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Sample records for adults study design

  1. Designing a Weight Gain Prevention Trial for Young Adults: The CHOICES Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytle, Leslie A.; Moe, Stacey G.; Nanney, M. Susie; Laska, Melissa N.; Linde, Jennifer A.; Petrich, Christine A.; Sevcik, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Young adults are at risk for weight gain. Little is known about how to design weight control programs to meet the needs of young adults and few theory-based interventions have been evaluated in a randomized control trial. The Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings (CHOICES) study was funded to create a…

  2. Designing Support Programs for Adult Freshmen: A Case Study Using a Time Management Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wratcher, Marcia A.; Jones, Rosalind O.

    A case study of the development of a time management workshop for adult learners at the University of Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania) is presented. This workshop was designed because of the lack of appropriate support programs for adult learners. Many times, programs and materials created for traditional age students are inappropriate and impossible to…

  3. Designing a Weight Gain Prevention Trial for Young Adults: The CHOICES Study

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, Leslie A.; Moe, Stacey G.; Nanney, M. Susie; Laska, Melissa N.; Linde, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Young adults are at risk for weight gain. Little is known about how to design weight control programs to meet the needs of young adults and few theory-based interventions have been evaluated in a randomized control trial. The Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings (CHOICES) study was funded to create a technology-based program for 2-year community college students to help prevent unhealthy weight gain. The purpose of this paper is to: 1) provide a brief background on weight-related interventions in young adults; 2) describe the study design for the CHOICES study, the conceptual model guiding the research and the CHOICES intervention; and 3) discuss implications of this research for health educators. Translation to Health Education Practice Our experiences from the CHOICES study will be useful in suggesting other theory-based models and intervention strategies that might be helpful in programs attempting to prevent unhealthy weight gain in young adults. In addition, this paper discusses important considerations for working with 2-year colleges on this type of health promotion work. PMID:24910855

  4. Maintaining Exercise and Healthful Eating in Older Adults: The SENIOR Project II: Study Design and Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Phillip G.; Blissmer, Bryan J.; Greene, Geoffrey W.; Lees, Faith D.; Riebe, Deborah A.; Stamm, Karen E.

    2015-01-01

    The Study of Exercise and Nutrition in Older Rhode Islanders (SENIOR) Project II is an intervention study to promote the maintenance of both exercise and healthful eating in older adults. It is the second phase of an earlier study, SENIOR Project I, that originally recruited 1,277 community-dwelling older adults to participate in behavior-specific interventions designed to increase exercise and/or fruit and vegetable consumption. The general theoretical framework for this research is the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of Health Behavior Change. The current intervention occurs over a 48-month period, using a manual, newsletters, and phone coaching calls. Annual assessments collect standardized data on behavioral outcomes (exercise and diet), TTM variables (stage of change and self-efficacy), psychosocial variables (social support, depression, resilience, and life satisfaction), physical activity and functioning (SF-36, Up and Go, Senior Fitness Test, and disability assessment), cognitive functioning (Trail Making Test and Forward and Backward Digit Span), physical measures (height, weight, and waist circumference), and demographics. The SENIOR Project II is designed to answer the following question as its primary objective: (1) Does an individualized active-maintenance intervention with older adults maintain greater levels of healthful exercise and dietary behaviors for four years, compared to a control condition? In addition, there are two secondary objectives: (2) What are the psychosocial factors associated with the maintenance of health-promoting behaviors in the very old? and (3) What are the effects of the maintenance of health-promoting behaviors on reported health outcomes, psychosocial measures, anthropometrics, and cognitive status? PMID:20955821

  5. A D-Optimal designed population pharmacokinetic study of oral itraconazole in adult cystic fibrosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, Stefanie; Waterhouse, Timothy H; Bell, Scott C; France, Megan; Wainwright, Claire E; Miller, Hugh; Charles, Bruce G; Duffull, Stephen B

    2007-01-01

    What is already known about this subject • Itraconazole is a triazole antifungal used in the treatment of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). • The pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of this drug and its active metabolite have been described before, mostly in healthy volunteers. • However, only sparse information from case reports were available of the PK properties of this drug in CF patients at the start of our study. What this study adds • This study reports for the first time the population pharmacokinetic properties of itraconazole and a known active metabolite, hydroxy-itraconazole in adult patients with CF. • As a result, this study offers new dosing approaches and their pharmacoeconomic impact as well as a PK model for therapeutic drug monitoring of this drug in this patient group. • Furthermore, it is an example of a successful d-optimal design application in a clinical setting. Aim The primary objective of the study was to estimate the population pharmacokinetic parameters for itraconazole and hydroxy-itraconazole, in particular, the relative oral bioavailability of the capsule compared with solution in adult cystic fibrosis patients, in order to develop new dosing guidelines. A secondary objective was to evaluate the performance of a population optimal design. Methods The blood sampling times for the population study were optimized previously using POPT v.2.0. The design was based on the administration of solution and capsules to 30 patients in a cross-over study. Prior information suggested that itraconazole is generally well described by a two-compartment disposition model with either linear or saturable elimination. The pharmacokinetics of itraconazole and the metabolite were modelled simultaneously using NONMEM. Dosing schedules were simulated to assess their ability to achieve a trough target concentration of 0.5 mg ml−1. Results Out of 241 blood samples, 94% were taken within the defined optimal

  6. Design of the Prevention of Adult Caries Study (PACS): A randomized clinical trial assessing the effect of a chlorhexidine dental coating for the prevention of adult caries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dental caries is one of the primary causes of tooth loss among adults. It is estimated to affect a majority of Americans aged 55 and older, with a disproportionately higher burden in disadvantaged populations. Although a number of treatments are currently in use for caries prevention in adults, evidence for their efficacy and effectiveness is limited. Methods/Design The Prevention of Adult Caries Study (PACS) is a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of a chlorhexidine (10% w/v) dental coating in preventing adult caries. Participants (n = 983) were recruited from four different dental delivery systems serving four diverse communities, including one American Indian population, and were randomized to receive either chlorhexidine or a placebo treatment. The primary outcome is the net caries increment (including non-cavitated lesions) from baseline to 13 months of follow-up. A cost-effectiveness analysis also will be considered. Discussion This new dental treatment, if efficacious and approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), would become a new in-office, anti-microbial agent for the prevention of adult caries in the United States. Trial Registration Number NCT00357877 PMID:20923557

  7. The Study of Progression of Adult Nearsightedness (SPAN): Design and Baseline Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    BULLIMORE, MARK A.; REUTER, KATHLEEN S.; JONES, LISA A.; MITCHELL, G. LYNN; ZOZ, JESSICA; RAH, MARJORIE J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The Study of Progression of Adult Nearsightedness (SPAN) is a 5-year observational study to determine the risk factors associated with adult myopia progression. Candidate risk factors include: a high proportion of time spent performing near tasks, performing near tasks at a close distance, high accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A) ratio, and high accommodative lag. Methods Subjects between 25 and 35 years of age, with at least −0.50 D spherical equivalent of myopia (cycloplegic autorefraction), were recruited from the faculty and staff of The Ohio State University. Progression is defined as an increase in myopia of at least −0.75 D spherical equivalent as determined by cycloplegic autorefraction. Annual testing includes visual acuity, noncycloplegic autorefraction and autokeratometry, phoria, accommodative lag, response AC/A ratio, cycloplegic autorefraction, videophakometry, ultrasound, and partial coherence interferometry (IOLMaster). Participants’ near activities were assessed using the experience sampling method (ESM). Subjects carried a pager for two 1-week periods and were paged randomly throughout the day. Each time they were paged, they dialed into an automated telephone survey and reported their visual activity at that time. From these responses, the proportion of time spent performing near work was estimated. Results Three-hundred ninety-six subjects were enrolled in SPAN. The mean (± standard deviation) age at baseline was 30.7 ± 3.5 years, 66% were female, 80% were white, 11% were black, and 8% were Asian/Pacific Islander. The mean level of myopia (spherical equivalent) was −3.54 ± 1.77 D, the mean axial length by IOLMaster was 24.6 ± 1.1 mm, and subjects were 1.7 ± 4.0 Δ exophoric. Refractive error was associated with the number of myopic parents (F = 3.83, p = 0.023), and the number of myopic parents was associated with the age of myopia onset (χ2 = 13.78, p = 0.001). In a multivariate analysis, onset of myopia (early

  8. Involving Older Adults in the Technology Design Process: A Case Study on Mobility and Wellbeing in the Built Environment.

    PubMed

    Swallow, David; Petrie, Helen; Power, Christopher; Lewis, Andrew; Edwards, Alistair D N

    2016-01-01

    Older adults benefit from unstructured, lifestyle-based activity that can be carried out in people's houses, neighbourhoods, and the built environment. Technological solutions may support physical activity and encourage wellbeing. To ensure such technology is suitable for, and usable by, older adults, it is crucial they are involved in all stages of design. Participatory design methodologies facilitate collaboration and engagement with potential users. We examine the suitability of participatory design for collaborating and engaging with older adults. Participatory design workshops were conducted with 33 older adults in the UK with the aim of designing mobile applications to support and promote physical activity and wellbeing in the built environment. As well as summarising the outcome of these workshops, the paper outlines several methodological issues relating to the suitability of participatory design for involving older adults in the technology design process. PMID:27534357

  9. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume XVI; Alternative Designs for Future Adult PIT-Tag Detection Studies, 2000 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Comas, Jose A.; Skalski, John R.

    2000-09-25

    In the advent of the installation of a PIT-tag interrogation system in the Cascades Island fish ladder at Bonneville Dam (BON), and other CRB dams, this overview describes in general terms what can and cannot be estimated under seven different scenarios of adult PIT-tag detection capabilities in the CRB. Moreover, this overview attempted to identify minimal adult PIT-tag detection configurations required by the ten threatened Columbia River Basin (CRB) chinook and steelhead ESUs. A minimal adult PIT-tag detection configuration will require the installation of adult PIT-tag detection facilities at Bonneville Dam and another dam above BON. Thus, the Snake River spring/summer and fall chinook salmon, and the Snake River steelhead will require a minimum of three dams with adult PIT-tag detection capabilities to guarantee estimates of ''ocean survival'' and at least of one independent, in-river returning adult survival (e.g., adult PIT-tag detection facilities at BON and LGR dams and at any other intermediary dam such as IHR). The Upper Columbia River spring chinook salmon and steelhead will also require a minimum of three dams with adult PIT-tag detection capabilities: BON and two other dams on the BON-WEL reach. The current CRB dam system configuration and BPA's and COE's commitment to install adult PIT-tag detectors only in major CRB projects will not allow the estimation of an ''ocean survival'' and of any in-river adult survival for the Lower Columbia River chinook salmon and steelhead. The Middle Columbia River steelhead ESU will require a minimum of two dams with adult PIT-tag detection capabilities: BON and another upstream dam on the BON-McN reach. Finally, in spite of their importance in terms of releases, PIT-tag survival studies for the Upper Willamette chinook and Upper Willamette steelhead ESUs cannot be perform with the current CRB dam system configuration and PIT-tag detection capabilities.

  10. Donepezil Treatment of Older Adults with Cognitive Impairment and Depression (DOTCODE study): clinical rationale and design

    PubMed Central

    Pelton, Gregory H.; Andrews, Howard; Roose, Steven P.; Marcus, Sue M.; D’Antonio, Kristina; Husn, Hala; Petrella, Jeffrey R.; Zannas, Anthony S.; Doraiswamy, P. Murali; Devanand, D. P.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment strategies for patients with depression and cognitive impairment (DEP-CI), who are at high risk to develop a clinical diagnosis of dementia, are not established. This issue is addressed in the donepezil treatment of cognitive impairment and depression (DOTCODE) pilot clinical trial. The DOTCODE study is the first long-term treatment trial that assesses differences in conversion to dementia and cognitive change in DEP-CI patients using a study design of open antidepressant medication plus add-on randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled treatment with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil. In Phase 1, DEP-CI patients receive optimized antidepressant treatment for 16 weeks. In Phase 2, antidepressant treatment is continued with the addition of randomized, double-blind treatment with donepezil or placebo. The total study duration for each patient is 78 weeks (18 months). Eighty DEP-CI outpatients (age 55 to 95 years) are recruited: 40 at New York State Psychiatric Institute/Columbia University and 40 at Duke University Medical Center. The primary outcome is conversion to a clinical diagnosis of dementia. The secondary outcomes are cognitive change scores in Selective Reminding Test (SRT) total recall and the modified Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog). Other key assessments include the 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and antidepressant response; Clinical Global Impression (CGI) for depression, cognition, and global status; neuropsychological test battery for diagnosis; informant report of functional abilities (Pfeffer FAQ); Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) for somatic side effects. Apolipoprotein E ε4 status, odor identification deficits, and MRI entorhinal/hippocampal cortex atrophy at baseline are evaluated as neurobiological moderators of donepezil treatment effects. PMID:24315979

  11. Interview Schedule for Studying Why Adults Learn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tough, Allen

    Designed for use in a 1968 study of why adults learn, this interview schedule contains situation-description and question sheets for use by the interviewer and subject for examining thirteen reasons why adults begin and why they continue a learning project. (The study, "Why Adults Learn: A Study of the Major Reasons for Beginning and Continuing a…

  12. A decade of adult intensive care unit design: a study of the physical design features of the best-practice examples.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mahbub

    2006-01-01

    This article reports a study of the physical design characteristics of a set of adult intensive care units (ICUs), built between 1993 and 2003. These ICUs were recognized as the best-practice examples by the Society of Critical Care Medicine, the American Association of Critical Care Nurses, and the American Institute of Architects. This study is based on a systematic analysis of the materials found on these ICUs in the booklet and videos jointly published by the above organizations in 2005. The study finds that most of these examples of best-practice adult ICUs have the following negative characteristics: (1) they are built as renovation projects with more health and safety hazards during construction; (2) most of them are mixed-service units with more safety and staffing problems; (3) the overall layout and the layout of staff work areas in these ICUs do not have any common design solutions for improved patient and staff outcomes; and (4) in these ICUs, family space is often located outside the unit, and family access to the patient room is restricted, even though family presence at the bedside may be important for improved patient outcomes. Some of these negative characteristics are offset by the following positive characteristics in most ICUs: (1) they have only private patient rooms for improved patient care, safety, privacy, and comfort; (2) most patient beds are freestanding for easy access to patients from all sides; (3) they have handwashing sinks and waste disposal facilities in the patient room for improved safety; and (4) most patient rooms have natural light to help patients with circadian rhythms. The article discusses, in detail, the implications of its findings, and the role of the ICU design community in a very complicated design context. PMID:17063097

  13. Adult Learning Principles in Designing Learning Activities for Teacher Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravani, Maria N.

    2012-01-01

    The research reported in this paper is an investigation of the application of adult learning principles in designing learning activities for teachers' life-long development. The exploration is illustrated by qualitative data from a case study of adult educators' and adult learners' insights and experiences of a teacher development course organised…

  14. Sensory Modulation and Sleep Quality among Adults with Learning Disabilities: A Quasi-Experimental Case-Control Design Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharfi, Kineret; Rosenblum, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Following the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) concepts, this study examines body functions such as sensory modulation and sleep quality among adults with learning disabilities (LD). Methods One hundred and ten participants, 55 adults with LD and 55 matched controls (mean age 30 years) filled in a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Adults/Adolescents Sensory Profile (AASP), and the Mini Sleep Questionnaire (MSQ). Chi-tests, Mann-Whitney tests, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were conducted to examine group differences related to socio-demographic characteristics and body functions. Correlation and regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships between body functions. Results Significant differences were found between the groups in: (a) unique socio-demographic variables: high-schools attended, family status and number of children; (b) body functions: low registration and sensory sensitivity (p < .001), sensory avoiding (p = .002), sensory seeking (p = .021) and sleep quality (p < .001). Significant correlations were found between AASP subscale scores and the MSQ final score in each group. Regression analysis revealed that for the entire sample (N = 108), low registration accounted for 10.2% of the variance of sleep quality above group membership (p < .001), while in a separate examination of adults with LD (n = 53), low registration accounted for 19.9% of the variance of sleep quality (p < .001). Conclusions Adults with LD need to be studied through a health-related perspective such as the ICF model to gain further understanding of their unique characteristics and daily needs. Sensory and sleep functions of adults with LD should be further studied in the context of health related quality of life. PMID:25658647

  15. Determinants of Weight Gain Prevention in Young Adult and Midlife Women: Study Design and Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment of overweight and obesity through body weight reduction has been monumentally ineffective as few individuals are able to sustain weight loss. Rather than treating weight gain once it has become problematic, prevention of weight gain over time may be more effective. Objective The aim of this research is to preclude the burden of adult obesity in women by identifying the determinants of weight gain prevention. The objective of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to compare a weight gain prevention intervention delivered by the registered dietitian versus counselor. Methods This is a 12-month parallel-arm weight gain prevention RCT designed to increase self-efficacy, self-regulation, outcome expectations and family and social support through the use of a nutrition education intervention in women, aged 18-45 years, from the Urbana-Champaign (Illinois, USA) area. Women have been randomized to registered dietitian, counselor or wait-list control groups (August 2014) and are undergoing weekly nutrition education sessions for four months, followed by monthly sessions for eight months (through August 2015). Outcome measures, including: (1) dietary intake, (2) physical activity, (3) anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, (4) biochemical markers of health, (5) eating behaviors and health perceptions, and (6) mediators of behavior change, were collected before the intervention began (baseline) and will be collected at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of the study. Results In total, 87 women have been randomized to intervention groups, and 81 women have completed first week of the study. Results are expected in early 2016. Conclusions This RCT is one of the first to examine weight gain prevention in women across normal, overweight, and obese body mass index categories. Results of this research are expected to have application to evidence-based practice in weight gain prevention for women and possibly have implication for policy regarding decreasing the

  16. Design considerations for adult patient education.

    PubMed

    Walsh, P L

    1982-01-01

    A variety of factors require attention in the design of patient education programs for adults. Andragogy, the art and science of helping adults learn, describes certain conditions of learning that are more conducive to growth and development for adults and prescribes practices in the learning-teaching transaction to meet them. Stigma, a special discrepancy between virtual and actual social identity, reduces a patient's self-esteem and fosters a feeling of dependence on others for care. Anxiety related to diagnosis and illness creates a situation in which patients cannot productively learn. The stages in acceptance of diagnosis provide a roadmap for understanding a patient's feelings/psychological processes and insight into opportunities to intervene with patient education. The specific disease a patient has effects his ability to learn. Each of these factors is considered with implications described for designing and implementing patient education activities for adults. PMID:10258421

  17. Daily Use of Complementary and Other Therapies for Symptoms among Older Adults: Study Design and Illustrative Results

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Neiberg, Rebecca H.; Lang, Wei; Nguyen, Ha; Altizer, Kathryn; Stoller, Eleanor P.; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This paper describes research designed to specify complementary therapies used among older adults by obtaining daily use data and the specific purposes for use. Design Two-hundred African American and white participants completed a baseline interview and up to six sets of three daily-diary interviews at monthly intervals. Results Participants provided retrospective information on complementary therapy use, and information on the use of therapies for specific symptoms experienced across 3,070 person days. Retrospective information indicated that most participants used complementary therapies (e.g., 85.0% used home remedies in the past year). The use of complementary or other therapies and the number of days the therapies were used varied for specific symptoms. For example, home remedies were used on 86 (9.1%) of the 944 person days for which joint pain was reported. Discussion The daily-diary design provides detailed information for delineating how elders include complementary and other therapies in their health self-management. PMID:20937796

  18. Design Principles to Accommodate Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Farage, Miranda A.; Miller, Kenneth W.; Ajayi, Funmi; Hutchins, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The global population is aging. In many industrial countries, almost one in five people are over age 65. As people age, gradual changes ensue in vision, hearing, balance, coordination, and memory. Products, communication materials, and the physical environment must be thoughtfully designed to meet the needs of people of all ages. This article summarizes normal changes in sensory function, mobility, balance, memory, and attention that occur with age. It presents practical guidelines that allow design professionals to accommodate these changes and better meet the needs of older adults. Designing for older adults is inclusive design: it accommodates a range of physical and cognitive abilities and promotes simplicity, flexibility, and ease of use for people of any age. PMID:22980147

  19. A church-based pilot study designed to improve dietary quality for rural, Lower Mississippi Delta, African American Adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To assess the feasibility of implementing a six-month, church-based, dietary, pilot intervention, called Delta Body and Soul (DBS), for African American (AA) adults in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region of Mississippi. Effectiveness of the intervention to improve diet quality [measured using t...

  20. Characteristics of Adult Learners with Implications for Online Learning Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cercone, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    The online educational environment is increasingly being used by adults and should be designed based on the needs of adult learners. This article discusses andragogy, an important adult learning theory, and reviews three other adult learning theories: self-directed learning, experiential learning, and transformational learning. During this…

  1. The effectiveness of including support people in a cognitive behavioural weight loss maintenance programme for obese adults: study rationale and design.

    PubMed

    Rieger, E; Treasure, J; Swinbourne, J; Adam, B; Manns, C; Caterson, I

    2014-04-01

    The well-documented finding that obese adults have a high likelihood of weight regain following participation in behavioural weight loss programmes highlights the importance of developing more effective approaches for weight loss maintenance. One promising approach is to improve the quality of social support for effective weight control available to an obese individual by including support people in behavioural weight loss programmes. This paper describes the rationale and design of a randomized controlled trial that evaluates the effectiveness of training support people to assist obese adults in their weight management. The study entails a two-arm randomized controlled trial in which obese participants take part in a 1-year (26-session) cognitive behaviour therapy group weight management programme, including motivational interviewing strategies (CBT-MI). In one arm, participants receive CBT-MI alone, while in the second arm (CBT-MI-SP), participants also have a support person who attends 10 group sessions designed to teach effective skills for supporting an individual in healthy weight control. More specifically, support people will be trained in skills that aim to promote self-motivation for weight management. Assessments of anthropometric, medical, behavioural, motivational, psychological and social functioning take place at pre-treatment, post-treatment and a 1-year follow-up. By helping obese participants to increase and sustain their motivation and skills for weight control both during treatment and in the crucial period after treatment cessation through the ongoing input of support people, the CBT-MI-SP approach of the current study has the potential to effectively help patients to achieve sustained weight loss while minimizing the patient's need for ongoing, intensive weight control treatment with its attendant costs. PMID:25826731

  2. Adult Development and Adult Beginning Reading Behaviors: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Sally

    An ethnographic study investigated four adult beginning reading (ABR) classes in several adult learning centers in order to determine the effect of an adult's age and developmental phase on his or her behavior and attitudes in the learning-to-read process. For 9 months, a four-member research team conducted on-site observations, compiled extensive…

  3. Study Circle Guide: Adult Student Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL), 2006

    2006-01-01

    This study circle was created by the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL). The study circle is part of NCSALL's efforts to help connect research and practice in the field of adult basic education and adult literacy. The Adult Student Persistence Study Circle is one of a series of study circles that NCSALL has…

  4. V-TIME: a treadmill training program augmented by virtual reality to decrease fall risk in older adults: study design of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent work has demonstrated that fall risk can be attributed to cognitive as well as motor deficits. Indeed, everyday walking in complex environments utilizes executive function, dual tasking, planning and scanning, all while walking forward. Pilot studies suggest that a multi-modal intervention that combines treadmill training to target motor function and a virtual reality obstacle course to address the cognitive components of fall risk may be used to successfully address the motor-cognitive interactions that are fundamental for fall risk reduction. The proposed randomized controlled trial will evaluate the effects of treadmill training augmented with virtual reality on fall risk. Methods/Design Three hundred older adults with a history of falls will be recruited to participate in this study. This will include older adults (n=100), patients with mild cognitive impairment (n=100), and patients with Parkinson’s disease (n=100). These three sub-groups will be recruited in order to evaluate the effects of the intervention in people with a range of motor and cognitive deficits. Subjects will be randomly assigned to the intervention group (treadmill training with virtual reality) or to the active-control group (treadmill training without virtual reality). Each person will participate in a training program set in an outpatient setting 3 times per week for 6 weeks. Assessments will take place before, after, and 1 month and 6 months after the completion of the training. A falls calendar will be kept by each participant for 6 months after completing the training to assess fall incidence (i.e., the number of falls, multiple falls and falls rate). In addition, we will measure gait under usual and dual task conditions, balance, community mobility, health related quality of life, user satisfaction and cognitive function. Discussion This randomized controlled trial will demonstrate the extent to which an intervention that combines treadmill training augmented

  5. The Design of a Doctoral Degree Program in Adult Education Based on the Expressed Adult Education Needs of Professional Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veri, Clive Chester

    The purpose of this investigation was to design a program of studies leading to the doctor's degree in adult education based on the expressed educational needs of professional adult educators in the field. The data provided by 90 respondents were analyzed to determine the reliability of, or extent of agreement among, the respondents' ratings of 60…

  6. Rationale and study design for a randomised controlled trial to reduce sedentary time in adults at risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: project stand (Sedentary Time ANd diabetes)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The rising prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a major public health problem. There is an urgent need for effective lifestyle interventions to prevent the development of T2DM. Sedentary behaviour (sitting time) has recently been identified as a risk factor for diabetes, often independent of the time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Project STAND (Sedentary Time ANd Diabetes) is a study which aims to reduce sedentary behaviour in younger adults at high risk of T2DM. Methods/Design A reduction in sedentary time is targeted using theory driven group structured education. The STAND programme is subject to piloting and process evaluation in line with the MRC framework for complex interventions. Participants are encouraged to self-monitor and self-regulate their behaviour. The intervention is being assessed in a randomised controlled trial with 12 month follow up. Inclusion criteria are a) aged 18-40 years with a BMI in the obese range; b) 18-40 years with a BMI in the overweight range plus an additional risk factor for T2DM. Participants are randomised to the intervention (n = 89) or control (n = 89) arm. The primary outcome is a reduction in sedentary behaviour at 12 months as measured by an accelerometer (count < 100/min). Secondary outcomes include physical activity, sitting/lying time using the ActivPAL posture monitor, fasting and 2 h oral glucose tolerance test, lipids, inflammatory biomarkers, body weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, illness perceptions, and efficacy beliefs for behaviour change. Conclusions This is the first UK trial to address sedentary behaviour change in a population of younger adults at risk of T2DM. The results will provide a platform for the development of a range of future multidisciplinary interventions in this rapidly expanding high-risk population. Trial registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN08434554, MRC project 91409. PMID:22151909

  7. Effect of obesity on cognition in adults with and without a mood disorder: study design and methods

    PubMed Central

    Restivo, Maria R; McKinnon, Margaret C; Frey, Benicio N; Hall, Geoffrey B; Taylor, Valerie H

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is a common medical illness that is increasingly recognised as conferring risk of decline in cognitive performance, independent of other comorbid medical conditions. Individuals with mood disorders (bipolar disorder (BD) or major depressive disorder (MDD)) display an increased prevalence of both obesity and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, BD and MDD are associated with impairment in cognitive functioning across multiple domains. The independent contribution of obesity to cognitive decline in this population has not been explored. This study examines the impact of obesity on cognition by comparing neuropsychological performance in obese individuals, with or without a mood disorder before and after undergoing bariatric surgery. Methods and analysis This study compares measures of declarative memory, executive functioning and attention in obese individuals (body mass index >35 kg/m2) with BD or MDD, and 2 control populations (obese individuals without a psychiatric illness and healthy non-obese controls) prior to and following bariatric surgery. Participants (ages 18–60) receive a psychiatric diagnosis via the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; SCID). Mood ratings, physical measurements, nutritional and health questionnaires are also administered. A standardised battery of neuropsychological tests aimed at establishing performance in areas of declarative memory, executive functioning and attention are administered. Warrington's Recognition Memory Task (RMT) and an N-Back Task are performed in a 3 T functional MRI to investigate patterns of neural activation during cognitive performance. Additionally, anatomical MRI data are obtained to investigate potential changes in neural structures. Baseline data will be analysed for between-group differences and later compared with postsurgical data to investigate cognitive change. Ethics and

  8. Weight gain prevention in young adults: design of the study of novel approaches to weight gain prevention (SNAP) randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Weight gain during young adulthood is common and is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Preventing this weight gain from occurring may be critical to improving long-term health. Few studies have focused on weight gain prevention, and these studies have had limited success. SNAP (Study of Novel Approaches to Weight Gain Prevention) is an NIH-funded randomized clinical trial examining the efficacy of two novel self-regulation approaches to weight gain prevention in young adults compared to a minimal treatment control. The interventions focus on either small, consistent changes in eating and exercise behaviors, or larger, periodic changes to buffer against expected weight gains. Methods/Design SNAP targets recruitment of six hundred young adults (18–35 years) with a body mass index between 21.0-30.0 kg/m2, who will be randomly assigned with equal probability to: (1) minimal intervention control; (2) self-regulation with Small Changes; or (3) self-regulation with Large Changes. Both interventions receive 8 weekly face-to-face group sessions, followed by 2 monthly sessions, with two 4-week refresher courses in each of subsequent years. Participants are instructed to report weight via web at least monthly thereafter, and receive monthly email feedback. Participants in Small Changes are taught to make small daily changes (~100 calorie changes) in how much or what they eat and to accumulate 2000 additional steps per day. Participants in Large Changes are taught to create a weight loss buffer of 5–10 pounds once per year to protect against anticipated weight gains. Both groups are encouraged to self-weigh daily and taught a self-regulation color zone system that specifies action depending on weight gain prevention success. Individualized treatment contact is offered to participants who report weight gains. Participants are assessed at baseline, 4 months, and then annually. The primary outcome is weight gain over an average of 3 years of follow

  9. Connecting Generations: Developing Co-Design Methods for Older Adults and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Bo; Druin, Allison; Fails, Jerry; Massey, Sheri; Golub, Evan; Franckel, Sonia; Schneider, Kiki

    2012-01-01

    As new technologies emerge that can bring older adults together with children, little has been discussed by researchers concerning the design methods used to create these new technologies. Giving both children and older adults a voice in a shared design process comes with many challenges. This paper details an exploratory study focusing on…

  10. Mexican American Adults in Higher Education: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRosa, Janet Ann

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study used a narrative design to explore the perceptions, background and experiences of Mexican Americans who completed their bachelor's degree as adult learners. The study focuses in particular on their experiences of learning to be bicultural. A "Borderlands" framework whereby Mexican American adult learners negotiated…

  11. A Pilot Study of an Intervention Designed to Promote Walking, Balance, and Self-Efficacy in Older Adults with Fear of Falling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dattilo, John; Martire, Lynn; Gottschall, Jinger; Weybright, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to provide interventions that are of interest to older adults who are not inclined to participate in conventional exercise programs and that can improve balance and fear of falling. One purpose of this pilot study was to assess feasibility and acceptability of an eight-week (3x/wk, 90-minute sessions) multifaceted, small group,…

  12. Adult Multiple Intelligences. NCSALL Study Circle Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrella, A.; Hofer, J.; Bubp, S.; Finn-Miller, S.; Graves, N.; Meador, P.

    2004-01-01

    This Study Circle guide was created by the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) as part of the Practitioner Dissemination and Research Network (PDRN). The guide is part of NCSALL's effort to help connect research and practice in the field of adult basic education and adult literacy. The purpose of the study circle…

  13. Comparison of Two Theory-Based, Fully Automated Telephone Interventions Designed to Maintain Dietary Change in Healthy Adults: Study Protocol of a Three-Arm Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Quintiliani, Lisa M; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Migneault, Jeffrey P; Heeren, Timothy; Friedman, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Background Health behavior change interventions have focused on obtaining short-term intervention effects; few studies have evaluated mid-term and long-term outcomes, and even fewer have evaluated interventions that are designed to maintain and enhance initial intervention effects. Moreover, behavior theory has not been developed for maintenance or applied to maintenance intervention design to the degree that it has for behavior change initiation. Objective The objective of this paper is to describe a study that compared two theory-based interventions (social cognitive theory [SCT] vs goal systems theory [GST]) designed to maintain previously achieved improvements in fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption. Methods The interventions used tailored, interactive conversations delivered by a fully automated telephony system (Telephone-Linked Care [TLC]) over a 6-month period. TLC maintenance intervention based on SCT used a skills-based approach to build self-efficacy. It assessed confidence in and barriers to eating F&V, provided feedback on how to overcome barriers, plan ahead, and set goals. The TLC maintenance intervention based on GST used a cognitive-based approach. Conversations trained participants in goal management to help them integrate their newly acquired dietary behavior into their hierarchical system of goals. Content included goal facilitation, conflict, shielding, and redundancy, and reflection on personal goals and priorities. To evaluate and compare the two approaches, a sample of adults whose F&V consumption was below public health goal levels were recruited from a large urban area to participate in a fully automated telephony intervention (TLC-EAT) for 3-6 months. Participants who increase their daily intake of F&V by ≥1 serving/day will be eligible for the three-arm randomized controlled trial. A sample of 405 participants will be randomized to one of three arms: (1) an assessment-only control, (2) TLC-SCT, and (3) TLC-GST. The maintenance

  14. Perceptions of Physical Activity by Older Adults: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancey, Jonine M.; Clarke, Ann; Howat, Peter; Maycock, Bruce; Lee, Andy H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify issues and perceptions concerning physical activity in older adults. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Perth, Western Australia. Methods: Sixteen adults aged 65 to 74 years were interviewed in their own homes using a semi-structured interview schedule. Data were analysed using a descriptive qualitative methodology.…

  15. Adult Skills Training Center: Feasibility Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skalski, John M.; Baratta, Anthony N.

    A 4-phase project, this study was conducted to determine the feasibility of a bilingual vocational skill training program for out-of-school youth and adults of the Perth Amboy Hispanic community. Sampled were 494 out-of-school youth and adults in the area. Findings include: (1) There is a significant need for an adult vocational skills training…

  16. Towards a physically more active lifestyle based on one’s own values: study design of a randomized controlled trial for physically inactive adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This randomised controlled trial demonstrates the effectiveness of a value-based intervention program to encourage a physically more active lifestyle among physically inactive adults aged 30 to 50 years. The conceptual framework of the program is based on an innovative behavioural therapy called Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) that aims to increase an individual’s psychological flexibility and support behaviour change towards a higher quality and more meaningful life. Methods Participants will be randomly allocated to a feedback group (FB) or an Acceptance and Commitment based (ACT + FB) group. Both the groups will receive written feedback about their objectively measured physical activity levels and offered an opportunity to attend a body composition analysis. In addition, the Acceptance and Commitment based group will attend six group sessions and be given a pedometer for self-monitoring of their daily physical activity throughout the 9-week intervention. The group sessions aim to clarify individual values and enhance committed actions towards the goal of achieving a more meaningful life. Participants will also be taught new skills to work on subjective barriers related to physical activity. Physical activity will be measured objectively by an accelerometer over seven consecutive days and by self-reported questionnaires at the baseline, as well as at 3, 6, 9 and 15 months after the baseline measures. In addition, psychological well-being will be measured through the questionnaires, which assess mindfulness skills, psychological flexibility, psychological distress and depressive symptoms. Discussion This study’s objective is to demonstrate a research protocol for a randomized controlled study motivating a physically more active lifestyle based on one’s own values among physically inactive adults. The aim of the study is to evaluate the feasibility and intervention efficacy on physical activity and psychological well-being, and

  17. Case Studies in Australian Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Ralph J., Ed.; Rooth, S. John, Ed.

    This publication contains the following 24 case studies of adult education in Australia: "NSW Department of Agriculture Home Study Programme" (O'Neill); "Self-Help Adult Education: The University of the Third Age at the Brisbane CAE" (Swindell); "Marriage Enrichment Programme" (D. Kerr, C. Kerr); "Carringbush Library: A Place to Be" (Letcher);…

  18. Investigate-and-redesign tasks as a context for learning and doing science and technology: A study of naive, novice and expert high school and adult designers doing product comparisons and redesign tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crismond, David Paul

    This thesis studied high school students and adults with varying degrees of design experience doing two technology investigate-and-redesign (I&R) tasks. Each involved subjects investigating products, designing experiments to compare them fairly, and then redesigning the devices. A total of 25 pairs of subjects participated in this investigation and included naive and novice high school designers, as well as naive, novice, and expert adult designers. Subjects of similar age and design experience worked in same-gender teams and met for two 2-hour sessions. The essential research question of this thesis was: "What process skills and concepts do naive, novice and expert designers use and learn when investigating devices, designing experiments, and redesigning the devices?" Three methodologies were used to gather and analyze the data: clinical interviewing (Piaget, 1929/1960), protocol analysis (Ericsson & Simon, 1984) and interaction analysis (Jordan and Henderson, 1995). The thesis provides composite case-studies of 10 of the 50 test sessions, buttressed by descriptions of performance trends for all subjects. Given the small sample sizes involved, the findings are by necessity tentative and not supported by statistical analysis: (1) I&R activities are engaging, less time-intensive complements to design-and-build tasks, which involve simple mechanical devices and carry with them a host of potential "alternative understandings" in science and technology. Much gets learned during these tasks, more involving "device knowledge" and "device inquiry skills" than "big ideas" in science and technology. (2) Redesign tasks scaffold naive and novice designers to improved performance in the multidimensional and context-specific activity of design. The performances of naive and novice designers were more like that of expert designers when redesigning existing devices than when doing start-from-scratch designing. (3) Conceptual redesign involved more analysis- than synthesis

  19. Making Sense of Decoding and Spelling: An Adult Reading Course of Study--Teachers' and Administrators' Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacArthur, Charles A.; Alamprese, Judith A.; Knight, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    "Making Sense of Decoding and Spelling: An Adult Reading Course of Study" is an evidence-based course of study designed to teach adult learners to decode and spell words more accurately and fluently. It is designed to be used as one component of a comprehensive adult reading course. The target population for the course is adult basic education…

  20. The Design of Online Learning Communities for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Marti M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the creation of SeniorSage, an eight week facilitated online learning community for older adult volunteers in a Florida learning center. Discusses how members were prepared to participate in the community, explains the instructional design theory that guided the development of SeniorSage, and recommends future research. (Author/LRW)

  1. Designing Personalized Treatment Engagement Interventions for Depressed Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Raue, Patrick J.; Sirey, Jo Anne

    2011-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Despite the benefits of treatment for late-life depression, we are faced with the challenges of underutilization of mental health services by older adults and non-adherence to offered interventions. This paper describes psychosocial and interactional barriers and facilitators of treatment engagement among depressed older adults served by community health care settings. We describe the need to engage older adults in treatment using interventions that: 1. target psychological barriers such as stigma and other negative beliefs about depression and its treatment; and 2. increase individuals’ involvement in the treatment decision-making process. We then present personalized treatment engagement interventions that our group has designed for a variety of community settings. PMID:21536170

  2. LOXT mirror design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanspeybroeck, L.; Antrim, W.; Boyd, D.; Giacconi, R.; Sinnamon, G.; Stille, F.

    1972-01-01

    The final report for the large orbiting X-ray telescope (LOXT) high resolution mirror design study is presented. The following tasks were performed: (1) Generation of a reference and alternate preliminary design for the LOXT high resolution mirror assembly, which will meet the LOXT scientific requirements, and are within the present state of the art of materials and fabrication techniques. (2) Measurement, in X-rays, of the scattering properties of a variety of optical flats, embodying materials, coatings, and polishing techniques which might be applicable to the flight configuration LOXT high resolution mirror. (3) Preparation of a procurement specification for a paraboloid test mirror of the size of the innermost paraboloid of the high resolution mirror assembly, including the design requirements for the reference design evolved from this preliminary design study. The results of the engineering and scientific analysis and the conclusions drawn are presented. The procurement specification for the test mirror is included.

  3. Adult Attachment and Developmental Personality Styles: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherry, Alissa; Lyddon, William J.; Henson, Robin K.

    2007-01-01

    The current study was designed to test specific hypotheses associated with W. J. Lyddon and A. Sherry's (2001) attachment theory model of developmental personality styles. More specifically, 4 adult attachment dimensions were correlated with 10 personality scales on the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (T. Millon, R. Davis, & C. Millon,…

  4. Adult Basic Education Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Ruth

    The Gateway Technical Institute's followup study on former adult basic education (ABE) students is examined in this report, which focuses primarily on the process of the study. Since the Gateway study complemented objective measures of program effectiveness with a perspective that is often missing in program evaluations, namely, former…

  5. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Web-Based Learning Design for Adult Computer Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonis, Konstantinos; Daradoumis, Thanasis; Papadakis, Spyros; Simos, Christos

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on work undertaken within a pilot study concerned with the design, development, and evaluation of online computer science training courses. Drawing on recent developments in e-learning technology, these courses were structured around the principles of a learner-oriented approach for use with adult learners. The paper describes a…

  6. Study Design for Sequencing Studies.

    PubMed

    Honaas, Loren A; Altman, Naomi S; Krzywinski, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Once a biochemical method has been devised to sample RNA or DNA of interest, sequencing can be used to identify the sampled molecules with high fidelity and low bias. High-throughput sequencing has therefore become the primary data acquisition method for many genomics studies and is being used more and more to address molecular biology questions. By applying principles of statistical experimental design, sequencing experiments can be made more sensitive to the effects under study as well as more biologically sound, hence more replicable. PMID:27008009

  7. Building a Tailored, Patient-Guided, Web-Based Self-Management Intervention ‘ReumaUitgedaagd!’ for Adults With a Rheumatic Disease: Results of a Usability Study and Design for a Randomized Control Trail

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Olga K; de Boer-Nijhof, Nienke C; Maat, Bertha; Kruize, Aike A; van Laar, Jaap; van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; Geenen, Rinie

    2016-01-01

    Background The chronic nature of rheumatic diseases imposes daily challenges upon those affected and causes patients to make daily decisions about the way they self-manage their illness. Although there is attention to self-management and evidence for the desirability of tailored interventions to support people with a rheumatic disease, interventions based on individual needs and preferences are scarce. Objective To provide a systematic and comprehensive description of the theoretical considerations for building a Web-based, expert, patient-guided, and tailored intervention for adult patients with a rheumatic disease. Also, to present the results of a usability study on the feasibility of this intervention, and its study design in order to measure the effectiveness. Methods To fit the intervention closely to the autonomy, needs, and preferences of the individual patient, a research team comprising patient representatives, health professionals, Web technicians, and communication experts was formed. The research team followed the new guidance by the Medical Research Council (MRC) for developing and evaluating complex interventions as a guide for the design of the intervention. Results Considerations from self-determination theory and a comprehensive assessment of preferences and needs in patients with a rheumatic disease guided the development of the Web-based intervention. The usability study showed that the intervention was useful, easy to use, and accepted and appreciated by the target group of patients. The planned randomized controlled trial is designed to be conducted among 120 adults with a rheumatic disease, who are assigned to the self-management intervention or a self-help control group. Both groups will be asked to formulate personal goals they want to achieve concerning their self-management. Progress toward the personal goal is the primary outcome measure of this study. Self-reported Web-based measures will be assessed before randomization at baseline

  8. Adult Financial Literacy Education and Latina Learners: A Qualitative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprow, Karin Millard

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study used a case study design to explore the teaching and learning that takes place in an adult Latino financial literacy education that was aimed specifically at Latina single mothers. The theoretical framework of the study was informed by a blend of critical and Latina feminist sociocultural adult learning perspectives, as well…

  9. Slurry reactor design studies

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. ); Akgerman, A. ); Smith, J.M. )

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  10. Seal design alternatives study

    SciTech Connect

    Van Sambeek, L.L.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information.

  11. Shuttle communications design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cartier, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    The design and development of a space shuttle communication system are discussed. The subjects considered include the following: (1) Ku-band satellite relay to shuttle, (2) phased arrays, (3) PN acquisition, (4) quadriplexing of direct link ranging and telemetry, (5) communications blackout on launch and reentry, (6) acquisition after blackout on reentry, (7) wideband communications interface with the Ku-Band rendezvous radar, (8) aeroflight capabilities of the space shuttle, (9) a triple multiplexing scheme equivalent to interplex, and (10) a study of staggered quadriphase for use on the space shuttle.

  12. Applications of Paper and Interactive Prototypes in Designing Telecare Services for Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Duh, Emilija Stojmenova; Guna, Jože; Pogačnik, Matevž; Sodnik, Jaka

    2016-04-01

    We present the results of the user studies of the CareMe prototype telecare service for supporting older adults with remote telecare services. The CareMe solution targets older adults who are capable of living independently and outside of a dedicated medical institution or a nursing home, but require occasional medical attention, and formal or informal care. The studies were conducted between November 2013 and March 2014 and followed the participatory design approach. The research questions focused on understanding the difference in the participatory design approach when older adults use paper prototypes vs interactive prototypes, and the difference when older adults use interactive prototypes with poor interface design vs interactive prototypes with rich interface design. In total, 45 older adults living in Slovenia participated in the field trial. They were retired, 32 of whom were nursing home residents and 13 were living independently at home. The study sample's age distribution was between 64 and 91 years. The analysis of the filed trial results indicated the importance of the factors that influence users' decision about how and when they use new technology, i.e., the perceived usefulness and the perceived ease-of-use. Main insights gained from the studies show, that it is very difficult to keep older people focused on the topics of discussion and that they have often difficulties to clearly present/express their ideas. Furthermore, abstract concepts, such as paper only prototypes proved to be challenging to cope with, whereas using real applications and services when trying out scenarios using interactive prototypes provided much better experience and feedback. PMID:26860915

  13. Comparative Studies in Adult Education--A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charters, Alexander N.

    One of the most important recent developments in comparative adult education (CAE) has been the formation in 1987 of the Committee for Study and Research in Comparative Adult Education (CSRCAE), jointly founded by the International Council of Adult Education and the International Congress of University Adult Education. The Committee continues to…

  14. Evaluating a small change approach to preventing long term weight gain in overweight and obese adults--Study rationale, design, and methods.

    PubMed

    Ross, Robert; Hill, James O; Latimer, Amy; Day, Andrew G

    2016-03-01

    Despite the rapid rise in obesity worldwide, few strategies have been effective in treating this epidemic. An emerging strategy is to focus on preventing excessive weight gain rather than weight reduction. The proposed intervention, small change approach (SCA), is an innovative weight gain prevention strategy in which individuals monitor their usual nutrition and physical activity patterns and then make modest but sustainable alterations through behavioral intervention techniques (self-regulation, goal setting) enough to reduce overall energy balance by 100 to 200 kcal per day (e.g., reduce caloric intake by 100 kcal per day and/or increase daily step count by ~2000 steps (~100 kcal) per day). The primary aim of the trial is to determine whether small changes in energy expenditure and/or energy intake prevent weight gain in overweight and obese men and women long-term. The pre-specified primary and secondary assessments are at 2 and 3 years post-randomization respectively. The primary outcome is change in body weight. Secondary outcomes include body composition variables (adipose tissue distribution and lean mass distribution) and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak). We randomized 320 primarily White (n=305) overweight and obese men and women to one of 2 conditions: 1) usual care (UC), 2) small change approach (SCA). Participant involvement in the study is 3 years; 2 year intervention with a 1 year follow-up. Our study findings will indicate whether there is value in clinicians adopting a SCA to lifestyle counseling for their patients who are overweight and obese. PMID:26855121

  15. BWID System Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, M.C.; Rudin, M.J.; Morrison, J.L.; Richardson, J.G.

    1991-12-31

    The mission of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) System Design Study is to identify and evaluate technology process options for the cradle-to-grave remediation of Transuranic (TRU)-Contaminated Waste Pits and Trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Emphasis is placed upon evaluating system configuration options and associated functional and operational requirements for retrieving and treating the buried wastes. A Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter was developed to evaluate the identified remediation systems and their enabling technologies based upon system requirements and quantification of technical Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability (CERCLA) balancing criteria. Remediation systems will also be evaluated with respect to regulatory and institutional acceptance and cost-effectiveness.

  16. BWID System Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, M.C.; Rudin, M.J.; Morrison, J.L.; Richardson, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The mission of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) System Design Study is to identify and evaluate technology process options for the cradle-to-grave remediation of Transuranic (TRU)-Contaminated Waste Pits and Trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Emphasis is placed upon evaluating system configuration options and associated functional and operational requirements for retrieving and treating the buried wastes. A Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter was developed to evaluate the identified remediation systems and their enabling technologies based upon system requirements and quantification of technical Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability (CERCLA) balancing criteria. Remediation systems will also be evaluated with respect to regulatory and institutional acceptance and cost-effectiveness.

  17. Conceptual design optimization study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollowell, S. J.; Beeman, E. R., II; Hiyama, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of applying multilevel functional decomposition and optimization techniques to conceptual design of advanced fighter aircraft was investigated. Applying the functional decomposition techniques to the conceptual design phase appears to be feasible. The initial implementation of the modified design process will optimize wing design variables. A hybrid approach, combining functional decomposition techniques for generation of aerodynamic and mass properties linear sensitivity derivatives with existing techniques for sizing mission performance and optimization, is proposed.

  18. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-06-01

    During the 1960's and early 70's the author performed extensive design studies, analyses, and tests aimed at thermionic reactor concepts that differed significantly from those pursued by other investigators. Those studies, like most others under Atomic Energy Commission (AEC and DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsorship, were terminated in the early 1970's. Some of this work was previously published, but much of it was never made available in the open literature. U.S. interest in thermionic reactors resumed in the early 80's, and was greatly intensified by reports about Soviet ground and flight tests in the late 80's. This recent interest resulted in renewed U.S. thermionic reactor development programs, primarily under Department of Defense (DOD) and Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship. Since most current investigators have not had an opportunity to study all of the author's previous work, a review of the highlights of that work may be of value to them. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling. Where the author's concepts differed from the later Topaz-2 design was in the relative location of the emitter and the collector. Placing the fueled emitter on the outside of the cylindrical diodes permits much higher axial conductances to reduce ohmic losses in the electrodes of full

  19. A Teacher's Guide to Metrics. A Series of In-Service Booklets Designed for Adult Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendel, Robert, Ed.; And Others

    This series of seven booklets is designed to train teachers of adults in metrication, as a prerequisite to offering metrics in adult basic education and general educational development programs. The seven booklets provide a guide representing an integration of metric teaching methods and metric materials to place the adult in an active learning…

  20. Modular antenna design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribble, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanical design of a modular antenna concept was developed sufficiently to allow manufacture of a working demonstration model of a module, to predict mass properties, and to make performance estimates for antenna reflectors composed of these modules. The primary features of this concept are: (1) each module is an autonomous structural element which can be attached to adjacent modules through a three point connection; (2) the upper surface is a folding hexagonal truss plate mechanism which serves as the supporting structure for a reflective surface; and (3) the entire truss and surface can be folded into a cylindrical envelope in which all truss elements are essentially parallel. The kinematic studies and engineering demonstration model fully verified the deployment kinematics, stowing philosophy, and deployment sequencing for large antenna modules. It was established that such modules can be stowed in packages as small as 25 cm in diameter, using 1.27 cm diameter structural tubes. The development activity indicates that this deployable modular approach towards building large structures in space will support erection of 450 m apertures for operation up to 3 GHz with a single space shuttle flight.

  1. Design of the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dental caries incidence in adults is similar to that in children and adolescents, but few caries preventive agents have been evaluated for effectiveness in adults populations. In addition, dentists direct fewer preventive services to their adult patients. Xylitol, an over-the-counter sweetener, has shown some potential as a caries preventive agent, but the evidence for its effectiveness is not yet conclusive and is based largely on studies in child populations. Methods/Design X-ACT is a three-year, multi-center, placebo controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial that tests the effects of daily use of xylitol lozenges versus placebo lozenges on the prevention of adult caries. The trial has randomized 691 participants (ages 21-80) to the two arms. The primary outcome is the increment of cavitated lesions. Discussion This trial should help resolve the overall issue of the effectiveness of xylitol in preventing caries by contributing evidence with a low risk of bias. Just as importantly, the trial will provide much-needed information about the effectiveness of a promising caries prevention agent in adults. An effective xylitol-based caries prevention intervention would represent an easily disseminated method to extend caries prevention to individuals not receiving caries preventive treatment in the dental office. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.Gov NCT00393055 PMID:20920261

  2. Giftedness and Subjective Well-Being: A Study with Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirthwein, Linda; Rost, Detlef H.

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the well-being of gifted adults are rare, and the available studies are often limited by methodological shortcomings. In a longitudinal project 101 intellectually gifted adults (mean IQ = 136) were compared to 91 adults of average intelligence (mean IQ = 103). Subjective well-being was operationalized by positive and negative…

  3. DIRECT PERSONAL COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH THE NORTH CAROLINA ADULT ASTHMA AND ENVIRONMENT STUDY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A prototype coarse particulate matter PM(10-2.5) monitor was field evaluated as part of the North Carolina Adult Asthma and Environment Study (NCAAES). The NCAAES was designed to evaluate if airway and blood inflammatory markers in moderate asthmatic adults vary with changes in ...

