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  1. Executive function in older adults: a structural equation modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Hull, Rachel; Martin, Randi C; Beier, Margaret E; Lane, David; Hamilton, A Cris

    2008-07-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) were used to study the organization of executive functions in older adults. The four primary goals were to examine (a) whether executive functions were supported by one versus multiple underlying factors, (b) which underlying skill(s) predicted performance on complex executive function tasks, (c) whether performance on analogous verbal and nonverbal tasks was supported by separable underlying skills, and (d) how patterns of performance generally compared with those of young adults. A sample of 100 older adults completed 10 tasks, each designed to engage one of three control processes: mental set shifting (Shifting), information updating or monitoring (Updating), and inhibition of prepotent responses (Inhibition). CFA identified robust Shifting and Updating factors, but the Inhibition factor failed to emerge, and there was no evidence for verbal and nonverbal factors. SEM showed that Updating was the best predictor of performance on each of the complex tasks the authors assessed (the Tower of Hanoi and the Wisconsin Card Sort). Results are discussed in terms of insight for theories of cognitive aging and executive function. PMID:18590362

  2. Young adults' knowledge of politics: evaluating the role of socio-cognitive variables using structural equations.

    PubMed

    Brussino, Silvina; Medrano, Leonardo; Sorribas, Patricia; Rabbia, Hugo H

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to create an explanatory model that allows analyzing the predictive power of a set of variables related to political knowledge; more specifically, to analyze the relationship between the education level of young adults and the variables, interest in politics and internal political efficacy. We also analyzed the combined relationship between these variables, together with age, and political knowledge. We worked with a sample group of 280 young adults between the ages of 18-30 from the city of Córdoba (Argentina). The data was subjected to a structural equation modelling SEM analysis, which allowed for the corroboration of the following hypotheses: the higher the education level, the more the interest in politics; the higher the education level, the better the perception of internal political efficacy; the higher the education level, the more the political knowledge; the more the interest in politics, the more the political knowledge; and the better the perception of internal political efficacy, the more interest in politics. Moreover, the following hypotheses could not be verified: the older an individual, the more the political knowledge; and the better the perception of internal political efficacy, the more the political knowledge. The model obtained allows for discussion of the explanatory value of these socio-cognitive variables.

  3. A Structural Equation Modeling Approach to the Study of Stress and Psychological Adjustment in Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asberg, Kia K.; Bowers, Clint; Renk, Kimberly; McKinney, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    Today's society puts constant demands on the time and resources of all individuals, with the resulting stress promoting a decline in psychological adjustment. Emerging adults are not exempt from this experience, with an alarming number reporting excessive levels of stress and stress-related problems. As a result, the present study addresses the…

  4. Structural Equation Model Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-01-01

    In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree…

  5. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms and five-factor model traits in a clinical sample: a structural equation modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Knouse, Laura E; Traeger, Lara; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Safren, Steven A

    2013-10-01

    Relationships among attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and adult personality traits have not been examined in larger clinically diagnosed samples. We collected multisource ADHD symptom and self-report NEO Five-Factor Inventory (Costa and McCrae [Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc, 1992) data from 117 adults with ADHD and tested symptom-trait associations using structural equation modeling. The final model fit the data. Inattention was positively associated with neuroticism and negatively associated with conscientiousness. On the basis of ADHD expression in adulthood, hyperactivity and impulsivity were estimated as separate constructs and showed differential relationships to extraversion and agreeableness. A significant positive relationship between hyperactivity and conscientiousness arose in the context of other pathways. ADHD symptoms are reliably associated with personality traits, suggesting a complex interplay across development that warrants prospective study into adulthood.

  6. Generalized Multilevel Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia; Skrondal, Anders; Pickles, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    A unifying framework for generalized multilevel structural equation modeling is introduced. The models in the framework, called generalized linear latent and mixed models (GLLAMM), combine features of generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) and structural equation models (SEM) and consist of a response model and a structural model for the latent…

  7. Health Conception and Health-Promoting Lifestyle among Older Adults: The Validation of a Structural Equation Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkan, Kevin

    Using data from the Older Adult Project within the Health Promotion Research Program at Northern Illinois University, this study examined four dimensions of health conception and their relationship to six dimensions of health-promoting lifestyle in a population of older adults (n=364). A battery of instruments was administred to all subjects to…

  8. A structural equation model analysis of perceived control and psychological distress on worry among African American and European American young adults.

    PubMed

    Chapman, L Kevin; Kertz, Sarah J; Woodruff-Borden, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Perceived control has been identified as an important factor in the development and maintenance of mood disorders, and worry has been shown to have a unique relationship with psychological distress associated with mood disorders. The relationships between these variables have received little attention in the literature, and even less in terms of the role racial status may serve. The current study investigated the structural relationship between psychological distress and perceived control in predicting self-reported worry as well as potential differences in paths to worry in African American and European American young adults using a structural equation model. One hundred twenty-one European American and 100 African American undergraduate students completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Anxiety Control Questionnaire (ACQ), and the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ). Results suggest that psychological distress and perceived control predict worry in both the African American and European American samples, however there were significant differences in terms of which construct contributed most. For African Americans, psychological distress contributed significantly more to worry than perceived control, whereas low perceived control contributed more to worry for European Americans. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  9. The Designing of CALM (Computer Anxiety and Learning Measure): Validation of a Multidimensional Measure of Anxiety and Cognitions Relating to Adult Learning of Computing Skills Using Structural Equation Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Valentina; Marsh, Herbert W.; McInerney, Dennis M.

    This paper discusses the process through which a powerful multidimensional measure of affect and cognition in relation to adult learning of computing skills was derived from its early theoretical stages to its validation using structural equation modeling. The discussion emphasizes the importance of ensuring a strong substantive base from which to…

  10. Structural Equation Modeling of Multivariate Time Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Toit, Stephen H. C.; Browne, Michael W.

    2007-01-01

    The covariance structure of a vector autoregressive process with moving average residuals (VARMA) is derived. It differs from other available expressions for the covariance function of a stationary VARMA process and is compatible with current structural equation methodology. Structural equation modeling programs, such as LISREL, may therefore be…

  11. On a Equation in Finite Algebraically Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valcan, Dumitru

    2013-01-01

    Solving equations in finite algebraically structures (semigroups with identity, groups, rings or fields) many times is not easy. Even the professionals can have trouble in such cases. Therefore, in this paper we proposed to solve in the various finite groups or fields, a binomial equation of the form (1). We specify that this equation has been…

  12. The Specific Analysis of Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Roderick P.

    2004-01-01

    Conventional structural equation modeling fits a covariance structure implied by the equations of the model. This treatment of the model often gives misleading results because overall goodness of fit tests do not focus on the specific constraints implied by the model. An alternative treatment arising from Pearl's directed acyclic graph theory…

  13. Bayesian Lasso for Semiparametric Structural Equation Models

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ruixin; Zhu, Hongtu; Chow, Sy-Miin; Ibrahim, Joseph G.

    2011-01-01

    Summary There has been great interest in developing nonlinear structural equation models and associated statistical inference procedures, including estimation and model selection methods. In this paper a general semiparametric structural equation model (SSEM) is developed in which the structural equation is composed of nonparametric functions of exogenous latent variables and fixed covariates on a set of latent endogenous variables. A basis representation is used to approximate these nonparametric functions in the structural equation and the Bayesian Lasso method coupled with a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is used for simultaneous estimation and model selection. The proposed method is illustrated using a simulation study and data from the Affective Dynamics and Individual Differences (ADID) study. Results demonstrate that our method can accurately estimate the unknown parameters and correctly identify the true underlying model. PMID:22376150

  14. Structural Equation Modeling in Special Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Alan D.

    1995-01-01

    This article suggests the use of structural equation modeling in special education research, to analyze multivariate data from both nonexperimental and experimental research. It combines a structural model linking latent variables and a measurement model linking observed variables with latent variables. (Author/DB)

  15. Multiplicity Control in Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cribbie, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    Researchers conducting structural equation modeling analyses rarely, if ever, control for the inflated probability of Type I errors when evaluating the statistical significance of multiple parameters in a model. In this study, the Type I error control, power and true model rates of famsilywise and false discovery rate controlling procedures were…

  16. A Brief Guide to Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, Rebecca; Gore, Paul A., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    To complement recent articles in this journal on structural equation modeling (SEM) practice and principles by Martens and by Quintana and Maxwell, respectively, the authors offer a consumer's guide to SEM. Using an example derived from theory and research on vocational psychology, the authors outline six steps in SEM: model specification,…

  17. Structural Equation Modeling in Rehabilitation Counseling Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Fong; Lee, Gloria K.; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Kubota, Coleen; Allen, Chase A.

    2007-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) has become increasingly popular in counseling, psychology, and rehabilitation research. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the basic concepts and applications of SEM in rehabilitation counseling research using the AMOS statistical software program.

  18. Structural equation modeling for observational studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grace, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) represents a framework for developing and evaluating complex hypotheses about systems. This method of data analysis differs from conventional univariate and multivariate approaches familiar to most biologists in several ways. First, SEMs are multiequational and capable of representing a wide array of complex hypotheses about how system components interrelate. Second, models are typically developed based on theoretical knowledge and designed to represent competing hypotheses about the processes responsible for data structure. Third, SEM is conceptually based on the analysis of covariance relations. Most commonly, solutions are obtained using maximum-likelihood solution procedures, although a variety of solution procedures are used, including Bayesian estimation. Numerous extensions give SEM a very high degree of flexibility in dealing with nonnormal data, categorical responses, latent variables, hierarchical structure, multigroup comparisons, nonlinearities, and other complicating factors. Structural equation modeling allows researchers to address a variety of questions about systems, such as how different processes work in concert, how the influences of perturbations cascade through systems, and about the relative importance of different influences. I present 2 example applications of SEM, one involving interactions among lynx (Lynx pardinus), mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon), and rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), and the second involving anuran species richness. Many wildlife ecologists may find SEM useful for understanding how populations function within their environments. Along with the capability of the methodology comes a need for care in the proper application of SEM.

  19. Applying Meta-Analysis to Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedges, Larry V.

    2016-01-01

    Structural equation models play an important role in the social sciences. Consequently, there is an increasing use of meta-analytic methods to combine evidence from studies that estimate the parameters of structural equation models. Two approaches are used to combine evidence from structural equation models: A direct approach that combines…

  20. Model Comparison of Bayesian Semiparametric and Parametric Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Xin-Yuan; Xia, Ye-Mao; Pan, Jun-Hao; Lee, Sik-Yum

    2011-01-01

    Structural equation models have wide applications. One of the most important issues in analyzing structural equation models is model comparison. This article proposes a Bayesian model comparison statistic, namely the "L[subscript nu]"-measure for both semiparametric and parametric structural equation models. For illustration purposes, we consider…

  1. AN ATMOSPHERIC STRUCTURE EQUATION FOR GRAIN GROWTH

    SciTech Connect

    Ormel, C.W.

    2014-07-01

    We present a method to include the evolution of the grain size and grain opacity κ{sub gr} in the equations describing the structure of protoplanetary atmospheres. The key assumption of this method is that a single grain size dominates the grain size distribution at any height r. In addition to following grain growth, the method accounts for mass deposition by planetesimals and grain porosity. We illustrate this method by computation of a simplified atmosphere structure model. In agreement with previous works, grain coagulation is seen to be very efficient. The opacity drops to values much below the often-used ''interstellar medium opacities'' (∼1 cm{sup 2} g{sup –1}) and the atmosphere structure profiles for temperature and density resemble that of the grain-free case. Deposition of planetesimals in the radiative part of the atmosphere hardly influences this outcome as the added surface is quickly coagulated away. We observe a modest dependence on the internal structure (porosity), but show that filling factors cannot become too large because of compression by gas drag.

  2. Structural equation modeling: strengths, limitations, and misconceptions.

    PubMed

    Tomarken, Andrew J; Waller, Niels G

    2005-01-01

    Because structural equation modeling (SEM) has become a very popular data-analytic technique, it is important for clinical scientists to have a balanced perception of its strengths and limitations. We review several strengths of SEM, with a particular focus on recent innovations (e.g., latent growth modeling, multilevel SEM models, and approaches for dealing with missing data and with violations of normality assumptions) that underscore how SEM has become a broad data-analytic framework with flexible and unique capabilities. We also consider several limitations of SEM and some misconceptions that it tends to elicit. Major themes emphasized are the problem of omitted variables, the importance of lower-order model components, potential limitations of models judged to be well fitting, the inaccuracy of some commonly used rules of thumb, and the importance of study design. Throughout, we offer recommendations for the conduct of SEM analyses and the reporting of results. PMID:17716081

  3. Exploratory structural equation modeling of personality data.

    PubMed

    Booth, Tom; Hughes, David J

    2014-06-01

    The current article compares the use of exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) as an alternative to confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) models in personality research. We compare model fit, factor distinctiveness, and criterion associations of factors derived from ESEM and CFA models. In Sample 1 (n = 336) participants completed the NEO-FFI, the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form, and the Creative Domains Questionnaire. In Sample 2 (n = 425) participants completed the Big Five Inventory and the depression and anxiety scales of the General Health Questionnaire. ESEM models provided better fit than CFA models, but ESEM solutions did not uniformly meet cutoff criteria for model fit. Factor scores derived from ESEM and CFA models correlated highly (.91 to .99), suggesting the additional factor loadings within the ESEM model add little in defining latent factor content. Lastly, criterion associations of each personality factor in CFA and ESEM models were near identical in both inventories. We provide an example of how ESEM and CFA might be used together in improving personality assessment.

  4. Structural equation modeling in environmental risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Buncher, C R; Succop, P A; Dietrich, K N

    1991-01-01

    Environmental epidemiology requires effective models that take individual observations of environmental factors and connect them into meaningful patterns. Single-factor relationships have given way to multivariable analyses; simple additive models have been augmented by multiplicative (logistic) models. Each of these steps has produced greater enlightenment and understanding. Models that allow for factors causing outputs that can affect later outputs with putative causation working at several different time points (e.g., linkage) are not commonly used in the environmental literature. Structural equation models are a class of covariance structure models that have been used extensively in economics/business and social science but are still little used in the realm of biostatistics. Path analysis in genetic studies is one simplified form of this class of models. We have been using these models in a study of the health and development of infants who have been exposed to lead in utero and in the postnatal home environment. These models require as input the directionality of the relationship and then produce fitted models for multiple inputs causing each factor and the opportunity to have outputs serve as input variables into the next phase of the simultaneously fitted model. Some examples of these models from our research are presented to increase familiarity with this class of models. Use of these models can provide insight into the effect of changing an environmental factor when assessing risk. The usual cautions concerning believing a model, believing causation has been proven, and the assumptions that are required for each model are operative. PMID:2050063

  5. Fitting ARMA Time Series by Structural Equation Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Buuren, Stef

    1997-01-01

    This paper outlines how the stationary ARMA (p,q) model (G. Box and G. Jenkins, 1976) can be specified as a structural equation model. Maximum likelihood estimates for the parameters in the ARMA model can be obtained by software for fitting structural equation models. The method is applied to three problem types. (SLD)

  6. The Growth of Structural Equation Modeling: 1994-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershberger, Scott L.

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the growth and development of structural equation modeling (SEM) from the years 1994 to 2001. The synchronous development and growth of the Structural Equation Modeling journal was also examined. Abstracts located on PsycINFO were used as the primary source of data. The major results of this investigation were clear: (a) The…

  7. Two Rules of Identification for Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollen, Kenneth A.; Davis, Walter R.

    2009-01-01

    Identification of structural equation models remains a challenge to many researchers. Although empirical tests of identification are readily available in structural equation modeling software, these examine local identification and rely on sample estimates of parameters. Rules of identification are available, but do not include all models…

  8. Goodness of Fit Criteria in Structural Equation Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacker, Randall E.

    Several goodness of fit (GOF) criteria have been developed to assist the researcher in interpreting structural equation models. However, the determination of GOF for structural equation models is not as straightforward as that for other statistical approaches in multivariate procedures. The four GOF criteria used across the commonly used…

  9. A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis of Influences on Juvenile Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, David E.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Zhang, Dalun; Zhang, Dake

    2014-01-01

    This study examined influences on delinquency and recidivism using structural equation modeling. The sample comprised 199,204 individuals: 99,602 youth whose cases had been processed by the South Carolina Department of Juvenile Justice and a matched control group of 99,602 youth without juvenile records. Structural equation modeling for the…

  10. Sensitivity of rocky planet structures to the equation of state

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, D C

    2009-06-10

    Structures were calculated for Mercury, Venus, Earth, the Moon, and Mars, using a core-mantle model and adjusting the core radius to reproduce the observed mass and diameter of each body. Structures were calculated using Fe and basalt equations of state of different degrees of sophistication for the core and mantle. The choice of equation of state had a significant effect on the inferred structure. For each structure, the moment of inertia ratio was calculated and compared with observed values. Linear Grueneisen equations of state fitted to limited portions of shock data reproduced the observed moments of inertia significantly better than did more detailed equations of state incorporating phase transitions, presumably reflecting the actual compositions of the bodies. The linear Grueneisen equations of state and corresponding structures seem however to be a reasonable starting point for comparative simulations of large-scale astrophysical impacts.

  11. New Formulation of the Governing Equations for Analyzing Outrigger Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Er, Guo-Kang

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, an easily comprehensible solution procedure is proposed for the analysis of outrigger-braced structures. The idea is based on the compatibility of the columns' axial deformation. The unknowns are selected to be the axial forces in the columns. The resulted governing equations and the equations for the optimum analysis of the outrigger locations are different from the conventional ones, but numerical analysis shows that the results obtained with the new equations are same as those obtained with conventional equations. The relations between the new equations and the conventional ones are also figured out. The new procedure of formulating the governing equations can be easily extended to more complicated cases of outrigger-braced structures.

  12. Hamiltonian structures for the Ostrovsky-Vakhnenko equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunelli, J. C.; Sakovich, S.

    2013-01-01

    We obtain a bi-Hamiltonian formulation for the Ostrovsky-Vakhnenko (OV) equation using its higher order symmetry and a new transformation to the Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon-Sawada-Kotera equation. Central to this derivation is the relation between Hamiltonian structures when dependent and independent variables are transformed.

  13. USING STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING TO INVESTIGATE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG ECOLOGICAL VARIABLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper gives an introductory account of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and demonstrates its application using LISREL< with a model utilizing environmental data. Using nine EMAP data variables, we analyzed their correlation matrix with an SEM model. The model characterized...

  14. The relativistic equations of stellar structure and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, K. S.

    1977-01-01

    The general-relativistic equations of stellar structure and evolution are reformulated in a notation which makes easy contact with Newtonian theory. Also, a general-relativistic version of the mixing-length formalism for convection is presented.

  15. Case Residuals in Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinale, John

    2011-01-01

    From the beginning, lead methodologists in psychometrics and quantitative psychology have been well aware of the problems of fitting structural and confirmatory factor models. The question we approach in our research is how to best detect this misfit and how to identify specific sources of misfit by scrutinizing the data at the case level. Since…

  16. Structural Equation Modeling of School Violence Data: Methodological Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Matthew J.

    2004-01-01

    Methodological challenges associated with structural equation modeling (SEM) and structured means modeling (SMM) in research on school violence and related topics in the social and behavioral sciences are examined. Problems associated with multiyear implementations of large-scale surveys are discussed. Complex sample designs, part of any…

  17. Structural Equation Modelling: A Primer for Music Education Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Structural equation modelling (SEM) is a method for analysis of multivariate data from both non-experimental and experimental research. The method combines a structural model linking latent variables and a measurement model linking observed variables with latent variables. Its use in social science and educational research has grown since the…

  18. Bayesian Semiparametric Structural Equation Models with Latent Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Mingan; Dunson, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Structural equation models (SEMs) with latent variables are widely useful for sparse covariance structure modeling and for inferring relationships among latent variables. Bayesian SEMs are appealing in allowing for the incorporation of prior information and in providing exact posterior distributions of unknowns, including the latent variables. In…

  19. Paraconformal structures, ordinary differential equations and totally geodesic manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryński, Wojciech

    2016-05-01

    We construct point invariants of ordinary differential equations of arbitrary order that generalise the Tresse and Cartan invariants of equations of order two and three, respectively. The vanishing of the invariants is equivalent to the existence of a totally geodesic paraconformal structure which consists of a paraconformal structure, an adapted GL(2 , R) -connection and a two-parameter family of totally geodesic hypersurfaces on the solution space. The structures coincide with the projective structures in dimension 2 and with the Einstein-Weyl structures of Lorentzian signature in dimension 3. We show that the totally geodesic paraconformal structures in higher dimensions can be described by a natural analogue of the Hitchin twistor construction. We present a general example of Veronese webs that generalise the hyper-CR Einstein-Weyl structures in dimension 3. The Veronese webs are described by a hierarchy of integrable systems.

  20. Quantum N-body problem: Matrix structures and equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovlev, S. L.

    2014-10-01

    We consider matrix structures in the quantum N-body problem that generalize the Faddeev components for resolvents, T-matrices, and eigenfunctions of the continuous spectrum. We write matrix equations for the introduced components of T-matrices and resolvents and use these equations to obtain matrix operators generalizing the matrix three-particle Faddeev operators to the case of arbitrarily many particles. We determine the eigenfunctions of the continuous spectrum of these matrix operators.

  1. On third Poisson structure of KdV equation

    SciTech Connect

    Gorsky, A.; Marshakov, A.; Orlov, A.

    1995-12-01

    The third Poisson structure of the KdV equation in terms of canonical {open_quote}free fields{close_quote} and the reduced WZNW model is discussed. We prove that it is {open_quotes}diagonalized{close_quotes} in the Lagrange variables which were used before in the formulation of 2d gravity. We propose a quantum path integral for the KdV equation based on this representation.

  2. The Structure of Adult Students' Worries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the structure of adult students' worries. Students (N = 309) enrolled in advanced undergraduate and graduate university courses were administered the Student Worry Scale. A factor analysis revealed three factors of student worries: worries about living conditions, esteem-related worries, and world-related worries. Worries…

  3. Changing Community Structure and Income Distribution: A Structural Equation Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelock, Gerald C.

    A preliminary model of community economic development processes, consisting of a system of simultaneous equations, is used to describe how these processes influence changes in median family income and income inequality. The analysis was performed on 61 racially mixed counties in Alabama, using 1960-70 census data. Social and demographic variables…

  4. People Are Variables Too: Multilevel Structural Equations Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Paras D.; Neale, Michael C.

    2005-01-01

    The article uses confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) as a template to explain didactically multilevel structural equation models (ML-SEM) and to demonstrate the equivalence of general mixed-effects models and ML-SEM. An intuitively appealing graphical representation of complex ML-SEMs is introduced that succinctly describes the underlying model and…

  5. Latent Growth Curves within Developmental Structural Equation Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, J. J.; Epstein, David

    1987-01-01

    Uses structural equation modeling to combine traditional ideas from repeated-measures ANOVA with some traditional ideas from longitudinal factor analysis. The model describes a latent growth curve model that permits the estimation of parameters representing individual and group dynamics. (Author/RH)

  6. A Structural Equation Model for Predicting Business Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomykalski, James J.; Dion, Paul; Brock, James L.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the authors developed a structural equation model that accounted for 79% of the variability of a student's final grade point average by using a sample size of 147 students. The model is based on student grades in 4 foundational business courses: introduction to business, macroeconomics, statistics, and using databases. Educators and…

  7. Robust Structural Equation Modeling with Missing Data and Auxiliary Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Ke-Hai; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2012-01-01

    The paper develops a two-stage robust procedure for structural equation modeling (SEM) and an R package "rsem" to facilitate the use of the procedure by applied researchers. In the first stage, M-estimates of the saturated mean vector and covariance matrix of all variables are obtained. Those corresponding to the substantive variables are then…

  8. Solutions for Missing Data in Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Rufus Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Many times in both educational and social science research it is impossible to collect data that is complete. When administering a survey, for example, people may answer some questions and not others. This missing data causes a problem for researchers using structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques for data analyses. Because SEM and…

  9. Analyzing Mixed-Dyadic Data Using Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peugh, James L.; DiLillo, David; Panuzio, Jillian

    2013-01-01

    Mixed-dyadic data, collected from distinguishable (nonexchangeable) or indistinguishable (exchangeable) dyads, require statistical analysis techniques that model the variation within dyads and between dyads appropriately. The purpose of this article is to provide a tutorial for performing structural equation modeling analyses of cross-sectional…

  10. Using Fixed Thresholds with Grouped Data in Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koran, Jennifer; Hancock, Gregory R.

    2010-01-01

    Valuable methods have been developed for incorporating ordinal variables into structural equation models using a latent response variable formulation. However, some model parameters, such as the means and variances of latent factors, can be quite difficult to interpret because the latent response variables have an arbitrary metric. This limitation…

  11. Hopes and Cautions in Implementing Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCallum, Robert C.; Edwards, Michael C.; Cai, Li

    2012-01-01

    Muthen and Asparouhov (2012) have proposed and demonstrated an approach to model specification and estimation in structural equation modeling (SEM) using Bayesian methods. Their contribution builds on previous work in this area by (a) focusing on the translation of conventional SEM models into a Bayesian framework wherein parameters fixed at zero…

  12. A Bayesian Approach for Analyzing Longitudinal Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Xin-Yuan; Lu, Zhao-Hua; Hser, Yih-Ing; Lee, Sik-Yum

    2011-01-01

    This article considers a Bayesian approach for analyzing a longitudinal 2-level nonlinear structural equation model with covariates, and mixed continuous and ordered categorical variables. The first-level model is formulated for measures taken at each time point nested within individuals for investigating their characteristics that are dynamically…

  13. Interactions of Latent Variables in Structural Equation Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollen, Kenneth A.; Paxton, Pamela

    1998-01-01

    Provides a discussion of an alternative two-stage least squares (2SLS) technique to include interactions of latent variables in structural equation models. The method requires selection of instrumental variables, and rules for selection are presented. An empirical example and Statistical Analysis System programs are presented. (SLD)

  14. Testing Structural Equation Models or Detection of Misspecifications?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saris, Willem E.; Satorra, Albert; van der Veld, William M.

    2009-01-01

    Assessing the correctness of a structural equation model is essential to avoid drawing incorrect conclusions from empirical research. In the past, the chi-square test was recommended for assessing the correctness of the model but this test has been criticized because of its sensitivity to sample size. As a reaction, an abundance of fit indexes…

  15. A Structural Equation Model of Expertise in College Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Carr, Martha

    2009-01-01

    A model of expertise in physics was tested on a sample of 374 college students in 2 different level physics courses. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among variables linked to expert performance in physics including strategy use, pictorial representation, categorization skills, and motivation, and these…

  16. Structural Equation Modeling Reporting Practices for Language Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ockey, Gary J.; Choi, Ikkyu

    2015-01-01

    Studies that use structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques are increasingly encountered in the language assessment literature. This popularity has created the need for a set of guidelines that can indicate what should be included in a research report and make it possible for research consumers to judge the appropriateness of the…

  17. Sensitivity Analysis in Structural Equation Models: Cases and Their Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pek, Jolynn; MacCallum, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    The detection of outliers and influential observations is routine practice in linear regression. Despite ongoing extensions and development of case diagnostics in structural equation models (SEM), their application has received limited attention and understanding in practice. The use of case diagnostics informs analysts of the uncertainty of model…

  18. Structural Equation Modeling Diagnostics Using R Package Semdiag and EQS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Ke-Hai; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2012-01-01

    Yuan and Hayashi (2010) introduced 2 scatter plots for model and data diagnostics in structural equation modeling (SEM). However, the generation of the plots requires in-depth understanding of their underlying technical details. This article develops and introduces an R package semdiag for easily drawing the 2 plots. With a model specified in EQS…

  19. Fitting Meta-Analytic Structural Equation Models with Complex Datasets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Sandra Jo; Polanin, Joshua R.; Lipsey, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    A modification of the first stage of the standard procedure for two-stage meta-analytic structural equation modeling for use with large complex datasets is presented. This modification addresses two common problems that arise in such meta-analyses: (a) primary studies that provide multiple measures of the same construct and (b) the correlation…

  20. A Note on Structural Equation Modeling Estimates of Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yanyun; Green, Samuel B.

    2010-01-01

    Reliability can be estimated using structural equation modeling (SEM). Two potential problems with this approach are that estimates may be unstable with small sample sizes and biased with misspecified models. A Monte Carlo study was conducted to investigate the quality of SEM estimates of reliability by themselves and relative to coefficient…

  1. Structural Equations and Causal Explanations: Some Challenges for Causal SEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markus, Keith A.

    2010-01-01

    One common application of structural equation modeling (SEM) involves expressing and empirically investigating causal explanations. Nonetheless, several aspects of causal explanation that have an impact on behavioral science methodology remain poorly understood. It remains unclear whether applications of SEM should attempt to provide complete…

  2. Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling with R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravand, Hamdollah; Baghaei, Purya

    2016-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) has become widespread in educational and psychological research. Its flexibility in addressing complex theoretical models and the proper treatment of measurement error has made it the model of choice for many researchers in the social sciences. Nevertheless, the model imposes some daunting assumptions and…

  3. Introduction to Structural Equation Modeling: Issues and Practical Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Pui-Wa; Wu, Qiong

    2007-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) is a versatile statistical modeling tool. Its estimation techniques, modeling capacities, and breadth of applications are expanding rapidly. This module introduces some common terminologies. General steps of SEM are discussed along with important considerations in each step. Simple examples are provided to…

  4. Bayesian Data-Model Fit Assessment for Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Bayesian approaches to modeling are receiving an increasing amount of attention in the areas of model construction and estimation in factor analysis, structural equation modeling (SEM), and related latent variable models. However, model diagnostics and model criticism remain relatively understudied aspects of Bayesian SEM. This article describes…

  5. Implementing Restricted Maximum Likelihood Estimation in Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Mike W.-L.

    2013-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) is now a generic modeling framework for many multivariate techniques applied in the social and behavioral sciences. Many statistical models can be considered either as special cases of SEM or as part of the latent variable modeling framework. One popular extension is the use of SEM to conduct linear mixed-effects…

  6. A Structural Equation Model of Conceptual Change in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2011-01-01

    A model of conceptual change in physics was tested on introductory-level, college physics students. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among variables linked to conceptual change in physics including an approach goal orientation, need for cognition, motivation, and course grade. Conceptual change in physics…

  7. The relativistic equations of stellar structure and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, K. S.

    1975-01-01

    The general relativistic equations of stellar structure and evolution are reformulated in a notation which makes easy contact with Newtonian theory. A general relativistic version of the mixing-length formalism for convection is presented. It is argued that in work on spherical systems, general relativity theorists have identified the wrong quantity as total mass-energy inside radius r.

  8. Local Influence Analysis of Nonlinear Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sik-Yum; Tang, Nian-Sheng

    2004-01-01

    By regarding the latent random vectors as hypothetical missing data and based on the conditional expectation of the complete-data log-likelihood function in the EM algorithm, we investigate assessment of local influence of various perturbation schemes in a nonlinear structural equation model. The basic building blocks of local influence analysis…

  9. Play Context, Commitment, and Dating Violence: A Structural Equation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mendez, Rosaura; Hernandez-Cabrera, Juan Andres

    2009-01-01

    This study develops a structural equation model to describe the effect of two groups of factors (type of commitment and play context) on the violence experienced during intimate partner conflict. After contrasting the model in adolescents and university students, we have confirmed that aggressive play and the simulation of jealousy and anger…

  10. Flows in a tube structure: Equation on the graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panasenko, Grigory; Pileckas, Konstantin

    2014-08-01

    The steady-state Navier-Stokes equations in thin structures lead to some elliptic second order equation for the macroscopic pressure on a graph. At the nodes of the graph the pressure satisfies Kirchoff-type junction conditions. In the non-steady case the problem for the macroscopic pressure on the graph becomes nonlocal in time. In the paper we study the existence and uniqueness of a solution to such one-dimensional model on the graph for a pipe-wise network. We also prove the exponential decay of the solution with respect to the time variable in the case when the data decay exponentially with respect to time.

  11. Comparison of Predictive Equations for Resting Energy Expenditure in Overweight and Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Erick Prado; Orsatti, Fábio Lera; Teixeira, Okesley; Maestá, Nailza; Burini, Roberto Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To compare values from predictive equations of resting energy expenditure (REE) with indirect calorimetry (IC) in overweight and obese adults. Methods. Eighty-two participants aged 30 to 60 years old were retrospectively analyzed. The persons had a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2. REE was estimated by IC and other five equations of the literature (Harris and Benedict, WHO1, WHO2, Owen, Mifflin). Results. All equations had different values when compared to those of IC. The best values were found by Harris and Benedict, WHO1, and WHO2, with high values of intraclass correlation coefficient and low values of mean difference. Furthermore, WHO1 and WHO2 showed lower systematic error and random. Conclusion. No predictive equations had the same values of REE as compared to those of indirect calorimetry, and those which least underestimated REE were the equations of WHO1, WHO2, and Harris and Benedict. The next step would be to validate the new equation proposed. PMID:21822484

  12. Predictive equations for the estimation of basal metabolic rate in Malaysian adults.

    PubMed

    Ismail, M; Chee, S; Roslee, R; Zawiah, H

    1998-12-01

    In the field of human energy expenditure, the measurement of basal metabolic rate (BMR) is an essential element to derive energy requirement estimates for any given population. Besides basic anthropometrics data, this paper reports the generation of predictive equation for basal metabolic rates of healthy Malaysian adult from prospective measurements on 307 male and 349 females aged 18-60 years, using the Douglas bag technique. These new equations based on body-weight reveal that the current FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) predictive equations overestimate BMR of adult Malaysian by an average of 13% in males and 9% in female subjects while differences of between 4-5% were observed when compared to Henry and Rees (1991) equations for tropical people. There is a good reason to believe that the capacity to slow down metabolism amidst the hot and humid climate experience throughout the year as a genuine phenomenon for Malaysians. Similarly, these findings suggest that at equal energy intake recommendation for similar body weight, the lower energy needs of Malaysian could put them at greater risk for developing obesity. These observed deviations must be taken into account in formulating energy requirements of the population.

  13. Multidisciplinary optimization of controlled space structures with global sensitivity equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Sharon L.; James, Benjamin B.; Graves, Philip C.; Woodard, Stanley E.

    1991-01-01

    A new method for the preliminary design of controlled space structures is presented. The method coordinates standard finite element structural analysis, multivariable controls, and nonlinear programming codes and allows simultaneous optimization of the structures and control systems of a spacecraft. Global sensitivity equations are a key feature of this method. The preliminary design of a generic geostationary platform is used to demonstrate the multidisciplinary optimization method. Fifteen design variables are used to optimize truss member sizes and feedback gain values. The goal is to reduce the total mass of the structure and the vibration control system while satisfying constraints on vibration decay rate. Incorporating the nonnegligible mass of actuators causes an essential coupling between structural design variables and control design variables. The solution of the demonstration problem is an important step toward a comprehensive preliminary design capability for structures and control systems. Use of global sensitivity equations helps solve optimization problems that have a large number of design variables and a high degree of coupling between disciplines.

  14. Universal structure and universal equations (PDE) for unitary ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumanov, Igor

    2010-08-01

    Random matrix ensembles with unitary invariance of measure (UE) are described in a unified way using a combination of Tracy-Widom (TW) and Adler-Shiota-van Moerbeke approaches to the derivation of partial differential equations (PDEs) for spectral gap probabilities. First, general three-term recurrence relations for UE restricted to subsets of real line, or, in other words, for functions in the resolvent kernel, are obtained. Using them, simple universal relations between all TW dependent variables and one-dimensional Toda lattice τ-functions are found. A universal system of PDE for UE is derived from previous relations, which leads also to a single independent PDE for spectral gap probability of various UE. Thus, orthogonal function bases and Toda lattice are seen at the core of correspondence of different approaches. Moreover, Toda-AKNS system provides a common structure of PDE for unitary ensembles. Interestingly, this structure can be seen in two very different forms: one arises from orthogonal function-Toda lattice considerations, while the other comes from Schlesinger equations for isomonodromic deformations and their relation to TW equations. The simple example of Gaussian matrices most neatly exposes this structure.

  15. [Common prediction equations of respiratory function tests from children to adults in Japan].

    PubMed

    Tamura, Gen; Aizawa, Hisamichi; Nagai, Atsushi; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2007-07-01

    In order to make common prediction equations of respiratory function tests (RFTs) from children to adults in Japan, we combined data of RFTs accumulated for "Reference values of spirogram and arterial blood gas levels in Japanese" reported in 2001 at the Japanese Respiratory Society congress and those for "An attempt to establish reference vales of respiratory function tests for Japanese children and adolescents" reported in 2006 from the Tohoku district. We then conducted multiple regression analysis on forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), V50, V25, and Gaensler's FEV1%, since they were measured under the same condition in the both reports. With all the combinations of 5 dependent variables (age, height, age2, height2, and age x height), multiple regression analysis was performed for each RFT. Judging by both evaluation indices of adjusted R-square and Mallows's Cp statistic, the equation using 4 dependent variables of age, height, age2, and age x height demonstrated roughly high efficiency for all RFTs. Therefore, we decided the equation excluding a dependent variable of height2 as common prediction equations for all RFTs and demonstrated the prediction equation for each RFT by sex.

  16. Health belief structural equation model predicting sleep behavior of employed college students.

    PubMed

    Knowlden, Adam P; Sharma, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    Adequate sleep comprising 7 to 8 hours per day is vital for health and effective functioning for all adults. The purpose of this study was to specify a health belief model to measure and predict the sleep behavior of employed college students. A 52-item instrument was developed with acceptable validity and reliability. A cross-sectional, convenience sample of 188 students was recruited for this study. Structural equation modeling was used to build models. The health belief model explained 34% of the variance in sleep behavior, with perceived severity, perceived barriers, cues to action, and self-efficacy identified as significant predictors. PMID:25167067

  17. Health belief structural equation model predicting sleep behavior of employed college students.

    PubMed

    Knowlden, Adam P; Sharma, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    Adequate sleep comprising 7 to 8 hours per day is vital for health and effective functioning for all adults. The purpose of this study was to specify a health belief model to measure and predict the sleep behavior of employed college students. A 52-item instrument was developed with acceptable validity and reliability. A cross-sectional, convenience sample of 188 students was recruited for this study. Structural equation modeling was used to build models. The health belief model explained 34% of the variance in sleep behavior, with perceived severity, perceived barriers, cues to action, and self-efficacy identified as significant predictors.

  18. Structural Stability of the Coalescence/Breakup Equation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Philip S., Jr.

    1995-11-01

    An analysis of the structural stability of the coalescence/breakup equation is performed to determine the degree to which changes in the equation's formulation can affect the solution. The work was motivated by speculation in various quarters that the currently used coalescence/breakup formulation should be adjusted to achieve better agreement between solutions and field observations. Both analytical procedures and numerical experiments, in which hypothetical changes in the rate coefficients are assumed, show the coalescence/breakup equation in its current formulation to be structurally stable. Not only do small changes in the rate coefficients produce negligible change in the solutions, but even large changes in the rate coefficients fail to destroy the fundamental behavior of the system in that all solutions continue to approach a unique equilibrium. Moderate-sized perturbations of the coefficients are found to have only minor influence on the solutions unless the coalescence and breakup efficiencies, constituents of the rate coefficients, are perturbed in an opposite sense to reinforce the individual effects. Only with such changes in the formulation is the equilibrium solution found to be altered to a significant degree.

  19. Crystal structure optimisation using an auxiliary equation of state

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Adam J.; Skelton, Jonathan M.; Hendon, Christopher H.; Butler, Keith T.; Walsh, Aron

    2015-11-14

    Standard procedures for local crystal-structure optimisation involve numerous energy and force calculations. It is common to calculate an energy–volume curve, fitting an equation of state around the equilibrium cell volume. This is a computationally intensive process, in particular, for low-symmetry crystal structures where each isochoric optimisation involves energy minimisation over many degrees of freedom. Such procedures can be prohibitive for non-local exchange-correlation functionals or other “beyond” density functional theory electronic structure techniques, particularly where analytical gradients are not available. We present a simple approach for efficient optimisation of crystal structures based on a known equation of state. The equilibrium volume can be predicted from one single-point calculation and refined with successive calculations if required. The approach is validated for PbS, PbTe, ZnS, and ZnTe using nine density functionals and applied to the quaternary semiconductor Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} and the magnetic metal-organic framework HKUST-1.

  20. Crystal structure optimisation using an auxiliary equation of state.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Adam J; Skelton, Jonathan M; Hendon, Christopher H; Butler, Keith T; Walsh, Aron

    2015-11-14

    Standard procedures for local crystal-structure optimisation involve numerous energy and force calculations. It is common to calculate an energy-volume curve, fitting an equation of state around the equilibrium cell volume. This is a computationally intensive process, in particular, for low-symmetry crystal structures where each isochoric optimisation involves energy minimisation over many degrees of freedom. Such procedures can be prohibitive for non-local exchange-correlation functionals or other "beyond" density functional theory electronic structure techniques, particularly where analytical gradients are not available. We present a simple approach for efficient optimisation of crystal structures based on a known equation of state. The equilibrium volume can be predicted from one single-point calculation and refined with successive calculations if required. The approach is validated for PbS, PbTe, ZnS, and ZnTe using nine density functionals and applied to the quaternary semiconductor Cu2ZnSnS4 and the magnetic metal-organic framework HKUST-1.

  1. Coherent states, vacuum structure and infinite component relativistic wave equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirilo-Lombardo, Diego Julio

    2016-11-01

    It is commonly claimed in the recent literature that certain solutions to wave equations of positive energy of Dirac-type with internal variables are characterized by a non-thermal spectrum. As part of that statement, it was said that the transformations and symmetries involved in equations of such type corresponded to a particular representation of the Lorentz group. In this paper, we give the general solution to this problem emphasizing the interplay between the group structure, the corresponding algebra and the physical spectrum. This analysis is completed with a strong discussion and proving that: (i) the physical states are represented by coherent states; (ii) the solutions in [Yu. P. Stepanovsky, Nucl. Phys. B (Proc. Suppl.) 102 (2001) 407-411; 103 (2001) 407-411] are not general, (iii) the symmetries of the considered physical system in [Yu. P. Stepanovsky, Nucl. Phys. B (Proc. Suppl.) 102 (2001) 407-411; 103 (2001) 407-411] (equations and geometry) do not correspond to the Lorentz group but to the fourth covering: the Metaplectic group Mp(n).

  2. The Interface Between Theory and Data in Structural Equation Models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grace, James B.; Bollen, Kenneth A.

    2006-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) holds the promise of providing natural scientists the capacity to evaluate complex multivariate hypotheses about ecological systems. Building on its predecessors, path analysis and factor analysis, SEM allows for the incorporation of both observed and unobserved (latent) variables into theoretically based probabilistic models. In this paper we discuss the interface between theory and data in SEM and the use of an additional variable type, the composite, for representing general concepts. In simple terms, composite variables specify the influences of collections of other variables and can be helpful in modeling general relationships of the sort commonly of interest to ecologists. While long recognized as a potentially important element of SEM, composite variables have received very limited use, in part because of a lack of theoretical consideration, but also because of difficulties that arise in parameter estimation when using conventional solution procedures. In this paper we present a framework for discussing composites and demonstrate how the use of partially reduced form models can help to overcome some of the parameter estimation and evaluation problems associated with models containing composites. Diagnostic procedures for evaluating the most appropriate and effective use of composites are illustrated with an example from the ecological literature. It is argued that an ability to incorporate composite variables into structural equation models may be particularly valuable in the study of natural systems, where concepts are frequently multifaceted and the influences of suites of variables are often of interest.

  3. Structural Equation Modeling: Applications in ecological and evolutionary biology research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pugesek, Bruce H.; von Eye, Alexander; Tomer, Adrian

    2003-01-01

    This book presents an introduction to the methodology of structural equation modeling, illustrates its use, and goes on to argue that it has revolutionary implications for the study of natural systems. A major theme of this book is that we have, up to this point, attempted to study systems primarily using methods (such as the univariate model) that were designed only for considering individual processes. Understanding systems requires the capacity to examine simultaneous influences and responses. Structural equation modeling (SEM) has such capabilities. It also possesses many other traits that add strength to its utility as a means of making scientific progress. In light of the capabilities of SEM, it can be argued that much of ecological theory is currently locked in an immature state that impairs its relevance. It is further argued that the principles of SEM are capable of leading to the development and evaluation of multivariate theories of the sort vitally needed for the conservation of natural systems. Supplementary information can be found at the authors website, http://www.jamesbgrace.com/. • Details why multivariate analyses should be used to study ecological systems • Exposes unappreciated weakness in many current popular analyses • Emphasizes the future methodological developments needed to advance our understanding of ecological systems.

  4. A comparison of prediction equations for estimating glomerular filtration rate in adults without kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Lin, Julie; Knight, Eric L; Hogan, Mary Lou; Singh, Ajay K

    2003-10-01

    The ability of the Modification of Renal Disease (MDRD) equation to predict GFR when compared with multiple other prediction equations in healthy subjects without known kidney disease was analyzed. Between May 1995 and December 2001, a total of 117 healthy individuals underwent (125)I-iothalamate or (99m)Tc-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) renal studies as part of a routine kidney donor evaluation at either Brigham and Women's Hospital or Boston Children's Hospital. On chart review, 100 individuals had sufficient data for analysis. The MDRD 1, MDRD 2 (simplified MDRD equation), Cockcroft-Gault (CG), Cockcroft-Gault corrected for GFR (CG-GFR), and other equations were tested. The median absolute difference in ml/min per 1.73 m(2) between calculated and measured GFR was 28.7 for MDRD 1, 18.5 for MDRD 2, 33.1 for CG, and 28.6 for CG-GFR in the (125)I-iothalamate group and was 31.1 for MDRD 1, 38.2 for MDRD 2, 22.0 for CG, and 31.1 for CG-GFR in the (99m)Tc-DTPA group. Bias was -0.5, -3.3, 25.6, and 5.0 for MDRD 1, MDRD 2, CG, and CG-GFR, respectively, in subjects who received (125)I-iothalamate and -33.2, -36.5, 6.0, and -15.0 for MDRD 1, MDRD 2, CG, and CG-GFR, respectively, in those who received (99m)Tc-DTPA studies. Precision testing, as measured by linear regression, yielded R(2) values of 0.04 for CG, 0.05 for CG-GFR, 0.15 for MDRD 1, and 0.14 for MDRD in those who underwent (125)I-iothalamate studies and 0.18 for CG, 0.21 for CG-GFR, 0.40 for MDRD 1, and 0.38 for MDRD 2 for those who underwent (99m)Tc-DTPA studies. The MDRD equations were more accurate within 30 and 50% of the measured GFR compared with the CG and CG-GFR equations. When compared with the CG equation, the MDRD equations are more precise and more accurate for predicting GFR in healthy adults. The MDRD equations, however, consistently underestimate GFR, whereas the CG equations consistently overestimate measured GFR in people with normal renal function. In potential kidney donors

  5. A Y-like structure in Jupiter's equator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrado-Izagirre, N.; Legarreta, J.; García-Melendo, E.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Gómez-Forrellad, J. M.

    2015-10-01

    In this work we are presenting a study of peculiar Y-shaped structures that appeared in the equatorial zone of Jupiter between September and December 2012.These low albedo structures (named Y1 and Y2) were oriented along the equator and centered on it (at latitude 0.5ºto 1ºN). By using images acquired by a worldwide network of observers contributing to the PVOL-IOPW database [3] and operating small telescopes,we have analyzed the morphology of the structures and the surrounding area as well as the dynamical evolution during their lifetime 90 and 60 days respectively. In this period of time convective activity was registered near the vertex of these structures. We have complemented the study with a set of images in ultraviolet and near infrared wavelengths obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for this epoch. The features were not visible at 255 nm wavelengths which indicate that they were vertically thin and placed in altitude between the upper Equatorial hazes and the main cloud deck. In addition, they move faster than their surroundings. Finally, we interpret the phenomenon as the manifestation of a transient equatorially trapped Kelvin wave.

  6. Revisiting the Leadership Scale for Sport: Examining Factor Structure Through Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Weisheng; Rodriguez, Fernando M; Won, Doyeon

    2016-10-01

    This study examines the factor structure of the shortened version of the Leadership Scale for Sport, through a survey of 201 collegiate swimmers at National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II and III institutions, using both exploratory structural equation modeling and confirmatory factor analysis. Both exploratory structural equation modeling and confirmatory factor analysis showed that a five-factor solution fit the data adequately. The sizes of factor loadings on target factors substantially differed between the confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling solutions. In addition, the inter-correlations between factors of the Leadership Scale for Sport and the correlations with athletes' satisfaction were found to be inflated in the confirmatory factor analysis solution. Overall, the findings provide evidence of the factorial validity of the shortened Leadership Scale for Sport.

  7. A New Look at the Big Five Factor Structure through Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Ludtke, Oliver; Muthen, Bengt; Asparouhov, Tihomir; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Trautwein, Ulrich; Nagengast, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    NEO instruments are widely used to assess Big Five personality factors, but confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) conducted at the item level do not support their a priori structure due, in part, to the overly restrictive CFA assumptions. We demonstrate that exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM), an integration of CFA and exploratory…

  8. Reporting Multiple-Group Mean and Covariance Structure across Occasions with Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okech, David

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Using baseline and second wave data, the study evaluated the measurement and structural properties of parenting stress, personal mastery, and economic strain with N = 381 lower income parents who decided to join and those who did not join in a child development savings account program. Methods: Structural equation modeling mean and…

  9. Structural equation modeling: building and evaluating causal models: Chapter 8

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grace, James B.; Scheiner, Samuel M.; Schoolmaster, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    Scientists frequently wish to study hypotheses about causal relationships, rather than just statistical associations. This chapter addresses the question of how scientists might approach this ambitious task. Here we describe structural equation modeling (SEM), a general modeling framework for the study of causal hypotheses. Our goals are to (a) concisely describe the methodology, (b) illustrate its utility for investigating ecological systems, and (c) provide guidance for its application. Throughout our presentation, we rely on a study of the effects of human activities on wetland ecosystems to make our description of methodology more tangible. We begin by presenting the fundamental principles of SEM, including both its distinguishing characteristics and the requirements for modeling hypotheses about causal networks. We then illustrate SEM procedures and offer guidelines for conducting SEM analyses. Our focus in this presentation is on basic modeling objectives and core techniques. Pointers to additional modeling options are also given.

  10. Testing parameters in structural equation modeling: every "one" matters.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, R; Griffin, D

    2001-09-01

    A problem with standard errors estimated by many structural equation modeling programs is described. In such programs, a parameter's standard error is sensitive to how the model is identified (i.e., how scale is set). Alternative but equivalent ways to identify a model may yield different standard errors, and hence different Z tests for a parameter, even though the identifications produce the same overall model fit. This lack of invariance due to model identification creates the possibility that different analysts may reach different conclusions about a parameter's significance level even though they test equivalent models on the same data. The authors suggest that parameters be tested for statistical significance through the likelihood ratio test, which is invariant to the identification choice. PMID:11570231

  11. Bayesian structural equation modeling in sport and exercise psychology.

    PubMed

    Stenling, Andreas; Ivarsson, Andreas; Johnson, Urban; Lindwall, Magnus

    2015-08-01

    Bayesian statistics is on the rise in mainstream psychology, but applications in sport and exercise psychology research are scarce. In this article, the foundations of Bayesian analysis are introduced, and we will illustrate how to apply Bayesian structural equation modeling in a sport and exercise psychology setting. More specifically, we contrasted a confirmatory factor analysis on the Sport Motivation Scale II estimated with the most commonly used estimator, maximum likelihood, and a Bayesian approach with weakly informative priors for cross-loadings and correlated residuals. The results indicated that the model with Bayesian estimation and weakly informative priors provided a good fit to the data, whereas the model estimated with a maximum likelihood estimator did not produce a well-fitting model. The reasons for this discrepancy between maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimation are discussed as well as potential advantages and caveats with the Bayesian approach.

