressor cells during the MLR but did not inhibit the generation of antigen-specific suppressor cells. Thus, newborn spleen cells exhibit a pattern of regulation of the MLR similar to that reported previously for spleen cells from adult mice given total lymphoid irradiation (TLI). These regulatory interactions provide a model that explains the ease of induction of transplantation tolerance in vivo in newborn mice and in TLI-treated adult mice.

  1. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  2. Similarity and confidence in artificial grammar learning.

    PubMed

    Tunney, Richard J

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments examined the relationship between similarity ratings and confidence ratings in artificial grammar learning. In Experiment 1 participants rated the similarity of test items to study exemplars. Regression analyses revealed these to be related to some of the objective measures of similarity that have previously been implicated in categorization decisions. In Experiment 2 participants made grammaticality decisions and rated either their confidence in the accuracy of their decisions or the similarity of the test items to the study items. Regression analyses showed that the grammaticality decisions were predicted by the similarity ratings obtained in Experiment 1. Points on the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves for the similarity and confidence ratings were closely matched. These data suggest that meta-cognitive judgments of confidence are predicated on structural knowledge of similarity. Experiment 3 confirmed this by showing that confidence ratings to median similarity probe items changed according to the similarity of preceding items.

  3. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  4. The Ozone Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

  5. Show What You Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eccleston, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Big things come in small packages. This saying came to the mind of the author after he created a simple math review activity for his fourth grade students. Though simple, it has proven to be extremely advantageous in reinforcing math concepts. He uses this activity, which he calls "Show What You Know," often. This activity provides the perfect…

  6. Showing What They Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

  7. Stage a Water Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

  8. What Do Maps Show?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

    This curriculum packet, appropriate for grades 4-8, features a teaching poster which shows different types of maps (different views of Salt Lake City, Utah), as well as three reproducible maps and reproducible activity sheets which complement the maps. The poster provides teacher background, including step-by-step lesson plans for four geography…

  9. Obesity in show cats.

    PubMed

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. PMID:24612018

  10. Show Me the Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicks, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    Because today's students have grown up steeped in video games and the Internet, most of them expect feedback, and usually gratification, very soon after they expend effort on a task. Teachers can get quick feedback to students by showing them videotapes of their learning performances. The author, a 3rd grade teacher describes how the seemingly…

  11. The Art Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scolarici, Alicia

    2004-01-01

    This article describes what once was thought to be impossible--a formal art show extravaganza at an elementary school with 1,000 students, a Department of Defense Dependent School (DODDS) located overseas, on RAF Lakenheath, England. The dream of this this event involved the transformation of the school cafeteria into an elegant art show…

  12. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  13. Management of Colorectal Cancer in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Joleen M

    2016-02-01

    Treatment for colorectal cancer should not be based on age alone. Pooled analyses from clinical trials show that fit older adults are able to tolerate treatment well with similar efficacy as younger adults. When an older adult is considered for treatment, the clinical encounter must evaluate for deficits in physical and cognitive function, and assess comorbidities, medications, and the degree of social support, all which have may affect tolerance of treatment. Based on the degree of fitness of the patient, multiple alternatives to aggressive treatment regimens and strategies exist to minimize toxicity and preserve quality of life during treatment.

  14. Taking in a Show.

    PubMed

    Boden, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Many medical practices have cut back on education and staff development expenses, especially those costs associated with conventions and conferences. But there are hard-to-value returns on your investment in these live events--beyond the obvious benefits of acquired knowledge and skills. Major vendors still exhibit their services and wares at many events, and the exhibit hall is a treasure-house of information and resources for the savvy physician or administrator. Make and stick to a purposeful plan to exploit the trade show. You can compare products, gain new insights and ideas, and even negotiate better deals with representatives anxious to realize returns on their exhibition investments. PMID:27249887

  15. Taking in a Show.

    PubMed

    Boden, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Many medical practices have cut back on education and staff development expenses, especially those costs associated with conventions and conferences. But there are hard-to-value returns on your investment in these live events--beyond the obvious benefits of acquired knowledge and skills. Major vendors still exhibit their services and wares at many events, and the exhibit hall is a treasure-house of information and resources for the savvy physician or administrator. Make and stick to a purposeful plan to exploit the trade show. You can compare products, gain new insights and ideas, and even negotiate better deals with representatives anxious to realize returns on their exhibition investments.

  16. Obesity in show dogs.

    PubMed

    Corbee, R J

    2013-10-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a growing incidence. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, and decreases life span, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain breeds is often suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, we investigated 1379 dogs of 128 different breeds by determining their body condition score (BCS). Overall, 18.6% of the show dogs had a BCS >5, and 1.1% of the show dogs had a BCS>7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be correlated to the breed standards. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and judges in order to come to different interpretations of the standards to prevent overweight conditions from being the standard of beauty. PMID:22882163

  17. Neuropsychological status in older adults influences susceptibility to false memories.

    PubMed

    Meade, Michelle L; Geraci, Lisa D; Roediger, Henry L

    2012-01-01

    In 2 experiments we examined the influence of frontal lobe function on older adults' susceptibility to false memory in a categorized list paradigm. Using a neuropsychological battery of tests developed by Glisky, Polster, and Routhieaux (1995), we designated older adults as having high- or low-frontal function. Young and older adults studied and were tested on categorized lists using free report cued recall and forced report cued recall instructions, with the latter requiring participants to produce responses even if they had to guess. Under free report cued recall instructions, frontal lobe function was a strong predictor of false memories in older adults: Older adults who scored low on tests of frontal functioning demonstrated much higher levels of false recall than younger adults, whereas levels of false recall in high-frontal older adults were more similar to those of young adults. However, after forced report cued recall, high- and low-frontal older adults performed similarly to each other, and both demonstrated higher levels of false recall than young adults. On a final recognition test, high-frontal older adults in both the free report cued recall and forced report cued recall conditions were more successful than low-frontal older adults in using source information to reduce memory errors. The results indicate that older adults show higher levels of false recall than younger adults, but type of test (free report or forced report) and neuropsychological status of older adults mediate these effects. Low-frontal older adults are particularly susceptible to producing false memories on free report tests that entail source monitoring. PMID:23350303

  18. Age-Related Differences in the Brain Areas outside the Classical Language Areas among Adults Using Category Decision Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Yong Won; Song, Hui-Jin; Lee, Jae Jun; Lee, Joo Hwa; Lee, Hui Joong; Yi, Sang Doe; Chang, Hyuk Won; Berl, Madison M.; Gaillard, William D.; Chang, Yongmin

    2012-01-01

    Older adults perform much like younger adults on language. This similar level of performance, however, may come about through different underlying brain processes. In the present study, we evaluated age-related differences in the brain areas outside the typical language areas among adults using a category decision task. Our results showed that…

  19. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show. PMID:23631336

  20. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show.

  1. Public medical shows.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre. PMID:25273491

  2. The Great Cometary Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave

  3. Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    This pair of images from the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity served as initial confirmation that the two-year-old rover is within sight of 'Victoria Crater,' which it has been approaching for more than a year. Engineers on the rover team were unsure whether Opportunity would make it as far as Victoria, but scientists hoped for the chance to study such a large crater with their roving geologist. Victoria Crater is 800 meters (nearly half a mile) in diameter, about six times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' where Opportunity spent several months in 2004 examining rock layers affected by ancient water.

    When scientists using orbital data calculated that they should be able to detect Victoria's rim in rover images, they scrutinized frames taken in the direction of the crater by the panoramic camera. To positively characterize the subtle horizon profile of the crater and some of the features leading up to it, researchers created a vertically-stretched image (top) from a mosaic of regular frames from the panoramic camera (bottom), taken on Opportunity's 804th Martian day (April 29, 2006).

    The stretched image makes mild nearby dunes look like more threatening peaks, but that is only a result of the exaggerated vertical dimension. This vertical stretch technique was first applied to Viking Lander 2 panoramas by Philip Stooke, of the University of Western Ontario, Canada, to help locate the lander with respect to orbiter images. Vertically stretching the image allows features to be more readily identified by the Mars Exploration Rover science team.

    The bright white dot near the horizon to the right of center (barely visible without labeling or zoom-in) is thought to be a light-toned outcrop on the far wall of the crater, suggesting that the rover can see over the low rim of Victoria. In figure 1, the northeast and southeast rims are labeled

  4. A novel satellite DNA isolated in Pecten jacobaeus shows high sequence similarity among molluscs.

    PubMed

    Petraccioli, Agnese; Odierna, Gaetano; Capriglione, Teresa; Barucca, Marco; Forconi, Mariko; Olmo, Ettore; Biscotti, Maria Assunta

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the sequence conservation and the evolution of repeated DNA in related species. Satellite DNA is a component of eukaryotic genomes and is made up of tandemly repeated sequences. These sequences are affected by high rates of mutation that lead to the occurrence of species-specific satellite DNAs, which are different in terms of both quantity and quality. In this work, a novel repetitive DNA family, named PjHhaI sat, is described in Pecten jacobaeus. The quantitative analyses revealed a different abundance of this element in the molluscan species investigated in agreement with the "library hypothesis" even if, in this case, at a high taxonomic level. In addition, the qualitative analysis demonstrated an astonishing sequence conservation not only among scallops but also in six other molluscan species belonging to three classes. These findings suggest that the PjHhaI sat may be considered as the most ancients of DNA described so far, which remained "frozen" during molluscan evolution. The widespread distribution of this sat DNA in molluscs as well as its long evolutionary preservation open up questions on the functional role of this element. A future challenge might be the identification of proteins or molecules which interact with the PjHhaI sat.

  5. Direction of Perceived Motion and Eye Movements Show Similar Biases for Asymmetrically Windowed Moving Plaids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beutter, B. R.; Mulligan, J. B.; Stone, L. S.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    We have shown that moving a plaid in an asymmetric window biases the perceived direction of motion (Beutter, Mulligan & Stone, ARVO 1994). We now explore whether these biased motion signals might also drive the smooth eye-movement response by comparing the perceived and tracked directions. The human smooth oculomotor response to moving plaids appears to be driven by the perceived rather than the veridical direction of motion. This suggests that human motion perception and smooth eye movements share underlying neural motion-processing substrates as has already been shown to be true for monkeys.

  6. A novel satellite DNA isolated in Pecten jacobaeus shows high sequence similarity among molluscs.

    PubMed

    Petraccioli, Agnese; Odierna, Gaetano; Capriglione, Teresa; Barucca, Marco; Forconi, Mariko; Olmo, Ettore; Biscotti, Maria Assunta

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the sequence conservation and the evolution of repeated DNA in related species. Satellite DNA is a component of eukaryotic genomes and is made up of tandemly repeated sequences. These sequences are affected by high rates of mutation that lead to the occurrence of species-specific satellite DNAs, which are different in terms of both quantity and quality. In this work, a novel repetitive DNA family, named PjHhaI sat, is described in Pecten jacobaeus. The quantitative analyses revealed a different abundance of this element in the molluscan species investigated in agreement with the "library hypothesis" even if, in this case, at a high taxonomic level. In addition, the qualitative analysis demonstrated an astonishing sequence conservation not only among scallops but also in six other molluscan species belonging to three classes. These findings suggest that the PjHhaI sat may be considered as the most ancients of DNA described so far, which remained "frozen" during molluscan evolution. The widespread distribution of this sat DNA in molluscs as well as its long evolutionary preservation open up questions on the functional role of this element. A future challenge might be the identification of proteins or molecules which interact with the PjHhaI sat. PMID:25832354

  7. Best Friends in Adolescence Show Similar Educational Careers in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Zettergren, Peter; Andersson, Hakan; Bergman, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of best friends in educational career development from adolescence to adulthood. Participants' (N=476) reciprocal best friendships were identified at age 15, while their educational attainment was investigated in early adulthood (age 26), their intelligence (IQ) at age 13, and parental education, educational…

  8. Human motion perception and smooth eye movements show similar directional biases for elongated apertures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beutter, B. R.; Stone, L. S.

    1998-01-01

    Although numerous studies have examined the relationship between smooth-pursuit eye movements and motion perception, it remains unresolved whether a common motion-processing system subserves both perception and pursuit. To address this question, we simultaneously recorded perceptual direction judgments and the concomitant smooth eye-movement response to a plaid stimulus that we have previously shown generates systematic perceptual errors. We measured the perceptual direction biases psychophysically and the smooth eye-movement direction biases using two methods (standard averaging and oculometric analysis). We found that the perceptual and oculomotor biases were nearly identical, suggesting that pursuit and perception share a critical motion processing stage, perhaps in area MT or MST of extrastriate visual cortex.

  9. Human Motion Perception and Smooth Eye Movements Show Similar Directional Biases for Elongated Apertures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beutter, Brent R.; Stone, Leland S.

    1997-01-01

    Although numerous studies have examined the relationship between smooth-pursuit eye movements and motion perception, it remains unresolved whether a common motion-processing system subserves both perception and pursuit. To address this question, we simultaneously recorded perceptual direction judgments and the concomitant smooth eye movement response to a plaid stimulus that we have previously shown generates systematic perceptual errors. We measured the perceptual direction biases psychophysically and the smooth eye-movement direction biases using two methods (standard averaging and oculometric analysis). We found that the perceptual and oculomotor biases were nearly identical suggesting that pursuit and perception share a critical motion processing stage, perhaps in area MT or MST of extrastriate visual cortex.

  10. Similarity increases altruistic punishment in humans.

    PubMed

    Mussweiler, Thomas; Ockenfels, Axel

    2013-11-26

    Humans are attracted to similar others. As a consequence, social networks are homogeneous in sociodemographic, intrapersonal, and other characteristics--a principle called homophily. Despite abundant evidence showing the importance of interpersonal similarity and homophily for human relationships, their behavioral correlates and cognitive foundations are poorly understood. Here, we show that perceived similarity substantially increases altruistic punishment, a key mechanism underlying human cooperation. We induced (dis)similarity perception by manipulating basic cognitive mechanisms in an economic cooperation game that included a punishment phase. We found that similarity-focused participants were more willing to punish others' uncooperative behavior. This influence of similarity is not explained by group identity, which has the opposite effect on altruistic punishment. Our findings demonstrate that pure similarity promotes reciprocity in ways known to encourage cooperation. At the same time, the increased willingness to punish norm violations among similarity-focused participants provides a rationale for why similar people are more likely to build stable social relationships. Finally, our findings show that altruistic punishment is differentially involved in encouraging cooperation under pure similarity vs. in-group conditions. PMID:24218611

  11. Adult Books for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Betty

    1997-01-01

    Considers the differences between young adult and adult books and maintains that teachers must be familiar with young adults' tastes for both. Suggests that traffic between these publishing divisions is a two-way street, with young adults reading adult books and adults reading young adult books. (TB)

  12. Phylogenetically related and ecologically similar carnivores harbour similar parasite assemblages.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shan; Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R P; Stephens, Patrick R; Gittleman, John L; Altizer, Sonia

    2014-05-01

    Most parasites infect multiple hosts, but what factors determine the range of hosts a given parasite can infect? Understanding the broad scale determinants of parasite distributions across host lineages is important for predicting pathogen emergence in new hosts and for estimating pathogen diversity in understudied host species. In this study, we used a new data set on 793 parasite species reported from free-ranging populations of 64 carnivore species to examine the factors that influence parasite sharing between host species. Our results showed that parasites are more commonly shared between phylogenetically related host species pairs. Additionally, host species with higher similarity in biological traits and greater geographic range overlap were also more likely to share parasite species. Of three measures of phylogenetic relatedness considered here, the number divergence events that separated host species pairs most strongly influenced the likelihood of parasite sharing. We also showed that viruses and helminths tend to infect carnivore hosts within more restricted phylogenetic ranges than expected by chance. Overall, our results underscore the importance of host evolutionary history in determining parasite host range, even when simultaneously considering other factors such as host ecology and geographic distribution.

  13. Functional Similarity and Interpersonal Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neimeyer, Greg J.; Neimeyer, Robert A.

    1981-01-01

    Students participated in dyadic disclosure exercises over a five-week period. Results indicated members of high functional similarity dyads evidenced greater attraction to one another than did members of low functional similarity dyads. "Friendship" pairs of male undergraduates displayed greater functional similarity than did "nominal" pairs from…

  14. Transformation and Alignment in Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgetts, Carl J.; Hahn, Ulrike; Chater, Nick

    2009-01-01

    This paper contrasts two structural accounts of psychological similarity: structural alignment (SA) and Representational Distortion (RD). SA proposes that similarity is determined by how readily the structures of two objects can be brought into alignment; RD measures similarity by the complexity of the transformation that "distorts" one…

  15. Acoustic Similarity and Dichotic Listening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Peter

    1978-01-01

    An experiment tests conjectures that right ear advantage (REA) has an auditory origin in competition or interference between acoustically similar stimuli and that feature-sharing effect (FSE) has its origin in assignment of features of phonetically similar stimuli. No effect on the REA for acoustic similarity, and a clear effect of acoustic…

  16. Difficulty in learning similar-sounding words: A developmental stage or a general property of learning?

    PubMed

    Pajak, Bozena; Creel, Sarah C; Levy, Roger

    2016-09-01

    How are languages learned, and to what extent are learning mechanisms similar in infant native-language (L1) and adult second-language (L2) acquisition? In terms of vocabulary acquisition, we know from the infant literature that the ability to discriminate similar-sounding words at a particular age does not guarantee successful word-meaning mapping at that age (Stager & Werker, 1997). However, it is unclear whether this difficulty arises from developmental limitations of young infants (e.g., poorer working memory) or whether it is an intrinsic part of the initial word learning, L1 and L2 alike. In this study, we show that adults of particular L1 backgrounds-just like young infants-have difficulty learning similar-sounding L2 words that they can nevertheless discriminate perceptually. This suggests that the early stages of word learning, whether L1 or L2, intrinsically involve difficulty in mapping similar-sounding words onto referents. We argue that this is due to an interaction between 2 main factors: (a) memory limitations that pose particular challenges for highly similar-sounding words, and (b) uncertainty regarding the language's phonetic categories, because the categories are being learned concurrently with words. Overall, our results show that vocabulary acquisition in infancy and adulthood shares more similarities than previously thought, thus supporting the existence of common learning mechanisms that operate throughout the life span. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26962959

  17. Giant pandas failed to show mirror self-recognition.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaozan; Jin, Yuan; Luo, Bo; Zhang, Guiquan; Wei, Rongping; Liu, Dingzhen

    2015-05-01

    Mirror self-recognition (MSR), i.e., the ability to recognize oneself in a mirror, is considered a potential index of self-recognition and the foundation of individual development. A wealth of literature on MSR is available for social animals, such as chimpanzees, Asian elephants and dolphins, yet little is known about MSR in solitary mammalian species. We aimed to evaluate whether the giant panda can recognize itself in the mirror, and whether this capacity varies with age. Thirty-four captive giant pandas (F:M = 18:16; juveniles, sub-adults and adults) were subjected to four mirror tests: covered mirror tests, open mirror tests, water mark control tests, and mark tests. The results showed that, though adult, sub-adult and juvenile pandas exposed to mirrors spent similar amounts of time in social mirror-directed behaviors (χ(2) = 0.719, P = 0.698), none of them used the mirror to touch the mark on their head, a self-directed behavior suggesting MSR. Individuals of all age groups initially displayed attacking, threatening, foot scraping and backwards walking behaviors when exposed to their self-images in the mirror. Our data indicate that, regardless of age, the giant pandas did not recognize their self-image in the mirror, but instead considered the image to be a conspecific. Our results add to the available information on mirror self-recognition in large mammals, provide new information on a solitary species, and will be useful for enclosure design and captive animal management. PMID:25609263

  18. Giant pandas failed to show mirror self-recognition.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaozan; Jin, Yuan; Luo, Bo; Zhang, Guiquan; Wei, Rongping; Liu, Dingzhen

    2015-05-01

    Mirror self-recognition (MSR), i.e., the ability to recognize oneself in a mirror, is considered a potential index of self-recognition and the foundation of individual development. A wealth of literature on MSR is available for social animals, such as chimpanzees, Asian elephants and dolphins, yet little is known about MSR in solitary mammalian species. We aimed to evaluate whether the giant panda can recognize itself in the mirror, and whether this capacity varies with age. Thirty-four captive giant pandas (F:M = 18:16; juveniles, sub-adults and adults) were subjected to four mirror tests: covered mirror tests, open mirror tests, water mark control tests, and mark tests. The results showed that, though adult, sub-adult and juvenile pandas exposed to mirrors spent similar amounts of time in social mirror-directed behaviors (χ(2) = 0.719, P = 0.698), none of them used the mirror to touch the mark on their head, a self-directed behavior suggesting MSR. Individuals of all age groups initially displayed attacking, threatening, foot scraping and backwards walking behaviors when exposed to their self-images in the mirror. Our data indicate that, regardless of age, the giant pandas did not recognize their self-image in the mirror, but instead considered the image to be a conspecific. Our results add to the available information on mirror self-recognition in large mammals, provide new information on a solitary species, and will be useful for enclosure design and captive animal management.

  19. Similarity in L2 Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrios, Shannon L.

    2013-01-01

    Adult second language (L2) learners often experience difficulty producing and perceiving non-native phonological contrasts. Even highly proficient bilinguals, who have been exposed to an L2 for long periods of time, struggle with difficult contrasts, such as /r/-/l/ for Japanese learners of English. To account for the relative ease or difficulty…

  20. Noncontiguous atom matching structural similarity function.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Ana L; Falcao, Andre O

    2013-10-28

    Measuring similarity between molecules is a fundamental problem in cheminformatics. Given that similar molecules tend to have similar physical, chemical, and biological properties, the notion of molecular similarity plays an important role in the exploration of molecular data sets, query-retrieval in molecular databases, and in structure-property/activity modeling. Various methods to define structural similarity between molecules are available in the literature, but so far none has been used with consistent and reliable results for all situations. We propose a new similarity method based on atom alignment for the analysis of structural similarity between molecules. This method is based on the comparison of the bonding profiles of atoms on comparable molecules, including features that are seldom found in other structural or graph matching approaches like chirality or double bond stereoisomerism. The similarity measure is then defined on the annotated molecular graph, based on an iterative directed graph similarity procedure and optimal atom alignment between atoms using a pairwise matching algorithm. With the proposed approach the similarities detected are more intuitively understood because similar atoms in the molecules are explicitly shown. This noncontiguous atom matching structural similarity method (NAMS) was tested and compared with one of the most widely used similarity methods (fingerprint-based similarity) using three difficult data sets with different characteristics. Despite having a higher computational cost, the method performed well being able to distinguish either different or very similar hydrocarbons that were indistinguishable using a fingerprint-based approach. NAMS also verified the similarity principle using a data set of structurally similar steroids with differences in the binding affinity to the corticosteroid binding globulin receptor by showing that pairs of steroids with a high degree of similarity (>80%) tend to have smaller differences

  1. Dynamic similarity in erosional processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheidegger, A.E.

    1963-01-01

    A study is made of the dynamic similarity conditions obtaining in a variety of erosional processes. The pertinent equations for each type of process are written in dimensionless form; the similarity conditions can then easily be deduced. The processes treated are: raindrop action, slope evolution and river erosion. ?? 1963 Istituto Geofisico Italiano.

  2. Discuss Similarity Using Visual Intuition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Dana C.; Lo, Jane-Jane

    2012-01-01

    The change in size from a smaller shape to a larger similar shape (or vice versa) is created through continuous proportional stretching or shrinking in every direction. Students cannot solve similarity tasks simply by iterating or partitioning a composed unit, strategies typically used on numerical proportional tasks. The transition to thinking…

  3. Do Environmental Similarities Explain the Similarity in Intelligence of Identical Twins Reared Apart?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Taylor (1980) claims to show that the similarity in IQ between monozygotic twins reared apart found in prior studies is due to similarity in their environments. A reanalysis using Taylor's classification of environments but an alternative IQ measure shows that his findings do not constructively replicate. (Author/RD)

  4. Towards Personalized Medicine: Leveraging Patient Similarity and Drug Similarity Analytics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Fei; Hu, Jianying; Sorrentino, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The rapid adoption of electronic health records (EHR) provides a comprehensive source for exploratory and predictive analytic to support clinical decision-making. In this paper, we investigate how to utilize EHR to tailor treatments to individual patients based on their likelihood to respond to a therapy. We construct a heterogeneous graph which includes two domains (patients and drugs) and encodes three relationships (patient similarity, drug similarity, and patient-drug prior associations). We describe a novel approach for performing a label propagation procedure to spread the label information representing the effectiveness of different drugs for different patients over this heterogeneous graph. The proposed method has been applied on a real-world EHR dataset to help identify personalized treatments for hypercholesterolemia. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach and suggest that the combination of appropriate patient similarity and drug similarity analytics could lead to actionable insights for personalized medicine. Particularly, by leveraging drug similarity in combination with patient similarity, our method could perform well even on new or rarely used drugs for which there are few records of known past performance. PMID:25717413

  5. Towards personalized medicine: leveraging patient similarity and drug similarity analytics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Fei; Hu, Jianying; Sorrentino, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The rapid adoption of electronic health records (EHR) provides a comprehensive source for exploratory and predictive analytic to support clinical decision-making. In this paper, we investigate how to utilize EHR to tailor treatments to individual patients based on their likelihood to respond to a therapy. We construct a heterogeneous graph which includes two domains (patients and drugs) and encodes three relationships (patient similarity, drug similarity, and patient-drug prior associations). We describe a novel approach for performing a label propagation procedure to spread the label information representing the effectiveness of different drugs for different patients over this heterogeneous graph. The proposed method has been applied on a real-world EHR dataset to help identify personalized treatments for hypercholesterolemia. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach and suggest that the combination of appropriate patient similarity and drug similarity analytics could lead to actionable insights for personalized medicine. Particularly, by leveraging drug similarity in combination with patient similarity, our method could perform well even on new or rarely used drugs for which there are few records of known past performance. PMID:25717413

  6. Dreaming, Stealing, Dancing, Showing Off.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavender, Peter; Taylor, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Lessons learned from British projects to delivery literacy, numeracy, and English as a second language through community agencies included the following: (1) innovation and measured risks are required to attract hard-to-reach adults; (2) good practice needs to be shared; and (3) projects worked best when government funds were managed by community…

  7. [Adult twins].

    PubMed

    Charlemaine, Christiane

    2006-12-31

    This paper explores the deep roots of closeness that twins share in their youngest age and their effect on their destiny at the adult age. Psychologists believe the bond between twins begins in utero and develops throughout the twins' lives. The four patterns of twinship described show that the twin bond is determined by the quality of parenting that twins receive in their infancy and early childhood. Common problems of adult twins bring about difficulties to adapt in a non-twin world. The nature versus nurture controversy has taken on new life focusing on inter-twin differences and the importance of parent-child interaction as fundamental to the growth and development of personality. PMID:17352324

  8. Self-similar aftershock rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidsen, Jörn; Baiesi, Marco

    2016-08-01

    In many important systems exhibiting crackling noise—an intermittent avalanchelike relaxation response with power-law and, thus, self-similar distributed event sizes—the "laws" for the rate of activity after large events are not consistent with the overall self-similar behavior expected on theoretical grounds. This is particularly true for the case of seismicity, and a satisfying solution to this paradox has remained outstanding. Here, we propose a generalized description of the aftershock rates which is both self-similar and consistent with all other known self-similar features. Comparing our theoretical predictions with high-resolution earthquake data from Southern California we find excellent agreement, providing particularly clear evidence for a unified description of aftershocks and foreshocks. This may offer an improved framework for time-dependent seismic hazard assessment and earthquake forecasting.

  9. Self-similar aftershock rates.

    PubMed

    Davidsen, Jörn; Baiesi, Marco

    2016-08-01

    In many important systems exhibiting crackling noise-an intermittent avalanchelike relaxation response with power-law and, thus, self-similar distributed event sizes-the "laws" for the rate of activity after large events are not consistent with the overall self-similar behavior expected on theoretical grounds. This is particularly true for the case of seismicity, and a satisfying solution to this paradox has remained outstanding. Here, we propose a generalized description of the aftershock rates which is both self-similar and consistent with all other known self-similar features. Comparing our theoretical predictions with high-resolution earthquake data from Southern California we find excellent agreement, providing particularly clear evidence for a unified description of aftershocks and foreshocks. This may offer an improved framework for time-dependent seismic hazard assessment and earthquake forecasting. PMID:27627324

  10. Self-similar aftershock rates.

    PubMed

    Davidsen, Jörn; Baiesi, Marco

    2016-08-01

    In many important systems exhibiting crackling noise-an intermittent avalanchelike relaxation response with power-law and, thus, self-similar distributed event sizes-the "laws" for the rate of activity after large events are not consistent with the overall self-similar behavior expected on theoretical grounds. This is particularly true for the case of seismicity, and a satisfying solution to this paradox has remained outstanding. Here, we propose a generalized description of the aftershock rates which is both self-similar and consistent with all other known self-similar features. Comparing our theoretical predictions with high-resolution earthquake data from Southern California we find excellent agreement, providing particularly clear evidence for a unified description of aftershocks and foreshocks. This may offer an improved framework for time-dependent seismic hazard assessment and earthquake forecasting.

  11. When does prior knowledge disproportionately benefit older adults' memory?

    PubMed

    Badham, Stephen P; Hay, Mhairi; Foxon, Natasha; Kaur, Kiran; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Material consistent with knowledge/experience is generally more memorable than material inconsistent with knowledge/experience - an effect that can be more extreme in older adults. Four experiments investigated knowledge effects on memory with young and older adults. Memory for familiar and unfamiliar proverbs (Experiment 1) and for common and uncommon scenes (Experiment 2) showed similar knowledge effects across age groups. Memory for person-consistent and person-neutral actions (Experiment 3) showed a greater benefit of prior knowledge in older adults. For cued recall of related and unrelated word pairs (Experiment 4), older adults benefited more from prior knowledge only when it provided uniquely useful additional information beyond the episodic association itself. The current data and literature suggest that prior knowledge has the age-dissociable mnemonic properties of (1) improving memory for the episodes themselves (age invariant), and (2) providing conceptual information about the tasks/stimuli extrinsically to the actual episodic memory (particularly aiding older adults). PMID:26473767

  12. A Similarity Search Using Molecular Topological Graphs

    PubMed Central

    Fukunishi, Yoshifumi; Nakamura, Haruki

    2009-01-01

    A molecular similarity measure has been developed using molecular topological graphs and atomic partial charges. Two kinds of topological graphs were used. One is the ordinary adjacency matrix and the other is a matrix which represents the minimum path length between two atoms of the molecule. The ordinary adjacency matrix is suitable to compare the local structures of molecules such as functional groups, and the other matrix is suitable to compare the global structures of molecules. The combination of these two matrices gave a similarity measure. This method was applied to in silico drug screening, and the results showed that it was effective as a similarity measure. PMID:20037730

  13. Stability of similarity measurements for bipartite networks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Hou, Lei; Pan, Xue; Guo, Qiang; Zhou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Similarity is a fundamental measure in network analyses and machine learning algorithms, with wide applications ranging from personalized recommendation to socio-economic dynamics. We argue that an effective similarity measurement should guarantee the stability even under some information loss. With six bipartite networks, we investigate the stabilities of fifteen similarity measurements by comparing the similarity matrixes of two data samples which are randomly divided from original data sets. Results show that, the fifteen measurements can be well classified into three clusters according to their stabilities, and measurements in the same cluster have similar mathematical definitions. In addition, we develop a top-n-stability method for personalized recommendation, and find that the unstable similarities would recommend false information to users, and the performance of recommendation would be largely improved by using stable similarity measurements. This work provides a novel dimension to analyze and evaluate similarity measurements, which can further find applications in link prediction, personalized recommendation, clustering algorithms, community detection and so on. PMID:26725688

  14. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure, Adaptive Function, and Entry into Adult Roles in a Prospective Study of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Mary Ellen; Kable, Julie A.; Coles, Claire D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although many studies have demonstrated effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on physical, cognitive, and behavioral development in children, few have focused on the long term effects on adults. In this study, data are presented on adaptive function and entry into adult roles in a community sample of young adults with PAE. The expectation was that prenatally exposed adults would show lower adaptive functioning and more difficulty with entry into adult roles than the non-exposed control group and that these effects would be related to the severity of PAE effects. Method The predominantly African-American, low income sample included adults with a wide range of prenatal exposure (n = 123) as well as control groups for socioeconomic (SES) (n = 59) and disability (n = 54) status. The mothers of the alcohol-exposed and SES-control group participants were recruited before birth and offspring have been followed up periodically. The disability control group was recruited in adolescence. The adults were interviewed about adaptive function in day-to-day life and adult role entry. Collateral adults who were well-acquainted with each participant were interviewed concerning adaptive function. Results Results showed that adults who were dysmorphic and/or cognitively affected by PAE had difficulty with adaptive function and entry into adult roles. Males showing cognitive effects with no physical effects were the most severely affected. Results for exposed adults not showing physical or cognitive effects were similar to or more positive than those of the control group for most outcomes. Conclusion PAE has long-term effects on adaptive outcomes in early adulthood. Additional research should focus on possible interventions at this transition and on factors contributing to the adjustment of the exposed, but unaffected participants. PMID:26247662

  15. Similarity, invariance, and musical variation.

    PubMed

    McAdams, S; Matzkin, D

    2001-06-01

    Perceptual similarity underlies a number of important psychological properties of musical materials, including perceptual invariance under transformation, categorization, recognition, and the sense of familiarity. Mental processes involved in the perception of musical similarity may be an integral part of the functional logic of music composition and thus underly important aspects of musical experience. How much and in what ways can musical materials be varied and still be considered as perceptually related or as belonging to the same category? The notions of musical material, musical variation, perceptual similarity and invariance, and form-bearing dimensions are considered in this light. Recent work on similarity perception has demonstrated that the transformation space for a given musical material is limited by several factors ranging from degree of match of the values of auditory attributes of the events composing the sequences to their relations of various levels of abstraction and to the degree that the transformation respects the grammar of the musical system within which the material was composed. These notions and results are considered in the light of future directions of research, particularly concerning the role of similarity and invariance in the understanding of musical form during listening.