  4. Design and methods for the Better Resiliency Among Veterans and non-Veterans with Omega-3's (BRAVO) study: A double blind, placebo-controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation among adult individuals at risk of suicide.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Bernadette P; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Killeen, Therese K; Magruder, Kathryn M; Holes-Lewis, Kelly; Tolliver, Bryan K; Turner, Travis H

    2016-03-01

    Suicide remains the 10th leading cause of death among adults in the United States (U.S.). Annually, approximately 30 per 100,000 U.S. military Veterans commit suicide, compared to 14 per 100,000 U.S. civilians. Symptoms associated with suicidality can be treatment resistant and proven-effective pharmaceuticals may have adverse side-effects. Thus, a critical need remains to identify effective approaches for building psychological resiliency in at-risk individuals. Omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFAs) are essential nutrients, which must be consumed in the diet. N-3 HUFAs have been demonstrated to reduce symptoms of depression, anxiety, and impulsivity - which are associated with suicide risk. Here we present the design and methods for the Better Resiliency Among Veterans and non-Veterans with Omega-3's (BRAVO) study, which is a double blind, randomized, controlled trial among individuals at risk of suicide of an n-3 HUFA versus placebo supplementation in the form of all natural fruit juice beverages. The BRAVO study seeks to determine if dietary supplementation with n-3 HUFAs reduces the risk for serious suicidal behaviors, suicidal thinking, negative emotions, and symptoms associated with suicide risk. Sub-analyses will evaluate efficacy in reducing depressive symptoms, alcohol, and nicotine use. A sub-study utilizes functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate the neuropsychological and neurophysiological effects of n-3 HUFAs. We also outline selection of appropriate proxy outcome measures for detecting response to treatment and collection of ancillary data, such as diet and substance use, that are critical for interpretation of results. PMID:26855120

  5. Dual format course design: neuroanatomy and neurophysiology for adult learners.

    PubMed

    Estes, Rebecca I

    2007-01-01

    Adult learners require alternative learning opportunities to enable them to work and still be able to upgrade their education. This dual format course, combining online and face-to-face components, was developed to meet the need of students to complete a prerequisite undergraduate level neuroanatomy and neurophysiology course while attending a program that included fly-in weekends (seven) and online instruction (15 weeks). A combination of online lectures and on-campus lectures were used to teach pre-requisite neuroanatomy and neurophysiology course topics. The article presents the teaching material division between online and on-campus lectures and presentation of data collected. Survey data collected included student preferred: online media presentation, online activities developed to facilitate learning of the online material, online case study discussion, and testing formats. Students also were asked to comment on whether the class should move to a 100% online format and what their concerns would be moving to an all online format. Additional qualitative data on student input related to the course, adult learning and the learning environment will be presented. Blackboard data include: student daily access patterns, media and documents access and download patterns, and case study participation. Additionally, descriptive statistics from in class quizzes versus online quizzes includes: student patterns of test taking in an unlimited retake environment, scores on retakes and final scores (highest of retakes), in-class quiz scores, and comparison of comprehensive final exam scores from online versus face-to-face lecture material and testing. Findings provide valuable information for online course formatting, revisions and additional course development. PMID:23493658

  6. Adult Teaching and Learning. Heuristics of Adult Education: Courses of Study for Professional Preparation of Educators of Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Denzil O.

    Adult teaching and learning is a suggested course of study which emphasizes teacher behavior in relation to adult learning. In the development of the syllabus for this course, a considerable amount of time was spent using the curriculum development process described by Ralph Tyler. A broad range of concepts and behavior patterns were identified in…

  7. How Adults Learn Forms the Foundation of the Learning Designs Standard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drago-Severson, Eleanor

    2011-01-01

    Learning Forward's new Learning Designs standard is an important reminder that shaping professional learning as opportunities for adults to learn and grow is essential and that one's understanding of how adults learn is an essential component of this pressing goal. This article discusses the three strands of the Learning Designs standard: (1)…

  8. Designing Outreach Adult Programs Using Mobile Van Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, James E.

    When it was discovered that fewer than 75 residents in urban subsidized housing communities were enrolled in the adult programs at Pensacola Junior College, it was decided to develop an outreach program to extend the college's services to 650 illiterate, indigent, and unemployed adults in these communities. The program was operated out of mobile…

  9. Case Studies in Environmental Adult and Popular Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clover, Darlene E., Ed.; Follen, Shirley, Ed.

    Following an introduction by Darlene E. Clover and Rene Karottki, this booklet provides 16 case studies about nonformal environmental adult education: "Environment and Development in Argentina: Innovative Experiences in Adult Learning" (Raul A. Montenegro); "Learning for Environmental Action: Environmental Adult and Popular Education in Canada"…

  10. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-08-01

    Paper presented at the 29th IECEC in Monterey, CA in August 1994. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their (thermionic reactor) performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling.

  11. Advanced Entry Adult Apprenticeship Training Scheme: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Alan; Ingram, Hadyn; Phillips, Sunny

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate an innovative way to train adult apprentices for the construction industry. Design/methodology/approach: The paper emphasizes that, in order to address skills shortages for international construction, training methods must be improved. It looks at the example of an adult apprenticeship scheme in…

  12. Functional Impairment in Adult Sleepwalkers: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Regis; Jaussent, Isabelle; Scholz, Sabine; Bayard, Sophie; Montplaisir, Jacques; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the restorative quality of sleep and daytime functioning in sleepwalking adult patients in comparison with controls. Design: Prospective case-control study. Setting: Data were collected at the Sleep Disorders Center, Hôpital-Gui-de Chauliac, Montpellier, France between June 2007 and January 2011. Participants: There were 140 adult sleepwalkers (100 (median age 30 y, 55% male) in whom primary SW was diagnosed) who underwent 1 night of video polysomnography. All patients participated in a standardized clinical interview and completed a battery of questionnaires to assess clinical characteristics of parasomnia, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and health-related quality of life. Results were compared with those of 100 sex- and age-matched normal controls. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Of the sleepwalkers, 22.3% presented with daily episodes and 43.5% presented with weekly episodes. Median age at sleepwalking onset was 9 y. Familial history of sleepwalking was reported in 56.6% of sleepwalkers and violent sleep related behaviors in 57.9%, including injuries requiring medical care for at least one episode in 17%. Significant associations were found between sleepwalking and daytime sleepiness, fatigue, insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and altered quality of life. Early-onset sleepwalkers had higher frequency of violent behaviors and injuries. Sleepwalkers with violent behaviors had higher frequency of sleep terrors and triggering factors, with greater alteration in health-related quality of life. Conclusion: Adult sleepwalking is a potentially serious condition that may induce violent behaviors, self-injury or injury to bed partners, sleep disruption, excessive daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and psychological distress, all of which affect health-related quality of life. Citation: Lopez R; Jaussent I; Scholz S; Bayard S; Montplaisir J; Dauvilliers Y. Functional impairment in

  13. Advanced turbocharger design study program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culy, D. G.; Heldenbrand, R. W.; Richardson, N. R.

    1984-01-01

    The advanced Turbocharger Design Study consisted of: (1) the evaluation of three advanced engine designs to determine their turbocharging requirements, and of technologies applicable to advanced turbocharger designs; (2) trade-off studies to define a turbocharger conceptual design and select the engine with the most representative requirements for turbocharging; (3) the preparation of a turbocharger conceptual design for the Curtiss Wright RC2-32 engine selected in the trade-off studies; and (4) the assessment of market impact and the preparation of a technology demonstration plan for the advanced turbocharger.

  14. Design Considerations for Patient Portal Adoption by Low-Income, Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Latulipe, Celine; Gatto, Amy; Nguyen, Ha T.; Miller, David P.; Quandt, Sara A.; Bertoni, Alain G.; Smith, Alden; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the results of an interview study investigating facilitators and barriers to adoption of patient portals among low-income, older adults in rural and urban populations in the southeastern United States. We describe attitudes of this population of older adults and their current level of technology use and patient portal use. From qualitative analysis of 36 patient interviews and 16 caregiver interviews within these communities, we derive themes related to benefits of portals, barriers to use, concerns and desired features. Based on our initial findings, we present a set of considerations for designing the patient portal user experience, aimed at helping healthcare clinics to meet U.S. federally-mandated ‘meaningful use’ requirements. PMID:27077140

  15. INTRODUCTION AND STUDY DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the sponsorship of the UNEP/ILO/IPCS, 17 laboratories from diverse regions of the world participated in evaluating the utility of four plant bioassays for detecting genetic hazards of environmental chemicals. he bioassays included in this collaborative study were Arabidopsi...

  16. Innovation in Doctoral Degrees Designed for Adult Learners: A Hybrid Model in Personal Financial Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grable, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Innovation in doctoral degree program development and delivery provides an effective counterpoint to the expert-apprentice model established in the Middle Ages. The author outlines the importance of innovation in reaching adult learners and describes an innovative hybrid PhD program designed to allow aspiring doctoral adult-age students to pursue…

  17. Designing Instructional Articles in Online Courses for Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morland, D. Verne; Bivens, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    Aspiring teachers are taught the elements of "pedagogy," originally the art and science of teaching children. Many aspects of teaching adults, however, are fundamentally different than those employed in teaching children. In order to acknowledge these differences, a new word--"andragogy"--gained currency in the late 20th century. This article…

  18. Designing Adult Learning Strategies: The Case of South Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunny, Madeleine; Viertel, Evelyn

    2006-01-01

    The importance of lifelong learning is generally well understood and few people today would query the need for adults to regularly update their skills in line with labour market needs, and for governments and social partners to provide an environment that supports skills acquisition and updating. However, it is clear when we look at data from the…

  19. RAD hard PROM design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The results of a preliminary study on the design of a radiation hardened fusible link programmable read-only memory (PROM) are presented. Various fuse technologies and the effects of radiation on MOS integrated circuits are surveyed. A set of design rules allowing the fabrication of a radiation hardened PROM using a Si-gate CMOS process is defined. A preliminary cell layout was completed and the programming concept defined. A block diagram is used to describe the circuit components required for a 4 K design. A design goal data sheet giving target values for the AC, DC, and radiation parameters of the circuit is presented.

  20. Designing case-control studies.

    PubMed Central

    Yanagawa, T

    1979-01-01

    Identification of confounding factors, evaluation of their influence on cause-effect associations, and the introduction of appropriate ways to account for these factors are important considerations in designing case-control studies. This paper presents designs useful for these purposes, after first providing a statistical definition of a confounding factor. Differences in the ability to identify and evaluate confounding factors and estimate disease risk between designs employing stratification (matching) and designs randomly sampling cases and controls are noted. Linear logistic models for the analysis of data from such designs are described and are shown to liberalize design requirements and to increase relative risk estimation efficiency. The methods are applied to data from a multiple factor investigation of lung cancer patients and controls. PMID:540588

  1. Compliance in children and adults: review of studies.

    PubMed

    Shope, J T

    1988-01-01

    Adherence to prescribed medication, or patient compliance, was studied over a period of several years in 3 populations with seizure disorders: 2 pediatric (n = 90, n = 211), and 1 adult population (n = 177). Compliance was assessed in several different ways: self-reports and serum levels analyzed for the level/dose ratio as well as the coefficient of variation for each patient. Correlates studied included Health Belief Model variables as well as internal locus of control, social support, knowledge about seizures and other variables. The assessed extent of compliance ranged from 54% to 82% in the various groups. Overall, compliance was related to motivation, value of illness threat reduction, and probability that compliant behavior will reduce the threat. Also related to compliance were some measures of the following types of variables: demographic, structural, attitudinal, provider/patient interaction, social support, experience with the regimen, internal control, and knowledge. A group discussion intervention designed to enhance compliance was implemented and evaluated effectively in the pediatric seizure population. In the adult population, compliance and seizure control both increased over a 2 year follow-up period, but were not significantly related. PMID:3072190

  2. Human Centred Design Considerations for Connected Health Devices for the Older Adult

    PubMed Central

    Harte, Richard P.; Glynn, Liam G.; Broderick, Barry J.; Rodriguez-Molinero, Alejandro; Baker, Paul M. A.; McGuiness, Bernadette; O’Sullivan, Leonard; Diaz, Marta; Quinlan, Leo R.; ÓLaighin, Gearóid

    2014-01-01

    Connected health devices are generally designed for unsupervised use, by non-healthcare professionals, facilitating independent control of the individuals own healthcare. Older adults are major users of such devices and are a population significantly increasing in size. This group presents challenges due to the wide spectrum of capabilities and attitudes towards technology. The fit between capabilities of the user and demands of the device can be optimised in a process called Human Centred Design. Here we review examples of some connected health devices chosen by random selection, assess older adult known capabilities and attitudes and finally make analytical recommendations for design approaches and design specifications. PMID:25563225

  3. Design and evaluation of a computer game to promote a healthy diet for young adults.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei

    2009-03-01

    This article reports the development and evaluation of a computer game (RightWay Café) as a special medium to promote a healthy diet for young adults. Structural features of computer games, such as interactive tailoring, role playing, the element of fun, and narrative, were operationalized in the RightWay Café game to afford behavior rehearsal in a safe and entertaining way. Theories such as the health belief model, social cognitive theory, and theory of reasoned action guided the content design of the game to influence mediators of behavior change, including self-efficacy, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and behavior change intention. A randomized controlled evaluation study with pretest, posttest, and follow-up design demonstrated that this game was effective in teaching nutrition and weight management knowledge and increasing people's self-efficacy and perceived benefits of healthy eating, as well as their intention to be on a healthy diet. Limited long-term effects were also found: participants in the game-playing group had greater self-efficacy than participants in the control group after 1 month. This study validates the computer game-based approach to health promotion for young adults. Limitations and implications are also discussed. PMID:19280455

  4. Development of a Wheelchair Skills Home Program for Older Adults Using a Participatory Action Design Approach

    PubMed Central

    Giesbrecht, Edward M.; Miller, William C.; Mitchell, Ian M.; Woodgate, Roberta L.

    2014-01-01

    Restricted mobility is the most common impairment among older adults and a manual wheelchair is often prescribed to address these limitations. However, limited access to rehabilitation services results in older adults typically receiving little or no mobility training when they receive a wheelchair. As an alternative and novel approach, we developed a therapist-monitored wheelchair skills home training program delivered via a computer tablet. To optimize efficacy and adherence, principles of self-efficacy and adult learning theory were foundational in the program design. A participatory action design approach was used to engage older adult wheelchair users, care providers, and prescribing clinicians in an iterative design and development process. A series of prototypes were fabricated and revised, based on feedback from eight stakeholder focus groups, until a final version was ready for evaluation in a clinical trial. Stakeholder contributions affirmed and enhanced the foundational theoretical principles and provided validation of the final product for the target population. PMID:25276768

  5. Development of a wheelchair skills home program for older adults using a participatory action design approach.

    PubMed

    Giesbrecht, Edward M; Miller, William C; Mitchell, Ian M; Woodgate, Roberta L

    2014-01-01

    Restricted mobility is the most common impairment among older adults and a manual wheelchair is often prescribed to address these limitations. However, limited access to rehabilitation services results in older adults typically receiving little or no mobility training when they receive a wheelchair. As an alternative and novel approach, we developed a therapist-monitored wheelchair skills home training program delivered via a computer tablet. To optimize efficacy and adherence, principles of self-efficacy and adult learning theory were foundational in the program design. A participatory action design approach was used to engage older adult wheelchair users, care providers, and prescribing clinicians in an iterative design and development process. A series of prototypes were fabricated and revised, based on feedback from eight stakeholder focus groups, until a final version was ready for evaluation in a clinical trial. Stakeholder contributions affirmed and enhanced the foundational theoretical principles and provided validation of the final product for the target population. PMID:25276768

  6. A Study of Barriers to Adult Self-Directed Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Self-directed learning has contributed significantly to adult learners' personal and professional growth. Approximately 70% of adult learning is through a self-directed learning context (Heimstra, 2008). This quantitative correlational study involved an attempt to determine the nature of the relationship between situational, dispositional, and…

  7. Barriers to Participation in Religious Adult Education: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selman, John Thomas, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Millions of Americans profess belief in God and follow a Protestant Christian belief system. However, very little research or literature explores their participation in religious adult education. Several areas within adult education are exhaustively researched such as health care, leisure, and career related courses, but studies within religion go…

  8. Medication Adherence in Older Adults: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Elizabeth W.; Rung, Ariane L.; Leon, Kyla A.; Firestein, Catherine; Krousel-Wood, Marie

    2014-01-01

    To effectively address medication adherence and improve cardiovascular health among older adults, a deeper understanding is needed of the barriers that this age group faces and of approaches that would be most effective and feasible for improving adherence. We conducted a focus group study (n = 25) in a diverse population of older adults with…

  9. Group Therapy for Adult Children of Alcoholics: Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corazzini, John G.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses survival roles adopted by children growing up in families where alcohol is abused, relating them to birth order, and emphasizing their maladaptivity for later adult interactions. Presents case studies of two common roles of adult children of alcoholics (ACAs), those of hero and scapegoat, and demonstrates how ACAs interact in a mixed,…

  10. Optical Telescope Design Study Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livas, J.; Sankar, S.

    2015-05-01

    We report on the results of a study conducted from Nov 2012-Apr 2013 to develop a telescope design for a space-based gravitational wave detector. The telescope is needed for efficient power delivery but since it is directly in the beam path, the design is driven by the requirements for the overall displacement sensitivity of the gravitational wave observatory. Two requirements in particular, optical pathlength stability and scattered light performance, are beyond the usual specifications for good image quality encountered in traditional telescopic systems. An important element of the study was to tap industrial expertise to develop an optimized design that can be reliably manufactured. Key engineering and design trade-offs and the sometimes surprising results will be presented.

  11. Balancing Act: A Phenomenological Study of Female Adult Learners Who Successfully Persisted in Graduate Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Jeff; Nelson, Barbara Mullins

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted utilizing Cross' (1981) barriers to adult learning as a framework to better understand how adults successfully complete their graduate studies. Participants in the study were solicited via Facebook and LinkedIn. Three female adult learners who persisted in their graduate studies while balancing demands outside academics…

  12. Equilibrium Studies of Designed Metalloproteins.

    PubMed

    Gibney, B R

    2016-01-01

    Complete thermodynamic descriptions of the interactions of cofactors with proteins via equilibrium studies are challenging, but are essential to the evaluation of designed metalloproteins. While decades of studies on protein-protein interaction thermodynamics provide a strong underpinning to the successful computational design of novel protein folds and de novo proteins with enzymatic activity, the corresponding paucity of data on metal-protein interaction thermodynamics limits the success of computational metalloprotein design efforts. By evaluating the thermodynamics of metal-protein interactions via equilibrium binding studies, protein unfolding free energy determinations, proton competition equilibria, and electrochemistry, a more robust basis for the computational design of metalloproteins may be provided. Our laboratory has shown that such studies provide detailed insight into the assembly and stability of designed metalloproteins, allow for parsing apart the free energy contributions of metal-ligand interactions from those of porphyrin-protein interactions in hemeproteins, and even reveal their mechanisms of proton-coupled electron transfer. Here, we highlight studies that reveal the complex interplay between the various equilibria that underlie metalloprotein assembly and stability and the utility of making these detailed measurements. PMID:27586343

  13. Student Perceptions of Active Instructional Designs in Four Inner City Adult Education Math Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, LaToya S.

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this study was to examine the attitudes, experiences, and opinions of adult math students in Adult Basic Education programs. Sixty students participated in the study, by completing observations, questionnaires, and completing the Attitude Towards Mathematics Survey (ATMS). The ATMS survey analyzed four factors. These factors included…

  14. Bridging the digital divide in older adults: a study from an initiative to inform older adults about new technologies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ya-Huei; Damnée, Souad; Kerhervé, Hélène; Ware, Caitlin; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In a society where technology progresses at an exponential rate, older adults are often unaware of the existence of different kinds of information and communication technologies (ICTs). To bridge the gap, we launched a 2-year project, during which we conducted focus groups (FGs) with demonstrations of ICTs, allowing older adults to try them out and to share their opinions. This study aimed at investigating how participants perceived this kind of initiative and how they reacted to different kinds of ICTs. Patients and methods In total, 14 FGs were conducted with community-dwelling older adults, with a frequency of two FGs on the same topic once per trimester. Twenty-three older adults (four men and 19 women) attended at least one FG but only nearly half of them were regular attendants (ten participating in at least five sessions). Age of participants ranged from 63 years to 88 years, with a mean of 77.1 years. All of them had completed secondary education. The analyses of the data were performed according to inductive thematic analysis. Results Four overarching themes emerged from the analysis. The first concerned participants’ motivation for and assessment of the project. The second theme identified the underlying factors of the “digital divide” between the younger and the older generations. The third theme concerned the factors of technology adoption among older adults. The fourth one identified participants’ attitudes toward assistive ICTs, designed specifically for older adults (“gerontechnologies”). Discussions and conclusion This project encouraging older adults to be informed about different kinds of ICTs was positively rated. With regard to ICTs, participants perceived a digital divide. The underlying factors are generation/cohort effects, cognitive and physical decline related to aging, and negative attitudes toward technologies. However, more and more older adults adopt different kinds of ICTs in order to fit in with the society

  15. A comparative study of bifidobacteria in human babies and adults

    PubMed Central

    KHONSARI, Shadi; SUGANTHY, Mayuran; BURCZYNSKA, Beata; DANG, Vu; CHOUDHURY, Manika; PACHENARI, Azra

    2015-01-01

    The composition and diversity of the gut microbiota are known to be different between babies and adults. The aim of this project was to compare the level of bifidobacteria between babies and adults and to investigate the influence of lifestyle factors on the level of this bacterium in the gut. During this study, the levels of bifidobacteria in 10 human babies below 2 years of age were compared with that of 10 human adults above 40 years. The level of bifidobacteria proved to be significantly higher in babies in comparison with adults. This investigation concluded that a combination of several factors, such as age, diet, and BMI, has an important effect on the level of bifidobacteria in adults, while in babies, a combination of diet and age may influence the level of intestinal bifidobacteria. PMID:27200263

  16. A comparative study of bifidobacteria in human babies and adults.

    PubMed

    Khonsari, Shadi; Suganthy, Mayuran; Burczynska, Beata; Dang, Vu; Choudhury, Manika; Pachenari, Azra

    2016-01-01

    The composition and diversity of the gut microbiota are known to be different between babies and adults. The aim of this project was to compare the level of bifidobacteria between babies and adults and to investigate the influence of lifestyle factors on the level of this bacterium in the gut. During this study, the levels of bifidobacteria in 10 human babies below 2 years of age were compared with that of 10 human adults above 40 years. The level of bifidobacteria proved to be significantly higher in babies in comparison with adults. This investigation concluded that a combination of several factors, such as age, diet, and BMI, has an important effect on the level of bifidobacteria in adults, while in babies, a combination of diet and age may influence the level of intestinal bifidobacteria. PMID:27200263

  17. Revisiting Adults' Perceptual Learning Style and Their Educational Level: A Replication Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Kourtland R.

    2004-01-01

    This study is a replication of an original study conducted by James and Blank (1991) which examined the relationship between educational attainment and adult performance using the Multi-Modal Paired Associates Learning Test-Revised (MMPALT-II) (Cherry, 1981). The MMPALT-II was designed to measure an individual's demonstrated perceptual modality…

  18. Barriers and Facilitators in Health Education for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities--A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergström, H.; Elinder, L. S.; Wihlman, U.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore barriers and facilitators in the implementation of a health course for adults with mild or moderate intellectual disabilities. An inductive qualitative design was used. Data were collected from a health course conducted in 16 study groups with 83 participants in Stockholm, Sweden by unstructured observations in…

  19. A Phenomenological Study to Discover Low-Income Adults' Perceptions and Expectations Regarding Financial Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Brigid Ann

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored the perceptions and expectations of low income adults regarding financial literacy to discover ways to increase attendance in financial literacy programs designs for this cohort. The study utilized interviews with closed-ended questions to establish the participants' backgrounds, then opened-ended questions to…

  20. Visual Design Principles: An Empirical Study of Design Lore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Miles A.

    2013-01-01

    Many books, designers, and design educators talk about visual design principles such as balance, contrast, and alignment, but with little consistency. This study uses empirical methods to explore the lore surrounding design principles. The study took the form of two stages: a quantitative literature review to determine what design principles are…

  1. Priorities for Action in a Rural Older Adults Study

    PubMed Central

    Averill, Jennifer B.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the findings from a recent study of older adults in the rural southwestern United States and discusses practice and research implications. The aim of the study was to analyze health disparities and strengths in the contexts of rurality, aging, a depressed economy, and limited health resources. Identified themes needing action included sustained access to prescriptions, transportation solutions for older adults in isolated communities, inadequate access to care, poor infrastructure and coordination of services, scarce assisted living and in-home care for frail older adults, and barriers related to culture, language, and economics. PMID:22929381

  2. Perceived neighbourhood environmental attributes associated with adults׳ recreational walking: IPEN Adult study in 12 countries.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Cerin, Ester; Owen, Neville; Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Conway, Terry L; Van Dyck, Delfien; Schipperijn, Jasper; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Salvo, Deborah; Reis, Rodrigo S; Mitáš, Josef; Sarmiento, Olga L; Davey, Rachel; Schofield, Grant; Orzanco-Garralda, Rosario; Sallis, James F

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the strength and shape of associations between perceived environmental attributes and adults' recreational walking, using data collected from 13,745 adult participants in 12 countries. Perceived residential density, land use mix, street connectivity, aesthetics, safety from crime, and proximity to parks were linearly associated with recreational walking, while curvilinear associations were found for residential density, land use mix, and aesthetics. The observed associations were consistent across countries, except for aesthetics. Using data collected from environmentally diverse countries, this study confirmed findings from prior single-country studies. Present findings suggest that similar environmental attributes are associated with recreational walking internationally. PMID:24721737

  3. The effects of two physical fitness programs designed for mentally retarded adults.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, D L; Reid, G; Seidl, C

    1988-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to design a systematic program of fitness training that enhances physical fitness of mentally retarded adults in sheltered workshops. The first phase of the study was a six-month program conducted by physical education graduate students while the second phase was four months in duration and led by workshop employees. Instructors followed a manual containing 48 lesson plans that were specifically prepared for mentally retarded participants. The physical fitness programs were evaluated using the Canadian Standardized Test of Fitness. MANOVA results revealed that both the six-month and four-month programs increased the physical fitness of the mentally retarded workers, although cardiovascular endurance improved only as a function of the four-month program. PMID:3359364

  4. Child abuse, neglect, and adult behavior: research design and findings on criminality, violence, and child abuse.

    PubMed

    Widom, C S

    1989-07-01

    Using a prospective cohorts design, a large sample of physical and sexual abuse cases was compared to a matched control group. Overall, abused and neglected subjects had higher rates than did controls for adult criminality and arrests for violent offenses, but not for adult arrests for child abuse or neglect. Findings are discussed in the context of intergenerational transmission of violence, and directions for future research are suggested. PMID:2764070

  5. Factors Influencing Psychological Help Seeking in Adults: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topkaya, Nursel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current research is to identify which factors, and in what direction these factors influence adults' decisions to seek psychological help for their personal problems. The research was designed as a phenomenology model; the data was gathered through the semi-structured interview technique, which is mostly used in qualitative research…

  6. Career and Self-Construction of Emerging Adults: The Value of Life Designing

    PubMed Central

    Maree, Jacobus G.; Twigge, Adeline

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a potential way of counseling emerging adults from a life design perspective to construct a self that could enable them to be agents of both their own development and the development of others. Theoretical issues relating to a dynamic, developmental and systems framework of the understanding of wellbeing are described and the process involved is delineated. The research design was qualitative and comprised case studies. Six participants who subscribed to the definition of “emerging adults” and were comparatively representative of the ethnic diversity of South Africa, were selected purposively from a group of individuals who applied for career counseling in a private practice context. The intervention involved life design counseling and occurred over a period of 6 weeks. Information related to participants' self-construction was gathered using qualitative techniques, including the Career Interest Profile, the Career Construction Interview, a timeline, video clips, a collage, and semi-structured interviews. Following the intervention, the participants revealed heightened insights with regard to aspects of their sense of a relational-moral self. Results indicated that life design counseling could enhance elaborative personal development (enhancing self-awareness and reaping the benefits of developing an improved relational-moral self) and the promotion of an awareness of the importance to promote social justice in work-related contexts. PMID:26793152

  7. Designing a Full-Service Adult ESOL Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batt, Sarah; Bauer, Roxanne; Jensen, Byron; Wann, Dan; Westfall, Timmie

    This document describes how professionals representing the Indianapolis public school system, Goodwill Industries, Indy Reads (a literacy advocacy group), and an English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) professional development consultant designed a comprehensive ESL education and social service system in metropolitan Indianapolis. The document…

  8. Human paraoxonase polymorphism: Hungarian population studies in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Szabó, I; Róna, K; Czinner, A; Gachályi, B

    1991-06-01

    The paraoxonase phenotype distribution pattern was studied in a Hungarian population of 102 children and 100 adults. All the subjects were of Caucasian origin and are not related. The adult population showed the trimodality in phenotype distribution similar to other European population data. The gene frequencies obtained were statistically not significantly different either. There was no correlation between the activity of serum paraoxonase and activity of cholinesterase, sex, age and body weight. The phenotype distribution was trimodal in the children's population too. There was a significant difference in gene frequency, however, compared to data from adult population. PMID:1651288

  9. Studying nursing interventions in acutely ill, cognitively impaired older adults

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, Kathleen; Bradway, Christine; Hirschman, Karen B; Naylor, Mary D

    2015-01-01

    Background Between one and two of every five hospitalized older adults have cognitive deficits, often not accurately assessed or well managed. Cognitive impairment adds substantially to the complexity of these patients’ care, places them at high risk for poor outcomes and increases the cost of health care. Methods We describe three evidence-based interventions, each capitalizing on the unique contributions of nurses and designed to improve outcomes of hospitalized older adults who have cognitive deficits. Interventions of varying intensity were compared across three hospitals (Phase I) and subsequently within the same hospitals (Phase II). All enrolled patients were screened during their index hospitalizations and cognitive deficits were communicated to relevant health care team members (Augmented Standard Care-ASC, lowest intensity). At one hospital, ASC was the only intervention. Patients at a second hospital also had care influenced by specially prepared registered nurses (Resource Nurse Care-RNC, medium intensity). Finally, patients at third hospital also received advanced practice nurse coordinated care (Transitional Care Model-TCM, higher intensity). In Phase II, newly enrolled patients at these same hospitals all received the TCM. We summarize major themes from review of multiple data sources and researcher recollections related to facilitators and barriers to implementing a complex research study. Findings Effective implementation of the three intervention strategies depended on clinician engagement and communication; degree of participation by nurses in the educational program with subsequent practice improvement; and success of advanced practice nurses in implementing the TCM with both with patients, family caregivers and clinicians. Implications Based on lessons learned in implementing complex research studies within the “real world” of clinical practice settings, recommendations focus on strengthening facilitators, minimizing barriers and gaining

  10. Young Adults, Technology, and Weight Loss: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Allen, Jerilyn K.

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are a major concern in young adults. Technology has been integrated into many weight loss interventions; however little is known about the use of this technology in young adults. The purpose of this study was to explore through focus group sessions the opinions of young adults on the use of technology for weight loss. A total of 17 young adults, between 18 and 25 years of age, participated in three focus group sessions. Major results indicated that young adults have very little knowledge on the use of Smartphone technology for weight loss but would like to use this type of technology to help them lose weight. Results also indicated that young adults struggle to make healthy food choices and have priorities that outweigh exercise and they need support and guidance to make better decisions. In conclusion, young adults would be open to using Smartphone technology for weight loss but also need feedback and guidance to help make healthy decisions. PMID:25789170

  11. Liquid belt radiator design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teagan, W. P.; Fitzgerald, K. F.

    1986-01-01

    The Liquid Belt Radiator (LBR) is an advanced concept developed to meet the needs of anticipated future space missions. A previous study documented the advantages of this concept as a lightweight, easily deployable alternative to present day space heat rejection systems. The technical efforts associated with this study concentrate on refining the concept of the LBR as well as examining the issues of belt dynamics and potential application of the LBR to intermediate and high temperature heat rejection applications. A low temperature point design developed in previous work is updated assuming the use of diffusion pump oil, Santovac-6, as the heat transfer media. Additional analytical and design effort is directed toward determining the impact of interface heat exchanger, fluid bath sealing, and belt drive mechanism designs on system performance and mass. The updated design supports the earlier result by indicating a significant reduction in system specific system mass as compared to heat pipe or pumped fluid radiator concepts currently under consideration (1.3 kg/sq m versus 5 kg/sq m).

  12. Adult, Flexible Students' Approaches to Studying in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronning, Wenche M.

    2009-01-01

    A Norwegian translation of the Approaches to Studying Inventory (ASI-32) was administered to 1477 adult students attending flexible study programs in higher education in Norway (2004-05). The intention was to investigate their approaches to studying, taking into account their educational backgrounds and their present, challenging study conditions.…

  13. Study on the Korean adult cranial capacity.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Y I; Lee, K H; Choi, B Y; Lee, K S; Lee, H Y; Sir, W S; Kim, H J; Koh, K S; Han, S H; Chung, M S

    1995-08-01

    Cranial capacity was measured in Korean adult skulls. The cavity was filled with rice seeds and the volume of the seeds were measured in a graduated cylinder. The results were 1470 +/- 107 (mean +/- standard deviation) in male and 1317 +/- 117 cc in female skulls. These values were in good accordance with those previously reported. In addition, regression formulae were obtained with the product of the length, breadth, and height of the skull as an independent parameter and the measured capacity as a dependent one. With known external measurements, the expected cranial capacity was as follows: when using baso-bregmatic height, male: capacity = 307.5 + 333 x 10(-6) x (length.breadth.baso-bregmatic height) female: capacity = -12.0 + 435 x 10(-6) x (length.breadth.baso-bregmatic height) and, when using auriculo-bregmatic height, male: capacity = 214.6 + 429 x 10(-6) x (length.breadth.auriculo-bregmatic height) female: capacity = 131.6 + 461 x 10(-6) x (length.breadth.auriculo-bregmatic height). PMID:8593202

  14. A Comparison of Two Approaches for Facilitating Identity Exploration Processes in Emerging Adults: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Kurtines, William M.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.

    2005-01-01

    This article, using a controlled design, reports the results of an exploratory study to investigate the impact of two types of intervention strategies (cognitively vs. emotionally focused) on two types of identity processes (self-construction and self-discovery) in a culturally diverse sample of 90 emerging adult university students. A…

  15. Crossroads Cafe: An ESOL Program for Adult Learners. Formative Evaluation Study, Summer 1996 Pilot Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegel, Seymour; Rayman, Irene C.

    The reports presents findings of a formative evaluation of "Crossroads Cafe," an adult-level distance learning program designed to teach English to speakers of other languages (ESOL). The study focused on how 22 programs were implemented in 6 different regions of New York State. The program is a collaborative efforts of the Department of…

  16. Clinical Evidence in Guardianship of Older Adults Is Inadequate: Findings from a Tri-State Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moye, Jennifer; Wood, Stacey; Edelstein, Barry; Armesto, Jorge C.; Bower, Emily H.; Harrison, Julie A.; Wood, Erica

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This preliminary study compared clinical evaluations for guardianship in three states with varying levels of statutory reform. Design and Methods: Case files for 298 cases of adult guardianship were reviewed in Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Colorado, three states with varying degrees of statutory reform. The quality and content of the…

  17. Teaching Cafe' Waiter Skills to Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Real Setting Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavkaytar, Atilla

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine effectiveness of the Cafe' Waiter Education Program by providing the least prompting to three adult subjects with intellectual disability in a real-life setting. A multiple probe research design across subjects was used. Cafe' waiter skills included five main tasks incorporating 125 skill steps. Task…

  18. Adult Education and Disability Studies, an Interdisciplinary Relationship: Research Implications for Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Mavis A.

    2006-01-01

    Disability studies is an emerging field of inquiry that investigates the disability experience as a socially constructed phenomenon similar to issues of race, gender, and class. However, the literature of adult education shows that we are not making these same connections. Nor are we conducting a thorough investigation of how the manifestations of…

  19. Trends in diet quality among adolescents, adults and older adults: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Samantha Caesar de; Previdelli, Ágatha Nogueira; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to monitor diet quality and associated factors in adolescents, adults and older adults from the city of São Paulo, Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study involving 2376 individuals surveyed in 2003, and 1662 individuals in 2008 (Health Survey of São Paulo, ISA-Capital). Participants were of both sexes and aged 12 to 19 years old (adolescents), 20 to 59 years old (adults) and 60 years old or over (older adults). Food intake was assessed using the 24-h dietary recall method while diet quality was determined by the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index (BHEI-R). The prevalence of descriptive variables for 2003 and 2008 was compared adopting a confidence interval of 95%. The means of total BHEI-R score and its components for 2003 and 2008 were compared for each age group. Associations between the BHEI-R and independent variables were evaluated for each survey year using multiple linear regression analysis. Results showed that the mean BHEI-R increased (54.9 vs. 56.4 points) over the five-year period. However, the age group evaluation showed a deterioration in diet quality of adolescents, influenced by a decrease in scores for dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes, total grains, oils and SoFAAS (solid fat, alcohol and added sugar) components. In the 2008 survey, adults had a higher BHEI-R score, by 6.1 points on average, compared to adolescents. Compared to older adults, this difference was 10.7 points. The diet quality remains a concern, especially among adolescents, that had the worst results compared to the other age groups. PMID:27547722

  20. Open to Interpretation: Multiple Intelligences Theory in Adult Literacy Education. Findings from the Adult Multiple Intelligences Study. NCSALL Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallenbach, Silja; Viens, Julie

    The Adult Multiple Intelligences (AMI) Study investigated how multiple intelligences (MI) theory can support instruction and assessment in adult literacy education across different adult learning contexts. Two interwoven qualitative research projects focused on applying MI theory in practice. One involved 10 teacher-conducted and AMI…

  1. Elder mistreatment and physical health among older adults: the South Carolina Elder Mistreatment Study.

    PubMed

    Cisler, Josh M; Amstadter, Ananda B; Begle, Angela M; Hernandez, Melba; Acierno, Ron

    2010-08-01

    Exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs), including interpersonal violence, is associated with poorer physical health in young adults. This relation has not been well-investigated among older adults in specific populations. The present study was designed to investigate whether exposure to PTEs and elder mistreatment are associated with physical health status among older adults residing in South Carolina. Older adults aged 60 and above (N = 902) participated in a structured interview assessing elder mistreatment history, PTEs, demographics, and social dependency variables. Results demonstrated that PTEs were associated with poor self-rated health independently and when controlling for other significant predictors. A recent history of emotional mistreatment was associated with poor self-rated health independently, but not when controlling for other significant predictors. PMID:20690195

  2. Warm gas TVC design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorhead, S. B., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A warm gas thrust vector control system was studied to optimize the injection geometry for a specific engine configuration, and an injection valve was designed capable of meeting the base line requirements. To optimize injection geometry, studies were made to determine the performance effects of varying injection location, angle, port size, and port configuration. Having minimized the injection flow rate required, a warm gas valve was designed to handle the required flow. A direct drive hydraulic servovalve capable of operating with highly contaminated hydraulic fluid was designed. The valve is sized to flow 15 gpm at 3000 psia and the direct drive feature is capable of applying a spool force of 200 pounds. The baseline requirements are the development of 6 deg of thrust vector control utilizing 2000 F (total temperature) gas for 180 seconds on a 1.37 million pound thrust engine burning LOX and RP-1 at a chamber pressure of 250 psia with a 155 inch long conical nozzle having a 68 inch diameter throat and a 153 inch diameter exit.

  3. Supersonic airplane study and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Samson

    1993-01-01

    A supersonic airplane creates shocks which coalesce and form a classical N-wave on the ground, forming a double bang noise termed sonic boom. A recent supersonic commercial transport (the Concorde) has a loud sonic boom (over 100 PLdB) and low aerodynamic performance (cruise lift-drag ratio 7). To enhance the U.S. market share in supersonic transport, an airframer's market risk for a low-boom airplane has to be reduced. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to design airplanes to meet the dual constraints of low sonic boom and high aerodynamic performance. During the past year, a research effort was focused on three main topics. The first was to use the existing design tools, developed in past years, to design one of the low-boom wind-tunnel configurations (Ames Model 3) for testing at Ames Research Center in April 1993. The second was to use a Navier-Stokes code (Overflow) to support the Oblique-All-Wing (OAW) study at Ames. The third was to study an optimization technique applied on a Haack-Adams body to reduce aerodynamic drag.

  4. Lunar astronomical observatories - Design studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Burns, Jack O.; Chua, Koon Meng; Duric, Nebojsa; Gerstle, Walter H.

    1990-01-01

    The best location in the inner solar system for the grand observatories of the 21st century may be the moon. A multidisciplinary team including university students and faculty in engineering, astronomy, physics, and geology, and engineers from industry is investigating the moon as a site for astronomical observatories and is doing conceptual and preliminary designs for these future observatories. Studies encompass lunar facilities for radio astronomy and astronomy at optical, ultraviolet, and infrared wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. Although there are significant engineering challenges in design and construction on the moon, the rewards for astronomy can be great, such as detection and study of earth-like planets orbiting nearby stars, and the task for engineers promises to stimulate advances in analysis and design, materials and structures, automation and robotics, foundations, and controls. Fabricating structures in the reduced-gravity environment of the moon will be easier than in the zero-gravity environment of earth orbit, as Apollo and space-shuttle missions have revealed. Construction of observatories on the moon can be adapted from techniques developed on the earth, with the advantage that the moon's weaker gravitational pull makes it possible to build larger devices than are practical on earth.

  5. Mindfulness-based intervention for prodromal sleep disturbances in older adults: Design and methodology of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Black, David S.; O’Reilly, Gillian A.; Olmstead, Richard; Breen, Elizabeth C.; Irwin, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep problems are prevalent among older adults, often persist untreated, and are predictive of health detriments. Given the limitations of conventional treatments, non-pharmacological treatments such as mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) are gaining popularity for sleep ailments. However, nothing is yet known about the impact of MBIs on sleep in older adults with prodromal sleep disturbances. This article details the design and methodology of a 6-week parallel-group RCT calibrated to test the treatment effect of the Mindful Awareness Practices (MAPs) program versus sleep hygiene education for improving sleep quality, as the main outcome, in older adults with prodromal sleep disturbances. Older adults with current sleep disturbances will be recruited from the urban Los Angeles community. Participants will be randomized into two standardized treatment conditions, MAPs and sleep hygiene education. Each condition will consist of weekly 2-hour group-based classes over the course of the 6-week intervention. The primary objective of this study is to determine if mindfulness meditation practice as engaged through the MAPs program leads to improved sleep quality relative to sleep hygiene education in older adults with prodromal sleep disturbances. PMID:24993561

  6. Doll Collecting; A Course Designed for the Adult Education Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Betty M.

    The author has attempted to organize the many materials to be found on doll collecting into a course which will provide a foundation of knowledge for appreciating and evaluating old dolls. The course has been divided into sessions in which old dolls will be studied by type (images, idols, and early playthings; child, doll, and social realities;…

  7. An Annotated Bibliography of Materials Designed and Organized for Adult Use in Discussion Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, John W.

    This first annotated bibliography of materials designed and organized for adult use in disucssion groups includes both book and nonbook material. Areas dealt with are: art, censorship, change, child guidance, communication, crime, democracy, economics, education, evolution, food, foreign affairs, forgetting, generation gap, gold, good and evil,…

  8. Towards Flexible Learning for Adult Learners in Professional Contexts: An Activity-Focused Course Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, Sarah; Gordon, Carole; Ackland, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    This article argues for a flexible model of learning for adults which allows them to make choices and contextualise their learning in a manner appropriate to their own professional practice whilst also developing as a member of a learning community. It presents a design based around online "learning activities" which draws on ideas of…

  9. A Study of Cigarett Smoking Among Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mausner, Bernard

    The various activities carried out under a grant from the Cancer Society are discussed, including preparatory work, pilot and exploratory studies, the conduct of the major study, and additional activities. The bulk of the report, however, is devoted to the major study in which measures were obtained of: 1) patterns of support for smoking; 2)…

  10. Emergency Department Utilization by Older Adults: a Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Latham, Lesley P.; Ackroyd-Stolarz, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    Background Emergency Departments (EDs) are playing an increasingly important role in the care of older adults. Characterizing ED usage will facilitate the planning for care delivery more suited to the complex health needs of this population. Methods In this retrospective cross-sectional study, administrative and clinical data were extracted from four study sites. Visits for patients aged 65 years or older were characterized using standard descriptive statistics. Results We analyzed 34,454 ED visits by older adults, accounting for 21.8% of the total ED visits for our study time period. Overall, 74.2% of patient visits were triaged as urgent or emergent. Almost half (49.8%) of visits involved diagnostic imaging, 62.1% involved lab work, and 30.8% involved consultation with hospital services. The most common ED diagnoses were symptom- or injury-related (25.0%, 17.1%. respectively). Length of stay increased with age group (Mann-Whitney U; p < .0001), as did the proportion of visits involving diagnostic testing and consultation (χ2; p < .0001). Approximately 20% of older adults in our study population were admitted to hospital following their ED visit. Conclusions Older adults have distinct patterns of ED use. ED resource use intensity increases with age. These patterns may be used to target future interventions involving alternative care for older adults. PMID:25452824

  11. Design Evolution Study - Aging Options

    SciTech Connect

    P. McDaniel

    2002-04-05

    The purpose of this study is to identify options and issues for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel received for disposal at the Yucca Mountain Mined Geologic Repository. Some early shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel to the repository may be received with high-heat-output (younger) fuel assemblies that will need to be managed to meet thermal goals for emplacement. The capability to age as much as 40,000 metric tons of heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear he1 would provide more flexibility in the design to manage this younger fuel and to decouple waste receipt and waste emplacement. The following potential aging location options are evaluated: (1) Surface aging at four locations near the North Portal; (2) Subsurface aging in the permanent emplacement drifts; and (3) Subsurface aging in a new subsurface area. The following aging container options are evaluated: (1) Complete Waste Package; (2) Stainless Steel inner liner of the waste package; (3) Dual Purpose Canisters; (4) Multi-Purpose Canisters; and (5) New disposable canister for uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel. Each option is compared to a ''Base Case,'' which is the expected normal waste packaging process without aging. A Value Engineering approach is used to score each option against nine technical criteria and rank the options. Open issues with each of the options and suggested future actions are also presented. Costs for aging containers and aging locations are evaluated separately. Capital costs are developed for direct costs and distributable field costs. To the extent practical, unit costs are presented. Indirect costs, operating costs, and total system life cycle costs will be evaluated outside of this study. Three recommendations for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel--subsurface, surface, and combined surface and subsurface are presented for further review in the overall design re-evaluation effort. Options that were evaluated but not recommended are: subsurface aging in a new

  12. Design Issues in Transgender Studies

    PubMed Central

    Emel, Lynda; Hanscom, Brett; Zangeneh, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Transgender individuals constitute an important focus for HIV prevention, but studies in this population present some unique methodologic and operational challenges. We consider issues related to sampling, sample size, number of sites, and trial cost. We discuss relevant design issues for evaluating interventions in both HIV-negative and HIV-infected transgender populations, as well as a method for assessing the impact of an intervention on population HIV incidence. We find that HIV-endpoint studies of transgender individuals will likely require fewer participants but more sites and have higher operational costs than HIV prevention trials in other populations. Because any intervention targeted to transgender individuals will likely include antiretroviral drugs, small scale studies looking at potential interactions between antiretroviral therapy and hormone therapy are recommended. Finally, assessing the impact of an intervention targeted to transgender individuals will require better information on the contribution of such individuals to the population HIV incidence. PMID:27429191

  13. Design Issues in Transgender Studies.

    PubMed

    Hughes, James P; Emel, Lynda; Hanscom, Brett; Zangeneh, Sahar

    2016-08-15

    Transgender individuals constitute an important focus for HIV prevention, but studies in this population present some unique methodologic and operational challenges. We consider issues related to sampling, sample size, number of sites, and trial cost. We discuss relevant design issues for evaluating interventions in both HIV-negative and HIV-infected transgender populations, as well as a method for assessing the impact of an intervention on population HIV incidence. We find that HIV-endpoint studies of transgender individuals will likely require fewer participants but more sites and have higher operational costs than HIV prevention trials in other populations. Because any intervention targeted to transgender individuals will likely include antiretroviral drugs, small scale studies looking at potential interactions between antiretroviral therapy and hormone therapy are recommended. Finally, assessing the impact of an intervention targeted to transgender individuals will require better information on the contribution of such individuals to the population HIV incidence. PMID:27429191

  14. Readability and Test-Retest Reliability of a Psychometric Instrument Designed to Assess HIV/AIDS Attitudes, Beliefs, Behaviours and Sources of HIV Prevention Information of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balogun, Joseph; Abiona, Titilayo; Lukobo-Durrell, Mainza; Adefuye, Adedeji; Amosun, Seyi; Frantz, Jose; Yakut, Yavuz

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This comparative study evaluated the readability and test-retest reliability of a questionnaire designed to assess the attitudes, beliefs behaviours and sources of information about HIV/AIDS among young adults recruited from universities in the United States of America (USA), Turkey and South Africa. Design/Setting: The instrument was…

  15. AEROSOL PARTICLE COLLECTOR DESIGN STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2007-09-27

    A computational evaluation of a particle collector design was performed to evaluate the behavior of aerosol particles in a fast flowing gas stream. The objective of the work was to improve the collection efficiency of the device while maintaining a minimum specified air throughput, nominal collector size, and minimal power requirements. The impact of a range of parameters was considered subject to constraints on gas flow rate, overall collector dimensions, and power limitations. Potential improvements were identified, some of which have already been implemented. Other more complex changes were identified and are described here for further consideration. In addition, fruitful areas for further study are proposed.

  16. Study designs for dependent happenings.

    PubMed

    Halloran, M E; Struchiner, C J

    1991-09-01

    In 1916, Sir Ronald Ross defined "dependent happenings" as events where the number affected in a unit of time depends on the number already affected. That is, the incidence depends on the prevalence, a characteristic of many infectious diseases. Because of this dependence, interventions against infectious diseases can have not only direct protective effects for the person receiving an intervention, but also indirect effects resulting from changes in the intensity of transmission in the population. This paper develops the conceptual framework for four types of study designs that differentiate and account for direct and indirect effects of intervention programs in dependent happenings. PMID:1742381

  17. Evaluation of the Utility of a Transition Workbook in Preparing Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survivors for Transition to Adult Services: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Bashore, Lisa; Bender, Joyce

    2016-01-01

    Transition to adult care for adolescent and young adult survivors is challenging and is inclusive of several factors like knowledge and developmental, emotional, and social status of survivors and parents. This pilot study addressed the feasibility of a transition workbook, a method of preparing adolescent and young adults to transition to adult care. Using a mixed methods design, investigators also measured transition worry and readiness in 30 survivors. Support was provided throughout a 6-month period as survivors and parents completed the workbook. The workbook included sections about the treatment history of survivors, when and who to call for worrisome symptoms, prescriptions and insurance, educational goals for health practices and how to get there, and independent living. Twenty survivors completed the study and reported greater worry about leaving pediatric oncology but indicated the need to make changes to transition to adult care. Ambiguity and intimidation about transitioning to adult providers and comfort in pediatric setting were themes expressed by survivors. Results indicate the need for adult/pediatric collaborative transition programs using various standardized methods of addressing transition readiness and evaluation. PMID:26206471

  18. Comparing Information Needs of Health Care Providers and Older Adults: Findings from a Wellness Study

    PubMed Central

    Reeder, Blaine; Le, Thai; Thompson, Hilaire J.; Demiris, George

    2015-01-01

    Consumer health informatics technologies have the potential to enhance shared decision-making and communication between older adults, health care providers, and other stakeholders. The objective of this study was to characterize the information needs of these stakeholders to inform the design of informatics tools that support wellness in older adults. We conducted four focus groups with 31 older adults and three focus groups with 10 health care providers to explore information needs, goals, and preferences for information sharing. Analysis of focus group transcripts was performed to identify and compare themes for different stakeholders. We identified four themes related to information activities: perceived goals of others, perceived information needs of others, information sharing by older adults, and role of family members. Older adults, family members and health care providers differ in their information needs. We provide recommendations to facilitate design and adoption of informatics tools that connect these stakeholders. Larger studies are needed to characterize different stakeholder goals, information needs and preferences. PMID:23920507

  19. A photovoice study of older adults' conceptualizations of risk.

    PubMed

    Rush, Kathy L; Murphy, Mary Ann; Kozak, Jean Francois

    2012-12-01

    Risk is a multifaceted and complex concept that mediates quality of life through the balance between risk taking and risk avoidance. Society expects older adults to identify and manage their personal risks yet little is known about the meaning of risk in their daily lives and how they balance the tensions between taking and avoiding risks. Therefore the purpose of this study was to explore how older adults construe risk. A qualitative exploratory study that incorporated photovoice methodology was used. Seventeen older adults, over a weeklong period, took pictures and kept a log of the places, spaces, events, activities, or situations that best represented risk. Subsequently, they participated in a follow-up individual interview. Older adults viewed risk both positively and negatively, judging the saliency of a risk according to criteria that related both to the risk itself and to personal characteristics. Although risk was avoided in specific situations, risk taking was participants' primary approach to risk, which assumed three forms: adaptive, opportunistic, and/or unjustifiable. Contrary to societal views, older adults view risk as constructive and personally relevant, and as something to be taken and need to be supported in risk taking rather than risk avoidance. PMID:22939541

  20. MIUS community conceptual design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulbright, B. E.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility, practicality, and applicability of the modular integrated utility systems (MIUS) concept to a satellite new-community development with a population of approximately 100,000 were analyzed. Two MIUS design options, the 29-MIUS-unit (option 1) and the 8-MIUS-unit (option 2) facilities were considered. Each resulted in considerable resource savings when compared to a conventional utility system. Economic analyses indicated that the total cash outlay and operations and maintenance costs for these two options were considerably less than for a conventional system. Computer analyses performed in support of this study provided corroborative data for the study group. An environmental impact assessment was performed to determine whether the MIUS meets or will meet necessary environmental standards. The MIUS can provide improved efficiency in the conservation of natural resources while not adversely affecting the physical environment.

