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  1. Micronutrient Intakes and Incidence of Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    PubMed

    Farhadnejad, Hossein; Asghari, Golaleh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Yuzbashian, Emad; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between micronutrient intakes and the 3.6-year incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in adults. This cohort study was conducted, within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, on 1692 subjects, aged ≥30 years, without CKD at the baseline. Dietary intakes were collected using a valid and reliable food-frequency questionnaire. Anthropometrics and biochemical measurements were taken. Chronic kidney disease was defined as eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m². The mean age of participants was 43.3 ± 11.4 years. In the fully adjusted model, individuals in the top quintile of folate (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.24-0.80), cobalamin (OR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.34-0.93), vitamin C (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.21-0.69), vitamin E (OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.22-0.92), vitamin D (OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.21-0.70), potassium (OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.23-0.97) and magnesium (OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.22-0.76) had decreased risk of CKD, and in the top quintile of sodium (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.03-2.61), subjects had increased risk of CKD, in comparison to the bottom quintile. No significant associations were found between the intakes of other micronutrients. High intake of several micronutrients including vitamins C, E, D, cobalamin, folate, magnesium, and potassium was associated with a decreased risk, while sodium was associated with an increased risk of incident CKD. PMID:27104561

  2. Micronutrient Intakes and Incidence of Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    Farhadnejad, Hossein; Asghari, Golaleh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Yuzbashian, Emad; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between micronutrient intakes and the 3.6-year incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in adults. This cohort study was conducted, within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, on 1692 subjects, aged ≥30 years, without CKD at the baseline. Dietary intakes were collected using a valid and reliable food-frequency questionnaire. Anthropometrics and biochemical measurements were taken. Chronic kidney disease was defined as eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. The mean age of participants was 43.3 ± 11.4 years. In the fully adjusted model, individuals in the top quintile of folate (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.24–0.80), cobalamin (OR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.34–0.93), vitamin C (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.21–0.69), vitamin E (OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.22–0.92), vitamin D (OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.21–0.70), potassium (OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.23–0.97) and magnesium (OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.22–0.76) had decreased risk of CKD, and in the top quintile of sodium (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.03–2.61), subjects had increased risk of CKD, in comparison to the bottom quintile. No significant associations were found between the intakes of other micronutrients. High intake of several micronutrients including vitamins C, E, D, cobalamin, folate, magnesium, and potassium was associated with a decreased risk, while sodium was associated with an increased risk of incident CKD. PMID:27104561

  3. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Iranian Adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    Ejtahed, Hanieh-Sadat; Bahadoran, Zahra; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of multiple metabolic abnormalities, is one of the major public health challenges worldwide. The current study was conducted to evaluate the association between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and MetS and its components in Iranian adults. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among 5,852 men and women, aged 19 to 70 years, who participated in the fourth phase (2009 to 2011) of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Demographics, anthropometrics, biochemical measurements, and blood pressure (BP) were assessed and MetS was defined by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III definition. Frequency and quantity of SSB intakes including carbonated drinks and synthetic fruit juices were collected using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Results Mean age of participants (43%, men) was 40.6±12.9 years. Significant positive associations between SSBs and waist circumference, triglyceride level, systolic and diastolic BP in the third and fourth quartile of SSBs were observed, after adjustment for all potential confounding variables. The odds of MetS in the third and fourth quartiles compared to the first quartile category of SSBs was 1.21 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.45) and 1.30 (95% CI, 1.06 to 1.58), respectively (P for trend=0.03). The odds of MetS, abdominal obesity, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol and elevated BP had increasing trends across increasing of SSB consumption (P for trend <0.05). Conclusion Higher intake of SSBs was associated with the higher odds of MetS in adults. It is suggested that reducing consumption of SSBs could be a practical approach to prevent metabolic abnormalities. PMID:26435135

  4. Seven-Year Changes of Leisure-Time and Occupational Physical Activity among Iranian Adults (Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study)

    PubMed Central

    AFGHAN, Marjan; GHASEMI, Asghar; AZIZI, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Considering the lack of data available on changes of physical activity over time in Iran, this study was designed to evaluate changes in physical activity levels among Iranian adults over a median 6.5 yr period. Methods: In this population-based cohort study, 3515 participants, aged ≥ 20 yr (2100 females and 1415 males) were followed from phase II (2002–2005) to phase IV (2008–2011) of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Information on physical activity, both leisure time (LTPA) and occupational (OCPA), was collected using the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire. Scores ≤600 METs-min/wk were considered as having low physical activity. Wilcoxon test was performed for comparing MET values between the two phases. McNemar test was used to evaluate differences between paired qualitative data. Results: In both phases, 59.8% of adults were women, with mean±SD age 44.3±14.6 and 50.9±14.6 yr, in phases II and IV respectively. The prevalence of low physical activity decreased significantly in the follow up period (from 45.9% in phase II to 42.6% in phase IV, P=0.004). In both genders, a non-significant decrease in OCPA was observed, However, there was a significant decrease in LTPA among women (P=0.031), but not in men. Conclusion: Despite the high levels of physical activity in Tehranian adults, a decreasing trend was observed. Significant decrease in LTPA among women indicates the urgent need to target women for prevention and implementation of public educational programs to promote physical activity levels and LTPA in particular, to compensate the reduction in OCPA. PMID:27057520

  5. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption and Risk of General and Abdominal Obesity in Iranian Adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    MIRMIRAN, Parvin; EJTAHED, Hanieh-Sadat; BAHADORAN, Zahra; BASTAN, Sara; AZIZI, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Background: General and abdominal obesity are major global health problems. This cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the association between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and body mass index and waist circumference status in 5852 Iranian adults within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS). Methods: Intakes of SSBs including carbonated drinks and synthetic fruit juices were measured using a validated food frequency questionnaire. The association between body mass index, waist circumference and body adiposity index in each quartile category of SSB consumption were determined using the multivariable linear regression models. The odds ratio (OR) of general and abdominal obesity in each quartile of SSB consumption was also determined using the multivariable logistic regression models. Results: Mean dietary intake of SSBs was 48.9 g/d or 0.25 servings/d. After adjustment for all potential confounding variables, significant associations were observed between SSB consumption and BMI (β: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.13–0.86), and waist circumference (β: 1.28, 95% CI: 0.40–2.16) in the fourth quartile. There was no significant association between SSB consumption and body adiposity index. Participants who consumed > 57.1 g/d of SSBs had 22% higher risk of general obesity (OR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.00–1.48) and 35% higher risk of abdominal obesity (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.12–1.61), compared with those in the lowest quartile of SSB consumption. Conclusion: Higher intakes of SSBs were associated with the higher risk of general and abdominal obesity in adults suggesting that limiting the consumption of SSBs may be a practical approach to prevent and manage obesity. PMID:26744712

  6. Main Facilitators of Smoking Among Young Males in Tehran: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    Rostami Dovom, Marzieh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Amiri, Parisa; Amirshekari, Golshan; Farahmand, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Smoking is the most preventable risk factor for non-communicable diseases and its alarming trend. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore and determine facilitating factors for smoking in young males, who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), from their own perspective. Patients and Methods: This qualitative study was conducted within the framework of the TLGS. Participants were young males with 15 to 25 years of age and various levels of education. The inductive content analysis approach was used to analyze data on the participants’ perceptions with regard to smoking facilitators. Data collection was conducted through discussions by six semi-structured focus groups consisted of five to seven people. All the interviews were transcribed after being recorded and analyzed through constant comparative analysis. Results: Two main categories derived from the analysis of the data: I) personal needs and features; and II) environmental facilitators. The former concept included three subcategories: 1) fulfilling essential needs; 2) search for identity; and 3) lack of life skills. Environmental facilitators were also divided into two subcategories: 1) social patterns; and 2) ease of access. Conclusions: Tendency towards smoking is influenced by different factors. Clarifying these influential factors for smoking from the perspective of young males can be important in designing effective preventive programs. PMID:25593726

  7. Asthma Economic Costs in Adult Asthmatic Patients in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    SHARIFI, Laleh; POURPAK, Zahra; FAZLOLLAHI, Mohammad Reza; BOKAIE, Saied; MOEZZI, Hamid Reza; KAZEMNEJAD, Anoushirvan; MOIN, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: High prevalence and increasing rate of asthmatic patients around the word witnesses the high burden of asthma. We have limited data on asthma burden and economic costs in Iran. This study aimed to find direct and indirect economic costs of asthma and their association with some background factors in one of the referral tertiary centers for adult patients with asthma. Methods: We surveyed asthma related economic costs of 197 adult patients who referred to Milad Hospital, Tehran, Iran from Jun 2007 to January 2010. The patients were followed up for a period of one-year ±1 month and asthma related costs and its control status were registered. Results: Patients were consisted of 125 (64.1%) females and 70 (35.9%) males. Total cost of asthma was 590.22 ±32.18 USD for one patient per one year, the cost of drug, paraclinic, doctor visit, hospitalization, emergency, transportation, and absent days were 327.02, 4.76, 35.44, 3.82, 0.26, 113.03, 105.89 USD respectively. Men showed a significant elevation in their total (P=0.009) and drug costs (P=0.028). In addition, we found significant differences between total asthma costs and asthma control status (P=0.002). Conclusions: According to the high proportion of asthma, related cost compare to Total Income of an Iranian family, the necessity of public coverage of health assurance is quite clear. We suggest that improving asthma management and accessibility to specialized treatment centers can result in decreasing asthma medication and transportation costs as major direct and indirect asthma related costs. PMID:26587495

  8. Association between Dietary Acid Load and Insulin Resistance: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, Sajjad Khalili; Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Tohidi, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, we investigated the longitudinal association between dietary acid load and the risk of insulin resistance (IR) in the Tehranian adult population. This longitudinal study was conducted on 925 participants, aged 22~80 years old, in the framework of the third (2006~2008) and fourth (2009~2011) phases of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. At baseline, the dietary intake of subjects was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and the potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAP) scores were calculated at baseline. Fasting serum insulin and glucose were measured at baseline and again after a 3-year of follow-up; IR was defined according to optimal cut-off values. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the risk of IR according to the PRAL and NEAP quartile categories. Mean age and body mass index of the participants were 40.3 years old of 26.4 kg/m2, respectively. Mean PRAL and NEAP scores were −11.2 and 35.6 mEq/d, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, compared to the lowest quartile of PRAL and NEAP, the highest quartile was accompanied with increased risk of IR [odds ratio (OR)=2.81, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.32~5.97 and OR=2.18, 95% CI=1.03 ~4.61, respectively]. Our findings suggest that higher acidic dietary acid-base load, defined by higher PRAL and NEAP scores, may be a risk factor for the development of IR and related metabolic disorders. PMID:27390726

  9. Dietary quality-adherence to the dietary guidelines in Tehranian adolescents: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    PubMed

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Azadbakht, Leila; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) score and its relation take of nutrients and the number of servings from each food group consumed by adolescents residing in district 13 of Tehran. This study, conducted within the framework of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), was a part of a dietary intake assessment carried out in 443 families, including 465 adolescents, aged 10-18 years, according to the Food Guide Pyramid and dietary guidelines on individuals residing in district 13 of Tehran. In this study, dietary intake was assessed with two-day 24-hour recalls. HEI was calculated based on nine components. The score range of each component was 0 to 10, the sum score of this index therefore being 90. The HEI score was categorized into three groups: less than 45 (poor diet), between 45-72 (needs improvement) and more than 72 (good diet). The mean score of HEI was 64.9 +/- 9.6 in boys and 64.8 +/- 9.4 in girls. The results showed that the number of servings of food groups in those with good diet was significantly higher than the two other groups (p < 0.05). In contrast the percent of saturated fat intake and cholesterol consumption in those with HEI > or = 72 was lower than the other groups (p < 0.05). The approximate number of food items consumed and the total nutrient intake by adolescents with HEI score > or = 72 was significantly higher than the others (p < 0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between the number of servings of grains group (r = 0.1), vegetables (r = 0.4), fruits (r = 0.4), dairy (r = 0.3), meat (r = 0.1), and HEI (p < 0.001). There was a significant negative correlation between fat intake (r = -0.2, p < 0.001), percent of saturated fatty acids (r = -0.2, p < 0.05), cholesterol consumption (r = -0.4, p < 0.05), and the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids (P/S) in diet (r = 0.2, p < 0.05), and HEI score. Seventy-four, 23, and 3% of diets were categorized into "needs improvement

  10. The prevalence of idiopathic hirsutism and polycystic ovary syndrome in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is no clear and contemporaneous method for screening of idiopathic hirsutism (IH) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) at the community level and current estimates regarding their prevalence are limited. We aimed to ascertain the prevalence of IH and PCOS in a randomly selected sample of reproductive aged female participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS). Methods One thousand and two women, aged 18-45 years, were randomly selected from among reproductive aged women who participated in the TLGS. Those women with either hirsutism or menstrual dysfunction were assessed for biochemical hyperandrogenemia; whereas those participants with hirsutism per se were further assessed for subclinical menstrual dysfunction. PCOS were diagnosed using the National Institute of Health (NIH) criteria. IH was defined as hirsutism without clinical or sub clinical menstrual dysfunction or biochemical hyperandrogenemia (BH). Results The mean ± SD of age of study population was 29.2 ± 8.7 years. Estimated prevalences of idiopathic hirsutism and pure menstrual dysfunction were 13.0% (95% CI: 10.9%-15.1%) and 1.5%(95% CI: 1.1%-1.9%), respectively. The prevalence of PCOS was 8.5% (95% CI: 6.8% - 10.2%); more than one third of these cases would possibly have remained undiagnosed or misdiagnosed, had we not assessed them for subclinical menstrual dysfunction or biochemical hyperandrogenemia. Conclusions These data from a large representative and non selected population of women confirm the concept that IH and PCOS are the two most common gynecological endocrinopathies among reproductive aged women. The estimated prevalence of these conditions is highly influenced by their screening methods at the community level. PMID:22044512

  11. Prevalence of sapovirus infection among infant and adult patients with acute gastroenteritis in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Romani, Sara; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Bozorgi, Sajad Majidizadeh; Zali, Narges; Jadali, Farzaneh

    2012-01-01

    Aim This study investigated the prevalence of sapovirus infections in patient with acute gastroenteritis in Tehran, Iran. Background Sapovirus, a member of the family Caliciviridae is one of the major causative agents of viral gastroenteritis affecting both children and adult individuals. There isn't enough data about prevalence and genotypes of sapovirus infection in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. Patients and methods A total of 42 fecal samples were collected from patients with acute gastroenteritis from May to July 2009. RT nested- PCR was performed for screening. To genotype the sapovirus isolates, some positive samples were subjected to phylogenetic analysis by sequencing of fragments of viral capsid gene region. Results Sapovirus was detected in 5 of 42 stool specimens from patients with acute gastroenteritis. Sapovirus detected in this study was clustered into only one distinct genogroup I/2. Sapovirus GI/2 was predominant. Conclusion Our results show that among the studied viruses responsible for this disease, sapovirus was a major viral isolate virus. PMID:24834197

  12. Knowledge Management in Cardiac Surgery: The Second Tehran Heart Center Adult Cardiac Surgery Database Report

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Kyomars; Karimi, Abbasali; Abbasi, Seyed Hesameddin; Ahmadi, Seyed Hossein; Davoodi, Saeed; Babamahmoodi, Abdolreza; Movahedi, Namdar; Salehiomran, Abbas; Shirzad, Mahmood; Bina, Peyvand

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Adult Cardiac Surgery Databank (ACSD) of Tehran Heart Center was established in 2002 with a view to providing clinical prediction rules for outcomes of cardiac procedures, developing risk score systems, and devising clinical guidelines. This is a general analysis of the collected data. Methods: All the patients referred to Tehran Heart Center for any kind of heart surgery between 2002 and 2008 were included, and their demographic, medical, clinical, operative, and postoperative data were gathered. This report presents general information as well as in-hospital mortality rates regarding all the cardiac procedures performed in the above time period. Results: There were 24959 procedures performed: 19663 (78.8%) isolated coronary artery bypass grafting surgeries (CABGs); 1492 (6.0%) isolated valve surgeries; 1437 (5.8%) CABGs concomitant with other procedures; 832 (3.3%) CABGs combined with valve surgeries; 722 (2.9%) valve surgeries concomitant with other procedures; 545 (2.2%) surgeries other than CABG or valve surgery; and 267 (1.1%) CABGs concomitant with valve and other types of surgery. The overall mortality was 205 (1.04%), with the lowest mortality rate (0.47%) in the isolated CABGs and the highest (4.49%) in the CABGs concomitant with valve surgeries and other types of surgery. Meanwhile, the overall mortality rate was higher in the female patients than in the males (1.90% vs. 0.74%, respectively). Conclusion: Isolated CABG was the most prevalent procedure at our center with the lowest mortality rate. However, the overall mortality was more prevalent in our female patients. This database can serve as a platform for the participation of the other countries in the region in the creation of a regional ACSD. PMID:23304179

  13. The Effect of Community-Based Education for Lifestyle Intervention on The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Fereidoun; Mirmiran, Parvin; Momenan, Amir Abbas; Hadaegh, Farzad; Habibi Moeini, Ali; Hosseini, Firoozeh; Zahediasl, Saleh; Ghanbarian, Arash; Hosseinpanah, Farhad

    2013-01-01

    Background: It has been shown that life style modification may decrease the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, but this intervention has not been reported in community setting. Objectives Effect of lifestyle modification on prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components were assessed in an urban population. Materials and Methods: In 6870 participants of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study aged 20-74 years, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components were measured before and after a 3.6 years interval. Lifestyle intervention was employed at a community level including 2961 individuals and also 3909 subjects which were recruited as controls. Logistic regression analysis was adjusted for age, sex and medications. Results After 3.6 years, the rise in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was less prominent in intervention than control group (P < 0.002 for increase of metabolic syndrome prevalence between groups), with an OR of 0.84 (confidence interval 0.75-0.95). After intervention the prevalence of abdominal obesity, elevated fasting glucose levels, elevated triglyceride and low HDL cholesterol were more prominent in control group, as compared to intervention group. Conclusions: Community based lifestyle modifications in Tehranian adults delayed rise in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and some of its components. PMID:24348586

  14. Mother-daughter correlation of central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Zahra; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Barzin, Maryam; Safarkhani, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the mother-daughter correlation for central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors. The authors used metabolic and anthropometric data from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, enrolling 1041 mother-daughter pairs for the current study. Three age strata were defined: 3 to 9 years for childhood (146 mother-daughter pairs), 10 to 17 years for adolescence (395 mother-daughter pairs), and 18 to 25 years for early adulthood (500 mother-daughter pairs). Familial associations for central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors were assessed. The prevalence of central obesity was 44.7% in mothers and 11.2% in daughters (6.2% in the 3-9, 19.2% in the 10-17, and 6.4% in the 18-25 years groups). Mothers with central obesity were more likely than nonobese mothers to have daughters with central obesity (10.5% and 1.7%, respectively; P = .0001). Central obesity indices among daughters were positively correlated with those of their mothers in all 3 age strata. Correlations for other noncommunicable disease risk factors were analyzed before and after adjusting the risk factor levels for mothers' and daughters' waist circumferences (WCs) within each group to determine whether risk factor correlations were, in part, a result of the central obesity correlations. After the non-communicable disease risk factor levels of participants were adjusted for their WCs, the mother-daughter correlations remained significant. The consistent association of central obesity between mothers and daughters may indicate the key role that could be played by the mother in the primary prevention of central obesity, particularly in high-risk families. PMID:22500034

  15. Serum nitric oxide is associated with the risk of chronic kidney disease in women: Tehran lipid and glucose study.

    PubMed

    Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Tahmasebi Nejad, Zhale; Ghasemi, Asghar; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-07-01

    Background and aim This study was conducted to investigate the association between serum nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) and the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods We recruited 3462 and 2504 participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), for a cross-sectional and prospective analysis, respectively. Serum NOx concentrations were measured at baseline (2006-2008), and demographics, anthropometrics and biochemical variables were evaluated at baseline and again after 3 years (2009-2011). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and CKD were defined. Association between serum NOx and CKD in the cross-sectional phase and the predictability of NOx in CKD occurrence were assessed using multivariable logistic regression models with adjustment for confounders. Results Mean age of participants was 45.0 ± 15.9 years at baseline and 40.5% were male. The prevalence of CKD was 17.9% (13.4% in men, 21.0% in women) at baseline, at which point, marginally significant odds of CKD in the highest tertile of serum NOx in men (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 0.96-2.45, p for trend = 0.047) and a significant odds of CKD in women (OR = 2.48, 95% CI = 1.76-3.49, p for trend = 0.001) were observed. After a 3-year follow-up, in women, risk of CKD was higher in the highest compared to the lowest NOx tertiles (OR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.10-3.14, p for trend = 0.032) but no significant association was observed in men. Conclusion Serum NOx level was found to be an independent predictor of CKD in women; it could be a valuable surrogate for prediction of renal dysfunction in women and help to identify high-risk subjects. PMID:26956540

  16. The Association of Dairy Intake With Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in Adolescents: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghotboddin Mohammadi, Shirin; Mirmiran, Parvin; Bahadoran, Zahra; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have shown that consumption of dairy product plays an important role in prevention and treatment of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine the association of dairy intake with MetS and its components in Tehranian adolescents. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 785 adolescent aged 10 to 19 years, participated from the fourth phase of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Usual dietary intake was assessed using a valid semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Total dairy, low fat and high fat dairy, milk, yoghurt and cheese were evaluated. Assessment of anthropometric, biochemical and blood pressure was performed and MetS was defined according to the de Ferranti criteria. Results: The mean age of subjects was 14.8 ± 2.9 years. The prevalence of MetS was 22.2% (girls: 19.5% and boys: 25.2%). The most prevalent risk factor for MetS in boys was high waist circumference (53.4%) and among girls was low HDL-C (53.1%). Energy density and intake of protein, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, calcium and phosphor were higher in the highest quartile of dairy consumption than the lowest quartile. After adjustments for confounders, odds ratios with 95% confidence interval for MetS in the highest quartile of total dairy, low fat dairy, high fat dairy, milk, yoghurt and cheese compared with lowest quartile were respectively 0.97 (0.57 - 1.66), 1.44 (0.83 - 2.49), 0.97 (0.56 - 1.67), 0.70 (0.42 - 1.18), 1.62 (0.99 - 2.64) and 0.72 (0.44 - 1.18). Conclusions: Results of this study did not support the hypothesis that dairy products consumption protects against MetS and its components. PMID:26425126

  17. Prevention of non-communicable disease in a population in nutrition transition: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study phase II

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Fereidoun; Ghanbarian, Arash; Momenan, Amir Abbas; Hadaegh, Farzad; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hedayati, Mehdi; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Zahedi-Asl, Saleh

    2009-01-01

    Background The Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) is a long term integrated community-based program for prevention of non-communicable disorders (NCD) by development of a healthy lifestyle and reduction of NCD risk factors. The study begun in 1999, is ongoing, to be continued for at least 20 years. A primary survey was done to collect baseline data in 15005 individuals, over 3 years of age, selected from cohorts of three medical heath centers. A questionnaire for past medical history and data was completed during interviews; blood pressure, pulse rate, and anthropometrical measurements and a limited physical examination were performed and lipid profiles, fasting blood sugar and 2-hours-postload-glucose challenge were measured. A DNA bank was also collected. For those subjects aged over 30 years, Rose questionnaire was completed and an electrocardiogram was taken. Data collected were directly stored in computers as database software- computer assisted system. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of lifestyle modification in preventing or postponing the development of NCD risk factors and outcomes in the TLGS population. Design and methods In phase II of the TLGS, lifestyle interventions were implemented in 5630 people and 9375 individuals served as controls. Primary, secondary and tertiary interventions were designed based on specific target groups including schoolchildren, housewives, and high-risk persons. Officials of various sectors such as health, education, municipality, police, media, traders and community leaders were actively engaged as decision makers and collaborators. Interventional strategies were based on lifestyle modifications in diet, smoking and physical activity through face-to-face education, leaflets & brochures, school program alterations, training volunteers as health team and treating patients with NCD risk factors. Collection of demographic, clinical and laboratory data will be repeated every 3 years to

  18. Factors Affecting Gender Differences in the Association between Health-Related Quality of Life and Metabolic Syndrome Components: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Parisa; Deihim, Tina; Taherian, Reza; Karimi, Mehrdad; Gharibzadeh, Safoora; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Shiva, Niloofar; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Objective Using structural equation modeling, this study is one of the first efforts aimed at assessing influential factors causing gender differences in the association between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and metabolic syndrome. Methods A sample of 950 adults, from Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study were recruited for this cross sectional study in 2005–2007. Health-related quality of life was assessed using the Iranian version of SF-36. Metabolic syndrome components (MetSCs) and physical and mental HRQoL were considered as continuous latent constructs explaining the variances of their observed components. Structural equation modeling was performed to examine the association between the constructs of MetSCs and the physical and mental HRQoL within the two gender groups. Results Based on the primary hypothesis, MetSCs and HRQoL were fitted in a model. The negative effect of MetSCs on HRQoL was found to be significant only in the physical domain and only in women. The proportion of all the cardio-metabolic risk factors as well as subscales of physical HRQoL that have been explained via the two constructs of MetSCs and HRQoL, respectively, were significantly higher in women. Physical activity in both men (β = 3.19, p<0.05) and women (β = 3.94, p<0.05), age (β = -3.28, p<0.05), education (β = 2.63, p<0.05) only in women and smoking (β = 2.28, p<0.05) just in men, directly affected physical HRQoL. Regarding the mental domain, physical activity (β = 3.37, p<0.05) and marital status (β = 3.44, p<0.05) in women and age (β = 2.01, p<0.05) in men were direct effective factors. Age and education in women as well as smoking in men indirectly affected physical HRQoL via MetSCs. Conclusion Gender differences in the association between MetSCs and physical HRQoL could mostly be attributed to the different structures of both MetSCs and physical HRQoL constructs in men and women. Age and smoking are the most important socio-behavioral factors which could affect this

  19. Smoking and Physical Activity in Healthy Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Gholamreza; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Asady, Hadi; Baikpour, Masoud; Barat, Atena

    2015-01-01

    Background: Smoking and physical inactivity are two major risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Not only these factors have a causal effect on NCDs, but they can also affect each other. This study aimed to assess the relationship between these factors as well as their effect on NCDs. Materials and Methods: A total of 2,602 healthy adults aged 30–60 years participated in this survey in 2010. Data on demographic characteristics, medical history, smoking status, physical activity and anthropometric measures including weight and height were collected and analyzed. The effect of smoking on physical activity was evaluated by logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. Results: Among demographic characteristics, only age (P<0.001) and educational level (P<0.001) had a significant association with smoking status. Compared with nonsmokers, smokers had an odds ratio of 4.88 (95% CI, 3.34–7.13) for having unsatisfactory physical activity. Conclusion: The present study showed that cigarette smoking negatively affects the quality of physical activity. PMID:27114725

  20. LIPID PROFILES OF RURAL OLDER ADULTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age is an independent, non-modifiable risk factor for CVD, the leading cause of death in the United States. The purpose of this study was to examine total cholesterol and lipoprotein sub-fractions in relation to statin use and ATPIII guidelines in a sample of older adults, n=278. 161f and 117m. Fa...

  1. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kisok

    2012-01-15

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  2. Depressive Symptoms and Serum Lipid Levels in Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Carolyn Y.; Egleston, Brian L.; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Stevens, Victor J.; Kwiterovich, Peter O.; Snetselaar, Linda G.; Longacre, Margaret L.; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating data suggest that depression is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but few studies have investigated potential behavioral mediators of such associations, particularly among women. In this study of healthy young adult women (n = 225), we examined associations among depressive symptoms, health behaviors, and serum lipid levels. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression (CES-D) scale, and a fasting blood sample was obtained for serum lipid levels, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C). Diet was measured using 24-hour recalls, and other health behaviors (physical activity, smoking) were assessed via self-report questionnaire. Results indicated a modest negative association between depressive symptoms and LDL-C levels. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were also associated with lower total and insoluble dietary fiber intake, both of which were associated with HDL-C and LDL-C. Mediational analyses indicated a significant indirect effect of depressive symptoms on LDL-C via total and insoluble dietary fiber in unadjusted analyses, but not in adjusted analyses. The present findings suggest that depressive symptoms are inversely associated with serum LDL-C levels in young adult women, but that these associations are not likely mediated by adverse lifestyle behaviors. PMID:22382824

  3. Depressive symptoms and serum lipid levels in young adult women.

    PubMed

    Fang, Carolyn Y; Egleston, Brian L; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Stevens, Victor J; Kwiterovich, Peter O; Snetselaar, Linda G; Longacre, Margaret L; Dorgan, Joanne F

    2013-04-01

    Accumulating data suggest that depression is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but few studies have investigated potential behavioral mediators of such associations, particularly among women. In this study of healthy young adult women (n = 225), we examined associations among depressive symptoms, health behaviors, and serum lipid levels. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale, and a fasting blood sample was obtained for serum lipid levels, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C). Diet was measured using 24-h recalls, and other health behaviors (physical activity, smoking) were assessed via self-report questionnaire. Results indicated a modest negative association between depressive symptoms and LDL-C levels. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were also associated with lower total and insoluble dietary fiber intake, both of which were associated with HDL-C and LDL-C. Mediational analyses indicated a significant indirect effect of depressive symptoms on LDL-C via total and insoluble dietary fiber in unadjusted analyses, but not in adjusted analyses. The present findings suggest that depressive symptoms are inversely associated with serum LDL-C levels in young adult women, but that these associations are not likely mediated by adverse lifestyle behaviors. PMID:22382824

  4. Study of lipid profile in adult women with acne

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha, Marisa Gonzaga; Batista, Anna Luiza Fonseca; Macedo, Marzia Silva; Machado Filho, Carlos D’Aparecida Santos; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to establish the lipid profile of female patients with acne in the Acne-in-Adult-Women Ambulatory Care Clinic in order to observe the prevalence of dyslipidemia in those patients. Methods This is a retrospective transversal study that evaluated the medical records of 416 patients who attended at the Acne-in-Adult-Women Ambulatory Care Clinic, at the Dermatology Department, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil, in the year 2012. Relevant data included age and clinical classification of acne. The lipid profile was analyzed according to the results of laboratory tests ordered during outpatient visits, which included total and fractionated cholesterol levels and triglycerides. Results The epidemiological study sample was of 219 patients, with ages ranging from 21 to 61 years (mean of 32.23 years). The predominant clinical grade was papule-pustule acne (grade II) with 156 patients (71%). Regarding the lipid profile of the patients, there was a high increase in total cholesterol levels in 17.35% of the cases. High-density lipoprotein levels were low in 11.42% of the patients, with normal prevalence in 194 subjects. Low-density lipoprotein levels were normal in most patients (60.27%). Very-low-density lipoprotein values were normal in almost all patients (94.06%) and increased in only 13 patients (5.94%). Only 18 patients presented high levels of triglycerides (8.22%). Conclusion The conclusion was that patients with grades II and III acne are more likely to have total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein altered. A correct and early diagnosis can be an important measure for the prevention of the metabolic syndrome in these patients. PMID:26316790

  5. Which Food Patterns Are Predictors of Obesity in Tehranian Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosseini-Esfahani, Firoozeh; Djazaieri, Seyed-Abolghasem; Mirmiran, Parvin; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether changes in food patterns over a period of 6 years were related to obesity in Tehranian adults. Design: Data on dietary intake, using the food frequency questionnaire, and anthropometry were obtained in 2 periods of the survey (1999-2001 and 2005-2007). Setting: Participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.…

  6. The effect of supplementary calcium on blood pressure in healthy adult women aged 18-30 years in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Entezari, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of mortality in developed countries and has an increasing trend in developing countries. There are some evidences that calcium supplementation may decrease blood pressure and consequently cardiovascular disease, but they are not conclusive and there is no agreement in this respect. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of supplementary calcium on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in healthy adult women aged 18–30 years. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five normotensive volunteers were randomly divided into two groups, the treatment group received 1000 mg/day calcium (four doses of 625 mg calcium carbonate) for 1 month and the control group received placebo (dextrose). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was determined before and after intervention in supine position after 10 min of rest. Results: The mean daily calcium intake from food was 773.9 mg in treatment and 721 mg in control group (no significant difference) but in both the groups dietary calcium intake was less than the recommended dietary allowance: After calcium supplementation, the mean change of systolic blood pressure was not significant in the two groups, but diastolic blood pressure reduced in treatment group and increased in control group (−4.9 vs 2.6 mmHg) (P < 0.05). Conclusions: These results suggest that, calcium supplementation does not have any effect on systolic blood pressure of our volunteers but can decrease diastolic blood pressure significantly and therefore it seems that calcium supplementation may be useful for people with increased diastolic blood pressure, especially for those who receive less calcium than recommended dietary allowance. PMID:26430694

  7. The Overweight: Obesity and Plasma Lipids in Adults with Intellectual Disability and Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazizova, D.; Puri, B. K.; Singh, I.; Dhaliwal, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous studies in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) have reported a higher prevalence of obesity than in the general population, and a trend to an increase in the prevalence of excess weight. However, little information is available on body weight status and lipids levels of adults with ID and co-existing mental illness. The…

  8. Regulation of plasma lipid homeostasis by hepatic lipoprotein lipase in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gan; Xu, Jun-Nan; Liu, Dong; Ding, Qingli; Liu, Meng-Na; Chen, Rong; Fan, Mengdi; Zhang, Ye; Zheng, Chao; Zou, Da-Jin; Lyu, Jianxin; Zhang, Weiping J

    2016-07-01

    LPL is a pivotal rate-limiting enzyme to catalyze the hydrolysis of TG in circulation, and plays a critical role in regulating lipid metabolism. However, little attention has been paid to LPL in the adult liver due to its relatively low expression. Here we show that endogenous hepatic LPL plays an important physiological role in plasma lipid homeostasis in adult mice. We generated a mouse model with the Lpl gene specifically ablated in hepatocytes with the Cre/LoxP approach, and found that specific deletion of hepatic Lpl resulted in a significant decrease in plasma LPL contents and activity. As a result, the postprandial TG clearance was markedly impaired, and plasma TG and cholesterol levels were significantly elevated. However, deficiency of hepatic Lpl did not change the liver TG and cholesterol contents or glucose homeostasis. Taken together, our study reveals that hepatic LPL is involved in the regulation of plasma LPL activity and lipid homeostasis. PMID:27234787

  9. Lipids for intravenous nutrition in hospitalised adult patients: a multiple choice of options.

    PubMed

    Calder, Philip C

    2013-08-01

    Lipids used in parenteral nutrition provide energy, building blocks and essential fatty acids. Traditionally, these lipids have been based on n-6 PUFA-rich vegetable oils particularly soyabean oil. This may not be optimal because soyabean oil may present an excessive supply of linoleic acid. Alternatives to use of soyabean oil include its partial replacement by medium-chain TAG, olive oil or fish oil, either alone or in combination. Lipid emulsions containing these alternatives are well tolerated without adverse effects in a wide range of hospitalised adult patients. Lipid emulsions that include fish oil have been used in parenteral nutrition in adult patients' post-surgery (mainly gastrointestinal). This has been associated with alterations in patterns of inflammatory mediators and in immune function and, in some studies, a reduction in length of intensive care unit and hospital stay. These benefits are emphasised through recent meta-analyses. Perioperative administration of fish oil may be superior to post-operative administration. Parenteral fish oil has been used in critically ill adults. Here, the influence on inflammatory processes, immune function and clinical endpoints is not clear, since there are too few studies and those that are available report contradictory findings. However, some studies found reduced inflammation, improved gas exchange and shorter length of hospital stay in critically ill patients if they receive fish oil. More and better trials are needed in patient groups in which parenteral nutrition is used and where fish oil may offer benefits. PMID:23663322

  10. Perioperative Intravenous Acetaminophen Attenuates Lipid Peroxidation in Adults Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Bypass: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Billings IV, Frederic T.; Petracek, Michael R.; Roberts II, L. Jackson; Pretorius, Mias

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) lyses erythrocytes and induces lipid peroxidation, indicated by increasing plasma concentrations of free hemoglobin, F2-isoprostanes, and isofurans. Acetaminophen attenuates hemeprotein-mediated lipid peroxidation, reduces plasma and urine concentrations of F2-isoprostanes, and preserves kidney function in an animal model of rhabdomyolysis. Acetaminophen also attenuates plasma concentrations of isofurans in children undergoing CPB. The effect of acetaminophen on lipid peroxidation in adults has not been studied. This was a pilot study designed to test the hypothesis that acetaminophen attenuates lipid peroxidation in adults undergoing CPB and to generate data for a clinical trial aimed to reduce acute kidney injury following cardiac surgery. Methods and Results In a prospective double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, sixty adult patients were randomized to receive intravenous acetaminophen or placebo starting prior to initiation of CPB and for every 6 hours for 4 doses. Acetaminophen concentrations measured 30 min into CPB and post-CPB were 11.9±0.6 μg/mL (78.9±3.9 μM) and 8.7±0.3 μg/mL (57.6±2.0 μM), respectively. Plasma free hemoglobin increased more than 15-fold during CPB, and haptoglobin decreased 73%, indicating hemolysis. Plasma and urinary markers of lipid peroxidation also increased during CPB but returned to baseline by the first postoperative day. Acetaminophen reduced plasma isofuran concentrations over the duration of the study (P = 0.05), and the intraoperative plasma isofuran concentrations that corresponded to peak hemolysis were attenuated in those subjects randomized to acetaminophen (P = 0.03). Perioperative acetaminophen did not affect plasma concentrations of F2-isoprostanes or urinary markers of lipid peroxidation. Conclusions Intravenous acetaminophen attenuates the increase in intraoperative plasma isofuran concentrations that occurs during CPB, while urinary markers were unaffected

  11. Sex Specific Incidence Rates of Type 2 Diabetes and Its Risk Factors over 9 Years of Follow-Up: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    Derakhshan, Arash; Sardarinia, Mahsa; Khalili, Davood; Momenan, Amir Abbas; Azizi, Fereidoun; Hadaegh, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the population-based incidence of type 2 diabetes and its potential risk factors in a sex-split cohort of Iranian population. Materials and Methods A total of 8400 non-diabetic participants, aged ≥20 years (3620 men and 4780 women) entered the study. Crude and age standardized incidence rates per 1000 person-years were calculated for whole population and each sex separately. Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for all potential risk factors in both uni-variable and multivariable models. Results During a median follow-up of 9.5 years, 736 new cases of diabetes were identified, including 433 women and 303 men. The annual crude and age-standardized incidence rates (95% CI) of diabetes in the total population were 10.6 (9.92–11.4) and 9.94 (7.39–13.6) per 1000 person-years of follow-up and the corresponding sex specific rates were 10.2 (9.13–11.4) and 9.36 (5.84–14.92) in men and 11.0 (9.99–12.0) and 10.1 (7.24–13.9) in women, respectively. In the multivariable model, the risk for incident diabetes was significantly associated with fasting and 2 hour post challenge plasma glucose as well as family history of diabetes in both men and women. However, among women, only the contribution of wrist circumference to incident diabetes achieved statistical significance [HR: 1.16 (1.03–1.31)] with waist/height ratio being marginally significant [HR: 1.02 (0.99–1.04)]; while among men, only body mass index was a significant predictor [HR: 1.12 (1.02–1.22)]. Additionally, low education level conferred a higher risk for incident diabetes only among men [HR: 1.80 (1.23–2.36); P for interaction with sex = 0.003]. Conclusion Overall, sex did not significantly modify the impact of risk factors associated with diabetes among Iranian adults; however, among modifiable risk factors, the independent role of lower education and general adiposity in men and central adiposity in

  12. Lipid, polyamide, and flavonol phagostimulants for adult western corn rootworm from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) pollen.

    PubMed

    Lin, S; Mullin, C A

    1999-03-01

    Adult Diabroticites including western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, consume pollen of corn, squash, sunflower, and other species. Short-chain neutral amino acids in methanol-water extracts of pollen have been previously identified in our laboratory as strong phagostimulants for Diabrotica. Bioassay-driven fractionation was used to characterize the interacting lipid and midpolarity phagostimulants for adult WCR in Giant Gray Stripe sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., pollen. Lipids rich in omega3-linolenic acid including triglycerides, free fatty acids, phosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidic acids, and phosphatidylcholines were highly phagostimulatory. Other important phagostimulatory components included a hydroxycinnamic acid-polyamine amide, N(1),N(5),N(10)-tri[(E)-p-coumaroyl]spermidine, and a flavonol, quercetin beta-3-O-glucoside. The structural characteristics of these phagoactive compounds and their role in the pollinivory specialization of rootworm beetles are discussed. PMID:10552441

  13. Association between Dietary Patterns and Blood Lipid Profiles in Korean Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Yeon-Sook; Chang, Hak Chul; Moon, Min Kyong

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to explore the associations of dietary patterns with blood lipid profiles and obesity in adults with type 2 diabetes. The data were obtained from the Forth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008. Adults 30 yr or older, from which had both biochemical and dietary data were obtained. Among them, 680 subjects were defined as having diabetes based on criteria of fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL, anti-diabetic treatment, or previously diagnosed diabetes. Dietary data from a 24-hr recall were used to derive dietary patterns by factor analysis. Four dietary patterns by factor analysis were identified: 'Bread & Meat & Alcohol', 'Noodles & Seafood', 'Rice & Vegetables', and 'Korean Healthy' patterns. Serum cholesterol levels in the highest quartile of the 'Bread & Meat & Alcohol' pattern were significantly higher compared with those in the lowest quartile. In addition, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the highest quartile of the 'Korean Healthy' pattern were significantly lower after adjusting for potential confounders. Dietary patterns of adults with diabetes were found to be associated with blood lipid profiles. 'Korean Healthy' pattern including whole grains, legumes, vegetables, and fruits could thus improve lipid profiles among those with type 2 diabetes. PMID:21935277

  14. Alterations in plasma lipid levels resulting from tofu and cheese consumption in adult women.

    PubMed

    Meredith, L; Liebman, M; Graves, K

    1989-12-01

    Changes in the concentration of plasma lipids were assessed in 10 normolipidemic adult women in response to alternate 3-week controlled feeding of similar low-fat diets containing either tofu or cheese. Plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were significantly lower (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively) following consumption of the tofu compared to the cheese diet, whereas no significant differences were observed in VLDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, or in total triglycerides. To assess whether protein source (animal vs vegetable) exerted an independent effect on plasma lipids, lipid responses to alternate 3-week feeding of tofu-and cheese-containing diets in which the amount and type of dietary fat were equilibrated were examined in five additional women. The finding of similar plasma lipid responses to the modified treatments suggested the high P/S ratio of tofu was primarily responsible for the observed hypocholesterolemic response. An independent effect of protein source on plasma lipids was not supported. PMID:2621294

  15. Alexithymia, suicide risk and serum lipid levels among adult outpatients with panic disorder.

    PubMed

    De Berardis, Domenico; Campanella, Daniela; Serroni, Nicola; Moschetta, Francesco Saverio; Di Emidio, Fabiola; Conti, Chiara; Carano, Alessandro; Acciavatti, Tiziano; Di Iorio, Giuseppe; Martinotti, Giovanni; Siracusano, Alberto; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2013-07-01

    To elucidate the relationships between alexithymia, suicide ideation and serum lipid levels in drug-naïve adult outpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of Panic Disorder (PD), 72 patients were evaluated. Measures were the Panic Attack and Anticipatory Anxiety Scale, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Scale of Suicide Ideation (SSI) and the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Alexithymic patients showed higher scores on all rating scales and altered serum lipid levels than non-alexithymics. In the hierarchical regression model, the presence of lower HDL-C and higher VLDL-C levels and Difficulty in Identifying Feelings dimension of TAS-20 were associated with higher suicide ideation. In conclusion, alexithymic individuals with PD may show a cholesterol dysregulation that may be linked to suicide ideation. The authors discuss study limitations and future research needs. PMID:23332553

  16. Sexual dimorphism in scent substances and cuticular lipids of adult Papilio protenor butterflies.

    PubMed

    Omura, Hisashi; Yanai, Nanako; Honda, Keiichi

    2012-01-01

    Adults of Papilio protenor demetrius emit a faint odour; the male odour is notably stronger than that of the females. The extracts of whole individuals of each sex comprised 53 compounds regarded as cuticular lipid components, of which the 17 major compounds were straight-chain alkanes and alkenes with 23-31 carbon atoms, higher fatty acids, long-chain aliphatic ketones, squalene, and cholesterol. However, highly volatile compounds were not detected in the whole individual extracts. Eight of the 17 major compounds showed a significant sex difference in relative abundance per individual. Principal component analysis, using the major compounds as variables, revealed a marked sexual dimorphism in the chemical composition of cuticular lipids. From the extracts of 10 dissected individuals of each sex, 21 highly volatile compounds were identified in amounts of less than 200 ng/individual. Among them, linalool and 2,3-butanediol showed a significantly larger amount in males than in females, indicating that the adult odour is also sexually dimorphic. Moreover, both sexes shared several odoriferous compounds, such as heptanal, nonanal, methyl salicylate, benzyl alcohol, and benzoic acid. The faint odour of P. protenor adults, perceivable by the human nose, appears to originate from these volatile compounds. PMID:22888540

  17. Association of glycaemia with lipids in adults with type 1 diabetes: modification by dyslipidaemia medication

    PubMed Central

    Ogden, L. G.; Dabelea, D.; Snell-Bergeon, J. K.; Daniels, S. R.; Hamman, R. F.; Rewers, M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia are common metabolic abnormalities in adults with type 1 diabetes and both increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The hypothesis of this study was that change in HbA1c over 6 years would be associated with change in fasting lipids in adults with type 1 diabetes. Methods The Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes (CACTI) study examined 652 patients with type 1 diabetes (54% female); 559 and 543 had follow-up visits at 3 and 6 years. Baseline age (mean ± SD) was 37±9 years, diabetes duration 23±9 years, and HbA1c 8.0±1.3%. Use of dyslipidaemia medication was 17%, 32%, and 46% at the three visits. Separate longitudinal mixed models were fitted to examine the relationship between change in HbA1c and change in fasting total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c), log triacylglycerols (TG), and non-HDL-cholesterol (non- HDL-c). Because of an interaction between dyslipidaemia medication use and association of HbA1c with lipids, results were stratified by dyslipidaemia medication use. Results Among patients not using dyslipidaemia medication, a higher HbA1c was associated with significantly worse levels of the lipids TC, LDL-c, TG and non-HDL-c (per 1% change in HbA1c, TC 0.101 mmol/l, 95% CI 0.050, 0.152; LDL-c 0.103 mmol/l, 95% CI 0.058, 0.148; TG 0.052 mmol/l, 95% CI 0.024, 0.081; and non-HDL-c 0.129 mmol/l, 95% CI 0.078, 0.180) but not HDL-c (−0.20 mmol/l, 95% CI −0.047, 0.007). The associations between HbA1c and any lipid outcome among those on dyslipidaemia medication were in the same direction, but attenuated compared with persons not on medication. Conclusions/interpretation Change in HbA1c is significantly associated with change in fasting lipids, but dyslipidaemia medications may be required to optimise lipid and cardiovascular health. PMID:20820753

  18. Postprandial Responses to Lipid and Carbohydrate Ingestion in Repeated Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Biopsies in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dordevic, Aimee L.; Pendergast, Felicity J.; Morgan, Han; Villas-Boas, Silas; Caldow, Marissa K.; Larsen, Amy E.; Sinclair, Andrew J.; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a primary site of meta-inflammation. Diet composition influences adipose tissue metabolism and a single meal can drive an inflammatory response in postprandial period. This study aimed to examine the effect lipid and carbohydrate ingestion compared with a non-caloric placebo on adipose tissue response. Thirty-three healthy adults (age 24.5 ± 3.3 year (mean ± standard deviation (SD)); body mass index (BMI) 24.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomised into one of three parallel beverage groups; placebo (water), carbohydrate (maltodextrin) or lipid (dairy-cream). Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue biopsies and serum samples were collected prior to (0 h), as well as 2 h and 4 h after consumption of the beverage. Adipose tissue gene expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) increased in all three groups, without an increase in circulating TNF-α. Serum leptin (0.6-fold, p = 0.03) and adipose tissue leptin gene expression levels (0.6-fold, p = 0.001) decreased in the hours following the placebo beverage, but not the nutrient beverages. Despite increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression in adipose tissue with all beverages, suggesting a confounding effect of the repeated biopsy method, differences in metabolic responses of adipose tissue and circulating adipokines to ingestion of lipid and carbohydrate beverages were observed. PMID:26140541

  19. Postprandial Responses to Lipid and Carbohydrate Ingestion in Repeated Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Biopsies in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Dordevic, Aimee L; Pendergast, Felicity J; Morgan, Han; Villas-Boas, Silas; Caldow, Marissa K; Larsen, Amy E; Sinclair, Andrew J; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-07-01

    Adipose tissue is a primary site of meta-inflammation. Diet composition influences adipose tissue metabolism and a single meal can drive an inflammatory response in postprandial period. This study aimed to examine the effect lipid and carbohydrate ingestion compared with a non-caloric placebo on adipose tissue response. Thirty-three healthy adults (age 24.5 ± 3.3 year (mean ± standard deviation (SD)); body mass index (BMI) 24.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomised into one of three parallel beverage groups; placebo (water), carbohydrate (maltodextrin) or lipid (dairy-cream). Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue biopsies and serum samples were collected prior to (0 h), as well as 2 h and 4 h after consumption of the beverage. Adipose tissue gene expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) increased in all three groups, without an increase in circulating TNF-α. Serum leptin (0.6-fold, p = 0.03) and adipose tissue leptin gene expression levels (0.6-fold, p = 0.001) decreased in the hours following the placebo beverage, but not the nutrient beverages. Despite increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression in adipose tissue with all beverages, suggesting a confounding effect of the repeated biopsy method, differences in metabolic responses of adipose tissue and circulating adipokines to ingestion of lipid and carbohydrate beverages were observed. PMID:26140541

  20. Freeze-dried strawberries lower serum cholesterol and lipid peroxidation in adults with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids.

    PubMed

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M; Nguyen, Angel; Newman, Emily D; Fu, Dongxu; Lyons, Timothy J

    2014-06-01

    Dietary flavonoid intake, especially berry flavonoids, has been associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in large prospective cohorts. Few clinical studies have examined the effects of dietary berries on CVD risk factors. We examined the hypothesis that freeze-dried strawberries (FDS) improve lipid and lipoprotein profiles and lower biomarkers of inflammation and lipid oxidation in adults with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. In a randomized dose-response controlled trial, 60 volunteers [5 men and 55 women; aged 49 ± 10 y; BMI: 36 ± 5 kg/m(2) (means ± SDs)] were assigned to consume 1 of the following 4 beverages for 12 wk: 1) low-dose FDS (LD-FDS; 25 g/d); 2) low-dose control (LD-C); 3) high-dose FDS (HD-FDS; 50 g/d); and 4) high-dose control (HD-C). Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Blood draws, anthropometrics, blood pressure, and dietary data were collected at screening (0 wk) and after 12-wk intervention. Dose-response analyses revealed significantly greater decreases in serum total and LDL cholesterol and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-derived small LDL particle concentration in HD-FDS [33 ± 6 mg/dL, 28 ± 7 mg/dL, and 301 ± 78 nmol/L, respectively (means ± SEMs)] vs. LD-FDS (-3 ± 11 mg/dL, -3 ± 9 mg/dL, and -28 ± 124 nmol/L, respectively) over 12 wk (0-12 wk; all P < 0.05). Compared with controls, only the decreases in total and LDL cholesterol in HD-FDS remained significant vs. HD-C (0.7 ± 12 and 1.4 ± 9 mg/dL, respectively) over 12 wk (0-12 wk; all P < 0.05). Both doses of strawberries showed a similar decrease in serum malondialdehyde at 12 wk (LD-FDS: 1.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-FDS: 1.2 ± 0.1 μmol/L) vs. controls (LD-C: 2.1 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-C: 2.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L) (P < 0.05). In general, strawberry intervention did not affect any measures of adiposity, blood pressure, glycemia, and serum concentrations of HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, C-reactive protein, and adhesion molecules

  1. Effects of Dietary Strawberry Supplementation on Antioxidant Biomarkers in Obese Adults with Above Optimal Serum Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Arpita; Morris, Stacy; Nguyen, Angel; Betts, Nancy M.; Fu, Dongxu; Lyons, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Berries have shown several cardiovascular health benefits and have been associated with antioxidant functions in experimental models. Clinical studies are limited. We examined the antioxidant effects of freeze-dried strawberries (FDS) in adults [n = 60; age: 49 ± 10 years; BMI: 36 ± 5 kg/m2 (mean ± SD)] with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. Participants were randomized to one of the following arms: low dose strawberry (25 g/day FDS), low dose control beverage (LD-C), high dose strawberry (50 g/d FDS), and high dose control beverage (HD-C) for 12 weeks. Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Plasma antioxidant capacity, trace elements (copper, iron, selenium, and zinc), whole blood glutathione (GSH), and enzyme activity (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) were examined at screening (0 week) and after 12 weeks' intervention. At 12 weeks, plasma antioxidant capacity and glutathione levels were higher in the strawberry versus control groups (low and high dose FDS: 45% and 42% for plasma antioxidant capacity and 28% and 36% for glutathione, resp.); glutathione was higher in the high versus low dose strawberry group (all p < 0.05). Serum catalase activity was higher in the low dose strawberry (43%) versus control group (p < 0.01). No differences were noted in plasma trace elements and glutathione enzyme activity. Dietary strawberries may selectively increase plasma antioxidant biomarkers in obese adults with elevated lipids. PMID:27429802

  2. Effects of Dietary Strawberry Supplementation on Antioxidant Biomarkers in Obese Adults with Above Optimal Serum Lipids.

    PubMed

    Basu, Arpita; Morris, Stacy; Nguyen, Angel; Betts, Nancy M; Fu, Dongxu; Lyons, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    Berries have shown several cardiovascular health benefits and have been associated with antioxidant functions in experimental models. Clinical studies are limited. We examined the antioxidant effects of freeze-dried strawberries (FDS) in adults [n = 60; age: 49 ± 10 years; BMI: 36 ± 5 kg/m(2) (mean ± SD)] with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. Participants were randomized to one of the following arms: low dose strawberry (25 g/day FDS), low dose control beverage (LD-C), high dose strawberry (50 g/d FDS), and high dose control beverage (HD-C) for 12 weeks. Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Plasma antioxidant capacity, trace elements (copper, iron, selenium, and zinc), whole blood glutathione (GSH), and enzyme activity (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) were examined at screening (0 week) and after 12 weeks' intervention. At 12 weeks, plasma antioxidant capacity and glutathione levels were higher in the strawberry versus control groups (low and high dose FDS: 45% and 42% for plasma antioxidant capacity and 28% and 36% for glutathione, resp.); glutathione was higher in the high versus low dose strawberry group (all p < 0.05). Serum catalase activity was higher in the low dose strawberry (43%) versus control group (p < 0.01). No differences were noted in plasma trace elements and glutathione enzyme activity. Dietary strawberries may selectively increase plasma antioxidant biomarkers in obese adults with elevated lipids. PMID:27429802

  3. Additive effect of linseed oil supplementation on the lipid profiles of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Avelino, Ana Paula A; Oliveira, Gláucia MM; Ferreira, Célia CD; Luiz, Ronir R; Rosa, Glorimar

    2015-01-01

    Background Linseed oil has been investigated as a rich source of n-3 series polyunsaturated fatty acids, which mainly produce a non-atherogenic lipid profile. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of linseed oil supplementation associated with nutritional guidelines on the lipid profiles of older adults, according to the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Methods We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with 110 older adults randomized in two groups: placebo and linseed oil. The linseed oil group received supplementation with 3 g of linseed oil. Both groups received nutritional guidance and were supplemented for 90 days with monthly blood collection for biochemical analysis. The dietary intake of saturated fat was subdivided into low (<7% SFA/day of the total energy value) and high consumption groups (>7% SFA/day of the total energy value). Results Low SFA (<7% SFA/day of total energy value) consumption was associated with lower total cholesterol concentrations. However, we observed that the linseed oil group, including older adults who consumed >7% SFA/day, had a greater reduction in total cholesterol than the placebo group (P=0.020). The same was observed for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (P<0.050), suggesting an additive effect of linseed oil and diet. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations were increased significantly in only the linseed group, suggesting that the nutritional intervention alone did not improve HDL cholesterol. Conclusion The results suggest that the nutritional intervention was effective, but linseed oil showed notable effects by increasing the HDL cholesterol concentration. In addition, consumption of <7% SFA/day of the total energy value increased the effect of linseed oil, demonstrating the importance of reducing the consumption of saturated fat. PMID:26543357

  4. The Relationship Between Serum Lipid Profile and Selected Trace Elements for Adult Men in Mosul City

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sabaawy, Osama M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the correlations of the serum concentrations of copper, zinc, and manganese with lipid profile parameters of adult men in Mosul City, Iraq. Methods The study included 51 apparently healthy adult men as a control group aged 34-62 years (group 1), and 31 hyperlipidemic patients aged 37-60 years (group 2). Trace elements copper, zinc and manganese were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. Concentrations of total cholesterol, triglyceride and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were determined using enzymatic method. Indirect serum concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were calculated via the Friedewald formula. Data were evaluated as mean and standard deviation by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-test. Results The results indicated that there is a significant lower level of serum zinc in hyperlipidemic patients compared with the control group, while copper and manganese showed no significant differences between the two groups. A significant negative correlation was found between serum zinc and total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and low/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio; while a significant positive correlation was found between serum zinc and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. In addition, a significant positive correlation between copper and triglyceride existed in the patient group, while the control group showed no such correlation. Conclusion Hyperlipidemia may possibly be related to a decrease in the level of serum zinc in hyperlipidemic adult men. The data also supports the concept that zinc supplementation might be useful in improving metabolic complications in subjects with hyperlipidemia. PMID:23071882

  5. Phospholipids from herring roe improve plasma lipids and glucose tolerance in healthy, young adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Herring roe is an underutilized source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for human consumption with high phospholipid (PL) content. Studies have shown that PL may improve bioavailability of n-3 PUFAs. Arctic Nutrition’s herring roe product MOPL™30 is a PL: docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich fish oil mixture, with a DHA:eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ratio of about 3:1, which is also rich in choline. In this pilot study, we determined if MOPL30 could favorably affect plasma lipid parameters and glucose tolerance in healthy young adults. Methods Twenty female and one male adults, between 22 and 26 years of age, participated in the study. Participants took encapsulated MOPL30, 2.4 g/d EPA + DHA, for 14 days, and completed a three-day weighed food record before and during the capsule intake. Plasma lipids and their fatty acid (FA) composition, plasma and red blood cell (RBC) phosphatidylcholine (PC) FA composition, acylcarnitines, choline, betaine and insulin were measured before and after supplementation (n = 21), and one and four weeks after discontinuation of supplementation (n = 14). An oral glucose tolerance test was performed before and after supplementation. Results Fasting plasma triacylglycerol and non-esterified fatty acids decreased and HDL-cholesterol increased after 14 days of MOPL30 intake (p < 0.05). The dietary records showed that PUFA intake prior to and during capsule intake was not different. Fasting plasma glucose was unchanged from before to after supplementation. However, during oral glucose tolerance testing, blood glucose at both 10 and 120 min was significantly lower after supplementation with MOPL30 compared to baseline measurements. Plasma free choline and betaine were increased, and the n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated (PUFA) ratio in plasma and RBC PC were decreased post-supplementation. Four weeks after discontinuation of MOPL30, most parameters had returned to baseline, but a delayed effect was observed on n-6

  6. Combined effects of aerobic exercise and diet on lipids and lipoproteins in overweight and obese adults: a meta-analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study used the aggregate data meta-analytic approach to determine the combined effects of aerobic exercise and diet on lipids and lipoproteins in overweight and obese adults. Twelve studies representing 859 men and women (443 intervention, 416 control) were included. Using random-effects models...

  7. Modifications in dietary fat quality are associated with changes in serum lipids of older adults independently of lipid medication.

    PubMed

    Buyken, Anette E; Flood, Victoria; Rochtchina, Elena; Nestel, Paul; Brand-Miller, Jennie; Mitchell, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Prospective evidence on the extent to which serum lipid concentrations in older persons respond to dietary modification is scarce. It is not clear whether such behavioral changes are relevant in the context of more commonly initiated treatments with lipid-lowering drugs. We therefore examined whether individual changes in the consumption of dietary fatty acids or main food sources were associated with changes in the serum lipid profile of older Australians. A total of 903 participants (> or =49 y) in the Blue Mountains Eye Study had complete data on fasting lipids and dietary intake from a validated FFQ at baseline (1992-1994) and 5- and 10-y follow-up examinations. Decreasing consumption of SFA and butter during the 10-y period were associated with moderate decreases in serum total cholesterol independently of initiation of lipid-lowering drug treatment [adjusted estimates were 0.018 +/- 0.007 mmol/(L x % energy (%en) from SFA (P = 0.01) and 0.055 +/- 0.015 mmol/(L x 5 g butter) (P = 0.0003), respectively]. Increased consumption of (n-3) fatty acids and fish was independently related to modest increases in serum HDL-cholesterol [0.067 +/- 0.026 mmol/(L x %en from (n-3) fatty acids) (P = 0.01) and 0.010 +/- 0.004 mmol/(L x 20 g fish) (P = 0.02)] and decreases in log-transformed serum triglyceride concentrations [P = 0.02 for (n-3) fatty acids and P = 0.02 for fish intake]. Hence, 10-y changes in the intake of dietary fatty acids and their food sources appear to have contributed to concurrent improvements in the serum lipid profile of older Australians, independent of concomitantly initiated lipid-lowering drug treatment. PMID:19923396

  8. Evaluation of the impact of abdominal obesity on glucose and lipid metabolism disorders in adults with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Real de Asua, Diego; Parra, Pedro; Costa, Ramón; Moldenhauer, Fernando; Suarez, Carmen

    2014-11-01

    We aimed to describe anthropometric differences in weight-related disorders between adults with Down syndrome (DS) and healthy controls, as well as their disparate impact on glucose and lipid metabolism disorders. We underwent a cross-sectional study of 49 consecutively selected, community-residing adults with DS and 49 healthy controls in an outpatient clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Madrid, Spain. Siblings of adults with DS were studied as controls in 42 cases. Epidemiological data (age and gender), anthropometric data (body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio [WHR]), coexisting clinical conditions, and laboratory data (fasting glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, creatinine, thyroid hormones, and lipid profile) were measured and compared between the groups. Adults with DS were significantly younger and more often male, with a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity than controls. Adults with DS also had a higher WHR, and more frequently presented abdominal obesity. Moreover, insulin resistance measured using the homeostatic model assessment was more prevalent among adults with DS and abdominal obesity. However, lipid profiles were similar between groups. The kappa correlation index for the diagnosis of abdominal obesity between waist circumference and WHR was 0.24 (95%CI: 0.13-0.34). We concluded that the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity was higher in adults with DS than in controls. Adults with DS and abdominal obesity showed higher indexes of insulin resistance than their non-obese peers. WHR was a useful tool for the evaluation of abdominal obesity in this population. PMID:25108610

  9. Traditional and alternative nutrition--levels of homocysteine and lipid parameters in adults.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Blazícek, P; Babinská, K; Kopcová, J; Klvanová, J; Béderová, A; Magálová, T

    2000-12-01

    Values of homocysteine and lipid parameters were measured in groups of adults consuming alternative nutrition (vegetarians/lactoovo/, vegans) and compared with a group consuming traditional diet (omnivores, general population). Frequency of hyperhomocysteinemia was 53% in the vegans group, 28% in vegetarians vs. 5% in omnivores. In conditions of lower methionine intake (reduced content in plant proteins), the remethylation pathway of homocysteine metabolism prevails and it is vitamin B12 and folate-dependent. The intake of vitamin B12 is equal to zero in vegans; vegetarians consume 124% of the RDA vs. 383% in omnivores. Serum vitamin levels are significantly lower in subjects consuming alternative nutrition with deficiency observed in 24% of vegetarians, 78% of vegans vs. 0% in omnivores. Serum folate levels are within the reference range in all groups. Mild hyperhomocysteinemia in the groups consuming alternative diet is a consequence of vitamin B12 deficiency. Vegetarians and vegans meet the RDA for energy and fat, and have a favourable proportion of saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids on total energy intake; the ratio of linoleic/alpha-linolenic acid in their diet corresponds with the recommendations. They have low cholesterol consumption and higher vitamin E and C intake. Optimal fat intake of correct composition is reflected in lower values of atherosclerosis risk factors (cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, atherogenic index, saturated fatty acids, triacylglycerols), and significantly higher levels of protective substances (linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, HDL-cholesterol, vitamin E, vitamin E/cholesterol, vitamin C). Low lipid risk factors but higher findings of mild hyperhomocysteinemia in vegetarians mean a diminished protective effect of alternative nutrition in cardiovascular disease prevention. PMID:11218148

  10. Effects of Regular Recreational Exercise Training on Serum ANGPTL3-Like Protein and Lipid Profile in Young Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Smol, Ewa; Kłapcińska, Barbara; Kempa, Katarzyna; Fredyk, Artur; Małecki, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of the role of ANGPTL3, a liver-secreted glycoprotein, in serum lipid turnover, led us to hypothesize that this protein may be involved in modification of the lipid profile induced by exercise-training. Given the lack of data regarding this issue, the main goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of regular participation in a recreational physical activity program on serum ANGPTL3 and selected lipid profile measures in young, apparently healthy female and male adults. We compared serum ANGPTL3, lipid profile measures, common lipid ratios, the Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) and glucose in fasting blood samples derived from 22 active physical education students including active females (AF, N=6) and males (AM, N=16) with samples from 28 relatively sedentary age-matched peers, including female (SF, N=9) and male (SM, N=19) individuals not involved in any regular physical conditioning program. Despite high inter-individual variability of serum ANGPTL3, there was a general tendency toward higher serum ANGPTL3 and HDL-C in women compared to men, but without significant differences related to their physical activity status. Based on both routine lipid profile measures and lipid ratios, all participants had normal lipid profiles, normal glycemia, as well as favorable anthropometric indices not suggesting increased cardiometabolic risk. However, lower levels of the TG/HDL-C ratio and AIP in physically active compared to relatively sedentary participants, reflecting the predominance of large, buoyant LDL particles, strongly support the view of beneficial health-promoting effects of regular participation in recreational sport activities. PMID:26839611

  11. Comparison of palmolein and olive oil: effects on plasma lipids and vitamin E in young adults.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, N; Tan, L; Truswell, A S

    1995-05-01

    Twenty-one healthy normocholesterolemic young adults, men and women, completed a randomized 30-d/30-d crossover comparison of the effect of palmolein and olive oil on plasma lipids. The subjects were free-living volunteers who changed to low-fat diets to which one of the test oils was added (used as a spread, for baking, or for frying) in turn. Complete food records were kept throughout: the test oils were compared at 17% of total dietary energy. Under the conditions of this experiment plasma total and low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were almost identical with the two oils, so that when the palmitic acid (16:0) in palm oil replaced oleic acid (18:1) in olive oil the expected increase in LDL cholesterol was not seen. These results indicate that 16:0, though saturated, is not always a plasma cholesterol-raising fatty acid. Palmolein is rich in vitamin E, alpha-tocopherol, and especially tocotrienols, but the latter were barely detectable in plasma. PMID:7733026

  12. Paleolithic nutrition improves plasma lipid concentrations of hypercholesterolemic adults to a greater extent than traditional heart-healthy dietary recommendations.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Robert L; Brooks, Judith T; Carbone, John W

    2015-06-01

    Recent research suggests that traditional grain-based heart-healthy diet recommendations, which replace dietary saturated fat with carbohydrate and reduce total fat intake, may result in unfavorable plasma lipid ratios, with reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and an elevation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triacylglycerols (TG). The current study tested the hypothesis that a grain-free Paleolithic diet would induce weight loss and improve plasma total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and TG concentrations in nondiabetic adults with hyperlipidemia to a greater extent than a grain-based heart-healthy diet, based on the recommendations of the American Heart Association. Twenty volunteers (10 male and 10 female) aged 40 to 62 years were selected based on diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia. Volunteers were not taking any cholesterol-lowering medications and adhered to a traditional heart-healthy diet for 4 months, followed by a Paleolithic diet for 4 months. Regression analysis was used to determine whether change in body weight contributed to observed changes in plasma lipid concentrations. Differences in dietary intakes and plasma lipid measures were assessed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Four months of Paleolithic nutrition significantly lowered (P < .001) mean total cholesterol, LDL, and TG and increased (P < .001) HDL, independent of changes in body weight, relative to both baseline and the traditional heart-healthy diet. Paleolithic nutrition offers promising potential for nutritional management of hyperlipidemia in adults whose lipid profiles have not improved after following more traditional heart-healthy dietary recommendations. PMID:26003334

  13. Efficacy of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet for improving selected lipids and lipoproteins in adults: A meta-analysis of andomized controlled trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies addressing the effects of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in adults have reached conflicting conclusions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of aerobic exercise combined with a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentration...