  16. Similarity, invariance, and musical variation.

    PubMed

    McAdams, S; Matzkin, D

    2001-06-01

    Perceptual similarity underlies a number of important psychological properties of musical materials, including perceptual invariance under transformation, categorization, recognition, and the sense of familiarity. Mental processes involved in the perception of musical similarity may be an integral part of the functional logic of music composition and thus underly important aspects of musical experience. How much and in what ways can musical materials be varied and still be considered as perceptually related or as belonging to the same category? The notions of musical material, musical variation, perceptual similarity and invariance, and form-bearing dimensions are considered in this light. Recent work on similarity perception has demonstrated that the transformation space for a given musical material is limited by several factors ranging from degree of match of the values of auditory attributes of the events composing the sequences to their relations of various levels of abstraction and to the degree that the transformation respects the grammar of the musical system within which the material was composed. These notions and results are considered in the light of future directions of research, particularly concerning the role of similarity and invariance in the understanding of musical form during listening. PMID:11458867

  17. Quantifying Similarity in Seismic Polarizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, D. W. S.; Jones, J. P.; Caffagni, E.

    2015-12-01

    Measuring similarity in seismic attributes can help identify tremor, low S/N signals, and converted or reflected phases, in addition to diagnosing site noise and sensor misalignment in arrays. Polarization analysis is a widely accepted method for studying the orientation and directional characteristics of seismic phases via. computed attributes, but similarity is ordinarily discussed using qualitative comparisons with reference values. Here we introduce a technique for quantitative polarization similarity that uses weighted histograms computed in short, overlapping time windows, drawing on methods adapted from the image processing and computer vision literature. Our method accounts for ambiguity in azimuth and incidence angle and variations in signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Using records of the Mw=8.3 Sea of Okhotsk earthquake from CNSN broadband sensors in British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada, and vertical borehole array data from a monitoring experiment at Hoadley gas field, central Alberta, Canada, we demonstrate that our method is robust to station spacing. Discrete wavelet analysis extends polarization similarity to the time-frequency domain in a straightforward way. Because histogram distance metrics are bounded by [0 1], clustering allows empirical time-frequency separation of seismic phase arrivals on single-station three-component records. Array processing for automatic seismic phase classification may be possible using subspace clustering of polarization similarity, but efficient algorithms are required to reduce the dimensionality.

  18. Transformation and alignment in similarity.

    PubMed

    Hodgetts, Carl J; Hahn, Ulrike; Chater, Nick

    2009-10-01

    This paper contrasts two structural accounts of psychological similarity: structural alignment (SA) and Representational Distortion (RD). SA proposes that similarity is determined by how readily the structures of two objects can be brought into alignment; RD measures similarity by the complexity of the transformation that "distorts" one representation into the other. We assess RD by defining a simple coding scheme of psychological transformations for the experimental materials. In two experiments, this "concrete" version of RD provides compelling fits of the data and compares favourably with SA. Finally, stepping back from particular models, we argue that perceptual theory suggests that transformations and alignment processes should generally be viewed as complementary, in contrast to the current distinction in the literature. PMID:19720370

  19. The baryonic self similarity of dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Alard, C.

    2014-06-20

    The cosmological simulations indicates that dark matter halos have specific self-similar properties. However, the halo similarity is affected by the baryonic feedback. By using momentum-driven winds as a model to represent the baryon feedback, an equilibrium condition is derived which directly implies the emergence of a new type of similarity. The new self-similar solution has constant acceleration at a reference radius for both dark matter and baryons. This model receives strong support from the observations of galaxies. The new self-similar properties imply that the total acceleration at larger distances is scale-free, the transition between the dark matter and baryons dominated regime occurs at a constant acceleration, and the maximum amplitude of the velocity curve at larger distances is proportional to M {sup 1/4}. These results demonstrate that this self-similar model is consistent with the basics of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) phenomenology. In agreement with the observations, the coincidence between the self-similar model and MOND breaks at the scale of clusters of galaxies. Some numerical experiments show that the behavior of the density near the origin is closely approximated by a Einasto profile.

  20. Evaluating Similarity Measures for Brain Image Registration

    PubMed Central

    Razlighi, Q. R.; Kehtarnavaz, N.; Yousefi, S.

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of similarity measures for image registration is a challenging problem due to its complex interaction with the underlying optimization, regularization, image type and modality. We propose a single performance metric, named robustness, as part of a new evaluation method which quantifies the effectiveness of similarity measures for brain image registration while eliminating the effects of the other parts of the registration process. We show empirically that similarity measures with higher robustness are more effective in registering degraded images and are also more successful in performing intermodal image registration. Further, we introduce a new similarity measure, called normalized spatial mutual information, for 3D brain image registration whose robustness is shown to be much higher than the existing ones. Consequently, it tolerates greater image degradation and provides more consistent outcomes for intermodal brain image registration. PMID:24039378

  1. Comparison of hydrological similarity measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rianna, Maura; Ridolfi, Elena; Manciola, Piergiorgio; Napolitano, Francesco; Russo, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    The use of a traditional at site approach for the statistical characterization and simulation of spatio-temporal precipitation fields has a major recognized drawback. Indeed, the weakness of the methodology is related to the estimation of rare events and it involves the uncertainty of the at-site sample statistical inference, because of the limited length of records. In order to overcome the lack of at-site observations, regional frequency approach uses the idea of substituting space for time to estimate design floods. The conventional regional frequency analysis estimates quantile values at a specific site from multi-site analysis. The main idea is that homogeneous sites, once pooled together, have similar probability distribution curves of extremes, except for a scaling factor. The method for pooling groups of sites can be based on geographical or climatological considerations. In this work the region of influence (ROI) pooling method is compared with an entropy-based one. The ROI is a flexible pooling group approach which defines for each site its own "region" formed by a unique set of similar stations. The similarity is found through the Euclidean distance metric in the attribute space. Here an alternative approach based on entropy is introduced to cluster homogeneous sites. The core idea is that homogeneous sites share a redundant (i.e. similar) amount of information. Homogeneous sites are pooled through a hierarchical selection based on the mutual information index (i.e. a measure of redundancy). The method is tested on precipitation data in Central Italy area.

  2. Plan Showing Cross Bracing Under Upper Stringers, Typical Section Showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plan Showing Cross Bracing Under Upper Stringers, Typical Section Showing End Framing, Plan Showing Cross Bracing Under Lower Stringers, End Elevation - Covered Bridge, Spanning Contoocook River, Hopkinton, Merrimack County, NH

  3. What causes similarity in catchments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savenije, Hubert

    2014-05-01

    One of the biggest issues in hydrology is how to handle the heterogeneity of catchment properties at different scales. But is this really such a big issue? Is this problem not merely the consequence of how we conceptualise and how we model catchments? Is there not far more similarity than we observe. Maybe we are not looking at the right things or at the right scale to see the similarity. The identity of catchments is largely determined by: the landscape, the ecosystem living on the landscape, and the geology, in that order. Soils, which are often seen as a crucial aspect of hydrological behaviour, are far less important, as will be demonstrated. The main determinants of hydrological behaviour are: the landscape composition, the rooting depth and the phenology. These determinants are a consequence of landscape and ecosystem evolution, which, in turn, are the manifestations of entropy production. There are striking similarities between catchments. The different runoff processes from hillslopes are linked and similar in different environments (McDonnell, 2013). Wetlands behave similarly all over the world. The key is to classify landscapes and to link the ecosystems living on them to climate. The ecosystem then is the main controller of hydrological behaviour. Besides phenology, the rooting depth is key in determining runoff behaviour. Both are strongly linked to climate and much less to soil properties. An example is given of how rooting depth is determined by climate, and how rooting depth can be predicted without calibration, providing a strong constraints on the prediction of rainfall partitioning and catchment runoff.

  4. Behavioral similarity as a reinforcer for preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Gladstone, Bruce W.; Cooley, James

    1975-01-01

    Three experiments evaluated whether behavioral similarity provided by an adult could serve as a reinforcer for the modelling behavior of four preschoolers. In each experiment, sessions consisted of two kinds of trials: (1) experimenter-modelled trials, when the child's imitation of modelled motor responses was reinforced with praise and tokens, and (2) child-modelled trials when experimenter imitation of child-modelled responses was contingent upon the child's modelling one of three alternative responses: operation of a ball, horn, or clicker. Experiment I showed that the children consistently modelled whichever responses the experimenter imitated. Experiment II determined whether that performance was due to differences in the amount of experimenter behavior following imitated versus nonimitated child models or to experimenter imitation. Neither reducing nor increasing the amount of experimenter behavior following the children's nonimitated models altered their modelling of imitated responses. Experiment III evaluated whether experimenter imitation of child models was a reinforcer because the child's imitative responses were reinforced on experimenter-modelled trials. In Experiment III, the children's nonimitation of experimenter-models was reinforced with praise and tokens on a schedule of differential reinforcement of other behavior, yet they continued to model experimenter-imitated responses on child-modelled trials. These results indicate behavioral similarity was reinforcing, though no conditioning history through which it acquired that function was demonstrated. PMID:16811851

  5. Dimensional and Overall Similarity Classifications in Haptics: A Developmental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Carole; Hatwell, Yvette

    1993-01-01

    The developmental change from global toward dimensional classifications, usually observed in vision, was investigated in haptics with stimuli varying according to their size and roughness. Results indicated that, although more overall similarity classifications were observed in children than in adults, this kind of classification was never…

  6. Active browsing using similarity pyramids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jau-Yuen; Bouman, Charles A.; Dalton, John C.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, we describe a new approach to managing large image databases, which we call active browsing. Active browsing integrates relevance feedback into the browsing environment, so that users can modify the database's organization to suit the desired task. Our method is based on a similarity pyramid data structure, which hierarchically organizes the database, so that it can be efficiently browsed. At coarse levels, the similarity pyramid allows users to view the database as large clusters of similar images. Alternatively, users can 'zoom into' finer levels to view individual images. We discuss relevance feedback for the browsing process, and argue that it is fundamentally different from relevance feedback for more traditional search-by-query tasks. We propose two fundamental operations for active browsing: pruning and reorganization. Both of these operations depend on a user-defined relevance set, which represents the image or set of images desired by the user. We present statistical methods for accurately pruning the database, and we propose a new 'worm hole' distance metric for reorganizing the database, so that members of the relevance set are grouped together.

  7. Juvenile Fibromyalgia: Different from the Adult Chronic Pain Syndrome?

    PubMed

    Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; King, Christopher; Ting, Tracy V; Arnold, Lesley M

    2016-04-01

    While a majority of research has focused on adult fibromyalgia (FM), recent evidence has provided insights into the presence and impact of FM in children and adolescents. Commonly referred as juvenile fibromyalgia (JFM), youths, particularly adolescent girls, present with persistent widespread pain and cardinal symptoms observed in adult FM. A majority of youth with JFM continue to experience symptoms into adulthood, which highlights the importance of early recognition and intervention. Some differences are observed between adult and juvenile-onset FM syndrome with regard to comorbidities (e.g., joint hypermobility is common in JFM). Psychological comorbidities are common but less severe in JFM. Compared to adult FM, approved pharmacological treatments for JFM are lacking, but non-pharmacologic approaches (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy and exercise) show promise. A number of conceptual issues still remain including (1) directly comparing similarities and differences in symptoms and (2) identifying shared and unique mechanisms underlying FM in adults and youths. PMID:26984803

  8. Privacy-preserving matching of similar patients.

    PubMed

    Vatsalan, Dinusha; Christen, Peter

    2016-02-01

    The identification of similar entities represented by records in different databases has drawn considerable attention in many application areas, including in the health domain. One important type of entity matching application that is vital for quality healthcare analytics is the identification of similar patients, known as similar patient matching. A key component of identifying similar records is the calculation of similarity of the values in attributes (fields) between these records. Due to increasing privacy and confidentiality concerns, using the actual attribute values of patient records to identify similar records across different organizations is becoming non-trivial because the attributes in such records often contain highly sensitive information such as personal and medical details of patients. Therefore, the matching needs to be based on masked (encoded) values while being effective and efficient to allow matching of large databases. Bloom filter encoding has widely been used as an efficient masking technique for privacy-preserving matching of string and categorical values. However, no work on Bloom filter-based masking of numerical data, such as integer (e.g. age), floating point (e.g. body mass index), and modulus (numbers wrap around upon reaching a certain value, e.g. date and time), which are commonly required in the health domain, has been presented in the literature. We propose a framework with novel methods for masking numerical data using Bloom filters, thereby facilitating the calculation of similarities between records. We conduct an empirical study on publicly available real-world datasets which shows that our framework provides efficient masking and achieves similar matching accuracy compared to the matching of actual unencoded patient records.

  9. Privacy-preserving matching of similar patients.

    PubMed

    Vatsalan, Dinusha; Christen, Peter

    2016-02-01

    The identification of similar entities represented by records in different databases has drawn considerable attention in many application areas, including in the health domain. One important type of entity matching application that is vital for quality healthcare analytics is the identification of similar patients, known as similar patient matching. A key component of identifying similar records is the calculation of similarity of the values in attributes (fields) between these records. Due to increasing privacy and confidentiality concerns, using the actual attribute values of patient records to identify similar records across different organizations is becoming non-trivial because the attributes in such records often contain highly sensitive information such as personal and medical details of patients. Therefore, the matching needs to be based on masked (encoded) values while being effective and efficient to allow matching of large databases. Bloom filter encoding has widely been used as an efficient masking technique for privacy-preserving matching of string and categorical values. However, no work on Bloom filter-based masking of numerical data, such as integer (e.g. age), floating point (e.g. body mass index), and modulus (numbers wrap around upon reaching a certain value, e.g. date and time), which are commonly required in the health domain, has been presented in the literature. We propose a framework with novel methods for masking numerical data using Bloom filters, thereby facilitating the calculation of similarities between records. We conduct an empirical study on publicly available real-world datasets which shows that our framework provides efficient masking and achieves similar matching accuracy compared to the matching of actual unencoded patient records. PMID:26707453

  10. Similarity Based Semantic Web Service Match

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hui; Niu, Wenjia; Huang, Ronghuai

    Semantic web service discovery aims at returning the most matching advertised services to the service requester by comparing the semantic of the request service with an advertised service. The semantic of a web service are described in terms of inputs, outputs, preconditions and results in Ontology Web Language for Service (OWL-S) which formalized by W3C. In this paper we proposed an algorithm to calculate the semantic similarity of two services by weighted averaging their inputs and outputs similarities. Case study and applications show the effectiveness of our algorithm in service match.

  11. Measuring structural similarity in large online networks.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yongren; Macy, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Structural similarity based on bipartite graphs can be used to detect meaningful communities, but the networks have been tiny compared to massive online networks. Scalability is important in applications involving tens of millions of individuals with highly skewed degree distributions. Simulation analysis holding underlying similarity constant shows that two widely used measures - Jaccard index and cosine similarity - are biased by the distribution of out-degree in web-scale networks. However, an alternative measure, the Standardized Co-incident Ratio (SCR), is unbiased. We apply SCR to members of Congress, musical artists, and professional sports teams to show how massive co-following on Twitter can be used to map meaningful affiliations among cultural entities, even in the absence of direct connections to one another. Our results show how structural similarity can be used to map cultural alignments and demonstrate the potential usefulness of social media data in the study of culture, politics, and organizations across the social and behavioral sciences. PMID:27480374

  12. Mechanisms for similarity based cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traulsen, A.

    2008-06-01

    Cooperation based on similarity has been discussed since Richard Dawkins introduced the term “green beard” effect. In these models, individuals cooperate based on an aribtrary signal (or tag) such as the famous green beard. Here, two different models for such tag based cooperation are analysed. As neutral drift is important in both models, a finite population framework is applied. The first model, which we term “cooperative tags” considers a situation in which groups of cooperators are formed by some joint signal. Defectors adopting the signal and exploiting the group can lead to a breakdown of cooperation. In this case, conditions are derived under which the average abundance of the more cooperative strategy exceeds 50%. The second model considers a situation in which individuals start defecting towards others that are not similar to them. This situation is termed “defective tags”. It is shown that in this case, individuals using tags to cooperate exclusively with their own kind dominate over unconditional cooperators.

  13. Slow and Fast Adult Readers in Text Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Marie-France; Tardieu, Hubert

    1991-01-01

    Discusses a study of fast and slow adult readers' textual organization subprocesses. Reveals that title and text type variables were manipulated in the study. Concludes that fast and slow readers processed textual organization similarly and showed identical comprehension performances. Calls for research into the characteristics of good…

  14. Path similarity skeleton graph matching.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiang; Latecki, Longin Jan

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a novel framework to for shape recognition based on object silhouettes. The main idea is to match skeleton graphs by comparing the shortest paths between skeleton endpoints. In contrast to typical tree or graph matching methods, we completely ignore the topological graph structure. Our approach is motivated by the fact that visually similar skeleton graphs may have completely different topological structures. The proposed comparison of shortest paths between endpoints of skeleton graphs yields correct matching results in such cases. The skeletons are pruned by contour partitioning with Discrete Curve Evolution, which implies that the endpoints of skeleton branches correspond to visual parts of the objects. The experimental results demonstrate that our method is able to produce correct results in the presence of articulations, stretching, and occlusion.

  15. Semantically enabled image similarity search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casterline, May V.; Emerick, Timothy; Sadeghi, Kolia; Gosse, C. A.; Bartlett, Brent; Casey, Jason

    2015-05-01

    Georeferenced data of various modalities are increasingly available for intelligence and commercial use, however effectively exploiting these sources demands a unified data space capable of capturing the unique contribution of each input. This work presents a suite of software tools for representing geospatial vector data and overhead imagery in a shared high-dimension vector or embedding" space that supports fused learning and similarity search across dissimilar modalities. While the approach is suitable for fusing arbitrary input types, including free text, the present work exploits the obvious but computationally difficult relationship between GIS and overhead imagery. GIS is comprised of temporally-smoothed but information-limited content of a GIS, while overhead imagery provides an information-rich but temporally-limited perspective. This processing framework includes some important extensions of concepts in literature but, more critically, presents a means to accomplish them as a unified framework at scale on commodity cloud architectures.

  16. 8. Detail showing concrete abutment, showing substructure of bridge, specifically ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail showing concrete abutment, showing substructure of bridge, specifically west side of arch and substructure. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  17. 28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS LINCOLN BOULEVARD, BIG LOST RIVER, AND NAVAL REACTORS FACILITY. F.C. TORKELSON DRAWING NUMBER 842-ARVFS-101-2. DATED OCTOBER 12, 1965. INEL INDEX CODE NUMBER: 075 0101 851 151969. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. Group B rotaviruses similar to strain CAL-1, have been circulating in Western India since 1993.

    PubMed Central

    Kelkar, S. D.; Zade, J. K.

    2004-01-01

    Generally, group A rotaviruses are the most common cause of paediatric diarrhoea. However, group B rotavirus, adult diarrhoea rotavirus (ADRV), was found to be involved in epidemics of severe gastroenteritis in several areas of China during 1982-1983 and had resulted in more than one million cases among adults as well as older children. Human group B rotavirus has been rarely reported outside China, but has been detected first from five adults with diarrhoea in Kolkata, India during 1997-1998 (strain CAL-1). During epidemiological studies at the National Institute of Virology (NIV) on hospitalized diarrhoea patients at Pune, India, faecal specimens from patients of >5 years age, which were negative for group A rotavirus by ELISA were tested by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). We detected rotavirus RNA migration patterns similar to that of group B rotavirus in three faecal specimens from adults, two from the specimens collected in 1993 and one in 1998 from sporadic diarrhoea cases. RT-PCR was carried out using primers derived from gene 8 which codes for the NS2 protein, followed by nested PCR, which confirmed the presence of group B rotavirus in all three specimens. The sequences of the PCR products of NIV specimens were compared with that of CAL-1, ADRV and IDIR (infectious diarrhoea of infant rat) belonging to group B rotaviruses. The sequence analysis of the PCR products showed the highest identity with CAL-1, which was reported from Kolkata, India during 1997--1998. The finding suggests that human group B rotaviruses have been circulating in Pune. India, since 1993. This emerging virus may lead to more severe disease among adults in India. There is a need for surveillance of group B rotavirus infections, especially in adult diarrhoea cases and seroepidemiological studies on group B rotavirus are required among humans and animals of Western Maharashtra, India. PMID:15310177

  19. Origins of "us" versus "them": prelinguistic infants prefer similar others.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Neha; Wynn, Karen

    2012-08-01

    A central feature of human psychology is our pervasive tendency to divide the social world into "us" and "them". We prefer to associate with those who are similar to us over those who are different, preferentially allocate resources to similar others, and hold more positive beliefs about similar others. Here we investigate the developmental origins of these biases, asking if preference for similar others occurs prior to language and extensive exposure to cultural norms. We demonstrate that, like adults, prelinguistic infants prefer those who share even trivial similarities with themselves, and these preferences appear to reflect a cognitive comparison process ("like me"/"not like me"). However, unlike adults, infants do not appear to prefer others with an utterly arbitrary similarity to themselves. Together, these findings suggest that the phenomena of ingroup bias, and enhanced interpersonal attraction toward those who resemble ourselves, may be rooted in an inherent preference for similarity to self, which itself may be enhanced during development by the influence of cultural values. PMID:22668879

  20. Adult immunization

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Bharti; Chawla, Sumit; Kumar Dharma, Vijay; Jindal, Harashish; Bhatt, Bhumika

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is recommended throughout life to prevent vaccine-preventable diseases and their sequel. The primary focus of vaccination programs has historically been directed to childhood immunizations. For adults, chronic diseases have been the primary focus of preventive and medical health care, though there has been increased emphasis on preventing infectious diseases. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains low for most of the routinely recommended vaccines. Though adults are less susceptible to fall prey to traditional infectious agents, the probability of exposure to infectious agents has increased manifold owing to globalization and increasing travel opportunities both within and across the countries. Thus, there is an urgent need to address the problem of adult immunization. The adult immunization enterprise is more complex, encompassing a wide variety of vaccines and a very diverse target population. There is no coordinated public health infrastructure to support an adult immunization program as there is for children. Moreover, there is little coordination among adult healthcare providers in terms of vaccine provision. Substantial improvement in adult vaccination is needed to reduce the health consequences of vaccine-preventable diseases among adults. Routine assessment of adult patient vaccination needs, recommendation, and offer of needed vaccines for adults should be incorporated into routine clinical care of adults. PMID:24128707

  1. Plant and animal transglutaminases: do similar functions imply similar structures?

    PubMed

    Serafini-Fracassini, Donatella; Della Mea, Massimiliano; Tasco, Gianluca; Casadio, Rita; Del Duca, Stefano

    2009-04-01

    In plants the post-translational modification of proteins by polyamines catalysed by transglutaminases has been studied since 1987; it was identified by the production of glutamyl-polyamine derivatives, biochemical features, recognition by animal antibodies and modification of typical animal substrates. Transglutaminases are widespread in all plant organs and cell compartments studied until now, chloroplast being the most studied. Substrates are: photosynthetic complexes and Rubisco in chloroplasts, cytoskeleton and cell wall proteins. Roles either specific of plants or in common with animals are related to photosynthesis, fertilisation, stresses, senescence and programmed cell death, showing that the catalytic function is conserved across the kingdoms. AtPng1p, the first plant transglutaminase sequenced shows undetectable sequence homology to the animal enzymes, except for the catalytic triad. It is, however, endowed with a calcium-dependent activity that allowed us to build a three-dimensional model adopting as a template the animal transglutaminase 2.

  2. Age differences in adults' scene memory: knowledge and strategy interactions.

    PubMed

    Azmitia, M; Perlmutter, M

    1988-08-01

    Three studies explored young and old adults' use of knowledge to support memory performance. Subjects viewed slides of familiar scenes containing high expectancy and low expectancy items and received free recall (Experiments 1, 2, and 3), cued recall (Experiments 1 and 2), and recognition (Experiments 1 and 2) tests. In Experiment 1 encoding intentionality was varied between subjects. Young adults performed better than old adults on all tests, but on all tests, both age groups produced a similar pattern of better memory of high expectancy than low expectancy items and showed an encoding intentionality effect for low expectancy items. In Experiments 2 and 3 all subjects were told to intentionally encode only one item from each scene; the remaining items could be encoded incidentally. Young adults performed better than old adults, although again, the pattern of performance of the two age groups was similar. High expectancy and low expectancy intentional items were recalled equally well, but high expectancy incidental items were recalled better than low expectancy incidental items. Low expectancy intentional items were recognized better than high expectancy intentional items, but incidental high expectancy items were recognized better than incidental low expectancy items. It was concluded that young and old adults use their knowledge in similar ways to guide scene memory. The effects of item expectancy and item intentionality were interpreted within Hasher & Zacks' (2) model of automatic and effortful processes. PMID:3228800

  3. Talker intelligibility: Child and adult listener performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markham, Duncan; Hazan, Valerie

    2002-05-01

    In a study of talker intelligibility, 45 voices (adults, 11-12 year old children) were presented to 135 listeners (adults, 11-12, and 7-8 year olds). Word materials were presented in a ``single-word'' condition, and in a ``triplet'' condition, where a ``normalizing'' precursor sentence preceded three keywords. In both conditions, voices were randomized, with no consecutive presentations from the same speaker. The specially designed word-set consisted of 124 words chosen to maximize consonant confusions. Adult female speakers were significantly more intelligible than other groups, as predicted by previous research, but the difference was small. The error rates for 7-8 year olds were slightly but significantly higher than those for the older children and adults. The effect of presentation condition, however, was not significant for any listener group. Across all listener groups, rankings of speakers by error rates were strikingly consistent, with a distinct cluster of eight low-intelligibility speakers common to all listener groups. This suggests that speaker intelligibility is little influenced by listener-related factors. In terms of their perception of speaker characteristics, children aged seven and above are showing similar patterns of behavior to adults, even though the younger children showed marginally higher error rates. [Work funded by the Wellcome Trust.

  4. Mosquito, adult (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This illustration shows an adult southern house mosquito. This mosquito feeds on blood and is the carrier of many diseases, such as encephalitis, West Nile, dengue fever, yellow fever, and others. ( ...

  5. Effects of similarity on environmental context cueing.

    PubMed

    Smith, Steven M; Handy, Justin D; Angello, Genna; Manzano, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments examined the prediction that context cues which are similar to study contexts can facilitate episodic recall, even if those cues are never seen before the recall test. Environmental context cueing effects have typically produced such small effect sizes that influences of moderating factors, such as the similarity between encoding and retrieval contexts, would be difficult to observe experimentally. Videos of environmental contexts, however, can be used to produce powerful context-dependent memory effects, particularly when only one memory target is associated with each video context, intentional item-context encoding is encouraged, and free recall tests are used. Experiment 1 showed that a not previously viewed video of the study context provided an effective recall cue, although it was not as effective as the originally viewed video context. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that videos of environments that were conceptually similar to encoding contexts (e.g., both were videos of ball field games) also cued recall, but not as well if the encoding contexts were given specific labels (e.g., "home run") incompatible with test contexts (e.g., a soccer scene). A fourth experiment that used incidental item-context encoding showed that video context reinstatement has a robust effect on paired associate memory, indicating that the video context reinstatement effect does not depend on interactive item-context encoding or free recall testing.

  6. Effects of similarity on environmental context cueing.

    PubMed

    Smith, Steven M; Handy, Justin D; Angello, Genna; Manzano, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments examined the prediction that context cues which are similar to study contexts can facilitate episodic recall, even if those cues are never seen before the recall test. Environmental context cueing effects have typically produced such small effect sizes that influences of moderating factors, such as the similarity between encoding and retrieval contexts, would be difficult to observe experimentally. Videos of environmental contexts, however, can be used to produce powerful context-dependent memory effects, particularly when only one memory target is associated with each video context, intentional item-context encoding is encouraged, and free recall tests are used. Experiment 1 showed that a not previously viewed video of the study context provided an effective recall cue, although it was not as effective as the originally viewed video context. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that videos of environments that were conceptually similar to encoding contexts (e.g., both were videos of ball field games) also cued recall, but not as well if the encoding contexts were given specific labels (e.g., "home run") incompatible with test contexts (e.g., a soccer scene). A fourth experiment that used incidental item-context encoding showed that video context reinstatement has a robust effect on paired associate memory, indicating that the video context reinstatement effect does not depend on interactive item-context encoding or free recall testing. PMID:23721293

  7. What Do Blood Tests Show?

    MedlinePlus

    ... shows the ranges for blood glucose levels after 8 to 12 hours of fasting (not eating). It shows the normal range and the abnormal ranges that are a sign of prediabetes or diabetes. Plasma Glucose Results (mg/dL)* Diagnosis 70 to 99 ...

  8. Satellite Movie Shows Erika Dissipate

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite from Aug. 27 to 29 shows Tropical Storm Erika move through the Eastern Caribbean Sea and dissipate near eastern Cuba. ...

  9. Similarity and rules: distinct? Exhaustive? Empirically distinguishable?

    PubMed

    Hahn, U; Chater, N

    1998-01-01

    The distinction between rule-based and similarity-based processes in cognition is of fundamental importance for cognitive science, and has been the focus of a large body of empirical research. However, intuitive uses of the distinction are subject to theoretical difficulties and their relation to empirical evidence is not clear. We propose a 'core' distinction between rule- and similarity-based processes, in terms of the way representations of stored information are 'matched' with the representation of a novel item. This explication captures the intuitively clear-cut cases of processes of each type, and resolves apparent problems with the rule/similarity distinction. Moreover, it provides a clear target for assessing the psychological and AI literatures. We show that many lines of psychological evidence are less conclusive than sometimes assumed, but suggest that converging lines of evidence may be persuasive. We then argue that the AI literature suggests that approaches which combine rules and similarity are an important new focus for empirical work.