  12. Bayesian structural equation modeling in sport and exercise psychology.

    PubMed

    Stenling, Andreas; Ivarsson, Andreas; Johnson, Urban; Lindwall, Magnus

    2015-08-01

    Bayesian statistics is on the rise in mainstream psychology, but applications in sport and exercise psychology research are scarce. In this article, the foundations of Bayesian analysis are introduced, and we will illustrate how to apply Bayesian structural equation modeling in a sport and exercise psychology setting. More specifically, we contrasted a confirmatory factor analysis on the Sport Motivation Scale II estimated with the most commonly used estimator, maximum likelihood, and a Bayesian approach with weakly informative priors for cross-loadings and correlated residuals. The results indicated that the model with Bayesian estimation and weakly informative priors provided a good fit to the data, whereas the model estimated with a maximum likelihood estimator did not produce a well-fitting model. The reasons for this discrepancy between maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimation are discussed as well as potential advantages and caveats with the Bayesian approach. PMID:26442771

  13. Structural equation models of relationships between exercise and cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Clarkson-Smith, L; Hartley, A A

    1990-09-01

    Data were obtained from 300 men and women aged 55 to 91. Separate structural equation models of relationships between physical exercise and 3 cognitive performance variables--reaction time, working memory, and reasoning--fit the data well. Other variables in the models were age, health, education, and morale. Age and exercise affected each performance variable directly; education had a direct effect on reasoning only. There were also indirect effects of age and health on performance variables, mediated through exercise. The main hypothesis of the study, that exercise contributes to performance, was supported. A large decrease in model fit resulted when the path from exercise to each performance variable was deleted. Hypotheses that age-related deficits are primarily accounted for by lack of exercise or by poor health were not supported.

  14. Structural equation models of VMT growth in US urbanised areas.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ewing, Reid; Hamidi, Shima; Gallivan, Frank; Nelson, Arthur C.; Grace, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle miles travelled (VMT) is a primary performance indicator for land use and transportation, bringing with it both positive and negative externalities. This study updates and refines previous work on VMT in urbanised areas, using recent data, additional metrics and structural equation modelling (SEM). In a cross-sectional model for 2010, population, income and freeway capacity are positively related to VMT, while gasoline prices, development density and transit service levels are negatively related. Findings of the cross-sectional model are generally confirmed in a more tightly controlled longitudinal study of changes in VMT between 2000 and 2010, the first model of its kind. The cross-sectional and longitudinal models together, plus the transportation literature generally, give us a basis for generalising across studies to arrive at elasticity values of VMT with respect to different urban variables.

  15. Malignant Potential of Gastrointestinal Cancers Assessed by Structural Equation Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Onodera, Kei; Takahashi, Hiroaki; Okahara, Satoshi; Kodaira, Junichi; Oohashi, Hirokazu; Isshiki, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Kentaro; Yamashita, Kentaro; Shinomura, Yasuhisa; Hosokawa, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Background Parameters reported in pathologic reviews have been failing to assess exactly the malignant potential of gastrointestinal cancers. We hypothesized that malignant potential could be defined by common latent variables (hypothesis I), but there are substantial differences in the associations between malignant potential and pathologic parameters according to the origin of gastrointestinal cancers (hypothesis II). We shed light on these issues by structural equation modeling. Materials and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 217 esophageal, 192 gastric, and 175 colorectal cancer patients who consecutively underwent curative surgery for their pathologic stage I cancers at Keiyukai Sapporo Hospital. Latent variables identified by factor analysis and seven conventional pathologic parameters were introduced in the structural equation modeling analysis. Results Because latent variables were disparate except for their number, 'three' in the examined gastrointestinal cancers, the first hypothesis was rejected. Because configural invariance across gastrointestinal cancers was not approved, the second hypothesis was verified. We could trace the three significant paths on the causal graph from latent variables to lymph node metastasis, which were mediated through depth, lymphatic invasion, and matrilysin expression in esophageal cancer, whereas only one significant path could be traced in both gastric and colorectal cancer. Two of the three latent variables were exogenous in esophageal cancer, whereas one factor was exogenous in the other gastrointestinal cancers. Cancer stemness promoted viability in esophageal cancer, but it was suppressed in others. Conclusion These results reflect the malignant potential of esophageal cancer is higher than that of the other gastrointestinal cancers. Such information might contribute to refining clinical treatments for gastrointestinal cancers. PMID:26889682

  16. The structure of constitutive equations for semiconductor devices

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, G.R.; Girrens, S.P.; Bennett, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    The fundamental equations that describe carrier transport in semiconductor materials are developed using the methods of continuum mixture theory and Maxwell's equations for electrodynamics. There are five basic equations that govern the behavior of current flux, electrostatic potential, electrons, and holes. The bahavior of the electrical chemical potentials are introduced and their relation to the current flux is discussed.

  17. Incremental shuttle walk test: Reference values and predictive equation for healthy Indian adults

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Bela; Shah, Monal; Andhare, Nilesh; Mullerpatan, Rajani

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Physical inactivity in Indians is leading to an increase in noncommunicable disorders at an early age in life. Early identification and quantification of the lack of physical activity using simple and reliable exercise testing is the need of the hour. The incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) is an externally paced walk test widely used for the evaluation of exercise capacity. Currently the normative values available for clinical reference are generated from Western populations. Hence, the study was conducted to find normative values for the ISWT in healthy Indian adults (17-75 years). Materials and Methods: A convenience sample of 862 subjects was recruited after ethical approval was obtained. All subjects were divided into groups as per age and gender. For age, the grouping was as follows: Group 1: Young adulthood (17-40 years), group 2: Middle adulthood (40-65 years), and group 3: Old adulthood (>65 years). The ISWT was performed as per standard protocol by Sally Singh. Results: The average distance walked were 709.2m,556.4m and 441.3m in females and 807.9 m, 639.6 m and 478.2 m in males in the three respective age groups. Stepwise regression analysis revealed age and gender as key variables correlating with incremental shuttle walk distance (ISWD). The derived predictive equations for males and females may be given as follows: 740.351 - (5.676 × age) + (99.007 × gender). Conclusion: Reference values were generated for healthy Indian adults. Physiological response to the ISWT was shown to be affected by gender and increasing age. Easily measurable variables explained 68% of the variance seen in the test, making the reference equation a relevant part of the evaluation of the ISWT. PMID:26933305

  18. Two-vortex structure of electron, nonlocality and Dirac equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, S. C.

    2012-02-01

    The dimensionless electromagnetic coupling constant α=e2/planckc may have three interpretations: as the well-known ratio between the electron charge radius e2/mc2 and the Compton wavelength of an electron λc=planck/mc, as the ratio of two angular momenta since the Planck constant has the dimension of angular momentum and as the ratio of two flux quanta e and hc/e . The anomalous part of the electron magnetic moment together with the unified picture of the three interpretations of α is suggested to have deep physical significance. The electric charge is proposed to be a new quantum of flux that leads to a new model of the electron envisaging a two-vortex structure. In analogy with quantum conditions, we postulate sub-quantum conditions applicable in a region of the order of λc replacing planck by a universal constant f=e2/2πc and we apply it to the Dirac equation in internal space that gives rise to the anomalous magnetic moment of an electron. The Dirac spinor and two-spinor representations for the vortex structure of an electron in the single-particle Dirac framework are discussed. The role of sub-quantum rules and internal variables in developing the present ideas is also discussed. A critical discussion of past attempts at giving fundamental importance to magnetism and flux quantum is presented in order to delineate the new ideas in the present work.

  19. Bayesian Analysis of Structural Equation Models with Nonlinear Covariates and Latent Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Xin-Yuan; Lee, Sik-Yum

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we formulate a nonlinear structural equation model (SEM) that can accommodate covariates in the measurement equation and nonlinear terms of covariates and exogenous latent variables in the structural equation. The covariates can come from continuous or discrete distributions. A Bayesian approach is developed to analyze the…

  20. On the complex structures of Kundu-Eckhaus equation via improved Bernoulli sub-equation function method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskonus, Haci Mehmet; Bulut, Hasan

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we obtain some new complex analytical solutions to the Kundu-Eckhaus equation which seems in the quantum field theory, weakly nonlinear dispersive water waves and nonlinear optics using improved Bernoulli sub-equation function method. After we have mentioned the general structure of improved Bernoulli sub-equation function method, we have successfully applied this method and then obtained some new complex hyperbolic and complex trigonometric function solutions. Two- and three-dimensional surfaces of analytical solutions have been plotted via wolfram Mathematica 9 version. At the end of this article, a conclusion has been submitted by mentioning important points founded in this study.

  1. Validation of an equation for estimating maximal oxygen consumption of nonexpert adult swimmers

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Adalberto Veronese; Costa, Manoel da Cunha; de Oliveira, Saulo Fernandes Melo; de Albuquerque, Fabíola Lima; de Sá Pereira Guimarães, Fernando José; Barbosa, Tiago Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Objective To validate an equation to estimate the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) of nonexpert adult swimmers. Methods Participants were 22 nonexpert swimmers, male, aged between 18 and 30 years (age: 23.1 ± 3:59 years; body mass: 73.6 ± 7:39 kg; height 176.6 ± 5.53 cm; and body fat percentage: 15.9% ± 4.39%), divided into two subgroups: G1 – eleven swimmers for the VO2max oximetry and modeling of the equation; and G2 – eleven swimmers for application of the equation modeled on G1 and verification of their validation. The test used was the adapted Progressive Swim Test, in which there occurs an increase in the intensity of the swim every two laps. For normality and homogeneity of data, Shapiro-Wilk and Levene tests were used, the descriptive values of the average and standard deviation. The statistical steps were: (1) reliability of the Progressive Swim Test – through the paired t-test, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and the Pearson linear correlation (R) relative to the reproducibility, the coefficient of variation (CV), and standard error measurement (SEM) for the absolute reproducibility; (2) in the model equation to estimate VO2max, a relative VO2 was established, and a stepwise multiple regression model was performed with G1 – so the variables used were analysis of variance regression (AR), coefficient of determination (R2), adjusted coefficient of determination (R2a), standard error of estimate (SEE), and Durbin–Watson (DW); (3) validation of the equation – the results were presented in graphs, where direct (G1) and estimated (G2) VO2max were compared using independent t-test, linear regression (stressing the correlation between groups), and Bland–Altman (the bias agreement of the results). All considered a statistical significance level of P < 0.05. Results On the trustworthiness of the Progressive Swim Test adapted presented as high as observed (R and ICC > 0.80, CV < 10%, and SEM < 2%). In the equation model, VO2max has

  2. Using structural equation modeling to investigate relationships among ecological variables

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malaeb, Z.A.; Kevin, Summers J.; Pugesek, B.H.

    2000-01-01

    Structural equation modeling is an advanced multivariate statistical process with which a researcher can construct theoretical concepts, test their measurement reliability, hypothesize and test a theory about their relationships, take into account measurement errors, and consider both direct and indirect effects of variables on one another. Latent variables are theoretical concepts that unite phenomena under a single term, e.g., ecosystem health, environmental condition, and pollution (Bollen, 1989). Latent variables are not measured directly but can be expressed in terms of one or more directly measurable variables called indicators. For some researchers, defining, constructing, and examining the validity of latent variables may be the end task of itself. For others, testing hypothesized relationships of latent variables may be of interest. We analyzed the correlation matrix of eleven environmental variables from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program for Estuaries (EMAP-E) using methods of structural equation modeling. We hypothesized and tested a conceptual model to characterize the interdependencies between four latent variables-sediment contamination, natural variability, biodiversity, and growth potential. In particular, we were interested in measuring the direct, indirect, and total effects of sediment contamination and natural variability on biodiversity and growth potential. The model fit the data well and accounted for 81% of the variability in biodiversity and 69% of the variability in growth potential. It revealed a positive total effect of natural variability on growth potential that otherwise would have been judged negative had we not considered indirect effects. That is, natural variability had a negative direct effect on growth potential of magnitude -0.3251 and a positive indirect effect mediated through biodiversity of magnitude 0.4509, yielding a net positive total effect of 0

  3. On the specification of structural equation models for ecological systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grace, J.B.; Michael, Anderson T.; Han, O.; Scheiner, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    The use of structural equation modeling (SEM) is often motivated by its utility for investigating complex networks of relationships, but also because of its promise as a means of representing theoretical concepts using latent variables. In this paper, we discuss characteristics of ecological theory and some of the challenges for proper specification of theoretical ideas in structural equation models (SE models). In our presentation, we describe some of the requirements for classical latent variable models in which observed variables (indicators) are interpreted as the effects of underlying causes. We also describe alternative model specifications in which indicators are interpreted as having causal influences on the theoretical concepts. We suggest that this latter nonclassical specification (which involves another variable type-the composite) will often be appropriate for ecological studies because of the multifaceted nature of our theoretical concepts. In this paper, we employ the use of meta-models to aid the translation of theory into SE models and also to facilitate our ability to relate results back to our theories. We demonstrate our approach by showing how a synthetic theory of grassland biodiversity can be evaluated using SEM and data from a coastal grassland. In this example, the theory focuses on the responses of species richness to abiotic stress and disturbance, both directly and through intervening effects on community biomass. Models examined include both those based on classical forms (where each concept is represented using a single latent variable) and also ones in which the concepts are recognized to be multifaceted and modeled as such. To address the challenge of matching SE models with the conceptual level of our theory, two approaches are illustrated, compositing and aggregation. Both approaches are shown to have merits, with the former being preferable for cases where the multiple facets of a concept have widely differing effects in the

  4. A structural equation modeling study of the Spanish Mental Illness Stigma Attribution Questionnaire (AQ-27-E).

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Manuel; Guillén, Ana I; Pérez-Santos, Eloísa; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2015-05-01

    The main purpose of this study was the translation and analysis of psychometric properties of the Attribution Questionnaire for use in Spanish-speaking populations (AQ-27-E) and to test the dangerousness and responsibility models of mental illness stigma in a Spanish sample. The sample consisted of 439 adults from the general population of the community of Madrid (Spain). The questionnaire was translated using the translation/back-translation method. Cronbach's alpha was used to carry out the reliability analysis, and structural equations were used to test the dangerousness and the responsibility models of stigma. Internal reliability of AQ-27-E was .855, which can be interpreted as good. However, some factors (Pity, Responsibility, and Coercion) showed limited internal consistency. Results suggest that the AQ-27-E is a standardized instrument with acceptable psychometric properties comparable to previous versions, which can be used to assess stigma in Spanish-speaking populations.

  5. Is racism dead? Comparing (expressive) means and (structural equation) models.

    PubMed

    Leach, C W; Peng, T R; Volckens, J

    2000-09-01

    Much scholarship suggests that racism--belief in out-group inferiority--is unrelated to contemporary attitudes. Purportedly, a new form of racism, one which relies upon a belief in cultural difference, has become a more acceptable basis for such attitudes. The authors argue that an appropriate empirical assessment of racism (both 'old' and 'new') depends upon (1) clear conceptualization and operationalization, and (2) attention to both mean-level expression and explanatory value in structural equation models. This study assessed the endorsement of racism and belief in cultural difference as well as their association with a measure of general attitude in a secondary analysis of parallel representative surveys of attitudes toward different ethnic out-groups in France, The Netherlands, Western Germany and Britain (N = 3242; see Reif & Melich, 1991). For six of the seven out-group targets, racism was strongly related to ethnic majority attitudes, despite low mean-level endorsement. In a pattern consistent with a 'new', indirect racism, the relationship between British racism and attitudes toward Afro-Caribbeans was mediated by belief in cultural difference.

  6. Structural equation modeling for analyzing erythrocyte fatty acids in Framingham.

    PubMed

    Pottala, James V; Djira, Gemechis D; Espeland, Mark A; Ye, Jun; Larson, Martin G; Harris, William S

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that several types of erythrocyte fatty acids (i.e., omega-3, omega-6, and trans) are associated with risk for cardiovascular diseases. However, there are complex metabolic and dietary relations among fatty acids, which induce correlations that are typically ignored when using them as risk predictors. A latent variable approach could summarize these complex relations into a few latent variable scores for use in statistical models. Twenty-two red blood cell (RBC) fatty acids were measured in Framingham (N = 3196). The correlation matrix of the fatty acids was modeled using structural equation modeling; the model was tested for goodness-of-fit and gender invariance. Thirteen fatty acids were summarized by three latent variables, and gender invariance was rejected so separate models were developed for men and women. A score was developed for the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) latent variable, which explained about 30% of the variance in the data. The PUFA score included loadings in opposing directions among three omega-3 and three omega-6 fatty acids, and incorporated the biosynthetic and dietary relations among them. Whether the PUFA factor score can improve the performance of risk prediction in cardiovascular diseases remains to be tested.

  7. Structural equation modeling of pesticide poisoning, depression, safety, and injury.

    PubMed

    Beseler, Cheryl L; Stallones, Lorann

    2013-01-01

    The role of pesticide poisoning in risk of injuries may operate through a link between pesticide-induced depressive symptoms and reduced engagement in safety behaviors. The authors conducted structural equation modeling of cross-sectional data to examine the pattern of associations between pesticide poisoning, depressive symptoms, safety knowledge, safety behaviors, and injury. Interviews of 1637 Colorado farm operators and their spouses from 964 farms were conducted during 1993-1997. Pesticide poisoning was assessed based on a history of ever having been poisoned. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale was used to assess depressive symptoms. Safety knowledge and safety behaviors were assessed using ten items for each latent variable. Outcomes were safety behaviors and injuries. A total of 154 injuries occurred among 1604 individuals with complete data. Pesticide poisoning, financial problems, health, and age predicted negative affect/somatic depressive symptoms with similar effect sizes; sex did not. Depression was more strongly associated with safety behavior than was safety knowledge. Two safety behaviors were significantly associated with an increased risk of injury. This study emphasizes the importance of financial problems and health on depression, and provides further evidence for the link between neurological effects of past pesticide poisoning on risk-taking behaviors and injury.

  8. Bidirectional Relationship between Chronic Kidney Disease and Periodontal Disease: Structural Equation Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Monica A.; Taylor, George W.; West, Brady T.; McCarthy, Ellen T.

    2011-01-01

    Periodontal disease is associated with diabetes, heart disease, and chronic kidney disease (CKD), an effect postulated to be due in part to endovascular inflammation. While a bidirectional relationship between CKD and periodontal disease is plausible, it has not been previously reported in the literature. Over 11 200 adults 18 years or older were identified in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Analyses were conducted in two stages. First, multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to test the hypothesis that periodontal disease was independently associated with CKD. Given the potential that the periodontal disease and CKD relationship may be bidirectional, a two-step analytic approach was used that involved 1) tests for mediation, and 2) structural equation models to examine more complex direct and indirect effects of periodontal disease on CKD, and vice versa. In two separate models periodontal disease (ORAdj =1.62 (95% CI: 1.17-2.26) and edentulism (ORAdj = 1.83 (1.31-2.55) and periodontal disease score (ORAdj = 1.01 (1.01-1.02) were associated with CKD, when simultaneously adjusting for 14 other factors. Three of four structural equation models were most plausible suggesting bidirectional relationships. Collectively, these analyses provide for the first time empirical support for a bidirectional relationship between CKD and periodontal disease, and mediation of that relationship by diabetes duration and hypertension. PMID:20927035

  9. Pediatric Health-Related Quality of Life: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Villalonga-Olives, Ester; Kawachi, Ichiro; Almansa, Josué; Witte, Claudia; Lange, Benjamin; Kiese-Himmel, Christiane; von Steinbüchel, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Objectives One of the most referenced theoretical frameworks to measure Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) is the Wilson and Cleary framework. With some adaptions this framework has been validated in the adult population, but has not been tested in pediatric populations. Our goal was to empirically investigate it in children. Methods The contributory factors to Health Related Quality of Life that we included were symptom status (presence of chronic disease or hospitalizations), functional status (developmental status), developmental aspects of the individual (social-emotional) behavior, and characteristics of the social environment (socioeconomic status and area of education). Structural equation modeling was used to assess the measurement structure of the model in 214 German children (3–5 years old) participating in a follow-up study that investigates pediatric health outcomes. Results Model fit was χ2 = 5.5; df = 6; p = 0.48; SRMR  = 0.01. The variance explained of Health Related Quality of Life was 15%. Health Related Quality of Life was affected by the area education (i.e. where kindergartens were located) and development status. Developmental status was affected by the area of education, socioeconomic status and individual behavior. Symptoms did not affect the model. Conclusions The goodness of fit and the overall variance explained were good. However, the results between children' and adults' tests differed and denote a conceptual gap between adult and children measures. Indeed, there is a lot of variety in pediatric Health Related Quality of Life measures, which represents a lack of a common definition of pediatric Health Related Quality of Life. We recommend that researchers invest time in the development of pediatric Health Related Quality of Life theory and theory based evaluations. PMID:25415751

  10. Habitat fragmentation and reproductive success: a structural equation modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Le Tortorec, Eric; Helle, Samuli; Käyhkö, Niina; Suorsa, Petri; Huhta, Esa; Hakkarainen, Harri

    2013-09-01

    1. There is great interest on the effects of habitat fragmentation, whereby habitat is lost and the spatial configuration of remaining habitat patches is altered, on individual breeding performance. However, we still lack consensus of how this important process affects reproductive success, and whether its effects are mainly due to reduced fecundity or nestling survival. 2. The main reason for this may be the way that habitat fragmentation has been previously modelled. Studies have treated habitat loss and altered spatial configuration as two independent processes instead of as one hierarchical and interdependent process, and therefore have not been able to consider the relative direct and indirect effects of habitat loss and altered spatial configuration. 3. We investigated how habitat (i.e. old forest) fragmentation, caused by intense forest harvesting at the territory and landscape scales, is associated with the number of fledged offspring of an area-sensitive passerine, the Eurasian treecreeper (Certhia familiaris). We used structural equation modelling (SEM) to examine the complex hierarchical associations between habitat loss and altered spatial configuration on the number of fledged offspring, by controlling for individual condition and weather conditions during incubation. 4. Against generally held expectations, treecreeper reproductive success did not show a significant association with habitat fragmentation measured at the territory scale. Instead, our analyses suggested that an increasing amount of habitat at the landscape scale caused a significant increase in nest predation rates, leading to reduced reproductive success. This effect operated directly on nest predation rates, instead of acting indirectly through altered spatial configuration. 5. Because habitat amount and configuration are inherently strongly collinear, particularly when multiple scales are considered, our study demonstrates the usefulness of a SEM approach for hierarchical partitioning

  11. Stress and Resilience in Functional Somatic Syndromes – A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Susanne; Lemmer, Gunnar; Gollwitzer, Mario; Nater, Urs M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Stress has been suggested to play a role in the development and perpetuation of functional somatic syndromes. The mechanisms of how this might occur are not clear. Purpose We propose a multi-dimensional stress model which posits that childhood trauma increases adult stress reactivity (i.e., an individual's tendency to respond strongly to stressors) and reduces resilience (e.g., the belief in one's competence). This in turn facilitates the manifestation of functional somatic syndromes via chronic stress. We tested this model cross-sectionally and prospectively. Methods Young adults participated in a web survey at two time points. Structural equation modeling was used to test our model. The final sample consisted of 3′054 participants, and 429 of these participated in the follow-up survey. Results Our proposed model fit the data in the cross-sectional (χ2(21)  = 48.808, p<.001, CFI  = .995, TLI  = .992, RMSEA  = .021, 90% CI [.013.029]) and prospective analyses (χ2(21)  = 32.675, p<.05, CFI  = .982, TLI  = .969, RMSEA  = .036, 90% CI [.001.059]). Discussion Our findings have several clinical implications, suggesting a role for stress management training in the prevention and treatment of functional somatic syndromes. PMID:25396736

  12. Hamiltonian structure of propagation equations for ultrashort optical pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Amiranashvili, Sh.; Demircan, A.

    2010-07-15

    A Hamiltonian framework is developed for a sequence of ultrashort optical pulses propagating in a nonlinear dispersive medium. To this end a second-order nonlinear wave equation for the electric field is transformed into a first-order propagation equation for a suitably defined complex electric field. The Hamiltonian formulation is then introduced in terms of normal variables, i.e., classical complex fields referring to the quantum creation and annihilation operators. The derived z-propagated Hamiltonian accounts for forward and backward waves, arbitrary medium dispersion, and four-wave mixing processes. As a simple application we obtain integrals of motion for the pulse propagation. The integrals reflect time-averaged fluxes of energy, momentum, and photons transferred by the pulse. Furthermore, pulses in the form of stationary nonlinear waves are considered. They yield extremal values of the momentum flux for a given energy flux. Simplified propagation equations are obtained by reduction of the Hamiltonian. In particular, the complex electric field reduces to an analytic signal for the unidirectional propagation. Solutions of the full bidirectional model are numerically compared to the predictions of the simplified equation for the analytic signal and to the so-called forward Maxwell equation. The numerics is effectively tested by examining the conservation laws.

  13. Analytical Ballistic Limit Equation for Projectiles Hypervelocity Impacting on Dual Wall Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Li; Li, Canan; Pang, Baojun; Zhang, Wei

    2009-03-01

    Ballistic limit of shielding structures are an important field in the research of space shielding technology. Based on the theories of plates, the paper obtains the ballistic limit equation for dual-wall structures. The equation obtained is valid for dual-wall structures subjected to hypervelocity impacts by spherical projectiles. The Rayleigh-Ritz method and Tresca yielding criteria is used in the analysis. To verify the equation, predictions to experimental tests are presented. Analysis of the predictions and comparisons with existing ballistic limit equations are also presented. The ballistic limit curve agrees well with existing ones.

  14. Dispersive deformations of the Hamiltonian structure of Euler's equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casati, M.

    2016-09-01

    Euler's equations for a two-dimensional fluid can be written in the Hamiltonian form, where the Poisson bracket is the Lie-Poisson bracket associated with the Lie algebra of divergence-free vector fields. For the two-dimensional hydrodynamics of ideal fluids, we propose a derivation of the Poisson brackets using a reduction from the bracket associated with the full algebra of vector fields. Taking the results of some recent studies of the deformations of Lie-Poisson brackets of vector fields into account, we investigate the dispersive deformations of the Poisson brackets of Euler's equation: we show that they are trivial up to the second order.

  15. Evaluation of Structural Equation Mixture Models: Parameter Estimates and Correct Class Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tueller, Stephen; Lubke, Gitta

    2010-01-01

    Structural equation mixture models (SEMMs) are latent class models that permit the estimation of a structural equation model within each class. Fitting SEMMs is illustrated using data from 1 wave of the Notre Dame Longitudinal Study of Aging. Based on the model used in the illustration, SEMM parameter estimation and correct class assignment are…

  16. General structure of the gravitational equations of motion in conformal Weyl gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes; Mannheim, Philip D.

    1991-01-01

    A general method for determining the structure of the gravitational equations of motion is presented in the fourth-order theory of gravity based on local conformal Weyl invariance of the gravitational action. The explicit structure for these equations is given for a time-dependent, spherically symmetric geometry.

  17. The fermionic covariant prolongation structure of the super generalized Hirota equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhaowen; Yao, Shaokui; Zhang, Chunhong; Gegenhasi

    2016-07-01

    The integrability of a super generalized Hirota equation (GHE) is investigated by means of the fermionic covariant prolongation structure theory. We construct the su(2/1) × R(λ) prolongation structure for the super GHE and derive the corresponding Lax representation and the Bäcklund transformation. In addition, a solution of the super integrable equation is presented.

  18. Meta-Analytic Structural Equation Modeling (MASEM): Comparison of the Multivariate Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Meta-analytic Structural Equation Modeling (MASEM) has drawn interest from many researchers recently. In doing MASEM, researchers usually first synthesize correlation matrices across studies using meta-analysis techniques and then analyze the pooled correlation matrix using structural equation modeling techniques. Several multivariate methods of…

  19. A Bayesian Approach for Analyzing Hierarchical Data with Missing Outcomes through Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Xin-Yuan; Lee, Sik-Yum

    2008-01-01

    Structural equation models are widely appreciated in behavioral, social, and psychological research to model relations between latent constructs and manifest variables, and to control for measurement errors. Most applications of structural equation models are based on fully observed data that are independently distributed. However, hierarchical…

  20. On bi-Hamiltonian structure of two-component Novikov equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nianhua; Liu, Q. P.

    2013-01-01

    In this Letter, we present a bi-Hamiltonian structure for the two-component Novikov equation. We also show that proper reduction of this bi-Hamiltonian structure leads to the Hamiltonian operators found by Hone and Wang for the Novikov equation.

  1. A Structural Equation Model of Predictors of Online Learning Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Youngju; Choi, Jaeho

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of internal academic locus of control (ALOC), learning strategies, flow experience, and student satisfaction on student retention in online learning courses. A total number of 282 adult students at the Korea National Open University participated in the study by completing an online survey adopted from previous…

  2. Validation of probability equation and decision tree in predicting subsequent dengue hemorrhagic fever in adult dengue inpatients in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Thein, Tun L; Leo, Yee-Sin; Lee, Vernon J; Sun, Yan; Lye, David C

    2011-11-01

    We developed a probability equation and a decision tree from 1,973 predominantly dengue serotype 1 hospitalized adult dengue patients in 2004 to predict progression to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), applied in our clinic since March 2007. The parameters predicting DHF were clinical bleeding, high serum urea, low serum protein, and low lymphocyte proportion. This study validated these in a predominantly dengue serotype 2 cohort in 2007. The 1,017 adult dengue patients admitted to Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore had a median age of 35 years. Of 933 patients without DHF on admission, 131 progressed to DHF. The probability equation predicted DHF with a sensitivity (Sn) of 94%, specificity (Sp) 17%, positive predictive value (PPV) 16%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 94%. The decision tree predicted DHF with a Sn of 99%, Sp 12%, PPV 16%, and NPV 99%. Both tools performed well despite a switch in predominant dengue serotypes.

  3. Dynamic Spectral Structure Specifies Vowels for Adults and Children

    PubMed Central

    Nittrouer, Susan; Lowenstein, Joanna H.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic specification account of vowel recognition suggests that formant movement between vowel targets and consonant margins is used by listeners to recognize vowels. This study tested that account by measuring contributions to vowel recognition of dynamic (i.e., time-varying) spectral structure and coarticulatory effects on stationary structure. Adults and children (four-and seven-year-olds) were tested with three kinds of consonant-vowel-consonant syllables: (1) unprocessed; (2) sine waves that preserved both stationary coarticulated and dynamic spectral structure; and (3) vocoded signals that primarily preserved that stationary, but not dynamic structure. Sections of two lengths were removed from syllable middles: (1) half the vocalic portion; and (2) all but the first and last three pitch periods. Adults performed accurately with unprocessed and sine-wave signals, as long as half the syllable remained; their recognition was poorer for vocoded signals, but above chance. Seven-year-olds performed more poorly than adults with both sorts of processed signals, but disproportionately worse with vocoded than sine-wave signals. Most four-year-olds were unable to recognize vowels at all with vocoded signals. Conclusions were that both dynamic and stationary coarticulated structures support vowel recognition for adults, but children attend to dynamic spectral structure more strongly because early phonological organization favors whole words. PMID:25536845

  4. A Linear PDE Approach to the Bellman Equation of Ergodic Control with Periodic Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Y.

    2003-03-12

    In this paper we give a new proof of the existence result of Bensoussan [1, Theorem II-6.1] for the Bellman equation of ergodic control with periodic structure. This Bellman equation is a nonlinear PDE, and he constructed its solution by using the solution of a nonlinear PDE. On the contrary, our key idea is to solve two linear PDEs. Hence, we propose a linear PDE approach to this Bellman equation.

  5. Inverse diffraction grating of Maxwell's equations in biperiodic structures.

    PubMed

    Bao, Gang; Cui, Tao; Li, Peijun

    2014-02-24

    Consider a time-harmonic electromagnetic plane wave incident on a perfectly conducting biperiodic surface (crossed grating). The diffraction is modeled as a boundary value problem for the three-dimensional Maxwell equation. The surface is assumed to be a small and smooth deformation of a planar surface. In this paper, a novel approach is developed to solve the inverse diffraction grating problem in the near-field regime, which is to reconstruct the surface with resolution beyond Rayleigh's criterion. The method requires only a single incident field with one polarization, one frequency, and one incident direction, and is realized by using the fast Fourier transform. Numerical results show that the method is simple, efficient, and stable to reconstruct biperiodic surfaces with subwavelength resolution. PMID:24663798

  6. Diagnosis Analysis of 4 TCM Patterns in Suboptimal Health Status: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Min; Zhao, Xin; Wu, Xi-Ling; Li, Yang; Yi, Dan-Hui; Cui, Hua-Ting; Chen, Jia-Xu

    2012-01-01

    Background. We illustrated an example of structure equation modelling (SEM) in the research on SHS to explore the diagnosis of the Sub optimal health status (SHS) and provide evidence for the standardization of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) patterns in SHS. And the diagnosis of 4 TCM patterns in SHS was evaluated in this analysis. Methods. This study assessed data on 2807 adults (aged 18 to 49) with SHS from 6 clinical centres. SEM was used to analyze the patterns of SHS in TCM. Parameters in the introduced model were estimated by the maximum likelihood method. Results. The discussed model fits the SHS data well with CFI = 0.851 and RMSEA = 0.075. The direct effect of Qi deficiency pattern on dampness pattern had the highest magnitude (value of estimate is 0.822). With regard to the construct of "Qi deficiency pattern", "fire pattern", "stagnation pattern" and "dampness pattern", the indicators with the highest load were myasthenia of limbs, vexation, deprementia, and dizziness, respectively. It had been shown that estimate factor should indicate the important degree of different symptoms in pattern. Conclusions. The weights of symptoms in the respective pattern can be statistical significant and theoretical meaningful for the 4 TCM patterns identification in SHS research. The study contributed to a theoretical framework, which has implications for the diagnosis points of SHS. PMID:22550544

  7. Approximate Confidence Interval for Difference of Fit in Structural Equation Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a method, based on bootstrap methodology, for obtaining an approximate confidence interval for the difference in root mean square error of approximation of two structural equation models. Illustrates the method using a numerical example. (SLD)

  8. Effect of the Number of Variables on Measures of Fit in Structural Equation Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, David A.; McCoach, D. Betsy

    2003-01-01

    Used three approaches to understand the effect of the number of variables in the model on model fit in structural equation modeling through computer simulation. Developed a simple formula for the theoretical value of the comparative fit index. (SLD)

  9. Factor Structure of Deterrents to Adult Participation in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, Naveen K.; Shapero, Morris; Sizoo, Steve; Munro, Tom

    2007-01-01

    As institutions of higher learning have seen the aging of American college students, they have been increasingly concerned about helping them overcome what deters their reentry. Adult perception of deterrents is identified in this study. Analysis and the factor structure underlying these deterrents is examined in the Situational, Institutional,…

  10. The abundant symmetry structure of hierarchies of nonlinear equations obtained by reciprocal links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carillo, Sandra; Fuchssteiner, Benno

    1989-07-01

    Explicit computation for a Kawamoto-type equation shows that there is a rich associated symmetry structure for four separate hierarchies of nonlinear integrodifferential equations. Contrary to the general belief that symmetry groups for nonlinear evolution equations in 1+1 dimensions have to be Abelian, it is shown that, in this case, the symmetry group is noncommutative. Its semisimple part is isomorphic to the affine Lie algebra A(1)1 associated to sl(2,C). In two of the additional hierarchies that were found, an explicit dependence of the independent variable occurs. Surprisingly, the generic invariance for the Kawamoto-type equation obtained in Rogers and Carillo [Phys. Scr. 36, 865 (1987)] via a reciprocal link to the Möbius invariance of the singularity equation of the Kaup-Kupershmidt (KK) equation only holds for one of the additional hierarchies of symmetry groups. Thus the generic invariance is not a universal property for the complete symmetry group of equations obtained by reciprocal links. In addition to these results, the bi-Hamiltonian formulation of the hierarchy is given. A direct Bäcklund transformation between the (KK) hierarchy and the hierarchy of singularity equation for the Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon-Sawada-Kotera equation is exhibited: This shows that the abundant symmetry structure found for the Kawamoto equation must exist for all fifth-order equations, which are known to be completely integrable since these equations are connected either by Bäcklund transformations or reciprocal links. It is shown that similar results must hold for all hierarchies emerging out of singularity hierarchies via reciprocal links. Furthermore, general aspects of the results are discussed.

  11. A homotopy algorithm for synthesizing robust controllers for flexible structures via the maximum entropy design equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Emmanuel G., Jr.; Richter, Stephen

    1990-01-01

    One well known deficiency of LQG compensators is that they do not guarantee any measure of robustness. This deficiency is especially highlighted when considering control design for complex systems such as flexible structures. There has thus been a need to generalize LQG theory to incorporate robustness constraints. Here we describe the maximum entropy approach to robust control design for flexible structures, a generalization of LQG theory, pioneered by Hyland, which has proved useful in practice. The design equations consist of a set of coupled Riccati and Lyapunov equations. A homotopy algorithm that is used to solve these design equations is presented.

  12. Generalized pulse equations for through-transmission evaluation of arbitrary multilayered structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, E. James; Nielsen, Hatsumi T. C.

    1990-01-01

    Generalized transit time and pulse amplitude equations were derived for modelling the ultrasonic through-transmission wave propagation of an arbitrary n-layered structure. The equations can be programmed into an expert system and used to identify and predict the through-transmission pulse signals from the critical interfaces of a multilayered structure. To test the formulas, the through transmission was measured from one- and three-layered configurations in the laboratory. The experimental measurements were compared with computer-generated data determined using the derived equations. The results verify the validity of the formulas.

  13. The Lattice Structure of Connection Preserving Deformations for q-Painlevé Equations I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormerod, Christopher M.

    2011-05-01

    We wish to explore a link between the Lax integrability of the q-Painlevé equations and the symmetries of the q-Painlevé equations. We shall demonstrate that the connection preserving deformations that give rise to the q-Painlevé equations may be thought of as elements of the groups of Schlesinger transformations of their associated linear problems. These groups admit a very natural lattice structure. Each Schlesinger transformation induces a Bäcklund transformation of the q-Painlevé equation. Each translational Bäcklund transformation may be lifted to the level of the associated linear problem, effectively showing that each translational Bäcklund transformation admits a Lax pair. We will demonstrate this framework for the q-Painlevé equations up to and including q-PVI.

  14. Individual- and Structural-Level Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts among Transgender Adults

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Bockting, Walter

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed individual (i.e., internalized transphobia) and structural forms of stigma as risk factors for suicide attempts among transgender adults. Internalized transphobia was assessed through a 26-item scale including four dimensions: pride, passing, alienation and shame. State-level structural stigma was operationalized as a composite index, including: density of same-sex couples; proportion of Gay-Straight Alliances per public high school; 5 policies related to sexual orientation discrimination; and aggregated public opinion towards homosexuality. Multivariable logistic generalized estimating equation models assessed associations of interest among an online sample of transgender adults (N=1,229) representing 48 states and the District of Columbia. Lower levels of structural stigma were associated with fewer lifetime suicide attempts (AOR 0.96, 95% CI 0.92–0.997), and a higher score on the internalized transphobia scale was associated with greater lifetime suicide attempts (AOR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04–1.33). Addressing stigma at multiple levels is necessary to reduce the vulnerability of suicide attempts among transgender adults. PMID:26287284

  15. Individual- and Structural-Level Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts Among Transgender Adults.

    PubMed

    Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Bockting, Walter

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed individual (ie, internalized transphobia) and structural forms of stigma as risk factors for suicide attempts among transgender adults. Internalized transphobia was assessed through a 26-item scale including four dimensions: pride, passing, alienation, and shame. State-level structural stigma was operationalized as a composite index, including density of same-sex couples; proportion of Gay-Straight Alliances per public high school; 5 policies related to sexual orientation discrimination; and aggregated public opinion toward homosexuality. Multivariable logistic generalized estimating equation models assessed associations of interest among an online sample of transgender adults (N = 1,229) representing 48 states and the District of Columbia. Lower levels of structural stigma were associated with fewer lifetime suicide attempts (AOR 0.96, 95% CI 0.92-0.997), and a higher score on the internalized transphobia scale was associated with greater lifetime suicide attempts (AOR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04-1.33). Addressing stigma at multiple levels is necessary to reduce the vulnerability of suicide attempts among transgender adults.

  16. High-accuracy deterministic solution of the Boltzmann equation for the shock wave structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, E. A.; Bondar, Ye. A.; Kokhanchik, A. A.; Poleshkin, S. O.; Ivanov, M. S.

    2015-07-01

    A new deterministic method of solving the Boltzmann equation has been proposed. The method has been employed in numerical studies of the plane shock wave structure in a hard sphere gas. Results for Mach numbers and have been compared with predictions of the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, which has been used to obtain the reference solution. Particular attention in estimating the solution accuracy has been paid to a fine structural effect: the presence of a total temperature peak exceeding the temperature value further downstream. The results of solving the Boltzmann equation for the shock wave structure are in excellent agreement with the DSMC predictions.

  17. Superwoman Schema: Using Structural Equation Modeling to Investigate Measurement Invariance in a Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steed, Teneka C.

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating the psychometric properties of a newly developed instrument is critical to understanding how well an instrument measures what it intends to measure, and ensuring proposed use and interpretation of questionnaire scores are valid. The current study uses Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques to examine the factorial structure and…

  18. Multilevel Structural Equation Models for the Analysis of Comparative Data on Educational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Harvey; Bonnet, Gerard; Rocher, Thierry

    2007-01-01

    The Programme for International Student Assessment comparative study of reading performance among 15-year-olds is reanalyzed using statistical procedures that allow the full complexity of the data structures to be explored. The article extends existing multilevel factor analysis and structural equation models and shows how this can extract richer…

  19. Introducing Algebraic Structures through Solving Equations: Vertical Content Knowledge for K-12 Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Nicholas H.

    2014-01-01

    Algebraic structures are a necessary aspect of algebraic thinking for K-12 students and teachers. An approach for introducing the algebraic structure of groups and fields through the arithmetic properties required for solving simple equations is summarized; the collective (not individual) importance of these axioms as a foundation for algebraic…

  20. Structural Equation Modeling in Assessing Students' Understanding of the State Changes of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Tsitsipis, Georgios; Papageorgiou, George

    2012-01-01

    In this study, structural equation modeling (SEM) is applied to an instrument assessing students' understanding of the particulate nature of matter, the collective properties and physical changes, such as melting, evaporation, boiling and condensation. The structural relationships among particular groups of items were investigated. In addition,…

  1. Application of partial differential equation modeling of the control/structural dynamics of flexible spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr.; Rajiyah, H.

    1991-01-01

    Partial differential equations for modeling the structural dynamics and control systems of flexible spacecraft are applied here in order to facilitate systems analysis and optimization of these spacecraft. Example applications are given, including the structural dynamics of SCOLE, the Solar Array Flight Experiment, the Mini-MAST truss, and the LACE satellite. The development of related software is briefly addressed.

  2. OpenMx: An Open Source Extended Structural Equation Modeling Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boker, Steven; Neale, Michael; Maes, Hermine; Wilde, Michael; Spiegel, Michael; Brick, Timothy; Spies, Jeffrey; Estabrook, Ryne; Kenny, Sarah; Bates, Timothy; Mehta, Paras; Fox, John

    2011-01-01

    OpenMx is free, full-featured, open source, structural equation modeling (SEM) software. OpenMx runs within the "R" statistical programming environment on Windows, Mac OS-X, and Linux computers. The rationale for developing OpenMx is discussed along with the philosophy behind the user interface. The OpenMx data structures are introduced--these…

  3. Fitting Data to Model: Structural Equation Modeling Diagnosis Using Two Scatter Plots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Ke-Hai; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces two simple scatter plots for model diagnosis in structural equation modeling. One plot contrasts a residual-based M-distance of the structural model with the M-distance for the factor score. It contains information on outliers, good leverage observations, bad leverage observations, and normal cases. The other plot contrasts…

  4. Application of Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling to Evaluate the Academic Motivation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guay, Frédéric; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Litalien, David; Valois, Pierre; Vallerand, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, the authors examined the construct validity of scores of the Academic Motivation Scale using exploratory structural equation modeling. Study 1 and Study 2 involved 1,416 college students and 4,498 high school students, respectively. First, results of both studies indicated that the factor structure tested with exploratory…

  5. Direct and Indirect Effects of Parental Influence upon Adolescent Alcohol Use: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Mi; Neff, James Alan

    2010-01-01

    A model incorporating the direct and indirect effects of parental monitoring on adolescent alcohol use was evaluated by applying structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques to data on 4,765 tenth-graders in the 2001 Monitoring the Future Study. Analyses indicated good fit of hypothesized measurement and structural models. Analyses supported both…

  6. The second Hamiltonian structure for a special case of the Lotka-Volterra equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibik, Yu. V.

    2007-08-01

    A special case of the Lotka-Volterra equations is considered for which it is possible to find the second Hamiltonian structure that is complementary to the known one. The form of the new Hamiltonian makes it possible to solve the equations by quadratures, which is the main feature of the case under examination. As a consequence, the period can also be represented by quadratures. In terms of the new variables, the equations of motion admit a mechanical analogy with the oscillations of a mass on a nonlinear spring.

  7. Analysing the socioeconomic determinants of hypertension in South Africa: a structural equation modelling approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiological research has long observed a varying prevalence of hypertension across socioeconomic strata. However, patterns of association and underlying causal mechanisms are poorly understood in sub-Saharan Africa. Using education and income as indicators, we investigated the extent to which socioeconomic status is linked to blood pressure in the first wave of the National Income Dynamics Study — a South African longitudinal study of more than 15000 adults – and whether bio-behavioural risk factors mediate the association. Methods In a cross-sectional analysis, structural equation modelling was employed to estimate the effect of socioeconomic status on systolic and diastolic blood pressure and to assess the role of a set of bio-behavioural risk factors in explaining the observed relationships. Results After adjustment for age, race and antihypertensive treatment, higher education and income were independently associated with higher diastolic blood pressure in men. In women higher education predicted lower values of both diastolic and systolic blood pressure while higher income predicted lower systolic blood pressure. In both genders, body mass index was a strong mediator of an adverse indirect effect of socioeconomic status on blood pressure. Together with physical exercise, alcohol use, smoking and resting heart rate, body mass index therefore contributed substantially to mediation of the observed relationships in men. By contrast, in women unmeasured factors played a greater role. Conclusion In countries undergoing epidemiological transition, effects of socioeconomic status on blood pressure may vary by gender. In women, factors other than those listed above may have substantial role in mediating the association and merit investigation. PMID:24885860

  8. Fluid/Structure Interaction Studies of Aircraft Using High Fidelity Equations on Parallel Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruswamy, Guru; VanDalsem, William (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Abstract Aeroelasticity which involves strong coupling of fluids, structures and controls is an important element in designing an aircraft. Computational aeroelasticity using low fidelity methods such as the linear aerodynamic flow equations coupled with the modal structural equations are well advanced. Though these low fidelity approaches are computationally less intensive, they are not adequate for the analysis of modern aircraft such as High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) and Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) which can experience complex flow/structure interactions. HSCT can experience vortex induced aeroelastic oscillations whereas AST can experience transonic buffet associated structural oscillations. Both aircraft may experience a dip in the flutter speed at the transonic regime. For accurate aeroelastic computations at these complex fluid/structure interaction situations, high fidelity equations such as the Navier-Stokes for fluids and the finite-elements for structures are needed. Computations using these high fidelity equations require large computational resources both in memory and speed. Current conventional super computers have reached their limitations both in memory and speed. As a result, parallel computers have evolved to overcome the limitations of conventional computers. This paper will address the transition that is taking place in computational aeroelasticity from conventional computers to parallel computers. The paper will address special techniques needed to take advantage of the architecture of new parallel computers. Results will be illustrated from computations made on iPSC/860 and IBM SP2 computer by using ENSAERO code that directly couples the Euler/Navier-Stokes flow equations with high resolution finite-element structural equations.

  9. Abnormal brain structure in adults with Van der Woude syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nopoulos, P; Richman, L; Andreasen, N C; Murray, J C; Schutte, B

    2007-06-01

    Van der Woude syndrome (VWS) is an autosomal dominant disorder manifested in cleft lip and/or palate and lip pits. Isolated clefts of the lip and/or palate (ICLP) have both genotype and phenotype overlap with VWS. Subjects with ICLP have abnormalities in brain structure and function. Given the similarities between VWS and ICLP, the current study was designed to evaluate the pattern of brain structure of adults with VWS. Fourteen adults with VWS were compared to age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Brain structure was evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging. All subjects with VWS had enlarged volumes of the anterior regions of the cerebrum. Men with VWS had reduced volumes of the posterior cerebrum. Anterior cerebrum volume was negatively correlated with intelligent quotient in the subjects with VWS indicating that the enlargement of this brain region was 'pathologic.' The pattern of brain structure in VWS is nearly identical to those seen in ICLP. In addition, men are affected more severely. Pathologic enlargement of the tissue and a gender effect with men affected more severely are common features of neurodevelopmental disorders supporting the notion that the brain structure of VWS and ICLP may be because of abnormal brain development. PMID:17539900

  10. Testing strong factorial invariance using three-level structural equation modeling

    PubMed Central

    Jak, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Within structural equation modeling, the most prevalent model to investigate measurement bias is the multigroup model. Equal factor loadings and intercepts across groups in a multigroup model represent strong factorial invariance (absence of measurement bias) across groups. Although this approach is possible in principle, it is hardly practical when the number of groups is large or when the group size is relatively small. Jak et al. (2013) showed how strong factorial invariance across large numbers of groups can be tested in a multilevel structural equation modeling framework, by treating group as a random instead of a fixed variable. In the present study, this model is extended for use with three-level data. The proposed method is illustrated with an investigation of strong factorial invariance across 156 school classes and 50 schools in a Dutch dyscalculia test, using three-level structural equation modeling. PMID:25120499

  11. Reformulation of Maxwell's equations to incorporate near-solute solvent structure.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pei-Kun; Lim, Carmay

    2008-09-01

    Maxwell's equations, which treat electromagnetic interactions between macroscopic charged objects in materials, have explained many phenomena and contributed to many applications in our lives. Derived in 1861 when no methods were available to determine the atomic structure of macromolecules, Maxwell's equations assume the solvent to be a structureless continuum. However, near-solute solvent molecules are highly structured, unlike far-solute bulk solvent molecules. Current methods cannot treat both the near-solute solvent structure and time-dependent electromagnetic interactions in a macroscopic system. Here, we derive "microscopic" electrodynamics equations that can treat macroscopic time-dependent electromagnetic field problems like Maxwell's equations and reproduce the solvent molecular and dipole density distributions observed in molecular dynamics simulations. These equations greatly reduce computational expense by not having to include explicit solvent molecules, yet they treat the solvent electrostatic and van der Waals effects more accurately than continuum models. They provide a foundation to study electromagnetic interactions between molecules in a macroscopic system that are ubiquitous in biology, bioelectromagnetism, and nanotechnology. The general strategy presented herein to incorporate the near-solute solvent structure would enable studies on how complex cellular protein-ligand interactions are affected by electromagnetic radiation, which could help to prevent harmful electromagnetic spectra or find potential therapeutic applications. PMID:18698705

  12. Second-order discrete Kalman filtering equations for control-structure interaction simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, K. C.; Belvin, W. Keith; Alvin, Kenneth F.