  14. Efficacy of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet for improving selected lipids and lipoproteins in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies addressing the effects of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in adults have reached conflicting conclusions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of aerobic exercise combined with a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentration...

  15. Racial Differences in Antilipemic Use and Lipid Control in High Risk Older Adults Post Medicare Part D

    PubMed Central

    Hanlon, Joseph T.; Boudreau, Robert M.; Perera, Subashan; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Newman, Anne B.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Shorr, Ronald I.; Bauer, Douglas C.; Donohue, Julie M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Older blacks are less likely to receive guideline-recommended antilipemic therapy and achieve lipid control than older whites due in part to out-of-pocket costs. We sought to determine whether racial differences in antilipemic use and lipid control narrowed after Medicare Part D’s implementation. Methods This before-after study included 1091 black and white adults age >70 with coronary heart disease and/or diabetes mellitus from the Health Aging and Body Composition Study. Primary outcomes were antilipemic use and LDL-C control. Key independent variables were race, time (pre- vs. post-Part D), and their interaction. Results Before Part D, fewer blacks than whites reported taking an antilipemic (32.70% vs 49.35%) and this difference was sustained after Part D (blacks 48.30% vs whites 64.57%). Multivariable generalized estimating equations confirmed no post Part D change in racial differences in antilipemic use (adjusted ratio of the odds ratios [AROR] 1.07, 95% CI 0.79–1.45). Compared to whites, more blacks had poor lipid control both before Part D (24.30% vs 12.36% respectively) and after Part D (24.46% vs 13.72% respectively), with no post Part D change in racial differences in lipid control (AROR 0.82, 95% CI 0.51–1.33). Conclusion While antilipemic use increased after Medicare Part D for both races, this policy change was associated neither with a change in lipid control for either racial group nor in the racial differences in antilipemic use or lipid control. PMID:24093862

  16. Aberrant Lipid Metabolism in the Forebrain Niche Suppresses Adult Neural Stem Cell Proliferation in an Animal Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Laura K; Dufresne, Martin; Joppé, Sandra E; Petryszyn, Sarah; Aumont, Anne; Calon, Frédéric; Barnabé-Heider, Fanie; Furtos, Alexandra; Parent, Martin; Chaurand, Pierre; Fernandes, Karl J L

    2015-10-01

    Lipid metabolism is fundamental for brain development and function, but its roles in normal and pathological neural stem cell (NSC) regulation remain largely unexplored. Here, we uncover a fatty acid-mediated mechanism suppressing endogenous NSC activity in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We found that postmortem AD brains and triple-transgenic Alzheimer's disease (3xTg-AD) mice accumulate neutral lipids within ependymal cells, the main support cell of the forebrain NSC niche. Mass spectrometry and microarray analyses identified these lipids as oleic acid-enriched triglycerides that originate from niche-derived rather than peripheral lipid metabolism defects. In wild-type mice, locally increasing oleic acid was sufficient to recapitulate the AD-associated ependymal triglyceride phenotype and inhibit NSC proliferation. Moreover, inhibiting the rate-limiting enzyme of oleic acid synthesis rescued proliferative defects in both adult neurogenic niches of 3xTg-AD mice. These studies support a pathogenic mechanism whereby AD-induced perturbation of niche fatty acid metabolism suppresses the homeostatic and regenerative functions of NSCs. PMID:26321199

  17. Kochujang, fermented soybean-based red pepper paste, decreases visceral fat and improves blood lipid profiles in overweight adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Health benefits of Kochujang (KCJ) and its bioactive compounds have been reported in several in vitro and animal studies. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of KCJ supplementation on body composition and blood lipid profiles in overweight adults. Methods Sixty overweight men and women with BMI ≥23 kg/m2 and waist-hip-ratio (WHR) ≥0.90 for men and ≥0.85 for women were randomly assigned to a KCJ supplement (n=30, 32 g/day) or placebo (n=30, 32 g/day) group for a 12-week, double-blind, placebo controlled study. We measured anthropometric parameters, serum lipid profiles, abdominal fat distribution by computerized tomography and calculated the atherosclerosis indices in 53 subjects (n=26 in KCJ group, n=27 in placebo group) who completed the study. Results After 12 weeks, the KCJ group showed a significant reduction in visceral fat (cm2) (p<0.05), although body weight (kg) and WHR did not change. Serum concentration of triglycerides and ApoB were decreased when compared to those of the placebo group. Conclusion KCJ supplementation (32 g/day) for 12 weeks in overweight adults showed anti-atherosclerotic and anti-obesogenic effects. Trial registration Clinical trials.gov Identifier: NCT01532375 PMID:23442518

  18. Biotin status and lipid metabolism in adult obese hypercholesterolemic inbred rats.

    PubMed

    Marshall, M W; Haubrich, M; Washington, V A; Chang, M W; Young, C W; Wheeler, M A

    1976-01-01

    A statistically significant inverse association was generally found between plasma total lipid, cholesterol, or phospholipid and biotin status of 300-day-old male inbred BHE (IN-BHE) rats. Plasma, liver, and carcass lipid of both sexes generally had a significant direct association with liver lactate dehydrogenase activity; an inverse association in males resulted with improved biotin status. Elevated plasma lactate indicative of anaerobic glycolysis was found. It is proposed that an increased reductive environment - a consequence of accumulated NADH - could account for enhanced triglyceride synthesis and that this effect could explain the obesity in the IN-BHE rats. After the injection of 300 mug of biotin, plasma levels of lactate and pyruvate fell in male rats, indicating a stimulatory effect of biotin upon the oxidative pathways in these animals. PMID:958648

  19. The Evaluation of Micronutrients and Oxidative Stress and their Relationship with the Lipid Profile in Healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Rai K, Narasimha; Kumari, N Suchetha; Gowda KM, Damodara; KR, Swathi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Micronutrients are nutrients which are required by humans and other living beings throughout life in small quantities, to orchestrate a whole range of physiological functions, which the organism itself cannot produce. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the status of the micronutrients, oxidative stress, and the lipid profile in healthy adults. Material and Methods: The present study was conducted after getting the institutional ethical clearance and informed written consents from all the participants. The estimation of copper and zinc was done by the atomic absorption spectrophotometer method,the total antioxidant status was assessed by the phosphomolybdenum method, MDA was evaluated by the Malondialdehyde method, total cholesterol was evaluated by the CHOD-POD method, HDL-cholesterol was evaluated by the precipitation end point method, and total triglycerides were evaluated by the GPO-POD method. The data was analysed by one way ANOVA, followed by Pearson’s correlation. Result: We observed significantly increased (p <0.0001) copper and zinc levels in males and females as the age advanced, significantly increased (p <0.01) MDA and TAS levels, significantly declined (p <0.04) total triglyceride levels in adults, significantly declined (p <0.05) HDL levels and significantly declined (p = 0.04) VLDL levels in adults as the age advanced, in both the sexes. Conclusion: The increase in the levels of the micronutrients may have a direct correlation with the oxidative status as the age advances. PMID:23998054

  20. Municipal solid waste characterization, Tehran-Iran.

    PubMed

    Heravi, Helen Morabi; Sabour, Mohammad Reza; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2013-08-15

    Effective waste management has been greatly restricted by insufficient statistical data on the generation, processing and waste disposal. This study was undertaken in the municipality of Tehran. A total of 6,060 samples were compared by statistically comparing source generation, destination and intermediate stations. The results from these analyses showed that the average per capita waste generation in Tehran was 589 g day(-1). It was also observed that, of the total amount of waste generated in the municipality of Tehran, 73% was domestic waste and 27% was non-domestic waste. In addition, 68% of total household waste was organic waste, while 41% of non-domestic waste was organic waste. Furthermore, 61% of waste in Tehran was generated at the source, while 72% of the waste coming into the Aradkoh disposal and processing center was organic waste. The physical analysis was showed that there was no significant difference between the wastes generated in 2004 and those generated in 2009 and that there was not equal percentage of wet waste coming into the disposal center with urban service stations. This indicates that active source separation programs in metropolitan Tehran. PMID:24498828

  1. Comparison of aerobic exercise, diet or both on lipids and lipoproteins in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Given that previous studies have reached conflicting conclusions regarding the effects of diet (D), aerobic exercise (E) or both (DE) on blood lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in adults, the meta-analytic approach was used to address this issue. Data Sources: Nine electronic databases, cross-ref...

  2. AMBIENT COARSE PARTICLE MATTER ASSOCIATED WITH HRV, BLOOD COAGULATION, AND BLOOD LIPIDS IN ADULT ASTHMATICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: We investigated whether systemic inflammation markers in asthmatics change in response to fluctuations in ambient PM. Methods: Twelve atopic adults with mild to moderate persistent asthma living within a 30 mile radius of the US EPA clinic were followed for twelve w...

  3. The functional role of some tomato products on lipid profile and liver function in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Hoda Salama; Ahmed, Lamiaa Ali; El-din, Maha Mohamed Essam

    2008-09-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the functional role of lycopene obtained from powder prepared from fresh tomato, tomato paste, and ketchup that contained equal amounts of lycopene based on levels of intake on body weight gain (BWG), feed intake, feed efficiency ratio (FER), lipid profiles, atherogenic index, and liver enzymes of hyperlipidemic rats. Forty-eight male albino rats were divided into two main groups: the first group (n = 6 rats) was kept on the basal diet as a normal control, while the second group (n = 42 rats) was fed a hyperlipidemic diet for 5 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. The latter group was divided into seven subgroups: the first subgroup was the positive control group, while the others were supplemented with one of the tomato products at one of two levels (10 or 20 mg of lycopene/kg of diet). BWG, feed intake, and FER were calculated, and blood samples were collected to determine total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoprotein fractions, atherogenic index, and liver function in sera. Relative organ weights were also calculated. Results revealed that administration of various tomato products produced a significant reduction in feed intake except for the hyperlipidemic group that supplemented with the lower lycopene level from tomato paste. In addition, BWG and FER were not influenced by addition of tomato products at any level of intake. Hyperlipidemic rats supplemented with tomato powder, tomato paste, or ketchup showed significant improvement in almost all the parameters studied compared to the positive control group. Results showed that the higher lycopene level from tomato paste produced significant improvement in all lipid parameters, followed by 10 mg of lycopene/kg from tomato paste, which caused significant elevation in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol comparable to that of the negative control group. The lowest atherogenic index was achieved by addition of the lower lycopene level from tomato paste followed by

  4. Epidermal growth factor receptor plays a role in the regulation of liver and plasma lipid levels in adult male mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiuqi; Garcia, Oscar A.; Wang, Rebecca F.; Stevenson, Mary C.; Threadgill, David W.; Russell, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Dsk5 mice have a gain of function in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), caused by a point mutation in the kinase domain. We analyzed the effect of this mutation on liver size, histology, and composition. We found that the livers of 12-wk-old male Dsk5 heterozygotes (+/Dsk5) were 62% heavier compared with those of wild-type controls (+/+). The livers of the +/Dsk5 mice compared with +/+ mice had larger hepatocytes with prominent, polyploid nuclei and showed modestly increased cell proliferation indices in both hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells. An analysis of total protein, DNA, and RNA (expressed relative to liver weight) revealed no differences between the mutant and wild-type mice. However, the livers of the +/Dsk5 mice had more cholesterol but less phospholipid and fatty acid. Circulating cholesterol levels were twice as high in adult male +/Dsk5 mice but not in postweaned young male or female mice. The elevated total plasma cholesterol resulted mainly from an increase in low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The +/Dsk5 adult mouse liver expressed markedly reduced protein levels of LDL receptor, no change in proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, and a markedly increased fatty acid synthase and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase. Increased expression of transcription factors associated with enhanced cholesterol synthesis was also observed. Together, these findings suggest that the EGFR may play a regulatory role in hepatocyte proliferation and lipid metabolism in adult male mice, explaining why elevated levels of EGF or EGF-like peptides have been positively correlated to increased cholesterol levels in human studies. PMID:24407590

  5. Probabilistic Safety Assessment of Tehran Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Hadi; Nematollahi, Mohammad Reza; Sepanloo, Kamran

    2004-07-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) application is found to be a practical tool for research reactor safety due to intense involvement of human interactions in an experimental facility. In this paper the application of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment to the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) is presented. The level 1 PSA application involved: Familiarization with the plant, selection of accident initiators, mitigating functions and system definitions, event tree constructions and quantification, fault tree constructions and quantification, human reliability, component failure data base development and dependent failure analysis. Each of the steps of the analysis given above is discussed with highlights from the selected results. Quantification of the constructed models is done using SAPHIRE software. This Study shows that the obtained core damage frequency for Tehran Research Reactor (8.368 E-6 per year) well meets the IAEA criterion for existing nuclear power plants (1E-4). But safety improvement suggestions are offered to decrease the most probable accidents. (authors)

  6. Lipid structure does not modify incorporation of EPA and DHA into blood lipids in healthy adults: a randomised-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    West, Annette L; Burdge, Graham C; Calder, Philip C

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplementation is an effective means to improve EPA and DHA status. However, it is unclear whether lipid structure affects EPA+DHA bioavailability. We determined the effect of consuming different EPA and DHA lipid structures on their concentrations in blood during the postprandial period and during dietary supplementation compared with unmodified fish oil TAG (uTAG). In a postprandial cross-over study, healthy men (n 9) consumed in random order test meals containing 1·1 g EPA+0·37 g DHA as either uTAG, re-esterified TAG, free fatty acids (FFA) or ethyl esters (EE). In a parallel design supplementation study, healthy men and women (n 10/sex per supplement) consumed one supplement type for 12 weeks. Fatty acid composition was determined by GC. EPA incorporation over 6 h into TAG or phosphatidylcholine (PC) did not differ between lipid structures. EPA enrichment in NEFA was lower from EE than from uTAG (P=0·01). Plasma TAG, PC or NEFA DHA incorporation did not differ between lipid structures. Lipid structure did not affect TAG or NEFA EPA incorporation and PC or NEFA DHA incorporation following dietary supplementation. Plasma TAG peak DHA incorporation was greater (P=0·02) and time to peak shorter (P=0·02) from FFA than from uTAG in men. In both studies, the order of EPA and DHA incorporation was PC>TAG>NEFA. In conclusion, EPA and DHA lipid structure may not be an important consideration in dietary interventions. PMID:27424661

  7. No effects of low and high consumption of dairy products and calcium supplements on body composition and serum lipids in Puerto Rican obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, Cristina; Bertrán, José J.; Ríos, Ruth E.; Soltero, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Objective Epidemiologic studies have shown that a high calcium intake is related to lower body weight, fat, and serum lipids in obese individuals. However, clinical studies have shown inconclusive results. The present study was conducted to determine if dairy or calcium supplementation alters body composition or serum lipids in Puerto Rican obese adults without dietary energy restriction or exercise. Methods A 21-wk randomized clinical trial was conducted in 30 obese adults, aged 21–50 y, with usual calcium intakes <700 mg/d. Subjects were randomly assigned to the following: high dairy (~1300 mg/d of calcium from dairy products by substituting foods); high calcium (~1300 mg/d of calcium; ~700 mg/d from diet and 600 mg/d from a supplement); or placebo. Subjects were asked to continue their established dietary intake (except for the high dairy group) and their physical activity during the study. Body weight was measured monthly; body fat, bone, and serum lipids (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and triacylglycerol) were measured at baseline and at 21 wk. Pairwise differences in study endpoints among the groups were assessed using ANOVA and post-hoc analysis. Results Grand mean calcium intake was 1200 ± 370 (median 1187) mg/d in the high dairy group, 1171 ± 265 (median 1165) mg/d in the high calcium group, and 668 ± 273 (median 691) mg/d in the control group, which was significantly lower compared to the two treatment groups (P < 0.001). There were no significant group effects in any of the outcome variables. Conclusion A high dairy or calcium diet alone did not alter body composition or serum lipids profile in a sample of Puerto Rican obese adults. PMID:20579848

  8. Effects of aerobic exercise, diet, or both on lipids and lipoproteins in adults: a meta-analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Studies addressing the effects of aerobic exercise (E), diet (D), or both (ED) on lipids and lipoproteins have led to conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: Determine the effects of E, D, and ED on lipids and lipoproteins. METHODS: Using the aggregate data meta-analytic approach, studies were ...

  9. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis A among Students Enrolled in Tehran University of Medical Sciences during 2011

    PubMed Central

    Rabiee, Anahita; Nikayin, Sina; Hashemi, Seyed Reza; Mohaghegh, Mostafa; Amini, Marzieh; Rabiee, Roozbeh; Merat, Shahin

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hepatitis A is often asymptomatic in children, however it can become a serious disease in adults. For countries that do not have a universal vaccination strategy targeted vaccination for high risk groups is recommended. Health workers could be at a higher risk of infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV) compared to the general population. The aim of this study is to investigate the seroprevalence of hepatitis A among enrolled students in Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2011. METHODS This study included all students enrolled in Tehran University of Medical Sciences during 2011. We checked serum samples for anti-HAV antibody and participants completed a simple questionnaire. RESULTS From 1864 health sciences students enrolled in Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 1813 samples were analyzed for anti-HAV IgG antibody. The results showed that 970 (53.5%) were seronegative, 722 (39.8%) were seropositive, and 121 (6.7%) were equivocal. There were significantly higher seropositive results for males (54%) compared to females (37%; RR = 1.46; 95% CI: 1.31-1.62). CONCLUSION The seroprevalence of HAV among enrolled medical science students is considerably lower than previous reports from Iran. Targeted vaccination for health sciences students prior to exposure should be seriously considered. PMID:24829683

  10. α-Tocopherol disappearance rates from plasma depend on lipid concentrations: studies using deuterium-labeled collard greens in younger and older adults1234

    PubMed Central

    Traber, Maret G; Leonard, Scott W; Bobe, Gerd; Fu, Xueyan; Saltzman, Edward; Grusak, Michael A; Booth, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little is known about α-tocopherol’s bioavailability as a constituent of food or its dependence on a subject’s age. Objective: To evaluate the α-tocopherol bioavailability from food, we used collard greens grown in deuterated water (2H collard greens) as a source of deuterium-labeled (2H) α-tocopherol consumed by younger and older adults in a post hoc analysis of a vitamin K study. Design: Younger (mean ± SD age: 32 ± 7 y; n = 12 women and 9 men) and older (aged 67 ± 8 y; n = 8 women and 12 men) adults consumed a test breakfast that included 120 g 2H collard greens (1.2 ± 0.1 mg 2H-α-tocopherol). Plasma unlabeled α-tocopherol and 2H-α-tocopherol were measured by using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry from fasting (>12 h) blood samples drawn before breakfast (0 h) and at 24, 48, and 72 h and from postprandial samples collected at 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12, and 16 h. Results: Times (12.6 ± 2.5 h) of maximum plasma 2H-α-tocopherol concentrations (0.82% ± 0.59% total α-tocopherol), fractional disappearance rates (0.63 ± 0.26 pools/d), half-lives (30 ± 11 h), and the minimum estimated 2H-α-tocopherol absorbed (24% ± 16%) did not vary between age groups or sexes (n = 41). Unlabeled α-tocopherol concentrations were higher in older adults (26.4 ± 8.6 μmol/L) than in younger adults (19.3 ± 4.2 μmol/L; P = 0.0019) and correlated with serum lipids (r = 0.4938, P = 0.0012). In addition, 2H-α-tocopherol half-lives were correlated with lipids (r = 0.4361, P = 0.0044). Conclusions: Paradoxically, α-tocopherol remained in circulation longer in participants with higher serum lipids, but the 2H-α-tocopherol absorbed was not dependent on the plasma lipid status. Neither variable was dependent on age. These data suggest that plasma α-tocopherol concentrations are more dependent on mechanisms that control circulating lipids rather than those related to its absorption and initial incorporation into plasma. This trial was registered at

  11. Factors Affecting Health Care Utilization in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Motlagh, Soraya Nouraei; Sabermahani, Asma; Hadian, Mohammad; Lari, Mohsen Asadi; Mahdavi, Mohamad Reza Vaez; Gorji, Hassan Abolghasem

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Successful health system planning and management is dependent on well informed decisions, so having complete knowledge about medical services’ utilization is essential for resource allocation and health plans. The main goal of this study is identification of factors effecting inpatient and outpatient services utilization in public and private sectors. Methods: This study encompasses all regions of Tehran in 2011 and uses Urban HEART questionnaires. This population-based survey included 34700 households with 118000 individuals in Tehran. For determining the most important factors affected on health services consumption, logit model was applied. Results: Regarding to the finding, the most important factors affected on utilization were age, income level and deciles, job status, household dimension and insurance coverage. The main point was the negative relationship between health care utilization and education but it had a positive relationship with private health care utilization. Moreover suffering from chronic disease was the most important variable in health care utilization. Conclusions: According to the mentioned results and the fact that access has effect on health services utilization, policy makers should try to eliminate financial access barriers of households and individuals. This may be done with identification of households with more than 65 or smaller than 5 years old, people in low income deciles or with chronic illness. According to age effect on health services usage and aging population of Iran, results of this study show more importance of attention to aged population needs in future years. PMID:26153189

  12. Seismic Hazard Assessment of Tehran Based on Arias Intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Amiri, G. Ghodrati; Mahmoodi, H.; Amrei, S. A. Razavian

    2008-07-08

    In this paper probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of Tehran for Arias intensity parameter is done. Tehran is capital and most populated city of Iran. From economical, political and social points of view, Tehran is the most significant city of Iran. Since in the previous centuries, catastrophic earthquakes have occurred in Tehran and its vicinity, probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of this city for Arias intensity parameter is useful. Iso-intensity contour lines maps of Tehran on the basis of different attenuation relationships for different earthquake periods are plotted. Maps of iso-intensity points in the Tehran region are presented using proportional attenuation relationships for rock and soil beds for 2 hazard levels of 10% and 2% in 50 years. Seismicity parameters on the basis of historical and instrumental earthquakes for a time period that initiate from 4th century BC and ends in the present time are calculated using Tow methods. For calculation of seismicity parameters, the earthquake catalogue with a radius of 200 km around Tehran has been used. SEISRISKIII Software has been employed. Effects of different parameters such as seismicity parameters, length of fault rupture relationships and attenuation relationships are considered using Logic Tree.

  13. No effects of short-term sleep restriction, in a controlled feeding setting, on lipid profiles in normal weight adults

    PubMed Central

    O’Keeffe, Majella; Roberts, Amy L.; Kelleman, Michael; RoyChoudhury, Arindam; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Summary Short sleep has been associated with cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of short-term sleep restriction on lipid profiles and resting blood pressure factors in young, normal weight individuals (14 men, 13 women). Participants were randomized to 5 nights of either habitual (9 h) or short (4 h) sleep in a crossover design separated by a 3 wk washout period. There was no sleep x day interaction on lipid profile and blood pressure. Short-term sleep restriction does not alter lipid profiles and resting blood pressure in healthy, normal weight individuals. The association between short sleep and increased cardiovascular risk reported in the epidemiological literature may be the result of long-term sleep restriction and poor lifestyle choices. PMID:23682639

  14. Postnatal testosterone exposure results in insulin resistance, enlarged mesenteric adipocytes, and an atherogenic lipid profile in adult female rats: comparisons with estradiol and dihydrotestosterone.

    PubMed

    Alexanderson, Camilla; Eriksson, Elias; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Lystig, Theodore; Gabrielsson, Britt; Lönn, Malin; Holmäng, Agneta

    2007-11-01

    Postnatal events contribute to features of the metabolic syndrome in adulthood. In this study, postnatally administered testosterone reduced insulin sensitivity and increased the mesenteric fat depot, the size of mesenteric adipocytes, serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides, and the atherogenic index in adult female rats. To assess the involvement of estrogen and androgen receptors in these programming effects, we compared testosterone-exposed rats to rats exposed to estradiol or dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Estradiol-treated rats had lower insulin sensitivity than testosterone-treated rats and, like those rats, had enlarged mesenteric adipocytes and increased triglyceride levels. DHT also reduced insulin sensitivity but did not mimic the other metabolic effects of testosterone. All treated rats were probably anovulatory, but only those treated with testosterone had reduced testosterone levels. This study confirms our previous finding that postnatal administration of testosterone reduces insulin sensitivity in adult female rats and shows that this effect is accompanied by unfavorable changes in mesenteric fat tissue and in serum lipid levels. The findings in the estradiol and DHT groups suggest that estrogen receptors exert stronger metabolic programming effects than androgen receptors. Thus, insults such as sex hormone exposure in early life may have long-lasting effects, thereby creating a predisposition to disturbances in insulin sensitivity, adipose tissue, and lipid profile in adulthood. PMID:17656458

  15. Changes in Lipid Profiles of HIV+ Adults over Nine Months at a Harare HIV Clinic: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Nehumba, Doreen; Oktedalen, Olav; Marange, Princess; Kodogo, Vitaris; Gomo, Zvenyika Alfred; Esterhuizen, Tonya M.; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2016-01-01

    HIV infection, together with ART, is associated with changes in biochemical, metabolic parameters and lipid profiles. The aim of this study was to compare changes in lipid profiles among HIV positive outpatients over nine months. 171 patients were investigated, 79% were ART experienced, and 82% of ART experienced patients were on NVP/EFV first line at baseline, but some patients changed ART groups over follow-up and classification was based on intent to treat. More than 60% ART naïve and ART experienced patients had some form of dyslipidemia either at baseline or at follow-up, but mean lipid values for the two groups were within normal limits. At baseline and follow-up, mean levels of TC and HDL were slightly higher in the ART experienced group. Interestingly, there was higher increase in HDL over time in the ART negative group compared to the ART positive group. There was a decrease in TC/HDL ratio in both groups over time, suggesting a reduction in calculated risk of CHD over time. HIV positive patients frequently show various forms of dyslipidemia, but there are no changes in average atherogenic lipid levels and results suggest reduced risk of CHD, mainly due to increases in HDL, after nine months of observation time. PMID:27051532

  16. Estimated daily intake of Fe, Cu, Ca and Zn through common cereals in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Kashian, S; Fathivand, A A

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the findings of study undertaken to estimate the dietary intake of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn) through common cereals in Tehran, Iran. 100 samples of rice, wheat and barley were collected from various brands between August and October 2013. The samples were analyzed performing instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The dietary intake for adults was estimated by a total cereal study. Calculations were carried out on the basis of the reported adults' average food consumption rate data. The total daily intake estimated in mgd(-1) for Tehran population were 3.6 (Fe), 10.2 (Zn), 0.3 (Cu) and 234.5 (Ca). Wheat showed the highest contribution to Zn, Cu and Ca intakes. Furthermore, intakes were compared with recommended dietary allowance (RDA). Zn total intake (10.2mgd(-1)) was comparable with RDA values for males (11mgd(-1)) and was higher than recommended value for females (8mgd(-1)). The intakes of other studied elements were below the respective RDAs. PMID:25624223

  17. Health system responsiveness for outpatient care in people with diabetes Mellitus in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Sajjadi, Fatemeh; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Nojomi, Marzieh; Baradaran, Hamid R; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Background: World Health Organization (WHO) defines three goals to assess the performance of a health system: the state of health, fairness in financial contribution and responsiveness. We assessed the responsiveness of health system for patients with diabetes in a defined population cohort in Tehran, Iran. Methods: Total responsiveness and eight domains (prompt attention, dignity, communication, autonomy, confidentiality, choice, basic amenities and discrimination) were assessed in 150 patients with diabetes as a representative sample from the Tehran Glucose and Lipid Study (TLGS) population cohort. We used the WHO questionnaire and methods for analysis of responsiveness. Results: With respect to outpatient services, 67% (n=100) were classified as Good for total responsiveness. The best and the worse performing results were related to information confidentiality (84% good responsiveness) and autonomy (51% good responsiveness), respectively. About 61% chose "communication" as the most important domain of responsiveness; it was on the 4th rank of performance. The proportions of poor responsiveness were higher in women, individuals with lower income, lower level of education, and longer history of diabetes. "Discrimination" was considered discrimination as the cause of inappropriate services by 15%, and 29% had limited access to services because of financial unaffordability. Conclusion: Health system responsiveness is not appropriate for diabetic patients. Improvement of responsiveness needs comprehensive planning to improve attitudes of healthcare providers and system behavior. Activities should be prioritized through considering weaker domains of performance and more important domains from the patients’ perspective. PMID:26913256

  18. Independent and interactive effects of plant sterols and fish oil n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on the plasma lipid profile of mildly hyperlipidaemic Indian adults.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Shweta; Demonty, Isabelle; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Mukherjee, Rajat; Gupta, Ruby; Snehi, Uma; Niveditha, Devasenapathy; Singh, Yogendra; van der Knaap, Henk C M; Passi, Santosh J; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, K Srinath

    2009-09-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the independent and interactive effects of a once-a-day yoghurt drink providing 2 g plant sterols/d and capsules providing 2 g fish oil n-3 long-chain (LC) PUFA/d on plasma lipids, apolipoproteins and LDL particle size. Following a 2-week run-in period, 200 mildly hypercholesterolaemic Indian adults aged 35-55 years were randomised into one of four groups of a 2 x 2 factorial, double-blind controlled trial. The 4-week treatments consisted of (1) control yoghurt drink and control capsules, (2) control yoghurt drink and fish oil capsules, (3) plant sterol-enriched yoghurt drink and control capsules, or (4) plant sterol-enriched yoghurt drink and fish oil capsules. Blood was drawn before and after the 4-week intervention. Changes in health status, lifestyle and dietary habits, and daily compliance were recorded. The main effects of plant sterols were a 4.5 % reduction in LDL-cholesterol and a 15 % reduction in TAG without a significant change in HDL-cholesterol. Overall, fish oil n-3 LC-PUFA did not significantly affect cholesterol concentrations but reduced TAG by 15 % and increased HDL-cholesterol by 5.4 %. The combination significantly lowered TAG by 15 % v. control. No significant interaction between plant sterols and n-3 LC-PUFA was observed on plasma cholesterol concentrations. In conclusion, once-a-day intake of 2 g plant sterols/d in a yoghurt drink, 2 g fish oil n-3 LC-PUFA/d in capsules, and their combination had beneficial effects on the lipid profile of mildly hypercholesterolaemic Indian adults. The potent hypotriacylglycerolaemic effect of plant sterols observed in the present study and this population warrants additional investigation. PMID:19296875

  19. Technical Efficiency of Hospitals in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    KAKEMAN, Edris; RAHIMI FORUSHANI, Abbas; DARGAHI, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, restriction on access and optimum use of resources is the main challenge of development in all organizations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the technical efficiency and its factors, influencing hospitals of Tehran. Methods: This research was a descriptive-analytical and retrospective study conducted in 2014–2015. Fifty two hospitals with public, private, and social security ownership type were selected for this study. The required data was collected by a researcher-made check list in 3 sections of background data, inputs and outputs. The data was analyzed by DEAP 1.0.2, and STATA-13 technique. Results: Seventeen (31/48) of hospitals had the efficiency score of 1 as the highest technical efficiency. The highest average score of efficiency was related to social security hospitals as 84.32, and then the public and private hospitals with the average of 84.29 and 79.64 respectively. Tobit regression results showed that the size, type of practice, and ownership of hospitals were effective on the degree of their technical efficiency. However, there was no significant correlation between teaching / non-teaching hospitals with technical efficiency. Conclusion: Establishment of competition system among hospitals, constitution of medium size hospitals and allocation of budget to hospitals based on national accreditation system are recommended. PMID:27252919

  20. A comparison of internal and external lipids of nondiapausing and diapause initiation phase adult Colorado potato beetles, Leptinotarsa decemlineata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, reared under diapause inducing conditions will emerge from the soil as an adult and enter the diapause initiation phase, a period where metabolic reserves are stockpiled before the beetles enter the nonfeeding diapause maintenance phase. Interna...

  1. Intraperitoneal Exposure to Nano/Microparticles of Fullerene (C60) Increases Acetylcholinesterase Activity and Lipid Peroxidation in Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Brain

    PubMed Central

    Dal Forno, Gonzalo Ogliari; Kist, Luiza Wilges; de Azevedo, Mariana Barbieri; Fritsch, Rachel Seemann; Pereira, Talita Carneiro Brandão; Britto, Roberta Socoowski; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaski; Külkamp-Guerreiro, Irene Clemes; Bonan, Carla Denise; Monserrat, José María; Bogo, Maurício Reis

    2013-01-01

    Even though technologies involving nano/microparticles have great potential, it is crucial to determine possible toxicity of these technological products before extensive use. Fullerenes C60 are nanomaterials with unique physicochemical and biological properties that are important for the development of many technological applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the consequences of nonphotoexcited fullerene C60 exposure in brain acetylcholinesterase expression and activity, antioxidant responses, and oxidative damage using adult zebrafish as an animal model. None of the doses tested (7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg) altered AChE activity, antioxidant responses, and oxidative damage when zebrafish were exposed to nonphotoexcited C60 nano/microparticles during 6 and 12 hours. However, adult zebrafish exposed to the 30 mg/kg dose for 24 hours have shown enhanced AChE activity and augmented lipid peroxidation (TBARS assays) in brain. In addition, the up-regulation of brain AChE activity was neither related to the transcriptional control (RT-qPCR analysis) nor to the direct action of nonphotoexcited C60 nano/microparticles on the protein (in vitro results) but probably involved a posttranscriptional or posttranslational modulation of this enzymatic activity. Taken together these findings provided further evidence of toxic effects on brain after C60 exposure. PMID:23865059

  2. Factors Influencing Fast-Food Consumption Among Adolescents in Tehran: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Askari Majabadi, Hesamedin; Solhi, Mahnaz; Montazeri, Ali; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Nejat, Saharnaz; Khalajabadi Farahani, Farideh; Djazayeri, Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    Background: The consumption of different types of fast food is increasingly growing in all parts of the world, both in developed and developing countries. Because of the changes and transitions in the lifestyle and dietary habits of people, an increasing number of people from different age groups, particularly adolescents and young adults, are inclined toward consuming fast food. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the factors influencing fast-food consumption among adolescents in Tehran, Iran. Patients and Methods: The present qualitative study was conducted in 2012 - 2013 in Tehran, the capital of Iran. To achieve the objective of this study, 42 adolescents were enrolled in this study through a purposive sampling method, and the required data was collected via individual semi-structured in-depth interviews. Data collection and analysis were carried out simultaneously, and the collected data was analyzed via a thematic content analysis and using MAXQDA 10 software. Results: In this study after coding the transcribed interviews, the findings were categorized into three main themes as follows: personal views, social factors, and family factors. Each theme included several categories and subcategories, and the coded sentences and phrases were placed under each category and subcategory. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that the number of factors promoting fast-food consumption appeared to be more than the inhibiting factors and that the diverse factors at the individual and social level influenced fast-food consumption among adolescents. PMID:27247793

  3. Relation of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy to blood pressure, body mass index, serum lipids and blood sugar levels in adult Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Opadijo, O G; Omotoso, A B O; Akande, A A

    2003-12-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is considered an independent risk factor even in the absence of systemic hypertension. Electrocardiographic (ECG) LVH with repolarisation changes has been found in some countries to carry more coronary risk than LVH alone. How far this observation is true among adult Nigerians is not known. We therefore decided to study adult Nigerians with ECG-LVH with or without ST-T waves changes and compare them with normal age matched controls (without ECG-LVH) in relation with established modifiable risk factors such as systemic hypertension (BP), body mass index (BMI), fasting blood sugar (FBS) and serum lipids such as total cholesterol (Tc), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG). Adult Nigerians who were consecutively referred to the ECG laboratory were randomly recruited. Three hundred patients were studied. Their blood pressures (BP) as well as body mass indices were recorded after recording their resting 12 read ECG using portable Seward 9953 ECG machine. Their waist-hip ratio (WHR) was also recorded. Blood samples were taken to determine their fasting blood sugar and serum lipids. Their ECG tracings were read by the cardiologists involved in the study while the blood samples were analysed by the chemical pathologist also involved in the study. At the end of the ECG reading, the patients were divided into 3 groups according to whether there was no ECG-LVH (control group A), ECG-LVH alone (group B), and ECG-LVH with ST-T waves changes (group C). One hundred and fifty (50%) patients belonged to group A, 100 (33.3%) patients to group B and 50 (16.7%) group C. Group B patients were found to have higher modifiable risk factors in form of systemic BP. Tc, LDL-C, and WHR compared to group A. However, the group C patients had increased load of these coronary risk factors in terms of BP elevation, higher BMI, FBS, and scrum cholesterol compared to group B. In addition

  4. [Biochemistry of the developmental cycle of Triatoma infestans (Vinchuca). VI. Identification and lipid composition of hemolymph lipoproteins of adult males].

    PubMed

    Fichera, L E; Brenner, R R

    1982-01-01

    Three lipoproteins were separated from the haemolymph of adult males of Triatoma infestans fed on hen blood. The densities were similar to the high density lipoprotein (HDL) and to two very high density lipoproteins (VHDL) isolated from a pool of adult male and female insects fasted during twelve days. The relative distribution and composition of the three lipoproteins were studied. The fatty acids were mainly carried by the 1.3 and 1.2 diacylglycerols of high density lipoprotein. Triacylglycerols were minor components. Similarly to fasted insects, the main fatty acids were oleic and palmitic. Linoleic was also present. Very high density lipoproteins (VHDL-II) (d 1.25-1.26) were found in the haemolymph of male insects. The relative distribution of HDL and VHDL on fed and fasted insects was different. PMID:6760669

  5. Paternal High Fat Diet in Rats Leads to Renal Accumulation of Lipid and Tubular Changes in Adult Offspring.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Sabiha S; Lecomte, Virginie; Erlich, Jonathan H; Maloney, Christopher A; Morris, Margaret J

    2016-01-01

    Along with diabetes and obesity, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing across the globe. Although some data support an effect of maternal obesity on offspring kidney, the impact of paternal obesity is unknown; thus, we have studied the effect of paternal obesity prior to conception. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed chow diet or high fat diet (HFD) for 13-14 weeks before mating with chow-fed females. Male offspring were weaned onto chow and killed at 27 weeks for renal gene expression and histology. Fathers on HFD were 30% heavier than Controls at mating. At 27 weeks of age offspring of obese fathers weighed 10% less; kidney triglyceride content was significantly increased (5.35 ± 0.84 vs. 2.99 ± 0.47 μg/mg, p < 0.05, n = 8 litters per group. Histological analysis of the kidney demonstrated signs of tubule damage, with significantly greater loss of brush border, and increased cell sloughing in offspring of obese compared to Control fathers. Acat1, involved in entry of fatty acid for beta-oxidation, was significantly upregulated, possibly to counteract increased triglyceride storage. However other genes involved in lipid metabolism, inflammation and kidney injury showed no changes. Paternal obesity was associated with renal triglyceride accumulation and histological changes in tubules, suggesting a mild renal insult in offspring, who may be at risk of developing CKD. PMID:27563922

  6. The formation of short-chain fatty acids is positively associated with the blood lipid-lowering effect of lupin kernel fiber in moderately hypercholesterolemic adults.

    PubMed

    Fechner, Anita; Kiehntopf, Michael; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2014-05-01

    Lupin kernel fiber beneficially modifies blood lipids because of its bile acid-binding capacity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive effects of a lupin kernel fiber preparation on cardiovascular diseases and to clarify possible mechanisms. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled crossover trial, 60 moderately hypercholesterolemic adults (plasma total cholesterol: >5.2 mmol/L) passed 3 intervention periods in different orders with a 2-wk washout phase between each. Participants consumed either a high-fiber diet containing 25-g/d lupin kernel fiber (LF) or citrus fiber (CF), or a low-fiber control diet (CD) for 4 wk each. Anthropometric, plasma, and fecal variables were assessed at baseline and after the interventions. Contrary to the CF period, total (9%) and LDL (12%) cholesterol as well as triacylglycerols (10%) were lower after the LF period when compared with the CD period [P ≤ 0.02, adjusted for baseline, age, gender, and body mass index (BMI)]. HDL cholesterol remained unchanged. Moreover, the LF period reduced high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (P = 0.02) and systolic blood pressure (P = 0.01) when compared with baseline. Bile acid binding could not be shown because the excretion of total bile acids remained constant after the high-fiber diets. However, the LF period resulted in an enhanced formation of the main short-chain fatty acids in comparison with the CD period. During the CF period, only acetate increased significantly. Both high-fiber diets led to higher satiety and modified nutritional behavior, resulting in significantly lower body weight, BMI, and waist circumference compared with the CD period. The blood lipid-lowering effects of LF are apparently not a result of bile acid binding. Rather, we hypothesize for the first time, to our knowledge, that the blood lipid-lowering effects of LF may be mainly attributed to the formation of short-chain fatty acids, specifically propionate and acetate. This trial was registered at

  7. Study on Cryptosporidium contamination in vegetable farms around Tehran.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar-Bahadori, Sh; Mostoophi, A; Shemshadi, B

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, an increase in the number of cases of food-borne illnesses linked to fresh vegetables has been reported. One of the causative agents of these infections is Cryptosporidium and it appears that one route of transmission to humans is food-borne, so fruits and vegetables have important roles. The goal of this study was to determine the level of Cryptosporidium contamination in vegetable farms around Tehran, Iran. A total of 496 samples from 115 vegetable farms in different regions around Tehran (Capital city of Iran) were collected and different types of vegetables were investigated for the parasite in June and July, 2012. A sediment concentration method followed by modified Ziehl-Neelsen's acid-fast staining was used to determine the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Our findings revealed that 6.6% of studied samples were contaminated with Cryptosporidium species. The highest rate of contamination was reported in Bagher Abad (South of Tehran) (11.1%), and green onions were more commonly contaminated (14.8%) than any other vegetables tested. Furthermore, when waste water was used to irrigate vegetable farms, the contamination rate was (33.3%). Statistical analysis showed a correlation between contamination with Cryptosporidium spp. and studied risk factors including: different regions around Tehran, type of vegetables, and type of water used for farm irrigation. Therefore, vegetables may provide a route by which Cryptosporidium can be transmitted to humans, and control strategies should be considered. PMID:23959484

  8. Tocotrienol rich fraction supplementation improved lipid profile and oxidative status in healthy older adults: A randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Vitamin E supplements containing tocotrienols are now being recommended for optimum health but its effects are scarcely known. The objective was to determine the effects of Tocotrienol Rich Fraction (TRF) supplementation on lipid profile and oxidative status in healthy older individuals at a dose of 160 mg/day for 6 months. Methods Sixty-two subjects were recruited from two age groups: 35-49 years (n = 31) and above 50 years (n = 31), and randomly assigned to receive either TRF or placebo capsules for six months. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 3rd and 6th months. Results HDL-cholesterol in the TRF-supplemented group was elevated after 6 months (p < 0.01). Protein carbonyl contents were markedly decreased (p < 0.001), whereas AGE levels were lowered in the > 50 year-old group (p < 0.05). Plasma levels of total vitamin E particularly tocopherols were significantly increased in the TRF-supplemented group after 3 months (p < 0.01). Plasma total tocotrienols were only increased in the > 50 year-old group after receiving 6 months of TRF supplementation. Changes in enzyme activities were only observed in the > 50 year-old group. SOD activity was decreased after 3 (p < 0.05) and 6 (p < 0.05) months of TRF supplementation whereas CAT activity was decreased after 3 (p < 0.01) and 6 (p < 0.05) months in the placebo group. GPx activity was increased at 6 months for both treatment and placebo groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion The observed improvement of plasma cholesterol, AGE and antioxidant vitamin levels as well as the reduced protein damage may indicate a restoration of redox balance after TRF supplementation, particularly in individuals over 50 years of age. PMID:21702918

  9. A dose-response study of consuming high-fructose corn syrup–sweetened beverages on lipid/lipoprotein risk factors for cardiovascular disease in young adults123456

    PubMed Central

    Medici, Valentina; Bremer, Andrew A; Lee, Vivien; Lam, Hazel D; Nunez, Marinelle V; Chen, Guoxia X; Keim, Nancy L; Havel, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Background: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data show an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality with an increased intake of added sugar. Objective: We determined the dose-response effects of consuming beverages sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) at zero, low, medium, and high proportions of energy requirements (Ereq) on circulating lipid/lipoprotein risk factors for CVD and uric acid in adults [age: 18–40 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 18–35]. Design: We conducted a parallel-arm, nonrandomized, double-blinded intervention study in which adults participated in 3.5 inpatient days of baseline testing at the University of California Davis Clinical and Translational Science Center’s Clinical Research Center. Participants then consumed beverages sweetened with HFCS at 0% (aspartame sweetened, n = 23), 10% (n = 18), 17.5% (n = 16), or 25% (n = 28) of Ereq during 13 outpatient days and during 3.5 inpatient days of intervention testing at the research center. We conducted 24-h serial blood collections during the baseline and intervention testing periods. Results: Consuming beverages containing 10%, 17.5%, or 25% Ereq from HFCS produced significant linear dose-response increases of lipid/lipoprotein risk factors for CVD and uric acid: postprandial triglyceride (0%: 0 ± 4; 10%: 22 ± 8; 17.5%: 25 ± 5: 25%: 37 ± 5 mg/dL, mean of Δ ± SE, P < 0.0001 effect of HFCS-dose), fasting LDL cholesterol (0%: −1.0 ± 3.1; 10%: 7.4 ± 3.2; 17.5%: 8.2 ± 3.1; 25%: 15.9 ± 3.1 mg/dL, P < 0.0001), and 24-h mean uric acid concentrations (0%: −0.13 ± 0.07; 10%: 0.15 ± 0.06; 17.5%: 0.30 ± 0.07; 25%: 0.59 ± 0.09 mg/dL, P < 0.0001). Compared with beverages containing 0% HFCS, all 3 doses of HFCS-containing beverages increased concentrations of postprandial triglyceride, and the 2 higher doses increased fasting and/or postprandial concentrations of non–HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein CIII, and

  10. Effects of Dietary Lipid Source and Level on Growth Performance, Blood Parameters and Flesh Quality of Sub-adult Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Kyoung-Duck; Seo, Joo-Young; Lee, Sang-Min

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary lipid source and level on growth performance, blood parameters, fatty acid composition and flesh quality of sub-adult olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Eight experimental diets were formulated to contain 5% squid liver oil (SLO), 5% linseed oil (LO), 5% soybean oil (SO), a mixture of 1% squid liver oil, 2% linseed oil and 2% soybean oil (MIX), no lipid supplementation with high protein level (LL-HP), 10% squid liver oil (HL-SLO), a mixture of 1% squid liver oil, 4.5% linseed oil and 4.5% soybean oil (HL-VO), and 1% squid liver oil with high starch level (LL-HC), respectively. Two replicate groups of fish (average initial weight of 296 g) were fed the diets for 17 wks. After 5 wks, 11 wks and the end of the feeding trial, five fish from each tank were randomly sampled for analysis of body composition. At the end of the feeding trial, final mean weight of fish fed the LL-HP diet was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of fish fed the HL-VO diet, but did not differ significantly from those of fish fed the SLO, LO, SO, MIX, HL-SLO and LL-HC diets. Fish fed the LL-HP diet showed significantly higher feed efficiency than fish fed the LO, HL-SLO and HL-VO diets. Feed efficiency of fish fed the LO, SO and MIX diets were similar to those of fish fed the SLO and HL-SLO diets. Fish fed the HL-SLO diet showed significantly higher total cholesterol content in plasma compared with other diets. Fatty acid composition of tissues was reflected by dietary fatty acid composition. The highest linoleic (LA) and linolenic acid (LNA) contents in the dorsal muscle were observed in fish fed the SO and LO diets, respectively, regardless of feeding period. The highest eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) content in the dorsal muscle was observed in fish fed the LL-HP and LL-HC diets after 11 and 17 weeks of feeding, respectively. Fish fed the SLO and HL-SLO diets showed higher docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content than that of other

  11. Daily consumption of apple, pear and orange juice differently affects plasma lipids and antioxidant capacity of smoking and non-smoking adults.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; De La Rosa, Laura A; Legarreta, Patricia; Saenz, Laura; Rodrigo-García, Joaquín; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2010-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse correlation between a fruit and vegetable-rich diet and cardiovascular diseases; this beneficial effect of fruits and vegetables is probably due to the presence of antioxidant phytochemicals. In contrast, cigarette smoking is a high risk factor for lung and heart diseases, associated with chronic oxidative stress. In the present study, the effect of the consumption of a pear, an apple and 200 ml orange juice, during 26 days, on total plasma antioxidant capacity (TAC) and lipid profile of chronic smokers and non-smoking healthy adults was analyzed. Fruit consumption increased TAC in non-smokers, but not in smokers. In non-smokers, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol increased significantly; while in smokers, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol decreased. We may conclude fruit/juice supplementation showed different effects, depending on the smoking habit: in non-smokers it increased TAC and cholesterol; in smokers it reduced cholesterol, without inducing a TAC increase. PMID:20109132

  12. Comparing the Trend of Physical Activity and Caloric Intake between Lipid-Lowering Drug Users and Nonusers among Adults with Dyslipidemia: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2010–2013)

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jin-Young; Chekal, Lan; Kim, Se-Won; Lee, Jee-Yon

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare the physical activity and caloric intake trends of lipid-lowering drug users with those of non-users among Korean adults with dyslipidemia. Methods This study was a repeated cross-sectional study with a nationally representative sample of 2,635 Korean adults with dyslipidemia based on the 2010–2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and caloric intake was estimated through 24-hour dietary recall. All statistical analyses were conducted using IBM SPSS ver. 21.0 (IBM Co., Armonk, NY, USA). The changes in physical activity and caloric intake were investigated for lipid-lowering drug users and non-users using generalized linear models. Results The proportion of lipid-lowering drug users in the 2010–2013 survey population increased from 3.5% to 5.0% (P<0.001). Among adults of dyslipidemia, total of 1,562 participants (56.6%) reported taking lipid-lowering drugs, and 1,073 (43.4%) reported not taking lipid-lowering drugs. Drug users were more likely to be older and less educated and to have a diagnosis of diabetes, higher body mass index, and lower low density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Physical activity trends were tested separately for the lipid-lowering drug users and non-users, and a significant decrease was found among the drug users during the study period. Physical activity among the drug users in 2013 was 38% lower (1,357.3±382.7 metabolic equivalent [MET]; P for trend=0.002) than in 2010 (2,201.4±442.6 MET). In contrast, there was no statistically significant difference between drug users and non-users in the trend of caloric intake during the same period. Conclusion Physical activity significantly decreased among lipid-lowering drug users between 2010 and 2013, which was not observed among non-users. The importance of physical activity may need to be re-emphasized for lipid-lowering drug users

  13. Source apportionment of volatile organic compounds in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sarkhosh, Maryam; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Yunesian, Masud; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Borji, Saeedeh Hemmati; Bajgirani, Ali Ghiami

    2013-04-01

    Identifying the sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is key issue to reducing ground-level ozone and PAN. A multivariate receptor model (Unmix) was used for the determination of the contributions of VOCs sources in Tehran-Iran. Concentrations of ambient C2-C10 VOCs were measured continuously and online at the center of Tehran city during the winter of 2012. A high correlation coefficient existed between measured and predicted values (R (2) = 0.99), indicating that the data were well modeled. Five possible VOCs source categories were identified and mobile sources such as vehicle exhaust (61 %) and fuel evaporation (12 %) more than half of the total VOC concentration. City gas and CNG sources, biogenic source, and industrial solvent source categories accounted for 17 %, 8 % and 2 % of the total VOC, respectively. Result showed Unmix for VOCs source apportionment can be used to analyze and generate air pollution control strategies and policies. PMID:23283536

  14. Vaccine adjuvant systems containing monophosphoryl lipid A and QS21 induce strong and persistent humoral and T cell responses against hepatitis B surface antigen in healthy adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Vandepapelière, Pierre; Horsmans, Yves; Moris, Philippe; Van Mechelen, Marcelle; Janssens, Michel; Koutsoukos, Marguerite; Van Belle, Pascale; Clement, Frédéric; Hanon, Emmanuel; Wettendorff, Martine; Garçon, Nathalie; Leroux-Roels, Geert

    2008-03-01

    A randomised, double-blind study assessing the potential of four adjuvants in combination with recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen has been conducted to evaluate humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in healthy adults after three vaccine doses at months 0, 1 and 10. Three Adjuvant Systems (AS) contained 3-O-desacyl-4'-monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and QS21, formulated either with an oil-in-water emulsion (AS02B and AS02V) or with liposomes (AS01B). The fourth adjuvant was CpG oligonucleotide. High levels of antibodies were induced by all adjuvants, whereas cell-mediated immune responses, including cytolytic T cells and strong and persistent CD4(+) T cell response were mainly observed with the three MPL/QS21-containing Adjuvant Systems. The CD4(+) T cell response was characterised in vitro by vigorous lymphoproliferation, high IFN-gamma and moderate IL-5 production. Antigen-specific T cell immune response was further confirmed ex vivo by detection of IL-2- and IFN-gamma-producing CD4(+) T cells, and in vivo by measuring increased levels of IFN-gamma in the serum and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses. The CpG adjuvanted vaccine induced consistently lower immune responses for all parameters. All vaccine adjuvants were shown to be safe with acceptable reactogenicity profiles. The majority of subjects reported local reactions at the injection site after vaccination while general reactions were recorded less frequently. No vaccine-related serious adverse event was reported. Importantly, no increase in markers of auto-immunity and allergy was detected over the whole study course. In conclusion, the Adjuvant Systems containing MPL/QS21, in combination with hepatitis B surface antigen, induced very strong humoral and cellular immune responses in healthy adults. The AS01B-adjuvanted vaccine induced the strongest and most durable specific cellular immune responses after two doses. These Adjuvant Systems, when added to recombinant protein antigens, can be

  15. Early childhood caries and dental plaque among 1-3-year-olds in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Mohebbi, Simin Z; Virtanen, Jorma I; Vahid-Golpayegani, Mojtaba; Vehkalahti, Miira M

    2006-12-01

    The association between plaque and caries in older children and adults has been poor, however, some studies show that there may be a relationship in younger children. The aim was to study the relationships between dental caries and dental plaque among 12-36-month-olds in Tehran, Iran. A cross-sectional study among a stratified random sample of 504 children aged one to three years from 18 public health centres in Tehran. Mothers were interviewed about their child's date and order of birth, gender, primary caregiver, the mother's age and the educational level of both parents. Dental examination was carried out according to the WHO criteria. Early childhood caries (ECC) was defined as the presence of any dmf teeth. Dental plaque was visually inspected on the labial surfaces of upper central incisors. Data analysis included Chi-square test, t -test, anova and logistic regression modelling. The prevalence of ECC ranged from 3 to 33% depending on age group, with a mean dt of 1.1 for 26- to 36-month-olds. No gender-differences existed in ECC prevalence and mean dt. Dental plaque was visible on at least one index tooth for 65-75% of the children. Presence of ECC was related to the presence of dental plaque (OR = 1.5; 95% CI 1.0-2.3) when controlling for background factors by means of logistic regression. The high occurrence of visible plaque and rather high ECC prevalence call for improvement in oral health promotion programs of the children. PMID:17183180

  16. Prevalence of Merkel Cell Polyomavirus in Tehran: An Age-Specific Serological Study

    PubMed Central

    Vahabpour, Rouhollah; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Salehi-Vaziri, Mostafa; Mohajel, Nasir; Keyvani, Hossein; Nasimi, Maryam; Esghaei, Maryam; Monavari, Seyed Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Background Several new types of polyomavirus have been discovered in recent years mainly because of the recent state-of-the-art detection technologies. Among the polyomaviruses, Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) has attracted the most attention because of its possible role in the etiology of Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare but lethal form of skin cancer. Objectives This study aimed to determine age-specific seroprevalence of MCPyV in Tehran. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, we collected 440 serum samples from healthy individuals 2 to 78 years of age who visited the Pasteur Institute’s clinic in Tehran, Iran, using a convenience sampling strategy. We developed a virus-like particle-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that uses VP1, the major capsid protein of MCPyV, to detect and quantitate serum antibodies to MCPyV. We compared the prevalence of MCPyV between males and females and across eight age groups. Results A total of 255 (57.9%) of the serum samples were MCPyV positive. The seroprevalence in children under 10 years of age was 25%. The seroprevalence increased to 56% over the next decade of life (10 - 19 years of age). The seroprevalence rate in males and females was 56.1% and 59.7% respectively, and a binary logistic regression showed no significant difference between males and females (P = 0.77). However, the prevalence of MCPyV increased with age (P = 0.012). Conclusions Our results suggest that human exposure to MCPyV occurs throughout life. The MCPyV antibody levels remained high among older adults in our population, consistent with reports from other populations. PMID:27437129

  17. A basic neural traffic noise prediction model for Tehran's roads.

    PubMed

    Givargis, Sh; Karimi, H

    2010-12-01

    We present an artificial neural network model to predict hourly A-weighted equivalent sound pressure levels (L(Aeq,1h)) for roads in Tehran at distances less than 4 m from the nearside carriageway edge. Our model uses the UK Calculation of Road Traffic Noise (CORTN) approach. Data were obtained from 50 sampling locations near five roads in Tehran at nearside carriageway edge distances of less than 4 m. The data were randomly assigned to training, testing, and holdout subsets. Model training was carried out using the training and testing subsets and comprised 60% and 20% of the data, respectively. Model validation was performed using the remaining 20% of data as a holdout subset. We examine the overall model efficiency using non-parametric tests, such as the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test for the training step and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for two independent samples for the validation step. Our results indicate that a neural network approach can be applied for traffic noise prediction in Tehran in a statistically sound manner. The Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test detects no significant difference between the absolute testing set errors of the developed neural network and a calibrated version of the CORTN model. PMID:20678858

  18. Demographic Determinants of Disaster Preparedness Behaviors Amongst Tehran Inhabitants, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Mehdi; Ardalan, Ali; Akbarisari, Ali; Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Jabbari, Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tehran is vulnerable to natural hazards, especially earthquakes. Disaster preparedness behaviors (DPB) are measures that can mitigate the adverse consequences of disasters. Demographic factors affect DPB, however, the role of some of these factors is not still clear. By understanding these effects, disaster specialists could design interventions toward specific demographics. In the present study, we aimed to investigate demographic determinants of DPB. Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted in August 2014. The target population included inhabitants of Tehran who were 18 years or older. A total of 1250 participants were selected randomly and interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Results: Results of our study showed that monthly income level, previous disaster experience, residential district and occupation are demographic factors that influence DPB significantly. However, disaster preparedness was not affected by gender, educational level, number of household members, home type, home ownership and being the head of household. Conclusion: To promote DPB in Tehran, disaster specialists should focus on improving DPB in low-income and unemployed people, and individuals who live in high risk districts, especially in those who have not experienced disasters. Key words: Disaster, Preparedness behavior, Demographic determinants.     PMID:26767148

  19. Influence of plasma total antioxidant ability on lipid and protein oxidation products in plasma and erythrocyte ghost obtained from developing and adult rats pretreated with two vitamin K formulations.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Ansari Hadipour; Abdolamir, Allameh; Mahtab, Hajhaidari; Abolfazl, Dadkhah; Yusef, Rasmi

    2004-12-01

    Ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), as an index of total antioxidant capacity of plasma was found to be enhanced significantly (p < 0.05) in suckling rats pretreated either with vitamin K1 (28, 56 or 84 mg/kg/3 days) or menadione (vitamin K3) at a dose of 15 mg/kg b.w./3 days. The effect of vitamin K1 on FRAP was dose-dependent and it was inversely related to the formation of lipid peroxidation products in plasma as judged by thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS). Lack of influence of the drugs on FRAP in adults was corroborated with elevation in the levels of plasma TBARS. Possible role of FRAP on the rate of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation (protein carbonyls) on erythrocyte membrane was also investigated following isolation of erythrocyte ghost from control and treated rats. Vitamin K1 as well as menadione failed to change the levels of protein carbonyls in erythrocyte ghost obtained from both the age groups. Analysis of major erythrocyte membrane proteins, using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) substantiated these results. In spite of higher antioxidant capacity of plasma and erythrocytes obtained from young rats, the rate of lipid peroxidation in erythrocyte ghost preparation was also high in this age group (p < 0.05). These results suggest that the drug-related induction in FRAP occurs only in immature animals as a part of protective mechanism against lipid peroxidation products generated in plasma. PMID:15663201

  20. Evaluation of the Effects of Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. Fruit Extract on Serum Lipids and hs-CRP Levels and Oxidative Stress in Adult Patients with Hyperlipidemia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Rasool; Hakimi, Mustafa; Asgary, Sedigheh; Ghanadian, Syed Mustafa; Keshvari, Mahtab; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2014-01-01

    Background. Dyslipidemia produces atherosclerosis, which in turn results in coronary artery disease (CAD). Atherosclerosis is being considered as an inflammatory disease. Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. is a plant with fruits rich in anthocyanins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fruit extract of this plant on serum levels of lipids, hs-CRP, and malondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker of oxidative stress, in hyperlipidemic adult patients. Methods. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 50 hyperlipidemic adult patients were randomly and equally assigned to receive either medicinal (V. arctostaphylos fruit extract) or placebo capsules twice daily for 4 weeks. Each medicinal capsule contained 45 ± 2 mg of anthocyanins. Fasting serum levels of total cholesterol, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, hs-CRP, and MDA were obtained before and after the intervention and compared. Results. V. arctostaphylos fruit extract significantly reduced total cholesterol (P < 0.001), LDL-C (P = 0.004), TG (P < 0.001), and MDA (P = 0.013) compared to placebo but did not have any significant effect on HDL-C (P = 0.631) and hs-CRP (P = 0.190). Conclusion. Fruit extract of Vaccinium arctostaphylos has beneficial effects on serum lipid profile and oxidative stress in hyperlipidemic adult patients. Therefore, it could be considered as a supplement for treatment of dyslipidemia and prevention of atherosclerosis development. PMID:24587807

  1. Urban River Restoration in Tehran: Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizi, S.; Mousavi, H.; Farshad, F.; Hoseinzade Vahedi, N.; Zanjanian, M.; Khamesi, A.; Shojaee, M.; Safdarnejad, S. M.; Mirrahimi, H.; Ahmari, N.

    2015-12-01

    The typical treatment of urban river streams in Tehran has been limited channelization over the last 30 years. Changes in stream hydrology resulting from urbanization causes a widening gap between river and neighborhoods that results in the ecological and visual division between built and natural environments. To address these problems, a new management perspective in Tehran municipality seeks creating a sequence of thematic green spaces which serve as meeting points for adjacent neighborhoods. Implementation of pilot projects has proved that restoration of urban rivers requires a holistic approach with a range of technologies and tools that contribute to the goal of integrated planning. Currently, our team is working on Darband and Darabad catchments in north east Tehran,to provide opportunities for restoration of natural life in order to improve the amenity, ecology and sustainability of an urban river environment based on 4 key planning principles of: Demonstrating characteristics of the city's unique relationship to the river in the riverfront design; Knowing the river ecosystem and planning for a scale larger than the river front; minimizing new floodplain development; and Providing public access, connections, and recreational uses. This presentation will discuss the process of developing a new integrated GIS-based catchment planning system which helped the City shape its strategic plan for two catchments for the 2015-2030 period through multi-objective and multi-criteria optimization. The strategic plan is expected to enable the city to project the effects of introducing any future development in the catchment area on the river system, helping it to prevent such development activities which can have unintended long-term impacts.

  2. Lipid peroxidation and tissue damage.

    PubMed

    Mylonas, C; Kouretas, D

    1999-01-01

    In recent years it has become apparent that the oxidation of lipids, or lipid peroxidation, is a crucial step in the pathogenesis of several disease states in adult and infant patients. Lipid peroxidation is a process generated naturally in small amounts in the body, mainly by the effect of several reactive oxygen species (hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide etc.). It can also be generated by the action of several phagocytes. These reactive oxygen species readily attack the polyunsaturated fatty acids of the fatty acid membrane, initiating a self-propagating chain reaction. The destruction of membrane lipids and the end-products of such lipid peroxidation reactions are especially dangerous for the viability of cells, even tissues. Enzymatic (catalase, superoxide dismutasse) and nonenzymatic (vitamins A and E) natural antioxidant defence mechanisms exist; however, these mechanisms may be overcome, causing lipid peroxidation to take place. Since lipid peroxidation is a self-propagating chain-reaction, the initial oxidation of only a few lipid molecules can result in significant tissue damage. Despite extensive research in the field of lipid peroxidation it has not yet been precisely determined if it is the cause or an effect of several pathological conditions. Lipid peroxidation has been implicated in disease states such as atherosclerosis, IBD, ROP, BPD, asthma, Parkinson's disease, kidney damage, preeclampsia and others. PMID:10459507

  3. Temporal and spatial variations of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants in the urban area of Tehran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh-Choobari, O.; Bidokhti, A. A.; Ghafarian, P.; Najafi, M. S.

    2016-09-01

    Being hemmed in on two sides by high mountains, the urban area of Tehran is characterized by high levels of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants, which have adverse consequences on human health, ecosystems and environment. Using air quality measurements taken in different regions of Tehran, spatial and temporal variations of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants are analyzed to identify the typical climatological aspects of air pollutants. In terms of particulate matter concentrations, South Tehran is more polluted than Central to North Tehran, while West Tehran is more polluted than the East. Concentrations of particles in North Tehran are lower in the midday compared to the midnight, whereas the opposite is true in South Tehran. The observed annual mean concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 in North Tehran were 37.5 and 76.3 μg m-3, respectively, which are substantially greater than the national annual mean safety limits of 10 μg m-3 for PM2.5 and 20 μg m-3 for PM10. The observed high levels of particulate matter underline the essential need for a coordinated action to reduce the rapidly increasing air pollution over the growing urban area of Tehran. Noticeable monthly (seasonal) variations are evident in the observed PM10 concentrations, with a minimum of 61.5 μg m-3 in March (spring) and a maximum of 82.9 μg m-3 in July (summer), reflecting contribution of weather conditions. Analyzing daily PM2.5 (PM10) concentrations indicate that mid-week Wednesdays (Mondays) are the most polluted days. The higher mid-week concentrations reflect contribution of heavy vehicular traffic, industrial operation and increased commercial activities. Strong diurnal variations in the concentrations of particulate matter in North Tehran are detected, varying from a peak in late night to a minimum in late afternoon, indicating contribution of deeper daytime convective boundary layer and stronger winds in dispersion of particles.