  10. STABILITY OF AGE-RELATED DEFICITS IN THE MNEMONIC SIMILARITY TASK ACROSS TASK VARIATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Shauna M.; Stevenson, Rebecca; Wu, Claudia; Rutledge, Samantha; Stark, Craig E. L.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies in our lab and others have demonstrated age-related declines in mnemonic discrimination during a recognition memory paradigm using repeated items, similar lures, and novel foils. In particular, older adults exhibit a shift in lure discriminability, identifying similar lures as old items at a greater rate than young adults. This shift likely reflects deficits in pattern separation processing as a result of underlying changes in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Here, we explored whether alterations in the task design could rescue the age-related impairment or whether it was ubiquitous as one might expect if the neurobiological mechanisms were truly disturbed by typical aging. Despite overt instructions to study item details during encoding, we replicated the age-related deficit in mnemonic discrimination. We established reliable effects with short lists of stimuli and with repeated testing. Altering the task design from a study/test to a continuous recognition paradigm replicated the age-related shift in lure discrimination as well. Modifying the task to an old/new response (rather than old/similar/new) showed the same effect and a d′ analysis showed that lure items were more akin to target items in older adults. Finally, we varied the test instructions in order to promote gist or veridical responses in the old/new task. Even these overt, veridical test instructions did not ameliorate older adults’ lure discrimination problems. Together, these findings demonstrate the robust nature of this age-related deficit and support the hypothesis that typical aging results in neurobiological changes that underlie this impairment. PMID:26030427

  11. A motor similarity effect in object memory.

    PubMed

    Downing-Doucet, Frédéric; Guérard, Katherine

    2014-08-01

    In line with theories of embodied cognition (e.g., Versace et al. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 21, 522-560, 2009), several studies have suggested that the motor system used to interact with objects in our environment is involved in object recognition (e.g., Helbig, Graf, & Kiefer Experimental Brain Research, 174, 221-228, 2006). However, the role of the motor system in immediate memory for objects is more controversial. The objective of the present study was to investigate the role of the motor system in object memory by manipulating the similarity between the actions associated to series of objects to be retained in memory. In Experiment 1, we showed that lists of objects associated to dissimilar actions were better recalled than lists associated to similar actions. We then showed that this effect was abolished when participants were required to perform a concurrent motor suppression task (Experiment 2) and when the objects to be memorized were unmanipulable (Experiment 3). The motor similarity effect provides evidence for the role of motor affordances in object memory.

  12. National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Jimenez Sheri Raborn, CPA; Tom Baker

    2008-03-31

    National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration created a 400KW Photovoltaic self-generation plant at the National Orange Show Events Center (NOS). The NOS owns a 120-acre state fairground where it operates an events center and produces an annual citrus fair known as the Orange Show. The NOS governing board wanted to employ cost-saving programs for annual energy expenses. It is hoped the Photovoltaic program will result in overall savings for the NOS, help reduce the State's energy demands as relating to electrical power consumption, improve quality of life within the affected grid area as well as increase the energy efficiency of buildings at our venue. In addition, the potential to reduce operational expenses would have a tremendous effect on the ability of the NOS to service its community.

  13. Arches showing UV flaring activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    The UVSP data obtained in the previous maximum activity cycle show the frequent appearance of flaring events in the UV. In many cases these flaring events are characterized by at least two footpoints which show compact impulsive non-simultaneous brightenings and a fainter but clearly observed arch developes between the footpoints. These arches and footpoints are observed in line corresponding to different temperatures, as Lyman alpha, N V, and C IV, and when observed above the limb display large Doppler shifts at some stages. The size of the arches can be larger than 20 arcsec.

  14. Relations between premise similarity and inductive strength.

    PubMed

    Heit, Evan; Feeney, Aidan

    2005-04-01

    According to the diversity principle, diverse evidence is strong evidence. There has been considerable evidence that people respect this principle in inductive reasoning. However, exceptions may be particularly informative. Medin, Coley, Storms, and Hayes (2003) introduced a relevance theory of inductive reasoning and used this theory to predict exceptions, including the nondiversity-by-property-reinforcement effect. A new experiment in which this phenomenon was investigated is reported here. Subjects made inductive strength judgments and similarity judgments for stimuli from Medin et al. (2003). The inductive strength judgments showed the same pattern as that in Medin et al. (2003); however, the similarity judgments suggested that the pattern should be interpreted as a diversity effect, rather than as a nondiversity effect. It is concluded that the evidence regarding the predicted nondiversity-by-property-reinforcement effect does not give distinctive support for relevance theory, although this theory does address other results.

  15. Create a Polarized Light Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, William H.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson that introduces students to polarized light using a problem-solving approach. After illustrating the concept using a slinky and poster board with a vertical slot, students solve the problem of creating a polarized light show using Polya's problem-solving methods. (MDH)

  16. Pembrolizumab Shows Promise for NSCLC.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    Data from the KEYNOTE-001 trial show that pembrolizumab improves clinical outcomes for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer, and is well tolerated. PD-L1 expression in at least 50% of tumor cells correlated with improved efficacy.

  17. Magic Carpet Shows Its Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The upper left image in this display is from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, showing the 'Magic Carpet' region near the rover at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Sol 7, the seventh martian day of its journey (Jan. 10, 2004). The lower image, also from the panoramic camera, is a monochrome (single filter) image of a rock in the 'Magic Carpet' area. Note that colored portions of the rock correlate with extracted spectra shown in the plot to the side. Four different types of materials are shown: the rock itself, the soil in front of the rock, some brighter soil on top of the rock, and some dust that has collected in small recesses on the rock face ('spots'). Each color on the spectra matches a line on the graph, showing how the panoramic camera's different colored filters are used to broadly assess the varying mineral compositions of martian rocks and soils.

  18. Selecting valuable information to remember: age-related differences and similarities in self-regulated learning.

    PubMed

    Castel, Alan D; Murayama, Kou; Friedman, Michael C; McGillivray, Shannon; Link, Ian

    2013-03-01

    It is often necessary to selectively attend to important information, at the expense of less important information, especially if you know you cannot remember large amounts of information. The present study examined how younger and older adults select valuable information to study, when given unrestricted choices about how to allocate study time. Participants were shown a display of point values ranging from 1-30. Participants could choose which values to study, and the associated word was then shown. Study time, and the choice to restudy words, was under the participant's control during the 2-minute study session. Overall, both age groups selected high value words to study and studied these more than the lower value words. However, older adults allocated a disproportionately greater amount of study time to the higher-value words, and age-differences in recall were reduced or eliminated for the highest value words. In addition, older adults capitalized on recency effects in a strategic manner, by studying high-value items often but also immediately before the test. A multilevel mediation analysis indicated that participants strategically remembered items with higher point value, and older adults showed similar or even stronger strategic process that may help to compensate for poorer memory. These results demonstrate efficient (and different) metacognitive control operations in younger and older adults, which can allow for strategic regulation of study choices and allocation of study time when remembering important information. The findings are interpreted in terms of life span models of agenda-based regulation and discussed in terms of practical applications.

  19. Similar on the Inside (post-grinding)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This approximate true-color image taken by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity show the hole drilled into the rock called 'Pilbara,' which is located in the small crater dubbed 'Fram.' Spirit drilled into this rock with its rock abrasion tool. The rock appears to be dotted with the same 'blueberries,' or spherules, found at 'Eagle Crater.' After analyzing the hole with the rover's scientific instruments, scientists concluded that Pilbara has a similar chemical make-up, and thus watery past, to rocks studied at Eagle Crater. This image was taken with the panoramic camera's 480-, 530- and 600-nanometer filters.

  20. Similar on the Inside (pre-grinding)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This approximate true-color image taken by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity show the rock called 'Pilbara' located in the small crater dubbed 'Fram.' The rock appears to be dotted with the same 'blueberries,' or spherules, found at 'Eagle Crater.' Spirit drilled into this rock with its rock abrasion tool. After analyzing the hole with the rover's scientific instruments, scientists concluded that Pilbara has a similar chemical make-up, and thus watery past, to rocks studied at Eagle Crater. This image was taken with the panoramic camera's 480-, 530- and 600-nanometer filters.

  1. Urinary tract infection - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Bladder infection - adults; UTI - adults; Cystitis - bacterial - adults; Pyelonephritis - adults; Kidney infection - adults ... to the hospital if you: Are an older adult Have kidney stones or changes in the anatomy ...

  2. Fingerprint matching based on global comprehensive similarity.

    PubMed

    He, Yuliang; Tian, Jie; Li, Liang; Chen, Hong; Yang, Xin

    2006-06-01

    This paper introduces a novel algorithm based on global comprehensive similarity with three steps. To describe the Euclidean space-based relative features among minutiae, we first build a minutia-simplex that contains a pair of minutiae as well as their associated textures, with its transformation-variant and invariant relative features employed for the comprehensive similarity measurement and parameter estimation, respectively. By the second step, we use the ridge-based nearest neighborhood among minutiae to represent the ridge-based relative features among minutiae. With these ridge-based relative features, minutiae are grouped according to their affinity with a ridge. The Euclidean space-based and ridge-based relative features among minutiae reinforce each other in the representation of a fingerprint. Finally, we model the relationship between transformation and the comprehensive similarity between two fingerprints in terms of histogram for initial parameter estimation. Through these steps, our experiment shows that the method mentioned above is both effective and suitable for limited memory AFIS owing to its less than 1k byte template size. PMID:16724581

  3. Hierarchical similarity transformations between Gaussian mixtures.

    PubMed

    Rigas, George; Nikou, Christophoros; Goletsis, Yorgos; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to estimate the density of a data space represented by a geometric transformation of an initial Gaussian mixture model. The geometric transformation is hierarchical, and it is decomposed into two steps. At first, the initial model is assumed to undergo a global similarity transformation modeled by translation, rotation, and scaling of the model components. Then, to increase the degrees of freedom of the model and allow it to capture fine data structures, each individual mixture component may be transformed by another, local similarity transformation, whose parameters are distinct for each component of the mixture. In addition, to constrain the order of magnitude of the local transformation (LT) with respect to the global transformation (GT), zero-mean Gaussian priors are imposed onto the local parameters. The estimation of both GT and LT parameters is obtained through the expectation maximization framework. Experiments on artificial data are conducted to evaluate the proposed model, with varying data dimensionality, number of model components, and transformation parameters. In addition, the method is evaluated using real data from a speech recognition task. The obtained results show a high model accuracy and demonstrate the potential application of the proposed method to similar classification problems. PMID:24808615

  4. Self-similarity of complex networks.

    PubMed

    Song, Chaoming; Havlin, Shlomo; Makse, Hernán A

    2005-01-27

    Complex networks have been studied extensively owing to their relevance to many real systems such as the world-wide web, the Internet, energy landscapes and biological and social networks. A large number of real networks are referred to as 'scale-free' because they show a power-law distribution of the number of links per node. However, it is widely believed that complex networks are not invariant or self-similar under a length-scale transformation. This conclusion originates from the 'small-world' property of these networks, which implies that the number of nodes increases exponentially with the 'diameter' of the network, rather than the power-law relation expected for a self-similar structure. Here we analyse a variety of real complex networks and find that, on the contrary, they consist of self-repeating patterns on all length scales. This result is achieved by the application of a renormalization procedure that coarse-grains the system into boxes containing nodes within a given 'size'. We identify a power-law relation between the number of boxes needed to cover the network and the size of the box, defining a finite self-similar exponent. These fundamental properties help to explain the scale-free nature of complex networks and suggest a common self-organization dynamics.

  5. Nonlocal similarity based DEM super resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zekai; Wang, Xuewen; Chen, Zixuan; Xiong, Dongping; Ding, Mingyue; Hou, Wenguang

    2015-12-01

    This paper discusses a new topic, DEM super resolution, to improve the resolution of an original DEM based on its partial new measurements obtained with high resolution. A nonlocal algorithm is introduced to perform this task. The original DEM was first divided into overlapping patches, which were classified either as "test" or "learning" data depending on whether or not they are related to high resolution measurements. For each test patch, the similar patches in the learning dataset were identified via template matching. Finally, the high resolution DEM of the test patch was restored by the weighted sum of similar patches under the condition that the reconstruction weights were the same in different resolution cases. A key assumption of this strategy is that there are some repeated or similar modes in the original DEM, which is quite common. Experiments were done to demonstrate that we can restore a DEM by preserving the details without introducing artifacts. Statistic analysis was also conducted to show that this method can obtain higher accuracy than traditional interpolation methods.

  6. Compressive Sequential Learning for Action Similarity Labeling.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jie; Liu, Li; Zhang, Zhaoxiang; Wang, Yunhong; Shao, Ling

    2016-02-01

    Human action recognition in videos has been extensively studied in recent years due to its wide range of applications. Instead of classifying video sequences into a number of action categories, in this paper, we focus on a particular problem of action similarity labeling (ASLAN), which aims at verifying whether a pair of videos contain the same type of action or not. To address this challenge, a novel approach called compressive sequential learning (CSL) is proposed by leveraging the compressive sensing theory and sequential learning. We first project data points to a low-dimensional space by effectively exploring an important property in compressive sensing: the restricted isometry property. In particular, a very sparse measurement matrix is adopted to reduce the dimensionality efficiently. We then learn an ensemble classifier for measuring similarities between pairwise videos by iteratively minimizing its empirical risk with the AdaBoost strategy on the training set. Unlike conventional AdaBoost, the weak learner for each iteration is not explicitly defined and its parameters are learned through greedy optimization. Furthermore, an alternative of CSL named compressive sequential encoding is developed as an encoding technique and followed by a linear classifier to address the similarity-labeling problem. Our method has been systematically evaluated on four action data sets: ASLAN, KTH, HMDB51, and Hollywood2, and the results show the effectiveness and superiority of our method for ASLAN.

  7. What Does It Take to Be an Adult in Austria? Views of Adulthood in Austrian Adolescents, Emerging Adults, and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirsch, Ulrike; Dreher, Eva; Mayr, Eva; Willinger, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the defining features of emerging adulthood, subjects' conceptions of the transition to adulthood, and the perceived adult status in Austria. The sample consisted of 775 subjects (226 adolescents, 317 emerging adults, 232 adults). Results showed that most Austrian emerging adults feel themselves to be between adolescence…

  8. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  9. "Show me" bioethics and politics.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Myra J

    2007-10-01

    Missouri, the "Show Me State," has become the epicenter of several important national public policy debates, including abortion rights, the right to choose and refuse medical treatment, and, most recently, early stem cell research. In this environment, the Center for Practical Bioethics (formerly, Midwest Bioethics Center) emerged and grew. The Center's role in these "cultural wars" is not to advocate for a particular position but to provide well researched and objective information, perspective, and advocacy for the ethical justification of policy positions; and to serve as a neutral convener and provider of a public forum for discussion. In this article, the Center's work on early stem cell research is a case study through which to argue that not only the Center, but also the field of bioethics has a critical role in the politics of public health policy.

  10. ShowMe3D

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less

  11. Similarity hypothesis: understanding of others with autism spectrum disorders by individuals with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Komeda, Hidetsugu

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are generally thought to lack empathy. However, according to recent empirical and self-advocacy studies, individuals with ASD identify with others with ASD. Based on mutual understanding, individuals with ASD respond empathically to others with these disorders. Results have shown that typically developing (TD) adults identify with TD fictional characters, and that such identification plays a critical role in social cognition. TD individuals retrieve episodes involving TD individuals faster than they retrieve episodes involving ASD individuals. Individuals with ASD also show a “similarity effect” whereby they retrieve stories involving ASD individuals more effectively when the stories have consistent outcomes than when they have inconsistent outcomes. In this context, I hypothesized that similarities between a perceiver and a target facilitate cognitive processing. This hypothesis was named the “similarity hypothesis”. Perceivers empathize with targets similar to themselves, which facilitates subsequent cognitive processing. Behavioral and neuroimaging studies are reviewed based on the similarity hypothesis. PMID:25852514

  12. Personalized Mortality Prediction Driven by Electronic Medical Data and a Patient Similarity Metric

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joon; Maslove, David M.; Dubin, Joel A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical outcome prediction normally employs static, one-size-fits-all models that perform well for the average patient but are sub-optimal for individual patients with unique characteristics. In the era of digital healthcare, it is feasible to dynamically personalize decision support by identifying and analyzing similar past patients, in a way that is analogous to personalized product recommendation in e-commerce. Our objectives were: 1) to prove that analyzing only similar patients leads to better outcome prediction performance than analyzing all available patients, and 2) to characterize the trade-off between training data size and the degree of similarity between the training data and the index patient for whom prediction is to be made. Methods and Findings We deployed a cosine-similarity-based patient similarity metric (PSM) to an intensive care unit (ICU) database to identify patients that are most similar to each patient and subsequently to custom-build 30-day mortality prediction models. Rich clinical and administrative data from the first day in the ICU from 17,152 adult ICU admissions were analyzed. The results confirmed that using data from only a small subset of most similar patients for training improves predictive performance in comparison with using data from all available patients. The results also showed that when too few similar patients are used for training, predictive performance degrades due to the effects of small sample sizes. Our PSM-based approach outperformed well-known ICU severity of illness scores. Although the improved prediction performance is achieved at the cost of increased computational burden, Big Data technologies can help realize personalized data-driven decision support at the point of care. Conclusions The present study provides crucial empirical evidence for the promising potential of personalized data-driven decision support systems. With the increasing adoption of electronic medical record (EMR) systems, our

  13. Dependency Similarity, Attraction and Perceived Happiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Janak

    1978-01-01

    Subjects were asked to evaluate either a similar personality or a dissimilar personality. Subjects rated similar others more positively than dissimilar others and, additionally, perceived similar others as more helpful and sympathetic than dissimilar others. (Author)

  14. Pea Plants Show Risk Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Dener, Efrat; Kacelnik, Alex; Shemesh, Hagai

    2016-07-11

    Sensitivity to variability in resources has been documented in humans, primates, birds, and social insects, but the fit between empirical results and the predictions of risk sensitivity theory (RST), which aims to explain this sensitivity in adaptive terms, is weak [1]. RST predicts that agents should switch between risk proneness and risk aversion depending on state and circumstances, especially according to the richness of the least variable option [2]. Unrealistic assumptions about agents' information processing mechanisms and poor knowledge of the extent to which variability imposes specific selection in nature are strong candidates to explain the gap between theory and data. RST's rationale also applies to plants, where it has not hitherto been tested. Given the differences between animals' and plants' information processing mechanisms, such tests should help unravel the conflicts between theory and data. Measuring root growth allocation by split-root pea plants, we show that they favor variability when mean nutrient levels are low and the opposite when they are high, supporting the most widespread RST prediction. However, the combination of non-linear effects of nitrogen availability at local and systemic levels may explain some of these effects as a consequence of mechanisms not necessarily evolved to cope with variance [3, 4]. This resembles animal examples in which properties of perception and learning cause risk sensitivity even though they are not risk adaptations [5]. PMID:27374342

  15. Casimir experiments showing saturation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Sernelius, Bo E.

    2009-10-15

    We address several different Casimir experiments where theory and experiment disagree. First out is the classical Casimir force measurement between two metal half spaces; here both in the form of the torsion pendulum experiment by Lamoreaux and in the form of the Casimir pressure measurement between a gold sphere and a gold plate as performed by Decca et al.; theory predicts a large negative thermal correction, absent in the high precision experiments. The third experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between a metal plate and a laser irradiated semiconductor membrane as performed by Chen et al.; the change in force with laser intensity is larger than predicted by theory. The fourth experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between an atom and a wall in the form of the measurement by Obrecht et al. of the change in oscillation frequency of a {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate trapped to a fused silica wall; the change is smaller than predicted by theory. We show that saturation effects can explain the discrepancies between theory and experiment observed in all these cases.

  16. Patterns of Functional Disability in the Oldest Adults in China.

    PubMed

    Fong, Joelle H; Feng, Jun

    2016-09-01

    This study examined patterns of onset of activity of daily living (ADL) disability in a nationally representative sample of older adults in mainland China. Using longitudinal data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey from 1998 to 2008 (N = 5,570), nonparametric methods were used to evaluate median age at onset of various ADL disabilities and differences in the incidence of disabilities according to sex. The sampled older Chinese adults developed ADL disabilities, on average, between the ages of 89 and 94. Women were likely to experience later onset than men. The results also show that the oldest adults generally lose bathing ability, followed by toileting, transferring, dressing, eating, and finally, continence. This order-derived from estimated median age at onset-was also found to be highly prevalent in subsequently disabled respondents in the sample. The disability experience of older adults in China is somewhat similar to that of older adults in Western developed countries; elderly adults tend to lose ability in activities that require lower extremity strength earlier than those that require upper extremity strength. The relative importance of the various ADL items in the hierarchical ordering has implications for early intervention to reduce the risk of functional disability in older adults and those at risk of transitions of care. PMID:27534382

  17. Adding small differences can increase similarity and choice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongmin; Novemsky, Nathan; Dhar, Ravi

    2013-02-01

    Similarity plays a critical role in many judgments and choices. Traditional models of similarity posit that increasing the number of differences between objects cannot increase judged similarity between them. In contrast to these previous models, the present research shows that introducing a small difference in an attribute that previously was identical across objects can increase perceived similarity between those objects. We propose an explanation based on the idea that small differences draw more attention than identical attributes do and that people's perceptions of similarity involve averaging attributes that are salient. We provide evidence that introducing small differences between objects increases perceived similarity. We also show that an increase in similarity decreases the difficulty of choice and the likelihood that a choice will be deferred. PMID:23257768

  18. Mimas Showing False Colors #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    False color images of Saturn's moon, Mimas, reveal variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

    During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

    The image at the left is a narrow angle clear-filter image, which was separately processed to enhance the contrast in brightness and sharpness of visible features. The image at the right is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined into a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences. This 'color map' was then superimposed over the clear-filter image at the left.

    The combination of color map and brightness image shows how the color differences across the Mimas surface materials are tied to geological features. Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

    Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of each image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in

  19. Investing in the health and well-being of young adults.

    PubMed

    Stroud, Clare; Walker, Leslie R; Davis, Maryann; Irwin, Charles E

    2015-02-01

    Contrary to popular perception, young adults-ages approximately 18-26 years-are surprisingly unhealthy. They are less healthy than adolescents, and they also show a worse health profile than those in their late 20s and 30s. The Affordable Care Act provisions to extend coverage for young adults are well known, and some states had already been pursuing similar efforts before the Affordable Care Act was enacted. These initiatives have resulted in important gains in young adults' heath care coverage. However, too little attention has been paid to the care that young adults receive once they are in the system. Given young adults' health problems, this is a critical omission. The Institute of Medicine and National Research Council recently released a report titled Investing in the Health and Well-Being of Young Adults. The report concludes that young adulthood is a critical developmental period and recommends that young adults ages 18-26 years be treated as a distinct subpopulation in policy, planning, programming, and research. The report also recommends action in three priority areas to improve health care for young adults: improving the transition from pediatric to adult medical and behavioral health care, enhancing preventive care for young adults, and developing evidence-based practices.

  20. FRESCO: Referential compression of highly similar sequences.

    PubMed

    Wandelt, Sebastian; Leser, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    In many applications, sets of similar texts or sequences are of high importance. Prominent examples are revision histories of documents or genomic sequences. Modern high-throughput sequencing technologies are able to generate DNA sequences at an ever-increasing rate. In parallel to the decreasing experimental time and cost necessary to produce DNA sequences, computational requirements for analysis and storage of the sequences are steeply increasing. Compression is a key technology to deal with this challenge. Recently, referential compression schemes, storing only the differences between a to-be-compressed input and a known reference sequence, gained a lot of interest in this field. In this paper, we propose a general open-source framework to compress large amounts of biological sequence data called Framework for REferential Sequence COmpression (FRESCO). Our basic compression algorithm is shown to be one to two orders of magnitudes faster than comparable related work, while achieving similar compression ratios. We also propose several techniques to further increase compression ratios, while still retaining the advantage in speed: 1) selecting a good reference sequence; and 2) rewriting a reference sequence to allow for better compression. In addition,we propose a new way of further boosting the compression ratios by applying referential compression to already referentially compressed files (second-order compression). This technique allows for compression ratios way beyond state of the art, for instance,4,000:1 and higher for human genomes. We evaluate our algorithms on a large data set from three different species (more than 1,000 genomes, more than 3 TB) and on a collection of versions of Wikipedia pages. Our results show that real-time compression of highly similar sequences at high compression ratios is possible on modern hardware.

  1. Similarities between decapod and insect neuropeptidomes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Neuropeptides are important regulators of physiological processes and behavior. Although they tend to be generally well conserved, recent results using trancriptome sequencing on decapod crustaceans give the impression of significant differences between species, raising the question whether such differences are real or artefacts. Methods. The BLAST+ program was used to find short reads coding neuropeptides and neurohormons in publicly available short read archives. Such reads were then used to find similar reads in the same archives, and the DNA assembly program Trinity was employed to construct contigs encoding the neuropeptide precursors as completely as possible. Results. The seven decapod species analyzed in this fashion, the crabs Eriocheir sinensis, Carcinus maenas and Scylla paramamosain, the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the lobster Homarus americanus, the fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and the crayfish Procambarus clarkii had remarkably similar neuropeptidomes. Although some neuropeptide precursors could not be assembled, in many cases individual reads pertaining to the missing precursors show unambiguously that these neuropeptides are present in these species. In other cases, the tissues that express those neuropeptides were not used in the construction of the cDNA libraries. One novel neuropeptide was identified: elongated PDH (pigment dispersing hormone), a variation on PDH that has a two-amino-acid insertion in its core sequence. Hyrg is another peptide that is ubiquitously present in decapods and is likely a novel neuropeptide precursor. Discussion. Many insect species have lost one or more neuropeptide genes, but apart from elongated PDH and hyrg all other decapod neuropeptides are present in at least some insect species, and allatotropin is the only insect neuropeptide missing from decapods. This strong similarity between insect and decapod neuropeptidomes makes it possible to predict the receptors for decapod neuropeptides

  2. Similarities between decapod and insect neuropeptidomes.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    Background. Neuropeptides are important regulators of physiological processes and behavior. Although they tend to be generally well conserved, recent results using trancriptome sequencing on decapod crustaceans give the impression of significant differences between species, raising the question whether such differences are real or artefacts. Methods. The BLAST+ program was used to find short reads coding neuropeptides and neurohormons in publicly available short read archives. Such reads were then used to find similar reads in the same archives, and the DNA assembly program Trinity was employed to construct contigs encoding the neuropeptide precursors as completely as possible. Results. The seven decapod species analyzed in this fashion, the crabs Eriocheir sinensis, Carcinus maenas and Scylla paramamosain, the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the lobster Homarus americanus, the fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and the crayfish Procambarus clarkii had remarkably similar neuropeptidomes. Although some neuropeptide precursors could not be assembled, in many cases individual reads pertaining to the missing precursors show unambiguously that these neuropeptides are present in these species. In other cases, the tissues that express those neuropeptides were not used in the construction of the cDNA libraries. One novel neuropeptide was identified: elongated PDH (pigment dispersing hormone), a variation on PDH that has a two-amino-acid insertion in its core sequence. Hyrg is another peptide that is ubiquitously present in decapods and is likely a novel neuropeptide precursor. Discussion. Many insect species have lost one or more neuropeptide genes, but apart from elongated PDH and hyrg all other decapod neuropeptides are present in at least some insect species, and allatotropin is the only insect neuropeptide missing from decapods. This strong similarity between insect and decapod neuropeptidomes makes it possible to predict the receptors for decapod neuropeptides

  3. Horton Law in Self-Similar Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovchegov, Yevgeniy; Zaliapin, Ilya

    2016-04-01

    Self-similarity of random trees is related to the operation of pruning. Pruning ℛ cuts the leaves and their parental edges and removes the resulting chains of degree-two nodes from a finite tree. A Horton-Strahler order of a vertex v and its parental edge is defined as the minimal number of prunings necessary to eliminate the subtree rooted at v. A branch is a group of neighboring vertices and edges of the same order. The Horton numbers 𝒩k[K] and 𝒩ij[K] are defined as the expected number of branches of order k, and the expected number of order-i branches that merged order-j branches, j > i, respectively, in a finite tree of order K. The Tokunaga coefficients are defined as Tij[K] = 𝒩ij[K]/𝒩j[K]. The pruning decreases the orders of tree vertices by unity. A rooted full binary tree is said to be mean-self-similar if its Tokunaga coefficients are invariant with respect to pruning: Tk := Ti,i+k[K]. We show that for self-similar trees, the condition limsupk→∞Tk1/k < ∞ is necessary and sufficient for the existence of the strong Horton law: 𝒩k[K]/𝒩1[K] → R1-k, as K →∞ for some R > 0 and every k ≥ 1. This work is a step toward providing rigorous foundations for the Horton law that, being omnipresent in natural branching systems, has escaped so far a formal explanation.

  4. FRESCO: Referential compression of highly similar sequences.

    PubMed

    Wandelt, Sebastian; Leser, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    In many applications, sets of similar texts or sequences are of high importance. Prominent examples are revision histories of documents or genomic sequences. Modern high-throughput sequencing technologies are able to generate DNA sequences at an ever-increasing rate. In parallel to the decreasing experimental time and cost necessary to produce DNA sequences, computational requirements for analysis and storage of the sequences are steeply increasing. Compression is a key technology to deal with this challenge. Recently, referential compression schemes, storing only the differences between a to-be-compressed input and a known reference sequence, gained a lot of interest in this field. In this paper, we propose a general open-source framework to compress large amounts of biological sequence data called Framework for REferential Sequence COmpression (FRESCO). Our basic compression algorithm is shown to be one to two orders of magnitudes faster than comparable related work, while achieving similar compression ratios. We also propose several techniques to further increase compression ratios, while still retaining the advantage in speed: 1) selecting a good reference sequence; and 2) rewriting a reference sequence to allow for better compression. In addition,we propose a new way of further boosting the compression ratios by applying referential compression to already referentially compressed files (second-order compression). This technique allows for compression ratios way beyond state of the art, for instance,4,000:1 and higher for human genomes. We evaluate our algorithms on a large data set from three different species (more than 1,000 genomes, more than 3 TB) and on a collection of versions of Wikipedia pages. Our results show that real-time compression of highly similar sequences at high compression ratios is possible on modern hardware. PMID:24524158

  5. Similarities between decapod and insect neuropeptidomes.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    Background. Neuropeptides are important regulators of physiological processes and behavior. Although they tend to be generally well conserved, recent results using trancriptome sequencing on decapod crustaceans give the impression of significant differences between species, raising the question whether such differences are real or artefacts. Methods. The BLAST+ program was used to find short reads coding neuropeptides and neurohormons in publicly available short read archives. Such reads were then used to find similar reads in the same archives, and the DNA assembly program Trinity was employed to construct contigs encoding the neuropeptide precursors as completely as possible. Results. The seven decapod species analyzed in this fashion, the crabs Eriocheir sinensis, Carcinus maenas and Scylla paramamosain, the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the lobster Homarus americanus, the fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and the crayfish Procambarus clarkii had remarkably similar neuropeptidomes. Although some neuropeptide precursors could not be assembled, in many cases individual reads pertaining to the missing precursors show unambiguously that these neuropeptides are present in these species. In other cases, the tissues that express those neuropeptides were not used in the construction of the cDNA libraries. One novel neuropeptide was identified: elongated PDH (pigment dispersing hormone), a variation on PDH that has a two-amino-acid insertion in its core sequence. Hyrg is another peptide that is ubiquitously present in decapods and is likely a novel neuropeptide precursor. Discussion. Many insect species have lost one or more neuropeptide genes, but apart from elongated PDH and hyrg all other decapod neuropeptides are present in at least some insect species, and allatotropin is the only insect neuropeptide missing from decapods. This strong similarity between insect and decapod neuropeptidomes makes it possible to predict the receptors for decapod neuropeptides

  6. Older adults can suppress unwanted memories when given an appropriate strategy.

    PubMed

    Murray, Brendan D; Anderson, Michael C; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2015-03-01

    Memory suppression refers to the ability to exclude distracting memories from conscious awareness, and this ability can be assessed with the think/no-think paradigm. Recent research with older adults has provided evidence suggesting both intact and deficient memory suppression. The present studies seek to understand the conditions contributing to older adults' ability to suppress memories voluntarily. We report 2 experiments indicating that the specificity of the think/no-think task instructions contributes to older adults' suppression success: When older adults receive open-ended instructions that require them to develop a retrieval suppression strategy on their own, they show diminished memory suppression compared with younger adults. Conversely, when older adults receive focused instructions directing them to a strategy thought to better isolate inhibitory control, they show suppression-induced forgetting similar to that exhibited by younger adults. Younger adults demonstrate memory suppression regardless of the specificity of the instructions given, suggesting that the ability to select a successful suppression strategy spontaneously may be compromised in older adults. If so, this deficit may be associated with diminished control over unwanted memories in naturalistic settings if impeded strategy development reduces the successful deployment of inhibitory control.