  1. Twin-based study of the complex interplay between childhood maltreatment, socioeconomic status and adult memory.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Ximena; Alemany, Silvia; Fatjó-Vilas, Mar; González-Ortega, Itxaso; González-Pinto, Ana; Cuesta, Manuel J; Fañanás, Lourdes

    2013-08-01

    Childhood maltreatment and low socioeconomic status (SES) are considered stressful environmental events with lasting detrimental effects on adult mental health and associated cognitive performance, such as memory. However, the association between childhood maltreatment and low SES remains unclear, probably due to design limitations and putative confounding factors. Particular concerns have been raised on genetic influences, as genetic background may modulate the effects of environmental stressors. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of childhood maltreatment on adult memory in low- and high-SES subjects, free of confounding due to other environmental and genetic influences. A monozygotic twin design based on 188 healthy adult subjects (94 twin pairs) from the general population was conducted. This design based on genetically identical individuals allowed disentangling the unique environmental effects of childhood maltreatment on memory, which was explored in low and high SES. Results showed that the unique environmental effects of childhood maltreatment were only evident in the high-SES group (β = -0.22; SE = 0.08; p < 0.01; 95 % CI = -0.375 to -0.066). By contrast, no evidence for this effect could be detected in the more stressful low-SES group. These results suggest that enriched environments may provide a more stable context where early stressful experiences can influence cognitive processes. This study provides preliminary support for the inclusion of environmental enrichment in studies addressing the impact of childhood maltreatment on adult cognition and psychiatric disorders. PMID:23188190

  2. Childhood adversities and adult-onset asthma: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Korkeila, Jyrki; Lietzen, Raija; Sillanmäki, Lauri H; Rautava, Päivi; Korkeila, Katariina; Kivimäki, Mika; Koskenvuo, Markku; Vahtera, Jussi

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Childhood adversities may be important determinants of later illnesses and poor health behaviour. However, large-scale prospective studies on the associations between childhood adversities and the onset of asthma in adulthood are lacking. Design Prospective cohort study with 7-year follow-up. Setting Nationally representative study. Data were collected from the Health and Social Support (HeSSup) survey and national registers. Participants The participants represent the Finnish population from the following age groups: 20–24, 30–34, 40–44, and 50–54 years at baseline in 1998 (24 057 survey participants formed the final cohort of this study). The occurrence of childhood adversities was assessed at baseline with a six-item survey scale. The analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, behavioural health risks and common mental disorders. Primary and secondary outcomes The survey data were linked to data from national health registers on incident asthma during a 7-year follow-up to define new-onset asthma cases with verified diagnoses. Results A total of 12 126 (59%) participants reported that they encountered a childhood adversity. Of them 3677 (18% of all) endured three to six adversities. During a follow-up of 7 years, 593 (2.9%) participants were diagnosed with incident asthma. Those who reported three or more childhood adversities had a 1.6-fold (95% CI 1.31 to 2.01) greater risk of asthma compared to those without childhood adversities. This hazard attenuated but remained statistically significant after adjustment for conventional risk factors (HR 1.33; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.67). Conclusions Adults who report having encountered adversities in childhood may have an increased risk of developing asthma. PMID:23069774

  3. Exercise intervention designed to improve strength and dynamic balance among community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    DiBrezzo, Ro; Shadden, Barbara B; Raybon, Blake H; Powers, Melissa

    2005-04-01

    Loss of balance and falling are critical concerns for older adults. Physical activity can improve balance and decrease the risk of falling. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a simple, low-cost exercise program for community-dwelling older adults. Sixteen senior adults were evaluated using the Senior Fitness Test for measures of functional strength, aerobic endurance, dynamic balance and agility, and flexibility. In addition, measures of height, weight, resting blood pressure, blood lipids, and cognitive function were obtained. Participants then attended a 10-week exercise class including stretching, strengthening, and balance-training exercises. At the completion of the program, significant improvements were observed in tests measuring dynamic balance and agility, lower and upper extremity strength, and upper extremity flexibility. The results indicate that exercise programs such as this are an effective, low-cost solution to improving health and factors that affect falling risk among older adults. PMID:15995265

  4. [Adult Still's disease: study of a series of 11 cases].

    PubMed

    Ben Taarit, C; Turki, S; Ben Maïz, H

    2002-02-01

    Adult Still's disease is a systemic disease of unknown etiology. We report a retrospective study of 11 cases (9 females and 2 males) of adult Still's disease collected during 25 years. The mean age was 36 years. Fever, arthritis and skin rash was constant. Adenopathies and splenomegaly were observed in 2 patients. The laboratory findings was characterized by a constant inflammatory syndrome and leucocytosis. Hypertransaminasemia and hyperferritinemia were observed respectively in 7 cases and 3 cases. Corticosteroids were prescribed in all patients. Methotrexate was administered in 3 patients. Outcome was favorable in 10 cases, death incurred in one patient, secondary to acute hepatitis. PMID:12070839

  5. Effect of Pictograph-Based Discharge Instructions on Older Adults' Comprehension and Recall: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeungok

    2016-01-01

    Many older adults return home with limited comprehension of hospital discharge instructions because current text-based instructions are difficult to understand. To address this issue, the author developed discharge instructions using pictographs (i.e., simple line drawings showing step-by-step discharge actions) for older adults under care of hip replacement surgery. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of pictograph-based discharge instructions on comprehension and recall of older adults with low literacy skills. A posttest-only comparison group design was used to compare pictograph-based (n = 21) to text-only (n = 21) discharge instructions at 4 weeks after discharge instruction education. Significantly greater improvements in scores on comprehension and recall were demonstrated by the pictograph group than the text-only group. A follow-up, full-scale study is suggested to examine the effect of pictograph-based instructions on adherence to instructions and health outcomes. PMID:26020574

  6. Integrated technology wing design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, A. P.; Beck, W. E.; Morita, W. H.; Penrose, B. J.; Skarshaug, R. E.; Wainfan, B. S.

    1984-01-01

    The technology development costs and associated benefits in applying advanced technology associated with the design of a new wing for a new or derivative trijet with a capacity for 350 passengers and maximum range of 8519 km, entering service in 1990 were studied. The areas of technology are: (1) airfoil technology; (2) planform parameters; (3) high lift; (4) pitch active control system; (5) all electric systems; (6) E to 3rd power propulsion; (7) airframe/propulsion integration; (8) graphite/epoxy composites; (9) advanced aluminum alloys; (10) titanium alloys; and (11) silicon carbide/aluminum composites. These technologies were applied to the reference aircraft configuration. Payoffs were determined for block fuel reductions and net value of technology. These technologies are ranked for the ratio of net value of technology (NVT) to technology development costs.

  7. Case Studies of Selected Cooperative Adult Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Allen B., Ed.; And Others

    Third in a series of five, the document presents case study reports of site visits to cooperative adult education programs. The five locations visited included programs between: (1) Wharton County Junior College and Johnson Testers, Inc. (Texas); (2) Louisiana State Department of Education and B. F. Trappey and Sons (Louisiana); (3) Grand Rapids…

  8. Health Literacy among Adults: A Study from Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, H.; Alper, Z.; Uncu, Y.; Bilgel, N.

    2010-01-01

    Patients' health literacy is increasingly recognized as a critical factor affecting health communication and outcomes. We performed this study to assess the levels of health literacy by using Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) and Newest Vital Sign (NVS) instruments. Patients (n = 456) at a family medicine clinic completed…

  9. Case Studies of Action Research in Various Adult Education Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhne, Gary W.; Weirauch, Drucie; Fetterman, David J.; Mearns, Raiana M.; Kalinosky, Kathy; Cegles, Kathleen A.; Ritchey, Linda

    1997-01-01

    Six case studies illustrate action research in adult education: faculty development in a museum, participation in a church congregation, retention of literacy volunteers in a corrections center, learner participation in a homeless shelter, technology innovation in a university, and infection control in a hospital. (SK)

  10. Negotiating Inequality among Adult Siblings: Two Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connidis, Ingrid Arnet

    2007-01-01

    Qualitative instrumental case study analysis of adult siblings from 2 families explores how socioeconomic inequality among them affects their relationships to one another. Eight middle-aged siblings' observations of childhood, parental expectations, work and family history, lifestyle, and current sibling ties indicate that childhood…

  11. Women Studying Childcare: Integrating Lives through Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Hazel R.

    2011-01-01

    Most studies of adult education align it with life change, but this research-based book tells a different story. It reveals how mature women who are training to work in childcare within the voluntary sector seek continuity in their lives. They engage with activities that connect aspects of their family, workplace and educational experience, and…

  12. Basic Reading Skills and the Literacy of America's Least Literate Adults: Results from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) Supplemental Studies. NCES 2009-481

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Justin; Kutner, Mark; Sabatini, John; White, Sheida

    2009-01-01

    The 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) assessed the English literacy of adults in the United States for the first time since the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey. The assessment was administered to more than 19,000 adults (ages 16 and older) in households and prisons. The tasks included on the assessment were designed to measure…

  13. Novel Compressor Blade Design Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Abhay

    Jet engine efficiency goals are driving compressors to higher pressure ratios and engines to higher bypass ratios, each one driving to smaller cores. This is leading to larger tip gaps relative to the blade height. These larger relative tip clearances would negate some of the cycle improvements, and ways to mitigate this effect must be found. A novel split tip blade geometry has been created which helps improve the efficiency at large clearances while also improving operating range. Two identical blades are leaned in opposite directions starting at 85% span. They are cut at mid chord and the 2 halves then merged together so a split tip is created. The result is similar to the alula feathers on a soaring bird. The concept is that the split tip will energize the tip flow and increase range. For higher relative tip clearance, this will also improve efficiency. The 6th rotor of a highly loaded 10 stage machine was chosen as the baseline for this study. Three dimensional CFD simulations were performed using CD Adapco's Star-CCM+ at 5 clearances for the baseline and split tip geometry. The choking flow and stall margin of the split tip blade was higher than that of the baseline blade for all tip clearances. The pressure ratio of the novel blade was higher than that of the baseline blade near choke, but closer to stall it decreased. The sensitivity of peak efficiency to clearance was improved. At tight clearances of 0.62% of blade height, the maximum efficiency of the new design was less than the baseline blade, but as the tip clearance was increased above 2.5%, the maximum efficiency increased. Structural analysis was also performed to ascertain the feasibility of the design.

  14. Association of Perceived Stress with Atopic Dermatitis in Adults: A Population-Based Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyejin; Kim, Kisok

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a widely prevalent skin disease that affects both children and adults. The aim of the study was to assess the association of perceived stress (single-item, self-reported) with AD (self-reported) in a sample of Korean adults using a cross-sectional research design. A cross-sectional study was conducted using data from 33,018 adults aged 20 years and older collected in the 2007–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES). An increased level of self-reported stress was positively associated with an increased prevalence of AD in Korean adults (p for trend <0.001). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratios (ORs) of AD among participants reporting high and very high levels of stress were 1.81 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22, 2.67) and 2.17 (95% CI: 1.38, 3.42), respectively, compared with those who reported low levels of stress. This study found a statistically significant association between perceived stress and AD among Korean adults. PMID:27472355

  15. Optimal design for epidemiological studies subject to designed missingness.

    PubMed

    Morara, Michele; Ryan, Louise; Houseman, Andres; Strauss, Warren

    2007-12-01

    In large epidemiological studies, budgetary or logistical constraints will typically preclude study investigators from measuring all exposures, covariates and outcomes of interest on all study subjects. We develop a flexible theoretical framework that incorporates a number of familiar designs such as case control and cohort studies, as well as multistage sampling designs. Our framework also allows for designed missingness and includes the option for outcome dependent designs. Our formulation is based on maximum likelihood and generalizes well known results for inference with missing data to the multistage setting. A variety of techniques are applied to streamline the computation of the Hessian matrix for these designs, facilitating the development of an efficient software tool to implement a wide variety of designs. PMID:18080755

  16. The MATRIX study: evaluating the data in older adults.

    PubMed

    Newman, Diane K

    2008-01-01

    In summary, the MATRIX study evaluated the use of OXY-TDS in older adults residing in community settings. Although it was a community-based study, a large segment of those studied had traits similar to those residing in long-term care settings--699 patients were aged 75 years or older; many had comorbid diseases; and many had a long history of OAB. MATRIX found that the transdermal form of oxybutynin was a safe and effective method to manage OAB in this older population. Adverse events reported were minor and local, with the most common event being local skin irritation. The transdermal formulation improved the symptoms associated with OAB and improved QOL. Although nursing home residents were not studied in MATRIX, it appears that the transdermal formulation of oxybutynin would be an agent of choice in older adults. PMID:19343887

  17. Child Physical Abuse and Adult Mental Health: A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S.; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F.; Blanco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000–2001 and 2004–2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16–2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention. PMID:22806701

  18. Toward a Psychological Science of Advanced Technology Design for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fisk, Arthur D.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. Technology represents advances in knowledge that change the way humans perform tasks. Ideally, technology will make the task easier, more efficient, safer, or perhaps more pleasurable. Unfortunately, new technologies can sometimes make a task more difficult, slower, dangerous, or perhaps more frustrating. Older adults interact with a variety of technologies in the course of their daily activities and thus products should be designed to be used by people of varying ages. Methods. In this article, we provide an overview of what psychology has to offer to the design of technology—from understanding what people need, to identifying their preferences for design characteristics, and to defining their capabilities and limitations that will influence technology interactions. Results. We identify how research in the field of psychology and aging has advanced understanding of technology interactions and how research on technology interactions can inform theories of aging. Discussion. Design for aging involves understanding the unique capabilities and limitations of older adults; identifying their needs, preferences, and desires for technology in their lives; and involving them in the design process. PMID:20833690

  19. Concentrator enhanced solar arrays design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lott, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    The analysis and preliminary design of a 25 kW concentrator enhanced lightweight flexible solar array are presented. The study was organized into five major tasks: (1) assessment and specification of design requirements; (2) mechanical design; (3) electric design; (4) concentrator design; and (5) cost projection. The tasks were conducted in an iterative manner so as to best derive a baseline design selection. The objectives of the study are discussed and comparative configurations and mass data on the SEP (Solar Electric Propulsion) array design, concentrator design options and configuration/mass data on the selected concentrator enhanced solar array baseline design are presented. Design requirements supporting design analysis and detailed baseline design data are discussed. The results of the cost projection analysis and new technology are also discussed.

  20. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure, Adaptive Function, and Entry into Adult Roles in a Prospective Study of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Mary Ellen; Kable, Julie A.; Coles, Claire D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although many studies have demonstrated effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on physical, cognitive, and behavioral development in children, few have focused on the long term effects on adults. In this study, data are presented on adaptive function and entry into adult roles in a community sample of young adults with PAE. The expectation was that prenatally exposed adults would show lower adaptive functioning and more difficulty with entry into adult roles than the non-exposed control group and that these effects would be related to the severity of PAE effects. Method The predominantly African-American, low income sample included adults with a wide range of prenatal exposure (n = 123) as well as control groups for socioeconomic (SES) (n = 59) and disability (n = 54) status. The mothers of the alcohol-exposed and SES-control group participants were recruited before birth and offspring have been followed up periodically. The disability control group was recruited in adolescence. The adults were interviewed about adaptive function in day-to-day life and adult role entry. Collateral adults who were well-acquainted with each participant were interviewed concerning adaptive function. Results Results showed that adults who were dysmorphic and/or cognitively affected by PAE had difficulty with adaptive function and entry into adult roles. Males showing cognitive effects with no physical effects were the most severely affected. Results for exposed adults not showing physical or cognitive effects were similar to or more positive than those of the control group for most outcomes. Conclusion PAE has long-term effects on adaptive outcomes in early adulthood. Additional research should focus on possible interventions at this transition and on factors contributing to the adjustment of the exposed, but unaffected participants. PMID:26247662

  1. Student-Designed River Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkall, Sheila Florian

    1996-01-01

    Describes an integrated student-designed investigation in which students explore different aspects of the Chagrin River including the river ecosystem, velocity and average depth, river flooding, water quality, and economic and political factors. (JRH)

  2. Left ventricular diastolic function in young adults: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study.

    PubMed

    Xie, X; Gidding, S S; Gardin, J M; Bild, D E; Wong, N D; Liu, K

    1995-01-01

    Doppler transmitral flow velocities have been used to assess left ventricular diastolic function. Associations of transmitral velocities with specific physiologic variables and cardiovascular risk factors have not been reported previously in a large population-based study of young adults. We performed Doppler analysis of left ventricular inflow in 3492 black and white men and women (aged 23 to 35 years) in the year-5 examination of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. First third filling fraction, peak flow velocity in early diastole (PFVE), peak flow velocity in late diastole (PFVA), and the PFVA/PFVE ratio were measured. Women had higher PFVE and PFVA than had men (PFVE: 0.81 +/- 0.13 m/sec versus 0.76 +/- 0.13 m/sec; PFVA: 0.47 +/- 0.11 m/sec versus 0.43 +/- 0.10 m/sec; both p < 0.001). Gender-specific multiple regression analyses showed that age, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, left ventricular percent fractional shortening, and body weight were independently and positively related to PFVA (all p < 0.001) in men and women. Age, heart rate, and forced expiratory lung capacity in 1 second were inversely related to PFVE and first third filling fraction (both p < 0.01). Left ventricular percent fractional shortening was positively related to PFVE and first third filling fraction (p < 0.001). Age, heart rate, and body weight were positively correlated with the PFVA/PFVE ratio (all p < 0.001). Height had weak negative associations with PFVA and PFVE in women only. These results suggest that, in young adults, Doppler measures of left ventricular diastolic filling are related to age, sex, body weight, blood pressure, heart rate, left ventricular systolic function, and lung function. PMID:8611277

  3. A randomized study of reinforcing ambulatory exercise in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Nancy M.; Andrade, Leonardo F.; Barry, Danielle; Byrne, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Many older adults do not meet physical activity recommendations and suffer from health-related complications. Reinforcement interventions can have pronounced effects on promoting behavior change; this study evaluated the efficacy of a reinforcement intervention to enhance walking in older adults. Forty-five sedentary adults with mild to moderate hypertension were randomized to 12-week interventions consisting of pedometers and guidelines to walk 10,000 steps/day or that same intervention with chances to win $1-$100 prizes for meeting recommendations. Patients walked an average of about 4,000 steps/day at baseline. Throughout the intervention, participants in the reinforcement intervention met walking goals on 82.5% ± 25.8% of days versus 55.3% ± 37.1% of days in the control condition, p < .01. Even though steps walked increased significantly in both groups relative to baseline, participants in the reinforcement condition walked an average of about 2,000 more steps/day than participants in the control condition, p < .02. Beneficial effects of the reinforcement condition relative to the control condition persisted at a 24-week follow-up evaluation, p < .02, although steps/day were lower than during the intervention period in both groups. Participants in the reinforcement intervention also evidenced greater reductions in blood pressure and weight over time and improvements in fitness indices, ps < .05. This reinforcement-based intervention substantially increased walking and improved clinical parameters, suggesting that larger-scale evaluations of reinforcement-based interventions for enhancing active lifestyles in older adults are warranted. Ultimately, economic analyses may reveal reinforcement interventions to be cost-effective, especially in high-risk populations of older adults. PMID:24128075

  4. Latino adults' access to mental health care: a review of epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Zayas, Luis H; Hansen, Marissa C

    2006-05-01

    Since the early 1980s, epidemiological studies using state-of-the-art methodologies have documented the unmet mental health needs of Latinos adults in the U.S. and Puerto Rico. This paper reviews 16 articles based on seven epidemiological studies, examines studies methodologies, and summarizes findings about how Latino adults access mental health services. Studies consistently report that, compared to non-Latino Whites, Latinos underutilize mental health services, are less likely to receive guideline congruent care, and rely more often on primary care for services. Structural, economic, psychiatric, and cultural factors influence Latinos' service access. In spite of the valuable information these studies provide, methodological limitations (e.g., reliance on cross-sectional designs, scarcity of mixed Latino group samples) constrict knowledge about Latinos access to mental health services. Areas for future research and development needed to improve Latinos' access and quality of mental health care are discussed. PMID:16598658

  5. Explant culture of adult zebrafish hearts for epicardial regeneration studies.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jingli; Poss, Kenneth D

    2016-05-01

    Here we describe how to culture adult zebrafish hearts as explants and study the regeneration of epicardial tissue ex vivo, as a means to identify therapeutic targets for heart disease. Uninjured or injured adult hearts are excised, washed and cultured in an incubator with gentle agitation. Heart explants can be prepared within 2 h, and they can be maintained in culture for 30 d or longer. If explants are prepared from appropriate transgenic lines, dynamic behaviors of epicardial cells can be monitored by live imaging using stereofluorescence microscopy. We also describe ex vivo procedures for genetic ablation of the epicardium, cell proliferation assays, tissue grafts and bead grafts. Basic cell culture and surgical skills are required to carry out this protocol. Unlike existing protocols for culturing isolated zebrafish epicardial cells on matrices, procedures described here maintain epicardial cells on an intact cardiac surface, thereby better supporting in vivo cell behaviors. Our protocols complement and extend in vivo studies of heart regeneration. PMID:27055096

  6. A study of commuter airplane design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.; Wyatt, R. D.; Griswold, D. A.; Hammer, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    Problems of commuter airplane configuration design were studied to affect a minimization of direct operating costs. Factors considered were the minimization of fuselage drag, methods of wing design, and the estimated drag of an airplane submerged in a propellor slipstream; all design criteria were studied under a set of fixed performance, mission, and stability constraints. Configuration design data were assembled for application by a computerized design methodology program similar to the NASA-Ames General Aviation Synthesis Program.

  7. Adult Education in Portugal. Adult Education in Europe Studies and Documents No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melo, Alberto

    This report on Portuguese adult education is focused on the principles and practices adopted by the Directorate-General, due to adult education's present embryonic state. Basic statistics and a brief introduction appear first. Part I, The System of Adult Education, is presented as a succession of initiatives and takes practically the entire length…

  8. A HISTORY OF THE BUREAU OF STUDIES IN ADULT EDUCATION AT INDIANA UNIVERSITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BAKER, MICHAEL ROBIN

    THE BUREAU OF STUDIES IN ADULT EDUCATION WAS FOUNDED AT INDIANA UNIVERSITY IN 1947 AND ASSIGNED THE TASK OF PROVIDING OFF-CAMPUS NONCREDIT COURSES IN ADULT EDUCATION. THE BUREAU BEGAN BY PROVIDING FIELD SERVICES, RANGING FROM PROVIDING ASSISTANCE TO LOCAL COMMUNITIES ON ADULT EDUCATION PROBLEMS TO PROVIDING GENERAL ADULT EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES. IT…

  9. Comparison of the burden of illness for adults with ADHD across seven countries: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to expand the understanding of the burden of illness experienced by adults with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) living in different countries and treated through different health care systems. Methods Fourteen focus groups and five telephone interviews were conducted in seven countries in North America and Europe, comprised of adults who had received a diagnosis of ADHD. The countries included Canada, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, and United States (two focus groups in each country). There were 108 participants. The focus groups were designed to elicit narratives of the experience of ADHD in key domains of symptoms, daily life, and social relationships. Consonant with grounded theory, the transcripts were analyzed using descriptive coding and then themed into larger domains. Results Participants’ statements regarding the presentation of symptoms, childhood experience, impact of ADHD across the life course, addictive and risk-taking behavior, work and productivity, finances, relationships and psychological health impacts were similarly themed across all seven countries. These similarities were expressed through the domains of symptom presentation, childhood experience, medication treatment issues, impacts in adult life and across the life cycle, addictive and risk-taking behavior, work and productivity, finances, psychological and social impacts. Conclusions These data suggest that symptoms associated with adult ADHD affect individuals similarly in different countries and that the relevance of the diagnostic category for adults is not necessarily limited to certain countries and sociocultural milieus. PMID:22583562

  10. Advanced Design Studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, Don

    2012-12-01

    The ARIES-CS project was a multi-year multi-institutional project to assess the feasibility of a compact stellarator as a fusion power plant. The work herein describes efforts to help design one aspect of the device, the divertor, which is responsible for the removal of particle and heat flux from the system, acting as the first point of contact between the magnetically confined hot plasma and the outside world. Specifically, its location and topology are explored, extending previous work on the sub ject. An optimized design is determined for the thermal particle flux using a suite of 3D stellarator design codes which trace magnetic field lines from just inside the confined plasma edge to their strike points on divertor plates. These divertor plates are specified with a newly developed plate design code. It is found that a satisfactory thermal design exists which maintains the plate temperature and heat load distribution below tolerable engineering limits. The design is unique, including a toroidal taper on the outboard plates which was found to be important to our results. The maximum thermal heat flux for the final design was 3.61 M W/m2 and the maximum peaking factor was 10.3, below prescribed limits of 10 M W/m2 and 15.6, respectively. The median length of field lines reaching the plates is about 250 m and their average angle of inclination to the surface is 2 deg. Finally, an analysis of the fast alphas, resulting from fusion in the core, which escape the plasma was performed. A method is developed for obtaining the mapping from magnetic coordinates to real-space coordinates for the ARIES-CS. This allows the alpha exit locations to be identified in real space for the first time. These were then traced using the field line algorithm as well as a guiding center routine accounting for their mass, charge, and specific direction and energy. Results show that the current design is inadequate for accommodating the alpha heat flux, capturing at most 1/3 of lost alphas

  11. Adult Museum Programs: Designing Meaningful Experiences. American Association for State and Local History Book Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachatello-Sawyer, Bonnie; Fellenz, Robert A.; Burton, Hanly; Gittings-Carlson, Laura; Lewis-Mahony, Janet; Woolbaugh, Walter

    A three-year national study of adult museum programs used a qualitative research approach and naturalistic inquiry and interviewed 508 museum program participants, 75 instructors, and 143 museum program planners in all types and sizes of museums, including art institutes, natural and cultural historical museums, science centers, historic houses,…

  12. A channel simulator design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devito, D. M.; Goutmann, M. M.; Harper, R. C.

    1971-01-01

    A propagation path simulator was designed for the channel between a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite in geostationary orbit and a user spacecraft orbiting the earth at an altitude between 200 and 4000 kilometers. The simulator is required to duplicate the time varying parameters of the propagation channel.

  13. Preliminary aerosol generator design studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stampfer, J. F., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The design and construction of a prototype vaporization generator for highly dispersed sodium chloride aerosols is described. The aerosol generating system is to be used in the Science Simulator of the Cloud Physics Laboratory Project and as part of the Cloud Physics Laboratory payload to be flown on the shuttle/spacelab.

  14. Design for learning: adapting the microscopic anatomy laboratory to adult learners.

    PubMed

    Jurjus, Rosalyn A; Krum, Janette; Goldman, Ellen F

    2013-01-01

    Medical school curricula are undergoing transformational change in response to calls for integrating content across courses and years to enable better retention and application and for individualizing learning to meet the diverse backgrounds and thus differing needs of students. To address the related teaching challenges, faculty can employ solid principles of adult learning and instructional design and use teaching strategies that stimulate different learning styles. We developed laboratory sessions that follow a learner-centered instructional design model we refer to as "PLHET," reflecting the steps of preparing, linking, hooking, engaging, and transferring learning, and also applied teaching strategies that reflect Kolb's four styles of learning (accommodative, divergent, assimilative, and convergent). We utilized a group learning format to promote active learning, teamwork, and self-direction. Preliminary data based on student surveys of laboratory activity show positive responses. In the future, we will test the hypothesis that this design will improve medical students' performance. PMID:23081886

  15. How Depressive Levels Are Related to the Adults' Experiences of Lower-Limb Amputation: A Mixed Methods Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senra, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    The current pilot study aims to explore whether different adults' experiences of lower-limb amputation could be associated with different levels of depression. To achieve these study objectives, a convergent parallel mixed methods design was used in a convenience sample of 42 adult amputees (mean age of 61 years; SD = 13.5). All of them had…

  16. Giardia Assemblages A and B in Diarrheic Patients: A Comparative Study in Egyptian Children and Adults.

    PubMed

    El Basha, Noussa R; Zaki, Mayssa M; Hassanin, Omayma M; Rehan, Mohamed K; Omran, Dalia

    2016-02-01

    Giardia duodenalis is considered the most common intestinal parasite in humans worldwide. Children are especially affected, with more severe consequences than adults. The present study was designed to determine the distribution of assemblages A and B Giardia infection in children and adults, with the use of light microscopy and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) as diagnostic procedures, and to investigate its associations with clinical and epidemiological data collected from children and adult groups. This cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2012 to October 2013 by collecting fecal samples from 200 children and 200 adults complaining of diarrhea. Samples were subjected to parasitological examination by direct wet smear and formol-ether methods. Genotyping of G. doudenalis samples was conducted by PCR-RFLP analysis. Giardia duodenalis infection caused by assemblages A and B was identified in 60 samples, 34 from children and 26 from adults. Assemblage B was detected in 38 patients (63.34%), and assemblage A was detected in 22 patients (36.66%). Assemblage A was significantly more frequent in children with age range 2-8 yr, and assemblage B was higher in children with age range 6-16 yr old. Diarrhea frequency/day and recurrences per month affected patients infected with assemblage A (P value < 0.001) more frequently. Children infected with assemblage A presented significantly more severe diarrhea and dehydration than those infected with assemblage B (P value < 0.001). Although both Giardia assemblages A and B were identified in children and adults, assemblage A infected younger children more frequently and was more closely related to severe clinical manifestations than assemblage B. PMID:26509291

  17. Future Directions in the Study of Health Behavior among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Knoll, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The study of health behaviors and fostering health-behavior change is an important endeavor even in old age. The aim of this viewpoint article is threefold. First, we use a broad perspective for the definition of health behaviors to capture all relevant aspects of health-behavior change in older adults. Particularly, we suggest a distinction between proximal (e.g., physical activity) and distal health behaviors (e.g., social participation). Second, we recommend a stronger orientation towards processes in order to study health behaviors and the design of health-behavior change interventions. Third, we review the advantages of a developmental perspective in health psychology. Future directions in the study of health behavior among older adults are discussed. PMID:25660128

  18. Design and methods of the Adult Inuit Health Survey 2007–2008

    PubMed Central

    Saudny, Helga; Leggee, Donna; Egeland, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Background The Canadian International Polar Year (IPY) program made it possible to undertake much needed health research in 3 jurisdictions within the Canadian Inuit Nunangat (homeland) over a 2-year period: Inuvialuit Settlement Region (ISR), Nunavut Territory, and Nunatsiavut. Design The Adult Inuit Health Survey (IHS) was a cross-sectional survey and provides baseline data upon which future comparisons can be made for prospectively assessing factors leading to the progression of chronic diseases among Canadian Inuit. With the help of the Canadian Coast Guard Ship Amundsen, which was equipped with research and laboratory facilities, 33 coastal communities were visited; land survey teams visited 3 inland communities. Results The Adult IHS succeeded in obtaining important baseline information concerning the health status and living conditions of 2,595 adults living in ISR, Nunavut and Nunatsiavut. Conclusion Information from this survey will be useful for future comparisons and the opportunity to link with the International Inuit Cohort, a follow-up evaluation, and for the development of future health policies and public health interventions. PMID:23166895

  19. Young Adult Utilization of a Smoking Cessation Website: An Observational Study Comparing Young and Older Adult Patterns of Use

    PubMed Central

    Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Graham, Amanda L; Richardson, Amanda; Xiao, Haijun; Mermelstein, Robin J; Curry, Susan J; Sporer, Amy K; Vallone, Donna M

    2016-01-01

    Background There is little research on how young adults or young adult subgroups utilize and engage with Web-based cessation interventions when trying to quit smoking. Addressing this knowledge gap is important to identify opportunities to optimize the effectiveness of online cessation programs across diverse young adult users. Objective This study examines utilization of the BecomeAnEX.org smoking cessation website among young adults and young adult subgroups compared with older adults to identify patterns of use by age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Methods Study participants were 5983 new registered users on a free smoking cessation website who were aged 18 to 70 years. Website utilization was tracked for 6 months; metrics of use included website visits, pages per visit, length of visit, and interaction with specific website features. Differences in website use by age were examined via bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Interactions were examined to determine differences by gender and race/ethnicity within young (18- to 24-year-olds and 25- to 34-year-olds) and older (35 years and older) adult segments. Results A greater percentage of young adults aged 18 to 34 years visited the site only once compared with older adults aged 35 years and older (72.05% vs 56.59%, respectively; P<.001). Young adults also spent less time on the site and viewed fewer pages than older adults. In adjusted analyses, young adults were significantly less likely than older adults to visit the site more than once (18-24 years: adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.58, 95% CI 0.49-0.68, P<.001; 25-34 years: AOR 0.56, 95% CI 0.50-0.64, P<.001), spend more than 3 minutes on the site (18-24 years: AOR 0.67, 95% CI 0.57-0.79, P<.001; 25-34 years: AOR 0.56, 95% CI 0.49-0.64, P<.001), view 12 or more pages (18-24 years: AOR 0.72, 95% CI 0.61-0.83; P<.001; 25-34 years: AOR 0.67, 95% CI 0.59-0.76, P<.001), utilize the BecomeAnEX.org community

  20. Designing, Implementing, and Evaluating Mobile Health Technologies for Managing Chronic Conditions in Older Adults: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Lauren; Ploeg, Jenny; Markle-Reid, Maureen; Valaitis, Ruta; Ibrahim, Sarah; Gafni, Amiram; Isaacs, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Background The current landscape of a rapidly aging population accompanied by multiple chronic conditions presents numerous challenges to optimally support the complex needs of this group. Mobile health (mHealth) technologies have shown promise in supporting older persons to manage chronic conditions; however, there remains a dearth of evidence-informed guidance to develop such innovations. Objectives The purpose of this study was to conduct a scoping review of current practices and recommendations for designing, implementing, and evaluating mHealth technologies to support the management of chronic conditions in community-dwelling older adults. Methods A 5-stage scoping review methodology was used to map the relevant literature published between January 2005 and March 2015 as follows: (1) identified the research question, (2) identified relevant studies, (3) selected relevant studies for review, (4) charted data from selected literature, and (5) summarized and reported results. Electronic searches were conducted in 5 databases. In addition, hand searches of reference lists and a key journal were completed. Inclusion criteria were research and nonresearch papers focused on mHealth technologies designed for use by community-living older adults with at least one chronic condition, or health care providers or informal caregivers providing care in the home and community setting. Two reviewers independently identified articles for review and extracted data. Results We identified 42 articles that met the inclusion criteria. Of these, described innovations focused on older adults with specific chronic conditions (n=17), chronic conditions in general (n=6), or older adults in general or those receiving homecare services (n=18). Most of the mHealth solutions described were designed for use by both patients and health care providers or health care providers only. Thematic categories identified included the following: (1) practices and considerations when designing m

  1. The adult antisocial syndrome with and without antecedent conduct disorder: comparisons from an adoption study.

    PubMed

    Langbehn, D R; Cadoret, R J

    2001-01-01

    DSM antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) requires a retrospective diagnosis of conduct disorder-historical behavior not present in everyone with adult ASPD criteria. Using adoption study data, we examined the impact of this requirement on biological and environmental risk associations. We also compared clinical correlates of adult antisocial behavior with and without prior conduct disorder. We defined three subgroups: DSM-III ASPD (n = 30), adult antisocials without conduct disorder (n = 25), and controls (n = 142). By design, the sample had a high incidence of biological parent ASPD, which was partially confounded with fetal alcohol exposure. We compared the associations of both of these putative risk factors with subgroup membership after controlling for gender and adverse adoptive environment. We also examined differences in two sociopathy scales and the incidence of co-occurring affective, alcohol, and other substance use disorders. Finally, we explored differences in individual antisocial symptoms. Having an antisocial biological parent was a specific risk factor for ASPD. In contrast, fetal alcohol exposure, male gender, and adverse environment were associated with the adult antisocial syndrome, regardless of conduct disorder history. The two antisocial groups were similar with respect to sociopathy scales, co-occurring diagnoses, and the incidence of most individual symptoms. However, several adult and conduct disorder symptoms had significant specific associations with biological or environmental background or their interaction. Phenotypic expression of the biological-possibly genetic-risk for ASPD appears to be manifest before adulthood. The influence of other risk factors may not depend on antecedent conduct disorder. Despite this, we could not detect clinically important differences between the two sociopathic groups. The conduct disorder requirement therefore may be more relevant to etiological than clinical understanding of adult antisocial behavior

  2. Young Adult Outcomes of Children Growing up with Chronic Illness: An analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    PubMed Central

    Maslow, Gary R.; Haydon, Abigail; Ford, Carol Ann; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine young adult outcomes in a nationally representative US cohort of young adults who grew up with a chronic illness. Design Secondary analysis of nationally representative data from Wave III (2001) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Setting United States Participants The analytic sample included 13,236 young adults 18–28 years old at Wave III. Main Exposure Self-report of a chronic physical illness (asthma, cancer, diabetes or epilepsy) in adolescence. Respondents with (1) asthma or (2) non-asthma chronic illness (cancer, diabetes, or epilepsy) were compared to subjects without these conditions. Main Outcome Measures Self-report of high school graduation, ever having a job, having a current job, living with parents, and ever receiving public assistance. Results Three percent of young adults had non-asthma chronic illness (cancer, diabetes, or epilepsy) and 16% had asthma. The majority of young adults with chronic illness graduated high school (81%) and were currently employed (60%). However, compared to healthy young adults, those with a non-asthma chronic illness were significantly less likely to graduate high school, ever have a job, or have a current job and were more likely to receive public assistance. When compared to young adults with asthma, young adults with non-asthma chronic illness again had significantly worse young adult outcomes on all measures. Conclusions Most young adults growing up with chronic illness graduate high school and are employed. However, these young adults are significantly less likely than their healthy peers to achieve these important educational and vocational milestones. PMID:21383274

  3. Adult Education in Continental Europe: An Annotated Bibliography of English-language Materials l980-1982. Monographs on Comparative and Area Studies in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulich, Jindra, Comp.

    This bibliography contains 682 listings covering English language materials on adult education in Europe published during 1980-82. Materials were chosen in accord with a broad definition of adult education that includes vocational education for adults; training in business and industry; adult secondary and postsecondary study; activities of…

  4. Critical Studies in Art and Design Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thistlewood, David, Ed.

    This book brings together British and U.S. contributions to the debate of a critical studies approach to art and design education. The approach links practice and appreciation. But critical differences exist in definitions of the term design, with the U.S. recognition of design as the use of principles and elements of art in works and a British…

  5. Some Models of Adult Learning and Adult Change. Studies on Permanent Education, No. 22/1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huberman, A. M.

    With emphasis on the developmental psychology unique to adults, the author presents a comprehensive document of research and progress pertaining to adult learning and change. Section 1 reviews age cycles of adulthood as well as changing career patterns for men and women. Also examined are changes with age in leisure and interest patterns,…

  6. Mixed Heritage in Young Adult Literature. Scarecrow Studies in Young Adult Literature #32

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Nancy Thalia

    2009-01-01

    Mixed-heritage people are one of the fastest-growing groups in the United States, yet culturally they have been largely invisible, especially in young adult literature. "Mixed Heritage in Young Adult Literature" is a critical exploration of how mixed-heritage characters (those of mixed race, ethnicity, religion, and/or adoption) and real-life…

  7. Training of Adult Educators in East Europe. Monographs on Comparative and Area Studies in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulich, Jindra, Ed.

    The purpose of this volume is to present information on the training of adult educators in East European countries. All but two of these countries, Albania and Bulgaria, are described. The first of nine articles provides an overview of the research and preparation of adult education staff in some East European countries. Factors cited as…

  8. Adult Education in Greece. Monographs on Comparative and Area Studies in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucouvalas, Marcie

    This monograph is intended to foster an understanding of the history, context, and current status of adult education in Greece. The first part, which is devoted to the history of lifelong learning and adult education in Greece, consists of two chapters. The first chapter examines ancient and medieval Greece, and the second one covers the history…

  9. Vehicle systems design optimization study

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, J. L.

    1980-04-01

    The optimization of an electric vehicle layout requires a weight distribution in the range of 53/47 to 62/38 in order to assure dynamic handling characteristics comparable to current production internal combustion engine vehicles. It is possible to achieve this goal and also provide passenger and cargo space comparable to a selected current production sub-compact car either in a unique new design or by utilizing the production vehicle as a base. Necessary modification of the base vehicle can be accomplished without major modification of the structure or running gear. As long as batteries are as heavy and require as much space as they currently do, they must be divided into two packages - one at front under the hood and a second at the rear under the cargo area - in order to achieve the desired weight distribution. The weight distribution criteria requires the placement of batteries at the front of the vehicle even when the central tunnel is used for the location of some batteries. The optimum layout has a front motor and front wheel drive. This configuration provides the optimum vehicle dynamic handling characteristics and the maximum passsenger and cargo space for a given size vehicle.

  10. Recycler ring conceptual design study

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, G.

    1995-07-18

    The Tevatron Collider provides the highest center of mass energy collisions in the world. To fully exploit this unique tool, Fermilab is committed to a program of accelerator upgrades for the purpose of increasing the Collider luminosity. Over the past 7 years the luminosity has been increased from a peak of 1.6{times}10{sup 30}cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1} in 1989 to over 3{times}10{sup 31}cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1} during 1995. The Main Injector will supply a larger flux of protons for antiproton production and more intense proton bunches for use in the Collider, and this is expected to increase the peak luminosity to close to 1{times}10{sup 32}cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1}. Further increases in luminosity will require additional upgrades to the Fermilab accelerator complex. This report documents the design of a new fixed-energy storage ring to be placed in the Main Injector tunnel which will provide an initial factor of 2 increase to 2{times}10{sup 32}cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1}, and ultimately provide the basis for an additional order of magnitude luminosity increase up to 1{times}10{sup 33}cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1}.

  11. Training for generalization in Theory of Mind: a study with older adults.

    PubMed

    Cavallini, Elena; Bianco, Federica; Bottiroli, Sara; Rosi, Alessia; Vecchi, Tomaso; Lecce, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) refers to the ability to attribute independent mental states to self and others in order to explain and predict social behavior. Recent research in this area has shown a decline in ToM abilities associated with normal aging that is of a moderate magnitude or greater. Very few studies have investigated whether it is possible to improve older adults' ToM abilities. The present study was designed to address this gap in the literature by evaluating the impact of a ToM training on practiced and transfer tasks. We provided older adults with a variety of activities designed to facilitate the generalization of benefits to other ToM-demanding tasks. Participants were 63 healthy older adults, native Italian speakers (M age = 71.44, SD = 5.24, age range: 63-81 years). Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: the ToM training (age range: 63-81 years) and the physical-conversation training (age range: 64-81 years). Training effects were measured using the strange stories (practiced task) and the animation task (transfer task). Results revealed the efficacy of the training in producing improvements on practiced but also on transfer tasks. PMID:26300818

  12. Effect of a Home Telecare Program on Oral Health among Adults with Tetraplegia: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Study design one group pre- and post-test design Objective The primary aim was to examine both the short- and long-term effects of an oral home telecare program on improving gingival health among adults with tetraplegia. Methods Eight adults with tetraplegia participated. The oral home telecare program consisted of individualized oral hygiene training in the use of assistive devices (powered toothbrush and adapted flosser and/or oral irrigator) using PC-based videoconferencing between each participant and an occupational therapist. Training was conducted on an average of five 15 to 30 min sessions across three months. During these training sessions, supervised practice of oral hygiene, and provision of immediate corrective feedback and positive reinforcement in the use of adaptive oral hygiene devices was emphasized. Gingival health assessment using the Löe-Silness gingival index (LSGI) was conducted at baseline, six months and 12 months. Results From baseline to six months, participants showed statistically significant differences (i.e., improvement with less gingival inflammation) in their LSGI scores (z=2.18, P=.03). From baseline to 12 months, participants also showed a statistically significant difference (i.e., improvement, z=2.03; P=.04) in their LSGI scores. Conclusion This study indicates that preventive oral home telecare with repeated oral hygiene training in the use of adaptive devices improved gingival health at six and 12 months among adults with tetraplegia. PMID:23318557

  13. Candidate SNP Associations of Optimism and Resilience in Older Adults: Exploratory Study of 935 Community-Dwelling Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Brinda K.; Darst, Burcu F.; Bloss, Cinnamon; Shih, Pei-an Betty; Depp, Colin; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Allison, Matthew; Parsons, J. Kellogg; Schork, Nicholas; Jeste, Dilip V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Optimism and resilience promote health and well-being in older adults, and previous reports suggest that these traits are heritable. We examined the association of selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with optimism and resilience in older adults. Design Candidate gene association study that was a follow-on at the University of California, San Diego sites of two NIH-funded multi-site longitudinal investigations: Women's Health Initiative (WHI) and SELenium and vitamin E Cancer prevention Trial (SELECT). Participants 426 Women from WHI older than age 50, and 509 men older than age 55 (age 50 for African-American men) from SELECT. Measurements 65 candidate gene SNPs that were judged by consensus, based on a literature review, as being related to predisposition to optimism and resilience, and 31 ancestry informative marker SNPs, genotyped from blood-based DNA samples and self-report scales for trait optimism, resilience, and depressive symptoms. Results Using a Bonferroni threshold for significant association (p=0.00089), there were no significant associations for individual SNPs with optimism or resilience in single-locus analyses. Exploratory multi-locus polygenic analyses with a p-value of <.05, showed an association of optimism with SNPs in MAO-A, IL10, and FGG genes, and an association of resilience with a SNP in MAO-A gene. Conclusions Correcting for Type I errors, there were no significant associations of optimism and resilience with specific gene SNPs in single-locus analyses. Positive psychological traits are likely to be genetically complex, with many loci having small effects contributing to phenotypic variation. Our exploratory multi-locus polygenic analyses suggest that larger sample sizes and complementary approaches involving methods such as sequence-based association studies, copy number variation analyses, and pathway-based analyses could be useful for better understanding the genetic basis of these positive psychological traits

  14. Guidelines for studying developmental prosopagnosia in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Dalrymple, Kirsten A; Palermo, Romina

    2016-01-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by severe face identity recognition problems that results from a failure to develop the mechanisms necessary for adequate face processing (Duchaine BC, Nakayama K. Developmental prosopagnosia: a window to content-specific face processing. Curr Opin Neurobiol 2006, 16:166-173.). It occurs in children and adults with normal visual acuity, and without intellectual impairments or known brain injuries. Given the importance of face recognition in daily life, and the detrimental effects of impaired face recognition, DP is an important area of study. Yet conventions for classifying individuals as DP for research purposes are poorly defined. In this focus paper, we discuss: (1) criteria for an operational definition of DP; 2) tests of face recognition and conventions for classifying individuals as DP; and 3) important considerations regarding common associations and dissociations, and cognitive heterogeneity in DP. We also highlight issues unique to studying DP in children, a relatively new endeavor that is proving to be an important complement to the work with adults. Ultimately, we hope to identify challenges researchers face when studying DP, and offer guidelines for others to consider when embarking on their own research pursuits on the topic. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26681428

  15. Interval Management Display Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Beyer, Timothy M.; Cooke, Stuart D.; Grant, Karlus A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) estimated that U.S. commercial air carriers moved 736.7 million passengers over 822.3 billion revenue-passenger miles. The FAA also forecasts, in that same report, an average annual increase in passenger traffic of 2.2 percent per year for the next 20 years, which approximates to one-and-a-half times the number of today's aircraft operations and passengers by the year 2033. If airspace capacity and throughput remain unchanged, then flight delays will increase, particularly at those airports already operating near or at capacity. Therefore it is critical to create new and improved technologies, communications, and procedures to be used by air traffic controllers and pilots. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the FAA, and the aviation industry are working together to improve the efficiency of the National Airspace System and the cost to operate in it in several ways, one of which is through the creation of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). NextGen is intended to provide airspace users with more precise information about traffic, routing, and weather, as well as improve the control mechanisms within the air traffic system. NASA's Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1) Project is designed to contribute to the goals of NextGen, and accomplishes this by integrating three NASA technologies to enable fuel-efficient arrival operations into high-density airports. The three NASA technologies and procedures combined in the ATD-1 concept are advanced arrival scheduling, controller decision support tools, and aircraft avionics to enable multiple time deconflicted and fuel efficient arrival streams in high-density terminal airspace.

  16. A Pilot Study of the Effects of Atomoxetine on Driving Performance in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.; Anderson, Deborah L.; Kruesi, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Objective: There is a high risk of vehicular crashes, traffic citations, and poorer driving performance in adults with ADHD. This pilot study examines the value of a new nonstimulant (atomoxetine) for improving the driving performance of adults with ADHD. Method: Atomoxetine (1.2 mg/kg daily for 3 weeks) and a placebo are studied on 18 adults with…

  17. A STUDY OF CLASSROOM FACTORS RELATED TO DROPOUTS IN ADULT EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DAVIS, GEORGE S., JR.

    THE RELATIONSHIP WAS STUDIED BETWEEN DROPOUTS FROM ADULT EDUCATION CLASSES AND (1) SELECTED CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES OCCURRING DURING THE FIRST CLASS SESSION AND (2) STUDENTS' ATTITUDES TOWARD THE FIRST SESSION. TWENTY-NINE PREVIOUS ADULT DROPOUT STUDIES WERE REVIEWED. VOLUNTARY ADULT PARTICIPANTS IN 34 PERSONAL SURVIVAL IN DISASTER CLASSES IN THE…

  18. The Swedish Version of the Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale: Revised (RAADS-R). A Validation Study of a Rating Scale for Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lisa M. J.; Naswall, Katharina; Manouilenko, Irina; Nylander, Lena; Edgar, Johan; Ritvo, Riva Ariella; Ritvo, Edward; Bejerot, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    There is a paucity of diagnostic instruments for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study evaluates the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R), an 80-item self-rating scale designed to assist clinicians diagnosing ASD in adults. It was administered to 75…

  19. A Theoretical Framework for the Study of Adult Cognitive Plasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovden, Martin; Backman, Lars; Lindenberger, Ulman; Schaefer, Sabine; Schmiedek, Florian

    2010-01-01

    Does plasticity contribute to adult cognitive development, and if so, in what ways? The vague and overused concept of plasticity makes these controversial questions difficult to answer. In this article, we refine the notion of adult cognitive plasticity and sharpen its conceptual distinctiveness. According to our framework, adult cognitive…

  20. Adults with Intellectual Impairment Who Stammer: A Clinical Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Jois; Collier, Ruth; King, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Adults with intellectual impairments have a high prevalence of stammering. Characteristic speech and associated behaviours are also different in quality and more variable between individuals than those of the typical adult population. This paper describes a speech and language therapy group with two adults with intellectual impairments and…

  1. Utility of telephone survey methods in population-based health studies of older adults: an example from the Alberta Older Adult Health Behavior (ALERT) study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Random digit dialing is often used in public health research initiatives to accrue and establish a study sample; however few studies have fully described the utility of this approach. The primary objective of this paper was to describe the implementation and utility of using random digit dialing and Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI) for sampling, recruitment and data collection in a large population-based study of older adults [Alberta Older Adult Health Behavior (ALERT) study]. Methods Using random digit dialing, older adults (> = 55 years) completed health behavior and outcome and demographic measures via CATI. After completing the CATI, participants were invited to receive a step pedometer and waist circumference tape measure via mail to gather objectively derived ambulatory activity and waist circumference assessments. Results Overall, 36,000 telephone numbers were called of which 7,013 were deemed eligible for the study. Of those, 4,913 (70.1%) refused to participate in the study and 804 (11.4%) participants were not included due to a variety of call dispositions (e.g., difficult to reach, full quota for region). A total of 1,296 participants completed telephone interviews (18.5% of those eligible and 3.6% of all individuals approached). Overall, 22.8% of households did not have an age 55+ resident and 13.6% of individuals refused to participate, Average age was 66.5 years, and 43% were male. A total of 1,081 participants (83.4%) also submitted self-measured ambulatory activity (i.e., via step pedometer) and anthropometric data (i.e., waist circumference). With the exception of income (18.7%), the rate of missing data for demographics, health behaviors, and health measures was minimal (<1%). Conclusions Older adults are willing to participate in telephone-based health surveys when randomly contacted. Researchers can use this information to evaluate the feasibility and the logistics of planned studies using a similar population

  2. Principles of study design in environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, H; Thomas, D

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the principles of study design and related methodologic issues in environmental epidemiology. Emphasis is given to studies aimed at evaluating causal hypotheses regarding exposures to suspected health hazards. Following background sections on the quantitative objectives and methods of population-based research, we present the major types of observational designs used in environmental epidemiology: first, the three basic designs involving the individual as the unit of analysis (i.e., cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control studies) and a brief discussion of genetic studies for assessing gene-environment interactions; second, various ecologic designs involving the group or region as the unit of analysis. Ecologic designs are given special emphasis in this paper because of our lack of resources or inability to accurately measure environmental exposures in large numbers of individuals. The paper concludes with a section highlighting current design issues in environmental epidemiology and several recommendations for future work. PMID:8206038

  3. Lunar NTR vehicle design and operations study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, John

    1993-01-01

    The results of a lunar nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) vehicle design and operations study are presented in text and graphic form. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the potential applications of a specific NTR design to past and current (First Lunar Outpost) mission profiles for piloted and cargo lunar missions, and to assess the applicability of utilizing lunar vehicle design concepts for Mars missions.