    1991-01-01

    A general form for the first-order representation of the continuous, second-order linear structural dynamics equations is introduced in order to derive a corresponding form of first-order Kalman filtering equations (KFE). Time integration of the resulting first-order KFE is carried out via a set of linear multistep integration formulas. It is shown that a judicious combined selection of computational paths and the undetermined matrices introduced in the general form of the first-order linear structural systems leads to a class of second-order discrete KFE involving only symmetric, N x N solution matrix.

  13. First-principles prediction of the equation of state for TcC with rocksalt structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao-Wei; Chu, Yan-Dong; Liu, Zi-Jiang; Song, Ting; Tian, Jun-Hong; Wei, Xiao-Ping

    2014-10-01

    The equation of state of TcC with rocksalt structure is investigated by means of first-principles density functional theory calculations combined with the quasi-harmonic Debye model in which the phononic effects are considered. Particular attention is paid to the predictions of the compressibility, the isothermal bulk modulus and its first pressure derivative which play a central role in the formulation of approximate equations of state for the first time. The properties of TcC with rocksalt structure are summarized in the pressure range of 0-80 GPa and the temperature up to 2500 K.

  14. Thermodynamics and structure of a two-dimensional electrolyte by integral equation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Aupic, Jana; Urbic, Tomaz

    2014-05-14

    Monte Carlo simulations and integral equation theory were used to predict the thermodynamics and structure of a two-dimensional Coulomb fluid. We checked the possibility that integral equations reproduce Kosterlitz-Thouless and vapor-liquid phase transitions of the electrolyte and critical points. Integral equation theory results were compared to Monte Carlo data and the correctness of selected closure relations was assessed. Among selected closures hypernetted-chain approximation results matched computer simulation data best, but these equations unfortunately break down at temperatures well above the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition. The Kovalenko-Hirata closure produces results even at very low temperatures and densities, but no sign of phase transition was detected.

  15. Structured exercise in older adults with limited functional ability.

    PubMed

    Fahlman, Mariane M; Topp, Robert; McNevin, Nancy; Morgan, Amy L; Boardley, Debra J

    2007-06-01

    The authors of this study examined the effects of a 16-week exercise program designed to increase aerobic capacity, muscular strength, and muscular endurance in older adults who reported and exhibited limited functional ability. Participants were randomly assigned to either an exercise (n=39) or a control (n=34) group. Dependent variables tested included measures of fitness (aerobic exercise capacity and isokinetic strength testing of the legs and arms) and measures of functional capacity (time to and off the floor, stair test, chair stand, and bicep curl). At the end of the program, there were significant differences between the exercise and control groups in arm strength, chair stand, and biceps curl. The results of this study indicate functionally limited older adults who maintain a structured exercise program for 16 weeks exhibit increased functional ability.

  16. An analysis of the vertical structure equation for arbitrary thermal profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, Stephen E.; Dee, Dick P.

    1987-01-01

    The vertical structure equation is a singular Sturm-Liouville problem whose eigenfunctions describe the vertical dependence of the normal modes of the primitive equations linearized about a given thermal profile. The eigenvalues give the equivalent depths of the modes. The spectrum of the vertical structure equation and the appropriateness of various upper boundary conditions, both for arbitrary thermal profiles were studied. The results depend critically upon whether or not the thermal profile is such that the basic state atmosphere is bounded. In the case of a bounded atmosphere it is shown that the spectrum is always totally discrete, regardless of details of the thermal profile. For the barotropic equivalent depth, which corresponds to the lowest eigen value, upper and lower bounds which depend only on the surface temperature and the atmosphere height were obtained. All eigenfunctions are bounded, but always have unbounded first derivatives. It was proved that the commonly invoked upper boundary condition that vertical velocity must vanish as pressure tends to zero, as well as a number of alternative conditions, is well posed. It was concluded that the vertical structure equation always has a totally discrete spectrum under the assumptions implicit in the primitive equations.

  17. Some Poisson structures and Lax equations associated with the Toeplitz lattice and the Schur lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemarie, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The Toeplitz lattice is a Hamiltonian system whose Poisson structure is known. In this paper, we unveil the origins of this Poisson structure and derive from it the associated Lax equations for this lattice. We first construct a Poisson subvariety H n of GL n (C), which we view as a real or complex Poisson-Lie group whose Poisson structure comes from a quadratic R-bracket on gl n (C) for a fixed R-matrix. The existence of Hamiltonians, associated to the Toeplitz lattice for the Poisson structure on H n , combined with the properties of the quadratic R-bracket allow us to give explicit formulas for the Lax equation. Then we derive from it the integrability in the sense of Liouville of the Toeplitz lattice. When we view the lattice as being defined over R, we can construct a Poisson subvariety H n τ of U n which is itself a Poisson-Dirac subvariety of GL n R (C). We then construct a Hamiltonian for the Poisson structure induced on H n τ , corresponding to another system which derives from the Toeplitz lattice the modified Schur lattice. Thanks to the properties of Poisson-Dirac subvarieties, we give an explicit Lax equation for the new system and derive from it a Lax equation for the Schur lattice. We also deduce the integrability in the sense of Liouville of the modified Schur lattice.

  18. Discussions on equivalent solutions and localized structures via the mapping method based on Riccati equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ling; Cheng, Xuan; Dai, Chao-Qing

    2015-12-01

    Although the mapping method based on Riccati equation was proposed to obtain variable separation solutions many years ago, two important problems have not been studied: i) the equivalence of variable separation solutions by means of the mapping method based on Riccati equation with the radical sign combined ansatz; and ii) lack of physical meanings for some localized structures constructed by variable separation solutions. In this paper, we re-study the (2+1)-dimensional Boiti-Leon-Pempinelli equation via the mapping method based on Riccati equation and prove that nine types of variable separation solutions are actually equivalent to each other. Moreover, we also re-study localized structures constructed by variable separation solutions. Results indicate that some localized structures reported in the literature are lacking real values due to the appearance of the divergent and un-physical phenomenon for the initial field. Therefore, we must be careful with the initial field to avoid the appearance of some un-physical or even divergent structures in it when we construct localized structures for the potential field.

  19. White matter structure changes as adults learn a second language.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Alexander A; Rudelson, Justin J; Tse, Peter U

    2012-08-01

    Traditional models hold that the plastic reorganization of brain structures occurs mainly during childhood and adolescence, leaving adults with limited means to learn new knowledge and skills. Research within the last decade has begun to overturn this belief, documenting changes in the brain's gray and white matter as healthy adults learn simple motor and cognitive skills [Lövdén, M., Bodammer, N. C., Kühn, S., Kaufmann, J., Schütze, H., Tempelmann, C., et al. Experience-dependent plasticity of white-matter microstructure extends into old age. Neuropsychologia, 48, 3878-3883, 2010; Taubert, M., Draganski, B., Anwander, A., Müller, K., Horstmann, A., Villringer, A., et al. Dynamic properties of human brain structure: Learning-related changes in cortical areas and associated fiber connections. The Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 11670-11677, 2010; Scholz, J., Klein, M. C., Behrens, T. E. J., & Johansen-Berg, H. Training induces changes in white-matter architecture. Nature Neuroscience, 12, 1370-1371, 2009; Draganski, B., Gaser, C., Busch, V., Schuirer, G., Bogdahn, U., & May, A. Changes in grey matter induced by training. Nature, 427, 311-312, 2004]. Although the significance of these changes is not fully understood, they reveal a brain that remains plastic well beyond early developmental periods. Here we investigate the role of adult structural plasticity in the complex, long-term learning process of foreign language acquisition. We collected monthly diffusion tensor imaging scans of 11 English speakers who took a 9-month intensive course in written and spoken Modern Standard Chinese as well as from 16 control participants who did not study a language. We show that white matter reorganizes progressively across multiple sites as adults study a new language. Language learners exhibited progressive changes in white matter tracts associated with traditional left hemisphere language areas and their right hemisphere analogs. Surprisingly, the most significant changes

  20. White matter structure changes as adults learn a second language.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Alexander A; Rudelson, Justin J; Tse, Peter U

    2012-08-01

    Traditional models hold that the plastic reorganization of brain structures occurs mainly during childhood and adolescence, leaving adults with limited means to learn new knowledge and skills. Research within the last decade has begun to overturn this belief, documenting changes in the brain's gray and white matter as healthy adults learn simple motor and cognitive skills [Lövdén, M., Bodammer, N. C., Kühn, S., Kaufmann, J., Schütze, H., Tempelmann, C., et al. Experience-dependent plasticity of white-matter microstructure extends into old age. Neuropsychologia, 48, 3878-3883, 2010; Taubert, M., Draganski, B., Anwander, A., Müller, K., Horstmann, A., Villringer, A., et al. Dynamic properties of human brain structure: Learning-related changes in cortical areas and associated fiber connections. The Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 11670-11677, 2010; Scholz, J., Klein, M. C., Behrens, T. E. J., & Johansen-Berg, H. Training induces changes in white-matter architecture. Nature Neuroscience, 12, 1370-1371, 2009; Draganski, B., Gaser, C., Busch, V., Schuirer, G., Bogdahn, U., & May, A. Changes in grey matter induced by training. Nature, 427, 311-312, 2004]. Although the significance of these changes is not fully understood, they reveal a brain that remains plastic well beyond early developmental periods. Here we investigate the role of adult structural plasticity in the complex, long-term learning process of foreign language acquisition. We collected monthly diffusion tensor imaging scans of 11 English speakers who took a 9-month intensive course in written and spoken Modern Standard Chinese as well as from 16 control participants who did not study a language. We show that white matter reorganizes progressively across multiple sites as adults study a new language. Language learners exhibited progressive changes in white matter tracts associated with traditional left hemisphere language areas and their right hemisphere analogs. Surprisingly, the most significant changes

  1. Structural plasticity of axon terminals in the adult.

    PubMed

    Gogolla, Nadine; Galimberti, Ivan; Caroni, Pico

    2007-10-01

    There is now conclusive evidence for widespread ongoing structural plasticity of presynaptic boutons and axon side-branches in the adult brain. The plasticity complements that of postsynaptic spines, but axonal plasticity samples larger volumes of neuropil, and has a larger impact on circuit remodeling. Axons from distinct neurons exhibit unique ratios of stable (t1/2>9 months) and dynamic (t1/2 5-20 days) boutons, which persist as spatially intermingled subgroups along terminal arbors. In addition, phases of side-branch dynamics mediate larger scale remodeling guided by synaptogenesis. The plasticity is most pronounced during critical periods; its patterns and outcome are controlled by Hebbian mechanisms and intrinsic neuronal factors. Novel experience, skill learning, life-style, and age can persistently modify local circuit structure through axonal structural plasticity.

  2. Dynamics of a neutral delay equation for an insect population with long larval and short adult phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourley, Stephen A.; Kuang, Yang

    We present a global study on the stability of the equilibria in a nonlinear autonomous neutral delay differential population model formulated by Bocharov and Hadeler. This model may be suitable for describing the intriguing dynamics of an insect population with long larval and short adult phases such as the periodical cicada. We circumvent the usual difficulties associated with the study of the stability of a nonlinear neutral delay differential model by transforming it to an appropriate non-neutral nonautonomous delay differential equation with unbounded delay. In the case that no juveniles give birth, we establish the positivity and boundedness of solutions by ad hoc methods and global stability of the extinction and positive equilibria by the method of iteration. We also show that if the time adjusted instantaneous birth rate at the time of maturation is greater than 1, then the population will grow without bound, regardless of the population death process.

  3. Genotypic structure of a Drosophila population for adult locomotor activity

    SciTech Connect

    Grechanyi, G.V.; Korzun, V.M.

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of the variation of adult locomotor activity in four samples taken at different times from a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster showed that the total variation of this trait is relatively stable in time and has a substantial genetic component. Genotypic structure of the population for locomotor activity is characterized by the presence of large groups of genotypes with high and low values of this trait. A possible explanation for the presence of such groups in a population is cyclic density-dependent selection.

  4. University Students' Behaviors Pertaining to Sustainability: A Structural Equation Model with Sustainability-Related Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Elvan; Ertepinar, Hamide; Teksoz, Gaye

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to construct a structural equation model to examine the links among attitudes, values, and behaviors pertaining to sustainability, participation in outdoor recreation as well as gender and tendency to follow mass media for university students. The data were collected by on-line administration of a survey to 958…

  5. Meta-Analytic Structural Equation Modeling: A Two-Stage Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Mike W. L.; Chan, Wai

    2005-01-01

    To synthesize studies that use structural equation modeling (SEM), researchers usually use Pearson correlations (univariate r), Fisher z scores (univariate z), or generalized least squares (GLS) to combine the correlation matrices. The pooled correlation matrix is then analyzed by the use of SEM. Questionable inferences may occur for these ad hoc…

  6. How To Generate Non-normal Data for Simulation of Structural Equation Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Stefan

    1997-01-01

    A procedure is proposed to generate non-normal data for simulation of structural equation models. The procedure uses a simple transformation of univariate random variables for the generation of data on latent and error variables under some restrictions for the elements of the covariance matrices for these variables. (SLD)

  7. Vocabulary and Grammar Knowledge in Second Language Reading Comprehension: A Structural Equation Modeling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dongbo

    2012-01-01

    Using structural equation modeling analysis, this study examined the contribution of vocabulary and grammatical knowledge to second language reading comprehension among 190 advanced Chinese English as a foreign language learners. Vocabulary knowledge was measured in both breadth (Vocabulary Levels Test) and depth (Word Associates Test);…

  8. Residuals and the Residual-Based Statistic for Testing Goodness of Fit of Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foldnes, Njal; Foss, Tron; Olsson, Ulf Henning

    2012-01-01

    The residuals obtained from fitting a structural equation model are crucial ingredients in obtaining chi-square goodness-of-fit statistics for the model. The authors present a didactic discussion of the residuals, obtaining a geometrical interpretation by recognizing the residuals as the result of oblique projections. This sheds light on the…

  9. Understanding the Impact of Trauma Exposure on Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wei; Wang, Long; Zhang, Xing-Li; Shi, Jian-Nong

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of trauma exposure on the posttraumatic stress symptomatology (PTSS) of children who resided near the epicenter of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. The mechanisms of this impact were explored via structural equation models with self-esteem and coping strategies included as mediators. The…

  10. A Structural Equation Model of Parental Involvement, Motivational and Aptitudinal Characteristics, and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Pienda, Julio Antonio; Nunez, Jose Carlos; Gonzalez-Pumariega, Soledad; Alvarez, Luis; Roces, Cristina; Garcia, Marta

    2002-01-01

    Used the structural equation model approach to test a model hypothesizing the influence of parental involvement on students' academic aptitudes, self-concept, and causal attributions, as well as the influence of these variables on academic achievement. Results for 261 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years suggest that cognitive-affective variables are…

  11. The Trauma Outcome Process Assessment Model: A Structural Equation Model Examination of Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Susan E.; Callahan, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation sought to operationalize a comprehensive theoretical model, the Trauma Outcome Process Assessment, and test it empirically with structural equation modeling. The Trauma Outcome Process Assessment reflects a robust body of research and incorporates known ecological factors (e.g., family dynamics, social support) to explain…

  12. Using Structural Equation Modeling to Assess Functional Connectivity in the Brain: Power and Sample Size Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sideridis, Georgios; Simos, Panagiotis; Papanicolaou, Andrew; Fletcher, Jack

    2014-01-01

    The present study assessed the impact of sample size on the power and fit of structural equation modeling applied to functional brain connectivity hypotheses. The data consisted of time-constrained minimum norm estimates of regional brain activity during performance of a reading task obtained with magnetoencephalography. Power analysis was first…

  13. A Confirmatory Structural Equation Model of Achievement Estimated by Dichotomous Attitudes, Interest, and Conceptual Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Minkee; Song, Jinwoong

    2010-01-01

    Many models in science education have tried to clarify the causal relationships of affective variables on student performance, by presenting theoretical models, exploratory SEM (structural equation models), and confirmatory SEM. Based on the literature, the recent AS-TI-CU model scrutinised the most robust stimuli of conceptual understanding (CU):…

  14. Group Climate, Cohesion, Alliance, and Empathy in Group Psychotherapy: Multilevel Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jennifer E.; Burlingame, Gary M.; Olsen, Joseph A.; Davies, D. Robert; Gleave, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the definitional and statistical overlap among 4 key group therapeutic relationship constructs--group climate, cohesion, alliance, and empathy--across member-member, member-group, and member-leader relationships. Three multilevel structural equation models were tested using self-report measures completed by 662 participants…

  15. Structural Equation Modelling of Multiple Facet Data: Extending Models for Multitrait-Multimethod Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechger, Timo M.; Maris, Gunter

    2004-01-01

    This paper is about the structural equation modelling of quantitative measures that are obtained from a multiple facet design. A facet is simply a set consisting of a finite number of elements. It is assumed that measures are obtained by combining each element of each facet. Methods and traits are two such facets, and a multitrait-multimethod…

  16. Psychological Separation, Attachment Security, Vocational Self-Concept Crystallization, and Career Indecision: A Structural Equation Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tokar, David M.; Withrow, Jason R.; Hall, Rosalie J.; Moradi, Bonnie

    2003-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to test theoretically based models in which psychological separation and attachment security variables were related to career indecision and those relations were mediated through vocational self-concept crystallization. Results indicated that some components of separation and attachment security did relate to…

  17. The Relation among Fit Indexes, Power, and Sample Size in Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kevin H.

    2005-01-01

    The relation among fit indexes, power, and sample size in structural equation modeling is examined. The noncentrality parameter is required to compute power. The 2 existing methods of computing power have estimated the noncentrality parameter by specifying an alternative hypothesis or alternative fit. These methods cannot be implemented easily and…

  18. Implications of Recent Developments in Structural Equation Modeling for Counseling Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintana, Stephen M.; Maxwell, Scott E.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews recent developments in structural equation modeling (SEM). Discusses issues critical to designing and evaluating SEM studies and recent technological developments. Examines innovations in applying SEM to different research contexts and designs. Also discusses procedures for redressing common problems and misunderstandings in the…

  19. Structural Equation Modeling of Multitrait-Multimethod Data: Different Models for Different Types of Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eid, Michael; Nussbeck, Fridtjof W.; Geiser, Christian; Cole, David A.; Gollwitzer, Mario; Lischetzke, Tanja

    2008-01-01

    The question as to which structural equation model should be selected when multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) data are analyzed is of interest to many researchers. In the past, attempts to find a well-fitting model have often been data-driven and highly arbitrary. In the present article, the authors argue that the measurement design (type of methods…

  20. An Examination of Statistical Power in Multigroup Dynamic Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prindle, John J.; McArdle, John J.

    2012-01-01

    This study used statistical simulation to calculate differential statistical power in dynamic structural equation models with groups (as in McArdle & Prindle, 2008). Patterns of between-group differences were simulated to provide insight into how model parameters influence power approximations. Chi-square and root mean square error of…

  1. Parsimonious Structural Equation Models for Repeated Measures Data, with Application to the Study of Consumer Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elrod, Terry; Haubl, Gerald; Tipps, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research reflects a growing awareness of the value of using structural equation models to analyze repeated measures data. However, such data, particularly in the presence of covariates, often lead to models that either fit the data poorly, are exceedingly general and hard to interpret, or are specified in a manner that is highly data…

  2. Testing Mediation in Structural Equation Modeling: The Effectiveness of the Test of Joint Significance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leth-Steensen, Craig; Gallitto, Elena

    2016-01-01

    A large number of approaches have been proposed for estimating and testing the significance of indirect effects in mediation models. In this study, four sets of Monte Carlo simulations involving full latent variable structural equation models were run in order to contrast the effectiveness of the currently popular bias-corrected bootstrapping…

  3. Self-Conscious Emotions in Response to Perceived Failure: A Structural Equation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bidjerano, Temi

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the occurrence of self-conscious emotions in response to perceived academic failure among 4th-grade students from the United States and Bulgaria, and the author investigated potential contributors to such negative emotional experiences. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that regardless of country, negative…

  4. A Bayesian Approach for Nonlinear Structural Equation Models with Dichotomous Variables Using Logit and Probit Links

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sik-Yum; Song, Xin-Yuan; Cai, Jing-Heng

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of ordered binary and unordered binary data has received considerable attention in social and psychological research. This article introduces a Bayesian approach, which has several nice features in practical applications, for analyzing nonlinear structural equation models with dichotomous data. We demonstrate how to use the software…

  5. Bayesian Methods for Analyzing Structural Equation Models with Covariates, Interaction, and Quadratic Latent Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sik-Yum; Song, Xin-Yuan; Tang, Nian-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of interaction among latent variables has received much attention. This article introduces a Bayesian approach to analyze a general structural equation model that accommodates the general nonlinear terms of latent variables and covariates. This approach produces a Bayesian estimate that has the same statistical optimal properties as a…

  6. Factors Affecting Higher Order Thinking Skills of Students: A Meta-Analytic Structural Equation Modeling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budsankom, Prayoonsri; Sawangboon, Tatsirin; Damrongpanit, Suntorapot; Chuensirimongkol, Jariya

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to develop and identify the validity of factors affecting higher order thinking skills (HOTS) of students. The thinking skills can be divided into three types: analytical, critical, and creative thinking. This analysis is done by applying the meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM) based on a database of…

  7. An Illustration of a Longitudinal Cross-Lagged Design for Larger Structural Equation Models. Teacher's Corner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkholder, Gary J.; Harlow, Lisa L.

    2003-01-01

    Tested a model of HIV behavior risk, using a fully cross-lagged, longitudinal design to illustrate the analysis of larger structural equation models. Data from 527 women who completed a survey at three time points show excellent fit of the model to the data. (SLD)

  8. Use of Item Parceling in Structural Equation Modeling with Missing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orcan, Fatih

    2013-01-01

    Parceling is referred to as a procedure for computing sums or average scores across multiple items. Parcels instead of individual items are then used as indicators of latent factors in the structural equation modeling analysis (Bandalos 2002, 2008; Little et al., 2002; Yang, Nay, & Hoyle, 2010). Item parceling may be applied to alleviate some…

  9. Structural Equation Models of Latent Interactions: An Appropriate Standardized Solution and Its Scale-Free Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Zhonglin; Marsh, Herbert W.; Hau, Kit-Tai

    2010-01-01

    Standardized parameter estimates are routinely used to summarize the results of multiple regression models of manifest variables and structural equation models of latent variables, because they facilitate interpretation. Although the typical standardization of interaction terms is not appropriate for multiple regression models, straightforward…

  10. Canonical Correlation Analysis and Structural Equation Modeling: What Do They Have in Common?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Xitao

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between structural equation modeling (SEM) and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is illustrated. The representation of CCA in SEM may provide interpretive information not available from conventional CCA. Hierarchically, the relationship suggests that SEM is a more general analytic approach. (SLD)

  11. Structural Equation Modeling versus Ordinary Least Squares Canonical Analysis: Some Heuristic Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Thomas E.

    This paper describes structural equation modeling (SEM) in comparison with another overarching analysis within the general linear model (GLM) analytic family: canonical correlation analysis. The uninitiated reader can gain an understanding of SEM's basic tenets and applications. Latent constructs discovered via a measurement model are explored and…

  12. Bias and Efficiency in Structural Equation Modeling: Maximum Likelihood versus Robust Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhong, Xiaoling; Yuan, Ke-Hai

    2011-01-01

    In the structural equation modeling literature, the normal-distribution-based maximum likelihood (ML) method is most widely used, partly because the resulting estimator is claimed to be asymptotically unbiased and most efficient. However, this may not hold when data deviate from normal distribution. Outlying cases or nonnormally distributed data,…

  13. A Polychoric Instrumental Variable (PIV) Estimator for Structural Equation Models with Categorical Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollen, Kenneth A.; Maydeu-Olivares, Albert

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new polychoric instrumental variable (PIV) estimator to use in structural equation models (SEMs) with categorical observed variables. The PIV estimator is a generalization of Bollen's (Psychometrika 61:109-121, 1996) 2SLS/IV estimator for continuous variables to categorical endogenous variables. We derive the PIV estimator…

  14. Relationships among Adolescents' Leisure Motivation, Leisure Involvement, and Leisure Satisfaction: A Structural Equation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ying-Chieh; Li, Ren-Hau; Chen, Sheng-Hwang

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to test a cause-and-effect model of factors affecting leisure satisfaction among Taiwanese adolescents. A structural equation model was proposed in which the relationships among leisure motivation, leisure involvement, and leisure satisfaction were explored. The study collected data from 701 adolescent…

  15. Cultural, Social, and Economic Capital Constructs in International Assessments: An Evaluation Using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Daniel H.; Sandoval-Hernández, Andrés; Lüdtke, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The article employs exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) to evaluate constructs of economic, cultural, and social capital in international large-scale assessment (LSA) data from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2006 and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009. ESEM integrates the…

  16. A Demonstration of a Systematic Item-Reduction Approach Using Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larwin, Karen; Harvey, Milton

    2012-01-01

    Establishing model parsimony is an important component of structural equation modeling (SEM). Unfortunately, little attention has been given to developing systematic procedures to accomplish this goal. To this end, the current study introduces an innovative application of the jackknife approach first presented in Rensvold and Cheung (1999). Unlike…

  17. On Insensitivity of the Chi-Square Model Test to Nonlinear Misspecification in Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooijaart, Ab; Satorra, Albert

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we show that for some structural equation models (SEM), the classical chi-square goodness-of-fit test is unable to detect the presence of nonlinear terms in the model. As an example, we consider a regression model with latent variables and interactions terms. Not only the model test has zero power against that type of…

  18. Bayesian Analysis of Nonlinear Structural Equation Models with Nonignorable Missing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sik-Yum

    2006-01-01

    A Bayesian approach is developed for analyzing nonlinear structural equation models with nonignorable missing data. The nonignorable missingness mechanism is specified by a logistic regression model. A hybrid algorithm that combines the Gibbs sampler and the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm is used to produce the joint Bayesian estimates of…

  19. Teacher's Corner: Structural Equation Modeling with the Sem Package in R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, John

    2006-01-01

    R is free, open-source, cooperatively developed software that implements the S statistical programming language and computing environment. The current capabilities of R are extensive, and it is in wide use, especially among statisticians. The sem package provides basic structural equation modeling facilities in R, including the ability to fit…

  20. Evaluating Small Sample Approaches for Model Test Statistics in Structural Equation Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevitt, Jonathan

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) attempts to remove the negative influence of measurement error and allows for investigation of relationships at the level of the underlying constructs of interest. SEM has been regarded as a "large sample" technique since its inception. Recent developments in SEM, some of which are currently available in popular…

  1. Evaluating Small Sample Approaches for Model Test Statistics in Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevitt, Jonathan; Hancock, Gregory R.

    2004-01-01

    Through Monte Carlo simulation, small sample methods for evaluating overall data-model fit in structural equation modeling were explored. Type I error behavior and power were examined using maximum likelihood (ML), Satorra-Bentler scaled and adjusted (SB; Satorra & Bentler, 1988, 1994), residual-based (Browne, 1984), and asymptotically…

  2. Structural Equation Modeling in Language Testing and Learning Research: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    In'nami, Yo; Koizumi, Rie

    2011-01-01

    Despite the recent increase of structural equation modeling (SEM) in language testing and learning research and Kunnan's (1998) call for the proper use of SEM to produce useful findings, there seem to be no reviews about how SEM is applied in these areas or about the extent to which the current application accords with appropriate practices. To…

  3. Using a Structural Equation Model to Examine Factors Affecting Married Individuals' Sexual Embarrassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, Eyup; Arici, Neslihan

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to predict the effects of levels of sexual awareness, sexual courage, and sexual self-disclosure on sexual embarrassment. Data was collected from 336 married individuals, who have students in the Sultangazi District of Istanbul. According to the structural equation model (SEM), sexual self-disclosure, directly, and sexual courage…

  4. Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling: A More Flexible Representation of Substantive Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muthen, Bengt; Asparouhov, Tihomir

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes a new approach to factor analysis and structural equation modeling using Bayesian analysis. The new approach replaces parameter specifications of exact zeros with approximate zeros based on informative, small-variance priors. It is argued that this produces an analysis that better reflects substantive theories. The proposed…

  5. Spiritual Leadership and Organizational Culture: A Study of Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadag, Engin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test the spiritual leadership behaviors of school principles in a structural equation model. The study is designed to test causality with the assumption that causality exists between the two variables. In this study, spiritual leadership behavior of managers is treated as the independent variable whereas the…

  6. Exploring Mediating Effect of Metacognitive Awareness on Comprehension of Science Texts through Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jing-Ru; Chen, Shin-Feng

    2014-01-01

    This study used a Chinese-language version of the Index of Science Reading Awareness (ISRA) to investigate metacognitive awareness and the Reading Comprehension of Science Test (RCST) to explore comprehension of science text by Taiwanese students. Structural equation modeling (SEM) results confirmed the validity of the underlying models of…

  7. Teacher's Corner: A Review of Syllabi for a Sample of Structural Equation Modeling Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, Laura M.; Leite, Walter L.

    2005-01-01

    With increases in the use of structural equation modeling (SEM) in the social sciences, graduate course offerings in this statistical technique can be expected to increase. Knowledge of the content of current SEM course offerings may provide ideas to instructors developing new courses or enhancing current courses. This article discusses results…

  8. Anti-Transgender Prejudice: A Structural Equation Model of Associated Constructs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tebbe, Esther N.; Moradi, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to identify theoretically relevant key correlates of anti-transgender prejudice. Specifically, structural equation modeling was used to test the unique relations of anti-lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) prejudice; traditional gender role attitudes; need for closure; and social dominance orientation with anti-transgender prejudice.…

  9. Women's Path into Science and Engineering Majors: A Structural Equation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Amanda G.; Gilleland, Diane; Pearson, Carolyn; Vander Putten, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The intent of this study was to investigate the adequacy of Weidman's (1985, 1989) theoretical undergraduate socialization model as an empirical-based causal model pertaining to women's career path choice into a science or engineering (SE) major via structural equation modeling. Data were obtained from the Beginning Postsecondary Students…

  10. Structural Equation Modeling towards Online Learning Readiness, Academic Motivations, and Perceived Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horzum, Mehmet Baris; Kaymak, Zeliha Demir; Gungoren, Ozlem Canan

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between online learning readiness, academic motivations, and perceived learning was investigated via structural equation modeling in the research. The population of the research consisted of 750 students who studied using the online learning programs of Sakarya University. 420 of the students who volunteered for the research and…

  11. A Structural Equation Model of Burnout and Job Exit among Child Protective Services Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Brett; Yadama, Gautam N.

    1996-01-01

    Uses a structural equation model to examine the three elements of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI)--emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment--in relation to job exit among child protective services workers over a 15-month period. The model was supported, showing the relevance of all three MBI elements of job exit.…

  12. Using a Structural Equation Model to Describe the Infusion of Civic Engagement in the Campus Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billings, Meredith S.; Terkla, Dawn Geronimo

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses whether Tufts University's campus culture was successful at infusing civic-mindedness in all undergraduates. A structural equation model was developed, and findings revealed that the campus environment had a significant positive impact on civic values and beliefs and a positive indirect effect on civic engagement activities.…

  13. Multilevel Modeling of Two Cyclical Processes: Extending Differential Structural Equation Modeling to Nonlinear Coupled Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butner, Jonathan; Amazeen, Polemnia G.; Mulvey, Genna M.

    2005-01-01

    The authors present a dynamical multilevel model that captures changes over time in the bidirectional, potentially asymmetric influence of 2 cyclical processes. S. M. Boker and J. Graham's (1998) differential structural equation modeling approach was expanded to the case of a nonlinear coupled oscillator that is common in bimanual coordination…

  14. Comparison of Approaches to Constructing Confidence Intervals for Mediating Effects Using Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Mike W. L.

    2007-01-01

    Mediators are variables that explain the association between an independent variable and a dependent variable. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is widely used to test models with mediating effects. This article illustrates how to construct confidence intervals (CIs) of the mediating effects for a variety of models in SEM. Specifically, mediating…

  15. A Structural Equation Modelling of the Academic Self-Concept Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matovu, Musa

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed at validating the academic self-concept scale by Liu and Wang (2005) in measuring academic self-concept among university students. Structural equation modelling was used to validate the scale which was composed of two subscales; academic confidence and academic effort. The study was conducted on university students; males and…

  16. A Program Implementing Mardia's Multivariate Normality Test for Use in Structural Equation Modeling with Latent Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacIntosh, Randall

    1997-01-01

    Presents KANT, a FORTRAN 77 software program that tests assumptions of multivariate normality in a data set. Based on the test developed by M. V. Mardia (1985), the KANT program is useful for those engaged in structural equation modeling with latent variables. (SLD)

  17. A Robust Bayesian Approach for Structural Equation Models with Missing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sik-Yum; Xia, Ye-Mao

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, normal/independent distributions, including but not limited to the multivariate t distribution, the multivariate contaminated distribution, and the multivariate slash distribution, are used to develop a robust Bayesian approach for analyzing structural equation models with complete or missing data. In the context of a nonlinear…

  18. A Structural Equation Modelling Approach for Massive Blended Synchronous Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kannan, Kalpana; Narayanan, Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a structural equation modelling (SEM) approach for blended synchronous teacher training workshop. It examines the relationship among various factors that influence the Satisfaction (SAT) of participating teachers. Data were collected with the help of a questionnaire from about 500 engineering college teachers. These teachers…

  19. Sample Size Requirements for Structural Equation Models: An Evaluation of Power, Bias, and Solution Propriety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Erika J.; Harrington, Kelly M.; Clark, Shaunna L.; Miller, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Determining sample size requirements for structural equation modeling (SEM) is a challenge often faced by investigators, peer reviewers, and grant writers. Recent years have seen a large increase in SEMs in the behavioral science literature, but consideration of sample size requirements for applied SEMs often relies on outdated rules-of-thumb.…

  20. Fixed-Effects Meta-Analyses as Multiple-Group Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Mike W. -L.

    2010-01-01

    Meta-analysis is the statistical analysis of a collection of analysis results from individual studies, conducted for the purpose of integrating the findings. Structural equation modeling (SEM), on the other hand, is a multivariate technique for testing hypothetical models with latent and observed variables. This article shows that fixed-effects…

  1. Prescriptive Statements and Educational Practice: What Can Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) Offer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal structural equation modeling (SEM) can be a basis for making prescriptive statements on educational practice and offers yields over "traditional" statistical techniques under the general linear model. The extent to which prescriptive statements can be made will rely on the appropriate accommodation of key elements of research design,…

  2. A Two-Stage Approach to Synthesizing Covariance Matrices in Meta-Analytic Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Mike W. L.; Chan, Wai

    2009-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) is widely used as a statistical framework to test complex models in behavioral and social sciences. When the number of publications increases, there is a need to systematically synthesize them. Methodology of synthesizing findings in the context of SEM is known as meta-analytic SEM (MASEM). Although correlation…

  3. Reliability of Summed Item Scores Using Structural Equation Modeling: An Alternative to Coefficient Alpha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Samuel B.; Yang, Yanyun

    2009-01-01

    A method is presented for estimating reliability using structural equation modeling (SEM) that allows for nonlinearity between factors and item scores. Assuming the focus is on consistency of summed item scores, this method for estimating reliability is preferred to those based on linear SEM models and to the most commonly reported estimate of…

  4. Equivalence and Differences between Structural Equation Modeling and State-Space Modeling Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Sy-Miin; Ho, Moon-ho R.; Hamaker, Ellen L.; Dolan, Conor V.

    2010-01-01

    State-space modeling techniques have been compared to structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques in various contexts but their unique strengths have often been overshadowed by their similarities to SEM. In this article, we provide a comprehensive discussion of these 2 approaches' similarities and differences through analytic comparisons and…

  5. An Application of Structural Equation Modeling for Developing Good Teaching Characteristics Ontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phiakoksong, Somjin; Niwattanakul, Suphakit; Angskun, Thara

    2013-01-01

    Ontology is a knowledge representation technique which aims to make knowledge explicit by defining the core concepts and their relationships. The Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is a statistical technique which aims to explore the core factors from empirical data and estimates the relationship between these factors. This article presents an…

  6. Some Cautionary Notes on the Specification and Interpretation of LISREL-type Structural Equation Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Beatrice

    LISREL-type structural equation modeling is a powerful statistical technique that seems appropriate for social science variables which are complex and difficult to measure. The literature on the specification, estimation, and testing of such models is voluminous. The greatest proportion of this literature, however, focuses on the technical aspects…

  7. Estimating, Testing, and Comparing Specific Effects in Structural Equation Models: The Phantom Model Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macho, Siegfried; Ledermann, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The phantom model approach for estimating, testing, and comparing specific effects within structural equation models (SEMs) is presented. The rationale underlying this novel method consists in representing the specific effect to be assessed as a total effect within a separate latent variable model, the phantom model that is added to the main…

  8. Performance and scaling of locally-structured grid methods forpartial differential equations

    SciTech Connect

    Colella, Phillip; Bell, John; Keen, Noel; Ligocki, Terry; Lijewski, Michael; Van Straalen, Brian

    2007-07-19

    In this paper, we discuss some of the issues in obtaining high performance for block-structured adaptive mesh refinement software for partial differential equations. We show examples in which AMR scales to thousands of processors. We also discuss a number of metrics for performance and scalability that can provide a basis for understanding the advantages and disadvantages of this approach.

  9. From network structure to network reorganization: implications for adult neurogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider-Mizell, Casey M.; Parent, Jack M.; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Zochowski, Michal R.; Sander, Leonard M.

    2010-12-01

    Networks can be dynamical systems that undergo functional and structural reorganization. One example of such a process is adult hippocampal neurogenesis, in which new cells are continuously born and incorporate into the existing network of the dentate gyrus region of the hippocampus. Many of these introduced cells mature and become indistinguishable from established neurons, joining the existing network. Activity in the network environment is known to promote birth, survival and incorporation of new cells. However, after epileptogenic injury, changes to the connectivity structure around the neurogenic niche are known to correlate with aberrant neurogenesis. The possible role of network-level changes in the development of epilepsy is not well understood. In this paper, we use a computational model to investigate how the structural and functional outcomes of network reorganization, driven by addition of new cells during neurogenesis, depend on the original network structure. We find that there is a stable network topology that allows the network to incorporate new neurons in a manner that enhances activity of the persistently active region, but maintains global network properties. In networks having other connectivity structures, new cells can greatly alter the distribution of firing activity and destroy the initial activity patterns. We thus find that new cells are able to provide focused enhancement of network only for small-world networks with sufficient inhibition. Network-level deviations from this topology, such as those caused by epileptogenic injury, can set the network down a path that develops toward pathological dynamics and aberrant structural integration of new cells.

  10. Structural equation modeling of the proximal–distal continuum of adherence drivers

    PubMed Central

    McHorney, Colleen A; Zhang, Ning Jackie; Stump, Timothy; Zhao, Xiaoquan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Nonadherence to prescription medications has been shown to be significantly influenced by three key medication-specific beliefs: patients’ perceived need for the prescribed medication, their concerns about the prescribed medication, and perceived medication affordability. Structural equation modeling was used to test the predictors of these three proximal determinants of medication adherence using the proximal–distal continuum of adherence drivers as the organizing conceptual framework. Methods In Spring 2008, survey participants were selected from the Harris Interactive Chronic Illness Panel, an internet-based panel of hundreds of thousands of adults with chronic disease. Respondents were eligible for the survey if they were aged 40 years and older, resided in the US, and reported having at least one of six chronic diseases: asthma, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, osteoporosis, or other cardiovascular disease. A final sample size of 1072 was achieved. The proximal medication beliefs were measured by three multi-item scales: perceived need for medications, perceived medication concerns, and perceived medication affordability. The intermediate sociomedical beliefs and skills included four multi-item scales: perceived disease severity, knowledge about the prescribed medication, perceived immunity to side effects, and perceived value of nutraceuticals. Generic health beliefs and skills consisted of patient engagement in their care, health information-seeking tendencies, internal health locus of control, a single-item measure of self-rated health, and general mental health. Structural equation modeling was used to model proximal–distal continuum of adherence drivers. Results The average age was 58 years (range = 40–90 years), and 65% were female and 89% were white. Forty-one percent had at least a four-year college education, and just under half (45%) had an annual income of $50,000 or more. Hypertension and hyperlipidemia were each reported

  11. The relativistic equations of stellar structure and evolution. Stars with degenerate neutron cores. 1: Structure of equilibrium models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, K. S.; Zytkow, A. N.

    1976-01-01

    The general relativistic equations of stellar structure and evolution are reformulated in a notation which makes easy contact with Newtonian theory. Also, a general relativistic version of the mixing-length formalism for convection is presented. Finally, it is argued that in previous work on spherical systems general relativity theorists have identified the wrong quantity as "total mass-energy inside radius r."

  12. A developmentally plastic adult mouse kidney cell line spontaneously generates multiple adult kidney structures

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Carol F.; Wirsig-Wiechmann, Celeste R.; Lakiza, Olga; Obara, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Despite exciting new possibilities for regenerative therapy posed by the ability to induce pluripotent stem cells, recapitulation of three-dimensional kidneys for repair or replacement has not been possible. ARID3a-deficient mouse tissues generated multipotent, developmentally plastic cells. Therefore, we assessed the adult mouse ARID3a−/− kidney cell line, KKPS5, which expresses renal progenitor surface markers as an alternative cell source for modeling kidney development. Remarkably, these cells spontaneously developed into multicellular nephron-like structures in vitro, and engrafted into immunocompromised medaka mesonephros, where they formed mouse nephron structures. These data implicate KKPS5 cells as a new model system for studying kidney development. PMID:26111446

  13. Integro-differential equations and the stability of neural networks with dendritic structure.

    PubMed

    Bressloff, P C

    1995-08-01

    We analyse the effects of dendritic structure on the stability of a recurrent neural network in terms of a set of coupled, non-linear Volterra integro-differential equations. These, which describe the dynamics of the somatic membrane potentials, are obtained by eliminating the dendritic potentials from the underlying compartmental model or cable equations. We then derive conditions for Turing-like instability as a precursor for pattern formation in a spatially organized network. These conditions depend on the spatial distribution of axo-dendritic connections across the network. PMID:7548316

  14. Families of solutions to the generalized Ginzburg-Landau equation and structural transitions between them

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikov, Yu. N.

    2013-09-15

    Solutions to the generalized Ginzburg-Landau equations for superconductors are obtained for a Ginzburg-Landau parameter {kappa} close to unity. The families of solutions with arbitrary number n of flux quanta in a unit cell are analyzed. It is shown that under certain conditions, a cascade of phase transitions between different structures in a magnetic field appears near T{sub c}. Algebraic equations are derived for determining the boundaries of coexistence of different phases on the (T, H{sub 0}) plane.

  15. Quantization of wave equations and hermitian structures in partial differential varieties.

    PubMed

    Paneitz, S M; Segal, I E

    1980-12-01

    Sufficiently close to 0, the solution variety of a nonlinear relativistic wave equation-e.g., of the form squarevarphi + m(2)varphi + gvarphi(p) = 0-admits a canonical Lorentz-invariant hermitian structure, uniquely determined by the consideration that the action of the differential scattering transformation in each tangent space be unitary. Similar results apply to linear time-dependent equations or to equations in a curved asymptotically flat space-time. A close relation of the Riemannian structure to the determination of vacuum expectation values is developed and illustrated by an explicit determination of a perturbative 2-point function for the case of interaction arising from curvature. The theory underlying these developments is in part a generalization of that of M. G. Krein and collaborators concerning stability of differential equations in Hilbert space and in part a precise relation between the unitarization of given symplectic linear actions and their full probabilistic quantization. The unique causal structure in the infinite symplectic group is instrumental in these developments. PMID:16592923

  16. The relationship between personality, social functioning, and depression: a structural equation modeling analysis.

    PubMed

    Tse, Wai S; Rochelle, Tina L; Cheung, Jacky C K

    2011-06-01

    The relationship between personality, social functioning, and depression remains unclear. The present study employs structural equation modeling to examine the mediating role of social functioning between harm avoidance (HA), self-directedness (SD), and depression. A sample of 902 individuals completed a self-report questionnaire consisting of the following scales: HA and SD subscales of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Social Adaptation Self-Evaluation Scale (SASS). Structural equation modeling via analysis of moment structure was used to estimate the fit of nine related models. Results indicated that social functioning is a mediator between harm avoidance or self-directness and depression. Self-directedness was also shown to have direct effects on depression. The results support the social reinforcement theory of depression and provide a theoretical account of how the variables are related based on correlation methods. Suggestions are offered for future experimental and longitudinal research.

  17. Self-assembly of nanocomponents into composite structures: Derivation and simulation of Langevin equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankavich, S.; Shreif, Z.; Miao, Y.; Ortoleva, P.

    2009-05-01

    The kinetics of the self-assembly of nanocomponents into a virus, nanocapsule, or other composite structure is analyzed via a multiscale approach. The objective is to achieve predictability and to preserve key atomic-scale features that underlie the formation and stability of the composite structures. We start with an all-atom description, the Liouville equation, and the order parameters characterizing nanoscale features of the system. An equation of Smoluchowski type for the stochastic dynamics of the order parameters is derived from the Liouville equation via a multiscale perturbation technique. The self-assembly of composite structures from nanocomponents with internal atomic structure is analyzed and growth rates are derived. Applications include the assembly of a viral capsid from capsomers, a ribosome from its major subunits, and composite materials from fibers and nanoparticles. Our approach overcomes errors in other coarse-graining methods, which neglect the influence of the nanoscale configuration on the atomistic fluctuations. We account for the effect of order parameters on the statistics of the atomistic fluctuations, which contribute to the entropic and average forces driving order parameter evolution. This approach enables an efficient algorithm for computer simulation of self-assembly, whereas other methods severely limit the timestep due to the separation of diffusional and complexing characteristic times. Given that our approach does not require recalibration with each new application, it provides a way to estimate assembly rates and thereby facilitate the discovery of self-assembly pathways and kinetic dead-end structures.

  18. Education Participation Scale Factor Structure for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshier, Roger; Riddell, Gail

    1978-01-01

    Motivating factors for participation in adult education were analyzed with a short form of the Education Participation Scale, using data from a population of older adults enrolled in adult education programs in Vancouver, British Columbia. It appears that this scale may be useful in planning programs for older adults. (MF)

  19. General features and master equations for structurization in complex dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Tsytovich, V. N.; Morfill, G. E.

    2012-02-15

    Dust structurization is considered to be typical for complex plasmas. Homogeneous dusty plasmas are shown to be universally unstable. The dusty plasma structurization instability is similar to the gravitational instability and can results in creation of different compact dust structures. A general approach for investigation of the nonlinear stage of structurization in dusty plasmas is proposed and master equations for the description of self-organized structures are formulated in the general form that can be used for any nonlinear model of dust screening. New effects due to the scattering of ions on the nonlinearly screened grains are calculated: nonlinear ion dust drag force and nonlinear ion diffusion. The physics of confinement of dust and plasma components in the equilibria of compact dust structures is presented and is supported by numerical calculations of master equations. The necessary conditions for the existence of equilibrium structures are found for an arbitrary nonlinearity in dust screening. Features of compact dust structures observed in recent experiments agree with the numerically calculated ones. Some proposals for future experiments in spherical chamber are given.

  20. Global Bifurcation Structure and Parameter Dependence of the Hodgkin-Huxley Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhenxing; Doi, Shinji

    The Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) equations of a squid giant axon are the most important mathematical model in electrophysiology and biology, and are also important in the development of various biologically inspired intelligent devices such as artificial neuron device and neural networks. The HH equations, however, include various constants or parameters whose values were determined based on physiological experiments, and thus the values possess inherent ambiguities. Also, the ‘constants’ are not really constant but change temporally. Thus, in this paper, we study the effects of the change of the constants or parameters on the dynamics of the HH equations and consider the parameter dependence and sensitivity of the equations; we study the bifurcation structure of the HH equations by changing their various parameters. In particular, we take the voltage-dependency of the dynamics of so-called gating variables as typical bifurcation parameters and show that the HH dynamics is very sensitive to the steady-state functions but not sensitive to the time ‘constants’ of gating variables.

  1. A developmentally plastic adult mouse kidney cell line spontaneously generates multiple adult kidney structures

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Carol F.; Ratliff, Michelle L.; Powell, Rebecca; Wirsig-Wiechmann, Celeste R.; Lakiza, Olga; Obara, Tomoko

    2015-08-07

    Despite exciting new possibilities for regenerative therapy posed by the ability to induce pluripotent stem cells, recapitulation of three-dimensional kidneys for repair or replacement has not been possible. ARID3a-deficient mouse tissues generated multipotent, developmentally plastic cells. Therefore, we assessed the adult mouse ARID3a−/− kidney cell line, KKPS5, which expresses renal progenitor surface markers as an alternative cell source for modeling kidney development. Remarkably, these cells spontaneously developed into multicellular nephron-like structures in vitro, and engrafted into immunocompromised medaka mesonephros, where they formed mouse nephron structures. These data implicate KKPS5 cells as a new model system for studying kidney development. - Highlights: • An ARID3a-deficient mouse kidney cell line expresses multiple progenitor markers. • This cell line spontaneously forms multiple nephron-like structures in vitro. • This cell line formed mouse kidney structures in immunocompromised medaka fish kidneys. • Our data identify a novel model system for studying kidney development.

  2. Dromion-like structures and stability analysis in the variable coefficients complex Ginzburg–Landau equation

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pring; Pang, Li-Hui; Huang, Long-Gang; Li, Yan-Qing; Lei, Ming; Liu, Wen-Jun

    2015-09-15

    The study of the complex Ginzburg–Landau equation, which can describe the fiber laser system, is of significance for ultra-fast laser. In this paper, dromion-like structures for the complex Ginzburg–Landau equation are considered due to their abundant nonlinear dynamics. Via the modified Hirota method and simplified assumption, the analytic dromion-like solution is obtained. The partial asymmetry of structure is particularly discussed, which arises from asymmetry of nonlinear and dispersion terms. Furthermore, the stability of dromion-like structures is analyzed. Oscillation structure emerges to exhibit strong interference when the dispersion loss is perturbed. Through the appropriate modulation of modified exponent parameter, the oscillation structure is transformed into two dromion-like structures. It indicates that the dromion-like structure is unstable, and the coherence intensity is affected by the modified exponent parameter. Results in this paper may be useful in accounting for some nonlinear phenomena in fiber laser systems, and understanding the essential role of modified Hirota method.

  3. Prediction of Shock Wave Structure in Weakly Ionized Gas Flow by Solving MGD Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deng, Z. T.; Oviedo-Rojas, Ruben; Chow, Alan; Litchford, Ron J.; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the recent research results of shockwave structure predictions using a new developed code. The modified Rankine-Hugoniot relations across a standing normal shock wave are discussed and adopted to obtain jump conditions. Coupling a electrostatic body force to the Burnett equations, the weakly ionized flow field across the shock wave was solved. Results indicated that the Modified Rankine-Hugoniot equations for shock wave are valid for a wide range of ionization fraction. However, this model breaks down with small free stream Mach number and with large ionization fraction. The jump conditions also depend on the value of free stream pressure, temperature and density. The computed shock wave structure with ionization provides results, which indicated that shock wave strength may be reduced by existence of weakly ionized gas.