  7. Genetic similarities within and between human populations.

    PubMed

    Witherspoon, D J; Wooding, S; Rogers, A R; Marchani, E E; Watkins, W S; Batzer, M A; Jorde, L B

    2007-05-01

    The proportion of human genetic variation due to differences between populations is modest, and individuals from different populations can be genetically more similar than individuals from the same population. Yet sufficient genetic data can permit accurate classification of individuals into populations. Both findings can be obtained from the same data set, using the same number of polymorphic loci. This article explains why. Our analysis focuses on the frequency, omega, with which a pair of random individuals from two different populations is genetically more similar than a pair of individuals randomly selected from any single population. We compare omega to the error rates of several classification methods, using data sets that vary in number of loci, average allele frequency, populations sampled, and polymorphism ascertainment strategy. We demonstrate that classification methods achieve higher discriminatory power than omega because of their use of aggregate properties of populations. The number of loci analyzed is the most critical variable: with 100 polymorphisms, accurate classification is possible, but omega remains sizable, even when using populations as distinct as sub-Saharan Africans and Europeans. Phenotypes controlled by a dozen or fewer loci can therefore be expected to show substantial overlap between human populations. This provides empirical justification for caution when using population labels in biomedical settings, with broad implications for personalized medicine, pharmacogenetics, and the meaning of race.

  8. Pharmacophore-Based Similarity Scoring for DOCK

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacophore modeling incorporates geometric and chemical features of known inhibitors and/or targeted binding sites to rationally identify and design new drug leads. In this study, we have encoded a three-dimensional pharmacophore matching similarity (FMS) scoring function into the structure-based design program DOCK. Validation and characterization of the method are presented through pose reproduction, crossdocking, and enrichment studies. When used alone, FMS scoring dramatically improves pose reproduction success to 93.5% (∼20% increase) and reduces sampling failures to 3.7% (∼6% drop) compared to the standard energy score (SGE) across 1043 protein–ligand complexes. The combined FMS+SGE function further improves success to 98.3%. Crossdocking experiments using FMS and FMS+SGE scoring, for six diverse protein families, similarly showed improvements in success, provided proper pharmacophore references are employed. For enrichment, incorporating pharmacophores during sampling and scoring, in most cases, also yield improved outcomes when docking and rank-ordering libraries of known actives and decoys to 15 systems. Retrospective analyses of virtual screenings to three clinical drug targets (EGFR, IGF-1R, and HIVgp41) using X-ray structures of known inhibitors as pharmacophore references are also reported, including a customized FMS scoring protocol to bias on selected regions in the reference. Overall, the results and fundamental insights gained from this study should benefit the docking community in general, particularly researchers using the new FMS method to guide computational drug discovery with DOCK. PMID:25229837

  9. Self-similar Ultrarelativistic Jetted Blast Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshet, Uri; Kogan, Dani

    2015-12-01

    Following a suggestion that a directed relativistic explosion may have a universal intermediate asymptotic, we derive a self-similar solution for an ultrarelativistic jetted blast wave. The solution involves three distinct regions: an approximately paraboloid head where the Lorentz factor γ exceeds ∼ 1/2 of its maximal, nose value; a geometrically self-similar, expanding envelope slightly narrower than a paraboloid; and an axial core in which the (cylindrically, henceforth) radial flow {{u}} converges inward toward the axis. Most (∼80%) of the energy lies well beyond the leading, head region. Here, a radial cross section shows a maximal γ (separating the core and the envelope), a sign reversal in {{u}}, and a minimal γ, at respectively ∼1/6, ∼1/4, and ∼3/4 of the shock radius. The solution is apparently unique, and approximately agrees with previous simulations, of different initial conditions, that resolved the head. This suggests that unlike a spherical relativistic blast wave, our solution is an attractor, and may thus describe directed blast waves such as in the external shock phase of a γ-ray burst.

  10. Leaf traits show different relationships with shade tolerance in moist versus dry tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Poorter, Lourens

    2009-03-01

    Shade tolerance is the central paradigm for understanding forest succession and dynamics, but there is considerable debate as to what the salient features of shade tolerance are, whether adult leaves show similar shade adaptations to seedling leaves, and whether the same leaf adaptations are found in forests under different climatic control. Here, adult leaf and metamer traits were measured for 39 tree species from a tropical moist semi-evergreen forest (1580 mm rain yr(-1)) and 41 species from a dry deciduous forest (1160 mm yr(-1)) in Bolivia. Twenty-six functional traits were measured and related to species regeneration light requirements.Adult leaf traits were clearly associated with shade tolerance. Different, rather than stronger, shade adaptations were found for moist compared with dry forest species. Shade adaptations exclusively found in the evergreen moist forest were related to tough and persistent leaves, and shade adaptations in the dry deciduous forest were related to high light interception and water use.These results suggest that, for forests differing in rainfall seasonality, there is a shift in the relative importance of functional leaf traits and performance trade-offs that control light partitioning. In the moist evergreen forest leaf traits underlying the growth-survival trade-off are important, whereas in the seasonally deciduous forest leaf traits underlying the growth trade-off between low and high light might become important.

  11. Altered Value Coding in the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jing; Mamerow, Loreen; Lei, Xu; Fang, Lei; Mata, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Previous work suggests that aging is associated with changes in risk taking but less is known about their underlying neural basis, such as the potential age differences in the neural processing of value and risk. The goal of the present study was to investigate adult age differences in functional neural responses in a naturalistic risk-taking task. Twenty-six young adults and 27 healthy older adults completed the Balloon Analogue Risk Task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Young and older adults showed similar overt risk-taking behavior. Group comparison of neural activity in response to risky vs. control stimuli revealed similar patterns of activation in the bilateral striatum, anterior insula (AI) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Group comparison of parametrically modulated activity in response to continued pumping similarly revealed comparable results for both age groups in the AI and, potentially, the striatum, yet differences emerged for regional activity in the vmPFC. At whole brain level, insular, striatal and vmPFC activation was predictive of behavioral risk taking for young but not older adults. The current results are interpreted and discussed as preserved neural tracking of risk and reward in the AI and striatum, respectively, but altered value coding in the vmPFC in the two age groups. The latter finding points toward older adults exhibiting differential vmPFC-related integration and value coding. Furthermore, neural activation holds differential predictive validity for behavioral risk taking in young and older adults.

  12. Altered Value Coding in the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jing; Mamerow, Loreen; Lei, Xu; Fang, Lei; Mata, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Previous work suggests that aging is associated with changes in risk taking but less is known about their underlying neural basis, such as the potential age differences in the neural processing of value and risk. The goal of the present study was to investigate adult age differences in functional neural responses in a naturalistic risk-taking task. Twenty-six young adults and 27 healthy older adults completed the Balloon Analogue Risk Task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Young and older adults showed similar overt risk-taking behavior. Group comparison of neural activity in response to risky vs. control stimuli revealed similar patterns of activation in the bilateral striatum, anterior insula (AI) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Group comparison of parametrically modulated activity in response to continued pumping similarly revealed comparable results for both age groups in the AI and, potentially, the striatum, yet differences emerged for regional activity in the vmPFC. At whole brain level, insular, striatal and vmPFC activation was predictive of behavioral risk taking for young but not older adults. The current results are interpreted and discussed as preserved neural tracking of risk and reward in the AI and striatum, respectively, but altered value coding in the vmPFC in the two age groups. The latter finding points toward older adults exhibiting differential vmPFC-related integration and value coding. Furthermore, neural activation holds differential predictive validity for behavioral risk taking in young and older adults. PMID:27630561

  13. Altered Value Coding in the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex in Healthy Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Mamerow, Loreen; Lei, Xu; Fang, Lei; Mata, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Previous work suggests that aging is associated with changes in risk taking but less is known about their underlying neural basis, such as the potential age differences in the neural processing of value and risk. The goal of the present study was to investigate adult age differences in functional neural responses in a naturalistic risk-taking task. Twenty-six young adults and 27 healthy older adults completed the Balloon Analogue Risk Task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Young and older adults showed similar overt risk-taking behavior. Group comparison of neural activity in response to risky vs. control stimuli revealed similar patterns of activation in the bilateral striatum, anterior insula (AI) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Group comparison of parametrically modulated activity in response to continued pumping similarly revealed comparable results for both age groups in the AI and, potentially, the striatum, yet differences emerged for regional activity in the vmPFC. At whole brain level, insular, striatal and vmPFC activation was predictive of behavioral risk taking for young but not older adults. The current results are interpreted and discussed as preserved neural tracking of risk and reward in the AI and striatum, respectively, but altered value coding in the vmPFC in the two age groups. The latter finding points toward older adults exhibiting differential vmPFC-related integration and value coding. Furthermore, neural activation holds differential predictive validity for behavioral risk taking in young and older adults. PMID:27630561

  14. Visual similarity effects in categorical search.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Robert G; Zelinsky, Gregory J

    2011-07-14

    We asked how visual similarity relationships affect search guidance to categorically defined targets (no visual preview). Experiment 1 used a web-based task to collect visual similarity rankings between two target categories, teddy bears and butterflies, and random-category objects, from which we created search displays in Experiment 2 having either high-similarity distractors, low-similarity distractors, or "mixed" displays with high-, medium-, and low-similarity distractors. Analysis of target-absent trials revealed faster manual responses and fewer fixated distractors on low-similarity displays compared to high-similarity displays. On mixed displays, first fixations were more frequent on high-similarity distractors (bear = 49%; butterfly = 58%) than on low-similarity distractors (bear = 9%; butterfly = 12%). Experiment 3 used the same high/low/mixed conditions, but now these conditions were created using similarity estimates from a computer vision model that ranked objects in terms of color, texture, and shape similarity. The same patterns were found, suggesting that categorical search can indeed be guided by purely visual similarity. Experiment 4 compared cases where the model and human rankings differed and when they agreed. We found that similarity effects were best predicted by cases where the two sets of rankings agreed, suggesting that both human visual similarity rankings and the computer vision model captured features important for guiding search to categorical targets.

  15. Physiological correlates of division of labor among similarly aged honey bees.

    PubMed

    Huang, Z Y; Robinson, G E; Borst, D W

    1994-06-01

    Hormone analyses and exocrine gland measurements were made to probe for physiological correlates of division of labor among similarly aged adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). Middle-age bees (ca. 2 weeks old) performing different tasks showed significant differences in both juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis rates and hemolymph titers; guards and undertakers had high JH, and wax producers and food storers, low JH. Guards and undertakers had similar hormone levels to foragers, even though they were 10 days younger than foragers. No differences in JH were detected among young bees (1-week-old queen attendants and nurses) or older bees (3-4 week-old pollen foragers, non-pollen foragers, and soldiers). Hypopharyngeal gland size was inversely correlated with worker age and rate of JH biosynthesis, but soldiers had significantly larger hypopharyngeal glands than did foragers, despite their similar age and JH level. Results from soldiers indicate that exocrine gland development is not always linked with age-related behavior and endocrine development; they also support the recent claim that soldiers constitute a group of older bees that are distinct from foragers. Hormonal analyses indicate that the current model of JH's role in honey bee division of labor needs to be expanded because high levels of JH are associated with several other tasks besides foraging. JH may be involved in the regulation of division of labor among similarly aged workers in addition to its role in age-related division of labor.

  16. Reconstructing propagation networks with temporal similarity

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Hao; Zeng, An

    2015-01-01

    Node similarity significantly contributes to the growth of real networks. In this paper, based on the observed epidemic spreading results we apply the node similarity metrics to reconstruct the underlying networks hosting the propagation. We find that the reconstruction accuracy of the similarity metrics is strongly influenced by the infection rate of the spreading process. Moreover, there is a range of infection rate in which the reconstruction accuracy of some similarity metrics drops nearly to zero. To improve the similarity-based reconstruction method, we propose a temporal similarity metric which takes into account the time information of the spreading. The reconstruction results are remarkably improved with the new method. PMID:26086198

  17. Reconstructing propagation networks with temporal similarity.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hao; Zeng, An

    2015-01-01

    Node similarity significantly contributes to the growth of real networks. In this paper, based on the observed epidemic spreading results we apply the node similarity metrics to reconstruct the underlying networks hosting the propagation. We find that the reconstruction accuracy of the similarity metrics is strongly influenced by the infection rate of the spreading process. Moreover, there is a range of infection rate in which the reconstruction accuracy of some similarity metrics drops nearly to zero. To improve the similarity-based reconstruction method, we propose a temporal similarity metric which takes into account the time information of the spreading. The reconstruction results are remarkably improved with the new method. PMID:26086198

  18. Adult intussusception.

    PubMed Central

    Azar, T; Berger, D L

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objectives were to review adult intussusception, its diagnosis, and its treatment. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Adult intussusception represents 1% of all bowel obstructions, 5% of all intussusceptions, and 0.003%-0.02% of all hospital admissions. Intussusception is a different entity in adults than it is in children. METHODS: The records of all patients 18 years and older with the postoperative diagnosis of intussusception at the Massachusetts General Hospital during the years 1964 through 1993 were reviewed retrospectively. The 58 patients were divided into those with benign enteric, malignant enteric, benign colonic, and malignant colonic lesions associated with their intussusception. The diagnosis and treatment of each were reviewed. RESULTS: In 30 years at the Massachusetts General Hospital, there are 58 cases of surgically proven adult intussusception. The patients' mean age was 54.4 years. Most patients presented with symptoms consistent with bowel obstruction. There were 44 enteric and 14 colonic intussusceptions. Ninety-three percent of the intussusceptions were associated with a pathologic lesion. Forty-eight percent of the enteric lesions were malignant and 52% were benign. Forty-three percent of the colonic lesions were malignant and 57% were benign. CONCLUSIONS: Intussusception occurs rarely in adults. It presents with a variety of acute, intermittent, and chronic symptoms, thus making its preoperative diagnosis difficult. Computed tomography scanning proved to be the most useful diagnostic radiologic method. The diagnosis and treatment of adult intussusception are surgical. Surgical resection of the intussusception without reduction is the preferred treatment in adults, as almost half of both colonic and enteric intussusceptions are associated with malignancy. PMID:9296505

  19. Brain development is similar in Neanderthals and modern humans.

    PubMed

    Ponce de León, Marcia S; Bienvenu, Thibaut; Akazawa, Takeru; Zollikofer, Christoph P E

    2016-07-25

    While the braincase of adult Neanderthals had a similar volume to that of modern humans from the same period, differences in endocranial shape suggest that brain morphology differed between modern humans and Neanderthals. When and how these differences arose during evolution and development is a topic of ongoing research, with potential implications for species-specific differences in brain and cognitive development, and in life history [1,2]. Earlier research suggested that Neanderthals followed an ancestral mode of brain development, similar to that of our closest living relatives, the chimpanzees [2-4]. Modern humans, by contrast, were suggested to follow a uniquely derived mode of brain development just after birth, giving rise to the characteristically globular shape of the adult human brain case [2,4,5]. Here, we re-examine this hypothesis using an extended sample of Neanderthal infants. We document endocranial development during the decisive first two years of postnatal life. The new data indicate that Neanderthals followed largely similar modes of endocranial development to modern humans. These findings challenge the notion that human brain and cognitive development after birth is uniquely derived [2,4]. PMID:27458909

  20. Asthma and COPD: Differences and Similarities

    MedlinePlus

    ... and COPD: differences and similarities Share | Asthma and COPD: Differences and Similarities This article has been reviewed ... you could have asthma, or you could have Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) , such as emphysema or chronic bronchitis. Because ...

  1. Thematic relations in adults' concepts.

    PubMed

    Lin, E L; Murphy, G L

    2001-03-01

    Concepts can be organized by their members' similarities, forming a kind (e.g., animal), or by their external relations within scenes or events (e.g., cake and candles). This latter type of relation, known as the thematic relation, is frequently found to be the basis of children's but not adults' classification. However, 10 experiments found that when thematic relations are meaningful and salient, they have significant influence on adults' category construction (sorting), inductive reasoning, and verification of category membership. The authors conclude that concepts function closely with knowledge of scenes and events and that this knowledge has a role in adults' conceptual representations. PMID:11293459

  2. Thematic Relations Affect Similarity via Commonalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golonka, Sabrina; Estes, Zachary

    2009-01-01

    Thematic relations are an important source of perceived similarity. For instance, the "rowing" theme of boats and oars increases their perceived similarity. The mechanism of this effect, however, has not been specified previously. The authors investigated whether thematic relations affect similarity by increasing commonalities or by decreasing…

  3. Do Inequalities in Adult Learning Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Fiona; Iain Murray; Berry, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    The National Institute of Adult Continuing Education (NIACE) Adult Participation in Learning Survey 10 years ago showed that two-fifths of the adult population said that they had taken part in learning in the last three years. A decade later, the 2012 survey shows that little has changed--active participation in learning remains a minority…

  4. Appetitive traits and relationships with BMI in adults: Development of the Adult Eating Behaviour Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Hunot, Claudia; Fildes, Alison; Croker, Helen; Llewellyn, Clare H; Wardle, Jane; Beeken, Rebecca J

    2016-10-01

    The Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a validated parent-report measure of appetitive traits associated with weight in childhood. There is currently no matched measure for use in adults. The aim of this study was to adapt the CEBQ into a self-report Adult Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (AEBQ) to explore whether the associations between appetitive traits and BMI observed in children are present in adults. Two adult samples were recruited one year apart from an online survey panel in 2013 (n = 708) and 2014 (n = 954). Both samples completed the AEBQ and self-reported their weight and height. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to derive 35 items for the AEBQ in Sample 1 and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to replicate the factor structure in Sample 2. Reliability of the AEBQ was assessed using Cronbach's α and a two week test-retest in a sub-sample of 93 participants. Correlations between appetitive traits measured by the AEBQ and BMI were calculated. PCA and CFA results showed the AEBQ to be a reliable questionnaire (Cronbach's α > 0.70) measuring 8 appetitive traits similar to the CEBQ [Hunger (H), Food Responsiveness (FR), Emotional Over-Eating (EOE), Enjoyment of Food (EF), Satiety Responsiveness (SR), Emotional Under-eating (EUE), Food Fussiness (FF) and Slowness in Eating (SE)]. Associations with BMI showed FR, EF (p < 0.05) and EOE (p < 0.01) were positively associated and SR, EUE and SE (p < 0.01) were negatively associated. Overall, the AEBQ appears to be a reliable measure of appetitive traits in adults which translates well from the validated child measure. Adults with a higher BMI had higher scores for 'food approach' traits (FR, EOE and EF) and lower scores for 'food avoidance' traits (SR, EUE and SE). PMID:27215837

  5. Transsaccadic identification of highly similar artificial shapes.

    PubMed

    Demeyer, Maarten; De Graef, Peter; Wagemans, Johan; Verfaillie, Karl

    2009-04-30

    Multiple times per second, the visual system succeeds in making a seamless transition between presaccadic and postsaccadic perception. The nature of the transsaccadic representation needed to support this was commonly thought to be sparse and abstract. However, recent studies have suggested that detailed visual information is transferred across saccades as well. Here, we seek to confirm that preview effects of visual detail on postsaccadic perception do indeed occur. We presented subjects with highly similar artificial shapes, preceded by a congruent, an incongruent, or no preview. Postsaccadic recognition performance was measured, while the contrast of presaccadic and postsaccadic stimuli was manipulated independently. The results show that congruent previews provided a benefit to the recognition performance of postsaccadic stimuli, compared to no-preview conditions. Incongruent previews induced a recognition accuracy cost, combined with a recognition speed benefit. A second experiment showed that these effects can disappear when stimulus presentation is interrupted with a postsaccadic visual mask. We conclude that visual detail contained in transsaccadic memory can affect the postsaccadic percept. Furthermore, we find that the transsaccadic representation supporting this process is contrast-independent, but that postsaccadic contrast, through its effect on the reliability of information, can affect the degree to which it is employed.

  6. By Land or by Sea: The Role of Perceptual Similarity in Infants' Categorization of Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Lisa M.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Infants were familiarized with plastic animals from one of two categories (land or sea) that were judged similar or variable by adults. Infants were then tested with novel animals from the same or a different category. Thirteen-month-olds in the similar familiarization condition dishabituated to novel animals of a different category and, to a…

  7. Correlation between gene expression and GO semantic similarity.

    PubMed

    Sevilla, José L; Segura, Víctor; Podhorski, Adam; Guruceaga, Elizabeth; Mato, José M; Martínez-Cruz, Luis A; Corrales, Fernando J; Rubio, Angel

    2005-01-01

    This research analyzes some aspects of the relationship between gene expression, gene function, and gene annotation. Many recent studies are implicitly based on the assumption that gene products that are biologically and functionally related would maintain this similarity both in their expression profiles as well as in their Gene Ontology (GO) annotation. We analyze how accurate this assumption proves to be using real publicly available data. We also aim to validate a measure of semantic similarity for GO annotation. We use the Pearson correlation coefficient and its absolute value as a measure of similarity between expression profiles of gene products. We explore a number of semantic similarity measures (Resnik, Jiang, and Lin) and compute the similarity between gene products annotated using the GO. Finally, we compute correlation coefficients to compare gene expression similarity against GO semantic similarity. Our results suggest that the Resnik similarity measure outperforms the others and seems better suited for use in Gene Ontology. We also deduce that there seems to be correlation between semantic similarity in the GO annotation and gene expression for the three GO ontologies. We show that this correlation is negligible up to a certain semantic similarity value; then, for higher similarity values, the relationship trend becomes almost linear. These results can be used to augment the knowledge provided by clustering algorithms and in the development of bioinformatic tools for finding and characterizing gene products.

  8. Children Age 7 Complete Complex Gait and Postural Tasks Differently Than Adults Under Dual-Task Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Dorelle C; Vallis, Lori Ann

    2016-01-01

    Healthy children (7 years old) and adults (20 years old) completed a simultaneous balancing, reaching, and cognitive task while standing and during gait. Cognitive accuracy rate for children and adults was similar for both postures; however, response latency was greater for children than adults. While standing, trunk, upper arm, and forearm segments moved as individual segments in adults; however, articulated control of the upper arm and forearm in children was not evident. Adults and children showed evidence of articulated segmental control during gait. Absolute gait velocity (m/s) was significantly slower for children; however, there was no effect of age on step length. Children 7 years old can perform a simultaneous motor and cognitive task but their performance strategies do not yet match young adults. PMID:26305113

  9. Generalized Similarity for Accretion/Decretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafikov, Roman R.

    2016-10-01

    Decretion (or external) disks are gas disks freely expanding to large radii due to their internal stresses. They are expected to naturally arise in tidal disruption events, around Be stars, in mass-losing post-main-sequence binaries, as a result of supernova fallback, etc. Their evolution is theoretically understood in two regimes: when the central object does not exert torque on the disk (a standard assumption for conventional accretion disks) or when no mass inflow (or outflow) occurs at the disk center. However, many astrophysical objects—circumbinary disks, Be stars, neutron stars accreting in a propeller regime, etc.—feature non-zero torque simultaneously with the non-zero accretion (or ejection of mass) at the disk center. We provide a general description for the evolution of such disks (both linear and nonlinear) in the self-similar regime, to which the disk should asymptotically converge with time. We identify a similarity parameter λ, which is uniquely related to the degree, to which the central mass accretion is suppressed by the non-zero central torque. The known decretion disk solutions correspond to the two discrete values of λ, while our new solutions cover a continuum of its physically allowed values, corresponding to either accretion or mass ejection by the central object. A direct relationship between λ and central \\dot{M} and torque is also established. We describe the time evolution of the various disk characteristics for different λ, and show that the observable properties (spectrum and luminosity evolution) of the decretion disks, in general, are different from the standard accretion disks with no central torque.

  10. Tough Times for Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckett, Alan; Aldridge, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    The key message of NIACE's 2011 survey of adult participation in learning is that recession is bad for lifelong learning for anyone over the age of 25. The survey highlights the central importance of workplaces as sites of adult learning--and the challenges posed to a learning society when opportunities to learn reduce. It shows that the gap…

  11. Adult Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Billie H.

    This document contains a brief bibliography of peer-reviewed literature, with abstracts, on adult children. It is one of 12 bibliographies on aging prepared by the National Agricultural Library for its "Pathfinders" series of publications. Topics covered by the other 11 bibliographies include aging parents, dementia and Alzheimer's disease in the…

  12. Adult Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bischof, Ledford J.

    This volume comprehensively reviews the research on the psychology of the middle aged (ages 40-65). Topics include the concept of maturity and maturation models, the measurement and influences of adult self image; marriage and sexual patterns; intergenerational relationships between and children; vocations and avocations (work, retirement, play,…

  13. Motor regulation problems and pain in adults diagnosed with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most children who are diagnosed with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have moderate-to-severe motor problems using the Motor Function Neurological Assessment battery (MFNU). The MFNU focuses on specific muscle adjustment problems associated with ADHD, especially motor inhibition problems and high muscle tone. Here we investigated whether adults with ADHD/hyperkinetic disorder (HKD) have similar motor problems. In our clinical experience, adults with ADHD often complain about back, shoulder, hip, and leg pain. We also investigate reported pain in adults with ADHD. Methods Twenty-five adult outpatients diagnosed with ADHD/HKD who were responders to methylphenidate (MPH) were compared to 23 non-ADHD controls on 16 MFNU subtests and using a ‘total score’ (‘TS’) parameter. The MFNU test leader was blinded to group identity. The two groups were also compared using the Pain Drawing and Numerical Pain Rating Scale. Results The adult ADHD group had significantly (p < .001) more motor problems (higher TS) than controls. On the muscle regulation subtests, 36–96% of the ADHD group showed ‘moderate’ to ‘severe’ problems compared to 13–52% of the control group, and 80% of the ADHD group reported widespread pain. Highly significant differences were found between the ADHD and control groups for the variables ‘pain level’ (p < .001) and ‘pain location’ (p < .001). Significant correlations were found between TS and ‘pain location’ and between TS and ‘pain level’. Conclusions These findings suggest that similar to children with ADHD, adults diagnosed with ADHD also have motor inhibition problems and heightened muscle tone. The presence of significantly higher pain levels and more widespread pain in the ADHD group compared to non-ADHD controls might indicate that pain is a long-term secondary effect of heightened muscle tone and restricted movement that can be demonstrated in children and adults by the MFNU

  14. Exploring perceptually similar cases with multi-dimensional scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juan; Yang, Yongyi; Wernick, Miles N.; Nishikawa, Robert M.

    2014-03-01

    Retrieving a set of known lesions similar to the one being evaluated might be of value for assisting radiologists to distinguish between benign and malignant clustered microcalcifications (MCs) in mammograms. In this work, we investigate how perceptually similar cases with clustered MCs may relate to one another in terms of their underlying characteristics (from disease condition to image features). We first conduct an observer study to collect similarity scores from a group of readers (five radiologists and five non-radiologists) on a set of 2,000 image pairs, which were selected from 222 cases based on their images features. We then explore the potential relationship among the different cases as revealed by their similarity ratings. We apply the multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) technique to embed all the cases in a 2-D plot, in which perceptually similar cases are placed in close vicinity of one another based on their level of similarity. Our results show that cases having different characteristics in their clustered MCs are accordingly placed in different regions in the plot. Moreover, cases of same pathology tend to be clustered together locally, and neighboring cases (which are more similar) tend to be also similar in their clustered MCs (e.g., cluster size and shape). These results indicate that subjective similarity ratings from the readers are well correlated with the image features of the underlying MCs of the cases, and that perceptually similar cases could be of diagnostic value for discriminating between malignant and benign cases.

  15. The Influence of Contour on Similarity Perception of Star Glyphs.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Johannes; Isenberg, Petra; Bezerianos, Anastasia; Fischer, Fabian; Bertini, Enrico

    2014-12-01

    We conducted three experiments to investigate the effects of contours on the detection of data similarity with star glyph variations. A star glyph is a small, compact, data graphic that represents a multi-dimensional data point. Star glyphs are often used in small-multiple settings, to represent data points in tables, on maps, or as overlays on other types of data graphics. In these settings, an important task is the visual comparison of the data points encoded in the star glyph, for example to find other similar data points or outliers. We hypothesized that for data comparisons, the overall shape of a star glyph--enhanced through contour lines--would aid the viewer in making accurate similarity judgments. To test this hypothesis, we conducted three experiments. In our first experiment, we explored how the use of contours influenced how visualization experts and trained novices chose glyphs with similar data values. Our results showed that glyphs without contours make the detection of data similarity easier. Given these results, we conducted a second study to understand intuitive notions of similarity. Star glyphs without contours most intuitively supported the detection of data similarity. In a third experiment, we tested the effect of star glyph reference structures (i.e., tickmarks and gridlines) on the detection of similarity. Surprisingly, our results show that adding reference structures does improve the correctness of similarity judgments for star glyphs with contours, but not for the standard star glyph. As a result of these experiments, we conclude that the simple star glyph without contours performs best under several criteria, reinforcing its practice and popularity in the literature. Contours seem to enhance the detection of other types of similarity, e. g., shape similarity and are distracting when data similarity has to be judged. Based on these findings we provide design considerations regarding the use of contours and reference structures on star

  16. The Influence of Contour on Similarity Perception of Star Glyphs.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Johannes; Isenberg, Petra; Bezerianos, Anastasia; Fischer, Fabian; Bertini, Enrico

    2014-12-01

    We conducted three experiments to investigate the effects of contours on the detection of data similarity with star glyph variations. A star glyph is a small, compact, data graphic that represents a multi-dimensional data point. Star glyphs are often used in small-multiple settings, to represent data points in tables, on maps, or as overlays on other types of data graphics. In these settings, an important task is the visual comparison of the data points encoded in the star glyph, for example to find other similar data points or outliers. We hypothesized that for data comparisons, the overall shape of a star glyph--enhanced through contour lines--would aid the viewer in making accurate similarity judgments. To test this hypothesis, we conducted three experiments. In our first experiment, we explored how the use of contours influenced how visualization experts and trained novices chose glyphs with similar data values. Our results showed that glyphs without contours make the detection of data similarity easier. Given these results, we conducted a second study to understand intuitive notions of similarity. Star glyphs without contours most intuitively supported the detection of data similarity. In a third experiment, we tested the effect of star glyph reference structures (i.e., tickmarks and gridlines) on the detection of similarity. Surprisingly, our results show that adding reference structures does improve the correctness of similarity judgments for star glyphs with contours, but not for the standard star glyph. As a result of these experiments, we conclude that the simple star glyph without contours performs best under several criteria, reinforcing its practice and popularity in the literature. Contours seem to enhance the detection of other types of similarity, e. g., shape similarity and are distracting when data similarity has to be judged. Based on these findings we provide design considerations regarding the use of contours and reference structures on star

  17. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis and its role in cognition

    PubMed Central

    Oomen, Charlotte A.; Bekinschtein, Pedro; Kent, Brianne A.; Saksida, Lisa M.; Bussey, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) has intrigued neuroscientists for decades. Several lines of evidence show that adult-born neurons in the hippocampus are functionally integrated and contribute to cognitive function, in particular learning and memory processes. Biological properties of immature hippocampal neurons indicate that these cells are more easily excitable compared to mature neurons, and demonstrate enhanced structural plasticity. The structure in which adult-born hippocampal neurons are situated -the dentate gyrus- is thought to contribute to hippocampus function by disambiguating similar input patterns, a process referred to as pattern separation. Several ideas about AHN function have been put forward; currently there is good evidence in favour of a role for AHN in pattern separation. This function of AHN may be understood within a ‘representational-hierarchical’ view of brain organisation. PMID:26308746

  18. Similar or Different? The Role of the Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex in Similarity Detection

    PubMed Central

    Garcin, Béatrice; Volle, Emmanuelle; Dubois, Bruno; Levy, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Patients with frontal lobe syndrome can exhibit two types of abnormal behaviour when asked to place a banana and an orange in a single category: some patients categorize them at a concrete level (e.g., “both have peel”), while others continue to look for differences between these objects (e.g., “one is yellow, the other is orange”). These observations raise the question of whether abstraction and similarity detection are distinct processes involved in abstract categorization, and that depend on separate areas of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). We designed an original experimental paradigm for a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study involving healthy subjects, confirming the existence of two distinct processes relying on different prefrontal areas, and thus explaining the behavioural dissociation in frontal lesion patients. We showed that: 1) Similarity detection involves the anterior ventrolateral PFC bilaterally with a right-left asymmetry: the right anterior ventrolateral PFC is only engaged in detecting physical similarities; 2) Abstraction per se activates the left dorsolateral PFC. PMID:22479551

  19. Phonological similarity and orthographic similarity affect probed serial recall of Chinese characters.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Chen; Chen, Hsiang-Yu; Lai, Yvonne C; Wu, Denise H

    2015-04-01

    The previous literature on working memory (WM) has indicated that verbal materials are dominantly retained in phonological representations, whereas other linguistic information (e.g., orthography, semantics) only contributes to verbal WM minimally, if not negligibly. Although accumulating evidence has suggested that multiple linguistic components jointly support verbal WM, the visual/orthographic contribution has rarely been addressed in alphabetic languages, possibly due to the difficulty of dissociating the effects of word forms from the effects of their pronunciations in relatively shallow orthography. In the present study, we examined whether the orthographic representations of Chinese characters support the retention of verbal materials in this language of deep orthography. In Experiments 1a and 2, we independently manipulated the phonological and orthographic similarity of horizontal and vertical characters, respectively, and found that participants' accuracy of probed serial recall was reduced by both similar pronunciations and shared phonetic radicals in the to-be-remembered stimuli. Moreover, Experiment 1b showed that only the effect of phonological, but not that of orthographic, similarity was affected by concurrent articulatory suppression. Taken together, the present results indicate the indispensable contribution of orthographic representations to verbal WM of Chinese characters, and suggest that the linguistic characteristics of a specific language not only determine long-term linguistic-processing mechanisms, but also delineate the organization of verbal WM for that language. PMID:25537954

  20. Similarity-based cooperation and spatial segregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traulsen, Arne; Claussen, Jens Christian

    2004-10-01

    We analyze a cooperative game, where the cooperative act is not based on the previous behavior of the coplayer, but on the similarity between the players. This system has been studied in a mean-field description recently [A. Traulsen and H. G. Schuster, Phys. Rev. E 68, 046129 (2003)]. Here, the spatial extension to a two-dimensional lattice is studied, where each player interacts with eight players in a Moore neighborhood. The system shows a strong segregation independent of parameters. The introduction of a local conversion mechanism towards tolerance allows for four-state cycles and the emergence of spiral waves in the spatial game. In the case of asymmetric costs of cooperation a rich variety of complex behavior is observed depending on both cooperation costs. Finally, we study the stabilization of a cooperative fixed point of a forecast rule in the symmetric game, which corresponds to cooperation across segregation borders. This fixed point becomes unstable for high cooperation costs, but can be stabilized by a linear feedback mechanism.