  4. Mobile Variable Depth Sampling System Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    BOGER, R.M.

    2000-08-25

    A design study is presented for a mobile, variable depth sampling system (MVDSS) that will support the treatment and immobilization of Hanford LAW and HLW. The sampler can be deployed in a 4-inch tank riser and has a design that is based on requirements identified in the Level 2 Specification (latest revision). The waste feed sequence for the MVDSS is based on Phase 1, Case 3S6 waste feed sequence. Technical information is also presented that supports the design study.

  5. Social perceptions of adults wearing orthodontic appliances: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Jeremiah, H G; Bister, D; Newton, J T

    2011-10-01

    This study ascertained the influence of orthodontic appliances on subjective ratings for social competence (SC), intellectual ability (IA), psychological adjustment (PA), and attractiveness in young adult orthodontic patients. A cross-sectional analytical questionnaire study was conducted with 130 undergraduates from the UK. Each participant was asked to look at a single, randomly assigned colour photograph of a young adult female and then asked to make judgements concerning her personal characteristics. Five modified photographs of the same young adult female were used: (1) no appliance, (2) stainless steel fixed orthodontic appliance, (3) ceramic fixed orthodontic appliance, (4) gold fixed orthodontic appliance, and (5) clear colourless aligner. Likert scales with higher scores indicating more positive ratings were used. The results were analysed using chi-square test, one-way univariate analysis of variance, and post hoc Tukey-B and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The results showed that greater perceived IA was associated with the appearance of no appliance (mean values: 7.56) rather than steel (6.67) or ceramic appliances (6.65) but similar to the gold (7.35) and aligner (7.08) appliances. No significant differences between the different orthodontic appliance appearances were found for SC and PA. A trend existed where the no appliance image (resembling a lingual appliance) or clear aligner was considered more attractive than the visible buccal fixed appliances. In the absence of other information, the judgements an individual young adult makes concerning the personal characteristics of a young adult are influenced by dental appearance and orthodontic appliance design. This may influence orthodontic appliance choice. PMID:20651044

  6. On the Science of Education Design Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shavelson, Richard J.; Phillips, D. C.; Towne, Lisa; Feuer, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that design studies, like all scientific work, must comport with guiding scientific principles and provide adequate warrants for their knowledge claims. Provides a framework that links design study research questions as they evolve over time with corresponding research methods, thus allowing an integration of research methods focused on…

  7. Adolescent Peer Relationships and Emerging Adult Romantic Styles: A Longitudinal Study of Youth in an Italian Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhariwal, Amrit; Connolly, Jennifer; Paciello, Marinella; Caprara, Gian Vittorio

    2009-01-01

    This study extends understanding of romantic development in the emerging adult years by using an 8-year longitudinal design in Italy. Peer groups at age 13, interpersonal functioning and emotion regulation at age 17, and romantic styles at age 21 were measured in 388 youth. Early peer groups were shown to be indirectly associated with two romantic…

  8. Social Skills Training for Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantman, Alexander; Kapp, Steven K.; Orenski, Kaely; Laugeson, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the psychosocial difficulties common among young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), little to no evidence-based social skills interventions exist for this population. Using a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, the current study tested the effectiveness of an evidence-based, caregiver-assisted social skills intervention…

  9. A Time Series Study of Factors Associated with Retention and Attrition of Older Adult Child-Care Workers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Sally; Engel, Rafael; Ward, Christopher; Karip, Emin; Faux, Robert

    The work-related and personal factors associated with the willingness and ability of older adults to remain as child care workers and the factors associated with leaving child care work were studied in a time-series design. Subjects were 534 persons aged 50 years and older who were working for pay as child care providers. Of these, 341 replied to…

  10. Designing Games, Designing Roles: A Study of Youth Agency in an Urban Informal Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Kimberly M.; Clark, Kevin; Williams, Asia

    2013-01-01

    Collaboration (GDMC), an informal education program in 3D computer modeling and 2D interactive game design serving primarily African American youth aged 7 to 19 years in the Washington, D.C. metro area, transformed from a program designed and taught by adults to one designed and taught by youth. In Year 1, 8% of youth participants held a…

  11. Designing and standardizing a questionnaire for evaluating knowledge, attitude, and practice of Iranian adults with cardiovascular diseases about oral health

    PubMed Central

    Rasouli-Ghahroudi, Amir Alireza; Rokn, Amir Reza; Khorsand, Afshin; Aghajani, Hasan; Amini, Afshin; Shamshiri, Ahmad Reza; Rahimi, Hamed; Kabir, Ali

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cardiovascular diseases are the most common cause of death in Iran. Moreover, periodontal diseases are very common in our country. In this study, we have designed a standardized questionnaire for evaluating knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of Iranian adult patients with cardiovascular diseases about oral health. METHODS For designing and standardizing a self-administered questionnaire, we performed a cross-sectional pilot study on 51 cases with periodontal complaints. A dentist carried out the physical examination to determine oral health indicators. Twelve experts and ten lay people of the target population answered questions about validity. Cronbach’s alpha, factor analysis, and Pearson correlation coefficients were used in the analysis. RESULTS The cases of this pilot study were middle aged, with moderate financial and health status, but low oral health and educational level. Debris score was correlated with all other physical exam findings except decay, missing, and filled (DMF). Reliability was 0.826 according to Cronbach’s alpha score. Face validity was higher than 80%. Content validities of the whole of the questionnaire were 85.98% for clarity, 78.05% for relevancy, 85.16% for simplicity, and 82.32% for consistency of each question with the question set. Factor analysis showed that 15 components explain 74% of the total variance. CONCLUSION This questionnaire is culturally adjusted and appropriate for our community, valid and reliable, and sufficiently estimates the variance of the oral health status. It can be used as a standard tool in further studies in adult population of the Iranian middle aged patients with low level of education and moderate socioeconomic status. PMID:24575138

  12. Using the NIATx Model to Implement User-Centered Design of Technology for Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, David H; Maus, Adam; Judkins, Julianne; Dinauer, Susan; Isham, Andrew; Johnson, Roberta; Landucci, Gina; Atwood, Amy K

    2016-01-01

    What models can effectively guide the creation of eHealth and mHealth technologies? This paper describes the use of the NIATx model as a framework for the user-centered design of a new technology for older adults. The NIATx model is a simple framework of process improvement based on the following principles derived from an analysis of decades of research from various industries about why some projects fail and others succeed: (1) Understand and involve the customer; (2) fix key problems; (3) pick an influential change leader; (4) get ideas from outside the field; (5) use rapid-cycle testing. This paper describes the use of these principles in technology development, the strengths and challenges of using this approach in this context, and lessons learned from the process. Overall, the NIATx model enabled us to produce a user-focused technology that the anecdotal evidence available so far suggests is engaging and useful to older adults. The first and fourth principles were especially important in developing the technology; the fourth proved the most challenging to use. PMID:27025985

  13. Using the NIATx Model to Implement User-Centered Design of Technology for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Maus, Adam; Judkins, Julianne; Dinauer, Susan; Isham, Andrew; Johnson, Roberta; Landucci, Gina; Atwood, Amy K

    2016-01-01

    What models can effectively guide the creation of eHealth and mHealth technologies? This paper describes the use of the NIATx model as a framework for the user-centered design of a new technology for older adults. The NIATx model is a simple framework of process improvement based on the following principles derived from an analysis of decades of research from various industries about why some projects fail and others succeed: (1) Understand and involve the customer; (2) fix key problems; (3) pick an influential change leader; (4) get ideas from outside the field; (5) use rapid-cycle testing. This paper describes the use of these principles in technology development, the strengths and challenges of using this approach in this context, and lessons learned from the process. Overall, the NIATx model enabled us to produce a user-focused technology that the anecdotal evidence available so far suggests is engaging and useful to older adults. The first and fourth principles were especially important in developing the technology; the fourth proved the most challenging to use. PMID:27025985

  14. [Choosing study design in urologic research].

    PubMed

    Barreales Tolosa, Laura; Mato Chaín, Gloria; Mariano Lázaro, Alberto; Fernández Pérez, Cristina; Rodríguez Caravaca, Gil; Fereres Castiel, José

    2003-01-01

    The design of an epidemiological study includes the procedures, methods and techniques by which the researcher tries to obtain valid (avoiding systematic errors or bias) and precise (avoiding random errors) answers to the research question posed. This principal question aimed to be answered is the specific objective of the study, which guides the election of an adequate type of design. The objective of this article is to describe the classification criteria (finality, temporal sequence, directionality, and control of the assignation of different study factors) of the different types of epidemiological studies (experimental, almost-experimental, and observational) and the main advantages, disadvantages, utilities and objectives of each investigation design. PMID:12958995

  15. A Study in the Application of the C. A. Curran Counseling-Learning Model to Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Thomas C.

    The study attempts to demonstrate movement in adult learning from particularization to symbolization to internalization (value choice) through use of a Counseling-Learning Model. Adult resistance to learning is dealt with through application of counseling awarenesses to the learning situation. If the adult learner can be freed from threat to…

  16. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depressed Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Esbensen, Anna J.; Shalev, Rebecca; Vincent, Lori B.; Mihaila, Iulia; Bussanich, Paige

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of research on psychosocial treatments for depression in adults with intellectual disability (ID). In this pilot study, we explored the efficacy of a group CBT treatment that involved a caregiver component in adults with mild ID with a depressive disorder. Sixteen adults with mild ID and a depressive disorder participated in a…

  17. Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression in Older Adults Delivered via Videoconferencing: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazzari, Claudia; Egan, Sarah J.; Rees, Clare S.

    2011-01-01

    Depression affects up to 25% of older adults. Underdetection and subsequent undertreatment of depression in older adults has been attributed in part to difficulties in older adults being able to access treatment. This uncontrolled pilot study, N = 3, explored the acceptability and efficacy of a brief behavioral activation treatment delivered via…

  18. A Case Study of a Volunteer-Based Literacy Class with Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine participants' perspectives on how a volunteer-based adult literacy class supports the learning of adults with developmental/intellectual disabilities. Interviews were conducted with four tutors, three adult learners, and two coordinators and observations of the class occurred over a 6-month period…

  19. A Follow-up Study of Adult Graduates of the University of Wisconsin System. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishler, Carol

    A study surveyed University of Wisconsin System adult graduates (age 29 and over at graduation) from traditional campus programs to determine the impact of a bachelor's degree on their lives and work three to five years after graduation. The main interest was job changes experienced by adult graduates. Of 441 adults surveyed, 254 returned the…

  20. Yoga for Health-Related Quality of Life in Adult Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Marcy; McDonald, Melanie; Thorne, Sally; Ward, Alison; Heneghan, Carl

    2015-01-01

    An increase in patient-led uptake of complementary therapies in adult cancer has led to a need for more rigorous study of such interventions and their outcomes. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a yoga intervention in men and women receiving conventional treatment for a cancer diagnosis. Prospective, mixed methods feasibility trial allocated participants to receive one of three yoga interventions over a four-week study period. Data collection was completed through online survey of QOL-CA/CS and customized surveys. Fifteen participants were included (11 female) undergoing treatment for breast, prostate, colorectal, brain, and blood and lung cancer. Two participants dropped out and complete qualitative and quantitative data sets were collected from 12 participants and four yoga instructors. Other outcome measures included implementation costs patient-reported preferences for yoga intervention and changes in QOL-CA/CS. Three types of yoga intervention were safely administered in adult cancer. Mixed methods, cost-efficiency, QOL-CA/CS, and evidence-based design of yoga intervention have been used to establish feasibility and patient-preferences for yoga delivery in adult caner. Results suggest that, with some methodological improvements, a large-scale randomized controlled trial is warranted to test the efficacy of yoga for male and female cancer patients. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02309112. PMID:26170884

  1. A Qualitative Study of Environmental Factors Important for Physical Activity in Rural Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cleland, Verity; Hughes, Clarissa; Thornton, Lukar; Venn, Alison; Squibb, Kathryn; Ball, Kylie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Despite increasing evidence that the physical environment impacts on physical activity among urban-dwellers, little attention has been devoted to understanding this relationship in rural populations. Work in this area is further hindered by a lack of environmental measures specifically designed for rural settings. This qualitative study aimed to explore the salience of urban physical activity environment constructs among rural adults. Methods In 2011, 49 rural men and women from three distinct areas (coastal, animal-based farming, forestry/plant-based farming) of rural Tasmania, Australia, were purposively recruited to participate in semi-structured interviews. Interviews explored features of the built and social environment commonly examined in studies of urban adults, including functional characteristics (eg, lighting, footpaths, roads/verges), road and personal safety, availability and accessibility of places to be active, destinations, and aesthetics. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a content-thematic approach using QSR NVivo software. Findings While some urban environmental constructs were salient to these rural adults, such as availability of and accessibility to places to be active, some constructs were operationalised differently, such as road safety (where large trucks and winding roads rather than traffic density was of concern), or were not considered relevant (eg, personal safety related to crime, availability of walkable destinations, aesthetics). Conclusions The measurement of the physical environment in rural populations may require reconsideration and/or modification to ensure salience and appropriate quantification of associations with physical activity in future studies. PMID:26554376

  2. Adult leukemia risk and personal appliance use: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Lovely, R H; Buschbom, R L; Slavich, A L; Anderson, L E; Hansen, N H; Wilson, B W

    1994-09-15

    The hypothesis that use of personal electric appliances may be associated with increased risk of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia in adults was tested using interview data from a previously completed case-control study of 114 cases and 133 controls conducted between 1981 and 1984. Cases were obtained from a population-based cancer registry in western Washington state, and controls were obtained from the same area by random digit dialing. Of 32 electrical home appliances for which data on use were available for adult acute nonlymphocytic leukemia cases and controls, three motor-driven personal appliances (electric razors, hair dryers, and massage units) were selected a priori because their use represents exposure to higher peak magnetic fields than that from most other home appliances. When compared on an "ever used" versus "never used" basis, use of one or more of these appliances was not associated with increased risk of leukemia in the population studied (odds ratio (OR) = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41-1.24). When the appliances were considered individually, massage units were more likely to have been used by cases than by controls (OR = 3.00, 95% CI 1.43-6.32), while hair dryers were more likely to have been used by controls than cases (OR = 0.38, 95% CI 0.22-0.66). There was a nonsignificant tendency for electric razor use to differentiate the cases from controls (OR = 1.33, 95% CI 0.80-2.23). When reported daily time of use was stratified, there was no overall increased risk with increased time of use except for electric razors (p < 0.05). In addition to the analysis of appliance use data from the case-control study, the authors obtained several models of these motor-driven personal appliances and characterized the magnetic fields they produce. Magnetic field flux density, or the B-field, and spectral measurements showed that partial body exposure from such appliances may exceed 0.5 mTesla (root mean squared) at rates-of-change exceeding 10 Tesla

  3. [Adult].

    PubMed

    Milke-García, María Del Pilar

    2016-09-01

    Adulthood starts after youth and is characterized by the completion of growth and the achievement of organic and psychological maturity. Obesity and other preventable diseases related to lifestyle are common at this age. A complete, balanced and sufficient diet, together with exercise are important in order to prevent and treat these diseases. Several studies have brought about the mechanisms by which the incorporation of milk and dairy products to diet is beneficial in order to prevent and treat these diseases. Milk also contributes to the improvement of dental, bone and intestinal health, theoretically helps in body weight control, has a definite role on the muscular and bone mass maintenance and is an option for hydration during exercise, this being as important as diet for overweight, obesity, diabetes, dislipidemias and hypertension control. PMID:27603885

  4. Adult functional outcomes of common childhood psychiatric problems: A prospective, longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, William E.; Wolke, Dieter; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane

    2016-01-01

    Context Psychiatric problems are among the most common health problems of childhood. Objective To test whether these health problems adversely affect adult functioning even if the problems themselves do not persist. Design Prospective, population-based study of 1420 participants assessed with structured interviews up to 6 times in childhood (ages 9 to 16; 6674 observations) for common psychiatric diagnoses and subthreshold psychiatric problems. Setting and population Community sample. Main outcome measure Participants were then assessed 3 times in young adulthood (ages 19, 21, and 24–26; 3215 observations of 1273 subjects) for adverse outcomes related to health, legal, financial, and social functioning. Results Participants with a childhood disorder had 6 times higher odds of at least one adverse adult outcome as compared to those with no history of psychiatric problems and 9 times higher odds of 2 or more such indicators (1 indicator: 59.5% vs. 19.9%, p <0.001; 2+ indicators: 34.2% vs. 5.6%, p <0.001). These associations persisted after statistically controlling for childhood psychosocial hardships and adult psychiatric problems. Risk was not limited to those with a diagnosis: participants with subthreshold psychiatric problems had 3 times higher odds of adult adverse outcomes and 5 time higher odds of 2 or more outcomes (1 indicator: 41.9% vs. 19.9%, p <0.001; 2+ indicators: 23.2% vs. 5.6%, p <0.001). The best diagnostic predictor of adverse outcomes was cumulative childhood exposure to psychiatric disorders. Conclusions Common, typically moderately-impairing, childhood psychiatric problems are associated with a disrupted transition to adulthood even if the problems do not persist into adulthood and even if the problems are subthreshold. Such problems provide potential target for public health efforts to ameliorate adult suffering and morbidity. PMID:26176785

  5. Study of lipid profile in adult women with acne

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha, Marisa Gonzaga; Batista, Anna Luiza Fonseca; Macedo, Marzia Silva; Machado Filho, Carlos D’Aparecida Santos; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to establish the lipid profile of female patients with acne in the Acne-in-Adult-Women Ambulatory Care Clinic in order to observe the prevalence of dyslipidemia in those patients. Methods This is a retrospective transversal study that evaluated the medical records of 416 patients who attended at the Acne-in-Adult-Women Ambulatory Care Clinic, at the Dermatology Department, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil, in the year 2012. Relevant data included age and clinical classification of acne. The lipid profile was analyzed according to the results of laboratory tests ordered during outpatient visits, which included total and fractionated cholesterol levels and triglycerides. Results The epidemiological study sample was of 219 patients, with ages ranging from 21 to 61 years (mean of 32.23 years). The predominant clinical grade was papule-pustule acne (grade II) with 156 patients (71%). Regarding the lipid profile of the patients, there was a high increase in total cholesterol levels in 17.35% of the cases. High-density lipoprotein levels were low in 11.42% of the patients, with normal prevalence in 194 subjects. Low-density lipoprotein levels were normal in most patients (60.27%). Very-low-density lipoprotein values were normal in almost all patients (94.06%) and increased in only 13 patients (5.94%). Only 18 patients presented high levels of triglycerides (8.22%). Conclusion The conclusion was that patients with grades II and III acne are more likely to have total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein altered. A correct and early diagnosis can be an important measure for the prevention of the metabolic syndrome in these patients. PMID:26316790

  6. Young adults' trajectories of Ecstasy use: a population based study.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Andrew; Najman, Jake M; Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Plotnikova, Maria; Wells, Helene; Legosz, Margot; Kemp, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Young adults' Ecstasy use trajectories have important implications for individual and population-level consequences of Ecstasy use, but little relevant research has been conducted. This study prospectively examines Ecstasy trajectories in a population-based sample. Data are from the Natural History Study of Drug Use, a retrospective/prospective cohort study conducted in Australia. Population screening identified a probability sample of Ecstasy users aged 19-23 years. Complete data for 30 months of follow-up, comprising 4 time intervals, were available for 297 participants (88.4% of sample). Trajectories were derived using cluster analysis based on recent Ecstasy use at each interval. Trajectory predictors were examined using a generalized ordered logit model and included Ecstasy dependence (World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Instrument), psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale), aggression (Young Adult Self Report) and contextual factors (e.g. attendance at electronic/dance music events). Three Ecstasy trajectories were identified (low, intermediate and high use). At its peak, the high-use trajectory involved 1-2 days Ecstasy use per week. Decreasing frequency of use was observed for intermediate and high-use trajectories from 12 months, independently of market factors. Intermediate and high-use trajectory membership was predicted by past Ecstasy consumption (>70 pills) and attendance at electronic/dance music events. High-use trajectory members were unlikely to have used Ecstasy for more than 3 years and tended to report consistently positive subjective effects at baseline. Given the social context and temporal course of Ecstasy use, Ecstasy trajectories might be better understood in terms of instrumental rather than addictive drug use patterns. PMID:23899430

  7. ACSYNT inner loop flight control design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bortins, Richard; Sorensen, John A.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center developed the Aircraft Synthesis (ACSYNT) computer program to synthesize conceptual future aircraft designs and to evaluate critical performance metrics early in the design process before significant resources are committed and cost decisions made. ACSYNT uses steady-state performance metrics, such as aircraft range, payload, and fuel consumption, and static performance metrics, such as the control authority required for the takeoff rotation and for landing with an engine out, to evaluate conceptual aircraft designs. It can also optimize designs with respect to selected criteria and constraints. Many modern aircraft have stability provided by the flight control system rather than by the airframe. This may allow the aircraft designer to increase combat agility, or decrease trim drag, for increased range and payload. This strategy requires concurrent design of the airframe and the flight control system, making trade-offs of performance and dynamics during the earliest stages of design. ACSYNT presently lacks means to implement flight control system designs but research is being done to add methods for predicting rotational degrees of freedom and control effector performance. A software module to compute and analyze the dynamics of the aircraft and to compute feedback gains and analyze closed loop dynamics is required. The data gained from these analyses can then be fed back to the aircraft design process so that the effects of the flight control system and the airframe on aircraft performance can be included as design metrics. This report presents results of a feasibility study and the initial design work to add an inner loop flight control system (ILFCS) design capability to the stability and control module in ACSYNT. The overall objective is to provide a capability for concurrent design of the aircraft and its flight control system, and enable concept designers to improve performance by exploiting the interrelationships between

  8. Preliminary design study of lunar housing configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, K. H.

    1992-01-01

    A preliminary design study assesses various configurations for habitation of the lunar surface. The study assumes an initial 4-man habitation module expandable to a 48-man concept. Through the numerous coupling combinations of identical modules, five basic configuration types are identified. A design model presents each configuration in light of certain issues. The issues include circulation, internal and external spatial characteristics, functional organizations, and future growth potential. The study discusses the attributes, potentials, and unique requirements of each configuration.

  9. Cosmopolitan Adult Education and Global Citizenship: Perceptions from a European Itinerant Graduate Professional Study Abroad Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coryell, Joellen E.; Spencer, B. J.; Sehin, Oleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Today's sociopolitical and economic conditions require adults to engage in informed, culturally sensitive coexistence. Correspondingly, adult educators need to design experiences that help prepare learners for cross-cultural collaboration and socially responsible careers in a global age. Framed through cosmopolitanism and situated learning…

  10. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study interim design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    The status of the design of a tenth-of-a-kind commercial tandem-mirror fusion reactor is described at the midpoint of a two-year study. When completed, the design is to serve as a strategic goal for the mirror fusion program. The main objectives of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) are: (1) to design an attractive tandem-mirror fusion reactor producing electricity and synfuels (in alternate versions), (2) to identify key development and technology needs, and (3) to exploit the potential of fusion for safety, low activation, and simple disposal of radioactive waste. In the first year we have emphasized physics and engineering of the central cell and physics of the end cell. Design optimization and trade studies are continuing, and we expect additional modifications in the end cells to further improve the performance of the final design.

  11. Variability and reliability of diurnal cortisol in younger and older adults: Implications for design decisions

    PubMed Central

    Segerstrom, Suzanne C.; Boggero, Ian A.; Smith, Gregory T.; Sephton, Sandra E.

    2014-01-01

    The extant research is inconclusive regarding the best sampling methods to construct reliable measures of between-person differences in derived parameters of diurnal cortisol, and no study provides such recommendations for detecting within-person changes. These studies determined how many days of sampling are necessary to assess between-person differences and within-person changes over multiple occasions in diurnal mean, diurnal slope, and area under the curve (AUC). Generalizability and decision analyses were conducted on diurnal salivary cortisol data from two separate longitudinal studies, one with younger adults (N = 124) and one with older adults (N = 148). In both studies, results indicated that 3 days of data collection provided the minimal level of reliability in mean cortisol to detect between-person differences; 4–8 days were necessary to reliably assess AUC, and 10 days for cortisol slope. Similarly, in order to reliably characterize within-person changes across occasions, at least 3 days of data collection were needed for mean cortisol and AUC and 5–8 days for slope. Results also indicated that only two samples per day, taken morning and evening, could faithfully reproduce the diurnal slope calculated from 3 or 4 samples (r = .97–.99). Instead of having participants provide many samples per day over the course of a few days, we recommend collecting fewer samples per day over more days. PMID:25137484

  12. A Case Study in Acoustical Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledford, Bruce R.; Brown, John A.

    1992-01-01

    Addresses concerns of both facilities planners and instructional designers in planning for the audio component of group presentations. Factors in the architectural design of enclosures for the reproduction of sound are described, including frequency, amplitude, and reverberation; and a case study for creating an acceptable enclosure is presented.…

  13. Effect of running therapy on depression (EFFORT-D). Design of a randomised controlled trial in adult patients [ISRCTN 1894

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The societal and personal burden of depressive illness is considerable. Despite the developments in treatment strategies, the effectiveness of both medication and psychotherapy is not ideal. Physical activity, including exercise, is a relatively cheap and non-harmful lifestyle intervention which lacks the side-effects of medication and does not require the introspective ability necessary for most psychotherapies. Several cohort studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have been performed to establish the effect of physical activity on prevention and remission of depressive illness. However, recent meta-analysis's of all RCTs in this area showed conflicting results. The objective of the present article is to describe the design of a RCT examining the effect of exercise on depressive patients. Methods/Design The EFFect Of Running Therapy on Depression in adults (EFFORT-D) is a RCT, studying the effectiveness of exercise therapy (running therapy (RT) or Nordic walking (NW)) on depression in adults, in addition to usual care. The study population consists of patients with depressive disorder, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) ≥ 14, recruited from specialised mental health care. The experimental group receives the exercise intervention besides treatment as usual, the control group receives treatment as usual. The intervention program is a group-based, 1 h session, two times a week for 6 months and of increasing intensity. The control group only performs low intensive non-aerobic exercises. Measurements are performed at inclusion and at 3,6 and 12 months. Primary outcome measure is reduction in depressive symptoms measured by the HRSD. Cardio-respiratory fitness is measured using a sub maximal cycling test, biometric information is gathered and blood samples are collected for metabolic parameters. Also, co-morbidity with pain, anxiety and personality traits is studied, as well as quality of life and cost-effectiveness. Discussion Exercise in

  14. Potential utility of precision medicine for older adults with polypharmacy: a case series study

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Joseph; Friedman, Carol; Hripcsak, George; Cabrera, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacogenomic (PGx) testing has been increasingly used to optimize drug regimens; however, its potential in older adults with polypharmacy has not been systematically studied. In this hypothesis-generating study, we employed a case series design to explore potential utility of PGx testing in older adults with polypharmacy and to highlight barriers in implementing this methodology in routine clinical practice. Three patients with concurrent chronic heart and lung disease aged 74, 78, and 83 years and whose medication regimen comprised 26, 17, and 18 drugs, correspondingly, served as cases for this study. PGx testing identified major genetic polymorphisms in the first two cases. The first case was identified as “CYP3A4/CYP3A5 poor metabolizer”, which affected metabolism of eleven prescribed drugs. The second case had “CYP2D6 rapid metabolizer” status affecting three prescribed medications, two of which were key drugs for managing this patient’s chronic conditions. Both these patients also had VKORC1 allele *A, resulting in higher sensitivity to warfarin. All cases demonstrated a significant number of potential drug–drug interactions. Both patients with significant drug–gene interactions had a history of frequent hospitalizations (six and 23, respectively), whereas the person without impaired cytochrome P450 enzyme activity had only two acute episodes in the last 5 years, although he was older and had multiple comorbidities. Since all patients received guideline-concordant therapy from the same providers and were adherent to their drug regimen, we hypothesized that genetic polymorphism may represent an additional risk factor for higher hospitalization rates in older adults with polypharmacy. However, evidence to support or reject this hypothesis is yet to be established. Studies evaluating clinical impact of PGx testing in older adults with polypharmacy are warranted. For practical implementation of pharmacogenomics in routine clinical care, besides

  15. Potential utility of precision medicine for older adults with polypharmacy: a case series study.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Joseph; Friedman, Carol; Hripcsak, George; Cabrera, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacogenomic (PGx) testing has been increasingly used to optimize drug regimens; however, its potential in older adults with polypharmacy has not been systematically studied. In this hypothesis-generating study, we employed a case series design to explore potential utility of PGx testing in older adults with polypharmacy and to highlight barriers in implementing this methodology in routine clinical practice. Three patients with concurrent chronic heart and lung disease aged 74, 78, and 83 years and whose medication regimen comprised 26, 17, and 18 drugs, correspondingly, served as cases for this study. PGx testing identified major genetic polymorphisms in the first two cases. The first case was identified as "CYP3A4/CYP3A5 poor metabolizer", which affected metabolism of eleven prescribed drugs. The second case had "CYP2D6 rapid metabolizer" status affecting three prescribed medications, two of which were key drugs for managing this patient's chronic conditions. Both these patients also had VKORC1 allele *A, resulting in higher sensitivity to warfarin. All cases demonstrated a significant number of potential drug-drug interactions. Both patients with significant drug-gene interactions had a history of frequent hospitalizations (six and 23, respectively), whereas the person without impaired cytochrome P450 enzyme activity had only two acute episodes in the last 5 years, although he was older and had multiple comorbidities. Since all patients received guideline-concordant therapy from the same providers and were adherent to their drug regimen, we hypothesized that genetic polymorphism may represent an additional risk factor for higher hospitalization rates in older adults with polypharmacy. However, evidence to support or reject this hypothesis is yet to be established. Studies evaluating clinical impact of PGx testing in older adults with polypharmacy are warranted. For practical implementation of pharmacogenomics in routine clinical care, besides providing

  16. Understanding the Older Adult; A Teacher's Manual and Course of Study For Use in Adult Education Classes in Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles County Superintendent of Schools, CA.

    Based on a study of training needs among personnel connected with homes for the aged in California, this publication is a teacher's manual as well as a course of study for older adults, their friends and relatives, volunteer workers, and professionals. The following topics are covered: the aged in a changing society; the increase in the aging…

  17. Multidimensional Measurement Within Adult Protective Services: Design and Initial Testing of the Tool for Risk, Interventions, and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sommerfeld, David H.; Henderson, Linda B.; Snider, Marcy A.; Aarons, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the development, field utility, reliability, and validity of the multidimensional Tool for Risk, Interventions, and Outcomes (TRIO) for use in Adult Protective Services (APS). The TRIO is designed to facilitate consistent APS practice and collect data related to multiple dimensions of typical interactions with APS clients, including the investigation and assessment of risks, the provision of APS interventions, and associated health and safety outcomes. Initial tests of the TRIO indicated high field utility, social worker “relevance and buy-in,” and inter-rater reliability. TRIO concurrent validity was demonstrated via appropriate patterns of TRIO item differentiation based on the type of observed confirmed abuse or neglect; and predictive validity was demonstrated by prediction of the risk of actual APS recurrence. The TRIO is a promising new tool that can help meet the challenges of providing and documenting effective APS practices and identifying those at high risk for future APS recurrence. PMID:24848994

  18. Weight loss intervention for young adults using mobile technology: design and rationale of a randomized controlled trial – Cell phone Intervention for You (CITY)

    PubMed Central

    Batch, Bryan C.; Tyson, Crystal; Bagwell, Jacqueline; Corsino, Leonor; Intille, Stephen; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Lazenka, Tony; Bennett, Gary; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Voils, Corrine; Grambow, Steven; Sutton, Aziza; Bordogna, Rachel; Pangborn, Matthew; Schwager, Jenifer; Pilewski, Kate; Caccia, Carla; Burroughs, Jasmine; Svetkey, Laura P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The obesity epidemic has spread to young adults, leading to significant public health implications later in adulthood. Intervention in early adulthood may be an effective public health strategy for reducing the long-term health impact of the epidemic. Few weight loss trials have been conducted in young adults. It is unclear what weight loss strategies are beneficial in this population. Purpose To describe the design and rationale of the NHLBI-sponsored Cell Phone Intervention for You (CITY) study, which is a single center, randomized three-arm trial that compares the impact on weight loss of 1) a behavioral intervention that is delivered almost entirely via cell phone technology (Cell Phone group); and 2) a behavioral intervention delivered mainly through monthly personal coaching calls enhanced by self-monitoring via cell phone (Personal Coaching group), each compared to; 3) a usual care, advice-only control condition. Methods A total of 365 community-dwelling overweight/obese adults aged 18–35 years were randomized to receive one of these three interventions for 24 months in parallel group design. Study personnel assessing outcomes were blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome is weight change at 12 months. We hypothesize that each active intervention will cause more weight loss than the usual care condition. Study completion is anticipated in 2014. Conclusions If effective, implementation of the CITY interventions could mitigate the alarming rates of obesity in young adults through promotion of weight loss. PMID:24462568

  19. Cost studies for commercial fuselage crown designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, T. H.; Smith, P. J.; Truslove, G.; Willden, K. S.; Metschan, S. L.; Pfahl, C. L.

    1991-01-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the cost and weight potential of advanced composite design concepts in the crown region of a commercial transport. Two designs from each of three design families were developed using an integrated design-build team. A range of design concepts and manufacturing processes were included to allow isolation and comparison of cost centers. Detailed manufacturing/assembly plans were developed as the basis for cost estimates. Each of the six designs was found to have advantages over the 1995 aluminum benchmark in cost and weight trade studies. Large quadrant panels and cobonded frames were found to save significant assembly labor costs. Comparisons of high- and intermediate-performance fiber systems were made for skin and stringer applications. Advanced tow placement was found to be an efficient process for skin lay up. Further analysis revealed attractive processes for stringers and frames. Optimized designs were informally developed for each design family, combining the most attractive concepts and processes within that family. A single optimized design was selected as the most promising, and the potential for further optimization was estimated. Technical issues and barriers were identified.

  20. The Foreign City as Classroom: Adult Learning in Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coryell, Joellen E.

    2011-01-01

    To live and work in today's global community, adults need to develop an intercultural responsiveness and flexibility in order to interact sensitively in situations involving international cultural contexts, practices, beliefs, understandings, and communications. One way to support this development in adult and higher education is to offer…

  1. Views on Adults Re-Learning Mathematics: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angiama, R. O.

    This paper is based on the on-going research, work, and teaching carried out in the Mathematics Foundations Course (MFC) at Goldsmiths College, University of London. Teaching is a very intimate and rewarding experience for the mathematics lecturer as well as for the adult student. Mathematics lecturers and adults should be challenged by their…

  2. Age Effects in a Study Abroad Context: Children and Adults Studying Abroad and at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llanes, Angels; Munoz, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effects of learning context and age on second language development by comparing the language gains, measured in terms of oral and written fluency, lexical and syntactic complexity, and accuracy, experienced by four groups of learners of English: children in a study abroad setting, children in their at-home school, adults in…

  3. Examining the Influencing Factors of Exercise Intention Among Older Adults: A Controlled Study Between Exergame and Traditional Exercise.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zumei; Li, Jinhui; Theng, Yin-Leng

    2015-09-01

    Promoting physical activities among older adults becomes an important component of successful aging. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of both exercise settings and player interaction patterns on exercise intention in a sample of Asian older adults. A 2×2 (exercise settings: traditional exercise vs. exergame×player interaction patterns: collaborative vs. competitive play) between-subjects experimental intervention was conducted with 113 Singaporean older adults for 1 month. An interviewer-administered questionnaire survey was issued to measure key variables of enjoyment, social presence, and perceived behavioral control. The findings supported the importance of social presence and perceived behavioral control in older adults' exercise prediction, and highlighted the effect of collaborative play in older adults' exercise promotion. Compared with traditional exercise, the effect of exergames on motivating older adults to exercise was significantly lower. The findings of this study revealed rich directions for future elderly exercise research, and provided strategies that could be applicable for policy making and game design to promote elderly exercise participation. PMID:26348812

  4. Relating clinical study design to basic research.

    PubMed

    Choh, V; Priolo, S

    1999-07-01

    Devising any research study involves careful attention to its design, as well as the development of an appropriate research question and hypothesis. Together, these attributes ensure the validity of the study in question. In most clinical or epidemiological studies, the types of research designs are often explicitly noted, whereas in papers describing basic or biological research, they are couched in different terms or, more often, are ignored, thus potentially hindering communication between basic and clinical researchers. However, given that the framework for all valid scientific research is based on sound logic, it is proposed that for each study design, a direct homology exists between clinical and basic research paradigms, despite the problem of relating epidemiological vernacular to basic research. By applying examples of basic research protocols to traditional clinical study designs, this paper shows that parallels can be drawn between the two strategies, suggesting that in the absence of a conventional nomenclature to describe basic research study designs, the use of traditional clinical design jargon is valid in describing basic research protocols. PMID:10445637

  5. Exploratory case-control study of brain tumors in adults

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, J.D.; Craib, K.J.; Choi, B.C.; Miller, A.B.; Risch, H.A.; Howe, G.R.

    1987-04-01

    An exploratory study of brain tumors in adults was carried out using 215 cases diagnosed in Southern Ontario between 1979 and 1982, with an individually matched, hospital control series. Significantly elevated risks were observed for reported use of spring water, drinking of wine, and consumption of pickled fish, together with a significant protective effect for the regular consumption of any of several types of fruit. While these factors are consistent with a role for N-nitroso compounds in the etiology of these tumors, for several other factors related to this hypothesis, no association was observed. Occupation in the rubber industry was associated with a significant relative risk of 9.0, though no other occupational associations were seen. Two previously unreported associations were with smoking nonfilter cigarettes with a significant trend and with the use of hair dyes or sprays. The data do not support an association between physical head trauma requiring medical attention and risk of brain tumors and indicate that exposure to ionizing radiation and vinyl chloride monomer does not contribute any appreciable fraction of attributable risk in the population studied. The findings warrant further detailed investigation in future epidemiologic studies.

  6. Toothache and associated factors in Brazilian adults: a cross-sectional population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Kuhnen, Mirian; Peres, Marco A; Masiero, Anelise V; Peres, Karen G

    2009-01-01

    Background Toothache is a dental public health problem and one of the predictors of dental attendance and it is strongly associated with the life quality of individuals. In spite of this, there are few population-based epidemiological studies on this theme. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of toothache and associated factors in adults of Lages, Southern Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out in a sample of 2,022 adults aged 20 to 59 years living in the urban area of a medium sized city in Southern Brazil. A questionnaire including socioeconomic, demographic, smoking, alcohol, and use of dental service variables was applied at adults household. Toothache occurred six months previous of the interview was considered the outcome. Poisson regression analyses were performed following a theoretical hierarchical framework. All analysis was adjusted by the sample design effect. Results The response rate was 98.6%. The prevalence of toothache was 18.0% (95% CI 16.0; 20.1). The following variables were associated with toothache after adjustment: female (PR = 1.3 95% CI 1.3; 2.0), black skin colour vs. whites (PR = 1.5 95% CI 1.1, 1.9), low per capita income (PR = 1.7 95% CI 1.2, 2.3), smokers (PR = 1.5 95% CI 1.2, 1.9) and those who reported alcohol problems (PR = 1.4 95% CI 1.1; 1.9). To be 40 years of age (PR = 0.5 95% CI 0.4, 0.7) and use dental service in the last year (RR = 0.5 95% CI 0.4, 0.6) were protective factors for toothache. Conclusion The prevalence of toothache in adults of Lages can be considered a major problem of dental public health. PMID:19243630

  7. A multimedia adult literacy program: Combining NASA technology, instructional design theory, and authentic literacy concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Jerry W.

    1993-01-01

    be the most effective or most desirable way to use computer technology in literacy programs. This project is developing a series of instructional packages that are based on a different instructional model - authentic instruction. The instructional development model used to create these packages is also different. Instead of using the traditional five stage linear, sequential model based on behavioral learning theory, the project uses the recursive, reflective design and development model (R2D2) that is based on cognitive learning theory, particularly the social constructivism of Vygotsky, and an epistemology based on critical theory. Using alternative instructional and instructional development theories, the result of the summer faculty fellowship is LiteraCity, a multimedia adult literacy instructional package that is a simulation of finding and applying for a job. The program, which is about 120 megabytes, is distributed on CD-ROM.

  8. In utero programming alters adult response to chronic mild stress: part 3 of a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Baker, Stephanie L; Mileva, Guergana; Huta, Veronika; Bielajew, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    Exposure to stress before birth may lay the foundation for the development of sensitivities or protection from psychiatric disorders while later stress exposure may trigger either their expression or suppression. This report, part three of a longitudinal study conducted in our laboratory, aimed to examine the interaction between early and adult stress and their effects on measures of anxiety and depression. In parts one and two, we reported the effects of gestational stress (GS) in Long Evans rat dams and their juvenile and young adult offspring. In this third and final installment, we evaluated the effects of GS and chronic mild stress (CMS) in the adult female offspring at 6 month and 12 month time-points. The two by two design included a combination of GS and CMS and the appropriate control groups. Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling, main effects of GS on corticosterone level at the 12 month time-point was found while main effects of CMS were seen in body weight, sucrose preference, and corticosterone, and significant interactions between group at the 6 and 12 month time-points. The GS group had the lowest sucrose preference during CMS at 6 months supporting a cumulative effect of early and later life stress. The GS/CMS group showed lower corticosterone at 12 months than the GS/noCMS group indicating a possible mismatch between prenatal programming and later life stress. These results highlight the importance of early life factors in exerting potentially protective effects in models involving later life stress. PMID:25261693

  9. The LIFE Cognition Study: design and baseline characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Sink, Kaycee M; Espeland, Mark A; Rushing, Julia; Castro, Cynthia M; Church, Timothy S; Cohen, Ronald; Gill, Thomas M; Henkin, Leora; Jennings, Janine M; Kerwin, Diana R; Manini, Todd M; Myers, Valerie; Pahor, Marco; Reid, Kieran F; Woolard, Nancy; Rapp, Stephen R; Williamson, Jeff D

    2014-01-01

    Observational studies have shown beneficial relationships between exercise and cognitive function. Some clinical trials have also demonstrated improvements in cognitive function in response to moderate–high intensity aerobic exercise; however, these have been limited by relatively small sample sizes and short durations. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study is the largest and longest randomized controlled clinical trial of physical activity with cognitive outcomes, in older sedentary adults at increased risk for incident mobility disability. One LIFE Study objective is to evaluate the effects of a structured physical activity program on changes in cognitive function and incident all-cause mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Here, we present the design and baseline cognitive data. At baseline, participants completed the modified Mini Mental Status Examination, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, Digit Symbol Coding, Modified Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure, and a computerized battery, selected to be sensitive to changes in speed of processing and executive functioning. During follow up, participants completed the same battery, along with the Category Fluency for Animals, Boston Naming, and Trail Making tests. The description of the mild cognitive impairment/dementia adjudication process is presented here. Participants with worse baseline Short Physical Performance Battery scores (prespecified at ≤7) had significantly lower median cognitive test scores compared with those having scores of 8 or 9 with modified Mini Mental Status Examination score of 91 versus (vs) 93, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test delayed recall score of 7.4 vs 7.9, and Digit Symbol Coding score of 45 vs 48, respectively (all P<0.001). The LIFE Study will contribute important information on the effects of a structured physical activity program on cognitive outcomes in sedentary older adults at particular risk for mobility impairment. In addition to its importance in the

  10. The LIFE Cognition Study: design and baseline characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sink, Kaycee M; Espeland, Mark A; Rushing, Julia; Castro, Cynthia M; Church, Timothy S; Cohen, Ronald; Gill, Thomas M; Henkin, Leora; Jennings, Janine M; Kerwin, Diana R; Manini, Todd M; Myers, Valerie; Pahor, Marco; Reid, Kieran F; Woolard, Nancy; Rapp, Stephen R; Williamson, Jeff D

    2014-01-01

    Observational studies have shown beneficial relationships between exercise and cognitive function. Some clinical trials have also demonstrated improvements in cognitive function in response to moderate-high intensity aerobic exercise; however, these have been limited by relatively small sample sizes and short durations. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study is the largest and longest randomized controlled clinical trial of physical activity with cognitive outcomes, in older sedentary adults at increased risk for incident mobility disability. One LIFE Study objective is to evaluate the effects of a structured physical activity program on changes in cognitive function and incident all-cause mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Here, we present the design and baseline cognitive data. At baseline, participants completed the modified Mini Mental Status Examination, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, Digit Symbol Coding, Modified Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, and a computerized battery, selected to be sensitive to changes in speed of processing and executive functioning. During follow up, participants completed the same battery, along with the Category Fluency for Animals, Boston Naming, and Trail Making tests. The description of the mild cognitive impairment/dementia adjudication process is presented here. Participants with worse baseline Short Physical Performance Battery scores (prespecified at ≤ 7) had significantly lower median cognitive test scores compared with those having scores of 8 or 9 with modified Mini Mental Status Examination score of 91 versus (vs) 93, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test delayed recall score of 7.4 vs 7.9, and Digit Symbol Coding score of 45 vs 48, respectively (all P<0.001). The LIFE Study will contribute important information on the effects of a structured physical activity program on cognitive outcomes in sedentary older adults at particular risk for mobility impairment. In addition to its importance in the

  11. Design optimization studies using COSMIC NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitrof, Stephen M.; Bharatram, G.; Venkayya, Vipperla B.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to create, test and document a procedure to integrate mathematical optimization algorithms with COSMIC NASTRAN. This procedure is very important to structural design engineers who wish to capitalize on optimization methods to ensure that their design is optimized for its intended application. The OPTNAST computer program was created to link NASTRAN and design optimization codes into one package. This implementation was tested using two truss structure models and optimizing their designs for minimum weight, subject to multiple loading conditions and displacement and stress constraints. However, the process is generalized so that an engineer could design other types of elements by adding to or modifying some parts of the code.

  12. Designer Self-Assembling Peptide Nanofiber Scaffolds for Adult Mouse Neural Stem Cell 3-Dimensional Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Gelain, Fabrizio; Bottai, Daniele; Vescovi, Angleo; Zhang, Shuguang

    2006-01-01

    Biomedical researchers have become increasingly aware of the limitations of conventional 2-dimensional tissue cell culture systems, including coated Petri dishes, multi-well plates and slides, to fully address many critical issues in cell biology, cancer biology and neurobiology, such as the 3-D microenvironment, 3-D gradient diffusion, 3-D cell migration and 3-D cell-cell contact interactions. In order to fully understand how cells behave in the 3-D body, it is important to develop a well-controlled 3-D cell culture system where every single ingredient is known. Here we report the development of a 3-D cell culture system using a designer peptide nanofiber scaffold with mouse adult neural stem cells. We attached several functional motifs, including cell adhesion, differentiation and bone marrow homing motifs, to a self-assembling peptide RADA16 (Ac-RADARADARADARADA-COHN2). These functionalized peptides undergo self-assembly into a nanofiber structure similar to Matrigel. During cell culture, the cells were fully embedded in the 3-D environment of the scaffold. Two of the peptide scaffolds containing bone marrow homing motifs significantly enhanced the neural cell survival without extra soluble growth and neurotrophic factors to the routine cell culture media. In these designer scaffolds, the cell populations with β-Tubulin+, GFAP+ and Nestin+ markers are similar to those found in cell populations cultured on Matrigel. The gene expression profiling array experiments showed selective gene expression, possibly involved in neural stem cell adhesion and differentiation. Because the synthetic peptides are intrinsically pure and a number of desired function cellular motifs are easy to incorporate, these designer peptide nanofiber scaffolds provide a promising controlled 3-D culture system for diverse tissue cells, and are useful as well for general molecular and cell biology. PMID:17205123

  13. Liberal Adult Education Adapts to the Technological Society: Case Study of West Germany's Adult Education Centers (Volkshochschulen).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Robert A.

    The report, based on a six-month study as a participant-observer, discusses developments now under way in West Germany's Adult Education Centers movement. The article offers a comparative approach that takes account of trends in Europe and North America. It puts these developments into a philosophical framework, noting that Germany may provide a…

  14. Design Considerations for Artificial Pancreas Pivotal Studies.

    PubMed

    Russell, Steven J; Beck, Roy W

    2016-07-01

    The development of artificial pancreas systems has evolved to the point that pivotal studies designed to assess efficacy and safety are in progress or soon to be initiated. These pivotal studies are intended to provide the necessary data to gain clearance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, coverage by payers, and adoption by patients and clinicians. Although there will not be one design that is appropriate for every system, there are certain aspects of protocol design that will be considerations in all pivotal studies designed to assess efficacy and safety. One key aspect of study design is the intervention to be used by the control group. A case can be made that the control group should use the currently available best technology, which is sensor-augmented pump therapy. However, an equally, if not more, compelling case can be made that the control intervention should be usual care. In this Perspective, we elaborate on this issue and provide a pragmatic approach to the design of clinical trials of artificial pancreas systems. PMID:27330125

  15. Depression among Ethiopian Adults: Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Molla, Getasew Legas; Sebhat, Haregwoin Mulat; Hussen, Zebiba Nasir; Mekonen, Amsalu Belete; Mersha, Wubalem Fekadu; Yimer, Tesfa Mekonen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Depression is one of the most common mental disorders worldwide and is the second leading cause of disability and major contributor to suicide. Methods. Community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 779 adults residing in Northwest Ethiopia. Multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select study participants. Depression was measured by Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Bivariate as well as multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify associated factors. p value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result. The prevalence of depression was 17.5%, where 10.7% of patients were with mild depression, 4.2% were with moderate depression, 1.9% were with moderately severe depression, and 0.6% had severe depression. Being female, age of 55 years and above, poor social support, having a comorbidity medical illness, current tobacco smoking, and living alone were significantly associated with depression. Conclusion and Recommendation. The prevalence of depression in Ethiopia is as common as the other lower and middle income countries. Female gender, being currently not married, poor social support, low wealth index, tobacco smoking, older age, having comorbid illness, and living alone were significantly associated with depression. So, depression is a significant public health problem that requires a great emphasis and some factors like smoking habit are modifiable. PMID:27247932

  16. Genetic association of impulsivity in young adults: a multivariate study

    PubMed Central

    Khadka, S; Narayanan, B; Meda, S A; Gelernter, J; Han, S; Sawyer, B; Aslanzadeh, F; Stevens, M C; Hawkins, K A; Anticevic, A; Potenza, M N; Pearlson, G D

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity is a heritable, multifaceted construct with clinically relevant links to multiple psychopathologies. We assessed impulsivity in young adult (N~2100) participants in a longitudinal study, using self-report questionnaires and computer-based behavioral tasks. Analysis was restricted to the subset (N=426) who underwent genotyping. Multivariate association between impulsivity measures and single-nucleotide polymorphism data was implemented using parallel independent component analysis (Para-ICA). Pathways associated with multiple genes in components that correlated significantly with impulsivity phenotypes were then identified using a pathway enrichment analysis. Para-ICA revealed two significantly correlated genotype–phenotype component pairs. One impulsivity component included the reward responsiveness subscale and behavioral inhibition scale of the Behavioral-Inhibition System/Behavioral-Activation System scale, and the second impulsivity component included the non-planning subscale of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and the Experiential Discounting Task. Pathway analysis identified processes related to neurogenesis, nervous system signal generation/amplification, neurotransmission and immune response. We identified various genes and gene regulatory pathways associated with empirically derived impulsivity components. Our study suggests that gene networks implicated previously in brain development, neurotransmission and immune response are related to impulsive tendencies and behaviors. PMID:25268255

  17. An Epidemiological Study of Neuropathic Pain Symptoms in Canadian Adults

    PubMed Central

    VanDenKerkhof, Elizabeth G.; Mann, Elizabeth G.; Torrance, Nicola; Smith, Blair H.; Johnson, Ana; Gilron, Ian

    2016-01-01

    The reported prevalence of neuropathic pain ranges from 6.9% to 10%; however the only Canadian study reported 17.9%. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of neuropathic pain in Canada. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a random sample of Canadian adults. The response rate was 21.1% (1504/7134). Likely or possible neuropathic pain was defined using a neuropathic pain-related diagnosis and a positive outcome on the Self-Report Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs pain scale (S-LANSS) or the Douleur Neuropathique 4 (DN4) Questions. The prevalence of likely neuropathic pain was 1.9% (S-LANSS) and 3.4% (DN4) and that of possible neuropathic pain was 5.8% (S-LANSS) and 8.1% (DN4). Neuropathic pain was highest in economically disadvantaged males. There is a significant burden of neuropathic pain in Canada. The low response rate and a slightly older and less educated sample than the Canadian population may have led to an overestimate of neuropathic pain. Population prevalence varies by screening tool used, indicating more work is needed to develop reliable measures. Population level screening targeted towards high risk groups should improve the sensitivity and specificity of screening, while clinical examination of those with positive screening results will further refine the estimate of prevalence. PMID:27445636

  18. Adult Cortical Plasticity Studied with Chronically Implanted Electrode Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Hiroshi; McManus, Justin N.J.; Ramalingam, Nirmala; Li, Wu; Marik, Sally A.; Meyer zum Alten Borgloh, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The functional architecture of adult cerebral cortex retains a capacity for experience-dependent change. This is seen after focal binocular lesions as rapid changes in receptive field (RF) of the lesion projection zone (LPZ) in the primary visual cortex (V1). To study the dynamics of the circuitry underlying these changes longitudinally, we implanted microelectrode arrays in macaque (Macaca mulatta) V1, eliminating the possibility of sampling bias, which was a concern in previous studies. With this method, we observed a rapid initial recovery in the LPZ and, during the following weeks, 63–89% of the sites in the LPZ showed recovery of visual responses with significant position tuning. The RFs shifted ∼3° away from the scotoma. In the absence of a lesion, visual stimulation surrounding an artificial scotoma did not elicit visual responses, suggesting that the postlesion RF shifts resulted from cortical reorganization. Interestingly, although both spikes and LFPs gave consistent prelesion position tuning, only spikes reflected the postlesion remapping. PMID:25673865

  19. Genetic Counseling of Adults with Williams Syndrome: A First Study

    PubMed Central

    Farwig, Katrina; Harmon, Amanda G.; Fontana, Kristina M.; Mervis, Carolyn B.; Morris, Colleen A.