  4. Phylogenetic structural equation modelling reveals no need for an 'origin' of the leaf economics spectrum.

    PubMed

    Mason, Chase M; Goolsby, Eric W; Humphreys, Devon P; Donovan, Lisa A

    2016-01-01

    The leaf economics spectrum (LES) is a prominent ecophysiological paradigm that describes global variation in leaf physiology across plant ecological strategies using a handful of key traits. Nearly a decade ago, Shipley et al. (2006) used structural equation modelling to explore the causal functional relationships among LES traits that give rise to their strong global covariation. They concluded that an unmeasured trait drives LES covariation, sparking efforts to identify the latent physiological trait underlying the 'origin' of the LES. Here, we use newly developed phylogenetic structural equation modelling approaches to reassess these conclusions using both global LES data as well as data collected across scales in the genus Helianthus. For global LES data, accounting for phylogenetic non-independence indicates that no additional unmeasured traits are required to explain LES covariation. Across datasets in Helianthus, trait relationships are highly variable, indicating that global-scale models may poorly describe LES covariation at non-global scales. PMID:26563777

  5. Quantum structure emerging from the transformation design of the Dirac equation

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, De-Hone

    2014-06-15

    It is shown that a quantum structure can be created by a set of chosen constraint conditions that emerge from the transformation design of the Dirac equation in general relativity. As an explanation, the constraints that cause novel bound states with the quantization rule of a 2D Coulomb system are presented. The discussion in this paper provides a systematic way to look for constraints that generate a required quantization rule. -- Highlights: •We perform the transformation design of space and time for spin-1/2 matter waves. •A quantum rule could naturally emerge as constraints imposed on the Dirac equation itself. •New fermion states share the quantum spectrum of a 2D Coulomb system. •Transformation design uncovers a new exact solvable model. •A quantum spectrum can be created by a geometric structure.

  6. Structural equation modeling of risk factors for the development of eating disorder symptoms in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Williamson, D A; Netemeyer, R G; Jackman, L P; Anderson, D A; Funsch, C L; Rabalais, J Y

    1995-05-01

    Risk factors for the development of eating disorder symptoms in female college athletes were studied using structural equation modeling. Three risk factors: social influence for thinness, athletic performance anxiety, and self-appraisal of athletic achievement, were selected for study. The association of these risk factors and eating disorder symptoms was hypothesized to be mediated by overconcern with body size and shape. The study sample was 98 women recruited from eight sports teams at a major university. Structural equation modeling analysis supported the hypothesized model and cross-validation of the model showed the findings to be stable. The results of this correlational study suggested that eating disorder symptoms in college athletes are significantly influenced by the interaction of sociocultural pressure for thinness, athletic performance anxiety, and negative self-appraisal of athletic achievement. If these risk factors lead to overconcern with body size and shape, then the emergence of an eating disorder is more probable. PMID:7620479

  7. Elliptical vortex solutions, integrable Ermakov structure, and Lax pair formulation of the compressible Euler equations.

    PubMed

    An, Hongli; Fan, Engui; Zhu, Haixing

    2015-01-01

    The 2+1-dimensional compressible Euler equations are investigated here. A power-type elliptic vortex ansatz is introduced and thereby reduction obtains to an eight-dimensional nonlinear dynamical system. The latter is shown to have an underlying integral Ermakov-Ray-Reid structure of Hamiltonian type. It is of interest to notice that such an integrable Ermakov structure exists not only in the density representations but also in the velocity components. A class of typical elliptical vortex solutions termed pulsrodons corresponding to warm-core eddy theory is isolated and its behavior is simulated. In addition, a Lax pair formulation is constructed and the connection with stationary nonlinear cubic Schrödinger equations is established.

  8. metaSEM: an R package for meta-analysis using structural equation modeling

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Mike W.-L.

    2015-01-01

    The metaSEM package provides functions to conduct univariate, multivariate, and three-level meta-analyses using a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach via the OpenMx package in the R statistical platform. It also implements the two-stage SEM approach to conducting fixed- and random-effects meta-analytic SEM on correlation or covariance matrices. This paper briefly outlines the theories and their implementations. It provides a summary on how meta-analyses can be formulated as structural equation models. The paper closes with a conclusion on several relevant topics to this SEM-based meta-analysis. Several examples are used to illustrate the procedures in the supplementary material. PMID:25601849

  9. Cerebrovascular correlates of vitamin D deficiency in older adults living near the Equator: results from the Atahualpa Project.

    PubMed

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Mera, Robertino M; Macias, Jorge; Morales, Gabriela; Zambrano, Mauricio

    2015-12-01

    All studies attempting to find an association between vitamin D deficiency and cerebrovascular diseases have been conducted at latitudes far away from the Equator, where living conditions, cardiovascular risk factors, and sunshine exposure are different from tropical regions. We aimed to assess cerebrovascular correlates of vitamin D deficiency in community-dwelling older adults living in Atahualpa, a village located in rural coastal Ecuador. Out of 267 individuals enrolled in the neuroimaging substudy of the Atahualpa Project, 220 (82%) signed the informed consent. Mean age of participants was 70·9 ± 7·8 years, and 126 (57%) were women. Fifty-four (25%) persons have vitamin D levels <20 ng/ml, 47 (21%) had ischemic strokes, and 53 (24%) had moderate-to-severe white matter hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin. Exposure effect models constructed with vitamin D deficiency as the exposure, white matter hyperintensities and ischemic stroke as the outcomes, and confounders--age, gender, body mass index, physical activity, blood pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, ionized calcium, phosphorus, intact parathormone, and serum creatinine--as independent variables revealed a significant association of vitamin D deficiency with white matter hyperintensities (P = 0·006) but not with ischemic strokes (P = 0·359). This study shows an association of vitamin D deficiency with diffuse subcortical brain damage in older adults living in a tropical region. Lack of awareness of the importance of vitamin D deficiency might be one of the factors influencing the high prevalence of white matter hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin in underserved Latin American populations.

  10. Study of the shock wave structure by regularized Grad's set of equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timokhin, M. Yu.; Bondar, Ye. A.; Kokhanchik, A. A.; Ivanov, M. S.; Ivanov, I. E.; Kryukov, I. A.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we continue to study the possibility of applying moment equations for strongly nonequilibrium flows by an example of the problem of the shock wave structure in a monatomic gas in a wide range of Mach numbers for various models of molecular interaction. The object of the study is the so-called regularized 13-moment Grad's system (R13). First time, both linear and nonlinear versions of this system of equations were considered for the problem at such wide range of parameters. The Godunov method with increased accuracy is used as a numerical tool for solving the R13 system. The numerical results for the R13 system are analyzed by using data obtained by the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, experimental data, and analytical results. As a whole, the R13 system provides an adequate description of the shock wave structure in a wide range of Mach numbers. For Mach numbers around 2, good agreement with experimental and DSMC results is observed for both linear and nonlinear versions of the system. For high Mach numbers, the result strongly depends on the molecular interaction model used: shock wave structure predictions of the nonlinear R13 system are better for Maxwell molecules and worse for hard spheres as compared to the linear version. Particular attention in this work is paid to studying nonmonotonicity of the total temperature profile (temperature overshoot) in the structure of a strong shock wave. It is shown that the moment equations correctly predict the existence of the temperature overshoot. At the same time, the solution of the moment equations overpredicts the temperature overshoot at least two-fold for Mach number M = 8, and the nonlinear version of the R13 system yields a better result for this parameter than the linear version.

  11. Quantization of wave equations and hermitian structures in partial differential varieties

    PubMed Central

    Paneitz, S. M.; Segal, I. E.

    1980-01-01

    Sufficiently close to 0, the solution variety of a nonlinear relativistic wave equation—e.g., of the form □ϕ + m2ϕ + gϕp = 0—admits a canonical Lorentz-invariant hermitian structure, uniquely determined by the consideration that the action of the differential scattering transformation in each tangent space be unitary. Similar results apply to linear time-dependent equations or to equations in a curved asymptotically flat space-time. A close relation of the Riemannian structure to the determination of vacuum expectation values is developed and illustrated by an explicit determination of a perturbative 2-point function for the case of interaction arising from curvature. The theory underlying these developments is in part a generalization of that of M. G. Krein and collaborators concerning stability of differential equations in Hilbert space and in part a precise relation between the unitarization of given symplectic linear actions and their full probabilistic quantization. The unique causal structure in the infinite symplectic group is instrumental in these developments. PMID:16592923

  12. Anomalous wave structure in magnetized materials described by non-convex equations of state

    SciTech Connect

    Serna, Susana; Marquina, Antonio

    2014-01-15

    We analyze the anomalous wave structure appearing in flow dynamics under the influence of magnetic field in materials described by non-ideal equations of state. We consider the system of magnetohydrodynamics equations closed by a general equation of state (EOS) and propose a complete spectral decomposition of the fluxes that allows us to derive an expression of the nonlinearity factor as the mathematical tool to determine the nature of the wave phenomena. We prove that the possible formation of non-classical wave structure is determined by both the thermodynamic properties of the material and the magnetic field as well as its possible rotation. We demonstrate that phase transitions induced by material properties do not necessarily imply the loss of genuine nonlinearity of the wavefields as is the case in classical hydrodynamics. The analytical expression of the nonlinearity factor allows us to determine the specific amount of magnetic field necessary to prevent formation of complex structure induced by phase transition in the material. We illustrate our analytical approach by considering two non-convex EOS that exhibit phase transitions and anomalous behavior in the evolution. We present numerical experiments validating the analysis performed through a set of one-dimensional Riemann problems. In the examples we show how to determine the appropriate amount of magnetic field in the initial conditions of the Riemann problem to transform a thermodynamic composite wave into a simple nonlinear wave.

  13. Trichotomous goals of elementary school students learning English as a foreign language: a structural equation model.

    PubMed

    He, Tung-Hsien; Chang, Shan-Mao; Chen, Shu-Hui Eileen; Gou, Wen Johnny

    2012-02-01

    This study applied structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques to define the relations among trichotomous goals (mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals), self-efficacy, use of metacognitive self-regulation strategies, positive belief in seeking help, and help-avoidance behavior. Elementary school students (N = 105), who were learning English as a foreign language, were surveyed using five self-report scales. The structural equation model showed that self-efficacy led to the adoption of mastery goals but discouraged the adoption of performance-approach goals and performance-avoidance goals. Furthermore, mastery goals increased the use of metacognitive self-regulation strategies, whereas performance-approach goals and performance-avoidance goals reduced their use. Mastery goals encouraged positive belief in help-seeking, but performance-avoidance goals decreased such belief. Finally, performance-avoidance goals directly led to help-avoidance behavior, whereas positive belief assumed a critical role in reducing help-avoidance. The established structural equation model illuminated the potential causal relations among these variables for the young learners in this study.

  14. How Structure Sense for Algebraic Expressions or Equations Is Related to Structure Sense for Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novotna, Jarmila; Hoch, Maureen

    2008-01-01

    Many students have difficulties with basic algebraic concepts at high school and at university. In this paper two levels of algebraic structure sense are defined: for high school algebra and for university algebra. We suggest that high school algebra structure sense components are sub-components of some university algebra structure sense…

  15. Local Structures in Adult Education: A Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irish National Association of Adult Education, Dublin.

    In January 2002, Ireland's minister of state announced the establishment of the National Adult Learning Council to take effect in March 2002. One of the council's priorities will be to establish local adult learning boards (LALBs) to oversee development and delivery of adult education. An Irish government white paper recommended that LALBs'…

  16. Kinematic assumptions and their consequences on the structure of field equations in continuum dislocation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silbermann, C. B.; Ihlemann, J.

    2016-03-01

    Continuum Dislocation Theory (CDT) relates gradients of plastic deformation in crystals with the presence of geometrically necessary dislocations. Therefore, the dislocation tensor is introduced as an additional thermodynamic state variable which reflects tensorial properties of dislocation ensembles. Moreover, the CDT captures both the strain energy from the macroscopic deformation of the crystal and the elastic energy of the dislocation network, as well as the dissipation of energy due to dislocation motion. The present contribution deals with the geometrically linear CDT. More precise, the focus is on the role of dislocation kinematics for single and multi-slip and its consequences on the field equations. Thereby, the number of active slip systems plays a crucial role since it restricts the degrees of freedom of plastic deformation. Special attention is put on the definition of proper, well-defined invariants of the dislocation tensor in order to avoid any spurious dependence of the resulting field equations on the coordinate system. It is shown how a slip system based approach can be in accordance with the tensor nature of the involved quantities. At first, only dislocation glide in one active slip system of the crystal is allowed. Then, the special case of two orthogonal (interacting) slip systems is considered and the governing field equations are presented. In addition, the structure and symmetry of the backstress tensor is investigated from the viewpoint of thermodynamical consistency. The results will again be used in order to facilitate the set of field equations and to prepare for a robust numerical implementation.

  17. Pedagogical Beliefs, Activity Choice and Structure, and Adult-Child Interaction in Nursery Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blay, Josepha A.; Ireson, Judith

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative analysis of four cooking activities undertaken in two nursery classes reveals relationships between the adults' pedagogical beliefs, the choice and structuring of activities, and the nature of adult-child participation. Four adults each planned and carried out separately, one cooking activity of their choice with a small group of…

  18. Improving the correlation structure selection approach for generalized estimating equations and balanced longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Westgate, Philip M

    2014-06-15

    Generalized estimating equations are commonly used to analyze correlated data. Choosing an appropriate working correlation structure for the data is important, as the efficiency of generalized estimating equations depends on how closely this structure approximates the true structure. Therefore, most studies have proposed multiple criteria to select the working correlation structure, although some of these criteria have neither been compared nor extensively studied. To ease the correlation selection process, we propose a criterion that utilizes the trace of the empirical covariance matrix. Furthermore, use of the unstructured working correlation can potentially improve estimation precision and therefore should be considered when data arise from a balanced longitudinal study. However, most previous studies have not allowed the unstructured working correlation to be selected as it estimates more nuisance correlation parameters than other structures such as AR-1 or exchangeable. Therefore, we propose appropriate penalties for the selection criteria that can be imposed upon the unstructured working correlation. Via simulation in multiple scenarios and in application to a longitudinal study, we show that the trace of the empirical covariance matrix works very well relative to existing criteria. We further show that allowing criteria to select the unstructured working correlation when utilizing the penalties can substantially improve parameter estimation.

  19. Exact combined traveling wave solutions and multi-symplectic structure of the variant Boussinesq-Whitham-Broer-Kaup type equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao-Feng; Deng, Zi-Chen; Li, Qing-Jun; Wei, Yi

    2016-07-01

    The homogeneous balance of undetermined coefficients method (HBUCM) is firstly proposed to construct not only the exact traveling wave solutions, three-wave solutions, homoclinic solutions, N-soliton solutions, but also multi-symplectic structures of some nonlinear partial differential equations (NLPDEs). By applying the proposed method to the variant Boussinesq equations (VBEs), the exact combined traveling wave solutions and a multi-symplectic structure of the VBEs are obtained directly. Then, the definition and a multi-symplectic structure of the variant Boussinesq-Whitham-Broer-Kaup type equations (VBWBKTEs) which can degenerate to the VBEs, the Whitham-Broer-Kaup equations (WBKEs) and the Broer-Kaup equations (BKEs) are given in the multi-symplectic sense. The HBUCM is also a standard and computable method, which can be generalized to obtain the exact solutions and multi-symplectic structures for some types of NLPDEs.

  20. Exact power series solutions of the structure equations of the general relativistic isotropic fluid stars with linear barotropic and polytropic equations of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harko, T.; Mak, M. K.

    2016-09-01

    Obtaining exact solutions of the spherically symmetric general relativistic gravitational field equations describing the interior structure of an isotropic fluid sphere is a long standing problem in theoretical and mathematical physics. The usual approach to this problem consists mainly in the numerical investigation of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff and of the mass continuity equations, which describes the hydrostatic stability of the dense stars. In the present paper we introduce an alternative approach for the study of the relativistic fluid sphere, based on the relativistic mass equation, obtained by eliminating the energy density in the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation. Despite its apparent complexity, the relativistic mass equation can be solved exactly by using a power series representation for the mass, and the Cauchy convolution for infinite power series. We obtain exact series solutions for general relativistic dense astrophysical objects described by the linear barotropic and the polytropic equations of state, respectively. For the polytropic case we obtain the exact power series solution corresponding to arbitrary values of the polytropic index n. The explicit form of the solution is presented for the polytropic index n=1, and for the indexes n=1/2 and n=1/5, respectively. The case of n=3 is also considered. In each case the exact power series solution is compared with the exact numerical solutions, which are reproduced by the power series solutions truncated to seven terms only. The power series representations of the geometric and physical properties of the linear barotropic and polytropic stars are also obtained.

  1. Structure and decay constant of the {rho} meson within the Bethe-Salpeter equation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z. G.; Wan, S. L.

    2007-08-15

    In this article, we study the structure of the {rho} meson in the framework of the coupled rainbow Schwinger-Dyson equation and ladder Bethe-Salpeter equation with a confining effective potential. The u and d quark propagators get significantly modified, the mass poles are absent in the timelike region, which implements confinement naturally. The Bethe-Salpeter amplitudes of the {rho} meson center around zero momentum and extend to the energy scale about q{sup 2}=1 GeV{sup 2}, which happens to be the energy scale of chiral symmetry breaking, strong interactions in the infrared region result in bound state. The numerical results of the mass and decay constant of the {rho} meson are in agreement with the experimental data.

  2. Simple equations to predict concentric lower-body muscle power in older adults using the 30-second chair-rise test: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Wesley N; Rossi, Gianluca Del; Adams, Jessica B; Abderlarahman, KZ; Asfour, Shihab A; Roos, Bernard A; Signorile, Joseph F

    2010-01-01

    Although muscle power is an important factor affecting independence in older adults, there is no inexpensive or convenient test to quantify power in this population. Therefore, this pilot study examined whether regression equations for evaluating muscle power in older adults could be derived from a simple chair-rise test. We collected data from a 30-second chair-rise test performed by fourteen older adults (76 ± 7.19 years). Average (AP) and peak (PP) power values were computed using data from force-platform and high-speed motion analyses. Using each participant’s body mass and the number of chair rises performed during the first 20 seconds of the 30-second trial, we developed multivariate linear regression equations to predict AP and PP. The values computed using these equations showed a significant linear correlation with the values derived from our force-platform and high-speed motion analyses (AP: R = 0.89; PP: R = 0.90; P < 0.01). Our results indicate that lower-body muscle power in fit older adults can be accurately evaluated using the data from the initial 20 seconds of a simple 30-second chair-rise test, which requires no special equipment, preparation, or setting. PMID:20711436

  3. Psychosocial Problems Among Truant Youth: A Multi-Group, Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Winters, Ken C.; Ungaro, Rocio; Karas, Lora; Wareham, Jennifer; Belenko, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Truant youth represent a critical group needing problem-oriented research and involvement in effective services. The limited number of studies on the psychosocial functioning of truant youths have focused on one or a few problem areas, rather than examining co-morbid problem behaviors. The present study addresses the need to examine the interrelationships of multiple domains of psychosocial functioning, including substance involvement, mental health, and delinquency, among truant youth. Exploratory structural equation modeling on baseline data collected on 219 truant youths identified two major factors reflecting psychosocial functioning, and found the factor structure was similar across major sociodemographic subgroups. Further analyses supported the validity of the factor structure. The research and service delivery implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:23243383

  4. Multiple Group Analysis in Multilevel Structural Equation Model Across Level 1 Groups.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Ehri

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces and evaluates a procedure for conducting multiple group analysis in multilevel structural equation model across Level 1 groups (MG1-MSEM; Ryu, 2014). When group membership is at Level 1, multiple group analysis raises two issues that cannot be solved by a simple extension of the standard multiple group analysis in single-level structural equation model. First, the Level 2 data are not independent between Level 1 groups. Second, the standard procedure fails to take into account the dependency between members of different Level 1 groups within the same cluster. The MG1-MSEM approach provides solutions to these problems. In MG1-MSEM, the Level 1 mean structure is necessary to represent the differences between Level 1 groups within clusters. The Level 2 model is the same regardless of Level 1 group membership. A simulation study examined the performance of MUML (Muthén's maximum likelihood) estimation in MG1-MSEM. The MG1-MSEM approach is illustrated for both a multilevel path model and a multilevel factor model using empirical data sets.

  5. Four-Factor Structure of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Symptoms in Children, Adolescents, and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, S. Evelyn; Rosario, Maria C.; Baer, Lee; Carter, Alice S.; Brown, Timothy A.; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Illmann, Cornelia; Leckman, James F.; Sukhodolsky, Denis; Katsovich, Lilya; Rasmussen, Steven; Goodman, Wayne; Delorme, Richard; Leboyer, Marion; Chabane, Nadia; Jenike, Michael A.; Geller, Daniel A.; Pauls, David L.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to establish the efficacy of four-factor obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptom structure for use in child, adolescent and adult groups. Results indicated that the four-factor OCD structure is inadequate for use in children, adolescent and adult age groups.

  6. Constrained hierarchical least square nonlinear equation solvers. [for indefinite stiffness and large structural deformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padovan, J.; Lackney, J.

    1986-01-01

    The current paper develops a constrained hierarchical least square nonlinear equation solver. The procedure can handle the response behavior of systems which possess indefinite tangent stiffness characteristics. Due to the generality of the scheme, this can be achieved at various hierarchical application levels. For instance, in the case of finite element simulations, various combinations of either degree of freedom, nodal, elemental, substructural, and global level iterations are possible. Overall, this enables a solution methodology which is highly stable and storage efficient. To demonstrate the capability of the constrained hierarchical least square methodology, benchmarking examples are presented which treat structure exhibiting highly nonlinear pre- and postbuckling behavior wherein several indefinite stiffness transitions occur.

  7. Heteroclinic Structure of Parametric Resonance in the Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conforti, M.; Mussot, A.; Kudlinski, A.; Rota Nodari, S.; Dujardin, G.; De Biévre, S.; Armaroli, A.; Trillo, S.

    2016-07-01

    We show that the nonlinear stage of modulational instability induced by parametric driving in the defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation can be accurately described by combining mode truncation and averaging methods, valid in the strong driving regime. The resulting integrable oscillator reveals a complex hidden heteroclinic structure of the instability. A remarkable consequence, validated by the numerical integration of the original model, is the existence of breather solutions separating different Fermi-Pasta-Ulam recurrent regimes. Our theory also shows that optimal parametric amplification unexpectedly occurs outside the bandwidth of the resonance (or Arnold tongues) arising from the linearized Floquet analysis.

  8. Analysis of factors affecting satisfaction level on problem based learning approach using structural equation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Nur Farahin Mee; Zahid, Zalina

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, in the job market demand, graduates are expected not only to have higher performance in academic but they must also be excellent in soft skill. Problem-Based Learning (PBL) has a number of distinct advantages as a learning method as it can deliver graduates that will be highly prized by industry. This study attempts to determine the satisfaction level of engineering students on the PBL Approach and to evaluate their determinant factors. The Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to investigate how the factors of Good Teaching Scale, Clear Goals, Student Assessment and Levels of Workload affected the student satisfaction towards PBL approach.

  9. Accurate response surface approximations for weight equations based on structural optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papila, Melih

    Accurate weight prediction methods are vitally important for aircraft design optimization. Therefore, designers seek weight prediction techniques with low computational cost and high accuracy, and usually require a compromise between the two. The compromise can be achieved by combining stress analysis and response surface (RS) methodology. While stress analysis provides accurate weight information, RS techniques help to transmit effectively this information to the optimization procedure. The focus of this dissertation is structural weight equations in the form of RS approximations and their accuracy when fitted to results of structural optimizations that are based on finite element analyses. Use of RS methodology filters out the numerical noise in structural optimization results and provides a smooth weight function that can easily be used in gradient-based configuration optimization. In engineering applications RS approximations of low order polynomials are widely used, but the weight may not be modeled well by low-order polynomials, leading to bias errors. In addition, some structural optimization results may have high-amplitude errors (outliers) that may severely affect the accuracy of the weight equation. Statistical techniques associated with RS methodology are sought in order to deal with these two difficulties: (1) high-amplitude numerical noise (outliers) and (2) approximation model inadequacy. The investigation starts with reducing approximation error by identifying and repairing outliers. A potential reason for outliers in optimization results is premature convergence, and outliers of such nature may be corrected by employing different convergence settings. It is demonstrated that outlier repair can lead to accuracy improvements over the more standard approach of removing outliers. The adequacy of approximation is then studied by a modified lack-of-fit approach, and RS errors due to the approximation model are reduced by using higher order polynomials. In

  10. Examining associations between dietary patterns and metabolic CVD risk factors: a novel use of structural equation modelling.

    PubMed

    Castro, Michelle Alessandra; Baltar, Valéria Troncoso; Marchioni, Dirce Maria; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2016-05-01

    The association between dietary patterns and metabolic cardiovascular risk factors has long been addressed but there is a lack of evidence towards the effects of the overall diet on the complex net of biological inter-relationships between risk factors. This study aimed to derive dietary patterns and examine their associations with metabolic cardiovascular risk factors following a theoretic model for the relationship between them. Participants included 417 adults of both sexes, enrolled to the cross-sectional population-based study performed in Brazil. Body weight, waist circumference, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, blood pressure, total cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio, TAG:HDL-cholesterol ratio, fasting plasma glucose and serum leptin were evaluated. Food consumption was assessed by two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls adjusted for the within-person variation of intake. A total of three dietary patterns were derived by exploratory structural equation modelling: 'Traditional', 'Prudent' and 'Modern'. The 'Traditional' pattern had a negative and direct effect on obesity indicators (serum LEP, body weight and waist circumference) and negative indirect effects on total cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio, TAG:HDL-cholesterol ratio and fasting plasma glucose. The 'Prudent' pattern had a negative and direct effect on systolic blood pressure. No association was observed for the 'Modern' pattern and metabolic risk factors. In conclusion, the 'Traditional' and 'Prudent' dietary patterns were negatively associated with metabolic cardiovascular risk factors among Brazilian adults. Their apparent protective effects against obesity and high blood pressure may be important non-pharmacological strategies for the prevention and control of obesity-related metabolic disorders and CVD. PMID:26931638

  11. The Structure of Preschoolers' Emotion Knowledge: Model Equivalence and Validity Using a Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassett, Hideko Hamada; Denham, Susanne; Mincic, Melissa; Graling, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: A theory-based 2-factor structure of preschoolers' emotion knowledge (i.e., recognition of emotional expression and understanding of emotion-eliciting situations) was tested using confirmatory factor analysis. Compared to 1- and 3-factor models, the 2-factor model showed a better fit to the data. The model was found to be…

  12. FACTOR STRUCTURE OF DSM-IV SYMPTOMS IN ADULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objective: In up to 50% of clinic-referred samples of children, ADHD symptoms persist into adulthood,1-3 with the prevalence of adult ADHD currently estimated at 4.4%4. Similar to the pervasive impairments experienced by children with ADHD, adults with ADHD are less likely to com...

  13. Prolongation Structure of a Generalised Inhomogeneous Gardner Equation in Plasmas and Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xi-Yang; Tian, Bo; Sun, Wen-Rong; Wang, Yun-Po

    2016-04-01

    In this article, the prolongation structure technique is applied to a generalised inhomogeneous Gardner equation, which can be used to describe certain physical situations, such as the stratified shear flows in ocean and atmosphere, ion acoustic waves in plasmas with a negative ion, interfacial solitary waves over slowly varying topographies, and wave motion in a non-linear elastic structural element with large deflection. The Lax pairs, which are derived via the prolongation structure, are more general than the Lax pairs published before. Under the Painlevé conditions, the linear-damping coefficient equals to zero, the quadratic non-linear coefficient is proportional to the dispersive coefficient c(t), the cubic non-linear coefficient is proportional to c(t), leaving no constraints on c(t) and the dissipative coefficient d(t). We establish the prolongation structure through constructing the exterior differential system. We introduce two methods to obtain the Lax pairs: (a) based on the prolongation structure, the Lax pairs are obtained, and (b) via the Lie algebra, we can derive the Pfaffian forms and Lax pairs when certain parameters are chosen. We set d(t) as a constant to discuss the influence of c(t) on the Pfaffian forms and Lax pairs, and to discuss the influence of d(t) on the Pfaffian forms and Lax pairs, we set c(t) as another constant. Then, we get different prolongation structure, Pfaffian forms and Lax pairs.

  14. Guidelines for a graph-theoretic implementation of structural equation modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grace, James B.; Schoolmaster, Donald R.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Little, Amanda M.; Mitchell, Brian R.; Miller, Kathryn M.; Schweiger, E. William

    2012-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) is increasingly being chosen by researchers as a framework for gaining scientific insights from the quantitative analyses of data. New ideas and methods emerging from the study of causality, influences from the field of graphical modeling, and advances in statistics are expanding the rigor, capability, and even purpose of SEM. Guidelines for implementing the expanded capabilities of SEM are currently lacking. In this paper we describe new developments in SEM that we believe constitute a third-generation of the methodology. Most characteristic of this new approach is the generalization of the structural equation model as a causal graph. In this generalization, analyses are based on graph theoretic principles rather than analyses of matrices. Also, new devices such as metamodels and causal diagrams, as well as an increased emphasis on queries and probabilistic reasoning, are now included. Estimation under a graph theory framework permits the use of Bayesian or likelihood methods. The guidelines presented start from a declaration of the goals of the analysis. We then discuss how theory frames the modeling process, requirements for causal interpretation, model specification choices, selection of estimation method, model evaluation options, and use of queries, both to summarize retrospective results and for prospective analyses. The illustrative example presented involves monitoring data from wetlands on Mount Desert Island, home of Acadia National Park. Our presentation walks through the decision process involved in developing and evaluating models, as well as drawing inferences from the resulting prediction equations. In addition to evaluating hypotheses about the connections between human activities and biotic responses, we illustrate how the structural equation (SE) model can be queried to understand how interventions might take advantage of an environmental threshold to limit Typha invasions. The guidelines presented provide for

  15. Comparison of the Schwartz and CKD-EPI Equations for Estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate in Children, Adolescents, and Adults: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Selistre, Luciano; Rabilloud, Muriel; Cochat, Pierre; de Souza, Vandréa; Iwaz, Jean; Lemoine, Sandrine; Beyerle, Françoise; Poli-de-Figueiredo, Carlos E.; Dubourg, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Background Estimating kidney glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is of utmost importance in many clinical conditions. However, very few studies have evaluated the performance of GFR estimating equations over all ages and degrees of kidney impairment. We evaluated the reliability of two major equations for GFR estimation, the CKD-EPI and Schwartz equations, with urinary clearance of inulin as gold standard. Methods and Findings The study included 10,610 participants referred to the Renal and Metabolic Function Exploration Unit of Edouard Herriot Hospital (Lyon, France). GFR was measured by urinary inulin clearance (only first measurement kept for analysis) then estimated with isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS)–traceable CKD-EPI and Schwartz equations. The participants’ ages ranged from 3 to 90 y, and the measured GFRs from 3 to 160 ml/min/1.73 m2. A linear mixed-effects model was used to model the bias (mean ratio of estimated GFR to measured GFR). Equation reliability was also assessed using precision (interquartile range [IQR] of the ratio) and accuracy (percentage of estimated GFRs within the 10% [P10] and 30% [P30] limits above and below the measured GFR). In the whole sample, the mean ratio with the CKD-EPI equation was significantly higher than that with the Schwartz equation (1.17 [95% CI 1.16; 1.18] versus 1.08 [95% CI 1.07; 1.09], p < 0.001, t-test). At GFR values of 60–89 ml/min/1.73 m2, the mean ratios with the Schwartz equation were closer to 1 than the mean ratios with the CKD-EPI equation whatever the age class (1.02 [95% CI 1.01; 1.03] versus 1.15 [95% CI 1.13; 1.16], p < 0.001, t-test). In young adults (18–40 y), the Schwartz equation had a better precision and was also more accurate than the CKD-EPI equation at GFR values under 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (IQR: 0.32 [95% CI 0.28; 0.33] versus 0.40 [95% CI 0.36; 0.44]; P30: 81.4 [95% CI 78.1; 84.7] versus 63.8 [95% CI 59.7; 68.0]) and also at GFR values of 60–89 ml/min/1.73 m2. In all patients

  16. Representing general theoretical concepts in structural equation models: The role of composite variables

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grace, J.B.; Bollen, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) holds the promise of providing natural scientists the capacity to evaluate complex multivariate hypotheses about ecological systems. Building on its predecessors, path analysis and factor analysis, SEM allows for the incorporation of both observed and unobserved (latent) variables into theoretically-based probabilistic models. In this paper we discuss the interface between theory and data in SEM and the use of an additional variable type, the composite. In simple terms, composite variables specify the influences of collections of other variables and can be helpful in modeling heterogeneous concepts of the sort commonly of interest to ecologists. While long recognized as a potentially important element of SEM, composite variables have received very limited use, in part because of a lack of theoretical consideration, but also because of difficulties that arise in parameter estimation when using conventional solution procedures. In this paper we present a framework for discussing composites and demonstrate how the use of partially-reduced-form models can help to overcome some of the parameter estimation and evaluation problems associated with models containing composites. Diagnostic procedures for evaluating the most appropriate and effective use of composites are illustrated with an example from the ecological literature. It is argued that an ability to incorporate composite variables into structural equation models may be particularly valuable in the study of natural systems, where concepts are frequently multifaceted and the influence of suites of variables are often of interest. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.

  17. Temperature and thermodynamic structure of Einstein's equations for a cosmological black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Krishnakanta; Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan

    2016-07-01

    It is expected that the cosmological black holes are the closest realistic solutions of gravitational theories and they evolve with time. Moreover, the natural way of defining thermodynamic entities for the stationary ones is not applicable in the case of a time dependent spacetime. Here we confine our discussion within the Sultana-Dyer metric, which is a cosmological black hole solution of Einstein's gravity. In the literature, there exist two expressions of horizon temperature—one is time dependent and the other does not depend on time. To single out the correct one we find the temperature by studying the Hawking effect in the tunneling formalism. This leads to time dependent structure. After identifying the correct one, Einstein's equations are written on the horizon and we show that this leads to the first law of thermodynamics. In this process the expressions for horizon entropy and energy, obtained earlier by explicit calculations, are being used. This provides the evidence that Einstein's equations have thermodynamic structure even for a cosmological black hole spacetime. Moreover, this study further clarifies the correctness of the expressions for the thermodynamic quantities, like temperature, entropy, and internal energy.

  18. An extended structure-based model based on a stochastic eddy-axis evolution equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassinos, S. C.; Reynolds, W. C.

    1995-01-01

    We have proposed and implemented an extension of the structure-based model for weak deformations. It was shown that the extended model will correctly reduce to the form of standard k-e models for the case of equilibrium under weak mean strain. The realizability of the extended model is guaranteed by the method of its construction. The predictions of the proposed model were very good for rotating homogeneous shear flows and for irrotational axisymmetric contraction, but were seriously deficient in the case of plane strain and axisymmetric expansion. We have concluded that the problem behind these difficulties lies in the algebraic constitutive equation relating the Reynolds stresses to the structure parameters rather than in the slow model developed here. In its present form, this equation assumes that under irrotational strain the principal axes of the Reynolds stresses remain locked onto those of the eddy-axis tensor. This is correct in the RDT limit, but inappropriate under weaker mean strains, when the non-linear eddy-eddy interactions tend to misalign the two sets of principal axes and create some non-zero theta and gamma.

  19. On the relationship between modifications to the Raychaudhuri equation and the canonical Hamiltonian structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Parampreet; Soni, S. K.

    2016-06-01

    The problem of obtaining canonical Hamiltonian structures from the equations of motion, without any knowledge of the action, is studied in the context of the spatially flat Friedmann, ‘Robertson’, and Walker models. Modifications to the Raychaudhuri equation are implemented independently as quadratic and cubic terms of energy density without introducing additional degrees of freedom. Depending on their sign, modifications make gravity repulsive above a curvature scale for matter satisfying strong energy conditions, or more attractive than in the classical theory. The canonical structure of the modified theories is determined by demanding that the total Hamiltonian be a linear combination of gravity and matter Hamiltonians. In the quadratic repulsive case, the modified canonical phase space of gravity is a polymerized phase space with canonical momentum as inverse a trigonometric function of the Hubble rate; the canonical Hamiltonian can be identified with the effective Hamiltonian in loop quantum cosmology. The repulsive cubic modification results in a ‘generalized polymerized’ canonical phase space. Both the repulsive modifications are found to yield singularity avoidance. In contrast, the quadratic and cubic attractive modifications result in a canonical phase space in which canonical momentum is nontrigonometric and singularities persist. Our results hint at connections between the repulsive/attractive nature of modifications to gravity arising from the gravitational sector and polymerized/non polymerized gravitational phase space.

  20. Vector autoregression, structural equation modeling, and their synthesis in neuroimaging data analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Glen, Daniel R; Saad, Ziad S; Paul Hamilton, J; Thomason, Moriah E; Gotlib, Ian H; Cox, Robert W

    2011-12-01

    Vector autoregression (VAR) and structural equation modeling (SEM) are two popular brain-network modeling tools. VAR, which is a data-driven approach, assumes that connected regions exert time-lagged influences on one another. In contrast, the hypothesis-driven SEM is used to validate an existing connectivity model where connected regions have contemporaneous interactions among them. We present the two models in detail and discuss their applicability to FMRI data, and their interpretational limits. We also propose a unified approach that models both lagged and contemporaneous effects. The unifying model, structural vector autoregression (SVAR), may improve statistical and explanatory power, and avoid some prevalent pitfalls that can occur when VAR and SEM are utilized separately.

  1. Bayesian analysis of the structural equation models with application to a longitudinal myopia trial.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Fu; Fan, Tsai-Hung

    2012-01-30

    Myopia is becoming a significant public health problem, affecting more and more people. Studies indicate that there are two main factors, hereditary and environmental, suspected to have strong impact on myopia. Motivated by the increase in the number of people affected by this problem, this paper focuses primarily on the utilization of mathematical methods to gain further insight into their relationship with myopia. Accordingly, utilizing multidimensional longitudinal myopia data with correlation between both eyes, we develop a Bayesian structural equation model including random effects. With the aid of the MCMC method, it is capable of expressing the correlation between repeated measurements as well as the two-eye correlation and can be used to explore the relational structure among the variables in the model. We consider four observed factors, including intraocular pressure, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, and axial length. The results indicate that the genetic effect has much greater influence on myopia than the environmental effects.

  2. Job and Professional Leaving Among Newly Licensed RNs: A Structural Equation Model.

    PubMed

    Unruh, Lynn; Zhang, Ning Jackie; Chisolm, Latarsha

    2016-01-01

    With more than 50% of the nursing workforce close to retirement, it is especially important to keep younger nurses in nursing jobs and careers. This study empirically tests a structural equation model of registered nurse (RN) intent to leave the job and profession using data from a survey of newly licensed RNs (NLRNs). Job demands, difficulties and control, intent to leave the job, and intent to leave the profession were latent variables. A number of direct, indirect, and mediating relationships were modeled. Measurement models for all latent variables and the structural model had good fit. The final model showed a path from job demands, difficulties, and control to job satisfaction to intent to leave the job to intent to leave the profession. The results suggest that the process of an NLRN intending to leave the job and profession involves a number of mediators between the work environment and this intent.

  3. Social-cognitive determinants of nutrition behavior among supermarket food shoppers: a structural equation analysis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, E S; Winett, R A; Wojcik, J R

    2000-09-01

    A social-cognitive model of nutrition behavior (A. Bandura, 1997) was tested using structural equation modeling of data from 307 food shoppers recruited from 5 supermarkets in Southwest Virginia. The shoppers were participating in the baseline phase of an ongoing nutrition promotion program. As part of the evaluation, data were collected on the self-efficacy and outcome-expectations components of social-cognitive theory as well as on food purchases and intake. The structural analyses presented here support the social-cognitive model. Self-efficacy, physical outcome expectations, age, socioeconomic status, and number of children were important predictors of nutrition behavior among shoppers. Implications for interventions using social-cognitive variables to improve the nutritional content of food purchases and intake are discussed. PMID:11007156

  4. Post-partum blues among Korean mothers: a structural equation modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sung Suk; Yoo, Il Young; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to propose the post-partum blues (PPB) model and to estimate the effects of self-esteem, social support, antenatal depression, and stressful events during pregnancy on PPB. Data were collected from 249 women post-partum during their stay in the maternity units of three hospitals in Korea using a self-administered questionnaire. A structural equation modelling approach using the Analysis of Moments Structure program was used to identify the direct and indirect effects of the variables on PPB. The full model had a good fit and accounted for 70.3% of the variance of PPB. Antenatal depression and stressful events during pregnancy had strong direct effects on PPB. Household income showed indirect effects on PPB via self-esteem and antenatal depression. Social support indirectly affected PPB via self-esteem, antenatal depression, and stressful events during pregnancy.

  5. Stability of discontinuity structures described by a generalized KdV-Burgers equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugainova, A. P.; Shargatov, V. A.

    2016-02-01

    The stability of discontinuities representing solutions of a model generalized KdV-Burgers equation with a nonmonotone potential of the form φ( u) = u 4- u 2 is analyzed. Among these solutions, there are ones corresponding to special discontinuities. A discontinuity is called special if its structure represents a heteroclinic phase curve joining two saddle-type special points (of which one is the state ahead of the discontinuity and the other is the state behind the discontinuity).The spectral (linear) stability of the structure of special discontinuities was previously studied. It was shown that only a special discontinuity with a monotone structure is stable, whereas special discontinuities with a nonmonotone structure are unstable. In this paper, the spectral stability of nonspecial discontinuities is investigated. The structure of a nonspecial discontinuity represents a phase curve joining two special points: a saddle (the state ahead of the discontinuity) and a focus or node (the state behind the discontinuity). The set of nonspecial discontinuities is examined depending on the dispersion and dissipation parameters. A set of stable nonspecial discontinuities is found.

  6. The Performance of Five Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Prediction Equations against Dual X-ray Absorptiometry in Estimating Appendicular Skeletal Muscle Mass in an Adult Australian Population

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Solomon C. Y.; Powell, Alice; Khow, Kareeann S. F.; Visvanathan, Renuka

    2016-01-01

    Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) is a diagnostic criterion for sarcopenia. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) offers a bedside approach to measure ASM but the performance of BIA prediction equations (PE) varies with ethnicities and body composition. We aim to validate the performance of five PEs in estimating ASM against estimation by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We recruited 195 healthy adult Australians and ASM was measured using single-frequency BIA. Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess the predictive accuracy of ASM as determined by BIA against DXA. Precision (root mean square error (RMSE)) and bias (mean error (ME)) were calculated according to the method of Sheiner and Beal. Four PEs (except that by Kim) showed ASM values that correlated strongly with ASMDXA (r ranging from 0.96 to 0.97, p < 0.001). The Sergi equation performed the best with the lowest ME of −1.09 kg (CI: −0.84–−1.34, p < 0.001) and the RMSE was 2.09 kg (CI: 1.72–2.47). In men, the Kyle equation performed better with the lowest ME (−0.32 kg (CI: −0.66–0.02) and RMSE (1.54 kg (CI: 1.14–1.93)). The Sergi equation is applicable in adult Australians (Caucasian) whereas the Kyle equation can be considered in males. The need remains to validate PEs in other ethnicities and to develop equations suitable for multi-frequency BIA. PMID:27043617

  7. Hamiltonian structure of the higher-order corrections to the Korteweg-de Vries equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menyuk, C. R.; Chen, H.-H.

    1985-10-01

    Higher-order corrections to the Korteweg-de Vries equation are examined by Hamiltonian methods. Starting from the underlying Hamiltonian systems (e.g., the two-fluid equations in the case of ion-acoustic waves), one finds that the corrected equations have the same Poisson bracket as the Korteweg-de Vries equation at every order. One also finds that the underlying equations become nonlocal at sufficiently high order.

  8. Atomistic modeling of structure II gas hydrate mechanics: Compressibility and equations of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasic, Thomas M.; Servio, Phillip; Rey, Alejandro D.

    2016-08-01

    This work uses density functional theory (DFT) to investigate the poorly characterized structure II gas hydrates, for various guests (empty, propane, butane, ethane-methane, propane-methane), at the atomistic scale to determine key structure and mechanical properties such as equilibrium lattice volume and bulk modulus. Several equations of state (EOS) for solids (Murnaghan, Birch-Murnaghan, Vinet, Liu) were fitted to energy-volume curves resulting from structure optimization simulations. These EOS, which can be used to characterize the compressional behaviour of gas hydrates, were evaluated in terms of their robustness. The three-parameter Vinet EOS was found to perform just as well if not better than the four-parameter Liu EOS, over the pressure range in this study. As expected, the Murnaghan EOS proved to be the least robust. Furthermore, the equilibrium lattice volumes were found to increase with guest size, with double-guest hydrates showing a larger increase than single-guest hydrates, which has significant implications for the widely used van der Waals and Platteeuw thermodynamic model for gas hydrates. Also, hydrogen bonds prove to be the most likely factor contributing to the resistance of gas hydrates to compression; bulk modulus was found to increase linearly with hydrogen bond density, resulting in a relationship that could be used predictively to determine the bulk modulus of various structure II gas hydrates. Taken together, these results fill a long existing gap in the material chemical physics of these important clathrates.

  9. Symmetric Gauss-Seidel multigrid solution of the Euler equations on structured and unstructured grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caughey, David A.

    2005-11-01

    The efficient symmetric Gauss-Seidel (SGS) algorithm for solving the Euler equations of inviscid, compressible flow on structured grids, developed in collaboration with Jameson of Stanford University, is extended to unstructured grids. The algorithm uses a nonlinear formulation of an SGS solver, implemented within the framework of multigrid. The earlier form of the algorithm used the natural (lexicographic) ordering of the mesh cells available on structured grids for the SGS sweeps, but a number of features of the method that are believed to contribute to its success can also be implemented for computations on unstructured grids. The present paper reviews, the features of the SGS multigrid solver for structured gr0ids, including its nonlinear implementation, its use of “absolute” Jacobian matrix preconditioning, and its incorporation of multigrid, and then describes the incorporation of these features into an algorithm suitable for computations on unstructured grids. The implementation on unstructured grids is based on the agglomerated multigrid method developed by Sørensen, which uses an explicit Runge-Kutta smoothing algorithm. Results of computations for steady, transonic flows past two-dimensional airfoils are presented, and the efficiency of the method is evaluated for computations on both structured and unstructured meshes.

  10. Professional identity acquisition process model in interprofessional education using structural equation modelling: 10-year initiative survey.

    PubMed

    Kururi, Nana; Tozato, Fusae; Lee, Bumsuk; Kazama, Hiroko; Katsuyama, Shiori; Takahashi, Maiko; Abe, Yumiko; Matsui, Hiroki; Tokita, Yoshiharu; Saitoh, Takayuki; Kanaizumi, Shiomi; Makino, Takatoshi; Shinozaki, Hiromitsu; Yamaji, Takehiko; Watanabe, Hideomi

    2016-01-01

    The mandatory interprofessional education (IPE) programme at Gunma University, Japan, was initiated in 1999. A questionnaire of 10 items to assess the students' understanding of the IPE training programme has been distributed since then, and the factor analysis of the responses revealed that it was categorised into four subscales, i.e. "professional identity", "structure and function of training facilities", "teamwork and collaboration", and "role and responsibilities", and suggested that these may take into account the development of IPE programme with clinical training. The purpose of this study was to examine the professional identity acquisition process (PIAP) model in IPE using structural equation modelling (SEM). Overall, 1,581 respondents of a possible 1,809 students from the departments of nursing, laboratory sciences, physical therapy, and occupational therapy completed the questionnaire. The SEM technique was utilised to construct a PIAP model on the relationships among four factors. The original PIAP model showed that "professional identity" was predicted by two factors, namely "role and responsibilities" and "teamwork and collaboration". These two factors were predicted by the factor "structure and function of training facilities". The same structure was observed in nursing and physical therapy students' PIAP models, but it was not completely the same in laboratory sciences and occupational therapy students' PIAP models. A parallel but not isolated curriculum on expertise unique to the profession, which may help to understand their professional identity in combination with learning the collaboration, may be necessary. PMID:26930464

  11. Structural equation modeling of disability in women with fibromyalgia or multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Lorraine J; Stuifbergen, Alexa K

    2009-02-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM), a popular statistical technique for analysis of multivariate data in the social sciences, is increasingly being used in the behavioral and clinical sciences. SEM is appropriate for posing complex models that evaluate the direct and indirect influence of several variables on one or more outcome variables. A biosocial model of disability, the Disablement Process Model, lends itself to evaluation by SEM. Using SEM, this study examined predictors of disability (Age, Education, Duration of Illness, and Economic Adequacy Functional Limitations, Depressive Symptoms, and Social Support) separately in women with multiple sclerosis (MS) and women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and compared the respective models across groups. Data were analyzed with Analysis of Moment Structures (Amos) 7.0. Problems identified in initial confirmatory model testing included collateral correlated errors, a negative error variance, and poor performance of the disability indicators. After specifying well-fitting confirmatory models for each group, a structural model for the larger FMS group was estimated. Model refinement resulted in the reversal of the path between Depressive Symptoms and Social Support. Further model revisions were based on comparative fit statistics and theoretical logic. The structural model developed from the FMS sample required minimal changes to fit the MS sample. The multisample model explained greater variance in disability in women with FMS than in women with MS. Social support and depressive symptoms mediated the effect of functional limitations on disability. Interventions that target modifiable characteristics, such as depression and social support, may improve outcomes such as disability. PMID:19150972

  12. Professional identity acquisition process model in interprofessional education using structural equation modelling: 10-year initiative survey.

    PubMed

    Kururi, Nana; Tozato, Fusae; Lee, Bumsuk; Kazama, Hiroko; Katsuyama, Shiori; Takahashi, Maiko; Abe, Yumiko; Matsui, Hiroki; Tokita, Yoshiharu; Saitoh, Takayuki; Kanaizumi, Shiomi; Makino, Takatoshi; Shinozaki, Hiromitsu; Yamaji, Takehiko; Watanabe, Hideomi

    2016-01-01

    The mandatory interprofessional education (IPE) programme at Gunma University, Japan, was initiated in 1999. A questionnaire of 10 items to assess the students' understanding of the IPE training programme has been distributed since then, and the factor analysis of the responses revealed that it was categorised into four subscales, i.e. "professional identity", "structure and function of training facilities", "teamwork and collaboration", and "role and responsibilities", and suggested that these may take into account the development of IPE programme with clinical training. The purpose of this study was to examine the professional identity acquisition process (PIAP) model in IPE using structural equation modelling (SEM). Overall, 1,581 respondents of a possible 1,809 students from the departments of nursing, laboratory sciences, physical therapy, and occupational therapy completed the questionnaire. The SEM technique was utilised to construct a PIAP model on the relationships among four factors. The original PIAP model showed that "professional identity" was predicted by two factors, namely "role and responsibilities" and "teamwork and collaboration". These two factors were predicted by the factor "structure and function of training facilities". The same structure was observed in nursing and physical therapy students' PIAP models, but it was not completely the same in laboratory sciences and occupational therapy students' PIAP models. A parallel but not isolated curriculum on expertise unique to the profession, which may help to understand their professional identity in combination with learning the collaboration, may be necessary.

  13. Thermodynamic and structural properties of strongly coupled plasma mixtures from the perturbative HNC-equation

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, H.S.; Ree, F.H.