  1. Evaluating Whole Chemical Mixtures and Sufficient Similarity

    EPA Science Inventory

    This powerpoint presentation supports apresentation describing dose-response assessment for complex chemical mixtures including deriving reference doses for mixtures evaluating sufficient similarity among chemical mixtures.

  2. Similarity principle and rejection of Gibbs paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shu-Kun

    2000-03-01

    Gibbs Paradox says that entropy of mixing or assembling decreases discotinuously with the increase in the property similarity. After the rejection of the Gibbs paradox statement (see papers cited at website http://www.mdpi.org/lin/), the similarity principle has been developed: If all the other conditions remain constant, the higher the similarity among the components is, the higher value of entropy of the mixing, the assembling or the chemical bond formation process will be, the more spontaneous the mixing, the assembling or the chemical bond formation process will be, and the more stable the mixture, the assemblage or the chemical bond will be. The similarity principle is very useful. If one wants to mix substances, increase the similarity (of relevant properties); if one plans to separate the substances as phases, reduce their similarity! Then, the desirable processes of mixing or separation will happen spontaneously. Normally by changing temperature ( similarity is related to Boltzmann factor) and pressure, one can control the similarity and in turn, direct the process towards the desired direction. Higher temperature and pressure leads to higher similarity. This theory is important in understanding molecular recognition, self-organization, molecular assembling and molecular replication.

  3. Developmental Reversals in Risky Decision Making: Intelligence Agents Show Larger Decision Biases Than College Students

    PubMed Central

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Chick, Christina F.; Corbin, Jonathan C.; Hsia, Andrew N.

    2014-01-01

    Intelligence agents make risky decisions routinely, with serious consequences for national security. Although common sense and most theories imply that experienced intelligence professionals should be less prone to irrational inconsistencies than college students, we show the opposite. Moreover, the growth of experience-based intuition predicts this developmental reversal. We presented intelligence agents, college students, and postcollege adults with 30 risky-choice problems in gain and loss frames and then compared the three groups’ decisions. The agents not only exhibited larger framing biases than the students, but also were more confident in their decisions. The postcollege adults (who were selected to be similar to the students) occupied an interesting middle ground, being generally as biased as the students (sometimes more biased) but less biased than the agents. An experimental manipulation testing an explanation for these effects, derived from fuzzy-trace theory, made the students look as biased as the agents. These results show that, although framing biases are irrational (because equivalent outcomes are treated differently), they are the ironical output of cognitively advanced mechanisms of meaning making. PMID:24171931

  4. Developmental reversals in risky decision making: intelligence agents show larger decision biases than college students.

    PubMed

    Reyna, Valerie F; Chick, Christina F; Corbin, Jonathan C; Hsia, Andrew N

    2014-01-01

    Intelligence agents make risky decisions routinely, with serious consequences for national security. Although common sense and most theories imply that experienced intelligence professionals should be less prone to irrational inconsistencies than college students, we show the opposite. Moreover, the growth of experience-based intuition predicts this developmental reversal. We presented intelligence agents, college students, and postcollege adults with 30 risky-choice problems in gain and loss frames and then compared the three groups' decisions. The agents not only exhibited larger framing biases than the students, but also were more confident in their decisions. The postcollege adults (who were selected to be similar to the students) occupied an interesting middle ground, being generally as biased as the students (sometimes more biased) but less biased than the agents. An experimental manipulation testing an explanation for these effects, derived from fuzzy-trace theory, made the students look as biased as the agents. These results show that, although framing biases are irrational (because equivalent outcomes are treated differently), they are the ironical output of cognitively advanced mechanisms of meaning making. PMID:24171931

  5. ADULT EDUCATION OF MIGRANT ADULTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BEAL, CATHERINE; AND OTHERS

    UNITS ON MIGRANT ADULT EDUCATION, AND A UNIT ON ORGANIZING INFORMAL GROUPS OF MIGRANT WOMEN TO DISCUSS MAINTAINING AND IMPROVING THEIR TEMPORARY HOMES, ARE PRESENTED. THE GOALS OF THE UNIT ON EDUCATION FOR MIGRANT MEN ARE ECONOMIC INDEPENDENCE, BETTER HEALTH AND WELL-BEING, AND BETTER HANDLING OF RESPONSIBILITIES. THE MAIN DIVISIONS OF THE…

  6. Asteroid clusters similar to asteroid pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravec, Petr; Vokrouhlicky, David; Fatka, Petr; Kusnirák, Peter; Hornoch, Kamil; Galád, Adrián

    2016-10-01

    We study five small, tight and young clusters of asteroids. They are placed around following largest (primary) bodies: (11842) Kap'bos, (14627) Emilkowalski, (16598) 1992 YC2, (21509) Lucascavin and (39991) 1998 HR37. Each cluster has 2-4 secondaries that are tightly clustered around the primary body, with distance in the 5-dimensional space of mean orbital elements mostly within 10 m/s, and always < 23 m/s. Backward orbital integrations indicate that they formed between 105 and 106 yr ago. In the P1-q space, where P1 is the primary's spin period and q = Σ Mj/M1 is the total secondary-to-primary mass ratio, the clusters lie in the same range as asteroid pairs formed by rotational fission. We have extended the model of a proto-system separation after rotational fission by Pravec et al. (2010) for application to systems with more than one secondary and found a perfect match for the five tight clusters. We find these clusters to be similar to asteroid pairs and we suggest that they are "extended pairs", having 2-4 escaped secondaries rather than just one secondary as in the case of an asteroid pair. We compare them to six young mini-families (1270) Datura, (2384) Schulhof, (3152) Jones, (6825) Irvine, (10321) Rampo and (20674) 1999 VT1. These mini-families have similar ages, but they have a higher number of members and/or they show a significantly larger spread in the mean orbital elements (dmean on an order of tens m/s) than the five tight clusters. In the P1-q space, all but one of the mini-families lie in the same range as asteroid pairs and the tight clusters; the exception is the mini-family of (3152) Jones which appears to be a collisional family. A possibility that the other five mini-families were also formed by rotational fission as we suggest for the tight clusters ("extended asteroid pairs") is being explored.Reference:Pravec, P., et al. Formation of asteroid pairs by rotational fission. Nature 466, 1085-1088.

  7. Some Effects of Similarity Self-Disclosure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kevin C.; Strong, Stanley R.

    1972-01-01

    College males were interviewed about how college had altered their friendships, values, and plans. The interviewers diclosed experiences and feelings similar to those revealed by the students. Results support Byrne's Law of Similarity in generating interpersonal attraction in the interview and suggest that the timing of self-disclosures is…

  8. Attitude Similarity, Topic Importance, and Psychotherapeutic Attraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Thomas

    1975-01-01

    The effect of attitude similarity and topic importance on attraction was studied by exposing 75 prison inmates, incarcerated for public intoxication, to varying attitudes of a psychotherapist. Subjects were more attracted to the therapist after receiving alcohol items regardless of degree of similarity expressed. (Author)

  9. Interleaving Helps Students Distinguish among Similar Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Doug

    2012-01-01

    When students encounter a set of concepts (or terms or principles) that are similar in some way, they often confuse one with another. For instance, they might mistake one word for another word with a similar spelling (e.g., allusion instead of illusion) or choose the wrong strategy for a mathematics problem because it resembles a different kind of…

  10. Similar methodological analysis involving the user experience.

    PubMed

    Almeida e Silva, Caio Márcio; Okimoto, Maria Lúcia R L; Tanure, Raffaela Leane Zenni

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the use of a protocol for analysis of similar methodological analysis related to user experience. For both, were selected articles recounting experiments in the area. They were analyze based on the similar analysis protocol and finally, synthesized and associated.

  11. Marking Student Programs Using Graph Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, Kevin A.; Greyling, Jean H.; Vogts, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel approach to the automated marking of student programming assignments. Our technique quantifies the structural similarity between unmarked student submissions and marked solutions, and is the basis by which we assign marks. This is accomplished through an efficient novel graph similarity measure ("AssignSim"). Our experiments…

  12. Perceived Similarity, Proactive Adjustment, and Organizational Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kammeyer-Mueller, John D.; Livingston, Beth A.; Liao, Hui

    2011-01-01

    The present study explores how perceived demographic and attitudinal similarity can influence proactive behavior among organizational newcomers. We propose that newcomers who perceive themselves as similar to their co-workers will be more willing to seek new information or build relationships, which in turn will lead to better long-term…

  13. Documents Similarity Measurement Using Field Association Terms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atlam, El-Sayed; Fuketa, M.; Morita, K.; Aoe, Jun-ichi

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of text analysis and information retrieval and measurement of document similarity focuses on a new text manipulation system called FA (field association)-Sim that is useful for retrieving information in large heterogeneous texts and for recognizing content similarity in text excerpts. Discusses recall and precision, automatic indexing…

  14. Improving structural similarity based virtual screening using background knowledge

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Virtual screening in the form of similarity rankings is often applied in the early drug discovery process to rank and prioritize compounds from a database. This similarity ranking can be achieved with structural similarity measures. However, their general nature can lead to insufficient performance in some application cases. In this paper, we provide a link between ranking-based virtual screening and fragment-based data mining methods. The inclusion of binding-relevant background knowledge into a structural similarity measure improves the quality of the similarity rankings. This background knowledge in the form of binding relevant substructures can either be derived by hand selection or by automated fragment-based data mining methods. Results In virtual screening experiments we show that our approach clearly improves enrichment factors with both applied variants of our approach: the extension of the structural similarity measure with background knowledge in the form of a hand-selected relevant substructure or the extension of the similarity measure with background knowledge derived with data mining methods. Conclusion Our study shows that adding binding relevant background knowledge can lead to significantly improved similarity rankings in virtual screening and that even basic data mining approaches can lead to competitive results making hand-selection of the background knowledge less crucial. This is especially important in drug discovery and development projects where no receptor structure is available or more frequently no verified binding mode is known and mostly ligand based approaches can be applied to generate hit compounds. PMID:24341870

  15. Do Losses Loom Larger for Children than Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Luking, Katherine R.; Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2015-01-01

    The large impact of loss of reward on behavior has been well documented in adult populations. However, whether responsiveness to loss relative to gain is similarly elevated in child versus adult populations remains unclear. It is also unclear whether relations between incentive behaviors and self-reported reward/punishment sensitivity are similar within different developmental stages. To investigate these questions, 7–10-year-old children (N=70) and young adults (N=70) completed the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) Scale, along with two probabilistic incentive tasks assessing gain approach and loss avoidance behavior. BIS/BAS subscales were calculated per Pagliaccio, Luking et al. 2015, which established an age invariant model of the BIS/BAS. Bias towards responses more frequently followed by gain feedback and away from responses more frequently followed by loss feedback, approach and avoidance behavior respectively, were quantified via signal detection statistics. Gain approach behavior did not differ across age groups, however children exhibited significantly elevated loss avoidance relative to adults. Children also showed greater reductions in accuracy and slower reaction times specifically following loss feedback relative to adults. Interestingly, despite age group differences in loss avoidance behavior, relations between self-report measures and approach/avoidance behaviors were similar across age groups. Participants reporting elevated motivation (BAS Drive) showed both elevated gain approach and elevated loss avoidance, with both types of behavior predicting unique variance in BAS Drive. Results highlight the often-neglected developmental and motivational roles of responsiveness to loss of reward. PMID:26524484

  16. Do losses loom larger for children than adults?

    PubMed

    Luking, Katherine R; Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L; Barch, Deanna M

    2016-04-01

    The large impact of loss of reward on behavior has been well documented in adult populations. However, whether responsiveness to loss relative to gain is similarly elevated in child versus adult populations remains unclear. It is also unclear whether relations between incentive behaviors and self-reported reward/punishment sensitivity are similar within different developmental stages. To investigate these questions, 7- to 10-year-old children (N = 70) and young adults (N = 70) completed the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scale, along with 2 probabilistic incentive tasks assessing gain approach and loss avoidance behavior. BIS/BAS subscales were calculated per Pagliaccio et al. (2015), which established an age invariant model of the BIS/BAS. Bias toward responses more frequently followed by gain feedback and away from responses more frequently followed by loss feedback, approach, and avoidance behavior, respectively, were quantified via signal detection statistics. Gain approach behavior did not differ across age groups; however, children exhibited significantly elevated loss avoidance relative to adults. Children also showed greater reductions in accuracy and slower RTs specifically following loss feedback relative to adults. Interestingly, despite age group differences in loss avoidance behavior, relations between self-report measures and approach/avoidance behaviors were similar across age groups. Participants reporting elevated motivation (BAS Drive) showed both elevated gain approach and elevated loss avoidance, with both types of behavior predicting unique variance in BAS Drive. Results highlight the often-neglected developmental and motivational roles of responsiveness to loss of reward. PMID:26524484

  17. Similarity in drugs: reflections on analogue design.

    PubMed

    Wermuth, Camille G

    2006-04-01

    A survey of novel small-molecule therapeutics reveals that the majority of them result from analogue design and that their market value represents two-thirds of all small-molecule sales. In natural science, the term analogue, derived from the Latin and Greek analogia, has always been used to describe structural and functional similarity. Extended to drugs, this definition implies that the analogue of an existing drug molecule shares structural and pharmacological similarities with the original compound. Formally, this definition allows the establishment of three categories of drug analogues: analogues possessing chemical and pharmacological similarities (direct analogues); analogues possessing structural similarities only (structural analogues); and chemically different compounds displaying similar pharmacological properties (functional analogues). PMID:16580977

  18. The role of active assortment in spousal similarity.

    PubMed

    Watson, David; Beer, Andrew; McDade-Montez, Elizabeth

    2014-04-01

    Previous research has established the existence of active assortment, that is, a preference for similarity in a potential mate. Few studies, however, have directly related mate preferences to dyadic similarity by examining them in the same participants. We collected both similarity and mate preference data in two studies: undergraduate students (N = 519) and newlyweds (N = 335). In both studies, women placed a higher value on desirable personality characteristics (e.g., higher Conscientiousness and Agreeableness, lower Neuroticism) than did men. Nevertheless, our data also provided strong evidence of consensual mate preferences: Men and women both desired partners who were agreeable, conscientious, emotionally stable, intelligent, and physically attractive; furthermore, participants desired partners who were better (e.g., more agreeable and attractive) than they were. In contrast, attitudinal variables such as religiousness and political orientation displayed much weaker consensus but showed significant dyadic similarity in both samples; similarity coefficients for personality tended to be positive, but lower. Finally, analyses revealed a direct link between actual and desired similarity: Couples displayed the strongest similarity on those variables for which participants expressed the strongest preference for similarity. Our findings strongly suggest that active assortment is partly responsible for dyadic similarity.

  19. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your ...

  20. Patterns of implicit and explicit attitudes in children and adults: tests in the domain of religion.

    PubMed

    Heiphetz, Larisa; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Banaji, Mahzarin R

    2013-08-01

    Among the most replicated results in social cognition is the split between explicit and implicit attitudes; adults demonstrate weaker group-based preferences on explicit rather than implicit measures. However, the developmental origins of this pattern remain unclear. If implicit attitudes develop over a protracted period of time, children should not demonstrate the implicit preferences observed among adults. Additionally, unlike adults, children may report group-based preferences due to their lesser concern with social desirability. In Study 1, Christian adults showed the expected pattern of robust implicit preference but no explicit preference. In 4 additional experiments, 6- to 8-year-old children whose parents identified them as Christian viewed characters described as belonging to 2 starkly different religious groups ("strong religious difference") or 2 relatively similar religious groups ("weak religious difference"). Participants then completed explicit and implicit (IAT) measures of attitude toward Christians and either Hindus (Study 2) or Jews (Studies 3-5). Three main results emerged. First, like adults, children showed significant implicit pro-Christian preferences across all studies. Second, unlike adults, children in the "strong religious difference" case reported preferences of approximately the same magnitude as their implicit attitudes (i.e., no dissociation). Third, even in the "weak religious difference" case, children showed implicit pro-Christian preferences (although, like adults, their explicit attitudes were not sensitive to intergroup difference). These data suggest that the seeds of implicit religious preferences are sown early and that children's explicit preferences are influenced by the social distance between groups.

  1. Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes The table below shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

  2. Infant Cries Rattle Adult Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Dudek, Joanna; Faress, Ahmed; Bornstein, Marc H.; Haley, David W.

    2016-01-01

    The attention-grabbing quality of the infant cry is well recognized, but how the emotional valence of infant vocal signals affects adult cognition and cortical activity has heretofore been unknown. We examined the effects of two contrasting infant vocalizations (cries vs. laughs) on adult performance on a Stroop task using a cross-modal distraction paradigm in which infant distractors were vocal and targets were visual. Infant vocalizations were presented before (Experiment 1) or during each Stroop trial (Experiment 2). To evaluate the influence of infant vocalizations on cognitive control, neural responses to the Stroop task were obtained by measuring electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERPs) in Experiment 1. Based on the previously demonstrated existence of negative arousal bias, we hypothesized that cry vocalizations would be more distracting and invoke greater conflict processing than laugh vocalizations. Similarly, we expected participants to have greater difficulty shifting attention from the vocal distractors to the target task after hearing cries vs. after hearing laughs. Behavioral results from both experiments showed a cry interference effect, in which task performance was slower with cry than with laugh distractors. Electrophysiology data further revealed that cries more than laughs reduced attention to the task (smaller P200) and increased conflict processing (larger N450), albeit differently for incongruent and congruent trials. Results from a correlation analysis showed that the amplitudes of P200 and N450 were inversely related, suggesting a reciprocal relationship between attention and conflict processing. The findings suggest that cognitive control processes contribute to an attention bias to infant signals, which is modulated in part by the valence of the infant vocalization and the demands of the cognitive task. The findings thus support the notion that infant cries elicit a negative arousal bias that is distracting; they

  3. Infant Cries Rattle Adult Cognition.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Joanna; Faress, Ahmed; Bornstein, Marc H; Haley, David W

    2016-01-01

    The attention-grabbing quality of the infant cry is well recognized, but how the emotional valence of infant vocal signals affects adult cognition and cortical activity has heretofore been unknown. We examined the effects of two contrasting infant vocalizations (cries vs. laughs) on adult performance on a Stroop task using a cross-modal distraction paradigm in which infant distractors were vocal and targets were visual. Infant vocalizations were presented before (Experiment 1) or during each Stroop trial (Experiment 2). To evaluate the influence of infant vocalizations on cognitive control, neural responses to the Stroop task were obtained by measuring electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERPs) in Experiment 1. Based on the previously demonstrated existence of negative arousal bias, we hypothesized that cry vocalizations would be more distracting and invoke greater conflict processing than laugh vocalizations. Similarly, we expected participants to have greater difficulty shifting attention from the vocal distractors to the target task after hearing cries vs. after hearing laughs. Behavioral results from both experiments showed a cry interference effect, in which task performance was slower with cry than with laugh distractors. Electrophysiology data further revealed that cries more than laughs reduced attention to the task (smaller P200) and increased conflict processing (larger N450), albeit differently for incongruent and congruent trials. Results from a correlation analysis showed that the amplitudes of P200 and N450 were inversely related, suggesting a reciprocal relationship between attention and conflict processing. The findings suggest that cognitive control processes contribute to an attention bias to infant signals, which is modulated in part by the valence of the infant vocalization and the demands of the cognitive task. The findings thus support the notion that infant cries elicit a negative arousal bias that is distracting; they

  4. Infant Cries Rattle Adult Cognition.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Joanna; Faress, Ahmed; Bornstein, Marc H; Haley, David W

    2016-01-01

    The attention-grabbing quality of the infant cry is well recognized, but how the emotional valence of infant vocal signals affects adult cognition and cortical activity has heretofore been unknown. We examined the effects of two contrasting infant vocalizations (cries vs. laughs) on adult performance on a Stroop task using a cross-modal distraction paradigm in which infant distractors were vocal and targets were visual. Infant vocalizations were presented before (Experiment 1) or during each Stroop trial (Experiment 2). To evaluate the influence of infant vocalizations on cognitive control, neural responses to the Stroop task were obtained by measuring electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERPs) in Experiment 1. Based on the previously demonstrated existence of negative arousal bias, we hypothesized that cry vocalizations would be more distracting and invoke greater conflict processing than laugh vocalizations. Similarly, we expected participants to have greater difficulty shifting attention from the vocal distractors to the target task after hearing cries vs. after hearing laughs. Behavioral results from both experiments showed a cry interference effect, in which task performance was slower with cry than with laugh distractors. Electrophysiology data further revealed that cries more than laughs reduced attention to the task (smaller P200) and increased conflict processing (larger N450), albeit differently for incongruent and congruent trials. Results from a correlation analysis showed that the amplitudes of P200 and N450 were inversely related, suggesting a reciprocal relationship between attention and conflict processing. The findings suggest that cognitive control processes contribute to an attention bias to infant signals, which is modulated in part by the valence of the infant vocalization and the demands of the cognitive task. The findings thus support the notion that infant cries elicit a negative arousal bias that is distracting; they

  5. Gait Signal Analysis with Similarity Measure

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Seungsoo

    2014-01-01

    Human gait decision was carried out with the help of similarity measure design. Gait signal was selected through hardware implementation including all in one sensor, control unit, and notebook with connector. Each gait signal was considered as high dimensional data. Therefore, high dimensional data analysis was considered via heuristic technique such as the similarity measure. Each human pattern such as walking, sitting, standing, and stepping up was obtained through experiment. By the results of the analysis, we also identified the overlapped and nonoverlapped data relation, and similarity measure analysis was also illustrated, and comparison with conventional similarity measure was also carried out. Hence, nonoverlapped data similarity analysis provided the clue to solve the similarity of high dimensional data. Considered high dimensional data analysis was designed with consideration of neighborhood information. Proposed similarity measure was applied to identify the behavior patterns of different persons, and different behaviours of the same person. Obtained analysis can be extended to organize health monitoring system for specially elderly persons. PMID:25110724

  6. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks

    PubMed Central

    Mollgaard, Anders; Zettler, Ingo; Dammeyer, Jesper; Jensen, Mogens H.; Lehmann, Sune; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of the nodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarity of nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure to analyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large university. Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with custom data collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The network of social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructed from different channels of telecommunication as well as data on face-to-face contacts. We find that even strongly connected individuals are not more similar with respect to basic personality traits than randomly chosen pairs of individuals. In contrast, several socio-demographics variables have a significant degree of similarity. We further observe that similarity might be present in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent in the other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals a transition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively low weight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest links. We finally analyze the overlap between layers in the network for different levels of acquaintanceships. PMID:27300084

  7. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks.

    PubMed

    Mollgaard, Anders; Zettler, Ingo; Dammeyer, Jesper; Jensen, Mogens H; Lehmann, Sune; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of the nodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarity of nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure to analyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large university. Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with custom data collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The network of social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructed from different channels of telecommunication as well as data on face-to-face contacts. We find that even strongly connected individuals are not more similar with respect to basic personality traits than randomly chosen pairs of individuals. In contrast, several socio-demographics variables have a significant degree of similarity. We further observe that similarity might be present in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent in the other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals a transition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively low weight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest links. We finally analyze the overlap between layers in the network for different levels of acquaintanceships. PMID:27300084

  8. Two perspectives on similarity between words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, Stefan A.

    2003-10-01

    This presentation examines the similarity between words from both bottom up (phonetic) and top down (phonological/psycholinguistic) perspectives. From the phonological perspective, the influence of structure on similarity is explored using metalinguistic acceptability judgments for multisyllabic nonwords. Results from an experiment suggest that subjects try to align novel words with known words in order to maximize similarities while minimizing dissimilarities. This finding parallels results from psychology on similarity judgments for visual scenes. From the phonetic perspective, the influence of similar gestures on speech error rates is examined using ultrasound measurement of tongue position. In a pilot experiment, subjects, produced tongue twisters containing words where onset and vowel phonemes had similar gestures (e.g., tip, comb) and where the onset and vowel had dissimilar gestures (e.g., tube, keep). Preliminary results suggest that misarticulations are more frequent in the context of dissimilar gestures (e.g., in the tongue twister tip cape keep tape, error rates are higher for /k/ than /t/). These errors appear to be gestural interactions rather than errors at the phonemic or featural level of phonological spellout. Together, these two experiments indicate that similarity relations between words are found at multiple levels, any which are potentially relevant to the structure of phonological systems.

  9. Hierarchical Forms Processing in Adults and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Tamara B.; Stiles, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments examined child and adult processing of hierarchical stimuli composed of geometric forms. Adults (ages 18-23 years) and children (ages 7-10 years) performed a forced-choice task gauging similarity between visual stimuli consisting of large geometric objects (global level) composed of small geometric objects (local level). The…

  10. Career Indecision in Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skorupa, Jessica; Agresti, Albert A.

    1998-01-01

    Utilizes a sample of community college students to investigate differences in career indecision of adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and adult children of non-alcoholics. Although both groups were similar in their overall levels of career indecision, there were significant relationships among irrational thinking, trait anxiety, and career…

  11. Humans and Insects Decide in Similar Ways

    PubMed Central

    Louâpre, Philippe; van Alphen, Jacques J. M.; Pierre, Jean-Sébastien

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral ecologists assume that animals use a motivational mechanism for decisions such as action selection and time allocation, allowing the maximization of their fitness. They consider both the proximate and ultimate causes of behavior in order to understand this type of decision-making in animals. Experimental psychologists and neuroeconomists also study how agents make decisions but they consider the proximate causes of the behavior. In the case of patch-leaving, motivation-based decision-making remains simple speculation. In contrast to other animals, human beings can assess and evaluate their own motivation by an introspection process. It is then possible to study the declared motivation of humans during decision-making and discuss the mechanism used as well as its evolutionary significance. In this study, we combine both the proximate and ultimate causes of behavior for a better understanding of the human decision-making process. We show for the first time ever that human subjects use a motivational mechanism similar to small insects such as parasitoids [1] and bumblebees [2] to decide when to leave a patch. This result is relevant for behavioral ecologists as it supports the biological realism of this mechanism. Humans seem to use a motivational mechanism of decision making known to be adaptive to a heterogeneously distributed resource. As hypothesized by Hutchinson et al. [3] and Wilke and Todd [4], our results are consistent with the evolutionary shaping of decision making because hominoids were hunters and gatherers on food patches for more than two million years. We discuss the plausibility of a neural basis for the motivation mechanism highlighted here, bridging the gap between behavioral ecology and neuroeconomy. Thus, both the motivational mechanism observed here and the neuroeconomy findings are most likely adaptations that were selected for during ancestral times. PMID:21170378

  12. Audiovocal Integration in Adults Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucks, Torrey; Chon, HeeCheong; Han, Woojae

    2012-01-01

    Background: Altered auditory feedback can facilitate speech fluency in adults who stutter. However, other findings suggest that adults who stutter show anomalies in "audiovocal integration", such as longer phonation reaction times to auditory stimuli and less effective pitch tracking. Aims: To study audiovocal integration in adults who stutter…

  13. Older Adults and Gambling: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the social cognitive theory model to review the literature on older adult gambling, and related personal and environment characteristics. Results show that lottery is the kind of gambling most frequently played by older adults, followed by casino games. Older adults take trips to casinos to socialize, find excitement, and win…

  14. An extraretinally expressed insect cryptochrome with similarity to the blue light photoreceptors of mammals and plants.