    2010-01-01

    We report on a study of genetic counseling to 43 adults with Williams syndrome (WS). Participants were initially asked what they knew about how WS occurs. Genetic counseling was provided with a focus on the basic genetics of WS, recurrence risk, and on participants’ attitudes toward socio-cultural topics. Forty nine % indicated they would be okay or happy if their baby had WS, 44% said they would be sad or upset, and 5% were unsure. The sad/upset group was significantly older than the okay/happy group and a significantly higher proportion of the former group indicated they did not plan to have children. During the post counseling session participants were questioned to determine if they recalled the facts previously presented. Eighy one % correctly gave the odds that their child would have WS. Fifty three % considered the 50-50 odds to be a high chance. After genetic counseling, 61% were able to state something that had been taught, and 88% indicated they would want to test their baby for WS before birth. Ninety eight% would recommend genetic counseling to others. Findings indicate that based on the type of genetic counseling provided in this study, the majority of individuals with WS—a genetic disorder associated with intellectual disability but with relative strengths in (concrete) language and in verbal rote memory—are able to learn simple facts about the genetics of WS and are eager to respond to socio-cultural questions regarding topics typically included in genetic counseling sessions. PMID:20425790

  20. Review of Adult Learning and Literacy, Volume 6. Connecting Research, Policy and Practice: A Project of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Cristine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Review of Adult Learning and Literacy: Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice, Volume 6," is the newest volume in a series of annual publications of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) that address major issues, the latest research, and the best practices in the field of adult literacy and learning. Each…

  1. Review of Adult Learning and Literacy, Volume 5. Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice: A Project of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Cristine, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "The Review of Adult Learning and Literacy: Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice, Volume 5" is a volume in a series of annual publications of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) that address major issues, the latest research, and the best practices in the field of adult literacy and learning. Each…

  2. Review of Adult Learning and Literacy, Volume 4. Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice: A Project of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Cristine, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "The Review of Adult Learning and Literacy: Connecting Research Policy, and Practice, Volume 4" is an addition to a series of annual publications of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) that address major issues, the latest research, and the best practices in the field of adult literacy and learning. "Volume 4"…

  3. Canadian Journal for the Study of Adult Education = la Revue canadienne pour l'etude de l'education des adultes. 1987-1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Journal for the Study of Adult Education, 1994

    1994-01-01

    These 17 issues include feature articles and perspectives on the study of adult education, as well as book reviews/recensions of works related to adult education. Some articles are written in English, and some are written in French. Among the feature articles included are the following: "The Fifties: Pivotal Decade in Canadian Adult Education"…

  4. Improving Medication Knowledge among Older Adults with Heart Failure: A Patient-Centered Approach to Instruction Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Daniel G.; Weiner, Michael; Young, James; Steinley, Douglas; Deer, Melissa; Murray, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated whether patient-centered instructions for chronic heart failure medications increase comprehension and memory for medication information in older adults diagnosed with chronic heart failure. Design and Methods: Patient-centered instructions for familiar and unfamiliar medications were compared with instructions for the…

  5. Generic turbine design study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of Task 12, Generic Turbine Design Study was to develop a conceptual design of a combustion turbine system that would perform in a pressurized fluidized bed combustor (PFBC) application. A single inlet/outlet casing design that modifies the W251B12 combustion turbine to provide compressed air to the PFBC and accept clean hot air from the PFBC was developed. Performance calculations show that the net power output expected, at an inlet temperature of 59{degrees}F, is 20,250 kW.

  6. Engineering study for ISSTRS design concept

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzel, J.S.

    1997-01-31

    Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., is pleased to transmit the attached Conceptual Design Package for the Initial Single Shell Tank Retrieval System (ISSTRS), 90% Conceptual Design Review. The package includes the following: (1) ISSTRS Trade Studies: (a) Retrieval Facility Cooling Requirements; (b) Equipment Re-usability between Project W-320 and Tanks 241-C-103 and 241-C-1 05; (c) Sluice Line Options; and (d) Options for the Location of Tanks AX-103 and A-1 02 HVAC Equipment; (2) Drawings; (3) Risk Management Plan; (4) 0850 Interface Control Document; (5) Requirements Traceability Report; and (6) Project Design Specification.

  7. Controlled air incinerator conceptual design study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This report presents a conceptual design study for a controlled air incinerator facility for incineration of low level combustible waste at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). The facility design is based on the use of a Helix Process Systems controlled air incinerator. Cost estimates and associated engineering, procurement, and construction schedules are also provided. The cost estimates and schedules are presented for two incinerator facility designs, one with provisions for waste ash solidification, the other with provisions for packaging the waste ash for transport to an undefined location.

  8. Cognitive-reminiscence therapy and usual care for depression in young adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression is a common affliction for young adults, and is associated with a range of adverse outcomes. Cognitive-reminiscence therapy is a brief, structured intervention that has been shown to be highly effective for reducing depressive symptoms, yet to date has not been evaluated in young adult populations. Given its basis in theory-guided reminiscence-based therapy, and incorporation of effective therapeutic techniques drawn from cognitive therapy and problem-solving frameworks, it is hypothesized to be effective in treating depression in this age group. Methods and design This article presents the design of a randomized controlled trial implemented in a community-based youth mental health service to compare cognitive-reminiscence therapy with usual care for the treatment of depressive symptoms in young adults. Participants in the cognitive-reminiscence group will receive six sessions of weekly, individual psychotherapy, whilst participants in the usual-care group will receive support from the youth mental health service according to usual procedures. A between-within repeated-measures design will be used to evaluate changes in self-reported outcome measures of depressive symptoms, psychological wellbeing and anxiety across baseline, three weeks into the intervention, post-intervention, one month post-intervention and three months post-intervention. Interviews will also be conducted with participants from the cognitive-reminiscence group to collect information about their experience receiving the intervention, and the process underlying any changes that occur. Discussion This study will determine whether a therapeutic approach to depression that has been shown to be effective in older adult populations is also effective for young adults. The expected outcome of this study is the validation of a brief, evidence-based, manualized treatment for young adults with depressive symptoms. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN

  9. NEUROBEHAVIORAL TEST METHODS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH STUDIES OF ADULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry convened a workshop in Atlanta, GA, that evaluated approaches and methods to ascertain whether there are neurobehavioral sequelae to children and adults exposed to hazardous substances in the environment. his article, developed...

  10. Office Design: A Study of Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Peter, Ed.

    Reporting upon a study of environment which was based on the design of office buildings and office space, the study forms part of a continuing program of environmental research sponsored by Pilkington Brothers Limited of St. Helens, England. In this report the word 'environment' is used in the sense of the sum of the physical and emotional…

  11. Adult ESL Literacy Programs and Practices. A Report on a National Research Study. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guth, Gloria J. A.; Wrigley, Heide Spruck

    The background and major activities of a 2-year study on adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) programs and practices are reported. Descriptions are provided of the nomination process for programs that teach literacy to adults not fully proficient in English, and the study site selection and case studies of nine programs are described. The…

  12. The Zambia Children's KS-HHV8 Study: Rationale, Study Design, and Study Methods

    PubMed Central

    Minhas, Veenu; Crabtree, Kay L.; Chao, Ann; Wojcicki, Janet M.; Sifuniso, Adrian M.; Nkonde, Catherine; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mitchell, Charles D.; Wood, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus in Zambia has led to a dramatic rise in the incidence of human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8)–associated Kaposi's sarcoma in both adults and children. However, there is a paucity of knowledge about the routes of HHV-8 transmission to young children. The Zambia Children's KS-HHV8 Study, a large, prospective cohort study in Lusaka, Zambia, was launched in 2004 to investigate the role of household members as a source of HHV-8 infection in young children and social behaviors that may modify the risk of HHV-8 acquisition. This cohort is distinct from other epidemiologic studies designed to investigate HHV-8 incidence and transmission because it recruited and followed complete households in the urban central African context. Between July 2004 and March 2007, 1,600 households were screened; 368 households comprising 464 children and 1,335 caregivers and household members were enrolled. Follow-up of this population continued for 48 months postrecruitment, affording a unique opportunity to study horizontal transmission of HHV-8 and understand the routes and sources of transmission to young children in Zambia. The authors describe the study rationale, design, execution, and characteristics of this cohort, which provides critical data on the epidemiology and transmission of HHV-8 to young children in Zambia. PMID:21447476

  13. Experimental design of a waste glass study

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, G.F.; Redgate, P.E.; Hrma, P.

    1995-04-01

    A Composition Variation Study (CVS) is being performed to support a future high-level waste glass plant at Hanford. A total of 147 glasses, covering a broad region of compositions melting at approximately 1150{degrees}C, were tested in five statistically designed experimental phases. This paper focuses on the goals, strategies, and techniques used in designing the five phases. The overall strategy was to investigate glass compositions on the boundary and interior of an experimental region defined by single- component, multiple-component, and property constraints. Statistical optimal experimental design techniques were used to cover various subregions of the experimental region in each phase. Empirical mixture models for glass properties (as functions of glass composition) from previous phases wee used in designing subsequent CVS phases.

  14. Wellness Partners: Design and Evaluation of a Web-Based Physical Activity Diary with Social Gaming Features for Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice; Valente, Thomas William

    2013-01-01

    Background The United States is currently in an age of obesity and inactivity despite increasing public awareness and scientific knowledge of detrimental long-term health effects of this lifestyle. Behavior-tracking diaries offer an effective strategy for physical activity adherence and weight management. Furthermore, Web-based physical activity diaries can engage meaningful partners in people’s social networks through fun online gaming interactions and generate motivational mechanisms for effective behavioral change and positive health outcomes. Objective Wellness Partners (WP) is a Web-based intervention in the form of a physical activity diary with social networking and game features. Two versions were designed and developed for the purpose of this study—“Diary” only and “Diary+Game”. The objectives of this study included pilot testing the research process of this intervention design, implementation, evaluation, and exploring the effectiveness of social gaming features on adult participants’ physical activity and anthropometric measures. Methods We conducted a field experiment with randomized crossover design. Assessments occurred at baseline, first follow-up (FU, 5-8 weeks after using one version of WP), and second FU (5-8 weeks of using the other version of WP). In the control condition, participants started with the “Diary” version of WP while in the experimental condition, participants started with the “Diary+Game” version of WP. A total of 54 adults (egos) ages 44-88, and their family and friends (alters) ages 17-69 participated in the study in ego-network groups. Both egos and their alters completed online surveys about their exercise habits. In addition, egos completed anthropometric measurements of BMI, fat percentage, and fat mass by bioimpedance. Results From October 2009 to May 2010, flyers, emails, and Web advertisements yielded 335 volunteers who were screened. Rolling recruitment resulted in enrollment of 142 qualified

  15. Study and design of cryogenic propellant acquisition systems. Volume 1: Design studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burge, G. W.; Blackmon, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    An in-depth study and selection of practical propellant surface tension acquisition system designs for two specific future cryogenic space vehicles, an advanced cryogenic space shuttle auxiliary propulsion system and an advanced space propulsion module is reported. A supporting laboratory scale experimental program was also conducted to provide design information critical to concept finalization and selection. Designs using localized pressure isolated surface tension screen devices were selected for each application and preliminary designs were generated. Based on these designs, large scale acquisition prototype hardware was designed and fabricated to be compatible with available NASA-MSFC feed system hardware.

  16. Phenotypic extremes in rare variant study designs.

    PubMed

    Peloso, Gina M; Rader, Daniel J; Gabriel, Stacey; Kathiresan, Sekar; Daly, Mark J; Neale, Benjamin M

    2016-06-01

    Currently, next-generation sequencing studies aim to identify rare and low-frequency variation that may contribute to disease. For a given effect size, as the allele frequency decreases, the power to detect genes or variants of interest also decreases. Although many methods have been proposed for the analysis of such data, study design and analytic issues still persist in data interpretation. In this study we present sequencing data for ABCA1 that has known rare variants associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). We contrast empirical findings from two study designs: a phenotypic extreme sample and a population-based random sample. We found differing strengths of association with HDL-C across the two study designs (P=0.0006 with n=701 phenotypic extremes vs P=0.03 with n=1600 randomly sampled individuals). To explore this apparent difference in evidence for association, we performed a simulation study focused on the impact of phenotypic selection on power. We demonstrate that the power gain for an extreme phenotypic selection study design is much greater in rare variant studies than for studies of common variants. Our study confirms that studying phenotypic extremes is critical in rare variant studies because it boosts power in two ways: the typical increases from extreme sampling and increasing the proportion of relevant functional variants ascertained and thereby tested for association. Furthermore, we show that when combining statistical evidence through meta-analysis from an extreme-selected sample and a second separate population-based random sample, power is lower when a traditional sample size weighting is used compared with weighting by the noncentrality parameter. PMID:26350511

  17. Defining and Designing Mixed Research Synthesis Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sandelowski, Margarete; Voils, Corrine I.; Barroso, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Mixed research synthesis is the latest addition to the repertoires of mixed methods research and systematic review. Mixed research synthesis requires that the problems generated by the methodological diversity within and between qualitative and quantitative studies be resolved. Three basic research designs accommodate this diversity, including the segregated, integrated, and contingent designs. Much work remains to be done before mixed research synthesis can secure its place in the repertoires of mixed methods research and systematic review, but the effort is well worth it as it has the potential to enhance both the significance and utility for practice of the many qualitative and quantitative studies constituting shared domains of research. PMID:20098638

  18. Learning Designs: Study, Learn, Design; Repeat as Necessary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Bruce R.; Calhoun, Emily F.

    2011-01-01

    Designers reside mostly in school districts and schools and can have primary assignments of all sorts. In many districts, central office personnel are most visible on design committees, but teachers, principals, and superintendents are included. Members of professional learning communities can design their own processes, and individual teachers…

  19. Instructional Design by Novice Designers: Two Empirical Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Danielle; Barnard, Yvonne; Pilot, Albert

    2008-01-01

    In many cases advanced instructional products, such as computer-based training, e-learning programs, simulations, and simulators are not designed by experienced instructional designers, but by novices: subject matter experts, teachers, instructors, or inexperienced designers. The literature indicates that these novices do not always have the…

  20. The Influence of Public Pedagogy on Adult and Higher Education Learners' Perceptions of and Motivations to Study Abroad at a Hispanic Serving Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Shelbee Rhea

    2012-01-01

    This study utilized qualitative single-case study design to provide rich description and offer new understandings within a socio-cultural theoretical frame about how adult and higher education learners perceive and are motivated to participate in study abroad programs. Three faculty-led study abroad courses at a Hispanic serving institution in the…

  1. Adult and Continuing Education. Special Study Number 5 of the National Education Finance Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, J. Alan; Griffith, William S.

    This study examined relationships between adult education provisions and their use, especially in the public school context. Data were drawn from five school districts in ten states. Nationwide adult participation in various fields of study was surveyed, followed by involvement by government at all levels. Such concepts as investment versus…

  2. Adult Education Literacy Instruction. Appendix: Tables of Studies Included in the Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute for Literacy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Included here are two appendixes to "Adult Education Literacy Instruction: A Review of the Research." Appendix A, "Adult Studies," contains: (1) Assessment Profiles; (2) Alphabetics; (3) Fluency; (4) Vocabulary; and (5) Comprehension. Appendix B, "Adolescent Studies," contains: (1) Alphabetics; (2) Fluency; (3) Vocabulary; and (4) Comprehension.…

  3. Adults' Perceptions of Knowledge Construction as Participants in Nonformal World Affairs Programs: An Interpretive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelich Biniecki, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this interpretive research study was to explore how adult learners perceive they construct knowledge in connection to their participation in nonformal world affairs programs. The study context involved the exploration of 12 adult learners' perceptions of their knowledge construction as participants in world affairs programs held in…

  4. Selective Attrition Effects in a Longitudinal Study of Adult Intelligence: Methodological Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsiske, Michael; Willis, Sherry L.

    Selective subject attrition from longitudinal study panels can bias estimates of developmental change. Particularly in studies of older adults, sampling effects can adversely affect attempts to estimate true ontogenetic change. Selective attrition effects were examined in 636 Pennsylvania adults (138 males, 498 females), aged 58-91, who were…

  5. Achievement Goals and Approaches to Studying: Evidence from Adult Learners in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remedios, Richard; Richardson, John T. E.

    2013-01-01

    Achievement goals predict learning in children and young adults, but it is unclear whether they apply to older adults and how they are related to approaches to studying. An online survey examined achievement goals, approaches to studying and academic attainment in distance learners. The Achievement Goals Questionnaire-Revised and the Approaches to…

  6. Concepts and Causation of Depression: A Cross-Cultural Study of the Beliefs of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Vanessa; Murray, Joanna; Banerjee, Sube; Turner, Sara; Sangha, Kuljeet; Byng, Richard; Bhurgra, Dinesh; Huxley, Peter; Tylee, Andre; Macdonald, Alastair

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This U.K. study explored how older adults with depression (treated and untreated) and the general older population conceptualize depression. A multicultural approach was used that incorporated the perspectives of Black Caribbean, South Asian, and White British older adults. The study sought to explore and compare beliefs about the nature…

  7. Acceptance, Usability and Health Applications of Virtual Worlds by Older Adults: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Sandra L

    2016-01-01

    Background Virtual worlds allow users to communicate and interact across various environments, scenarios, and platforms. Virtual worlds present opportunities in health care to reduce the burden of illness and disability by supporting education, rehabilitation, self-management, and social networking. The application of virtual worlds to older adults who bear the burden and cost of health conditions associated with age has not been evaluated. Objective The aim of this study is to explore the usability, ease of use, and enjoyment of a virtual world by older adults, the types of virtual world activities that older adults may engage in, and the perceptions of older adults regarding the application of virtual worlds in health care. Methods This quasi-experimental pre-post design research was guided by the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Participants were recruited from a Lifelong Learning Institute (LLI) program at Nova Southeastern University. Participants attended four training sessions over a 5-week period in the Second Life (SL) virtual world. Subjects were surveyed before and after the training on perceived ease of use, attitudes towards technology, behavioral intention to use the system, facilitating conditions, effort expectancy, and self-efficacy. Results Older adults (N=19) completed the informed consent and attended the first training session, and 11 participants (58%, 11/19) completed the full training and the post survey. Completers (82%, 9/11) were more likely than non-completers (37%, 3/8) to consider themselves technologically savvy (P=.048), and to express confidence in being able to use the virtual world (100%, 11/11 vs 37%, 3/8; P=.002). All completers (100%, 11/11) perceived that SL has application in health behaviors and disease and reducing social isolation among people who are homebound. Of the completers, 10 (91%, 10/11) responded that they enjoyed learning how to use SL. Completers suggested that future trainings include more assistants and

  8. Older Adults' Training Courses: Considerations for Course Design and the Development of Learning Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Plessis, Karin; Anstey, Kaarin J.; Schlumpp, Arianne

    2011-01-01

    Demographic trends indicate that older adults live longer and maintain active lifestyles. The majority are educated and many enjoy the stimulation that ongoing learning opportunities present. In order for these older adults to benefit from learning opportunities, circumstances specific to these individuals (e.g. age-related decline) need to be…

  9. A Systems Design for Classification and Utilization of Indian Adult Education for Development Purposes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambler, Moses

    There is a growing recognition in India of the significant role nonformal adult education can play in achieving national and individual developmental objectives. Traditional formal education with its greatest benefits for a small elitist group will not contribute significantly toward the resolution of major socioeconomic problems. Adult education…

  10. Designing a Futuristic Business Studies Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mei, Chiew Wye; Siraj, Saedah

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a discourse on the theoretical aspects underpinning the design of the Business Studies curriculum domain. It draws on recent shifts in the business and educational environment of Malaysia, and maps out the methodology and method for expanding and revamping the core ground of the discipline. Using the pragmatic worldview stance, this…

  11. Deepening Kindergarteners' Science Vocabulary: A Design Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Allison Ward; Bryant, Camille Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Early, effective instruction to introduce both science vocabulary and general academic language may help children build a strong conceptual and linguistic foundation for later instruction. In this study, a design research intervention was employed to expose children to a variety of interrelated science content words to increase both the breadth…

  12. Overall Rationale and Design of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegsted, D. Mark

    This paper outlines research designed to establish dietary correlates of malnutrition, and questions the common assumption that high protein foods should be used as dietary supplements in humans. Because thorough investigation of dietary needs in children is ethically unfeasible, squirrel monkeys were used in the research to study the biological…

  13. Preliminary design study of a baseline MIUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfer, B. M.; Shields, V. E.; Rippey, J. O.; Roberts, H. L.; Wadle, R. C.; Wallin, S. P.; Gill, W. L.; White, E. H.; Monzingo, R.

    1977-01-01

    Results of a conceptual design study to establish a baseline design for a modular integrated utility system (MIUS) are presented. The system concept developed a basis for evaluating possible projects to demonstrate an MIUS. For the baseline study, climate conditions for the Washington, D.C., area were used. The baseline design is for a high density apartment complex of 496 dwelling units with a planned full occupancy of approximately 1200 residents. Environmental considerations and regulations for the MIUS installation are discussed. Detailed cost data for the baseline MIUS are given together with those for design and operating variations under climate conditions typified by Las Vegas, Nevada, Houston, Texas, and Minneapolis, Minnesota. In addition, results of an investigation of size variation effects, for 300 and 1000 unit apartment complexes, are presented. Only conceptual aspects of the design are discussed. Results regarding energy savings and costs are intended only as trend information and for use in relative comparisons. Alternate heating, ventilation, and air conditioning concepts are considered in the appendix.

  14. LST phase A design update study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An update is presented of the Phase A study of the Large Space Telescope (LST), based on changes in guidelines and new data developed subsequent to the Phase A study. The study defines an LST concept based on the broad mission guidelines provided by the Office of Space Science (OSS), the scientific requirements developed by OSS with the scientific community, and an understanding of long range NASA planning current at the time the study was performed. A low cost design approach was followed. This resulted in the use of standard spacecraft hardware, the provision for maintenance at the black box level, growth potential in systems designs, and sharing of shuttle maintenance flights with other payloads (See N73-18449 through N73-18453)

  15. German health interview and examination survey for adults (DEGS) - design, objectives and implementation of the first data collection wave

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS) is part of the recently established national health monitoring conducted by the Robert Koch Institute. DEGS combines a nationally representative periodic health survey and a longitudinal study based on follow-up of survey participants. Funding is provided by the German Ministry of Health and supplemented for specific research topics from other sources. Methods/design The first DEGS wave of data collection (DEGS1) extended from November 2008 to December 2011. Overall, 8152 men and women participated. Of these, 3959 persons already participated in the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98) at which time they were 18–79 years of age. Another 4193 persons 18–79 years of age were recruited for DEGS1 in 2008–2011 based on two-stage stratified random sampling from local population registries. Health data and context variables were collected using standardized computer assisted personal interviews, self-administered questionnaires, and standardized measurements and tests. In order to keep survey results representative for the population aged 18–79 years, results will be weighted by survey-specific weighting factors considering sampling and drop-out probabilities as well as deviations between the design-weighted net sample and German population statistics 2010. Discussion DEGS aims to establish a nationally representative data base on health of adults in Germany. This health data platform will be used for continuous health reporting and health care research. The results will help to support health policy planning and evaluation. Repeated cross-sectional surveys will permit analyses of time trends in morbidity, functional capacity levels, disability, and health risks and resources. Follow-up of study participants will provide the opportunity to study trajectories of health and disability. A special focus lies on chronic diseases including asthma

  16. Computer-based cognitive retraining for adults with chronic acquired brain injury: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Li, Kitsum; Robertson, Julie; Ramos, Joshua; Gella, Stephanie

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a computer-based cognitive retraining (CBCR) program on improving memory and attention deficits in individuals with a chronic acquired brain injury (ABI). Twelve adults with a chronic ABI demonstrating deficits in memory and attention were recruited from a convenience sample from the community. Using a quasi-experimental one-group pretest-posttest design, a significant improvement was found in both memory and attention scores postintervention using the cognitive screening tool. This study supported the effectiveness of CBCR programs in improving cognitive deficits in memory and attention in individuals with chronic ABI. Further research is recommended to validate these findings with a larger ABI population and to investigate transfer to improvement in occupational performance that supports daily living skills. PMID:24102589

  17. [Study on preferred food of adult Mylabris phalerata in different geographical populations].

    PubMed

    Mo, Rang-yu; Sun, Nian-xi; Peng, Rui

    2014-11-01

    With the deterioration of environment, and the excessive collection of wild resources, the wild populations of Myla- bris phalerata Pallas are less and less, almost extincted in many traditional distribution areas. It is necessary to breed M. phalerata artificially for sustainable utilization. Food preference of adult M. phalerata is the key to its provenance screening and domestication in the artificial breeding. In this paper, the food preference of 3 geographical populations of M. phalerata was studied. The results showed that the food preferences of adult M. phalerata in different geographical populations were different. The adult M. phalerata in Wuming preferred cucumber flowers, gourd flowers and melon flowers. The adult M. phalerata in Tianlin preferred cowpea flowers. And the adult M. phalerata in Guangzhou preferred cowpea flowers and gourd flowers. Gourd flowers were the most attractive food for the adult M. phalerata of 3 geographical populations of M. phalerata. PMID:25850255

  18. An empirical study of software design practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, David N.; Church, Victor E.; Agresti, William W.

    1986-01-01

    Software engineers have developed a large body of software design theory and folklore, much of which was never validated. The results of an empirical study of software design practices in one specific environment are presented. The practices examined affect module size, module strength, data coupling, descendant span, unreferenced variables, and software reuse. Measures characteristic of these practices were extracted from 887 FORTRAN modules developed for five flight dynamics software projects monitored by the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL). The relationship of these measures to cost and fault rate was analyzed using a contingency table procedure. The results show that some recommended design practices, despite their intuitive appeal, are ineffective in this environment, whereas others are very effective.

  19. Adverse childhood experiences, chronic diseases, and risky health behaviors in Saudi Arabian adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Almuneef, Maha; Qayad, Mohammed; Aleissa, Majid; Albuhairan, Fadia

    2014-11-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked with risky health behaviors and the development of chronic diseases in adulthood. This study examined associations between ACEs, chronic diseases, and risky behaviors in adults living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in 2012 using the ACE International Questionnaire (ACE-IQ). A cross-sectional design was used, and adults who were at least 18 years of age were eligible to participate. ACEs event scores were measured for neglect, household dysfunction, abuse (physical, sexual, and emotional), and peer and community violence. The ACE-IQ was supplemented with questions on risky health behaviors, chronic diseases, and mood. A total of 931 subjects completed the questionnaire (a completion rate of 88%); 57% of the sample was female, 90% was younger than 45 years, 86% had at least a college education, 80% were Saudi nationals, and 58% were married. One-third of the participants (32%) had been exposed to 4 or more ACEs, and 10%, 17%, and 23% had been exposed to 3, 2, or 1 ACEs respectively. Only 18% did not have an ACE. The prevalence of risky health behaviors ranged between 4% and 22%. The prevalence of self-reported chronic diseases ranged between 6% and 17%. Being exposed to 4 or more ACEs increased the risk of having chronic diseases by 2-11 fold, and increased risky health behaviors by 8-21 fold. The findings of this study will contribute to the planning and development of programs to prevent child maltreatment and to alleviate the burden of chronic diseases in adults. PMID:24974249

  20. Older Japanese Adults and Mobile Phones: An Applied Ethnographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hachiya, Kumiko

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative research investigates the meaning of "keitai" (mobile phones) for older Japanese adults between the ages of 59 and 79. Participants' emails from keitai, handwritten daily logs, and audio and video recordings from meetings and interviews were collected during my stay of nearly seven months in one of the largest cities in Japan.…

  1. Studying Adult Learning through the History of Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekpenyong, Lawrence E.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the methodology by which people arrive at "knowledge" and how knowledge has been seen by philosophers and critical thinkers through history. Includes the theories of Jurgen Habermas, Jack Mezirow, Thomas Kuhn, and Paulo Freire. Cites implications for adult education. (JOW)

  2. Tactile Perception in Adults with Autism: A Multidimensional Psychophysical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cascio, Carissa; McGlone, Francis; Folger, Stephen; Tannan, Vinay; Baranek, Grace; Pelphrey, Kevin A.; Essick, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Although sensory problems, including unusual tactile sensitivity, are heavily associated with autism, there is a dearth of rigorous psychophysical research. We compared tactile sensation in adults with autism to controls on the palm and forearm, the latter innervated by low-threshold unmyelinated afferents subserving a social/affiliative…

  3. Historical Study of the Certificate in Adult Education Program for

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalker, Jacqueline

    The historical evolution of teacher training requirements in postsecondary vocational education in Manitoba, Canada was investigated. Specific emphasis was on the Certificate in Adult Education (CAE) that community college instructors must obtain within a specified period of time. The CAE program was divided into distinct chronological stages and,…

  4. Homicide-Suicides between Adult Sexual Intimates: An Australian Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easteal, Patricia

    1994-01-01

    Examined retrospective data on homicide-suicide in Australia to determine what differentiates homicides between adult sexual intimates that include suicide of offender from those that do not. Found that, if offender was male, estranged from partner, and used gun to kill more than one victim, or was older with ailing wife, he was more apt to also…

  5. Cryogenic Propellant Management Device: Conceptual Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollen, Mark; Merino, Fred; Schuster, John; Newton, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Concepts of Propellant Management Devices (PMDs) were designed for lunar descent stage reaction control system (RCS) and lunar ascent stage (main and RCS propulsion) missions using liquid oxygen (LO2) and liquid methane (LCH4). Study ground rules set a maximum of 19 days from launch to lunar touchdown, and an additional 210 days on the lunar surface before liftoff. Two PMDs were conceptually designed for each of the descent stage RCS propellant tanks, and two designs for each of the ascent stage main propellant tanks. One of the two PMD types is a traditional partial four-screen channel device. The other type is a novel, expanding volume device which uses a stretched, flexing screen. It was found that several unique design features simplified the PMD designs. These features are (1) high propellant tank operating pressures, (2) aluminum tanks for propellant storage, and (3) stringent insulation requirements. Consequently, it was possible to treat LO2 and LCH4 as if they were equivalent to Earth-storable propellants because they would remain substantially subcooled during the lunar mission. In fact, prelaunch procedures are simplified with cryogens, because any trapped vapor will condense once the propellant tanks are pressurized in space.

  6. Thermodynamic Studies for Drug Design and Screening

    PubMed Central

    Garbett, Nichola C.; Chaires, Jonathan B.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction A key part of drug design and development is the optimization of molecular interactions between an engineered drug candidate and its binding target. Thermodynamic characterization provides information about the balance of energetic forces driving binding interactions and is essential for understanding and optimizing molecular interactions. Areas covered This review discusses the information that can be obtained from thermodynamic measurements and how this can be applied to the drug development process. Current approaches for the measurement and optimization of thermodynamic parameters are presented, specifically higher throughput and calorimetric methods. Relevant literature for this review was identified in part by bibliographic searches for the period 2004 – 2011 using the Science Citation Index and PUBMED and the keywords listed below. Expert opinion The most effective drug design and development platform comes from an integrated process utilizing all available information from structural, thermodynamic and biological studies. Continuing evolution in our understanding of the energetic basis of molecular interactions and advances in thermodynamic methods for widespread application are essential to realize the goal of thermodynamically-driven drug design. Comprehensive thermodynamic evaluation is vital early in the drug development process to speed drug development towards an optimal energetic interaction profile while retaining good pharmacological properties. Practical thermodynamic approaches, such as enthalpic optimization, thermodynamic optimization plots and the enthalpic efficiency index, have now matured to provide proven utility in design process. Improved throughput in calorimetric methods remains essential for even greater integration of thermodynamics into drug design. PMID:22458502

  7. Action Video Game Training for Healthy Adults: A Meta-Analytic Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Han-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Ting; Meng, Tian; Li, Hui-Jie; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2016-01-01

    Action video game (AVG) has attracted increasing attention from both the public and from researchers. More and more studies found video game training improved a variety of cognitive functions. However, it remains controversial whether healthy adults can benefit from AVG training, and whether young and older adults benefit similarly from AVG training. In the present study, we aimed to quantitatively assess the AVG training effect on the cognitive ability of adults and to compare the training effects on young and older adults by conducting a meta-analysis on previous findings. We systematically searched video game training studies published between January 1986 and July 2015. Twenty studies were included in the present meta-analysis, for a total of 313 participants included in the training group and 323 participants in the control group. The results demonstrate that healthy adults achieve moderate benefit from AVG training in overall cognitive ability and moderate to small benefit in specific cognitive domains. In contrast, young adults gain more benefits from AVG training than older adults in both overall cognition and specific cognitive domains. Age, education, and some methodological factors, such as the session duration, session number, total training duration, and control group type, modulated the training effects. These meta-analytic findings provide evidence that AVG training may serve as an efficient way to improve the cognitive performance of healthy adults. We also discussed several directions for future AVG training studies. PMID:27378996

  8. Action Video Game Training for Healthy Adults: A Meta-Analytic Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Han-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Ting; Meng, Tian; Li, Hui-Jie; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2016-01-01

    Action video game (AVG) has attracted increasing attention from both the public and from researchers. More and more studies found video game training improved a variety of cognitive functions. However, it remains controversial whether healthy adults can benefit from AVG training, and whether young and older adults benefit similarly from AVG training. In the present study, we aimed to quantitatively assess the AVG training effect on the cognitive ability of adults and to compare the training effects on young and older adults by conducting a meta-analysis on previous findings. We systematically searched video game training studies published between January 1986 and July 2015. Twenty studies were included in the present meta-analysis, for a total of 313 participants included in the training group and 323 participants in the control group. The results demonstrate that healthy adults achieve moderate benefit from AVG training in overall cognitive ability and moderate to small benefit in specific cognitive domains. In contrast, young adults gain more benefits from AVG training than older adults in both overall cognition and specific cognitive domains. Age, education, and some methodological factors, such as the session duration, session number, total training duration, and control group type, modulated the training effects. These meta-analytic findings provide evidence that AVG training may serve as an efficient way to improve the cognitive performance of healthy adults. We also discussed several directions for future AVG training studies. PMID:27378996

  9. Socio-Psychological Factors Driving Adult Vaccination: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Wheelock, Ana; Parand, Anam; Rigole, Bruno; Thomson, Angus; Miraldo, Marisa; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Background While immunization is one of the most effective and successful public health interventions, there are still up to 30,000 deaths in major developed economies each year due to vaccine-preventable diseases, almost all in adults. In the UK, despite comparatively high vaccination rates among ≧65 s (73%) and, to a lesser extent, at-risk ≤65 s (52%) in 2013/2014, over 10,000 excess deaths were reported the previous influenza season. Adult tetanus vaccines are not routinely recommended in the UK, but may be overly administered. Social influences and risk-perceptions of diseases and vaccines are known to affect vaccine uptake. We aimed to explore the socio-psychological factors that drive adult vaccination in the UK, specifically influenza and tetanus, and to evaluate whether these factors are comparable between vaccines. Methods 20 in-depth, face-to-face interviews were conducted with members of the UK public who represented a range of socio-demographic characteristics associated with vaccination uptake. We employed qualitative interviewing approaches to reach a comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing adult vaccination decisions. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Participants were classified according to their vaccination status as regular, intermittent and non-vaccinators for influenza, and preventative, injury-led, mixed (both preventative and injury-led) and as non-vaccinators for tetanus. We present our finding around five overarching themes: 1) perceived health and health behaviors; 2) knowledge; 3) vaccination influences; 4) disease appraisal; and 5) vaccination appraisal. Conclusion The uptake of influenza and tetanus vaccines was largely driven by participants' risk perception of these diseases. The tetanus vaccine is perceived as safe and sufficiently tested, whereas the changing composition of the influenza vaccine is a cause of uncertainty and distrust. To maximize the public health impact of adult vaccines

  10. Potential for Adult-Based Epidemiological Studies to Characterize Overall Cancer Risks Associated with a Lifetime of CT Scans

    PubMed Central

    Shuryak, Igor; Lubin, Jay H.; Brenner, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have suggested that radiation exposure from pediatric CT scanning is associated with small excess cancer risks. However, the majority of CT scans are performed on adults, and most radiation-induced cancers appear during middle or old age, in the same age range as background cancers. Consequently, a logical next step is to investigate the effects of CT scanning in adulthood on lifetime cancer risks by conducting adult-based, appropriately designed epidemiological studies. Here we estimate the sample size required for such studies to detect CT-associated risks. This was achieved by incorporating different age-, sex-, time- and cancer type-dependent models of radiation carcinogenesis into an in silico simulation of a population-based cohort study. This approach simulated individual histories of chest and abdominal CT exposures, deaths and cancer diagnoses. The resultant sample sizes suggest that epidemiological studies of realistically sized cohorts can detect excess lifetime cancer risks from adult CT exposures. For example, retrospective analysis of CT exposure and cancer incidence data from a population-based cohort of 0.4 to 1.3 million (depending on the carcinogenic model) CT-exposed UK adults, aged 25–65 in 1980 and followed until 2015, provides 80% power for detecting cancer risks from chest and abdominal CT scans. PMID:24828111

  11. Advanced turbine systems: Studies and conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    van der Linden, S.; Gnaedig, G.; Kreitmeier, F.

    1993-11-01

    The ABB selection for the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) includes advanced developments especially in the hot gas path of the combustion turbine and new state-of-the-art units such as the steam turbine and the HRSG. The increase in efficiency by more than 10% multiplicative compared to current designs will be based on: (1) Turbine Inlet Temperature Increase; (2) New Cooling Techniques for Stationary and Rotating Parts; and New Materials. Present, projected component improvements that will be introduced with the above mentioned issues will yield improved CCSC turbine performance, which will drive the ATS selected gas-fired reference CC power plant to 6 % LHV or better. The decrease in emission levels requires a careful optimization of the cycle design, where cooling air consumption has to be minimized. All interfaces of the individual systems in the complete CC Plant need careful checks, especially to avoid unnecessary margins in the individual designs. This study is an important step pointing out the feasibility of the ATS program with realistic goals set by DOE, which, however, will present challenges for Phase II time schedule of 18 months. With the approach outlined in this study and close cooperation with DOE, ATS program success can be achieved to deliver low emissions and low cost of electricity by the year 2002. The ABB conceptual design and step approach will lead to early component demonstration which will help accelerate the overall program objectives.

  12. Satisfaction with Communicative Participation as Defined by Adults with Multiple Sclerosis: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yorkston, Kathryn M.; Baylor, Carolyn R.; Klasner, Estelle R.; Deitz, Jean; Dudgeon, Brian J.; Eadie, Tanya; Miller, Robert M.; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined satisfaction with communicative participation as reported by adults with multiple sclerosis (MS). Method: Eight community-dwelling adults with MS participated in semi-structured interviews. They were asked to discuss their satisfaction with their communication in a variety of situations. Interviews were analyzed using…

  13. The Social-Sexual Voice of Adults with Mild Intellectual Disabilities: A Qualitative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, George W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore how adults with mild intellectual disabilities live out their social-sexual lives. Adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) are often assumed to be asexual or incapable of having sexual lives, resulting in a paucity of research-based knowledge. Research and educational efforts with this…

  14. The Educational and Personal Needs of Adult Learners in Higher Education: A Quantitative Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moison, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in determining the personal and educational needs of adult learners in higher education. This may be due to the rise in the number of students age 25 and over who have been returning to college (NCES, 2012). The purpose of this study was to survey adult learners on their personal and…

  15. A Study of the Coordination of the Higher Adult Education Function Within State Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Robert

    The paper reports the findings of a two-tier data survey involving the chief executive officers of State systems of higher education in determining the extent of their coordination-control of higher adult education. The first general phase of the study indicated that 42 of the 50 systems surveyed had responsibility for higher adult education. In…

  16. The Personal Study Program as a Tool for Career Planning and Personalization of Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onnismaa, Jussi

    2003-01-01

    The personal study program (PSP) can be defined as a tool for the successful accomplishment of vocational adult training. The program defines the objectives of education and training and the best means of achieving these. Through counseling interaction, the adult learner may redefine his goals and relation to a future profession and so revise his…

  17. Natural History of Thyroid Function in Adults with Down Syndrome--10-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V.; Gomez, G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The natural history of thyroid function in adults with Down syndrome (DS) is unknown. Method: This study investigated annual thyroid function tests in 200 adults with DS over a 10-year period. Results: Transient and persistent thyroid dysfunction was common. The 5- and 10-year incidence of definite hypothyroidism was 0.9%-1.64% and…

  18. Transformation through Health Teaching for Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focht-New, Ginny

    2012-01-01

    Adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities have medical conditions similar to those among the general population but with more complex presentation, a extended life expectancy, and increased risk of morbidity and mortality. These adults' health education has been inadequate. In this qualitative study, the author describes the…

  19. Investing in Change: Competency-Based Adult Education in California. CBAE Evaluation Study Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alamprese, Judy

    A study determined the effects of California's competency-based adult education (CBAE) mandate on the functioning of adult basic education programs. It investigated how Section 306 agency personnel interpreted the CBAE manadate and effects of the mandate on agency management, classroom functioning, and student outcomes. Quantitative and…

  20. Older Adults Show Deficits in Retrieving and Decoding Associative Mediators Generated at Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzog, Christopher; Fulton, Erika K.; Mandviwala, Lulua; Dunlosky, John

    2013-01-01

    We instructed the use of mediators to encode paired-associate items, and then measured both cued recall of targets and mediators. Older adults (n = 49) and younger adults (n = 57) studied a mixed list of concrete and abstract noun pairs under instructions to either generate a sentence or an image to form a new association between normatively…

  1. Swiss Adolescents' and Adults' Perceptions of Cannabis Use: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menghrajani, P.; Klaue, K.; Dubois-Arber, F.; Michaud, P.-A.

    2005-01-01

    Few studies have attempted to investigate the nature of adolescents and adults conceptions and perceptions of cannabis use. Our objectives were to explore adolescent and adult perception of use and misuse of cannabis, and their opinions and beliefs about the current legal context and preventive strategies. We used focus group discussions with four…

  2. Marketing Adult/Continuing Education. A Feasibility Study. A Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HR & H Marketing Research International, Ltd., London (England).

    A study assessed the feasibility of marketing adult and continuing education in Great Britain. Data on public attitudes toward adult/continuing education were collected from: (1) a survey of persons living in inner London, in an industrial environment, and in a rural area; (2) interviews with senior academic staff from six Further Education Unit…

  3. All Kinds of Minds: A Phenomenological Study of Adult Learners Living with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, James Bates

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study is to describe and better understand the meaning, structure, and essence of the experience of learning for adults labeled with learning disabilities as perceived by adults labeled with a "learning disability." Through a purposeful sampling method, six participants were chosen to participate in recorded…

  4. Adult Health Learning and Transformation: A Case Study of a Canadian Community-Based Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coady, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a case study of adult learning in a Canadian multisite Community Cardiovascular Hearts in Motion program. The researcher highlights the informal learning of 40 adult participants in this 12-week community-based cardiac rehabilitation/education program in five rural Nova Scotia communities. The effects of this learning and…

  5. Adult Guidance Services in the European Learning Society: A Scottish Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Teresa; Bartlett, Will

    1999-01-01

    A study shows adult guidance services in Fife, Scotland, responding to changing labor market conditions with a well-developed infrastructure and network. Although the skills-development model dominates the agenda of external funders, Fife providers tend toward personal development and social learning as the focus of adult guidance. (SK)

  6. Transforming Older Adult Education: An Emerging Paradigm from a Nationwide Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manheimer, Ronald J.; Moskow-McKenzie, Diane

    1995-01-01

    A national study of 260 older adult education programs identified 5 models: (1) university-based; (2) Older Adult Service and Information Systems; (3) coalitions of religious congregations (Shepherd's Centers); (4) community colleges; and (5) senior centers. New roles for older learners are emerging in planning, teaching, governance, and community…

  7. Career Development and Occupational Studies: A Supplement to the Adult Education Resource Guide and Learning Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peavey, Kay S.; Krieger, Alan

    This publication focuses on New York's learning standards for career development and occupational studies (CDOS) in adult education: career development, integrated learning, universal foundation skills, and career majors. A section on the adult learner provides information on engaging learners to increase motivation. The next section focuses on…

  8. The Relationship between Reading Proficiency and Reading Strategy Use: A Study of Adult ESL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jiuhan; Nisbet, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between reading strategy use and reading proficiency among 121 adult ESL learners. Reading strategy use was measured by the SORS, and reading proficiency was determined by the CASAS Reading Test and BEST Literacy Test. Findings of the study reveal that (a) adult ESL learners are active strategies users; (b)…

  9. Understanding Participation in Sport and Physical Activity among Children and Adults: A Review of Qualitative Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allender, Steven; Cowburn, Gill; Foster, Charlie

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative research may be able to provide an answer as to why adults and children do or do not participate in sport and physical activity. This paper systematically examines published and unpublished qualitative research studies of UK children's and adults' reasons for participation and non-participation in sport and physical activity. The…

  10. A Comparative Study of Leadership Characteristics of Adult Education Students and Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Kenneth R.; Bartling, Frederick P.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess self-perceived leadership styles practiced by adult educators and graduate-level adult education students adopting transformational leadership theory embodied in the Full Range of Leadership Model. Results show significant differences between practitioners and graduate students in mean scores for the…

  11. Multiple Intelligences in Practice: Teacher Research Reports from the Adult Multiple Intelligences Study. NCSALL Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallenbach, Silja, Ed.; Viens, Julie, Ed.

    This document contains nine papers from a systematic, classroom-based study of multiple intelligences (MI) theory in different adult learning contexts during which adult educators from rural and urban areas throughout the United States conducted independent inquiries into the question of how MI theory can support instruction and assessment in…

  12. Cognitive Enhancement Therapy for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Results of an 18-Month Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Bahorik, Amber L.; Litschge, Maralee Y.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    Adults with autism experience significant impairments in social and non-social information processing for which few treatments have been developed. This study conducted an 18-month uncontrolled trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET), a comprehensive cognitive rehabilitation intervention, in 14 verbal adults with autism spectrum disorder to…

  13. Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems Braille Reading Assessment: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posey, Virginia K.; Henderson, Barbara W.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This exploratory study determined whether transcribing selected test items on an adult life and work skills reading test into braille could maintain the same approximate scale-score range and maintain fitness within the item response theory model as used by the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (CASAS) for developing…

  14. Similar Representations of Sequence Knowledge in Young and Older Adults: A Study of Effector Independent Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Barnhoorn, Jonathan S.; Döhring, Falko R.; Van Asseldonk, Edwin H. F.; Verwey, Willem B.

    2016-01-01

    Older adults show reduced motor performance and changes in motor skill development. To better understand these changes, we studied differences in sequence knowledge representations between young and older adults using a transfer task. Transfer, or the ability to apply motor skills flexibly, is highly relevant in day-to-day motor activity and facilitates generalization of learning to new contexts. By using movement types that are completely unrelated in terms of muscle activation and response location, we focused on transfer facilitated by the early, visuospatial system. We tested 32 right-handed older adults (65–75) and 32 young adults (18–30). During practice of a discrete sequence production task, participants learned two six-element sequences using either unimanual key-presses (KPs) or by moving a lever with lower arm flexion-extension (FE) movements. Each sequence was performed 144 times. They then performed a test phase consisting of familiar and random sequences performed with the type of movements not used during practice. Both age groups displayed transfer from FE to KP movements as indicated by faster performance on the familiar sequences in the test phase. Only young adults transferred their sequence knowledge from KP to FE movements. In both directions, the young showed higher transfer than older adults. These results suggest that the older participants, like the young, represented their sequences in an abstract visuospatial manner. Transfer was asymmetric in both age groups: there was more transfer from FE to KP movements than vice versa. This similar asymmetry is a further indication that the types of representations that older adults develop are comparable to those that young adults develop. We furthermore found that older adults improved less during FE practice, gained less explicit knowledge, displayed a smaller visuospatial working memory capacity and had lower processing speed than young adults. Despite the many differences between young and

  15. Similar Representations of Sequence Knowledge in Young and Older Adults: A Study of Effector Independent Transfer.

    PubMed

    Barnhoorn, Jonathan S; Döhring, Falko R; Van Asseldonk, Edwin H F; Verwey, Willem B

    2016-01-01

    Older adults show reduced motor performance and changes in motor skill development. To better understand these changes, we studied differences in sequence knowledge representations between young and older adults using a transfer task. Transfer, or the ability to apply motor skills flexibly, is highly relevant in day-to-day motor activity and facilitates generalization of learning to new contexts. By using movement types that are completely unrelated in terms of muscle activation and response location, we focused on transfer facilitated by the early, visuospatial system. We tested 32 right-handed older adults (65-75) and 32 young adults (18-30). During practice of a discrete sequence production task, participants learned two six-element sequences using either unimanual key-presses (KPs) or by moving a lever with lower arm flexion-extension (FE) movements. Each sequence was performed 144 times. They then performed a test phase consisting of familiar and random sequences performed with the type of movements not used during practice. Both age groups displayed transfer from FE to KP movements as indicated by faster performance on the familiar sequences in the test phase. Only young adults transferred their sequence knowledge from KP to FE movements. In both directions, the young showed higher transfer than older adults. These results suggest that the older participants, like the young, represented their sequences in an abstract visuospatial manner. Transfer was asymmetric in both age groups: there was more transfer from FE to KP movements than vice versa. This similar asymmetry is a further indication that the types of representations that older adults develop are comparable to those that young adults develop. We furthermore found that older adults improved less during FE practice, gained less explicit knowledge, displayed a smaller visuospatial working memory capacity and had lower processing speed than young adults. Despite the many differences between young and older

  16. Internet mindfulness meditation for cognition and mood in older adults: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Wahbeh, Helané; Goodrich, Elena; Oken, Barry S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Older adults are at risk for greater chronic stress and cognitive decline. Mindfulness meditation training may help reduce stress and thus cognitive decline in older adults, but little research has explored this. Objective The primary aim was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of an internet mindfulness meditation intervention and an internet health and wellness education program for a sample of older adults (65–90 years old). The secondary aims were to collect preliminary pre-post data on mood and cognitive function. Design and Setting Baseline and endpoint assessments occurred in participants’ homes. Participants were randomized to the meditation or education program taught how to access and complete their allocated intervention at their home. Participants 16 participants completed the study (8 receiving each intervention), and five dropped out (76% completion rate). Mean age was 76.2, 88% Caucasian, 50% Female. Intervention Both the meditation and education interventions had a one-hour online session each week for six weeks with 30 minutes daily home practice. Primary Outcome Measures Feasibility and acceptability were measured through adherence and a Client Satisfaction Questionnaire. Mood and cognitive outcomes were evaluated before and after the interventions. Results Of 21 people enrolled, 16 participants completed the study with 8 in each arm (76% completion rate). There were no significant between-arm differences on important demographic and other characteristics. Acceptability was high for the interventions based on above average scores on the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire. The IMMI participants completed 4.25 ± 2.4 sessions (range 0–6), 604 ± 506 (range 0–1432) home practice minutes, and 21.3 ± 15.5 days of practice (range 0–46). The Education participants completed an average of 4.75 ± 1.8 sessions (range 2–6), 873 ± 395 (range 327–1524) home practice minutes and 25.6 days of practice (range 11–35

  17. Electrostatic camera system functional design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botticelli, R. A.; Cook, F. J.; Moore, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    A functional design study for an electrostatic camera system for application to planetary missions is presented. The electrostatic camera can produce and store a large number of pictures and provide for transmission of the stored information at arbitrary times after exposure. Preliminary configuration drawings and circuit diagrams for the system are illustrated. The camera system's size, weight, power consumption, and performance are characterized. Tradeoffs between system weight, power, and storage capacity are identified.