    1997-12-01

    Recently, we developed the perturbative hypernetted-chain (PHNC) integral equation which can predict reliable thermodynamic and structural data for a system of particles interacting with either short range or long range (Coulomb) potential. The present work extends this earlier work to mixtures. This is done by employing a reference potential which is designed to satisfy a thermodynamic consistency on the isothermal compressibility as described in the next section. We test the present theory in Sec. III by applying it to plasma mixtures interacing with either an unscreened or a screened Coulomb potential. We made comparisons of results from the present theory with those from the best available theory, i.e., Rosenfeld`s density functional theory (DFT). The DFT was shown to give internal energy with three to five fignre accuracy compared to a wide range of Monte Carlo data. Meanwhile, small deviations of excess internal energy from the so-called ``liner mixing rule`` (LMR) are better predicted by a less sophiscated theory like the hypernetted- chain (HNC) equation. This rule relates thermodynamics of an unscreened mixture to those for individual components in a strongly coupled regime where the potential energy of a constituent particle is much larger than its kinetic energy. We also apply the present theory to a H{sub 2} + H mixture interacting with Morse potentials. For this sytem, comparison of thermodynamic properties and radial distribution functions from the present theory will be made with those from another successful theory of dense fluid, i.e., the HMSA equation of Zerah and Hansen.

  14. Structural equation models to estimate risk of infection and tolerance to bovine mastitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One method to improve durably animal welfare is to select, as reproducers, animals with the highest ability to resist or tolerate infection. To do so, it is necessary to distinguish direct and indirect mechanisms of resistance and tolerance because selection on these traits is believed to have different epidemiological and evolutionary consequences. Methods We propose structural equation models with latent variables (1) to quantify the latent risk of infection and to identify, among the many potential mediators of infection, the few ones that influence it significantly and (2) to estimate direct and indirect levels of tolerance of animals infected naturally with pathogens. We applied the method to two surveys of bovine mastitis in the Walloon region of Belgium, in which we recorded herd management practices, mastitis frequency, and results of bacteriological analyses of milk samples. Results and discussion Structural equation models suggested that, among more than 35 surveyed herd characteristics, only nine (age, addition of urea in the rations, treatment of subclinical mastitis, presence of dirty liner, cows with hyperkeratotic teats, machine stripping, pre- and post-milking teat disinfection, and housing of milking cows in cubicles) were directly and significantly related to a latent measure of bovine mastitis, and that treatment of subclinical mastitis was involved in the pathway between post-milking teat disinfection and latent mastitis. These models also allowed the separation of direct and indirect effects of bacterial infection on milk productivity. Results suggested that infected cows were tolerant but not resistant to mastitis pathogens. Conclusions We revealed the advantages of structural equation models, compared to classical models, for dissecting measurements of resistance and tolerance to infectious diseases, here bovine mastitis. Using our method, we identified nine major risk factors that were directly associated with an increased risk of

  15. Development of gender- and age group-specific equations for estimating body weight from anthropometric measurement in Thai adults

    PubMed Central

    Chittawatanarat, Kaweesak; Pruenglampoo, Sakda; Trakulhoon, Vibul; Ungpinitpong, Winai; Patumanond, Jayanton

    2012-01-01

    Background Many medical procedures routinely use body weight as a parameter for calculation. However, these measurements are not always available. In addition, the commonly used visual estimation has had high error rates. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a predictive equation for body weight using body circumferences. Methods A prospective study was performed in healthy volunteers. Body weight, height, and eight circumferential level parameters including neck, arm, chest, waist, umbilical level, hip, thigh, and calf were recorded. Linear regression equations were developed in a modeling sample group divided by sex and age (younger <60 years and older ≥60 years). Original regression equations were modified to simple equations by coefficients and intercepts adjustment. These equations were tested in an independent validation sample. Results A total of 2000 volunteers were included in this study. These were randomly separated into two groups (1000 in each modeling and validation group). Equations using height and one covariate circumference were developed. After the covariate selection processes, covariate circumference of chest, waist, umbilical level, and hip were selected for single covariate equations (Sco). To reduce the body somatotype difference, the combination covariate circumferences were created by summation between the chest and one torso circumference of waist, umbilical level, or hip and used in the equation development as a combination covariate equation (Cco). Of these equations, Cco had significantly higher 10% threshold error tolerance compared with Sco (mean percentage error tolerance of Cco versus Sco [95% confidence interval; 95% CI]: 76.9 [74.2–79.6] versus 70.3 [68.4–72.3]; P < 0.01, respectively). Although simple covariate equations had more evidence errors than the original covariate equations, there was comparable error tolerance between the types of equations (original versus simple: 74.5 [71.9–77.1] versus 71.7 [69.2

  16. Correlation structure and variable selection in generalized estimating equations via composite likelihood information criteria.

    PubMed

    Nikoloulopoulos, Aristidis K

    2016-06-30

    The method of generalized estimating equations (GEE) is popular in the biostatistics literature for analyzing longitudinal binary and count data. It assumes a generalized linear model for the outcome variable, and a working correlation among repeated measurements. In this paper, we introduce a viable competitor: the weighted scores method for generalized linear model margins. We weight the univariate score equations using a working discretized multivariate normal model that is a proper multivariate model. Because the weighted scores method is a parametric method based on likelihood, we propose composite likelihood information criteria as an intermediate step for model selection. The same criteria can be used for both correlation structure and variable selection. Simulations studies and the application example show that our method outperforms other existing model selection methods in GEE. From the example, it can be seen that our methods not only improve on GEE in terms of interpretability and efficiency but also can change the inferential conclusions with respect to GEE. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Subdivision based isogeometric analysis technique for electric field integral equations for simply connected structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Dault, Daniel; Liu, Beibei; Tong, Yiying; Shanker, Balasubramaniam

    2016-08-01

    The analysis of electromagnetic scattering has long been performed on a discrete representation of the geometry. This representation is typically continuous but not differentiable. The need to define physical quantities on this geometric representation has led to development of sets of basis functions that need to satisfy constraints at the boundaries of the elements/tessellations (viz., continuity of normal or tangential components across element boundaries). For electromagnetics, these result in either curl/div-conforming basis sets. The geometric representation used for analysis is in stark contrast with that used for design, wherein the surface representation is higher order differentiable. Using this representation for both geometry and physics on geometry has several advantages, and is elucidated in Hughes et al. (2005) [7]. Until now, a bulk of the literature on isogeometric methods have been limited to solid mechanics, with some effort to create NURBS based basis functions for electromagnetic analysis. In this paper, we present the first complete isogeometry solution methodology for the electric field integral equation as applied to simply connected structures. This paper systematically proceeds through surface representation using subdivision, definition of vector basis functions on this surface, to fidelity in the solution of integral equations. We also present techniques to stabilize the solution at low frequencies, and impose a Calderón preconditioner. Several results presented serve to validate the proposed approach as well as demonstrate some of its capabilities.

  18. Numerical solutions of Navier-Stokes equations for the structure of a trailing vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    The structure and decay of a trailing vortex were analyzed during the numerical solutions of the full Navier-Stokes equations. Unsteady forms of the governing equations were recast in terms of circulation, vorticity, and stream function as dependent variables, and a second upwind finite difference scheme was used to integrate them with prescribed initial and boundary conditions. The boundary conditions at the outer edge and at the outflow section of the trailing vortex were considered. Different models of the flow were postulated, and solutions were obtained describing the development of the flow as integration proceeds in time. A parametric study was undertaken with a view to understanding the various phenomena that may possibly occur in the trailing vortex. Using the Hoffman and Joubert law of circulation at the inflow section, the results of this investigation were compared with experimental data for a Convair 990 wind model and a rectangular wing. With an exponentially decaying law of circulation at the inflow section and an adverse pressure gradient at the outer edge of the trailing vortex, solutions depict vortex bursting through the sudden expansion of the core and/or through the stagnation and consequent reversal of the flow on the axis. It was found that this bursting takes place at lower values of the swirl ratio as the Reynolds number increases.

  19. A Comparison of Methods for Estimating Quadratic Effects in Nonlinear Structural Equation Models

    PubMed Central

    Harring, Jeffrey R.; Weiss, Brandi A.; Hsu, Jui-Chen

    2012-01-01

    Two Monte Carlo simulations were performed to compare methods for estimating and testing hypotheses of quadratic effects in latent variable regression models. The methods considered in the current study were (a) a 2-stage moderated regression approach using latent variable scores, (b) an unconstrained product indicator approach, (c) a latent moderated structural equation method, (d) a fully Bayesian approach, and (e) marginal maximum likelihood estimation. Of the 5 estimation methods, it was found that overall the methods based on maximum likelihood estimation and the Bayesian approach performed best in terms of bias, root-mean-square error, standard error ratios, power, and Type I error control, although key differences were observed. Similarities as well as disparities among methods are highlight and general recommendations articulated. As a point of comparison, all 5 approaches were fit to a reparameterized version of the latent quadratic model to educational reading data. PMID:22429193

  20. A Structural Equation Model of Perievent Panic and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder After a Community Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Richard E.; Boscarino, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest that perievent panic attacks are predictive of future posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Using a population of New York City residents interviewed after the World Trade Center Disaster, the authors measured event exposure, perievent panic, potential confounding, mediating variables, and PTSD. When they estimated a structural equation model, with other stressor events, psychological resources, and Year 1 and Year 2 PTSD as latent variables and adjusted for confounders, the association between perievent panic and Year 2 PTSD was not significant. Results revealed that perievent panic was predictive of Year 1 PTSD, but not Year 2 PTSD. Year 2 stressors and Year 2 psychosocial resources were the best predictors of Year 2 PTSD. PMID:21351165

  1. From patterns to causal understanding: Structural equation modeling (SEM) in soil ecology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Powell, Jeff R; Grace, James B.; Bowker, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    In this perspectives paper we highlight a heretofore underused statistical method in soil ecological research, structural equation modeling (SEM). SEM is commonly used in the general ecological literature to develop causal understanding from observational data, but has been more slowly adopted by soil ecologists. We provide some basic information on the many advantages and possibilities associated with using SEM and provide some examples of how SEM can be used by soil ecologists to shift focus from describing patterns to developing causal understanding and inspiring new types of experimental tests. SEM is a promising tool to aid the growth of soil ecology as a discipline, particularly by supporting research that is increasingly hypothesis-driven and interdisciplinary, thus shining light into the black box of interactions belowground.

  2. Handling Missing Data With Multilevel Structural Equation Modeling and Full Information Maximum Likelihood Techniques.

    PubMed

    Schminkey, Donna L; von Oertzen, Timo; Bullock, Linda

    2016-08-01

    With increasing access to population-based data and electronic health records for secondary analysis, missing data are common. In the social and behavioral sciences, missing data frequently are handled with multiple imputation methods or full information maximum likelihood (FIML) techniques, but healthcare researchers have not embraced these methodologies to the same extent and more often use either traditional imputation techniques or complete case analysis, which can compromise power and introduce unintended bias. This article is a review of options for handling missing data, concluding with a case study demonstrating the utility of multilevel structural equation modeling using full information maximum likelihood (MSEM with FIML) to handle large amounts of missing data. MSEM with FIML is a parsimonious and hypothesis-driven strategy to cope with large amounts of missing data without compromising power or introducing bias. This technique is relevant for nurse researchers faced with ever-increasing amounts of electronic data and decreasing research budgets. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Should researchers use single indicators, best indicators, or multiple indicators in structural equation models?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Structural equation modeling developed as a statistical melding of path analysis and factor analysis that obscured a fundamental tension between a factor preference for multiple indicators and path modeling’s openness to fewer indicators. Discussion Multiple indicators hamper theory by unnecessarily restricting the number of modeled latents. Using the few best indicators – possibly even the single best indicator of each latent – encourages development of theoretically sophisticated models. Additional latent variables permit stronger statistical control of potential confounders, and encourage detailed investigation of mediating causal mechanisms. Summary We recommend the use of the few best indicators. One or two indicators are often sufficient, but three indicators may occasionally be helpful. More than three indicators are rarely warranted because additional redundant indicators provide less research benefit than single indicators of additional latent variables. Scales created from multiple indicators can introduce additional problems, and are prone to being less desirable than either single or multiple indicators. PMID:23088287

  4. Perceptions of ambiguously unpleasant interracial interactions: a structural equation modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Marino, Teresa L; Negy, Charles; Hammons, Mary E; McKinney, Cliff; Asberg, Kia

    2007-11-01

    Despite a general consensus in the United States that overtly racist acts are unacceptable, many ambiguous situations in everyday life raise questions of whether racism has influenced a person's behavior in an interracial encounter. The authors of the present study sought to (a) examine simultaneously an array of variables thought to be related to perceived racism and (b) investigate how the contribution of these variables may differ with respect to the asymmetry hypothesis, which suggests that acts of discrimination from a dominant person toward a subordinate person will be viewed as more biased than if the situation were reversed. The authors used a dual structural equation modeling approach. Results indicated that ethnic identity significantly predicted perceived racism. In addition, the extent to which cognitive interpretation style significantly predicted perceived racism depended on the ethnicity of participants involved in the interaction.

  5. Students attitude towards calculus subject: A case-study using structural equation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awang, Noorehan; Hamid, Nur Nadiah Abd.

    2015-10-01

    This study was designed to assess the attitude of Bumiputera students towards mathematics. The instrument used to measure the attitude was Test of Mathematics Related Attitude (TOMRA). This test measures students' attitudes in four criteria: normality of mathematics (N), attitudes towards mathematics inquiry (I), adoption of mathematics attitude (A) and enjoyment of mathematics lessons (E). The target population of this study was all computer science and quantitative science students who enrolled in a Calculus subject at UiTM Negeri Sembilan. Confirmatory Factor Analysis was carried out and the inter-relationship among the four criteria was analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling. The students scored high in E, moderately in A and relatively low in N and I.

  6. The Cusp Catastrophe Model as Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Mixture Structural Equation Models

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Sy-Miin; Witkiewitz, Katie; Grasman, Raoul P. P. P.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Catastrophe theory (Thom, 1972, 1993) is the study of the many ways in which continuous changes in a system’s parameters can result in discontinuous changes in one or several outcome variables of interest. Catastrophe theory–inspired models have been used to represent a variety of change phenomena in the realm of social and behavioral sciences. Despite their promise, widespread applications of catastrophe models have been impeded, in part, by difficulties in performing model fitting and model comparison procedures. We propose a new modeling framework for testing one kind of catastrophe model — the cusp catastrophe model — as a mixture structural equation model (MSEM) when cross-sectional data are available; or alternatively, as an MSEM with regime-switching (MSEM-RS) when longitudinal panel data are available. The proposed models and the advantages offered by this alternative modeling framework are illustrated using two empirical examples and a simulation study. PMID:25822209

  7. OpenMx 2.0: Extended Structural Equation and Statistical Modeling.

    PubMed

    Neale, Michael C; Hunter, Michael D; Pritikin, Joshua N; Zahery, Mahsa; Brick, Timothy R; Kirkpatrick, Robert M; Estabrook, Ryne; Bates, Timothy C; Maes, Hermine H; Boker, Steven M

    2016-06-01

    The new software package OpenMx 2.0 for structural equation and other statistical modeling is introduced and its features are described. OpenMx is evolving in a modular direction and now allows a mix-and-match computational approach that separates model expectations from fit functions and optimizers. Major backend architectural improvements include a move to swappable open-source optimizers such as the newly written CSOLNP. Entire new methodologies such as item factor analysis and state space modeling have been implemented. New model expectation functions including support for the expression of models in LISREL syntax and a simplified multigroup expectation function are available. Ease-of-use improvements include helper functions to standardize model parameters and compute their Jacobian-based standard errors, access to model components through standard R $ mechanisms, and improved tab completion from within the R Graphical User Interface. PMID:25622929

  8. IT vendor selection model by using structural equation model & analytical hierarchy process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maitra, Sarit; Dominic, P. D. D.

    2012-11-01

    Selecting and evaluating the right vendors is imperative for an organization's global marketplace competitiveness. Improper selection and evaluation of potential vendors can dwarf an organization's supply chain performance. Numerous studies have demonstrated that firms consider multiple criteria when selecting key vendors. This research intends to develop a new hybrid model for vendor selection process with better decision making. The new proposed model provides a suitable tool for assisting decision makers and managers to make the right decisions and select the most suitable vendor. This paper proposes a Hybrid model based on Structural Equation Model (SEM) and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) for long-term strategic vendor selection problems. The five steps framework of the model has been designed after the thorough literature study. The proposed hybrid model will be applied using a real life case study to assess its effectiveness. In addition, What-if analysis technique will be used for model validation purpose.

  9. The Swedish WAIS-R Factor Structure and Cognitive Profiles for Adults with Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alm, Jan; Kaufman, Alan S.

    2002-01-01

    Factor analysis of the Swedish version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised on 88 adults with dyslexia showed a three-factor structure: a verbal comprehension (VC) factor, a perceptual organization (PO) factor, and a freedom from distractibility (FD) factor. The PO factor had the highest scores and the FD the lowest. (Contains…

  10. Integrating occupancy models and structural equation models to understand species occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Maxwell B.; Preston, Daniel L.; Johnson, Pieter T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the drivers of species occurrence is a fundamental goal in basic and applied ecology. Occupancy models have emerged as a popular approach for inferring species occurrence because they account for problems associated with imperfect detection in field surveys. Current models, however, are limited because they assume covariates are independent (i.e., indirect effects do not occur). Here, we combined structural equation and occupancy models to investigate complex influences on species occurrence while accounting for imperfect detection. These two methods are inherently compatible because they both provide means to make inference on latent or unobserved quantities based on observed data. Our models evaluated the direct and indirect roles of cattle grazing, water chemistry, vegetation, nonnative fishes, and pond permanence on the occurrence of six pond-breeding amphibians, two of which are threatened: the California tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense), and the California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii). While cattle had strong effects on pond vegetation and water chemistry, their overall effects on amphibian occurrence were small compared to the consistently negative effects of nonnative fish. Fish strongly reduced occurrence probabilities for four of five native amphibians, including both species of conservation concern. These results could help to identify drivers of amphibian declines and to prioritize strategies for amphibian conservation. More generally, this approach facilitates a more mechanistic representation of ideas about the causes of species distributions in space and time. As shown here, occupancy modeling and structural equation modeling are readily combined, and bring rich sets of techniques that may provide unique theoretical and applied insights into basic ecological questions. PMID:27197402

  11. Railway noise annoyance: exposure-response relationships and testing a theoretical model by structural equation analysis.

    PubMed

    Pennig, Sibylle; Schady, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    In some regions the exposure to railway noise is extremely concentrated, which may lead to high residential annoyance. Nonacoustical factors contribute to these reactions, but there is limited evidence on the interrelations between the nonacoustical factors that influence railway noise annoyance. The aims of the present study were (1) to examine exposure-response relationships between long-term railway noise exposure and annoyance in a region severely affected by railway noise and (2) to determine a priori proposed interrelations between nonacoustical factors by structural equation analysis. Residents (n = 320) living close to railway tracks in the Middle Rhine Valley completed a socio-acoustic survey. Individual noise exposure levels were calculated by an acoustical simulation model for this area. The derived exposure-response relationships indicated considerably higher annoyance at the same noise exposure level than would have been predicted by the European Union standard curve, particularly for the night-time period. In the structural equation analysis, 72% of the variance in noise annoyance was explained by the noise exposure (L(den)) and nonacoustical variables. The model provides insights into several causal mechanisms underlying the formation of railway noise annoyance considering indirect and reciprocal effects. The concern about harmful effects of railway noise and railway traffic, the perceived control and coping capacity, and the individual noise sensitivity were the most important factors that influence noise annoyance. All effects of the nonacoustical factors on annoyance were mediated by the perceived control and coping capacity and additionally proposed indirect effects of the theoretical model were supported by the data.

  12. Integrating occupancy models and structural equation models to understand species occurrence.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Maxwell B; Preston, Daniel L; Johnson, Pieter T J

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the drivers of species occrrece s a fundamenal goal in basic and applied ecology. Occupancy models have emerged as a popular approach for inferring species occurrence because they account for problems associated with imperfect detection in field surveys. Current models, however, are limited because they assume covariates are independent (i.e., indirect effects do not occur). Here, we combined structural equation and occupancy models to investigate complex influences on species occurrence while accounting for imperfect detection. These two methods are inherently compatible because they both provide means to make inference on latent or unobserved quantities based on observed data. Our models evaluated the direct and indirect roles of cattle grazing, water chemistry, vegetation, nonnative fishes, and pond permanence on the occurrence of six pond-breeding amphibians, two of which are threatened: the California tiger salamander (Ambysloma californiense) and the California red-legged frog (Rana draytonil). While cattle had strong effects on pond vegetation and water chemistry, their overall effects on amphibian occurrence were small compared to the consistently negative effects of nonnative fish. Fish strongly reduced occurrence probabilities for four of five native amphibians, including both species of conservation concern. These results could help to identify drivers of amphibian declines and to prioritize strategies for amphibian conservation. More generally, this approach facilitates a more mechanistic representation of ideas about the causes of species distributions in space and time. As shown here, occupancy modeling and structural equation modeling are readily combined, and bring rich sets of techniques that may provide unique theoretical and applied insights into basic ecological questions. PMID:27197402

  13. Brain Emotion Systems, Personality, Hopelessness, Self/Other Perception, and Gambling Cognition: A Structural Equation Model.

    PubMed

    Iliceto, Paolo; D'Antuono, Laura; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta; Giovani, Eleni; Giacolini, Teodosio; Candilera, Gabriella; Sabatello, Ugo; Panksepp, Jaak

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relations between gambling, brain emotion systems, personality, self/other perception, and hopelessness in an Italian community. Dimensions of gambling, positive and negative emotions, self/other perception, personality and hopelessness were assessed in a community sample of 235 adults aged 19-59 years. Two structural models were tested. We found a significant correlation between problem gambling and impulsivity, which in association with aggressivity and negative personality dimensions may help explain the psychopathology factor, i.e. a latent variable involving neurotic personality, hopelessness, high sensation seeking, low metacognitive responsiveness, and disorganized patterns of interpersonal relationships. These results contribute to develop a theoretical framework of gambling in relation with personality factors and provide a new approach for clinical intervention of problem gambling that relies on a solid multidimensional perspective.

  14. Brain Emotion Systems, Personality, Hopelessness, Self/Other Perception, and Gambling Cognition: A Structural Equation Model.

    PubMed

    Iliceto, Paolo; D'Antuono, Laura; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta; Giovani, Eleni; Giacolini, Teodosio; Candilera, Gabriella; Sabatello, Ugo; Panksepp, Jaak

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relations between gambling, brain emotion systems, personality, self/other perception, and hopelessness in an Italian community. Dimensions of gambling, positive and negative emotions, self/other perception, personality and hopelessness were assessed in a community sample of 235 adults aged 19-59 years. Two structural models were tested. We found a significant correlation between problem gambling and impulsivity, which in association with aggressivity and negative personality dimensions may help explain the psychopathology factor, i.e. a latent variable involving neurotic personality, hopelessness, high sensation seeking, low metacognitive responsiveness, and disorganized patterns of interpersonal relationships. These results contribute to develop a theoretical framework of gambling in relation with personality factors and provide a new approach for clinical intervention of problem gambling that relies on a solid multidimensional perspective. PMID:25894294

  15. The Mammalian Adult Neurogenesis Gene Ontology (MANGO) Provides a Structural Framework for Published Information on Genes Regulating Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Overall, Rupert W.; Paszkowski-Rogacz, Maciej; Kempermann, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Background Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is not a single phenotype, but consists of a number of sub-processes, each of which is under complex genetic control. Interpretation of gene expression studies using existing resources often does not lead to results that address the interrelatedness of these processes. Formal structure, such as provided by ontologies, is essential in any field for comprehensive interpretation of existing knowledge but, until now, such a structure has been lacking for adult neurogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings We have created a resource with three components 1. A structured ontology describing the key stages in the development of adult hippocampal neural stem cells into functional granule cell neurons. 2. A comprehensive survey of the literature to annotate the results of all published reports on gene function in adult hippocampal neurogenesis (257 manuscripts covering 228 genes) to the appropriate terms in our ontology. 3. An easy-to-use searchable interface to the resulting database made freely available online. The manuscript presents an overview of the database highlighting global trends such as the current bias towards research on early proliferative stages, and an example gene set enrichment analysis. A limitation of the resource is the current scope of the literature which, however, is growing by around 100 publications per year. With the ontology and database in place, new findings can be rapidly annotated and regular updates of the database will be made publicly available. Conclusions/Significance The resource we present allows relevant interpretation of gene expression screens in terms of defined stages of postnatal neuronal development. Annotation of genes by hand from the adult neurogenesis literature ensures the data are directly applicable to the system under study. We believe this approach could also serve as an example to other fields in a ‘bottom-up’ community effort complementing the already successful

  16. Gauge equivalent structure and solitary wave solution for a modified Landau-Lifshitz equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, LiYuan; Zhu, ZuoNong

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, the gauge equivalence between the modified Landau-Lifshitz equation and the perturbed defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation is proved from the perspective of geometry of given curvature condition. By using the gauge equivalence and the soliton perturbation theory of defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation, the first-order approximate 1-soliton solution to the modified Landau-Lifshitz equation is given.

  17. Self-Efficacy, School Resources, Job Stressors and Burnout among Spanish Primary and Secondary School Teachers: A Structural Equation Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betoret, Fernando Domenech

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between school resources, teacher self-efficacy, potential multi-level stressors and teacher burnout using structural equation modelling. The causal structure for primary and secondary school teachers was also examined. The sample was composed of 724 primary and secondary Spanish school teachers. The changes…

  18. Race/Ethnicity and Social Capital among Middle- and Upper-Middle-Class Elementary School Families: A Structural Equation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldas, Stephen J.; Cornigans, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This study used structural equation modeling to conduct a first and second order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of a scale developed by McDonald and Moberg (2002) to measure three dimensions of social capital among a diverse group of middle- and upper-middle-class elementary school parents in suburban New York. A structural path model was…

  19. Ab initio studies of equations of state and chemical reactions of reactive structural materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaharieva, Roussislava

    subject of studies of the shock or thermally induced chemical reactions of the two solids comprising these reactive materials, from first principles, is a relatively new field of study. The published literature on ab initio techniques or quantum mechanics based approaches consists of the ab initio or ab initio-molecular dynamics studies in related fields that contain a solid and a gas. One such study in the literature involves a gas and a solid. This is an investigation of the adsorption of gasses such as carbon monoxide (CO) on Tungsten. The motivation for these studies is to synthesize alternate or synthetic fuel technology by Fischer-Tropsch process. In this thesis these studies are first to establish the procedure for solid-solid reaction and then to extend that to consider the effects of mechanical strain and temperature on the binding energy and chemisorptions of CO on tungsten. Then in this thesis, similar studies are also conducted on the effect of mechanical strain and temperature on the binding energies of Titanium and hydrogen. The motivations are again to understand the method and extend the method to such solid-solid reactions. A second motivation is to seek strained conditions that favor hydrogen storage and strain conditions that release hydrogen easily when needed. Following the establishment of ab initio and ab initio studies of chemical reactions between a solid and a gas, the next step of research is to study thermally induced chemical reaction between two solids (Ni+Al). Thus, specific new studies of the thesis are as follows: (1) Ab initio Studies of Binding energies associated with chemisorption of (a) CO on W surfaces (111, and 100) at elevated temperatures and strains and (b) adsorption of hydrogen in titanium base. (2) Equations of state of mixtures of reactive material structures from ab initio methods. (3) Ab initio studies of the reaction initiation, transition states and reaction products of intermetallic mixtures of (Ni+Al) at elevated

  20. Applying Individual Tree Structure From Lidar to Address the Sensitivity of Allometric Equations to Small Sample Sizes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncanson, L.; Dubayah, R.

    2015-12-01

    Lidar remote sensing is widely applied for mapping forest carbon stocks, and technological advances have improved our ability to capture structural details from forests, even resolving individual trees. Despite these advancements, the accuracy of forest aboveground biomass models remains limited by the quality of field estimates of biomass. The accuracies of field estimates are inherently dependent on the accuracy of the allometric equations used to relate measurable attributes to biomass. These equations are calibrated with relatively small samples of often spatially clustered trees. This research focuses on one of many issues involving allometric equations - understanding how sensitive allometric parameters are to the sample sizes used to fit them. We capitalize on recent advances in lidar remote sensing to extract individual tree structural information from six high-resolution airborne lidar datasets in the United States. We remotely measure millions of tree heights and crown radii, and fit allometric equations to the relationship between tree height and radius at a 'population' level, in each site. We then extract samples from our tree database, and build allometries on these smaller samples of trees, with varying sample sizes. We show that for the allometric relationship between tree height and crown radius, small sample sizes produce biased allometric equations that overestimate height for a given crown radius. We extend this analysis using translations from the literature to address potential implications for biomass, showing that site-level biomass may be greatly overestimated when applying allometric equations developed with the typically small sample sizes used in popular allometric equations for biomass.

  1. Effect of structured physical activity on respiratory outcomes in sedentary elderly adults with mobility limitations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of structured physical activity on respiratory outcomes in community dwelling elderly adults with mobility limitations. DESIGN: Multicenter, randomized trial of physical activity vs health education, with respiratory variables prespecified as tertiary outcomes over...

  2. The latent structure of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in an adult sample.

    PubMed

    Marcus, David K; Norris, Alyssa L; Coccaro, Emil F

    2012-06-01

    The vast majority of studies that have examined the latent structure of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents have concluded that ADHD has a dimensional latent structure. In other words, ADHD symptomatology exists along a continuum and there is no natural boundary or qualitative distinction (i.e., taxon) separating youth with ADHD from those with subclinical inattention or hyperactivity/impulsivity problems. Although adult ADHD appears to be less prevalent than ADHD in youth (which could suggest a more severe adult ADHD taxon), researchers have yet to examine the latent structure of ADHD in adults. The present study used a sample (N = 600) of adults who completed a self-report measure of ADHD symptoms. The taxometric analyses revealed a dimensional latent structure for inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and ADHD. These findings are consistent with previous taxometric studies that examined ADHD in children and adolescents, and with contemporary polygenic and multifactorial models of ADHD.

  3. Full Equations (FEQ) model for the solution of the full, dynamic equations of motion for one-dimensional unsteady flow in open channels and through control structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franz, Delbert D.; Melching, Charles S.

    1997-01-01

    The Full EQuations (FEQ) model is a computer program for solution of the full, dynamic equations of motion for one-dimensional unsteady flow in open channels and through control structures. A stream system that is simulated by application of FEQ is subdivided into stream reaches (branches), parts of the stream system for which complete information on flow and depth are not required (dummy branches), and level-pool reservoirs. These components are connected by special features; that is, hydraulic control structures, including junctions, bridges, culverts, dams, waterfalls, spillways, weirs, side weirs, and pumps. The principles of conservation of mass and conservation of momentum are used to calculate the flow and depth throughout the stream system resulting from known initial and boundary conditions by means of an implicit finite-difference approximation at fixed points (computational nodes). The hydraulic characteristics of (1) branches including top width, area, first moment of area with respect to the water surface, conveyance, and flux coefficients and (2) special features (relations between flow and headwater and (or) tail-water elevations, including the operation of variable-geometry structures) are stored in function tables calculated in the companion program, Full EQuations UTiLities (FEQUTL). Function tables containing other information used in unsteady-flow simulation (boundary conditions, tributary inflows or outflows, gate settings, correction factors, characteristics of dummy branches and level-pool reservoirs, and wind speed and direction) are prepared by the user as detailed in this report. In the iterative solution scheme for flow and depth throughout the stream system, an interpolation of the function tables corresponding to the computational nodes throughout the stream system is done in the model. FEQ can be applied in the simulation of a wide range of stream configurations (including loops), lateral-inflow conditions, and special features. The

  4. Global structure in spatiotemporal chaos of the Matthews-Cox equations.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu; Tanaka, Dan

    2007-08-01

    We find that an amplitude death state and a spatiotemporally chaotic state coexist spontaneously in the Matthews-Cox equations and this coexistence is robust. Although the entire system is far from equilibrium, the domain wall between the two states is stabilized by a negative-feedback effect due to a conservation law. This is analogous to the phase separation in conserved systems that exhibit spinodal decompositions. We observe similar phenomena also in the Nikolaevskii equation, from which the Matthews-Cox equations were derived. A Galilean invariance of the former equation corresponds to the conservation law of the latter equations.

  5. Using partial correlation to enhance structural equation modeling of functional MRI data.

    PubMed

    Marrelec, Guillaume; Horwitz, Barry; Kim, Jieun; Pélégrini-Issac, Mélanie; Benali, Habib; Doyon, Julien

    2007-10-01

    In functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data analysis, effective connectivity investigates the influence that brain regions exert on one another. Structural equation modeling (SEM) has been the main approach to examine effective connectivity. In this paper, we propose a method that, given a set of regions, performs partial correlation analysis. This method provides an approach to effective connectivity that is data driven, in the sense that it does not require any prior information regarding the anatomical or functional connections. To demonstrate the practical relevance of partial correlation analysis for effective connectivity investigation, we reanalyzed data previously published [Bullmore, Horwitz, Honey, Brammer, Williams, Sharma, 2000. How good is good enough in path analysis of fMRI data? NeuroImage 11, 289-301]. Specifically, we show that partial correlation analysis can serve several purposes. In a pre-processing step, it can hint at which effective connections are structuring the interactions and which have little influence on the pattern of connectivity. As a post-processing step, it can be used both as a simple and visual way to check the validity of SEM optimization algorithms and to show which assumptions made by the model are valid, and which ones should be further modified to better fit the data.

  6. Sample Size Considerations in Prevention Research Applications of Multilevel Modeling and Structural Equation Modeling.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, Rick H; Gottfredson, Nisha C

    2015-10-01

    When the goal of prevention research is to capture in statistical models some measure of the dynamic complexity in structures and processes implicated in problem behavior and its prevention, approaches such as multilevel modeling (MLM) and structural equation modeling (SEM) are indicated. Yet the assumptions that must be satisfied if these approaches are to be used responsibly raise concerns regarding their use in prevention research involving smaller samples. In this article, we discuss in nontechnical terms the role of sample size in MLM and SEM and present findings from the latest simulation work on the performance of each approach at sample sizes typical of prevention research. For each statistical approach, we draw from extant simulation studies to establish lower bounds for sample size (e.g., MLM can be applied with as few as ten groups comprising ten members with normally distributed data, restricted maximum likelihood estimation, and a focus on fixed effects; sample sizes as small as N = 50 can produce reliable SEM results with normally distributed data and at least three reliable indicators per factor) and suggest strategies for making the best use of the modeling approach when N is near the lower bound.

  7. The Dirac equation in electronic structure calculations: Accurate evaluation of DFT predictions for actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Wills, John M; Mattsson, Ann E

    2012-06-06

    Brooks, Johansson, and Skriver, using the LMTO-ASA method and considerable insight, were able to explain many of the ground state properties of the actinides. In the many years since this work was done, electronic structure calculations of increasing sophistication have been applied to actinide elements and compounds, attempting to quantify the applicability of DFT to actinides and actinide compounds and to try to incorporate other methodologies (i.e. DMFT) into DFT calculations. Through these calculations, the limits of both available density functionals and ad hoc methodologies are starting to become clear. However, it has also become clear that approximations used to incorporate relativity are not adequate to provide rigorous tests of the underlying equations of DFT, not to mention ad hoc additions. In this talk, we describe the result of full-potential LMTO calculations for the elemental actinides, comparing results obtained with a full Dirac basis with those obtained from scalar-relativistic bases, with and without variational spin-orbit. This comparison shows that the scalar relativistic treatment of actinides does not have sufficient accuracy to provide a rigorous test of theory and that variational spin-orbit introduces uncontrolled errors in the results of electronic structure calculations on actinide elements.

  8. Structural Equation Modeling Highlights the Potential of Kim-1 as a Biomarker for Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Lesley; Akintola, Adebayo; Chen, Gang; Catania, Jeffrey M.; Vaidya, Vishal; Burghardt, Robert C.; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Trzeciakowski, Jerome; Parrish, Alan R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health problem, and despite continued research in the field, there is still a need to identify both biomarkers of risk and progression, as well as potential therapeutic targets. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is a family of statistical techniques that has been utilized in the fields of sociology and psychology for many years; however, its utilization in the biological sciences is relatively novel. SEM's ability to investigate complex relationships in an efficient, single model could be utilized to understand the progression of CKD, as well as to develop a predictive model to assess kidney status in the patient. Methods Fischer 344 rats were fed either an ad libitum diet or a calorically restricted diet, and a time-course study of kidney structure and function was performed. EQS, a SEM software package, was utilized to generate five CKD models of the Fisher 344 rat and identify relationships between measured variables and estimates of kidney damage and kidney function. Results All models identified strong relationships between a biomarker for CKD, kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) and kidney damage, in the Fischer 344 rat CKD model. Models also indicate a strong relationship between age and renal damage and dysfunction. Conclusion SEM can be used to model CKD and could be useful to examine biomarkers in CKD patients. PMID:22269876

  9. Body fat measurement by bioelectrical impedance and air displacement plethysmography: a cross-validation study to design bioelectrical impedance equations in Mexican adults

    PubMed Central

    Macias, Nayeli; Alemán-Mateo, Heliodoro; Esparza-Romero, Julián; Valencia, Mauro E

    2007-01-01

    Background The study of body composition in specific populations by techniques such as bio-impedance analysis (BIA) requires validation based on standard reference methods. The aim of this study was to develop and cross-validate a predictive equation for bioelectrical impedance using air displacement plethysmography (ADP) as standard method to measure body composition in Mexican adult men and women. Methods This study included 155 male and female subjects from northern Mexico, 20–50 years of age, from low, middle, and upper income levels. Body composition was measured by ADP. Body weight (BW, kg) and height (Ht, cm) were obtained by standard anthropometric techniques. Resistance, R (ohms) and reactance, Xc (ohms) were also measured. A random-split method was used to obtain two samples: one was used to derive the equation by the "all possible regressions" procedure and was cross-validated in the other sample to test predicted versus measured values of fat-free mass (FFM). Results and Discussion The final model was: FFM (kg) = 0.7374 * (Ht2 /R) + 0.1763 * (BW) - 0.1773 * (Age) + 0.1198 * (Xc) - 2.4658. R2 was 0.97; the square root of the mean square error (SRMSE) was 1.99 kg, and the pure error (PE) was 2.96. There was no difference between FFM predicted by the new equation (48.57 ± 10.9 kg) and that measured by ADP (48.43 ± 11.3 kg). The new equation did not differ from the line of identity, had a high R2 and a low SRMSE, and showed no significant bias (0.87 ± 2.84 kg). Conclusion The new bioelectrical impedance equation based on the two-compartment model (2C) was accurate, precise, and free of bias. This equation can be used to assess body composition and nutritional status in populations similar in anthropometric and physical characteristics to this sample. PMID:17697388

  10. Structural brain correlates of associative memory in older adults.

    PubMed

    Becker, Nina; Laukka, Erika J; Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe; Bäckman, Lars; Brehmer, Yvonne

    2015-09-01

    Associative memory involves binding two or more items into a coherent memory episode. Relative to memory for single items, associative memory declines greatly in aging. However, older individuals vary substantially in their ability to memorize associative information. Although functional studies link associative memory to the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and prefrontal cortex (PFC), little is known about how volumetric differences in MTL and PFC might contribute to individual differences in associative memory. We investigated regional gray-matter volumes related to individual differences in associative memory in a sample of healthy older adults (n=54; age=60years). To differentiate item from associative memory, participants intentionally learned face-scene picture pairs before performing a recognition task that included single faces, scenes, and face-scene pairs. Gray-matter volumes were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry region-of-interest (ROI) analyses. To examine volumetric differences specifically for associative memory, item memory was controlled for in the analyses. Behavioral results revealed large variability in associative memory that mainly originated from differences in false-alarm rates. Moreover, associative memory was independent of individuals' ability to remember single items. Older adults with better associative memory showed larger gray-matter volumes primarily in regions of the left and right lateral PFC. These findings provide evidence for the importance of PFC in intentional learning of associations, likely because of its involvement in organizational and strategic processes that distinguish older adults with good from those with poor associative memory.

  11. Assessing glomerular filtration rate in healthy adult potential kidney donors in Bangladesh: a comparison of various prediction equations with measured glomerular filtration rate by diethylentriamine pentaacetic acid renogram.

    PubMed

    Jahan, F; Chowdhury, M N U; Mahbub, T; Arafat, S M; Jahan, S; Hossain, M; Khan, M F

    2013-08-01

    To ensure that potential kidney donors in Bangladesh have no renal impairment, it is extremely important to have accurate methods for evaluating the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). We evaluated the performance of serum creatinine based GFR in healthy adult potential kidney donors in Bangladesh to compare GFR determined by DTPA with that determined by various prediction equations. In this study GFR in 61 healthy adult potential kidney donors were measured with 99mTc-diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) renogram. We also estimated GFR using a four variable equation modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD), Cockcroft-Gault creatinine clearance (CGCrCl), Cockcroft-Gault glomerular filtration rate (CG-GFR). The mean age of study population was 34.31 +/- 9.46 years and out of them 65.6% was male. In this study mean mGFR was 85.4 +/- 14.8. Correlation of estimated GFR calculated by CG-CrCl, CG-GFR and MDRD were done with measured GFR DTPA using quartile. Kappa values were also estimated which was found to be 0.104 for (p = 0.151), 0.336 for (p = 0.001) and 0.125 for (p = 0.091) respectively. This indicates there is no association between estimated GFR calculated by CG-CrCl, CG-GFR, MDRD with measured GFR DTPA. These results show poor performance of these equations in evaluation of renal function among healthy population and also raise question regarding validity of these equations for assessment of renal function in chronic kidney disease in our population.

  12. A small sample test of the factor structure of postural movement and bilateral motor integration using structural equation modeling.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Kai; Wu, Huey-Min; Lin, Chung-Hui; Wu, Yuh-Yih; Wu, Pei-Fang; Kuo, Bor-Chen; Yeung, Kwok-Tak

    2012-10-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between the validity of postural movement and bilateral motor integration in terms of sensory integration theory. Participants in this study were 61 Chinese children ages 48 to 70 months. Structural equation modeling was applied to assess the relation between measures tapping postural movement and bilateral motor integration: for postural movement, the measures involve the Monkey Task, Side-Sit Co-contraction, Prone on Elbows, Wheelbarrow Walk, Airplane, and Scooter Board Co-contraction from the DeGangi-Berk Test of Sensory Integration, and Standing Balance with Eyes Closed/Opened in Southern California Sensory Integration Tests. For bilateral motor integration, the measures chosen were the Rolling Pin Activity, Jump and Turn, Diadokokinesis, Drumming, and Upper Extremity Control from the DeGangi-Berk Test of Sensory Integration, and Cross the Midline in Southern California Sensory Integration Tests (SCSIT). Postural movement was highly correlated with the bilateral motor integration. The factor structure fit the theoretical conceptualization, classifying postural movement and bilateral motor integration together in the same category. Therapists could combine two separate objectives (postural movement and bilateral motor integration) of intervention in an activity to improve the adaptive skills based on the vestibular-proprioceptive integration. PMID:23265017

  13. Equating tasks and sustaining attention in children and adults: the methodological and theoretical utility of d' matching.

    PubMed

    Laurie-Rose, Cynthia; Bennett-Murphy, Laura; Curtindale, Lori M; Granger, Andrea L; Walker, Heidi B

    2005-02-01

    The present study develops a method to create task equivalency for children and adults in vigilance research. Experiment 1 employed the signal detection index of perceptual sensitivity (d') to calibrate vigilance tasks for 32 children (ages 7-8) and 32 adults. The results of Experiment 1 suggest that task equivalency across groups can be attained, and a vigilance decrement was observed for children. In Experiment 2, the task parameter of event rate was manipulated across two vigils. Again, 32 children (ages 7-8) and 32 adults participated. The results suggest that a reverse event rate effect emerged for both children and adults. In addition, developmental differences in response to the event rate manipulation and with respect to the vigilance decrement emerged: Children benefited less from the manipulation and were more likely to demonstrate a vigilance decrement than were adults. No developmental differences emerged for the sensitivity decrement. The results are explained with reference to how task demands interact with participant arousal, and implications for development and for future research are discussed. PMID:15971689

  14. Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations and their implications for the structures of relativistic stars in f(T) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kpadonou, A. V.; Houndjo, M. J. S.; Rodrigues, M. E.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate in this paper the structures of neutron and quark stars in f(T) theory of gravity where T denotes the torsion scalar. Attention is attached to the TOV type equations of this theory and numerical integrations of these equations are performed with suitable EoS. We search for the deviation of the mass-radius diagrams for power-law and exponential type correction from the TT gravity. Our results show that for some values of the input parameters appearing in the considered models, f(T) theory promotes more the structures of the relativistic stars, in consistency with the observational data.

  15. Structure borne noise analysis using Helmholtz equation least squares based forced vibro acoustic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natarajan, Logesh Kumar

    This dissertation presents a structure-borne noise analysis technology that is focused on providing a cost-effective noise reduction strategy. Structure-borne sound is generated or transmitted through structural vibration; however, only a small portion of the vibration can effectively produce sound and radiate it to the far-field. Therefore, cost-effective noise reduction is reliant on identifying and suppressing the critical vibration components that are directly responsible for an undesired sound. However, current technologies cannot successfully identify these critical vibration components from the point of view of direct contribution to sound radiation and hence cannot guarantee the best cost-effective noise reduction. The technology developed here provides a strategy towards identifying the critical vibration components and methodically suppressing them to achieve a cost-effective noise reduction. The core of this technology is Helmholtz equation least squares (HELS) based nearfield acoustic holography method. In this study, the HELS formulations derived in spherical co-ordinates using spherical wave expansion functions utilize the input data of acoustic pressures measured in the nearfield of a vibrating object to reconstruct the vibro-acoustic responses on the source surface and acoustic quantities in the far field. Using these formulations, three steps were taken to achieve the goal. First, hybrid regularization techniques were developed to improve the reconstruction accuracy of normal surface velocity of the original HELS method. Second, correlations between the surface vibro-acoustic responses and acoustic radiation were factorized using singular value decomposition to obtain orthogonal basis known here as the forced vibro-acoustic components (F-VACs). The F-VACs enables one to identify the critical vibration components for sound radiation in a similar manner that modal decomposition identifies the critical natural modes in a structural vibration. Finally

  16. New solitary wave solutions of some nonlinear evolution equations with distinct physical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakthivel, Rathinasamy; Chun, Changbum

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we obtain solitary wave solutions for some nonlinear partial differential equations. The Exp-function method is used to establish solitary wave solutions for Calogero-Bogoyavlenskii-Schiff and general modified Degasperis-Procesi and Camassa-Holm equations. The result shows that the Exp-function method yields new and more general solutions. Moreover, this method with the aid of symbolic computation provides a very effective and powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear evolution equations arising in mathematical physics.

  17. A Retinol Isotope Dilution Equation Predicts Both Group and Individual Total Body Vitamin A Stores in Adults Based on Data from an Early Postdosing Blood Sample123

    PubMed Central

    Green, Michael H; Ford, Jennifer Lynn; Green, Joanne Balmer; Berry, Philip; Boddy, Alan V; Oxley, Anthony; Lietz, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Background: Retinol isotope dilution (RID) is used to determine vitamin A total body stores (TBS) after an oral dose of a vitamin A stable isotope. The generally accepted prediction equation proposed by Olson’s group in 1989 (Furr et al. Am J Clin Nutr 1989;49:713–6) includes factors related to dose absorption and retention, isotope equilibration in plasma compared with stores, catabolism during the mixing period, and the optimal time for measuring plasma isotope enrichment. Objectives: The objectives were 1) to develop a modified RID equation and identify an earlier sampling time for predicting TBS and 2) to improve prediction in individuals as well as groups. Methods: To develop a modified RID equation, we used results of model-based compartmental analysis [the Simulation, Analysis and Modeling software (WinSAAM version 3.0.8; http://www.WinSAAM.org)] of plasma [13C10]retinol kinetic data from 32 previously studied, healthy young adults of European ancestry who had moderate vitamin A intakes and who ingested 2.95 μmol [13C10]retinyl acetate. Results: We examined the time dependence of factors in the prediction equation related to absorption/retention (Fa) and isotope equilibration (S) and determined that 4 or 5 d postdosing was the optimal sampling time. TBS calculated by the equation TBS = Fa x S x (1/SAp), where SAp is plasma retinol specific activity (fraction of dose/μmol), were highly correlated with model-predicted TBS (r = 0.95 and 0.96 for 4 and 5 d, respectively; P < 0.001); predictions for individuals were also highly correlated (Rs = 0.94 and 0.94; P < 0.001). Conclusion: The equation TBS ≈ 0.5 × (1/SAp) accurately predicted vitamin A TBS in this group of 32 healthy young adults and its individual members with the use of data from 1 blood sample taken 4 d after isotope administration. PMID:27511937

  18. Factor Structure of the Primary Scales of the Inventory of Personality Organization in a Nonclinical Sample Using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, William D.; Levy, Kenneth N.

    2012-01-01

    Using exploratory structural equation modeling and multiple regression, we examined the factor structure and criterion relations of the primary scales of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO; Kernberg & Clarkin, 1995) in a nonclinical sample. Participants (N = 1,260) completed the IPO and measures of self-concept clarity, defenses,…

  19. Unified structural equation modeling approach for the analysis of multisubject, multivariate functional MRI data.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jieun; Zhu, Wei; Chang, Linda; Bentler, Peter M; Ernst, Thomas

    2007-02-01

    The ultimate goal of brain connectivity studies is to propose, test, modify, and compare certain directional brain pathways. Path analysis or structural equation modeling (SEM) is an ideal statistical method for such studies. In this work, we propose a two-stage unified SEM plus GLM (General Linear Model) approach for the analysis of multisubject, multivariate functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time series data with subject-level covariates. In Stage 1, we analyze the fMRI multivariate time series for each subject individually via a unified SEM model by combining longitudinal pathways represented by a multivariate autoregressive (MAR) model, and contemporaneous pathways represented by a conventional SEM. In Stage 2, the resulting subject-level path coefficients are merged with subject-level covariates such as gender, age, IQ, etc., to examine the impact of these covariates on effective connectivity via a GLM. Our approach is exemplified via the analysis of an fMRI visual attention experiment. Furthermore, the significant path network from the unified SEM analysis is compared to that from a conventional SEM analysis without incorporating the longitudinal information as well as that from a Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) approach.

  20. Determinants of Phubbing, Which is the Sum of Many Virtual Addictions: A Structural Equation Model

    PubMed Central

    Karadağ, Engi̇n; Tosuntaş, Şule Betül; Erzen, Evren; Duru, Pinar; Bostan, Nalan; Şahi̇n, Berrak Mizrak; Çulha, İLKAY; Babadağ, Burcu

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Phubbing can be described as an individual looking at his or her mobile phone during a conversation with other individuals, dealing with the mobile phone and escaping from interpersonal communication. In this research, determinants of phubbing behavior were investigated; in addition, the effects of gender, smart phone ownership and social media membership were tested as moderators. Methods To examine the cause–effect relations among the variables of the theoretical model, the research employs a correlational design. Participants were 409 university students who were selected via random sampling. Phubbing was obtained via the scales featuring mobile phone addiction, SMS addiction, internet addiction, social media addiction and game addiction. The obtained data were analyzed using a correlation analysis, multiple linear regression analysis and structural equation model. Results The results showed that the most important determinants of phubbing behavior are mobile phone, SMS, social media and internet addictions. Discussion Although the findings show that the highest correlation value explaining phubbing is a mobile phone addiction, the other correlation values reflect a dependency on the phone. Conclusions There is an increasing tendency towards mobile phone use, and this tendency prepares the basis of phubbing. PMID:26014669

  1. Comparing standardized coefficients in structural equation modeling: a model reparameterization approach.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Joyce L Y; Chan, Wai

    2011-09-01

    We propose a two-stage method for comparing standardized coefficients in structural equation modeling (SEM). At stage 1, we transform the original model of interest into the standardized model by model reparameterization, so that the model parameters appearing in the standardized model are equivalent to the standardized parameters of the original model. At stage 2, we impose appropriate linear equality constraints on the standardized model and use a likelihood ratio test to make statistical inferences about the equality of standardized coefficients. Unlike other existing methods for comparing standardized coefficients, the proposed method does not require specific modeling features (e.g., specification of nonlinear constraints), which are available only in certain SEM software programs. Moreover, this method allows researchers to compare two or more standardized coefficients simultaneously in a standard and convenient way. Three real examples are given to illustrate the proposed method, using EQS, a popular SEM software program. Results show that the proposed method performs satisfactorily for testing the equality of standardized coefficients.