    PubMed

    Egan, E S; Franklin, T M; Hilderbrand-Chae, M J; McNeil, G P; Roberts, M A; Schroeder, A J; Zhang, X; Jackson, F R

    1999-05-15

    Photic entrainment of insect circadian rhythms can occur through either extraretinal (brain) or retinal photoreceptors, which mediate sensitivity to blue light or longer wavelengths, respectively. Although visual transduction processes are well understood in the insect retina, almost nothing is known about the extraretinal blue light photoreceptor of insects. We now have identified and characterized a candidate blue light photoreceptor gene in Drosophila (DCry) that is homologous to the cryptochrome (Cry) genes of mammals and plants. The DCry gene is located in region 91F of the third chromosome, an interval that does not contain other genes required for circadian rhythmicity. The protein encoded by DCry is approximately 50% identical to the CRY1 and CRY2 proteins recently discovered in mammalian species. As expected for an extraretinal photoreceptor mediating circadian entrainment, DCry mRNA is expressed within the adult brain and can be detected within body tissues. Indeed, tissue in situ hybridization demonstrates prominent expression in cells of the lateral brain, which are close to or coincident with the Drosophila clock neurons. Interestingly, DCry mRNA abundance oscillates in a circadian manner in Drosophila head RNA extracts, and the temporal phasing of the rhythm is similar to that documented for the mouse Cry1 mRNA, which is expressed in clock tissues. Finally, we show that changes in DCry gene dosage are associated predictably with alterations of the blue light resetting response for the circadian rhythm of adult locomotor activity. PMID:10233998

  15. The motivational salience of infant faces is similar for men and women.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Christine E; Young, Katherine S; Kumari, Nina; Stein, Alan; Kringelbach, Morten L

    2011-01-01

    Infant facial features are thought to be powerful elicitors of caregiving behaviour. It has been widely assumed that men and women respond in different ways to those features, such as a large forehead and eyes and round protruding cheeks, colloquially described as 'cute'. We investigated experimentally potential differences using measures of both conscious appraisal ('liking') and behavioural responsivity ('wanting') to real world infant and adult faces in 71 non-parents. Overall, women gave significantly higher 'liking' ratings for infant faces (but not adult faces) compared to men. However, this difference was not seen in the 'wanting' task, where we measured the willingness of men and women to key-press to increase or decrease viewing duration of an infant face. Further analysis of sensitivity to cuteness, categorising infants by degree of infantile features, revealed that both men and women showed a graded significant increase in both positive attractiveness ratings and viewing times to the 'cutest' infants. We suggest that infant faces may have similar motivational salience to men and women, despite gender idiosyncrasies in their conscious appraisal. PMID:21655195

  16. Fingerprint comparison. I: Similarity of fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Lin, C H; Liu, J H; Osterburg, J W; Nicol, J D

    1982-04-01

    Fingerprints from 61 pairs of male monozygotic twins (MZ), 47 pairs of female MZ, 40 pairs of same-sex male dizygotic twins (DZ), 44 pairs of same-sex female DZ, 4 pairs of opposite-sex DZ, and 28 brothers and 31 sisters of those twins are used for the study of fingerprint similarities. Similarities of fingerprint pattern, ridge count, and minutiae are evaluated for two population groups genetically related to each other in different degrees. It is concluded that fingerprint similarities, including pattern, ridge count, and possibly minutiae, between MZ individuals are significantly higher than those between other population groups, including DZ twins.

  17. Average is boring: how similarity kills a meme's success.

    PubMed

    Coscia, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Every day we are exposed to different ideas, or memes, competing with each other for our attention. Previous research explained popularity and persistence heterogeneity of memes by assuming them in competition for limited attention resources, distributed in a heterogeneous social network. Little has been said about what characteristics make a specific meme more likely to be successful. We propose a similarity-based explanation: memes with higher similarity to other memes have a significant disadvantage in their potential popularity. We employ a meme similarity measure based on semantic text analysis and computer vision to prove that a meme is more likely to be successful and to thrive if its characteristics make it unique. Our results show that indeed successful memes are located in the periphery of the meme similarity space and that our similarity measure is a promising predictor of a meme success. PMID:25257730

  18. Hemispatial Neglect Shows That "Before" Is "Left".

    PubMed

    Bonato, Mario; Saj, Arnaud; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has led to the hypothesis that events which unfold in time might be spatially represented in a left-to-right fashion, resembling writing direction. Here we studied fourteen right-hemisphere damaged patients, with or without neglect, a disorder of spatial awareness affecting contralesional (here left) space processing and representation. We reasoned that if the processing of time-ordered events is spatial in nature, it should be impaired in the presence of neglect and spared in its absence. Patients categorized events of a story as occurring before or after a central event, which acted as a temporal reference. An asymmetric distance effect emerged in neglect patients, with slower responses to events that took place before the temporal reference. The event occurring immediately before the reference elicited particularly slow responses, closely mirroring the pattern found in neglect patients performing numerical comparison tasks. Moreover, the first item elicited significantly slower responses than the last one, suggesting a preference for a left-to-right scanning/representation of events in time. Patients without neglect showed a regular and symmetric distance effect. These findings further suggest that the representation of events order is spatial in nature and provide compelling evidence that ordinality is similarly represented within temporal and numerical domains. PMID:27313902

  19. Teaching Adults. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Alan

    The question of how adult educators can make their teaching of adults more effective is explored in the context of recent work on adult lifelong learning. The following are among the topics discussed: (1) modes of adult education and the shift in focus from adult education to lifelong learning; (2) the contract between adult student and adult…

  20. Associative memory advantage in grapheme-color synesthetes compared to older, but not young adults

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, Gaby; Rothen, Nicolas; Ward, Jamie; Chan, Dennis; Sigala, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    People with grapheme-color synesthesia perceive enriched experiences of colors in response to graphemes (letters, digits). In this study, we examined whether these synesthetes show a generic associative memory advantage for stimuli that do not elicit a synesthetic color. We used a novel between group design (14 young synesthetes, 14 young, and 14 older adults) with a self-paced visual associative learning paradigm and subsequent retrieval (immediate and delayed). Non-synesthesia inducing, achromatic fractal pair-associates were manipulated in visual similarity (high and low) and corresponded to high and low memory load conditions. The main finding was a learning and retrieval advantage of synesthetes relative to older, but not to younger, adults. Furthermore, the significance testing was supported with effect size measures and power calculations. Differences between synesthetes and older adults were found during dissimilar pair (high memory load) learning and retrieval at immediate and delayed stages. Moreover, we found a medium size difference between synesthetes and young adults for similar pair (low memory load) learning. Differences between young and older adults were also observed during associative learning and retrieval, but were of medium effect size coupled with low power. The results show a subtle associative memory advantage in synesthetes for non-synesthesia inducing stimuli, which can be detected against older adults. They also indicate that perceptual mechanisms (enhanced in synesthesia, declining as part of the aging process) can translate into a generic associative memory advantage, and may contribute to associative deficits accompanying healthy aging. PMID:25071664

  1. Associative memory advantage in grapheme-color synesthetes compared to older, but not young adults.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Gaby; Rothen, Nicolas; Ward, Jamie; Chan, Dennis; Sigala, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    People with grapheme-color synesthesia perceive enriched experiences of colors in response to graphemes (letters, digits). In this study, we examined whether these synesthetes show a generic associative memory advantage for stimuli that do not elicit a synesthetic color. We used a novel between group design (14 young synesthetes, 14 young, and 14 older adults) with a self-paced visual associative learning paradigm and subsequent retrieval (immediate and delayed). Non-synesthesia inducing, achromatic fractal pair-associates were manipulated in visual similarity (high and low) and corresponded to high and low memory load conditions. The main finding was a learning and retrieval advantage of synesthetes relative to older, but not to younger, adults. Furthermore, the significance testing was supported with effect size measures and power calculations. Differences between synesthetes and older adults were found during dissimilar pair (high memory load) learning and retrieval at immediate and delayed stages. Moreover, we found a medium size difference between synesthetes and young adults for similar pair (low memory load) learning. Differences between young and older adults were also observed during associative learning and retrieval, but were of medium effect size coupled with low power. The results show a subtle associative memory advantage in synesthetes for non-synesthesia inducing stimuli, which can be detected against older adults. They also indicate that perceptual mechanisms (enhanced in synesthesia, declining as part of the aging process) can translate into a generic associative memory advantage, and may contribute to associative deficits accompanying healthy aging. PMID:25071664

  2. Orthographic similarity: the case of "reversed anagrams".

    PubMed

    Morris, Alison L; Still, Mary L

    2012-07-01

    How orthographically similar are words such as paws and swap, flow and wolf, or live and evil? According to the letter position coding schemes used in models of visual word recognition, these reversed anagrams are considered to be less similar than words that share letters in the same absolute or relative positions (such as home and hose or plan and lane). Therefore, reversed anagrams should not produce the standard orthographic similarity effects found using substitution neighbors (e.g., home, hose). Simulations using the spatial coding model (Davis, Psychological Review 117, 713-758, 2010), for example, predict an inhibitory masked-priming effect for substitution neighbor word pairs but a null effect for reversed anagrams. Nevertheless, we obtained significant inhibitory priming using both stimulus types (Experiment 1). We also demonstrated that robust repetition blindness can be obtained for reversed anagrams (Experiment 2). Reversed anagrams therefore provide a new test for models of visual word recognition and orthographic similarity.

  3. Interpersonal Congruency, Attitude Similarity, and Interpersonal Attraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touhey, John C.

    1975-01-01

    As no experimental study has examined the effects of congruency on attraction, the present investigation orthogonally varied attitude similarity and interpersonal congruency in order to compare the two independent variables as determinants of interpersonal attraction. (Author/RK)

  4. HYPOTHESIS TESTING WITH THE SIMILARITY INDEX

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mulltilocus DNA fingerprinting methods have been used extensively to address genetic issues in wildlife populations. Hypotheses concerning population subdivision and differing levels of diversity can be addressed through the use of the similarity index (S), a band-sharing coeffic...

  5. Bilateral Trade Flows and Income Distribution Similarity.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Current models of bilateral trade neglect the effects of income distribution. This paper addresses the issue by accounting for non-homothetic consumer preferences and hence investigating the role of income distribution in the context of the gravity model of trade. A theoretically justified gravity model is estimated for disaggregated trade data (Dollar volume is used as dependent variable) using a sample of 104 exporters and 108 importers for 1980-2003 to achieve two main goals. We define and calculate new measures of income distribution similarity and empirically confirm that greater similarity of income distribution between countries implies more trade. Using distribution-based measures as a proxy for demand similarities in gravity models, we find consistent and robust support for the hypothesis that countries with more similar income-distributions trade more with each other. The hypothesis is also confirmed at disaggregated level for differentiated product categories.

  6. Bilateral Trade Flows and Income Distribution Similarity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Current models of bilateral trade neglect the effects of income distribution. This paper addresses the issue by accounting for non-homothetic consumer preferences and hence investigating the role of income distribution in the context of the gravity model of trade. A theoretically justified gravity model is estimated for disaggregated trade data (Dollar volume is used as dependent variable) using a sample of 104 exporters and 108 importers for 1980–2003 to achieve two main goals. We define and calculate new measures of income distribution similarity and empirically confirm that greater similarity of income distribution between countries implies more trade. Using distribution-based measures as a proxy for demand similarities in gravity models, we find consistent and robust support for the hypothesis that countries with more similar income-distributions trade more with each other. The hypothesis is also confirmed at disaggregated level for differentiated product categories. PMID:27137462

  7. Similarity Theory of Withdrawn Water Temperature Experiment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Selective withdrawal from a thermal stratified reservoir has been widely utilized in managing reservoir water withdrawal. Besides theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, model test was also necessary in studying the temperature of withdrawn water. However, information on the similarity theory of the withdrawn water temperature model remains lacking. Considering flow features of selective withdrawal, the similarity theory of the withdrawn water temperature model was analyzed theoretically based on the modification of governing equations, the Boussinesq approximation, and some simplifications. The similarity conditions between the model and the prototype were suggested. The conversion of withdrawn water temperature between the model and the prototype was proposed. Meanwhile, the fundamental theory of temperature distribution conversion was firstly proposed, which could significantly improve the experiment efficiency when the basic temperature of the model was different from the prototype. Based on the similarity theory, an experiment was performed on the withdrawn water temperature which was verified by numerical method. PMID:26065020

  8. Bilateral Trade Flows and Income Distribution Similarity.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Current models of bilateral trade neglect the effects of income distribution. This paper addresses the issue by accounting for non-homothetic consumer preferences and hence investigating the role of income distribution in the context of the gravity model of trade. A theoretically justified gravity model is estimated for disaggregated trade data (Dollar volume is used as dependent variable) using a sample of 104 exporters and 108 importers for 1980-2003 to achieve two main goals. We define and calculate new measures of income distribution similarity and empirically confirm that greater similarity of income distribution between countries implies more trade. Using distribution-based measures as a proxy for demand similarities in gravity models, we find consistent and robust support for the hypothesis that countries with more similar income-distributions trade more with each other. The hypothesis is also confirmed at disaggregated level for differentiated product categories. PMID:27137462

  9. Self-similarity in Laplacian growth

    SciTech Connect

    Mineev-weinstein, Mark; Zabrodin, Anton; Abanov, Artem

    2008-01-01

    We consider Laplacian Growth of self-similar domains in different geometries. Self-similarity determines the analytic structure of the Schwarz function of the moving boundary. The knowledge of this analytic structure allows us to derive the integral equation for the conformal map. It is shown that solutions to the integral equation obey also a second-order differential equation which is the 1D Schroedinger equation with the sinh{sup -2}-potential. The solutions, which are expressed through the Gauss hypergeometric function, characterize the geometry of self-similar patterns in a wedge. We also find the potential for the Coulomb gas representation of the self-similar Laplacian growth in a wedge and calculate the corresponding free energy.

  10. Conceptual similarity promotes generalization of higher order fear learning

    PubMed Central

    Dunsmoor, Joseph E.; White, Allison J.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2011-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that conceptual similarity promotes generalization of conditioned fear. Using a sensory preconditioning procedure, three groups of subjects learned an association between two cues that were conceptually similar, unrelated, or mismatched. Next, one of the cues was paired with a shock. The other cue was then reintroduced to test for fear generalization, as measured by the skin conductance response. Results showed enhanced fear generalization that correlated with trait anxiety levels in the group that learned an association between conceptually similar stimuli. These findings suggest that conceptual representations of conditional stimuli influence human fear learning processes. PMID:21330378

  11. A Short Survey of Document Structure Similarity Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Buttler, D

    2004-02-27

    This paper provides a brief survey of document structural similarity algorithms, including the optimal Tree Edit Distance algorithm and various approximation algorithms. The approximation algorithms include the simple weighted tag similarity algorithm, Fourier transforms of the structure, and a new application of the shingle technique to structural similarity. We show three surprising results. First, the Fourier transform technique proves to be the least accurate of any of approximation algorithms, while also being slowest. Second, optimal Tree Edit Distance algorithms may not be the best technique for clustering pages from different sites. Third, the simplest approximation to structure may be the most effective and efficient mechanism for many applications.

  12. An insulin-like peptide regulates size and adult stem cells in planarians.

    PubMed

    Miller, Claire M; Newmark, Phillip A

    2012-01-01

    Animal growth depends on nutritional intake during development. In many animals, nutritional status is uncoupled from moderation of adult stature after adult size is achieved. However, some long-lived animals continue to regulate adult size and fertility in a nutrition-dependent manner. For example, the regenerating flatworm Schmidtea mediterranea becomes smaller, or degrows, during periods of starvation. These animals provide an opportunity to readily observe adult stem cell population dynamics in response to nutritional cues. We explored the role of insulin signaling in S. mediterranea. We disrupted insulin signaling via RNA interference and showed that animals, despite eating, degrew similarly to starved animals. Utilizing in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence, we assessed cellular changes in proliferative populations including the planarian adult stem cell population (neoblasts) and the germline. Both impaired insulin signaling and nutritional deprivation correlated with decreased neoblast proliferation. Additionally, insulin signaling played a role in supporting spermatogenesis that was distinct from the effects of starvation. In sum, we have demonstrated that insulin signaling is responsible for regulation of adult animal size and tissue homeostasis in an organism with plastic adult size. Importantly, insulin signaling continued to affect stem cell and germline populations in a mature organism. Furthermore, we have shown that adult organisms can differentially regulate specific cell populations as a result of environmental challenges.

  13. Socioeconomic Determinants of Adult Mortality in Namibia Using an Event History Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kandjimbi, Alina; Nickanor, Ndeyapo; Kazembe, Lawrence N

    2014-01-01

    Adult mortality remains a neglected public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa, with most policy instruments concentrated on child and maternal health. In developed countries, adult mortality is negatively associated with socioeconomic factors. A similar pattern is expected in developing countries, but has not been extensively demonstrated, because of dearth of data. Understanding the hazard and factors associated with adult mortality is crucial for informing policies and for implementation of interventions aimed at improving adult survival. This paper applied a geo-additive survival model to elucidate effects of socioeconomic factors on adult mortality in Namibia, controlling for spatial frailties. Results show a clear disadvantage for adults in rural areas, for those not married and from poor households or in female-headed households. The hazard of adult mortality was highly variable with a 1.5-fold difference between areas, with highest hazard recorded in north eastern, central west and southern west parts of the country. The analysis emphasizes that, for Namibia to achieve its national development goals, targeted interventions should be aimed at poor-resourced adults, particularly in high-risk areas. PMID:26208512

  14. Alternative donors: cord blood for adults.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Annalisa

    2016-04-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a curative treatment for patients with hematological diseases. The probability of finding a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)- identical donor among family members is around 25% and 30% that of having a full matched unrelated donor in the registry. Patients in need may also benefit of a HLA-mismatched HSCT either from an haploidentical donors or from umbilical cord blood (UCB). Much has been learned about UCB transplant (UCBT) since the first human UCBT was performed back in 1988. Cord blood banks have been established worldwide for the collection, cryopreservation, and distribution of UCB for HSCT. Today, a global network of cord blood banks and transplant centers has been established with a large common inventory of more than 650,000 UCB units available, allowing for more than 40,000 UCBT worldwide in children and adults with severe hematological diseases. Several studies have been published on UCBT, assessing risk factors such as cell dose and HLA mismatch. Outcomes of several retrospective comparative studies showed similar results using other stem cell sources both in pediatric and adult setting. New strategies are ongoing to facilitate engraftment and reduce transplant-related mortality. In this issue, we review the current results of UCBT in adults with hematological malignancies and the clinical studies comparing UCBT with other transplant strategies. We provide guidelines for donor algorithm selection in UCBT setting.

  15. The Gestalt principle of similarity benefits visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Dwight J; Berryhill, Marian E

    2013-12-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) is essential for many cognitive processes, yet it is notably limited in capacity. Visual perception processing is facilitated by Gestalt principles of grouping, such as connectedness, similarity, and proximity. This introduces the question, do these perceptual benefits extend to VWM? If so, can this be an approach to enhance VWM function by optimizing the processing of information? Previous findings have demonstrated that several Gestalt principles (connectedness, common region, and spatial proximity) do facilitate VWM performance in change detection tasks (Jiang, Olson, & Chun, 2000; Woodman, Vecera, & Luck, 2003; Xu, 2002, 2006; Xu & Chun, 2007). However, one prevalent Gestalt principle, similarity, has not been examined with regard to facilitating VWM. Here, we investigated whether grouping by similarity benefits VWM. Experiment 1 established the basic finding that VWM performance could benefit from grouping. Experiment 2 replicated and extended this finding by showing that similarity was only effective when the similar stimuli were proximal. In short, the VWM performance benefit derived from similarity was constrained by spatial proximity, such that similar items need to be near each other. Thus, the Gestalt principle of similarity benefits visual perception, but it can provide benefits to VWM as well.

  16. The Gestalt principle of similarity benefits visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Dwight J; Berryhill, Marian E

    2013-12-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) is essential for many cognitive processes, yet it is notably limited in capacity. Visual perception processing is facilitated by Gestalt principles of grouping, such as connectedness, similarity, and proximity. This introduces the question, do these perceptual benefits extend to VWM? If so, can this be an approach to enhance VWM function by optimizing the processing of information? Previous findings have demonstrated that several Gestalt principles (connectedness, common region, and spatial proximity) do facilitate VWM performance in change detection tasks (Jiang, Olson, & Chun, 2000; Woodman, Vecera, & Luck, 2003; Xu, 2002, 2006; Xu & Chun, 2007). However, one prevalent Gestalt principle, similarity, has not been examined with regard to facilitating VWM. Here, we investigated whether grouping by similarity benefits VWM. Experiment 1 established the basic finding that VWM performance could benefit from grouping. Experiment 2 replicated and extended this finding by showing that similarity was only effective when the similar stimuli were proximal. In short, the VWM performance benefit derived from similarity was constrained by spatial proximity, such that similar items need to be near each other. Thus, the Gestalt principle of similarity benefits visual perception, but it can provide benefits to VWM as well. PMID:23702981

  17. Similarity Search for Continuous Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    OReilly, O. J.; Yoon, C. E.; Beroza, G. C.

    2013-12-01

    Cross-correlation of seismic data streams with a priori known waveform templates has emerged as an effective tool to identify the occurrence of similar seismic signals; yet, this approach is difficult if the form of the templates is unknown. This challenge has been partially met by constructing waveform templates using reoccurring seismic signals sharing similar waveforms. This waveform similarity arises because the Earth's structure is essentially time invariant at the temporal scales considered in seismology. The problem of finding similar waveforms without known templates has been approached previously by segmenting incoming seismic data streams into multiple overlapping windows, each with a fixed length and lag, followed by matched filtering using each window as a template. An immediate shortcoming of this strategy is that it is computationally expensive; it scales quadratically with the number of lags needed, which limits the analysis to time series of short duration. The principal concept behind our approach, which enables scalable similarity search is to use a hierarchical approach to investigate only a small, near-constant sized subset of all possible waveform pairs for each query. In computer science and related fields, there are efficient techniques to solve this problem, which appears in numerous applications. Here, we bring these techniques into detection seismology. As a first step, we present a prototype database application that relies on a fingerprinting scheme that produces numerous high-dimensional sparse binary data representations of the windowed data streams (each fingerprint is significantly compressed compared to the actual window). These fingerprints encode key features of the actual window, enabling comparison among fingerprints rather than cross-correlating windows for comparison. Further dimensionality reduction is then applied to each fingerprint and similar fingerprints are grouped together using locality-sensitive hashing. Developing

  18. Activity-relevant similarity values for fingerprints and implications for similarity searching

    PubMed Central

    Jasial, Swarit; Hu, Ye; Vogt, Martin; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    A largely unsolved problem in chemoinformatics is the issue of how calculated compound similarity relates to activity similarity, which is central to many applications. In general, activity relationships are predicted from calculated similarity values. However, there is no solid scientific foundation to bridge between calculated molecular and observed activity similarity. Accordingly, the success rate of identifying new active compounds by similarity searching is limited. Although various attempts have been made to establish relationships between calculated fingerprint similarity values and biological activities, none of these has yielded generally applicable rules for similarity searching. In this study, we have addressed the question of molecular versus activity similarity in a more fundamental way. First, we have evaluated if activity-relevant similarity value ranges could in principle be identified for standard fingerprints and distinguished from similarity resulting from random compound comparisons. Then, we have analyzed if activity-relevant similarity values could be used to guide typical similarity search calculations aiming to identify active compounds in databases. It was found that activity-relevant similarity values can be identified as a characteristic feature of fingerprints. However, it was also shown that such values cannot be reliably used as thresholds for practical similarity search calculations. In addition, the analysis presented herein helped to rationalize differences in fingerprint search performance. PMID:27127620

  19. Rhesus monkeys show human-like changes in gaze following across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Arre, Alyssa M; Platt, Michael L; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-05-11

    Gaze following, or co-orienting with others, is a foundational skill for human social behaviour. The emergence of this capacity scaffolds critical human-specific abilities such as theory of mind and language. Non-human primates also follow others' gaze, but less is known about how the cognitive mechanisms supporting this behaviour develop over the lifespan. Here we experimentally tested gaze following in 481 semi-free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) ranging from infancy to old age. We found that monkeys began to follow gaze in infancy and this response peaked in the juvenile period-suggesting that younger monkeys were especially attuned to gaze information, like humans. After sexual maturity, monkeys exhibited human-like sex differences in gaze following, with adult females showing more gaze following than males. Finally, older monkeys showed reduced propensity to follow gaze, just as older humans do. In a second study (n = 80), we confirmed that macaques exhibit similar baseline rates of looking upwards in a control condition, regardless of age. Our findings indicate that-despite important differences in human and non-human primate life-history characteristics and typical social experiences-monkeys undergo robust ontogenetic shifts in gaze following across early development, adulthood and ageing that are strikingly similar to those of humans.

  20. Rhesus monkeys show human-like changes in gaze following across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Arre, Alyssa M; Platt, Michael L; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-05-11

    Gaze following, or co-orienting with others, is a foundational skill for human social behaviour. The emergence of this capacity scaffolds critical human-specific abilities such as theory of mind and language. Non-human primates also follow others' gaze, but less is known about how the cognitive mechanisms supporting this behaviour develop over the lifespan. Here we experimentally tested gaze following in 481 semi-free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) ranging from infancy to old age. We found that monkeys began to follow gaze in infancy and this response peaked in the juvenile period-suggesting that younger monkeys were especially attuned to gaze information, like humans. After sexual maturity, monkeys exhibited human-like sex differences in gaze following, with adult females showing more gaze following than males. Finally, older monkeys showed reduced propensity to follow gaze, just as older humans do. In a second study (n = 80), we confirmed that macaques exhibit similar baseline rates of looking upwards in a control condition, regardless of age. Our findings indicate that-despite important differences in human and non-human primate life-history characteristics and typical social experiences-monkeys undergo robust ontogenetic shifts in gaze following across early development, adulthood and ageing that are strikingly similar to those of humans. PMID:27170712

  1. Similarity Metrics for Closed Loop Dynamic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark S.; Yang, Lee C.; Bedrossian, Naz; Hall, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    To what extent and in what ways can two closed-loop dynamic systems be said to be "similar?" This question arises in a wide range of dynamic systems modeling and control system design applications. For example, bounds on error models are fundamental to the controller optimization with modern control design methods. Metrics such as the structured singular value are direct measures of the degree to which properties such as stability or performance are maintained in the presence of specified uncertainties or variations in the plant model. Similarly, controls-related areas such as system identification, model reduction, and experimental model validation employ measures of similarity between multiple realizations of a dynamic system. Each area has its tools and approaches, with each tool more or less suited for one application or the other. Similarity in the context of closed-loop model validation via flight test is subtly different from error measures in the typical controls oriented application. Whereas similarity in a robust control context relates to plant variation and the attendant affect on stability and performance, in this context similarity metrics are sought that assess the relevance of a dynamic system test for the purpose of validating the stability and performance of a "similar" dynamic system. Similarity in the context of system identification is much more relevant than are robust control analogies in that errors between one dynamic system (the test article) and another (the nominal "design" model) are sought for the purpose of bounding the validity of a model for control design and analysis. Yet system identification typically involves open-loop plant models which are independent of the control system (with the exception of limited developments in closed-loop system identification which is nonetheless focused on obtaining open-loop plant models from closed-loop data). Moreover the objectives of system identification are not the same as a flight test and

  2. Earthquake detection through computationally efficient similarity search.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Clara E; O'Reilly, Ossian; Bergen, Karianne J; Beroza, Gregory C

    2015-12-01

    Seismology is experiencing rapid growth in the quantity of data, which has outpaced the development of processing algorithms. Earthquake detection-identification of seismic events in continuous data-is a fundamental operation for observational seismology. We developed an efficient method to detect earthquakes using waveform similarity that overcomes the disadvantages of existing detection methods. Our method, called Fingerprint And Similarity Thresholding (FAST), can analyze a week of continuous seismic waveform data in less than 2 hours, or 140 times faster than autocorrelation. FAST adapts a data mining algorithm, originally designed to identify similar audio clips within large databases; it first creates compact "fingerprints" of waveforms by extracting key discriminative features, then groups similar fingerprints together within a database to facilitate fast, scalable search for similar fingerprint pairs, and finally generates a list of earthquake detections. FAST detected most (21 of 24) cataloged earthquakes and 68 uncataloged earthquakes in 1 week of continuous data from a station located near the Calaveras Fault in central California, achieving detection performance comparable to that of autocorrelation, with some additional false detections. FAST is expected to realize its full potential when applied to extremely long duration data sets over a distributed network of seismic stations. The widespread application of FAST has the potential to aid in the discovery of unexpected seismic signals, improve seismic monitoring, and promote a greater understanding of a variety of earthquake processes. PMID:26665176

  3. Self-Similar Compressible Free Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vonEllenrieder, Karl

    1998-01-01

    Lie group methods are used to find both exact and numerical similarity solutions for compressible perturbations to all incompressible, two-dimensional, axisymmetric vortex reference flow. The reference flow vorticity satisfies an eigenvalue problem for which the solutions are a set of two-dimensional, self-similar, incompressible vortices. These solutions are augmented by deriving a conserved quantity for each eigenvalue, and identifying a Lie group which leaves the reference flow equations invariant. The partial differential equations governing the compressible perturbations to these reference flows are also invariant under the action of the same group. The similarity variables found with this group are used to determine the decay rates of the velocities and thermodynamic variables in the self-similar flows, and to reduce the governing partial differential equations to a set of ordinary differential equations. The ODE's are solved analytically and numerically for a Taylor vortex reference flow, and numerically for an Oseen vortex reference flow. The solutions are used to examine the dependencies of the temperature, density, entropy, dissipation and radial velocity on the Prandtl number. Also, experimental data on compressible free vortex flow are compared to the analytical results, the evolution of vortices from initial states which are not self-similar is discussed, and the energy transfer in a slightly-compressible vortex is considered.

  4. Earthquake detection through computationally efficient similarity search

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Clara E.; O’Reilly, Ossian; Bergen, Karianne J.; Beroza, Gregory C.

    2015-01-01

    Seismology is experiencing rapid growth in the quantity of data, which has outpaced the development of processing algorithms. Earthquake detection—identification of seismic events in continuous data—is a fundamental operation for observational seismology. We developed an efficient method to detect earthquakes using waveform similarity that overcomes the disadvantages of existing detection methods. Our method, called Fingerprint And Similarity Thresholding (FAST), can analyze a week of continuous seismic waveform data in less than 2 hours, or 140 times faster than autocorrelation. FAST adapts a data mining algorithm, originally designed to identify similar audio clips within large databases; it first creates compact “fingerprints” of waveforms by extracting key discriminative features, then groups similar fingerprints together within a database to facilitate fast, scalable search for similar fingerprint pairs, and finally generates a list of earthquake detections. FAST detected most (21 of 24) cataloged earthquakes and 68 uncataloged earthquakes in 1 week of continuous data from a station located near the Calaveras Fault in central California, achieving detection performance comparable to that of autocorrelation, with some additional false detections. FAST is expected to realize its full potential when applied to extremely long duration data sets over a distributed network of seismic stations. The widespread application of FAST has the potential to aid in the discovery of unexpected seismic signals, improve seismic monitoring, and promote a greater understanding of a variety of earthquake processes. PMID:26665176

  5. Earthquake detection through computationally efficient similarity search.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Clara E; O'Reilly, Ossian; Bergen, Karianne J; Beroza, Gregory C

    2015-12-01

    Seismology is experiencing rapid growth in the quantity of data, which has outpaced the development of processing algorithms. Earthquake detection-identification of seismic events in continuous data-is a fundamental operation for observational seismology. We developed an efficient method to detect earthquakes using waveform similarity that overcomes the disadvantages of existing detection methods. Our method, called Fingerprint And Similarity Thresholding (FAST), can analyze a week of continuous seismic waveform data in less than 2 hours, or 140 times faster than autocorrelation. FAST adapts a data mining algorithm, originally designed to identify similar audio clips within large databases; it first creates compact "fingerprints" of waveforms by extracting key discriminative features, then groups similar fingerprints together within a database to facilitate fast, scalable search for similar fingerprint pairs, and finally generates a list of earthquake detections. FAST detected most (21 of 24) cataloged earthquakes and 68 uncataloged earthquakes in 1 week of continuous data from a station located near the Calaveras Fault in central California, achieving detection performance comparable to that of autocorrelation, with some additional false detections. FAST is expected to realize its full potential when applied to extremely long duration data sets over a distributed network of seismic stations. The widespread application of FAST has the potential to aid in the discovery of unexpected seismic signals, improve seismic monitoring, and promote a greater understanding of a variety of earthquake processes.

  6. Efficient Video Similarity Measurement and Search

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, S-C S

    2002-12-19

    The amount of information on the world wide web has grown enormously since its creation in 1990. Duplication of content is inevitable because there is no central management on the web. Studies have shown that many similar versions of the same text documents can be found throughout the web. This redundancy problem is more severe for multimedia content such as web video sequences, as they are often stored in multiple locations and different formats to facilitate downloading and streaming. Similar versions of the same video can also be found, unknown to content creators, when web users modify and republish original content using video editing tools. Identifying similar content can benefit many web applications and content owners. For example, it will reduce the number of similar answers to a web search and identify inappropriate use of copyright content. In this dissertation, they present a system architecture and corresponding algorithms to efficiently measure, search, and organize similar video sequences found on any large database such as the web.