  18. Conceptual design studies for surface infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bufkin, Ann L.; Jones, William R., II

    1986-01-01

    The utimate design of a manned Mars base will be the result of considerable engineering analysis and many trade studies to optimize the configuration. Many options and scenarios are available and all need to be considered at this time. Initial base elements, two base configuration concepts, internal space architectural concerns, and two base set-up scenarios are discussed. There are many variables as well as many unknowns to be reckoned with before people set foot on the red planet.

  19. Multimorbidity prevalence and pattern in Indonesian adults: an exploratory study using national survey data

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Mohammad Akhtar; Huxley, Rachel R; Al Mamun, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence and pattern of multimorbidity in the Indonesian adult population. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Community-based survey. The sampling frame was based on households in 13 of the 27 Indonesian provinces, representing about 83% of the Indonesian population. Participants 9438 Indonesian adults aged 40 years and above. Main outcome measures Prevalence and pattern of multimorbidity by age, gender and socioeconomic status. Results The mean number of morbidities in the sample was 1.27 (SE±0.01). The overall age and sex standardised prevalence of multimorbidity was 35.7% (34.8% to 36.7%), with women having significantly higher prevalence of multimorbidity than men (41.5% vs 29.5%; p<0.001). Of those with multimorbidity, 64.6% (62.8% to 66.3%) were aged less than 60 years. Prevalence of multimorbidity was positively associated with age (p for trend <0.001) and affluence (p for trend <0.001) and significantly greater in women at all ages compared with men. For each 5-year increment in age there was an approximate 20% greater risk of multimorbidity in both sexes (18% in women 95% CI 1.14 to 1.22 and 22% in men 95% CI 1.18 to 1.26). Increasing age, female gender, non-Javanese ethnicity, and high per-capital expenditure were all significantly associated with higher odds of multimorbidity. The combination of hypertension with cardiac diseases, hypercholesterolemia, arthritis, and uric acid/gout were the most commonly occurring disease pairs in both sexes. Conclusions More than one-third of the Indonesian adult population are living with multimorbidity with women and the more wealthy being particularly affected. Of especial concern was the high prevalence of multimorbidity among younger individuals. Hypertension was the most frequently occurring condition common to most individuals with multimorbidity. PMID:26656028

  20. Impact of physical frailty on disability in community-dwelling older adults: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Makizako, Hyuma; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Doi, Takehiko; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Suzuki, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between physical frailty and risk of disability, and to identify the component(s) of frailty with the most impact on disability in community-dwelling older adults. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting A Japanese community. Participants 4341 older adults aged ≥65 living in the community participated in a baseline assessment from 2011 to 2012 and were followed for 2 years. Main outcome measures Care-needs certification in the national long-term care insurance (LTCI) system of Japan, type of physical frailty (robust, prefrail, frail) and subitems (slowness, weakness, exhaustion, low activity, weight loss), adjusted for several potential confounders such as demographic characteristics, analysed with Kaplan-Meier survival curves for incidence of disability by frailty phenotype. Results During the 2-year follow-up period, 168 participants (3.9%) began using the LTCI system for incidence of disability. Participants classified as frail (HR 4.65, 95% CI 2.63 to 8.22) or prefrail (2.52, 1.56 to 4.07) at the baseline assessment had an increased risk of disability incidence compared with robust participants. Analyses for subitems of frailty showed that slowness (2.32, 1.62 to 3.33), weakness (1.90, 1.35 to 2.68) and weight loss (1.61, 1.13 to 2.31) were related to increased risk of disability incidence. In stratified analyses, participants who were classified as frail and who had lower cognitive function had the highest percentage (30.3%) of disability incidence during the 2 years after baseline assessment. Conclusions Physical frailty, even being prefrail, had a strong impact on the risk of future disability. Some components of frailty, such as slowness, weakness and weight loss, are strongly associated with incident disability in community-dwelling older adults. PMID:26338685

  1. Pain Characteristics Associated With the Onset of Disability in Older Adults: The MOBILIZE Boston Study

    PubMed Central

    Eggermont, Laura H.P.; Leveille, Suzanne G.; Shi, Ling; Kiely, Dan K.; Shmerling, Robert H.; Jones, Rich N.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Bean, Jonathan F.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives To determine the effects of chronic pain on the development of disability and decline in physical performance over time among older adults. Design Longitudinal cohort study with 18 months follow-up. Setting Urban/suburban communities Participants 634 community-dwelling older adults aged >64 years. Measurements Chronic pain assessment consisted of musculoskeletal pain locations, and pain severity and pain interference by subscales of the Brief Pain Inventory. Disability was self-reported as any difficulty in mobility and basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL, IADL). Mobility performance was measured using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Relationships between baseline pain and incident disability in 18 months were determined using risk ratios (RRs) from multivariable Poisson regression models. Results Almost 65% of participants reported chronic musculoskeletal pain at baseline. New onset of mobility difficulty at 18-months was strongly associated with baseline pain distribution: 7% (no sites), 18% (1 site), 24% (multisite) and 39% (widespread pain, p-value for trend <0.001). Similar graded effects were found for other disability measures. Elders with multisite or widespread pain had at least a three-fold increased risk for onset of mobility difficulty compared to their peers without pain after adjusting for disability risk factors (multisite pain: RR=2.95, 95%CI, 1.58–5.50; widespread pain: RR=3.57, 95%CI, 1.71–7.48). Widespread pain contributed to decline in mobility performance (1 point decline in SPPB, RR=1.47, 95%CI, 1.08–2.01). Similar associations were found for baseline pain interference predicting subsequent mobility decline and (I)ADL disability. Weaker and less consistent associations were observed with pain severity. Conclusion Older community-dwelling adults living with chronic pain in multiple musculoskeletal locations have a substantial increased risk for developing disability over time and for

  2. A Numerical Climate Observing Network Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stammer, Detlef

    2003-01-01

    This project was concerned with three related questions of an optimal design of a climate observing system: 1. The spatial sampling characteristics required from an ARGO system. 2. The degree to which surface observations from ARGO can be used to calibrate and test satellite remote sensing observations of sea surface salinity (SSS) as it is anticipated now. 3. The more general design of an climate observing system as it is required in the near future for CLIVAR in the Atlantic. An important question in implementing an observing system is that of the sampling density required to observe climate-related variations in the ocean. For that purpose this project was concerned with the sampling requirements for the ARGO float system, but investigated also other elements of a climate observing system. As part of this project we studied the horizontal and vertical sampling characteristics of a global ARGO system which is required to make it fully complementary to altimeter data with the goal to capture climate related variations on large spatial scales (less thanAttachment: 1000 km). We addressed this question in the framework of a numerical model study in the North Atlantic with an 1/6 horizontal resolution. The advantage of a numerical design study is the knowledge of the full model state. Sampled by a synthetic float array, model results will therefore allow to test and improve existing deployment strategies with the goal to make the system as optimal and cost-efficient as possible. Attachment: "Optimal observations for variational data assimilation".

  3. Design and Evaluation of an Interactive Exercise Coaching System for Older Adults: Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Ofli, Ferda; Kurillo, Gregorij; Obdržálek, Štěpán; Bajcsy, Ruzena; Jimison, Holly Brugge; Pavel, Misha

    2016-01-01

    Although the positive effects of exercise on the well-being and quality of independent living for older adults are well accepted, many elderly individuals lack access to exercise facilities, or the skills and motivation to perform exercise at home. To provide a more engaging environment that promotes physical activity, various fitness applications have been proposed. Many of the available products, however, are geared toward a younger population and are not appropriate or engaging for an older population. To address these issues, we developed an automated interactive exercise coaching system using the Microsoft Kinect. The coaching system guides users through a series of video exercises, tracks and measures their movements, provides real-time feedback, and records their performance over time. Our system consists of exercises to improve balance, flexibility, strength, and endurance, with the aim of reducing fall risk and improving performance of daily activities. In this paper, we report on the development of the exercise system, discuss the results of our recent field pilot study with six independently living elderly individuals, and highlight the lessons learned relating to the in-home system setup, user tracking, feedback, and exercise performance evaluation. PMID:25594988

  4. MRF study. Part 2: Antenna design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An assessment of the practical feasibility of the design and construction of an antenna to meet the requirements of a conceptual radar system is studied. Both the subscale antenna, nominally 5 by 4 meters in dimensions, and the full scale antenna, taken as nominally 18 by 4 meters in size, were considered. The examination of feasibility was from electrical, mechanical, and thermal standpoints. Fundamental, electrical, microwave design questions applying to both the subscale and the full scale antennas were considered in greater detail than questions of mechanical configuration and thermal design. Layouts were made in the development of preliminary configurations, along with a deployment method, for the subscale antenna in conjunction with an antenna cluster for alternate arrangements of the three pallet configuration. Implementation of the array and support structure and attachment of the array to the support and thermal provision was considered. Results show that a microwave design of antennas that incorporate traveling wave arrays can be effected with the beam scanned to 45 degrees in elevation without occurrence of higher order beams.

  5. Microgravity isolation system design: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, R. D.; Knospe, C. R.; Allaire, P. E.; Grodsinsky, C. M.

    1994-01-01

    Many acceleration-sensitive, microgravity science experiments will require active vibration isolation from manned orbiters on which they will be mounted. The isolation problem, especially in the case of a tethered payload, is a complex three-dimensional one that is best suited to modern-control design methods. In this paper, extended H(sub 2) synthesis is used to design an active isolator (i.e., controller) for a realistic single-input-multiple-output (SIMO) microgravity vibration isolation problem. Complex mu-analysis methods are used to analyze the isolation system with respect to sensor, actuator, and umbilical uncertainties. The paper fully discusses the design process employed and the insights gained. This design case study provides a practical approach for isolation problems of greater complexity. Issues addressed include a physically intuitive state-space description of the system, disturbance and noise filters, filters for frequency weighting, and uncertainty models. The controlled system satisfies all the performance specifications and is robust with respect to model uncertainties.

  6. Model‐Based Assessment of Alternative Study Designs in Pediatric Trials. Part II: Bayesian Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Smania, G; Baiardi, P; Ceci, A; Magni, P

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a pharmacokinetic‐pharmacodynamic based clinical trial simulation framework for evaluating the performance of a fixed‐sample Bayesian design (BD) and two alternative Bayesian sequential designs (BSDs) (i.e., a non‐hierarchical (NON‐H) and a semi‐hierarchical (SEMI‐H) one). Prior information was elicited from adult trials and weighted based on the expected similarity of response to treatment between the pediatric and adult populations. Study designs were evaluated in terms of: type I and II errors, sample size per arm (SS), trial duration (TD), and estimate precision. No substantial differences were observed between NON‐H and SEMI‐H. BSDs require, on average, smaller SS and TD compared to the BD, which, on the other hand, guarantees higher estimate precision. When large differences between children and adults are expected, BSDs can return very large SS. Bayesian approaches appear to outperform their frequentist counterparts in the design of pediatric trials even when little weight is given to prior information from adults. PMID:27530374

  7. AFE ion mass spectrometer design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Willie

    1989-01-01

    This final technical report covers the activities engaged in by the University of Texas at Dallas, Center for Space Sciences in conjunction with the NASA Langley Research Center, Systems Engineering Division in design studies directed towards defining a suitable ion mass spectrometer to determine the plasma parameter around the Aeroassisted Flight Experiment vehicle during passage through the earth's upper atmosphere. Additional studies relate to the use of a Langmuir probe to measure windward ion/electron concentrations and temperatures. Selected instrument inlet subsystems were tested in the NASA Ames Arc-Jet Facility.

  8. Are seat belt restraints as effective in school age children as in adults? A prospective crash study

    PubMed Central

    Halman, Stephen I; Chipman, Mary; Parkin, Patricia C; Wright, James G

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study effectiveness of seat belts for protecting school age children in road vehicle crashes. Design Crash examinations by trained investigators. Setting Ten Canadian university based crash investigation centres. Subjects 470 children aged 4-14 years, with 168 selected for detailed analysis, and 1301 adults. Main outcomes measures Use of seat belts by vehicle occupants; severity of injury adjusted for age and crash severity. Results Overall, 40% (189/470) of children were unbelted. Of the 335 children in cars driven by belted adults, 73 (22%) were unbelted. The odds of sustaining fatal or moderately severe injury (injury severity score ⩾4) for children in the front passenger seat was more than nine times higher for unbelted children than for belted ones (odds ratio 9.8 (95% confidence interval 2.4 to 39.4)) and for those in the rear left seat was more than two times higher for unbelted than for belted children (2.6 (1.1 to 5.9)). The protection afforded by seat belts compared favourably with the results for adults in the same seat positions (odds ratios for unbelted v belted adults of 2.4 and 2.7 for front and rear seat passengers respectively). Conclusions Seat belts helped to protect school age children from injury in road vehicle crashes. However, 40% of children were unbelted. Despite standard seat belts being designed for adults, school age children were at least as well protected as adults. What is already known on this topicAlthough child restraints protect young children in road vehicle crashes, it is not known whether standard seat belts used by school age children work as wellSchool age children are often unbelted in carsWhat this study addsData from detailed crash assessments indicate that seat belts protected children at least as well as adultsAdults were more likely than children to be belted, and 22% of children travelling with belted drivers were unbelted PMID:12003883

  9. Childhood abuse, parental warmth, and adult multisystem biological risk in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Judith E; Gruenewald, Tara L; Taylor, Shelley E; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Matthews, Karen A; Seeman, Teresa E

    2013-10-15

    Childhood abuse increases adult risk for morbidity and mortality. Less clear is how this "toxic" stress becomes embedded to influence health decades later, and whether protective factors guard against these effects. Early biological embedding is hypothesized to occur through programming of the neural circuitry that influences physiological response patterns to subsequent stress, causing wear and tear across multiple regulatory systems. To examine this hypothesis, we related reports of childhood abuse to a comprehensive 18-biomarker measure of multisystem risk and also examined whether presence of a loving parental figure buffers against the impact of childhood abuse on adult risk. A total of 756 subjects (45.8% white, 42.7% male) participated in this ancillary substudy of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Childhood stress was determined by using the Risky Families Questionnaire, a well-validated retrospective self-report scale. Linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, race, parental education, and oral contraceptive use found a significant positive relationship between reports of childhood abuse and multisystem health risks [B (SE) = 0.68 (0.16); P < 0.001]. Inversely, higher amounts of reported parental warmth and affection during childhood was associated with lower multisystem health risks [B (SE) = -0.40 (0.14); P < 0.005]. A significant interaction of abuse and warmth (P < 0.05) was found, such that individuals reporting low levels of love and affection and high levels of abuse in childhood had the highest multisystem risk in adulthood. PMID:24062432

  10. Study of joint designing on composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazushi, Haruna

    In this paper, strength design techniques of CFRP mechanical joints and adhesively bonded joints were examined. Remarkable stress concentration generates at the mechanical hole edge and the adhesive edge, therefore an unskillful design of joints often causes a reduction in the strength of composite structures. In mechanical joints, a study on predicting the joint strength has been performed, but bearing failure that is most important failure mode for designing joints can not be predicted. So in this paper, the strength prediction method in consideration with bearing failure was examined. On the other hand, the criterion using the intensity of stress singularity was suggested in adhesive joints, but it was clarified in this paper, that this method can not be applied the prediction of the final failure strength. So the critical stress distribution of single-lap adhesive bonded carbon/epoxy joints was examined to obtain the failure criterion of the final failure. Moreover the simulation method for an internal stress generated by cure shrinkage of adhesive was also examined. In the proposed method for mechanical joint, 2-parameter criterion, that is combined the characteristic length with the Yamada-Sun criterion, was applied and the characteristic length for compression was determined from "bearing failure test" that was newly conceived to take bearing failure into consideration. In case of adhesive joints, it was thought that 2-parameter criterion was effective. So the prediction method using 2-parameter criterion was applied to other adhesive joints. Good agreement was obtained between predicted and experimental results in both mechanical and adhesive joints. And it was cleared that an internal stress could be simulated by the proposed method. Moreover, in mechanical joints, the most suitable stacking sequence, the reduction technique of interlaminar stress, and the elevation of joint strength by application of high toughness matrix were also shown. Consequently

  11. Dietary intake and food contributors of polyphenols in adults and elderly adults of Sao Paulo: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Miranda, A M; Steluti, J; Fisberg, R M; Marchioni, D M

    2016-03-28

    A comprehensive estimation of polyphenol intake is needed to gain a better understanding of the association between polyphenol-rich food intake and the potential effects of this intake on chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to estimate the intake of polyphenols and the major dietary contributors in the population of Sao Paulo. Data were obtained from the Health Survey-São Paulo (ISA-Capital 2008) and were reported for 1103 adults and elderly adults. Food intake was estimated by one 24-h dietary recall (24HR). Polyphenol intake was calculated by matching food consumption data from the 24HR with the polyphenol content in foods listed in the Phenol-Explorer database. The mean total intake of polyphenols was 377·5 (se 15·3) mg/d. The main polyphenol classes were phenolic acids (284·8 (se 15·9) mg/d) and flavonoids (54·6 (se 3·5) mg/d). Intakes were higher in the elderly adults than in other adults (P<0·001) and higher in individuals with lower educational level (P=0·01) and current smokers (P=0·02). The main dietary contributors for total polyphenols were coffee (70·5 %), citrus fruits (4·6 %) and tropical fruits (3·4 %). Coffee was the major source of polyphenols, providing 266·2 (se 16·5) mg/d, and contributed 92·3 % of the phenolic acids and 93·1 % of the alkylmethoxyphenols. These findings will be useful for assessing the potential role on health of polyphenols and specific polyphenol-rich foods, such as coffee, and enable a comparison with people from other countries. PMID:26810764

  12. Urban residential road traffic noise and hypertension: a cross-sectional study of adult population.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Dibyendu; Das, Partha P; Fouzdar, Anjan

    2014-12-01

    Results from studies involving exposure to road traffic noise and risk of hypertension are diverse and have seldom reached statistical significance. This study was designed with the aim of investigating whether there is any association between road traffic noise and prevalence of hypertension in an urban adult population. Similar studies have never been reported from India. A cross-sectional study was performed on 909 adults (533 female and 376 male) aged 18-80 years residing in close proximity to roadways in Asansol City. Time-weighted equivalent noise level (L den) was estimated using a standard modeling platform. Odds for hypertension in relation to traffic noise exposure were estimated by univariate and multifactorial logistic regression. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for self-reported hypertension was 1.99 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.66-2.39) per 5 dB(A) increase of L den (range 55.1-77.9). A gender-related risk difference was observed among the male (OR 1.81 (1.42-2.31)) and female (OR 2.18 (1.66-2.88)) respondents. For increase in 9 years of age, the odds of hypertension risk increased by 60 % (OR 1.66 (1.43-1.91) among those exposed above L den 60 dB(A). Vulnerable subgroups were female aged 35-54 years and male aged 45-54 years. The study suggests that a threshold exposure to road traffic noise at L den > 65 dB(A) for men and L den > 60 dB(A) in women may be associated with the occurrence of hypertension. PMID:25354710

  13. [Design and study of carbon fiber tracheal prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Qi, L; Liu, D; Han, Z; Wang, F

    1998-12-01

    32 healty adult dogs were selected for this experiment. 10 of them were subjected to the tracheal biomechanics test using indices including the relation between stretcher ratio (lambda) and stress (T), the squeeze stress (delta jy) of medical silk thread on trachea, the side stress (Ts) inducing the tracheal collapse, the functional maximum angle (psi max) of tracheal, and the sever area torsion angle (theta max) of tracheal functional maximum curved. According to the indices measured, two types of tracheal prosthesis were designed, and were made of carbon fiber and silicon. They were the straight tube type tracheal prosthesis and the bifurcate type tracheal prosthesis. The straight tube type tracheal prosthesis was studied with a design of two groups comprising a total of 11 dogs. In the experiment group (n = 6), the outer surface of the tube was not coated with silicon, the average survival period was 379.8 days. In the control group (n = 5), the outer surface of the tube was coated with silicon, the average survival period was 90.4 days. The bifurcate type tracheal prosthesis was studied in 11 dogs, the average survival period was 4.32 days. The main causes of death in the experiment were infection and anastomotic dehiscent. PMID:12552773

  14. Assessing the Health Needs of Chinese Older Adults: Findings from a Community-Based Participatory Research Study in Chicago's Chinatown

    PubMed Central

    Dong, XinQi; Chang, E-Shien; Wong, Esther; Wong, Bernarda; Skarupski, Kimberly A.; Simon, Melissa A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the cultural views of healthy aging, knowledge and barriers to services, and perception of health sciences research among community-dwelling Chinese older adults in Chicago's Chinatown. This qualitative study is guided by the Precede-Proceed conceptual model with community-based participatory research design. Data analysis is based on eight focus group interviews with Chinese older (age 60+) adults (n = 78). We used a grounded theory framework to systematically guide the thematic structure of our data. Findings show participants described cultural conception of health in terms of physical function, psychological well-being, social support, and cognitive function. The availability, affordability, and cultural barriers towards health care services were major negative enabling factors that inhibit participants from fulfilling health needs. Perception and knowledge of health sciences research were also discussed. This study has implications for the delivery of culturally appropriate health care services to the Chinese aging population. PMID:21253522

  15. Experiences of health care transition voiced by young adults with type 1 diabetes: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Garvey, Katharine C; Beste, Margaret G; Luff, Donna; Atakov-Castillo, Astrid; Wolpert, Howard A; Ritholz, Marilyn D

    2014-01-01

    Objective This qualitative study aimed to explore the experience of transition from pediatric to adult diabetes care reported by posttransition emerging adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D), with a focus on preparation for the actual transfer in care. Methods Twenty-six T1D emerging adults (mean age 26.2±2.5 years) receiving adult diabetes care at a single center participated in five focus groups stratified by two levels of current glycemic control. A multidisciplinary team coded transcripts and conducted thematic analysis. Results Four key themes on the process of transfer to adult care emerged from a thematic analysis: 1) nonpurposeful transition (patients reported a lack of transition preparation by pediatric providers for the transfer to adult diabetes care); 2) vulnerability in the college years (patients conveyed periods of loss to follow-up during college and described health risks and diabetes management challenges specific to the college years that were inadequately addressed by pediatric or adult providers); 3) unexpected differences between pediatric and adult health care systems (patients were surprised by the different feel of adult diabetes care, especially with regards to an increased focus on diabetes complications); and 4) patients’ wish list for improving the transition process (patients recommended enhanced pediatric transition counseling, implementation of adult clinic orientation programs, and peer support for transitioning patients). Conclusion Our findings identify modifiable deficiencies in the T1D transition process and underscore the importance of a planned transition with enhanced preparation by pediatric clinics as well as developmentally tailored patient orientation in the adult clinic setting. PMID:25349485

  16. PREDICTING FOOT PROGRESSION ANGLE DURING GAIT USING TWO CLINICAL MEASURES IN HEALTHY ADULTS, A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Kyle; Kampwerth, Teri; McAfee, Blake; Payne, Lisa; Roeckenhaus, Tara; Ross, Sandy A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The foot progression angle (FPA) is related to the transverse plane rotation of the lower extremities and associated with many lower extremity conditions. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine how two commonly used clinical measures, tibio-fibular torsion (TF) and hip rotation, can be used to predict FPA during gait in healthy adults. Study Design Cross-sectional study design Methods Passive hip internal and external rotation ranges of motion and TF torsion were measured with a 12-inch goniometer while the FPA (degree of toe-in/out) was measured with the GAITRite during midstance in sixty participants. The data was analyzed using a multiple regression model. Results Hip ER was not significant and was therefore excluded from the final model. The final model included passive hip IR and TF torsion (F = 19.64; p < .001; multiple R2 = .41; adjusted R2 = .39). Simple binary correlations showed that hip IR had a moderate negative correlation (r = -.40) with FPA (the greater the hip IR, the greater the in-toeing) while TF torsion had a positive correlation (r = .39) with FPA (the greater the external TF torsion. the greater the out-toeing). Conclusions Greater amount of passive hip IR predicts in-toeing while greater TF torsion predicts out-toeing of the foot during midstance phase of gait. Level of Evidence Level 2 PMID:27274426

  17. The Building Bridges Project: Involving Older Adults in the Design of a Communication Technology to Support Peer-to-Peer Social Engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wherton, Joseph; Prendergast, David

    There are a variety of factors that can lead to social isolation and loneliness in old age, including decline in physical and mental health, as well as change to social environment. The Building Bridges project explores how communication technology can help older adults remain socially connected. This paper will first provide an overview of a prototype communication system designed to support peer-to-peer group interaction. A description of the user-centered design process will be provided to demonstrate the importance of involving older adults at the earliest stages. The implications for designing new technology for older adults are discussed.

  18. Infectious sacroiliitis: a retrospective, multicentre study of 39 adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-brucellar and non-tuberculous infectious sacroiliitis (ISI) is a rare disease, with misleading clinical signs that delay diagnosis. Most observations are based on isolated case reports or small case series. Our aim was to describe the clinical, bacteriological, and radiological characteristics of ISI, as well as the evolution of these arthritis cases under treatment. Methods This retrospective study included all ISI cases diagnosed between 1995 and 2011 in eight French rheumatology departments. ISI was diagnosed if sacroiliitis was confirmed bacteriologically or, in the absence of pathogenic agents, if clinical, biological, and radiological data was compatible with this diagnosis and evolution was favourable under antibiotic therapy. Results Overall, 39 cases of ISI were identified in adults, comprising 23 women and 16 men, with a mean age at diagnosis of 39.7 ± 18.1 years. The left sacroiliac joint (SI) was affected in 59% of cases, with five cases occurring during the post-partum period. Lumbogluteal pain was the most common symptom (36/39). Manipulations of the SI joint were performed in seven patients and were always painful. Mean score for pain using the visual analogue score was 7.3/10 at admission, while 16 patients were febrile at diagnosis. No risk factor was found for 30.7% of patients. A diagnosis of ISI was only suspected in five cases at admission. The mean time to diagnosis was long, being 43.3 ± 69.1 days on average. Mean C-reactive protein was 149.7 ± 115.3 mg/l, and leukocytosis (leukocytes ≥ 10 G/l) was uncommon (n = 15) (mean level of leukocytes 10.4 ± 3.5 G/l). Radiographs (n = 33) were abnormal in 20 cases, revealing lesions of SI, while an abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) scan (n = 27) was abnormal in 21 cases, suggesting arthritis of the SI joints in 13 cases (48.1%) and a psoas abscess in eight. Bone scans (n = 14) showed hyperfixation of the SI in 13 cases. Magnetic

  19. Sample Design and Cohort Selection in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    LaVange, Lisa M.; Kalsbeek, William; Sorlie, Paul D.; Avilés-Santa, Larissa M.; Kaplan, Robert C.; Barnhart, Janice; Liu, Kiang; Giachello, Aida; Lee, David J.; Ryan, John; Criqui, Michael H.; Elder, John P.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The Hispanic Community Health Study (HCHS)/Study of Latinos (SOL) is a multi-center, community based cohort study of Hispanic/Latino adults in the United States. A diverse participant sample is required that is both representative of the target population and likely to remain engaged throughout follow-up. The choice of sample design, its rationale, and benefits and challenges of design decisions are described in this paper. METHODS The study design calls for recruitment and follow-up of a cohort of 16,000 Hispanics/Latinos aged 18-74 years, with 62.5% (10,000) over 44 years of age and adequate subgroup sample sizes to support inference by Hispanic/Latino background. Participants are recruited in community areas surrounding four field centers in the Bronx, Chicago, Miami, and San Diego. A two-stage area probability sample of households is selected with stratification and over-sampling incorporated at each stage to provide a broadly diverse sample, offer efficiencies in field operations, and ensure that the target age distribution is obtained. CONCLUSIONS Embedding probability sampling within this traditional, multi-site cohort study design enables competing research objectives to be met. However, the use of probability sampling requires developing solutions to some unique challenges in both sample selection and recruitment, as described here. PMID:20609344

  20. A Study of the Predictive Association between Congruency Measures Based on Work-Emotionality Theory and the Achievement and Satisfaction in Adult Instructional Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lueder, E. J.

    The rationale, design, and data collection methods of a study of factors that may influence the effectiveness of adult instructional groups that included interaction are discussed. Two aspects to be considered when studying instructional groups are called work and emotionality. The Work-Emotionality Theory is discussed. Six types of…

  1. VXIbus data collection system -- A design study

    SciTech Connect

    Hacker, U.; Richter, B.; Weinert, A.; Arlt, R.; Lewis, W.; Swinhoe, M.

    1995-12-31

    The German support program has sponsored the work to investigate the VXIbus as integration platform for safeguards instrumentation. This paper will cover the analysis of the user requirements for a VXIbus based monitoring system for integrated safeguards -- primarily for reliable unattended in-field collection of large amounts of data. The goal is to develop a suitable system architecture. The design of the system makes use of the VXIbus standard as the selected hardware platform Based upon the requirement analysis and the overriding need for high reliability and robustness, a systematic investigation of different operating system options, as well as development and integration tools will be considered. For the software implementation cycle high and low level programming tools are required. The identification of the constraints for the programming platform and the tool selection will be presented. Both the strategic approach, the rules for analysis and design work as well as the executive components for the support of the implementation and production cycle are given. Here all the conditions for reliable, unattended and integrated safeguards monitoring systems will be addressed. The definition of the basic and advanced design principles are covered. The paper discusses the results of a study on a system produced to demonstrate a high data rate timer/counter application.

  2. Advanced Subsonic Airplane Design and Economic Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebeck, Robert H.; Andrastek, Donald A.; Chau, Johnny; Girvin, Raquel; Lyon, Roger; Rawdon, Blaine K.; Scott, Paul W.; Wright, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    A study was made to examine the effect of advanced technology engines on the performance of subsonic airplanes and provide a vision of the potential which these advanced engines offered. The year 2005 was selected as the entry-into-service (EIS) date for engine/airframe combination. A set of four airplane classes (passenger and design range combinations) that were envisioned to span the needs for the 2005 EIS period were defined. The airframes for all classes were designed and sized using 2005 EIS advanced technology. Two airplanes were designed and sized for each class: one using current technology (1995) engines to provide a baseline, and one using advanced technology (2005) engines. The resulting engine/airframe combinations were compared and evaluated on the basis on sensitivity to basic engine performance parameters (e.g. SFC and engine weight) as well as DOC+I. The advanced technology engines provided significant reductions in fuel burn, weight, and wing area. Average values were as follows: reduction in fuel burn = 18%, reduction in wing area = 7%, and reduction in TOGW = 9%. Average DOC+I reduction was 3.5% using the pricing model based on payload-range index and 5% using the pricing model based on airframe weight. Noise and emissions were not considered.

  3. National accounts manager: Design study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, J.

    1998-09-01

    This document addresses a typical application -- that of a hypothetical nationwide chain of restaurants. The design study uses the Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP) as a guideline for specifying standard systems. Far from limiting the study`s usefulness to a particular type of National Account, this guideline is highly portable, and will be useful, with slight modifications only, in similarly specifying systems for other types of customers. A brief list of other applications could include many ``campus`` environments -- government agencies and university systems as well as manufacturers, airports, railyards, ski resorts, apartment complexes, hotels, hospitals, telecommunication facilities, oil fields, irrigation systems, municipal water/sewer systems, and so on.

  4. Risk Factors for Acute Kidney Injury in Older Adults With Critical Illness: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kane-Gill, Sandra L.; Sileanu, Florentina E.; Murugan, Raghavan; Trietley, Gregory S.; Handler, Steven M.; Kellum, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Risk for acute kidney injury (AKI) in older adults has not been systematically evaluated. We sought to delineate the determinants of risk for AKI in older compared to younger adults. Study Design Retrospective analysis of patients hospitalized in July 2000–September 2008. Setting & Participants We identified all adult patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) (n=45,655) in a large tertiary care university hospital system. We excluded patients receiving dialysis or kidney transplant prior to hospital admission, and patients with baseline creatinine ≥ 4 mg/dl, liver transplantation, indeterminate AKI status, or unknown age, leaving 39,938 patients. Predictor We collected data on multiple susceptibilities and exposures including age, sex, race, body mass, comorbid conditions, severity of illness, baseline kidney function, sepsis, and shock. Outcomes We defined AKI according to KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) criteria. We examined susceptibilities and exposures across age strata for impact on development of AKI. Measurements We calculated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for prediction of AKI across age groups. Results 25,230 patients (63.2%) were aged 55 years or older. Overall 25,120 patients (62.9%) developed AKI (69.2% aged 55 years or older). Examples of risk factors for AKI in the oldest age category (75 years or older) were drugs (vancomycin, aminoglycosides, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories), history of hypertension (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.02–1.25) and sepsis (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.68–2.67). Fewer variables remained predictive of AKI as age increased and the model for older patients was less predictive (p<0.001). For the age categories 18–54, 55–64, 65–74, and 75 years or older, the AUCs were 0.744 (95% CI, 0.735–0.752), 0.714 (95% CI, 0.702–0.726), 0.706 (95% CI, 0.693–0.718), and 0.673 (95% CI, 0.661–0.685), respectively. Limitations Analysis may not apply to non-ICU patients

  5. Evaluating User Perceptions of Mobile Medication Management Applications With Older Adults: A Usability Study

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Allison

    2014-01-01

    Background Medication nonadherence has a significant impact on the health and wellbeing of individuals with chronic disease. Several mobile medication management applications are available to help users track, remember, and read about their medication therapy. Objective The objective of this study was to explore the usability and usefulness of existing medication management applications for older adults. Methods We recruited 35 participants aged 50 and over to participate in a 2-hour usability session. The average age ranged from 52-78 years (mean 67 years) and 71% (25/35) of participants were female. Each participant was provided with an iPad loaded with four medication management applications: MyMedRec, DrugHub, Pillboxie, and PocketPharmacist. These applications were evaluated using the 10 item System Usability Scale (SUS) and visual analog scale. An investigator-moderated 30-minute discussion followed, and was recorded. We used a grounded theory (GT) approach to analyze qualitative data. Results When assessing mobile medication management applications, participants struggled to think of a need for the applications in their own lives. Many were satisfied with their current management system and proposed future use only if cognition and health declined. Most participants felt capable of using the applications after a period of time and training, but were frustrated by their initial experiences with the applications. The early experiences of participants highlighted the benefits of linear navigation and clear wording (eg, “undo” vs “cancel”) when designing for older users. While there was no order effect, participants attributed their poor performance to the order in which they tried the applications. They also described being a part of a technology generation that did not encounter the computer until adulthood. Of the four applications, PocketPharmacist was found to be the least usable with a score of 42/100 (P<.0001) though it offered a drug interaction

  6. Up against the System: A Case Study of Young Adult Perspectives Transitioning from Pediatric Palliative Care

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Karen; Jack, Susan; Thabane, Lehana; Browne, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Advances in pediatric care have not provided the interdisciplinary support services required by those young adults with pediatric life-threatening conditions (pedLTCs) who live beyond childhood but have limited expectations to live past early adulthood. These young adults, the first generation to live into adulthood, face multiple challenges transitioning from a plethora of pediatric palliative services to scant adult health services. In a case study, using an innovative bulletin board focus group, we describe the complex interplay of the health, education, and social service sectors in this transition. Our descriptions include system deficits and strengths and the young adults' resilience and coping strategies to overcome those deficits and move forward with their lives. Young adults with pedLTC need knowledgeable providers, coordinated and accessible services, being respected and valued, and services and supports that promote independence. We recommend implementation of multidisciplinary solutions that are focused on young adult priorities to ensure seamless access to resources to support these young adults' health, educational, vocational, and social goals. The input and voice of young adults in the development of these services are imperative to ensure that multisystem services support their needs and life goals. PMID:23997951

  7. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depressed Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Sigan L; Esbensen, Anna J; Shalev, Rebecca; Vincent, Lori B; Mihaila, Iulia; Bussanich, Paige

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of research on psychosocial treatments for depression in adults with intellectual disability (ID). In this pilot study, we explored the efficacy of a group CBT treatment that involved a caregiver component in adults with mild ID with a depressive disorder. Method Sixteen adults with mild ID and a depressive disorder participated in a 10-week group CBT treatment and 8 adults with mild ID with a depressive disorder served as a treatment as usual (TAU) control group. Adults with mild ID and caregivers completed measures of depressive symptoms, behavior problems, and social skills at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and a 3-month follow-up. Adults with mild ID also completed a series of tasks to measure their understanding of the principles of cognitive therapy pre- and post-treatment. Results The CBT group demonstrated significant decreases in depressive symptoms and behavior problems from pre-treatment to post-treatment and these effects were maintained at a 3-month follow-up. The CBT group demonstrated significant improvements in their ability to infer emotions and thoughts based on various situation-thought-emotion pairings from pre-treatment to post-treatment. Conclusions Findings indicate that adults with mild ID with a depressive disorder benefitted from a group CBT treatment with a caregiver component. Moreover, adults with mild ID appeared to benefit, at least in part, from the cognitive therapy components of the treatment, in addition to the behavior therapy components. PMID:26925187

  8. Changes and events over life course: a comparative study between groups of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Luípa Michele; Silva, Antônia Oliveira; Tura, Luiz Fernando Rangel; Moreira, Maria Adelaide Silva Paredes; Nogueira, Jordana Almeida; Cavalli, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify the changes which had occurred over the last year in the life of older adults, as well as the values attributed to these changes. METHOD: this is a multicentric, cross-sectional study, of the inquiry type, undertaken in three cities of the Brazilian Northeast, investigating two distinct groups of older adults. RESULTS: among the 236 older adults interviewed, it was observed that 30.0% reported health as the main change in their life course in the last year, this category being the most significant response among the older adults aged between 80 and 84 years old (37.7%). Changes in the family were mentioned by 11.5% of the older adults; death (9.6%) and alterations in routine activities (9.6%). In relation to the value attributed to these changes, it was ascertained that for 64.7% of the older adults aged between 65 and 69 years old, these changes were positive. In the older group, 49.4% of the older adults believe that their changes were related to losses. CONCLUSION: the knowledge of the changes mentioned, the value attributed to these changes, and the self-evaluation of health provide information which assists in formulating actions which are more specific to the real needs of these age groups. They also provide the health professionals with a better understanding of how some experiences are experienced in the life trajectories of these older adults. PMID:25806625

  9. Up against the System: A Case Study of Young Adult Perspectives Transitioning from Pediatric Palliative Care.

    PubMed

    Cook, Karen; Siden, Harold; Jack, Susan; Thabane, Lehana; Browne, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Advances in pediatric care have not provided the interdisciplinary support services required by those young adults with pediatric life-threatening conditions (pedLTCs) who live beyond childhood but have limited expectations to live past early adulthood. These young adults, the first generation to live into adulthood, face multiple challenges transitioning from a plethora of pediatric palliative services to scant adult health services. In a case study, using an innovative bulletin board focus group, we describe the complex interplay of the health, education, and social service sectors in this transition. Our descriptions include system deficits and strengths and the young adults' resilience and coping strategies to overcome those deficits and move forward with their lives. Young adults with pedLTC need knowledgeable providers, coordinated and accessible services, being respected and valued, and services and supports that promote independence. We recommend implementation of multidisciplinary solutions that are focused on young adult priorities to ensure seamless access to resources to support these young adults' health, educational, vocational, and social goals. The input and voice of young adults in the development of these services are imperative to ensure that multisystem services support their needs and life goals. PMID:23997951

  10. Protecting count queries in study design

    PubMed Central

    Sarwate, Anand D; Boxwala, Aziz A

    2012-01-01

    Objective Today's clinical research institutions provide tools for researchers to query their data warehouses for counts of patients. To protect patient privacy, counts are perturbed before reporting; this compromises their utility for increased privacy. The goal of this study is to extend current query answer systems to guarantee a quantifiable level of privacy and allow users to tailor perturbations to maximize the usefulness according to their needs. Methods A perturbation mechanism was designed in which users are given options with respect to scale and direction of the perturbation. The mechanism translates the true count, user preferences, and a privacy level within administrator-specified bounds into a probability distribution from which the perturbed count is drawn. Results Users can significantly impact the scale and direction of the count perturbation and can receive more accurate final cohort estimates. Strong and semantically meaningful differential privacy is guaranteed, providing for a unified privacy accounting system that can support role-based trust levels. This study provides an open source web-enabled tool to investigate visually and numerically the interaction between system parameters, including required privacy level and user preference settings. Conclusions Quantifying privacy allows system administrators to provide users with a privacy budget and to monitor its expenditure, enabling users to control the inevitable loss of utility. While current measures of privacy are conservative, this system can take advantage of future advances in privacy measurement. The system provides new ways of trading off privacy and utility that are not provided in current study design systems. PMID:22511018

  11. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN STUDY OF HORN POWER SUPPLY.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,W.; SANDBERG,J.; WENG,W.T.

    2003-06-16

    A 250 kA pulsed power supply is required for the focusing horn of the proposed Brookhaven AGS Super Neutrino Beam Facility for long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. It is expected to pulse at 2.5 Hz repetition rate. A preliminary study is being conducted to explore the key issues associated with the power supply system design. Advanced technologies used in similar systems as well as new ideas are being examined, simulated and evaluated. This power supply will be a very high stored energy, high average power, and high peak power system.

  12. Study of wrap-rib antenna design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, W. D.; Sinha, A.; Singh, R.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a parametric design study conducted to develop the significant characteristics and technology limitations of space deployable antenna systems with aperture sizes ranging from 50 up to 300 m and F/D ratios between 0.5 and 3.0 are presented. Wrap/rib type reflectors of both the prime and offset fed geometry and associated feed support structures were considered. The significant constraints investigated as limitations on achievable aperture were inherent manufacturability, orbit dynamic and thermal stability, antenna weight, and antenna stowed volume. A data base, resulting in the defined maximum achievable aperture size as a function of diameter, frequency and estimated cost, was formed.

  13. Design Study: Rocket Based MHD Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This report addresses the technical feasibility and design of a rocket based MHD generator using a sub-scale LOx/RP rocket motor. The design study was constrained by assuming the generator must function within the performance and structural limits of an existing magnet and by assuming realistic limits on (1) the axial electric field, (2) the Hall parameter, (3) current density, and (4) heat flux (given the criteria of heat sink operation). The major results of the work are summarized as follows: (1) A Faraday type of generator with rectangular cross section is designed to operate with a combustor pressure of 300 psi. Based on a magnetic field strength of 1.5 Tesla, the electrical power output from this generator is estimated to be 54.2 KW with potassium seed (weight fraction 3.74%) and 92 KW with cesium seed (weight fraction 9.66%). The former corresponds to a enthalpy extraction ratio of 2.36% while that for the latter is 4.16%; (2) A conceptual design of the Faraday MHD channel is proposed, based on a maximum operating time of 10 to 15 seconds. This concept utilizes a phenolic back wall for inserting the electrodes and inter-electrode insulators. Copper electrode and aluminum oxide insulator are suggested for this channel; and (3) A testing configuration for the sub-scale rocket based MHD system is proposed. An estimate of performance of an ideal rocket based MHD accelerator is performed. With a current density constraint of 5 Amps/cm(exp 2) and a conductivity of 30 Siemens/m, the push power density can be 250, 431, and 750 MW/m(sup 3) when the induced voltage uB have values of 5, 10, and 15 KV/m, respectively.

  14. The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study: Sample, Design, and Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Linda C.; Penedo, Frank J.; Carnethon, Mercedes; Isasi, Carmen; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Roesch, Scott C.; Youngblood, Marston E.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Gonzalez, Patricia; Talavera, Gregory P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) Sociocultural Ancillary Study aims to examine associations between sociocultural and psychosocial factors and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic syndrome prevalence in Hispanics/Latinos. The conceptual framework is based on the Reserve Capacity and Lifespan Biopsychosocial Models, which emphasize multiple risk and protective pathways underlying socioeconomic and ethnic influences in health. This study describes the rationale, participants, and procedures for the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study. Design and Setting The Sociocultural Ancillary Study to the HCHS/SOL is a cross-sectional cohort study with future opportunities for prospective investigation. Participants Participants were 5,313 adults, aged 18-74 years, of self-identified Hispanic/Latino descent and representing multiple Hispanic/Latino background groups, recruited from the Bronx, NY, Chicago, IL, Miami, FL, and San Diego, CA. Intervention Participants completed an interview-administered sociocultural assessment battery within 9 months of their HCHS/SOL clinical baseline exam. Outcome Measures The primary outcomes are CVD and the metabolic syndrome and its component risk factors. Results The Sociocultural Ancillary Study sample is broadly representative of the HCHS/SOL cohort. Weighted demographics are: 55% male, 56% 18-44 years, 44% 45 years and older, and 37% Mexican, 20% Cuban, 16% Puerto Rican, 12% Dominican, 8% Central American, and 5% South American descent. Conclusions By testing theoretically driven hypotheses concerning sociocultural and psychosocial factors in CVD, the Sociocultural Ancillary Study seeks to inform future prevention and intervention efforts for U.S. Hispanic/Latinos. PMID:24620452

  15. Studying the Effectiveness of Conceptual Design in Secondary Design and Technology in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trebell, Donna

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study reported here was to investigate the effectiveness of a conceptual design unit as part of the Design and Technology curriculum for 14 years old pupils in England. One research question drove this study: What sort of designing do pupils do when they design without having to make what they have designed? Data consisted of…

  16. A Case Study: Increase Enrollment by Reducing Dropout Rates in Adult Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chyung, Yonnie; Winiecki, Donald J.; Fenner, Jo Ann

    The Instructional and Performance Technology Department at Boise State University (Idaho) offers a master's degree program via distance education to prepare adult students for careers in the areas of instructional design, job performance improvement, human resources, organizational redesign, training, and training management. Most students attend…

  17. Differential Benefits of Memory Training for Minority Older Adults in the SeniorWISE Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDougall, Graham J., Jr.; Becker, Heather; Pituch, Keenan; Acee, Taylor W.; Vaughan, Phillip W.; Delville, Carol L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Cognitive training improves mental abilities in older adults, but the benefit to minority elders is unclear. We conducted a subgroup analysis of subjects in the SeniorWISE (Wisdom Is Simply Exploration) trial to examine this issue. Design and Methods: SeniorWISE was a Phase 3 randomized trial that enrolled 265 nondemented…

  18. Efficacy of a Systematic Process for Designing Function-Based Interventions for Adults in a Community Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Martha A.; Umbreit, John; Liaupsin, Carl

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a systematic process for matching behavioral interventions to assessed function(s) of problem behavior with adults with developmental disabilities in a community-based day program. Previous applications of the technique were found to be effective with school-age students in classroom settings. Participants were…

  19. Prevalence, diagnosis, and disease course of pertussis in adults with acute cough: a prospective, observational study in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Teepe, Jolien; Broekhuizen, Berna DL; Ieven, Margareta; Loens, Katherine; Huygen, Kris; Kretzschmar, Mirjam; de Melker, Hester; Butler, Chris C; Little, Paul; Stuart, Beth; Coenen, Samuel; Goossens, Herman; Verheij, Theo JM

    2015-01-01

    Background Most cases of adult pertussis probably remain undiagnosed. Aim To explore the prevalence, diagnosis, and disease course of acute pertussis infection in adult patients presenting with acute cough. Design and setting Prospective observational study between 2007 and 2010 in primary care in 12 European countries. Method Adults presenting with acute cough (duration of ≤28 days) were included. Bordetella pertussis infection was determined by polymerase chain reaction (from nasopharyngeal flocked swabs and sputa) and by measurement of immunoglobulin G antibodies to pertussis toxin (PT) in venous blood at day 28. An antibody titre to PT of ≥125 IU/ml or PCR positive result in a respiratory sample defined recent infection. Patients completed a symptom diary for 28 days. Results Serum and/or respiratory samples were obtained in 3074 patients. Three per cent (93/3074) had recent B. pertussis infection. Prior cough duration >2 weeks discriminated to some extent between those with and without pertussis (adjusted odds ratio 1.89, 95% confidence interval = 1.17 to 3.07; P = 0.010). Median cough duration after presentation was 17 and 12 days in patients with and without pertussis, respectively (P = 0.008). Patients with pertussis had longer duration of phlegm production (P = 0.010), shortness of breath (P = 0.037), disturbed sleep (P = 0.013) and interference with normal activities or work (P = 0.033) after presentation. Conclusion Pertussis infection plays a limited role among adults presenting with acute cough in primary care, but GPs should acknowledge the possibility of pertussis in uncomplicated lower respiratory tract infection. As in children, pertussis also causes prolonged symptoms in adults. However, pertussis is difficult to discern from other acute cough syndromes in adults at first presentation. PMID:26412843

  20. A Curriculum Structured Design for Educating Adults in Detecting Deception and Eliciting Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, Barry L.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation describes the overall effectiveness of deception detection training and identifies conditions that may enhance training effectiveness through understanding how adults learn and utilizing scenario-based training. The analysis was based on a total of 1,788 evaluation data sheets (archival records). The major aim of the research is…

  1. Teaching the Adult Beginning Reader: Designing Research Based Reading Instructional Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boraks, Nancy; Richardson, Judy

    Acknowledging that while it is difficult to suggest specific instructional strategies for accommodating differing adult beginning readers' (ABR) psychosocial behavior, this paper offers appropriate instructional principles based on the educational and social needs of the ABR. The principles presented are as follows: (1) teachers should help adults…

  2. Sedentary behaviours and obesity in adults: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

    PubMed Central

    Heinonen, I; Helajärvi, H; Pahkala, K; Heinonen, O J; Hirvensalo, M; Pälve, K; Tammelin, T; Yang, X; Juonala, M; Mikkilä, V; Kähönen, M; Lehtimäki, T; Viikari, J; Raitakari, O T

    2013-01-01

    Objective Sedentary behaviour may contribute to the development of obesity. We investigated the relations between different types of sedentary behaviour and adiposity markers in a well-characterised adult population after controlling for a wide range of potential confounders. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Multicenter Study. Participants Sedentary time (TV viewing, computer time, reading, music/radio listening and other relaxation) was assessed with a questionnaire for 1084 women and 909 men aged 30–45 years. Other study variables included occupational and leisure-time physical activity, sleep duration, socioeconomic status, smoking, alcohol consumption, energy intake, adherence to the recommended diet, multiple individual food items, age and genetic variants associated with body mass index (BMI). Primary outcome measures BMI in kg/m2 and waist circumference (WC in cm). Results Of the different sedentary behaviour types, TV viewing was most consistently related to higher BMI and WC, both in men and women. One additional daily TV hour was associated with a 1.81±0.44 cm larger WC in women and 2 cm±0.44 cm in men (both p<0.0001). The association with TV was diluted, but remained highly significant after adjustments with all measured covariates, including several potentially obesogenic food items associated with TV viewing. The intakes of food items such as sausage, beer and soft drinks were directly associated with TV viewing, while the intakes of oat and barley, fish, and fruits and berries were associated indirectly. After these adjustments, non-TV sedentary behaviour remained associated with adiposity indices only in women. Conclusions Out of the different types of sedentary behaviour, TV viewing was most consistently associated with adiposity markers in adults. Partial dilution of these associations after adjustments for covariates suggests that the obesogenic effects of TV viewing are partly mediated by

  3. Determinants for tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults in Northwest Ethiopia: a multicentre case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Alemu, Yihun Mulugeta; Awoke, Worku; Wilder-Smith, Annalies

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to identify determinants for tuberculosis (TB) among HIV-infected adults in Northwest Ethiopia. Design Case–control study. Setting Three hospitals and 10 health centres in Northwest Ethiopia. Participants A total of 446 individuals consented to participate in the study (150 cases and 296 controls). Cases were HIV-infected adults diagnosed with active TB, and controls were HIV-infected adults without active TB. Main outcome measure The link between TB and determinants was assessed using logistic regression. Determinants were categorised as sociodemographic, host-related, clinical and environmental. Results Smoking (adjusted OR (AOR) 5.47; 95% CI 2.26 to 13.22), presence of a TB patient in the family (AOR 2.66; 95% CI 1.25 to 5.66), alcohol consumption (AOR 2.49; 95% CI 1.29 to 4.80) and chewing khat (AOR 2.22; 95% CI 1.11 to 4.41) were independent determinants for increased occurrence of TB. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (AOR 0.25; 95% CI 0.13 to 0.51), isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) (AOR 0.22; 95% CI 0.11 to 0.41) and cotrimoxazole preventive therapy (AOR 0.32; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.55) had a protective effect against TB. Conclusions HIV-infected adults with substance abuse (tobacco smoking, khat chewing and alcohol) should be prioritised for TB screening. This study reaffirmed that HAART and IPT are some of the best strategies for reducing TB occurrence in HIV-infected adults. These findings provide impetus to intensify tracing of TB household contacts. PMID:27084271

  4. Universal Design for Instruction: A New Paradigm for Adult Instruction in Postsecondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Sally S.; McGuire, Joan M.; Shaw, Stan F.