  4. Cyanogenic Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Selmar, Dirk; Grocholewski, Sabine; Seigler, David S.

    1990-01-01

    Large amounts of cyanogenic lipids (esters of 1 cyano-2-methylprop-2-ene-1-ol with C:20 fatty acids) are stored in the seeds of Ungnadia speciosa. During seedling development, these lipids are completely consumed without liberation of free HCN to the atmosphere. At the same time, cyanogenic glycosides are synthesized, but the total amount is much lower (about 26%) than the quantity of cyanogenic lipids formerly present in the seeds. This large decrease in the total content of cyanogens (HCN-potential) demonstrates that at least 74% of cyanogenic lipids are converted to noncyanogenic compounds. Whether the newly synthesized cyanogenic glycosides are derived directly from cyanogenic lipids or produced by de novo synthesis is still unknown. Based on the utilization of cyanogenic lipids for the synthesis of noncyanogenic compounds, it is concluded that these cyanogens serve as storage for reduced nitrogen. The ecophysiological significance of cyanolipids based on multifunctional aspects is discussed. PMID:16667514

  5. Tehran dust storm early warning system: corrective measures.

    PubMed

    Moradian, Mohammad Javad; Rastegarfar, Behnaz; Rastegar, Mohammad Reza; Ardalan, Ali

    2015-01-01

    On June 2, 2014 a sandstorm hit Tehran, the capital city of Iran which killed 5 and injured 44 people. The early warning system did not operate properly and the alarm was not transferred to at risk population and the related organizations in time and in a right manner. Additionally, people who were exposed to the winds didn't know the appropriate safety measures. Focusing much more on establishing EWS to alert the risk prone population timely and public education for taking safety measures when exposed to the disastrous situation is recommended. PMID:25774324

  6. Tehran Dust Storm Early Warning System: Corrective Measures

    PubMed Central

    Moradian, Mohammad Javad; Rastegarfar, Behnaz; Rastegar, Mohammad reza; Ardalan, Ali

    2015-01-01

    On June 2, 2014 a sandstorm hit Tehran, the capital city of Iran which killed 5 and injured 44 people. The early warning system did not operate properly and the alarm was not transferred to at risk population and the related organizations in time and in a right manner. Additionally, people who were exposed to the winds didn't know the appropriate safety measures. Focusing much more on establishing EWS to alert the risk prone population timely and public education for taking safety measures when exposed to the disastrous situation is recommended. PMID:25774324

  7. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in drinking water of Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Distribution and seasonal variation of sixteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in the drinking water of Tehran, the capital of Iran. Detected single and total PAHs concentrations were in the range of 2.01-38.96 and 32.45-733.10 ng/L, respectively, which were quite high compared to the values recorded in other areas of the world. The average occurrence of PAHs with high molecular weights was 79.55%; for example, chrysene occurred in 60.6% of the samples, with a maximum concentration of 438.96 ng/L. In addition, mean carcinogen to non-carcinogen PAHs ratio was 63.84. Although the concentration of benzo[a]pyrene, as an indicator of water pollution to PAHs, was lower than the guideline value proposed by World Health Organization (WHO) as well as that of Iranian National Drinking Water Standards for all of the samples, the obtained results indicated that carcinogen PAHs present in the drinking water of Tehran can cause threats to human health. PMID:24499505

  8. Fitness for work evaluation of firefighters in Tehran.

    PubMed

    Mehrdad, Ramin; Movasatian, Farid; Momenzadeh, Akram Sadat

    2013-01-01

    Firefighting is extremely strenuous and physically demanding work and involves ability to cope with emergency life-or-death situations. Because of the high physical demands of firefighting, successful job performance and minimizing of morbidity and mortality depends on fitness for duty. The firefighting department of Tehran does not perform periodic medical assessment for firefighters. The aim of this study was to evaluate medical fitness among firefighters in Tehran. In this cross sectional study we examined 147 firefighters. Medical and occupational history obtained by interview, then we performed physical examination, blood tests, ECG, spirometry and audiometry. Then results compared with guidelines for firefighters in the USA, Australia and the United Kingdom. Seven percent of our participants had a kind of pulmonary dysfunction and 25% had some degrees of hearing loss. A considerable percent of them had modifiable coronary heart disease risk factors. Thirteen participitants were unfit for this job that among them; ten firefighters were unfit based on vision capability, one case due to hypertention and two cases because of pulmonary dysfunction. Because of hazardouse nature of firefighting; preplacement, periodic medical evaluations and assesment of fitness for firefighters in Iran is highly recommended. Establishment of fitness criteria for firefighters in Iran is necessery to perform assigned functions safely. PMID:23690108

  9. Seismic evaluation of vulnerability for SAMA educational buildings in Tehran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amini, Omid Nassiri; Amiri, Javad Vaseghi

    2008-07-01

    Earthquake is a destructive phenomenon that trembles different parts of the earth yearly and causes many destructions. Iran is one of the (high seismicity) quack- prone parts of the world that has received a lot of pecuniary damages and life losses each year, schools are of the most important places to be protected during such crisis. There was no special surveillance on designing and building of school's building in Tehran till the late 70's, and as Tehran is on faults, instability of such buildings may cause irrecoverable pecuniary damages and especially life losses, therefore preventing this phenomenon is in an urgent need. For this purpose, some of the schools built during 67-78 mostly with Steel braced frame structures have been selected, first, by evaluating the selected Samples, gathering information and Visual Survey, the prepared questionnaires were filled out. With the use of ARIA and SABA (Venezuela) Methods, new modified combined method for qualified evaluations was found and used. Then, for quantified evaluation, with the use of computer 3D models and nonlinear statically analysis methods, a number of selected buildings of qualified evaluation, were reevaluated and finally with nonlinear dynamic analysis method the real behavior of structures on the earthquakes is studied. The results of qualified and quantified evaluations were compared and a proper Pattern for seismic evaluation of Educational buildings was presented. Otherwise the results can be a guidance for the person in charge of retrofitting or if necessary rebuilding the schools.

  10. Prevalence of Parasomnia in School aged Children in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Ghalebandi, Mirfarhad; Salehi, Mansour; Rasoulain, Maryam; Naserbakht, Morteza; Salarifar, Mohammad Hosien

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Parasomnias can create sleep disruption; in this article we assessed parasomnias in school-aged children in Tehran. Methods In spring 2005, a total of 6000 sleep questionnaires were distributed to school-aged children in 5 districts of Tehran (Iran). A modified Pediatrics sleep questionnaire with 34 questions was used. Results Parasomnias varied from 0.5% to 5.7% among the subjects as follows: 2.7% sleep talking, 0.5% sleepwalking, 5.7% bruxism, 2.3% enuresis, and nightmare 4%. A group of children showed parasomnias occasionally- this was 13.1% for sleep talking, 1.4% for sleepwalking, 10.6% for bruxism, 3.1% for enuresis and 18.4% for nightmares. Conclusion A high proportion of children starting school suffer from sleep problems. In many cases this is a temporary, developmentally related phenomenon, but in 6% of the children the disorder is more serious and may be connected with various stress factors and further behavioral disturbances. PMID:22952526

  11. Exposure Assessment of the Tehran Population (Iran) to Zearalenone Mycotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Yazdanpanah, Hassan; Zarghi, Afshin; Shafaati, Ali Reza; Foroutan, Seyyed Mohsen; Aboul-Fathi, Farshid; Khoddam, Arash; Nazari, Firoozeh

    2012-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) mycotoxin is a potent estrogenic metabolite. It is the primary toxin causing infertility, abortion or other breeding problems. A HPLC method was validated for ZEA in foods using a monolithic column with sample clean-up on an immunoaffinity column. A certified reference material (CRM) from FAPAS (UK) was analyzed. A survey of ZEA was performed on the 72 samples of rice, bread, puffed corn snack and wheat flour collected from Tehran retail market. The average recovery and coefficient of variation in different foods ranged 92.7-107.1 and 4.9-13.8%, respectively. The amount of ZEA in corn CRM was in the acceptable range of FAPAS. The limit of quantification was 3 ng/g for rice, bread and wheat flour and 2.7 ng/g for puffed corn snack. The retention time of zearalenone was 2.6 min. All samples had contamination level lower than the maximum tolerated level of ZEA in foods in Iran. The mean intake of ZEA from all samples was much lower than the tolerable daily intake estimated by JECFA. This is the first survey on ZEA contamination in bread and rice in Iran as well as the first study on exposure assessment of Tehran population to ZEA. PMID:24250447

  12. The effects of atmospheric processes on tehran smog forming.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, H; Cohen, D; Babazadeh, M; Rokni, L

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is one of the most important problems in urban areas that always threaten citizen's health. Photochemical smog is one of the main factors of air pollution in large cities like Tehran. Usually smog is not only a part of nature, but is being analyzed as an independent matter, which highly affects on the nature. It has been used as relationship between atmospheric elements such as temperature, pressure, relative humidity, wind speed with inversion in the time of smog forming and weather map in 500 Hpa level during 9 years descriptive static by using correlation coefficient in this analyze. Results show that there is a meaningful correlation between atmospheric elements and smog forming. This relation is seen between monthly average of these elements and monthly average of smog forming. However, when temperature decreases, corresponding pressure will increase and result of this will be smog forming. Usually smog increases in cold months of year due to enter cold high pressure air masses in Iran during December and January that is simultaneous with decreasing temperature and air pressure increases and inversion height distance decreases from the earth surface which cause to integrate air pollution under its surface, will cause to form smog in Tehran. It shows a meaningful and strong relation, based on resultant relations by correlation coefficient from inversion height and smog forming, so that obtained figure is more than 60% . PMID:23113173

  13. Seismic evaluation of vulnerability for SAMA educational buildings in Tehran

    SciTech Connect

    Amini, Omid Nassiri; Amiri, Javad Vaseghi

    2008-07-08

    Earthquake is a destructive phenomenon that trembles different parts of the earth yearly and causes many destructions. Iran is one of the (high seismicity) quack- prone parts of the world that has received a lot of pecuniary damages and life losses each year, schools are of the most important places to be protected during such crisis.There was no special surveillance on designing and building of school's building in Tehran till the late 70's, and as Tehran is on faults, instability of such buildings may cause irrecoverable pecuniary damages and especially life losses, therefore preventing this phenomenon is in an urgent need.For this purpose, some of the schools built during 67-78 mostly with Steel braced frame structures have been selected, first, by evaluating the selected Samples, gathering information and Visual Survey, the prepared questionnaires were filled out. With the use of ARIA and SABA (Venezuela) Methods, new modified combined method for qualified evaluations was found and used.Then, for quantified evaluation, with the use of computer 3D models and nonlinear statically analysis methods, a number of selected buildings of qualified evaluation, were reevaluated and finally with nonlinear dynamic analysis method the real behavior of structures on the earthquakes is studied.The results of qualified and quantified evaluations were compared and a proper Pattern for seismic evaluation of Educational buildings was presented. Otherwise the results can be a guidance for the person in charge of retrofitting or if necessary rebuilding the schools.

  14. Visibility trends in Tehran during 1958-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabetghadam, Samaneh; Ahmadi-Givi, Farhang; Golestani, Yahya

    2012-12-01

    Visibility, in the absence of certain weather conditions (e.g., fog and rain), is an excellent indicator of air quality because its impairment results from light scattering and absorption by atmospheric particles and gases. In this study, the historical airport visibility database is explored during the last five decades for the city of Tehran, Iran. Seasonal and long-term variations of the visibility are investigated using cumulative percentiles. The correlation of the long-term visibility trend with precipitation, fog and high relative humidity are also examined.The trends of visual range of the best, median, and worst visibilities at 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles of daily visibility data indicate an overall downward trend for all the percentiles. Results show a larger decrease in visibility for the Tehran metropolitan area than the sparsely populated and less polluted parts of the city. The largest trend in decreasing visibility is observed during winter time followed by spring, fall and summer. Decreasing trends in visibility occur for all stations and do not significantly depend on the special weather events.

  15. Exposure assessment of the tehran population (iran) to zearalenone mycotoxin.

    PubMed

    Yazdanpanah, Hassan; Zarghi, Afshin; Shafaati, Ali Reza; Foroutan, Seyyed Mohsen; Aboul-Fathi, Farshid; Khoddam, Arash; Nazari, Firoozeh

    2012-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) mycotoxin is a potent estrogenic metabolite. It is the primary toxin causing infertility, abortion or other breeding problems. A HPLC method was validated for ZEA in foods using a monolithic column with sample clean-up on an immunoaffinity column. A certified reference material (CRM) from FAPAS (UK) was analyzed. A survey of ZEA was performed on the 72 samples of rice, bread, puffed corn snack and wheat flour collected from Tehran retail market. The average recovery and coefficient of variation in different foods ranged 92.7-107.1 and 4.9-13.8%, respectively. The amount of ZEA in corn CRM was in the acceptable range of FAPAS. The limit of quantification was 3 ng/g for rice, bread and wheat flour and 2.7 ng/g for puffed corn snack. The retention time of zearalenone was 2.6 min. All samples had contamination level lower than the maximum tolerated level of ZEA in foods in Iran. The mean intake of ZEA from all samples was much lower than the tolerable daily intake estimated by JECFA. This is the first survey on ZEA contamination in bread and rice in Iran as well as the first study on exposure assessment of Tehran population to ZEA. PMID:24250447

  16. Milk lipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milk fat conveys a number of desirable qualities to food, and various lipid components contribute to human nutrition and health. Over 96% of milk lipids consist of triacylglycerols, which contain a variety of fatty acids. Di- and monoacylglycerols, free fatty acids, sterols, and phospho-, glyco-,...

  17. Overall and abdominal obesity indicators had different association with central arterial stiffness and hemodynamics independent of age, sex, blood pressure, glucose, and lipids in Chinese community-dwelling adults

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shihui; Luo, Leiming; Ye, Ping; Liu, Yuan; Zhu, Bing; Zheng, Jin; Bai, Yongyi; Bai, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Objective Limited large sample studies have specially compared overall and abdominal obesity in relation to central arterial stiffness and hemodynamics in community-dwelling adults, especially in the People’s Republic of China. This study aimed to compare the relationship between an overall obesity indicator (body mass index [BMI]), an abdominal obesity index (waist circumference [WC]), and central arterial stiffness and hemodynamics, independent of age, sex, blood pressure, glucose, and lipids, in Chinese community-dwelling adults. Methods For 2,624 adults in this study, anthropometric indices, such as BMI and WC, were measured. Central arterial stiffness was assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV). Central hemodynamics was represented by central pulse pressure (cPP). Results Both overall and abdominally obese adults were older, with significantly higher cfPWV, cPP, peripheral pulse pressure (pPP), fasting blood glucose (FBG), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and significantly lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). After adjusting for age and sex, both the overall and abdominally obese individuals had independently higher pPP, FBG, and LDL-C levels, and lower HDL-C level. The overall obese individuals had independently higher cPP, but not cfPWV, after adjusting for age and sex, while the abdominally obese individuals had independently higher cfPWV, but not cPP. After adjusting for age, sex, pPP, FBG, LDL-C, and HDL-C, WC, but not BMI, was independently correlated with cfPWV, and BMI, but not WC, was independently associated with cPP. Age, sex, pPP, FBG, and HDL-C levels have independent association with cfPWV. Age, sex, pPP, but not FBG and HDL-C levels, have independent association with cPP. Conclusion The abdominal obesity index (WC), rather than the overall obesity indicator (BMI), was related to central arterial stiffness, independent of age, sex, blood pressure, glucose and lipids, while the overall obesity

  18. Longitudinal impact of physical activity on lipid profiles in middle-aged adults: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study[S

    PubMed Central

    Monda, Keri L.; Ballantyne, Christie M.; North, Kari E.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence exists that increased levels of physical activity decrease the population burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although risk factors for CVD, including plasma lipids and lipoproteins, have been associated with physical activity, studies including a sizeable number of minority participants are lacking. Our purpose was to interrogate the longitudinal effect of physical activity on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in the African American and white participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Nine years of follow-up data on 8,764 individuals aged 45–64 years at baseline were used in linear mixed-effects models to estimate the association between increases in baseline physical activity on mean change in HDL, LDL, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. Increases in the level of activity were associated with increases in HDL in all strata and decreases in triglycerides among white participants. Physical activity was associated with LDL in all women, while the association with total cholesterol was limited to African American women. This study is one of the few to investigate the effect of physical activity on lipids and lipoproteins in a race- and sex-specific manner. Overall our results highlight the importance of physical activity on plasma lipid profiles and provide evidence for novel differential associations. PMID:19346332

  19. Molecular detection of lactose fermenting enteroinvasive Escherichia coli from patients with diarrhea in Tehran-Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadzadeh, Mohammad; Goudarzi, Hossein; Dabiri, Hossein; Fallah, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) is one the cause of acute diarrhea and bacillary dysentery in developing countries. Routine diagnostic microbiology tests are not capable to distinguish EIEC from other pathogenic or non-pathogenic E. coli. PCR, targeting ipaH, virF, virB and other virulence genes, is a diagnostic method for detecting E. coli pathotypes. Using PCR, we identified EIEC by PCR targeting ipaH and virF genes among E.coli isolates from patients with diarrhea at the selected hospitals in Tehran. Materials and Methods: Isolates of E. coli were cultured from 140 specimens of patients with diarrhea using culture and IMViC test. DNA was extracted using commercial kits and and tested for uidA, ipaH and virF genes by PCR. Results: Totally, 140 E. coli isolates were confirmed by IMViC tests and PCR targeting uidA gene. Of 140 E. coli isolates, 5 (3.6%) were positive for the ipaH gene, 4 (2.9%) contained virF gene and 4 (2.9%) were positive for both ipaH and virF genes. Conclusion: These results indicated that EIEC is a considerable acute diarrheagenic pathogen in adults and infants. Moreover, virF gene is suggested for evaluation of invasiveness of EIEC. PMID:26697158

  20. Population radiation dose from diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures in the Tehran population in 1999-2003: striking changes in only one decade.

    PubMed

    Tabeie, Faraj; Mohammadi, Hooshang; Asli, Isa Neshandar

    2013-02-01

    Use of unsealed radiopharmaceuticals in Iran's nuclear medicine centers has expanded rapidly in the last decade. As part of a nationwide survey, this study was undertaken to estimate the radiation risk due to the diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures performed in Tehran in 1999-2003. During the five years of the study, the data of 101,540 yearly examinations of diagnostic nuclear medicine were obtained for 34 (out of 40) active nuclear medicine centers in Tehran. The patients studied were aged 1 y, 5 y, 10 y, 15 y, and adults (>15 y). Compared to an earlier investigation in 1989 (which was published in 1995), striking changes were found to be occurring in the trends of nuclear medicine in Tehran in a matter of a decade. The frequency of cardiac examinations increased from less than 1% in 1989 to 43.2% (mean of 5 y) in 2003; thyroid examinations, with the relative frequency of higher than 80% in 1989, decreased to 26.7% in the current investigation (averaged for 2001); and the number of overall examinations per 1,000 population of Tehran increased from 1.9 in 1989 to 8.8 in this study (about fourfold). The decrease in relative frequency of thyroid examinations could be attributed to the lower referral policy (mainly by specialists), decreased incidence of goiter due to implementation of programs for iodine enrichment diets, introduction of fine needle aspiration (FNA), and sonography techniques for diagnosis of thyroid disease. The large increase in relative frequency of cardiac examinations could be due to the increase in the number of single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) systems in recent years as compared to 1989 in Tehran. The collective effective dose increased from 400 (person-Sv) in 1999 to 529 (person-Sv) in 2003, and the effective dose per capita increased from 34.80 μSv in 1999 to 44.06 μSv in 2003 (average, 35.60 μSv). PMID:23274814

  1. Aflatoxin in raw walnut kernels marketed in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Imani Nejad, M; Farahani, A D

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of aflatoxin in 35 samples of raw walnuts, which were randomly collected from Iranian supermarkets in Tehran, was examined. Analysis of aflatoxin was performed by solvent extraction and immunoaffinity clean-up followed by determination using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Limits of detection (LOD) for the aflatoxins were 0.03-0.25 ng g⁻¹. Limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.12-0.80 ng g⁻¹. Total aflatoxin concentrations in the samples ranged from 0 to 112.8 ng g⁻¹. About 74.3% of the samples were contaminated with aflatoxins, of which 20.0% exceeded the maximum tolerable limit of 15 ng g⁻¹ set by Codex. PMID:24779688

  2. Thyroid and Pregnancy in Tehran, Iran: Objectives and Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Nazarpour, Sima; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Simbar, Masoumeh; Tohidi, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Background Thyroid dysfunction is the second most common endocrine disease in females of reproductive age. There are controversial data on the adverse effect of subclinical thyroid dysfunctions on adverse feto-maternal outcomes. Objectives The current study aimed to identify the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy and to assess the effectiveness of treatment with levothyroxine on pregnancy outcomes of females with thyroid autoimmunity with or without subclinical thyroid dysfunction in Tehran, Iran. Patients and Methods The study encompassed two phases: 1) a population based cross sectional study using a cluster sampling method that screened first trimester pregnant females for thyroid disorders, 2) a double-blind randomized clinical trial to determine the effectiveness of levothyroxine on adverse pregnancy outcomes in females with thyroid autoimmunity with or without subclinical thyroid dysfunction. Pregnant females were assessed at their first prenatal visit for serum TSH, T4, T-uptake, TPOAb and urinary iodine following which they were classified as: 1) normal, 2) subclinical TPOAb negative and 3) subclinical/euthyroid TPOAb positive. Females in groups two and three were randomly divided into two groups: group A was treated with levothyroxine (LT4), and group B did not receive any treatment. There was a follow-up program for participants and rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes in the treated and untreated groups were measured. Results Results of the study provided reliable information regarding the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction among females in Tehran using universal thyroid screening, along with identification of the iodine status of their community. The study aimed to determine whether LT4 treatment exerts beneficial effects in females without overt thyroid dysfunction. PMID:27279833

  3. Public awareness and attitudes towards epilepsy in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ghanean, Helia; Nojomi, Marzieh; Jacobsson, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Background Epilepsy is a prototypical, stigmatised disorder. Numerous studies have been conducted regarding the public perception of epilepsy, but they are primarily from high-income western countries; few studies have taken place in low- to middle-income countries with a traditional culture and a religious orientation. Objective The public knowledge and attitudes towards epilepsy in Tehran, Iran, is studied. Design A survey of 800 subjects ranging from 18 to 85 years was randomly chosen from households in Tehran in 2009. The questionnaire used was based on the Caveness and Gallup's studies conducted in the United States in 1949 and it has been used in numerous similar studies all over the world. The mean age of the participants was 37.5 years and 46.7% were female. Pearson's Chi-squared test was used for subgroup analyses. Results The majority of subjects cited brain disorders as a cause of epilepsy, while 17% indicated the will of God as the cause. Most individuals were willing to work with a person with epilepsy, allow their children to play with a child with epilepsy, and allow people with epilepsy to use public transportation (78–82%). However, only 28% were willing to accept the marriage of a family member to someone with epilepsy. Conclusion The knowledge and attitudes towards epilepsy are similar to those in Europe, with the exception of a much lower acceptance regarding marriage to a person with epilepsy. However, the low acceptance for marrying someone with epilepsy reveals the remaining misconceptions about the nature of epilepsy in Iran, despite the high educational level in the studied population. Therefore, informational efforts must be employed to change the perception of epilepsy. PMID:24314322

  4. Are people in Tehran prepared for the family physician program?

    PubMed Central

    Majidi, Azam; Loori, Nina; Shahandeh, Khandan; Jamshidi, Ensiyeh; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Upon successful experiences of family physician program in the rural regions, Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME) made a decision to expand this program to urban areas. For this reason a pilot program were designated and some cities have been selected to determine dos and don’ts of performing family physician program in the cities. Various studies were published during this period demonstrating the advantages and disadvantages of family physicians’ care in these cities. After this process in 2012 and 2013 MOHME announced implementation of family physician program in Tehran. Our study investigated public attitudes, knowledge and practice about the newly introduced program. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in Tehran during November to December 2012. A telephone survey was carried out using the Random Digit Dialing (RDD) method and data was gathered by a researcher designed questionnaire. A total of 386 residents aged 18 years and over participated in the study. To compare the differences between various groups’ knowledge scores data were analyzed performing Chi-square test, t-test, ANOVA, and logistic regression by SPSS software version 17, to find factors that affected individuals’ agreement with the program. Results: Among all samples 214(57.4%) knew about the program and almost 120(85.1%) of these aware people were planning to participate in the program. Television and Radio were the major information resources. After adjusting for Educational status, Access to Internet and Socio Economic Status(SES) those people who didn’t have any kind of health coverage systems(Health insurance) were most likely to accept the program and agree with that[OR= 2.38(1.05-5.38)]. Conclusions: The fact that despite low levels of information, most of aware people intend to enroll in the new program reveals that expanding informative programs would bring more participation and involvement among community. PMID:25489446

  5. Organizational behavior of employees of Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Dargahi, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Organizational behaviors are commonly acknowledged as fundamentals of organizational life that strongly influence both formal and informal organizational processes, interpersonal relationships, work environments, and pay and promotion policies. The current study aims to investigate political behavior tendencies among employees of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). This cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study was conducted on 810 TUMS employees at the headquarters of the Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran during 2010–2011. The research tool for data collection was a researcher-tailored questionnaire on political behaviors. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by seven management professors, and its reliability was tested by a pilot study using test-retest method which yielded a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.71. The respondents were asked to fill the questionnaire and express their perceptions and tendencies to engage in organizational behaviors. The collected data was read to and analyzed by IBM SPSS environment and correlation analytical methods. Overall, 729 respondents filled and returned the questionnaire yielding a response rate of 90%. Most of the respondents indicated that they had no tendency to engage in political behavior. Moreover, we found that there was a significant correlation between sex, higher education degrees, tenure and the employees’ tendency to engage in political behavior. The participants were not overtly political because of their personal belief, ethical values, and personal characters. Non-political and overtly political employees are both prejudicial for all organizations. Therefore, it seems that the medium rate of good political behavior is vital and prevalent in Iranian organizations. PMID:23908760

  6. Association of diabetes-related distress, depression, medication adherence, and health-related quality of life with glycated hemoglobin, blood pressure, and lipids in adult patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Boon-How; Sherina, Mohd-Sidik; Hassan, Noor-Hasliza

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the associations of diabetes-related distress (DRD), depressive symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and medication adherence with glycemia, blood pressure (BP), and lipid biomarkers in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). This cross-sectional study was conducted in three Malaysian public health clinics in 2012–2013, recruited adult patients (aged ≥30 years) with T2D who had been diagnosed for more than one year, were on active follow-up, and had recent blood test results. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to identify significant associated factors for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) BP, and lipids. The response rate was 93.1% (700/752). The majority were females (52.8%), Malay (52.4%), and married (78.7%). DRD correlated with systolic BP (r= −0.16); depressive symptoms correlated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=0.12) and total cholesterol (r=0.13); medication adherence correlated with HbA1c (r= −0.14) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r= −0.11); and HRQoL correlated with casual blood glucose (r= −0.11), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r= −0.13), and total cholesterol (r= −0.08). Multivariable analyses showed that HRQoL was significantly associated with casual blood glucose (adjusted B= −0.06, P=0.024); DRD was associated with systolic BP (adjusted B= −0.08, P=0.066); depressive symptoms were associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (adjusted B=0.02, P=0.061), and medication adherence was associated with HbA1c (adjusted B= −0.11, P=0.082) and total cholesterol (adjusted B= −0.06, P=0.086). There were significant and distinctive associations of DRD, depressive symptoms, HRQoL, and medication adherence with glycemia, BP, and lipid biomarkers. Unexpected beneficial therapeutic effects of DRD on BP require further study. A multidisciplinary approach may be needed for risk management in adults with T2D at the primary care level. PMID:25995640

  7. Association of diabetes-related distress, depression, medication adherence, and health-related quality of life with glycated hemoglobin, blood pressure, and lipids in adult patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Chew, Boon-How; Sherina, Mohd-Sidik; Hassan, Noor-Hasliza

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the associations of diabetes-related distress (DRD), depressive symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and medication adherence with glycemia, blood pressure (BP), and lipid biomarkers in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). This cross-sectional study was conducted in three Malaysian public health clinics in 2012-2013, recruited adult patients (aged ≥30 years) with T2D who had been diagnosed for more than one year, were on active follow-up, and had recent blood test results. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to identify significant associated factors for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) BP, and lipids. The response rate was 93.1% (700/752). The majority were females (52.8%), Malay (52.4%), and married (78.7%). DRD correlated with systolic BP (r= -0.16); depressive symptoms correlated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=0.12) and total cholesterol (r=0.13); medication adherence correlated with HbA1c (r= -0.14) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r= -0.11); and HRQoL correlated with casual blood glucose (r= -0.11), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r= -0.13), and total cholesterol (r= -0.08). Multivariable analyses showed that HRQoL was significantly associated with casual blood glucose (adjusted B= -0.06, P=0.024); DRD was associated with systolic BP (adjusted B= -0.08, P=0.066); depressive symptoms were associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (adjusted B=0.02, P=0.061), and medication adherence was associated with HbA1c (adjusted B= -0.11, P=0.082) and total cholesterol (adjusted B= -0.06, P=0.086). There were significant and distinctive associations of DRD, depressive symptoms, HRQoL, and medication adherence with glycemia, BP, and lipid biomarkers. Unexpected beneficial therapeutic effects of DRD on BP require further study. A multidisciplinary approach may be needed for risk management in adults with T2D at the primary care level. PMID:25995640

  8. Anti-rubella, Mumps and Measles IgG Antibodies in Medical Students of Tehran University.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz, Maryam; Nicknam, Mohammad Hossein; Tebyanian, Majid; Shahkarami, Mohammad Kazem; Izad, Maryam

    2016-06-01

    Measles, mumps and rubella are viral infectious diseases that may result in serious complications. Since the production of vaccines, the number of cases of these diseases has been dropped. Nevertheless, these infectious diseases are still one of the major health problems in developing countries. In this study, in order to evaluate the protective responses against measles, mumps and rubella, the level and avidity of virus-specific IgG antibodies were measured in 53 medical students of Tehran University, aged between 20-30 years. Except for mumps vaccine, all the students had been vaccinated against measles and rubella according to Iran's nationwide mass vaccination protocol for all persons aged 5-25 in 2003. Our results showed that 96.2% of the volunteers had a protective level (>15 IU/ml) of IgG against rubella, 79.2% had a protective level (>11 IU/ml) of IgG against measles and 64.16% had a protective level (>11 IU/ml) of IgG against mumps. Over ten years after nationwide measles-rubella vaccination campaign, most young adults aged 20-30 had protective levels of humoral immunity against measles and rubella. However, Iranian young population is still unvaccinated against mumps, and therefore relatively large number of young adults had no protective level of IgG against it. This finding may be due to reduction in circulating of wild strain. We recommend screening of medical students for immunity against infectious agents such as measles, mumps, rubella, because they are at a high risk of these infectious agents. PMID:27424140

  9. Municipal solid waste management in Tehran: current practices, opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Damghani, Abdolmajid Mahdavi; Savarypour, Gholamreza; Zand, Eskandar; Deihimfard, Reza

    2008-01-01

    Tehran, the capital city of Iran and a metropolis with a population of 8.2 million and containing 2.4 million households, generated 2,626,519 tons of solid waste in 2005. The present study is aimed at evaluating the generation, characteristics and management of solid waste in Tehran. Municipal solid waste comprises more than 97% of Tehran's solid waste, while three other types of solid waste comprise less than 3% of it, namely hospital waste (1.0%), industrial waste (0.6%) and construction and demolition waste (0.5%). The contribution of household solid waste to total municipal solid waste is about 62.5%. The municipality of Tehran is responsible for the solid waste management of the city; the waste is mainly landfilled in three centers in Tehran, with a small part of it usually recycled or processed as compost. However, an informal sector is also active in collecting recyclable materials from solid waste. The municipality has recently initiated some activities to mechanize solid waste management and reduce waste generation. There remain important challenges in solid waste management in Tehran which include: the proper collection and management of hospital waste; public education aimed at reducing and separating household waste and educating municipal workers in order to optimize the waste collection system; and the participation of other related organizations and the private sector in solid waste management. PMID:17881212

  10. Hypothyroidism and Lipid Levels in a Community Based Study (TTS)

    PubMed Central

    Alamdari, Shahram; Amouzegar, Atieh; Tohidi, Maryam; Gharibzadeh, Safoora; Kheirkhah, Pouyan; Kheirkhah, Parnian; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thyroid hormones play an important role in lipid metabolism. Overt hypothyroidism is known to be associated with increased lipid profiles, but the effect of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) on lipid profile remains controversial. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the association between thyroid disorders and serum lipid levels. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted within the framework of Tehran lipid and glucose study (TLGS). Serum concentrations of TSH and FT4, cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL-C were measured in 5786 randomly selected subjects. Serum LDL was calculated according to the Friedwald formula. Results: The study assessed 5154 subjects including 42.5% males and 57.5% females, with a mean age of 39.71 ± 14.2 years (ranged 20 - 90 years). Serum cholesterol was significantly higher in overt hypothyroidism in comparison to subclinical hypothyroidism (P = 0.003). Serum cholesterol, HDL –C, LDL-C and TG did not differ between subclinical hypothyroid and control groups. Among euthyroid men, serum FT4 levels were inversely correlated with serum cholesterol and TG. In euthyroid women, serum FT4 levels were correlated positively with serum HDL-C and negatively correlated with TG and TG/HDL-C ratio and TSH levels were associated negatively with, HDL-C. Conclusions: No differences existed in lipid profiles between subclinical hypothyroidism and euthyroid subjects. There are correlations between serum FT4 and TSH and lipid profiles. PMID:27335579

  11. Aromatase deficiency in a Chinese adult man caused by novel compound heterozygous CYP19A1 mutations: Effects of estrogen replacement therapy on the bone, lipid, liver and glucose metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhike; Wang, Ou; Nie, Min; Elison, Kathleen; Zhou, Dujin; Li, Mei; Jiang, Yan; Xia, Weibo; Meng, Xunwu; Chen, Shiuan; Xing, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Aromatase deficiency is a rare disorder resulting in estrogen insufficiency in humans. It has been reported in remarkably few men with loss-of-function mutations in the CYP19A1 gene encoding the aromatase, a cytochrome P450 enzyme that plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of estrogens from androgens. We investigated a non-consanguineous family including an adult man with clinical features of aromatase deficiency, and studied the effects of estrogen replacement in the man. Methods We investigated the clinical and biochemical phenotype, performed CYP19A1 mutational analysis in the family and 50 unrelated persons, studied the effects of CYP19A1 mutations on aromatase protein structure, functionally characterized the mutations by cell-based aromatase activity assays, and studied the effects of estrogen replacement on the bone, lipid, liver and glucose metabolism. Results The man with clinical features of aromatase deficiency had novel compound heterozygous CYP19A1 mutations (Y81C and L451P) that were not found in 50 unrelated persons. Three-dimensional modeling predicted that Y81C and L451P mutants disrupted protein structure. Functional studies on the basis of in vitro expression showed that Y81C and L45P mutants significantly decreased the aromatase activity and catalytic efficiency. Estrogen replacement in the man increased bone mineral density, accelerated bone maturation, improved lipid profile and liver steatosis, and improved glucose levels but not insulin resistance. Conclusions We have identified two novel CYP19A1 missense mutations in an aromatase-deficient man. Estrogen replacement in the man shows great impact on recovering the impairments in the bone, lipid, liver and glucose metabolism, but fails to improve insulin resistance. PMID:25301327

  12. 30-year trends in serum lipids among United States adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys II, III, and 1999-2006.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jerome D; Cziraky, Mark J; Cai, Qian; Wallace, Anna; Wasser, Thomas; Crouse, John R; Jacobson, Terry A

    2010-10-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) II (1976 to 1980), NHANES III (1988 to 1994), and NHANES 1999 to 2006 were examined to assess trends in total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), lipid-lowering medication use, and obesity. Age-adjusted decreases in TC (210 to 200 mg/dl) and LDL cholesterol (134 to 119 mg/dl) were observed. Those with high TC showed a decrease of 9% from NHANES II to NHANES 1999 to 2006, whereas those with LDL cholesterol ≥160 mg/dl showed a decrease of 8%. A significant increase in mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was observed (50 to 53 mg/dl, p <0.001), most likely due to changes in methods. Those with TG levels ≥150 mg/dl showed a decrease from NHANES II to NHANES III from 30% to 27% but then an increase from NHANES III to NHANES 1999 to 2006 from 27% to 33%. Since NHANES III, mean TG levels have increased 12% from 130 to 146 mg/dl. In the 2 most recent surveys, self-reported "high cholesterol" increased from 17% to 27%, and self-reported lipid medication use by those with high cholesterol increased from 16% to 38%. Mean body mass index increased from 26 to 29 kg/m(2), and prevalence of obesity doubled and was significantly associated with increased TG. In conclusion, recent favorable trends in TC and LDL cholesterol are likely due to increased awareness of high cholesterol and the greater use of lipid-lowering drugs. However, countertrends in obesity and TG levels, if continued, will likely have a negative impact on cardiovascular disease in the future. PMID:20854959

  13. Lipid Nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Mashaghi, Samaneh; Jadidi, Tayebeh; Koenderink, Gijsje; Mashaghi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that covers a vast and diverse array of devices and machines derived from engineering, physics, materials science, chemistry and biology. These devices have found applications in biomedical sciences, such as targeted drug delivery, bio-imaging, sensing and diagnosis of pathologies at early stages. In these applications, nano-devices typically interface with the plasma membrane of cells. On the other hand, naturally occurring nanostructures in biology have been a source of inspiration for new nanotechnological designs and hybrid nanostructures made of biological and non-biological, organic and inorganic building blocks. Lipids, with their amphiphilicity, diversity of head and tail chemistry, and antifouling properties that block nonspecific binding to lipid-coated surfaces, provide a powerful toolbox for nanotechnology. This review discusses the progress in the emerging field of lipid nanotechnology. PMID:23429269

  14. Evidence of female sex pheromones and characterization of the cuticular lipids of unfed, adult male versus female blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis.

    PubMed

    Carr, Ann L; Sonenshine, Daniel E; Strider, John B; Roe, R Michael

    2016-04-01

    Copulation in Ixodes scapularis involves physical contact between the male and female (on or off the host), male mounting of the female, insertion/maintenance of the male chelicerae in the female genital pore (initiates spermatophore production), and the transfer of the spermatophore by the male into the female genital pore. Bioassays determined that male mounting behavior/chelicerae insertion required direct contact with the female likely requiring non-volatile chemical cues with no evidence of a female volatile sex pheromone to attract males. Unfed virgin adult females and replete mated adult females elicited the highest rates of male chelicerae insertion with part fed virgin adult females exhibiting a much lower response. Whole body surface hexane extracts of unfed virgin adult females and males, separately analyzed by GC-MS, identified a number of novel tick surface associated compounds: fatty alcohols (1-hexadecanol and 1-heptanol), a fatty amide (erucylamid), aromatic hydrocarbons, a short chain alkene (1-heptene), and a carboxylic acid ester (5β-androstane). These compounds are discussed in terms of their potential role in female-male communication. The two most abundant fatty acid esters found were butyl palmitate and butyl stearate present in ratios that were sex specific. Only 6 n-saturated hydrocarbons were identified in I. scapularis ranging from 10 to 18 carbons. PMID:26864785

  15. Low Circulating Levels of IGF-1 in Healthy Adults Are Associated With Reduced β-Cell Function, Increased Intramyocellular Lipid, and Enhanced Fat Utilization During Fasting

    PubMed Central

    Thankamony, Ajay; Capalbo, Donatella; Marcovecchio, M. Loredana; Sleigh, Alison; Jørgensen, Sine Wanda; Hill, Nathan R.; Mooslehner, Katrin; Yeo, Giles S. H.; Bluck, Les; Juul, Anders; Vaag, Allan; Dunger, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Context Low serum IGF-1 levels have been linked to increased risk for development of type 2 diabetes. However, the physiological role of IGF-1 in glucose metabolism is not well characterized. Objective Our objective was to explore glucose and lipid metabolism associated with variations in serum IGF-1 levels. Design, Setting and Participants IGF-1 levels were measured in healthy, nonobese male volunteers aged 18 to 50 years from a biobank (n = 275) to select 24 subjects (age 34.8 ± 8.9 years), 12 each in the lowest (low-IGF) and highest (high-IGF) quartiles of age-specific IGF-1 SD scores. Evaluations were undertaken after a 24-hour fast and included glucose and glycerol turnover rates using tracers, iv glucose tolerance test to estimate peripheral insulin sensitivity (IS) and acute insulin and C-peptide responses (indices of insulin secretion), magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure intramyocellular lipids (IMCLs), calorimetry, and gene expression studies in a muscle biopsy. Main Outcome Measures Acute insulin and C-peptide responses, IS, and glucose and glycerol rate of appearance (Ra) were evaluated. Results Fasting insulin and C-peptide levels and glucose Ra were reduced (all P < .05) in low-IGF compared with high-IGF subjects, indicating increased hepatic IS. Acute insulin and C-peptide responses were lower (both P < .05), but similar peripheral IS resulted in reduced insulin secretion adjusted for IS in low-IGF subjects (P = 0.044). Low-IGF subjects had higher overnight levels of free fatty acids (P = .028) and β-hydroxybutyrate (P = .014), increased accumulation of IMCLs in tibialis anterior muscle (P = .008), and a tendency for elevated fat oxidation rates (P = .058); however, glycerol Ra values were similar. Gene expression of the fatty acid metabolism pathway (P = .0014) was upregulated, whereas the GLUT1 gene was downregulated (P = .005) in the skeletal muscle in low-IGF subjects. Conclusions These data suggest that serum IGF-1 levels could be an

  16. A 6-month “self-monitoring” lifestyle modification with increased sunlight exposure modestly improves vitamin D status, lipid profile and glycemic status in overweight and obese Saudi adults with varying glycemic levels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The over-all age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) in Saudi Arabia is unprecedented at 31%. Aggressive measures should be done to curb down increasing incidence. In this prospective 6-month study we aim to determine whether a self-monitoring, life-style modification program that includes increased sunlight exposure confer improvement in vitamin D status and health benefits among adult Saudi overweight and obese patients with varying glycemic status. Methods A total of 150 overweight and obese Saudi adults with varying glycemic status aged 30–60 years were included in this study. They were divided into 3 groups (Non-DMT2, Pre-diabetes and DMT2). Baseline anthropometrics and blood glucose were taken at baseline and after 6 months. Fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, calcium, albumin and phosphate were measured routinely. Serum 25(OH) vitamin D was measured using standard assays. Within the time period they were instructed to reduce total intake of fat, increased fiber intake and increase sun exposure. Results In all groups there was a significant improvement in vitamin D levels as well as serum triglycerides, LDL- and total cholesterol. However, a significant increase in serum glucose levels was noted in the non-DMT2 group, and a significant decrease in HDL-cholesterol in both non-DMT2 and pre-diabetes group. In the pre-diabetes group, 53.2% were able to normalize their fasting blood levels after 6 months, with 8.5% reaching the DMT2 stage and 38.3% remaining pre-diabetic. In all groups there was a significant increase in the prevalence of hypertension. Conclusion Improving vitamin D status with modest lifestyle modifications over a short-period translates to improvement in lipid profile except HDL-cholesterol among overweight and obese Saudi adults, but not BMI and blood pressure. Findings of the present study merit further investigation as to whether full vitamin D status correction can delay or prevent onset of DMT2. PMID

  17. Lipid Storage Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Lipid Storage Diseases Information Page Condensed from Lipid Storage ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What are Lipid Storage Diseases? Lipid storage diseases are a group ...

  18. Features of Adolescents Tuberculosis at a Referral TB’s Hospital in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Lotfian, Ferial; Bolursaz, Mohammad Reza; Khalilzadeh, Soheila; Baghaie, Noshin; Hassanzad, Maryam; Velayati, Aliakbar

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the pattern of the clinical, radiological, diagnostic procedures and loss to follow-up of the diagnosed cases of active tuberculosis (TB) adolescents. Methods This study was a retrospective analysis of the medical records of 143 adolescents aged 10 to 18 years with tuberculosis who were admitted TB wards of National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (NRITLD) in Tehran, Iran, between March 2006 and March 2011. Results Of the 143 patients identified, 62.9% were females. Median age of the patients was 16 years. The contact source was identified in 47.5%. The most common presenting symptom was cough (86%). Isolated pulmonary TB (PTB) was detected in 113 patients (79%), 21 patients (14.7%) had extrapulmonary TB(EPTB), and 9 patients (6.3%) had PTB and EPTB. The most common site of EPTB was pleural (14%). The most common radiographic finding was infiltration (61%). Positive acid fast smears were seen in 67.6%. Positive cultures for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. TB) were seen in 44.7%. Positive Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results were seen in 60%. The adolescents aged 15 to 18 years were more likely to lose weight (p=0.001), smear positive (p=0.001), culture positive (p<0.001) and have positive PCR results (p=0.009). The type of TB (p=0.017) was a significant factor influencing loss to follow-up. Conclusions The study has revealed that the clinical and radiological findings of TB in adolescents are combination as identified in children and adults. The TB control programs should pay more attention to prevention and treatment of TB in adolescents. PMID:26740866

  19. Forecasting Tehran stock exchange volatility; Markov switching GARCH approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abounoori, Esmaiel; Elmi, Zahra (Mila); Nademi, Younes

    2016-03-01

    This paper evaluates several GARCH models regarding their ability to forecast volatility in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE). These include GARCH models with both Gaussian and fat-tailed residual conditional distribution, concerning their ability to describe and forecast volatility from 1-day to 22-day horizon. Results indicate that AR(2)-MRSGARCH-GED model outperforms other models at one-day horizon. Also, the AR(2)-MRSGARCH-GED as well as AR(2)-MRSGARCH-t models outperform other models at 5-day horizon. In 10 day horizon, three models of AR(2)-MRSGARCH outperform other models. Concerning 22 day forecast horizon, results indicate no differences between MRSGARCH models with that of standard GARCH models. Regarding Risk management out-of-sample evaluation (95% VaR), a few models seem to provide reasonable and accurate VaR estimates at 1-day horizon, with a coverage rate close to the nominal level. According to the risk management loss functions, there is not a uniformly most accurate model.

  20. A survey of feline behavioral problems in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Tamimi, Naqa; Malmasi, Abdolali; Talebi, Aniseh; Tamimi, Fatemeh; Amini, Atoosa

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral problems in cats have drawn more attention in recent years since they affect the cat-owner relationship. This study was designed to study the rate of cats with undesirable behaviors according to their owners. Frequency of behavioral problems in 167 cats attending Small Animal Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, was evaluated using a questionnaire. According to the results, 94.6% of owners reported that their cats have exhibited at least one undesirable behavior. Fearfulness, attention seeking, aggression towards other cats/people, scratching, and elimination problems were the most prevalent behavioral complaints reported by the owners; whereas obsessive behaviors were the least common behavioral complaints. In addition, data analysis suggested that age, breed, outdoor access, owner reaction towards the behavior and the cat’s interaction with other cats/people might have been associated with the development of some behavioral problems in cats. Considerable rate of undesirable behaviors in domestic cats in Iran is important enough to highlight the significance of veterinary intervention. PMID:26261710

  1. Evaluation of lead concentration over Tehran metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasharrofi, S.; Dahaghin, A. R.; Kazemi, H.

    2003-05-01

    Considering the traffics volume in Tehran, the lead measurement in city's atmosphere is of prime important. The source of lead in cities atmosphere is either in inorganic fonn, resulting from combustion of leaded gasoline, or in organic form, from unburned evaporated gasoline. For the first time in Iran a procedure was adopted for organic lead determination in air by the department of air pollution in Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI). The determination of lead in air, organic and inorganic, were carried out in five locations for the period ofnine months. The results indicated that concentration of inorganic and organic lead ranged respectively from 0.24 to 3.4 μg/m^3 and Trace amount to 15.15 μg/m^3 as Pb. Concentrations were generally highest in densely traffic areas, intermediate in commercial areas, and lowest in residential areas. The effect of inversion phenomena and metrological parameters were the main reasons for increasing of average lead concentrations in autumn and winter.

  2. Pathologic Analysis of Control Plans for Air Pollution Management in Tehran Metropolis: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Shahrabi, Narges Salehi; Pourezzat, Aliasghar; Fayaz-Bakhsh, Ahmad; Mafimoradi, Shiva; Poursafa, Parinaz

    2013-01-01

    Background: Regarding the importance of air pollution issue for large cities, as Tehran metropolis, many plans, programs, projects and regulations have been developed to manage urban air pollution. However, most of them failed to decline the pollution. The purpose of this study is to pathologically analyze air-pollution control plans in order to offer effective solutions for Tehran metropolis. Methods: A qualitative content analysis and a semi-structured interview with 14 practicing professionals were used to identify key causes and sources of Tehran's air pollution, to recognize challenges and obstacles towards effective performance of air-pollution control plans in this metropolitan area, and to suggest the most effective controlling solutions. Results: Challenges related to air-pollution control plans can be divided into two major categories: Firstly lack of integrated and organized stewardship and secondly those related to political, economical, social and technical environmental abbreviated as PEST, challenges. For effective control of the Tehran air pollution, the following eight controlling alternatives were identified: Systematization of plan preparation process, organizing the stewardship, standardization and utilization of new technologies and professional experts, cultural and infrastructural development, realization of social justice, developing coordination and controlling mechanisms, improving citizen's participatory capacity, and focusing on effective management of fuel and energy. Conclusions: Controlling air pollution in Tehran should be considered as a priority for policymakers to make enforcements through applying a systemic cycle of preparation effective and comprehensive plans. Further, implement the enforcements and evaluate the environmental impact of the plans through involving all stakeholders. PMID:24130939

  3. Pediatric aspects of lipid-induced atherogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kannel, W B

    1984-01-01

    There is a need to protect our young from an atherogenic way of life. Atherosclerosis and its precursors have their onset in childhood. Correctable risk factors have been identified that have been shown to exert greater impact early in life than later. Optimal levels of these risk factors for children are being established. The rise in serum lipids, blood pressure, body fat, and blood sugar observed in transition from childhood to adult life is neither inevitable nor desirable. Cardiovascular disease in adults may well begin in childhood with medical trivia such as a tendency to obesity, moderate lipid aberrations, blood pressure elevation, lack of exercise, and the cigarette habit. Recent evidence continues to emphasize blood lipids in atherogenesis. A large amount of cholesterol in the high density lipid (HDL) fraction is protective while the cholesterol in the low density lipid (LDL) is atherogenic. Optimal total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratios are in the vicinity of 3.5, corresponding to half the adult average risk in the United States. Worldwide evidence suggests that adult cholesterol values of 180-200 mg/dl are associated with both a low coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality and favorable overall health. In order to achieve this, 140 mg/dl values are needed in children whose blood lipids tend to track into adult life. The rise in serum lipids and deterioration in the LDL/HDL ratio in transition from childhood to adult life seems preventable through hygienic means in childhood when faulty life-styles that promote lipid-induced atherogenesis are conditioned. PMID:6470354

  4. The Frequency of Sexual Abuse and Depression in a Sample of Street Children of One of Deprived Districts of Tehran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmadkhaniha, Hamid Reza; Shariat, Seyed Vahid; Torkaman-Nejad, Sharif; Moghadam, Mohammad Mehdi Hoseini

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of sexual abuse and depression among street children who live in a deprived district of Tehran. The researchers used the K-SADS questionnaire and a clinical interview were used to evaluate depression and sexual abuse in 87 street children in Tehran. Eighteen (20.9%) of the children had been…

  5. Evaluation of the Effects of Pinus koraiensis Needle Extracts on Serum Lipid and Oxidative Stress in Adults with Borderline Dyslipidemia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, and Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyerang; Choue, Ryowon

    2016-01-01

    Background. Dyslipidemia has been well-known as a common metabolic disorder contributing to cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Pinus koraiensis needle extracts (PKE) on the blood cholesterol and oxidative stress. Method. We conducted a 12-week randomized, double-blinded controlled trial to examine the effect of PKE on blood lipid profiles in adults with borderline dyslipidemia. Thirty-three eligible persons were recruited and randomly assigned into PKE (n = 20) and placebo groups (n = 13). Serum lipids including total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein- (LDL-) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein- (HDL-) cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein- (VLDL-) cholesterol, and triglyceride were measured before and after trial. Serum insulin, glucose, and antioxidant indicators were also analyzed before and after trial and anthropometry and blood pressure were measured every 4 weeks. Results. After 12 weeks, PKE statically significant decreases in systolic blood pressure (p < 0.05) and waist circumference (p < 0.05) were observed. Also, VLDL-cholesterol significantly decreased (from 24.4 ± 10.0 mg/dL at baseline to 18.4 ± 4.1 mg/dL after 12 weeks) (p < 0.05) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased (6.12 ± 0.41 U/mL to 9.06 ± 0.62 U/mL) (p < 0.01) in PKE group. However, after adjustment with WC, VLDL-cholesterol was not significant between groups (p = 0.095) and while SOD remained significant between groups (p = 0.013). Conclusion. The results show that PKE was effective in improving the superoxide dismutase in the individuals with borderline dyslipidemia. PMID:27610187

  6. Evaluation of the Effects of Pinus koraiensis Needle Extracts on Serum Lipid and Oxidative Stress in Adults with Borderline Dyslipidemia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, and Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hansongyi; Kim, Hyerang; Choue, Ryowon; Lim, Hyunjung

    2016-01-01

    Background. Dyslipidemia has been well-known as a common metabolic disorder contributing to cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Pinus koraiensis needle extracts (PKE) on the blood cholesterol and oxidative stress. Method. We conducted a 12-week randomized, double-blinded controlled trial to examine the effect of PKE on blood lipid profiles in adults with borderline dyslipidemia. Thirty-three eligible persons were recruited and randomly assigned into PKE (n = 20) and placebo groups (n = 13). Serum lipids including total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein- (LDL-) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein- (HDL-) cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein- (VLDL-) cholesterol, and triglyceride were measured before and after trial. Serum insulin, glucose, and antioxidant indicators were also analyzed before and after trial and anthropometry and blood pressure were measured every 4 weeks. Results. After 12 weeks, PKE statically significant decreases in systolic blood pressure (p < 0.05) and waist circumference (p < 0.05) were observed. Also, VLDL-cholesterol significantly decreased (from 24.4 ± 10.0 mg/dL at baseline to 18.4 ± 4.1 mg/dL after 12 weeks) (p < 0.05) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased (6.12 ± 0.41 U/mL to 9.06 ± 0.62 U/mL) (p < 0.01) in PKE group. However, after adjustment with WC, VLDL-cholesterol was not significant between groups (p = 0.095) and while SOD remained significant between groups (p = 0.013). Conclusion. The results show that PKE was effective in improving the superoxide dismutase in the individuals with borderline dyslipidemia. PMID:27610187

  7. Air quality classification and its temporal trend in Tehran, Iran, 2002-2012.

    PubMed

    Saniei, Raheleh; Zangiabadi, Ali; Sharifikia, Mohammad; Ghavidel, Yousef

    2016-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 microns or less (PM2.5), as well as slightly bigger particles (PM10), arrive from the westerly direction and collect in the city centre of Tehran, the capital of Iran. The statistical characteristics and daily trend of the air quality index (AQI) in Theran were studied over an 11-year period (2002- 2012). Various statistical analyses were applied including descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, trend analysis and the sequential nonparametric Mann-Kendall test. The significance of the series was investigated by regression analysis and Kriging interpolation. It was found that Tehran's daily AQI increased by 11.8% over the study period, with the frequency distribution of days with good and average air quality showing a strongly declining trend. The AQI of Tehran was shown to contain a large part of PM10 and PM2.5, the latter having the largest contribution (coefficient=0.853). PMID:27245807

  8. Achievements and future path of Tehran municipality in urban health domain: An Iranian experience

    PubMed Central

    Damari, Behzad; Riazi-Isfahani, Sahand

    2016-01-01

    Background: According to national laws and world experiences; provision, maintenance, and improving citizens’ health are considered to be the essential functions of municipalities as a "social institute". In order to equitably promote health conditions at urban level, particularly in marginal areas, since 2004 targeted efforts have been implemented in the municipality of Tehran metropolis. This study was intended to identify and analyze these targeted measures and tries to analyze health interventions in a conceptual framework and propose a future path. Methods: This is a qualitative study with content analysis approach. Reviewing documents and structured interviews with national health policy making and planning experts and executive managers of 22-region municipalities of Tehran metropolis were used to collect data. The data were analyzed on the basis of conceptual framework prepared for urban health in 4 domains including municipal interventions, goal achievements, drivers and obstacles of success, and the way forward. Results: From the viewpoint of interviewees, these new health actions of Tehran municipality are more based on public participation and the municipality was able to prioritize health issue in the programs and policies of Tehran city council. Tehran municipality has accomplished three types of interventions to improve health, which in orders of magnitude are: facilitative, promotional, and mandatory interventions. Development and institutionalization of public participation is the greatest achievement in health-oriented actions; and expansion of environmental and physical health-oriented facilities and promoting a healthy lifestyle are next in ranks. Conclusion: Since management alterations seriously challenges institutionalization of actions and innovations especially in the developing countries, it is suggested that mayors of metropolitan cities like Tehran document and review municipal health measures as soon as possible and while eliminating

  9. Outdoor Noise Pollution Mapping Case Study: A District of Tehran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Karimi, Elham; Nassiri, Parvin; Taghavi, Lobat; Karbalaei, Samaneh

    2014-10-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the noise levels at different land uses of District 14 in Tehran. For this purpose, a total number of 91 sampling stations were selected. Afterwards, the equivalent sound pressure level in each station was measured at three occasions of morning (7-9 am), noon (12-3 pm), and evening (5-8 pm). Based on the conformability requirement of each land uses, noise levels was divided in three zones wherein the land uses are exposed to different noise levels was estimated. The obtained results indicated that 8.79% of 78 land uses (residential, recreational and medical) in the Zone 1 were exposed to acceptable range of sound pressure level while the rest suffers from unacceptable noise levels. Among 10 land uses of Zone 2 (commercial-residential), 2.19% were within the acceptable range and 8.78% were in unacceptable range. None of the three land uses in Zone 3 were within the acceptable range. Accordingly, the Zone 3 was recognized to be in a critical condition. In other words, about 88.99% of the total and uses in the Zone 3 is exposed to unaccepted able noise level. Comparing with the standard equivalent sound pressure level of 55 dB(A) presented, the residential land use with the equivalent sound pressure level of 19.27 dB(A) accounted for the highest standard deviation. This is due to proximity of most of the residential areas to the crowded highways and streets.

  10. A bivalent Neisseria meningitidis recombinant lipidated factor H binding protein vaccine in young adults: results of a randomised, controlled, dose-escalation phase 1 trial.