  7. Social relevance enhances memory for impressions in older adults.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Brittany S; Gutchess, Angela H

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that older adults have difficulty retrieving contextual material over items alone. Recent research suggests this deficit can be reduced by adding emotional context, allowing for the possibility that memory for social impressions may show less age-related decline than memory for other types of contextual information. Two studies investigated how orienting to social or self-relevant aspects of information contributed to the learning and retrieval of impressions in young and older adults. Participants encoded impressions of others in conditions varying in the use of self-reference (Experiment 1) and interpersonal meaningfulness (Experiment 2), and completed memory tasks requiring the retrieval of specific traits. For both experiments, age groups remembered similar numbers of impressions. In Experiment 1 using more self-relevant encoding contexts increased memory for impressions over orienting to stimuli in a non-social way, regardless of age. In Experiment 2 older adults had enhanced memory for impressions presented in an interpersonally meaningful relative to a personally irrelevant way, whereas young adults were unaffected by this manipulation. The results provide evidence that increasing social relevance ameliorates age differences in memory for impressions, and enhances older adults' ability to successfully retrieve contextual information.

  8. Older Adults Can Suppress Unwanted Memories When Given an Appropriate Strategy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Memory suppression refers to the ability to exclude distracting memories from conscious awareness, and this ability can be assessed with the think/no-think paradigm. Recent research with older adults has provided evidence suggesting both intact and deficient memory suppression. The present studies seek to understand the conditions contributing to older adults’ ability to suppress memories voluntarily. We report 2 experiments indicating that the specificity of the think/no-think task instructions contributes to older adults’ suppression success: When older adults receive open-ended instructions that require them to develop a retrieval suppression strategy on their own, they show diminished memory suppression compared with younger adults. Conversely, when older adults receive focused instructions directing them to a strategy thought to better isolate inhibitory control, they show suppression-induced forgetting similar to that exhibited by younger adults. Younger adults demonstrate memory suppression regardless of the specificity of the instructions given, suggesting that the ability to select a successful suppression strategy spontaneously may be compromised in older adults. If so, this deficit may be associated with diminished control over unwanted memories in naturalistic settings if impeded strategy development reduces the successful deployment of inhibitory control. PMID:25602491

  9. Not just scenery: Viewing nature pictures improves executive attention in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, Katherine R.; Howard, James H.; Howard, Darlene V.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Study Context Attention Restoration Theory (Kaplan, 1995) suggests that exposure to nature improves attention. Berman, Jonides and Kaplan (2008) showed that simply viewing nature pictures improves executive attention in young adults. The present study is the first to investigate this Nature Effect in older adults. We investigated whether executive attention could be improved in healthy older adults following brief exposure to nature pictures. Methods Thirty healthy older adults (64–79 years old) and 26 young university students (18–25 years old) participated. They completed the Attention Network Test before and after six minutes of viewing either nature or urban pictures, with random assignment into a picture type. Attention immediately before (most fatigued) and after (most restored) picture viewing was measured, and change in attention was compared between age groups and picture types. Results Results showed that viewing nature, but not urban, pictures significantly improved executive attention in both older and young adults as measured by the Attention Network Test, with similar effects seen in the two age groups. Alerting and orienting attention scores were not affected by picture-viewing. Conclusion This was the first study to show that viewing nature pictures improves attention in older adults, and to show that it is executive attention, specifically, that is improved. Among a growing number of interventions, nature exposure offers a quick, inexpensive, and enjoyable means to provide a temporary boost in executive attention. PMID:25321942

  10. Universal self-similarity of propagating populations.

    PubMed

    Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2010-07-01

    This paper explores the universal self-similarity of propagating populations. The following general propagation model is considered: particles are randomly emitted from the origin of a d-dimensional Euclidean space and propagate randomly and independently of each other in space; all particles share a statistically common--yet arbitrary--motion pattern; each particle has its own random propagation parameters--emission epoch, motion frequency, and motion amplitude. The universally self-similar statistics of the particles' displacements and first passage times (FPTs) are analyzed: statistics which are invariant with respect to the details of the displacement and FPT measurements and with respect to the particles' underlying motion pattern. Analysis concludes that the universally self-similar statistics are governed by Poisson processes with power-law intensities and by the Fréchet and Weibull extreme-value laws.

  11. Universal self-similarity of propagating populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2010-07-01

    This paper explores the universal self-similarity of propagating populations. The following general propagation model is considered: particles are randomly emitted from the origin of a d -dimensional Euclidean space and propagate randomly and independently of each other in space; all particles share a statistically common—yet arbitrary—motion pattern; each particle has its own random propagation parameters—emission epoch, motion frequency, and motion amplitude. The universally self-similar statistics of the particles’ displacements and first passage times (FPTs) are analyzed: statistics which are invariant with respect to the details of the displacement and FPT measurements and with respect to the particles’ underlying motion pattern. Analysis concludes that the universally self-similar statistics are governed by Poisson processes with power-law intensities and by the Fréchet and Weibull extreme-value laws.

  12. Similar psychological distance reduces temporal discounting.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunji; Schnall, Simone; White, Mathew P

    2013-08-01

    People often prefer inferior options in the present even when options in the future are more lucrative. Five studies investigated whether decision making could be improved by manipulating construal level and psychological distance. In Studies 1a, 1b, and 2, temporal discounting was reduced when future rewards (trips to Paris) were construed at a relatively concrete level, thus inducing a similar level of construal to present rewards. By contrast, Studies 3 and 4 reduced temporal discounting by making present financial rewards more psychologically distant via a social proximity manipulation, and thus linked to a similar high level of construal as future rewards. These results suggest that people prefer the more lucrative option when comparing two intertemporal choices that are construed on a similar level instead of on a different level. Thus, changes in construal level and mental representations can be used to promote more desirable choices in economic decision making.

  13. Dreaming and waking: similarities and differences revisited.

    PubMed

    Kahan, Tracey L; LaBerge, Stephen P

    2011-09-01

    Dreaming is often characterized as lacking high-order cognitive (HOC) skills. In two studies, we test the alternative hypothesis that the dreaming mind is highly similar to the waking mind. Multiple experience samples were obtained from late-night REM sleep and waking, following a systematic protocol described in Kahan (2001). Results indicated that reported dreaming and waking experiences are surprisingly similar in their cognitive and sensory qualities. Concurrently, ratings of dreaming and waking experiences were markedly different on questions of general reality orientation and logical organization (e.g., the bizarreness or typicality of the events, actions, and locations). Consistent with other recent studies (e.g., Bulkeley & Kahan, 2008; Kozmová & Wolman, 2006), experiences sampled from dreaming and waking were more similar with respect to their process features than with respect to their structural features.

  14. Percolation in Self-Similar Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, M. Ángeles; Krioukov, Dmitri; Boguñá, Marián

    2011-01-01

    We provide a simple proof that graphs in a general class of self-similar networks have zero percolation threshold. The considered self-similar networks include random scale-free graphs with given expected node degrees and zero clustering, scale-free graphs with finite clustering and metric structure, growing scale-free networks, and many real networks. The proof and the derivation of the giant component size do not require the assumption that networks are treelike. Our results rely only on the observation that self-similar networks possess a hierarchy of nested subgraphs whose average degree grows with their depth in the hierarchy. We conjecture that this property is pivotal for percolation in networks.

  15. Aiming for Efficiency by Detecting Structural Similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Judith; Jeliazkov, Nikolay; Kühne, Gerold

    When applying XML-Retrieval in a distributed setting, efficiency issues have to be considered, e.g. reducing the network traffic involved in an swering a given query. The new Efficiency Track of INEX gave us the opportu nity to explore the possibility of improving both effectiveness and efficiency by exploiting structural similarity. We ran some of the track’s highly structured queries on our top-k search engine to analyze the impact of various structural similarity functions. We applied those functions first to the ranking and based on that to the query routing process. Our results indicate that detection of structural similarity can be used in order to re duce the amount of messages sent between distributed nodes and thus lead to more efficiency of the search.

  16. Similar biotherapeutic products: overview and reflections.

    PubMed

    Desanvicente-Celis, Zayrho; Gomez-Lopez, Arley; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2012-12-01

    Biotherapeutic products (BPs) have revolutionized medicine, changing the way we treat several pathologies such as autoimmune diseases and cancer, among others. Herein, we present an overview of similar BPs (SBPs), also called biosimilars, including the manufacturing process and regulatory aspects involved. The objective of developing an SBP is to manufacture a molecule that is highly similar to a reference BP by conducting a comparability exercise (CE) that can demonstrate similar safety and efficacy. This CE consists of quality, as well as nonclinical and clinical evaluation. A case-by-case analysis approach guided by scientific and objective standards must be the foundation for the SBP approval process. The establishment of a balance between a comprehensive CE for SBPs and their reference BPs, and the design of costeffective strategies to provide better access to BPs, should be the key goal for national regulatory authorities. PMID:23240752

  17. The use of category and similarity information in limiting hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Kincannon, Alexandra; Spellman, Barbara A

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that adults usually select diverse evidence for generalizing hypotheses. We investigated what kind of evidence people select in another type of inductive task: limiting hypotheses. Whereas generalizing entails extending a property to all members of a category, limiting entails restricting a property to only members of a category. For example, if you know that elephants have property X, which would you test to determine whether only mammals have property X: a hippopotamus, a fox, a crocodile, or a snake? Both category and similarity information are relevant to selecting evidence to generalize or limit a hypothesis. Although 70% of participants chose diverse evidence for generalizing a hypothesis, only 25% chose the analogous evidence for limiting one. However, the percentage of participants choosing the appropriate evidence for limiting increased to 70% when they were given a rule for category membership. These results suggest that hypothesis-limiting behavior is affected by how participants establish category boundaries. PMID:12699148

  18. Quantifying the similarity of seismic polarizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Joshua P.; Eaton, David W.; Caffagni, Enrico

    2016-02-01

    Assessing the similarities of seismic attributes can help identify tremor, low signal-to-noise (S/N) signals and converted or reflected phases, in addition to diagnosing site noise and sensor misalignment in arrays. Polarization analysis is a widely accepted method for studying the orientation and directional characteristics of seismic phases via computed attributes, but similarity is ordinarily discussed using qualitative comparisons with reference values or known seismic sources. Here we introduce a technique for quantitative polarization similarity that uses weighted histograms computed in short, overlapping time windows, drawing on methods adapted from the image processing and computer vision literature. Our method accounts for ambiguity in azimuth and incidence angle and variations in S/N ratio. Measuring polarization similarity allows easy identification of site noise and sensor misalignment and can help identify coherent noise and emergent or low S/N phase arrivals. Dissimilar azimuths during phase arrivals indicate misaligned horizontal components, dissimilar incidence angles during phase arrivals indicate misaligned vertical components and dissimilar linear polarization may indicate a secondary noise source. Using records of the Mw = 8.3 Sea of Okhotsk earthquake, from Canadian National Seismic Network broad-band sensors in British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada, and a vertical borehole array at Hoadley gas field, central Alberta, Canada, we demonstrate that our method is robust to station spacing. Discrete wavelet analysis extends polarization similarity to the time-frequency domain in a straightforward way. Time-frequency polarization similarities of borehole data suggest that a coherent noise source may have persisted above 8 Hz several months after peak resource extraction from a `flowback' type hydraulic fracture.

  19. Some more similarities between Peirce and Skinner

    PubMed Central

    Moxley, Roy A.

    2002-01-01

    C. S. Peirce is noted for pioneering a variety of views, and the case is made here for the similarities and parallels between his views and B. F. Skinner's radical behaviorism. In addition to parallels previously noted, these similarities include an advancement of experimental science, a behavioral psychology, a shift from nominalism to realism, an opposition to positivism, a selectionist account for strengthening behavior, the importance of a community of selves, a recursive approach to method, and the probabilistic nature of truth. Questions are raised as to the extent to which Skinner's radical behaviorism, as distinguished from his S-R positivism, may be seen as an extension of Peirce's pragmatism. PMID:22478387

  20. Electrochemical healing similarities between animals and plants.

    PubMed Central

    Gensler, W

    1979-01-01

    A brief summary of the major results in enhanced wound healing by electrolysis in animals and humans is presented along with the results of enhanced growth by electrolysis in plants. Hypotheses of normal and enhanced wound healing in animal and plants are reviewed. A comparison of the experimental results indicates strong similarities in the optimum magnitude and polarity of the externally applied galvanic current in animals and plants. There are, however, differences in optimum current densities, There are strong similarities in animal and plant electropotential changes during normal healing. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:262440

  1. Random walks with similar transition probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiefermayr, Klaus

    2003-04-01

    We consider random walks on the nonnegative integers with a possible absorbing state at -1. A random walk is called [alpha]-similar to a random walk if there exist constants Cij such that for the corresponding n-step transition probabilities , i,j[greater-or-equal, slanted]0, hold. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for the [alpha]-similarity of two random walks both in terms of the parameters and in terms of the corresponding spectral measures which appear in the spectral representation of the n-step transition probabilities developed by Karlin and McGregor.

  2. The collagenous gastroenteritides: similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Purva; McKenna, Barbara J

    2010-10-01

    Collagenous gastritis, collagenous sprue, and collagenous colitis share striking histologic similarities and occur together in some patients. They also share some drug and disease associations. Pediatric cases of collagenous gastritis, however, lack most of these associations. The etiologies of the collagenous gastroenteritides are not known, so it is not clear whether they are similar because they share pathogeneses, or because they indicate a common histologic response to varying injuries. The features, disease and drug associations, and the inquiries into the pathogenesis of these disorders are reviewed. PMID:20923305

  3. Self-similarity and optical kinks in resonant nonlinear media

    SciTech Connect

    Ponomarenko, Sergey A.; Haghgoo, Soodeh

    2010-11-15

    We show that self-similar optical waves with a kink structure exist in a wide class of resonant nonlinear media, adequately treated in the two-level approximation. The self-similar structure of the present kinks is reflected in the time evolution of the field profile, atomic dipole moment, and one-atom inversion. We develop an analytical theory of such kinks. We show that the discovered kinks are accelerating nonlinear waves, asymptotically attaining their shape and the speed of light. We also numerically explore the formation and eventual disintegration of our kinks due to energy relaxation processes. Thus, the present kinks can be viewed as intermediate asymptotics of the system.

  4. Adult Education in Transition: Three Cases and Periods Compared

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engesbak, Heidi; Tonseth, Christin; Fragoso, Antonio; Lucio-Villegas, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this article is the development of adult education. As Kjell Rubenson maintains, adult education has gone through three eras of development: the humanistic, the strong economic period and a softer version of the economic period. Based on this model, we examine whether the development of adult education has similarities across…

  5. Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) treat small and large numbers of items similarly during a relative quantity judgment task.

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Parrish, Audrey E

    2016-08-01

    A key issue in understanding the evolutionary and developmental emergence of numerical cognition is to learn what mechanism(s) support perception and representation of quantitative information. Two such systems have been proposed, one for dealing with approximate representation of sets of items across an extended numerical range and another for highly precise representation of only small numbers of items. Evidence for the first system is abundant across species and in many tests with human adults and children, whereas the second system is primarily evident in research with children and in some tests with non-human animals. A recent paper (Choo & Franconeri, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 93-99, 2014) with adult humans also reported "superprecise" representation of small sets of items in comparison to large sets of items, which would provide more support for the presence of a second system in human adults. We first presented capuchin monkeys with a test similar to that of Choo and Franconeri in which small or large sets with the same ratios had to be discriminated. We then presented the same monkeys with an expanded range of comparisons in the small number range (all comparisons of 1-9 items) and the large number range (all comparisons of 10-90 items in 10-item increments). Capuchin monkeys showed no increased precision for small over large sets in making these discriminations in either experiment. These data indicate a difference in the performance of monkeys to that of adult humans, and specifically that monkeys do not show improved discrimination performance for small sets relative to large sets when the relative numerical differences are held constant. PMID:26689808

  6. Adult-born dentate neurons are recruited in both spatial memory encoding and retrieval.

    PubMed

    Tronel, Sophie; Charrier, Vanessa; Sage, Cyrille; Maitre, Marlene; Leste-Lasserre, Thierry; Abrous, Djoher N

    2015-11-01

    Adult neurogenesis occurs in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, which is a key structure in learning and memory. Adult-generated granule cells have been shown to play a role in spatial memory processes such as acquisition or retrieval, in particular during an immature stage when they exhibit a period of increased plasticity. Here, we demonstrate that immature and mature neurons born in the DG of adult rats are similarly activated in spatial memory processes. By imaging the activation of these two different neuron generations in the same rat and by using the immediate early gene Zif268, we show that these neurons are involved in both spatial memory acquisition and retrieval. These results demonstrate that adult-generated granule cells are involved in memory beyond their immaturity stage.

  7. Use of song as an effective teaching strategy for nutrition education in older adults.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Jacquelyn W; Jayaratne, K S U; Bird, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore whether singing an educational song would be effective in improving older adults' knowledge about nutrition. We used a randomized controlled design to determine whether singing an educational song would result in increased nutrition knowledge in a low-income population of older adults compared to a control group of similar adults who did not sing the song. Eighteen congregate nutrition sites were randomly assigned to the treatment or control group. Analysis via independent samples t -test showed the knowledge gain mean scores for the treatment group were significantly ( P  < 0.05) greater than those of the control group. This study supports a unique new approach to increasing nutrition knowledge of older adults by using music. PMID:25803602

  8. Behavioral and neural differences during two versions of cognitive shifting tasks in young children and adults.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Yusuke; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2014-05-01

    The present study examined how young children and adult participants activated inferior prefrontal regions when they were given different cognitive shifting tasks. Children and adults were given two versions of the Dimensional Change Card Sort task (the standard and advanced versions), and brain activations during the tasks were examined using near infrared spectroscopy. On the behavioral level, the performance of both children and adults deteriorated during the advanced version as compared to the standard version. On the neural level, adults exhibited similar bilateral inferior prefrontal activations during the advanced version and the standard version. On the other hand, children showed the significant differences of the activations between the regions during the advanced version, but not during the standard version. The results indicated that children recruited different inferior prefrontal areas depending on the demands of cognitive shifting. PMID:23765326

  9. Bi-parental care contributes to sexually dimorphic neural cell genesis in the adult mammalian brain.

    PubMed

    Mak, Gloria K; Antle, Michael C; Dyck, Richard H; Weiss, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Early life events can modulate brain development to produce persistent physiological and behavioural phenotypes that are transmissible across generations. However, whether neural precursor cells are altered by early life events, to produce persistent and transmissible behavioural changes, is unknown. Here, we show that bi-parental care, in early life, increases neural cell genesis in the adult rodent brain in a sexually dimorphic manner. Bi-parentally raised male mice display enhanced adult dentate gyrus neurogenesis, which improves hippocampal neurogenesis-dependent learning and memory. Female mice display enhanced adult white matter oligodendrocyte production, which increases proficiency in bilateral motor coordination and preference for social investigation. Surprisingly, single parent-raised male and female offspring, whose fathers and mothers received bi-parental care, respectively, display a similar enhancement in adult neural cell genesis and phenotypic behaviour. Therefore, neural plasticity and behavioural effects due to bi-parental care persist throughout life and are transmitted to the next generation.

  10. They can take a hint: Older adults effectively integrate memory cues during recognition.

    PubMed

    Konkel, Alex; Selmeczy, Diana; Dobbins, Ian G

    2015-12-01

    Adaptively biasing recognition judgments in light of environmental cues improves net accuracy. Based on previous work suggesting that strategically shifting biases on a trial-wise basis should be cognitively demanding, the authors predicted that older adults would not achieve the same accuracy benefits from environmental cues as the young. However, despite showing clear declines in cognitive control as indexed by complex span, older adults demonstrated similar accuracy gains and similar alterations of response probabilities with cues of 75% reliability (Experiment 1) and more complex cues spanning 3 levels of reliability (Experiment 2). Despite preserved gains in accuracy, older adults clearly demonstrated disproportionate slowing that was specific to trials in which cues were invalid. This slowing may reflect impairments in behavioral inhibition that could impinge upon accuracy were responding increasingly sped and future work manipulating response speed and measures of inhibition may yield further insights. PMID:26652722

  11. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - adults - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive airways disease - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive lung disease - adults - discharge; Chronic bronchitis - adults - discharge; Emphysema - adults - ...

  12. Adult Stem and Progenitor Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraerts, Martine; Verfaillie, Catherine M.

    The discovery of adult stem cells in most adult tissues is the basis of a number of clinical studies that are carried out, with therapeutic use of hematopoietic stem cells as a prime example. Intense scientific debate is still ongoing as to whether adult stem cells may have a greater plasticity than previously thought. Although cells with some features of embryonic stem cells that, among others, express Oct4, Nanog and SSEA1 are isolated from fresh tissue, it is not clear if the greater differentiation potential is acquired during cell culture. Moreover, adult more pluripotent cells do not have all pluripotent characteristics typical for embryonic stem cells. Recently, some elegant studies were published in which adult cells could be completely reprogrammed to embryonic stem cell-like cells by overexpression of some key transcription factors for pluripotency (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc). It will be interesting for the future to investigate the exact mechanisms underlying this reprogramming and whether similar transcription factor pathways are present and/or can be activated in adult more pluripotent stem cells.

  13. Estimating the self-similar exponent of broad-sense self-similar processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jing; Zhang, Guijun; Tong, Changqing

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a new algorithm about the self-similar exponent of self-similar processes is introduced which is used to explore long memory in financial time series. This method can work for more general broad-sense self-similar processes. We prove that this algorithm performs much better than the classical methods.

  14. Similarity-Based Classification in Partially Labeled Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qian-Ming; Shang, Ming-Sheng; Lü, Linyuan

    Two main difficulties in the problem of classification in partially labeled networks are the sparsity of the known labeled nodes and inconsistency of label information. To address these two difficulties, we propose a similarity-based method, where the basic assumption is that two nodes are more likely to be categorized into the same class if they are more similar. In this paper, we introduce ten similarity indices defined based on the network structure. Empirical results on the co-purchase network of political books show that the similarity-based method can, to some extent, overcome these two difficulties and give higher accurate classification than the relational neighbors method, especially when the labeled nodes are sparse. Furthermore, we find that when the information of known labeled nodes is sufficient, the indices considering only local information can perform as good as those global indices while having much lower computational complexity.

  15. Similarity-Based Modeling Applied to Signal Detection in Pharmacovigilance

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, S; Ryan, P B; Madigan, D; Stang, P E; Schuemie, M J; Friedman, C; Tatonetti, N P; Hripcsak, G

    2014-01-01

    One of the main objectives in pharmacovigilance is the detection of adverse drug events (ADEs) through mining of healthcare databases, such as electronic health records or administrative claims data. Although different approaches have been shown to be of great value, research is still focusing on the enhancement of signal detection to gain efficiency in further assessment and follow-up. We applied similarity-based modeling techniques, using 2D and 3D molecular structure, ADE, target, and ATC (anatomical therapeutic chemical) similarity measures, to the candidate associations selected previously in a medication-wide association study for four ADE outcomes. Our results showed an improvement in the precision when we ranked the subset of ADE candidates using similarity scorings. This method is simple, useful to strengthen or prioritize signals generated from healthcare databases, and facilitates ADE detection through the identification of the most similar drugs for which ADE information is available. PMID:25250527

  16. Great Apes' Capacities to Recognize Relational Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haun, Daniel B. M.; Call, Josep

    2009-01-01

    Recognizing relational similarity relies on the ability to understand that defining object properties might not lie in the objects individually, but in the relations of the properties of various object to each other. This aptitude is highly relevant for many important human skills such as language, reasoning, categorization and understanding…

  17. Building structural similarity database for metric learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Guoxin; Pappas, Thrasyvoulos N.

    2015-03-01

    We propose a new approach for constructing databases for training and testing similarity metrics for structurally lossless image compression. Our focus is on structural texture similarity (STSIM) metrics and the matched-texture compression (MTC) approach. We first discuss the metric requirements for structurally lossless compression, which differ from those of other applications such as image retrieval, classification, and understanding. We identify "interchangeability" as the key requirement for metric performance, and partition the domain of "identical" textures into three regions, of "highest," "high," and "good" similarity. We design two subjective tests for data collection, the first relies on ViSiProG to build a database of "identical" clusters, and the second builds a database of image pairs with the "highest," "high," "good," and "bad" similarity labels. The data for the subjective tests is generated during the MTC encoding process, and consist of pairs of candidate and target image blocks. The context of the surrounding image is critical for training the metrics to detect lighting discontinuities, spatial misalignments, and other border artifacts that have a noticeable effect on perceptual quality. The identical texture clusters are then used for training and testing two STSIM metrics. The labelled image pair database will be used in future research.

  18. The Case of the Similar Trees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Rochelle Wilson

    1982-01-01

    A possible logical flaw based on similar triangles is discussed with the Sherlock Holmes mystery, "The Muskgrave Ritual." The possible flaw has to do with the need for two trees to have equal growth rates over a 250-year period in order for the solution presented to work. (MP)

  19. Self-similar parabolic plasmonic beams.

    PubMed

    Davoyan, Arthur R; Turitsyn, Sergei K; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2013-02-15

    We demonstrate that an interplay between diffraction and defocusing nonlinearity can support stable self-similar plasmonic waves with a parabolic profile. Simplicity of a parabolic shape combined with the corresponding parabolic spatial phase distribution creates opportunities for controllable manipulation of plasmons through a combined action of diffraction and nonlinearity.

  20. Similarity of Science Textbooks: A Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Michael

    1973-01-01

    Studied the similarity of the astronomy portion in five science textbooks at the fourth through sixth grade levels by comparing students' responses to text authors' requirements. Concluded that the texts had more in common across grade levels than within grade levels. (CC)

  1. Predicting spatial similarity of freshwater fish biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Azaele, Sandro; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Maritan, Amos; Rinaldo, Andrea; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    A major issue in modern ecology is to understand how ecological complexity at broad scales is regulated by mechanisms operating at the organismic level. What specific underlying processes are essential for a macroecological pattern to emerge? Here, we analyze the analytical predictions of a general model suitable for describing the spatial biodiversity similarity in river ecosystems, and benchmark them against the empirical occurrence data of freshwater fish species collected in the Mississippi–Missouri river system. Encapsulating immigration, emigration, and stochastic noise, and without resorting to species abundance data, the model is able to reproduce the observed probability distribution of the Jaccard similarity index at any given distance. In addition to providing an excellent agreement with the empirical data, this approach accounts for heterogeneities of different subbasins, suggesting a strong dependence of biodiversity similarity on their respective climates. Strikingly, the model can also predict the actual probability distribution of the Jaccard similarity index for any distance when considering just a relatively small sample. The proposed framework supports the notion that simplified macroecological models are capable of predicting fundamental patterns—a theme at the heart of modern community ecology. PMID:19359481

  2. Parents' School Satisfaction: Ethnic Similarities and Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Barry A.; Bobrowski, Paula E.; Geraci, John

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Parent satisfaction with their children's school is an important issue in today's competitive educational environment characterized by school choice and government standards; however, few empirical studies address school satisfaction similarities and differences among parents from different ethnic groups. The purpose of this paper is to…

  3. Selecting the Right Similarity-Scoring Matrix.

    PubMed

    Pearson, William R

    2013-01-01

    Protein sequence similarity searching programs like BLASTP, SSEARCH (UNIT 3.10), and FASTA use scoring matrices that are designed to identify distant evolutionary relationships (BLOSUM62 for BLAST, BLOSUM50 for SEARCH and FASTA). Different similarity scoring matrices are most effective at different evolutionary distances. "Deep" scoring matrices like BLOSUM62 and BLOSUM50 target alignments with 20 - 30% identity, while "shallow" scoring matrices (e.g. VTML10 - VTML80), target alignments that share 90 - 50% identity, reflecting much less evolutionary change. While "deep" matrices provide very sensitive similarity searches, they also require longer sequence alignments and can sometimes produce alignment overextension into non-homologous regions. Shallower scoring matrices are more effective when searching for short protein domains, or when the goal is to limit the scope of the search to sequences that are likely to be orthologous between recently diverged organisms. Likewise, in DNA searches, the match and mismatch parameters set evolutionary look-back times and domain boundaries. In this unit, we will discuss the theoretical foundations that drive practical choices of protein and DNA similarity scoring matrices and gap penalties. Deep scoring matrices (BLOSUM62 and BLOSUM50) should be used for sensitive searches with full-length protein sequences, but short domains or restricted evolutionary look-back require shallower scoring matrices.

  4. Self similar nonlocal electron heat flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matte, Jean-Pierre

    2007-11-01

    The well known self similar heat diffusion solutions of Zel'dovich and Raizer [1], for a heat wave advancing from a boundary at a fixed temperature or a fixed heat flux do not keep the ratio R of the scale length to the mean free path constant. Instead, R increases and the solution becomes increasingly valid because Spitzer-Harm [2] heat flow is increasingly applicable. A self similar solution exists which keeps R constant, if one assumes that the boundary heat flux increases in time. Similarly, for the problem of a uniform density plasma heated by a finite width laser beam, a self similar solution keeping R constant can be obtained by assuming that the beam intensity and width increase in time. Such solutions will be studied with the electron kinetic code FPI [3], and compared to simulations with more usual laser characteristics. [1] Ya. B. Zel'dovich and Yu. P. Raizer, ``Physics of Shock Waves '', Academic Press, New York, 1967. [2] L. Spitzer and R. Harm, Phys. Rev. 89, 977 (1953). [3] J.-P. Matte et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1461 (1984) ; ibid 49, 1936 (1982).

  5. Computational models of adult neurogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecchi, Guillermo A.; Magnasco, Marcelo O.

    2005-10-01

    Experimental results in recent years have shown that adult neurogenesis is a significant phenomenon in the mammalian brain. Little is known, however, about the functional role played by the generation and destruction of neurons in the context of an adult brain. Here, we propose two models where new projection neurons are incorporated. We show that in both models, using incorporation and removal of neurons as a computational tool, it is possible to achieve a higher computational efficiency that in purely static, synapse-learning-driven networks. We also discuss the implication for understanding the role of adult neurogenesis in specific brain areas like the olfactory bulb and the dentate gyrus.

  6. Adult flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Toullec, E

    2015-02-01

    Adult flatfoot is defined as a flattening of the medial arch of the foot in weight-bearing and lack of a propulsive gait. The 3 lesion levels are the talonavicular, tibiotarsal and midfoot joints. The subtalar joint is damaged by the consequent rotational defects. Clinical examination determines deformity and reducibility, and assesses any posterior tibialis muscle deficit, the posterior tibialis tendon and spring ligament being frequently subject to degenerative lesions. Radiographic examination in 3 incidences in weight-bearing is essential, to determine the principal level of deformity. Tendon (posterior tibialis tendon) and ligamentous lesions (spring ligament and interosseous ligament) are analyzed on MRI or ultrasound. In fixed deformities, CT explores for arthritic evolution or specific etiologies. 3D CT reconstruction can analyze bone and joint morphology and contribute to the planning of any osteotomy. Medical management associates insoles and physiotherapy. Acute painful flatfoot requires strict cast immobilization. Surgical treatment associates numerous combinations of procedures, currently under assessment for supple flatfoot: for the hindfoot: medial slide calcaneal osteotomy, calcaneal lengthening osteotomy, or arthroereisis; for the midfoot: arthrodesis on one or several rays, or first cuneiform or first metatarsal osteotomy; for the ankle: medial collateral ligament repair with tendon transfer. Fixed deformities require arthrodesis of one or several joint-lines in the hindfoot; for the ankle, total replacement after realignment of the foot, or tibiotalocalcaneal fusion or ankle and hindfoot fusion; and, for the midfoot, cuneonavicular or cuneometatarsal fusion. Tendinous procedures are often associated. Specific etiologies may need individualized procedures. In conclusion, adult flatfoot tends to be diagnosed and managed too late, with consequent impact on the ankle, the management of which is complex and poorly codified.