    2003-01-01

    Universal design for instruction is presented as a new paradigm for approaching equal educational access for college students with learning disabilities. Topics covered include changing student demographics, instructional challenges, the universal design concept, universal design in educational settings, and applying universal design to college…

  5. Establishing integrated rural–urban cohorts to assess air pollution-related health effects in pregnant women, children and adults in Southern India: an overview of objectives, design and methods in the Tamil Nadu Air Pollution and Health Effects (TAPHE) study

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Sambandam, Sankar; Ramaswamy, Padmavathi; Ghosh, Santu; Venkatesan, Vettriselvi; Thangavel, Gurusamy; Mukhopadhyay, Krishnendu; Johnson, Priscilla; Paul, Solomon; Puttaswamy, Naveen; Dhaliwal, Rupinder S; Shukla, D K

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In rapidly developing countries such as India, the ubiquity of air pollution sources in urban and rural communities often results in ambient and household exposures significantly in excess of health-based air quality guidelines. Few efforts, however, have been directed at establishing quantitative exposure–response relationships in such settings. We describe study protocols for The Tamil Nadu Air Pollution and Health Effects (TAPHE) study, which aims to examine the association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures and select maternal, child and adult health outcomes in integrated rural–urban cohorts. Methods and analyses The TAPHE study is organised into five component studies with participants drawn from a pregnant mother–child cohort and an adult cohort (n=1200 participants in each cohort). Exposures are assessed through serial measurements of 24–48 h PM2.5 area concentrations in household microenvironments together with ambient measurements and time-activity recalls, allowing exposure reconstructions. Generalised additive models will be developed to examine the association between PM2.5 exposures, maternal (birth weight), child (acute respiratory infections) and adult (chronic respiratory symptoms and lung function) health outcomes while adjusting for multiple covariates. In addition, exposure models are being developed to predict PM2.5 exposures in relation to household and community level variables as well as to explore inter-relationships between household concentrations of PM2.5 and air toxics. Finally, a bio-repository of peripheral and cord blood samples is being created to explore the role of gene–environment interactions in follow-up studies. Ethics and dissemination The study protocols have been approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Sri Ramachandra University, the host institution for the investigators in this study. Study results will be widely disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and

  6. Advanced heat receiver conceptual design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kesseli, James; Saunders, Roger; Batchelder, Gary

    1988-01-01

    Solar Dynamic space power systems are candidate electrical power generating systems for future NASA missions. One of the key components of the solar dynamic power system is the solar receiver/thermal energy storage (TES) subsystem. Receiver development was conducted by NASA in the late 1960's and since then a very limited amount of work has been done in this area. Consequently the state of the art (SOA) receivers designed for the IOC space station are large and massive. The objective of the Advanced Heat Receiver Conceptual Design Study is to conceive and analyze advanced high temperature solar dynamic Brayton and Stirling receivers. The goal is to generate innovative receiver concepts that are half of the mass, smaller, and more efficient than the SOA. It is also necessary that these innovative receivers offer ease of manufacturing, less structural complexity and fewer thermal stress problems. Advanced Brayton and Stirling receiver storage units are proposed and analyzed in this study which can potentially meet these goals.

  7. Weight in infancy and adult calcium absorption as determinants of bone mineral density in adult men: the Hertfordshire cohort study.

    PubMed

    Patel, M B R; Makepeace, A E; Jameson, K A; Masterson, L M; Holt, R I G; Swaminathan, R; Javaid, M K; Cooper, C; Arden, N K

    2012-12-01

    Adult bone mass is modified by early life environmental influences, but the mechanism of this association is uncertain. Data support an inverse relationship between intestinal calcium absorption (αCa) and birth weight in women. However, little is known regarding determinants in men. This study examines the association between weight in infancy and adult αCa in healthy men and whether this could be a mechanism by which the early life environment may influence bone mass. Men were recruited from the MRC Hertfordshire Cohort Study, for whom detailed early life records were available. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) was measured using a Hologic QDR 4500 at the femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine. We randomly selected 123 men stratified by birth weight and assessed αCa using the stable strontium absorption test. The mean age was 63.6 (SD 2.5) years. αCa was not associated with birth weight or weight at 1 year. FN aBMD was associated with both weight at 1 year (r = 0.20, p = 0.03) and αCa (r = 0.20, p = 0.03). Both of these associations remained statistically significant in a mutually adjusted, multivariable model but would account for only ~4 % variance in BMD. We demonstrated a positive association between weight at 1 year and aBMD and between αCa and FN BMD, but no association was found between birth weight and αCa. This suggests that in men, although αCa is a contributing factor in FN bone density, it is not the main mechanism whereby the early environment modifies adult BMD. PMID:23010962

  8. [Peritoneal tuberculosis in adults. Study of 207 cases].

    PubMed

    Hamdani, A; Sekkat, N; Alyoune, A; Merzouk, M; Moufid, S; el Meknassi, A; Mourid, A

    1987-05-01

    The authors report their experience about 207 cases of peritoneal tuberculosis in the adult, diagnosed and treated at the University Hospital Ibn Rochd in Casablanca, between january 1976 and october 1986. It concerned 139 women and 68 men--mean age 29.5 years. The most frequent clinical form was painful and febrile ascites (70% of the cases). The diagnosis was established most of the time by laparoscopy (180 examinations) which disclosed peritoneal granulations in 87% of the cases. Laparoscopy was impossible in 27 cases. Evolution was favorable in all patients except 5: 3 deaths, one relapse and one evolution to a fibro-adhesive form. During the long-term evolution in 50 patients (follow-up exceeding two years): one patient developed an occlusion and 7 had gynecological complications. PMID:2956924

  9. Promoting Adult Learning in Public Places: Two Asian Case Studies of Adult Learning about Peace through Museums and Peace Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Gavin

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores an area of adult learning that has received little attention of late, the terrain of public education through museums and civic architecture. The goal of promoting adult learning in public places e.g. through the work of museums has become commonplace in countries seeking to encourage adult learning about peace. This invariably…

  10. Epilepsy in adults with mitochondrial disease: A cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Devine, Helen E.; Gorman, Grainne S.; Schaefer, Andrew M.; Horvath, Rita; Ng, Yi; Nesbitt, Victoria; Lax, Nichola Z.; McFarland, Robert; Cunningham, Mark O.; Taylor, Robert W.; Turnbull, Douglass M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence and progression of epilepsy in adult patients with mitochondrial disease. Methods We prospectively recruited a cohort of 182 consecutive adult patients attending a specialized mitochondrial disease clinic in Newcastle upon Tyne between January 1, 2005 and January 1, 2008. We then followed this cohort over a 7‐year period, recording primary outcome measures of occurrence of first seizure, status epilepticus, stroke‐like episode, and death. Results Overall prevalence of epilepsy in the cohort was 23.1%. Mean age of epilepsy onset was 29.4 years. Prevalence varied widely between genotypes, with several genotypes having no cases of epilepsy, a prevalence of 34.9% in the most common genotype (m.3243A>G mutation), and 92.3% in the m.8344A>G mutation. Among the cohort as a whole, focal seizures, with or without progression to bilateral convulsive seizures, was the most common seizure type. Conversely, all of the patients with the m.8344A>G mutation and epilepsy experienced myoclonic seizures. Patients with the m.3243A>G mutation remain at high risk of developing stroke‐like episodes (1.16% per year). However, although the standardized mortality ratio for the entire cohort was high (2.86), this ratio did not differ significantly between patients with epilepsy (2.96) and those without (2.83). Interpretation Epilepsy is a common manifestation of mitochondrial disease. It develops early in the disease and, in the case of the m.3243A>G mutation, often presents in the context of a stroke‐like episode or status epilepticus. However, epilepsy does not itself appear to contribute to the increased mortality in mitochondrial disease. Ann Neurol 2015;78:949–957 PMID:26381753

  11. Examining English Language Learning Motivation of Adult International Learners Studying Abroad in the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weger, Heather D.

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports on the motivations of adult, international learners of English, studying English 20 hours a week in a US-based Intensive English Program (IEP). Though often used as participants in language acquisition studies, there are few studies of these learners' motivational profiles. In the current study, a questionnaire designed…

  12. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy with older adults: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Foulk, Mariko A; Ingersoll-Dayton, Berit; Kavanagh, Janet; Robinson, Elizabeth; Kales, Helen C

    2014-01-01

    An 8-week mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) group for older adults with depression and/or anxiety is described. This article is based on an exploratory study of this therapeutic approach and changes in participants' symptoms associated with participation. Pre-post data from 5 MBCT groups showed significant improvements in reported anxiety, ruminative thoughts, and sleep problems and a reduction in depressive symptoms. Case examples are presented to illustrate these symptom changes. Findings showed that this nonpharmacological intervention is acceptable to older adults and is associated with positive changes. Suggestions are provided for both practitioners and researchers interested in using MBCT with older adults. PMID:24329497

  13. Recovery-oriented care in older-adult acute inpatient mental health settings in Australia: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Brian; Furness, Trentham; Dhital, Deepa; Ireland, Susan

    2014-10-01

    Recovery-oriented care acknowledges the unique journey that consumers lead with the aim of regaining control of their lives in order to live a good life. Recovery has become a dominant policy-directed model of many mental health care organizations, but in older-adult acute mental health inpatient settings, nurses do not have a clear description of how to be recovery-oriented. The aims of this study were to determine the extent to which elements of existing nursing practice resemble the domains of recovery-oriented care and provide a baseline understanding of practice in preparation for transformation to recovery-oriented mental health care provision. An exploratory, qualitative research design was used to meet the research aims. A purposive sample of mental health nurses (N = 12) participated in focus groups in three older-adult inpatient settings in Australia. A general inductive approach was used to analyze the qualitative data. The mental health nurses in this study readily discussed aspects of their current practice within the recovery domains. They described pragmatic ways to promote a culture of hope, collaborative partnerships, meaningful engagement, autonomy and self-determination, and community participation and citizenship. Nurses also discussed challenges and barriers to recovery-oriented care in older-adult acute mental health settings. This study identified a reasonable baseline understanding of practice in preparation for transformation to recovery-oriented older-adult mental healthcare provision. A concerted drive focused on recovery education is required to effectively embed a recovery-orientated paradigm into older-adult mental health settings. PMID:25263738

  14. Results from a preliminary review of scientific evidence for appropriateness of preparations, dosage forms and other product design elements for older adult patients.

    PubMed

    Messina, Rossella; Becker, Robert; van Riet-Nales, Diana A; Stegemann, Sven

    2015-01-30

    The aging population and the growing multimorbidity of the major patient population as well as the advanced (pharmaco)therapeutic treatment options are increasing the complexity of independent drug therapy management and administration. The increased complexity may have an impact on drug adherence (including any need for patients initiated coping strategies), and consequently on the safety and efficacy of the medicine. To overcome adherence issues caused by the design of the medicine, it is crucial that developers consider the age appropriateness of the medicine (route of administration, dosage form, excipients in the composition, frequency of dosing) in meeting patients' needs to manage their therapy without the support of a care giver. In order to understand the scientific evidence on such age appropriately designed medicines for use by older adults, a literature search was performed in the Medline database (all languages included). The search produced 34 publications that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria for the patient population of 65 years an older. An in-depth analysis of the included publications with respect to the methodological quality (study design, data collection, endpoints chosen) and results showed that none of these publications had adequately investigated the age appropriateness of the medicine for use by older adults. The authors consider that the knowledge gap in this area requires attention of all stakeholders in the healthcare community. PMID:25445516

  15. Body Mass Index in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Distribution, Associations and Service Implications--A Population-Based Prevalence Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhaumik, S.; Watson, J. M.; Thorp, C. F.; Tyrer, F.; McGrother, C. W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Previous studies of weight problems in adults with intellectual disability (ID) have generally been small or selective and given conflicting results. The objectives of our large-scale study were to identify inequalities in weight problems between adults with ID and the general adult population, and to investigate factors associated…

  16. Youth and young adult physical activity and body composition of young adult women: findings from the dietary intervention study in children.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Melissa G; Hovinga, Mary; Shepherd, John A; Egleston, Brian; Gabriel, Kelley; Van Horn, Linda; Robson, Alan; Snetselaar, Linda; Stevens, Victor K; Jung, Seungyoun; Dorgan, Joanne

    2015-02-01

    This study prospectively investigates associations between youth moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and body composition in young adult women using data from the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) and the DISC06 Follow-Up Study. MVPA was assessed by questionnaire on 5 occasions between the ages 8 and 18 years and at age 25-29 years in 215 DISC female participants. Using whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), overall adiposity and body fat distribution were assessed at age 25-29 years by percent body fat (%fat) and android-to-gynoid (A:G) fat ratio, respectively. Linear mixed effects models and generalized linear latent and mixed models were used to assess associations of youth MVPA with both outcomes. Young adult MVPA, adjusted for other young adult characteristics, was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (%fat decreased from 37.4% in the lowest MVPA quartile to 32.8% in the highest (p-trend = 0.02)). Adjusted for youth and young adult characteristics including young adult MVPA, youth MVPA also was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (β=-0.40 per 10 MET-hrs/wk, p = .02) . No significant associations between MVPA and A:G fat ratio were observed. Results suggest that youth and young adult MVPA are important independent predictors of adiposity in young women. PMID:25387239

  17. Childhood abuse, parental warmth, and adult multisystem biological risk in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Judith E.; Gruenewald, Tara L.; Taylor, Shelley E.; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Matthews, Karen A.; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood abuse increases adult risk for morbidity and mortality. Less clear is how this “toxic” stress becomes embedded to influence health decades later, and whether protective factors guard against these effects. Early biological embedding is hypothesized to occur through programming of the neural circuitry that influences physiological response patterns to subsequent stress, causing wear and tear across multiple regulatory systems. To examine this hypothesis, we related reports of childhood abuse to a comprehensive 18-biomarker measure of multisystem risk and also examined whether presence of a loving parental figure buffers against the impact of childhood abuse on adult risk. A total of 756 subjects (45.8% white, 42.7% male) participated in this ancillary substudy of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Childhood stress was determined by using the Risky Families Questionnaire, a well-validated retrospective self-report scale. Linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, race, parental education, and oral contraceptive use found a significant positive relationship between reports of childhood abuse and multisystem health risks [B (SE) = 0.68 (0.16); P < 0.001]. Inversely, higher amounts of reported parental warmth and affection during childhood was associated with lower multisystem health risks [B (SE) = −0.40 (0.14); P < 0.005]. A significant interaction of abuse and warmth (P < 0.05) was found, such that individuals reporting low levels of love and affection and high levels of abuse in childhood had the highest multisystem risk in adulthood. PMID:24062432

  18. Advanced EVA system design requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, T. G.

    1988-01-01

    The results are presented of a study to identify specific criteria regarding space station extravehicular activity system (EVAS) hardware requirements. Key EVA design issues include maintainability, technology readiness, LSS volume vs. EVA time available, suit pressure/cabin pressure relationship and productivity effects, crew autonomy, integration of EVA as a program resource, and standardization of task interfaces. A variety of DOD EVA systems issues were taken into consideration. Recommendations include: (1) crew limitations, not hardware limitations; (2) capability to perform all of 15 generic missions; (3) 90 days on-orbit maintainability with 50 percent duty cycle as minimum; and (4) use by payload sponsors of JSC document 10615A plus a Generic Tool Kit and Specialized Tool Kit description. EVA baseline design requirements and criteria, including requirements of various subsystems, are outlined. Space station/EVA system interface requirements and EVA accommodations are discussed in the areas of atmosphere composition and pressure, communications, data management, logistics, safe haven, SS exterior and interior requirements, and SS airlock.

  19. Tubular copper thrust chamber design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, A. I.; Galler, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    The use of copper tubular thrust chambers is particularly important in high performance expander cycle space engines. Tubular chambers have more surface area than flat wall chambers, and this extra surface area provides enhanced heat transfer for additional energy to power the cycle. This paper was divided into two sections: (1) a thermal analysis and sensitivity study; and (2) a preliminary design of a selected thrust chamber configuration. The thermal analysis consisted of a statistical optimization to determine the optimum tube geometry, tube booking, thrust chamber geometry, and cooling routing to achieve the maximum upper limit chamber pressure for a 25,000 pound thrust engine. The preliminary design effort produced a layout drawing of a tubular thrust chamber that is three inches shorter than the Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB) milled channel chamber but is predicted to provide a five percent increase in heat transfer. Testing this chamber in the AETB would confirm the inherent advantages of tubular chamber construction and heat transfer.

  20. Next Step Spherical Torus Design Studies

    SciTech Connect

    C. Neumeyer; P. Heitzenroeder; C. Kessel; M. Ono; M. Peng; J. Schmidt; R. Woolley; I. Zatz

    2002-11-08

    Studies are underway to identify and characterize a design point for a Next Step Spherical Torus (NSST) experiment. This would be a ''Proof of Performance'' device which would follow and build upon the successes of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) a ''Proof of Principle'' device which has operated at PPPL since 1999. With the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) nearly completed, the TFTR test cell and facility will soon be available for a device such as NSST. By utilizing the TFTR test cell, NSST can be constructed for a relatively low cost on a short time scale. In addition, while furthering spherical torus (ST) research, this device could achieve modest fusion power gain for short-pulse lengths, a significant step toward future large burning plasma devices now under discussion in the fusion community. The selected design point is Q=2 at HH=1.4, P subscript ''fusion''=60 MW, 5 second pulse, with R subscript ''0''=1.5 m, A=1.6, I subscript ''p''=10vMA, B subscript ''t''=2.6 T, CS flux=16 weber. Most of the research would be conducted in D-D, with a limited D-T campaign during the last years of the program.

  1. University Studies in Adult Education in the Arab Countries (A Comparative Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobeih, Nabil Ahmed Amer

    That adult education is an important aspect of a country's development is an idea that is often overlooked by the institutions of higher education in the Arab countries. Although a need for adult continuing education and adult literacy training exists, these needs are often ignored or frowned upon by Arab universities, which have traditionally…

  2. Innovative Strategies Designed to Improve Adult Pneumococcal Immunizations in Safety Net Patient-Centered Medical Homes.

    PubMed

    Park, Nina J; Sklaroff, Laura Myerchin; Gross-Schulman, Sandra; Hoang, Khathy; Tran, Helen; Campa, David; Scheib, Geoffrey; Guterman, Jeffrey J

    2016-08-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a principal cause of serious illness, including bacteremia, meningitis, and pneumonia, worldwide. Pneumococcal immunization is proven to reduce morbidity and mortality in high-risk adult and elderly populations. Current pneumococcal vaccination practices are suboptimal in part because of recommendation complexity, the high cost of provider-driven immunization interventions, and outreach methods that are not patient-centric. These barriers are amplified within the safety net. This paper identifies efforts by the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services to increase pneumococcal immunization rates for adult indigent patient populations. A 4-part approach will be used to increase vaccination rates: (1) protocol driven care, (2) staff education, (3) electronic identification of eligible patients, and (4) automated patient outreach and scheduling. The proposed analytics plan and potential for scalability are described. (Population Health Management 2016;19:240-247). PMID:26824148

  3. Applying Erikson's wisdom to self-management practices of older adults: findings from two field studies.

    PubMed

    Perry, Tam E; Ruggiano, Nicole; Shtompel, Natalia; Hassevoort, Luke

    2015-04-01

    According to Erik Erikson's theory on the stages of human development, achieving wisdom later in life involves revisiting previous crises and renewing psychosocial accomplishments. However, few studies have used Erikson's theory as a framework for examining how older adults self-manage physical and mental health changes that commonly occur later in life. This article presents findings from two qualitative studies that demonstrate how older adults apply wisdom in new domains. Specifically, it was found that older adults (1) reasserted autonomy by initiating creative problem solving and (2) applied skills gained from productive activities earlier in life to new health-related problems that arise later in life. These findings highlight the importance of engaging older adults to repurpose their life skills and thus reapply wisdom to new areas of their lives. Implications for practice are discussed. PMID:25651571

  4. Feasibility study of an Integrated Program for Aerospace vehicle Design (IPAD). Volume 2: The design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillette, W. B.; Turner, M. J.; Southall, J. W.; Whitener, P. C.; Kowalik, J. S.

    1973-01-01

    The extent to which IPAD is to support the design process is identified. Case studies of representative aerospace products were developed as models to characterize the design process and to provide design requirements for the IPAD computing system.

  5. A Tunable Silk Hydrogel Device for Studying Limb Regeneration in Adult Xenopus Laevis

    PubMed Central

    Golding, Anne; Levin, Michael; Kaplan, David L.

    2016-01-01

    In certain amphibian models limb regeneration can be promoted or inhibited by the local wound bed environment. This research introduces a device that can be utilized as an experimental tool to characterize the conditions that promotes limb regeneration in the adult frog (Xenopus laevis) model. In particular, this device was designed to manipulate the local wound environment via a hydrogel insert. Initial characterization of the hydrogel insert revealed that this interaction had a significant influence on mechanical forces to the animal, due to the contraction of the hydrogel. The material and mechanical properties of the hydrogel insert were a factor in the device design in relation to the comfort of the animal and the ability to effectively manipulate the amputation site. The tunable features of the hydrogel were important in determining the pro-regenerative effects in limb regeneration, which was measured by cartilage spike formation and quantified by micro-computed tomography. The hydrogel insert was a factor in the observed morphological outcomes following amputation. Future work will focus on characterizing and optimizing the device’s observed capability to manipulate biological pathways that are essential for limb regeneration. However, the present work provides a framework for the role of a hydrogel in the device and a path forward for more systematic studies. PMID:27257960

  6. Condom use and sexuality communication with adults: a study among high school students in South Africa and Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fostering adolescents’ communication on sexuality issues with their parents and other significant adults is often assumed to be an important component of intervention programmes aimed at promoting healthy adolescent sexual practices. However, there are few studies describing the relationship between such communication and sexual practices, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examined the relationships between adolescents’ communication with significant adults and their condom use in three sites in this region. Methods Data stem from a multi-site randomized controlled trial of a school-based HIV prevention intervention implemented in Cape Town and Mankweng, South Africa and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Only data from comparison schools were used. The design is therefore a prospective panel study with three waves of data collections. Data were collected in 2004 from 6,251 participants in 40 schools. Associations between adolescents’ communication with adults about sexuality issues and their use of condoms were analysed cross-sectionally using analysis of variance, as well as prospectively using multiple ordinal logistic regression analysis. Results Cross-sectional analyses showed that consistent condom users had significantly higher mean scores on communication (across topics and communication partners) than both occasional users and never-users, who had the lowest scores. After controlling for condom use at the first data collection occasion in each model as well as for possible confounders, communication scores significantly predicted consistent condom use prospectively in all three ordinal logistic regression models (Model R2 = .23 to .31). Conclusion The findings are consistent with the assertion that communication on sexuality issues between adolescents and significant adults results in safer sexual practices, as reflected by condom use, among in-school adolescents. The associations between communication variables and condom use might

  7. Design study of prestressed rotor spar concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleich, D.

    1980-01-01

    Studies on the Bell Helicopter 540 Rotor System of the AH-1G helicopter were performed. The stiffness, mass and geometric configurations of the Bell blade were matched to give a dynamically similar prestressed composite blade. A multi-tube, prestressed composite spar blade configuration was designed for superior ballistic survivability at low life cycle cost. The composite spar prestresses, imparted during fabrication, are chosen to maintain compression in the high strength cryogenically stretchformed 304-L stainless steel liner and tension in the overwrapped HTS graphite fibers under operating loads. This prestressing results in greatly improved crack propagation and fatigue resistance as well as enhanced fiber stiffness properties. Advantages projected for the prestressed composite rotor spar concept include increased operational life and improved ballistic survivability at low life cycle cost.

  8. Preliminary systems design study assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-10-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. The SDS results are published in eight volumes. Volume I contains an executive summary. The SDS summary and analysis of results are presented in Volume II. Volumes III through VII contain descriptions of twelve system and four subsystem concepts. Volume VIII contains the appendixes.

  9. Photovoltaic module electrical termination design requirement study

    SciTech Connect

    Mosna, F.J. Jr.; Donlinger, J.

    1980-07-01

    Motorola Inc., in conjunction with ITT Cannon, has conducted a study to develop information to facilitate the selection of existing, commercial, electrical termination hardware for photovoltaic modules and arrays. This volume of the report contains the executive summary. Module and array design parameters were investigated and recommendations were developed for use in surveying, evaluating, and comparing electrical termination hardware. Electrical termination selection criteria factors were developed and applied to nine generic termination types in each of the four application sectors: remote, residential, intermediate and industrial. Existing terminations best suited for photovoltaic modules and arrays were identified. Cost information was developed to identify cost drivers and/or requirements which might lead to cost reductions. The general conclusion is that there is no single generic termination that is best suited for photovoltaic application, but that the appropriate termination is strongly dependent upon the module construction and its support structure as well as the specific application sector.

  10. Space shuttle visual simulation system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A recommendation and a specification for the visual simulation system design for the space shuttle mission simulator are presented. A recommended visual system is described which most nearly meets the visual design requirements. The cost analysis of the recommended system covering design, development, manufacturing, and installation is reported. Four alternate systems are analyzed.

  11. The microwave radiometer spacecraft: A design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, R. L. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    A large passive microwave radiometer spacecraft with near all weather capability of monitoring soil moisture for global crop forecasting was designed. The design, emphasizing large space structures technology, characterized the mission hardware at the conceptual level in sufficient detail to identify enabling and pacing technologies. Mission and spacecraft requirements, design and structural concepts, electromagnetic concepts, and control concepts are addressed.

  12. Hodgkin's lymphoma in adolescents treated with adult protocols: a report from the German Hodgkin study group.

    PubMed

    Eichenauer, Dennis A; Bredenfeld, Henning; Haverkamp, Heinz; Müller, Horst; Franklin, Jeremy; Fuchs, Michael; Borchmann, Peter; Müller-Hermelink, Hans-Konrad; Eich, Hans T; Müller, Rolf-Peter; Diehl, Volker; Engert, Andreas

    2009-12-20

    PURPOSE The standard of care for adolescent patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is undefined, particularly the choice between pediatric and adult protocols. Thus, we compared risk factors and outcome of adolescents and young adults treated within study protocols of the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG). PATIENTS AND METHODS Three thousand seven hundred eighty-five patients treated within the GHSG studies HD4 to HD9 were analyzed; 557 patients were adolescents age 15 to 20 years, and 3,228 patients were young adults age 21 to 45 years. Results Large mediastinal mass and involvement of three or more lymph node areas were more frequent in adolescents (P < .001). The incidence of other risk factors did not differ significantly between age groups. With a median observation time of 81 months for freedom from treatment failure (FFTF) and 85 months for overall survival (OS), log-rank test showed no significant differences between age groups regarding FFTF (P = .305) and a superior OS (P = .008) for adolescents. Six-year estimates for FFTF and OS were 80% and 94%, respectively, for adolescents and 80% and 91%, respectively, for young adults. After adjustment for other predictive factors, Cox regression analysis revealed age as a significant predictor for OS (P = .004), with a higher mortality risk for young adults. Secondary malignancies were more common in young adults (P = .037). CONCLUSION Outcome of adolescent and young adult patients treated within GHSG study protocols is comparable. These data suggest that adult treatment protocols exhibit a safe and effective treatment option for adolescent patients with HL. However, longer follow-up, including assessment of late toxicity, is necessary for final conclusions. PMID:19901121

  13. Chicago Healthy Aging Study: Objectives and Design

    PubMed Central

    Pirzada, Amber; Reid, Kathryn; Kim, Daniel; Garside, Daniel B.; Lu, Brandon; Vu, Thanh-Huyen T.; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.; Zee, Phyllis; Liu, Kiang; Stamler, Jeremiah; Daviglus, Martha L.

    2013-01-01

    Investigators in the Chicago Healthy Aging Study (CHAS) reexamined 1,395 surviving participants aged 65–84 years (28% women) from the Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry (CHA) 1967–1973 cohort whose cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profiles were originally ascertained at ages 25–44 years. CHAS investigators reexamined 421 participants who were low-risk (LR) at baseline and 974 participants who were non-LR at baseline. LR was defined as having favorable levels of 4 major CVD risk factors: serum total cholesterol level <200 mg/dL and no use of cholesterol-lowering medication; blood pressure 120/≤80 mm Hg and no use of antihypertensive medication; no current smoking; and no history of diabetes or heart attack. While the potential of LR status in overcoming the CVD epidemic is being recognized, the long-term association of LR with objectively measured health in older age has not been examined. It is hypothesized that persons who were LR in 1967–1973 and have survived to older age will have less clinical and subclinical CVD, lower levels of inflammatory markers, and better physical performance/functioning and sleep quality. Here we describe the rationale, objectives, design, and implementation of this longitudinal epidemiologic study, compare baseline and follow-up characteristics of participants and nonparticipants, and highlight the feasibility of reexamining study participants after an extended period postbaseline with minimal interim contact. PMID:23669655

  14. Patterns and predictors of sexual function after liver donation: The Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort study.

    PubMed

    DiMartini, Andrea F; Dew, Mary Amanda; Butt, Zeeshan; Simpson, Mary Ann; Ladner, Daniela P; Smith, Abigail R; Hill-Callahan, Peg; Gillespie, Brenda W

    2015-05-01

    Although sexual functioning is an important facet of a living donor's quality of life, it has not received an extensive evaluation in this population. Using data from the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study, we examined donor sexual functioning across the donation process from the predonation evaluation to 3 months and 1 year after donation. Donors (n = 208) and a comparison group of nondonors (n = 155) completed self-reported surveys with specific questions on sexual desire, satisfaction, orgasm, and (for men) erectile function. Across the 3 time points, donor sexual functioning was lower at the evaluation phase and 3 months after donation versus 1 year after donation. In the early recovery period, abdominal pain was associated with difficulty reaching orgasm [odds ratio (OR), 3.98; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.30-12.16], concerns over appearance were associated with lower sexual desire (OR, 4.14; 95% CI, 1.02-16.79), and not feeling back to normal was associated with dissatisfaction with sexual life (OR, 3.58; 95% CI, 1.43-8.99). Efforts to educate donors before the surgery and prepare them for the early recovery phase may improve recovery and reduce distress regarding sexual functioning. PMID:25779554

  15. Dyslexia and psychodynamics: A case study of a dyslexic adult.

    PubMed

    Migden, S D

    1990-01-01

    The interaction between dyslexia and its secondary emotional problems, especially those arising from unproductive defenses, is illustrated in the history and successful treatment of an adult dyslexic male. At the start of treatment, the 33-year-old subject was illiterate, despite an average IQ and a history of many previous educational and therapeutic interventions. Psychological problems, including low self-esteem, alcohol abuse, temper outbursts, and poor relationships with women were seen as largely secondary to the subject's learning problem. A review of the treatment, consisting of remediation concurrent with psychodynamic psychotherapy, reveals specific ways in which these emotional problems hindered educational efforts, as well as ways in which their exploration and resolution in psychotherapy helped the remediation. Similarly, ways in which the subject's learning problem contributed to the development of his emotional problems are discussed. Finally, with reference to the psychoanalytic concept of sublimation, the relationship between improvement in the subject's reading skill and improvement in his impulse control is described. PMID:24233629

  16. Genetic determinants of bone mass in adults. A twin study.

    PubMed Central

    Pocock, N A; Eisman, J A; Hopper, J L; Yeates, M G; Sambrook, P N; Eberl, S

    1987-01-01

    The relative importance of genetic factors in determining bone mass in different parts of the skeleton is poorly understood. Lumbar spine and proximal femur bone mineral density and forearm bone mineral content were measured by photon absorptiometry in 38 monozygotic and 27 dizygotic twin pairs. Bone mineral density was significantly more highly correlated in monozygotic than in dizygotic twins for the spine and proximal femur and in the forearm of premenopausal twin pairs, which is consistent with significant genetic contributions to bone mass at all these sites. The lesser genetic contribution to proximal femur and distal forearm bone mass compared with the spine suggests that environmental factors are of greater importance in the aetiology of osteopenia of the hip and wrist. This is the first demonstration of a genetic contribution to bone mass of the spine and proximal femur in adults and confirms similar findings of the forearm. Furthermore, bivariate analysis suggested that a single gene or set of genes determines bone mass at all sites. PMID:3624485

  17. Creating an Effective Educational Environment for Adult Learners: A Qualitative, Multi-Case Study of Off-Campus Center Administrator's Use of Invitational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight, Carolyn P.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative, multi-case study was designed to examine off-campus centers and their administrators in creating an effective learning environment for adult learners. Serving as the conceptual framework, invitational leadership theory is a holistic approach which nurtures the belief that everyone is intrinsically motivated and it is the leaders'…

  18. Using Tic-Tac Software to Reduce Anxiety-Related Behaviour in Adults with Autism and Learning Difficulties during Waiting Periods: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campillo, Cristina; Herrera, Gerardo; Remírez de Ganuza, Conchi; Cuesta, José L.; Abellán, Raquel; Campos, Arturo; Navarro, Ignacio; Sevilla, Javier; Pardo, Carlos; Amati, Fabián

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in the perception of time and processing of changes across time are commonly observed in individuals with autism. This pilot study evaluated the efficacy of the use of the software tool Tic-Tac, designed to make time visual, in three adults with autism and learning difficulties. This research focused on applying the tool in waiting…

  19. Effects of physical activity on health status in older adults. II. Intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Buchner, D M; Beresford, S A; Larson, E B; LaCroix, A Z; Wagner, E H

    1992-01-01

    This review has focused on a specific part of the relationship of exercise to health. The overall evidence supporting the health benefits of exercise is substantial and has been critically reviewed recently (18, 94). Thus, the United States Preventive Services Task Force recommends that all adults exercise regularly (94). The conclusions summarized below regarding older adults do not affect this basic recommendation. There is solid evidence that exercise can improve measures of fitness in older adults, particularly strength and aerobic capacity. These exercise effects occur in chronically ill adults, as well as in healthy adults. Because physical fitness is a determinant of functional status, it is logical to ask whether exercise can prevent or improve impairments in functional status in older adults. The evidence that exercise improves functional status is promising, but inconclusive. Problems with existing studies include a lack of randomized controlled trials, a lack of evidence that effects of exercise can be sustained over long periods of time, inadequate statistical power, and failure to target physically unfit individuals. Existing studies suggest that exercise may produce improvements in gait and balance. Arthritis patients may experience long-term functional status benefits from exercise, including improved mobility and decreased pain symptoms. Nonrandomized trials suggest exercise promotes bone mineral density and thereby decreases fracture risk. Recent studies have generally concluded that short-term exercise does not improve cognitive function. Yet the limited statistical power of these studies does not preclude what may be a modest, but functionally meaningful, effect of exercise on cognition. Future research, beyond correcting methodologic deficiencies in existing studies, should systematically study how functional status effects of exercise vary with the type, intensity, and duration of exercise. It should address issues in recruiting functionally

  20. Zanamivir for influenza in adults and children: systematic review of clinical study reports and summary of regulatory comments

    PubMed Central

    Onakpoya, Igho; Thompson, Matthew; Spencer, Elizabeth A; Jones, Mark; Jefferson, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe the potential benefits and harms of zanamivir. Design Systematic review of clinical study reports of randomised placebo controlled trials and regulatory information Data sources Clinical study reports, trial registries, electronic databases, regulatory archives, and correspondence with manufacturers. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomised placebo controlled trials in adults and children who had confirmed or suspected exposure to natural influenza. Main outcome measures Time to first alleviation of symptoms, influenza outcomes and complications, admissions to hospital, and adverse events in the intention to treat (ITT) population. Results We included 28 trials in stage 1 (judgment of appropriate study design) and 26 in stage 2 (formal analysis). For treatment of adults, zanamivir reduced the time to first alleviation of symptoms of influenza-like illness by 0.60 days (95% confidence interval 0.39 to 0.81, P<0.001, I2=9%), which equates to an average 14.4 hours’ reduction, or a 10% reduction in mean duration of symptoms from 6.6 days to 6.0 days. Time to first alleviation of symptoms was shorter in all participants when any relief drugs were allowed compared with no use. Zanamivir did not reduce the risk of self reported investigator mediated pneumonia (risk difference 0.17%, −0.73% to 0.70%) or radiologically confirmed pneumonia (−0.06%, −6.56% to 2.11%) in adults. The effect on pneumonia in children was also not significant (0.56%, −1.64% to 1.04%). There was no significant effect on otitis media or sinusitis in both adults and children, with only a small effect noted for bronchitis in adults (1.80%, 0.65% to 2.80%), but not in children. There were no data to assess effects on admissions in adults and children. Zanamivir tended to be well tolerated. In zanamivir prophylaxis studies, symptomatic influenza in individuals was significantly reduced (1.98%, (0.98% to 2.54%); reducing event rates from 3.26% to 1.27%, which

  1. Is Social Capital a Determinant of Oral Health among Older Adults? Findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Rouxel, Patrick; Tsakos, Georgios; Demakakos, Panayotes; Zaninotto, Paola; Chandola, Tarani; Watt, Richard Geddie

    2015-01-01

    There are a number of studies linking social capital to oral health among older adults, although the evidence base mainly relies on cross-sectional study designs. The possibility of reverse causality is seldom discussed, even though oral health problems could potentially lead to lower social participation. Furthermore, few studies clearly distinguish between the effects of different dimensions of social capital on oral health. The objective of the study was to examine the longitudinal associations between individual social capital and oral health among older adults. We analyzed longitudinal data from the 3rd and 5th waves of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Structural social capital was operationalized using measures of social participation, and volunteering. Number of close ties and perceived emotional support comprised the functional dimension of social capital. Oral health measures were having no natural teeth (edentate vs. dentate), self-rated oral health and oral health-related quality of life. Time-lag and autoregressive models were used to explore the longitudinal associations between social capital and oral health. We imputed all missing data, using multivariate imputation by chained equations. We found evidence of bi-directional longitudinal associations between self-rated oral health, volunteering and functional social capital. Functional social capital was a strong predictor of change in oral health-related quality of life – the adjusted odds ratio of reporting poor oral health-related quality of life was 1.75 (1.33–2.30) for older adults with low vs. high social support. However in the reverse direction, poor oral health-related quality of life was not associated with changes in social capital. This suggests that oral health may not be a determinant of social capital. In conclusion, social capital may be a determinant of subjective oral health among older adults rather than edentulousness, despite many cross-sectional studies on the

  2. Mortality from treatable illnesses in marginally housed adults: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Andrea A; Vila-Rodriguez, Fidel; Leonova, Olga; Langheimer, Verena; Lang, Donna J; Barr, Alasdair M; Procyshyn, Ric M; Smith, Geoffrey N; Schultz, Krista; Buchanan, Tari; Krausz, Michael; Montaner, Julio S; MacEwan, G William; Rauscher, Alexander; Panenka, William J; Thornton, Allen E; Honer, William G

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Socially disadvantaged people experience greater risk for illnesses that may contribute to premature death. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of treatable illnesses on mortality among adults living in precarious housing. Design A prospective cohort based in a community sample. Setting A socially disadvantaged neighbourhood in Vancouver, Canada. Participants Adults (N=371) living in single room occupancy hotels or recruited from the Downtown Community Court and followed for median 3.8 years. Main outcome measures Participants were assessed for physical and mental illnesses for which treatment is currently available. We compared cohort mortality rates with 2009 Canadian rates. Left-truncated Cox proportional hazards modelling with age as the time scale was used to assess risk factors for earlier mortality. Results During 1269 person-years of observation, 31/371 (8%) of participants died. Compared with age-matched and sex-matched Canadians, the standardised mortality ratio was 8.29 (95% CI 5.83 to 11.79). Compared with those that had cleared the virus, active hepatitis C infection was a significant predictor for hepatic fibrosis adjusting for alcohol dependence and age (OR=2.96, CI 1.37 to 7.08). Among participants <55 years of age, psychosis (HR=8.12, CI 1.55 to 42.47) and hepatic fibrosis (HR=13.01, CI 3.56 to 47.57) were associated with earlier mortality. Treatment rates for these illnesses were low (psychosis: 32%, hepatitis C virus: 0%) compared with other common disorders (HIV: 57%, opioid dependence: 61%) in this population. Conclusions Hepatic fibrosis and psychosis are associated with increased mortality in people living in marginal conditions. Timely diagnosis and intervention could reduce the high mortality in marginalised inner city populations. PMID:26297373

  3. Associations Between Vitamin D Status and Pain in Older Adults: The Invecchiare in Chianti Study

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Gregory E.; Shardell, Michelle; Miller, Ram R.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Guralnik, Jack; Cherubini, Antonio; Lauretani, Fulvio; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine cross-sectional associations between vitamin D status and musculoskeletal pain and whether they differ by sex. DESIGN Population-based study of persons living in the Chianti geographic area (Tuscany, Italy). SETTING Community. PARTICIPANTS Nine hundred fifty-eight persons (aged ≥65) selected from city registries of Greve and Bagno a Ripoli. MEASUREMENTS Pain was categorized as mild or no pain in the lower extremities and back; moderate to severe back pain, no lower extremity pain; moderate to severe lower extremity pain, no back pain; and moderate to severe lower extremity and back pain (dual region). Vitamin D was measured according to radioimmunoassay, and deficiency was defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) less than 25 nmol/L. RESULTS The mean age ± standard deviation was 75.1 ± 7.3 for women and 73.9 ± 6.8 for men. Fifty-eight percent of women had at least moderate pain in some location, compared with 27% of men. After adjusting for potential confounders, vitamin D deficiency was not associated with lower extremity pain or dual-region pain, although it was associated with a significantly higher prevalence of at least moderate back pain without lower extremity pain in women (odds ratio = 1.96, 95% confidence interval = 1.01–3.59) but not in men. CONCLUSION Lower concentrations of 25(OH)D are associated with significant back pain in older women but not men. Because vitamin D deficiency and chronic pain are fairly prevalent in older adults, these findings suggest it may be worthwhile to query older adults about their pain and screen older women with significant back pain for vitamin D deficiency. PMID:18331295

  4. Oral health status among long-term hospitalized adults: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Yavnai, Nirit; Zini, Avi

    2014-01-01

    Background. Many Long-Term Care (LTC) institutionalized patients are the most frail and functionally dependent among the geriatric population and have significant oral health disparities.They often suffer from dental neglect due to limited access to appropriate professional dental care. These patients have chronic health situations and are treated with medications, which increase their risk of oral diseases. Despite the growth in elderly population in Israel, there is insufficient data regarding their oral health status and treatment needs. Objective. To describe the oral health status of the LTC hospitalized adults in a geriatric and psychiatric hospital in Israel. Methods. Data was recorded from LTC hospitalized adults with a physical and/or mental disabilities in a cross-sectional research design, which included general health anamnesis and clinical oral examination. Variables included gender, medicines, oral hygiene (OH), using dentures, number of caries lesions and residual teeth. Univariate analyses included Pearson χ2 and t-test analyses. Multivariate analyses included logistic and linear regressions while the outcome variables were categorical OH index and number of carious cavitations, number of residual teeth and carious teeth percentage. Results. 153 participants were included in the study with a mean age of 65.03 ± 18.67 years. 31.3% of the patients were edentulous, and only 14% had partial or full dentures. Females had a significantly higher number of caries cavitation than males (P = 0.044). The number of caries cavitation was higher among patients with poor OH (P < 0.001) and when taking Clonazepam (P = 0.018). Number of residual teeth was higher in the fair OH group (P < 0.001). Carious teeth percentage was higher among the poor OH group (P < 0.001). PMID:24949240

  5. Design study status of compact containment BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Heki, H.; Nakamaru, M.; Kuroki, M.; Kojima, Y.; Arai, K.; Tahara, M.; Hoshi, T.

    2006-07-01

    The reactor concept considered in this paper has a relatively mid/small power output, a compact containment and a simplified BWR configuration with comprehensive safety features. The Japan Atomic Power Company has been taking initiative in developing the concept of the Compact Containment Boiling Water Reactor (CCR). The CCR., which is being developed with matured BWR technologies together with innovative systems/components, is expected to prove attractive in the world energy markets due to its flexibility in regard to energy demands and site conditions, its high potential for reducing investment risk and its safety features facilitating public acceptance. The flexibility is achieved by CCR's relatively mid/small power output of 400 MWe class and capability of long operating cycle (refueling intervals). CCR is expected to be attractive from view point of investment due to its simplification/innovation in design such as natural circulation core cooling with the bottom located short core, upper entry control rod drives (CRDs) and simplified safety system with high pressure resistible containment concept. The natural circulation core eliminates recirculation pumps and the maintenance of such pumps. The upper entry CRDs enable a simplified safety system followed by in-vessel retention (IVR) capability with the compact primary containment vessel (PCV). The safety features mainly consist of large water inventory above the core without large penetration of RPV below the top of the core height, passive cooling system by isolation condenser (IC). The large inventory increases the system response time in the case of design-base accidents, including loss of coolant accidents. The IC suppresses PCV pressure by steam condensation without any AC power. Cooling the molten core inside the RPV if the core should be damaged by loss of core coolability could attain the IVR. Further core design study has been carried out taking into account compact reactor size and reduction of fuel

  6. Age estimation by modified Demirjian's method (2004) and its applicability in Tibetan young adults: A digital panoramic study

    PubMed Central

    Bijjaragi, Shobha C; Sangle, Varsha A; Saraswathi, FK; Patil, Veerendra S; Ashwini Rani, SR; Bapure, Sunil K

    2015-01-01

    Context: Estimation of the age is a procedure adopted by anthropologists, archeologists and forensic scientists. Different methods have been undertaken. However none of them meet the standards as Demirjian's method since 1973. Various researchers have applied this method, in both original and modified form (Chaillet and Demirjian in 2004) in different ethnic groups and the results obtained were not satisfactory. Aims: To determine the applicability and accuracy of modified Demirjian's method of dental age estimation (AE) in 8–18 year old Tibetan young adults to evaluate the interrelationship between dental and chronological age and the reliability between intra- and inter observer relationship. Settings and Design: Clinical setting and computerized design. Subjects and Methods: A total of 300 Tibetan young adults with an age range from 8 to 18 years were recruited in the study. Digital panoramic radiographs (DPRs) were evaluated as per the modified Demirjian's method (2004). Statistical Analysis Used: Pearson correlation, paired t-test, linear regression analysis. Results: Inter -and intraobserver reliability revealed a strong agreement. A positive and strong association was found between chronological age and estimated dental age (r = 0.839) with P < 0.01. Modified Demirjian method (2004) overestimated the age by 0.04 years (2.04 months)in Tibetan young adults. Conclusions: Results suggest that, the modified Demirjian method of AE is not suitable for Tibetan young adults. Further studies: With larger sample size and comparision with different methods of AE in a given population would be an interesting area for future research. PMID:26097317

  7. HEALTHY study rationale, design and methods

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The HEALTHY primary prevention trial was designed and implemented in response to the growing numbers of children and adolescents being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The objective was to moderate risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Modifiable risk factors measured were indicators of adiposity and glycemic dysregulation: body mass index ≥85th percentile, fasting glucose ≥5.55 mmol l-1 (100 mg per 100 ml) and fasting insulin ≥180 pmol l-1 (30 μU ml-1). A series of pilot studies established the feasibility of performing data collection procedures and tested the development of an intervention consisting of four integrated components: (1) changes in the quantity and nutritional quality of food and beverage offerings throughout the total school food environment; (2) physical education class lesson plans and accompanying equipment to increase both participation and number of minutes spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; (3) brief classroom activities and family outreach vehicles to increase knowledge, enhance decision-making skills and support and reinforce youth in accomplishing goals; and (4) communications and social marketing strategies to enhance and promote changes through messages, images, events and activities. Expert study staff provided training, assistance, materials and guidance for school faculty and staff to implement the intervention components. A cohort of students were enrolled in sixth grade and followed to end of eighth grade. They attended a health screening data collection at baseline and end of study that involved measurement of height, weight, blood pressure, waist circumference and a fasting blood draw. Height and weight were also collected at the end of the seventh grade. The study was conducted in 42 middle schools, six at each of seven locations across the country, with 21 schools randomized to receive the intervention and 21 to act as controls (data collection activities only). Middle school was the unit of sample size and

  8. Impact of adiposity on cardiac structure in adult life: the childhood determinants of adult health (CDAH) study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We have examined the association between adiposity and cardiac structure in adulthood, using a life course approach that takes account of the contribution of adiposity in both childhood and adulthood. Methods The Childhood Determinants of Adult Health study (CDAH) is a follow-up study of 8,498 children who participated in the 1985 Australian Schools Health and Fitness Survey (ASHFS). The CDAH follow-up study included 2,410 participants who attended a clinic examination. Of these, 181 underwent cardiac imaging and provided complete data. The measures were taken once when the children were aged 9 to 15 years, and once in adult life, aged 26 to 36 years. Results There was a positive association between adult left ventricular mass (LVM) and childhood body mass index (BMI) in males (regression coefficient (β) 0.41; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.14 to 0.67; p = 0.003), and females (β = 0.53; 95% CI: 0.34 to 0.72; p < 0.001), and with change in BMI from childhood to adulthood (males: β = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.51; p < 0.001, females: β = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.20 to 0.58; p < 0.001), after adjustment for confounding factors (age, fitness, triglyceride levels and total cholesterol in adulthood). After further adjustment for known potential mediating factors (systolic BP and fasting plasma glucose in adulthood) the relationship of LVM with childhood BMI (males: β = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.19 to 0.71; p = 0.001, females: β = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.29 to 0.68; p < 0.001) and change in BMI (males: β = 0.26; 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.49; p = 0.02, females: β = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.20 to 0.59; p < 0.001) did not change markedly. Conclusions Adiposity and increased adiposity from childhood to adulthood appear to have a detrimental effect on cardiac structure. PMID:24980215

  9. Finger exercise with keyboard playing in adults with cerebral palsy: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Chong, Hyun Ju; Cho, Sung-Rae; Jeong, Eunju; Kim, Soo Ji

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of Therapeutic Instrument Music Performance (TIMP) for fine motor exercises in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Individuals with CP (n = 5) received a total of twelve, 30-min TIMP sessions, two days per week for six to nine weeks. Pre- and post-Music Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) data were used as a measure of hand function. Pre-velocity was significantly different from the normative data obtained from typical adults (n = 20); however, post-velocity did not yield significance, specifically in the second and fifth fingers, indicating improvement in hand function for the adults with cerebral palsy. The finding implies that TIMP using keyboard playing may effectively improve manual dexterity and velocity of finger movement. Based on these results, future program development of instrumental playing for adults with CP is called for to enhance both their independent living skills and quality of life. PMID:24278895

  10. Design of the Neuro-ECAT: A high-resolution, high efficiency positron tomography for imaging the adult head or infant torso

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.W.; Burgiss, S.G.; Burke, M.R.; Crabtree, M.C.; Hoffman, E.J.; Keyser, R.M.; Phelps, M.E.

    1981-04-01

    The Neuro-ECAT scanner is a positron emission tomograph designed for high resolution cross-sectional imaging of the adult human head, or the complete torso of a child or small animal. The Neuro-ECAT scanner performs both rectilinear and tomographic scans, in both transmission and emission modes. There are three detector planes, producing five images. Each detector plane contains 88 bismuth germanate detectors, arranged in an octagonal array of 11 detectors per bank. Retained and electrically operated shadow shields provide two choices of reconstructed tomographic resolution, nominally 8.0 and 10.5 mm. Interplane septa, also retained and electrically operated, may be inserted between the detector planes for low noise, highly quantitative measurements, or moved aside for high efficiency scanning of low activity levels. The paper presents the Neuro-ECAT scanner design criteria and a description of the scanner. Data from phantom studies are presented to illustrate system performance.