    PubMed

    Richmond, P C; Nissen, M D; Marshall, H S; Lambert, S B; Roberton, D; Gruber, W C; Jones, T R; Arora, A

    2012-09-21

    Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of meningitis and septicaemia, but a broadly-protective vaccine against endemic serogroup B disease is not licensed and available. The conserved, outer-membrane lipoprotein factor H binding protein (fHBP, also known as LP2086) is expressed as one of two subfamily variants in virtually all meningococci. This study investigated the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a recombinant-expressed bivalent fHBP (r-fHBP) vaccine in healthy adults. Participants (N=103) aged 18-25 years were recruited into three ascending dose level cohorts of 20, 60, and 200μg of a bivalent r-fHBP vaccine formulation and randomised to receive vaccine or placebo at 0, 1, and 6 months. The vaccine was well tolerated. Geometric mean titres (GMTs) for r-fHBP subfamily-specific IgG antibodies increased 19-168-fold from pre-vaccination to post-dose 2 in a dose level-dependent manner. In addition, robust serum bactericidal assay using human complement (hSBA) responses for strains expressing both homologous and heterologous fHBP variants were observed. After three vaccinations, 16-52% of the placebo group and 47-90%, 75-100%, and 88-100%, of the 20, 60, and 200μg dose levels, respectively, had seroprotective (≥ 1:4) hSBA titres against six serogroup B strains. The bivalent r-fHBP vaccine was well tolerated and induced robust bactericidal activity against six diverse serogroup B strains in young adults at the 60 and 200μg dose levels. PMID:22871351

  11. Association of Lipid Accumulation Product with Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Namazi Shabestari, Alireza; Asadi, Mojgan; Jouyandeh, Zahra; Qorbani, Mostafa; Kelishadi, Roya

    2016-06-01

    The lipid accumulation product is a novel, safe and inexpensive index of central lipid over accumulation based on waist circumference and fasting concentration of circulating triglycerides. This study was designed to investigate the ability of lipid accumulation product to predict Cardio-metabolic risk factors in postmenopausal women. In this Cross-sectional study, 264 postmenopausal women by using convenience sampling method were selected from menopause clinic in Tehran. Cardio-metabolic risk factors were measured, and lipid accumulation product (waist-58×triglycerides [nmol/L]) was calculated. Optimal cut-off point of lipid accumulation product for predicting metabolic syndrome was estimated by ROC (Receiver-operating characteristic) curve analysis. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 41.2% of subjects. Optimal cut-off point of lipid accumulation product for predicting metabolic syndrome was 47.63 (sensitivity:75%; specificity:77.9%). High lipid accumulation product increases risk of all Cardio-metabolic risk factors except overweight, high Total Cholesterol, high Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and high Fasting Blood Sugar in postmenopausal women. Our findings show that lipid accumulation product is associated with metabolic syndrome and some Cardio-metabolic risk factors Also lipid accumulation product may have been a useful tool for predicting cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome risk in postmenopausal women. PMID:27306343

  12. Protective effect of royal jelly on the sperm parameters and testosterone level and lipid peroxidation in adult mice treated with oxymetholone

    PubMed Central

    Zahmatkesh, Ensieh; Najafi, Gholamreza; Nejati, Vahid; Heidari, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Objectives : The aim of the present study was to evaluate protective effect of royal jelly on sperm parameters, testosterone level, and malondialdehyde (MDA) production in mice. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two adult male NMRI mice weighing 30±2 g were used. All the animals were divided into 4 groups. Control group: received saline 0.1 ml/mouse/day orally for 30 days. Royal jelly group (RJ): received royal jelly at dose of 100 mg/kg daily for 30 days orally. Oxymetholone group: the received Oxymetholone (OX) at dose of 5 mg/kg daily for 30 days orally. Royal jelly+Oxymetholone group: received royal jelly at dose of 100 mg/kg/day orally concomitant with OX administration. Sperm count, sperm motility, viability, maturity, and DNA integrity were analyzed. Furthermore, serum testosterone and MDA concentrations were determined. Results: In Oxymetholone group, sperm count, motility as well as testosterone concentration reduced significantly (p<0.05), while significant (p<0.05) increases in immature sperm, sperm with DNA damaged, and MDA concentration were announced in Oxymetholone group in comparison with control group and Royal jelly+Oxymetholone group. RJ caused partially amelioration in all of the above- mentioned parameters in Royal Jelly+Oxymetholone group. Conclusion: In conclusion, RJ may be used in combination with OX to improve OX-induced oxidative stress and male infertility. PMID:25050300

  13. Voluntary running in young adult mice reduces anxiety-like behavior and increases the accumulation of bioactive lipids in the cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Santos-Soto, Iván J; Chorna, Nataliya; Carballeira, Néstor M; Vélez-Bartolomei, José G; Méndez-Merced, Ana T; Chornyy, Anatoliy P; Peña de Ortiz, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Combinatorial therapies using voluntary exercise and diet supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids have synergistic effects benefiting brain function and behavior. Here, we assessed the effects of voluntary exercise on anxiety-like behavior and on total FA accumulation within three brain regions: cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of running versus sedentary young adult male C57/BL6J mice. The running group was subjected to one month of voluntary exercise in their home cages, while the sedentary group was kept in their home cages without access to a running wheel. Elevated plus maze (EPM), several behavioral postures and two risk assessment behaviors (RABs) were then measured in both animal groups followed immediately by blood samplings for assessment of corticosterone levels. Brains were then dissected for non-targeted lipidomic analysis of selected brain regions using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Results showed that mice in the running group, when examined in the EPM, displayed significantly lower anxiety-like behavior, higher exploratory and risky behaviors, compared to sedentary mice. Notably, we found no differences in blood corticosterone levels between the two groups, suggesting that the different EPM and RAB behaviors were not related to reduced physiological stress in the running mice. Lipidomics analysis revealed a region-specific cortical decrease of the saturated FA: palmitate (C16:0) and a concomitant increase of polyunsaturated FA, arachidonic acid (AA, omega 6-C20: 4) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, omega 3-C22: 6), in running mice compared to sedentary controls. Finally, we found that running mice, as opposed to sedentary animals, showed significantly enhanced cortical expression of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) protein, a signaling molecule required in the production of both AA and DHA. In summary, our data support the anxiolytic effects of exercise and provide insights into the molecular processes modulated by

  14. Life cycle assessment (LCA) of solid waste management strategies in Tehran: landfill and composting plus landfill.

    PubMed

    Abduli, M A; Naghib, Abolghasem; Yonesi, Mansoor; Akbari, Ali

    2011-07-01

    As circumstances of operating and maintenance activities for landfilling and composting in Tehran metropolis differ from those of cities in developed countries, it was concluded to have an environmental impact comparison between the current solid waste management (MSW) strategies: (1) landfill, and (2) composting plus landfill. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to compare these scenarios for MSW in Tehran, Iran. The Eco-Indicator 99 is applied as an impact assessment method considering surplus energy, climate change, acidification, respiratory effect, carcinogenesis, ecotoxicity and ozone layer depletion points of aspects. One ton of municipal solid waste of Tehran was selected as the functional unit. According to the comparisons, the composting plus landfill scenario causes less damage to human health in comparison to landfill scenario. However, its damages to both mineral and fossil resources as well as ecosystem quality are higher than the landfill scenario. Thus, the composting plus landfill scenario had a higher environmental impact than landfill scenario. However, an integrated waste management will ultimately be the most efficient approach in terms of both environmental and economic benefits. In this paper, a cost evaluation shows that the unit cost per ton of waste for the scenarios is 15.28 and 26.40 US$, respectively. Results show landfill scenario as the preferable option both in environmental and economic aspects for Tehran in the current situation. PMID:20924666

  15. The limits of scientific planning: Doxiadis and the Tehran Action Plan.

    PubMed

    Madanipour, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Tehran after the Second World War experienced a modernization drive and rapid population growth. In 1972, the Greek planner, Constantinos Doxiadis, who had already undertaken major housing and planning projects in Iran, was invited to prepare an action plan for the city, to guide the future investment for easing the city's problems. Doxiadis saw cities as nightmares, but advocated that a holistic scientific analysis and a naturalist approach to urban growth management could address their problems. In applying his ideas to Tehran, however, the limits of his ideas of scientific planning became evident, not only through contextual pressures, such as lack of time and data, but also through the planning consultant's approach, in which commercial considerations and the application of readymade solutions could shape the outcome. Rather than working with the context, Doxiadis followed the modernist tenet of breaking with the past, proposing the creation of West Tehran, an alternative to the city where all future growth should take place on a utopian basis. The radical nature of his proposals, his death, and a turbulent revolution aborted the impact of his action plan on Tehran, while faith in modernist scientific planning was widely being abandoned. PMID:20857604

  16. Art Instructor's Attitude towards the Art Curriculum for Undergraduate Degree in Tehran Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedayat, Mina; Goodarzi, Mostafa; Kahn, Sabzali Musa; bin Ramli, Sharulnizam

    2013-01-01

    The present research aims to investigate lecturer's feedback over the art curriculum in Tehran, the capital of Iran, and introduce the applicability of Discipline-Based Art Education (DBAE), as a new way of teaching art, and its implication of art instruction in studio-based fields of study for undergraduate degree. This study is carried out…

  17. Training Needs Assessment of Technical Skills in Managers of Tehran Electricity Distribution Company

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koohi, Amir Hasan; Ghandali, Fatemeh; Dehghan, Hasan; Ghandali, Najme

    2016-01-01

    Current dissertation has been conducted in order to investigate and detect training needs of the mangers (top and middle) in Tehran Electricity Distribution Company. Research method is applied kind based on its purpose. Due to data collection method, this query is descriptive-survey type. Statistical population in this study is all of managers in…

  18. Safety and Security of Older Persons in Tehran, Iran: A Sociological Appraisal of Elder Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheykhi, Mohammad Taghi

    2010-01-01

    The article explores and evaluates the quality of life, safety, and security of elderly people in Tehran City in Iran. In that, different dimensions of material and social well-being, and abuse of people of the age 65 and above, are assessed. Besides the human rights, the dignity, and the gradual decline of the elderly's social security are…

  19. Exposure to Domestic Violence between Parents: A Perspective from Tehran, Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vameghi, Meroe; Feizzadeh, Ali; Mirabzadeh, Arash; Feizzadeh, Golnaz

    2010-01-01

    Women may bear the brunt of domestic violence, but children are also inflicted by the consequences of violence between their parents. We sought to evaluate the lifetime prevalence of exposure to physical violence between parents among some senior secondary school students in Tehran. The study was conducted on senior secondary school students in…

  20. A Feasibility Study of Using ICT in Iranian Secondary Schools: The Case of Tehran Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fathi Vajargah, Kourosh; Saadattlab, Ayat

    2014-01-01

    This research presents the results of a feasibility assessment on implementing ICT in Tehran high schools. Mixed method research (both qualitative and quantitative) was employed and due to the nature of research, data collection included two stages: library and field study. Using the cluster method with 362 subjects, data was collected using a…

  1. From Clouds of Chemical Warfare to Blue Skies of Peace: The Tehran Peace Museum, Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Elizabeth; Khateri, Shahriar

    2015-01-01

    Despite the limited number of peace museums around the world, there exists an essential role for existing peace museums to promote a culture of peace and peace education. The purpose of this article was to introduce the origins, rationale, scope and work of the Tehran Peace Museum in Iran. The concept of the museum is to facilitate peace education…

  2. Universal Design and Social Sustainability in the City: The Case Study of Tehran Iran.

    PubMed

    Eslami, Lida; Mahmoudi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Following the proposal of Universal Design in 1974, a public society was founded in Iran in 1981, in order to aid the disabled victims of the Iran-Iraq war. Official authorities have also made legislation on this topic. During the last three decades many efforts have been made to apply this concept in public spaces. Unfortunately these have not succeeded. It means despite the existence of inherent rules and regulations and the general will to apply the principles of Universal Design in Tehran, urban spaces are still an improper environment for the independent presence and movement of people with disabilities. This problem is considered a serious threat for social sustainability in Tehran. The main goal of this research is finding solutions for increasing social interaction and greater participation of people with disabilities in public spaces by applying Universal Design. The research is seeking to answer these questions: What is causing inefficiency in the regulation of Universal Design in Tehran? Why is social participation by people with disabilities limited in Tehran? Which factors are contributing to Universal Design in Tehran? The research is based on applied theory, field research methods and a mixed qualitative-quantitative approach. In addition, and the results include both empirical and functional solutions. The consequences show that many of problems are rooted in cultural issues. The people must attend to disability as a public concern which can involve everybody. They must comprehend that all the members of the society, regardless of their physical condition, have the right to use public facilities independently. The second problem is related to lack of any integrated approach to applying Universal Design. This research proposes some solutions such as preparation a Universal Design master plan, an integrated approach for implementation project in all organizations, and public education for improving citizens' knowledge about Universal Design. PMID

  3. Status of human dignity of adult patients admitted to hospitals of Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Borhani, Fariba; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Moosavi, Soolmaz

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining dignity and respect is among patients’ most fundamental rights. The importance of patient dignity, the status quo, patients’ needs, and a shortage of survey studies in this area were the underlying incentives for conducting this study. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study in which data were collected through Patient Dignity Inventory (PDI). The questionnaire was completed by 280 inpatients in 2012 to determine their perspectives on their personal state of human dignity. In this study, the mean score of patients’ dignity was 1.89 out of 5 (SD = 0.81). Results indicated a significant relationship between type of hospital and the distress caused by disease symptoms, peace of mind, and social support (P < 0.05). There were also relationship between type of ward and dependency (P < 0.05), type of disease and dependency (P < 0.05), gender and social support (P < 0.05), household size and peace of mind (P < 0.05). The person’s satisfaction with household income showed significant relationship with symptom distress, dependency and existential distress (P < 0.05). Results showed a significant inverse correlation between age and patient dignity (P = 0.005, r = - 0.166). However, the relationship between employment status, health insurance, education level and the above factors were insignificant. Studies indicate that there is a relationship between patients’ dignity and mental distress, and therefore policy makers and health services officials should establish and implement plans to maintain and enhance patients’ dignity in hospitals. Educating the health team, particularly the nurses can be very effective in maintaining patients’ dignity and respect. PMID:26587200

  4. Status of human dignity of adult patients admitted to hospitals of Tehran.

    PubMed

    Borhani, Fariba; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Moosavi, Soolmaz

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining dignity and respect is among patients' most fundamental rights. The importance of patient dignity, the status quo, patients' needs, and a shortage of survey studies in this area were the underlying incentives for conducting this study. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study in which data were collected through Patient Dignity Inventory (PDI). The questionnaire was completed by 280 inpatients in 2012 to determine their perspectives on their personal state of human dignity. In this study, the mean score of patients' dignity was 1.89 out of 5 (SD = 0.81). Results indicated a significant relationship between type of hospital and the distress caused by disease symptoms, peace of mind, and social support (P < 0.05). There were also relationship between type of ward and dependency (P < 0.05), type of disease and dependency (P < 0.05), gender and social support (P < 0.05), household size and peace of mind (P < 0.05). The person's satisfaction with household income showed significant relationship with symptom distress, dependency and existential distress (P < 0.05). Results showed a significant inverse correlation between age and patient dignity (P = 0.005, r = - 0.166). However, the relationship between employment status, health insurance, education level and the above factors were insignificant. Studies indicate that there is a relationship between patients' dignity and mental distress, and therefore policy makers and health services officials should establish and implement plans to maintain and enhance patients' dignity in hospitals. Educating the health team, particularly the nurses can be very effective in maintaining patients' dignity and respect. PMID:26587200

  5. Concentration and characterization of airborne particles in Tehran's subway system.

    PubMed

    Kamani, Hosein; Hoseini, Mohammad; Seyedsalehi, Mahdi; Mahdavi, Yousef; Jaafari, Jalil; Safari, Gholam Hosein

    2014-06-01

    Particulate matter is an important air pollutant, especially in closed environments like underground subway stations. In this study, a total of 13 elements were determined from PM10 and PM2.5 samples collected at two subway stations (Imam Khomeini and Sadeghiye) in Tehran's subway system. Sampling was conducted in April to August 2011 to measure PM concentrations in platform and adjacent outdoor air of the stations. In the Imam Khomeini station, the average concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were 94.4 ± 26.3 and 52.3 ± 16.5 μg m(-3) in the platform and 81.8 ± 22.2 and 35 ± 17.6 μg m(-3) in the outdoor air, respectively. In the Sadeghiye station, mean concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were 87.6 ± 23 and 41.3 ± 20.4 μg m(-3) in the platform and 73.9 ± 17.3 and 30 ± 15 μg m(-3), in the outdoor air, respectively. The relative contribution of elemental components in each particle fraction were accounted for 43% (PM10) and 47.7% (PM2.5) in platform of Imam Khomeini station and 15.9% (PM10) and 18.5% (PM2.5) in the outdoor air of this station. Also, at the Sadeghiye station, each fraction accounted for 31.6% (PM10) and 39.8% (PM2.5) in platform and was 11.7% (PM10) and 14.3% (PM2.5) in the outdoor. At the Imam Khomeini station, Fe was the predominant element to represent 32.4 and 36 % of the total mass of PM10 and PM2.5 in the platform and 11.5 and 13.3% in the outdoor, respectively. At the Sadeghiye station, this element represented 22.7 and 29.8% of total mass of PM10 and PM2.5 in the platform and 8.7 and 10.5% in the outdoor air, respectively. Other major crustal elements were 5.8% (PM10) and 5.3% (PM2.5) in the Imam Khomeini station platform and 2.3 and 2.4% in the outdoor air, respectively. The proportion of other minor elements was significantly lower, actually less than 7% in total samples, and V was the minor concentration in total mass of PM10 and PM2.5 in both platform stations. PMID:24573466

  6. Effects on Anthropometry and Appetite of Vitamins and Minerals Given in Lipid Nutritional Supplements for Malnourished HIV-Infected Adults Referred for Antiretroviral Therapy: Results From the NUSTART Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Andrea M.; Woodd, Susannah; PrayGod, George; Chisenga, Molly; Siame, Joshua; Koethe, John R.; Heimburger, Douglas C.; Kelly, Paul; Friis, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Background: The evidence base for effects of nutritional interventions for malnourished HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) is limited and inconclusive. Objective: We hypothesized that both vitamin and mineral deficiencies and poor appetite limit weight gain in malnourished patients starting ART and that vitamin and mineral supplementation would improve appetite and permit nutritional recovery. Design: The randomized controlled Nutritional Support for Africans Starting Antiretroviral Therapy trial was conducted in Mwanza, Tanzania, and Lusaka, Zambia. ART-naive adults referred for ART and with body mass index <18.5 kg/m2 received lipid-based nutritional supplements either without (LNS) or with added vitamins and minerals (LNS-VM), beginning before ART initiation. Participants were given 30 g/d LNS from recruitment until 2 weeks after starting ART and 250 g/d from weeks 2 to 6 of ART. Results: Of 1815 patients recruited, 365 (20%) died during the study and 813 (45%) provided data at 12 weeks. Controlling for baseline values, anthropometric measures were consistently higher at 12-week ART in the LNS-VM than in the LNS group but statistically significant only for calf and mid-upper arm circumferences and triceps skinfold. Appetite did not differ between groups. Using piecewise mixed-effects quadratic models including all patients and time points, the main effects of LNS-VM were seen after starting ART and were significant for weight, body mass index, and mid-upper arm circumference. Conclusions: Provision of high levels of vitamins and minerals to patients referred for ART, delivered with substantial macronutrients, increased nutritional recovery but did not seem to act through treatment group differences in appetite. PMID:25501607

  7. Minimal impact of an iron-fortified lipid-based nutrient supplement on Hb and iron status: a randomised controlled trial in malnourished HIV-positive African adults starting antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    James, Philip; Friis, Henrik; Woodd, Susannah; Rehman, Andrea M; PrayGod, George; Kelly, Paul; Koethe, John R; Filteau, Suzanne

    2015-08-14

    Anaemia, redistribution of Fe, malnutrition and heightened systemic inflammation during HIV infection confer an increased risk of morbidity and mortality in HIV patients. We analysed information on Fe status and inflammation from a randomised, double blind, controlled phase-III clinical trial in Lusaka, Zambia and Mwanza, Tanzania. Malnourished patients (n 1815) were recruited at referral to antiretroviral therapy (ART) into a two-stage nutritional rehabilitation programme, randomised to receive a lipid-based nutrient supplement with or without added micronutrients. Fe was included in the intervention arm during the second stage, given from 2 to 6 weeks post-ART. Hb, serum C-reactive protein (CRP), serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) were measured at recruitment and 6 weeks post-ART. Multivariable linear regression models were used to assess the impact of the intervention, and the effect of reducing inflammation from recruitment to week 6 on Hb and Fe status. There was no effect of the intervention on Hb, serum ferritin, sTfR or serum CRP. A one-log decrease of serum CRP from recruitment to week 6 was associated with a 1.81 g/l increase in Hb (95% CI 0.85, 2.76; P< 0.001), and a 0.11 log decrease in serum ferritin (95% CI - 0.22, 0.03; P= 0.012) from recruitment to week 6. There was no association between the change in serum CRP and the change in sTfR over the same time period (P= 0.78). In malnourished, HIV-infected adults receiving dietary Fe, a reduction in inflammation in the early ART treatment period appears to be a precondition for recovery from anaemia. PMID:26179616

  8. Lipid antigens in immunity

    PubMed Central

    Dowds, C. Marie; Kornell, Sabin-Christin

    2014-01-01

    Lipids are not only a central part of human metabolism but also play diverse and critical roles in the immune system. As such, they can act as ligands of lipid-activated nuclear receptors, control inflammatory signaling through bioactive lipids such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes, lipoxins, resolvins, and protectins, and modulate immunity as intracellular phospholipid- or sphingolipid-derived signaling mediators. In addition, lipids can serve as antigens and regulate immunity through the activation of lipid-reactive T cells, which is the topic of this review. We will provide an overview of the mechanisms of lipid antigen presentation, the biology of lipid-reactive T cells, and their contribution to immunity. PMID:23999493

  9. Lipid14: The Amber Lipid Force Field.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Callum J; Madej, Benjamin D; Skjevik, Age A; Betz, Robin M; Teigen, Knut; Gould, Ian R; Walker, Ross C

    2014-02-11

    The AMBER lipid force field has been updated to create Lipid14, allowing tensionless simulation of a number of lipid types with the AMBER MD package. The modular nature of this force field allows numerous combinations of head and tail groups to create different lipid types, enabling the easy insertion of new lipid species. The Lennard-Jones and torsion parameters of both the head and tail groups have been revised and updated partial charges calculated. The force field has been validated by simulating bilayers of six different lipid types for a total of 0.5 μs each without applying a surface tension; with favorable comparison to experiment for properties such as area per lipid, volume per lipid, bilayer thickness, NMR order parameters, scattering data, and lipid lateral diffusion. As the derivation of this force field is consistent with the AMBER development philosophy, Lipid14 is compatible with the AMBER protein, nucleic acid, carbohydrate, and small molecule force fields. PMID:24803855

  10. Seismic vulnerability assessment of school buildings in Tehran city based on AHP and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panahi, M.; Rezaie, F.; Meshkani, S. A.

    2013-09-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the seismic vulnerability of school buildings in Tehran city based on analytical hierarchical process (AHP) and geographical information systems (GIS). Therefore, to this end, the peak ground acceleration, slope and soil liquefaction layers were used for preparation geotechnical map. Also, the construction materials of structures, year of construction, their quality and seismic resonance coefficient layers were defined as major affecting factors in structural vulnerability of schools. Then, the AHP method was applied to assess the priority rank and weight of criteria (layers) and alternatives (classes) of each criterion through pair wise comparison in all levels. Finally, geotechnical and structural spatial layers were overlaid to prepare the seismic vulnerability map of school buildings in Tehran city. The results indicated that only in 72 schools (about 3%) out of 2125 schools in the study area, the destruction rate is very high and therefore their reconstruction should be considered.

  11. Seismic vulnerability assessment of school buildings in Tehran city based on AHP and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panahi, M.; Rezaie, F.; Meshkani, S. A.

    2014-04-01

    The objective of the current study is to evaluate the seismic vulnerability of school buildings in Tehran city based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and geographical information system (GIS). To this end, the peak ground acceleration, slope, and soil liquefaction layers were utilized for developing a geotechnical map. Also, the construction materials of structures, age of construction, the quality, and the seismic resonance coefficient layers were defined as major factors affecting the structural vulnerability of school buildings. Then, the AHP method was applied to assess the priority rank and weight of criteria (layers) and alternatives (classes) of each criterion via pairwise comparison in all levels. Finally, the geotechnical and structural spatial layers were overlaid to develop the seismic vulnerability map of school buildings in Tehran. The results indicated that only in 72 (about 3%) out of 2125 school buildings of the study area will the destruction rate be very high and therefore their reconstruction should seriously be considered.

  12. Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol in Foods for Human Consumption from Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Yazdanpanah, Hassan; Shafaati, Alireza; Foroutan, Seyed Mohsen; Zarghi, Afshin; Aboul-fathi, Farshid; Khoddam, Arash; Shaki, Fatemeh; Nazari, Firoozeh

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON) in retail foods in Tehran (Iran) was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography technique and immunoaffinity column as the clean-up step. A method was validated for analysis of DON in rice, bread, puffed corn snack and wheat flour. The average recoveries and precision (RSD) for DON in different foods ranged 84.2-93.1% and 2.9-12.0%, respectively. A survey of DON was performed on the 72 samples of rice, bread, puffed corn snack, and wheat flour collected from Tehran retail market. The data showed that 10 samples (13.9%) out of 72 samples were contaminated with DON with the maximum level of 368.7 ng/g. The samples had contamination level lower than the maximum tolerated level of DON in foods in Iran. The total intake of DON was under the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake set for DON by the JECFA. PMID:24711833

  13. Increased Isolation and Characterization of Shigella sonnei Obtained from Hospitalized Children in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ranjbar, Reza; Dallal, Mohammad M. Soltan; Talebi, Malihe; Pourshafie, Mohammad R.

    2008-01-01

    Shigella flexneri has been the most frequent cause of shigellosis in children in Iran. To evaluate the changes in frequency of serogroups, 302 Shigella species were isolated in 2003 from hospitalized children, aged less than 12 years, with acute diarrhoea in Tehran, Iran. The number of collected S. sonnei, S. flexneri, S. boydii, and S. dysenteriae isolates was 178 (58.9%), 110 (37.4%), 10 (3.3%), and 4 (1.3%) respectively. Most (94%) S. sonnei isolates were resistant to co-trimoxazole. They were, however, relatively or completely sensitive to 15 commonly-used antibiotics. The extracted plasmids showed 12 different profiles with two closely-related patterns constituting 70% of the total isolates. Ribotyping, using PvuII, HindIII or SalI restriction enzymes, generated a single pattern for all S. sonnei isolates. Data suggest that S. sonnei has become the predominant serogroup in children in the hospitals of Tehran. PMID:19069621

  14. Occurrence of deoxynivalenol in foods for human consumption from tehran, iran.

    PubMed

    Yazdanpanah, Hassan; Shafaati, Alireza; Foroutan, Seyed Mohsen; Zarghi, Afshin; Aboul-Fathi, Farshid; Khoddam, Arash; Shaki, Fatemeh; Nazari, Firoozeh

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON) in retail foods in Tehran (Iran) was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography technique and immunoaffinity column as the clean-up step. A method was validated for analysis of DON in rice, bread, puffed corn snack and wheat flour. The average recoveries and precision (RSD) for DON in different foods ranged 84.2-93.1% and 2.9-12.0%, respectively. A survey of DON was performed on the 72 samples of rice, bread, puffed corn snack, and wheat flour collected from Tehran retail market. The data showed that 10 samples (13.9%) out of 72 samples were contaminated with DON with the maximum level of 368.7 ng/g. The samples had contamination level lower than the maximum tolerated level of DON in foods in Iran. The total intake of DON was under the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake set for DON by the JECFA. PMID:24711833

  15. Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease Study in Tehran: Research Design and Lung Spirometry Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, Hooman; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Emami, Habib; Ghanei, Mostafa; Buist, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) are planned to rank fifth in burden of disease and third with respect to mortality by 2020. Carrying out research regarding different aspects of COPD is mentioned as important health priorities by academic institutions and governments. The burden of lung disease (BOLD) Initiative was designed a decade ago to develop robust models that can be used to estimate the prevalence and current and future economic burden of COPD. The goal of the present project is to describe the prevalence and determining the causes and risk factors of COPD in the population of Tehran city. Methods: This cross-sectional study follows a stratified cluster sampling strategy with proportional allocation within strata. The target population is all noninstitutionalized inhabitants, aged 18-40 in one group and over 40 in another, who inhabit in Tehran city. The stratification of the sample according to the 22 municipal districts of Tehran is incorporated in the sampling process. Proportional to the number of households in the 22 districts, the appropriate number of clusters is weighted according to each district. For each cluster, a team of three members approaches the index household, which is specified through the aforementioned random selection of clusters, and continues the enumeration in 10 neighbor households in a systematic manner. Results: As a study protocol, there are no specific results to present; our purpose is to share our design with the scientific body. Conclusions: We expect that findings from the BOLD study in Tehran will show the status of COPD and its causes in the community. PMID:25538840

  16. Evaluating citizen attitudes and participation in solid waste management in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Nasrabadi, Touraj; Hoveidi, Hassan; Bidhendi, Gholamreza Nabi; Yavari, Ahmad Reza; Mohammadnejad, Shahin

    2008-12-01

    Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the environmental impact of solid waste in Iran. Consequently, solid waste management has become a remarkably important issue. Solid waste comprises a wide range of materials and comes from a variety of sources. Having a population of about 10 million (about 1/7 of Iran's total population), Tehran is among the most populated capitals in the world. With 22 different districts, this city generates approximately 7,000 metric tons of municipal waste per day that culminates in a total of 2.5 million tons annually. If no reduction strategy on the waste stream is implemented, this huge amount of waste will be buried in Kahrizak (the exclusive landfill site of Tehran). Land and underground water resource degradation in the vicinity of the landfill site-as well as disease outbreaks in the area surrounding the site may be considered alarming warnings for further catastrophic consequences of uncontrolled waste dumping. In this study, the composition of Tehran's solid wastes is analyzed. In order to physically analyze waste generated, waste sampling was carried out by trained workers of the Tehran organization of waste recycling and compost in 2004 for 10 successive days in the middle of each of four seasons. As a result of the study, some practical recommendations are made to reduce the waste stream load directed toward the land. Furthermore, this study evaluated people's concern about the fate of the waste they generate. According to the data collected in a survey, citizens' participation is not remarkably high, but even the modest cooperation recorded may cause a great benefit if extrapolated to the whole city. By virtue of sharp decreases in the cost of total waste collection and transport, as well as the benefits of land and underground water resource preservation, separation of wastes at their source by individual households makes economic sense. PMID:19115721

  17. Hospital-Based Incidence of Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    SHARIF-ALHOSEINI, Mahdi; RAHIMI-MOVAGHAR, Vafa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The goal of this study was to describe the hospital-based incidence of traumatic spinal cord injury in Tehran, Iran. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the hospital records of traumatic spinal cord injury patients, admitted between March 2010 and July 2011 in 61/68 hospitals of Tehran. Results Overall, 138 cases of traumatic spinal cord injury were identified. The majority of patients were male (84.8%). The mean age was 33.2 ± 14.3 years. 54.3% patients were residing in Tehran and the others were referred from other cities. The mean annual incidence of hospitalized traumatic spinal cord injury patients of Tehran was 10.5/1,000,000/year (95% confidence interval: 9-12). Fall was the leading cause of injury (45.7%), followed by road traffic crash (40.6%). The most common cause of tetraplegia (cervical traumatic spinal cord injury) was road traffic crash. The duration of hospital stay for tetraplegia and paraplegia (thoracic and lumbar traumatic spinal cord injury) was 22.7±23.7 and 12.5±7.5, respectively (P<0.001). Early surgery (surgical decompression within 24 h) was done for 19% of the patients. The median day of hospitalization for early and late surgery was 7.5 and 12, respectively (P=0.044). Conclusion Preventing traumatic spinal cord injury should focus on males, age group of 21-30 years, falls and road traffic crash. More studies are suggested to evaluate the incidence of non-hospitalized traumatic spinal cord injury patients. PMID:25988093

  18. Personal Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Newsagents in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    REZAEI, Fatemeh; KAKOOEI, Hossein; AHMADKHANIHA, Reza; AZAM, Kamal; OMIDI, Leila; SHAHTAHERI, Seyed Jamaleddin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vehicle exhaust is a major source of exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in the urban atmosphere. Newsagents usually work close to heavy traffic flow. The purpose of this study was to assess the breathing zone exposure of newsagents to PAHs found in the urban atmosphere of Tehran City during summer and autumn seasons and comparing the levels of exposure in both seasons. Methods: Fifteen non-smoking newsagents were randomly selected from north, south, east, west, and center of Tehran. Particle and gas phases PAHs were collected on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filter and XAD-2 adsorbent. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to determine PAHs concentrations in newsagent’s breathing zone samples. Results: The highest and lowest values of exposures during summer and autumn in all sampling stations were recorded for benzo[a]anthracene and benzo[ghi]perylene, respectively. Mann-Whitney test results showed that seasonal variation had significant influence on concentrations of all studied PAHs (P= 0.001) except benzo[ghi]perylene (P= 0.089). An increase in concentrations of PAHs was observed in autumn. Conclusion: The workers of the newsstands in the south area of Tehran City were experiencing higher levels of exposures to PAHs. Newsagents’ breathing zone exposures to PAHs during the cold period were two to three folds higher than those during the warm period were. The levels of exposures in all sampling stations were below the OSHA and NIOSH’s recommended exposure limits. PMID:26284208

  19. Comparison of GPS precipitable water vapor and meteorological parameters during rainfalls in Tehran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi, Mohammad Ali; Sam Khaniani, Ali; Joghataei, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the sensing of water vapor using the global positioning system (GPS) was investigated in Tehran. Water vapor mean temperature T m is a key parameter in conversion of GPS zenith wet delay to precipitable water vapor (PWV). Then, by using 8 years of radiosonde and surface temperature data, we achieved a new site-specific T m model in Tehran. After the comparison of Bevis et al. (J Geophys Res 97(D14):15787-15801, 1992) and the site-specific models, a mean bias error of -1.3 K was found for Bevis model, while this is less than 0.1 K for the new local model. Therefore, PWV time series were generated for the ground-based GPS site in Tehran from the beginning of 2005 to the end of 2013. Comparing the GPS with the radiosonde PWV, it was shown that the GPS can be used to measure the PWV with high precision. The root mean square error for differences between the GPS and radiosonde was derived as 1.5 mm. The PWV has significant relationship with precipitation in our case study. The thresholds of the relative humidity anomaly with different PWV anomaly related to rainfall occurrences are also considered in this research. The analyses show that use of PWV anomaly condition together with surface meteorological parameters reduces the number of false rainfall recognitions significantly.

  20. Integrated Estimation of Seismic Physical Vulnerability of Tehran Using Rule Based Granular Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikhian, H.; Delavar, M. R.; Stein, A.

    2015-08-01

    Tehran, the capital of Iran, is surrounded by the North Tehran fault, the Mosha fault and the Rey fault. This exposes the city to possibly huge earthquakes followed by dramatic human loss and physical damage, in particular as it contains a large number of non-standard constructions and aged buildings. Estimation of the likely consequences of an earthquake facilitates mitigation of these losses. Mitigation of the earthquake fatalities may be achieved by promoting awareness of earthquake vulnerability and implementation of seismic vulnerability reduction measures. In this research, granular computing using generality and absolute support for rule extraction is applied. It uses coverage and entropy for rule prioritization. These rules are combined to form a granule tree that shows the order and relation of the extracted rules. In this way the seismic physical vulnerability is assessed, integrating the effects of the three major known faults. Effective parameters considered in the physical seismic vulnerability assessment are slope, seismic intensity, height and age of the buildings. Experts were asked to predict seismic vulnerability for 100 randomly selected samples among more than 3000 statistical units in Tehran. The integrated experts' point of views serve as input into granular computing. Non-redundant covering rules preserve the consistency in the model, which resulted in 84% accuracy in the seismic vulnerability assessment based on the validation of the predicted test data against expected vulnerability degree. The study concluded that granular computing is a useful method to assess the effects of earthquakes in an earthquake prone area.

  1. The impact of emotional intelligence on managers’ performance: Evidence from hospitals located in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Gorgi, Hasan Abolghasem; Ahmadi, Ahmad; Shabaninejad, Hosein; Tahmasbi, Ali; Baratimarnani, Ahmad; Mehralian, Gholamhossein

    2015-01-01

    Context: Most of the studies show that emotional intelligence (EI) is an important factor for effective leadership and team performance in organizations. Aims: This research paper aims to provide an exploratory analysis of EI in the hospitals managers located in Tehran, and examine its relation to their performance. Settings and Design: The present research was an analytical and cross-sectional study. Setting of the study was hospitals located in Tehran, Iran. Subjects and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study from a matched sample of 120 managers and 360 subordinates in hospitals located in Tehran. Cyberia shrink EI measure was used for assessing the EI of the participants. Moreover, a management performance Questionnaire is specifically developed for the present study. The total of 480 questionnaires analyzed throughout Kolmogorov–Smirnov, Mann–Whitney, and Kruskal–Wallis tests in SPSS. Results: The findings suggested a poor EI among hospital managers. As for EI subscales, social skills and self-motivation were in the highest and lowest levels respectively. Moreover, the results indicated that EI increases with experience. The results also showed there is no significant relationship between the components of EI and the performance of hospital managers. Conclusions: Present research indicated that higher levels of EI did not necessarily lead to better performance in hospital managers. PMID:26430690

  2. Genetic and Morphological Diversity of the Genus Penicillium From Mazandaran and Tehran Provinces, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abastabar, Mahdi; Mirhendi, Hossein; Hedayati, Mohammad Taghi; Shokohi, Tahereh; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Mohammadi, Rasoul; Badali, Hamid; Moazeni, Maryam; Haghani, Iman; Ghojoghi, Aynaz; Akhtari, Javad

    2016-01-01

    Background: The genus Penicillium contains a large number of ubiquitous environmental taxa, of which some species are clinically important. Identification of Penicillium down to the species level is currently based on polyphasic criteria, including phenotypic features and genetic markers. Biodiversity of the genus Penicillium from Mazandaran and Tehran provinces has not been described. Objectives: The current paper focused on the environmental biodiversity of Penicillium isolates within some areas of Mazandaran and Tehran provinces, based on morphological traits and the molecular data from partial sequence of the β-tubulin (BT2) gene. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 strains were isolated from the environment and investigated using morphological tests and sequencing of BT2, in order to characterize the spectrum of the Penicillium species. Results: Sequence analysis of BT2 and morphological criteria of 20 strains representative of 10 species showed that Penicillium chrysogenum was the most prevalent species (n = 6), followed by P. polonicum (n = 3), P. glabrum (n = 2), P. palitans (n = 2), P. melanoconidium (n = 2), and other species, including P. expansum, P. canescense, P. griseofulvum, P. italicum, and P. raistrickii with one case each. Conclusions: It was shown that partial β-tubulin sequence, as a reliable genetic target, supported specific morphological criteria for identification of the Penicillium species. Like other assessments throughout the world, P. chrysogenum remains the most frequent environmental Penicillium species in Mazandaran and Tehran Provinces. PMID:27099684

  3. Temporal analysis of the incidence of meningitis in the Tehran metropolitan area, 1999-2005

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to describe the temporal determinants of meningitis incidence in the population living in the Tehran metropolis. Methods All cases of meningitis reported to health districts throughout the Tehran metropolis from 1999 to 2005 were abstracted from patient files. Referral cases (patients who did not reside in the Tehran metropolis) were excluded. For each year, sex- and age-specific incidences were estimated. Temporality and its determinants were analyzed using Poisson regression. Results Age-specific incidence is highest among males younger than 5 years of age at 10.2 cases per 100,000 population per year. The lowest incidence was among females aged 30 to 40 years at 0.72 cases per 100,000 population per year, with an overall male-to-female incidence ratio of 2.1. The temporal analysis showed seasonality, with a higher risk of meningitis in spring at a rate ratio of 1.31 with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.20 to 1.41 and in autumn (rate ratio = 1.16, 95% CI 1.06, 1.27). For periodicity, we found a peak of occurrence around the years 2000 and 2003. Conclusion The epidemiology of meningitis in Iran follows similar patterns of age, sex, and seasonality distribution as found in other countries and populations. PMID:20030846

  4. Shallow crustal structures of the Tehran basin in Iran resolved by ambient noise tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirzad, Taghi; Hossein Shomali, Z.

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we present an application of the ambient noise tomography (ANT) to study the near-surface geological structures of the metropolitan Tehran/Iran region. Short-period fundamental mode Rayleigh wave Green's functions were estimated using cross-correlations of the vertical component of the ambient noise from 2009 October to 2011 May using a variety of seismic sensors, for example, accelerometers and seismometers, deployed in the Tehran area. Standard common low frequency processing procedures were applied to the cross-correlations, and shorter time-windows comprising 10-min segments were used in the processing step to enhance the time resolution of the signal in the frequency range of interest (1-10 s). Stacking was also conducted using the rms of the estimated empirical Green's functions. Our results demonstrate that ambient seismic noise tomography is a viable technique at periods of 1-10 s in length, even when different sensor types are present. Analysis of the empirical Green's functions indicates that the dominant sources of ambient seismic noise originated from the same origin, and no significant seasonal or spatial variations in the ambient noise sources were observed. Multiple-filter analysis was used to extract the group velocities from the estimated empirical Green's functions, which were then inverted to image the spatially varying dispersion at periods of lengths between 1 and 7 s using tomographic inversion of the traveltimes estimated for each frequency. The resulting group velocity maps show high correlations with known geological and tectonic features of the study region. In general, most of the Tehran basin, with certain exceptions, could be clearly resolved with low group velocities, whereas the mountain ranges were found to be correlated with high group velocities. In the Tehran basin, for 2 and 3 s periods, the low-velocity zone deepens towards the south-southwest, which reflects thicker sediments in the southern part of the basin

  5. Doxorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Doxorubicin lipid complex is used to treat ovarian cancer that has not improved or that has worsened after treatment with other medications. Doxorubicin lipid complex is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma ( ...

  6. Daunorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Daunorubicin lipid complex is used to treat advanced Kaposi's sarcoma (a type of cancer that causes abnormal tissue to ... body) related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Daunorubicin lipid complex is in a class of medications called ...

  7. Vincristine Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Vincristine lipid complex is used to treat a certain type of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; a type of cancer ... least two different treatments with other medications. Vincristine lipid complex is in a class of medications called ...

  8. Disorders of Lipid Metabolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Metabolic Disorders Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders of Lipid Metabolism Fats (lipids) are ... carbohydrates and low in fats. Supplements of the amino acid carnitine may be helpful. The long-term outcome ...

  9. Daunorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Daunorubicin lipid complex is used to treat advanced Kaposi's sarcoma (a type of cancer that causes abnormal tissue to grow on ... related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Daunorubicin lipid complex is in a class of medications called anthracyclines. ...

  10. Cytarabine Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Cytarabine lipid complex is used to treat lymphomatous meningitis (a type of cancer in the covering of the spinal cord and brain). Cytarabine lipid complex is in a class of medications called antimetabolites. ...

  11. Irinotecan Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Irinotecan lipid complex is used in combination with other medications to treat pancreatic cancer that has spread to other parts of ... after treatment with other chemotherapy medications. Irinotecan lipid complex is in a class of antineoplastic medications called ...

  12. Doxorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Doxorubicin lipid complex is used to treat ovarian cancer that has not improved or that has worsened after treatment with other medications. Doxorubicin lipid complex is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  13. Vincristine Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Vincristine lipid complex is used to treat a certain type of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; a type of cancer of the ... two different treatments with other medications. Vincristine lipid complex is in a class of medications called vinca ...

  14. Irinotecan Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Irinotecan lipid complex is used in combination with other medications to treat pancreatic cancer that has spread ... has worsened after treatment with other chemotherapy medications. Irinotecan lipid complex is in a class of antineoplastic ...

  15. Lipid Exchange by Ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Drachmann, Nikolaj Düring; Olesen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Lipids play an important role in maintaining P-type ATPase structure and function, and often they are crucial for ATPase activity. When the P-type ATPases are in the membrane, they are surrounded by a mix of different lipid species with varying aliphatic chain lengths and saturation, and the complex interplay between the lipids and the P-type ATPases are still not well understood. We here describe a robust method to exchange the majority of the lipids surrounding the ATPase after solubilisation and/or purification with a target lipid of interest. The method is based on an ultracentrifugation step, where the protein sample is spun through a dense buffer containing large excess of the target lipid, which results in an approximately 80-85 % lipid exchange. The method is a very gently technique that maintains protein folding during the process, hence allowing further characterization of the protein in the presence of a target lipid of interest. PMID:26695050

  16. Fast Food Intake Increases the Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    Asghari, Golaleh; Yuzbashian, Emad; Mirmiran, Parvin; Mahmoodi, Behnaz; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between fast food consumption and incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components among children and adolescents over a 3.6 year follow-up. Dietary data of 424 healthy subjects, aged 6–18 years, was collected using a valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Cook et al criteria. Consumption of fast foods including hamburgers, sausages, bologna (beef), and fried potatoes was calculated and further categorized to quartiles. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the incidence of MetS and its components in each quartile of fast food intake. The incidence of MetS was 11.3% after a 3.6 year follow up. In the fully adjusted model, compared to the lowest quartile of fast food intake, individuals in the highest had odds ratios of 2.96 (95% CI: 1.02–8.63; P for trend<0.001), 2.82 (95% CI: 1.01–7.87; P for trend = 0.037), and 2.58 (95% CI: 1.01–6.61; P for trend = 0.009) for incidence of MetS, hypertriglyceridemia, and abdominal obesity, respectively. No significant association was found between fast food intakes and other components of MetS. Fast food consumption is associated with the incidence of MetS, abdominal obesity, and hypertriglyceridemia in Tehranian children and adolescents. PMID:26447855

  17. Fast Food Intake Increases the Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    PubMed

    Asghari, Golaleh; Yuzbashian, Emad; Mirmiran, Parvin; Mahmoodi, Behnaz; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between fast food consumption and incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components among children and adolescents over a 3.6 year follow-up. Dietary data of 424 healthy subjects, aged 6-18 years, was collected using a valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Cook et al criteria. Consumption of fast foods including hamburgers, sausages, bologna (beef), and fried potatoes was calculated and further categorized to quartiles. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the incidence of MetS and its components in each quartile of fast food intake. The incidence of MetS was 11.3% after a 3.6 year follow up. In the fully adjusted model, compared to the lowest quartile of fast food intake, individuals in the highest had odds ratios of 2.96 (95% CI: 1.02-8.63; P for trend<0.001), 2.82 (95% CI: 1.01-7.87; P for trend = 0.037), and 2.58 (95% CI: 1.01-6.61; P for trend = 0.009) for incidence of MetS, hypertriglyceridemia, and abdominal obesity, respectively. No significant association was found between fast food intakes and other components of MetS. Fast food consumption is associated with the incidence of MetS, abdominal obesity, and hypertriglyceridemia in Tehranian children and adolescents. PMID:26447855

  18. Investigation of the prevalent fall-related risk factors of fractures in elderly referred to Tehran hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Kavoosi, Azam; Shafiee, Zahra; Kahlaee, Amir H; Raei, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Background Prevalence of fall-related mortality is rising in the elderly population. Falling is one of the causes of the murderous and non-murderous injuries in the elderly population which can lead to disability, dependence and decline of quality of life. Fractures constitute a major part of the fall-related injuries. The present study is designed to investigate the prevalence of fall-related risk factors of fractures in the Iranian elderly population. Methods This descriptive study was performed on 240 elderly adults (aged 72.24±8.81 years) referred to Tehran hospitals in 2011 with wrist, femoral and proximal humeral fractures, using a questionnaire designed for this purpose. Results Ninety four (39.2%) cases were males and 146 (60.8%) were females. Slipping was the most prevalent mechanism of falling with the rate of 26.9% followed by falling from height and falling outdoors. Femur was the most frequently injured site (57.5%) while wrist and humerus were the next sites to be injured. Only 7.5% of the cases lived in a safe environment while in 37.2% and 55.2% cases, home environment was partly safe and non-safe, respectively. Conclusion Fall-related fractures in the studied population is related to cardiovascular and musculoskeletal disorders, low level of physical activity and ignorance of safety principles but, the prevalence of neurologic diseases and drug and alcohol abuse, which have been mentioned as relevant risk factors in some studies, was very low in this population. PMID:23483674

  19. Monstrous Mycobacterial Lipids.

    PubMed

    Seeliger, Jessica; Moody, D Branch

    2016-02-18

    When it comes to lipid diversity, no bacterial genus approaches Mycobacterium. In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Burbaud et al. (2016) provide a multi-genic working model for the biosynthesis of trehalose polyphleate (TPP), one of the largest known lipids in mycobacteria. They demonstrate that this lipid is made by diverse mycobacterial species, including those of medical importance. PMID:26971870

  20. Nutrients and neurodevelopment: lipids.

    PubMed

    González, Horacio F; Visentin, Silvana

    2016-10-01

    Nutrients, lipids in particular, make up the central nervous system structure and play major functional roles: they stimulate development, migration, and nerve cell differentiation. They are part of gray matter, white matter, nerve nuclei, and synaptogenesis. Breast milk contains lipids which are crucial for infant brain development. The lipid profile of breast milk was used as a guideline for the development of breast milk substitutes. However, to date, no substitute has matched it. Complementary feeding should include docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, other polyunsaturated fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, and complex lipids found in milk fat. The lipid composition of breast milk depends on maternal intake and nutritional status during pregnancy and breast-feeding. It has a great impact on development. Our goal is to review scientific literature regarding the role of lipids on infant brain development and the importance of breast milk lipid composition, maternal diet, and complementary feeding. PMID:27606648

  1. Usefulness of the lipid index for biouptake studies with Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Klopfer, D.C.; Carlile, D.W.; Hanf, R.W.

    1984-04-01

    Adult Daphnia magna were starved and monitored for lipid content and brood production. Mean lipid index values declined for 72 hours to less than 50% of 24 hour values. Number of hatched young was inversely related to lipid storage and ovary production. Uptake kinetics of /sup 14/C-labelled quinoline was compared between two daphnid test groups with mean lipid scores of 5.4 and 2.8, respectively. Total /sup 14/C counts were significantly higher for the high lipid group at 8 hour. Our studies indicated that lipid reserves of daphnid test populations can be routinely monitored as an indicator of environmental stress.

  2. The Prevalence of Exposure to Domestic Violence Among High School Students in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Sajadi, Homeira; Rahimy, Hossein; Rafiey, Hassan; Vameghi, Meroe

    2014-01-01

    Background: Domestic violence appears to be a major social problem. Researches in the last 10 years have uncovered multiple effects of witnessing domestic violence on children, ranging in severity from little or no effect to sever psychological harm. Objectives: This study aimed to measure the prevalence of exposure to domestic violence among high school students in Tehran. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on high school students of Tehran in the school year 2011–2012. The “Children’s Exposure to Domestic Violence Scale” was administered to a total cohort of 1,212 students (615 males and 597 females) selected by the stratified sampling method. Results: Approximately one-half of the participants (44.3%) had been exposed to their fathers’s violence against their mothers at least sometimes in their lives, the most common form of which was preventing the mother from doing something (28.5%) and the least common, hurting the mother with sharp or deadly tools (9.6%). A substantial proportion of the students (90.6%) had been exposed to violence in the community or at school, the most common kind would be being heard from someone calling another person names or making fun of them (81.7%) and the least common, being injured a child in the community or at school (31.8%). Conclusions: Exposure to violence is a widespread problem among children in Tehran. It encompasses a wide range and children were exposed to violence in different ways and forms. PMID:24719707

  3. Desertification of forest, range and desert in Tehran province, affected by climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskandari, Hadi; Borji, Moslem; Khosravi, Hassan; Mesbahzadeh, Tayebeh

    2016-06-01

    Climate change has been identified as a leading human and environmental crisis of the twenty-first century. Drylands throughout the world have always undergone periods of degradation due to naturally occurring fluctuation in climate. Persistence of widespread degradation in arid and semiarid regions of Iran necessitates monitoring and evaluation. This paper aims to monitor the desertification trend in three types of land use, including range, forest and desert, affected by climate change in Tehran province for the 2000s and 2030s. For assessing climate change at Mehrabad synoptic station, the data of two emission scenarios, including A2 and B2, were used, utilizing statistical downscaling techniques and data generated by the Statistical DownScaling Model (SDSM). The index of net primary production (NPP) resulting from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images was employed as an indicator of destruction from 2001 to 2010. The results showed that temperature is the most significant driving force which alters the net primary production in rangeland, forest and desert land use in Tehran province. On the basis of monitoring findings under real conditions, in the 2000s, over 60 % of rangelands and 80 % of the forest were below the average production in the province. On the other hand, the long-term average changes of NPP in the rangeland and forests indicated the presence of relatively large areas of these land uses with a production rate lower than the desert. The results also showed that, assuming the existence of circumstances of each emission scenarios, the desertification status will not improve significantly in the rangelands and forests of Tehran province.

  4. Distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes among hemodialysis patients in Tehran--a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Hosseini-Moghaddam, Seyed Mohammadmehdi; Keyvani, Hossein; Kasiri, Hossein; Kazemeyni, Seyed Mohammad; Basiri, Abbas; Aghel, Nazanin; Alavian, Seyed-Moayed

    2006-05-01

    Hepatitis C virus has substantial heterogeneity of genotypes throughout the world. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of HCV genotypes, risk factors and clinical implications in cases of hemodialysis living in Tehran. A total of 155 patients treated by hemodialysis, who had been identified to be anti-HCV positive at 45 medical centers in Tehran, were enrolled. Genotyping was using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) on HCV-RNA positive samples. HCV-RNA was detected in 66 (42.6%) patients. Genotyping of HCV-RNA positive serum samples demonstrated that subtypes 3a and 1a were predominant accounting for 30.3 and 28.8%, respectively. The distribution of other HCV genotypes showed genotype 1b, 18.2%; genotype 4, 16.7%; mixed genotypes 1a and 1b, 3%; and genotype 3b, 3%. Genotype 2 was not detected in this study. Statistically significant differences were identified between HCV infected and non-HCV infected patients regarding history of hemodialysis unit changes more than two times (P = 0.01), and history of hemodialysis for more than 20 years (P = 0.02). However, blood transfusion, mean duration of hemodialysis therapy and the history of solid organ transplantation did not differ between these two groups. This study indicates that the dominant HCV genotypes among patients treated by hemodialysis living in Tehran were 3a and 1a, and considering previous reports from the general population, genotype 4 was strongly associated with hemodialysis. The duration of treatment by hemodialysis and, in turn, more hemodialysis unit changes will lead to more frequent HCV infections. PMID:16555284

  5. Profiles of risk: a qualitative study of injecting drug users in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Razzaghi, Emran M; Movaghar, Afarin Rahimia; Green, Traci Craig; Khoshnood, Kaveh

    2006-01-01

    Background In Iran, there are an estimated 200,000 injecting drug users (IDUs). Injecting drug use is a relatively new phenomenon for this country, where opium smoking was the predominant form of drug use for hundreds of years. As in many countries experiencing a rise in injecting drug use, HIV/AIDS in Iran is associated with the injection of drugs, accounting for transmission of more than two-thirds of HIV infections. This study aimed to: describe the range of characteristics of IDUs in Tehran, Iran's capital city; 2) examine the injecting-related HIV risk behaviors of IDUs, and 3) suggest necessary interventions to prevent HIV transmission among IDUs and their families and sex partners. Methods Using rapid assessment and response methods with a qualitative focus, six districts of Tehran were selected for study. A total of 81 key informants from different sectors and 154 IDUs were selected by purposeful, opportunistic and snowball sampling, then interviewed. Ethnographic observations were done for mapping and studying injecting-related HIV risk settings and behaviors. Modified content analysis methods were used to analyze the data and extract typologies of injecting drug users in Tehran. Results Evidence of injecting drug use and drug-related harm was found in 5 of 6 study districts. Several profiles of IDUs were identified: depending on their socioeconomic status and degree of stability, IDUs employed different injecting behaviors and syringe hygiene practices. The prevalence of sharing injection instruments ranged from 30–100%. Varied magnitudes of risk were evident among the identified IDU typologies in terms of syringe disinfection methods, level of HIV awareness, and personal hygiene exhibited. At the time of research, there were no active HIV prevention programs in existence in Tehran. Conclusion The recent rise of heroin injection in Iran is strongly associated with HIV risk. Sharing injection instruments is a common and complex behavior among Iranian

  6. Exposure assessment of extremely low frequency electric fields in Tehran, Iran, 2010.

    PubMed

    Nassiri, Parvin; Esmaeilpour, Mohammad Reza Monazzam; Gharachahi, Ehsan; Haghighat, Gholamali; Yunesian, Masoud; Zaredar, Narges

    2013-01-01

    Extremely Low-Frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields belonging to the nonionizing electromagnetic radiation spectrum have a frequency of 50 - 60 Hz. All people are exposed to a complex set of electric and magnetic fields that spread throughout the environment. The current study was carried out to assess people's exposure to an ELF electric field in the Tehran metropolitan area in 2010. The measurement of the electronic fields was performed using an HI-3604 power frequency field strength measurement device. A total number of 2,753 measurements were performed. Afterward, the data obtained were transferred to the base map using Arc View Version 3.2 and Arc Map Version 9.3. Finally, an interpolation method was applied to expand the intensity of the electric field to the entire city. Based on the results obtained, the electric field was divided into three parts with various intensities including 0-5 V m, 5-15 V m, and >15 V m. It should be noted that the status of high voltage transmission lines, electric substations, and specific points including schools and hospitals were also marked on the map. Minimum and maximum electric field intensities were measured tantamount to 0.31 V m and 19.80 V m, respectively. In all measurements, the electric field was much less than the amount provided in the ICNIRP Guide. The results revealed that 141 hospitals and 6,905 schools are situated in an area with electric field intensity equal to 0-5 V m, while 15 hospitals and 95 schools are located in zones of 5-15 V m and more than 15 V m. Examining high voltage transmission lines and electric substations in Tehran and its suburbs suggested that the impact of the lines on the background electric field of the city was low. Accordingly, 0.97 km of Tehran located on the city border adjacent to the high voltage transmission lines have an electric field in the range of 5 to 15 V m. The noted range is much lower than the available standards. In summary, it can be concluded that the public

  7. Perilipin-related protein regulates lipid metabolism in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Chughtai, Ahmed Ali; Kaššák, Filip; Kostrouchová, Markéta; Novotný, Jan Philipp; Krause, Michael W.; Kostrouch, Zdenek

    2015-01-01

    Perilipins are lipid droplet surface proteins that contribute to fat metabolism by controlling the access of lipids to lipolytic enzymes. Perilipins have been identified in organisms as diverse as metazoa, fungi, and amoebas but strikingly not in nematodes. Here we identify the protein encoded by the W01A8.1 gene in Caenorhabditis elegans as the closest homologue and likely orthologue of metazoan perilipin. We demonstrate that nematode W01A8.1 is a cytoplasmic protein residing on lipid droplets similarly as human perilipins 1 and 2. Downregulation or elimination of W01A8.1 affects the appearance of lipid droplets resulting in the formation of large lipid droplets localized around the dividing nucleus during the early zygotic divisions. Visualization of lipid containing structures by CARS microscopy in vivo showed that lipid-containing structures become gradually enlarged during oogenesis and relocate during the first zygotic division around the dividing nucleus. In mutant embryos, the lipid containing structures show defective intracellular distribution in subsequent embryonic divisions and become gradually smaller during further development. In contrast to embryos, lipid-containing structures in enterocytes and in epidermal cells of adult animals are smaller in mutants than in wild type animals. Our results demonstrate the existence of a perilipin-related regulation of fat metabolism in nematodes and provide new possibilities for functional studies of lipid metabolism. PMID:26357594

  8. Lipid Quality in Infant Nutrition: Current Knowledge and Future Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Delplanque, Bernadette; Gibson, Robert; Koletzko, Berthold; Lapillonne, Alexandre; Strandvik, Birgitta

    2015-07-01

    Dietary lipids are key for infants to not only meet their high energy needs but also fulfill numerous metabolic and physiological functions critical to their growth, development, and health. The lipid composition of breast milk varies during lactation and according to the mother's diet, whereas the lipid composition of infant formulae varies according to the blend of different fat sources. This report compares the compositions of lipids in breast milk and infant formulae, and highlights the roles of dietary lipids in term and preterm infants and their potential biological and health effects. The major differences between breast milk and formulae lie in a variety of saturated fatty acids (such as palmitic acid, including its structural position) and unsaturated fatty acids (including arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid), cholesterol, and complex lipids. The functional outcomes of these differences during infancy and for later child and adult life are still largely unknown, and some of them are discussed, but there is consensus that opportunities exist for improvements in the qualitative lipid supply to infants through the mother's diet or infant formulae. Furthermore, research is required in several areas, including the needs of term and preterm infants for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, the sites of action and clinical effects of lipid mediators on immunity and inflammation, the role of lipids on metabolic, neurological, and immunological outcomes, and the mechanisms by which lipids act on short- and long-term health. PMID:25883056

  9. Lipid Quality in Infant Nutrition: Current Knowledge and Future Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Delplanque, Bernadette; Gibson, Robert; Koletzko, Berthold; Lapillonne, Alexandre; Strandvik, Birgitta

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Dietary lipids are key for infants to not only meet their high energy needs but also fulfill numerous metabolic and physiological functions critical to their growth, development, and health. The lipid composition of breast milk varies during lactation and according to the mother's diet, whereas the lipid composition of infant formulae varies according to the blend of different fat sources. This report compares the compositions of lipids in breast milk and infant formulae, and highlights the roles of dietary lipids in term and preterm infants and their potential biological and health effects. The major differences between breast milk and formulae lie in a variety of saturated fatty acids (such as palmitic acid, including its structural position) and unsaturated fatty acids (including arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid), cholesterol, and complex lipids. The functional outcomes of these differences during infancy and for later child and adult life are still largely unknown, and some of them are discussed, but there is consensus that opportunities exist for improvements in the qualitative lipid supply to infants through the mother's diet or infant formulae. Furthermore, research is required in several areas, including the needs of term and preterm infants for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, the sites of action and clinical effects of lipid mediators on immunity and inflammation, the role of lipids on metabolic, neurological, and immunological outcomes, and the mechanisms by which lipids act on short- and long-term health. PMID:25883056

  10. Chlorophytum borivilianum Root Extract Maintains near Normal Blood Glucose, Insulin and Lipid Profile Levels and Prevents Oxidative Stress in the Pancreas of Streptozotocin-Induced Adult Male Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Giribabu, Nelli; Kumar, Kilari Eswar; Rekha, Somesula Swapna; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

    2014-01-01

    The effect of C. borivilianum root on blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbAIc), insulin and lipid profile levels in diabetes mellitus are not fully understood. This study therefore investigated the effect of C. borivilianum root on the above parameters and oxidative stress of the pancreas in diabetes. Methods: C. borivilianum root aqueous extract (250 and 500 mg/kg/day) was administered to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced male diabetic rats for 28 days. Body weight, blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin, lipid profile levels and glucose homeostasis indices were determined. Histopathological changes and oxidative stress parameters i.e. lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidant enzymes activity levels of the pancreas were investigated. Results: C. borivilianum root extract treatment to diabetic rats maintained near normal body weight, blood glucose, HbA1c, lipid profile and insulin levels with higher HOMA-β cell functioning index, number of Islets/pancreas, number of β-cells/Islets however with lower HOMA-insulin resistance (IR) index as compared to non-treated diabetic rats. Negative correlations between serum insulin and blood glucose, HbA1c, triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels were observed. C. borivilianum root extract administration prevented the increase in lipid peroxidation and the decrease in activity levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) with mild histopathological changes in the pancreas of diabetic rats. Conclusions: C. borivilianum root maintains near normal levels of these metabolites and prevented oxidative stress-induced damage to the pancreas in diabetes. PMID:25249786

  11. Fatty acid methyl ester profiles of bat wing surface lipids.

    PubMed

    Pannkuk, Evan L; Fuller, Nathan W; Moore, Patrick R; Gilmore, David F; Savary, Brett J; Risch, Thomas S

    2014-11-01

    Sebocytes are specialized epithelial cells that rupture to secrete sebaceous lipids (sebum) across the mammalian integument. Sebum protects the integument from UV radiation, and maintains host microbial communities among other functions. Native glandular sebum is composed primarily of triacylglycerides (TAG) and wax esters (WE). Upon secretion (mature sebum), these lipids combine with minor cellular membrane components comprising total surface lipids. TAG and WE are further cleaved to smaller molecules through oxidation or host enzymatic digestion, resulting in a complex mixture of glycerolipids (e.g., TAG), sterols, unesterified fatty acids (FFA), WE, cholesteryl esters, and squalene comprising surface lipid. We are interested if fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling of bat surface lipid could predict species specificity to the cutaneous fungal disease, white nose syndrome (WNS). We collected sebaceous secretions from 13 bat spp. using Sebutape(®) and converted them to FAME with an acid catalyzed transesterification. We found that Sebutape(®) adhesive patches removed ~6× more total lipid than Sebutape(®) indicator strips. Juvenile eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis) had significantly higher 18:1 than adults, but 14:0, 16:1, and 20:0 were higher in adults. FAME profiles among several bat species were similar. We concluded that bat surface lipid FAME profiling does not provide a robust model predicting species susceptibility to WNS. However, these results provide baseline data that can be used for lipid roles in future ecological studies, such as life history, diet, or migration. PMID:25227993

  12. Knowledge and Attitude of Primary School Teachers in Tehran/Iran towards ADHD and SLD.

    PubMed

    Khademi, Mojgan; Rajeziesfahani, Sepideh; Noorbakhsh, Simasadat; Panaghi, Leili; Davari-Ashtiani, Rozita; Razjouyan, Katayoon; Salamatbakhsh, Nina

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of primary school teachers in Tehran (Iran) towards attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and specific learning disability (SLD). This study was conducted on 205 primary school teachers in Tehran. Using multi-stage sampling, 25 schools were selected randomly. The selected teachers completed a self-report questionnaire on knowledge and attitude towards ADHD and SLD. They were found to have average knowledge of as well as mostly neutral attitudes towards SLD and ADHD. There was a positive significant relationship between knowledge and attitude scores of the participants on the two disorders. Regarding students with ADHD or SLD, instead of referring to specialists, most teachers chose to inform the parents. Our findings mainly indicate average knowledge and attitude scores for both ADHD and SLD-compared to lower findings in previous studies. Those responsible for organizing and holding in-service training workshops on these issues need to have complete mastery and up-to-date information. It is necessary that the results of such studies be used in educational planning and policy making in the Ministry of Education. PMID:27357885

  13. A Review of Myiasis in Iran and a New Nosocomial Case from Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Mahbobeh; Mowlavi, Gholamreza; Kargar, Faranak; Nateghpour, Mehdi; Akbarzadeh, Kamran; Hajenorouzali-Tehrani, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Background: Due to various climatic conditions in different parts of Iran, presenting of various kinds of human myiasis is expected. Despite of a few case series, most papers related to myiasis are case reports originated from various parts of Iran. This study discusses on different clinical features of myiasis in Iran and description of one case from Tehran as a representative to nosocomial infection in Iran. Methods: The information needed for this descriptive study was derived mainly from the digital library of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The larvae have been identified with observing on posterior spiracles, spines of their body and anal tubercles. Results: Total number of reported myiasis cases from Iran is 77 which can be categorized clinically as furuncular, wound, ophthalmic, auricular, nasopharyngeal, oral, intestinal and genitourinary. Based on parasitological features, all myiasis agents in Iran are belonging to Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Oestridae and Syrphidae flies. The case which is reporting in this paper can be mentioned as representative of nosocomial myiasis which it seems to be underreported because of some medicolegal reasons. Conclusion: Low number of investigations on various aspects of human myiasis, as well as incuriosity to report of the cases in disease reporting system of health minister, made the myiasis as a neglected disease. PMID:26114125

  14. Correlates and Determinants of Reproductive Behavior among Female University Students in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Farahani, Farideh Khalaj Abadi; Cleland, John; Mehryar, Amir Hooshang

    2012-01-01

    Background This paper aims to examine the reproductive health and behaviors which might expose young people at risks of STIs/HIV and potential correlates of such behaviors among female college students in Tehran. Methods This paper focuses on the study conducted on a sample of 1743 female undergraduate students in four multidisciplinary universities in Tehran during 2005− 2006 using a two-stage stratified cluster sampling. The main focus was to determine the predictors of premarital heterosexual reproductive behavior among female students. Results The mean age of the unmarried students was 21.4 years. Low self-efficacy (OR=7.87, p <0.001), perceived peers’ liberal attitude on virginity (OR= 4.33), perception of parents’ liberal attitude towards relationship with the opposite sex and poor family atmosphere (OR=3.04 and 2.20, p <0.001, respectively) were predictors of ever having any type of sexual experience after controlling for other factors. The only predictors of penetrative sex remained in the logistic model were older age (OR=5.95), low self-efficacy (OR=10.86), poor family atmosphere (OR= 2.96), liberal parental attitude (OR=4.29) and liberal peer norms on virginity (OR= 4.90). Conclusion Interventional programs need to be designed at various levels such as enhancing self-efficacy, informing families of the protective role of a balanced control and monitoring over adolescents’ behavior and choices of peer network against premarital sexual activity. PMID:23926523

  15. Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning-Related Deaths in Tehran, Iran, 2006 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Etemadi-Aleagha, Afshar; Akhgari, Maryam; Iravani, Fariba Sardari

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Metal phosphides such as aluminum phosphide are potent insecticides. This highly toxic substance is used for rice and other grains protection in Iran. Due to its high toxicity potential and easy availability, it is widely used as a suicide poison. This substance has no effective antidote and the incidence of deaths due to its poisoning is increasing day by day in Iran. The present study was conducted to show the increasing incidence of fatal aluminum phosphide poisoning and its toxicological and forensic aspects in an 8-year study, 2006 to 2013. Autopsy sheets were reviewed and cases with the history of aluminum phosphide poisoning were selected. Toxicological analysis results, demographic and necroscopic examination findings were studied. A total of 51.8% of studied cases were female. Most of the cases were between 10 and 40 years old. The manner of death was self-poisoning in 85% of cases. Morphine, ethanol, and amitriptyline were the most common additional drugs detected in toxicological analysis. The incidence of fatal aluminum phosphide poisoning cases referred for phosphine analysis was 5.22 and 37.02 per million of population of Tehran in 2006 and 2013, respectively. The results of this study showed that in spite of ban and restrictions, there was a dramatic increase in the incidence of fatal aluminum phosphide poisoning in Tehran from 2006 to 2013. Safety alert should be highlighted in training program for all population groups about the toxic effects of aluminum phosphide tablets. PMID:26402837

  16. Frequency of sabA Gene in Helicobacter pylori Strains Isolated From Patients in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Pakbaz, Zahra; Shirazi, Mohammad Hasan; Ranjbar, Reza; pourmand, Mohammad Reza; Khalifeh Gholi, Mohammad; Aliramezani, Amir; Vaise Malekshahi, Ziba

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of sialic acid binding adhesin (sabA) as a new outer membrane protein in gastroduodenal diseases has been recognized. The prevalence rate of sabA gene varies in different geographic areas. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of sabA gene in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) strains isolated from different clinical outcomes in Tehran, Iran. Patients and Methods The study included 120 patients with dyspeptic symptoms admitted to the endoscopy suite of gastroenterology section of Firouzgar University Hospital, Tehran, Iran from March to August 2011. Gastric biopsy specimens were evaluated for the presence of H. pylori using standard microbiological method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The sabA genopositive was determined by PCR in H. pylori strains. Results H. pylori isolates were recovered from 82 patients with duodenal ulcer (DU; n = 17), gastric ulcer (GU; n = 15), gastric cancer (GC; n = 13), and gastritis (G; n = 37). The frequency of sabA gene in H. pylori strains was 100% in gastric cancer, 86.7% in gastric ulcer, and 83.3% in both gastritis and duodenal ulcer. Conclusions This is a report on the prevalence of sabA gene in H. pylori isolated from different gastric patients in Iran. The results showed a high prevalence of sabA in our clinical H. pylori isolates. PMID:24616782

  17. Measuring the Mental Health-Care System Responsiveness: Results of an Outpatient Survey in Tehran.

    PubMed

    Forouzan, Setareh; Padyab, Mojgan; Rafiey, Hassan; Ghazinour, Mehdi; Dejman, Masoumeh; San Sebastian, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    As explained by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2000, the concept of health system responsiveness is one of the core goals of health systems. Since 2000, further efforts have been made to measure health system responsiveness and the factors affecting responsiveness, yet few studies have applied responsiveness concepts to the evaluation of mental health systems. The present study aims to measure responsiveness and its related domains in the mental health-care system of Tehran. Utilizing the same method used by the WHO for its responsiveness survey, responsiveness for outpatient mental health care was evaluated using a validated Farsi questionnaire. A sample of 500 public mental health service users in Tehran participated and subsequently completed the questionnaire. On average, 47% of participants reported experiencing poor responsiveness. Among responsiveness domains, confidentiality and dignity were the best performing factors while autonomy, access to care, and quality of basic amenities were the worst performing. Respondents who reported their social status as low were more likely to experience poor responsiveness overall. Attention and access to care were responsiveness dimensions that performed poorly but were considered to be highly important by study participants. In summary, the study suggests that measuring responsiveness could provide guidance for further development of mental health-care systems to become more patient orientated and provide patients with more respect. PMID:26858944

  18. Modeling interseismic deformation field of North Tehran Fault extracted from precise leveling observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amighpey, Masoome; Voosoghi, Behzad; Arabi, Siyavash

    2016-06-01

    The North Tehran Fault (NTF) stands out as a major active thrust fault running for approximately 110 km north of Tehran, the capital province of Iran. It has been the source of several major historical earthquakes in the past, including those in 958, 1665, and 1830. In this paper, interseismic strain accumulation on the NFT was investigated using precise leveling measurements obtained over the time frame 1997-2005. The relationship between surface deformation field and interseismic deformation models was evaluated using simulated annealing optimization in a Bayesian framework. The results show that the NTF fault follows an elastic dislocation model creep at a rate of 2.5 ± 0.06 mm/year in the eastern part and 6.2 ± 0.04 mm/year in the western part. Moreover, the locking depth of the fault was evaluated to be ± 1.1 km in the eastern part and 1.3 ± 0.2 km in the western part.

  19. Municipal solid waste management in Tehran: Changes during the last 5 years.

    PubMed

    Malmir, Tahereh; Tojo, Yasumasa

    2016-05-01

    The situation of waste management in Tehran was a typical example of it in developing countries. The amount of municipal solid waste has been increasing and the city has depended on landfill for municipal solid waste management. However, in recent years, various measures have been taken by the city, such as collecting recyclables at the source and increasing the capacity of waste-processing facilities. As a result, significant changes in the waste stream are starting to occur. This study investigated the nature of, and reasons for, the marked changes in the waste stream from 2008 to 2012 by analysing the municipal solid waste statistics published by the Tehran Waste Management Organization in 2013 and survey data on the physical composition of the municipal solid waste. The following trends were identified: Although the generation of municipal solid waste increased by 10% during the 5-year period, the amount of waste directly disposed of to landfill halved and resource recovery almost doubled. An increase in the capacity of a waste-processing facility contributed significantly to these changes. The biodegradable fraction going to landfill was estimated by using the quantity and the composition of each input to the landfill. The estimated result in 2012 decreased to 49% of its value in 2008. PMID:26922086

  20. Assessing Pb,Zn,Cd contamination in stream sediments of south east Tehran (Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahdadi, S.; Fayazi, F.; Yaghoobpour, A.; Rahmani, F.; Moslempour, M.

    2009-04-01

    Assessing Pb,Zn,Cd contamination in stream sediments of south east Tehran (Iran) 31 sediment samples collected from south east of Tehran around cement plant (Bibi shahrbanoo mountain) were analyzed by ICP for Pb, Zn, Cd. The samples were also investigated for mineralogy using X-ray analysis.The clay mineral assemblage encountered in the analyzed samples is composed of vermiculite, dickite, montmorillonite and kaolinite.The non-clay minerals of the mud-sized fraction are composed mainly of quartz and calcite and dolomite as major minerals with albite, hematite, muscovite as minor minerals. The measured metals correlated positively with the determined physiochemical factors such as pH, clay content, organic matter content, and carbonate content. According to the index of geoaccumulation, the sediments of the study area are considered to be strongly to very strongly polluted with respect to Pb, strongly polluted with respect to Zn, and moderatly to strongly polluted with recpect to Cd.The calculation of enrichment factors shows that the source of Pb and Zn is from antropogenic activites such as cement plant and vehicle exhausts and Cd from natural source.