  7. Adult flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Toullec, E

    2015-02-01

    Adult flatfoot is defined as a flattening of the medial arch of the foot in weight-bearing and lack of a propulsive gait. The 3 lesion levels are the talonavicular, tibiotarsal and midfoot joints. The subtalar joint is damaged by the consequent rotational defects. Clinical examination determines deformity and reducibility, and assesses any posterior tibialis muscle deficit, the posterior tibialis tendon and spring ligament being frequently subject to degenerative lesions. Radiographic examination in 3 incidences in weight-bearing is essential, to determine the principal level of deformity. Tendon (posterior tibialis tendon) and ligamentous lesions (spring ligament and interosseous ligament) are analyzed on MRI or ultrasound. In fixed deformities, CT explores for arthritic evolution or specific etiologies. 3D CT reconstruction can analyze bone and joint morphology and contribute to the planning of any osteotomy. Medical management associates insoles and physiotherapy. Acute painful flatfoot requires strict cast immobilization. Surgical treatment associates numerous combinations of procedures, currently under assessment for supple flatfoot: for the hindfoot: medial slide calcaneal osteotomy, calcaneal lengthening osteotomy, or arthroereisis; for the midfoot: arthrodesis on one or several rays, or first cuneiform or first metatarsal osteotomy; for the ankle: medial collateral ligament repair with tendon transfer. Fixed deformities require arthrodesis of one or several joint-lines in the hindfoot; for the ankle, total replacement after realignment of the foot, or tibiotalocalcaneal fusion or ankle and hindfoot fusion; and, for the midfoot, cuneonavicular or cuneometatarsal fusion. Tendinous procedures are often associated. Specific etiologies may need individualized procedures. In conclusion, adult flatfoot tends to be diagnosed and managed too late, with consequent impact on the ankle, the management of which is complex and poorly codified. PMID:25595429

  8. Computer acceptance of older adults.

    PubMed

    Nägle, Sibylle; Schmidt, Ludger

    2012-01-01

    Even though computers play a massive role in everyday life of modern societies, older adults, and especially older women, are less likely to use a computer, and they perform fewer activities on it than younger adults. To get a better understanding of the factors affecting older adults' intention towards and usage of computers, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Usage of Technology (UTAUT) was applied as part of a more extensive study with 52 users and non-users of computers, ranging in age from 50 to 90 years. The model covers various aspects of computer usage in old age via four key constructs, namely performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influences, and facilitating conditions, as well as the variables gender, age, experience, and voluntariness it. Interestingly, next to performance expectancy, facilitating conditions showed the strongest correlation with use as well as with intention. Effort expectancy showed no significant correlation with the intention of older adults to use a computer.

  9. Convergent and Divergent fMRI Responses in Children and Adults to Increasing Language Production Demands

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Saloni; Leech, Robert; Mercure, Evelyne; Lloyd-Fox, Sarah; Dick, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    In adults, patterns of neural activation associated with perhaps the most basic language skill—overt object naming—are extensively modulated by the psycholinguistic and visual complexity of the stimuli. Do children's brains react similarly when confronted with increasing processing demands, or they solve this problem in a different way? Here we scanned 37 children aged 7–13 and 19 young adults who performed a well-normed picture-naming task with 3 levels of difficulty. While neural organization for naming was largely similar in childhood and adulthood, adults had greater activation in all naming conditions over inferior temporal gyri and superior temporal gyri/supramarginal gyri. Manipulating naming complexity affected adults and children quite differently: neural activation, especially over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, showed complexity-dependent increases in adults, but complexity-dependent decreases in children. These represent fundamentally different responses to the linguistic and conceptual challenges of a simple naming task that makes no demands on literacy or metalinguistics. We discuss how these neural differences might result from different cognitive strategies used by adults and children during lexical retrieval/production as well as developmental changes in brain structure and functional connectivity. PMID:24907249

  10. Representational Similarity of Body Parts in Human Occipitotemporal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Bracci, Stefania; Caramazza, Alfonso; Peelen, Marius V

    2015-09-23

    Regions in human lateral and ventral occipitotemporal cortices (OTC) respond selectively to pictures of the human body and its parts. What are the organizational principles underlying body part responses in these regions? Here we used representational similarity analysis (RSA) of fMRI data to test multiple possible organizational principles: shape similarity, physical proximity, cortical homunculus proximity, and semantic similarity. Participants viewed pictures of whole persons, chairs, and eight body parts (hands, arms, legs, feet, chests, waists, upper faces, and lower faces). The similarity of multivoxel activity patterns for all body part pairs was established in whole person-selective OTC regions. The resulting neural similarity matrices were then compared with similarity matrices capturing the hypothesized organizational principles. Results showed that the semantic similarity model best captured the neural similarity of body parts in lateral and ventral OTC, which followed an organization in three clusters: (1) body parts used as action effectors (hands, feet, arms, and legs), (2) noneffector body parts (chests and waists), and (3) face parts (upper and lower faces). Whole-brain RSA revealed, in addition to OTC, regions in parietal and frontal cortex in which neural similarity was related to semantic similarity. In contrast, neural similarity in occipital cortex was best predicted by shape similarity models. We suggest that the semantic organization of body parts in high-level visual cortex relates to the different functions associated with the three body part clusters, reflecting the unique processing and connectivity demands associated with the different types of information (e.g., action, social) different body parts (e.g., limbs, faces) convey. Significance statement: While the organization of body part representations in motor and somatosensory cortices has been well characterized, the principles underlying body part representations in visual cortex

  11. Representational Similarity of Body Parts in Human Occipitotemporal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Bracci, Stefania; Caramazza, Alfonso; Peelen, Marius V

    2015-09-23

    Regions in human lateral and ventral occipitotemporal cortices (OTC) respond selectively to pictures of the human body and its parts. What are the organizational principles underlying body part responses in these regions? Here we used representational similarity analysis (RSA) of fMRI data to test multiple possible organizational principles: shape similarity, physical proximity, cortical homunculus proximity, and semantic similarity. Participants viewed pictures of whole persons, chairs, and eight body parts (hands, arms, legs, feet, chests, waists, upper faces, and lower faces). The similarity of multivoxel activity patterns for all body part pairs was established in whole person-selective OTC regions. The resulting neural similarity matrices were then compared with similarity matrices capturing the hypothesized organizational principles. Results showed that the semantic similarity model best captured the neural similarity of body parts in lateral and ventral OTC, which followed an organization in three clusters: (1) body parts used as action effectors (hands, feet, arms, and legs), (2) noneffector body parts (chests and waists), and (3) face parts (upper and lower faces). Whole-brain RSA revealed, in addition to OTC, regions in parietal and frontal cortex in which neural similarity was related to semantic similarity. In contrast, neural similarity in occipital cortex was best predicted by shape similarity models. We suggest that the semantic organization of body parts in high-level visual cortex relates to the different functions associated with the three body part clusters, reflecting the unique processing and connectivity demands associated with the different types of information (e.g., action, social) different body parts (e.g., limbs, faces) convey. Significance statement: While the organization of body part representations in motor and somatosensory cortices has been well characterized, the principles underlying body part representations in visual cortex

  12. Social Preference in Preschoolers: Effects of Morphological Self-Similarity and Familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Nadja; Tiddeman, Bernard; Haun, Daniel B. M.

    2016-01-01

    Adults prefer to interact with others that are similar to themselves. Even slight facial self-resemblance can elicit trust towards strangers. Here we investigate if preschoolers at the age of 5 years already use facial self-resemblance when they make social judgments about others. We found that, in the absence of any additional knowledge about prospective peers, children preferred those who look subtly like themselves over complete strangers. Thus, subtle morphological similarities trigger social preferences well before adulthood. PMID:26727132

  13. On optimizing distance-based similarity search for biological databases.

    PubMed

    Mao, Rui; Xu, Weijia; Ramakrishnan, Smriti; Nuckolls, Glen; Miranker, Daniel P

    2005-01-01

    Similarity search leveraging distance-based index structures is increasingly being used for both multimedia and biological database applications. We consider distance-based indexing for three important biological data types, protein k-mers with the metric PAM model, DNA k-mers with Hamming distance and peptide fragmentation spectra with a pseudo-metric derived from cosine distance. To date, the primary driver of this research has been multimedia applications, where similarity functions are often Euclidean norms on high dimensional feature vectors. We develop results showing that the character of these biological workloads is different from multimedia workloads. In particular, they are not intrinsically very high dimensional, and deserving different optimization heuristics. Based on MVP-trees, we develop a pivot selection heuristic seeking centers and show it outperforms the most widely used corner seeking heuristic. Similarly, we develop a data partitioning approach sensitive to the actual data distribution in lieu of median splits. PMID:16447992

  14. The Influence of Phonological Similarity Neighborhoods on Speech Production

    PubMed Central

    Vitevitch, Michael S.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of phonological similarity neighborhoods on the speed and accuracy of speech production was investigated with speech-error elicitation and picture-naming tasks. The results from 2 speech-error elicitation techniques—the spoonerisms of laboratory induced predisposition technique (B. J. Baars. 1992; B. J. Baars & M. T. Motley, 1974; M. T. Motley & B. J. Baars, 1976) and tongue twisters—showed that more errors were elicited for words with few similar sounding words (i.e., a sparse neighborhood) than for words with many similar sounding words (i.e., a dense neighborhood). The results from 3 picture-naming tasks showed that words with sparse neighborhoods were also named more slowly than words with dense neighborhoods. These findings demonstrate that multiple word forms are activated simultaneously and influence the speed and accuracy of speech production. The implications of these findings for current models of speech production are discussed. PMID:12109765

  15. Visual similarity is stronger than semantic similarity in guiding visual search for numbers.

    PubMed

    Godwin, Hayward J; Hout, Michael C; Menneer, Tamaryn

    2014-06-01

    Using a visual search task, we explored how behavior is influenced by both visual and semantic information. We recorded participants' eye movements as they searched for a single target number in a search array of single-digit numbers (0-9). We examined the probability of fixating the various distractors as a function of two key dimensions: the visual similarity between the target and each distractor, and the semantic similarity (i.e., the numerical distance) between the target and each distractor. Visual similarity estimates were obtained using multidimensional scaling based on the independent observer similarity ratings. A linear mixed-effects model demonstrated that both visual and semantic similarity influenced the probability that distractors would be fixated. However, the visual similarity effect was substantially larger than the semantic similarity effect. We close by discussing the potential value of using this novel methodological approach and the implications for both simple and complex visual search displays.

  16. Relations between twins' similarity of appearance and behavioral similarity: testing an assumption.

    PubMed

    Matheny, A P; Wilson, R S; Dolan, A B

    1976-07-01

    Questionnaires rating twins' physical similarity and similarity of dress were obtained from the parents of 121 identical and 70 same-sex fraternal twin pairs. Within-pair difference scores on several behavioral measures (two intelligence tests, two perceptual tests, one reading test, one test of speech articulation, and one personality inventory) were correlated with the twins' scores for physical similarity and similarity of dress. The correlations revealed no systematic relation between the similarity of appearance and the similarity of behaviors for either the identical twin pairs or the same-sex fraternal twin pairs. The assumption that twins' behaviors are more alike because they are more similar in appearance does not seem warranted.

  17. Spelling impairments in Spanish dyslexic adults.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Olivia; Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Spelling deficits have repeatedly been observed in children with dyslexia. However, the few studies addressing this issue in dyslexic adults have reported contradictory results. We investigated whether Spanish dyslexics show spelling deficits in adulthood and which components of the writing production process might be impaired in developmental dyslexia. In order to evaluate the involvement of the lexical and the sublexical routes of spelling as well as the graphemic buffer, lexical frequency, phonology-to-orthography consistency and word length were manipulated in two writing tasks: a direct copy transcoding task and a spelling-to-dictation task. Results revealed that adults with dyslexia produced longer written latencies, inter-letter intervals, writing durations and more errors than their peers without dyslexia. Moreover, the dyslexics were more affected by lexical frequency and word length than the controls, but both groups showed a similar effect of P-O consistency. Written latencies also revealed that while the dyslexics initiated the response later in the direct copy transcoding task than in the spelling-to-dictation task, the controls showed the opposite pattern. However, the dyslexics were slower than the controls in both tasks. Results were consistent with the hypothesis that spelling difficulties are present in adults with dyslexia, at least in a language with a transparent orthography such as Spanish. These difficulties seem to be associated with a deficit affecting both lexical processing and the ability to maintain information about the serial order of the letters in a word. However, the dyslexic group did not differ from the control group in the application of the P-O conversion procedures. The spelling impairment would be in addition to the reading deficit, leading to poorer performance in direct copy transcoding compared to spelling-to-dictation.

  18. Spelling impairments in Spanish dyslexic adults

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, Olivia; Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Spelling deficits have repeatedly been observed in children with dyslexia. However, the few studies addressing this issue in dyslexic adults have reported contradictory results. We investigated whether Spanish dyslexics show spelling deficits in adulthood and which components of the writing production process might be impaired in developmental dyslexia. In order to evaluate the involvement of the lexical and the sublexical routes of spelling as well as the graphemic buffer, lexical frequency, phonology-to-orthography consistency and word length were manipulated in two writing tasks: a direct copy transcoding task and a spelling-to-dictation task. Results revealed that adults with dyslexia produced longer written latencies, inter-letter intervals, writing durations and more errors than their peers without dyslexia. Moreover, the dyslexics were more affected by lexical frequency and word length than the controls, but both groups showed a similar effect of P-O consistency. Written latencies also revealed that while the dyslexics initiated the response later in the direct copy transcoding task than in the spelling-to-dictation task, the controls showed the opposite pattern. However, the dyslexics were slower than the controls in both tasks. Results were consistent with the hypothesis that spelling difficulties are present in adults with dyslexia, at least in a language with a transparent orthography such as Spanish. These difficulties seem to be associated with a deficit affecting both lexical processing and the ability to maintain information about the serial order of the letters in a word. However, the dyslexic group did not differ from the control group in the application of the P-O conversion procedures. The spelling impairment would be in addition to the reading deficit, leading to poorer performance in direct copy transcoding compared to spelling-to-dictation. PMID:25941507

  19. Body image distortions in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Christina T; Longo, Matthew R; Haggard, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    Distortions of body image have often been investigated in clinical disorders. Much of this literature implicitly assumes healthy adults maintain an accurate body image. We recently developed a novel, implicit, and quantitative measure of body image - the Body Image Task (BIT). Here, we report a large-scale analysis of performance on this task by healthy adults. In both an in-person and an online version of the BIT, participants were presented with an image of a head as an anchoring stimulus on a computer screen, and told to imagine that the head was part of a mirror image of themselves in a standing position. They were then instructed to judge where, relative to the head, each of several parts of their body would be located. The relative positions of each landmark can be used to construct an implicit perceptual map of bodily structure. We could thus measure the internally-stored body image, although we cannot exclude contributions from other representations. Our results show several distortions of body image. First, we found a large and systematic over-estimation of width relative to height. These distortions were similar for both males and females, and did not closely track the idiosyncrasies of individual participant's own bodies. Comparisons of individual body parts showed that participants overestimated the width of their shoulders and the length of their upper arms, relative to their height, while underestimating the lengths of their lower arms and legs. Principal components analysis showed a clear spatial structure to the distortions, suggesting spatial organisation and segmentation of the body image into upper and lower limb components that are bilaterally integrated. These results provide new insight into the body image of healthy adults, and have implications for the study and rehabilitation of clinical populations.

  20. Older adults challenged financially when adult children move home.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Steven P; Padilla-Frausto, D Imelda

    2014-02-01

    This policy brief looks at the financial burdens imposed on older Californians when adult children return home, often due to a crisis not of their own making, to live with their parents. The findings show that on average in California, the amount of money that older adults need in order to maintain a minimally decent standard of living while supporting one adult child in their home increases their expenses by a minimum of 50 percent. Low-income older adults are usually on fixed incomes, so helping an adult child can provide the child with a critical safety net but at the cost of the parents' own financial well-being. Policy approaches to assisting this vulnerable population of older adults include implementing reforms to increase Supplemental Security Income (SSI), improving the availability of affordable housing, assuring that all eligible nonelderly adults obtain health insurance through health care reform's expansion of Medi-Cal and subsidies, and increasing food assistance through SNAP and senior meal programs. PMID:24804354

  1. Similarity theory of lubricated Hertzian contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoeijer, J. H.; Eggers, J.; Venner, C. H.

    2013-10-01

    We consider a heavily loaded, lubricated contact between two elastic bodies at relative speed U, such that there is substantial elastic deformation. As a result of the interplay between hydrodynamics and non-local elasticity, a fluid film develops between the two solids, whose thickness scales as U3/5. The film profile h is selected by a universal similarity solution along the upstream inlet. Another similarity solution is valid at the outlet, which exhibits a local minimum in the film thickness. The two solutions are connected by a hyperbolic problem underneath the contact. Our asymptotic results for a soft sphere pressed against a hard wall are shown to agree with both experiment and numerical simulations.

  2. Selection of USSR foreign similarity regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disler, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The similarity regions in the United States and Canada were selected to parallel the conditions that affect labeling and classification accuracies in the U.S.S.R. indicator regions. In addition to climate, a significant condition that affects labeling and classification accuracies in the U.S.S.R. is the proportion of barley and wheat grown in a given region (based on sown areas). The following regions in the United States and Canada were determined to be similar to the U.S.S.R. indicator regions: (1) Montana agrophysical unit (APU) 104 corresponds to the Belorussia high barley region; (2) North Dakota and Minnesota APU 20 and secondary region southern Manitoba and Saskatchewan correspond to the Ural RSFSR barley and spring wheat region; (3) Montana APU 23 corresponds to he North Caucasus barley and winter wheat region. Selection criteria included climates, crop type, crop distribution, growth cycles, field sizes, and field shapes.

  3. Similarity modeling on an expanded mesh applied to rotating turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domaradzki, J. Andrzej; Horiuti, Kiyosi

    2001-11-01

    Because of the reduction in the turbulent kinetic energy decay rates rotating turbulence presents a significant challenge for turbulence models developed for nonrotating cases. We show that the modeling difficulties are removed if the generalized similarity methods are implemented on an expanded mesh.

  4. Similarity Theory and Dimensionless Numbers in Heat Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marin, E.; Calderon, A.; Delgado-Vasallo, O.

    2009-01-01

    We present basic concepts underlying the so-called similarity theory that in our opinion should be explained in basic undergraduate general physics courses when dealing with heat transport problems, in particular with those involving natural or free convection. A simple example is described that can be useful in showing a criterion for neglecting…

  5. 25. Similar view of lobby area on first floor transmitter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Similar view of lobby area on first floor transmitter building no. 102 looking at door in photograph AK-30-A-24 in closed position showing locking system and restricted access notification. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  6. Explosion Source Similarity Analysis via SVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yedlin, Matthew; Ben Horin, Yochai; Margrave, Gary

    2016-04-01

    An important seismological ingredient for establishing a regional seismic nuclear discriminant is the similarity analysis of a sequence of explosion sources. To investigate source similarity, we are fortunate to have access to a sequence of 1805 three-component recordings of quarry blasts, shot from March 2002 to January 2015. The centroid of these blasts has an estimated location 36.3E and 29.9N. All blasts were detonated by JPMC (Jordan Phosphate Mines Co.) All data were recorded at the Israeli NDC, HFRI, located at 30.03N and 35.03E. Data were first winnowed based on the distribution of maximum amplitudes in the neighborhood of the P-wave arrival. The winnowed data were then detrended using the algorithm of Cleveland et al (1990). The detrended data were bandpass filtered between .1 to 12 Hz using an eighth order Butterworth filter. Finally, data were sorted based on maximum trace amplitude. Two similarity analysis approaches were used. First, for each component, the entire suite of traces was decomposed into its eigenvector representation, by employing singular-valued decomposition (SVD). The data were then reconstructed using 10 percent of the singular values, with the resulting enhancement of the S-wave and surface wave arrivals. The results of this first method are then compared to the second analysis method based on the eigenface decomposition analysis of Turk and Pentland (1991). While both methods yield similar results in enhancement of data arrivals and reduction of data redundancy, more analysis is required to calibrate the recorded data to charge size, a quantity that was not available for the current study. References Cleveland, R. B., Cleveland, W. S., McRae, J. E., and Terpenning, I., Stl: A seasonal-trend decomposition procedure based on loess, Journal of Official Statistics, 6, No. 1, 3-73, 1990. Turk, M. and Pentland, A., Eigenfaces for recognition. Journal of cognitive neuroscience, 3(1), 71-86, 1991.

  7. Young and Older Adults' Gender Stereotype in Multitasking.

    PubMed

    Strobach, Tilo; Woszidlo, Alesia

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated discrepancies between two components of stereotyping by means of the popular notion that women are better at multitasking behaviors: the cognitive structure in individuals (personal belief) and the perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs (perceived belief of groups). With focus on this notion, we examined whether there was empirical evidence for the stereotype's existence and whether and how it was shared among different age groups. Data were collected from 241 young (n = 129) and older (n = 112) German individuals. The reported perceptions of gender effects at multitasking were substantial and thus demonstrated the existence of its stereotype. Importantly, in young and older adults, this stereotype existed in the perception of attributed characteristics by members of a collective (perceived belief of groups). When contrasting this perceived belief of groups and the personal belief, older adults showed a similar level of conformation of the gender stereotype while young adults were able to differentiate between these perspectives. Thus, young adults showed a discrepancy between the stereotype's components cognitive structure in individuals and perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs. PMID:26733913

  8. Young and Older Adults' Gender Stereotype in Multitasking

    PubMed Central

    Strobach, Tilo; Woszidlo, Alesia

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated discrepancies between two components of stereotyping by means of the popular notion that women are better at multitasking behaviors: the cognitive structure in individuals (personal belief) and the perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs (perceived belief of groups). With focus on this notion, we examined whether there was empirical evidence for the stereotype's existence and whether and how it was shared among different age groups. Data were collected from 241 young (n = 129) and older (n = 112) German individuals. The reported perceptions of gender effects at multitasking were substantial and thus demonstrated the existence of its stereotype. Importantly, in young and older adults, this stereotype existed in the perception of attributed characteristics by members of a collective (perceived belief of groups). When contrasting this perceived belief of groups and the personal belief, older adults showed a similar level of conformation of the gender stereotype while young adults were able to differentiate between these perspectives. Thus, young adults showed a discrepancy between the stereotype's components cognitive structure in individuals and perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs. PMID:26733913

  9. Young and Older Adults' Gender Stereotype in Multitasking.

    PubMed

    Strobach, Tilo; Woszidlo, Alesia

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated discrepancies between two components of stereotyping by means of the popular notion that women are better at multitasking behaviors: the cognitive structure in individuals (personal belief) and the perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs (perceived belief of groups). With focus on this notion, we examined whether there was empirical evidence for the stereotype's existence and whether and how it was shared among different age groups. Data were collected from 241 young (n = 129) and older (n = 112) German individuals. The reported perceptions of gender effects at multitasking were substantial and thus demonstrated the existence of its stereotype. Importantly, in young and older adults, this stereotype existed in the perception of attributed characteristics by members of a collective (perceived belief of groups). When contrasting this perceived belief of groups and the personal belief, older adults showed a similar level of conformation of the gender stereotype while young adults were able to differentiate between these perspectives. Thus, young adults showed a discrepancy between the stereotype's components cognitive structure in individuals and perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs.

  10. Adult and Adolescent Perceptions of Their Community's Drug Use Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Reese; And Others

    This study identified differences and similarities among the perceptions of adult and adolescent community members regarding drug use patterns and practices. A written questionnaire was administered to 5,128 adolescents from grades 7 through 12 in the rural inland northwest, and a similar questionnaire was administered to over 900 adults in the…

  11. Can Young Children Distinguish Abstract Expressionist Art from Superficially Similar Works by Preschoolers and Animals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nissel, Jenny; Hawley-Dolan, Angelina; Winner, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    While it is sometimes claimed that abstract art requires little skill and is indistinguishable from the scribbles of young children, recent research has shown that even adults with no training in art can distinguish works by abstract expressionists from superficially similar works by children and even elephants, monkeys, and apes (Hawley-Dolan…

  12. Similarities and Differences in the Transition Expectations of Youth and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Kristin; Geenen, Sarah; Powers, Laurie E.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored similarities and differences in the transition expectations of parents and youth. Independent samples of parents (N = 270) of transition-age youth with disabilities and students with disabilities (N = 242) were surveyed about the importance of achieving various adult goals, having specific types of transition-related training…

  13. Wind Turbine Experiments at Full Dynamic Similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Mark; Kiefer, Janik; Westergaard, Carsten; Hultmark, Marcus

    2015-11-01

    Performing experiments with scaled-down wind turbines has traditionally been difficult due to the matching requirements of the two driving non-dimensional parameters, the Tip Speed Ratio (TSR) and the Reynolds number. Typically, full-size turbines must be used to provide the baseline cases for engineering models and computer simulations where flow similarity is required. We present a new approach to investigating wind turbine aerodynamics at full dynamic similarity by employing a high-pressure wind tunnel at Princeton University known as the High Reynolds number Test Facility (or HRTF). This facility allows for Reynolds numbers of up to 3 million (based on chord and velocity at the tip) while still matching the TSR, on a geometrically similar, small-scale model. The background development of this project is briefly presented including the design and manufacture of a model turbine. Following this the power, thrust and wake data are discussed, in particular the scaling dependence on the Reynolds number. Supported under NSF grant CBET-1435254 (program manager Gregory Rorrer).

  14. CATCHR, HOPS and CORVET tethering complexes share a similar architecture.

    PubMed

    Chou, Hui-Ting; Dukovski, Danijela; Chambers, Melissa G; Reinisch, Karin M; Walz, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    We show here that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae GARP complex and the Cog1-4 subcomplex of the COG complex, both members of the complexes associated with tethering containing helical rods (CATCHR) family of multisubunit tethering complexes, share the same subunit organization. We also show that HOPS, a tethering complex acting in the endolysosomal pathway, shares a similar architecture, thus suggesting that multisubunit tethering complexes use related structural frameworks. PMID:27428774

  15. Rural Mid-Life Single Adult Families: Male/Female Similarities and Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingren, Herbert G.; And Others

    The study examined data from rural midlife singles concerning: (1) their socio-demographic characteristics; (2) their life satisfactions and happiness with their rural lifestyle; (3) their self-image and self-esteem; (4) their coping strategies; and (5) their social support systems. Subjects were 76 men and 149 women between the ages of 35 and 59…

  16. How Similar Are Adult Second Language Learners and Spanish Heritage Speakers? Spanish Clitics and Word Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies of heritage speakers, many of whom possess incomplete knowledge of their family language, suggest that these speakers may be linguistically superior to second language (L2) learners only in phonology but not in morphosyntax. This study reexamines this claim by focusing on knowledge of clitic pronouns and word order in 24 L2 learners…

  17. Men and women have similarly shaped carpometacarpal joint bones.

    PubMed

    Schneider, M T Y; Zhang, J; Crisco, J J; Weiss, A P C; Ladd, A L; Nielsen, P; Besier, T

    2015-09-18

    Characterizing the morphology of the carpometacarpal (CMC) joint bones and how they vary across the population is important for understanding the functional anatomy and pathology of the thumb. The purpose of this paper was to develop a statistical shape model of the trapezium and first metacarpal bones to characterize the size and shape of the whole bones across a cohort of 50. We used this shape model to investigate the effects of sex and age on the size and shape of the CMC joint bones and the articulating surface area of the CMC joint. We hypothesized that women have similar shape trapezium and first metacarpal bones compared to men, following scaling for overall size. We also hypothesized that age would be a significant predictor variable for CMC joint bone changes. CT image data and segmented point clouds of 50 CMC bones from healthy adult men and women were obtained from an ongoing study and used to generate two statistical shape models. Statistical analysis of the principal component weights of both models was performed to investigate morphological sex and age differences. We observed sex differences, but were unable to detect any age differences. Between men and women the only difference in morphology of the trapezia and first metacarpal bones was size. These findings confirm our first hypothesis, and suggest that the women have similarly shaped trapezium and first metacarpal bones compared to men. Furthermore, our results reject our second hypothesis, indicating that age is a poor predictor of CMC joint morphology. PMID:26116042

  18. Men and women have similarly shaped carpometacarpal joint bones.

    PubMed

    Schneider, M T Y; Zhang, J; Crisco, J J; Weiss, A P C; Ladd, A L; Nielsen, P; Besier, T

    2015-09-18

    Characterizing the morphology of the carpometacarpal (CMC) joint bones and how they vary across the population is important for understanding the functional anatomy and pathology of the thumb. The purpose of this paper was to develop a statistical shape model of the trapezium and first metacarpal bones to characterize the size and shape of the whole bones across a cohort of 50. We used this shape model to investigate the effects of sex and age on the size and shape of the CMC joint bones and the articulating surface area of the CMC joint. We hypothesized that women have similar shape trapezium and first metacarpal bones compared to men, following scaling for overall size. We also hypothesized that age would be a significant predictor variable for CMC joint bone changes. CT image data and segmented point clouds of 50 CMC bones from healthy adult men and women were obtained from an ongoing study and used to generate two statistical shape models. Statistical analysis of the principal component weights of both models was performed to investigate morphological sex and age differences. We observed sex differences, but were unable to detect any age differences. Between men and women the only difference in morphology of the trapezia and first metacarpal bones was size. These findings confirm our first hypothesis, and suggest that the women have similarly shaped trapezium and first metacarpal bones compared to men. Furthermore, our results reject our second hypothesis, indicating that age is a poor predictor of CMC joint morphology.

  19. MEN AND WOMEN HAVE SIMILARLY SHAPED CARPOMETACARPAL JOINT BONES

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, M. T. Y.; Zhang, J.; Crisco, J. J.; Weiss, A. P. C.; Ladd, A. L.; Nielsen, P.; Besier, T.

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the morphology of the carpometacarpal (CMC) joint bones and how they vary across the population is important for understanding the functional anatomy and pathology of the thumb. The purpose of this paper was to develop a statistical shape model of the trapezium and first metacarpal bones to characterize the size and shape of the whole bones across a cohort of 50. We used this shape model to investigate the effects of sex and age on the size and shape of the CMC joint bones and the articulating surface area of the CMC joint. We hypothesized that women have similar shape trapezium and first metacarpal bones compared to men, following scaling for overall size. We also hypothesized that age would be a significant predictor variable for CMC joint bone changes. CT image data and segmented point clouds of 50 CMC bones from healthy adult men and women were obtained from an ongoing study and used to generate two statistical shape models. Statistical analysis of the principal component weights of both models was performed to investigate morphological sex and age differences. We observed sex differences, but were unable to detect any age differences. Between men and women the only difference in morphology of the trapezia and first metacarpal bones was size. These findings confirm our first hypothesis, and suggest that the women have similarly shaped trapezium and first metacarpal bones compared to men. Furthermore, our results reject our second hypothesis, indicating that age is a poor predictor of CMC joint morphology. PMID:26116042

  20. Infantile autism: adult outcome.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, B

    2000-07-01

    Although the core features of autism do not change qualitatively, a gradual overall symptomatic improvement including an increase in adaptive skills is observed in most cases with age. Follow-up studies show that the diagnostic features, the differential diagnosis, and clinical problems of adult autistics differ substantially from that of autistic children. The differential diagnosis of older autistics include personality disorders, learning disabilities, and mood disorder. Depression, epilepsy, and behavioral problems such as aggression and agitation may be major clinical problems during adolescence. The early indicators of a better outcome include a higher level of IQ and language. Among the neuropsychological variables, measures of flexibility and cognitive shift are important as prognostic factors. Early behavioral and educational intervention may especially increase the adaptive skills of the patients and promote the in-family communication. The outcome studies of autism are particularly helpful in addressing the appropriate and most effective programs of remediation for adult autistics.