  11. Adult Compacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This bulletin focuses on adult compacts, three-way agreements among employers, potential employees, and trainers to provide the right kind of quality training to meet the employers' requirements. Part 1 is an executive summary of a report of the Adult Compacts Project, which studied three adult compacts in Birmingham and Loughborough, England, and…

  12. Study protocol: longitudinal study of the transition of young people with complex health needs from child to adult health services

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Young people with complex health needs have impairments that can limit their ability to carry out day-to-day activities. As well as coping with other developmental transitions, these young people must negotiate the transfer of their clinical care from child to adult services. The process of transition may not be smooth and both health and social outcomes may suffer. Increasingly, policy-makers have recognised the need to ensure a smoother transition between children’s and adult services, with processes that are holistic, individualised, and person-centred; however, there is little outcome data to support proposed models of care. This study aims to identify the features of transitional care that are potentially effective and efficient for young people with complex health needs making their transition. Methods/Design Longitudinal cohort study. 450 young people aged 14 years to 18 years 11 months (with autism spectrum disorder and an additional mental health problem, cerebral palsy or diabetes) will be followed through their transition from child to adult services and will contribute data at baseline, 12, 24 and 36 months. We will collect data on: health and wellbeing outcomes (participation, quality of life, satisfaction with services, generic health status (EQ-5D-Y) and condition specific measure of disease control or management); exposure to proposed beneficial features of services (such as having a key worker, appropriate involvement of parents); socio-economic characteristics of the sample; use of condition-related health and personal social services; preferences for the characteristics of transitional care. We will us regression techniques to explore how outcomes vary by exposure to service features and by characteristics of the young people. These data will populate a decision-analytic model comparing the costs and benefits of potential alternative ways of organising transition services. In order to better understand mechanisms and aid

  13. The influence of age on lip-line cant in adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung Hwan; Kim, Jung Suk; Kim, Cheol Soon

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to assess the direction and degree of lip-line cant in Korean adult orthodontic patients and to identify the effects of sex and age on changes in the cant severity. Methods In this cross-sectional retrospective study, lip-line cant was measured in the frontal photographs of 585 Korean patients (92 men and 493 women) aged 18-48 years. The outcome variables (direction and degree of lip-line cant) were assessed in terms of predictor variables (sex, age, sagittal skeletal relationship, and menton deviation angle). Results The direction of lip-line cant did not differ according to sex, age, or skeletal classification. Patients had 1.6° of lip-line cant on average before orthodontic treatment. Middle-aged adults displayed a significant trend toward a lower degree of lip-line cant compared to younger adults (p < 0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the degree of lip-line cant was weakly negatively correlated with age (p < 0.001). Conclusions While the direction of lip-line cant did not differ according to the parameters explored here, the degree of cant was correlated with age in adults, independent of menton deviation. Specifically, middle-aged adults tended to display significantly lower degrees of lip-line cant than did younger adults. PMID:27019822

  14. Case studies in alternative landfill design

    SciTech Connect

    Barbagallo, J.C.; Druback, G.W.

    1995-12-31

    In the past, landfills or {open_quotes}dumps{close_quotes} were not highly regulated and typically did not require a detailed engineering design. However, landfills are no longer just holes in the ground, and landfill closures entail more than just spreading some dirt on top of piles of garbage. Today landfill design is a highly regulated, complex design effort that integrates soils and geosynthetics into systems aimed at providing long-term protection for the environment and surrounding communities. Integrating these complex design systems into the available landscape and exising landfill configuration often requires the designer go beyond the {open_quotes}typical{close_quotes} landfill and landfill closure design to satisfy regulations and provide cost-effective solutions.

  15. Proverb explanation through the lifespan: a developmental study of adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Nippold, M A; Uhden, L D; Schwarz, I E

    1997-04-01

    A proverb explanation task consisting of 24 low-familiarity expressions was administered to 353 individuals ranging in age from 13 through 79 years. Half the proverbs were composed of concrete nouns ("A caged bird longs for the clouds") and half were composed of abstract nouns ("Humility often gains more than pride"). The task was designed to examine how patterns of language growth in adults compare to those observed in adolescents. It also served as a tool for examining the "metasemantic hypothesis," the view that complex semantic units, such as proverbs, are learned through active analysis of the words they contain. Performance on the task improved markedly during adolescence and into early adulthood. It reached a plateau during the 20s, remained stable during the 30s, 40s, and 50s, and began a slight decline during the 60s that reached statistical significance during the 70s. Concrete proverbs were easier to explain than abstract proverbs for adolescents and for adults in their 20s, but the two proverb types did not differ for adults in their 30s and older. Thus, the metasemantic hypothesis was supported for adolescents and young adults. For the adults, performance on the proverb explanation task was related to the number of years of formal education they had completed. PMID:9130197

  16. Development, Demonstration, and Dissemination: Case Studies of Selected Specific Projects in Adult Basic Education. Occasional Paper No. 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beder, Harold W.; Darkenwald, Gordon G.

    In an effort to determine the effectiveness of 309 (b) projects (experimental demonstration projects in Adult Basic Education funded through the Adult Education Act), selected projects were used as the basis for several case studies and evaluated. Project RFD was never intended to be utilized by Adult Basic Education (ABE) programs but instead…

  17. Association of Calcium Intake, Dairy Product Consumption with Overweight Status in Young Adults (1995-1996): The Bogalusa Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective is to examine the association between calcium intake and dairy product consumption with overweight and obesity in young adults. The sample used in this study consisted of 1306 young adults, ages 19–38 years, who participated in the 1995–1996 young adult survey. Analysis was performed w...

  18. A Study of Opinions and Preferences Regarding the Adult Education Program of the Brandywine (Michigan) School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitsko, Suzanne; And Others

    A compilation and categorization of adult and child interests in the various educational activities and programs of the Brandywine School District (Michigan), the study has implications for improvement of the Brandywine adult education program. A lack of participation in the adult education program has created a need for revision. A questionnaire…

  19. Literacy Works: Moving from the Margins to the Mainstream. Report of the Task Force To Study Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    A task force studied adult education services in Maryland. The task force heard presentations from a wide range of stakeholders, including adult learners, professional associations, administrators, practitioners, and educational researchers. The presentations confirmed that the need for adult education services in Maryland is extensive and the…

  20. The First Five Years: National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy, 1996-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy, Boston, MA.

    Since its establishment in 1996, the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) has actively conducted and disseminated research to help build effective, cost- efficient adult education and literacy programs for adults who have low literacy and math skills, limited English skills, and/or no high school diploma. Funded as…

  1. Design study of the storage ring EUTERPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Boling; Botman, J. I. M.; Timmermans, C. J.; Hagedoorn, H. L.

    1992-05-01

    At present the 400 MeV electron storage ring EUTERPE is being constructed at the Eindhoven University of Technology. It is a university project set up for studies of charged particle beam dynamics and applications of synchroton radiation, and for the education of students in these fields. The design of the ring is described in this paper. Considering the requirements of users in different fields, a lattice based on a so-called triple bend achromat structure with a high flexibility has been chosen. With this lattice, different optical options, including the HBSB (high brightness, small beam), the SBL (short bunch length) and the HLF (high light flux) modes can be realized. A small emittance of 7 nm rad and a short bunch length of the order of several mm can be achieved. In the first phase the synchrotron radiation in the UV and XUV region (the critical wavelength is 8.3 nm) will be provided from the regular dipole magnets. Later on, a 10 T wiggler magnet and other special inserters will be added, and other applications and beam dynamics studies will be feasible. Bending magnets are of the parallel faced C configuration. The effective aperture of the vacuum chamber is 2.3 cm (vertical) in the bending magnets and 4.7 cm elsewhere with a working vacuum condition of 10-9 Torr. Collective effects have been studied initially. First calculations indicate that a lifetime of several hours, influenced by the Touschek effect and residual gas scattering will be achievable for a 200 mA beam in the HLF mode for the standard rf parameters. A 70 MeV racetrack microtron will serve as injector for the ring.

  2. Usability Study of a Computer-Based Self-Management System for Older Adults with Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Da

    2012-01-01

    Background Usability can influence patients’ acceptance and adoption of a health information technology. However, little research has been conducted to study the usability of a self-management health care system, especially one geared toward elderly patients. Objective This usability study evaluated a new computer-based self-management system interface for older adults with chronic diseases, using a paper prototype approach. Methods Fifty older adults with different chronic diseases participated. Two usability evaluation methods were involved: (1) a heuristics evaluation and (2) end-user testing with a think-aloud testing method, audio recording, videotaping, and interviewing. A set of usability metrics was employed to determine the overall system usability, including task incompletion rate, task completion time, frequency of error, frequency of help, satisfaction, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use. Interviews were used to elicit participants’ comments on the system design. The quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the qualitative data were analyzed for content. Results The participants were able to perform the predesigned self-management tasks with the current system design and they expressed mostly positive responses about the perceived usability measures regarding the system interface. However, the heuristics evaluation, performance measures, and interviews revealed a number of usability problems related to system navigation, information search and interpretation, information presentation, and readability. Design recommendations for further system interface modifications were discussed. Conclusions This study verified the usability of the self-management system developed for older adults with chronic diseases. Also, we demonstrated that our usability evaluation approach could be used to quickly and effectively identify usability problems in a health care information system at an early stage of the system development

  3. Perspectives toward the stereotype production method for public symbol design: a case study of novice designers.

    PubMed

    Ng, Annie W Y; Siu, Kin Wai Michael; Chan, Chetwyn C H

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the practices and attitudes of novice designers toward user involvement in public symbol design at the conceptual design stage, i.e. the stereotype production method. Differences between male and female novice designers were examined. Forty-eight novice designers (24 male, 24 female) were asked to design public symbol referents based on suggestions made by a group of users in a previous study and provide feedback with regard to the design process. The novice designers were receptive to the adoption of user suggestions in the conception of the design, but tended to modify the pictorial representations generated by the users to varying extents. It is also significant that the male and female novice designers appeared to emphasize different aspects of user suggestions, and the female novice designers were more positive toward these suggestions than their male counterparts. The findings should aid the optimization of the stereotype production method for user-involved symbol design. PMID:22632980

  4. Adolescent Tobacco and Cannabis Use: Young Adult Outcomes from the Ontario Child Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study examines the longitudinal associations between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and young adult functioning. Methods: Data for analysis come from the Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS), a prospective study of child health, psychiatric disorder and adolescent substance use in a general population sample that began in 1983,…

  5. Foreign Language Pronunciation Skills and Musical Aptitude: A Study of Finnish Adults with Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milovanov, Riia; Pietila, Paivi; Tervaniemi, Mari; Esquef, Paulo A. A.

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine second language production and discrimination skills in the light of musical aptitude. Our study was conducted in university settings in south-western Finland. English was used as a model for the second language due to its popularity among young adults. There were three types of tests used in this study: a…

  6. The Development of Talent in Young Adults with Williams Syndrome: An Exploratory Study of Ecological Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Harry

    2004-01-01

    This mixed methods study employed comparative, case-study methodology to explore influences affecting the development of musical interests and achievements in eight female and eight male young adults with Williams Syndrome. Components of the "Schoolwide Enrichment Model"; (Renzulli & Reis, 1997b) were used to guide the study. Caregivers completed…

  7. The PACE Study: A randomised clinical trial of cognitive activity (CA) for older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Research evidence from observational studies suggests that cognitive activity reduces the risk of cognitive impairment in later life as well as the rate of cognitive decline of people with dementia. The Promoting Healthy Ageing with Cognitive Exercise (PACE) study has been designed to determine whether a cognitive activity intervention decreases the rate of cognitive decline amongst older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods/Design The study will recruit 160 community-dwelling men and women aged 65 years of age or over with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Participants will be randomly allocated to two treatment groups: non-specific education and cognitive activity. The intervention will consist of ten 90-minute sessions delivered twice per week over a period of five weeks. The primary outcome measure of the study is the change from baseline in the total score on the Cambridge Cognitive Score (CAMCOG). Secondary outcomes of interest include changes in memory, attention, executive functions, mood and quality of life. Primary endpoints will be collected 12, 52 and 104 weeks after the baseline assessment. Discussion The proposed project will produce the best available evidence on the merits of increased cognitive activity as a strategy to prevent cognitive decline among older adults with MCI. We anticipate that the results of this study will have implications for the development of evidence-based preventive strategies to reduce the rate of cognitive decline amongst older people at risk of dementia. Trial registration ACTRN12608000556347 PMID:20003398

  8. ‘The blue one takes a battering’ why do young adults with asthma overuse bronchodilator inhalers? A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Sue; Seale, Clive; Griffiths, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Objective Overuse of short-acting bronchodilators is internationally recognised as a marker of poor asthma control, high healthcare use and increased risk of asthma death. Young adults with asthma commonly overuse short-acting bronchodilators. We sought to determine the reasons for overuse of bronchodilator inhalers in a sample of young adults with asthma. Design Qualitative study using a purposive extreme case sample. Setting A large urban UK general practice. Participants Twenty-one adults with moderate asthma, aged 20–32 years. Twelve were high users of short-acting bronchodilators, nine were low users. Results Asthma had a major impact on respondents’ lives, disrupting their childhood, family life and career opportunities. High users of short-acting bronchodilators had adapted poorly to having asthma and expressed anger at the restrictions they experienced. Overuse made sense to them: short-acting bronchodilators were a rapid, effective, cheap ‘quick-fix’ for asthma symptoms. High users had poorer control of asthma and held explanatory models of asthma which emphasised short-term relief via bronchodilation over prevention. Both high and low users held strong views about having to pay for asthma medication, with costs cited as a reason for not purchasing anti-inflammatory inhalers. Conclusions Young adults who were high users of short-acting bronchodilators had adapted poorly to having asthma and had poor asthma control. They gave coherent reasons for overuse. Strategies that might address high bronchodilator use in young adults include improving education to help young people accept and adapt to their illness, reducing stigmatisation and providing free asthma medication to encourage the use of anti-inflammatory inhalers. PMID:23427203

  9. Persisting high prevalence of pneumococcal carriage among HIV-infected adults receiving antiretroviral therapy in Malawi: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Heinsbroek, Ellen; Tafatatha, Terence; Phiri, Amos; Ngwira, Bagrey; Crampin, Amelia C.; Read, Jonathan M.; French, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Objective: HIV-infected adults have high rates of pneumococcal carriage and invasive disease. We investigated the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on pneumococcal carriage in HIV-infected adults prior to infant pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) rollout. Design: Observational cohort study. Methods: We recruited HIV-infected adults newly attending a rural HIV clinic in northern Malawi between 2008 and 2010. Nasopharyngeal samples were taken at baseline and after 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. We compared pneumococcal carriage by ART status using generalized estimated equation models adjusted for CD4+ cell count, sex, seasonality, and other potential confounders. Results: In total, 336 individuals were included, of which 223 individuals started ART during follow-up. Individuals receiving ART had higher pneumococcal carriage than individuals not receiving ART (25.9 vs. 19.8%, P = 0.03) particularly for serotypes not included in PCV13 (16.1 vs. 9.6% P = 0.003). Following adjustment, increased carriage of non-PCV13 serotypes was still observed for individuals on ART, but results for all serotypes were nonsignificant [all serotypes: adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 1.22 (0.95–1.56); non-PCV13 serotypes: aRR 1.72, 95% CI 1.13–2.62]. Conclusion: Pneumococcal carriage in HIV-infected adults in Malawi remained high despite use of ART, consistent with failure of mucosal immune reconstitution in the upper respiratory tract. There was evidence of increased carriage of non-PCV13 serotypes. HIV-infected adults on ART could remain an important reservoir for pneumococcal diversity post infant pneumococcal vaccine introduction. Control of pneumococcal disease in African HIV remains a priority. PMID:26218599

  10. Strategies to recruit and retain older adults in intervention studies: a quantitative comparative study.

    PubMed

    Michelet, Mona; Lund, Anne; Sveen, Unni

    2014-01-01

    Recruitment and retention of participants in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) drawn from the older population is challenging, and studies have shown that poor recruitment and retention may lead to biased samples and results. Several strategies to improve the participation of older adults in research are outlined in the literature. The objective was to identify factors associated with participation in an RCT aiming at preventing depressive symptoms and social isolation in a later phase following a stroke, in an older population living in their homes. Strategies to improve participation were applied in the RCT "Lifestyle intervention for older adults in rehabilitation after stroke: development, implementation and evaluation". Quantitative data collected on participants (n=99) and non-participants (n=56) in the trial were compared using statistical analyses. The findings are in line with earlier studies in that the participants were younger (p=0.01) and received less help in the home (p=0.01) than did non-participants. The results differ from earlier studies in that participants had a higher rate of depressive symptoms (participation rate was 57% with HAD depression scale score 0-2, 61% with score 3-4, 62% with score 5-6 and 79% with a score 7 or above). The findings also illustrate a poorer health-related quality of life among the participants in the role physical domain on Short Form-36 (p=0.01). The results indicate that the use of targeted strategies to enhance participation may lead to a less biased sample as well as the inclusion of more subjects who seem to meet the aims of the intervention. PMID:24698174

  11. Instructional-Design Theory to Guide the Creation of Online Learning Communities for Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Martha M.

    2009-01-01

    The Internet provides a powerful delivery system for learning. With improvements in web-based applications and information technology come new opportunities and challenges for educators to design, develop, and deliver effective instruction. Over the past few years, an increasing amount of research has been devoted to the design of online learning…

  12. Software design studies emphasizing Project LOGOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The results of a research project on the development of computer software are presented. Research funds of $200,000 were expended over a three year period for software design and projects in connection with Project LOGOS (computer-aided design and certification of computing systems). Abstracts of theses prepared during the project are provided.

  13. Heat source reentry vehicle design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    The design details are presented of a flight-type heat source reentry vehicle and heat exchanger compatible with the isotope Brayton power conversion system. The reference reentry vehicle and heat exchanger were modified, orbital and superorbital capability was assessed, and a complete set of detail design layout drawings were provided.

  14. New Study Designs | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention is expanding clinical research beyond standard trial designs to find interventions that may play a role in more than one prevalent disease. | The Division of Cancer Prevention is expanding clinical research beyond standard trial designs to find interventions that may play a role in more than one prevalent disease.

  15. Low vision goggles: optical design studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Ofer; Apter, Boris; Efron, Uzi

    2006-08-01

    Low Vision (LV) due to Age Related Macular Degeneration (AMD), Glaucoma or Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) is a growing problem, which will affect more than 15 million people in the U.S alone in 2010. Low Vision Aid Goggles (LVG) have been under development at Ben-Gurion University and the Holon Institute of Technology. The device is based on a unique Image Transceiver Device (ITD), combining both functions of imaging and Display in a single chip. Using the ITD-based goggles, specifically designed for the visually impaired, our aim is to develop a head-mounted device that will allow the capture of the ambient scenery, perform the necessary image enhancement and processing, and re-direct it to the healthy part of the patient's retina. This design methodology will allow the Goggles to be mobile, multi-task and environmental-adaptive. In this paper we present the optical design considerations of the Goggles, including a preliminary performance analysis. Common vision deficiencies of LV patients are usually divided into two main categories: peripheral vision loss (PVL) and central vision loss (CVL), each requiring different Goggles design. A set of design principles had been defined for each category. Four main optical designs are presented and compared according to the design principles. Each of the designs is presented in two main optical configurations: See-through system and Video imaging system. The use of a full-color ITD-Based Goggles is also discussed.

  16. Shuttle Global Positioning System (GPS) design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsen, P. W.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of oscillator noise on Shuttle Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver performance, GPS navigation system self-test, GPS ground transmitter design to augment shuttle navigation, the effect of ionospheric delay modelling on GPS receiver design, and GPS receiver tracking of Shuttle transient maneuvers were investigated.

  17. A Case Study in CAD Design Automation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Andrew G.; Hartman, Nathan W.

    2011-01-01

    Computer-aided design (CAD) software and other product life-cycle management (PLM) tools have become ubiquitous in industry during the past 20 years. Over this time they have continuously evolved, becoming programs with enormous capabilities, but the companies that use them have not evolved their design practices at the same rate. Due to the…

  18. Monetary costs of agitation in older adults with Alzheimer's disease in the UK: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Stephen; Patel, Nishma; Baio, Gianluca; Kelly, Lynsey; Lewis-Holmes, Elanor; Omar, Rumana Z; Katona, Cornelius; Cooper, Claudia; Livingston, Gill

    2015-01-01

    Objective While nearly half of all people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have agitation symptoms every month, little is known about the costs of agitation in AD. We calculated the monetary costs associated with agitation in older adults with AD in the UK from a National Health Service and personal social services perspective. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting London and the South East Region of the UK (LASER-AD study). Participants 224 people with AD recruited between July 2002 and January 2003 and followed up for 54 months. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome was health and social care costs, including accommodation costs and costs of contacts with health and social care services. Agitation was assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) agitation score. Results After adjustment, health and social care costs varied significantly by agitation, from £29 000 over a 1 year period with no agitation symptoms (NPI agitation score=0) to £57 000 at the most severe levels of agitation (NPI agitation score=12; p=0.01). The mean excess cost associated with agitation per person with AD was £4091 a year, accounting for 12% of the health and social care costs of AD in our data, and equating to £2 billion a year across all people with AD in the UK. Conclusions Agitation in people with AD represents a substantial monetary burden over and above the costs associated with cognitive impairment. PMID:25770235

  19. Congenital amusia: a group study of adults afflicted with a music-specific disorder.

    PubMed

    Ayotte, Julie; Peretz, Isabelle; Hyde, Krista

    2002-02-01

    The condition of congenital amusia, commonly known as tone-deafness, has been described for more than a century, but has received little empirical attention. In the present study, a research effort has been made to document in detail the behavioural manifestations of congenital amusia. A group of 11 adults, fitting stringent criteria of musical disabilities, were examined in a series of tests originally designed to assess the presence and specificity of musical disorders in brain-damaged patients. The results show that congenital amusia is related to severe deficiencies in processing pitch variations. The deficit extends to impairments in music memory and recognition as well as in singing and the ability to tap in time to music. Interestingly, the disorder appears specific to the musical domain. Congenital amusical individuals process and recognize speech, including speech prosody, common environmental sounds and human voices, as well as control subjects. Thus, the present study convincingly demonstrates the existence of congenital amusia as a new class of learning disabilities that affect musical abilities. PMID:11844725

  20. Instructional Design: Case Studies in Communities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keppell, Michael, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Instructional Design: Case Studies in Communities of Practice" documents real-world experiences of instructional designers and staff developers who work in communities of practice. "Instructional Design: Case Studies in Communities of Practice" explains the strategies and heuristics used by instructional designers when working in different…

  1. Dysphoric Adolescents as Young Adults: A Prospective Study of the Psychological Sequelae of Depressed Mood in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjerde, Per F.; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    1998-01-01

    Evaluated the longitudinal implications of age-18 dysphoric mood in 23-year olds using a multidata, multi informant design. Findings indicated that adolescent dysphoric mood was an important predictor of psychological distress in young adults, especially in young adult women, for whom the prospective correlations of adolescent dysphoria were more…

  2. Associations between food groups, dietary patterns, and cardiorespiratory fitness in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study123

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, David R; Lewis, Cora E; Steffen, Lyn M; Sternfeld, Barbara; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Richman, Joshua S

    2013-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated the association between overall diet and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Objective: We aimed to investigate associations of food groups, a diet-quality score, and dietary patterns with CRF in black and white adults. Design: We included 2632 participants aged 38–50 y who attended the year 20 exam of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study and Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Fitness Study (CFS) conducted in 2005–2006. Diet was assessed by using a validated diet history. A dietary score and 2 types of patterns were included as follows: the a priori diet-quality score and meat and fruit-vegetable dietary patterns derived from principal components analysis. CRF was assessed by using a graded exercise treadmill test. Linear regression models regressed the treadmill duration on food groups and dietary scores and patterns overall and in race-sex subgroups. Results: Grains (whole and refined), processed meats, and beverages (coffee, meal-replacement drinks, beer, and wine) were positively associated with the treadmill duration overall; whole fruit (not juices), organ meats, fried meats and fish, and soy and nondairy products were negatively associated. The a priori diet-quality score was positively associated with the duration overall and in all race-sex subgroups (P <0.05) except black men. The meat pattern was negatively associated with the duration in white men and white women only. The fruit-vegetable pattern was positively associated with duration in white women only. Conclusions: Overall, the a priori diet-quality score was positively associated with CRF in this cohort of black and white adults, whereas the meat dietary pattern was negatively associated only in whites. The CARDIA study and CFS were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00005130 and NCT00106457, respectively. PMID:24088719

  3. Intraoperative Neural Response Telemetry and Neural Recovery Function: a Comparative Study between Adults and Children

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Bettina; Hamerschmidt, Rogerio; Wiemes, Gislaine

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Neural response telemetry (NRT) is a method of capturing the action potential of the distal portion of the auditory nerve in cochlear implant (CI) users, using the CI itself to elicit and record the answers. In addition, it can also measure the recovery function of the auditory nerve (REC), that is, the refractory properties of the nerve. It is not clear in the literature whether the responses from adults are the same as those from children. Objective To compare the results of NRT and REC between adults and children undergoing CI surgery. Methods Cross-sectional, descriptive, and retrospective study of the results of NRT and REC for patients undergoing IC at our service. The NRT is assessed by the level of amplitude (microvolts) and REC as a function of three parameters: A (saturation level, in microvolts), t0 (absolute refractory period, in seconds), and tau (curve of the model function), measured in three electrodes (apical, medial, and basal). Results Fifty-two patients were evaluated with intraoperative NRT (26 adults and 26 children), and 24 with REC (12 adults and 12 children). No statistically significant difference was found between intraoperative responses of adults and children for NRT or for REC's three parameters, except for parameter A of the basal electrode. Conclusion The results of intraoperative NRT and REC were not different between adults and children, except for parameter A of the basal electrode. PMID:25992145

  4. Applicability of the International Affective Picture System in Chinese older adults: A validation study.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xianmin; Wang, Dahua

    2016-06-01

    The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) is a standardized tool widely used to induce emotions in psychological studies. The present study examined the reliability and validity of the IAPS in Chinese older adults. A sample consisting of 126 Chinese older adults (86 females; aged 67.3 ± 4.96 years; 13.2 ± 2.75 years of education) was recruited to rate valence and arousal for 942 IAPS pictures. The results showed a satisfactory reliability and validity of the IAPS among these participants. The reliability was supported by high internal consistency and low inter-individual variance of participants' ratings; the validity was supported by high similarities (in rating scores and in the distribution of the pictures in the valence-arousal affective space) and small differences (in mean ratings) between Chinese and German older adults. In conclusion, the study adds supportive evidence to the cross-cultural validity of the IAPS in older adults, and provides a set of normative emotional ratings that could be adopted as a criterion in the selection of emotional pictures in future studies engaging Chinese older adults. Comparison of the IAPS ratings across cultures and ages is also discussed. PMID:27256203

  5. What Can We Learn From Longitudinal Studies of Adult Development?

    PubMed Central

    Schaie, K. Warner

    2005-01-01

    This article distinguishes between normal and pathological aging, provides an interdisciplinary context, and then considers a sample case of cognitive aging. Developmental influences on cognition include the physiological infrastructure, genetic predispositions, and environmental influences. Different types of longitudinal studies are distinguished, and contrasting findings of cross-sectional and longitudinal are examined in the sample case of the Seattle Longitudinal Study. Also considered is the longitudinal context for intervention studies and the role of longitudinal family studies in assessing rate of aging and generational differences in rates of aging. Finally, attention is given to the role of longitudinal studies in the early detection of risk for dementia in advanced age. PMID:16467912

  6. Perfect study, poor evidence: interpretation of biases preceding study design.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, John P A

    2008-07-01

    In the interpretation of research evidence, data that have been accumulated in a specific isolated study are typically examined. However, important biases may precede the study design. A study may be misleading, useless, or even harmful, even though it seems to be perfectly designed, conducted, analyzed, and reported. Some biases pertain to setting the wider research agenda and include poor scientific relevance, minimal clinical utility, or failure to consider prior evidence (non-consideration of prior evidence, biased consideration of prior evidence, or consideration of biased prior evidence). Other biases reflect issues in setting the specific research questions: examples include straw man effects, avoidance of head-to-head comparisons, head-to-head comparisons bypassing demonstration of effectiveness, overpowered studies, unilateral aims (focusing on benefits and neglecting harms), and the approach of the industry towards research as bulk advertisement (including ghost management of the literature). The concerted presence of such biases may have a multiplicative, detrimental impact on the scientific literature. These issues should be considered carefully when interpreting research results. PMID:18582622

  7. [The early maladaptive schemas: a study in adult patients with anxiety disorders].

    PubMed

    Delattre, V; Servant, D; Rusinek, S; Lorette, C; Parquet, P-J; Goudemand, M; Hautekeete, M

    2004-01-01

    The theory of early maladaptive schemas was initiated by Young, who postulated that each pathology is supported by one or several schemas. Adults with anxiety disorders more activate schemas that controls. This hyper activate schemas would go back the childhood. In this study, we measure some cognitive schema's activation, with the Schmidt and al. Questionnaire: this schema's questionnaire measures the dysfunctional schemas in actual way. Our purpose was to compare early maladaptive schema's activation of adults with anxiety disorders and adults healthy. The results indicate that each dysfunctional schema is more significatively activate by the adults with anxiety disorders that adults healthy. He doesn't exist schema typical of anxiety, but just a more important activation of all schemas of adults with -anxiety disorders. All subjects (with anxiety disorder and healthy) activate the schemas in the same order. It would appear that schema who imply an action of subject was more activate. So, in our study, we doesn't observe schema typical of anxiety, as opposed to postulate of Young and Klosko. In fact, in comparison with healthy subjects, all early maladaptive schemas of subjects with anxiety disorders were hypervalent. The order of schema's activation was the same in the two groups, but the activation in the anxious is always more important that in the healthy. All early maladaptive schemas would so hyperactivate in the anxious and a important activation of this schemas in the infancy would predispose to adult's anxious pathology. We consider this research as a preliminary work about early maladaptive schemas. In order to specify the research about schemas in the anxious, il will be interesting to observe this schemas according to different anxious disorders and to study prospectively the evolution of child's schemas. PMID:15235523

  8. Psychotherapy of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults--a pilot study using a structured skills training program.

    PubMed

    Hesslinger, Bernd; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Nyberg, Elisabeth; Dykierek, Petra; Richter, Harald; Berner, Michael; Ebert, Dieter

    2002-08-01

    In clinical practice many adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ask for an additional psychotherapeutic intervention besides the medical therapy. In this paper we present a structured skill training program particularly tailored for adult patients with ADHD. The program is based on the principles of cognitive-behavioral treatment for borderline personality disorder developed by M. Linehan. It was modified to suit the special needs of adult patients with ADHD. In this exploratory pilot study we tested this program in a group setting. The following elements were presented: neurobiology of ADHD, mindfulness, chaos and control, behavior analysis, emotion regulation, depression, medication in ADHD, impulse control, stress management, dependency, ADHD in relationship and self respect. In an open study design patients were assessed clinically using psychometric scales (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Checklist according to DSM-IV, 16 items of the SCL-90-R, Beck-Depression Inventory, visual analogue scale) prior to and following group therapy. This treatment resulted in positive outcomes in that patients improved on all psychometric scales. PMID:12242579

  9. Feasibility Study to Quantify the Auditory and Social Environment of Older Adults using a Digital Language Processor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lingsheng; Vikani, Ami R.; Harris, Gregory C.; Lin, Frank R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility of using a digital language processor (DLP) to objectively quantify the auditory and social environment of older adults. Design Thirty-seven participants aged 64–91 residing in a retirement community were asked to wear a DLP to record their auditory and language environment during one waking day. Recordings were analyzed with specialized software to derive quantitative estimates such as the number of spoken words heard and percent of time spent around meaningful speech versus television/radio. Results Adequate DLP recordings that began before 10 A.M. and lasted for ≥ 10 hours were collected from 24 participants. The mean duration of recording was 13 hours and 13 minutes, and individuals spent a mean of 26.7% (range=4% – 58%) of their waking day near a television or other electronic sounds. The projected mean word count over a maximum of 16 hours was 33,141 with nearly a 14-fold range between the lowest and highest observed values (range=5120 – 77,882). Conclusions High-quality objective data on the auditory environment of older adults can be feasibly measured with the DLP. Findings from this study may guide future studies investigating auditory and language outcomes in older adults. PMID:25122146

  10. Low Life Jacket Use among Adult Recreational Boaters: A Qualitative Study of Risk Perception and Behavior Factors

    PubMed Central

    Quistberg, D. Alex; Bennett, Elizabeth; Quan, Linda; Ebel, Beth E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Life jackets may prevent one in two drowning deaths, however, 85% of recreational boating-related drowning victims in the United States in 2012 did not wear a life jacket. This study explored behavioral factors and strategies to encourage consistent life jacket use among adult recreational boaters. Methods We conducted a qualitative study among boat owners who boat regularly, and explored factors associated with life jacket use by adults and child or adolescent passengers. Sixteen boaters participated in four focus groups. Results Most boaters reported inconsistent use of life jackets, using them only when conditions were poor. Each described episodes of unpredictable boating risk which occurred despite favorable conditions. Most required younger child passengers to wear a life jacket, but reported resistance among older children. Barriers to consistent life jacket use included discomfort and the belief that life jacket use indicated inexperience or poor swimming ability. Participants stated that laws requiring life jacket use would change behavior especially for children. The only demonstrated behavior change among group members was associated with use of inflatable life jacket devices. Conclusions Boating risk is inherently unpredictable; therefore interventions should focus on strategies for increasing consistent use of life jackets. Passage and enforcement of life jacket legislation for older children and adults is likely a promising approach for behavior change. Designing more comfortable, better-fitting, more appealing life jackets will be paramount to encouraging consistent use. PMID:24211559

  11. The relationship between different exercise modes and visuospatial working memory in older adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wei; Wang, Biye; Lu, Yue; Zhu, Qin; Shi, Zhihao

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between different exercise modes and visuospatial working memory in healthy older adults. A cross-sectional design was adopted. A total of 111 healthy older adults were enrolled in the study. They were classified by the exercise-related questionnaire to be in an open-skill group, closed-skill group or sedentary group. In experiment 1, the participants performed a visuospatial working memory task. The results indicated that both closed-skill (p < 0.05) and open-skill (p < 0.01) groups reached a higher accuracy than the sedentary group. Experiment 2 examined whether the exercise-induced benefit of working memory was manifested in passive maintenance or active manipulation of working memory which was assessed by visuospatial short-term memory task and visuospatial mental rotation task, respectively. The results showed that the open-skill (p < 0.01) group was more accurate than the sedentary group in the visuospatial short-term memory task, whereas the group difference in the visuospatial mental rotation task was not significant. These findings combined to suggest that physical exercise was associated with better visuospatial working memory in older adults. Furthermore, open-skill exercises that demand higher cognitive processing showed selective benefit for passive maintenance of working memory. PMID:27547560

  12. A study of commuter airplane design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keppel, B. V.; Eysink, H.; Hammer, J.; Hawley, K.; Meredith, P.; Roskam, J.

    1978-01-01

    The usability of the general aviation synthesis program (GASP) was enhanced by the development of separate computer subroutines which can be added as a package to this assembly of computerized design methods or used as a separate subroutine program to compute the dynamic longitudinal, lateral-directional stability characteristics for a given airplane. Currently available analysis methods were evaluated to ascertain those most appropriate for the design functions which the GASP computerized design program performs. Methods for providing proper constraint and/or analysis functions for GASP were developed as well as the appropriate subroutines.

  13. PLUTONIUM-238 PRODUCTION TARGET DESIGN STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, Christopher J; Wham, Robert M; Hobbs, Randall W; Owens, R Steven; Chandler, David; Freels, James D; Maldonado, G Ivan

    2014-01-01

    A new supply chain is planned for plutonium-238 using existing reactors at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and existing chemical recovery facilities at ORNL. Validation and testing activities for new irradiation target designs have been conducted in three phases over a 2 year period to provide data for scale-up to production. Target design, qualification, target fabrication, and irradiation of fully-loaded targets have been accomplished. Data from post-irradiation examination (PIE) supports safety analysis and irradiation of future target designs.

  14. Yoga as a Therapy for Adolescents and Young Adults With Cystic Fibrosis: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Julia; McNamara, Sharon; Genatossio, Alan; Breuner, Cora; Weber, Tracy; Rosenfeld, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Yoga has been shown to improve outcomes in patients with asthma but has not been investigated in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Methods: This was a prospective pilot study to evaluate the safety of a standardized yoga program among CF patients aged 12 to 25 years. Participants engaged in a 50-minute yoga session twice weekly for 8 weeks conducted by a certified yoga instructor using a standardized program designed to be safe for health-compromised individuals. Yoga sessions were individual to avoid transmission of infections. Primary outcome was safety and tolerability. Secondary outcome measures included respiratory symptoms, the Cystic Fibrosis Quality of Life instrument (CFQ-R), lung function, Ease of Breathing Score (measure of exercise tolerance), and weight. Results: Eleven participants were enrolled, and 10 completed the study. Adherence was very good; the mean (SD) number of sessions completed was 14.2 (1.3) out of 16 sessions. Eight patients reported 25 adverse events. The most common was cough, reported in 7. Two events were possibly related to study procedures: calf pain and headache. There were no significant changes in dyspnea or pain scales. The mean (SD) CFQ-R respiratory domain score increased from screening to end of study: 67.9 (11.4) to 82.1 (9.9), P=.04. There were no significant changes in the other outcome measures. Conclusions: In this pilot study, a standardized 8-week yoga program was safe and well tolerated among adolescent and young adult CF patients with mild to moderate lung disease. This study may be helpful to yoga instructors who are interested in working with CF patients. Larger controlled trials are warranted to determine further benefits. PMID:26665020

  15. Adult Education in the Federal Republic of Germany. Monographs on Comparative and Area Studies in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoll, Joachim H.

    This monograph is intended to present the structural image of adult education/further education in the Federal Republic of Germany. It first covers such areas as the size of the country and its individual states and population and employment. Following a survey of the educational system, legislation concerning adult education/further education is…

  16. Adult Education and Indigenous Peoples in Norway. International Survey on Adult Education for Indigenous Peoples. Country Study: Norway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Svein

    Adult education for indigenous peoples in Norway was examined. First, information on government institutions, indigenous organizations, international agencies, and nongovernmental organizations engaged in adult education for Norway's indigenous peoples was compiled. Next, questionnaires and survey techniques were used to research the policy and…

  17. A comparative study of the psychosocial assets of adults with cystic fibrosis and their healthy peers.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, S L; Hovell, M F; Harwood, I R; Granger, L E; Hofstetter, C R; Molgaard, C; Kaplan, R M

    1990-06-01

    Psychosocial assets of 37 adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) and 46 of their healthy peers were assessed by mailed questionnaire. Major sociodemographic variables did not differ significantly between the two groups, nor did indices of emotional social support, social network density, self-esteem, or current life satisfaction. This study revealed adults with CF to function on a par with their healthy peers in nearly all respects, a finding at odds with those from uncontrolled studies and which suggests to us that many previous conclusions about the psychosocial health of adults with CF have been unwarranted. Future psychosocial studies involving patients with CF should include control groups and inferences about the effect of these patients' physical illness on their psychosocial health should not be made in the absence of normative data. PMID:2347214

  18. Mars orbiter conceptual systems design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, W.; Vogl, J.

    1982-01-01

    Spacecraft system and subsystem designs at the conceptual level to perform either of two Mars Orbiter missions, a Climatology Mission and an Aeronomy Mission were developed. The objectives of these missions are to obtain and return data.

  19. A Controlled Study of Autonomic Nervous System Function in Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treated with Stimulant Medications: Results of a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubiner, Howard; Hassunizadeh, Bischan; Kaczynski, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Despite the fact that autonomic nervous system (ANS) abnormalities are commonly found in adults and predict increased cardiovascular mortality, no studies have assessed ANS function in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) taking stimulants. Method: This pilot study evaluated ANS function in adults with ADHD in…

  20. Competencies for Adult Basic Education and Diploma Programs: A Summary of Studies and Cross-Reference of Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Joan Keller

    This report summarizes and cross-references the results of 12 studies dealing with competencies for Adult Basic Education (ABE) and diploma programs. Described in the report are the following studies/projects: (1) the Adult Performance Level (APL) Study; (2) five APL-based validation studies (the New Jersey ABE Study, the New Jersey English as a…

  1. Developments in Adult Education Structures. Five National Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Committee for Out-of-School Education and Cultural Development.

    Five separate national studies describe and analyze government involvement in various continuing education delivery systems in five European countries: Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and Norway. The German study traces the historical background of further education in the Federal Republic of Germany, the provisions of the 1974 North…

  2. Argonne Tau-charm factory collider design study

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, L.C.; Crosbie, E.A.; Norem, J.

    1995-12-01

    The design approach and design principles for a Tau-charm Factory at Argonne were studied. These studies led to a set of preliminary parameters and tentative component features as presented in this paper.

  3. Epidemiological study air disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA): study design

    PubMed Central

    Slottje, Pauline; Huizink, Anja C; Twisk, Jos WR; Witteveen, Anke B; van der Ploeg, Henk M; Bramsen, Inge; Smidt, Nynke; Bijlsma, Joost A; Bouter, Lex M; van Mechelen, Willem; Smid, Tjabe

    2005-01-01

    Background In 1992, a cargo aircraft crashed into apartment buildings in Amsterdam, killing 43 victims and destroying 266 apartments. In the aftermath there were speculations about the cause of the crash, potential exposures to hazardous materials due to the disaster and the health consequences. Starting in 2000, the Epidemiological Study Air Disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA) aimed to assess the long-term health effects of occupational exposure to this disaster on professional assistance workers. Methods/Design Epidemiological study among all the exposed professional fire-fighters and police officers who performed disaster-related task(s), and hangar workers who sorted the wreckage of the aircraft, as well as reference groups of their non-exposed colleagues who did not perform any disaster-related tasks. The study took place, on average, 8.5 years after the disaster. Questionnaires were used to assess details on occupational exposure to the disaster. Health measures comprised laboratory assessments in urine, blood and saliva, as well as self-reported current health measures, including health-related quality of life, and various physical and psychological symptoms. Discussion In this paper we describe and discuss the design of the ESADA. The ESADA will provide additional scientific knowledge on the long-term health effects of technological disasters on professional workers. PMID:15921536

  4. Functional Impacts of Adult Literacy Programme on Rural Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbah, Blessing Akaraka

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the functional impacts of adult literacy programme among rural women participants in Ishielu Local Government Area (LGA) of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. The population of the study was made up of 115 adult instructors and 2,408 adult learners giving a total of 2,623. The sample…

  5. Study Practices of Adult Learners in Distance Education: Frequency of Use and Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernt, Frank M.; Bugbee, Alan C., Jr.

    A survey of study behaviors was mailed to 300 adult students enrolled in two distance learning programs of The American College. The sample included three groups: high passers, low passers, and failers. The survey instrument was a 50-item rating scale measuring study practices in six areas: elaborative processing, information processing, attitude…

  6. Language Learning Strategy Use by Colombian Adult English Language Learners: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paredes, Elsie Elena

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe how Colombian adult English language learners (ELL) select and use language learning strategies (LLS). This study used Oxford's (1990a) taxonomy for LLS as its theoretical framework. Semi-structured interviews and a focus group interview, were conducted, transcribed, and analyzed for 12…

  7. A Survey Study of Achievement Motivation, Enrollment Status, and Ethnicity on Traditional and Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Ebony D.

    2013-01-01

    Achievement motivation has played an integral part in the psychology and educational fields. Since achievement motivation made its debut in education and psychology fields, there continues to be some discrepancy in the studies that focused on achievement motivation based on traditional students and adult students. This study investigated the…

  8. A Critical Review of State and National Studies of the Needs and Interests of Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, K. Patricia

    This paper reviews thirty national and state studies recently conducted on the needs and interests of adult learners in the United States. The paper also highlights a number of questions and issues raised by the nature of the studies themselves. Issues identified as needing further research and thought follow. (1) There are no reliable, precise…

  9. Literacy Practices and Linguistic Choices: A Sociocultural Study of a Multilingual Adult Literacy Student Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Stephen R.; Thorp, Kay

    The report describes a study of a multilingual group of six adult literacy students, five women and one man, enrolled in an English literacy class at an Australian college. Subjects' countries of origin include Afghanistan, Indonesia/China, Lebanon, Iran, and China. The study examined factors affecting subjects' daily literacy practices and…

  10. Eating Patterns and Overweight Status in Young Adults: The Bogalusa Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several studies have focused on the association between eating patterns and obesity. However, the findings have not been consistent. The goal of the present study was to identify the eating patterns associated with overweight among young adults aged 19-28 years (n = 504) in Bogalusa, Louisiana. Fo...

  11. Brain Mapping of Language and Auditory Perception in High-Functioning Autistic Adults: A PET Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, R-A.; Behen, M. E.; Rothermel, R. D.; Chugani, D. C.; Muzik, O.; Mangner, T. J.; Chugani, H. T.

    1999-01-01

    A study used positron emission tomography (PET) to study patterns of brain activation during auditory processing in five high-functioning adults with autism. Results found that participants showed reversed hemispheric dominance during the verbal auditory stimulation and reduced activation of the auditory cortex and cerebellum. (CR)

  12. Membrane potential dye imaging of ventromedial hypothalamus neurons from adult mice to study glucose sensing.

    PubMed

    Vazirani, Reema P; Fioramonti, Xavier; Routh, Vanessa H

    2013-01-01

    Studies of neuronal activity are often performed using neurons from rodents less than 2 months of age due to the technical difficulties associated with increasing connective tissue and decreased neuronal viability that occur with age. Here, we describe a methodology for the dissociation of healthy hypothalamic neurons from adult-aged mice. The ability to study neurons from adult-aged mice allows the use of disease models that manifest at a later age and might be more developmentally accurate for certain studies. Fluorescence imaging of dissociated neurons can be used to study the activity of a population of neurons, as opposed to using electrophysiology to study a single neuron. This is particularly useful when studying a heterogeneous neuronal population in which the desired neuronal type is rare such as for hypothalamic glucose sensing neurons. We utilized membrane potential dye imaging of adult ventromedial hypothalamic neurons to study their responses to changes in extracellular glucose. Glucose sensing neurons are believed to play a role in central regulation of energy balance. The ability to study glucose sensing in adult rodents is particularly useful since the predominance of diseases related to dysfunctional energy balance (e.g. obesity) increase with age. PMID:24326343

  13. A Case Study Evaluation of an Innovative Educational Administration Preservice Program on Adult Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Ted A.

    A study examined the effects of an intensive, 7-week, introductory workshop-type experience using recommended techniques to promote adult growth for a group of 29 aspiring educational administration students. The study specifically examined whether the process and experience of the academy (workshop) produced a change in cognitive-developmental…

  14. A Retrospective Study of Gay Gifted, Young Adult Males' Perceptions of Giftedness and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedillo, Paul James

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, retrospective study investigated suicidal ideation among 32 young adult men. Participants were asked to report their experiences as adolescents. The primary focus of the study was to discover how gay gifted adolescents dealt with issues of suicide and suicidal ideation. Participants were selected using a purposive sampling…

  15. Membrane Potential Dye Imaging of Ventromedial Hypothalamus Neurons From Adult Mice to Study Glucose Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Vazirani, Reema P.; Fioramonti, Xavier; Routh, Vanessa H.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of neuronal activity are often performed using neurons from rodents less than 2 months of age due to the technical difficulties associated with increasing connective tissue and decreased neuronal viability that occur with age. Here, we describe a methodology for the dissociation of healthy hypothalamic neurons from adult-aged mice. The ability to study neurons from adult-aged mice allows the use of disease models that manifest at a later age and might be more developmentally accurate for certain studies. Fluorescence imaging of dissociated neurons can be used to study the activity of a population of neurons, as opposed to using electrophysiology to study a single neuron. This is particularly useful when studying a heterogeneous neuronal population in which the desired neuronal type is rare such as for hypothalamic glucose sensing neurons. We utilized membrane potential dye imaging of adult ventromedial hypothalamic neurons to study their responses to changes in extracellular glucose. Glucose sensing neurons are believed to play a role in central regulation of energy balance. The ability to study glucose sensing in adult rodents is particularly useful since the predominance of diseases related to dysfunctional energy balance (e.g. obesity) increase with age. PMID:24326343

  16. Literacy to Aurality/Orality in an Adult Japanese ESL Student: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biro, Jan E.

    A study examined the factors shaping English language education within the Japanese public education system and the attitudes of Japanese learners toward the pronunciation of English, first in an overview and then within the context of a case study of an adult Japanese student. The first section discusses the status and instruction of English in…

  17. Adult Literacy: A Study of Community Based Literacy Programs. Revised and Updated. Volume II: Program Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Community Based Education, Washington, DC.

    This volume accompanies a study of community-based approaches to literacy education for adults. It provides profiles of 26 community-based educational institutions that provided study data. Each profile provides name, address, and telephone number; contact; other project sites; institutional description; mission/purpose; approach; skills…

  18. Influx mechanisms in the embryonic and adult rat choroid plexus: a transcriptome study

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Norman R.; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M.; Møllgård, Kjeld; Habgood, Mark D.; Wakefield, Matthew J.; Lindsay, Helen; Stratzielle, Nathalie; Ghersi-Egea, Jean-Francois; Liddelow, Shane A.

    2015-01-01

    The transcriptome of embryonic and adult rat lateral ventricular choroid plexus, using a combination of RNA-Sequencing and microarray data, was analyzed by functional groups of influx transporters, particularly solute carrier (SLC) transporters. RNA-Seq was performed at embryonic day (E) 15 and adult with additional data obtained at intermediate ages from microarray analysis. The largest represented functional group in the embryo was amino acid transporters (twelve) with expression levels 2–98 times greater than in the adult. In contrast, in the adult only six amino acid transporters were up-regulated compared to the embryo and at more modest enrichment levels (<5-fold enrichment above E15). In E15 plexus five glucose transporters, in particular Glut-1, and only one monocarboxylate transporter were enriched compared to the adult, whereas only two glucose transporters but six monocarboxylate transporters in the adult plexus were expressed at higher levels than in embryos. These results are compared with earlier published physiological studies of amino acid and monocarboxylate transport in developing rodents. This comparison shows correlation of high expression of some transporters in the developing brain with higher amino acid transport activity reported previously. Data for divalent metal transporters are also considered. Immunohistochemistry of several transporters (e.g., Slc16a10, a thyroid hormone transporter) gene products was carried out to confirm translational activity and to define cellular distribution of the proteins. Overall the results show that there is substantial expression of numerous influx transporters in the embryonic choroid plexus, many at higher levels than in the adult. This, together with immunohistochemical evidence and data from published physiological transport studies suggests that the choroid plexus in embryonic brain plays a major role in supplying the developing brain with essential nutrients. PMID:25972776

  19. Influx mechanisms in the embryonic and adult rat choroid plexus: a transcriptome study.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Norman R; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Møllgård, Kjeld; Habgood, Mark D; Wakefield, Matthew J; Lindsay, Helen; Stratzielle, Nathalie; Ghersi-Egea, Jean-Francois; Liddelow, Shane A

    2015-01-01

    The transcriptome of embryonic and adult rat lateral ventricular choroid plexus, using a combination of RNA-Sequencing and microarray data, was analyzed by functional groups of influx transporters, particularly solute carrier (SLC) transporters. RNA-Seq was performed at embryonic day (E) 15 and adult with additional data obtained at intermediate ages from microarray analysis. The largest represented functional group in the embryo was amino acid transporters (twelve) with expression levels 2-98 times greater than in the adult. In contrast, in the adult only six amino acid transporters were up-regulated compared to the embryo and at more modest enrichment levels (<5-fold enrichment above E15). In E15 plexus five glucose transporters, in particular Glut-1, and only one monocarboxylate transporter were enriched compared to the adult, whereas only two glucose transporters but six monocarboxylate transporters in the adult plexus were expressed at higher levels than in embryos. These results are compared with earlier published physiological studies of amino acid and monocarboxylate transport in developing rodents. This comparison shows correlation of high expression of some transporters in the developing brain with higher amino acid transport activity reported previously. Data for divalent metal transporters are also considered. Immunohistochemistry of several transporters (e.g., Slc16a10, a thyroid hormone transporter) gene products was carried out to confirm translational activity and to define cellular distribution of the proteins. Overall the results show that there is substantial expression of numerous influx transporters in the embryonic choroid plexus, many at higher levels than in the adult. This, together with immunohistochemical evidence and data from published physiological transport studies suggests that the choroid plexus in embryonic brain plays a major role in supplying the developing brain with essential nutrients. PMID:25972776

  20. Empirical studies of software design: Implications for SSEs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasner, Herb

    1988-01-01

    Implications for Software Engineering Environments (SEEs) are presented in viewgraph format for characteristics of projects studied; significant problems and crucial problem areas in software design for large systems; layered behavioral model of software processes; implications of field study results; software project as an ecological system; results of the LIFT study; information model of design exploration; software design strategies; results of the team design study; and a list of publications.