  1. Vitamin D deficiency and causative factors in the population of Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Hashemipour, Sima; Larijani, Bagher; Adibi, Hossein; Javadi, Ebrahim; Sedaghat, Mojtaba; Pajouhi, Mohammad; Soltani, Akbar; Shafaei, Ali Reza; Hamidi, Zohreh; Fard, Ali Reza Khalili; Hossein-Nezhad, Arash; Booya, Fargol

    2004-01-01

    Background There are multiple studies in different countries regarding the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency. These studies showed high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Asian countries. This study tries to elucidate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its influencing factors in population of Tehran. Methods 1210 subjects 20–64 years old were randomly selected. 25 (OH) D serum levels were measured. Duration of exposure to sunlight, the type of clothing and level of calcium intake and BMI were quantified based on a questionnaire. Results A high percentage of vitamin D deficiency was defined in the study population. Prevalence of severe, moderate and mild Vitamin D deficiency was 9.5%, 57.6% and 14.2% respectively. Vitamin D serum levels had no significant statistical relation with the duration of exposure to sunlight, kind of clothing and BMI. Calcium intake in the normal vitamin D group was significantly higher than the other groups (714.67 ± 330.8 mg/day vs 503.39 ± 303.1, 577.93 ± 304.9,595.84 ± 313.6). Vitamin D serum levels in young and middle aged females were significantly lower than the older group. Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency has a high prevalence in Tehran. In order to avoid complications of vitamin D deficiency, supplemental dietary intake seems essential. PMID:15327695

  2. Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning-Related Deaths in Tehran, Iran, 2006 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Etemadi-Aleagha, Afshar; Akhgari, Maryam; Iravani, Fariba Sardari

    2015-09-01

    Metal phosphides such as aluminum phosphide are potent insecticides. This highly toxic substance is used for rice and other grains protection in Iran. Due to its high toxicity potential and easy availability, it is widely used as a suicide poison. This substance has no effective antidote and the incidence of deaths due to its poisoning is increasing day by day in Iran. The present study was conducted to show the increasing incidence of fatal aluminum phosphide poisoning and its toxicological and forensic aspects in an 8-year study, 2006 to 2013. Autopsy sheets were reviewed and cases with the history of aluminum phosphide poisoning were selected. Toxicological analysis results, demographic and necroscopic examination findings were studied. A total of 51.8% of studied cases were female. Most of the cases were between 10 and 40 years old. The manner of death was self-poisoning in 85% of cases. Morphine, ethanol, and amitriptyline were the most common additional drugs detected in toxicological analysis. The incidence of fatal aluminum phosphide poisoning cases referred for phosphine analysis was 5.22 and 37.02 per million of population of Tehran in 2006 and 2013, respectively. The results of this study showed that in spite of ban and restrictions, there was a dramatic increase in the incidence of fatal aluminum phosphide poisoning in Tehran from 2006 to 2013. Safety alert should be highlighted in training program for all population groups about the toxic effects of aluminum phosphide tablets. PMID:26402837

  3. Is there a gender difference in associates of adolescents’ lifetime illicit drug use in Tehran, Iran?

    PubMed Central

    Ameneh-Forouzan, Setareh-; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Assari, Shervin

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Information regarding gender differences in drug use of adolescents is essential for designing gender-specific drug prevention policies. This study was conducted in high school students in Tehran, Iran, in 2007. Here, we report the gender differences in lifetime prevalence as well as psychosocial associates of drug use. Material and methods This was a gender analysis of the data collected in a drug use survey conducted in a random sample of high school adolescents (573 boys and 551 girls) in Tehran, Iran, 2007. Demographic characteristics, parental and peers’ substance use, school performance, religious beliefs, attachment, self-esteem and emotional intelligence (EI) were entered in logistic regression analyses to predict the lifetime illicit drug use in boy and girls, separately. Results Boys were more likely to report lifetime illicit drug use than girls (10.1% vs. 6.4%, p = 0.023). Differences in the risk profile associated with lifetime illicit drug use by gender included history of substance use in the family, higher score of attachment, and having an employed mother as predictors of substance use in boys, but not girls. Conclusions Understanding this gender difference in predictors of lifetime use of illicit drugs in high school adolescents facilitates the design of gender-sensitive drug use preventive programmes. It seems that family variables may have more value in prevention of illicit drug use in male adolescents. PMID:22371778

  4. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in a population in south of Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Arani, Abolfath Shojaei; Alaghehbandan, Reza; Akhlaghi, Lame; Shahi, Maryam; Lari, Abdolaziz Rastegar

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe epidemiologic characteristics of intestinal parasites in a population in south of Tehran, Iran. A retrospective cross-sectional study of patients with suspicious intestinal parasitic infections referred to the Zakaria Razi Laboratory in Shahre-Ray, southern Tehran, Iran, was conducted from April 21, 2004 to October 20, 2005. All stool samples were examined and socio-demographic informations were retrieved. Of 4,371 referred patients, 466 (239 males and 227 females) were laboratory diagnosed with intestinal parasites, with a period prevalence of 10.7%. Blastocystis hominis (B. hominis) and Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) were the most frequent intestinal parasites. More than half of patients aged (3) 18 years had a low level of educational attainment (e.g. illiterate, primary school, high school) (170/331, 54.1%). Further, majority of patients were homemakers (42.3%, 140/331) or workers (28.1%, 93/331) employed in various business settings such as food industry and construction. Findings of this study showed that intestinal parasitic infections are still a major public health challenge in Iran that needs to be addressed. We believe that public education, improving sanitation conditions of underdeveloped areas/communities, community involvement, and supporting evidence-based practice/programs are the major keys to success in preventing the spread of intestinal parasitic infections in Iran. PMID:18604414

  5. Annual and seasonal spatial models for nitrogen oxides in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Amini, Heresh; Taghavi-Shahri, Seyed-Mahmood; Henderson, Sarah B; Hosseini, Vahid; Hassankhany, Hossein; Naderi, Maryam; Ahadi, Solmaz; Schindler, Christian; Künzli, Nino; Yunesian, Masud

    2016-01-01

    Very few land use regression (LUR) models have been developed for megacities in low- and middle-income countries, but such models are needed to facilitate epidemiologic research on air pollution. We developed annual and seasonal LUR models for ambient oxides of nitrogen (NO, NO2, and NOX) in the Middle Eastern city of Tehran, Iran, using 2010 data from 23 fixed monitoring stations. A novel systematic algorithm was developed for spatial modeling. The R(2) values for the LUR models ranged from 0.69 to 0.78 for NO, 0.64 to 0.75 for NO2, and 0.61 to 0.79 for NOx. The most predictive variables were: distance to the traffic access control zone; distance to primary schools; green space; official areas; bridges; and slope. The annual average concentrations of all pollutants were high, approaching those reported for megacities in Asia. At 1000 randomly-selected locations the correlations between cooler and warmer season estimates were 0.64 for NO, 0.58 for NOX, and 0.30 for NO2. Seasonal differences in spatial patterns of pollution are likely driven by differences in source contributions and meteorology. These models provide a basis for understanding long-term exposures and chronic health effects of air pollution in Tehran, where such research has been limited. PMID:27622593

  6. Association between electromagnetic field exposure and abortion in pregnant women living in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Abad, Masoumeh; Malekafzali, Hossein; Simbar, Masoumeh; Seyed Mosaavi, Hassan; Merghati Khoei, Effat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health-related quality of life is affected by electromagnetic field exposure in each person everyday life. However, this is extremely controversial issue. Objective: Investigation of the associations between electromagnetic field exposure and miscarriage among women of Tehran. Materials and Methods: In this longitudinal study, 462 pregnant women with gestational age <12 wks from seven main regions of Tehran city in Iran with similar social and cultural status were participated. Women were interviewed face-to face to collect data. Reproductive information was collected using medical file recorded in those hospitals the subjects had delivery. The measuring device measured electromagnetic waves, Narda safety test solutions with valid calibration date at the entrance door of their houses. Results: A significant likelihood of miscarriage in women who exposed to significant level of electromagnetic wave. However, this association was not confirmed by Wald test. Conclusion: This study may not provide strong or consistent evidence that electromagnetic field exposure is associated or cause miscarriage. This issue may be due to small sample size in this study. PMID:27326421

  7. Emotional intelligence of medical residents of Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

    PubMed

    Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa; Mohammadifar, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, educators pay attention to emotional intelligence which is defined as the ability to monitor and explain one's own and other's emotional experience and feelings to differentiate between them as well as applying necessary information for determining thoughts and actions. The goal of this study was to determine emotional intelligence of medical residents of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. By means of two stage cluster sampling, 98 medical residents of Tehran University of Medical Sciences were selected. Participants were asked to fill valid and reliable Persian version of Emotional Quotient inventory (EQ-i) questionnaire which had been developed due to Bar-On model. Seventy two filled-up questionnaires were returned (RR=73%). Mean EI score of all participants was 319.94 ± 32.4. Mean EI score was not significantly different between male and female also, single and married participants. EI did not differ significantly in residents in respect to their discipline. Mean responsibility subscale differ significantly between male and female participants (P=0.008). Multiple regression analysis showed that happiness subscale is a predictive factor for total EI score (B=-0.32, P=0.009). Responsibility subscale differed significantly between men and women participants and happiness subscale was a good predictor for emotional intelligence score. These factors should be considered in education of medical residents. PMID:23605604

  8. Elemental analysis of aerosols in Tehran's atmosphere using PIXE and identification of pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Esmaili, N; Khashman, S; Lamehi-Rachti, M; Agha Aligol, D; Shokouhi, F; Oliaiy, P; Farmahini Farahani, M

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique has been applied to measure the elemental composition and concentrations of particulate matter of 220 samples of aerosols in Tehran's atmosphere within a 450-day time interval starting from March 2009 and ending in June 2010, covering all four seasons. PIXE analysis shows the samples are comprised of various elements including Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, and Pb. Also, to obtain more information about the sources of pollution and to identify the major sources of urban particulate matter, principal component analysis (PCA) was used. Furthermore, micro-PIXE was performed to study individual aerosols in some samples. Results revealed that the concentration of elements originating from vehicle emissions increases three times in winter; whereas the concentration of elements with soil origin remains constant. Based on wind rose maps, it is inferred that the high concentrations of the elements Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, and Fe are associated with natural dust brought by winds into Tehran from the west. PMID:25027779

  9. Ambient monitoring of airborne asbestos in non-occupational environments in Tehran, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakooei, Hossein; Meshkani, Mohsen; Azam, Kamal

    2013-12-01

    Airborne asbestos fiber concentrations were monitored in the urban areas of Tehran, Iran during the period of 23 August to 21 September 2012. The airborne fiber concentrations of 110 air samples collected from 15 different sites in five regions of Tehran. The monitoring sites were located 2.5 m above ground nearby the main street and heavy traffic jam. The ambient air samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and phase-contrast optical microscopy (PCM). The geometric means of the airborne asbestos fiber concentrations in the outdoor living areas was 1.6 × 10-2 SEM f ml-1 (1.18 × 10-3 PCM f ml-1). This criteria is considerably higher than those reported for the levels of asbestos in outdoor living areas in the Europe and the non-occupational environment of the Korea. No clear correlation was found between asbestos fiber concentration and the relative humidity and temperature. The SEM and PLM analysis revealed that all samples examined contained only chrysotile asbestos. It can be concluded that several factor such as heavy traffic, cement sheet and pipe consumption of asbestos, and geographical conditions play an important role for the high airborne asbestos levels in the non-occupational environments.

  10. Prevalence of HIV infection and the correlates among homeless in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    zadeh, Abbas Ostad Taghi; SeyedAlinaghi, SeyedAhmad; Hassanzad, Farshad Fakhimi; Hajizadeh, Mehdi; Mohamadi, SeyedNajmeddin; Emamzadeh-Fard, Sahra; Paydary, Koosha; Hosseini, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of HIV infection among homeless men and women and the related risk behaviors in Tehran, Iran. Methods In 2007-2008, Tehran municipality stacked up 10 657 homeless men and women for assessment of HIV and began collaboration with Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS (IRCHA) departments to conduct HIV infection prevalence surveys in homeless populations. The results were analyzed for associations with demographic information, family support, status of drug abuse and relation with family and friends. Results Overall HIV prevalence was 1.7% (95% confidence interval 1.4-1.9). Factors independently associated with HIV infection included history of using drugs [AOR 8.15 (4.86-13.67)], older age [AOR 1.80 (1.08-2.99) for 40- 55 yr], occupation [AOR 1.64 (1.19-2.24) for unemployed], and no relation with family [AOR 1.82 (1.30-2.54)]. Conclusions This study supports the idea that injection drug use is contributing to the increased spread of HIV among Iranian homeless. Harm reduction programs should be expanded, particularly among homeless injection drug users. PMID:24144133

  11. Perceived norms of premarital heterosexual relationships and sexuality among female college students in Tehran.

    PubMed

    Khalajabadi Farahani, Farideh; Cleland, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes perceptions of the societal acceptability and acceptability among peers of different types of premarital heterosexual relationships in Iran. Sources of variation in subjective norms are assessed. Results derive from a survey conducted in 2005 of a representative sample of 1743 female college students from four multidisciplinary universities in Tehran using two-stage random cluster sampling. An anonymous pilot-tested questionnaire was used. Respondents displayed remarkable heterogeneity and ambiguity concerning the social acceptability of premarital heterosexual friendship, dating and physical contact, but expressed greater certainty about the unacceptability of premarital sex. The majority (77.5%) reported that premarital sex was socially prohibited, while about one third (33.1%) were unsure about the social acceptability of having a boyfriend and dating before marriage. Peer norms were perceived to be more liberal but, nevertheless, very few peers were thought to be in favour of premarital intercourse. Older students, those with educated fathers and those studying in a mixed-sex university perceived norms to be more liberal than their counterparts. Access to satellite television, a major source of exposure to new information and values about sexuality, was a major predictor of liberal peer norms. It appears that a significant proportion of young people in Tehran have broken with tradition with regard to premarital social interaction and romantic friendships, but the majority still conforms to traditional cultural and religious values regarding abstinence before marriage. PMID:25587802

  12. Lipid Droplets And Cellular Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Tobias C.; Farese, Robert V.

    2013-01-01

    Among organelles, lipid droplets (LDs) uniquely constitute a hydrophobic phase in the aqueous environment of the cytosol. Their hydrophobic core of neutral lipids stores metabolic energy and membrane components, making LDs hubs for lipid metabolism. In addition, LDs are implicated in a number of other cellular functions, ranging from protein storage and degradation to viral replication. These processes are functionally linked to many physiological and pathological conditions, including obesity and related metabolic diseases. Despite their important functions and nearly ubiquitous presence in cells, many aspects of LD biology are unknown. In the past few years, the pace of LD investigation has increased, providing new insights. Here, we review the current knowledge of LD cell biology and its translation to physiology. PMID:22524315

  13. Lipid A and immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ribi, E; Cantrell, J L; Takayama, K; Qureshi, N; Peterson, J; Ribi, H O

    1984-01-01

    Endotoxin isolated from Re mutants of Salmonella typhimurium or Salmonella minnesota and consisting only of 3-deoxy-D-mannooctulosonic acid (KDO) and lipid A synergistically enhances the ability of mycobacterial cell wall skeleton (CWS) to regress transplantable, line-10 tumor (hepatocellular carcinoma) in syngeneic guinea pigs. Tumor regression is rapid, and systemic tumor immunity concomitantly develops when as little as 50 micrograms of each of these two components is combined and injected intralesionally. Selective removal of KDO from endotoxin yields diphosphoryl lipid A, which retains its toxic properties. Subsequent selective removal of the phosphate moiety at the reducing end of the diphosphoryl lipid A molecule yields nontoxic, monophosphoryl lipid A (determined by lethality for chick embryos). Like the parent endotoxin or toxic diphosphoryl lipid A, monophosphoryl lipid A retains the ability to synergistically enhance the antitumor activity of mycobacterial CWS adjuvant. Both di- and monophosphoryl lipid A contain mixtures of a series of structural analogs. They can be separated chromatographically into single components that differ in number, type, and position of ester-linked fatty acids. Comparison of chromatographic fractions reveals that components of toxic and nontoxic lipid A can be paired according to structure. Each component of the pair has the same molecular structure, with the exception of an additional phosphate group in the toxic component. The toxicity of "lipid A's" liberated from endotoxin by acid hydrolysis appears to be determined by the proportion of di- and monophosphoryl lipid A in the hydrolysis mixture. Structural analogs of monophosphoryl lipid A, which differ in degree of O-acylation and type and distribution of fatty acids, have comparable antitumor activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6382555

  14. A Comparison of Parents and Teachers' Evaluations about School Readiness among First-Grade Pupils of Primary Schools in Tehran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakia, Lida; Popov, Habil Nikolay; Arani, Abbas Madandar

    2015-01-01

    Children's school readiness has received much attention from professionals in the field of education. Nevertheless, scholars in Middle East countries have not investigated this topic in a major way. The purpose of the present study was to determine (i) the most common parent-child activities for first-grade pupils in Tehran primary schools as…

  15. Pathologic Analysis of Control Plans for Air Pollution Management in Tehran Metropolis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Salehi Shahrabi, Narges; Pourezzat, Aliasghar; Mobaraki, Hossein; Mafimoradi, Shiva

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The centralization of human activities is associated with different pollutants which enter into environment easily and cause the urban environment more vulnerable. Regarding the importance of air pollution issue for Tehran metropolis, many plans and regulations have been developed. However, most of them failed to decline the pollution. The purpose of this study was to pathologically analyze air-pollution control plans to offer effective solutions for Tehran metropolis. Methods A Qualitative content analysis in addition to a semi-structured interview with 14 practicing professional were used to identify 1) key sources of Tehran’s air pollution, 2) recognize challenges towards effective performance of pertinent plans and 3), offer effective solutions. Results Related challenges to air-pollution control plans can be divided into two major categories including lack of integrated and organized stewardship and PEST challenges. Conclusion For controlling the air pollution of Tehran effectively, various controlling alternatives were identified as systematization of plan preparation process, standardization and utilization of new technologies & experts, infrastructural development, realization of social justice, developing coordination mechanisms, improving citizens’ participatory capacity and focusing on effective management of fuel and energy. Controlling air pollution in Tehran needs a serious attention of policymakers to make enforcements through applying a systemic cycle of preparation comprehensive plans. Further, implement the enforcements and evaluate the environmental impact of the plans through involving all stakeholders. PMID:26171340

  16. A Sociological Review of the Reflections and Dimensions of Quality of Life of the Widows in Tehran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheykhi, Mohammad Taghi

    2006-01-01

    The article explores some of the theoretical perspectives on widows, followed by empirical findings on the issue in Tehran. Widowhood transition being pursued by drop in relations, is observed and examined from various dimensions, with the hope of improving the quality of life of the widows. Some of the socio-economic effects of widowhood as…

  17. The Housing Domain of Quality of Life and Life Satisfaction in the Spontaneous Settlements on the Tehran Metropolitan Fringe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zebardast, Esfandiar

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to survey the spontaneous settlements on the Tehran Metropolitan Fringe (TMF), to determine the different housing sub-domains of quality of life (QOL), to survey overall life satisfaction and to determine the extent to which overall life satisfaction is explained by the components of the housing domain of QOL in these…

  18. Lipids: Absorption and transport

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipid has long been recognized as an important dietary component. Dietary lipid (fat) is a critical source of metabolic energy and a substrate for the synthesis of metabolically active compounds (essential fatty acids), and serves as a carrier for other nutrients such as the fat-soluble vitamins A, ...

  19. Lysosomal Lipid Storage Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Heike; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2011-01-01

    Lysosomal lipid storage diseases, or lipidoses, are inherited metabolic disorders in which typically lipids accumulate in cells and tissues. Complex lipids, such as glycosphingolipids, are constitutively degraded within the endolysosomal system by soluble hydrolytic enzymes with the help of lipid binding proteins in a sequential manner. Because of a functionally impaired hydrolase or auxiliary protein, their lipid substrates cannot be degraded, accumulate in the lysosome, and slowly spread to other intracellular membranes. In Niemann-Pick type C disease, cholesterol transport is impaired and unesterified cholesterol accumulates in the late endosome. In most lysosomal lipid storage diseases, the accumulation of one or few lipids leads to the coprecipitation of other hydrophobic substances in the endolysosomal system, such as lipids and proteins, causing a “traffic jam.” This can impair lysosomal function, such as delivery of nutrients through the endolysosomal system, leading to a state of cellular starvation. Therapeutic approaches are currently restricted to mild forms of diseases with significant residual catabolic activities and without brain involvement. PMID:21502308

  20. Lipids of Archaeal Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Roine, Elina; Bamford, Dennis H.

    2012-01-01

    Archaeal viruses represent one of the least known territory of the viral universe and even less is known about their lipids. Based on the current knowledge, however, it seems that, as in other viruses, archaeal viral lipids are mostly incorporated into membranes that reside either as outer envelopes or membranes inside an icosahedral capsid. Mechanisms for the membrane acquisition seem to be similar to those of viruses infecting other host organisms. There are indications that also some proteins of archaeal viruses are lipid modified. Further studies on the characterization of lipids in archaeal viruses as well as on their role in virion assembly and infectivity require not only highly purified viral material but also, for example, constant evaluation of the adaptability of emerging technologies for their analysis. Biological membranes contain proteins and membranes of archaeal viruses are not an exception. Archaeal viruses as relatively simple systems can be used as excellent tools for studying the lipid protein interactions in archaeal membranes. PMID:23049284

  1. Distribution of hospital beds in Tehran Province based on Gini coefficient and Lorenz curve from 2010 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Asl, Iravan Masoudi; Abolhallaje, Masoud; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Nazari, Hamed; Nazari, Aslan; Salimi, Mohammad; Javani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Fair distribution of hospital beds across various regions is a controversial subject. Resource allocation in health systems rarely has focused on those who need it most and, in addition, is often influenced by political interests. The study assesses the distribution of hospital beds in different regions in Tehran, Iran, during 2010–2012. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in all regions of Tehran (22 regions) during 2010 to 2012. All hospital beds in these regions are included in the study. Data regarding populations of each region were obtained from the Statistics Center of Iran. According to the data, the total number of beds (N.B) and population (P) in 2010 (N.B=19075, P= 7585000), 2011 (N.B=21632, P= 9860500), and 2012 (N.B=21808, P=12818650). The instrument was a form, including the name of the hospital, the district in which the hospital was located, the number of staffed beds, the name of each region, and its population. Data analysis was performed using DASP software version 2.3. Results The results demonstrate that the Gini coefficient of distributed beds in 22 regions of Tehran was 0.46 in all three years and specifically calculated 0.4666 in 2010, 0.4658 in 2011 and 0.4652 in 2012. The Gini coefficient of beds in 22 regions of Tehran is not fair in comparison with the population of each region during the years 2010 to 2012. Conclusion The results demonstrate that the distribution of beds in regions in Tehran is not fair in relation to the population of each region—and some regions had no hospitals. Therefore, it is essential for policymakers to frequently monitor this issue and investigate the fair distribution of hospital beds. PMID:26813480

  2. Avanti lipid tools: connecting lipids, technology, and cell biology.

    PubMed

    Sims, Kacee H; Tytler, Ewan M; Tipton, John; Hill, Kasey L; Burgess, Stephen W; Shaw, Walter A

    2014-08-01

    Lipid research is challenging owing to the complexity and diversity of the lipidome. Here we review a set of experimental tools developed for the seasoned lipid researcher, as well as, those who are new to the field of lipid research. Novel tools for probing protein-lipid interactions, applications for lipid binding antibodies, enhanced systems for the cellular delivery of lipids, improved visualization of lipid membranes using gold-labeled lipids, and advances in mass spectrometric analysis techniques will be discussed. Because lipid mediators are known to participate in a host of signal transduction and trafficking pathways within the cell, a comprehensive lipid toolbox that aids the science of lipidomics research is essential to better understand the molecular mechanisms of interactions between cellular components. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Tools to study lipid functions. PMID:24954118

  3. Natural radioactivity in surface soil samples from dwelling areas in Tehran city, Iran.

    PubMed

    Asgharizadeh, F; Ghannadi, M; Samani, A B; Meftahi, M; Shalibayk, M; Sahafipour, S A; Gooya, E S

    2013-09-01

    The study was carried out to determine radioactivity concentrations in surface soil samples of the city of Tehran and associated potential radiological hazards. The natural radionuclide ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) contents were determined for 50 locations throughout the geological surface formations in a representative area in the city of Tehran, Iran, using high-resolution gamma-spectrometric analysis. The range of activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the soil from the studied areas varies from 30.5±0.6 to 45.4±0.9, 27.3±0.5 to 57.1±1.1 and 328.0±4.6 to 768.5±13.4 Bq kg(-1) with overall mean values of 38.8±0.7, 43.4±0.8 and 555.1±8.9 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The mean radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, internal hazard index to quantify the internal exposure to radon and its daughter products, as well as the gamma activity concentration index for each sample are 143.6±4.6 Bq kg(-1), 0.39, 0.49 and 0.53, respectively. The average estimated radium equivalent is comparable with reported values for many countries in the world. Therefore, these areas may not pose radiological risks to the inhabitants due to harmful effects of the ionising radiation from the natural radioactivity in soil. The calculated average external and internal hazard indexes were found to be less than unity, as a recommended safe level. Estimates of the measured radionuclide content have been made for calculating the absorbed dose rate in the outdoor air at 1 m above the ground level. The absorbed dose rates resulting from those concentrations ranged from 48.1 to 88.7 nGy h(-1). Assuming a 20 % occupancy factor proposed by UNSCEAR, 2000, the corresponding effective dose rates in outdoor air equivalent to the population were calculated to be between 0.06 and 0.11 mSv y(-1). The measurement results and calculated values obtained from this study indicate that the dwelling areas in Tehran city, Iran, have background radioactivity levels within natural

  4. Synthesis of Lipidated Proteins.

    PubMed

    Mejuch, Tom; Waldmann, Herbert

    2016-08-17

    Protein lipidation is one of the major post-translational modifications (PTM) of proteins. The attachment of the lipid moiety frequently determines the localization and the function of the lipoproteins. Lipidated proteins participate in many essential biological processes in eukaryotic cells, including vesicular trafficking, signal transduction, and regulation of the immune response. Malfunction of these cellular processes usually leads to various diseases such as cancer. Understanding the mechanism of cellular signaling and identifying the protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions in which the lipoproteins are involved is a crucial task. To achieve these goals, fully functional lipidated proteins are required. However, access to lipoproteins by means of standard expression is often rather limited. Therefore, semisynthetic methods, involving the synthesis of lipidated peptides and their subsequent chemoselective ligation to yield full-length lipoproteins, were developed. In this Review we summarize the commonly used methods for lipoprotein synthesis and the development of the corresponding chemoselective ligation techniques. Several key studies involving full-length semisynthetic lipidated Ras, Rheb, and LC3 proteins are presented. PMID:27444727

  5. Lipid-absorbing Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr.; Wallace, C. J.

    1973-01-01

    The removal of bile acids and cholesterol by polymeric absorption is discussed in terms of micelle-polymer interaction. The results obtained with a polymer composed of 75 parts PEO and 25 parts PB plus curing ingredients show an absorption of 305 to 309%, based on original polymer weight. Particle size effects on absorption rate are analyzed. It is concluded that crosslinked polyethylene oxide polymers will absorb water, crosslinked polybutadiene polymers will absorb lipids; neither polymer will absorb appreciable amounts of lipids from micellar solutions of lipids in water.

  6. Prevalence of microcytosis in neonates: a cross-sectional study in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Khalesi, Nasrin; Khosravi, Nastaran; Rezaee, Mohammad Reza; Amini, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Background: Identification of α thalassemia (α thal) a common cause of microcytosis during neonatal periods is an important step prevent unnecessary interventions. Thus, low the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) may consider as α-thalassemia key detection points. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of microcytosis among neonates who born in Tehran, Iran. Methods: Cord blood samples were collected from 1001 newborns after birth in labor room and their red blood cell parameters were investigated. Results: MCV was 114.2 fl (95% CI: 113.5-114.9) and twenty three neonates (2.3%) had MCV less than 94 fL that classified as microcytosis and 4 (0.40%) had both low MCH and MCV. Conclusion: Low MCV especially in normal Hb newborns may hints for α thal detection. PMID:25679000

  7. Preliminary neutronics calculations for conversion of the Tehran research reactor core from HEU to LEU fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Nejat, S.M.R. . Dept. of Engineering Physics.)

    1993-08-01

    The 5-MW highly enriched uranium (HEU)-fueled Tehran Research Reactor is considered for conversion to high-density, low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. A preliminary neutronics calculation is performed as part of the conversion goal. In this study, two cores are considered: the HEU reference core and a proposed LEU core similar to the reference core, and a proposed LEU core similar to the reference core, using standardized U[sub 3]Si[sub 2] plates with the option of different [sup 235]U loadings. Various possibilities are investigated for the conversion of HEU to LEU fuel elements with 20% enriched [sup 235]U loadings of 207 to 297 g [sup 235]U/element. For the same equilibrium cycle length, the fuels are compared for flux, power distribution, burnup, and reactivity.

  8. Economic Sanctions Against Iran, and Drug Use in Tehran, Iran: A 2013 Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Deilamizade, Abbas; Esmizade, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study was conducted in 2013 among male drug user patients referred to Drop-In Centers (n = 23) and Residential Treatment Centers (n = 25) in Tehran. The results show that when the price of drugs increases, some drug users tend to use cheaper drugs, which are more harmful, use more harmful routes of administration, such as injecting drugs, sharing needles, and make money illegally. Economic sanctions have threatened Iranian people's economic status since 2006 and have become more intense in 2010 and 2011. As an important consequence of these economic sanctions, the price of drugs, as well as other goods and services, have increased in Iran in recent years. Given these "big economic events," big changes in the patterns of drug use, and an increase in drug use-related harms, can be expected to occur in the near future. PMID:25723313

  9. Effective delayed neutron fraction and prompt neutron lifetime of Tehran research reactor mixed-core.

    PubMed

    Lashkari, A; Khalafi, H; Kazeminejad, H

    2013-05-01

    In this work, kinetic parameters of Tehran research reactor (TRR) mixed cores have been calculated. The mixed core configurations are made by replacement of the low enriched uranium control fuel elements with highly enriched uranium control fuel elements in the reference core. The MTR_PC package, a nuclear reactor analysis tool, is used to perform the analysis. Simulations were carried out to compute effective delayed neutron fraction and prompt neutron lifetime. Calculation of kinetic parameters is necessary for reactivity and power excursion transient analysis. The results of this research show that effective delayed neutron fraction decreases and prompt neutron lifetime increases with the fuels burn-up. Also, by increasing the number of highly enriched uranium control fuel elements in the reference core, the prompt neutron lifetime increases, but effective delayed neutron fraction does not show any considerable change. PMID:24976672

  10. Health-Related Physical Fitness and Normative Data in Healthy Women, Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kordi, MR; Fallahi, AA; Sangari, M

    2010-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the age-related loss of health-related physical fitness and normative data in healthy population women aged 20–60 years old of Tehran, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1000 healthy women aged 20–60 years old were randomly selected from northern, southern, eastern, western and center regions of Tehran. Cardiovascular fitness was determined by Ros and Jakson protocol. Body composition were measured using Jackson and Poolak procedure, flexibility was determined by sit and reach test, muscular strength with a standard dynamometer and muscular endurance were measured with Sit-ups test in one minutes. Results: Cardiovascular fitness (vo2max), body composition, flexibility, muscular strength and endurance remained unchanged in the 20 and 30 year old age groups. Around of 40 years old, cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength and endurance began to gradually decline but body composition increased and flexibility unchanged. Data for Vo2max and the other variables in 4-yr groups provide “normative” results. Result indicated age-related declined in Vo2max (0.43 ml/ kg/min× yr (−1)), muscular strength (0.004 kg/weight ×yr (−1)) and endurance (0.63 repetition ×yr (−1)), and increased in body fat (0.43 % ×yr (−1)) in 30–60 year. One-way ANOVA test showed that all variables significantly differed (P<0.001) among decades except sit and rich test (P< 0.059) between the second and third decades. Vo2max had a significant relationship (P< 0.01) with Age, BMI, body fat percent and muscular strength and endurance. Conclusion: Iranian women have a greater decline in cardiovascular fitness; muscular strength and endurance. The results of this study can be used as reference material for clinical studies in different age groups. PMID:23113042

  11. Indications for Corneal Transplantation at a Tertiary Referral Center in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Zare, Mohammad; Javadi, Mohammad-Ali; Einollahi, Bahram; Baradaran-Rafii, Alireza; Ghanavati, Siamak Zarei; Farsani, Mohammad-Reza Jamshidi; Mohammadi, Parviz; Feizi, Sepehr

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To report the indications and techniques of corneal transplantation at a tertiary referral center in Tehran over a 3-year period. Methods Records of patients who had undergone any kind of corneal transplantation at Labbafinejad Medical Center, Tehran, Iran from March 2004 to March 2007 were reviewed to determine the indications and types of corneal transplantation. Results During this period, 776 eyes of 756 patients (including 504 male subjects) with mean age of 41.3±21.3 years underwent corneal transplantation. The most common indication was keratoconus (n=317, 40.8%) followed by bullous keratopathy (n=90, 11.6%), non-herpetic corneal scars (n=62, 8.0%), infectious corneal ulcers (n=61, 7.9%), previously failed grafts (n=61, 7.9%), endothelial and stromal corneal dystrophies (n=28, 3.6%), and trachoma keratopathy (n=26, 3.3%). Other indications including Terrien’s marginal degeneration, post-LASIK keratectasia, trauma, chemical burns, and peripheral ulcerative keratitis constituted the rest of cases. Techniques of corneal transplantation included penetrating keratoplasty (n=607, 78.2%), deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (n=108, 13.9%), conventional lamellar keratoplasty (n=44, 5.7%), automated lamellar therapeutic keratoplasty (n=8, 1.0%), and Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty (n=6, 0.8%) in descending order. The remaining cases were endothelial keratoplasty and sclerokeratoplasty. Conclusion In this study, keratoconus was the most common indication for penetrating keratoplasty which was the most prevalent technique of corneal transplantation. However, deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty is emerging as a growing alternative for corneal pathologies not involving the endothelium. PMID:22737335

  12. Technical efficiency and resources allocation in university hospitals in Tehran, 2009-2012

    PubMed Central

    Rezapour, Aziz; Ebadifard Azar, Farbod; Yousef Zadeh, Negar; Roumiani, YarAllah; Bagheri Faradonbeh, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Assessment of hospitals’ performance in achieving its goals is a basic necessity. Measuring the efficiency of hospitals in order to boost resource productivity in healthcare organizations is extremely important. The aim of this study was to measure technical efficiency and determining status of resource allocation in some university hospitals, in Tehran, Iran. Methods: This study was conducted in 2012; the research population consisted of all hospitals affiliated to Iran and Tehran medical sciences universities of. Required data, such as human and capital resources information and also production variables (hospital outputs) were collected from data centers of studied hospitals. Data were analyzed using data envelopment analysis (DEA) method, Deap2,1 software; and the stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) method, Frontier 4,1 software. Results: According to DEA method, average of technical, management (pure) and scale efficiency of the studied hospitals during the study period were calculated 0.87, 0.971, and 0.907, respectively. All kinds of efficiency did not follow a fixed trend over the study time and were constantly changing. In the stochastic frontier's production function analysis, the technical efficiency of the studied industry during the study period was estimated to be 0.389. Conclusion: This study represented hospitals with the highest and lowest efficiency. Reference hospitals (more efficient states) were indicated for the inefficient centers. According to the findings, it was found that in the hospitals that do not operate efficiently, there is a capacity to improve the technical efficiency by removing excess inputs without changes in the level of outputs. However, by the optimal allocation of resources in most studied hospitals, very important economy of scale can be achieved. PMID:26793657

  13. Psychometric assessment of beck scale for suicidal ideation (BSSI) in general population in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Esfahani, Maryam; Hashemi, Yasaman; Alavi, Kaveh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (BSSI) is a widely used instrument to assess suicidality. However, there is only limited information about the psychometric characteristics of BSSI in the Persian language. In this study, we investigated the validity, reliability and factor structure of the BSSI in the general population of Tehran. Methods: Initially, 900 questionnaire packages were distributed to the general population of Tehran (response rate: 59 percent), using cluster random sampling method. The questionnaire package consisted of a demographic questionnaire, the Persian translation of the BSSI, Symptom checklist-90- Revised (SCL-90-R), Beck Hopelessness Inventory (BHI) and Philips Social Support Appraisal Scale. Internal consistency and correlations of the BSSI scores with other constructs were investigated. Factor analysis was done using principal component method. Results: The Cronbach's alpha coefficients of the screening part and the whole scale were satisfactory (>0.8). The scores of both the screening part and the total scale in individuals who experienced suicidal attempt were higher than others. Both the screening part and the total scale had a positive correlation with depression and Global Severity Index in SCL-90-R, and a negative correlation with social support. The scores of the screening part had a positive correlation with anxiety, psychoticism, hostility and hopelessness as well. The screening part consisted of a single factor which explains 60% of the total variance. Conclusion: The Persian translation of the BSSI has desirable psychometric properties in research setting. However, the clinical usage of the scale remains to be explored, and the factor structure of the whole questionnaire should be assessed in a clinical sample. PMID:26793659

  14. Amphetamine use and its associated factors in body builders: a study from Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Narenjiha, Hooman; Tayyebi, Behnoosh; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Ahmadi, Gelareh; Assari, Shervin

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Epidemiological studies on all types of illicit drug use among athletes are essential for both the sport community and drug control achievements. Here, we investigated the prevalence and associated factors of amphetamine use in body builders in Tehran, Iran, 2007. Material and methods This study is a secondary analysis of a substance use survey done in 103 randomly selected gymnasia in Tehran (capital city of Iran). The survey was conducted from November 2007 to January 2008 and included 843 randomly selected bodybuilders (aged 40 years or less). By interviews via questionnaires the following data were obtained: age, job, marital status, education level, housing status, average monthly family income, number of family members, gymnasium area (m2), number of trainers, number of gymnasium members, initiation time (months), weekly duration of the sporting activity (h), monthly cost of the sporting activity, purpose of participating in sporting activity, and history of anabolic steroid and amphetamine use. Results One hundred twenty (13.3%) body builders reported a history of amphetamine use. According to the results of regression analysis, being married (risk ratio – RR = 0.540), and participating in body building to enhance self-esteem (RR = 0.423) or to enhance sport performance (RR = 0.545) had protective effects on amphetamine use. However, having university qualifications (RR = 1.843), using anabolic steroids (RR = 1.803) and participating in sport to maintain fitness (RR = 2.472) were linked to increased risk of amphetamine use. Conclusions Well-educated bodybuilders were more likely to use amphetamines, and why this is so needs to be discovered. If further studies show that they are not aware of the dangers associated with amphetamine use, providing them with information should be considered. PMID:22662012

  15. Inequity in household's capacity to pay and health payments in Tehran-Iran-2013

    PubMed Central

    Rezapour, Aziz; Ebadifard Azar, Farbod; Azami Aghdash, Saber; Tanoomand, Asghar; Ahmadzadeh, Nahal; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health inequality monitoring especially in Health care financing field is very important. Hence, this study tends to assess the inequality in household's capacity to pay and out-of-pocket health carepaymentsin Tehran metropolis. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2013.Thestudy population was selected by stratified cluster sampling, and they constitute the typical households living in Tehran (2200 households). The required data were collected through questionnaires and analyzed using Excel and Stata v.11. Concentration Index on inequality was used for measuring inequality status in capacity to pay and household payments for health care expenses; and also the concentration index for out-of-pocket payments and capacity to pay was used to determine the extent of inequality. The recall period for inpatient care was one year and 1 month for outpatient. Results: The average of out-of-pocket payments for receiving the outpatient services was determined to be 44.33US$ and for each inpatient1861.11 US$. Concentration index for household's outof- pocket payments for inpatient health care, out-of-pocket payments for outpatient health care and health prepayments were calculated 0.13, -0.10 and -0.11, respectively. Also, concentration index in household’s capacity to pay was estimated to be 0.11whichindicatedinequality to the benefit of the rich. The households used financing strategies like savings, borrowing or lending to pay their health care expenditures. Conclusion: According to this study, the poor spend a greater portion of their capacity to pay for outpatient and inpatient health care costs and prepayment, in comparison to the rich. Thus, supporting the vulnerable groups of the society to decrease out-of-pocket payments and increasing the household’s capacity to pay through government support in order to improve the household economic potential, must be considered very important. PMID:26793636

  16. Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence Among Blood Donors in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hesamizadeh, Khashayar; Sharafi, Heidar; Keyvani, Hossein; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Najafi-Tireh Shabankareh, Azar; Sharifi Olyaie, Roghiyeh; Keshvari, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) are both transmitted by the fecal-oral route and are known as the leading causes of acute viral hepatitis in the world, especially in developing countries. There is a lack of updated data on HAV and HEV seroprevalence in Iran. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HAV and HEV among a group of blood donors in Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was performed from July 2014 to December 2014, on a total of 559 blood donors referred to the Tehran blood transfusion center. The serum samples were tested for antibodies to HAV and HEV, using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results In the present study, 536 (95.9%) cases were male and 23 (4.1%) female with mean age of 38 years. Out of 559 blood donors, 107 (19.1%) were first-time donors, 163 (29.2%) lapsed donors and 289 (51.7%) regular donors. Anti-HAV was found in 395 (70.7%) and anti-HEV in 45 (8.1%) of the blood donors. The HAV and HEV seroprevalence increased by age. There was no significant difference between genders in terms of anti-HAV and anti-HEV status. The HAV and HEV seroprevalence was significantly related to the level of education, where the donors with higher level of education had lower rate of HAV and HEV seroprevalence. The HAV and HEV seroprevalence was significantly higher in regular and lapsed donors than in first-time donors. Conclusions The present study showed that both HAV and HEV infections are still endemic in Iran. PMID:27110256

  17. A 5-year scientometric analysis of research centers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Kamran; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Ghalichi, Leila; Khalili, Malahat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) has the oldest and highest number of research centers among all Iranian medical universities, this study was conducted to evaluate scientific output of research centers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) using scientometric indices and the affecting factors. Moreover, a number of scientometric indicators were introduced. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate a 5-year scientific performance of research centers of TUMS. Data were collected through questionnaires, annual evaluation reports of the Ministry of Health, and also from Scopus database. We used appropriate measures of central tendency and variation for descriptive analyses. Moreover, uni-and multi-variable linear regression were used to evaluate the effect of independent factors on the scientific output of the centers. Results: The medians of the numbers of papers and books during a 5-year period were 150.5 and 2.5 respectively. The median of the "articles per researcher" was 19.1. Based on multiple linear regression, younger age centers (p=0.001), having a separate budget line (p=0.016), and number of research personnel (p<0.001) had a direct significant correlation with the number of articles while real properties had a reverse significant correlation with it (p=0.004). Conclusion: The results can help policy makers and research managers to allocate sufficient resources to improve current situation of the centers. Newly adopted and effective scientometric indices are is suggested to be used to evaluate scientific outputs and functions of these centers. PMID:26157724

  18. The Effect of Service Quality on Patient loyalty: a Study of Private Hospitals in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Arab, M; Tabatabaei, SM Ghazi; Rashidian, A; Forushani, A Rahimi; Zarei, E

    2012-01-01

    Background: Service quality is perceived as an important factor for developing patient’s loyalty. The aim of this study was to determine the hospital service quality from the patients’ viewpoints and the relative importance of quality dimensions in predicting the patient’s loyalty. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010. The study sample was composed of 943 patients selected from eight private general hospitals in Tehran. The survey instrument was a questionnaire included 24 items about the service quality and 3 items about the patient’s loyalty. Exploratory factor analysis was employed to extracting the dimensions of service quality. Also, regression analysis was performed to determining the relative importance of the service quality dimensions in predicting the patient’s loyalty. Result: The mean score of service quality and patient’s loyalty was 3.99 and 4.16 out of 5, respectively. About 29% of the loyalty variance was explained by the service quality dimensions. Four quality dimensions (Costing, Process Quality, Interaction Quality and Environment Quality) were found to be key determinants of the patient’s loyalty in the private hospitals of Tehran. Conclusion: The patients’ experience in relation to the private hospitals’ services has strong impact on the outcome variables like willingness to return to the same hospital and reuse its services or recommend them to others. The relationship between the service quality and patient’s loyalty proves the strategic importance of improving the service quality for dragging and retaining patients and expanding the market share. PMID:23193509

  19. Study of Psycho-Social Factors Affecting Traffic Accidents Among Young Boys in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Javadi, Seyyed Mohammad Hossein; Fekr Azad, Hossein; Tahmasebi, Siyamak; Rafiei, Hassan; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Tajlili, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Unprecedented growth of fatalities due to traffic accidents in the recent years has raised great concerns and efforts of authorities in order to identify and control the causes of these accidents. Objectives: In the present study, the contribution of psychological, social, demographic, environmental and behavioral factors on traffic accidents was studied for young boys in Tehran, emphasizing the importance of psychosocial factors. Patients and Methods: The design of the present study was quantitative (correlational) in which a sample population including 253 boys from Tehran (Iran) with an age range of 18 to 24 who had been referred to insurance institutions, hospitals, correctional facilities as well as prisons, were selected using stratified cluster sampling during the year 2013.The subjects completed the following questionnaires: demographic, general health, lifestyle, Manchester Driving Behavior Questionnaire (MDBQ), young parenting, and NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). For data analysis, descriptive statistics, correlation coefficient, and inferential statistics including simultaneous regression, stepwise regression, and structural equations modeling were used. Results: The findings indicated that in the psychosocial model of driving behavior (including lapses, mistakes, and intentional violations) and accidents, psychological factors, depression (P < 0.02), personality trait of conscientiousness (P < 0.02), failure schema due to the parenting style of mother (P = 0.001), and perception of police commands (P < 0.002), played an important role in predicting driving behavior. Among social factors, perception of police regulations (P = 0.003), had an important effect on violations and mistakes. Among environmental and behavioral factors, major factors such as driving age (P = 0.001), drug and alcohol use (P = 0.001), having driver’s license (P = 0.013), records of imprisonment or committing a crime (P = 0.012) were also able to predict

  20. Self Esteem and Organizational Commitment Among Health Information Management Staff in Tertiary Care Hospitals in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Ebrahimi, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self esteem (SE) and organizational commitment (OC) have significant impact on the quality of work life. Aim: This study aims to gain a better understanding of the relationships between SE and OC among health information management staff in tertiary care hospitals in Tehran (Iran). Methods: This was a descriptive correlational and cross sectional study conducted on the health information management staff of tertiary care hospitals in Tehran, Iran. A total of 155 participants were randomly selected from 400 staff. Data were collected by two standard questionnaires. The SE and OC was measured using Eysenck SE scale and Meyer and Allen’s three component model, respectively. The collected data were analyzed with the SPSS (version 16) using statistical tests of of independent T-test, Pearson Correlation coefficient, one way ANOVA and F tests. Results: The OC and SE of the employees’ were 67.8, out of 120 (weak and 21.0 out of 30 (moderate), respectively. The values for affective commitment, normative commitment, and continuance commitment were respectively 21.3 out of 40 (moderate), 23.9 out of 40 (moderate), and 22.7 out of 40 (moderate). The Pearson correlation coefficient test showed a significant OC and SE was statistically significant (P<0.05). The one way ANOVA test (P<0.05) did not show any significant difference between educational degree and work experience with SE and OC. Conclusion: This research showed that SE and OC are moderate. SE and OC have strong correlation with turnover, critical thinking, job satisfaction, and individual and organizational improvement. Therefore, applying appropriate human resource policies is crucial to reinforce these measures. PMID:25716374

  1. Nurse–Physician Collaboration: the Attitudes of Baccalaureate Nursing Students at Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Zakerimoghadam, Masoumeh; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad; Kazemnejad Leili, Anoushiravan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Establishing professional communication between physicians and nurses regarding their supplemental roles in health care for patients is unavoidable. Existing studies have reported on related problems concerning ineffective professional collaboration among health care providers. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine Iranian bachelor of nursing students’ attitudes regarding collaboration between physicians and nurses at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Patients and Methods: This study was an inferential cross sectional study. The study population consisted of all first and fourth academic-year Iranian bachelor of nursing students at Tehran University of Medical Sciences (277 individuals), who were selected by convenience sampling. The participation rate was 97.47% (270 individuals). A questionnaire including demographic information and professional experience was used to gather information (included 12 questions). Additionally, the Jefferson Scale of Attitudes toward Physician-Nurse Collaboration (JSAPNC) was also used (included 15 questions). Data were analyzed using the SPSS software. The applied statistical tests included: χ2, t student and ANOVA test. Results: The obtained mean attitude score for the first academic year (51.28 ± 4.98) was higher than the mean attitude score of the fourth academic year nursing students (50.56 ± 4.05). However, the results of the independent statistical t-test showed no significant difference between the two groups of students (P = 0.322). In the four dimensions of JSAPNC, concerning only the dimension of physician authority, there were significant differences between the two groups of students (P < 0.05). The obtained means for the first and fourth academic year of bachelor nursing students reflected their positive attitudes about collaboration between physicians and nurses. Conclusions: The positive attitude of most nursing students found in this study showed the need for appropriate and

  2. Metabolism. Part III: Lipids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodner, George M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the metabolic processes of complex lipids, including saponification, activation and transport, and the beta-oxidation spiral. Discusses fatty acid degradation in regard to biochemical energy and ketone bodies. (TW)

  3. Lipid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. Food is ... disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Lipid metabolism disorders, such as Gaucher disease and Tay-Sachs ...

  4. Cytarabine Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Cytarabine lipid complex is used to treat lymphomatous meningitis (a type of cancer in the covering of ... to take.tell your doctor if you have meningitis. Your doctor will probably not want you to ...

  5. Pomegranate (Punicagranatum) juice decreases lipid peroxidation, but has no effect on plasma advanced glycated end-products in adults with type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Sohrab, Golbon; Angoorani, Pooneh; Tohidi, Maryam; Tabibi, Hadi; Kimiagar, Masoud; Nasrollahzadeh, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes mellitus characterized by hyperglycemia could increase oxidative stress and formation of advanced glycated end-products (AGEs), which contribute to diabetic complications. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of pomegranate juice (PJ) containing natural antioxidant on lipid peroxidation and plasma AGEs in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Materials and methods In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 44 patients (age range 56±6.8 years), T2D were randomly assigned to one of two groups: group A (PJ, n=22) and group B (Placebo, n=22). At the baseline and the end of 12-week intervention, biochemical markers including fasting plasma glucose, insulin, oxidative stress, and AGE markers including carboxy methyl lysine (CML) and pentosidine were assayed. Results At baseline, there were no significant differences in plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels between the two groups, but malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased levels were significantly different (P<0.001). After 12 weeks of intervention, TAC increased (P<0.05) and MDA decreased (P<0.01) in the PJ group when compared with the placebo group. However, no significant differences were observed in plasma concentration of CML and pentosidine between the two groups. Conclusions The study showed that PJ decreases lipid peroxidation. Therefore, PJ consumption may delay onset of T2D complications related to oxidative stress. PMID:26355954

  6. Consumption of low-fat dairy foods for 6 months improves insulin resistance without adversely affecting lipids or bodyweight in healthy adults: a randomized free-living cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Given the highly debated role of dairy food consumption in modulating biomarkers of metabolic syndrome, this study was conducted to examine the influence of long-term (6 month) dairy consumption on metabolic parameters in healthy volunteers under free-living conditions without energy restriction. Methods Twenty-three healthy subjects completed a randomized, crossover trial of 12 months. Participants consumed their habitual diets and were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: a high dairy supplemented group instructed to consume 4 servings of dairy per day (HD); or a low dairy supplemented group limited to no more than 2 servings of dairy per day (LD). Baseline, midpoint, and endpoint metabolic responses were examined. Results Endpoint measurements of body weight and composition, energy expenditure, blood pressure, blood glucose, and blood lipid and lipoprotein responses did not differ (p > 0.05) between the LD and HD groups. HD consumption improved (p < 0.05) plasma insulin (-9%) and insulin resistance (-11%, p = 0.03) as estimated by HOMA-IR compared with the LD group. Conclusions Study results suggest that high dairy consumption (4 servings/d) may improve insulin resistance without negatively impacting bodyweight or lipid status under free-living conditions. Trial registration Trial registration: NCT01761955 PMID:23638799

  7. [Effect of five kinds of vegetable seed oil on serum lipid and lipid peroxidation in rats].

    PubMed

    Guo, Y; Cai, X; Zhao, X; Shi, R

    2001-01-01

    The effects of vegetable seed oil on hyperlipidemia induced by high lipid diet in rats. Male adult Wistar rats were fed on the test diet containing 94% high lipid diet and 6% lard pinon seed oil, perilla seed oil, blackcurrent seed oil, borage seed oil and evening primrose seed oil respectively for 3 weeks. The results showed that the vale of trilyceride(TG), total cholesterol(TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), LDL-C/HDL-C(high density lipoprotein cholesterol) ratio increased and the vale of HDL-C/TC ratio and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase(LCAT) activity decreased in the groups with vegetable seed oil were less than that of the control group. The results suggested that all the five kinds of vegetable seed oil had the effect of regulating lipid metabolism of hyperlipidemia rats to some extent. Pinon seed oil and borage seed oil may be well suited for the prevention of atherosclerosis. PMID:11255765

  8. Acyl-lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Shorrosh, Basil; Beisson, Fred; Andersson, Mats X; Arondel, Vincent; Bates, Philip D; Baud, Sébastien; Bird, David; Debono, Allan; Durrett, Timothy P; Franke, Rochus B; Graham, Ian A; Katayama, Kenta; Kelly, Amélie A; Larson, Tony; Markham, Jonathan E; Miquel, Martine; Molina, Isabel; Nishida, Ikuo; Rowland, Owen; Samuels, Lacey; Schmid, Katherine M; Wada, Hajime; Welti, Ruth; Xu, Changcheng; Zallot, Rémi; Ohlrogge, John

    2013-01-01

    Acyl lipids in Arabidopsis and all other plants have a myriad of diverse functions. These include providing the core diffusion barrier of the membranes that separates cells and subcellular organelles. This function alone involves more than 10 membrane lipid classes, including the phospholipids, galactolipids, and sphingolipids, and within each class the variations in acyl chain composition expand the number of structures to several hundred possible molecular species. Acyl lipids in the form of triacylglycerol account for 35% of the weight of Arabidopsis seeds and represent their major form of carbon and energy storage. A layer of cutin and cuticular waxes that restricts the loss of water and provides protection from invasions by pathogens and other stresses covers the entire aerial surface of Arabidopsis. Similar functions are provided by suberin and its associated waxes that are localized in roots, seed coats, and abscission zones and are produced in response to wounding. This chapter focuses on the metabolic pathways that are associated with the biosynthesis and degradation of the acyl lipids mentioned above. These pathways, enzymes, and genes are also presented in detail in an associated website (ARALIP: http://aralip.plantbiology.msu.edu/). Protocols and methods used for analysis of Arabidopsis lipids are provided. Finally, a detailed summary of the composition of Arabidopsis lipids is provided in three figures and 15 tables. PMID:23505340

  9. Acyl-lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Shorrosh, Basil; Beisson, Fred; Andersson, Mats X; Arondel, Vincent; Bates, Philip D; Baud, Sébastien; Bird, David; Debono, Allan; Durrett, Timothy P; Franke, Rochus B; Graham, Ian A; Katayama, Kenta; Kelly, Amélie A; Larson, Tony; Markham, Jonathan E; Miquel, Martine; Molina, Isabel; Nishida, Ikuo; Rowland, Owen; Samuels, Lacey; Schmid, Katherine M; Wada, Hajime; Welti, Ruth; Xu, Changcheng; Zallot, Rémi; Ohlrogge, John

    2010-01-01

    Acyl lipids in Arabidopsis and all other plants have a myriad of diverse functions. These include providing the core diffusion barrier of the membranes that separates cells and subcellular organelles. This function alone involves more than 10 membrane lipid classes, including the phospholipids, galactolipids, and sphingolipids, and within each class the variations in acyl chain composition expand the number of structures to several hundred possible molecular species. Acyl lipids in the form of triacylglycerol account for 35% of the weight of Arabidopsis seeds and represent their major form of carbon and energy storage. A layer of cutin and cuticular waxes that restricts the loss of water and provides protection from invasions by pathogens and other stresses covers the entire aerial surface of Arabidopsis. Similar functions are provided by suberin and its associated waxes that are localized in roots, seed coats, and abscission zones and are produced in response to wounding. This chapter focuses on the metabolic pathways that are associated with the biosynthesis and degradation of the acyl lipids mentioned above. These pathways, enzymes, and genes are also presented in detail in an associated website (ARALIP: http://aralip.plantbiology.msu.edu/). Protocols and methods used for analysis of Arabidopsis lipids are provided. Finally, a detailed summary of the composition of Arabidopsis lipids is provided in three figures and 15 tables. PMID:22303259

  10. Acyl-Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Shorrosh, Basil; Beisson, Fred; Andersson, Mats X.; Arondel, Vincent; Bates, Philip D.; Baud, Sébastien; Bird, David; DeBono, Allan; Durrett, Timothy P.; Franke, Rochus B.; Graham, Ian A.; Katayama, Kenta; Kelly, Amélie A.; Larson, Tony; Markham, Jonathan E.; Miquel, Martine; Molina, Isabel; Nishida, Ikuo; Rowland, Owen; Samuels, Lacey; Schmid, Katherine M.; Wada, Hajime; Welti, Ruth; Xu, Changcheng; Zallot, Rémi; Ohlrogge, John

    2010-01-01

    Acyl lipids in Arabidopsis and all other plants have a myriad of diverse functions. These include providing the core diffusion barrier of the membranes that separates cells and subcellular organelles. This function alone involves more than 10 membrane lipid classes, including the phospholipids, galactolipids, and sphingolipids, and within each class the variations in acyl chain composition expand the number of structures to several hundred possible molecular species. Acyl lipids in the form of triacylglycerol account for 35% of the weight of Arabidopsis seeds and represent their major form of carbon and energy storage. A layer of cutin and cuticular waxes that restricts the loss of water and provides protection from invasions by pathogens and other stresses covers the entire aerial surface of Arabidopsis. Similar functions are provided by suberin and its associated waxes that are localized in roots, seed coats, and abscission zones and are produced in response to wounding. This chapter focuses on the metabolic pathways that are associated with the biosynthesis and degradation of the acyl lipids mentioned above. These pathways, enzymes, and genes are also presented in detail in an associated website (ARALIP: http://aralip.plantbiology.msu.edu/). Protocols and methods used for analysis of Arabidopsis lipids are provided. Finally, a detailed summary of the composition of Arabidopsis lipids is provided in three figures and 15 tables. PMID:22303259

  11. Acyl-Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Shorrosh, Basil; Beisson, Fred; Andersson, Mats X.; Arondel, Vincent; Bates, Philip D.; Baud, Sébastien; Bird, David; DeBono, Allan; Durrett, Timothy P.; Franke, Rochus B.; Graham, Ian A.; Katayama, Kenta; Kelly, Amélie A.; Larson, Tony; Markham, Jonathan E.; Miquel, Martine; Molina, Isabel; Nishida, Ikuo; Rowland, Owen; Samuels, Lacey; Schmid, Katherine M.; Wada, Hajime; Welti, Ruth; Xu, Changcheng; Zallot, Rémi; Ohlrogge, John

    2013-01-01

    Acyl lipids in Arabidopsis and all other plants have a myriad of diverse functions. These include providing the core diffusion barrier of the membranes that separates cells and subcellular organelles. This function alone involves more than 10 membrane lipid classes, including the phospholipids, galactolipids, and sphingolipids, and within each class the variations in acyl chain composition expand the number of structures to several hundred possible molecular species. Acyl lipids in the form of triacylglycerol account for 35% of the weight of Arabidopsis seeds and represent their major form of carbon and energy storage. A layer of cutin and cuticular waxes that restricts the loss of water and provides protection from invasions by pathogens and other stresses covers the entire aerial surface of Arabidopsis. Similar functions are provided by suberin and its associated waxes that are localized in roots, seed coats, and abscission zones and are produced in response to wounding. This chapter focuses on the metabolic pathways that are associated with the biosynthesis and degradation of the acyl lipids mentioned above. These pathways, enzymes, and genes are also presented in detail in an associated website (ARALIP: http://aralip.plantbiology.msu.edu/). Protocols and methods used for analysis of Arabidopsis lipids are provided. Finally, a detailed summary of the composition of Arabidopsis lipids is provided in three figures and 15 tables. PMID:23505340

  12. GIS modeling of seismic vulnerability of residential fabrics considering geotechnical, structural, social and physical distance indicators in Tehran using multi-criteria decision-making techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaie, F.; Panahi, M.

    2015-03-01

    The main issue in determining seismic vulnerability is having a comprehensive view of all probable damages related to earthquake occurrence. Therefore, taking into account factors such as peak ground acceleration at the time of earthquake occurrence, the type of structures, population distribution among different age groups, level of education and the physical distance to hospitals (or medical care centers) and categorizing them into four indicators of geotechnical, structural, social and physical distance to needed facilities and from dangerous ones will provide us with a better and more exact outcome. To this end, this paper uses the analytic hierarchy process to study the importance of criteria or alternatives and uses the geographical information system to study the vulnerability of Tehran to an earthquake. This study focuses on the fact that Tehran is surrounded by three active and major faults: Mosha, North Tehran and Rey. In order to comprehensively determine the vulnerability, three scenarios are developed. In each scenario, seismic vulnerability of different areas in Tehran is analyzed and classified into four levels: high, medium, low and safe. The results show that, regarding seismic vulnerability, the faults of Mosha, North Tehran and Rey make, respectively, 6, 16 and 10% of Tehran highly vulnerable, while 34, 14 and 27% is safe.

  13. GIS modelling of seismic vulnerability of residential fabrics considering geotechnical, structural, social and physical distance indicators in Tehran city using multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaie, F.; Panahi, M.

    2014-09-01

    The main issue in determining the seismic vulnerability is having a comprehensive view to all probable damages related to earthquake occurrence. Therefore, taking factors such as peak ground acceleration (PGA) in the time of earthquake occurrence, the type of structures, population distribution among different age groups, level of education, the physical distance to a hospitals (or medical care centers), etc. into account and categorized under four indicators of geotechnical, structural, social and physical distance to needed facilities and distance from dangerous ones will provide us with a better and more exact outcome. To this end in this paper using analytic hierarchy process (AHP), the amount of importance of criteria or alternatives are determined and using geographical information system (GIS), the vulnerability of Tehran metropolitan as a result of an earthquake, is studied. This study focuses on the fact that Tehran is surrounded by three active and major faults of the Mosha, North Tehran and Rey. In order to comprehensively determine the vulnerability, three scenarios are developed. In each scenario, seismic vulnerability of different areas in Tehran city is analysed and classified into four levels including high, medium, low and safe. The results show that regarding seismic vulnerability, the faults of Mosha, North Tehran and Rey respectively make 6, 16 and 10% of Tehran area highly vulnerable and also 34, 14 and 27% are safe.

  14. Lipid emulsions – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 6

    PubMed Central

    Adolph, M.; Heller, A. R.; Koch, T.; Koletzko, B.; Kreymann, K. G.; Krohn, K.; Pscheidl, E.; Senkal, M.

    2009-01-01

    The infusion of lipid emulsions allows a high energy supply, facilitates the prevention of high glucose infusion rates and is indispensable for the supply with essential fatty acids. The administration of lipid emulsions is recommended within ≤7 days after starting PN (parenteral nutrition) to avoid deficiency of essential fatty acids. Low-fat PN with a high glucose intake increases the risk of hyperglycaemia. In parenterally fed patients with a tendency to hyperglycaemia, an increase in the lipid-glucose ratio should be considered. In critically ill patients the glucose infusion should not exceed 50% of energy intake. The use of lipid emulsions with a low phospholipid/triglyceride ratio is recommended and should be provided with the usual PN to prevent depletion of essential fatty acids, lower the risk of hyperglycaemia, and prevent hepatic steatosis. Biologically active vitamin E (α-tocopherol) should continuously be administered along with lipid emulsions to reduce lipid peroxidation. Parenteral lipids should provide about 25–40% of the parenteral non-protein energy supply. In certain situations (i.e. critically ill, respiratory insufficiency) a lipid intake of up to 50 or 60% of non-protein energy may be reasonable. The recommended daily dose for parenteral lipids in adults is 0.7–1.3 g triglycerides/kg body weight. Serum triglyceride concentrations should be monitored regularly with dosage reduction at levels >400 mg/dl (>4.6 mmol/l) and interruption of lipid infusion at levels >1000 mg/dl (>11.4 mmol/l). There is little evidence at this time that the choice of different available lipid emulsions affects clinical endpoints. PMID:20049078

  15. Lipid membranes for membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Kukol, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of membrane proteins requires the setup of an accurate representation of lipid bilayers. This chapter describes the setup of a lipid bilayer system from scratch using generally available tools, starting with a definition of the lipid molecule POPE, generation of a lipid bilayer, energy minimization, MD simulation, and data analysis. The data analysis includes the calculation of area and volume per lipid, deuterium order parameters, self-diffusion constant, and the electron density profile. PMID:25330959

  16. Heritability of Lipid Phenotypes among African-Americans: Jackson Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determinants of serum lipid levels include both genetic and non-genetic components. More research is needed to determine the role each plays in serum lipid levels of African-Americans. The Jackson Heart Study Family Sub-Study (JHS, FSS) represents a cohort of African-American adults for which both ...

  17. Cuticular Lipids of Female Solitary Bees, Osmia lignaria Say and Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cuticular lipids of the cavity-nesting adult female solitary bees, Osmia lignaria Say and Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and combined GC-mass spectrometry. The cuticular lipids of these female bees mainly consisted of hydrocarbons....

  18. Taxi drivers' views on risky driving behavior in Tehran: a qualitative study using a social marketing approach.

    PubMed

    Shams, Mohsen; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Majdzadeh, Reza; Rashidian, Arash; Montazeri, Ali

    2011-05-01

    The use of the social marketing approach for public health issues is increasing. This approach uses marketing concepts borrowed from the principles of commercial marketing to promote beneficial health behaviors. In this qualitative study, four focus groups involving 42 participants were used in consumer research to explore taxi drivers' views on the driving situation and the determinants of risky driving behaviors in Tehran, as well as to gather their ideas for developing a social marketing program to reduce risky driving behaviors among taxi drivers in Tehran, Iran. Participants were asked to respond to questions that would guide the development of a marketing mix, or four Ps (product, price, place and promotion). The discussions determined that the program product should involve avoiding risky driving behaviors through increased attention to driving. They pointed out that developing and communicating with a well-designed persuasive message meant to draw their attention to driving could affect their driving behaviors. In addition, participants identified price, place and promotion strategies. They offered suggestions for marketing nonrisky driving to the target audience. The focus group discussions generated important insights into the values and the motivations that affect consumers' decisions to adopt the product. The focus group guided the development of a social marketing program to reduce risky driving behaviors in taxi drivers in Tehran, Iran. PMID:21376850

  19. Multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from patients in Tehran belong to a genetically distinct cluster.