  2. Mediation Analysis With Intermediate Confounding: Structural Equation Modeling Viewed Through the Causal Inference Lens

    PubMed Central

    De Stavola, Bianca L.; Daniel, Rhian M.; Ploubidis, George B.; Micali, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    The study of mediation has a long tradition in the social sciences and a relatively more recent one in epidemiology. The first school is linked to path analysis and structural equation models (SEMs), while the second is related mostly to methods developed within the potential outcomes approach to causal inference. By giving model-free definitions of direct and indirect effects and clear assumptions for their identification, the latter school has formalized notions intuitively developed in the former and has greatly increased the flexibility of the models involved. However, through its predominant focus on nonparametric identification, the causal inference approach to effect decomposition via natural effects is limited to settings that exclude intermediate confounders. Such confounders are naturally dealt with (albeit with the caveats of informality and modeling inflexibility) in the SEM framework. Therefore, it seems pertinent to revisit SEMs with intermediate confounders, armed with the formal definitions and (parametric) identification assumptions from causal inference. Here we investigate: 1) how identification assumptions affect the specification of SEMs, 2) whether the more restrictive SEM assumptions can be relaxed, and 3) whether existing sensitivity analyses can be extended to this setting. Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (1990–2005) are used for illustration. PMID:25504026

  3. Determining rural risk for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhages: A structural equation modeling approach

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Linda Jayne; Gall, Seana; Stirling, Christine

    2016-01-01

    An aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) carries a high disability burden. The true impact of rurality as a predictor of outcome severity is unknown. Our aim is to clarify the relationship between the proposed explanations of regional and rural health disparities linked to severity of outcome following an aSAH. An initial literature search identified limited data directly linking geographical location, rurality, rural vulnerability, and aSAH. A further search noting parallels with ischemic stroke and acute myocardial infarct literature presented a number of diverse and interrelated predictors. This a priori knowledge informed the development of a conceptual framework that proposes the relationship between rurality and severity of outcome following an aSAH utilizing structural equation modeling. The presented conceptual framework explores a number of system, environmental, and modifiable risk factors. Socioeconomic characteristics, modifiable risk factors, and timely treatment that were identified as predictors of severity of outcome following an aSAH and within each of these defined predictors a number of contributing specific individual predictors are proposed. There are considerable gaps in the current knowledge pertaining to the impact of rurality on the severity of outcome following an aSAH. Absent from the literature is any investigation of the cumulative impact and multiplicity of risk factors associated with rurality. The proposed conceptual framework hypothesizes a number of relationships between both individual level and system level predictors, acknowledging that intervening predictors may mediate the effect of one variable on another. PMID:27695237

  4. The Decision Making Ecology of placing a child into foster care: A structural equation model.

    PubMed

    Graham, J Christopher; Dettlaff, Alan J; Baumann, Donald J; Fluke, John D

    2015-11-01

    The Decision Making Ecology provided a framework for empirically testing the impact of Case, Caseworker and Organizational factors on the decision to place children in out-of-home care. The structural equation model we developed fit the data extremely well, indicating a complex relationship between the variables. The main findings indicate that Case factors, even as aggregated to the worker level, were of most importance: Percent Removed was increased in part by greater average Risk being assessed and more families on a worker's caseload being Low Income. Furthermore, removal rates were increased by lower proportions of Hispanic families on the caseload, as well as lower organizational support, and a perception of manageable workload and sufficient resources. Individual factors, i.e., variables characterizing the caseworkers themselves, were not found to directly influence the placement decision, including workers' own race/ethnicity, though various orders of mediated effects were indicated, and these are detailed. Interrelationships between variables that affect case, caseworker and organizational factors are discussed along with implications for practice.

  5. A Systematic Review of Structural Equation Modelling in Social Work Research

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Baorong; Perron, Brian E.; Gillespie, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Structural equation modelling (SEM) is serving an increasingly important role in developing knowledge for the social work profession. Numerous advances have made the software more user-friendly, enabling users to conduct analyses without fully understanding the underlying assumptions or the implications from their analytic decisions. Unlike other fields, there have not been any published reviews in social work research that systematically describe and critique the use of SEM. This study systematically reviewed how SEM is used in social work research and the extent to which it reflects best practices. Thirty-two articles from top-ranked social work journals published from 2001 to 2007 were examined. Of the different types of SEM, the most commonly used was confirmatory factor analysis. Strengths of the research reviewed included examining models and measures not previously tested empirically and generating new insights into old topics through the use of SEM. Weaknesses included significant model modifications without theoretical justification or substantive interpretations. Suggestions are offered for improving applications of SEM in social work research. Specifically, we encourage social work researchers to test competing models, to make model modifications only when theoretically justified, to detail the process of making modifications and to use estimation procedures appropriate to the data. PMID:25477696

  6. Empirical Correction to the Likelihood Ratio Statistic for Structural Equation Modeling with Many Variables.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ke-Hai; Tian, Yubin; Yanagihara, Hirokazu

    2015-06-01

    Survey data typically contain many variables. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is commonly used in analyzing such data. The most widely used statistic for evaluating the adequacy of a SEM model is T ML, a slight modification to the likelihood ratio statistic. Under normality assumption, T ML approximately follows a chi-square distribution when the number of observations (N) is large and the number of items or variables (p) is small. However, in practice, p can be rather large while N is always limited due to not having enough participants. Even with a relatively large N, empirical results show that T ML rejects the correct model too often when p is not too small. Various corrections to T ML have been proposed, but they are mostly heuristic. Following the principle of the Bartlett correction, this paper proposes an empirical approach to correct T ML so that the mean of the resulting statistic approximately equals the degrees of freedom of the nominal chi-square distribution. Results show that empirically corrected statistics follow the nominal chi-square distribution much more closely than previously proposed corrections to T ML, and they control type I errors reasonably well whenever N ≥ max(50,2p). The formulations of the empirically corrected statistics are further used to predict type I errors of T ML as reported in the literature, and they perform well.

  7. Psychological contract breach and outcomes: Combining meta-analysis and structural equation models.

    PubMed

    Topa Cantisano, Gabriela; Morales Domínguez, J Francisco; Depolo, Marco

    2008-08-01

    In this study, meta-analytic procedures were used to examine the relationships between psychological contract perceived breach and certain outcome variables, such as organizational commitment, job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behaviours (OCB). Our review of the literature generated 41 independent samples in which perceived breach was used as a predictor of these personal and organizational outcomes. A medium effect size (ES) for desirable outcomes (job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational trust, OCB and performance) was obtained (r=-.35). For undesirable outcomes (neglect in role duties and intention to leave), ES were also medium (r=.31). When comparing attitudinal (job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational trust) and behavioural outcomes (OCB, neglect in role duties and performance), a stronger ES was found for attitudinal (r=-.24) than for behavioural outcomes (r=-.11). Potential moderator variables were examined, and it was found that they explained only a percentage of variability of primary studies. Structural equation analysis of the pooled meta-analytical correlation matrix indicated that the relationships of perceived breach with satisfaction, OCB, intention to leave and performance are fully mediated by organizational trust and commitment. Results are discussed in order to suggest theoretical and empirical implications.

  8. Is Structural Equation Modeling Advantageous for the Genetic Improvement of Multiple Traits?

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Bruno D.; Rosa, Guilherme J. M.; Gianola, Daniel; Wu, Xiao-Lin; Weigel, Kent

    2013-01-01

    Structural equation models (SEMs) are multivariate specifications capable of conveying causal relationships among traits. Although these models offer insights into how phenotypic traits relate to each other, it is unclear whether and how they can improve multiple-trait selection. Here, we explored concepts involved in SEMs, seeking for benefits that could be brought to breeding programs, relative to the standard multitrait model (MTM) commonly used. Genetic effects pertaining to SEMs and MTMs have distinct meanings. In SEMs, they represent genetic effects acting directly on each trait, without mediation by other traits in the model; in MTMs they express overall genetic effects on each trait, equivalent to lumping together direct and indirect genetic effects discriminated by SEMs. However, in breeding programs the goal is selecting candidates that produce offspring with best phenotypes, regardless of how traits are causally associated, so overall additive genetic effects are the matter. Thus, no information is lost in standard settings by using MTM-based predictions, even if traits are indeed causally associated. Nonetheless, causal information allows predicting effects of external interventions. One may be interested in predictions for scenarios where interventions are performed, e.g., artificially defining the value of a trait, blocking causal associations, or modifying their magnitudes. We demonstrate that with information provided by SEMs, predictions for these scenarios are possible from data recorded under no interventions. Contrariwise, MTMs do not provide information for such predictions. As livestock and crop production involves interventions such as management practices, SEMs may be advantageous in many settings. PMID:23608193

  9. Testing a theory of aircraft noise annoyance: a structural equation analysis.

    PubMed

    Kroesen, Maarten; Molin, Eric J E; van Wee, Bert

    2008-06-01

    Previous research has stressed the relevance of nonacoustical factors in the perception of aircraft noise. However, it is largely empirically driven and lacks a sound theoretical basis. In this paper, a theoretical model which explains noise annoyance based on the psychological stress theory is empirically tested. The model is estimated by applying structural equation modeling based on data from residents living in the vicinity of Amsterdam Airport Schiphol in The Netherlands. The model provides a good model fit and indicates that concern about the negative health effects of noise and pollution, perceived disturbance, and perceived control and coping capacity are the most important variables that explain noise annoyance. Furthermore, the model provides evidence for the existence of two reciprocal relationships between (1) perceived disturbance and noise annoyance and (2) perceived control and coping capacity and noise annoyance. Lastly, the model yielded two unexpected results. Firstly, the variables noise sensitivity and fear related to the noise source were unable to explain additional variance in the endogenous variables of the model and were therefore excluded from the model. And secondly, the size of the total effect of noise exposure on noise annoyance was relatively small. The paper concludes with some recommended directions for further research.

  10. Structural equation modelling reveals plant-community drivers of carbon storage in boreal forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Micael; Wardle, David A

    2010-02-23

    Boreal forest ecosystems are important drivers of the global carbon (C) cycle by acting as both sinks and sources of atmospheric CO(2). While several factors have been proposed as determining the ability of boreal forest to function as C sinks, little is known about their relative importance. In this study, we applied structural equation modelling to a previously published dataset involving 30 boreal-forested islands that vary greatly in their historic fire regime, in order to explore the simultaneous influence of several factors believed to be important in influencing above-ground, below-ground and total ecosystem C accumulation. We found that wildfire was a major driver of ecosystem C sequestration, and exerted direct effects on below-ground C storage (presumably through humus combustion) and indirect effects on both above-ground and below-ground C storage through altering plant-community composition. By contrast, plant diversity influenced only below-ground C storage (and even then only weakly), while net primary productivity and decomposition had no detectable effect. Our results suggest that while boreal forests have great potential for storing significant amounts of C, traits of dominant plant species that promote below-ground C accumulation and the absence of wildfire are the most important drivers of C sequestration in these ecosystems. PMID:19755530

  11. [Structural equation model in the study of risk factors in the maintenance of binge eating].

    PubMed

    Bastianelli, A; Vicentini, M; Spoto, A; Vidotto, G

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated, in a sample of 483 adolescent girls, a number of risk factors associated with Binge Eating (BE) disorder, i.e. negative feelings, dieting behaviour, social influence and body dissatisfaction. Participants completed the following questionnaires: Bulimia Test, Depression Questionnaire, Dieting Self-Efficacy Measure, Dieting Success, Dieting Status Measure, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, Eating Disorder Inventory, Positive and Negative Affect Scale Revised, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Socio-cultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used in the data analysis to verify the hypothesized relations among the variables, with the aim of identifying the main predictors of BE. This methodology explains the correlation between the considered variables, and determines, using quantitative good fit indexes, both the strength of the correlations and the plausibility of the causal links between the hypothesized factors. Our findings confirm that negative feelings (Negative Affect) are the primary predictor for the maintenance of BE and highlight the significant role played by Social Influence. While Dieting Behaviour is not a primary predictor for the maintenance of BE it appears to influence it through its link with Negative Affect.

  12. Coaching competency and satisfaction with the coach: a multi-level structural equation model.

    PubMed

    Myers, Nicholas D; Beauchamp, Mark R; Chase, Melissa A

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this initial predictive validity study was to determine the ability of measures derived from the Athletes' Perceptions of Coaching Competency Scale II - High School Teams (APCCS II-HST) to predict satisfaction with the head coach. Specification of the statistical model was informed by the mediational model of coach-athlete interactions. The technical quality of the satisfaction measure was evaluated before testing the predictive validity of the coaching competency measures. Data were collected from athletes of seven sports. Athlete observations (N = 748) were clustered within teams (G = 74). Multi-group confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) provided evidence for factorial invariance of a reduced version of the satisfaction measure by athlete gender. Multi-level CFA provided evidence of model-data consistency for a reduced version of the satisfaction measure. Multi-level structural equation modelling provided evidence for the ability of latent coaching competency to positively predict latent satisfaction at both the athlete level (technique competency and motivation competency) and the team level (coaching competency) and for close model-data fit. Implications of this study include: that the APCCS II-HST should be viewed as a replacement for the Coaching Competency Scale when the intended population is appropriate; a preliminary multi-level measurement model for satisfaction with one's coach that should be considered as a potential starting point in subsequent studies; and empirical support for a key relationship proposed in the mediational model of coach-athlete interactions.

  13. Network inference of AP pattern formation system in D.melanogaster by structural equation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aburatani, S.; Toh, H.

    2014-03-01

    Within the field of systems biology, revealing the control systems functioning during embryogenesis is an important task. To clarify the mechanisms controlling sequential events, the relationships between various factors and the expression of specific genes should be determined. In this study, we applied a method based on Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), combined with factor analysis. SEM can include the latent variables within the constructed model and infer the relationships among the latent and observed variables, as a network model. We improved a method for the construction of initial models for the SEM calculation, and applied our approach to estimate the regulatory network for Antero-Posterior (AP) pattern formation in D. melanogaster embryogenesis. In this new approach, we combined cross-correlation and partial correlation to summarize the temporal information and to extract the direct interactions from the gene expression profiles. In the inferred model, 18 transcription factor genes were regulated by not only the expression of other genes, but also the estimated factors. Since each factor regulated the same type of genes, these factors were considered to be involved in maternal effects or spatial morphogen distributions. The interpretation of the inferred network model allowed us to reveal the regulatory mechanism for the patterning along the head to tail axis in D. melanogaster.

  14. Hamiltonian structure for two-dimensional extended Green-Naghdi equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuno, Yoshimasa

    2016-06-01

    The two-dimensional Green-Naghdi (GN) shallow-water model for surface gravity waves is extended to incorporate the arbitrary higher-order dispersive effects. This can be achieved by developing a novel asymptotic analysis applied to the basic nonlinear water wave problem. The linear dispersion relation for the extended GN system is then explored in detail. In particular, we use its characteristics to discuss the well-posedness of the linearized problem. As illustrative examples of approximate model equations, we derive a higher-order model that is accurate to the fourth power of the dispersion parameter in the case of a flat bottom topography, and address the related issues such as the linear dispersion relation, conservation laws and the pressure distribution at the fluid bottom on the basis of this model. The original Green-Naghdi (GN) model is then briefly described in the case of an uneven bottom topography. Subsequently, the extended GN system presented here is shown to have the same Hamiltonian structure as that of the original GN system. Last, we demonstrate that Zakharov's Hamiltonian formulation of surface gravity waves is equivalent to that of the extended GN system by rewriting the former system in terms of the momentum density instead of the velocity potential at the free surface.

  15. Unified field theory from the classical wave equation: Preliminary application to atomic and nuclear structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Múnera, Héctor A.

    2016-07-01

    It is postulated that there exists a fundamental energy-like fluid, which occupies the flat three-dimensional Euclidean space that contains our universe, and obeys the two basic laws of classical physics: conservation of linear momentum, and conservation of total energy; the fluid is described by the classical wave equation (CWE), which was Schrödinger's first candidate to develop his quantum theory. Novel solutions for the CWE discovered twenty years ago are nonharmonic, inherently quantized, and universal in the sense of scale invariance, thus leading to quantization at all scales of the universe, from galactic clusters to the sub-quark world, and yielding a unified Lorentz-invariant quantum theory ab initio. Quingal solutions are isomorphic under both neo-Galilean and Lorentz transformations, and exhibit nother remarkable property: intrinsic unstability for large values of ℓ (a quantum number), thus limiting the size of each system at a given scale. Unstability and scale-invariance together lead to nested structures observed in our solar system; unstability may explain the small number of rows in the chemical periodic table, and nuclear unstability of nuclides beyond lead and bismuth. Quingal functions lend mathematical basis for Boscovich's unified force (which is compatible with many pieces of evidence collected over the past century), and also yield a simple geometrical solution for the classical three-body problem, which is a useful model for electronic orbits in simple diatomic molecules. A testable prediction for the helicoidal-type force is suggested.

  16. Determining rural risk for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhages: A structural equation modeling approach

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Linda Jayne; Gall, Seana; Stirling, Christine

    2016-01-01

    An aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) carries a high disability burden. The true impact of rurality as a predictor of outcome severity is unknown. Our aim is to clarify the relationship between the proposed explanations of regional and rural health disparities linked to severity of outcome following an aSAH. An initial literature search identified limited data directly linking geographical location, rurality, rural vulnerability, and aSAH. A further search noting parallels with ischemic stroke and acute myocardial infarct literature presented a number of diverse and interrelated predictors. This a priori knowledge informed the development of a conceptual framework that proposes the relationship between rurality and severity of outcome following an aSAH utilizing structural equation modeling. The presented conceptual framework explores a number of system, environmental, and modifiable risk factors. Socioeconomic characteristics, modifiable risk factors, and timely treatment that were identified as predictors of severity of outcome following an aSAH and within each of these defined predictors a number of contributing specific individual predictors are proposed. There are considerable gaps in the current knowledge pertaining to the impact of rurality on the severity of outcome following an aSAH. Absent from the literature is any investigation of the cumulative impact and multiplicity of risk factors associated with rurality. The proposed conceptual framework hypothesizes a number of relationships between both individual level and system level predictors, acknowledging that intervening predictors may mediate the effect of one variable on another.

  17. A structural equation analysis of family accommodation in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Caporino, Nicole E; Morgan, Jessica; Beckstead, Jason; Phares, Vicky; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A

    2012-01-01

    Family accommodation of symptoms is counter to the primary goals of cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and can pose an obstacle to positive treatment outcomes. Although increased attention has been given to family accommodation in pediatric OCD, relatively little is known about associated child and parent characteristics, and their mediating/moderating effects. This study examined a structural equation model of parent and child variables related to parent reports of family accommodation. Sixty-one children with OCD (ages 6-17 years, 39% female) and their parents were recruited from a university-based clinic. They were administered clinician- and parent-rated measures of child OCD symptom severity, OCD-specific impairment, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems as well as parent anxiety, depression, empathy, consideration of future consequences, and accommodation. Results generally supported the hypothesized model. Family accommodation mediated the relationship between OCD symptom severity and parent-rated functional impairment; child internalizing problems mediated the relationship between parent anxiety and family accommodation; and parent empathy and consideration of future consequences interacted to predict family accommodation. Child externalizing problems were significantly associated with family accommodation but neither of these two variables was associated with parent depression. Findings suggest that reductions in family accommodation might be maximized by routinely screening for comorbid psychopathology in children with OCD and their parents, and using prescriptive or modular approaches to intervention. Directions for future research are discussed. PMID:21842196

  18. A Structural Equation Model of HIV-related Symptoms, Depressive Symptoms, and Medication Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Yoo-Jeong, Moka; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna; McCoy, Katryna; Ownby, Raymond L

    2016-01-01

    Adherence to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) remains critical in management of HIV infection. This study evaluated depression as a potential mechanism by which HIV-related symptoms affect medication adherence and explored if particular clusters of HIV symptoms are susceptible to this mechanism. Baseline data from a multi-visit intervention study were analyzed among 124 persons living with HIV (PLWH). A bifactor model showed two clusters of HIV-related symptom distress: general HIV-related symptoms and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that both general HIV-related symptoms and GI symptoms were related to higher levels of depressive symptoms, and higher levels of depressive symptoms were related to lower levels of medication adherence. Although general HIV-related symptoms and GI symptoms were not directly related to adherence, they were indirectly associated with adherence via depression. The findings highlight the importance of early recognition and evaluation of symptoms of depression, as well as the underlying physical symptoms that might cause depression, to improve medication adherence.

  19. A multilevel cross-lagged structural equation analysis for reciprocal relationship between social capital and health.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ge; Sessions, John G; Fu, Yu; Wall, Martin

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the reciprocal relationship between individual social capital and perceived mental and physical health in the UK. Using data from the British Household Panel Survey from 1991 to 2008, we fitted cross-lagged structural equation models that include three indicators of social capital vis. social participation, social network, and loneliness. Given that multiple measurement points (level 1) are nested within individuals (level 2), we also applied a multilevel model to allow for residual variation in the outcomes at the occasion and individual levels. Controlling for gender, age, employment status, educational attainment, marital status, household wealth, and region, our analyses suggest that social participation predicts subsequent change in perceived mental health, and vice versa. However, whilst loneliness is found to be significantly related to perceived mental and physical health, reciprocal causality is not found for perceived mental health. Furthermore, we find evidence for reverse effects with both perceived mental and physical health appearing to be the dominant causal factor with respect to the prospective level of social network. Our findings thus shed further light on the importance of social participation and social inclusion in health promotion and aid the development of more effective public health policies in the UK. PMID:26277109

  20. Perievent Panic Attack and Depression after the World Trade Center Disaster: A Structural Equation Model Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Richard E.; Boscarino, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that perievent panic attacks – panic attacks in temporal proximity to traumatic events – are predictive of later mental health status, including the onset of depression. Using a community sample of New York City residents interviewed 1 year and 2 years after the World Trade Center Disaster, we estimated a structural equation model (SEM) using pre-disaster psychological status and post-disaster life events, together with psychosocial resources, to assess the relationship between perievent panic and later onset depression. Bivariate results revealed a significant association between perievent panic and both year-1 and year-2 depression. Results for the SEM, however, showed that perievent panic was predictive of year-1 depression, but not year-2 depression, once potential confounders were controlled. Year-2 stressors and year-2 psychosocial resources were the best predictors of year-2 depression onset. Pre-disaster psychological problems were directly implicated in year-1 depression, but not year-2 depression. We conclude that a conceptual model that includes pre- and post-disaster variables best explains the complex causal pathways between psychological status, stressor exposure, perievent panic attacks, and depression onset two years after the World Trade Center attacks. PMID:21957721

  1. A multilevel cross-lagged structural equation analysis for reciprocal relationship between social capital and health.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ge; Sessions, John G; Fu, Yu; Wall, Martin

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the reciprocal relationship between individual social capital and perceived mental and physical health in the UK. Using data from the British Household Panel Survey from 1991 to 2008, we fitted cross-lagged structural equation models that include three indicators of social capital vis. social participation, social network, and loneliness. Given that multiple measurement points (level 1) are nested within individuals (level 2), we also applied a multilevel model to allow for residual variation in the outcomes at the occasion and individual levels. Controlling for gender, age, employment status, educational attainment, marital status, household wealth, and region, our analyses suggest that social participation predicts subsequent change in perceived mental health, and vice versa. However, whilst loneliness is found to be significantly related to perceived mental and physical health, reciprocal causality is not found for perceived mental health. Furthermore, we find evidence for reverse effects with both perceived mental and physical health appearing to be the dominant causal factor with respect to the prospective level of social network. Our findings thus shed further light on the importance of social participation and social inclusion in health promotion and aid the development of more effective public health policies in the UK.

  2. Neurological abnormalities and neurocognitive functions in healthy elder people: A structural equation modeling analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Neurological abnormalities have been reported in normal aging population. However, most of them were limited to extrapyramidal signs and soft signs such as motor coordination and sensory integration have received much less attention. Very little is known about the relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognitive function in healthy elder people. The current study aimed to examine the underlying relationships between neurological soft signs and neurocognition in a group of healthy elderly. Methods One hundred and eighty healthy elderly participated in the current study. Neurological soft signs were evaluated with the subscales of Cambridge Neurological Inventory. A set of neurocognitive tests was also administered to all the participants. Structural equation modeling was adopted to examine the underlying relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognition. Results No significant differences were found between the male and female elder people in neurocognitive function performances and neurological soft signs. The model fitted well in the elderly and indicated the moderate associations between neurological soft signs and neurocognition, specifically verbal memory, visual memory and working memory. Conclusions The neurological soft signs are more or less statistically equivalent to capture the similar information done by conventional neurocognitive function tests in the elderly. The implication of these findings may serve as a potential neurological marker for the early detection of pathological aging diseases or related mental status such as mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:21827719

  3. Bayesian model comparison of nonlinear structural equation models with missing continuous and ordinal categorical data.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sik-Yum; Song, Xin-Yuan

    2004-05-01

    Missing data are very common in behavioural and psychological research. In this paper, we develop a Bayesian approach in the context of a general nonlinear structural equation model with missing continuous and ordinal categorical data. In the development, the missing data are treated as latent quantities, and provision for the incompleteness of the data is made by a hybrid algorithm that combines the Gibbs sampler and the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. We show by means of a simulation study that the Bayesian estimates are accurate. A Bayesian model comparison procedure based on the Bayes factor and path sampling is proposed. The required observations from the posterior distribution for computing the Bayes factor are simulated by the hybrid algorithm in Bayesian estimation. Our simulation results indicate that the correct model is selected more frequently when the incomplete records are used in the analysis than when they are ignored. The methodology is further illustrated with a real data set from a study concerned with an AIDS preventative intervention for Filipina sex workers.

  4. Identifying determinants of nations' wetland management programs using structural equation modeling: An exploratory analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    La Peyre, M.K.; Mendelssohn, I.A.; Reams, M.A.; Templet, P.H.; Grace, J.B.

    2001-01-01

    Integrated management and policy models suggest that solutions to environmental issues may be linked to the socioeconomic and political Characteristics of a nation. In this study, we empirically explore these suggestions by applying them to the wetland management activities of nations. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate a model of national wetland management effort and one of national wetland protection. Using five predictor variables of social capital, economic capital, environmental and political characteristics, and land-use pressure, the multivariate models were able to explain 60% of the variation in nations' wetland protection efforts based on data from 90 nations, as defined by level of participation, in the international wetland convention. Social capital had the largest direct effect on wetland protection efforts, suggesting that increased social development may eventually lead to better wetland protection. In contrast, increasing economic development had a negative linear relationship with wetland protection efforts, suggesting the need for explicit wetland protection programs as nations continue to focus on economic development. Government, environmental characteristics, and land-use pressure also had a positive direct effect on wetland protection, and mediated the effect of social capital on wetland protection. Explicit wetland protection policies, combined with a focus on social development, would lead to better wetland protection at the national level.

  5. Testing hypotheses in evolutionary ecology with imperfect detection: capture-recapture structural equation modeling.

    PubMed

    Cubaynes, Sarah; Doutrelant, Claire; Grégoire, Arnaud; Perret, Philippe; Faivre, Bruno; Gimenez, Olivier

    2012-02-01

    Studying evolutionary mechanisms in natural populations often requires testing multifactorial scenarios of causality involving direct and indirect relationships among individual and environmental variables. It is also essential to account for the imperfect detection of individuals to provide unbiased demographic parameter estimates. To cope with these issues, we developed a new approach combining structural equation models with capture-recapture models (CR-SEM) that allows the investigation of competing hypotheses about individual and environmental variability observed in demographic parameters. We employ Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling in a Bayesian framework to (1) estimate model parameters, (2) implement a model selection procedure to evaluate competing hypotheses about causal mechanisms, and (3) assess the fit of models to data using posterior predictive checks. We illustrate the value of our approach using two case studies on wild bird populations. We first show that CR-SEM can be useful to quantify the action of selection on a set of phenotypic traits with an analysis of selection gradients on morphological traits in Common Blackbirds (Turdus merula). In a second case study on Blue Tits (Cyanistes caeruleus), we illustrate the use of CR-SEM to study evolutionary trade-offs in the wild, while accounting for varying environmental conditions. PMID:22624306

  6. Predictors of Quality of Life in Portuguese Obese Patients: A Structural Equation Modeling Application

    PubMed Central

    Vilhena, Estela; Pais-Ribeiro, José; Silva, Isabel; Cardoso, Helena; Mendonça, Denisa

    2014-01-01

    Living with obesity is an experience that may affect multiple aspects of an individual's life. Obesity is considered a relevant public health problem in modern societies. To determine the comparative efficacy of different treatments and to assess their impact on patients' everyday life, it is important to identify factors that are relevant to the quality of life of obese patients. The present study aims to evaluate, in Portuguese obese patients, the simultaneous impact of several psychosocial factors on quality of life. This study also explores the mediating role of stigma in the relationship between positive/negative affect and quality of life. A sample of 215 obese patients selected from the main hospitals in Portugal completed self-report questionnaires to assess sociodemographic, clinical, psychosocial, and quality of life variables. Data were analysed using structural equation modeling. The model fitted the data reasonably well, CFI = 0.9, RMSEA = 0.06. More enthusiastic and more active patients had a better quality of life. Those who reflect lower perception of stigma had a better physical and mental health. Partial mediation effects of stigma between positive affect and mental health and between negative affect and physical health were found. The stigma is pervasive and causes consequences for psychological and physical health. PMID:24693421

  7. Linking impulsivity to dysfunctional thought control and insomnia: a structural equation model.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Ralph E; Gay, Philippe; Ghisletta, Paolo; VAN DER Linden, Martial

    2010-03-01

    According to cognitive models of insomnia, excessive mental activity at bedtime may be viewed as an important impediment to the process of falling asleep. A further assumption of these models is that 'cognitive arousal' may be perpetuated and exacerbated by counterproductive strategies of thought management. As yet, little is known about factors that may predispose people to rely on these strategies when confronted with thoughts that keep them awake at night. This study examined the relations between impulsivity, use of different thought-control strategies and insomnia severity. A sample of 391 university students completed the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, the Thought Control Questionnaire Insomnia-Revised and the Insomnia Severity Index. Correlation analyses revealed that two facets of impulsivity (urgency and lack of perseverance), two strategies of thought control (aggressive suppression and worry) and insomnia severity were positively associated. Follow-up structural equation modeling analyses showed that the two mentioned thought-control strategies mediated the effects of the two facets of impulsivity on sleep problems. These findings extend existing cognitive accounts of insomnia by suggesting how predisposing and perpetuating factors may be related: specific personality traits may incline individuals to respond with dysfunctional thought-control strategies to unwanted mental activity at night. PMID:19659917

  8. The impact of culture and employee-focused criteria on productivity: A structural equation modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ab Hamid, Mohd Rashid; Mustafa, Zainol; Mohd Suradi, Nur Riza; Idris, Fazli; Abdullah, Mokhtar

    2013-04-01

    Culture and employee-focused criteria are important factors for the success of any organization. These factors have to be aligned with the productivity initiatives in the organization in order to gear ahead for excellence. Therefore, this article investigated the impact of culture and employee-focused criteria on productivity in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Malaysia using intangible indicators through core values. The hypothesized relationship was tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with the PLS estimation technique. 429 questionnaires were returned from the target population. The results of the modelling revealed that the PLS estimation confirmed all the hypotheses tested as in the hypothesized model. The results generally support significant relationships between culture values, employee-focused values and productivity-focused values. The study also confirmed the mediating role of employee-focused values for the relationship between culture values and productivity-focused values. In conclusion, the empirically validated results supported the adequacy of the hypothezised model of the impact of culture and employee-focused criteria on productivity in HEI through value-based indicators.

  9. Connecting Athletes' Self-Perceptions and Metaperceptions of Competence: a Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Jose A; Fernández-Rio, Javier; Méndez-Giménez, Antonio

    2015-06-27

    This study explored the relationships between athletes' competence self-perceptions and metaperceptions. Two hundred and fifty one student-athletes (14.26 ± 1.89 years), members of twenty different teams (basketball, soccer) completed a questionnaire which included the Perception of Success Questionnaire, the Competence subscale of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory, and modified versions of both questionnaires to assess athletes' metaperceptions. Structural equation modelling analysis revealed that athletes' task and ego metaperceptions positively predicted task and ego self-perceptions, respectively. Competence metaperceptions were strong predictors of competence self-perceptions, confirming the atypical metaperception formation in outcome-dependent contexts such as sport. Task and ego metaperceptions positively predicted athletes' competence metaperceptions. How coaches value their athletes' competence is more influential on what the athletes think of themselves than their own self-perceptions. Athletes' ego and task metaperceptions influenced their competence metaperceptions (how coaches rate their competence). Therefore, athletes build their competence metaperceptions using all information available from their coaches. Finally, only task-self perfections positively predicted athletes' competence self-perceptions.

  10. Reconstruction of vibroacoustic responses of a highly nonspherical structure using Helmholtz equation least-squares method.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huancai; Wu, Sean F

    2009-03-01

    The vibroacoustic responses of a highly nonspherical vibrating object are reconstructed using Helmholtz equation least-squares (HELS) method. The objectives of this study are to examine the accuracy of reconstruction and the impacts of various parameters involved in reconstruction using HELS. The test object is a simply supported and baffled thin plate. The reason for selecting this object is that it represents a class of structures that cannot be exactly described by the spherical Hankel functions and spherical harmonics, which are taken as the basis functions in the HELS formulation, yet the analytic solutions to vibroacoustic responses of a baffled plate are readily available so the accuracy of reconstruction can be checked accurately. The input field acoustic pressures for reconstruction are generated by the Rayleigh integral. The reconstructed normal surface velocities are validated against the benchmark values, and the out-of-plane vibration patterns at several natural frequencies are compared with the natural modes of a simply supported plate. The impacts of various parameters such as number of measurement points, measurement distance, location of the origin of the coordinate system, microphone spacing, and ratio of measurement aperture size to the area of source surface of reconstruction on the resultant accuracy of reconstruction are examined. PMID:19275312

  11. Wing-Body Aeroelasticity Using Finite-Difference Fluid/Finite-Element Structural Equations on Parallel Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byun, Chansup; Guruswamy, Guru P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure for computing the aeroelasticity of wing-body configurations on multiple-instruction, multiple-data (MIMD) parallel computers. In this procedure, fluids are modeled using Euler equations discretized by a finite difference method, and structures are modeled using finite element equations. The procedure is designed in such a way that each discipline can be developed and maintained independently by using a domain decomposition approach. A parallel integration scheme is used to compute aeroelastic responses by solving the coupled fluid and structural equations concurrently while keeping modularity of each discipline. The present procedure is validated by computing the aeroelastic response of a wing and comparing with experiment. Aeroelastic computations are illustrated for a High Speed Civil Transport type wing-body configuration.

  12. Spatially inhomogeneous structures in the solution of Fisher-Kolmogorov equation with delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleshin, S. V.; Glyzin, S. D.; Kaschenko, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    We consider the problem of density wave propagation in a logistic equation with delay and diffusion (Fisher-Kolmogorov equation with delay). A Ginzburg-Landau equation was constructed in order to study the qualitative behavior of the solution near the equilibrium state. The numerical analysis of wave propagation shows that for a sufficiently small delay this equation has a solution similar to the solution of a classical Fisher-Kolmogorov equation. The delay increasing leads to existence of the oscillatory component in spatial distribution of solutions. A further increase of delay leads to destruction of the traveling wave. That is expressed in the fact that undamped spatio-temporal fluctuations exist in a neighborhood of the initial perturbation. These fluctuations are close to the solution of the corresponding boundary value problem with periodic boundary conditions. Finally, when the delay is sufficiently large we observe intensive spatio-temporal fluctuations in the whole area of wave propagation.

  13. Analysis of Narrative Discourse Structure as an Ecologically Relevant Measure of Executive Function in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannizzaro, Michael S.; Coelho, Carl A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the narrative discourse production and executive function (EF) abilities of 46 neuro-typical adults (18-98 years old). Two questions were addressed: Is the analysis of narrative structure sensitive to changes associated with aging? & What is the relationship between measures of narrative structure and EF? Narratives were…

  14. The Relationship of Group Structure, Task Performance, and Leadership Recognition Among Adult Basic Education Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Gordon A.

    A study investigated the relationship between group structure and leader recognition and compared task performance with group structure and leader recognition to obtain a better understanding of the adult basic education participant. Fifteen women were randomly assigned to three groups and each given a list of six symbols. Their task was to…

  15. Three Approaches to Using Lengthy Ordinal Scales in Structural Equation Models: Parceling, Latent Scoring, and Shortening Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chongming; Nay, Sandra; Hoyle, Rick H.

    2010-01-01

    Lengthy scales or testlets pose certain challenges for structural equation modeling (SEM) if all the items are included as indicators of a latent construct. Three general approaches to modeling lengthy scales in SEM (parceling, latent scoring, and shortening) have been reviewed and evaluated. A hypothetical population model is simulated containing…

  16. An Empirical Test of Tinto's Integration Framework for Community Colleges Using Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos-George, Arlene A.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation empirically tested Tinto's student integration theory through structural equation modeling using a national sample of 2,847 first-time entering community college students. Tinto theorized that the more academically and socially integrated a student is to the college environment, the more likely the student will persist…

  17. Accuracy in Parameter Estimation for Targeted Effects in Structural Equation Modeling: Sample Size Planning for Narrow Confidence Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Keke; Kelley, Ken

    2011-01-01

    In addition to evaluating a structural equation model (SEM) as a whole, often the model parameters are of interest and confidence intervals for those parameters are formed. Given a model with a good overall fit, it is entirely possible for the targeted effects of interest to have very wide confidence intervals, thus giving little information about…

  18. Are Teachers' Approaches to Teaching Responsive to Individual Student Variation? A Two-Level Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosário, Pedro; Núñez, José Carlos; Vallejo, Guilermo; Paiva, Olímpia; Valle, António; Fuentes, Sonia; Pinto, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of teacher's approaches to teaching, this study investigates the relationship between student-related variables (i.e., study time, class absence, domain knowledge, and homework completion), students' approaches to learning, and teachers' approaches to teaching using structural equation modeling (SEM) with two…

  19. Perceived Social Relationships and Science Learning Outcomes for Taiwanese Eighth Graders: Structural Equation Modeling with a Complex Sampling Consideration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jen, Tsung-Hau; Lee, Che-Di; Chien, Chin-Lung; Hsu, Ying-Shao; Chen, Kuan-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Based on the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2007 study and a follow-up national survey, data for 3,901 Taiwanese grade 8 students were analyzed using structural equation modeling to confirm a social-relation-based affection-driven model (SRAM). SRAM hypothesized relationships among students' perceived social relationships in…

  20. Next Steps in Bayesian Structural Equation Models: Comments on, Variations of, and Extensions to Muthen and Asparouhov (2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rindskopf, David

    2012-01-01

    Muthen and Asparouhov (2012) made a strong case for the advantages of Bayesian methodology in factor analysis and structural equation models. I show additional extensions and adaptations of their methods and show how non-Bayesians can take advantage of many (though not all) of these advantages by using interval restrictions on parameters. By…

  1. Study of Factors Preventing Children from Enrolment in Primary School in the Republic of Honduras: Analysis Using Structural Equation Modelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashida, Akemi

    2015-01-01

    Studies have investigated factors that impede enrolment in Honduras. However, they have not analysed individual factors as a whole or identified the relationships among them. This study used longitudinal data for 1971 children who entered primary schools from 1986 to 2000, and employed structural equation modelling to examine the factors…

  2. Maximum Likelihood Methods in Treating Outliers and Symmetrically Heavy-Tailed Distributions for Nonlinear Structural Equation Models with Missing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sik-Yum; Xia, Ye-Mao

    2006-01-01

    By means of more than a dozen user friendly packages, structural equation models (SEMs) are widely used in behavioral, education, social, and psychological research. As the underlying theory and methods in these packages are vulnerable to outliers and distributions with longer-than-normal tails, a fundamental problem in the field is the…

  3. Applying the Bollen-Stine Bootstrap for Goodness-of-Fit Measures to Structural Equation Models with Missing Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enders, Craig K.

    2002-01-01

    Proposed a method for extending the Bollen-Stine bootstrap model (K. Bollen and R. Stine, 1992) fit to structural equation models with missing data. Developed a Statistical Analysis System macro program to implement this procedure, and assessed its usefulness in a simulation. The new method yielded model rejection rates close to the nominal 5%…

  4. Do Test Design and Uses Influence Test Preparation? Testing a Model of Washback with Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Qin; Andrews, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces Expectancy-value motivation theory to explain the paths of influences from perceptions of test design and uses to test preparation as a special case of washback on learning. Based on this theory, two conceptual models were proposed and tested via Structural Equation Modeling. Data collection involved over 870 test takers of…

  5. The Best of Both Worlds: Factor Analysis of Dichotomous Data Using Item Response Theory and Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glockner-Rist, Angelika; Hoijtink, Herbert

    2003-01-01

    Both structural equation modeling (SEM) and item response theory (IRT) can be used for factor analysis of dichotomous item responses. In this case, the measurement models of both approaches are formally equivalent. They were refined within and across different disciplines, and make complementary contributions to central measurement problems…

  6. A Model for Integrating Fixed-, Random-, and Mixed-Effects Meta-Analyses into Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Mike W.-L.

    2008-01-01

    Meta-analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM) are two important statistical methods in the behavioral, social, and medical sciences. They are generally treated as two unrelated topics in the literature. The present article proposes a model to integrate fixed-, random-, and mixed-effects meta-analyses into the SEM framework. By applying an…

  7. Validation of a Norwegian Version of the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST): Application of Structural Equation Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diseth, Age

    2001-01-01

    Administered the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST) (N. Entwhistle and P. Ramsden, 1983) to 573 undergraduates to analyze a Norwegian version of this inventory. Structural equation modeling techniques reveal the usefulness of this instrument as a research took for the assessment of approaches to learning among Norwegian…

  8. Equation Structure and the Meaning of the Equal Sign: The Impact of Task Selection in Eliciting Elementary Students' Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Ana C.; Knuth, Eric J.; Blanton, Maria L.; Isler, Isil; Gardiner, Angela Murphy; Marum, Tim

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports results from a written assessment given to 290 third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade students prior to any instructional intervention. We share and discuss students' responses to items addressing their understanding of equation structure and the meaning of the equal sign. We found that many students held an operational conception of…

  9. Effects of Assets and Deficits on the Social Control of At-Risk Behavior among Youth: A Structural Equations Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukes, Richard L.; Stein, Judith A.

    2001-01-01

    Tested control theory using protective effects of personal and social assets and risk effects of personal deficits on deviant behaviors of drug use, delinquency, truancy, and weapons possession. Analyzed data from students in grades 6-12 using structural equations modeling. Second order factors of assets and deficits explained deviant behavior.…

  10. Regression Levels of Selected Affective Factors on Science Achievement: A Structural Equation Model with TIMSS 2011 Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akilli, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate the science success regression levels of chosen emotional features of 8th grade students using Structural Equation Model. The study was conducted by the analysis of students' questionnaires and science success in TIMSS 2011 data using SEM. Initially, the factors that are thought to have an effect on science…

  11. Review of Sample Size for Structural Equation Models in Second Language Testing and Learning Research: A Monte Carlo Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    In'nami, Yo; Koizumi, Rie

    2013-01-01

    The importance of sample size, although widely discussed in the literature on structural equation modeling (SEM), has not been widely recognized among applied SEM researchers. To narrow this gap, we focus on second language testing and learning studies and examine the following: (a) Is the sample size sufficient in terms of precision and power of…

  12. Modeling Latent Growth Curves With Incomplete Data Using Different Types of Structural Equation Modeling and Multilevel Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer, Emilio; Hamagami, Fumiaki; McArdle, John J.

    2004-01-01

    This article offers different examples of how to fit latent growth curve (LGC) models to longitudinal data using a variety of different software programs (i.e., LISREL, Mx, Mplus, AMOS, SAS). The article shows how the same model can be fitted using both structural equation modeling and multilevel software, with nearly identical results, even in…

  13. Doubly-Latent Models of School Contextual Effects: Integrating Multilevel and Structural Equation Approaches to Control Measurement and Sampling Error

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Ludtke, Oliver; Robitzsch, Alexander; Trautwein, Ulrich; Asparouhov, Tihomir; Muthen, Bengt; Nagengast, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    This article is a methodological-substantive synergy. Methodologically, we demonstrate latent-variable contextual models that integrate structural equation models (with multiple indicators) and multilevel models. These models simultaneously control for and unconfound measurement error due to sampling of items at the individual (L1) and group (L2)…

  14. A Note on the Use of Missing Auxiliary Variables in Full Information Maximum Likelihood-Based Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enders, Craig K.

    2008-01-01

    Recent missing data studies have argued in favor of an "inclusive analytic strategy" that incorporates auxiliary variables into the estimation routine, and Graham (2003) outlined methods for incorporating auxiliary variables into structural equation analyses. In practice, the auxiliary variables often have missing values, so it is reasonable to…

  15. Structural Equation Analyses of Clinical Subpopulation Differences and Comparative Treatment Outcomes: Characterizing the Daily Lives of Drug Addicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Leona S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Used structural equation modeling for comparative treatment outcome research conducted with heterogeneous clinical subpopulations within large multimodality treatment settings. Evaluated effect of early period of treatment on daily lives of 486 clients in 2 drug abuse treatment modalities (methadone maintenance and outpatient counseling).…

  16. Cognitive processes in university learning: a developmental framework using structural equation modelling.

    PubMed

    Phan, Huy P

    2011-09-01

    BACKGROUND. Both achievement goals and study processing strategies theories have been shown to contribute to the prediction of students' academic performance. Existing research studies (Fenollar, Román, & Cuestas, 2007; Liem, Lau, & Nie, 2008; Simons, Dewitte, & Lens, 2004) amalgamating these two theoretical orientations in different causal models have reported their associations with other adaptive strategies and motivational constructs - for example, effort expenditure. Despite this recognition, there have been to date very few studies that explored the relations between achievement goals, study processing strategies, effort, and academic performance over time. AIM OF STUDY. The primary focus of our study is to explore the relations between the aforementioned theoretical constructs over a 2-year period. Specifically, we tested an empirical model that conceptualized the relations between performance-approach and mastery goals, deep processing strategies, effort, and academic performance across six time points of data collection. METHODOLOGY. Two hundred and eighty-one (161 females, 120 males) university students took part in this study. The participants were administered various Likert-scale inventories and the overall course mark and final examination were used as indexes of academic performance. RESULTS. Structural equation modelling indicated a relatively good fit to the a posteriori model and the hypothesized paths were, in part, supported. The major findings included the predictive effects of performance-approach goals at Time 1 on deep processing strategies at Time 2 and mastery goals at Time 3; the predictive effect of mastery goals at Time 3 on effort at Time 4; the predictive effects of deep processing at Time 2 on mastery goals at Time 3 and Time 4. Furthermore, the placement of deep processing and effort in this structural model also accentuated the performance-approach goals - mastery goals - effort - academic performance relation, and the performance

  17. A structural equation model analysis of postfire plant diversity in California shrublands.

    PubMed

    Grace, James B; Keeley, Jon E

    2006-04-01

    This study investigates patterns of plant diversity following wildfires in fire-prone shrublands of California, seeks to understand those patterns in terms of both local and landscape factors, and considers the implications for fire management. Ninety study sites were established following extensive wildfires in 1993, and 1000-m(2) plots were used to sample a variety of parameters. Data on community responses were collected for five years following fire. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to relate plant species richness to plant abundance, fire severity, abiotic conditions, within-plot heterogeneity, stand age, and position in the landscape. Temporal dynamics of average richness response was also modeled. Richness was highest in the first year following fire, indicating postfire enhancement of diversity. A general decline in richness over time was detected, with year-to-year variation attributable to annual variations in precipitation. Peak richness in the landscape was found where (1) plant abundance was moderately high, (2) within-plot heterogeneity was high, (3) soils were moderately low in nitrogen, high in sand content, and with high rock cover, (4) fire severity was low, and (5) stands were young prior to fire. Many of these characteristics were correlated with position in the landscape and associated conditions. We infer from the SEM results that postfire richness in this system is strongly influenced by local conditions and that these conditions are, in turn, predictably related to landscape-level conditions. For example, we observed that older stands of shrubs were characterized by more severe fires, which were associated with a low recovery of plant cover and low richness. These results may have implications for the use of prescribed fire in this system if these findings extrapolate to prescribed burns as we would expect. PMID:16711040

  18. A structural equation model analysis of relationships among ENSO, seasonal descriptors and wildfires.

    PubMed

    Slocum, Matthew G; Orzell, Steve L

    2013-01-01

    Seasonality drives ecological processes through networks of forcings, and the resultant complexity requires creative approaches for modeling to be successful. Recently ecologists and climatologists have developed sophisticated methods for fully describing seasons. However, to date the relationships among the variables produced by these methods have not been analyzed as networks, but rather with simple univariate statistics. In this manuscript we used structural equation modeling (SEM) to analyze a proposed causal network describing seasonality of rainfall for a site in south-central Florida. We also described how this network was influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and how the network in turn affected the site's wildfire regime. Our models indicated that wet and dry seasons starting later in the year (or ending earlier) were shorter and had less rainfall. El Niño conditions increased dry season rainfall, and via this effect decreased the consistency of that season's drying trend. El Niño conditions also negatively influenced how consistent the moistening trend was during the wet season, but in this case the effect was direct and did not route through rainfall. In modeling wildfires, our models showed that area burned was indirectly influenced by ENSO via its effect on dry season rainfall. Area burned was also indirectly reduced when the wet season had consistent rainfall, as such wet seasons allowed fewer wildfires in subsequent fire seasons. Overall area burned at the study site was estimated with high accuracy (R (2) score = 0.63). In summary, we found that by using SEMs, we were able to clearly describe causal patterns involving seasonal climate, ENSO and wildfire. We propose that similar approaches could be effectively applied to other sites where seasonality exerts strong and complex forcings on ecological processes. PMID:24086670

  19. Species richness and soil properties in Pinus ponderosa forests: A structural equation modeling analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laughlin, D.C.; Abella, S.R.; Covington, W.W.; Grace, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    Question: How are the effects of mineral soil properties on understory plant species richness propagated through a network of processes involving the forest overstory, soil organic matter, soil nitrogen, and understory plant abundance? Location: North-central Arizona, USA. Methods: We sampled 75 0.05-ha plots across a broad soil gradient in a Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine) forest ecosystem. We evaluated multivariate models of plant species richness using structural equation modeling. Results: Richness was highest at intermediate levels of understory plant cover, suggesting that both colonization success and competitive exclusion can limit richness in this system. We did not detect a reciprocal positive effect of richness on plant cover. Richness was strongly related to soil nitrogen in the model, with evidence for both a direct negative effect and an indirect non-linear relationship mediated through understory plant cover. Soil organic matter appeared to have a positive influence on understory richness that was independent of soil nitrogen. Richness was lowest where the forest overstory was densest, which can be explained through indirect effects on soil organic matter, soil nitrogen and understory cover. Finally, model results suggest a variety of direct and indirect processes whereby mineral soil properties can influence richness. Conclusions: Understory plant species richness and plant cover in P. ponderosa forests appear to be significantly influenced by soil organic matter and nitrogen, which are, in turn, related to overstory density and composition and mineral soil properties. Thus, soil properties can impose direct and indirect constraints on local species diversity in ponderosa pine forests. ?? IAVS; Opulus Press.