    PubMed

    Feizabadi, M M; Shahriari, M; Safavi, M; Gharavi, S; Hamid, M

    2003-01-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was used to study the molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in certain areas of Tehran. 120 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, including drug-resistant strains (n = 23), were analysed using polymorphic GC-rich sequence (PGRS) and IS6110 probes. There was considerable diversity among the strains cultured from patients from certain areas. The results of RFLP showed that multidrug resistant (MDR) isolates of M. tuberculosis in Tehran belong to a group of strains with low copies of IS6110 and PGRS. The degree of clustering was higher for the drug-resistant strains than for the susceptible ones (65% vs 20%). Based on the demographic data and results of RFLP, it appears that recent transmissions of TB from old patients have occurred in Tehran. However, drug-resistant TB in the city is mainly caused by strains that look different from those cultured from such patients. The majority of MDR isolates (85%) in this study contained a low copy number of IS6110 and PGRS in RFLP, and were mostly recovered from immigrants and refugees. PMID:12685884

  20. Lipid Production from Nannochloropsis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiao-Nian; Chen, Tian-Peng; Yang, Bo; Liu, Jin; Chen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae are sunlight-driven green cell factories for the production of potential bioactive products and biofuels. Nannochloropsis represents a genus of marine microalgae with high photosynthetic efficiency and can convert carbon dioxide to storage lipids mainly in the form of triacylglycerols and to the ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Recently, Nannochloropsis has received ever-increasing interests of both research and public communities. This review aims to provide an overview of biology and biotechnological potential of Nannochloropsis, with the emphasis on lipid production. The path forward for the further exploration of Nannochloropsis for lipid production with respect to both challenges and opportunities is also discussed. PMID:27023568

  1. Lipid Production from Nannochloropsis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-Nian; Chen, Tian-Peng; Yang, Bo; Liu, Jin; Chen, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Microalgae are sunlight-driven green cell factories for the production of potential bioactive products and biofuels. Nannochloropsis represents a genus of marine microalgae with high photosynthetic efficiency and can convert carbon dioxide to storage lipids mainly in the form of triacylglycerols and to the ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Recently, Nannochloropsis has received ever-increasing interests of both research and public communities. This review aims to provide an overview of biology and biotechnological potential of Nannochloropsis, with the emphasis on lipid production. The path forward for the further exploration of Nannochloropsis for lipid production with respect to both challenges and opportunities is also discussed. PMID:27023568

  2. Lipid management in ramadan.

    PubMed

    Slim, Ines; Ach, Koussay; Chaieb, Larbi

    2015-05-01

    During Ramadan fast, Muslims must refrain from smoking, eating, drinking, having sexual activity, and consuming oral medications from sunrise to sunset. It has been previously shown that Ramadan fasting induces favourable changes on metabolic parameters, reduces oxidative stress and inflammation and promotes cardiovascular benefits. Although ill people are exempted from fasting, most patients with chronic diseases are keen on performing this Islamic-ritual. During recent years, Risk stratification and treatment adjustment during Ramadan are well known and structured in several guidelines for patients with diabetes mellitus. Data related to the effect of Ramadan fast on lipid profiles are less known and several controversies have been reported. Here, we focus on lipid profile and lipid management during Ramadan taking into account comorbidities and cardiovascular risk. PMID:26013790

  3. Bioorthogonal chemical reporters for analyzing protein lipidation and lipid trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Hang, Howard C.; Wilson, John P.; Charron, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Conspectus Protein lipidation and lipid trafficking control many key biological functions in all kingdoms of life. The discovery of diverse lipid species and their covalent attachment to many proteins has revealed a complex and regulated network of membranes and lipidated proteins that are central to fundamental aspects of physiology and human disease. Given the complexity of lipid trafficking and the protein targeting mechanisms involved with membrane lipids, precise and sensitive methods are needed to monitor and identify these hydrophobic molecules in bacteria, yeast, and higher eukaryotes. Although many analytical methods have been developed for characterizing membrane lipids and covalently modified proteins, traditional reagents and approaches have limited sensitivity, do not faithfully report on the lipids of interest, or are not readily accessible. The invention of bioorthogonal ligation reactions, such as the Staudinger ligation and azide–alkyne cycloadditions, has provided new tools to address these limitations, and their use has begun to yield fresh insight into the biology of protein lipidation and lipid trafficking. In this Account, we discuss how these new bioorthogonal ligation reactions and lipid chemical reporters afford new opportunities for exploring the biology of lipid-modified proteins and lipid trafficking. Lipid chemical reporters from our laboratory and several other research groups have enabled improved detection and large-scale proteomic analysis of fatty-acylated and prenylated proteins. For example, fatty acid and isoprenoid chemical reporters in conjunction with bioorthogonal ligation methods have circumvented the limited sensitivity and hazards of radioactive analogs, allowing rapid and robust fluorescent detection of lipidated proteins in all organisms tested. These chemical tools have revealed alterations in protein lipidation in different cellular states and are beginning to provide unique insights in mechanisms of regulation

  4. Immobilized lipid-bilayer materials

    DOEpatents

    Sasaki, Darryl Y.; Loy, Douglas A.; Yamanaka, Stacey A.

    2000-01-01

    A method for preparing encapsulated lipid-bilayer materials in a silica matrix comprising preparing a silica sol, mixing a lipid-bilayer material in the silica sol and allowing the mixture to gel to form the encapsulated lipid-bilayer material. The mild processing conditions allow quantitative entrapment of pre-formed lipid-bilayer materials without modification to the material's spectral characteristics. The method allows for the immobilization of lipid membranes to surfaces. The encapsulated lipid-bilayer materials perform as sensitive optical sensors for the detection of analytes such as heavy metal ions and can be used as drug delivery systems and as separation devices.

  5. Evaluation of Spatial and Temporal Distribution Changes of LST Using Landsat Images (case STUDY:TEHRAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachar, H.; Vafsian, A. R.; Modiri, M.; Enayati, H.; Safdari Nezhad, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    In traditional approach, the land surface temperature (LST) is estimated by the permanent or portable ground-based weather stations. Due to the lack of adequate distribution of weather stations, a uniform LST could not be achieved. Todays, With the development of remote sensing from space, satellite data offer the only possibility for measuring LST over the entire globe with sufficiently high temporal resolution and with complete spatially averaged rather than point values. the remote sensing imageries with relatively high spatial and temporal resolution are used as suitable tools to uniformly LST estimation. Time series, generated by remote sensed LST, provide a rich spatial-temporal infrastructure for heat island's analysis. in this paper, a time series was generated by Landsat8 and Landsat7 satellite images to analysis the changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of the Tehran's LST. In this process, The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) threshold method was applied to extract the LST; then the changes in spatial and temporal distribution of LST over the period 1999 to 2014 were evaluated by the statistical analysis. Finally, the achieved results show the very low temperature regions and the middle temperature regions were reduced by the rate of 0.54% and 5.67% respectively. On the other hand, the high temperature and the very high temperature regions were increased by 3.68% and 0.38% respectively. These results indicate an incremental procedure on the distribution of the hot regions in Tehran in this period. To quantitatively compare urban heat islands (UHI), an index called Urban Heat Island Ratio Index(URI) was calculated. It can reveal the intensity of the UHI within the urban area. The calculation of the index was based on the ratio of UHI area to urban area. The greater the index, the more intense the UHI was. Eventually, Considering URI between 1999 and 2014, an increasing about 0.03 was shown. The reasons responsible for the changes

  6. Future climate of Tehran Province using dynamical downscaling of COSMO-CLM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodoudi, S.; Langer, I.; Walter, A.; Fallah, B.

    2013-12-01

    Aim of this study is to investigate the future climate for the province Tehran till 2100. The climate model ECHAM5 and the regional climate model COSMO-CLM were used to simulate the regional climate change in this region. Using double nesting, the temperature and precipitation have been simulated with a resolution of 7km for this region. Results (2m temperature and precipitation) have been evaluated in 4 time slices (1981-2000, 2001-2020, 2031-2050, 2081-2100). For the first time slice, the observation data from the local stations have been compared with COSMO-CLM, CRU and GPCC reanalyze data. The COSMO-CLM model is warm and humid for this region. The maximum mean absolute error is for the station Abali in summer. This station is located in mountainous area. Results of comparison of first and fourth time slices show, that in winter the temperature will increase about 2 -3°C and in summer about 4°C in Tehran province. By calculation of extreme events (number of days with temperature greater than 35°C, days with precipitation greater than 50mm, Frost days with a minimum temperature less than 0°C and Ice days with a maximum temperature less than 0°C, it is shown, that the number of extreme events of temperature and precipitation will increase, while there is a decreasing in the number of Ice days and Frost days in the future. The results from the precipitation time series in the simulated time slices show, that during January till April the precipitation amount will decrease for the time period 2081-2100 comparing to period 1981-2000, while from May to December the precipitation will increase in the fourth time slice comparing to the period of 1981-2000. The results of SPI will be also shown for all time slices and will be compared to each other in order to detect the drought frequency in this region in future.

  7. Numerical simulations of boundary layer structure during the high pollution episode in Tehran region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakooti, H.; Musson-Genon, L.; Sportisse, B.

    2009-04-01

    In order improve meteorological fields and boundary layer structure in the Tehran region in finescale (~1-km horizontal grid spacing) simulations, an urban canopy parameterization (UCP) that uses the drag force approach (DA) for dynamics and turbulent effects with a modified version of the soil model (SM2- U 3D), to represent the thermodynamic effects of the canopy elements is applied in comparison with ‘standard version' of MM5. This version assesses the sensible and latent heat fluxes from rural and urban surfaces and anthropogenic heat flux in each of the computational layers inside the canopies by considering the shadowing effect, the radiative trapping by the street canyons, and the storage heat flux by the artificial surfaces. The observations and simulations show that Tehran PBL structure is extremely under effect of interactions between topographic and heat island flows and show a multi layer structure. The simulations by DA-SM2-U show better correlation with observations and standard version (The slab roughness approach: RA) are unsatisfactory at neighborhood scales in this area. The DA-SM2-U meteorological fields seem well simulated following the RSL and PBL: decrease of the wind speed inside the dense canopies and even in the majority of PBL, skirting of the flow around the canopy blocks, warmer air inside the vegetation canopy than above open areas during the night and conversely during the day, and constantly warmer air inside the urban canopy. A discontinuity in the eddy diffusivity profile is simulated by DA-SM2-U between the canopies and the upper atmosphere, with small values of the eddy diffusivity inside the canopies, inducing a limitation of the turbulent exchanges between the inside and the outside of the canopies. The vertical profiles of potential temperature in urban areas have shown that simulations using DA-SM2-U reduce the tendency toward stable stratification. The comparison with measurements shows that the surface air temperature

  8. Lipid rescue in children: The prompt decision.

    PubMed

    Eizaga Rebollar, Ramón; García Palacios, María V; Morales Guerrero, Javier; Torres Morera, Luis M

    2016-08-01

    We report the case of a 17-month-old child who underwent laparotomy under general anesthesia and caudal block. Electrocardiogram ST-T changes were observed after local anesthetic injection. The prompt use of Intralipid 30% was successful in normalizing ECG alterations. Our experience is consistent with previous literature, mainly carried out in adults. Thereby, we conduct a brief review of the subject in pediatrics. As a major conclusion, we strongly recommend the "fast-track" lipid rescue as soon as this severe complication is detected. PMID:27290983

  9. INDIVIDUAL TISSUE TO TOTAL BODY-WEIGHT RELATIONSHIPS AND TOTAL, POLAR, AND NON-POLAR LIPIDS IN TISSUES OF HATCHERY LAKE TROUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tissue body weight relaltionships, total lipid, and major lipid subclasses were measured in 20 adult hatchery lake trout to obtain a more in-depth understanding of the major lipid compartments of the "lean" lake trout for use in modeling the disposition of xenobiotics. It is sug...

  10. Structure of lipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Nagle, John F.; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    The quantitative experimental uncertainty in the structure of fully hydrated, biologically relevant, fluid (Lα) phase lipid bilayers has been too large to provide a firm base for applications or for comparison with simulations. Many structural methods are reviewed including modern liquid crystallography of lipid bilayers that deals with the fully developed undulation fluctuations that occur in the Lα phase. These fluctuations degrade the higher order diffraction data in a way that, if unrecognized, leads to erroneous conclusions regarding bilayer structure. Diffraction measurements at high instrumental resolution provide a measure of these fluctuations. In addition to providing better structural determination, this opens a new window on interactions between bilayers, so the experimental determination of interbilayer interaction parameters is reviewed briefly. We introduce a new structural correction based on fluctuations that has not been included in any previous studies. Updated measurements, such as for the area compressibility modulus, are used to provide adjustments to many of the literature values of structural quantities. Since the gel (Lβ′) phase is valuable as a stepping stone for obtaining fluid phase results, a brief review is given of the lower temperature phases. The uncertainty in structural results for lipid bilayers is being reduced and best current values are provided for bilayers of five lipids. PMID:11063882

  11. Lipids: Absorption and transport

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the hydrophobic nature of lipids, dietary fat is handled differently than protein or carbohydrate with respect with digestion and absorption. Dietary fats are broken down throughout the gastrointestinal system. A unique group of enzymes and cofactors allows this process to proceed in an eff...

  12. Lipid droplets go nuclear.

    PubMed

    Farese, Robert V; Walther, Tobias C

    2016-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are sometimes found in the nucleus of some cells. In this issue, Ohsaki et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201507122) show that the nuclear membrane, promyelocytic leukemia bodies, and the protein PML-II play a role in nuclear LD formation, suggesting functional relationships between these structures. PMID:26728852

  13. Lipids in cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipids are present in cheese at levels above 20 percent and are analyzed by several techniques. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy are used to examine the microstructure, gas chromatography is employed to look at fatty acid composition, and differential scanning cal...

  14. Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is used to treat serious, possibly life-threatening fungal infections in people who did not respond ... to tolerate conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is in a class of medications ...

  15. Evaluating near highway air pollutant levels and estimating emission factors: Case study of Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Nayeb Yazdi, Mohammad; Delavarrafiee, Maryam; Arhami, Mohammad

    2015-12-15

    A field sampling campaign was implemented to evaluate the variation in air pollutants levels near a highway in Tehran, Iran (Hemmat highway). The field measurements were used to estimate road link-based emission factors for average vehicle fleet. These factors were compared with results of an in tunnel measurement campaign (in Resalat tunnel). Roadside and in-tunnel measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and size-fractionated particulate matter (PM) were conducted during the field campaign. The concentration gradient diagrams showed exponential decay, which represented a substantial decay, more than 50-80%, in air pollutants level in a distance between 100 and 150meters (m) of the highway. The changes in particle size distribution by distancing from highway were also captured and evaluated. The results showed particle size distribution shifted to larger size particles by distancing from highway. The empirical emission factors were obtained by using the roadside and in tunnel measurements with a hypothetical box model, floating machine model, CALINE4, CT-EMFAC or COPERT. Average CO emission factors were estimated to be in a range of 4 to 12g/km, and those of PM10 were 0.1 to 0.2g/km, depending on traffic conditions. Variations of these emission factors under real working condition with speeds were determined. PMID:26318222

  16. Developing an ethical guideline for clinical teaching in Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Akram; Yeketaz, Habibeh; Asghari, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    Clinical education is an essential part of medical trainees’ education process, and curriculum planners agree that it should be based on ethical standards and principles in the medical field. Nevertheless, no explained and codified criteria have been developed for ethics in clinical teaching. This study was aimed to develop an ethical guideline for medical students and teachers as the first and most important step in respecting patients' rights in educational centers. The initial draft included the codes of ethics in clinical education and was developed based on library studies. Subsequently, it was improved through a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews and focus group sessions with medical students, patients, and medical teachers in educational hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The improved draft was reviewed and validated by a medical expert panel to prepare the final draft. The codes derived from this study included patients’ choices and rights in purely educational procedures, and special considerations for a) obtaining informed consent for educational procedures; b) performing procedures on deceased persons, patients under anesthesia and those lacking decision making capacity; c) educational visual recordings of the patients; and d) safety monitoring in clinical education. The guideline developed in this study incorporates codes of ethics into clinical training. Therefore, in addition to providing efficient education, the interests of patients and their rights are respected, and the ethical sensitivity of learners in primacy of patients’ best interests will be preserved and enhanced. PMID:26839679

  17. Trend Assessment of Spatio-Temporal Change of Tehran Heat Island Using Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saradjian, M. R.; Sherafati, Sh.

    2015-12-01

    Numerous investigations on Urban Heat Island (UHI) show that land cover change is the main factor of increasing Land Surface Temperature (LST) in urban areas, especially conversion of vegetation and bare soil to concrete, asphalt and other man-made structures. On the other hand, other human activities like those which cause to burning fossil fuels, that increase the amount of carbon dioxide, may raise temperature in global scale in comparison with small scales (urban areas). In this study, multiple satellite images with different spatial and temporal resolutions have been used to determine Land Surface Temperature (LST) variability in Tehran metropolitan area. High temporal resolution of AVHRR images have been used as the main data source when investigating temperature variability in the urban area. The analysis shows that UHI appears more significant at afternoon and night hours. But the urban class temperature is almost equal to its surrounding vegetation and bare soil classes at around noon. It also reveals that there is no specific difference in UHI intense during the days throughout the year. However, it can be concluded that in the process of city expansion in years, UHI has been grown both spatially and in magnitude. In order to locate land-cover types and relate them to LST, Thematic Mapper (TM) images have been exploited. The influence of elevation on the LST has also been studied, using digital elevation model derived from SRTM database.

  18. Asbestos Exposure among Construction Workers During Demolition of Old Houses in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    KAKOOEI, Hossein; NORMOHAMMADI, Mohhammad

    2013-01-01

    Air quality in demolition practices has seldom been evaluated in Iran. Accordingly, we evaluated asbestos exposure among Tehran construction workers during the demolition of old houses. To identify possible sources of asbestos exposure, including thermal insulations, chimney pipes and cement sheets, were all sampled. This study also were taken the personal air samples to evaluate any asbestos exposure during the demolition. The asbestos fibers found in the samples were analyzed by phase-contrast optical microscopy (PCM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and polarized light microscopy (PLM) methods. Personal monitoring of asbestos fiber levels indicated a range from 0.01 to 0.15 PCM f/ml (0.02–0.42 SEM f/ml). The geometric mean concentrations were 0.07 PCM f/ml (0.20 SEM f/ml), which is considerably higher than the threshold limit value (TLV) proposed by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist (ACGIH), which is 0.1 f/ml. The analysis showed a presence in the bulk samples only chrysotile asbestos and an absence of the other type asbestos. Therefore, it might be expected that workers who worked in the demolition of old houses will suffer from negative effects of exposing to the asbestos fibers. PMID:24292876

  19. Developing Gis-Based Demand-Responsive Transit System in Tehran City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faroqi, H.; Sadeghi-Niaraki, A.

    2015-12-01

    Create, maintain and development of public transport network in metropolitan are important problems in the field of urban transport management. In public transport, maximize the efficient use of public fleet capacity has been considered. Concepts and technologies of GIS have provided suitable way for management and optimization of the public transports systems. In demand-responsive public transportation system, firstly fellow traveller groups have been established for applicants based on spatial concepts and tools of GIS, second for each group according to its' members and their paths, a public vehicle has been allocated to them then based on dynamic routing, the fellow passenger group has been gathered from their origins and has been moved to their destinations through optimal route. The suggested system has been implemented based on network data and commuting trips statistics of 1 to 6 districts in Tehran city. Evaluation performed on the results show the 34% increase using of Taxi capacity, 13% increase using of Van capacity and 10% increase using of Bus capacity in comparison between current public transport system and suggested public transportation system has been improved.

  20. Pediatric transport related injuries in Tehran: the necessity of implementation of injury prevention protocols.

    PubMed

    Zargar, Moosa; Sayyar Roudsari, Bahman; Shadman, Mazyar; Kaviani, Ahmad; Tarighi, Payam

    2003-11-01

    Prehospital and hospital data was prospectively gathered on all hospitalized trauma patients admitted to six major trauma hospitals in Tehran from August 1999 to September 2000. Data from patients of under 19 years of age was analyzed for this article. From 8000 hospitalized trauma patients, 2354 cases (29%) belonged to this age group. Fall and transport related injuries (TRIs) with 1074 (46%) and 921 (39%) cases respectively, were the most common mechanism of injury. In TRIs, boys were affected 3.5 times as often as girls. Younger children were more prone to pedestrian-related injuries while teenagers were more prone to motorcycle related injuries. Head trauma was the most common cause of death and 28 out of 32 trauma deaths were attributed to this kind of injury. Lower extremity (513) and head injuries (322) were the most common injuries. Only a few of motorcyclists and car passengers used safety devices (helmet and seat belt respectively) at the time of accident. PMID:14580813

  1. A feasibility study of the Tehran research reactor as a neutron source for BNCT.

    PubMed

    Kasesaz, Yaser; Khalafi, Hossein; Rahmani, Faezeh; Ezati, Arsalan; Keyvani, Mehdi; Hossnirokh, Ashkan; Shamami, Mehrdad Azizi; Monshizadeh, Mahdi

    2014-08-01

    Investigation on the use of the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) as a neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has been performed by calculating and measuring energy spectrum and the spatial distribution of neutrons in all external irradiation facilities, including six beam tubes, thermal column, and the medical room. Activation methods with multiple foils and a copper wire have been used for the mentioned measurements. The results show that (1) the small diameter and long length beam tubes cannot provide sufficient neutron flux for BNCT; (2) in order to use the medical room, the TRR core should be placed in the open pool position, in this situation the distance between the core and patient position is about 400 cm, so neutron flux cannot be sufficient for BNCT; and (3) the best facility which can be adapted for BNCT application is the thermal column, if all graphite blocks can be removed. The epithermal and fast neutron flux at the beginning of this empty column are 4.12×10(9) and 1.21×10(9) n/cm(2)/s, respectively, which can provide an appropriate neutron beam for BNCT by designing and constructing a proper Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) structure. PMID:24742535

  2. Design and construction of a thermal neutron beam for BNCT at Tehran Research Reactor.

    PubMed

    Kasesaz, Yaser; Khalafi, Hossein; Rahmani, Faezeh; Ezzati, Arsalan; Keyvani, Mehdi; Hossnirokh, Ashkan; Shamami, Mehrdad Azizi; Amini, Sepideh

    2014-12-01

    An irradiation facility has been designed and constructed at Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) for the treatment of shallow tumors using Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). TRR has a thermal column which is about 3m in length with a wide square cross section of 1.2×1.2m(2). This facility is filled with removable graphite blocks. The aim of this work is to perform the necessary modifications in the thermal column structure to meet thermal BNCT beam criteria recommended by International Atomic Energy Agency. The main modifications consist of rearranging graphite blocks and reducing the gamma dose rate at the beam exit. Activation foils and TLD700 dosimeter have been used to measure in-air characteristics of the neutron beam. According to the measurements, a thermal flux is 5.6×10(8) (ncm(-2)s(-1)), a cadmium ratio is 186 for gold foils and a gamma dose rate is 0.57Gy h(-1). PMID:25195172

  3. Bariatric Surgery for Morbid Obesity: Tehran Obesity Treatment Study (TOTS) Rationale and Study Design

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Motamedi, Mohammad Ali; Shapoori, Parvin; Arian, Peyman; Daneshpour, Maryam Alsadat; Asghari, Golale; Teymoornejad, Ahmad; Eslamifar, Ali; Khalili, Davood; Jodeiri, Behzad; Alamdari, Shahram; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is a major health concern in the Middle East and worldwide. It is among the leading causes of morbidity, mortality, health care utilization, and costs. With bariatric surgery proving to be a more effective treatment option for overweight and obesity, the need for systematic assessment of different procedures and their outcomes becomes necessary. These procedures have not yet been described in detail in our region. Objective We aim to undertake a prospective study evaluating and comparing several surgical bariatric procedures in an Iranian population of morbid obese patients presenting to a specialized bariatric center. Methods In order to facilitate and accelerate understanding of obesity and its complications, the Tehran Obesity Treatment Study (TOTS) was planned and developed. This study is a longitudinal prospective cohort study in consecutive patients undergoing bariatric surgery. TOTS investigators use standardized definitions, high-fidelity data collection system, and validated instruments to gather data preoperatively, at the time of surgery, postoperatively, and in longer-term follow-up. Results This study has recruited 1050 participants as of September 2015 and is ongoing. Conclusions This study will ensure creation of high-level evidence to enable clinicians to make meaningful evidence-based decisions for patient evaluation, selection for surgery, and follow-up care. PMID:26792554

  4. Microbial Etiology and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bactria Implicated in Urinary Tract Infection in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nozarian, Zohreh; Abdollahi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the most common infectious diseases with different microbial agent and antimicrobial resistant pattern in hospitalized patients and outpatients. In order to assess the adequacy of therapy, knowledge of prevalence and resistance pattern of the bacteria is necessary. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and the antimicrobial resistance pattern of main bacterial responsible for UTI in order to establish an appropriate empirical therapy. Methods: All urine samples were referred to Imam Hospital Laboratory, Tehran, Iran during 2011-2012, urine culture isolated and bacteria were identified and the profile of antibiotic susceptibility was characterized. Result: From 1851 urine cultures, UTI was more frequent in woman (68%) E. coli was as usual the most common pathogen implicated in UTI. Most susceptibility was to imipenem (98.9%). nitroforantoin (96%) and amikacin (94.1%) and increased resistance to penicillin (66.6%), nalidixic acid (62.1%) ampicilin (60.1%) and cotrimoxazole 54.3%. Discussion: The most common isolated pathogen was E. coli . According to antibiogram susceptibility, the recommended antimicrobial drugs are nitroforantoin and imipenem. nalidixic acid and cotrimoxazole are not recommended because drug resistance is high. PMID:26516326

  5. Determination of hazardous substances in food basket eggs in Tehran, Iran: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Salar-Amoli, Jamileh; Ali-Esfahani, Tahereh

    2015-01-01

    Extensive distribution of hazardous substances in food chain and the deleterious effect of their residues on public health are a great concern of the society. Chicken eggs, as one of the most popular food commodities, in different parts of Tehran (Iran) were analyzed for two groups of hazardous substances including some organochlorine pesticides (OC) such as aldrin, lindane, dieldrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, heptachlor and endusulfan) and heavy metals namely mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr). Gas chromatography- electron capture detector, hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry, cold- vapor atomic absorption spectrometry and conductively coupled plasma atomic optical spectrometry were used to determine the levels of OCs, As, Hg and the others, respectively. For OCs, the results revealed none of the levels were more than maximum residues levels (MRLs), but three of them (Aldrin, lindane and endusulphan) were detectable. Moreover, 100% of 50 eggs had heavy metals with levels higher than limit of detection of the procedure. The levels of Pb and Hg in all eggs and Cd in 47% of samples were more than MRLs. It seems that the regular national monitoring of egg producing chain specially the quality of chicken feed should be taken into account seriously in order to safeguard public general health. PMID:26261712

  6. A spatio-temporal model for probabilistic seismic hazard zonation of Tehran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, Mahdi; Alesheikh, Ali Asghar; Zolfaghari, Mohammad Reza

    2013-08-01

    A precondition for all disaster management steps, building damage prediction, and construction code developments is a hazard assessment that shows the exceedance probabilities of different ground motion levels at a site considering different near- and far-field earthquake sources. The seismic sources are usually categorized as time-independent area sources and time-dependent fault sources. While the earlier incorporates the small and medium events, the later takes into account only the large characteristic earthquakes. In this article, a probabilistic approach is proposed to aggregate the effects of time-dependent and time-independent sources on seismic hazard. The methodology is then applied to generate three probabilistic seismic hazard maps of Tehran for 10%, 5%, and 2% exceedance probabilities in 50 years. The results indicate an increase in peak ground acceleration (PGA) values toward the southeastern part of the study area and the PGA variations are mostly controlled by the shear wave velocities across the city. In addition, the implementation of the methodology takes advantage of GIS capabilities especially raster-based analyses and representations. During the estimation of the PGA exceedance rates, the emphasis has been placed on incorporating the effects of different attenuation relationships and seismic source models by using a logic tree.

  7. Wet deposition of hydrocarbons in the city of Tehran-Iran

    PubMed Central

    Pardakhti, Alireza; Mohajeri, Leila; Bateni, Farshid

    2009-01-01

    Air pollution in the city of Tehran has been a major problem for the past three decades. The direct effects of hydrocarbon contaminants in the air are particularly important such as their carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic effects which can be transported to other environments via dry and wet deposition. In the present study, rainwater samples were collected and analyzed for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene (BTEX) as well as fuel fingerprints in two ranges of gasoline (C5–C11) and diesel fuel (C12–C20) using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC/FID). Mean concentrations of ∑16 PAHs varied between 372 and 527 µg/L and for BTEX was between 87 and 188 µg/L with maximum of 36 µg/L for toluene. Both gasoline range hydrocarbons (GRH) and diesel range hydrocarbons (DRH) were also present in the collected rainwater at concentrations of 190 and 950 µg/L, respectively. Hydrocarbon transports from air to soil were determined in this wet deposition. Average hydrocarbon transportation for ∑PAHs, BTEX, GRH, and DRH was 2,747, 627, 1,152, and 5,733 µg/m2, respectively. PMID:20495601

  8. Patient education process in teaching hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Seyedin, Hesam; Goharinezhad, Salime; Vatankhah, Soodabeh; Azmal, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patient education is widely recognized as a core component of nursing. Patient education can lead to quality outcomes including adherence, quality of life, patients' knowledge of their illness and self-management. This study aimed to clarify patient education process in teaching hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) in Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013. In this descriptive quantitative study, the sample covered 187 head nurses selected from ten teaching hospitals through convenience sampling. Data were collected with a questionnaire developed specifically for this study. The questionnaire measured patient education process in four dimensions: need assessment, planning, implementing and evaluating. Results: The overall mean score of patient education was 3.326±0.0524. Among the four dimensions of the patient education process, planning was in the highest level (3.570±0.0591) and the lowest score belonged to the evaluation of patient education (2.840 ±0.0628). Conclusion: Clarifying patient education steps, developing standardized framework and providing easily understandable tool-kit of the patient education program will improve the ability of nurses in delivering effective patient education in general and specialized hospitals. PMID:26478878

  9. Prevalence survey of infection with Treponema pallidum among HIV-positive patients in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Badie; Yavari, Zeinab; Esmaeeli, Shooka; Paydary, Koosha; Emamzadeh-Fard, Sahra; SeyedAlinaghi, SeyedAhmad; Rasoulinejad, Mehrnaz

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify the frequency of syphilis among Iranian HIV-positive patients. Methods A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of syphilis and HIV co-infection among 450 patients diagnosed with HIV infection was conducted between 2004 and 2008 at Imam Khomeini hospital, Tehran, Iran. The lab tests including CD4 cell count, cerebrospinal fluid, veneral disease research laboratory (VDRL), fluorescent treponema antibody-absorption (FTA-Abs) and viral load were performed for all the patients. Data regarding medical history and their demographics were also collected. Results Of all 450 HIV-positive patients, 24 (5.3%) had a positive VDRL test and only two men had a FTA-Abs positive test which means 0.45% of them had a definite co-infection of syphilis. 65.3% of the HIV-positive patients were injection drug users that the co-infection prevalence of them was 0.7%. We did not find any patient with neurosyphilis. Conclusions Considering the increasing prevalence of HIV and also extensive use of highly active antiretroviral therapy in developing nations, the diagnosis of syphilis should be timely established using screening tests among such patients. PMID:23620862

  10. Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia Coli Isolated From Lettuce Samples in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mazaheri, Somayeh; Salmanzadeh Ahrabi, Siavosh; Aslani, Mohammad Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: During the last decade, the prevalence of foodborne diseases due to contaminated food as well as the outbreaks of diseases due to Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains has increased. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of STEC strains in lettuce samples. Since lettuce is used as a raw vegetable in salads, the rates of infections caused by this vegetable are high. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 samples collected from Tehran, Iran, were transported to the laboratory, homogenized by a stomacher in E. coli broth containing cefixime, and cultured on MacConkey agar medium. Their DNA was extracted by boiling method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed, using five primers targeting the stx1, stx2, fliCh7, rbfO157, and eaeA genes. Susceptibility testing against ampicillin, imipenem, cephalosporin, tetracycline, aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol and quinolones was performed using disk diffusion method. Results: Eight samples were positive for presence of STEC strains, three contained stx1, five contained stx2, and one sample was positive for presence of both rbfO157 and fliCh7. They were susceptible to all the antibiotics except for ampicillin and tetracycline. Conclusions: This study indicated the contamination of lettuce by STEC strains and its possible role as the source of infection. Resistance to both tetracycline and ampicillin may be considered as an emergency alarm for a multidrug resistance of STEC strains. PMID:25774272

  11. Quality of Life and Job Satisfaction of Dispensing Pharmacists Practicing in Tehran Private-sector Pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    Majd, Marzieh; Hashemian, Farshad; Younesi Sisi, Farnaz; Jalal, Masoud; Majd, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    As there is no evidence of previous studies on evaluating the level of job satisfaction and the major causes of dissatisfaction among the pharmacists in Iran, this study was designed. This study is a cross-sectional descriptive analysis of pharmacists practicing in Tehran private-sector pharmacies. We selected a stratified random sampling using number of prescriptions as a variable for stratification. The questionnaire was divided into three sections containing the demographic characteristics, general health perception and job satisfaction. Of all the participants, 62% were the owners of pharmacies and 38% were pharmacists in charge (non-owner). Seventy-eight percent of respondents reported satisfaction about their psychological and physical state. Just 11% of pharmacists were financially satisfied and 49% felt relaxed at the workplace. There was no correlation between the satisfaction and owning the pharmacy or sex of respondents. Spearman›s correlation showed that the income satisfaction correlated negatively with age (p ≤ 0.001) and years of experience (p < 0.05). Moreover, the average working hours was significantly higher among men compared to women (p < 0.01) and among owners relative to non-owners (p < 0.05). Overall, general health perception and quality of life among the respondents were at satisfactory level. However, work-related satisfaction was not high enough and most interviewed pharmacists were financially dissatisfied. PMID:24250534

  12. Use of Stimulant Substances Among University Students in Tehran: a Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Khastoo, Golara; Moinolghorabaei, Mahdieh; Yunesian, Masud; Sadeghi, Ahmad-Reza

    2011-01-01

    Objective: There is evidence to show an increase in use of stimulant substances among university students. This study is a qualitative assessment of the existing situation and the underlying reasons for stimulant use among the students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2006. Methods: Three qualitative methods have been used: focus group discussions with 7 groups (60 individuals) consisting of male and female students in the dormitories and in the university environment, in-depth interview with 20 drug user students, and interview with 20 key informants including counselors, managers and guards of dormitories, staff of the office for Culture and Welfare Affairs of students and members of students' organizations. Purposeful or opportunistic method was used for sampling. Results: Ecstasy and methylphenidate (Ritalin) were mentioned as the stimulants used by the students. The main declared reasons for ecstasy use were desire to have fun and excitement, desire to modernity, participation in parties, curiosity and living without family. The high expense of ecstasy pills and the training provided by media were mentioned as the main protective factors. Most respondents believed that use of methylphenidate was more prevalent than ecstasy use. In contrary to the drugs used for fun and enjoyment, methylphenidate is used for increasing learning abilities and academic achievement. Other pointed- out factors were ease of use and being stigma-free. Conclusion Increasing risk perception via training, social alternatives to risky activities and parental training for continuing care and advice in the college period are recommended. PMID:24644445

  13. Knowledge of medical students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences regarding plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Gharedaghi, Mohammad Hadi; Nourijelyani, Keramat; Salehi Sadaghiani, Mohammad; Yousefzadeh-Fard, Yashar; Gharedaghi, Azadeh; Javadian, Pouya; Morteza, Afsaneh; Andrabi, Yasir; Nedjat, Saharnaz

    2013-01-01

    The core concept of plagiarism is defined as the use of other people's ideas or words without proper acknowledgement. Herein, we used a questionnaire to assess the knowledge of students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) regarding plagiarism and copyright infringement. The questionnaire comprised 8 questions. The first six questions of the questionnaire were translations of exercises of a book about academic writing and were concerning plagiarism in preparing articles. Questions number 7 and 8 (which were concerning plagiarism in preparing Microsoft PowerPoint slideshows and copyright infringement, respectively) were developed by the authors of the present study. The validity of the questionnaire was approved by five experts in the field of epidemiology and biostatistics. A pilot study consisting of a test and retest was carried to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. The sampling method was stratified random sampling, and the questionnaire was handed out to 74 interns of TUMS during July and August 2011. 14.9% of the students correctly answered the first six questions. 44.6% of the students were adequately familiar with proper referencing in Microsoft PowerPoint slideshows. 16.2% of the students understood what constitutes copyright infringement. The number of correctly answered questions by the students was directly proportionate to the number of their published articles. Knowledge of students of TUMS regarding plagiarism and copyright infringement is quite poor. Courses with specific focus on plagiarism and copyright infringement might help in this regard. PMID:23852849

  14. Molecular characterisation of quinolone-resistant Shigella strains isolated in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Reza; Behnood, Vahid; Memariani, Hamed; Najafi, Ali; Moghbeli, Majid; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-06-01

    Over the past few years, the number of Shigella strains resistant to nalidixic acid has increased and has made the selection of effective antimicrobial therapy more difficult. The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanism of quinolone resistance in Shigella strains. Shigella strains isolated from 1100 diarrhoeal patients in Tehran, Iran, were assessed for their susceptibility to nalidixic acid prior to PCR-RFLP and sequence analysis of their quinolone resistance genes. Among 73 Shigella strains isolated, 23 (31.5%) were resistant to nalidixic acid. The most common Shigella spp. was Shigella sonnei (54; 74.0%). Of the 23 quinolone-resistant isolates, 4 (17.4%) (including 2 Shigella flexneri, 1 S. sonnei and 1 Shigella boydii) contained the qnrS gene. However, none of the isolates harboured qnrA or qnrB genes. PCR-RFLP analysis of gyrA showed a mutation profile in two nalidixic acid-resistant strains, including one S. sonnei and one S. flexneri. Sequencing of mutant gyrA genes revealed a point mutation at position 83, resulting in the replacement of serine by leucine. In conclusion, molecular mechanisms of resistance to quinolones were identified in 6 of 23 Shigella isolates. Other possible mechanisms of resistance should also be investigated for better characterisation of quinolone-resistant Shigella isolates. PMID:27436462

  15. Lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury in canned tuna fish marketed in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Andayesh, Shirin; Hadiani, Mohammad Rasoul; Mousavi, Zahra; Shoeibi, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    Fifty-four canned tuna fish samples corresponding to 10 widely used different brands were purchased from local markets in Tehran, Iran during 2012-2013 and analysed on heavy metals. Mercury was determined by a direct mercury analyser without any sample preparation. For analysis of other elements samples were digested using a microwave apparatus. Lead and cadmium were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and arsenic via hydride vapour generation. All samples had arsenic and mercury contamination. Arsenic levels showed a range of 0.25-1.42 mg kg(-1), which might be due to lack of national and international limits for arsenic in canned tuna fish. Lead and cadmium were measured in a small number of samples with a mean of 0.053 ± 0.058 mg kg(-1) and 0.013 ± 0.015 mg kg(-1), respectively. Results obtained for these heavy metals in all samples were lower than the corresponding limits, whereas arsenic and mercury contents might raise some attention. PMID:25443538

  16. Design of a Thermal Neutron Beam for a New Neutron Imaging Facility at Tehran Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dastjerdi, Mohammad Hossein Choopan; Khalafi, Hossein

    A new neutron imaging facility will be built around the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR). The TRR is an open pool light water moderated5 MW research reactor with six beam tubes. The neutron energy spectrum near the reactor core at the entrance of the beam tube was measured by the foil activation method using the SAND-II code and calculated by the MCNP Monte Carlo code. There was a good similarity between calculated and simulated spectra. The principal component of this facility is its neutron collimator. The collimator is a beam-forming assembly which determines the geometric properties of the beam. In addition, it may contain filters to modify the energy spectrum or to reduce the gamma ray content of the beam. The optimum thickness of filters, the position of the aperture and other details of the neutron collimator were calculated using MCNP Monte Carlo simulations. In this design, the L/D ratio of this facility had the value of 120. The thermal neutron flux at the image plane was about 7.8×106 n/cm2.s and n/γ ratio about 106 n/cm2.μSv.

  17. Microbiological quality of pasteurized milk on expiration date in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Koushki, Mohammadreza; Koohy-Kamaly, Paliz; Azizkhani, Mohammad; Hadinia, Noushin

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the microbiological quality of pasteurized milk on expiration date in Tehran. Two hundred fifty-four samples collected using a simple randomized sampling method from March 2014 to January 2015 were tested for total microbial count, coliform count, and Escherichia coli contamination according to Iran's National Standards methods. Total microbial count, coliform count, and E. coli contamination exceeded the standard limits in 61.1% [>7.5×10(4) (4.88 log) cfu/mL], 24.4% [>10 (1 log) cfu/mL], and 8.7% of the samples, respectively. The mean total microbial count [7.1×10(7) (7.85 log) cfu/mL] was above the standard limit. Only 36.6% of the studied samples were in accordance with Iran's National Standard limits. Based on our results, it is necessary to improve the microbial quality of pasteurized milk in Iran. PMID:26774719

  18. Earthquake-explosion discrimination using waveform cross-correlation technique for mines in southeast of Tehran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahbasi, A.; Moradi, A.

    2016-04-01

    The presence of man-made explosions in a seismic catalogue leads to errors in statistical analyses of seismicity. Recently, the need to monitor man-made explosions used for mining, road excavating, and other constructional applications has been become a demanding challenge for the seismologists. In this way, we gain new insight into the cross-correlation technique and conduct this approach to discriminate explosions from seismic datasets. Following this, improved P-wave arrival times are used for more precise relocation. In this study, the waveform cross-correlation technique provides a reliable means for discriminating explosions which have cross-correlation coefficients (CC) of 0.6 or greater with their own corresponding stacked waveforms. The results illustrate that approximately 80 % of seismicity of southeast of Tehran, recorded by the Iranian Seismological Center (IRSC), includes events which have cross-correlation coefficients of ≥0.6 with their corresponding stacked waveforms. Furthermore, with improved P-wave arrival time, there is a better chance to relocate explosions precisely in the region under study.

  19. Validation and Psychometric Properties of Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale (MPPUS) in University Students of Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi Kalhori, Soroush; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Jannatifard, Fereshteh; Sepahbodi, Ghazal; Baba Reisi, Mohammad; Sajedi, Sahar; Farshchi, Mojtaba; KhodaKarami, Rasul; Hatami Kasvaee, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Despite the fact that the mobile phone has become a pervasive technology of our time, little research has been done on mobile dependency. Therefore, a valid and reliable instrument, conforming to Iranian culture seems essential. The aim of our study was to validate the Iranian version of MPPUS (Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale). Methods: This was a cross-sectional research, in which data were collected from 600 students studying at Tehran universities. Stratified sampling method was used to collect data. All participants completed Demographic Questionnaire, Cellular Phone Dependency Questionnaire (CPDQ) anonymously. Finally, a clinical interview (based on DSM-IV-TR) was conducted with 100 participants. Data were analyzed using concurrent validity, factor analysis, internal consistency (Cronbach’s’α), split half, test-retest and ROC Curve by SPSS18 Software. Results: As a result of reliability analysis and factor analysis by principal component and Varimax rotation, we extracted three factors including preoccupation, withdrawal symptoms and overuse of mobile phones in both males and females. Internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) of the MPPUS was .91; Cronbach’s alpha of the factors was .87, .70, .82 respectively. The test-retest correlation of the MPPUS was .56. The best cut off point for this questionnaire (MPPUS) was 160. Conclusion: The MPPUS proved to be a reliable questionnaire with adequate factor models to assess the extent of problems caused by the “misuse” of mobile phones in the Iranian society; however, further studies are needed on this topic. PMID:26005477

  20. Fatigue and Depression in Iranian Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients in Tehran in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Nazemi, Maryam; Raad, Marjan Hassani; Arzoomanian, Christineh Serob; Ghasemzadeh, Azizreza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease with a progressive and rapid course. Fatigue and depression are common among ALS patients. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between depression and fatigue in Iranian ALS patients. Methods In this 2012 cross-sectional study, 40 ALS patients, including 22 females and 18 males, were selected through consecutive relapsing-remitting, and 40 age- and gender-matched health controls (HCs) were recruited from Loghman Hakim Hospital in Tehran, Iran. The Persian version of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS-Per) questionnaire and depression substance of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were used to assess fatigue and depression. Data were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Sminov Test, Levene’s test, Independent Samples t-test, and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. Results We identified a significant and positive relationship between fatigue and depression in patients with ALS (p=0.000). Furthermore, the scores of fatigue and depression in ALS patients were higher than in non-ALS patients. Conclusion The results indicated that there was a relationship between fatigue and depression in ALS patients and that early intervention services can improve these symptoms. Further studies are suggested to investigate the direction of such relationship. PMID:27123230

  1. Using Satellite Observation for Early Warning of Convective Storm in Tehran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owlad, E.

    2015-12-01

    Severe convective storms are responsible for large amount of damage each year around the world. They form an important part of the climate system by redistributing heat, moisture, and trace gases, as well as producing large quantities of precipitation. As these extreme and rare events are in mesoscale there is many uncertainty in predicting them and we can't rely on just models. On the other hand, remote sensing has a large application in Meteorology and near real time weather forecasting, especially in rare and extreme events like convective storms that might be difficult to predict with atmospheric models. On second of June 2014, near 12UTC a sudden and strong convective storm occurred in Tehran province that was not predicted, and caused economic and human losses. In This research we used satellite observations along with synoptic station measurements to predict and monitor this storm. Results from MODIS data show an increase in the amount of cloudiness and also aerosol optical depth and sudden decrease in cloud top temperature few hours before the storm occurs. EUMETSAT images show the governing of convection before the storm occurs. With combining the observation data that shows Lake of humidity and high temperature in low levels with satellite data that reveals instability in high levels that together caused this convective, we could track the storm and decrease the large amount of damage.

  2. Hospitals Pharmacy Quality Assurance System Assessment in Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Dargahi, H; Khosravi, SH

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health system pharmacies, like other health care professional, practice under a number of mandated standards. Basic concepts of quality assurance (QA) standards should be applied to hospital pharmacy practice. The survey reported here is to assess QA system implementation and its standard indicators observation in Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) hospitals’ pharmacies in 2007 – 2008. Methods: A cross – sectional, descriptive analytical survey was accomplished. First, a checklist within the framework of QA standard indicators was made to assess TUMS hospitals pharmacies practice. Collected data was saved by Excel software for recording and analyzed by SPSS version-15. Observation rate of QA standard indicators was classified by inappropriate, relatively appropriate, and appropriate. Results: Characteristics of TUMS hospitals pharmacists organizational structure, size, equipment, safety facility and drug requirement were studied by QA standard indicators. Conclusion: Many of QA standard indicators are observed and implemented in TUMS hospitals pharmacies, but several of these standards are not observed too. It is appropriate that all TUMS hospitals pharmacies are required to advance the profession, often with the same goal of increasing involvement in direct patient care. PMID:23113043

  3. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in Packed and Unpacked Red Meat and Chicken in South of Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi; Sharifi Yazdi, Mohammad kazem; Mirzaei, Nima; Kalantar, Enayat

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite of the advances in infectious diseases prevention and food technology, food-borne diseases are considered major problems in developed and developing countries. Meat plays a key role in transferring zoonotic diseases to human. Objectives: This study was conducted in south of Tehran, Iran, to investigate the prevalence rate of Salmonella spp. in packed and unpacked red meat and chicken. Materials and Methods: A total of 379 packed and unpacked samples including 189 red meat and 190 chicken samples were collected randomly. From each sample, 25 g was separated and treated with 225 mL of buffered peptone water, homogenized and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Samples were enriched using Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth and then streaked onto Hektoen enteric agar. Results: Totally, 86 out of 190 chicken and 38 out of 189 red meat samples were contaminated with Salmonella spp. The most isolated serotypes were Salmonella thompson (67.7%), S. heaardt (6.5%), S. enteritidis (4.8%), and S. veyle (4%), respectively. In general, the rate of chicken contamination was higher than meat, as 43.3% of packed and 46% of unpacked chicken samples were contaminated. Conclusions: These results confirmed the pervious findings, stating that proper packaging of meat products can effectively decreases the rate of microbial contaminations. PMID:25147699

  4. A case-control study on risk factors for unintentional childhood poisoning in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Mansori, Kamyar; Soori, Hamid; Farnaghi, Fariba; Khodakarim, Sohila; Mansouri hanis, Shiva; Khodadost, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Poisoning is a major public health problem and is one of the most frequent causes of emergency hospital admissions. The aim of this study was to identify the main risk factors for unintentional childhood poisoning in Tehran, Iran and to suggest possible causes and preventative measures. Methods: In this case-control study (case, n=140; control, n=280), two controls were selected for every case. Controls were matched by age, sex, and date of hospital attendance. All children and their guardians were then interviewed by the same person using a standard questionnaire that covered the demographic, behavioral, and risk factors associated with accidental poisonings. Results: The most common type of poisoning was related to narcotics (58.6%); and among the narcotics, methadone was the most prevalent poisoning agent (74.7%). Multivariate conditional logistic regression model revealed that addiction in the family (OR=14.6; 95% CI:6.2-34.6), previous poisoning (OR=7; 95% CI:2.4- 20.2), maternal occupation (OR=4; 95% CI:1.3- 12.3), and inaccessibility of poisoning products (OR=0.03; 95% CI:0.01- 0.12) were the main risk factors in unintentional childhood poisoning. Conclusion: Addiction in the family as a risk factor and inaccessibility of poisoning products as a protecting factor were recognized to have the highest correlation with the unintentional child poisoning. These two factors were considered as priorities in health education programs. PMID:27453885

  5. Lipid nanotube or nanowire sensor

    DOEpatents

    Noy, Aleksandr; Bakajin, Olgica; Letant, Sonia; Stadermann, Michael; Artyukhin, Alexander B.

    2010-06-29

    A sensor apparatus comprising a nanotube or nanowire, a lipid bilayer around the nanotube or nanowire, and a sensing element connected to the lipid bilayer. Also a biosensor apparatus comprising a gate electrode; a source electrode; a drain electrode; a nanotube or nanowire operatively connected to the gate electrode, the source electrode, and the drain electrode; a lipid bilayer around the nanotube or nanowire, and a sensing element connected to the lipid bilayer.

  6. Lipid nanotube or nanowire sensor

    DOEpatents

    Noy, Aleksandr; Bakajin, Olgica; Letant, Sonia; Stadermann, Michael; Artyukhin, Alexander B.

    2009-06-09

    A sensor apparatus comprising a nanotube or nanowire, a lipid bilayer around the nanotube or nanowire, and a sensing element connected to the lipid bilayer. Also a biosensor apparatus comprising a gate electrode; a source electrode; a drain electrode; a nanotube or nanowire operatively connected to the gate electrode, the source electrode, and the drain electrode; a lipid bilayer around the nanotube or nanowire, and a sensing element connected to the lipid bilayer.

  7. Lanolin-derived lipid mixtures mimic closely the lipid composition and organization of vernix caseosa lipids.

    PubMed

    Rissmann, Robert; Oudshoorn, Marion H M; Kocks, Elise; Hennink, Wim E; Ponec, Maria; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2008-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to use semi-synthetic lipid mixtures to mimic the complex lipid composition, organization and thermotropic behaviour of vernix caseosa (VC) lipids. As VC shows multiple protecting and barrier supporting properties before and after birth, it is suggested that a VC substitute could be an innovative barrier cream for barrier deficient skin. Lanolin was selected as the source of the branched chain sterol esters and wax esters--the main lipid classes of VC. Different lipid fractions were isolated from lanolin and subsequently mixed with squalene, triglycerides, cholesterol, ceramides and fatty acids to generate semi-synthetic lipid mixtures that mimic the lipid composition of VC, as established by high-performance thin-layer chromatography. Differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy investigations revealed that triglycerides play an important role in the (lateral) lipid organization and thermotropic behaviour of the synthetic lipid mixtures. Excellent resemblance of VC lipids was obtained when adding unsaturated triglycerides. Moreover, these lipid mixtures showed similar long range ordering as VC. The optimal lipid mixture was evaluated on tape-stripped hairless mouse skin in vivo. The rate of barrier recovery was increased and comparable to VC lipid treatment. PMID:18655769

  8. Lipids, fatty acids, and more

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy is the most expensive component in livestock diets. Lipids are concentrated energy sources and are known to affect growth, feed efficiency, feed dust, and diet palatability. A large majority of research evaluating lipids in livestock has utilized lipids of high quality, dealt mainly with anim...

  9. Lipid topogenesis - 35years on.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Neha; Farine, Luce; Pandey, Kalpana; Menon, Anant K; Bütikofer, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Glycerophospholipids are the principal fabric of cellular membranes. The pathways by which these lipids are synthesized were elucidated mainly through the work of Kennedy and colleagues in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Subsequently, attention turned to cell biological aspects of lipids: Where in the cell are lipids synthesized? How are lipids integrated into membranes to form a bilayer? How are they sorted and transported from their site of synthesis to other cellular destinations? These topics, collectively termed 'lipid topogenesis', were the subject of a review article in 1981 by Bell, Ballas and Coleman. We now assess what has been learned about early events of lipid topogenesis, i.e. "lipid synthesis, the integration of lipids into membranes, and lipid translocation across membranes", in the 35years since the publication of this important review. We highlight the recent elucidation of the X-ray structures of key membrane enzymes of glycerophospholipid synthesis, progress on identifying lipid scramblase proteins needed to equilibrate lipids across membranes, and new complexities in the subcellular location and membrane topology of phosphatidylinositol synthesis revealed through a comparison of two unicellular model eukaryotes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The cellular lipid landscape edited by Tim P. Levine and Anant K. Menon. PMID:26946259

  10. Hepatic drug hydroxylation and lipid peroxidation in riboflavin-deficient rats*

    PubMed Central

    Patel, J. M.; Galdhar, N. R.; Pawar, S. S.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of riboflavin deficiency and phenobarbital pretreatment on drug hydroxylation and lipid peroxidation was investigated. A significant decrease in aniline and acetanilide hydroxylation as well as NADPH-linked and ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation was observed during 4- and 7-week riboflavin deficiency in both adult male and adult female rats. The drug-hydroxylation and lipid-peroxidation activities were further lowered with the increase in riboflavin deficiency. The phenobarbital pretreatment induced aniline and acetanilide hydroxylase activity even in riboflavin-deficient animals. Drug hydroxylation inhibits lipid peroxidation in both deficient and normal rats. The administration of riboflavin was followed by a significant increase in drug hydroxylation and lipid peroxidation. PMID:4374935

  11. Hepatic drug hydroxylation and lipid peroxidation in riboflavin-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, J M; Galdhar, N R; Pawar, S S

    1974-06-01

    The effect of riboflavin deficiency and phenobarbital pretreatment on drug hydroxylation and lipid peroxidation was investigated. A significant decrease in aniline and acetanilide hydroxylation as well as NADPH-linked and ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation was observed during 4- and 7-week riboflavin deficiency in both adult male and adult female rats. The drug-hydroxylation and lipid-peroxidation activities were further lowered with the increase in riboflavin deficiency. The phenobarbital pretreatment induced aniline and acetanilide hydroxylase activity even in riboflavin-deficient animals. Drug hydroxylation inhibits lipid peroxidation in both deficient and normal rats. The administration of riboflavin was followed by a significant increase in drug hydroxylation and lipid peroxidation. PMID:4374935

  12. Controversies Regarding Lipid Management and Statin Use for Cardiovascular Risk Reduction in Patients With CKD.

    PubMed

    Markossian, Talar; Burge, Nicholas; Ling, Benjamin; Schneider, Julia; Pacold, Ivan; Bansal, Vinod; Leehey, David; Stroupe, Kevin; Chang, Alex; Kramer, Holly

    2016-06-01

    Adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at heightened risk for dying of cardiovascular disease. Results from randomized clinical trials of statin drugs versus placebo demonstrate that statin drugs or statin plus ezetimibe reduce the absolute risk for coronary heart disease and mortality among adults with non-dialysis-dependent CKD. The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes 2013 clinical practice guideline for lipid management in CKD recommends that adults 50 years or older with non-dialysis-dependent CKD be treated with a statin or statin plus ezetimibe regardless of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, at least 9 guidelines published during the last 5 years address lipid management for primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and not all guidelines address the utility of lipid-lowering therapy in adults with CKD. Because most patients with CKD receive most of their clinical care from non-nephrologists, differences in recommendations for lipid-lowering therapy for cardiovascular disease prevention may negatively affect the clinical care of adults with CKD and cause confusion for both patients and providers. This review addresses the identification and management of lipid levels in patients with CKD and discusses the existing controversies regarding testing and treatment of lipid levels in the CKD population. PMID:26943983

  13. The SwissLipids knowledgebase for lipid biology

    PubMed Central

    Liechti, Robin; Hyka-Nouspikel, Nevila; Niknejad, Anne; Gleizes, Anne; Götz, Lou; Kuznetsov, Dmitry; David, Fabrice P.A.; van der Goot, F. Gisou; Riezman, Howard; Bougueleret, Lydie; Xenarios, Ioannis; Bridge, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Lipids are a large and diverse group of biological molecules with roles in membrane formation, energy storage and signaling. Cellular lipidomes may contain tens of thousands of structures, a staggering degree of complexity whose significance is not yet fully understood. High-throughput mass spectrometry-based platforms provide a means to study this complexity, but the interpretation of lipidomic data and its integration with prior knowledge of lipid biology suffers from a lack of appropriate tools to manage the data and extract knowledge from it. Results: To facilitate the description and exploration of lipidomic data and its integration with prior biological knowledge, we have developed a knowledge resource for lipids and their biology—SwissLipids. SwissLipids provides curated knowledge of lipid structures and metabolism which is used to generate an in silico library of feasible lipid structures. These are arranged in a hierarchical classification that links mass spectrometry analytical outputs to all possible lipid structures, metabolic reactions and enzymes. SwissLipids provides a reference namespace for lipidomic data publication, data exploration and hypothesis generation. The current version of SwissLipids includes over 244 000 known and theoretically possible lipid structures, over 800 proteins, and curated links to published knowledge from over 620 peer-reviewed publications. We are continually updating the SwissLipids hierarchy with new lipid categories and new expert curated knowledge. Availability: SwissLipids is freely available at http://www.swisslipids.org/. Contact: alan.bridge@isb-sib.ch Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25943471

  14. Consuming a buttermilk drink containing lutein-enriched egg yolk daily for 1 year increased plasma lutein but did not affect serum lipid or lipoprotein concentrations in adults with early signs of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    van der Made, Sanne M; Kelly, Elton R; Berendschot, Tos T J M; Kijlstra, Aize; Lütjohann, Dieter; Plat, Jogchum

    2014-09-01

    Dietary lutein intake is postulated to interfere with the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Because egg yolk-derived lutein has a high bioavailability, long-term consumption of lutein-enriched eggs might be effective in preventing AMD development, but alternatively might increase cardiovascular disease risk. Here, we report the effect of 1-y daily consumption of a buttermilk drink containing 1.5 lutein-rich egg yolks on serum lipid and lipoprotein and plasma lutein concentrations. Additionally, subgroups that could potentially benefit the most from the intervention were identified. Men and women who had early signs of AMD in at least 1 eye, but were otherwise healthy, participated in a 1-y randomized, placebo-controlled parallel intervention trial. At the start of the study, 101 participants were included: 52 in the experimental (Egg) group and 49 in the control (Con) group. Final analyses were performed with 45 participants in the Egg group and 43 participants in the Con group. As expected, the increase in plasma lutein concentrations in the Egg group was 83% higher than that in the Con group (P < 0.001). Changes in serum total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol, as well as the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol, were not different between the 2 groups. Interestingly, participants classified as cholesterol absorbers had higher serum HDL cholesterol concentrations than participants classified as cholesterol synthesizers or participants with average campesterol-to-lathosterol ratios (P < 0.05) at baseline. In addition, cholesterol absorbers had a 229% higher increase in plasma lutein concentrations than participants who were classified as having an average campesterol-to-lathosterol ratio upon consumption of the lutein-enriched egg yolk drink (P < 0.05). Moreover, the change in serum HDL cholesterol upon consumption was significantly different between these 3 groups (P < 0.05). We suggest that cholesterol absorbers particularly might benefit

  15. Lipid concentrations in Lake Michigan fishes: Seasonal, spatial, ontogenetic, and long-term trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Elliott, Robert F.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Stedman, Ralph M.; O'Connor, Daniel V.; Rottiers, Donald V.

    2000-01-01

    Lipid concentrations were measured in seven species of fish from several locations in Lake Michigan during spring, summer, and fall in 1994 to 1995. Adult alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and age-2 coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) exhibited pronounced seasonal changes in lipid content. Adult alewives averaged 7.4% lipid, on a wet weight basis, during spring (May), 2.6% in summer (July), and 12.2% in fall (late September through October). Spring lipid concentration was low in age-2 coho salmon, averaging only 1.9%, then increased to 7.8% during summer and decreased to 4.5% by fall. In contrast, lipid content in adult bloater (Coregonus hoyi) was relatively constant with respect to season, ranging between 10.6% and 12.4% during the year. Lipid concentration increased with fish size for all species except rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax). Although deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsoni) were considerably larger than slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) (mean total length of 117 mm vs 68 mm), mean lipid content of deepwater sculpin (7.6%) was only slightly higher than that for slimy sculpin (6.6%). Comparison of lipid concentrations from this study with previous studies indicated that lipid concentration in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and alewives in Lake Michigan did not change significantly from 1969–1971 to 1994–1995. Lipid concentration in large (about 250 mm total length) adult bloaters near Saugatuck (along the southeastern shore of the lake) decreased from 23.3% in 1980 to 11.9% in 1986, but showed no significant change between 1986 and 1994–1995.

  16. Effects of glassy-winged sharpshooter feeding, size, and lipid content on egg maturation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis) is synovigenic and must feed during the adult stage to produce eggs. While glassy-winged sharpshooter egg production is related to adult feeding, rates of egg production are variable. In this study, effects of lipid allocation to eggs and fema...

  17. Effect of the long-term feeding of dietary lipids on the learning ability, fatty acid composition of brain stem phospholipids and synaptic membrane fluidity in adult mice: a comparison of sardine oil diet with palm oil diet.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, H; Park, S J; Tamura, M; Ando, S

    1998-03-16

    The effect of 12 month feeding of 5% palm oil or sardine oil diet on the maze-learning ability, fatty acid composition of brain stem phospholipids and synaptic membrane fluidity in mice was studied. The time required to reach the maze exit and the number of times that a mouse strayed into blind alleys in the maze were measured three times every 4 days. The time and number of mice fed on the sardine oil diet were less than those of animals fed on the palm oil diet in the first and second trials. The results of fatty acid composition analysis of brain stem phosphatidylethanolamine showed that the percentage of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6, n-3; DHA) was higher, but the arachidonic acid (20:4, n-6; AA) and docosatetraenoic acid (22:4, n-6; DTA) were lower in the sardine oil diet fed-mice than in the palm oil diet fed-animals. Moreover, the microviscosity of the synaptic plasma membrane in the sardine oil diet group was lower than that in the palm oil diet group. These results suggest that the adult mice fed on the sardine oil diet for a long period maintain higher levels of docosahe xaenoic acid in brain phospholipids, synaptic membrane fluidity and maze-learning ability than animals fed on the palm oil diet. PMID:9593318

  18. Examination of genetic variants influencing lipid traits in pediatric populations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Haitao; Mentch, Frank D.; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Glessner, Joseph T.; Qiu, Haijun; Guo, Yiran; Hou, Cuiping; Frackelton, Edward C.; Thomas, Kelly; Bender, Amber; Albano, Anthony; Otieno, George; Garris, Maria; Seidler, Kallyn; Moy, Alexander; Kim, Cecilia E.; Keating, Brendan; Chiavacci, Rosetta M.; Grundmeier, Robert; Sleiman, Patrick A.; Grant, Struan F.A.; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2012-01-01

    Previous large-scale genome-wide association studies in adult populations have implicated ∽100 loci in determining high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or triglyceride levels. However, whether these loci also contribute to variations of lipid traits in pediatric populations remain unknown. Here we assayed a population of Philadelphia children by high-density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays, and performed association analysis on lipid traits ascertained from lipid measurements stored in electronic medical records. We examined previously reported lipid trait associations, and found that most of them show identical direction of association in our pediatric cohorts, including genome-wide significant association on cholesteryl ester transfer protein with HDL-C levels (rs3764261, P = 2.1 × 10−8) and other significant associations on oxysterol-binding protein-like protein 7, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1. Additionally, we identified suggestive association on low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1B with HDL-C levels (rs17736712, P = 2.1 × 10−7), but this signal is not supported by previous meta-analysis on adult cohorts. Finally, we examined rare copy number variants and identified deletions encompassing tetratricopeptide repeat domain 39B in two children with extreme lipid measures. Our results highlight the commonalities and differences of genetic components in determining lipid traits in pediatric versus adult populations. Furthermore, our study demonstrates the unique utility of automated information retrieval from electronic medical records in facilitating the identification of genotype-phenotype associations.

  19. Topological regulation of lipid balance in cells.

    PubMed

    Drin, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Lipids are unevenly distributed within and between cell membranes, thus defining organelle identity. Such distribution relies on local metabolic branches and mechanisms that move lipids. These processes are regulated by feedback mechanisms that decipher topographical information in organelle membranes and then regulate lipid levels or flows. In the endoplasmic reticulum, the major lipid source, transcriptional regulators and enzymes sense changes in membrane features to modulate lipid production. At the Golgi apparatus, lipid-synthesizing, lipid-flippase, and lipid-transport proteins (LTPs) collaborate to control lipid balance and distribution within the membrane to guarantee remodeling processes crucial for vesicular trafficking. Open questions exist regarding LTPs, which are thought to be lipid sensors that regulate lipid synthesis or carriers that transfer lipids between organelles across long distances or in contact sites. A novel model is that LTPs, by exchanging two different lipids, exploit one lipid gradient between two distinct membranes to build a second lipid gradient. PMID:24606148

  20. Tear Film Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Butovich, Igor A.

    2013-01-01

    Human meibomian gland secretions (MGS, or meibum) are formed from a complex mixture of lipids of different classes such as wax esters, cholesteryl esters, (O-acyl)-ω-hydroxy fatty acids (OAHFA) and their esters, acylglycerols, diacylated diols, free fatty acids, cholesterol, and a smaller amount of other polar and nonpolar lipids, whose chemical nature and the very presence in MGS have been a matter of intense debates. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent results that were obtained using different experimental techniques, estimate limitations of their usability, and discuss their biochemical, biophysical, and physiological implications. To create a lipid map of MGS and tears, the results obtained in the author’s laboratory were integrated with available information on chemical composition of MGS and tears. The most informative approaches that are available today to researchers, such as HPLC-MS, GC-MS, and proton NMR, are discussed in details. A map of the meibomian lipidome (as it is seen in reverse phase liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry experiments) is presented. Directions of future efforts in the area are outlined. PMID:23769846

  1. Painted supported lipid membranes

    PubMed Central

    Florin, E.-L.; Gaub, H. E.

    1993-01-01

    We report herein measurements on a novel type of supported lipid films, which we call painted supported membranes (PSM). These membranes are formed in a self-assembly process on alkylated gold films from an organic solution. The formation process was investigated with surface plasmon resonance microscopy. The optical and electrical properties of the films were determined for various types of lipids and as a function of temperature by means of cyclic voltammetry and potential relaxation after charge injection. We could show that these films exhibit an extraordinarily high specific resistivity which, depending on the lipid, may be as high as 109 ohm/cm2. We could also show that due to this low conductivity, an electrical polarization across the PSM relaxes with characteristic time constants of up to 20 min. The electrical properties together with their high mechanical stability and accessibility to surface sensitive techniques make these films well suitable model membranes for optical and electrical investigations. Examples for such applications are given in the subsequent article by Seifert et al. ImagesFIGURE 3FIGURE 4 PMID:19431873

  2. LIPID11: a modular framework for lipid simulations using amber.

    PubMed

    Skjevik, Åge A; Madej, Benjamin D; Walker, Ross C; Teigen, Knut

    2012-09-13

    Accurate simulation of complex lipid bilayers has long been a goal in condensed phase molecular dynamics (MD). Structure and function of membrane-bound proteins are highly dependent on the lipid bilayer environment and are challenging to study through experimental methods. Within Amber, there has been limited focus on lipid simulations, although some success has been seen with the use of the General Amber Force Field (GAFF). However, to date there are no dedicated Amber lipid force fields. In this paper we describe a new charge derivation strategy for lipids consistent with the Amber RESP approach and a new atom and residue naming and type convention. In the first instance, we have combined this approach with GAFF parameters. The result is LIPID11, a flexible, modular framework for the simulation of lipids that is fully compatible with the existing Amber force fields. The charge derivation procedure, capping strategy, and nomenclature for LIPID11, along with preliminary simulation results and a discussion of the planned long-term parameter development are presented here. Our findings suggest that LIPID11 is a modular framework feasible for phospholipids and a flexible starting point for the development of a comprehensive, Amber-compatible lipid force field. PMID:22916730

  3. HIV, HCV, HBV, HSV, and syphilis prevalence among female sex workers in Tehran, Iran, by using respondent-driven sampling.

    PubMed

    Moayedi-Nia, Saeedeh; Bayat Jozani, Zahra; Esmaeeli Djavid, Gholamreza; Entekhabi, Fatemeh; Bayanolhagh, Saeed; Saatian, Minoo; Sedaghat, Abbas; Nikzad, Rana; Jahanjoo Aminabad, Fatemeh; Mohraz, Minoo

    2016-04-01

    To find out the prevalence of HIV, HCV, HBV, HSV, and syphilis infections among female sex workers (FSWs) in Tehran, a cross-sectional study by using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method was conducted. From December 2012 to April 2013 FSWs in Tehran were recruited. Inclusion criteria consisted of trading sex during the 12 months prior to this study and selling sex for at least 6 months in participants' lifetime. Among 161 consenting participants, 5% were infected with HIV. Moreover, 8.1% of FSWs were HCV positive, 37.9% were of HSV type1/type2, 1.2% of participants were infected with HBV, and none of the participants were infected with syphilis. HIV-positive participants were significantly more likely to be co-infected with HSV type1/type2, be younger, have more sexual partners and especially more clients during seven days prior to this study and report more history of having at least one of sexually transmitted infections symptoms in 12 months prior the study. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, being infected with HSV and also being under 25 years of age were found to be independently associated with HIV infection. Compared with the prevalence of HIV among general population of Tehran, relatively high prevalence of HIV and other viral infections among FSWs should be considered. All in all, it is critical to commence effective counter-measures for this high-risk group if the aim is to prevent spreading of these viruses to general population. PMID:26565671

  4. Understanding determinants of socioeconomic inequality in mental health in Iran's capital, Tehran: a concentration index decomposition approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mental health is of special importance regarding socioeconomic inequalities in health. On the one hand, mental health status mediates the relationship between economic inequality and health; on the other hand, mental health as an "end state" is affected by social factors and socioeconomic inequality. In spite of this, in examining socioeconomic inequalities in health, mental health has attracted less attention than physical health. As a first attempt in Iran, the objectives of this paper were to measure socioeconomic inequality in mental health, and then to untangle and quantify the contributions of potential determinants of mental health to the measured socioeconomic inequality. Methods In a cross-sectional observational study, mental health data were taken from an Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (Urban HEART) survey, conducted on 22 300 Tehran households in 2007 and covering people aged 15 and above. Principal component analysis was used to measure the economic status of households. As a measure of socioeconomic inequality, a concentration index of mental health was applied and decomposed into its determinants. Results The overall concentration index of mental health in Tehran was -0.0673 (95% CI = -0.070 - -0.057). Decomposition of the concentration index revealed that economic status made the largest contribution (44.7%) to socioeconomic inequality in mental health. Educational status (13.4%), age group (13.1%), district of residence (12.5%) and employment status (6.5%) also proved further important contributors to the inequality. Conclusions Socioeconomic inequalities exist in mental health status in Iran's capital, Tehran. Since the root of this avoidable inequality is in sectors outside the health system, a holistic mental health policy approach which includes social and economic determinants should be adopted to redress the inequitable distribution of mental health. PMID:22449237

  5. A plural role for lipids in motor neuron diseases: energy, signaling and structure

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Florent; Hussain, Ghulam; Dupuis, Luc; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe; Henriques, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are characterized by selective death of motor neurons and include mainly adult-onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Neurodegeneration is not the single pathogenic event occurring during disease progression. There are multiple lines of evidence for the existence of defects in lipid metabolism at peripheral level. For instance, hypermetabolism is well characterized in ALS, and dyslipidemia correlates with better prognosis in patients. Lipid metabolism plays also a role in other MNDs. In SMA, misuse of lipids as energetic nutrients is described in patients and in related animal models. The composition of structural lipids in the central nervous system is modified, with repercussion on membrane fluidity and on cell signaling mediated by bioactive lipids. Here, we review the main epidemiologic and mechanistic findings that link alterations of lipid metabolism and motor neuron degeneration, and we discuss the rationale of targeting these modifications for therapeutic management of MNDs. PMID:24600344

  6. Determination of the optimal positions for installing gamma ray detection systems at Tehran Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayyah, A.; Rahmani, F.; Khalafi, H.

    2015-09-01

    Dosimetric instruments must constantly monitor radiation dose levels in different areas of nuclear reactor. Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) has seven beam tubes for different research purposes. All the beam tubes extend from the reactor core to Beam Port Floor (BPF) of the reactor facility. During the reactor operation, the gamma rays exiting from each beam tube outlet produce a specific gamma dose rate field in the space of the BPF. To effectively monitor the gamma dose rates on the BPF, gamma ray detection systems must be installed in optimal positions. The selection of optimal positions is a compromise between two requirements. First, the installation positions must possess largest gamma dose rates and second, gamma ray detectors must not be saturated in these positions. In this study, calculations and experimental measurements have been carried out to identify the optimal positions of the gamma ray detection systems. Eight three dimensional models of the reactor core and related facilities corresponding to eight scenarios have been simulated using MCNPX Monte Carlo code to calculate the gamma dose equivalent rate field in the space of the BPF. These facilities are beam tubes, thermal column, pool, BPF space filled with air, facilities such as neutron radiography facility, neutron powder diffraction facility embedded in the beam tubes as well as biological shields inserted into the unused beam tubes. According to the analysis results of the combined gamma dose rate field, three positions on the north side and two positions on the south side of the BPF have been recognized as optimal positions for installing the gamma ray detection systems. To ensure the consistency of the simulation data, experimental measurements were conducted using TLDs (600 and 700) pairs during the reactor operation at 4.5 MW.

  7. Lead and other trace metals in preeclampsia: A case-control study in Tehran, Iran

    SciTech Connect

    Vigeh, Mohsen; Yokoyama, Kazuhito . E-mail: kazuhito@doc.medic.mie-u.ac.jp; Ramezanzadeh, Fateme; Dahaghin, Mojgan; Sakai, Tadashi; Morita, Yoko; Kitamura, Fumihiko; Sato, Hajime; Kobayashi, Yasuki

    2006-02-15

    To assess the effects of environmental exposures to trace metals on the incidence of preeclampsia, concentrations of lead (Pb), antimony (Sb), manganese (Mn), mercury, cadmium, cobalt and zinc in umbilical cord blood (UCB) and mother whole blood (MWB) were measured in 396 postpartum women without occupational exposure to metals in Tehran, Iran, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Mother's ages ranged from 15 to 49 (mean 27) years. Preeclampsia was diagnosed in 31 subjects (7.8%). Levels of Pb, Sb and Mn in UCB were significantly higher in preeclampsia cases [mean+/-SD of 4.30+/-2.49{mu}g/dl, 4.16+/-2.73 and 46.87+/-15.03{mu}g/l, respectively] than in controls [3.52+/-2.09{mu}g/dl, 3.17+/-2.68 and 40.32+/-15.19{mu}g/l, respectively] (P<0.05). The logistic regression analysis revealed that one unit increase in the common logarithms of UCB concentration of Pb, Sb or Mn led to increase in the risk of preeclampsia several-fold; unit risks (95% CI) were 12.96 (1.57-107.03), 6.11 (1.11-33.53) and 34.2 (1.81-648.04) for Pb, Sb and Mn, respectively (P<0.05). These findings suggest that environmental exposure to Pb, Sb and Mn may increase the risk of preeclampsia in women without occupational exposure; levels of metals in UCB to be sensitive indicators of female reproductive toxicity as compared with those in mother MWB. Further studies are necessary to confirm these findings, especially on Sb and Mn.

  8. Monitoring of some pesticides residue in consumed tea in Tehran market

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Tea is an agricultural product of the leaves, leaf buds, and internodes of various cultivars and sub-varieties of the Camellia sinensis plant, processed and vulcanized using various methods. Tea is a main beverage in Iranian food basket so should be free from toxic elements such as pesticides residue. There is no data bank on the residue of pesticides in the consumed black tea in Iran. The present study is the first attempt for monitoring of 25 pesticide residues from different chemical groups in tea samples obtained from local markets in Tehran, I.R. Iran during the period 2011. A reliable and accurate method based on spiked calibration curve and QuEChERS sample preparation was developed for determination of pesticide residues in tea by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The using of spiked calibration standards for constructing the calibration curve substantially reduced adverse matrix-related effects and negative recovery affected by GCB on pesticides. The recovery of pesticides at 3 concentration levels (n = 3) was in range of 81.4 - 99.4%. The method was proved to be repeatable with RSDr lower than 20%. The limits of quantification for all pesticides were ≤20 ng/g. 53 samples from 17 imported and manufactured brand were analyzed. Detectable pesticides residues were found in 28.3% (15 samples) of the samples. All of the positive samples were contaminated with unregulated pesticides (Endosulfan Sulfate or Bifenthrin) which are established by ISIRI. None of the samples had contamination higher than maximum residue limit set by EU and India. PMID:23369650

  9. Factors contributes to spontaneous abortion caused by Listeria monocytogenes, in Tehran, Iran, 2015.

    PubMed

    Pourkaveh, B; Ahmadi, M; Eslami, G; Gachkar, L

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous abortion is the loss of a fetus before the 20th week of pregnancy, when occurring naturally without any surgical or pharmaceutical intervention. On the other hand, Listeria monocytogenes, as one of the foodborne pathogens, is a causative agent of listeriosis. The transfer of L. monocytogenes in pregnant women occurs as self-limited flu-like symptoms which may result in abortion, stillbirth or premature birth of infected infants. The purpose of this study was the identification of Listeria monocytogenes risk factors in women with spontaneous abortion admitted to Tehran Province health care centers in 2015. In this cross-sectional study, 317 women were examined for L. monocytogenes using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and the related risk factors. Two questionnaires on "L. monocytogenes Probable Risk Factors" and "Socio Economic Factors" were completed. Out of 317 samples of vaginal swabs, 54 (17%) isolates of L. monocytogenes were identified. In addition significant differences in terms of age of mother and her husband, mother and the husband's level of education , house prices, place of residence, gestational age of first abortion, gestational age of current abortion, gestational age of second abortion, consumption of unpasteurized dairy products, consumption of feta and soft cheese, consumption of smoked see food products, consumption of processed meat products and half-cooked meat products, consumption of ready-to-eat vegetables, history of contact with domestic animals three month before pregnancy and during pregnancy and consumption of smoked meat products during pregnancy were studied between two groups of patients positive and negative with L. monocytogens (P < 0.001). Based on the study, the detection of L. monocytogens risk factor during pregnancy as well as taking the issue into account while giving information and counseling in pregnancy can be vital to reduce the incidence of this bacterium and subsequently its side effects during

  10. Characterization of Occult Hepatitis B Infection Among Injecting Drug Users in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Asli, Maryam; Kandelouei, Tahmineh; Rahimyan, Koroush; Davoodbeglou, Foad; Vaezjalali, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major health problem worldwide. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) and its associated risk factors, together with the molecular characterization of the virus in injecting drug users of Tehran. Patients and Methods The study consisted of 229 injecting drug users. Serum samples were collected and tested for the presence of hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). HBV B virus DNA was extracted from the serum samples, and a fragment of the S gene was amplified using the nested polymerase chain reaction. The genotype, subgenotypes, subtype, and S gene mutation of HBV were determined by direct sequencing. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the neighbor-joining method. Results Sixty-four (28%) participants were HBcAb positive, 59 cases were HBcAb positive and HBsAg negative, and 5 cases were HBsAg positive. Hepatitis B DNA was found in three HBsAg-positive cases. Thirteen of 59 (22%) individuals were hepatitis B DNA positive. The phylogenetic tree of hepatitis B DNA showed the existence of genotype D. The only significant correlation was between sharing a syringe and OBI. Conclusions In comparison with the rate of HBcAb positivity reported in other Iranian studies, the rate was higher in the present study. There were a few variations, genotypes, and subtypes among the infected injecting drug users. Further investigations are needed to unravel the molecular characterization of OBI. PMID:27226802

  11. Characteristics of Patients with Cystic Fibrosis: Experience in a Large Referral Children's Hospital in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Khatami, Gr; Mir-Nasseri, Mm; Seyghali, F; Allah-Verdi, B; Yourdkhani, F

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by a CF trans-membrane regulator (CFTR) defect. Its prevalence is 1:2500 in Caucasians, 1:15300 among African Americans and is rare in Southeast Asia. The present study aims to review demographic data, clinical manifestations and laboratory findings of Iranian children diagnosed with CF who referred to a Children's Hospital Medical Center in Tehran, Iran during a ten-year period. METHODS In a retrospective study from 1991-2000, all hospitalized patients with documented CF were reviewed. Diagnosis was based on clinical findings and sweat chloride levels above 60 mEq/L. RESULTS A total of 233 patients [females: 91 (39.1%), males: 142 (60.9%)] were enrolled. The onset of symptoms was before the first month of life in 12.1%, between 1-6 months of age in 75.1%, and between 6-12 months of age in 6.9% of patients. Consanguinity of parents was present in 42.5% of patients. Respiratory (81.5%) and gastrointestinal (73.4%) symptoms, in addition to growth retardation were the most common presentations Eighty-eight percent of patients weighted below the fifth percentile. Of the 207 chest radiographs performed, the most frequent finding was hyper-aeration associated with pneumonia. Among 138 patients in whom barium swallows were performed, 102 (74%) had gastroesophageal reflux. A total of 27 patients expired, mostly from respiratory failure (96.3%). CONCLUSION CF is not a rare disease in Iran. We suggest early diagnosis and appropriate maintenance therapy for improving morbidity and mortality amongst CF patients. PMID:25197508

  12. Quality of life of medical students in Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Mohammad; Majdzadeh, Reza; Pasalar, Parvin; Nedjat, Saharnaz

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the quality of life (QOL) of Tehran University of Medical Sciences' (TUMS) medical students at different educational levels and specify the most important factors related to this quality. A sample of 242 medical students was selected randomly, given their number in three educational levels (basic sciences, physiopathology-stager and intern). The QOL was measured by WHOQOL-BREF. The students obtained average high score in two psychological and environmental health domains, and low score in physical health and social relationship domains. As the educational level of students increased their quality of life decreased at all four domains. At social relationship domain, the female students had overall better situation as compared to males (p=0.009). The female and male students had opposite condition at the level of basic sciences and internship, in a way that the female students earned higher marks at basic sciences level and the males at internship level (P= 0.008). The condition of female students in terms of environmental, physical and psychological health became static while their education rose. However, only environmental health of the male students reduced as their education level increased (P= 0.05). The students were of undesirable conditions in two domains of social relationship and physical health. Internship is a specific level in both groups which has a negative impact on the dimensions of quality of life and naturally needs more care for the students. Married status improved the students' QOL and could moderate the undesired effects of internship. PMID:24902021

  13. Characterization of Diarrheagenic Antimicrobial Resistant Escherichia coli Isolated From Pediatric Patients in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Heidary, Maryam; Momtaz, Hassan; Madani, Mahboobeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acute infectious diarrhea is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Objectives: The objective of this study was to characterize antimicrobial resistant diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrheic children in Tehran, IR Iran. Patients and Methods: In total, 550 stool samples from diarrheic pediatric patients, aged less than 60 months, were collected and immediately transferred to the laboratory. Isolation and identification of E. coli strains was done using bacteriological methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion technique. Multiplex PCR was used to detect aadA1, tetA, tetB, dfrA1, qnr, aac (3)-IV, sul1, blaSHV, CITM, cat1, and cmlA antibiotic resistance genes. Results: From the total of 550 fecal samples examined, 154 samples (28%) were positive for diarraheagenic E. coli. High rates of antibiotic resistance were seen against penicillin ﴾100%), ampicillin ﴾89.6%﴿ and tetracycline ﴾83.1%﴿. Resistance against ciprofloxacin was low ﴾28.6%﴿. The prevalence of different resistance genes in the studied strains varied from 96.10% for aadA1 gene to 40.25% for sul1 gene. The frequencies of aadA1, tetA, tetB, dfrA1, qnr, aac(3)-IV, sul1, blaSHV, CITM, cat1, and cmlA genes were 96.10%, 85.06%, 84.41%, 51.94%, 72.07%, 54.54%, 40.25%, 57.79%, 90.25%, 59.74% and 60.38%, respectively. Conclusions: Our results indicated that antibiotic resistance is increasing in diarraheagenic E. coli strains in Iran. It is imperative to develop strategies for prevention and control of resistant organisms. Changes in patterns of resistance against commonly used antibiotics in Iran indicate that an applied surveillance system and introduction of guidelines for appropriate antibiotic prescription are necessary. PMID:24910786

  14. Diagnosing Malaria Cases Referred to the Malaria Reference Laboratory in Tehran University of Medical Science, Iran

    PubMed Central

    NATEGHPOUR, Mehdi; EDRISSIAN, Gholamhossein; MOTEVALLI HAGHI, Afsaneh; FARIVAR, Leila; KAZEMI-RAD, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Background: The number of malaria cases is declining worldwide; however, it remains as a serious health problem. Diagnosing unusual cases is the most important issue to manage the problem. This study designed to describe the number of falciparum and vivax malaria infected patients referred to Malaria Reference Laboratory in Tehran University of Medical Science from 2000 to 2012. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted based on the collected questionnaires from each patient referred to the laboratory. Diagnosing results and demographic information for positive cases were analyzed using SPSS software. Problematic cases were evaluated for any difficulties in diagnosis or in clinical signs. Scanning and molecular methods were performed whenever there was an atypical case referred to the laboratory. Some of the samples had various difficulties for diagnosing such as presence of fussed gametocytes and schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum in peripheral blood and CCHF like hemoragic disorders. Results: Plasmodium vivax caused a large proportion of the cases (76.1%) in contrast with P. falciparum that included smaller proportion (22.8%) and the rest (1.1) belonged to mixed infection. Most of the positive cases (69.6%) were belonged to Afghani people. Men (94.6%) showed more infection than women (5.4%), moreover the most infection (44.5%) was seen at a range of 21–30 yr. Conclusion: In the case of existing atypical issues to diagnose, it is needed to perform more precise microscopical examination beyond the current standard conditions. Sometimes molecular method is required to verify the exact agent of the disease. PMID:26811720

  15. Determinants of job motivation among frontline employees at hospitals in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Ehsan; Najafi, Marziye; Rajaee, Roya; Shamseddini, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Human resources are the most strategic resource and the most significant input for health systems. Their behavior and motivation can strongly affect the overall performance of the health systems. The aim of this study was to determine the factors that affect motivation in frontline employees at teaching hospitals affiliated with Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (SBMU) in Tehran, Iran. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015. The participants (nurses, physiotherapists, radiology and laboratory technicians, operating room and pharmacy staff) were 300 employees selected by the stratified random sampling method from two general and teaching hospitals. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire that consisted of 42 questions in the 7 domains of motivational factors. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and independent samples t-test by SPSS software, version 23. Results The findings indicated that working relationships (mean of 3.95) were the main determinant of job motivation of frontline employees. Job content (3.76) career development (3.75), social respect (3.75), and autonomy (3.30) were the next four affective factors. Recognition and remuneration had the least influence on the job motivation of frontline employees. The results of the Friedman test indicated that the difference between the mean scores of different dimensions was significant (χ2(6) = 607.00, p < 0.001). Conclusion A hospital that seeks to engender increased motivation of its frontline employees should have in place a human resources strategy that includes facilitating communication between personnel and management, supporting employees in the community, and promoting social respect for health professions, providing educational opportunities and career development, development of appropriate promotional policies, employee participation in goal setting, facilitating a good working environment and job security, job enrichment

  16. Characterization and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban atmospheric Particulate of Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Hoseini, Mohammad; Yunesian, Masud; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Rastkari, Noushin; Parmy, Saeid; Faridi, Sasan; Rafiee, Ata; Naddafi, Kazem

    2016-01-01

    In this study, atmospheric concentrations of particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Tehran megacity were determined to investigate the concentration, distribution, and sources of PAHs in PM10. The health risk from exposure to airborne BaPeq through inhalation pathway was also assessed. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) approach was used for quantitative risk estimate, and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) was calculated. PM10 samples were collected at ten sampling locations during the summer 2013 and winter 2014 by using two independent methods of field sampling. The PM10 concentration in winter (89.55 ± 15.56 μg m(-3)) was 1.19 times higher than that in summer (75.42 ± 14.93 μg m(-3)). Sixteen PAHs were measured with the total average concentrations of PAHs ranged from 56.98 ± 15.91 to 110.35 ± 57.31 ng m(-3) in summer and from 125.87 ± 79.02 to 171.25 ± 73.94 ng m(-3) in winter which were much higher than concentrations measured in most similar studies conducted around the world. Molecular diagnostic ratios were used to identify PAH emission sources. The results indicated that gasoline-driven vehicles are the major sources of PAHs in the study area. Risk analysis showed that the mean and 90 % probability estimated inhalation ILCRs were 7.85 × 10(-6) and 16.78 × 10(-6), respectively. Results of a sensitivity analysis indicated that BaP concentration and cancer slope factor (CSF) contributed most to effect on ILCR mean. PMID:26400241

  17. Dietary patterns and risk of colorectal cancer in Tehran Province: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is the third and fourth leading cause of cancer incidence and mortality among men and women, respectively in Iran. However, the role of dietary factors that could contribute to this high cancer incidence remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine major dietary patterns and its relationship with colorectal cancer. Methods This case–control study was conducted in four hospitals in Tehran city of Iran. A total of 71 patients (35 men and 36 women, aged 40–75 years) with incident clinically confirmed colorectal cancer (CRC) and 142 controls (70 men and 72 women, aged 40–75 years) admitted to hospital for acute, non-neoplastic diseases were recruited and interviewed. Dietary data were assessed by 125-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between dietary patterns and risk of colorectal cancer. Results Two major dietary patterns (Healthy pattern and Western pattern) were derived using principal component analysis. Each dietary pattern explained 11.9% (Healthy pattern) and 10.3% (Western pattern) of the variation in food intake, respectively. After adjusting for confounding factors, the Healthy dietary pattern was significantly associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer (OR= 0.227; 95% CI=0.108–0.478) while an increased risk of colorectal cancer was observed with the Western dietary pattern (OR=2.616; 95% CI= 1.361-5.030). Conclusion Specific dietary patterns, which include healthy and western patterns, may be associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. This diet-disease relationship can be used for developing interventions that aim to promote healthy eating for the prevention of chronic disease, particularly colorectal cancer in the Iranian population. PMID:23497250

  18. Neuroimaging Findings in First Unprovoked Seizures: A Multicentric Study in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    MOLLA MOHAMMADI, Mohsen; TONEKABONI, Seyed Hassan; KHATAMI, Alireza; AZARGASHB, Eznollah; TAVASOLI, Azita; JAVADZADEH, Mohsen; ZAMANI, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    Objective Seizure is an emergency in pediatrics. It really matters to the parents of the involved child to have information about the causes, management and prognosis. First unprovoked seizures (FUS) are seizures that occur in patients without fever, trauma or infection. Due to the rapid improvement in diagnostic techniques in the last few decades, the etiology will be revealed and this term will no longer exist. This Study was designed to evaluate brain imaging findings in FUS patients. Materials & Methods Ninety-six children with FUS, who were admitted in three major children’s hospitals in Tehran, underwent brain imaging and were enrolled into the study. The decision about the type of imaging (CT or MRI) was based on the patient’s medical and financial conditions. An expert radiologist in the field of pediatric neuroimaging interpreted the images. Results Altogether, 27.1% had abnormal findings of which 29.2% were in the brain MRI group and 14.3% were in the brain CT scan group. Abnormal results were gliosis (10.4%), hemorrhage (4.2%), dysgenesis (2.1%), dysmyelination (7.3%), encephalomalacy (1%), atrophy (5.2%) and infarction (2.1%). In some patients, the lesions were in 2 or 3 sites and some had more than one type of lesion. There was no association between the duration, age and type of seizure and imaging abnormlities. However, we found an association between the location of the lesion and the type of seizure. Conclusion We recommend brain imaging in all patients with FUS and apart from some exceptions, brain MRI is superior to CT. PMID:24665314

  19. Evaluation of the 10th External Quality Assessment Scheme results in clinical microbiology laboratories in Tehran and districts.

    PubMed

    Abbassi, M; Rahbar, M; Hekmat Yazdi, S; Rashed Marandi, F; Sabourian, R; Saremi, M

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of microbiology laboratories in the 10th run of the external quality assessment scheme (EQAS) in Tehran and districts. Each laboratory was sent 2 species of bacteria for identification. Of the 487 laboratories that participated, 437 returned their findings. While 77.0% and 69.9% correctly identified Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Citrobacter freundii respectively, only 29.8% correctly identified Acinetobacter baumanii, 25.3% identified Enterococcus faecalis and 35.6% identified Enterobacter agglomerans. However 78.7% and 79.5% of the laboratories reported correct -results for susceptibility testing for S. saprophyticus and C. freundii respectively. PMID:17037699

  20. Biogenesis of the multifunctional lipid droplet: Lipids, proteins, and sites

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are ubiquitous dynamic organelles that store and supply lipids in all eukaryotic and some prokaryotic cells for energy metabolism, membrane synthesis, and production of essential lipid-derived molecules. Interest in the organelle’s cell biology has exponentially increased over the last decade due to the link between LDs and prevalent human diseases and the discovery of new and unexpected functions of LDs. As a result, there has been significant recent progress toward understanding where and how LDs are formed, and the specific lipid pathways that coordinate LD biogenesis. PMID:24590170

  1. Cell-Based Lipid Flippase Assay Employing Fluorescent Lipid Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Maria S; Costa, Sara; Günther-Pomorski, Thomas; López-Marqués, Rosa L

    2016-01-01

    P-type ATPases in the P4 subfamily (P4-ATPases) are transmembrane proteins unique for eukaryotes that act as lipid flippases, i.e., to translocate phospholipids from the exofacial to the cytofacial monolayer of cellular membranes. While initially characterized as aminophospholipid translocases, studies of individual P4-ATPase family members from fungi, plants, and animals show that P4-ATPases differ in their substrate specificities and mediate transport of a broader range of lipid substrates. Here, we describe an assay based on fluorescent lipid derivatives to monitor and characterize lipid flippase activities in the plasma membrane of cells, using yeast as an example. PMID:26695048

  2. Understanding the local actions of lipids in bone physiology.

    PubMed

    During, Alexandrine; Penel, Guillaume; Hardouin, Pierre

    2015-07-01

    The adult skeleton is a metabolically active organ system that undergoes continuous remodeling to remove old and/or stressed bone (resorption) and replace it with new bone (formation) in order to maintain a constant bone mass and preserve bone strength from micro-damage accumulation. In that remodeling process, cellular balances--adipocytogenesis/osteoblastogenesis and osteoblastogenesis/osteoclastogenesis--are critical and tightly controlled by many factors, including lipids as discussed in the present review. Interest in the bone lipid area has increased as a result of in vivo evidences indicating a reciprocal relationship between bone mass and marrow adiposity. Lipids in bones are usually assumed to be present only in the bone marrow. However, the mineralized bone tissue itself also contains small amounts of lipids which might play an important role in bone physiology. Fatty acids, cholesterol, phospholipids and several endogenous metabolites (i.e., prostaglandins, oxysterols) have been purported to act on bone cell survival and functions, the bone mineralization process, and critical signaling pathways. Thus, they can be regarded as regulatory molecules important in bone health. Recently, several specific lipids derived from membrane phospholipids (i.e., sphingosine-1-phosphate, lysophosphatidic acid and different fatty acid amides) have emerged as important mediators in bone physiology and the number of such molecules will probably increase in the near future. The present paper reviews the current knowledge about: (1°) bone lipid composition in both bone marrow and mineralized tissue compartments, and (2°) local actions of lipids on bone physiology in relation to their metabolism. Understanding the roles of lipids in bone is essential to knowing how an imbalance in their signaling pathways might contribute to bone pathologies, such as osteoporosis. PMID:26118851

  3. Lipids and HCV.

    PubMed

    Bassendine, M F; Sheridan, D A; Bridge, S H; Felmlee, D J; Neely, R D G

    2013-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with an increase in hepatic steatosis and a decrease in serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and apolipoprotein B (apoB), the main protein constituent of LDL and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). These changes are more marked in HCV genotype 3 infection, and effective treatment results in their reversal. Low lipid levels in HCV infection correlate not only with steatosis and more advanced liver fibrosis but also with non-response to interferon-based therapy. The clinical relevance of disrupted lipid metabolism reflects the fact that lipids play a crucial role in the life cycle of hepatitis C virus. HCV assembly and maturation in hepatocytes depend on microsomal triglyceride transfer protein and apoB in a manner that parallels the formation of VLDL. VLDL production from the liver occurs throughout the day with an estimated 10(18) particles produced every 24 h whilst the estimated hepatitis C virion production rate is 10(12) virions per day. HCV particles in the serum exist as a mixture of complete low-density infectious lipo-viral particles (LVP) and a vast excess of apoB-associated empty nucleocapsid-free sub-viral particles that are complexed with anti-HCV envelope antibodies. Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is also involved in HCV particle morphogenesis and is an essential apolipoprotein for HCV infectivity. ApoE is a critical ligand for the receptor-mediated removal of triglyceride rich lipoprotein (TRL) remnants by the liver. The dynamics of apoB-associated lipoproteins, including HCV-LVP, change post-prandially with an increase in large TRL remnants and very low density HCV-LVP which are rapidly cleared by the liver (at least three HCV receptors are cellular receptors for uptake of TRL remnants). In summary, HCV utilises triglyceride-rich lipoprotein pathways within the liver and the circulation to its advantage. PMID:23111699

  4. RF microalgal lipid content characterization.

    PubMed

    Al Ahmad, Mahmoud; Al-Zuhair, Sulaiman; Taher, Hanifa; Hilal-Alnaqbi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Most conventional techniques for the determination of microalgae lipid content are time consuming and in most cases are indirect and require excessive sample preparations. This work presents a new technique that utilizes radio frequency (RF) for rapid lipid quantification, without the need for sample preparation. Tests showed that a shift in the resonance frequency of a RF open-ended coaxial resonator and a gradual increase in its resonance magnitude may occur as the lipids content of microalgae cells increases. These response parameters can be then calibrated against actual cellular lipid contents and used for rapid determination of the cellular lipids. The average duration of lipid quantification using the proposed technique was of about 1 minute, which is significantly less than all other conventional techniques, and was achieved without the need for any time consuming treatment steps. PMID:24870372

  5. Lipid classification, structures and tools☆

    PubMed Central

    Fahy, Eoin; Cotter, Dawn; Sud, Manish; Subramaniam, Shankar

    2012-01-01

    The study of lipids has developed into a research field of increasing importance as their multiple biological roles in cell biology, physiology and pathology are becoming better understood. The Lipid Metabolites and Pathways Strategy (LIPID MAPS) consortium is actively involved in an integrated approach for the detection, quantitation and pathway reconstruction of lipids and related genes and proteins at a systems-biology level. A key component of this approach is a bioinformatics infrastructure involving a clearly defined classification of lipids, a state-of-the-art database system for molecular species and experimental data and a suite of user-friendly tools to assist lipidomics researchers. Herein, we discuss a number of recent developments by the LIPID MAPS bioinformatics core in pursuit of these objectives. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Lipodomics and Imaging Mass Spectrometry. PMID:21704189

  6. Lipid Biomembrane in Ionic Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Brian; Jing, Benxin; Shah, Jindal; Maginn, Ed; Zhu, Y. Elaine; Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Team

    2014-03-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been recently explored as new ``green'' chemicals in several chemical and biomedical processes. In our pursuit of understanding their toxicities towards aquatic and terrestrial organisms, we have examined the IL interaction with lipid bilayers as model cell membranes. Experimentally by fluorescence microscopy, we have directly observed the disruption of lipid bilayer by added ILs. Depending on the concentration, alkyl chain length, and anion hydrophobicity of ILs, the interaction of ILs with lipid bilayers leads to the formation of micelles, fibrils, and multi-lamellar vesicles for IL-lipid complexes. By MD computer simulations, we have confirmed the insertion of ILs into lipid bilayers to modify the spatial organization of lipids in the membrane. The combined experimental and simulation results correlate well with the bioassay results of IL-induced suppression in bacteria growth, thereby suggesting a possible mechanism behind the IL toxicity. National Science Foundation, Center for Research Computing at Notre Dame.

  7. Adult Compacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This bulletin focuses on adult compacts, three-way agreements among employers, potential employees, and trainers to provide the right kind of quality training to meet the employers' requirements. Part 1 is an executive summary of a report of the Adult Compacts Project, which studied three adult compacts in Birmingham and Loughborough, England, and…

  8. Mannosylerythritol lipids: a review.

    PubMed

    Arutchelvi, Joseph Irudayaraj; Bhaduri, Sumit; Uppara, Parasu Veera; Doble, Mukesh

    2008-12-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are surface active compounds that belong to the glycolipid class of biosurfactants (BSs). MELs are produced by Pseudozyma sp. as a major component while Ustilago sp. produces them as a minor component. Although MELs have been known for over five decades, they recently regained attention due to their environmental compatibility, mild production conditions, structural diversity, self-assembling properties and versatile biochemical functions. In this review, the MEL producing microorganisms, the production conditions, their applications, their diverse structures and self-assembling properties are discussed. The biosynthetic pathways and the regulatory mechanisms involved in the production of MEL are also explained here. PMID:18716809

  9. Lipid-transfer proteins.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tzi Bun; Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Wong, Jack Ho; Ye, Xiujuan

    2012-01-01

    Lipid-transfer proteins (LTPs) are basic proteins found in abundance in higher plants. LTPs play lots of roles in plants such as participation in cutin formation, embryogenesis, defense reactions against phytopathogens, symbiosis, and the adaptation of plants to various environmental conditions. In addition, LTPs from field mustard and Chinese daffodil exhibit antiproliferative activity against human cancer cells. LTPs from chili pepper and coffee manifest inhibitory activity against fungi pathogenic to humans such as Candida species. The intent of this article is to review LTPs in the plant kingdom. PMID:23193591

  10. Detection of Emergence Cyclospora cayetanensis in A HIV+ / AIDS Patient with Diarrhea from Tehran: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    KHANALIHA, Khadijeh; MOHEBALI, Mehdi; DAVOUDI, Setareh; REZA HOSSEINI, Omid; TARIGHI, Fatemeh; REZAEIAN, Tahereh; REZAEIAN, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Coccidian protozoa of Cyclospora cayetanensis are obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasites that infect the mucosal epithelium of the small intestine of immunocompetent and immunocompromised persons. A 25- years old woman from around, Tehran with complaint of faintness and fatigue with HIV positive/AIDS confirmed eight months ago was admitted in Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran in 2014. The patient suffered from intestinal and lung symptoms like watery diarrhea, flu-like symptoms. The stool was examined by direct preparation and concentration technique, stained with modified acid-fast staining method, and observed with light and then Immunofluorescence microscope. The stool cultivation was made in dichromate potassium medium and diagnosis of Cyclospora infection was finally made according to observation of Cyclospora oocysts almost 10 μm in acid-fast staining method and autofluorescence of Cyclospora under Immunofluorescence microscope. The patient was initially treated with azithromycin, tazocin and fluconazol because of lung lesions and diarrhea and relative remission was observed. Cyclospora sp. causes an intestinal infection particularly in immunocompromised patients. PMID:26258100

  11. Relationship between Health-Related Quality of Life and Social Support in HIV-Infected People in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    CHARKHIAN, Amir; FEKRAZAD, Hosein; SAJADI, Homeira; RAHGOZAR, Mehdi; HAJI ABDOLBAGHI, Mahboubeh; MADDAHI, Somayyeh

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The present study was conducted to determine the association between social support and health-related QOL (HRQL) for a sample of 120 patients living with HIV/AIDS in Tehran. Method Eighty male and 40 female living with HIV referred to Iranian AIDS Research Center at Imam Khomini Hospital in Tehran, Iran in 2011 were randomly selected for assessment. Data was collected by means of Vaux's Social Support questionnaire and Medical Outcomes Short-Form-36 (SF-36) QOL questionnaires. Pearson (P) Correlation Coefficient and Fisher z-test were used for statistical analysis. Results In general, social support was significantly associated with overall QOL in men (P = 0.001) and women (P = 0.009) living with HIV/AIDS. In men, social support was significantly associated with mental and physical domains of QOL (P = 0.001) while in women it simply associated with mental domain of QOL (P = 0.003). Conclusions Our findings indicate that increasing social support for HIV/AIDS persons increases their QOL. This can help those physicians who are involved in care of HIV-infected persons and it maintains QOL across the spec-trum of HIV disease. PMID:26060686

  12. Development and implementation of a GIS-based tool for spatial modeling of seismic vulnerability of Tehran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, M.; Alesheikh, A. A.

    2012-12-01

    Achieving sustainable development in countries prone to earthquakes is possible with taking effective measures to reduce vulnerability to earthquakes. In this context, damage assessment of hypothetical earthquakes and planning for disaster management are important issues. Having a computer tool capable of estimating structural and human losses from earthquakes in a specific region may facilitate the decision-making process before and during disasters. Interoperability of this tool with wide-spread spatial analysis frameworks will expedite the data transferring process. In this study, the earthquake damage assessment (EDA) software tool is developed as an embedded extension within a GIS (geographic information system) environment for the city of Tehran, Iran. This GIS-based extension provides users with a familiar environment to estimate and observe the probable damages and fatalities of a deterministic earthquake scenario. The productivity of this tool is later demonstrated for southern Karoon parish, Region 10, Tehran. Three case studies for three active faults in the area and a comparison of the results with other research substantiated the reliability of this tool for additional earthquake scenarios.

  13. Evaluation of the Criteria for Quality of Life of Elderly Health Care Centers in Tehran Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Farzianpour, Fereshteh; Arab, Mohammad; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi; Zali Mehran, Esmaeil Morad

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the elderly quality of life of people covered by the healthcare centers in Tehran and its influencing demographic and background factors. Method: This is a cross-sectional study of quality of life of the elderly population covered by healthcare centers and bases in Tehran, as well as the influential background and demographic factors. Sampling was performed using simple random stratified sampling proportionate to the size of strata. Data were collected using the Iranian version of the standard questionnaire Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Results: According to the findings, 240 (60%) of the cases were men and 160 (40%) were women. Regarding age distribution, 76.3% fell in the 60-69 age range and 87.2% were illiterate. 18% of the elderly stated that they have financial problems and 19.5% did not express any financial problems. While studying the relationship between financial status and health status with the mean scores of quality of life, statistically significant differences were observed in all domains (p=0.032<0.001). The mean quality of life was lower in women compared to men. Conclusions: The findings of the present study indicate that the health-related quality of life in the elderly population is influenced by their health status and demographic and background variables.

  14. A Multi-Year Aerosol Characterization for the Greater Tehran Area Using Satellite, Surface, and Modeling Data

    PubMed Central

    Crosbie, Ewan; Sorooshian, Armin; Monfared, Negar Abolhassani; Shingler, Taylor; Esmaili, Omid

    2014-01-01

    This study reports a multi-year (2000–2009) aerosol characterization for metropolitan Tehran and surrounding areas using multiple datasets (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Goddard Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART), and surface and upper air data from local stations). Monthly trends in aerosol characteristics are examined in the context of the local meteorology, regional and local emission sources, and air mass back-trajectory data. Dust strongly affects the region during the late spring and summer months (May–August) when aerosol optical depth (AOD) is at its peak and precipitation accumulation is at a minimum. In addition, the peak AOD that occurs in July is further enhanced by a substantial number of seasonal wildfires in upwind regions. Conversely, AOD is at a minimum during winter; however, reduced mixing heights and a stagnant lower atmosphere trap local aerosol emissions near the surface and lead to significant reductions in visibility within Tehran. The unique meteorology and topographic setting makes wintertime visibility and surface aerosol concentrations particularly sensitive to local anthropogenic sources and is evident in the noteworthy improvement in visibility observed on weekends. Scavenging of aerosol due to precipitation is evident during the winter when aconsistent increase in surface visibility and concurrent decrease in AOD is observed in the days after rain compared with the days immediately before rain. PMID:25083295

  15. Synergistic effect of hypertension with diabetes mellitus and gender on severity of coronary atherosclerosis: Findings from Tehran Heart Center registry

    PubMed Central

    Masoudkabir, Farzad; Poorhosseini, Hamidreza; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ali; Hakki, Elham; Roayaei, Pegah; Kassaian, Seyed Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND We performed this study to evaluate the possible synergism between hypertension and other conventional risk factors of coronary artery disease (CAD) on an angiographic severity of coronary atherosclerosis. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted on 10502 consecutive patients who underwent coronary angiography in the cardiac catheterization laboratory of Tehran Heart Center Hospital (Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran), and their conventional risk factors including male gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia, smoking, and family history of premature CAD were recorded. The severity of coronary atherosclerosis evaluated by calculation of Gensini’s score. RESULTS All aforementioned conventional risk factors of CAD were independently associated with severity of CAD. Multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that hypertension had synergistic effect with male gender [Excess Gensini’s score: 5.93, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.72-9.15, P < 0.001] and also with DM (Excess Gensini’s score: 3.99, 95% CI: 0.30-7.69, P = 0.034) on severity of CAD. No interaction was observed between hypertension and smoking, dyslipidemia and also with a family history of CAD. CONCLUSION Hypertension has a synergistic effect with DM and male gender on the severity of CAD. These findings imply that more effective screening and treatment strategies should be considered for early diagnosis and tight control of hypertension in male and diabetic people for prevention of advanced CAD. PMID:26862339

  16. A Multi-Year Aerosol Characterization for the Greater Tehran Area Using Satellite, Surface, and Modeling Data.

    PubMed

    Crosbie, Ewan; Sorooshian, Armin; Monfared, Negar Abolhassani; Shingler, Taylor; Esmaili, Omid

    2014-04-01

    This study reports a multi-year (2000-2009) aerosol characterization for metropolitan Tehran and surrounding areas using multiple datasets (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Goddard Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART), and surface and upper air data from local stations). Monthly trends in aerosol characteristics are examined in the context of the local meteorology, regional and local emission sources, and air mass back-trajectory data. Dust strongly affects the region during the late spring and summer months (May-August) when aerosol optical depth (AOD) is at its peak and precipitation accumulation is at a minimum. In addition, the peak AOD that occurs in July is further enhanced by a substantial number of seasonal wildfires in upwind regions. Conversely, AOD is at a minimum during winter; however, reduced mixing heights and a stagnant lower atmosphere trap local aerosol emissions near the surface and lead to significant reductions in visibility within Tehran. The unique meteorology and topographic setting makes wintertime visibility and surface aerosol concentrations particularly sensitive to local anthropogenic sources and is evident in the noteworthy improvement in visibility observed on weekends. Scavenging of aerosol due to precipitation is evident during the winter when aconsistent increase in surface visibility and concurrent decrease in AOD is observed in the days after rain compared with the days immediately before rain. PMID:25083295

  17. The effects of educational program on health volunteers’ knowledge regarding their approach to earthquake in health centers in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    JOUHARI, ZAHRA; PIRASTEH, AFSHAR; GHASSEMI, GHOLAM REZA; BAZRAFKAN, LEILA

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The people's mental, intellectual and physical non-readiness to confront earthquake may result in disastrous outcomes. This research aimed to study of effects of a training intervention on health connector’s knowledge regarding their approach to earthquake in health-training centers in East of Tehran. Methods This research which is a semi-experimental study was designed and executed in 2011, using a questionnaire with items based on the information of Crisis Management Org. After a pilot study and making the questionnaire valid and reliable, we determined the sample size. Then, the questionnaires were completed before and after the training program by 82 health connectors at health-treatment centers in the East of Tehran. Finally, the collected data were analyzed by SPSS 14, using paired sample t–test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results Health connectors were women with the mean age of 43.43±8.51 years. In this research, the mean score of connectors’ knowledge before and after the training was 35.15±4.3 and 43.73±2.91 out of 48, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (p=0.001). The classes were the most important source of information for the health connectors. Conclusion The people's knowledge to confront earthquake can be increased by holding training courses and workshops. Such training courses and workshops have an important role in data transfer and readiness of health connectors. PMID:25927068

  18. Application of WHO model for evaluating Patient Safety Friendly Hospital Initiatives (PSFHI) in an Eye hospital in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Soltanzadeh, Parinaz; Salimi, Mohammad; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Moghri, Javad; Ravangard, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Patient safety is one of the major issues concerning the medical community and the World Health Organization (WHO) in most countries. This study aimed to evaluate the patient safety status in an Eye Hospital in Tehran, using the WHO model for Patient Safety Friendly Hospital Initiatives (PSFHI) in 2012. Methods: This Cross-Sectional study was done in an Eye Hospital in Tehran. Measurement tool was a checklist related to the PSFHI, including 140 standards in three groups of critical, core and developmental. It was covering five domains of: a) Leadership and management, b) Patient and public involvement, c) Safe evidence-based clinical practices, d) Safe environment, and e) Lifelong learning. Results: Compliance with critical, core and developmental standards were 77.78%, 75.29%, and 21.42% respectively. The Rates of Meeting Standards in the leadership and management, patient and public involvement, safe evidence-based clinical practices, secure environment and for lifelong learning were 66.89%, 42.85%, 75.68%, 73.68%, and 63.63% respectively. Conclusions: The PSFHI standards play important role in improving patient safety using leadership, safety practices and creating good working conditions and environment for the staff. So focus on these standards is essential in improving the patient safety in hospitals in Iran. PMID:26120394

  19. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Shigella species associated with acute diarrhea in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Fereshteh; Hamidian, Mohammad; Rezadehbashi, Maryam; Doyle, Michael; Salmanzadeh-ahrabi, Siavosh; Derakhshan, Faramarz; Reza Zali, Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    A study was performed to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Shigella species and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolates cultured from patients with acute diarrhea in Tehran, Iran. Between May 2003 and May 2005, 1120 diarrheal specimens were collected and assayed for bacterial enteropathogens by conventional and molecular methods. Etiological agents were isolated from 564 (50.3%) specimens, and included 305 (54%) E coli, 157 (27.8%) Shigella species, and 102 (18%) from other genera of bacteria. The predominant E coli was Shiga toxin-producing E coli (105 isolates [34.5%]) and the predominant Shigella serotype was Shigella sonnei (88 isolates [56.1%]). A high rate of antibiotic resistance was observed among E coli, with 40 of 53 (75.5%) Shiga toxin-producing E coli isolates resistant to amoxicillin and tetra-cycline, and eight (5.2%) E coli isolates resistant to more than six antibiotics. Most Shigella isolates were resistant to tetracycline (95%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (91.7%), with greatest antibiotic resistance observed among S sonnei (53 of 88 [60.2%] isolates). Antibiotic resistance is widespread in diarrheagenic E coli and Shigella in children with acute diarrhea in Tehran, Iran; hence, updated strategies for appropriate use of antimicrobial agents in Iran are needed. PMID:20808457

  20. Nutritional Assessment for Primary School Children in Tehran: An Evaluation of Dietary Pattern with Emphasis on Snacks and Meals Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Maryam; Dadkhah-Piraghaj, Monireh; Abtahi, Mitra; Abdollahi, Morteza; Houshiarrad, Anahita; Kimiagar, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Background: In order to provide better advice for prevention of obesity and eating disorders among children, there is a need to have more knowledge of their dietary patterns. This study examined meal and snacking patterns of primary school children in Tehran. Methods: A total of 761 male and female primary school children from all educational areas in Tehran were recruited in a cross-sectional survey. The data was collected by interviewing the students and their mothers or caregivers. Information on food consumption patterns was collected by one 24-h-recall and one snack-oriented food frequency questionnaire which covered a period of 1 month. Means, standard deviations, frequencies, percentages, energy and nutrient analyzes and nutrient densities were reported. Results: All of the students snacked at least once on the day of the survey. Snacks provided 38% of total energy intake by the students. Fruits and sweet snacks were consumed by almost all of the students during a week. Energy and most nutrient intakes from meals were greater than those consumed from snacks. Snacks had a higher density of fiber, carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamin C, riboflavin and thiamin and had a lower density of protein, fat and niacin, compared with main meals. Salty snacks such as extruded cheese curls (Cheetos) and chips were not consumed so often. Conclusions: Results provide detailed information about dietary patterns, which in turn enable development of targeted messages and/or interventions to improve nutritional status of school children. PMID:24932393

  1. Lipid metabolism in mitochondrial membranes.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Johannes A

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial membranes have a unique lipid composition necessary for proper shape and function of the organelle. Mitochondrial lipid metabolism involves biosynthesis of the phospholipids phosphatidylethanolamine, cardiolipin and phosphatidylglycerol, the latter is a precursor of the late endosomal lipid bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate. It also includes mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis necessary for the formation of the lipid cofactor lipoic acid. Furthermore the synthesis of coenzyme Q takes place in mitochondria as well as essential parts of the steroid and vitamin D metabolism. Lipid transport and remodelling, which are necessary for tailoring and maintaining specific membrane properties, are just partially unravelled. Mitochondrial lipids are involved in organelle maintenance, fission and fusion, mitophagy and cytochrome c-mediated apoptosis. Mutations in TAZ, SERAC1 and AGK affect mitochondrial phospholipid metabolism and cause Barth syndrome, MEGDEL and Sengers syndrome, respectively. In these disorders an abnormal mitochondrial energy metabolism was found, which seems to be due to disturbed protein-lipid interactions, affecting especially enzymes of the oxidative phosphorylation. Since a growing number of enzymes and transport processes are recognised as parts of the mitochondrial lipid metabolism, a further increase of lipid-related disorders can be expected. PMID:25082432

  2. Lipid hydroperoxides in plants.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, G; Leverentz, M; Silkowski, H; Gill, N; Sánchez-Serrano, J J

    2000-12-01

    Hydroperoxides are the primary oxygenated products of polyunsaturated fatty acids and were determined spectrophotometrically based on their reaction with an excess of Fe2+ at low pH in the presence of the dye Xylenol Orange. Triphenylphosphine-mediated hydroxide formation was used to authenticate the signal generated by the hydroperoxides. The method readily detected lipid peroxidation in a range of plant tissues including Phaseolus hypocotyls (26 +/- 5 nmol.g of fresh weight(-1); mean +/- S.D.), Alstroemeria floral tissues (sepals, 66+/-13 nmol.g of fresh weight(-1); petals, 49+/-6 nmol.g of fresh weight(-1)), potato leaves (334+/-75 nmol.g of fresh weight(-1)), broccoli florets (568+/-68 nmol.g of fresh weight(-1)) and Chlamydomonas cells (602+/-40 nmol.g of wet weight(-1)). Relative to the total fatty acid content of the tissues, the percentage hydroperoxide content was within the range of 0.6-1.7% for all tissue types (photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic) and represents the basal oxidation level of membrane fatty acids in plant cells. Leaves of transgenic potato with the fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase enzyme expressed in the antisense orientation were elevated by 38%, indicating a role for this enzyme in the maintenance of cellular levels of lipid hydroperoxides. PMID:11171226

  3. Lipid advanced glycosylation: pathway for lipid oxidation in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Bucala, R; Makita, Z; Koschinsky, T; Cerami, A; Vlassara, H

    1993-01-01

    To address potential mechanisms for oxidative modification of lipids in vivo, we investigated the possibility that phospholipids react directly with glucose to form advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) that then initiate lipid oxidation. Phospholipid-linked AGEs formed readily in vitro, mimicking the absorbance, fluorescence, and immunochemical properties of AGEs that result from advanced glycosylation of proteins. Oxidation of unsaturated fatty acid residues, as assessed by reactive aldehyde formation, occurred at a rate that paralleled the rate of lipid advanced glycosylation. Aminoguanidine, an agent that prevents protein advanced glycosylation, inhibited both lipid advanced glycosylation and oxidative modification. Incubation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) with glucose produced AGE moieties that were attached to both the lipid and the apoprotein components. Oxidized LDL formed concomitantly with AGE-modified LDL. Of significance, AGE ELISA analysis of LDL specimens isolated from diabetic individuals revealed increased levels of both apoprotein- and lipid-linked AGEs when compared to specimens obtained from normal, nondiabetic controls. Circulating levels of oxidized LDL were elevated in diabetic patients and correlated significantly with lipid AGE levels. These data support the concept that AGE oxidation plays an important and perhaps primary role in initiating lipid oxidation in vivo. PMID:8341651

  4. Lipid domains in supported lipid bilayer for atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wan-Chen; Blanchette, Craig D; Ratto, Timothy V; Longo, Marjorie L

    2007-01-01

    Phase-separated supported lipid bilayers have been widely used to study the phase behavior of multicomponent lipid mixtures. One of the primary advantages of using supported lipid bilayers is that the two-dimensional platform of this model membrane system readily allows lipid-phase separation to be characterized by high-resolution imaging techniques such as atomic force microscopy (AFM). In addition, when supported lipid bilayers have been functionalized with a specific ligand, protein-membrane interactions can also be imaged and characterized through AFM. It has been recently demonstrated that when the technique of vesicle fusion is used to prepare supported lipid bilayers, the thermal history of the vesicles before deposition and the supported lipid bilayers after formation will have significant effects on the final phase-separated domain structures. In this chapter, three methods of vesicle preparations as well as three deposition conditions will be presented. Also, the techniques and strategies of using AFM to image multicomponent phase-separated supported lipid bilayers and protein binding will be discussed. PMID:17951756

  5. Interaction of Daptomycin with Lipid Bilayers: A Lipid Extracting Effect

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Daptomycin is the first approved member of a new structural class of antibiotics, the cyclic lipopeptides. The peptide interacts with the lipid matrix of cell membranes, inducing permeability of the membrane to ions, but its molecular mechanism has been a puzzle. Unlike the ubiquitous membrane-acting host-defense antimicrobial peptides, daptomycin does not induce pores in the cell membranes. Thus, how it affects the permeability of a membrane to ions is not clear. We studied its interaction with giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) and discovered a lipid-extracting phenomenon that correlates with the direct action of daptomycin on bacterial membranes observed in a recent fluorescence microscopy study. Lipid extraction occurred only when the GUV lipid composition included phosphatidylglycerol and in the presence of Ca2+ ions, the same condition found to be necessary for daptomycin to be effective against bacteria. Furthermore, it occurred only when the peptide/lipid ratio exceeded a threshold value, which could be the basis of the minimal inhibitory concentration of daptomycin. In this first publication on the lipid extracting effect, we characterize its dependence on ions and lipid compositions. We also discuss possibilities for connecting the lipid extracting effect to the antibacterial activity of daptomycin. PMID:25093761

  6. Distribution of estrogenic steroids in municipal wastewater treatment plants in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Estrogenic steroids such as estrone (E1), 17β–estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), and 17α–ethinylestradiol (EE2) are among the most potent endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). Compared with North America, Europe and Japan there is no reliable information on the concentration of steroid hormones in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) influents and effluents in Iran. The aim of the present study was to determine the amounts of E1, E2, E3, and EE2 influents and effluents of 7 municipal WWTPs across Tehran, the capital city of Iran, in two seasons, summer and autumn, through solid-phase extraction (SPE) gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Results The results showed that the concentrations of E1, E2, and EE2 in influents ranged from 6.54–18.76 ng/L, 1.02–8 ng/L and 4.18–11.76 ng/L, respectively. Also, the concentrations of E1, E2, and EE2 in effluents ranged from 1.04–4.99 ng/L, 0.5–2.20 ng/L and 0.5–2.58 ng/L, respectively. The levels of E3 were below the detection limit (0.5 ng/L). The percentage removal rate of E1, E2 and EE2 ranged between 61.76–87.25%, 50.98–82.63%, and 66.3–90.25%, respectively. Results indicated no significant correlation between hormone concentrations and seasons. Conclusions The study showed that WWTP number 7 had significant differences in influent hormone concentrations compared with others. Results only showed a significant relationship between hormones and TSS removal rate, but there was no significant relationship between hormones and COD removal rate. The removal rate of hormone in WWTP number 4 and 7 were significantly different from the others. There was no significant correlation between hormone concentrations and seasons. PMID:25013724

  7. Development of optimization-based probabilistic earthquake scenarios for the city of Tehran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolfaghari, M. R.; Peyghaleh, E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and practical example for the application of optimization process to select earthquake scenarios which best represent probabilistic earthquake hazard in a given region. The method is based on simulation of a large dataset of potential earthquakes, representing the long-term seismotectonic characteristics in a given region. The simulation process uses Monte-Carlo simulation and regional seismogenic source parameters to generate a synthetic earthquake catalogue consisting of a large number of earthquakes, each characterized with magnitude, location, focal depth and fault characteristics. Such catalogue provides full distributions of events in time, space and size; however, demands large computation power when is used for risk assessment, particularly when other sources of uncertainties are involved in the process. To reduce the number of selected earthquake scenarios, a mixed-integer linear program formulation is developed in this study. This approach results in reduced set of optimization-based probabilistic earthquake scenario, while maintaining shape of hazard curves and full probabilistic picture by minimizing the error between hazard curves driven by full and reduced sets of synthetic earthquake scenarios. To test the model, the regional seismotectonic and seismogenic characteristics of northern Iran are used to simulate a set of 10,000-year worth of events consisting of some 84,000 earthquakes. The optimization model is then performed multiple times with various input data, taking into account probabilistic seismic hazard for Tehran city as the main constrains. The sensitivity of the selected scenarios to the user-specified site/return period error-weight is also assessed. The methodology could enhance run time process for full probabilistic earthquake studies like seismic hazard and risk assessment. The reduced set is the representative of the contributions of all possible earthquakes; however, it requires far less

  8. Lipid mobility in supported lipid bilayers by single molecule tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohram, Maryam; Shi, Xiaojun; Smith, Adam

    2015-03-01

    Phospholipid bilayers are the main component of cell membranes and their interaction with biomolecules in their immediate environment is critical for cellular functions. These interactions include the binding of polycationic polymers to lipid bilayers which affects many cell membrane events. As an alternative method of studying live cell membranes, we assemble a supported lipid bilayer and investigate its binding with polycationic polymers in vitro by fluorescently labeling the molecules of the supported lipid bilayer and tracking their mobility. In this work, we use single molecule tracking total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRF) to study phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) lipids with and without an adsorbed polycationic polymer, quaternized polyvinylpyridine (QPVP). Individual molecular trajectories are obtained from the experiment, and a Brownian diffusion model is used to determine diffusion coefficients through mean square displacements. Our results indicate a smaller diffusion coefficient for the supported lipid bilayers in the presence of QPVP in comparison to its absence, revealing that their binding causes a decrease in lateral mobility.

  9. The Effectiveness of a Preparatory Students Programme on Promoting Peer Acceptance of Students with Physical Disabilities in Inclusive Schools of Tehran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adibsereshki, Narges; Tajrishi, Masoome Pourmohamadreza; Mirzamani, Mahmood

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of a preparatory programme on the acceptance of students with physical disabilities by their peers in inclusive schools in Tehran. The classrooms which had students with physical disabilities were included in this study. Two hundred and twenty-one third- to fifth-grade students (116 girls and 105 boys)…

  10. Age and Gender Differences in the Use of Various Poisoning Methods for Deliberate Parasuicide Cases Admitted to Loghman Hospital in Tehran (2000-2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghazinour, Mehdi; Emami, Habib; Richter, Jorg; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Pazhumand, Abdolkarim

    2009-01-01

    Different methods of poisoning used by individuals with the diagnosis of parasuicide admitted to the Loghman Hospital, Tehran, from 2000 to 2004 were investigated, with particular focus on gender and age differences. Drugs, pesticides, and other agricultural chemicals (women: 12.7%, men: 9%) were the most commonly used methods. In males, the…

  11. Investigation of Academic Procrastination Prevalence and Its Relationship with Academic Self-Regulation and Achievement Motivation among High-School Students in Tehran City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebadi, Setareh; Shakoorzadeh, Reza

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out with the aim of Investigation of academic procrastination prevalence and its relationship with academic self-regulation and achievement motivation among high-school students in Tehran city. The sample included 624 high school students (312 Boys & 312 Girls) from different areas and regions that selected using…

  12. Analysis of development levels in the cities of Tehran province regarding health infrastructural index: the strategy of standardized score and Morris’ inequality index

    PubMed Central

    Javani, Ali; Abolhallaje, Masoud; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Rezaee Dehaghi, Hanieh; Nazari, Aslan; Nazari, Hamed; Chatrouz, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the main indexes of development is health index or the degree to which a society enjoys health and therapeutic services. The present study was done with the aim to analyze development levels in cities in Tehran regarding health infrastructural index using the standardized score and Morris’ model. Methods: This is a descriptive and pragmatic study which ranks 14 cities in Tehran province using the standardized score and Morris’ models based on 10 selected health indexes. The required data were gathered using a researcher-made information list and the information gathered from the Statistics Center and Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The data were analyzed using Excel software. Results: The development coefficient in the studied cities varies from 0.595 to -0.379 so that Rey city has the highest level of development and Pishva city has the lowest level of development among the studied cities. The more number of the cities (43%) was among the rather undeveloped group and none of the cities (0%) was in the rather developed group. Conclusion: Regarding the findings, there is a big gap and difference regarding enjoying health and therapeutic infrastructural indexes among the cities in Tehran province. Therefore, it is suggested that development-oriented plans consistentent with development levels should be implemented in these cities. PMID:26913267

  13. Cardiovascular Risk Factor Levels in Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, James H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Comparison of cardiovascular risk factors (blood lipids, obesity, and smoking) in 329 adults with mental retardation residing in various settings with subjects in the Framingham Offspring Study found that adults with mental retardation had cardiovascular risk profiles similar to those of individuals without mental retardation. (Author/DB)

  14. Analysis of lipid profile in lipid storage myopathy.

    PubMed

    Aguennouz, M'hammed; Beccaria, Marco; Purcaro, Giorgia; Oteri, Marianna; Micalizzi, Giuseppe; Musumesci, Olimpia; Ciranni, Annmaria; Di Giorgio, Rosa Maria; Toscano, Antonio; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-09-01

    Lipid dysmetabolism disease is a condition in which lipids are stored abnormally in organs and tissues throughout the body, causing muscle weakness (myopathy). Usually, the diagnosis of this disease and its characterization goes through dosage of Acyl CoA in plasma accompanied with evidence of droplets of intra-fibrils lipids in the patient muscle biopsy. However, to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of lipid storage diseases, it is useful to identify the nature of lipids deposited in muscle fiber. In this work fatty acids and triglycerides profile of lipid accumulated in the muscle of people suffering from myopathies syndromes was characterized. In particular, the analyses were carried out on the muscle biopsy of people afflicted by lipid storage myopathy, such as multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, and neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy, and by the intramitochondrial lipid storage dysfunctions, such as deficiencies of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II enzyme. A single step extraction and derivatization procedure was applied to analyze fatty acids from muscle tissues by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector and with an electronic impact mass spectrometer. Triglycerides, extracted by using n-hexane, were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer equipped with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface. The most representative fatty acids in all samples were: C16:0 in the 13-24% range, C18:1n9 in the 20-52% range, and C18:2n6 in the 10-25% range. These fatty acids were part of the most representative triglycerides in all samples. The data obtained was statistically elaborated performing a principal component analysis. A satisfactory discrimination was obtained among the different diseases. Using component 1 vs component 3 a 43.3% of total variance was explained. Such results suggest the important role that lipid profile characterization can have in supporting a correct

  15. Mechanisms of lipid regulation and lipid gating in TRPC channels.

    PubMed

    Svobodova, Barbora; Groschner, Klaus

    2016-06-01

    TRPC proteins form cation channels that integrate and relay cellular signals by mechanisms involving lipid recognition and lipid-dependent gating. The lipohilic/amphiphilic molecules that function as cellular activators or modulators of TRPC proteins span a wide range of chemical structures. In this context, cellular redox balance is likely linked to the lipid recognition/gating features of TRPC channels. Both classical ligand-protein interactions as well as indirect and promiscuous sensory mechanisms have been proposed. Some of the recognition processes are suggested to involve ancillary lipid-binding scaffolds or regulators as well as dynamic protein-protein interactions determined by bilayer architecture. A complex interplay of protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions is likely to govern the gating and/or plasma membrane recruitment of TRPC channels, thereby providing a distinguished platform for signal integration and coincident signal detection. Both the primary molecular event(s) of lipid recognition by TRPC channels as well as the transformation of these events into distinct gating movements is poorly understood at the molecular level, and it remains elusive whether lipid sensing in TRPCs is conferred to a distinct sensor domain. Recent structural information on the molecular action of lipophilic activators in distantly related members of the TRP superfamily encourages speculations on TRPC gating mechanisms involved in lipid recognition/gating. This review aims to provide an update on the current understanding of the lipid-dependent control of TRPC channels with focus on the TRPC lipid sensing, signal-integration hub and a short discussion of potential links to redox signaling. PMID:27125985

  16. Neuroimaging of Lipid Storage Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieger, Deborah; Auerbach, Sarah; Robinson, Paul; Gropman, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Lipid storage diseases, also known as the lipidoses, are a group of inherited metabolic disorders in which there is lipid accumulation in various cell types, including the central nervous system, because of the deficiency of a variety of enzymes. Over time, excessive storage can cause permanent cellular and tissue damage. The brain is particularly…

  17. Lipids in liver transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Hüsing, Anna; Kabar, Iyad; Schmidt, Hartmut H

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is very common after liver transplantation and can be observed in up to 71% of patients. The etiology of lipid disorders in these patients is multifactorial, with different lipid profiles observed depending on the immunosuppressive agents administered and the presence of additional risk factors, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus and nutrition. Due to recent improvements in survival of liver transplant recipients, the prevention of cardiovascular events has become more important, especially as approximately 64% of liver transplant recipients present with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Management of dyslipidemia and of other modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes and smoking, has therefore become essential in these patients. Treatment of hyperlipidemia after liver transplantation consists of life style modification, modifying the dose or type of immunosuppressive agents and use of lipid lowering agents. At the start of administration of lipid lowering medications, it is important to monitor drug-drug interactions, especially between lipid lowering agents and immunosuppressive drugs. Furthermore, as combinations of various lipid lowering drugs can lead to severe side effects, such as myopathies and rhabdomyolysis, these combinations should therefore be avoided. To our knowledge, there are no current guidelines targeting the management of lipid metabolism disorders in liver transplant recipients. This paper therefore recommends an approach of managing lipid abnormalities occurring after liver transplantation. PMID:27022213

  18. Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is used to treat serious, possibly life-threatening fungal infections in people who did not respond or are ... tolerate conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is in a class of medications called ...

  19. Lipid droplets, lipophagy, and beyond.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao-Wen

    2016-08-01

    Lipids are essential components for life. Their various structural and physical properties influence diverse cellular processes and, thereby, human health. Lipids are not genetically encoded but are synthesized and modified by complex metabolic pathways, supplying energy, membranes, signaling molecules, and hormones to affect growth, physiology, and response to environmental insults. Lipid homeostasis is crucial, such that excess fatty acids (FAs) can be harmful to cells. To prevent such lipotoxicity, cells convert excess FAs into neutral lipids for storage in organelles called lipid droplets (LDs). These organelles do not simply manage lipid storage and metabolism but also are involved in protein quality management, pathogenesis, immune responses, and, potentially, neurodegeneration. In recent years, a major trend in LD biology has centered around the physiology of lipid mobilization via lipophagy of fat stored within LDs. This review summarizes key findings in LD biology and lipophagy, offering novel insights into this rapidly growing field. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The cellular lipid landscape edited by Tim P. Levine and Anant K. Menon. PMID:26713677

  20. Polar lipids from oat kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oat (Avena sativa L.) kernels appear to contain much higher polar lipid concentrations than other plant tissues. We have extracted, identified, and quantified polar lipids from 18 oat genotypes grown in replicated plots in three environments in order to determine genotypic or environmental variation...

  1. Analysis of caulobacter crescentus lipids.

    PubMed Central

    De Siervo, A J; Homola, A D

    1980-01-01

    The lipids of Caulobacter crescentus, a procaryotic species which differentiates into stalked and swarmer cell types, were analyzed. Major lipid classes were purified by chromatography and identified by both chromatographic and chemical methods. Approximately half of the total lipid fraction of this organism consisted of glycolipis, which were primarily monoglucosyldiglyceride and an acylated glucuronic acid. Two of the phospholipids of C. crescentus were identified as phopshatidylglycerol and acylphosphatidylglycerol. Commonly occurring bacterial phospholipids, such as phosphatidylethanolamine and cardiolipin (diphosphatidylglycerol), were not detected. Monoglyceride and diglyceride were found in the neutral lipid fraction, which made up 10% of the total lipid. Quantitative lipid compositional studies, performed by the incorporation of [14C]acetate and [32P]orthophosphate into growing cultures, revealed that separated swarmer and stalked cells had similar lipid compositions. However, stationary-phase cultures, compared with logaritmic cultures, had decreased amounts of phosphatidylglycerol and diglyceride and increased amounts of acylphosphatidylglycerol and a glucuronic acid-containing glycolipid, glycolipid X. In addition, two glycolipids were only detected in stationary-phase cultures. These studies indicate that C. crescentus has a distinctive lipid composition compared with those of other procaryotic species which have been analyzed. Images PMID:7410318

  2. Subconjunctival and episcleral lipid deposits.

    PubMed Central

    Fraunfelder, F. T.; Garner, A.; Barras, T. C.