  20. Cognitive indicators of social anxiety in youth: a structural equation analysis.

    PubMed

    Rudy, Brittany M; Davis, Thompson E; Matthews, Russell A

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated significant relationships among various cognitive variables such as negative cognition, self-efficacy, and social anxiety. Unfortunately, few studies focus on the role of cognition among youth, and researchers often fail to use domain-specific measures when examining cognitive variables. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine domain-specific cognitive variables (i.e., socially oriented negative self-referent cognition and social self-efficacy) and their relationships to social anxiety in children and adolescents using structural equation modeling techniques. A community sample of children and adolescents (n=245; 55.9% female; 83.3% Caucasian, 9.4% African American, 2% Asian, 2% Hispanic, 2% "other," and 1.2% not reported) completed questionnaires assessing social cognition and social anxiety symptomology. Three latent variables were created to examine the constructs of socially oriented negative self-referent cognition (as measured by the SONAS scale), social self-efficacy (as measured by the SEQSS-C), and social anxiety (as measured by the SPAI-C and the Brief SA). The resulting measurement model of latent variables fit the data well. Additionally, consistent with the study hypothesis, results indicated that social self-efficacy likely mediates the relationship between socially oriented negative self-referent cognition and social anxiety, and socially oriented negative self-referent cognition yields significant direct and indirect effects on social anxiety. These findings indicate that socially oriented negative cognitions are associated with youth's beliefs about social abilities and the experience of social anxiety. Future directions for research and study limitations, including use of cross-sectional data, are discussed.

  1. A Structural Equation Model Analysis of Relationships among ENSO, Seasonal Descriptors and Wildfires

    PubMed Central

    Slocum, Matthew G.; Orzell, Steve L.

    2013-01-01

    Seasonality drives ecological processes through networks of forcings, and the resultant complexity requires creative approaches for modeling to be successful. Recently ecologists and climatologists have developed sophisticated methods for fully describing seasons. However, to date the relationships among the variables produced by these methods have not been analyzed as networks, but rather with simple univariate statistics. In this manuscript we used structural equation modeling (SEM) to analyze a proposed causal network describing seasonality of rainfall for a site in south-central Florida. We also described how this network was influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and how the network in turn affected the site’s wildfire regime. Our models indicated that wet and dry seasons starting later in the year (or ending earlier) were shorter and had less rainfall. El Niño conditions increased dry season rainfall, and via this effect decreased the consistency of that season’s drying trend. El Niño conditions also negatively influenced how consistent the moistening trend was during the wet season, but in this case the effect was direct and did not route through rainfall. In modeling wildfires, our models showed that area burned was indirectly influenced by ENSO via its effect on dry season rainfall. Area burned was also indirectly reduced when the wet season had consistent rainfall, as such wet seasons allowed fewer wildfires in subsequent fire seasons. Overall area burned at the study site was estimated with high accuracy (R2 score = 0.63). In summary, we found that by using SEMs, we were able to clearly describe causal patterns involving seasonal climate, ENSO and wildfire. We propose that similar approaches could be effectively applied to other sites where seasonality exerts strong and complex forcings on ecological processes. PMID:24086670

  2. The relationship between quality management practices and organisational performance: A structural equation modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamaluddin, Z.; Razali, A. M.; Mustafa, Z.

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between the quality management practices (QMPs) and organisational performance for the manufacturing industry in Malaysia. In this study, a QMPs and organisational performance framework is developed according to a comprehensive literature review which cover aspects of hard and soft quality factors in manufacturing process environment. A total of 11 hypotheses have been put forward to test the relationship amongst the six constructs, which are management commitment, training, process management, quality tools, continuous improvement and organisational performance. The model is analysed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with AMOS software version 18.0 using Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimation. A total of 480 questionnaires were distributed, and 210 questionnaires were valid for analysis. The results of the modeling analysis using ML estimation indicate that the fits statistics of QMPs and organisational performance model for manufacturing industry is admissible. From the results, it found that the management commitment have significant impact on the training and process management. Similarly, the training had significant effect to the quality tools, process management and continuous improvement. Furthermore, the quality tools have significant influence on the process management and continuous improvement. Likewise, the process management also has a significant impact to the continuous improvement. In addition the continuous improvement has significant influence the organisational performance. However, the results of the study also found that there is no significant relationship between management commitment and quality tools, and between the management commitment and continuous improvement. The results of the study can be used by managers to prioritize the implementation of QMPs. For instances, those practices that are found to have positive impact on organisational performance can be recommended to

  3. Factors contributing to academic achievement: a Bayesian structure equation modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payandeh Najafabadi, Amir T.; Omidi Najafabadi, Maryam; Farid-Rohani, Mohammad Reza

    2013-06-01

    In Iran, high school graduates enter university after taking a very difficult entrance exam called the Konkoor. Therefore, only the top-performing students are admitted by universities to continue their bachelor's education in statistics. Surprisingly, statistically, most of such students fall into the following categories: (1) do not succeed in their education despite their excellent performance on the Konkoor and in high school; (2) graduate with a grade point average (GPA) that is considerably lower than their high school GPA; (3) continue their master's education in majors other than statistics and (4) try to find jobs unrelated to statistics. This article employs the well-known and powerful statistical technique, the Bayesian structural equation modelling (SEM), to study the academic success of recent graduates who have studied statistics at Shahid Beheshti University in Iran. This research: (i) considered academic success as a latent variable, which was measured by GPA and other academic success (see below) of students in the target population; (ii) employed the Bayesian SEM, which works properly for small sample sizes and ordinal variables; (iii), which is taken from the literature, developed five main factors that affected academic success and (iv) considered several standard psychological tests and measured characteristics such as 'self-esteem' and 'anxiety'. We then study the impact of such factors on the academic success of the target population. Six factors that positively impact student academic success were identified in the following order of relative impact (from greatest to least): 'Teaching-Evaluation', 'Learner', 'Environment', 'Family', 'Curriculum' and 'Teaching Knowledge'. Particularly, influential variables within each factor have also been noted.

  4. Cognitive indicators of social anxiety in youth: a structural equation analysis.

    PubMed

    Rudy, Brittany M; Davis, Thompson E; Matthews, Russell A

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated significant relationships among various cognitive variables such as negative cognition, self-efficacy, and social anxiety. Unfortunately, few studies focus on the role of cognition among youth, and researchers often fail to use domain-specific measures when examining cognitive variables. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine domain-specific cognitive variables (i.e., socially oriented negative self-referent cognition and social self-efficacy) and their relationships to social anxiety in children and adolescents using structural equation modeling techniques. A community sample of children and adolescents (n=245; 55.9% female; 83.3% Caucasian, 9.4% African American, 2% Asian, 2% Hispanic, 2% "other," and 1.2% not reported) completed questionnaires assessing social cognition and social anxiety symptomology. Three latent variables were created to examine the constructs of socially oriented negative self-referent cognition (as measured by the SONAS scale), social self-efficacy (as measured by the SEQSS-C), and social anxiety (as measured by the SPAI-C and the Brief SA). The resulting measurement model of latent variables fit the data well. Additionally, consistent with the study hypothesis, results indicated that social self-efficacy likely mediates the relationship between socially oriented negative self-referent cognition and social anxiety, and socially oriented negative self-referent cognition yields significant direct and indirect effects on social anxiety. These findings indicate that socially oriented negative cognitions are associated with youth's beliefs about social abilities and the experience of social anxiety. Future directions for research and study limitations, including use of cross-sectional data, are discussed. PMID:24411119

  5. A structural equation model analysis of relationships among ENSO, seasonal descriptors and wildfires.

    PubMed

    Slocum, Matthew G; Orzell, Steve L

    2013-01-01

    Seasonality drives ecological processes through networks of forcings, and the resultant complexity requires creative approaches for modeling to be successful. Recently ecologists and climatologists have developed sophisticated methods for fully describing seasons. However, to date the relationships among the variables produced by these methods have not been analyzed as networks, but rather with simple univariate statistics. In this manuscript we used structural equation modeling (SEM) to analyze a proposed causal network describing seasonality of rainfall for a site in south-central Florida. We also described how this network was influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and how the network in turn affected the site's wildfire regime. Our models indicated that wet and dry seasons starting later in the year (or ending earlier) were shorter and had less rainfall. El Niño conditions increased dry season rainfall, and via this effect decreased the consistency of that season's drying trend. El Niño conditions also negatively influenced how consistent the moistening trend was during the wet season, but in this case the effect was direct and did not route through rainfall. In modeling wildfires, our models showed that area burned was indirectly influenced by ENSO via its effect on dry season rainfall. Area burned was also indirectly reduced when the wet season had consistent rainfall, as such wet seasons allowed fewer wildfires in subsequent fire seasons. Overall area burned at the study site was estimated with high accuracy (R (2) score = 0.63). In summary, we found that by using SEMs, we were able to clearly describe causal patterns involving seasonal climate, ENSO and wildfire. We propose that similar approaches could be effectively applied to other sites where seasonality exerts strong and complex forcings on ecological processes.

  6. Comparative analysis of microbiome measurement platforms using latent variable structural equation modeling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Culture-independent phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences has emerged as an incisive method of profiling bacteria present in a specimen. Currently, multiple techniques are available to enumerate the abundance of bacterial taxa in specimens, including the Sanger sequencing, the ‘next generation’ pyrosequencing, microarrays, quantitative PCR, and the rapidly emerging, third generation sequencing, and fourth generation sequencing methods. An efficient statistical tool is in urgent need for the followings tasks: (1) to compare the agreement between these measurement platforms, (2) to select the most reliable platform(s), and (3) to combine different platforms of complementary strengths, for a unified analysis. Results We present the latent variable structural equation modeling (SEM) as a novel statistical application for the comparative analysis of measurement platforms. The latent variable SEM model treats the true (unknown) relative frequency of a given bacterial taxon in a specimen as the latent (unobserved) variable and estimates the reliabilities of, and similarities between, different measurement platforms, and subsequently weighs those measurements optimally for a unified analysis of the microbiome composition. The latent variable SEM contains the repeated measures ANOVA (both the univariate and the multivariate models) as special cases and, as a more general and realistic modeling approach, yields superior goodness-of-fit and more reliable analysis results, as demonstrated by a microbiome study of the human inflammatory bowel diseases. Conclusions Given the rapid evolution of modern biotechnologies, the measurement platform comparison, selection and combination tasks are here to stay and to grow – and the latent variable SEM method is readily applicable to any other biological settings, aside from the microbiome study presented here. PMID:23497007

  7. A structural equation model analysis of postfire plant diversity in California shrublands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grace, J.B.; Keeley, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates patterns of plant diversity following wildfires in fire-prone shrublands of California, seeks to understand those patterns in terms of both local and landscape factors, and considers the implications for fire management. Ninety study sites were established following extensive wildfires in 1993, and 1000-m2 plots were used to sample a variety of parameters. Data on community responses were collected for five years following fire. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to relate plant species richness to plant abundance, fire severity, abiotic conditions, within-plot heterogeneity, stand age, and position in the landscape. Temporal dynamics of average richness response was also modeled. Richness was highest in the first year following fire, indicating postfire enhancement of diversity. A general decline in richness over time was detected, with year-to-year variation attributable to annual variations in precipitation. Peak richness in the landscape was found where (1) plant abundance was moderately high, (2) within-plot heterogeneity was high, (3) soils were moderately low in nitrogen, high in sand content, and with high rock cover, (4) fire severity was low, and (5) stands were young prior to fire. Many of these characteristics were correlated with position in the landscape and associated conditions. We infer from the SEM results that postfire richness in this system is strongly influenced by local conditions and that these conditions are, in turn, predictably related to landscape-level conditions. For example, we observed that older stands of shrubs were characterized by more severe fires, which were associated with a low recovery of plant cover and low richness. These results may have implications for the use of prescribed fire in this system if these findings extrapolate to prescribed burns as we would expect. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  8. Establishing components of community satisfaction with recycled water use through a structural equation model.

    PubMed

    Hurlimann, Anna; Hemphill, Elizabeth; McKay, Jennifer; Geursen, Gus

    2008-09-01

    The use of recycled water is being promoted through policy in many parts of the world with the aim of achieving sustainable water management. However there are some major barriers to the success of recycled water use policies and their instruments, in particular for potable reuse schemes. One of these barriers can be a lack of community support. Despite the critical nature of community attitudes to recycled water to the success of projects, they are often little understood. Further information is required to ensure the successful implementation of recycled water policy and to ensure sustainable management of water resources is achieved. The aim of this paper is to establish the key components of community satisfaction with recycled water. This was investigated through a case study of the Mawson Lakes population in South Australia, where recycled water is used for non-potable purposes through a dual water supply system (the 'recycled water system'). This paper reports results from a survey of 162 Mawson Lakes residents. A structural equation model (SEM) was developed and tested to explain and predict components of community satisfaction with recycled water use (for non-potable use) through the dual water supply system. Results indicate the components of satisfaction with recycled water use were an individual's positive perception of: the Water Authority's communication, trust in the Water Authority, fairness in the recycled water system's implementation, quality of the recycled water, financial value of the recycled water system, and risk associated with recycled water use (negative relationship). The results of this study have positive implications for the future management and implementation of recycled water projects in particular through dual water supply systems. The results indicate to water authorities and water policy developers guiding principles for community consultation with regards to the management of recycled water projects.

  9. The Polish version of the Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire: an exploratory structural equation modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Brytek-Matera, Anna; Rogoza, Radosław

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the study was to validate a Polish version of the Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire (BIAQ). The study included 115 participants with no diagnosis (control group) (Mage = 20.53, SD = 1.80) on which we have based factor analyses, 48 participants diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (Mage = 18.69, SD = 3.52) and 39 participants diagnosed with bulimia nervosa (Mage = 22.28, SD = 3.80). In the current study, we have run confirmatory factor analysis; however, the analysis did not fit the data (CFI = 0.81, RMSEA = 0.09). Three-factor solution (number of factors were chosen basing on parallel analysis and MAP) was assessed using exploratory structural equation modeling approach (extraction: Maximum Likelihood; rotation: Geomin) which appeared to fit the data well (CFI = 0.90, RMSEA = 0.07). Validation with the clinical sample was performed using multi-group ESEM. Since the models achieved only configural level of invariance, we have examined the structure of clinical group with next ESEM model (CFI = 0.95, RMSEA = 0.05). To evaluate internal consistency, we have employed Omega (ω) and Cronbach's α with bootstrapped 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI). The first factor (food and weight preoccupation) was 0.79 (95 % CI = 0.74-0.83), for second factor (social activities) was 0.86 (95 % CI = 0.81-0.90), and for third factor (clothing) was 0.84 (95 % CI = 0.79-0.87). Convergent validity was assessed by correlating the Eating Disorder Inventory and the Body Attitude Test scores. The results have shown that the Polish version of the BIAQ fulfilled basic psychometric criteria and may be used for evaluation of body image avoidance behaviors among Polish women. PMID:26183601

  10. Nonlocal Symmetries, Explicit Solutions, and Wave Structures for the Korteweg-de Vries Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zheng-Yi; Fei, Jin-Xi

    2016-08-01

    From the known Lax pair of the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, the Lie symmetry group method is successfully applied to find exact invariant solutions for the KdV equation with nonlocal symmetries by introducing two suitable auxiliary variables. Meanwhile, based on the prolonged system, the explicit analytic interaction solutions related to the hyperbolic and Jacobi elliptic functions are derived. Figures show the physical interaction between the cnoidal waves and a solitary wave.

  11. Conceptual Structure of the Symptoms of Adult ADHD According to the "DSM-IV" and Retrospective Wender-Utah Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glockner-Rist, Angelika; Pedersen, Anya; Rist, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Adult "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.; "DSM-IV") and retrospective childhood Wender-Utah ADHD criteria are implemented in self-report measures to assess adult ADHD and its required onset in childhood. Yet their dimensional structure and relationship to adult ADHD depressivity is still…

  12. Weyl-Euler-Lagrange equations on twistor space for tangent structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasap, Zeki

    2016-06-01

    Twistor spaces are certain complex three-manifolds, which are associated with special conformal Riemannian geometries on four-manifolds. Also, classical mechanic is one of the major subfields for mechanics of dynamical system. A dynamical system has a state determined by a collection of real numbers, or more generally by a set of points in an appropriate state space for classical mechanic. Euler-Lagrange equations are an efficient use of classical mechanics to solve problems using mathematical modeling. On the other hand, Weyl submitted a metric with a conformal transformation for unified theory of classical mechanic. This paper aims to introduce Euler-Lagrage partial differential equations (mathematical modeling, the equations of motion according to the time) for the movement of objects on twistor space and also to offer a general solution of differential equation system using the Maple software. Additionally, the implicit solution of the equation will be obtained as a result of a special selection of graphics to be drawn.

  13. Structural Equation Model Analysis of the Length of Hospital Stay Following Lumbar Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kanaan, Saddam F; Waitman, Russell L; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Arnold, Paul M; Burton, Douglas C; Sharma, Neena K

    2015-01-01

    Background context Length of hospital stay (LOS) after lumbar spine surgery (LSS) can be affected by many factors. However, few studies have evaluated predictors of LOS, and all have used limited number of variables as predictors. Purpose To identify pre-surgical, surgical, and post-surgical predictors of LOS following LSS. Study Design/Setting Retrospective review of consecutive patients who had LSS at the (Blinded) Hospital from October, 2008 to April, 2012. Patient Sample 593 patients who underwent LSS consisting of laminotomy, laminectomy, or arthrodesis. Outcome Measures Dependent variable: LOS. Multiple pre-surgical, surgical, and post-surgical variables were extracted from patients’ medical records and considered as possible predictors (independent variables) of LOS. Methods Potential predictors that were significantly correlated with LOS were used as indicators to construct three latent factors; pre-surgical, surgical, and post-surgical, which were in turn used to predict LOS in a structural equation model (SEM). Results The average LOS was 4.01±2.73 days. The pre-surgical factor was indicated by age (61.97±14.49 years), prior level of function (60.5% were totally independent), prior hemoglobin level (13.70±1.36 mg/dl), and use of assistive devices (60% were assistive device users). The surgical factor was indicated by severity of illness (50.2% had minor disease severity), presence of complications (1.9%), and stay in an intensive care unit (4.0%). The post-surgical factor was indicated by post-surgical walking distance (166.43±175.75 feet), level of assistance during walking (5.18±0.81 out of 7 points), balance scores (6.18 ±1.82 out of 10 points), and bed mobility and transfer dependency scores (9.81± 1.99 out of 14 points). These three latent factors explained 47% of variation in LOS. Conclusion Post-surgical factors predicted the highest variation in LOS in comparison to pre-surgical and surgical factors and should be taken into consideration

  14. The Neo Personality Inventory-Revised: Factor Structure and Gender Invariance from Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling Analyses in a High-Stakes Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Guenole, Nigel; Levine, Stephen Z.; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    This study presents new analyses of NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) responses collected from a large British sample in a high-stakes setting. The authors show the appropriateness of the five-factor model underpinning these responses in a variety of new ways. Using the recently developed exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM)…

  15. Value Preferences Predicting Narcissistic Personality Traits in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gungor, Ibrahim Halil; Eksi, Halil; Aricak, Osman Tolga

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at showing how the value preferences of young adults could predict the narcissistic characteristics of young adults according to structural equation modeling. 133 female (59.6%) and 90 male (40.4%), total 223 young adults participated the study (average age: 25.66, ranging from 20 to 38). Ratio group sampling method was used while…

  16. Financial Literacy of Young Adults: The Importance of Parental Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Bryce L.; Savla, Jyoti

    2010-01-01

    This article tests a conceptual model of perceived parental influence on the financial literacy of young adults. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether (a) parents were perceived to influence young adults' financial knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors and (b) the degree to which young adults' financial attitudes mediated financial…

  17. Electrodynamic field equations for composite superconducting structures in the mixed state

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, M.W.

    1997-08-01

    Governing vector partial differential equations for the linear electrodynamic response of an isotropic type-II superconductor in the mixed state are derived. A continuum theory of vortex motion is used, and two-fluid effects are also accounted for. The governing equation is sufficiently general to reduce to either normal metal or dielectric material results in special limits. The complex-valued conductivity tensor of the mixed state is made explicit, and is also discussed for an anisotropic superconductor. The theory is illustrated with a planar superconducting waveguide problem, wherein the complex propagation constant, phase velocity, and surface impedance are obtained.

  18. Cognitive aging on latent constructs for visual processing capacity: a novel structural equation modeling framework with causal assumptions based on a theory of visual attention.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Simon; Wilms, L Inge

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of normal aging on visual cognition in a sample of 112 healthy adults aged 60-75. A testbattery was designed to capture high-level measures of visual working memory and low-level measures of visuospatial attention and memory. To answer questions of how cognitive aging affects specific aspects of visual processing capacity, we used confirmatory factor analyses in Structural Equation Modeling (SEM; Model 2), informed by functional structures that were modeled with path analyses in SEM (Model 1). The results show that aging effects were selective to measures of visual processing speed compared to visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity (Model 2). These results are consistent with some studies reporting selective aging effects on processing speed, and inconsistent with other studies reporting aging effects on both processing speed and VSTM capacity. In the discussion we argue that this discrepancy may be mediated by differences in age ranges, and variables of demography. The study demonstrates that SEM is a sensitive method to detect cognitive aging effects even within a narrow age-range, and a useful approach to structure the relationships between measured variables, and the cognitive functional foundation they supposedly represent.

  19. The paths leading from attachment to ageism: a structural equation model approach.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Ehud; Cohen-Fridel, Sara

    2014-01-01

    The study introduces a model in which attachment patterns serve as predictors, empathy and fear of death as mediators, and ageism as the predicted variable. Data were collected from young adults (N = 440). Anxious attachment was directly and positively correlated with ageism, and also indirectly and positively by the mediator "fear of death." Avoidant attachment was indirectly and negatively correlated with ageism by the mediator "empathy". It is suggested that interventions for reducing ageist attitudes among younger adults would focus on existential fears, as well as on empathic ability, according to the attachment tendencies of these individuals. PMID:24758211

  20. Instrumental-Variables Simultaneous Equations Model of Physical Activity and Body Mass Index: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Katie A; Guilkey, David K; Tien, Hsiao-Chuen; Kiefe, Catarina I; Popkin, Barry M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2016-09-15

    We used full-system-estimation instrumental-variables simultaneous equations modeling (IV-SEM) to examine physical activity relative to body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) using 25 years of data (1985/1986 to 2010/2011) from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study (n = 5,115; ages 18-30 years at enrollment). Neighborhood environment and sociodemographic instruments were used to characterize physical activity, fast-food consumption, smoking, alcohol consumption, marriage, and childbearing (women) and to predict BMI using semiparametric full-information maximum likelihood estimation to control for unobserved time-invariant and time-varying residual confounding and differential measurement error through model-derived discrete random effects. Comparing robust-variance ordinary least squares, random-effects regression, fixed-effects regression, single-equation-estimation IV-SEM, and full-system-estimation IV-SEM, estimates from random- and fixed-effects models and the full-system-estimation IV-SEM were unexpectedly similar, despite the lack of control for residual confounding with the random-effects estimator. Ordinary least squares tended to overstate the significance of health behaviors in BMI, while results from single-equation-estimation IV-SEM were notably different, revealing the impact of weak instruments in standard instrumental-variable methods. Our robust findings for fixed effects (which does not require instruments but has a high cost in lost degrees of freedom) and full-system-estimation IV-SEM (vs. standard IV-SEM) demonstrate potential for a full-system-estimation IV-SEM method even with weak instruments. PMID:27614300

  1. Mind-reading in young adults with ASD: does structure matter?

    PubMed

    Ponnet, Koen; Buysse, Ann; Roeyers, Herbert; De Clercq, Armand

    2008-05-01

    This study further elaborates on the mind-reading impairments of young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The hypothesis is that differences in mind-reading abilities between subjects with ASD and control subjects become more apparent when they have to infer thoughts and feelings of other persons in a less structured or more chaotic conversation, than when they have to do so in a more structured conversation. Conform to the empathic accuracy design, subjects viewed two videotaped interactions depicting two strangers and attempted to infer thoughts and feelings. One of the videotaped conversations was less structured than in the other. The results underscore the significance of structure to the mind-reading abilities of young adults with ASD. PMID:17929156

  2. Examining Young Recreational Male Soccer Players' Experience in Adult- and Peer-Led Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imtiaz, Faizan; Hancock, David J.; Côté, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Youth sport has the potential to be one of the healthiest and most beneficial activities in which children can partake. Participation in a combination of adult-led and peer-led sport structures appears to lead to favorable outcomes such as enhanced physical fitness, as well as social and emotional development. The purpose of the present…

  3. Factor Structure Invariance of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test across Male and Female Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immekus, Jason C.; Maller, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    Multisample confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) and latent mean structures analysis (LMS) were used to test measurement invariance and latent mean differences on the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Scale[TM] (KAIT) across males and females in the standardization sample. MCFA found that the parameters of the KAIT two-factor model were…

  4. Household Structure, Coupling Constraints, and the Nonpartner Victimization Risks of Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yule, Carolyn; Griffiths, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Victimization studies consistently find that household structure influences the risk of personal and property victimization among adult household members, with those in "traditional" homes enjoying the most protection from victimization and lone parents experiencing the greatest vulnerability. Drawing on the concept of "coupling constraints,"…

  5. Adult Participation in Undergraduate Education: The Effect of State-Level Structural Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Jong-Chul; Cervero, Ronald M.; Valentine, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Composite state-level data from four national sets were used to compare 1991 and 1997 higher education participation of adults over 24. Variations in state structural factors significantly affected participation variance. Factors at one point in time substantially affected future participation. State policymakers had an influence on access and…

  6. Mind-Reading in Young Adults with ASD: Does Structure Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponnet, Koen; Buysse, Ann; Roeyers, Herbert; De Clercq, Armand

    2008-01-01

    This study further elaborates on the mind-reading impairments of young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The hypothesis is that differences in mind-reading abilities between subjects with ASD and control subjects become more apparent when they have to infer thoughts and feelings of other persons in a less structured or more chaotic…

  7. Structural Relationships between Social Activities and Longitudinal Trajectories of Depression among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Song-Iee; Hasche, Leslie; Bowland, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the structural relationships between social activities and trajectories of late-life depression. Design and Methods: Latent class analysis was used with a nationally representative sample of older adults (N = 5,294) from the Longitudinal Study on Aging II to classify patterns of social activities. A latent growth curve…

  8. The Company That Words Keep: Comparing the Statistical Structure of Child- versus Adult-Directed Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Does child-directed language differ from adult-directed language in ways that might facilitate word learning? Associative structure (the probability that a word appears with its free associates), contextual diversity, word repetitions and frequency were compared longitudinally across six language corpora, with four corpora of language directed at…

  9. Selective Auditory Attention in Adults: Effects of Rhythmic Structure of the Competing Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reel, Leigh Ann; Hicks, Candace Bourland

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors assessed adult selective auditory attention to determine effects of (a) differences between the vocal/speaking characteristics of different mixed-gender pairs of masking talkers and (b) the rhythmic structure of the language of the competing speech. Method: Reception thresholds for English sentences were measured for 50…

  10. Participation Structure and Incidental Focus on Form in Adult ESL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassaji, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of incidental focus on form (FonF) in adult English-as-a-second-language classrooms. Specifically, it explored the extent to which the amount, type, and effectiveness of FonF were related to differences in classroom participation structure, that is, the organization of classroom talk within which FonF may occur. The…

  11. Complex structures and zero-curvature equations for σ-models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, Dmitri

    2016-09-01

    We construct zero-curvature representations for the equations of motion of a class of σ-models with complex homogeneous target spaces, not necessarily symmetric. We show that in the symmetric case the proposed flat connection is gauge-equivalent to the conventional one.

  12. White matter structures associated with loneliness in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Seishu; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Nouchi, Rui; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-01-01

    Lonely individuals may exhibit dysfunction, particularly with respect to social empathy and self-efficacy. White matter (WM) structures related to loneliness have not yet been identified. We investigated the association between regional WM density (rWMD) using the UCLA Loneliness Scale in 776 healthy young students aged 18–27 years old. Loneliness scores were negatively correlated with rWMD in eight clusters: the bilateral inferior parietal lobule (IPL), right anterior insula (AI), posterior temporoparietal junction (pTPJ), left posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), and rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC). The bilateral IPL, right AI, left pSTS, pTPJ, and RLPFC were strongly associated with Empathy Quotient (EQ), whereas the bilateral IPL, right AI, left pTPJ, and dmPFC were associated with General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) score. The neural correlates of loneliness comprise widespread reduction in WMD in areas related to self- and social cognition as well as areas associated with empathy and self-efficacy. PMID:26585372

  13. White matter structures associated with loneliness in young adults.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Seishu; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Nouchi, Rui; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-11-20

    Lonely individuals may exhibit dysfunction, particularly with respect to social empathy and self-efficacy. White matter (WM) structures related to loneliness have not yet been identified. We investigated the association between regional WM density (rWMD) using the UCLA Loneliness Scale in 776 healthy young students aged 18-27 years old. Loneliness scores were negatively correlated with rWMD in eight clusters: the bilateral inferior parietal lobule (IPL), right anterior insula (AI), posterior temporoparietal junction (pTPJ), left posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), and rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC). The bilateral IPL, right AI, left pSTS, pTPJ, and RLPFC were strongly associated with Empathy Quotient (EQ), whereas the bilateral IPL, right AI, left pTPJ, and dmPFC were associated with General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) score. The neural correlates of loneliness comprise widespread reduction in WMD in areas related to self- and social cognition as well as areas associated with empathy and self-efficacy.

  14. Experience induces structural and biochemical changes in the adult primate brain.

    PubMed

    Kozorovitskiy, Yevgenia; Gross, Charles G; Kopil, Catherine; Battaglia, Lisa; McBreen, Meghan; Stranahan, Alexis M; Gould, Elizabeth

    2005-11-29

    Primates exhibit complex social and cognitive behavior in the wild. In the laboratory, however, the expression of their behavior is usually limited. A large body of literature shows that living in an enriched environment alters dendrites and synapses in the brains of adult rodents. To date, no studies have investigated the influence of living in a complex environment on brain structure in adult primates. We assessed dendritic architecture, dendritic spines, and synaptic proteins in adult marmosets housed in either a standard laboratory cage or in one of two differentially complex habitats. A month-long stay in either complex environment enhanced the length and complexity of the dendritic tree and increased dendritic spine density and synaptic protein levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. No differences were detected between the brains of marmosets living in the two differentially complex environments. Our results show that the structure of the adult primate brain remains highly sensitive even to modest levels of experiential complexity. For adult primates, living in standard laboratory housing may induce reversible dendritic spine and synapse decreases in brain regions important for cognition.

  15. Phase stability, electronic structure and equation of state of cubic TcN from first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, T.; Ma, Q.; Sun, X. W.; Liu, Z. J.; Fu, Z. J.; Wei, X. P.; Wang, T.; Tian, J. H.

    2016-09-01

    The phase transition, electronic band structure, and equation of state (EOS) of cubic TcN are investigated by first-principles pseudopotential method based on density-functional theory. The calculated enthalpies show that TcN has a transformation between zincblende and rocksalt phases and the pressure determined by the relative enthalpy is 32 GPa. The calculated band structure indicates the metallic feature and it might make cubic TcN a better candidate for hard materials. Particular attention is paid to the predictions of volume, bulk modulus and its pressure derivative which play a central role in the formulation of approximate EOSs using the quasi-harmonic Debye model.

  16. Equation of State and Structure of Electrostatic Colloidal Crystals: Osmotic Pressure and Scattering Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reus, V.; Belloni, L.; Zemb, T.; Lutterbach, N.; Versmold, H.

    1997-04-01

    Electrostatically stabilized aqueous suspensions of bromopolystyrene particles have been studied by scattering and osmotic pressure measurements. We investigated their structure and the interparticle interactions as a function of the volume fraction at very low salinity of the order of micromole/l. At slow crystallization speed we observe perfect crystals, body centrered cubic crystals by light scattering for volume fractions between 0.04 and 0.7% and face centrered cubic crystals by Ultra Small Angle X ray Scattering (USAXS) for higher volume fractions (2 12%). After shear the crystal displays other structures. At low volume fractions (0.1 0.3%), some reflexions disappear by light scattering whereas a strong diffuse “prepeak" appears before the first Bragg peak for higher concentrations (2 12%) evidenced by USAXS. This “prepeak" can be attributed to defects in the crystal. Osmotic pressures have been measured by difference between the hydrostatic pressure in the solution and in the reservoir separated by an hemipermeable membrane. The experimental data are very well reproduced by the Poisson Boltzmann Cell (PBC) theory which shows that the interaction between particles is purely repulsive. No attractive contribution has been experimentally detected. By calculating the mean square displacement of a particle inside its cage from the eccentric PBC model, we have verified that the Lindemann criterion for the existence of crystals (against melting) is satisfied. This study has allowed to determine the equation of state of an electrostatical colloidal crystal and is equivalent to an ultraprecise force/distance measurement between latex particles since the measured forces are of the order of 10^{-12} N for distances of the order of 4000 Å. Des suspensions aqueuses de particules de bromopolystyrène ont été caractérisées par diffusion de lumière, diffusion de rayons X aux petits angles et par des mesures de pression osmotique. Nous avons ainsi étudié leur

  17. Wing-Body Aeroelasticity Using Finite-Difference Fluid/Finite-Element Structural Equations on Parallel Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byun, Chansup; Guruswamy, Guru P.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In recent years significant advances have been made for parallel computers in both hardware and software. Now parallel computers have become viable tools in computational mechanics. Many application codes developed on conventional computers have been modified to benefit from parallel computers. Significant speedups in some areas have been achieved by parallel computations. For single-discipline use of both fluid dynamics and structural dynamics, computations have been made on wing-body configurations using parallel computers. However, only a limited amount of work has been completed in combining these two disciplines for multidisciplinary applications. The prime reason is the increased level of complication associated with a multidisciplinary approach. In this work, procedures to compute aeroelasticity on parallel computers using direct coupling of fluid and structural equations will be investigated for wing-body configurations. The parallel computer selected for computations is an Intel iPSC/860 computer which is a distributed-memory, multiple-instruction, multiple data (MIMD) computer with 128 processors. In this study, the computational efficiency issues of parallel integration of both fluid and structural equations will be investigated in detail. The fluid and structural domains will be modeled using finite-difference and finite-element approaches, respectively. Results from the parallel computer will be compared with those from the conventional computers using a single processor. This study will provide an efficient computational tool for the aeroelastic analysis of wing-body structures on MIMD type parallel computers.

  18. The company that words keep: comparing the statistical structure of child- versus adult-directed language.

    PubMed

    Hills, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    Does child-directed language differ from adult-directed language in ways that might facilitate word learning? Associative structure (the probability that a word appears with its free associates), contextual diversity, word repetitions and frequency were compared longitudinally across six language corpora, with four corpora of language directed at children aged 1.0 to 5.0, and two adult-directed corpora representing spoken and written language. Statistics were adjusted relative to shuffled corpora. Child-directed language was found to be more associative, repetitive and consistent than adult-directed language. Moreover, these statistical properties of child-directed language better predicted word acquisition than the same statistics in adult-directed language. Word frequency and repetitions were the best predictors within word classes (nouns, verbs, adjectives and function words). For all word classes combined, associative structure, contextual diversity and word repetitions best predicted language acquisition. These results support the hypothesis that child-directed language is structured in ways that facilitate language acquisition.

  19. An alternative scheme to find glass state solutions using integral equation theory for the pair structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bomont, Jean-Marc; Pastore, Giorgio

    2015-09-01

    We propose and discuss a straightforward search protocol for the glass-like solutions of the integral equations of the two-replica approach to the random first-order transition theory of the liquid-glass transition. The new numerical strategy supplements those recently introduced by Jean-Pierre Hansen and ourselves. A few results for inverse power (1/r12) fluid are discussed and critically compared with results from other approaches.

  20. Kinetic Formulation of the Kohn-Sham Equations for ab initio Electronic Structure Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, M.; Succi, S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2014-08-01

    We introduce a new connection between density functional theory and kinetic theory. In particular, we show that the Kohn-Sham equations can be reformulated as a macroscopic limit of the steady-state solution of a suitable single-particle kinetic equation. We derive a Boltzmann-like equation for a gas of quasiparticles, where the potential plays the role of an external source that generates and destroys particles, so as to drive the system towards its ground state. The ions are treated as classical particles by using either the Born-Oppenheimer dynamics or by imposing concurrent evolution with the electronic orbitals. In order to provide quantitative support to our approach, we implement a discrete (lattice) kinetic model and compute the exchange and correlation energies of simple atoms and the geometrical configuration of the methane molecule. Moreover, we also compute the first vibrational mode of the hydrogen molecule, with both Born-Oppenheimer and concurrent dynamics. Excellent agreement with values in the literature is found in all cases.

  1. Kinetic formulation of the Kohn-Sham Equations for ab initio electronic structure calculations.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, M; Succi, S; Herrmann, H J

    2014-08-29

    We introduce a new connection between density functional theory and kinetic theory. In particular, we show that the Kohn-Sham equations can be reformulated as a macroscopic limit of the steady-state solution of a suitable single-particle kinetic equation. We derive a Boltzmann-like equation for a gas of quasiparticles, where the potential plays the role of an external source that generates and destroys particles, so as to drive the system towards its ground state. The ions are treated as classical particles by using either the Born-Oppenheimer dynamics or by imposing concurrent evolution with the electronic orbitals. In order to provide quantitative support to our approach, we implement a discrete (lattice) kinetic model and compute the exchange and correlation energies of simple atoms and the geometrical configuration of the methane molecule. Moreover, we also compute the first vibrational mode of the hydrogen molecule, with both Born-Oppenheimer and concurrent dynamics. Excellent agreement with values in the literature is found in all cases.

  2. The latent structure of oppositional defiant disorder in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Barry, Tammy D; Marcus, David K; Barry, Christopher T; Coccaro, Emil F

    2013-12-01

    An understanding of the latent structure of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is essential for better developing causal models, improving diagnostic and assessment procedures, and enhancing treatments for the disorder. Although much research has focused on ODD-including recent studies informing the diagnostic criteria for DSM-5-research examining the latent structure of ODD is sparse, and no known study has specifically undertaken a taxometric analysis to address the issue of whether ODD is a categorical or dimensional construct. To address this gap, the authors conducted two separate studies using a set of taxometric analyses with data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (child study; n = 969) and with data from a large mixed sample of adults, which included participants reporting psychiatric difficulties as well as healthy controls (adult study; n = 600). The results of a variety of non-redundant analyses across both studies revealed a dimensional latent structure for ODD symptoms among both children and adults. These findings are consistent with previous studies that have examined latent structure of related constructs (e.g., aggression, antisocial behavior) as well as studies that have examined the dimensional versus categorical structure of ODD using methods other than taxometric analysis.

  3. The solution of linear systems of equations with a structural analysis code on the NAS CRAY-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poole, Eugene L.; Overman, Andrea L.

    1988-01-01

    Two methods for solving linear systems of equations on the NAS Cray-2 are described. One is a direct method; the other is an iterative method. Both methods exploit the architecture of the Cray-2, particularly the vectorization, and are aimed at structural analysis applications. To demonstrate and evaluate the methods, they were installed in a finite element structural analysis code denoted the Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM) Testbed. A description of the techniques used to integrate the two solvers into the Testbed is given. Storage schemes, memory requirements, operation counts, and reformatting procedures are discussed. Finally, results from the new methods are compared with results from the initial Testbed sparse Choleski equation solver for three structural analysis problems. The new direct solvers described achieve the highest computational rates of the methods compared. The new iterative methods are not able to achieve as high computation rates as the vectorized direct solvers but are best for well conditioned problems which require fewer iterations to converge to the solution.

  4. Functional Connectivity Abnormalities of Brain Regions with Structural Deficits in Young Adult Male Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Limei; Yu, Dahua; Su, Shaoping; Ma, Yao; von Deneen, Karen M.; Luo, Lin; Zhai, Jinquan; Liu, Bo; Cheng, Jiadong; Guan, Yanyan; Li, Yangding; Bi, Yanzhi; Xue, Ting; Lu, Xiaoqi; Yuan, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is one of the most prevalent dependence disorders. Previous studies have detected structural and functional deficits in smokers. However, few studies focused on the changes of resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the brain regions with structural deficits in young adult smokers. Twenty-six young adult smokers and 26 well-matched healthy non-smokers participated in our study. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and RSFC were employed to investigate the structural and functional changes in young adult smokers. Compared with healthy non-smokers, young smokers showed increased gray matter (GM) volume in the left putamen and decreased GM volume in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Moreover, GM volume in the left ACC has a negative correlation trend with pack-years and GM volume in the left putamen was positively correlated with pack-years. The left ACC and putamen with abnormal volumes were chosen as the regions of interest (ROIs) for the RSFC analysis. We found that smokers showed increased RSFC between the left ACC and right amygdala and between the left putamen and right anterior insula. We revealed structural and functional deficits within the frontostriatal circuits in young smokers, which may shed new insights into the neural mechanisms of smoking. PMID:27757078

  5. Some Mathematical Structures Including Simplified Non-Relativistic Quantum Teleportation Equations and Special Relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Woesler, Richard

    2007-02-21

    The computations of the present text with non-relativistic quantum teleportation equations and special relativity are totally speculative, physically correct computations can be done using quantum field theory, which remain to be done in future. Proposals for what might be called statistical time loop experiments with, e.g., photon polarization states are described when assuming the simplified non-relativistic quantum teleportation equations and special relativity. However, a closed time loop would usually not occur due to phase incompatibilities of the quantum states. Histories with such phase incompatibilities are called inconsistent ones in the present text, and it is assumed that only consistent histories would occur. This is called an exclusion principle for inconsistent histories, and it would yield that probabilities for certain measurement results change. Extended multiple parallel experiments are proposed to use this statistically for transmission of classical information over distances, and regarding time. Experiments might be testable in near future. However, first a deeper analysis, including quantum field theory, remains to be done in future.

  6. Brooding and Pondering: Isolating the active ingredients of depressive rumination with exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling

    PubMed Central

    Armey, Michael F.; Fresco, David M.; Moore, Michael T.; Mennin, Douglas S.; Turk, Cynthia L.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Spasojevic, Jelena; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2010-01-01

    Depressive rumination, as assessed by Nolen-Hoeksema’s Response Styles Questionnaire (RSQ; Nolen-Hoeksema & Morrow, 1991), predicts the onset, chronicity, and duration of depressed mood. However, some RSQ items contain depressive content and result in a heterogeneous factor structure. After the a priori elimination of items potentially confounded with depressed item content, Treynor et al. (2003) identified two factors within the remaining RSQ rumination subscale that were differentially related to depression: brooding and pondering. However, Treynor et al. (2003) used a non-standard form and administration of the RSQ. The present study sought to address these methodological idiosyncrasies and replicate the factor structure of Treynor et al. (2003) through exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Findings support the brooding and pondering solution and demonstrate that brooding relates more strongly to depression and anxiety than does pondering. PMID:19667138

  7. Time-Gated Optical Projection Tomography Allows Visualization of Adult Zebrafish Internal Structures

    PubMed Central

    Foglia, Efrem Alessandro; Pistocchi, Anna; D'Andrea, Cosimo; Valentini, Gianluca; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; De Silvestri, Sandro; Cerullo, Giulio; Cotelli, Franco

    2012-01-01

    Optical imaging through biological samples is compromised by tissue scattering and currently various approaches aim to overcome this limitation. In this paper we demonstrate that an all optical technique, based on non-linear upconversion of infrared ultrashort laser pulses and on multiple view acquisition, allows the reduction of scattering effects in tomographic imaging. This technique, namely Time-Gated Optical Projection Tomography (TGOPT), is used to reconstruct three dimensionally the internal structure of adult zebrafish without staining or clearing agents. This method extends the use of Optical Projection Tomography to optically diffusive samples yielding reconstructions with reduced artifacts, increased contrast and improved resolution with respect to those obtained with non-gated techniques. The paper shows that TGOPT is particularly suited for imaging the skeletal system and nervous structures of adult zebrafish. PMID:23185643

  8. Static aeroelastic analysis of wings using Euler/Navier-Stokes equations coupled with improved wing-box finite element structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruswamy, Guru P.; MacMurdy, Dale E.; Kapania, Rakesh K.

    1994-01-01

    Strong interactions between flow about an aircraft wing and the wing structure can result in aeroelastic phenomena which significantly impact aircraft performance. Time-accurate methods for solving the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations have matured to the point where reliable results can be obtained with reasonable computational costs for complex non-linear flows with shock waves, vortices and separations. The ability to combine such a flow solver with a general finite element structural model is key to an aeroelastic analysis in these flows. Earlier work involved time-accurate integration of modal structural models based on plate elements. A finite element model was developed to handle three-dimensional wing boxes, and incorporated into the flow solver without the need for modal analysis. Static condensation is performed on the structural model to reduce the structural degrees of freedom for the aeroelastic analysis. Direct incorporation of the finite element wing-box structural model with the flow solver requires finding adequate methods for transferring aerodynamic pressures to the structural grid and returning deflections to the aerodynamic grid. Several schemes were explored for handling the grid-to-grid transfer of information. The complex, built-up nature of the wing-box complicated this transfer. Aeroelastic calculations for a sample wing in transonic flow comparing various simple transfer schemes are presented and discussed.

  9. On a Singular Solution in Higgs Field (1)- Basic equation and structure for SM Higgs boson mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazawa, Kazuyoshi

    2011-04-01

    A formula for mass of SM Higgs boson (H0) is derived by considering certain asymptotic behavior for singular solution of EOM of Higgs field via Euler-Lagrange equation, in which MH0 is shown as a rest mass of Higgs boson mass of the field, which maintains Lorentz invariance. Where the asymptotic formula extracts a proper information near the singular solution. By modifying the mass formula with H0 production scheme of W/Z-fusion process, the value of MH0 is determined at 120.611 GeV/c2. Then the mass structure of H0 is discussed by top quark decay processes in electroweak and quark sectors with newly enlarged equation of motion (Non-Linear Klein-Gordon), calculating the mass value of top quark as 171.266 GeV/c2. And from the difference between the value by assuming that H0 is a virtual bound state of top quark- pair ((t t)*) itself with the mass formula obtained by requirement of minimal mass production and the theoretical mass value of H0 (120.611 GeV/c2), it is expected that H0 is to be a composite scalar meson after emitting one photon from the (t t)* through radiative decay. Finally, a mass structure of H0 which is composed of all spin 0 mesons' masses, is proposed. Where the truncated-Octahedron mass structure is recursively (doubly) seen.

  10. Molly and Equations in A[2]: A Case Study of Apprehending Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Adrian; Stehlikova, Nada

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores one student's attempt to apprehend an abstract mathematical structure (similar to Z[99]). We discuss Karmiloff-Smith's theory of representational redescription as a model for the development of structural understanding and contrast this with existing process-object theories. We use two cycles in Molly's movement from an action…

  11. Structural and functional rich club organization of the brain in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Grayson, David S; Ray, Siddharth; Carpenter, Samuel; Iyer, Swathi; Dias, Taciana G Costa; Stevens, Corinne; Nigg, Joel T; Fair, Damien A

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have proposed that the brain's white matter is organized as a rich club, whereby the most highly connected regions of the brain are also highly connected to each other. Here we use both functional and diffusion-weighted MRI in the human brain to investigate whether the rich club phenomena is present with functional connectivity, and how this organization relates to the structural phenomena. We also examine whether rich club regions serve to integrate information between distinct brain systems, and conclude with a brief investigation of the developmental trajectory of rich-club phenomena. In agreement with prior work, both adults and children showed robust structural rich club organization, comprising regions of the superior medial frontal/dACC, medial parietal/PCC, insula, and inferior temporal cortex. We also show that these regions were highly integrated across the brain's major networks. Functional brain networks were found to have rich club phenomena in a similar spatial layout, but a high level of segregation between systems. While no significant differences between adults and children were found structurally, adults showed significantly greater functional rich club organization. This difference appeared to be driven by a specific set of connections between superior parietal, insula, and supramarginal cortex. In sum, this work highlights the existence of both a structural and functional rich club in adult and child populations with some functional changes over development. It also offers a potential target in examining atypical network organization in common developmental brain disorders, such as ADHD and Autism.

  12. Exploring the factor structure of the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait in Cuban adults

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Martín, Boris C.; Molerio-Pérez, Osana

    2014-01-01

    Food cravings refer to an intense desire to eat specific foods. The Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait (FCQ-T) is the most commonly used instrument to assess food cravings as a multidimensional construct. Its 39 items have an underlying nine-factor structure for both the original English and Spanish version; but subsequent studies yielded fewer factors. As a result, a 15-item version of the FCQ-T with one-factor structure has been proposed (FCQ-T-reduced; see this Research Topic). The current study aimed to explore the factor structure of the Spanish version for both the FCQ-T and FCQ-T-reduced in a sample of 1241 Cuban adults. Results showed a four-factor structure for the FCQ-T, which explained 55% of the variance. Factors were highly correlated. Using the items of the FCQ-T-reduced only showed a one-factor structure, which explained 52% of the variance. Both versions of the FCQ-T were positively correlated with body mass index (BMI), scores on the Food Thoughts Suppression Inventory and weight cycling. In addition, women had higher scores than men and restrained eaters had higher scores than unrestrained eaters. To summarize, results showed that (1) the FCQ-T factor structure was significantly reduced in Cuban adults and (2) the FCQ-T-reduced may represent a good alternative to efficiently assess food craving on a trait level. PMID:24672503

  13. Generalization of the effects of phonological training for anomia using structural equation modelling: a multiple single-case study.

    PubMed

    Vitali, P; Tettamanti, M; Abutalebi, J; Ansaldo, A-I; Perani, D; Cappa, S F; Joanette, Y

    2010-04-01

    Structural Equation Modelling analysis of three longitudinal er-fMRI sessions was used to test the impact of phonological training and of the generalization process on the pattern of brain connectivity during overt picture naming in two chronic anomic patients. Phonological training yielded a positive effect on the trained material. Six months after the training, a generalization of the positive impact on the untrained items was also observed. Connectivity analysis showed that training and generalization effects shared paralleled cortical patterns of functional integration. These findings may represent the neurophysiological correlate of the training-induced cognitive strategies for the compensation of anomia.

  14. Reelin Exerts Structural, Biochemical and Transcriptional Regulation Over Presynaptic and Postsynaptic Elements in the Adult Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Carles; Muhaisen, Ashraf; Pujadas, Lluís; Soriano, Eduardo; Martínez, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Reelin regulates neuronal positioning and synaptogenesis in the developing brain, and adult brain plasticity. Here we used transgenic mice overexpressing Reelin (Reelin-OE mice) to perform a comprehensive dissection of the effects of this protein on the structural and biochemical features of dendritic spines and axon terminals in the adult hippocampus. Electron microscopy (EM) revealed both higher density of synapses and structural complexity of both pre- and postsynaptic elements in transgenic mice than in WT mice. Dendritic spines had larger spine apparatuses, which correlated with a redistribution of Synaptopodin. Most of the changes observed in Reelin-OE mice were reversible after blockade of transgene expression, thus supporting the specificity of the observed phenotypes. Western blot and transcriptional analyses did not show major changes in the expression of pre- or postsynaptic proteins, including SNARE proteins, glutamate receptors, and scaffolding and signaling proteins. However, EM immunogold assays revealed that the NMDA receptor subunits NR2a and NR2b, and p-Cofilin showed a redistribution from synaptic to extrasynaptic pools. Taken together with previous studies, the present results suggest that Reelin regulates the structural and biochemical properties of adult hippocampal synapses by increasing their density and morphological complexity and by modifying the distribution and trafficking of major glutamatergic components. PMID:27303269

  15. Eating disorder psychopathology, brain structure, neuropsychological correlates and risk mechanisms in very preterm young adults.

    PubMed

    Micali, Nadia; Kothari, Radha; Nam, Kie Woo; Gioroukou, Elena; Walshe, Muriel; Allin, Matthew; Rifkin, Larry; Murray, Robin M; Nosarti, Chiara

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates the prevalence of eating disorder (ED) psychopathology, neuropsychological function, structural brain correlates and risk mechanisms in a prospective cohort of very preterm (VPT) young adults. We assessed ED psychopathology and neuropsychological correlates in 143 cohort individuals born at <33 weeks of gestation. Structural brain correlates and risk factors at birth, in childhood and adolescence, were investigated using prospectively collected data throughout childhood/adolescence. VPT-born individuals had high levels of ED psychopathology at age 21 years. Executive function did not correlate with ED symptomatology. VPT adults presenting with ED psychopathology had smaller grey matter volume at age 14/15 years in the left posterior cerebellum and smaller white matter volume in the fusiform gyrus bilaterally, compared with VPT adults with no ED psychopathology. Caesarean delivery predicted engaging in compensatory behaviours, and severe eating difficulty at age 14 years predicted ED symptomatology in young adulthood. VPT individuals are at risk for ED symptomatology, with evidence of associated structural alterations in posterior brain regions. Further prospective studies are needed to clarify the pathways that lead from perinatal/obstetric complications to ED and relevant neurobiological mechanisms. © 2015 The Authors. European Eating Disorders Review published by John Wiley &Sons, Ltd.

  16. Individual, Interpersonal, and Structural Power: Associations With Condom Use in a Sample of Young Adult Latinos.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Lynissa R; Harvey, S Marie; Warren, Jocelyn T

    2016-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with 480 sexually active Latino young adults from four rural counties in Oregon. We examined relationships between three levels of power (individual, interpersonal, and structural) and consistent condom use. Condom use self-efficacy and sexual decision-making, examples of individual and interpersonal measures of power, respectively, were associated with increased odds of consistent condom use among both men and women. Among men only, increasing relationship control, an interpersonal measure of power, was associated with lower odds of consistent condom use. Among women only, increasing medical mistrust, a structural measure of power, was associated with increased odds of consistent condom use.

  17. Multiple pathways from the neighborhood food environment to increased body mass index through dietary behaviors: A structural equation-based analysis in the CARDIA study

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Andrea S.; Meyer, Katie A.; Howard, Annie Green; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Popkin, Barry M.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Shikany, James M.; Lewis, Cora E.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine longitudinal pathways from multiple types of neighborhood restaurants and food stores to BMI, through dietary behaviors. Methods We used data from participants (n=5114) in the United States-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study and a structural equation model to estimate longitudinal (1985–86 to 2005–06) pathways simultaneously from neighborhood fast food restaurants, sit-down restaurants, supermarkets, and convenience stores to BMI through dietary behaviors, controlling for socioeconomic status (SES) and physical activity. Results Higher numbers of neighborhood fast food restaurants and lower numbers of sit-down restaurants were associated with higher consumption of an obesogenic fast food-type diet. The pathways from food stores to BMI through diet were inconsistent in magnitude and statistical significance. Conclusions Efforts to decrease the numbers of neighborhood fast food restaurants and to increase the numbers of sit-down restaurant options could influence diet behaviors. Availability of neighborhood fast food and sit-down restaurants may play comparatively stronger roles than food stores in shaping dietary behaviors and BMI. PMID:26454248

  18. Full equations utilities (FEQUTL) model for the approximation of hydraulic characteristics of open channels and control structures during unsteady flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franz, Delbert D.; Melching, Charles S.

    1997-01-01

    The Full EQuations UTiLities (FEQUTL) model is a computer program for computation of tables that list the hydraulic characteristics of open channels and control structures as a function of upstream and downstream depths; these tables facilitate the simulation of unsteady flow in a stream system with the Full Equations (FEQ) model. Simulation of unsteady flow requires many iterations for each time period computed. Thus, computation of hydraulic characteristics during the simulations is impractical, and preparation of function tables and application of table look-up procedures facilitates simulation of unsteady flow. Three general types of function tables are computed: one-dimensional tables that relate hydraulic characteristics to upstream flow depth, two-dimensional tables that relate flow through control structures to upstream and downstream flow depth, and three-dimensional tables that relate flow through gated structures to upstream and downstream flow depth and gate setting. For open-channel reaches, six types of one-dimensional function tables contain different combinations of the top width of flow, area, first moment of area with respect to the water surface, conveyance, flux coefficients, and correction coefficients for channel curvilinearity. For hydraulic control structures, one type of one-dimensional function table contains relations between flow and upstream depth, and two types of two-dimensional function tables contain relations among flow and upstream and downstream flow depths. For hydraulic control structures with gates, a three-dimensional function table lists the system of two-dimensional tables that contain the relations among flow and upstream and downstream flow depths that correspond to different gate openings. Hydraulic control structures for which function tables containing flow relations are prepared in FEQUTL include expansions, contractions, bridges, culverts, embankments, weirs, closed conduits (circular, rectangular, and pipe

  19. Spectral structure across the syllable specifies final-stop voicing for adults and children alike

    PubMed Central

    Nittrouer, Susan; Lowenstein, Joanna H.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional accounts of speech perception generally hold that listeners use isolable acoustic “cues” to label phonemes. For syllable-final stops, duration of the preceding vocalic portion and formant transitions at syllable’s end have been considered the primary cues to voicing decisions. The current experiment tried to extend traditional accounts by asking two questions concerning voicing decisions by adults and children: (1) What weight is given to vocalic duration versus spectral structure, both at syllable’s end and across the syllable? (2) Does the naturalness of stimuli affect labeling? Adults and children (4, 6, and 8 years old) labeled synthetic stimuli that varied in vocalic duration and spectral structure, either at syllable’s end or earlier in the syllable. Results showed that all listeners weighted dynamic spectral structure, both at syllable’s end and earlier in the syllable, more than vocalic duration, and listeners performed with these synthetic stimuli as listeners had performed previously with natural stimuli. The conclusion for accounts of human speech perception is that rather than simply gathering acoustic cues and summing them to derive strings of phonemic segments, listeners are able to attend to global spectral structure, and use it to help recover explicitly phonetic structure. PMID:18177167

  20. Spectral structure across the syllable specifies final-stop voicing for adults and children alike.

    PubMed

    Nittrouer, Susan; Lowenstein, Joanna H

    2008-01-01

    Traditional accounts of speech perception generally hold that listeners use isolable acoustic "cues" to label phonemes. For syllable-final stops, duration of the preceding vocalic portion and formant transitions at syllable's end have been considered the primary cues to voicing decisions. The current experiment tried to extend traditional accounts by asking two questions concerning voicing decisions by adults and children: (1) What weight is given to vocalic duration versus spectral structure, both at syllable's end and across the syllable? (2) Does the naturalness of stimuli affect labeling? Adults and children (4, 6, and 8 years old) labeled synthetic stimuli that varied in vocalic duration and spectral structure, either at syllable's end or earlier in the syllable. Results showed that all listeners weighted dynamic spectral structure, both at syllable's end and earlier in the syllable, more than vocalic duration, and listeners performed with these synthetic stimuli as listeners had performed previously with natural stimuli. The conclusion for accounts of human speech perception is that rather than simply gathering acoustic cues and summing them to derive strings of phonemic segments, listeners are able to attend to global spectral structure, and use it to help recover explicitly phonetic structure. PMID:18177167

  1. Two-generation analysis of pollen flow across a landscape. III. Impact of adult population structure.

    PubMed

    Austerlitz, F; Smouse, P E

    2001-12-01

    The rate and distance of instantaneous pollen flow in a population are parameters of considerable current interest for plant population geneticists and conservation biologists. We have recently developed an estimator (phi ft) of differentiation between the inferred pollen clouds that fertilize several females, sampled within a single population. We have shown that there is a simple relation between phi ft and the average pollen dispersal distance (delta) for the case of a population with no geographic structure. Though forest trees usually show considerable pollen flow, assuming an absence of spatially distributed genetic structure is not always wise. Here, we develop analytical theory for the relation between phi ft and delta, for the case where the probability of Identity by Descent (IBD) for two individuals decreases with the physical distance between them. This analytical theory allows us to provide an effective method for estimating pollen dispersal distance in a population with adult genetic structure. Using real examples, we show that estimation errors can be large if genetic structure is not taken into account, so it is wise to evaluate adult genetic structure simultaneously with estimation of phi ft for the pollen clouds. We show that the results are only moderately affected by changes in the decay function, a result of some importance since no completely established theory is available for this function.

  2. Structural equation modeling and nested ANOVA: Effects of lead exposure on maternal and fetal growth in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, J.D. ); O'Flaherty, E.J.; Shukla, R.; Gartside, P.S. ); Ross, R. )

    1994-01-01

    This study provided an assessment of the effects of lead on early growth in rats based on structural equation modeling and nested analysis of variance (ANOVA). Structural equation modeling showed that lead in drinking water (250, 500, or 1000 ppm) had a direct negative effect on body weight and tail length (i.e., growth) in female rats during the first week of exposure. During the following 2 weeks of exposure, high correlation between growth measurements taken over time resulted in reduced early postnatal growth. By the fourth week of exposure, reduced growth was not evident. Mating began after 8 weeks of exposure, and exposure continued during gestation. Decreased fetal body weight was detected when the effects of litter size, intrauterine position, and sex were controlled in a nested ANOVA. Lead exposure did not appear to affect fetal skeletal development, possibly because lead did not alter maternal serum calcium and phosphorus levels. The effect of lead on individual fetal body weight suggests that additional studies are needed to examine the effect of maternal lead exposure on fetal development and early postnatal growth. 24 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Communication: Multireference equation of motion coupled cluster: A transform and diagonalize approach to electronic structure

    SciTech Connect

    Nooijen, Marcel; Huntington, Lee M.; Demel, Ondřej; Datta, Dipayan; Kong, Liguo; Shamasundar, K. R.; Lotrich, V.; Neese, Frank

    2014-02-28

    The novel multireference equation-of-motion coupled-cluster (MREOM-CC) approaches provide versatile and accurate access to a large number of electronic states. The methods proceed by a sequence of many-body similarity transformations and a subsequent diagonalization of the transformed Hamiltonian over a compact subspace. The transformed Hamiltonian is a connected entity and preserves spin- and spatial symmetry properties of the original Hamiltonian, but is no longer Hermitean. The final diagonalization spaces are defined in terms of a complete active space (CAS) and limited excitations (1h, 1p, 2h, …) out of the CAS. The methods are invariant to rotations of orbitals within their respective subspaces (inactive, active, external). Applications to first row transition metal atoms (Cr, Mn, and Fe) are presented yielding results for up to 524 electronic states (for Cr) with an rms error compared to experiment of about 0.05 eV. The accuracy of the MREOM family of methods is closely related to its favorable extensivity properties as illustrated by calculations on the O{sub 2}–O{sub 2} dimer. The computational costs of the transformation steps in MREOM are comparable to those of closed-shell Coupled Cluster Singles and Doubles (CCSD) approach.

  4. Networks involved in olfaction and their dynamics using independent component analysis and unified structural equation modeling.

    PubMed

    Karunanayaka, Prasanna; Eslinger, Paul J; Wang, Jian-Li; Weitekamp, Christopher W; Molitoris, Sarah; Gates, Kathleen M; Molenaar, Peter C M; Yang, Qing X

    2014-05-01

    The study of human olfaction is complicated by the myriad of processing demands in conscious perceptual and emotional experiences of odors. Combining functional magnetic resonance imaging with convergent multivariate network analyses, we examined the spatiotemporal behavior of olfactory-generated blood-oxygenated-level-dependent signal in healthy adults. The experimental functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm was found to offset the limitations of olfactory habituation effects and permitted the identification of five functional networks. Analysis delineated separable neuronal circuits that were spatially centered in the primary olfactory cortex, striatum, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, rostral prefrontal cortex/anterior cingulate, and parietal-occipital junction. We hypothesize that these functional networks subserve primary perceptual, affective/motivational, and higher order olfactory-related cognitive processes. Results provided direct evidence for the existence of parallel networks with top-down modulation for olfactory processing and clearly distinguished brain activations that were sniffing-related versus odor-related. A comprehensive neurocognitive model for olfaction is presented that may be applied to broader translational studies of olfactory function, aging, and neurological disease.

  5. Domain decomposition method for Maxwell’s equations: Scattering off periodic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schädle, Achim; Zschiedrich, Lin; Burger, Sven; Klose, Roland; Schmidt, Frank

    2007-09-01

    We present a domain decomposition approach for the computation of the electromagnetic field within periodic structures. We use a Schwarz method with transparent boundary conditions at the interfaces of the domains. Transparent boundary conditions are approximated by the perfectly matched layer method (PML). An adaptive strategy to determine optimal PML parameters is developed. Thus we can treat Wood anomalies appearing in periodic structures. We focus on the application to typical EUV lithography line masks. Light propagation within the multilayer stack of the EUV mask is treated analytically. This results in a drastic reduction of the computational costs and allows for the simulation of next generation lithography masks on a standard personal computer.

  6. Electrophysiological responses to argument structure violations in healthy adults and individuals with agrammatic aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Kielar, Aneta; Meltzer-Asscher, Aya; Thompson, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Sentence comprehension requires processing of argument structure information associated with verbs, i.e. the number and type of arguments that they select. Many individuals with agrammatic aphasia show impaired production of verbs with greater argument structure density. The extent to which these participants also show argument structure deficits during comprehension, however, is unclear. Some studies find normal access to verb arguments, whereas others report impaired ability. The present study investigated verb argument structure processing in agrammatic aphasia by examining event-related potentials associated with argument structure violations in healthy young and older adults as well as aphasic individuals. A semantic violation condition was included to investigate possible differences in sensitivity to semantic and argument structure information during sentence processing. Results for the healthy control participants showed a negativity followed by a positive shift (N400-P600) in the argument structure violation condition, as found in previous ERP studies (Friederici & Frisch, 2000; Frisch, Hahne, & Friederici, 2004). In contrast, individuals with agrammatic aphasia showed a P600, but no N400, response to argument structure mismatches. Additionally, compared to the control groups, the agrammatic participants showed an attenuated, but relatively preserved, N400 response to semantic violations. These data show that agrammatic individuals do not demonstrate normal real-time sensitivity to verb argument structure requirements during sentence processing. PMID:23022079

  7. Beyond narrative: Is there an implicit structure to the way in which adults organise their discourse?

    PubMed

    Whitworth, Anne; Claessen, Mary; Leitão, Suze; Webster, Janet

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the structure of discourse in healthy adults is fundamental to the assessment and diagnosis of discourse level impairments in clinical populations and the development of effective treatment regimes. Exploring discourse genre in healthy speakers that extend beyond the traditional narrative is equally paramount in facilitating maximum impact of clinical interventions in everyday speaking contexts. This study aimed to characterise the discourse of 30 healthy adult speakers across three age groups (20-39, 40-59 and 60+ years) and four discourse genres (recount, procedural, exposition and narrative), drawing on discourse frameworks used in classroom teaching. A clinically useful discourse protocol and analytic procedure using SALT was developed that profiled the macrostructure and key aspects of linguistic microstructure of the different genres, exploring coherence and cohesion within and across genre in a systematic manner. Analyses considered whether there were differences in coherence and cohesion among the different age groups, different genres and specific topics. Results showed that, while individual variability was present, healthy adults structured their discourse consistently, adhering to the frameworks described in the developmental literature, across all four genres. Significant age differences were only seen in the amount of information contained in the body of the discourse (i.e. events, steps or statements offered) with older participants offering less information. This dataset will enable comparisons to be drawn with clinical populations to determine the utility and the feasibility of the use of this framework for diagnosis and intervention. PMID:25774761

  8. Simvastatin and artesunate impact the structural organization of adult Schistosoma mansoni in hypercholesterolemic mice.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Alba Cristina Miranda de Barros; Santos, Thais da Silva; Neves, Renata Heisler; Lopes Torres, Eduardo José; Nogueira-Neto, José Firmino; Machado-Silva, José Roberto

    2016-08-01

    Experimental data have shown that simvastatin and artesunate possess activity against Schistosoma mansoni worms in mice fed standard chow. However, little is known regarding the roles of these drugs in mice fed high-fat chow. We have extended past studies by measuring the effects of these drugs on the structural organization of adult schistosomes in hypercholesterolemic mice. For this purpose, mice were gavaged with either simvastatin or artesunate at nine weeks post-infection and were euthanized by cervical dislocation at two weeks post-treatment. Adult worms were then collected and examined by conventional light microscopy, morphometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Plasma total cholesterol and worm reduction rates were significantly increased in mice fed high-fat chow compared with their respective control groups. Simvastatin and artesunate caused changes in the tegument, tubercles, and reproductive system (testicular lobes, vitelline glands and ovarian cells), particularly when administered to mice fed high-fat chow. In particular, the tegument and tubercles were significantly thinner in artesunate-treated worms in mice fed high-fat chow compared with mice fed standard chow. This study thus demonstrated that simvastatin and artesunate have several novel effects on the structural organization of adult worms. Together, these results show, for the first time, that simvastatin and artesunate display antischistosomal activity in hypercholesterolemic mice.

  9. Beyond narrative: Is there an implicit structure to the way in which adults organise their discourse?

    PubMed

    Whitworth, Anne; Claessen, Mary; Leitão, Suze; Webster, Janet

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the structure of discourse in healthy adults is fundamental to the assessment and diagnosis of discourse level impairments in clinical populations and the development of effective treatment regimes. Exploring discourse genre in healthy speakers that extend beyond the traditional narrative is equally paramount in facilitating maximum impact of clinical interventions in everyday speaking contexts. This study aimed to characterise the discourse of 30 healthy adult speakers across three age groups (20-39, 40-59 and 60+ years) and four discourse genres (recount, procedural, exposition and narrative), drawing on discourse frameworks used in classroom teaching. A clinically useful discourse protocol and analytic procedure using SALT was developed that profiled the macrostructure and key aspects of linguistic microstructure of the different genres, exploring coherence and cohesion within and across genre in a systematic manner. Analyses considered whether there were differences in coherence and cohesion among the different age groups, different genres and specific topics. Results showed that, while individual variability was present, healthy adults structured their discourse consistently, adhering to the frameworks described in the developmental literature, across all four genres. Significant age differences were only seen in the amount of information contained in the body of the discourse (i.e. events, steps or statements offered) with older participants offering less information. This dataset will enable comparisons to be drawn with clinical populations to determine the utility and the feasibility of the use of this framework for diagnosis and intervention.

  10. System Characteristics, Satisfaction and E-Learning Usage: A Structural Equation Model (SEM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramayah, T.; Lee, Jason Wai Chow

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of the Internet, more and more public universities in Malaysia are putting in effort to introduce e-learning in their respective universities. Using a structured questionnaire derived from the literature, data was collected from 250 undergraduate students from a public university in Penang, Malaysia. Data was analyzed using AMOS…

  11. Burgers' equation, Devil's staircases and the mass distribution for large-scale structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergassola, M.; Dubrulle, B.; Frisch, U.; Noullez, A.

    1994-09-01

    In the simple one-dimensional case, with ordinary Brownian motion as initial condition, numerically supported conjectures by She et al. have led to a proof by Sinai of the following result: there is a Devil's staricase of dimension 1/2 in the Lagranian map for the solution of the Burgers equation in the limit of vanishing viscosity. The main goal of this paper is to give a comprehensive introduction to these recent theoretical develpments and the extend them to initial power-law spectra with a wide range of exponents and to more than one dimension. The necessary geometric and probablistic tools, due mostly to Sinai, are here presented in a detailed but rather elementary way, intended for a readership of general physicists. The extensions of Sinai's theory presented here offer included heuristic elements. Most of the predictions are however tested by accurate numerical experiments in one and two dimensions, using a new 'Fast Legendre Transform' algorithm which exploits a monotonicity property and has very low storage requirements. Predictions of the present theory for the mass function are compared to those of Press and Schechter (1974). Their expression for the mass function is found to agree with the adhesion model at large masses in any dimension. At small masses, there are discrpancies in dimension. At small masses, there are discrpancies in dimensions higher than one. In one dimension the scaling behavior at small masses is correctly given by the Press-Schechter theory. Sinai's theory, recast in the language of gravitational collapse, tells us that the scaling originates not from the condition of collapse of a given region of small size, but from a condition of non-collapse of an extended halo around the region.

  12. Effects of increasing physical activity on foot structure and ankle muscle strength in adults with obesity

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaoguang; Tsujimoto, Takehiko; Kim, Bokun; Katayama, Yasutomi; Wakaba, Kyousuke; Wang, Zhennan; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of increasing physical activity on foot structure and ankle muscle strength in adults with obesity and to verify whether the rate of change in foot structure is related to that in ankle muscle strength. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-seven adults with obesity completed a 12-week program in which the intensity of physical activity performed was gradually increased. Physical activity was monitored using a three-axis accelerometer. Foot structure was assessed using a three-dimensional foot scanner, while ankle muscle strength was measured using a dynamometry. [Results] With the increasing physical activity, the participants’ feet became thinner (the rearfoot width, instep height, and girth decreased) and the arch became higher (the arch height index increased) and stiffer (the arch stiffness index increased); the ankle muscle strength also increased after the intervention. Additionally, the changes in the arch height index and arch stiffness index were not associated with changes in ankle muscle strength. [Conclusion] Increasing physical activity may be one possible approach to improve foot structure and function in individuals with obesity.

  13. Effects of increasing physical activity on foot structure and ankle muscle strength in adults with obesity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoguang; Tsujimoto, Takehiko; Kim, Bokun; Katayama, Yasutomi; Wakaba, Kyousuke; Wang, Zhennan; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of increasing physical activity on foot structure and ankle muscle strength in adults with obesity and to verify whether the rate of change in foot structure is related to that in ankle muscle strength. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-seven adults with obesity completed a 12-week program in which the intensity of physical activity performed was gradually increased. Physical activity was monitored using a three-axis accelerometer. Foot structure was assessed using a three-dimensional foot scanner, while ankle muscle strength was measured using a dynamometry. [Results] With the increasing physical activity, the participants' feet became thinner (the rearfoot width, instep height, and girth decreased) and the arch became higher (the arch height index increased) and stiffer (the arch stiffness index increased); the ankle muscle strength also increased after the intervention. Additionally, the changes in the arch height index and arch stiffness index were not associated with changes in ankle muscle strength. [Conclusion] Increasing physical activity may be one possible approach to improve foot structure and function in individuals with obesity. PMID:27630426

  14. Single adult kidney stem/progenitor cells reconstitute three-dimensional nephron structures in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Shinji; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Makino, Hirofumi

    2015-03-01

    The kidneys are formed during development from two distinct primordial tissues, the metanephric mesenchyme and the ureteric bud. The metanephric mesenchyme develops into the kidney nephron, the minimal functional unit of the kidney. A nephron consists of several segments and regulates water, electrolyte, and acid-base homeostasis in addition to secreting certain hormones. It has been predicted that the kidney will be among the last organs successfully regenerated in vitro due to its complex structure and multiple functions. Here, we show that adult kidney stem/progenitor cells (KS cells), derived from the S3 segment of adult rat kidney nephrons, can reconstitute a three-dimensional kidney-like structure in vitro. Kidney-like structures were formed when a cluster of KS cells was suspended in an extracellular matrix gel and cultured in the presence of several growth factors. Morphological analyses revealed that these kidney-like structures contained every substructure of the kidney, including glomeruli, proximal tubules, the loop of Henle, distal tubules, and collecting ducts, but no vasculature. Our results demonstrate that a cluster of tissue stem/progenitor cells has the ability to reconstitute the minimum unit of its organ of origin by differentiating into specialized cells in the correct location. This process differs from embryonic kidney development, which requires the mutual induction of two different populations of progenitors, metanephric mesenchymal cells and ureteric bud cells.

  15. Effects of increasing physical activity on foot structure and ankle muscle strength in adults with obesity

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaoguang; Tsujimoto, Takehiko; Kim, Bokun; Katayama, Yasutomi; Wakaba, Kyousuke; Wang, Zhennan; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of increasing physical activity on foot structure and ankle muscle strength in adults with obesity and to verify whether the rate of change in foot structure is related to that in ankle muscle strength. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-seven adults with obesity completed a 12-week program in which the intensity of physical activity performed was gradually increased. Physical activity was monitored using a three-axis accelerometer. Foot structure was assessed using a three-dimensional foot scanner, while ankle muscle strength was measured using a dynamometry. [Results] With the increasing physical activity, the participants’ feet became thinner (the rearfoot width, instep height, and girth decreased) and the arch became higher (the arch height index increased) and stiffer (the arch stiffness index increased); the ankle muscle strength also increased after the intervention. Additionally, the changes in the arch height index and arch stiffness index were not associated with changes in ankle muscle strength. [Conclusion] Increasing physical activity may be one possible approach to improve foot structure and function in individuals with obesity. PMID:27630426

  16. Querying databases of trajectories of differential equations: Data structures for trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, Robert

    1989-01-01

    One approach to qualitative reasoning about dynamical systems is to extract qualitative information by searching or making queries on databases containing very large numbers of trajectories. The efficiency of such queries depends crucially upon finding an appropriate data structure for trajectories of dynamical systems. Suppose that a large number of parameterized trajectories gamma of a dynamical system evolving in R sup N are stored in a database. Let Eta is contained in set R sup N denote a parameterized path in Euclidean Space, and let the Euclidean Norm denote a norm on the space of paths. A data structure is defined to represent trajectories of dynamical systems, and an algorithm is sketched which answers queries.

  17. Simulation of large turbulent structures with the parabolic Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakich, J. V.; Davis, R. T.; Barnett, M.

    1982-01-01

    The theoretical basis for well posed marching of a Parabolic Navier-Stokes (PNS) computational technique for supersonic flow is discussed and examples given to verify the analysis. It is demonstrated that stable computations can be made even with very small steps in the marching direction. The method is applied to cones at large angle of attack in high Reynolds number, supersonic flow. Streamline trajectories generated from the numerical solutions demonstrate the development of vortex structures on the lee side of the cone.

  18. Multi-Center Electronic Structure Calculations for Plasma Equation of State

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, B G; Johnson, D D; Alam, A

    2010-12-14

    We report on an approach for computing electronic structure utilizing solid-state multi-center scattering techniques, but generalized to finite temperatures to model plasmas. This approach has the advantage of handling mixtures at a fundamental level without the imposition of ad hoc continuum lowering models, and incorporates bonding and charge exchange, as well as multi-center effects in the calculation of the continuum density of states.

  19. Network community structure alterations in adult schizophrenia: identification and localization of alterations.

    PubMed

    Lerman-Sinkoff, Dov B; Barch, Deanna M

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests functional connectivity alterations in schizophrenia. While findings have been mixed, evidence points towards a complex pattern of hyper-connectivity and hypo-connectivity. This altered connectivity can be represented and analyzed using the mathematical frameworks provided by graph and information theory to represent functional connectivity data as graphs comprised of nodes and edges linking the nodes. One analytic technique in this framework is the determination and analysis of network community structure, which is the grouping of nodes into linked communities or modules. This data-driven technique finds a best-fit structure such that nodes in a given community have greater connectivity with nodes in their community than with nodes in other communities. These community structure representations have been found to recapitulate known neural-systems in healthy individuals, have been used to identify novel functional systems, and have identified and localized community structure alterations in a childhood onset schizophrenia cohort. In the present study, we sought to determine whether community structure alterations were present in an adult onset schizophrenia cohort while stringently controlling for sources of imaging artifacts. Group level average graphs in healthy controls and individuals with schizophrenia exhibited visually similar network community structures and high amounts of normalized mutual information (NMI). However, testing of individual subject community structures identified small but significant alterations in community structure with alterations being driven by changes in node community membership in the somatosensory, auditory, default mode, salience, and subcortical networks. PMID:26793435

  20. Network community structure alterations in adult schizophrenia: identification and localization of alterations

    PubMed Central

    Lerman-Sinkoff, Dov B.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests functional connectivity alterations in schizophrenia. While findings have been mixed, evidence points towards a complex pattern of hyper-connectivity and hypo-connectivity. This altered connectivity can be represented and analyzed using the mathematical frameworks provided by graph and information theory to represent functional connectivity data as graphs comprised of nodes and edges linking the nodes. One analytic technique in this framework is the determination and analysis of network community structure, which is the grouping of nodes into linked communities or modules. This data-driven technique finds a best-fit structure such that nodes in a given community have greater connectivity with nodes in their community than with nodes in other communities. These community structure representations have been found to recapitulate known neural-systems in healthy individuals, have been used to identify novel functional systems, and have identified and localized community structure alterations in a childhood onset schizophrenia cohort. In the present study, we sought to determine whether community structure alterations were present in an adult onset schizophrenia cohort while stringently controlling for sources of imaging artifacts. Group level average graphs in healthy controls and individuals with schizophrenia exhibited visually similar network community structures and high amounts of normalized mutual information (NMI). However, testing of individual subject community structures identified small but significant alterations in community structure with alterations being driven by changes in node community membership in the somatosensory, auditory, default mode, salience, and subcortical networks. PMID:26793435

  1. Network community structure alterations in adult schizophrenia: identification and localization of alterations.

    PubMed

    Lerman-Sinkoff, Dov B; Barch, Deanna M

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests functional connectivity alterations in schizophrenia. While findings have been mixed, evidence points towards a complex pattern of hyper-connectivity and hypo-connectivity. This altered connectivity can be represented and analyzed using the mathematical frameworks provided by graph and information theory to represent functional connectivity data as graphs comprised of nodes and edges linking the nodes. One analytic technique in this framework is the determination and analysis of network community structure, which is the grouping of nodes into linked communities or modules. This data-driven technique finds a best-fit structure such that nodes in a given community have greater connectivity with nodes in their community than with nodes in other communities. These community structure representations have been found to recapitulate known neural-systems in healthy individuals, have been used to identify novel functional systems, and have identified and localized community structure alterations in a childhood onset schizophrenia cohort. In the present study, we sought to determine whether community structure alterations were present in an adult onset schizophrenia cohort while stringently controlling for sources of imaging artifacts. Group level average graphs in healthy controls and individuals with schizophrenia exhibited visually similar network community structures and high amounts of normalized mutual information (NMI). However, testing of individual subject community structures identified small but significant alterations in community structure with alterations being driven by changes in node community membership in the somatosensory, auditory, default mode, salience, and subcortical networks.

  2. Comparison of ideal body weight equations and published height-weight tables with body mass index tables for healthy adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Shah, Bhumika; Sucher, Kathryn; Hollenbeck, Clarie B

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to compare the ideal body weight (IBW) formulas and published height-weight tables for healthy adults in the United States with the body mass index (BMI) of 22 kg/m2, which is associated with lowest mortality. There are numerous formulas and published height-weight tables available to determine IBW, but there are no published studies comparing the validity of formulas with each other or comparing formulas with BMIs. Data from height-weight tables, weight for specific heights determined by IBW formulas, and weight for BMIs of 20, 22, 25, and 30 kg/m2 at different heights were plotted for both men and women. Slopes based on a range of heights were determined for each formula using relational database software. The value for each slope obtained by linear regression was compared with the BMIs to determine which fit best with BMI of 22 kg/m2. Most height-weight tables and formulas predicted IBWs within the range of BMI of 20-25 kg/m2. However, for shorter heights the formulas were closer to BMI 20 kg/m2 and for taller heights, were closer to BMI 25 kg/m2. Height-weight tables' slopes were closer to the BMI slopes than formula slopes. Robinson's formula appears to be the best equation for calculating desirable/healthy weights in men; however, no formula predicted close to a BMI of 22 kg/m2 for women. Thus, in practice it might be more useful to use BMI ranges instead of IBW formulas for men and women.

  3. Linking structural equation modeling with Bayesian network and its application to coastal phytoplankton dynamics in the Bohai Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiao-fu; Sun, Jian; Nie, Hong-tao; Yuan, De-kui; Tao, Jian-hua

    2016-10-01

    Bayesian networks (BN) have many advantages over other methods in ecological modeling, and have become an increasingly popular modeling tool. However, BN are flawed in regard to building models based on inadequate existing knowledge. To overcome this limitation, we propose a new method that links BN with structural equation modeling (SEM). In this method, SEM is used to improve the model structure for BN. This method was used to simulate coastal phytoplankton dynamics in the Bohai Bay. We demonstrate that this hybrid approach minimizes the need for expert elicitation, generates more reasonable structures for BN models, and increases the BN model's accuracy and reliability. These results suggest that the inclusion of SEM for testing and verifying the theoretical structure during the initial construction stage improves the effectiveness of BN models, especially for complex eco-environment systems. The results also demonstrate that in the Bohai Bay, while phytoplankton biomass has the greatest influence on phytoplankton dynamics, the impact of nutrients on phytoplankton dynamics is larger than the influence of the physical environment in summer. Furthermore, although the Redfield ratio indicates that phosphorus should be the primary nutrient limiting factor, our results show that silicate plays the most important role in regulating phytoplankton dynamics in the Bohai Bay.

  4. Inverse Material Identification in Coupled Acoustic-Structure Interaction using a Modified Error in Constitutive Equation Functional

    PubMed Central

    Warner, James E.; Diaz, Manuel I.; Aquino, Wilkins; Bonnet, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This work focuses on the identification of heterogeneous linear elastic moduli in the context of frequency-domain, coupled acoustic-structure interaction (ASI), using either solid displacement or fluid pressure measurement data. The approach postulates the inverse problem as an optimization problem where the solution is obtained by minimizing a modified error in constitutive equation (MECE) functional. The latter measures the discrepancy in the constitutive equations that connect kinematically admissible strains and dynamically admissible stresses, while incorporating the measurement data as additional quadratic error terms. We demonstrate two strategies for selecting the MECE weighting coefficient to produce regularized solutions to the ill-posed identification problem: 1) the discrepancy principle of Morozov, and 2) an error-balance approach that selects the weight parameter as the minimizer of another functional involving the ECE and the data misfit. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed methodology can successfully recover elastic parameters in 2D and 3D ASI systems from response measurements taken in either the solid or fluid subdomains. Furthermore, both regularization strategies are shown to produce accurate reconstructions when the measurement data is polluted with noise. The discrepancy principle is shown to produce nearly optimal solutions, while the error-balance approach, although not optimal, remains effective and does not need a priori information on the noise level. PMID:25339790

  5. Inverse material identification in coupled acoustic-structure interaction using a modified error in constitutive equation functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, James E.; Diaz, Manuel I.; Aquino, Wilkins; Bonnet, Marc

    2014-09-01

    This work focuses on the identification of heterogeneous linear elastic moduli in the context of frequency-domain, coupled acoustic-structure interaction (ASI), using either solid displacement or fluid pressure measurement data. The approach postulates the inverse problem as an optimization problem where the solution is obtained by minimizing a modified error in constitutive equation (MECE) functional. The latter measures the discrepancy in the constitutive equations that connect kinematically admissible strains and dynamically admissible stresses, while incorporating the measurement data as additional quadratic error terms. We demonstrate two strategies for selecting the MECE weighting coefficient to produce regularized solutions to the ill-posed identification problem: 1) the discrepancy principle of Morozov, and 2) an error-balance approach that selects the weight parameter as the minimizer of another functional involving the ECE and the data misfit. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed methodology can successfully recover elastic parameters in 2D and 3D ASI systems from response measurements taken in either the solid or fluid subdomains. Furthermore, both regularization strategies are shown to produce accurate reconstructions when the measurement data is polluted with noise. The discrepancy principle is shown to produce nearly optimal solutions, while the error-balance approach, although not optimal, remains effective and does not need a priori information on the noise level.

  6. Differences in within- and between-person factor structure of positive and negative affect: analysis of two intensive measurement studies using multilevel structural equation modeling.

    PubMed

    Rush, Jonathan; Hofer, Scott M

    2014-06-01

    The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) is a widely used measure of emotional experience. The factor structure of the PANAS has been examined predominantly with cross-sectional designs, which fails to disaggregate within-person variation from between-person differences. There is still uncertainty as to the factor structure of positive and negative affect and whether they constitute 2 distinct independent factors. The present study examined the within-person and between-person factor structure of the PANAS in 2 independent samples that reported daily affect over 7 and 14 occasions, respectively. Results from multilevel confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a 2-factor structure at both the within-person and between-person levels, with correlated specific factors for overlapping items, provided good model fit. The best-fitting solution was one where within-person factors of positive and negative affect were inversely correlated, but between-person factors were independent. The structure was further validated through multilevel structural equation modeling examining the effects of cognitive interference, daily stress, physical symptoms, and physical activity on positive and negative affect factors.

  7. Understanding the relationships between self-esteem, experiential avoidance, and paranoia: structural equation modelling and experience sampling studies.

    PubMed

    Udachina, Alisa; Thewissen, Viviane; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Fitzpatrick, Sam; O'kane, Aisling; Bentall, Richard P

    2009-09-01

    Hypothesized relationships between experiential avoidance (EA), self-esteem, and paranoia were tested using structural equation modeling in a sample of student participants (N = 427). EA in everyday life was also investigated using the Experience Sampling Method in a subsample of students scoring high (N = 17) and low (N = 15) on paranoia. Results showed that paranoid students had lower self-esteem and reported higher levels of EA than nonparanoid participants. The interactive influence of EA and stress predicted negative self-esteem: EA was particularly damaging at high levels of stress. Greater EA and higher social stress independently predicted lower positive self-esteem. Low positive self-esteem predicted engagement in EA. A direct association between EA and paranoia was also found. These results suggest that similar mechanisms may underlie EA and thought suppression. Although people may employ EA to regulate self-esteem, this strategy is maladaptive as it damages self-esteem, incurs cognitive costs, and fosters paranoid thinking.

  8. A multilevel structural equation modeling analysis of vulnerabilities and resilience resources influencing affective adaptation to chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Sturgeon, John A; Zautra, Alex J; Arewasikporn, Anne

    2014-02-01

    The processes of individual adaptation to chronic pain are complex and occur across multiple domains. We examined the social, cognitive, and affective context of daily pain adaptation in individuals with fibromyalgia and osteoarthritis. By using a sample of 260 women with fibromyalgia or osteoarthritis, we examined the contributions of pain catastrophizing, negative interpersonal events, and positive interpersonal events to daily negative and positive affect across 30days of daily diary data. Individual differences and daily fluctuations in predictor variables were estimated simultaneously by utilizing multilevel structural equation modeling techniques. The relationships between pain and negative and positive affect were mediated by stable and day-to-day levels of pain catastrophizing as well as day-to-day positive interpersonal events, but not negative interpersonal events. There were significant and independent contributions of pain catastrophizing and positive interpersonal events to adaptation to pain and pain-related affective dysregulation. These effects occur both between persons and within a person's everyday life.

  9. Structural parameters of glycine zwitterion hydration from the data of the integral equation method in the RISM approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedotova, M. V.; Kruchinin, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    The structural parameters of glycine zwitterion in water were studied by means of the integral equation method in the framework of the RISM approximation. According to calculations, five water molecules are located in the nearest environment of the -NH{3/+} group, and two of them are the H-bonded with this group. At the same time, six water molecules are located in the nearest environment of the -COO- group, and three of them are the H-bonded with this group. The average number of water molecules in the first hydration shell of -CH2 group is four. It has been shown that the probability of hydrogen bond formation between water molecules and the hydrogen atom H1 of the -NH{3/+} group is low, and there is no H-bonding between water molecules and the nitrogen atom the -NH{3/+} group.

  10. The Relationships between Individualism, Nationalism, Ethnocentrism, and Authoritarianism in Flanders: A Continuous Time-Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    PubMed

    Angraini, Yenni; Toharudin, Toni; Folmer, Henk; Oud, Johan H L

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the relationships among nationalism (N), individualism (I), ethnocentrism (E), and authoritarianism (A) in continuous time (CT), estimated as a structural equation model. The analysis is based on the General Election Study for Flanders, Belgium, for 1991, 1995, and 1999. We find reciprocal effects between A and E and between E and I as well as a unidirectional effect from A on I. We furthermore find relatively small, but significant, effects from both I and E on N but no effect from A on N or from N on any of the other variables. Because of its central role in the N-I-E-A complex, mitigation of authoritarianism has the largest potential to reduce the spread of nationalism, ethnocentrism, and racism in Flanders. PMID:26745672

  11. Electronic structure and equation of state of Sm2Co17 from first-principles DFT+ U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Patrick; Butch, Nicholas P.; Jeffries, Jason R.; McCall, Scott K.

    2013-03-01

    Rare-earth intermetallics have important applications as permanent magnet materials, and the rational optimization of their properties would benefit greatly from guidance from ab initio modeling. However, these systems are particularly challenging for current electronic structure methods. Here, we present an ab initio study of the prototype material Sm2Co17 and related compounds, using density functional theory with a Hubbard correction for the Sm 4 f-electrons (DFT+ U method) and ultrasoft pseudopotentials. The Hubbard U parameter is derived from first principles [Cococcioni and de Gironcoli, PRB 71, 035105 (2005)], not fit to experiment. Our calculations are in good agreement with recent photoemission measurements at ambient pressure and the equation of state up to 40 GPa, thus supporting the validity of our DFT+ U model. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  12. Using bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling to examine global and specific factors in measures of sports coaches' interpersonal styles

    PubMed Central

    Stenling, Andreas; Ivarsson, Andreas; Hassmén, Peter; Lindwall, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    In the present work we investigated distinct sources of construct-relevant psychometric multidimensionality in two sport-specific measures of coaches' need-supportive (ISS-C) and controlling interpersonal (CCBS) styles. A recently proposed bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) framework was employed to achieve this aim. In Study 1, using a sample of floorball players, the results indicated that the ISS-C can be considered as a unidimensional measure, with one global factor explaining most of the variance in the items. In Study 2, using a sample of male ice hockey players, the results indicated that the items in the CCBS are represented by both a general factor and specific factors, but the subscales differ with regard to the amount of variance in the items accounted for by the general and specific factors. These results add further insight into the psychometric properties of these two measures and the dimensionality of these two constructs. PMID:26388808

  13. Making things happen: reciprocal relationships between work characteristics and personal initiative in a four-wave longitudinal structural equation model.

    PubMed

    Frese, Michael; Garst, Harry; Fay, Doris

    2007-07-01

    The authors used the frameworks of reciprocal determinism and occupational socialization to study the effects of work characteristics (consisting of control and complexity of work) on personal initiative (PI)--mediated by control orientation (a 2nd-order factor consisting of control aspiration, perceived opportunity for control, and self-efficacy) and the reciprocal effects of PI on changes in work characteristics. They applied structural equation modeling to a longitudinal study with 4 measurement waves (N = 268) in a transitional economy: East Germany. Results confirm the model plus 1 additional, nonhypothesized effect. Work characteristics had a synchronous effect on PI via control orientation (full mediation). There were also effects of control orientation and of PI on later changes in work characteristics: As predicted, PI functioned as partial mediator, changing work characteristics in the long term (reciprocal effect); unexpectedly, there was a 2nd reciprocal effect of an additional lagged partial mediation of control orientation on later work characteristics. PMID:17638467

  14. Using bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling to examine global and specific factors in measures of sports coaches' interpersonal styles.

    PubMed

    Stenling, Andreas; Ivarsson, Andreas; Hassmén, Peter; Lindwall, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    In the present work we investigated distinct sources of construct-relevant psychometric multidimensionality in two sport-specific measures of coaches' need-supportive (ISS-C) and controlling interpersonal (CCBS) styles. A recently proposed bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) framework was employed to achieve this aim. In Study 1, using a sample of floorball players, the results indicated that the ISS-C can be considered as a unidimensional measure, with one global factor explaining most of the variance in the items. In Study 2, using a sample of male ice hockey players, the results indicated that the items in the CCBS are represented by both a general factor and specific factors, but the subscales differ with regard to the amount of variance in the items accounted for by the general and specific factors. These results add further insight into the psychometric properties of these two measures and the dimensionality of these two constructs. PMID:26388808

  15. The Relationships between Individualism, Nationalism, Ethnocentrism, and Authoritarianism in Flanders: A Continuous Time-Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    PubMed

    Angraini, Yenni; Toharudin, Toni; Folmer, Henk; Oud, Johan H L

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the relationships among nationalism (N), individualism (I), ethnocentrism (E), and authoritarianism (A) in continuous time (CT), estimated as a structural equation model. The analysis is based on the General Election Study for Flanders, Belgium, for 1991, 1995, and 1999. We find reciprocal effects between A and E and between E and I as well as a unidirectional effect from A on I. We furthermore find relatively small, but significant, effects from both I and E on N but no effect from A on N or from N on any of the other variables. Because of its central role in the N-I-E-A complex, mitigation of authoritarianism has the largest potential to reduce the spread of nationalism, ethnocentrism, and racism in Flanders.

  16. A patient satisfaction theory and its robustness across gender in emergency departments: a multigroup structural equation modeling investigation.

    PubMed

    Aragon, Stephen J; Gesell, Sabina B

    2003-01-01

    This investigation tested the patient-centered Primary Provider Theory of Patient Satisfaction across gender in national random samples of emergency patients. Using multigroup structural equation modeling, the results supported the model's robustness. Physician service, waiting time, and nursing satisfaction explained 48%, 41%, and 11% of overall satisfaction plus 92% and 93% of female and male satisfaction, respectively. Unit increases in physician service satisfaction increased waiting time, nursing, and overall satisfaction by 0.991, 0.844, and 1.031 units, respectively. Unit increases in waiting time satisfaction increased nursing and overall satisfaction by 0.417 and 0.685 units, respectively. A unit increase in nursing satisfaction increased overall service satisfaction by 0.221 units. The investigation offers an alternative paradigm for measuring and achieving emergency department satisfaction, hierarchically related to patient expectations, where the primary provider has the greatest clinical utility to patients, followed by waiting for the primary provider, and then by nursing service.

  17. Self-medication among traumatized youth: structural equation modeling of pathways between trauma history, substance misuse, and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Garland, Eric L; Pettus-Davis, Carrie; Howard, Matthew O

    2013-04-01

    In an effort to self-medicate psychological distress stemming from exposure to traumatic life events, at-risk youth may be likely to seek intoxication via substance use. Concomitantly, self-medication with psychoactive substances is theorized to confer risk of developing future psychiatric and substance use disorders. The present study employed structural equation modeling to examine self-medication among a sample of 723 youth in residential treatment for antisocial behavior via recursive and non-recursive relationships between trauma history, substance misuse, and psychological distress. Results supported study hypotheses that: (a) the effects of trauma history on psychological distress are partially mediated by substance misuse, and (b) exposure to traumatic life events drives a feedback loop between substance misuse and psychological distress. Findings from this large-scale survey of adolescents exhibiting behavioral dysfunction suggest that identification of self-medication processes among traumatized youth may be crucial for developing targeted prevention and treatment initiatives.

  18. Effect of Isomeric Structures of Branched Cyclic Hydrocarbons on Densities and Equation of State Predictions at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yue; Bamgbade, Babatunde A; Burgess, Ward A; Tapriyal, Deepak; Baled, Hseen O; Enick, Robert M; McHugh, Mark

    2013-07-25

    The cis and trans conformation of a branched cyclic hydrocarbon affects the packing and, hence, the density, exhibited by that compound. Reported here are density data for branched cyclohexane (C6) compounds including methylcyclohexane, ethylcyclohexane (ethylcC6), cis-1,2-dimethylcyclohexane (cis-1,2), cis-1,4-dimethylcyclohexane (cis-1,4), and trans-1,4-dimethylcyclohexane (trans-1,4) determined at temperatures up to 525 K and pressures up to 275 MPa. Of the four branched C6 isomers, cis-1,2 exhibits the largest densities and the smallest densities are exhibited by trans-1,4. The densities are modeled with the Peng–Robinson (PR) equation of state (EoS), the high-temperature, high-pressure, volume-translated (HTHP VT) PREoS, and the perturbed chain, statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) EoS. Model calculations highlight the capability of these equations to account for the different densities observed for the four isomers investigated in this study. The HTHP VT-PREoS provides modest improvements over the PREoS, but neither cubic EoS is capable of accounting for the effect of isomer structural differences on the observed densities. The PC-SAFT EoS, with pure component parameters from the literature or from a group contribution method, provides improved density predictions relative to those obtained with the PREoS or HTHP VT-PREoS. However, the PC-SAFT EoS, with either set of parameters, also cannot fully account for the effect of the C6 isomer structure on the resultant density.

  19. Investigating the Effects of Strategy Use and Second Language Test Performance with High- and Low-Ability Test Takers: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purpura, James E.

    1998-01-01

    Uses structural equation modelling to examine the relationship between learning strategy use and second-language test performance (SLTP) in 1,382 high- and low-ability test takers. Results showed metacognitive strategy use and SLTP models produced similar factorial structures for each group; cognitive strategy use models differed. This suggests…

  20. Distribution of cuticular proteins in different structures of adult Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yihong; Badgett, Majors J; Bowen, John Hunter; Vannini, Laura; Orlando, Ron; Willis, Judith H

    2016-08-01

    Anopheles gambiae devotes over 2% (295) of its protein coding genes to structural cuticular proteins (CPs) that have been classified into 13 different families plus ten low complexity proteins not assigned to families. Small groups of genes code for identical proteins reducing the total number of unique cuticular proteins to 282. Is the large number because different structures utilize different CPs, or are all of the genes widely expressed? We used LC-MS/MS to learn how many products of these genes were found in five adult structures: Johnston's organs, the remainder of the male antennae, eye lenses, legs, and wings. Data were analyzed against both the entire proteome and a smaller database of just CPs. We recovered unique peptides for 97 CPs and shared peptides for another 35. Members of 11 of the 13 families were recovered as well as some unclassified. Only 11 CPs were present exclusively in only one structure while 43 CPs were recovered from all five structures. A quantitative analysis, using normalized spectral counts, revealed that only a few CPs were abundant in each structure. When the MS/MS data were run against the entire proteome, the majority of the top hits were to CPs, but peptides were recovered from an additional 467 proteins. CP peptides were frequently recovered from chitin-binding domains, confirming that protein-chitin interactions are not mediated by covalent bonds. Comparison with three other MS/MS analyses of cuticles or cuticle-rich structures augmented the current analysis. Our findings provide new insights into the composition of different mosquito structures and reveal the complexity of selection and utilization of genes coding for structural cuticular proteins.