    1976-01-01

    Biomicroscopical examination of the bulbar conjunctiva and anterior episclera of 1000 randomly selected outpatients showed the presence of multiple discrete lipid globules in 30 per cent. The lipid deposits were asymptomatic. Their prevalence was age-related, while their distribution and composition were consistent with origin from the conjunctival blood vessels. Images PMID:952830

  3. Lipids in liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Hüsing, Anna; Kabar, Iyad; Schmidt, Hartmut H

    2016-03-28

    Hyperlipidemia is very common after liver transplantation and can be observed in up to 71% of patients. The etiology of lipid disorders in these patients is multifactorial, with different lipid profiles observed depending on the immunosuppressive agents administered and the presence of additional risk factors, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus and nutrition. Due to recent improvements in survival of liver transplant recipients, the prevention of cardiovascular events has become more important, especially as approximately 64% of liver transplant recipients present with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Management of dyslipidemia and of other modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes and smoking, has therefore become essential in these patients. Treatment of hyperlipidemia after liver transplantation consists of life style modification, modifying the dose or type of immunosuppressive agents and use of lipid lowering agents. At the start of administration of lipid lowering medications, it is important to monitor drug-drug interactions, especially between lipid lowering agents and immunosuppressive drugs. Furthermore, as combinations of various lipid lowering drugs can lead to severe side effects, such as myopathies and rhabdomyolysis, these combinations should therefore be avoided. To our knowledge, there are no current guidelines targeting the management of lipid metabolism disorders in liver transplant recipients. This paper therefore recommends an approach of managing lipid abnormalities occurring after liver transplantation. PMID:27022213

  4. Permeability across lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Shinoda, Wataru

    2016-10-01

    Molecular permeation through lipid membranes is a fundamental biological process that is important for small neutral molecules and drug molecules. Precise characterization of free energy surface and diffusion coefficients along the permeation pathway is required in order to predict molecular permeability and elucidate the molecular mechanisms of permeation. Several recent technical developments, including improved molecular models and efficient sampling schemes, are illustrated in this review. For larger penetrants, explicit consideration of multiple collective variables, including orientational, conformational degrees of freedom, are required to be considered in addition to the distance from the membrane center along the membrane normal. Although computationally demanding, this method can provide significant insights into the molecular mechanisms of permeation for molecules of medical and pharmaceutical importance. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biosimulations edited by Ilpo Vattulainen and Tomasz Róg. PMID:27085977

  5. Lipid Microdomains in Cell Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Cascianelli, Giacomo; Villani, Maristella; Tosti, Marcello; Marini, Francesca; Bartoccini, Elisa; Viola Magni, Mariapia

    2008-01-01

    It is known that nuclear lipids play a role in proliferation, differentiation, and apoptotic process. Cellular nuclei contain high levels of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin, which are partially linked with cholesterol and proteins to form lipid–protein complexes. These lipids are also associated with transcription factors and newly synthesized RNA but, up to date, their organization is still unknown. The aim of the present work was to study if these specific lipid–protein interactions could be nuclear membrane microdomains and to evaluate their possible role. The results obtained demonstrate for the first time the existence of nuclear microdomains characterized by a specific lipid composition similar to that of intranuclear lipid–protein complexes previously described. Nuclear microdomain lipid composition changes during cell proliferation when the content of newly synthesized RNA increases. Because previous data show a correlation between nuclear lipids and transcription process, the role of nuclear microdomains in cellular functions is discussed. PMID:18923143

  6. Lipids changes in liver cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jing-ting; Xu, Ning; Zhang, Xiao-ying; Wu, Chang-ping

    2007-01-01

    Liver is one of the most important organs in energy metabolism. Most plasma apolipoproteins and endogenous lipids and lipoproteins are synthesized in the liver. It depends on the integrity of liver cellular function, which ensures homeostasis of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. When liver cancer occurs, these processes are impaired and the plasma lipid and lipoprotein patterns may be changed. Liver cancer is the fifth common malignant tumor worldwide, and is closely related to the infections of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). HBV and HCV infections are quite common in China and other Southeast Asian countries. In addition, liver cancer is often followed by a procession of chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis, so that hepatic function is damaged obviously on these bases, which may significantly influence lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in vivo. In this review we summarize the clinical significance of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism under liver cancer. PMID:17565510

  7. Lipid Regulation of Sodium Channels.

    PubMed

    D'Avanzo, N

    2016-01-01

    The lipid landscapes of cellular membranes are complex and dynamic, are tissue dependent, and can change with the age and the development of a variety of diseases. Researchers are now gaining new appreciation for the regulation of ion channel proteins by the membrane lipids in which they are embedded. Thus, as membrane lipids change, for example, during the development of disease, it is likely that the ionic currents that conduct through the ion channels embedded in these membranes will also be altered. This chapter provides an overview of the complex regulation of prokaryotic and eukaryotic voltage-dependent sodium (Nav) channels by fatty acids, sterols, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and cannabinoids. The impact of lipid regulation on channel gating kinetics, voltage-dependence, trafficking, toxin binding, and structure are explored for Nav channels that have been examined in heterologous expression systems, native tissue, and reconstituted into artificial membranes. Putative mechanisms for Nav regulation by lipids are also discussed. PMID:27586290

  8. Cholesterol's location in lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Marquardt, Drew; Kučerka, Norbert; Wassall, Stephen R; Harroun, Thad A; Katsaras, John

    2016-09-01

    It is well known that cholesterol modifies the physical properties of lipid bilayers. For example, the much studied liquid-ordered Lo phase contains rapidly diffusing lipids with their acyl chains in the all trans configuration, similar to gel phase bilayers. Moreover, the Lo phase is commonly associated with cholesterol-enriched lipid rafts, which are thought to serve as platforms for signaling proteins in the plasma membrane. Cholesterol's location in lipid bilayers has been studied extensively, and it has been shown - at least in some bilayers - to align differently from its canonical upright orientation, where its hydroxyl group is in the vicinity of the lipid-water interface. In this article we review recent works describing cholesterol's location in different model membrane systems with emphasis on results obtained from scattering, spectroscopic and molecular dynamics studies. PMID:27056099

  9. Incidence and risk factors of isolated systolic and diastolic hypertension: a 10 year follow-up of the Tehran Lipids and Glucose Study.

    PubMed

    Asgari, Samaneh; Khalili, Davood; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Kazempour-Ardebili, Sara; Azizi, Fereidoun; Hadaegh, Farzad

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the incidence and risk factors of isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) and isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) in a Middle Eastern population, during a median follow-up of 9.6 years. In total, 8573 subjects without hypertension, cardiovascular disease and known diabetes were recruited into the study. To calculate the incidence of ISH, those with diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg during follow-up, and for calculating IDH those with systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg during follow-up, were excluded. During follow-up, 235 new cases of ISH were identified, with a crude incidence rate of 5.7/1000 person-years; the corresponding values for IDH were 470 and 10.9/1000 person-years. Using backward stepwise Cox regression analysis, older age, baseline SBP and body mass index were related to incident ISH. Regarding IDH, younger age, baseline DBP and waist circumference were associated with higher risk, whereas female gender and being married were associated with lower risk (all p < 0.05). The C-statistics for the prediction model were 0.91 for ISH and 0.76 for IDH. In conclusion, after a decade of follow-up of this Iranian population, we found an incidence of about 0.5% and 1% per year for ISH and IDH, respectively. PMID:26643588

  10. An Application of Association Rule Mining to Extract Risk Pattern for Type 2 Diabetes Using Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study Database

    PubMed Central

    Ramezankhani, Azra; Pournik, Omid; Shahrabi, Jamal; Azizi, Fereidoun; Hadaegh, Farzad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes, common and serious global health concern, had an estimated worldwide prevalence of 366 million in 2011, which is expected to rise to 552 million people, by 2030, unless urgent action is taken. Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify risk patterns for type 2 diabetes incidence using association rule mining (ARM). Patients and Methods: A population of 6647 individuals without diabetes, aged ≥ 20 years at inclusion, was followed for 10-12 years, to analyze risk patterns for diabetes occurrence. Study variables included demographic and anthropometric characteristics, smoking status, medical and drug history and laboratory measures. Results: In the case of women, the results showed that impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), in combination with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2, family history of diabetes, wrist circumference > 16.5 cm and waist to height ≥ 0.5 can increase the risk for developing diabetes. For men, a combination of IGT, IFG, length of stay in the city (> 40 years), central obesity, total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein ratio ≥ 5.3, low physical activity, chronic kidney disease and wrist circumference > 18.5 cm were identified as risk patterns for diabetes occurrence. Conclusions: Our study showed that ARM is a useful approach in determining which combinations of variables or predictors occur together frequently, in people who will develop diabetes. The ARM focuses on joint exposure to different combinations of risk factors, and not the predictors alone. PMID:25926855

  11. Serum lipid levels and cognitive change in late life

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Chandra A.; Gatz, Margaret; Prince, Jonathan A.; Berg, Stig; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To assess the importance of lipids and lipoproteins on longitudinal cognitive performance and cognitive health in late life and to consider moderating factors such as age and sex which may clarify conflicting prior evidence. Design A 16-year prospective cohort study of health and cognitive aging. Participants 819 adults from the Swedish Adoption Twin Study of Aging (SATSA), 50 years and older at the first cognitive testing, including 21 twin pairs discordant for dementia. Measurements Up to five occasions of cognitive measurements encompassing verbal, spatial, memory and perceptual speed domains across a 16-year span. Baseline serum lipids and lipoproteins including HDL, apoA1, apoB, total serum cholesterol, and triglycerides. Results The effect of lipids on cognitive change was most evident prior to age 65. In women higher HDL and lower apoB and triglycerides predicted better maintenance of cognitive abilities over age, particularly verbal ability and perceptual speed. Lipid values were less predictive of cognitive trajectories in men and, where observed, were in the contrary direction: i.e., higher total cholesterol and apoB values predicted better perceptual speed performance though faster rates of decline. In twin pairs discordant for dementia, higher total cholesterol and apoB levels were observed in the twin who subsequently developed dementia. Conclusions Elevated lipids may constitute a more important risk factor for cognitive health before age 65 than after. Findings for women are consistent with clinical recommendations, while for men the findings correspond with earlier age-associated shifts in lipid profiles and the importance of lipid homeostasis to cognitive health. PMID:20398119

  12. Sex-Specific Parental Effects on Offspring Lipid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Predazzi, Irene M; Sobota, Rafal S; Sanna, Serena; Bush, William S; Bartlett, Jacquelaine; Lilley, Jessica S; Linton, MacRae F; Schlessinger, David; Cucca, Francesco; Fazio, Sergio; Williams, Scott M

    2015-01-01

    Background Plasma lipid levels are highly heritable traits, but known genetic loci can only explain a small portion of their heritability. Methods and Results In this study, we analyzed the role of parental levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TGs) in explaining the values of the corresponding traits in adult offspring. We also evaluated the contribution of nongenetic factors that influence lipid traits (age, body mass index, smoking, medications, and menopause) alone and in combination with variability at the genetic loci known to associate with TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, and TG levels. We performed comparisons among different sex-specific regression models in 416 families from the Framingham Heart Study and 304 from the SardiNIA cohort. Models including parental lipid levels explain significantly more of the trait variation than models without these measures, explaining up to ≈39% of the total trait variation. Of this variation, the parent-of-origin effect explains as much as ≈15% and it does so in a sex-specific way. This observation is not owing to shared environment, given that spouse-pair correlations were negligible (<1.5% explained variation in all cases) and is distinct from previous genetic and acquired factors that are known to influence serum lipid levels. Conclusions These findings support the concept that unknown genetic and epigenetic contributors are responsible for most of the heritable component of the plasma lipid phenotype, and that, at present, the clinical utility of knowing age-matched parental lipid levels in assessing risk of dyslipidemia supersedes individual locus effects. Our results support the clinical utility of knowing parental lipid levels in assessing future risk of dyslipidemia. PMID:26126546

  13. Crystallizing Membrane Proteins in Lipidic Mesophases. A Host Lipid Screen

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dianfan; Lee, Jean; Caffrey, Martin

    2011-11-30

    The default lipid for the bulk of the crystallogenesis studies performed to date using the cubic mesophase method is monoolein. There is no good reason, however, why this 18-carbon, cis-monounsaturated monoacylglycerol should be the preferred lipid for all target membrane proteins. The latter come from an array of biomembrane types with varying properties that include hydrophobic thickness, intrinsic curvature, lateral pressure profile, lipid and protein makeup, and compositional asymmetry. Thus, it seems reasonable that screening for crystallizability based on the identity of the lipid creating the hosting mesophase would be worthwhile. For this, monoacylglycerols with differing acyl chain characteristics, such as length and olefinic bond position, must be available. A lipid synthesis and purification program is in place in the author's laboratory to serve this need. In the current study with the outer membrane sugar transporter, OprB, we demonstrate the utility of host lipid screening as a means for generating diffraction-quality crystals. Host lipid screening is likely to prove a generally useful strategy for mesophase-based crystallization of membrane proteins.

  14. Ethanol Induced Brain Lipid Changes in Mice Assessed by Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Roux, Aurelie; Jackson, Shelley N; Muller, Ludovic; Barbacci, Damon; O'Rourke, Joseph; Thanos, Panayotis K; Volkow, Nora D; Balaban, Carey; Schultz, J Albert; Woods, Amina S

    2016-08-17

    Alcohol abuse is a chronic disease characterized by the consumption of alcohol at a level that interferes with physical and mental health and causes serious and persistent changes in the brain. Lipid metabolism is of particular interest due to its high concentration in the brain. Lipids are the main component of cell membranes, are involved in cell signaling, signal transduction, and energy storage. In this study, we analyzed lipid composition of chronically ethanol exposed mouse brains. Juvenile (JUV) and adult (ADU) mice were placed on a daily limited-access ethanol intake model for 52 days. After euthanasia, brains were harvested, and total lipids were extracted from brain homogenates. Samples were analyzed using high resolution mass spectrometry and processed by multivariate and univariate statistical analysis. Significant lipid changes were observed in different classes including sphingolipids, fatty acids, lysophosphatidylcholines, and other glycerophospholipids. PMID:27269520

  15. [Uses of monomolecular lipid film for control of udo aphid (Toxoptera odinae (Van der Goot))].

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Cheng, H Z; Lin, Y L

    1993-02-01

    The biological character of udo aphid was observed and monomolecular lipid film was used to control it. The results showed that at 100 and 200 times the lipid film, the hatch rate of over-winter eggs was lower than the control by 30.76% and 12.15% respectively, and at 50, 100 and 200 times the lipid film the mortality of young nymph aphids was 100% and those of old nymph aphids and adult aphids were 8.31%, 32.62% and 3.31% respectively. PMID:8323704

  16. How common is the lipid body-containing interstitial cell in the mammalian lung?

    PubMed

    Tahedl, Daniel; Wirkes, André; Tschanz, Stefan A; Ochs, Matthias; Mühlfeld, Christian

    2014-09-01

    Pulmonary lipofibroblasts are thought to be involved in lung development, regeneration, vitamin A storage, and surfactant synthesis. Most of the evidence for these important functions relies on mouse or rat studies. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the presence of lipofibroblasts in a variety of early postnatal and adult mammalian species (including humans) to evaluate the ability to generalize functions of this cell type for other species. For this purpose, lung samples from 14 adult mammalian species as well as from postnatal mice, rats, and humans were investigated using light and electron microscopic stereology to obtain the volume fraction and the total volume of lipid bodies. In adult animals, lipid bodies were observed only, but not in all rodents. In all other species, no lipofibroblasts were observed. In rodents, lipid body volume scaled with body mass with an exponent b = 0.73 in the power law equation. Lipid bodies were not observed in postnatal human lungs but showed a characteristic postnatal increase in mice and rats and persisted at a lower level in the adult animals. Among 14 mammalian species, lipofibroblasts were only observed in rodents. The great increase in lipid body volume during early postnatal development of the mouse lung confirms the special role of lipofibroblasts during rodent lung development. It is evident that the cellular functions of pulmonary lipofibroblasts cannot be transferred easily from rodents to other species, in particular humans. PMID:24973404

  17. Urinary tract infection - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Bladder infection - adults; UTI - adults; Cystitis - bacterial - adults; Pyelonephritis - adults; Kidney infection - adults ... to the hospital if you: Are an older adult Have kidney stones or changes in the anatomy ...

  18. Lipid mediators in diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The implications of lipid lowering drugs in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy have been considered. At the same time, the clinical efficacy of lipid lowering drugs has resulted in improvement in the cardiovascular functions of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with or without diabetes, but no remarkable improvement has been observed in the kidney outcome. Earlier lipid mediators have been shown to cause accumulative effects in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Here, we attempt to analyze the involvement of lipid mediators in DN. The hyperglycemia-induced overproduction of diacyglycerol (DAG) is one of the causes for the activation of protein kinase C (PKCs), which is responsible for the activation of pathways, including the production of VEGF, TGFβ1, PAI-1, NADPH oxidases, and NFҟB signaling, accelerating the development of DN. Additionally, current studies on the role of ceramide are one of the major fields of study in DN. Researchers have reported excessive ceramide formation in the pathobiological conditions of DN. There is less report on the effect of lipid lowering drugs on the reduction of PKC activation and ceramide synthesis. Regulating PKC activation and ceramide biosynthesis could be a protective measure in the therapeutic potential of DN. Lipid lowering drugs also upregulate anti-fibrotic microRNAs, which could hint at the effects of lipid lowering drugs in DN. PMID:25206927

  19. Lipid synthesis in chick epidermis.

    PubMed

    Lavker, R M

    1975-07-01

    Lipid synthesis in newborn chick epidermis was studied by electron microscopic autoradiography after injection of tritiated palmitate. The labeled lipid product in the tissue was identified as mostly triglyceride. At the earliest time after injection (6 hr), the radioactive precursor was taken up by all viable cells of the epidermis. Grain density was heaviest over basal cells, moderate over spinous cells, and slight over granular cells; thus lipid incorporation is highest in the basal and spinous regions of the chick epidermis. As time after injection progressed, the increasing amounts of grains over the granular and horny cells and decreasing amounts over the basal and spinous cells reflected the continuous upward displacement of cells from one layer into the next. From the distribution of silver grains within the epidermal cells, it has been concluded that, with the passage of time, triglycerides synthesized by the epidermal cells were mainly located in lipid droplets. The numerous grains associated with the elements of the endoplasmic reticulum indicated that this organelle is involved in aggregating triglyceride molecules into lipid droplets. The fact that grains were seen within the horny cells indicated that part of the horny cell consists of lipid probably derived from the lipid droplets retained by the cells during keratinization. PMID:1151110

  20. A multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of trading behavior of individual and institutional traders in Tehran stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolgorian, Meysam; Raei, Reza

    2011-10-01

    Employing the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA), the multifractal properties of trading behavior of individual and institutional traders in the Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) are numerically investigated. Using daily trading volume time series of these two categories of traders, the scaling exponents, generalized Hurst exponents, generalized fractal dimensions and singularity spectrum are derived. Furthermore, two main sources of multifractality, i.e. temporal correlations and fat-tailed probability distributions are also examined. We also compare our results with data of S&P 500. Results of this paper suggest that for both classes of investors in TSE, multifractality is mainly due to long-range correlation while for S&P 500, the fat-tailed probability distribution is the main source of multifractality.

  1. Lipid biology of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Jan; Sevinsky, Christopher; Conklin, Douglas S.

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in lipid metabolism have been reported in many types of cancer. Lipids have been implicated in the regulation of proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, inflammation, autophagy, motility and membrane homeostasis. It is required that their biosynthesis is tightly regulated to ensure homeostasis and to prevent unnecessary energy expenditure. This review focuses on the emerging understanding of the role of lipids and lipogenic pathway regulation in breast cancer, including parallels drawn from the study of metabolic disease models, and suggestions on how these findings can potentially be exploited to promote gains in HER2/neu-positive breast cancer research. PMID:23562840

  2. Lipid Nanoparticles for Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yi; Huang, Leaf

    2016-01-01

    Nonviral vectors which offer a safer and versatile alternative to viral vectors have been developed to overcome problems caused by viral carriers. However, their transfection efficacy or level of expression is substantially lower than viral vectors. Among various nonviral gene vectors, lipid nanoparticles are an ideal platform for the incorporation of safety and efficacy into a single delivery system. In this chapter, we highlight current lipidic vectors that have been developed for gene therapy of tumors and other diseases. The pharmacokinetic, toxic behaviors and clinic trials of some successful lipids particles are also presented. PMID:25409602

  3. Diet and body lipid composition: lessons from animal and human experiments.

    PubMed

    Dutra-de-Oliveira, J E

    1992-06-01

    It is accepted that atherosclerosis begins early in life and will develop over several years. The type of diet fed to young rats and other mammals plays a role in the regulation of adult lipid homeostasis. Foods vary in fatty acid content. The importance of diet on lipid profile has been demonstrated in several animal studies and in different human population groups. Bridging the effect of early diet and later adult cardiovascular disease deserves decisive collaboration among different specialists, as well as preventive dietary intervention based on recent advances from food composition and dietotherapy. PMID:1619202

  4. Leptin, skeletal muscle lipids, and lipid-induced insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Dube, John J; Bhatt, Bankim A; Dedousis, Nikolas; Bonen, Arend; O'Doherty, Robert M

    2007-08-01

    Leptin-induced increases in insulin sensitivity are well established and may be related to the effects of leptin on lipid metabolism. However, the effects of leptin on the levels of lipid metabolites implicated in pathogenesis of insulin resistance and the effects of leptin on lipid-induced insulin resistance are unknown. The current study addressed in rats the effects of hyperleptinemia (HL) on insulin action and markers of skeletal muscle (SkM) lipid metabolism in the absence or presence of acute hyperlipidemia induced by an infusion of a lipid emulsion. Compared with controls (CONT), HL increased insulin sensitivity, as assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp ( approximately 15%), and increased SkM Akt ( approximately 30%) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha ( approximately 52%) phosphorylation. These improvements in insulin action were associated with decreased SkM triglycerides (TG; approximately 61%), elevated ceramides ( approximately 50%), and similar diacylglycerol (DAG) levels in HL compared with CONT. Acute hyperlipidemia in CONT decreased insulin sensitivity ( approximately 25%) and increased SkM DAG ( approximately 33%) and ceramide ( approximately 60%) levels. However, hyperlipidemia did not induce insulin resistance or SkM DAG and ceramide accumulation in HL. SkM total fatty acid transporter CD36, plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein, acetyl Co-A carboxylase phosphorylation, and fatty acid oxidation were similar in HL compared with CONT. However, HL decreased SkM protein kinase C theta (PKC theta), a kinase implicated in mediating the detrimental effects of lipids on insulin action. We conclude that increases in insulin sensitivity induced by HL are associated with decreased levels of SkM TG and PKC theta and increased SkM insulin signaling, but not with decreases in other lipid metabolites implicated in altering SkM insulin sensitivity (DAG and ceramide). Furthermore, insulin resistance induced by an acute lipid infusion is prevented by

  5. Sexual and reproductive health needs of HIV-positive people in Tehran, Iran: a mixed-method descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Nedjat, Saharnaz; Moazen, Babak; Rezaei, Farimah; Hajizadeh, Shayesteh; Majdzadeh, Reza; Setayesh, Hamid Reza; Mohraz, Minoo; Gooya, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: People Living with HIV (PLHIV) are highly stigmatized and consequently hard-to-access by researchers and importantly, public health outreach in Iran, possibly due to the existing socio-cultural situation in this country. The present study aimed to evaluate the sexual and reproductive health needs of PLHIV in Tehran, the capital of Iran. Methods: As a mixed-method descriptive study, this project was conducted in 2012 in Tehran, Iran. In this study, we evaluated and discussed socio-demographic characteristics, family and social support, sexual behaviors, fertility desires and needs, PMTCT services, contraceptive methods, unintended pregnancy and safe abortion, and Pap smear tests among 400 participants referring to the behavioral disorders consulting centers. Results: Of the sample 240 (60%) were male and 160 (40%) were female. About 50% of women and 40% of men were 25-34 years old. More than 60% of men and 96% of women were married, while more than 50% of the participants had HIV-positive spouses at the time of study. According to the results, fertility desire was observed among more than 30% of female and 40% of male participants. Results of the in-depth interviews indicate that the participants are not satisfied with most of the existing services offered to address their sexual and reproductive health needs. Conclusion: Despite the availability of services, most of sexual and reproductive health needs of the PLHIV are overlooked by the health system in Iran. Paying attention to sexual and reproductive health needs of PLHIV in Iran not only protects their right to live long and healthy lives, but also may prevent the transmission of HIV from the patients to others within the community. PMID:26340488

  6. Patients' satisfaction with inpatient services provided in hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran, during 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Makarem, Jalil; Larijani, Bagher; Joodaki, Kobra; Ghaderi, Sahar; Nayeri, Fatemeh; Mohammadpoor, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Implementation of patient feedback is considered as a critical part of effective and efficient management in developed countries. The main objectives of this study were to assess patient satisfaction with the services provided in hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran, identify areas of patient dissatisfaction, and find ways to improve patient satisfaction with hospital services. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 phases. After 2 initial preparation phases, the valid instrument was applied through telephone interviews with 21476 participants from 26 hospitals during August, 2011 to February, 2013.Using the Satisfaction Survey tool, information of patient's demographic characteristics were collected and patient satisfaction with 15 areas of hospital services and the intent to return the same hospitals were assessed. The mean score of overall satisfaction with hospital services was 16.86 ± 2.72 out of 20. It was found that 58% of participants were highly satisfied with the services provided. Comparison of mean scores showed physician and medical services (17.75 ± 4.02), laboratory and radiology services (17.67 ± 3.66), and privacy and religious issues (17.55 ± 4.32) had the highest satisfaction. The patients were the most dissatisfied with the food services (15.50 ± 5.54). It was also found that 83.7% of the participants intended to return to the same hospital in case of need, which supported the measured satisfaction level. Patient satisfaction in hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences was high. It seems that the present study, with its large sample size, has sufficient reliability to express the patient satisfaction status. Moreover, appropriate measures should be taken in some areas (food, cost, and etc.) to increase patient satisfaction. PMID:27471589

  7. Health-Promoting Behaviors and Their Association With Certain Demographic Characteristics of Nursing Students of Tehran City in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Meimanat; Ashktorab, Tahereh; HosseinTaghdisi, Mohammad; Vardanjani, Ali Esmaeili; Rafiei, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Nursing students provide health services and their behavior may affect the clinical services that they provide to clients. In addition, Health-promoting behaviors among nursing students may affect the quality of patient education. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship between health-promoting behaviors and certain demographic characteristics of nursing students in Tehran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 404 undergraduate nursing students (107 males and 297 females) of universities of Tehran who were selected through stratified random sampling procedure. The data collection tools were: demographic characteristics questionnaire and health-promoting lifestyle profile 2. This standard instrument has 6 subscales of nutrition, physical activity, spiritual growth, health responsibility, interpersonal relations, and stress management. In order to keep the weight of the expressions of the tool and subscale scores the mean were calculated. For this purpose, each expression was scored on a scale of 1 to 4. Internal consistency (Cronbach’s Alpha) of this tool was a=0.86. Data was analyzed by using statistical tests of Chi Square, Independent T and ANOVA. Results: According to the results, health-promoting behaviors among the students scored highly. The analysis of subscales of health-promoting lifestyle profile 2 showed that the highest mean belongs to the subscale of spiritual growth and the lowest mean belongs to the subscale of physical activity. The mean of health-promoting behaviors among married students was higher than among single students. Moreover, as students advanced through academic years, health responsibility increased and stress management reduced. Discussion: Undoubtedly, physical activity and stress management have a significant role in personal health and occupational satisfaction of students, which consequently help them provide better services to clients. Therefore, considering

  8. Measuring equity in household's health care payments (Tehran-Iran 2013): technical points for health policy decision makers

    PubMed Central

    Rezapour, Aziz; Ebadifard Azar, Farbod; Azami Aghdash, Saber; Tanoomand, Asghar; Hosseini Shokouh, Seyed Morteza; Yousefzadeh, Negar; Atefi Manesh, Pezhman; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Households’ financial protection against health payments and expenditures and equity in utilization of health care services are of the most important tasks of governments. This study aims to measuring equity in household’s health care payments according to fairness in financial contribution (FFC) and Kakwani indices in Tehran-Iran, 2013. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014.The study sample size was estimated to be 2200 households. Households were selected using stratified-cluster sampling including typical families who reside in the city of Tehran. The data were analyzed through Excel and Stata v.11software. Recall period for the inpatient care was 1 year and for outpatient1 month. Results: The indicator of FFC for households in health financing was estimated to be 0.68 and the trend of the indicator was ascending by the rise in the ranking of households’ financial level. The Kakwani index was estimated to be a negative number (-0.00125) which indicated the descending trend of health financing system. By redistribution of incomes or the exempt of the poorest quintiles from health payments, Kakwani index was estimated to be a positive number (0.090555) which indicated the ascending trend of health financing system. Conclusion: According to this study, the equity indices in health care financing denote injustice and a descending trend in the health care financing system. This finding clearly shows that deliberate policy making in health financing by national health authorities and protecting low-income households against health expenditures are required to improve the equity in health. PMID:26793637

  9. Contribution of the Middle Eastern dust source areas to PM10 levels in urban receptors: Case study of Tehran, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Givehchi, Raheleh; Arhami, Mohammad; Tajrishy, Massoud

    2013-08-01

    The origins and evolution of the Middle Eastern dust storms which frequently impact the residents of this arid region were studied. A methodology was adapted and developed to identify the desert regions of potential dust sources and determine their contributions to PM10 concentrations in the highly-populated receptor city of Tehran, Iran. Initially, the episodes of regional dust intrusion and the resulting amounts of increase in the particulate concentrations during these episodes were determined using a statistical analyzing methodology. The dust episodes were also inspected with the aerosol index information from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used as the main tool to determine the proportions of dust originating from different deserts during the dusty episodes of 2009-2010. Daily 5-day back trajectories were obtained from the receptor stations during the dust outbreaks in order to find and confirm the location of potential sources. After the boundaries of the potential sources were determined by 5-day backward trajectories, this region was divided into different areas to quantify their contributions to the measured PM10 levels. The proximity between the measured and simulated data confirmed the ability of HYSPLIT in modeling the Middle Eastern dust intrusion and estimating the particulate concentration in the downwind receptor sites. Results showed that the deserts in Iraq and Syria are the main contributing dust sources which comprise more than 90% of the dust related PM10 concentrations in Tehran, during the studied dust episodes. The sources in northern Iraq and eastern Syria respectively represented 44% and 32% contributions on average.

  10. Patients' satisfaction with inpatient services provided in hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran, during 2011-2013

    PubMed Central

    Makarem, Jalil; Larijani, Bagher; Joodaki, Kobra; Ghaderi, Sahar; Nayeri, Fatemeh; Mohammadpoor, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Implementation of patient feedback is considered as a critical part of effective and efficient management in developed countries. The main objectives of this study were to assess patient satisfaction with the services provided in hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran, identify areas of patient dissatisfaction, and find ways to improve patient satisfaction with hospital services. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 phases. After 2 initial preparation phases, the valid instrument was applied through telephone interviews with 21476 participants from 26 hospitals during August, 2011 to February, 2013.Using the Satisfaction Survey tool, information of patient's demographic characteristics were collected and patient satisfaction with 15 areas of hospital services and the intent to return the same hospitals were assessed. The mean score of overall satisfaction with hospital services was 16.86 ± 2.72 out of 20. It was found that 58% of participants were highly satisfied with the services provided. Comparison of mean scores showed physician and medical services (17.75 ± 4.02), laboratory and radiology services (17.67 ± 3.66), and privacy and religious issues (17.55 ± 4.32) had the highest satisfaction. The patients were the most dissatisfied with the food services (15.50 ± 5.54). It was also found that 83.7% of the participants intended to return to the same hospital in case of need, which supported the measured satisfaction level. Patient satisfaction in hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences was high. It seems that the present study, with its large sample size, has sufficient reliability to express the patient satisfaction status. Moreover, appropriate measures should be taken in some areas (food, cost, and etc.) to increase patient satisfaction. PMID:27471589

  11. Hybrid lipid-based nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayani, Yasaman

    Biological membranes serve several important roles, such as structural support of cells and organelles, regulation of ionic and molecular transport, barriers to non-mediated transport, contact between cells within tissues, and accommodation of membrane proteins. Membrane proteins and other vital biomolecules incorporated into the membrane need a lipid membrane to function. Due to importance of lipid bilayers and their vital function in governing many processes in the cell, the development of various models as artificial lipid membranes that can mimic cell membranes has become a subject of great interest. Using different models of artificial lipid membranes, such as liposomes, planar lipid bilayers and supported or tethered lipid bilayers, we are able to study many biophysical processes in biological membranes. The ability of different molecules to interact with and change the structure of lipid membranes can be also investigated in artificial lipid membranes. An important application of lipid bilayer-containing interfaces is characterization of novel membrane proteins for high throughput drug screening studies to investigate receptor-drug interactions and develop biosensor systems. Membrane proteins need a lipid bilayer environment to preserve their stability and functionality. Fabrication of materials that can interact with biomolecules like proteins necessitates the use of lipid bilayers as a mimic of cell membranes. The objective of this research is to develop novel hybrid lipid-based nanostructures mimicking biological membranes. Toward this aim, two hybrid biocompatible structures are introduced: lipid bilayer-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and hydrogel-anchored liposomes with double-stranded DNA anchors. These structures have potential applications in biosensing, drug targeting, drug delivery, and biophysical studies of cell membranes. In the first developed nanostructure, lipid molecules are covalently attached to the surfaces of MWCNTs, and

  12. Pleistocene deformation and landscape evolution in the Tehran plain: results from tectonic geomorphology and TCN-dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, Angela; Benedetti, Lucilla; Braucher, Regis; Bourles, Didier; Ballato, Paolo; Strecker, Manfred R.; Friedrich, Anke M.; Tabatabaei, Saeid H.; Shahpasandzadeh, Majid

    2010-05-01

    The ENE-to NW-striking North Tehran Fault (NTF) is an active frontal thrust that delimits the Alborz Mountain range to the south with an up to 2000 m topographic break with respect to the adjacent Tehran plain. Eocene rocks of the Alborz range are thrust over Neogene and Quaternary sediments of the Tehran plain. The NTF constitutes right-stepping segments and merges to the east with the active Mosha-Fasham strike-slip fault (MFF). The historical record of destructive earthquakes lists numerous events on faults in this region, but instrumentally recorded seismicity appears to be focused on the eastern segment of the MFF. The youngest manifestations of deformation along the eastern segment of the NTF and the MFF are faults with normal and left-lateral oblique normal fault kinematics. Along the NTF, this youngest phase of activity is documented by meter-scale fault gouge zones, multiple colluvial wedges with drag features, subsidiary faults, and numerous striated and rotated conglomeratic clasts. Rupture traces and filled extensional cracks reaching the surface document the seismogenic nature of these features. The middle and western segments of the NTF, however, show evidence for Quaternary left-oblique and pure thrusting. These faults displace Quaternary fluvial sediments and alluvial fan deposits. This pattern of deformation also characterizes the Tehran plain in the southern foreland of the Alborz mountains. The western sector of the plain is deforming by (partly blind) thrusting, as manifested by a segmented and internally deformed anticline and abandoned and diverted channels on both sides of this structure. The recency of faulting at depth and corresponding surface deformation can be inferred from 10Be-dating of an adjacent river terrace and possibly postdates 25ka. The central sector of the plain, which forms the substratum of the Tehran megacity, is affected by thrusting and left-lateral strike-slip faulting and contains several sets of uplifted fluvial

  13. Lipid exchange between membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Jähnig, F

    1984-01-01

    The exchange of lipid molecules between vesicle bilayers in water and a monolayer forming at the water surface was investigated theoretically within the framework of thermodynamics. The total number of exchanged molecules was found to depend on the bilayer curvature as expressed by the vesicle radius and on the boundary condition for exchange, i.e., whether during exchange the radius or the packing density of the vesicles remains constant. The boundary condition is determined by the rate of flip-flop within the bilayer relative to the rate of exchange between bi- and monolayer. If flip-flop is fast, exchange is independent of the vesicle radius; if flip-flop is slow, exchange increases with the vesicle radius. Available experimental results agree with the detailed form of this dependence. When the theory was extended to exchange between two bilayers of different curvature, the direction of exchange was also determined by the curvatures and the boundary conditions for exchange. Due to the dependence of the boundary conditions on flip-flop and, consequently, on membrane fluidity, exchange between membranes may partially be regulated by membrane fluidity. PMID:6518251

  14. Cholesterol's location in lipid bilayers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Marquardt, Drew; Kučerka, Norbert; Wassall, Stephen R.; Harroun, Thad A.; Katsaras, John

    2016-04-04

    It is well known that cholesterol modifies the physical properties of lipid bilayers. For example, the much studied liquid-ordered Lo phase contains rapidly diffusing lipids with their acyl chains in the all trans configuration, similar to gel phase bilayers. Moreover, the Lo phase is commonly associated with cholesterol-enriched lipid rafts, which are thought to serve as platforms for signaling proteins in the plasma membrane. Cholesterol's location in lipid bilayers has been studied extensively, and it has been shown – at least in some bilayers – to align differently from its canonical upright orientation, where its hydroxyl group is in themore » vicinity of the lipid–water interface. In this study we review recent works describing cholesterol's location in different model membrane systems with emphasis on results obtained from scattering, spectroscopic and molecular dynamics studies.« less

  15. Electronic polymers in lipid membranes

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Patrik K.; Jullesson, David; Elfwing, Anders; Liin, Sara I.; Musumeci, Chiara; Zeglio, Erica; Elinder, Fredrik; Solin, Niclas; Inganäs, Olle

    2015-01-01

    Electrical interfaces between biological cells and man-made electrical devices exist in many forms, but it remains a challenge to bridge the different mechanical and chemical environments of electronic conductors (metals, semiconductors) and biosystems. Here we demonstrate soft electrical interfaces, by integrating the metallic polymer PEDOT-S into lipid membranes. By preparing complexes between alkyl-ammonium salts and PEDOT-S we were able to integrate PEDOT-S into both liposomes and in lipid bilayers on solid surfaces. This is a step towards efficient electronic conduction within lipid membranes. We also demonstrate that the PEDOT-S@alkyl-ammonium:lipid hybrid structures created in this work affect ion channels in the membrane of Xenopus oocytes, which shows the possibility to access and control cell membrane structures with conductive polyelectrolytes. PMID:26059023

  16. Smart Lipids for Programmable Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Matthew P.; Chien, Miao-Ping; Ku, Ti-Hsuan; Rush, Anthony M.; Gianneschi, Nathan C.

    2010-01-01

    Novel, responsive liposomes are introduced, assembled from DNA-programmed lipids allowing sequence selective manipulation of nanoscale morphology. Short, single stranded DNA sequences form polar head groups conjugated to hydrophobic tails. The morphology of the resulting lipid aggregates depends on sterics and electronics in the polar head groups and therefore, is dependent on the DNA hybridization state. The programmability, specificity and reversibility of the switchable system are demonstrated via dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. PMID:20518544

  17. Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Parenting Styles.

    PubMed

    Karbalaei Sabagh, Ali; Khademi, Mojgan; Noorbakhsh, Simasadat; Razjooyan, Katayoon; Arabgol, Fariba

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the parenting styles in parents with and without adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who had children with ADHD. It was a case-control study with convenience sampling strategy. Participants were recruited from the parents of previously diagnosed children with ADHD referred to Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran/ Iran. Ninety parents with adult ADHD and 120 normal parents were chosen by Conner's Adult ADHD Screening Scale (CAARS) and psychiatrist interview. Using Baumrind Parenting Styles Questionnaire and Arnold Parenting Scale, parenting styles were assessed in both the groups. Results from independent samples t-test indicated that Authoritarian parenting style (F = 0.576, p 0.022) and Over reacting style (F = 7.976, p 0.045) were significantly higher in cases. On the other hand, controls were using Permissive style (F = 0.131, p 0.044) more than cases. The results are consistent with prior studies; these findings can improve the content of parent training for children with ADHD, who have adult ADHD themselves. PMID:26264632

  18. Embryonic exposures of lithium and homocysteine and folate protection affect lipid metabolism during mouse cardiogenesis and placentation.

    PubMed

    Han, Mingda; Evsikov, Alexei V; Zhang, Lifeng; Lastra-Vicente, Rosana; Linask, Kersti K

    2016-06-01

    Embryonic exposures can increase the risk of congenital cardiac birth defects and adult disease. The present study identifies the predominant pathways modulated by an acute embryonic mouse exposure during gastrulation to lithium or homocysteine that induces cardiac defects. High dose periconceptional folate supplementation normalized development. Microarray bioinformatic analysis of gene expression demonstrated that primarily lipid metabolism is altered after the acute exposures. The lipid-related modulation demonstrated a gender bias with male embryos showing greater number of lipid-related Gene Ontology biological processes altered than in female embryos. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated significant change of the fatty acid oxidation gene Acadm with homocysteine exposure primarily in male embryos than in female. The perturbations resulting from the exposures resulted in growth-restricted placentas with disorganized cellular lipid droplet distribution indicating lipids have a critical role in cardiac-placental abnormal development. High folate supplementation protected normal heart-placental function, gene expression and lipid localization. PMID:26993217

  19. Lipid, blood pressure and kidney update 2013.

    PubMed

    Banach, Maciej; Serban, Corina; Aronow, Wilbert S; Rysz, Jacek; Dragan, Simona; Lerma, Edgar V; Apetrii, Mugurel; Covic, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    The year 2013 proved to be very exciting as far as landmark trials and new guidelines in the field of lipid disorders, blood pressure and kidney diseases. Among these are the International Atherosclerosis Society Global Recommendations for the Management of Dyslipidemia, European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/European Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the Management of Arterial Hypertension, American Diabetes Association Clinical Practice Recommendations, the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes Clinical Practice Guidelines for Managing Dyslipidemias in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Patients, the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults, the Joint National Committee Expert Panel (JNC 8) Evidence-Based Guideline for the Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults, the American Society of Hypertension/International Society of Hypertension Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension in the Community, the American College of Physicians Clinical Practice Guideline on Screening, Monitoring, and Treatment of Stage 1-3 CKD and many important trials presented among others during the ESC Annual Congress in Amsterdam and the American Society of Nephrology Annual Meeting--Kidney Week in Atlanta, GA. The paper is an attempt to summarize the most important events and reports in the mentioned areas in the passing year. PMID:24573394

  20. Regionalization of surface lipids in insects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiwen; Yu, Zhitao; Zhang, Jianzhen; Moussian, Bernard

    2016-05-11

    Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) play a critical role in the establishment of the waterproof barrier that prevents dehydration and wetting in insects. While rich data are available on CHC composition in different species, we know little about their distribution and organization. Here, we report on our studies of the surface barrier of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster applying a newly developed Eosin Y staining method. The inert Eosin Y penetrates different regions of the adult body at distinct temperatures. By contrast, the larval body takes up the dye rather uniformly and gradually with increasing temperature. Cooling down specimens to 25°C after incubation at higher temperatures restores impermeability. Eosin Y penetration is also sensitive to lipid solvents such as chloroform indicating that permeability depends on CHCs. As in D. melanogaster adult flies, Eosin Y penetration is regionalized in Tenebrio molitor larvae, whereas it is not in Locusta migratoria nymphs. Regionalization of the fly surface implies tissue-specific variation of the genetic or biochemical programmes of CHC production and deposition. The Eosin Y-based map of CHC distribution may serve to identify the respective factors that are activated to accommodate ecological needs. PMID:27170708

  1. NMR spectroscopy for evaluation of lipid oxidation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During storage and use of edible oils and other lipid-containing foods, reactions between lipids and oxygen occur, resulting in lipid oxidation and the subsequent development of off-flavors and odors. Accurate and timely assessment of lipid oxidation is critical for effective quality control of food...

  2. Temperature-dependent lipid metabolism in the blow fly Lucilia sericata.

    PubMed

    Muntzer, A; Montagne, C; Ellse, L; Wall, R

    2015-09-01

    An understanding of how arthropods use energy is fundamental to explaining their diverse life histories and adaptation to specific environments. It is also of importance when attempting to predict the impacts of environmental change on patterns of development and phenology. Here, lipid use by the economically important agent of ovine myiasis, Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae), was quantified at a range of temperatures. During pupation, at temperatures above the minimum temperature required for development (9 °C), pupae depleted an average of 30% of their total lipid over the course of pupation regardless of temperature. There was no detectable loss of lipid during pupation at temperatures below 9 °C. In general, larger individuals had the same relative amounts of lipid as smaller individuals. Newly emerged adults metabolized about 16% of the lipid reserves with which they emerged in the first 24 h during flight-related activity. Starved adults, with access to water but without sucrose or protein, depleted their lipid reserves and died within about 4 days of emergence. However, adults with access to protein and/or carbohydrate were able to maintain a stored lipid content of about 2.38% of their total body mass for at least 14 days after emergence, irrespective of sex. This finding is similar to that in field-caught individuals, in which lipid content was found to be a mean of 3% of body mass. The data suggest that warmer environmental conditions, within the temperature limits tested here, although shortening the time required for development and altering the patterns of seasonal abundance of L. sericata, are unlikely to impact on fly survival because of greater metabolic demands during non-feeding stages of the lifecycle. PMID:25753336

  3. Usefulness of the lipid index for bioaccumulation studies with Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Klopfer, D.C.; Carlile, D.W.; Hanf, R.W. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Bioaccumulation studies with Daphnia magna have become an important tool for hazard evaluation of potentially toxic materials released to aquatic environments. Despite widespread use of this test organism, little attention has been paid to the influence of stored lipids on uptake of xenobiotics. The authors drew upon principles of zooplankton population dynamics in the limnological literature to define experimental parameters for bioconcentration testing of organic compounds. Adult test populations were initially starved and monitored for lipid content and brood production. Mean lipid index values declined at 72 h to less than 50% of those observed at 24 h. The number of hatched young peaked at 48 h and was inversely related to lipid storage and ovary production. In a separate experiment, uptake kinetics of /sup 14/C-labelled quinoline were compared between two daphnid test groups with mean lipid scores of 5.4 and 2.8 respectively. Total radioactivity was significantly higher for the high lipid group at 8 h, and the coefficient of variation was lower. Estimated bioconcentration factors adjusted to dry weight were similar. Our studies indicated that lipid reserves of daphnid test populations can be routinely monitored as an indicator of stress in the laboratory. Bioaccumulation tests should be limited to less than 24 h to avoid depletion of lipid stores, which may cause increased variation in tissue concentration over time. 19 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  4. Effects of cadmium on lipid metabolism in female estuarine crab, Chiromantes dehaani.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiquan; Lv, Weiwei; Huang, Youhui; Fan, Bin; Li, Yiming; Zhao, Yunlong

    2016-10-01

    Due to the nature of their habitat, which contains a high level of pollutants, estuarine crabs are at great risk of exposure to contaminants such as cadmium. Thus, in this study, the effects of cadmium on lipid metabolism were investigated in estuarine crab Chiromantes dehaani. Adult female estuarine crabs were randomly exposed to 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1mg/L of CdCl2 for 7, 14 and 21days, after which the lipid contents of the hepatopancreas and ovary were measured. Also, the substance contents and the activities of the enzyme in lipid digestion, lipid synthesis and lipid transport metabolism were analyzed. The results showed that the lipid contents in the hepatopancreas and ovary of the exposed crabs decreased after prolonged exposure to cadmium compared to the control. The lipase activity decreased while the activities of fatty acid synthase and acetyl coenzyme A in the hepatopancreas increased on day 7 but decreased on days 14 and 21. Moreover, the change in non-esterified fatty acid level was similar to fatty acid synthase. The level of low-density lipoprotein increased in the exposed crabs compared to the control group while the level of high-density lipoprotein and the activity of lipoprotein lipase decreased at a higher concentration of cadmium and longer exposure time. These observations suggest that cadmium decreases the lipid content by weakening the ability of digestion, transportation and synthase of lipid, thus affecting hepatopancreas and ovary indices. PMID:27276547

  5. Lipid Profiling of In Vitro Cell Models of Adipogenic Differentiation: Relationships With Mouse Adipose Tissues.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Lucy; Prudovsky, Igor; Koza, Robert A; Anunciado-Koza, Rea V; Siviski, Matthew E; Lindner, Volkhard; Friesel, Robert E; Rosen, Clifford J; Baker, Paul R S; Simons, Brigitte; Vary, Calvin P H

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to characterize lipid profiles in cell models of adipocyte differentiation in comparison to mouse adipose tissues in vivo. A novel lipid extraction strategy was combined with global lipid profiling using direct infusion and sequential precursor ion fragmentation, termed MS/MS(ALL) . Perirenal and inguinal white adipose tissue and interscapular brown adipose tissues from adult C57BL/6J mice were analyzed. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, ear mesenchymal progenitor cells, and brown adipose-derived BAT-C1 cells were also characterized. Over 3000 unique lipid species were quantified. Principal component analysis showed that perirenal versus inguinal white adipose tissues varied in lipid composition of triacyl- and diacylglycerols, sphingomyelins, glycerophospholipids and, notably, cardiolipin CL 72:3. In contrast, hexosylceramides and sphingomyelins distinguished brown from white adipose. Adipocyte differentiation models showed broad differences in lipid composition among themselves, upon adipogenic differentiation, and with adipose tissues. Palmitoyl triacylglycerides predominate in 3T3-L1 differentiation models, whereas cardiolipin CL 72:1 and SM 45:4 were abundant in brown adipose-derived cell differentiation models, respectively. MS/MS(ALL) data suggest new lipid biomarkers for tissue-specific lipid contributions to adipogenesis, thus providing a foundation for using in vitro models of adipogenesis to reflect potential changes in adipose tissues in vivo. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2182-2193, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26910604

  6. Studying lipids involved in the endosomal pathway.

    PubMed

    Bissig, Christin; Johnson, Shem; Gruenberg, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Endosomes along the degradation pathway exhibit a multivesicular appearance and differ in their lipid compositions. Association of proteins to specific membrane lipids and presumably also lipid-lipid interactions contribute to the formation of functional membrane platforms that regulate endosome biogenesis and function. This chapter provides a brief review of the functions of endosomal lipids in the degradation pathway, a discussion of techniques that allow studying lipid-based mechanisms and a selection of step-by-step protocols for in vivo and in vitro methods commonly used to study lipid roles in endocytosis. The techniques described here have been used to elucidate the function of the late endosomal lipid lysobisphosphatidic acid and allow the monitoring of lipid distribution, levels and dynamics, as well as the characterization of lipid-binding partners. PMID:22325596

  7. Adult Strabismus

    MedlinePlus

    ... will likely improve the double vision and depth perception. Also, strabismus affects adults in emotional, social, and ... muscle surgery is usually not severe. Headache, pulling sensation with eye movement and foreign body sensation in ...

  8. Lipid bilayers on nano-templates

    DOEpatents

    Noy, Aleksandr; Artyukhin, Alexander B.; Bakajin, Olgica; Stoeve, Pieter

    2009-08-04

    A lipid bilayer on a nano-template comprising a nanotube or nanowire and a lipid bilayer around the nanotube or nanowire. One embodiment provides a method of fabricating a lipid bilayer on a nano-template comprising the steps of providing a nanotube or nanowire and forming a lipid bilayer around the polymer cushion. One embodiment provides a protein pore in the lipid bilayer. In one embodiment the protein pore is sensitive to specific agents

  9. The Association of Dietary l-Arginine Intake and Serum Nitric Oxide Metabolites in Adults: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Bahadoran, Zahra; Ghasemi, Asghar; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate whether regular dietary intake of l-arginine is associated with serum nitrate + nitrite (NOx). In this cross-sectional study, 2771 men and women, who had participated in the third examination of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006–2008), were recruited. Demographics, anthropometrics and biochemical variables were evaluated. Dietary data were collected using a validated 168-food item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and dietary intake of l-arginine was calculated. To determine any association between dietary l-arginine and serum NOx, linear regression models with adjustment for potential confounders were used. Mean age of participants (39.2% men) was 45.9 ± 15.9 years. After adjustment for all potential confounding variables, a significant positive association was observed between l-arginine intake and serum NOx concentrations in the fourth quartile of l-arginine (β = 6.63, 95% CI = 4.14, 9.12, p for trend = 0.001), an association stronger in women. Further analysis, stratified by age, body mass index and hypertension status categories, showed a greater association in middle-aged and older adults (β = 9.12, 95% CI = 3.99, 13.6 and β = 12.1, 95% CI = 6.48, 17.7, respectively). l-arginine intakes were also strongly associated with serum NOx levels in overweight and obese subjects in the upper quartile (β = 10.7, 95% CI = 5.43, 16.0 and β = 11.0, 95% CI = 4.29, 17.5); a greater association was also observed between l-arginine intakes and serum NOx in non-hypertensive (HTN) compared to HTN subjects (β = 2.65, 95% CI = 2.1–3.2 vs. β = 1.25, 95% CI = −1.64–4.15). Dietary l-arginine intakes were associated to serum NOx and this association may be affected by sex, age, body mass index, and hypertension status. PMID:27213443

  10. The Association of Dietary l-Arginine Intake and Serum Nitric Oxide Metabolites in Adults: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Bahadoran, Zahra; Ghasemi, Asghar; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate whether regular dietary intake of l-arginine is associated with serum nitrate + nitrite (NOx). In this cross-sectional study, 2771 men and women, who had participated in the third examination of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006-2008), were recruited. Demographics, anthropometrics and biochemical variables were evaluated. Dietary data were collected using a validated 168-food item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and dietary intake of l-arginine was calculated. To determine any association between dietary l-arginine and serum NOx, linear regression models with adjustment for potential confounders were used. Mean age of participants (39.2% men) was 45.9 ± 15.9 years. After adjustment for all potential confounding variables, a significant positive association was observed between l-arginine intake and serum NOx concentrations in the fourth quartile of l-arginine (β = 6.63, 95% CI = 4.14, 9.12, p for trend = 0.001), an association stronger in women. Further analysis, stratified by age, body mass index and hypertension status categories, showed a greater association in middle-aged and older adults (β = 9.12, 95% CI = 3.99, 13.6 and β = 12.1, 95% CI = 6.48, 17.7, respectively). l-arginine intakes were also strongly associated with serum NOx levels in overweight and obese subjects in the upper quartile (β = 10.7, 95% CI = 5.43, 16.0 and β = 11.0, 95% CI = 4.29, 17.5); a greater association was also observed between l-arginine intakes and serum NOx in non-hypertensive (HTN) compared to HTN subjects (β = 2.65, 95% CI = 2.1-3.2 vs. β = 1.25, 95% CI = -1.64-4.15). Dietary l-arginine intakes were associated to serum NOx and this association may be affected by sex, age, body mass index, and hypertension status. PMID:27213443

  11. The Role of the Myers-Briggs Personality Type and Emotional Intelligence in Marital Satisfaction among Married Female Students at Tehran University.

    PubMed

    Shirzad, Galin

    2016-01-01

    The present descriptive correlational study was conducted to predict the role of emotional intelligence and the Myers-Briggs personality type in marital satisfaction in married female students Tehran University in 2015. The study population consisted of all the married female students at Tehran University who visited Iran MBTI center between 22.04.2015 and 21.06.2015. A total of 140 students were selected as the study samples. Data were collected using the Myer-Briggs Type Indicator, the Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire and the Enrich Marital Satisfaction Scale and were then analyzed in SPSS-20 using the multivariate regression analysis. The results obtained showed that emotional intelligence (interpersonal and intra-personal skills) and personality type (extraverted and structured) can predict marital satisfaction. PMID:27302443

  12. Lipid nanoparticle interactions and assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preiss, Matthew Ryan

    Novel liposome-nanoparticle assemblies (LNAs) provide a biologically inspired route for designing multifunctional bionanotheranostics. LNAs combine the benefits of lipids and liposomes to encapsulate, transport, and protect hydrophilic and hydrophobic therapeutics with functional nanoparticles. Functional nanoparticles endow LNAs with additional capabilities, including the ability to target diseases, triggered drug release, controlled therapeutic output, and diagnostic capabilities to produce a drug delivery system that can effectively and efficiently deliver therapeutics while reducing side effects. Not only could LNAs make existing drugs better, they could also provide an avenue to allow once promising non-approved drugs (rejected due to harmful side effects, inadequate pharmacokinetics, and poor efficacy) to be safely used through targeted and controlled delivery directly to the diseased site. LNAs have the potential to be stimuli responsive, delivering drugs on command by external (ultrasound, RF heating, etc.) or internal (pH, blood sugar, heart rate, etc.) stimuli. Individually, lipids and nanoparticles have been clinically approved for therapy, such as Doxil (a liposomal doxorubicin for cancer treatment), and diagnosis, such as Feridex (an iron oxide nanoparticle an MRI contrast enhancement agent for liver tumors). In order to engineer these multifunctional LNAs for theranostic applications, the interactions between nanoparticles and lipids must be better understood. This research sought to explore the formation, design, structures, characteristics, and functions of LNAs. To achieve this goal, different types of LNAs were formed, specifically magnetoliposomes, bilayer decorated LNAs (DLNAs), and lipid-coated magnetic nanoparticles (LMNPs). A fluorescent probe was embedded in the lipid bilayer of magnetoliposomes allowing the local temperature and membrane fluidity to be observed. When subjected to an electromagnetic field that heated the encapsulated iron

  13. Seasonal trends in the condition of nesting females of a solitary bee: wing wear, lipid content, and oocyte size

    PubMed Central

    Delphia, Casey M.; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L.

    2015-01-01

    During the nesting season, adult females of the solitary bee Megachile rotundata (F.) face considerable physical and energy demands that could include increasing wear and tear on their bodies and decreasing lipid reserves. Consequently, their reproductive performance may be affected not only by extrinsic factors (e.g., weather and floral resource availability), but intrinsic changes in their own bodies. Because of the potential fitness effects of seasonal changes in body condition, our objectives were to determine how wing wear, lipid reserves, and oocyte sizes vary during nesting seasons, beginning when females emerge as adults. As nesting progressed, females in two populations experienced a steady increase in wing wear, which is known to reduce foraging efficiency and increase risk of mortality in other bees. Soon after emergence, females exhibited sharp declines in lipid content which remained low for the remainder of the season. Newly-emerged females ingested pollen, an activity known to be correlated with the initiation of egg maturation in this species. Additionally, the early summer drop in lipid stores was correlated with an increase in the size of the oocytes carried. However, by ∼6 weeks after emergence, oocytes began to decrease in length and volume, perhaps due to nutrient deficiencies related to loss of stored lipids. Our results suggest management of M. rotundata should include rearing bees at temperatures that maximize stored lipid reserves in adults and timing bee release so that significant pollen resources are available for both adults and offspring. PMID:26019995

  14. Developmental plasticity of cutaneous water loss and lipid composition in stratum corneum of desert and mesic nestling house sparrows

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Williams, Joseph B.

    2008-01-01

    Intercellular lipids of the stratum corneum (SC), the outer layer of the epidermis, form a barrier to water vapor diffusion through the skin. Previously, we measured cutaneous water loss (CWL) and lipid composition of the SC of adult house sparrows from two populations, one living in the deserts of Saudi Arabia and another living in mesic Ohio. Adult desert house sparrows had a lower CWL, a lower proportion of free fatty acids, and a higher proportion of ceramides and cerebrosides in the SC compared with mesic sparrows. In this study, we investigated developmental plasticity of CWL and lipid composition of the SC in desert and mesic nestling house sparrows reared in low and high humidity and compared our results with previous work on adults. We measured CWL of nestlings and analyzed the lipid composition of the SC using thin-layer chromatography. We showed that nestling house sparrows from both localities had higher CWL than adults in their natural environment, a result of major modifications of the lipid composition of the SC. The expression of plasticity in CWL seems to be a response to opposed selection pressures, thermoregulation and water conservation, at different life stages, on which regulation of CWL plays a crucial role. Desert nestlings showed a greater degree of plasticity in CWL and lipid composition of the SC than did mesic nestlings, a finding consistent with the idea that organisms exposed to more environmental stress ought to be more plastic than individuals living in more benign environments. PMID:18838693

  15. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... the upper airway for obstructive sleep apnea in adults. Sleep . 2010;33:1408-1413. PMID: 21061864 www. ...

  16. Feasibility of Telerehabilitation Implementation as a Novel Experience in Rehabilitation Academic Centers and Affiliated Clinics in Tehran: Assessment of Rehabilitation Professionals' Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Movahedazarhouligh, Sara; Vameghi, Roshanak; Hatamizadeh, Nikta; Bakhshi, Enayatollah; Moosavy Khatat, Seyed Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. This study aimed to assess rehabilitation professionals' attitude toward implementation and application of telerehabilitation technology as a novel study in rehabilitation academic centers and affiliated clinics in Tehran. Methods. It was a descriptive cross-sectional study. To collect data, a researcher-designed questionnaire was developed. 141 rehabilitation experts participated in the study. Results. A majority of faculty members (78%) and clinicians (89.7%) either were in “definite agreement” or “somewhat agreed” with implementation and application of this technology, which demonstrates an overall positive attitude. Discussion. Based on the positive attitudes of the majority of participants toward implementation and application of this technology and their preferences in offering different telerehabilitation services, it seems that there is an appropriate and desirable acceptance and administrative culture to implement this technology among rehabilitation experts in Tehran. It is thus expected that implementation and application of this technology will be a promising experience in rehabilitation academic centers and affiliate clinics in Tehran. PMID:26640483

  17. High crash areas resulting in injuries and deaths in Tehran traffic areas from november 2011 through february 2012: a geographic information system analysis

    PubMed Central

    Salamati, Payman; Moradi, Ali; Soori, Hamid; Amiri, Mousa; Soltani, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evaluation of intra-city roads in terms of environmental factors of motor vehicle injuries can help us to better identify these factors and the share of each of the factors in injuries. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the high injury areas and the risk factors of motor vehicle crashes resulting in injury and death in Tehran, the capital city of Iran, from November 2011 through February 2012. Methods: In this cross sectional study, the locations of the motor vehicle injuries resulting in injuries and deaths were obtained from police stations in Tehran. The coordinates of the injuries locations were extracted and entered into the Arc-GIS software to overlay the different layers of geographical data and extract the risk map. Results: A total of 4257 motor vehicle injuries were evaluated in this study. Forty-two injuries (1%) resulted in death and 4215 injuries (99%) resulted in injury. The traffic districts 5 and 21 had the highest frequency of injuries resulting in death. The type of the motor vehicle resulting in injury or death was motorcycle in 2330 injuries (54.73%). Conclusion: The frequency of traffic injuries is more in the west and northwest areas of Tehran, and it is caused more by motorcycles in terms of traffic and motor injuries resulting in injury and death. It is useful to conduct more studies to better identify these factors considering their importance in traffic injuries. PMID:26478872

  18. Purification, partial characterization and role in lipid transport to developing oocytes of a novel lipophorin from the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Ximenes, A A; Oliveira, G A; Bittencourt-Cunha, P; Tomokyo, M; Leite, D B; Folly, E; Golodne, D M; Atella, G C

    2008-01-01

    Lipid transport in arthropods is achieved by highly specialized lipoproteins, which resemble those described in vertebrate blood. Here we describe purification and characterization of the lipid-apolipoprotein complex, lipophorin (Lp), from adults and larvae of the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus. We also describe the Lp-mediated lipid transfer to developing oocytes. Lps were isolated from homogenates of C. maculatus larvae and adults by potassio bromide gradient and characterized with respect to physicochemical properties and lipid content. The weevil Lp (465 kDa) and larval Lp (585 kDa), with hydrated densities of 1.22 and 1.14 g/mL, contained 34 and 56% lipids and 9 and 7% carbohydrates, respectively. In both Lps, mannose was the predominant monosaccharide detected by paper chromatography. SDS-PAGE revealed two apolipoproteins in each Lp with molecular masses of 225 kDa (apolipoprotein-I) and 79 kDa (apolipoprotein-II). The lipids were extracted and analyzed by thin-layer chromatography. The major phospholipids found were phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in adult Lp, and phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and sphingomyelin in larval Lp. Hydrocarbons, fatty acids and triacylglycerol were the major neutral lipids found in both Lps. Lps labeled in the protein moiety with radioactive iodine (125I-iodine) or in the lipid moiety with fluorescent lipids revealed direct evidence of endocytic uptake of Lps in live oocytes of C. maculatus. PMID:18038102

  19. Oral retinoids and plasma lipids.

    PubMed

    Lilley, Jessica S; Linton, Macrae F; Fazio, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Retinoids and rexinoids are prescribed for conditions ranging from acne vulgaris to hyperkeratosis to cutaneous T cell lymphoma. Dyslipidemia is a frequent consequence of the use of these drugs, with more than one-third of patients manifesting aberrations in triglyceride (TG) levels. The efficacy of retinoic acid derivatives is linked to their influence on lipid metabolism in the skin, which can impair systemic lipid trafficking and metabolism in some patients. Thus, baseline screening for preexisting dyslipidemia and regular follow-up lipid panels are mandated, especially when powerful agents such as bexarotene are used. Dietary modification, increased physical activity, and weight management are the cornerstones of initial management for mild hypertriglyceridemia, which is a contributor to cardiovascular risk. More severe impairments (fasting TG > 500 mg/dL) warrant pharmacologic interventions early on to reduce the risk of pancreatitis. Retinoic acid derivative action, lipid metabolism, and treatment of incident dyslipidemias are reviewed to empower prescribers in management of adverse lipid effects. PMID:24099071

  20. Lipids and the malarial parasite*

    PubMed Central

    Holz, George G.

    1977-01-01

    Merozoite endocytosis initiates Plasmodium development in a vacuole bounded by an erythrocyte-derived membrane, whose asymmetrical distribution of lipids and proteins is reversed in its orientation with respect to the parasite plasma membrane. Reorientation may accompany the proliferation of the membrane associated with the parasite's growth and phagocytic and pinocytic feeding. Increases in the membrane surface area of the parasite, and in some cases of the erythrocyte, parallel parasite growth and segmentation. Augmentation of all the membrane systems of the infected erythrocyte causes the lipid content to rise rapidly, but the parasite lipid composition differs from that of the erythrocyte in many respects: it is higher in diacyl phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, polyglycerol phosphatides, diacylglycerols, unesterified fatty acids, triacylglycerols, and hexadecanoic and octadecenoic fatty acids and lower in sphingomyelin, phosphatidylserine, alkoxy phosphatidylethanolamine, cholesterol, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Active lipid metabolism accompanies the membrane proliferation associated with feeding, growth, and reproduction. Plasmodium is incapable of de novo biosynthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol; however, it can fabricate its glycerides and phosphoglycerides with host-supplied fatty acids, nitrogenous bases, alcohols, ATP, and coenzyme A, and can generate the glyceryl moiety during glycolysis. Cholesterol is obtained from the host but nothing is known of sphingolipid origins. Lipid metabolism of the parasite may be associated with alterations in the amounts of octadecenoic fatty acids and cholesterol in the erythrocyte plasma membrane, which in turn are responsible for changes in permeability and fragility. PMID:412602

  1. Hybrid Lipid as Biological Surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewster, Robert; Pincus, Phil; Safran, Sam

    2009-03-01

    Systems capable of forming finite-sized, equilibrium domains are of biological interest in the context of membrane rafts where it has been observed that certain cellular functions are mediated by small (nanometric to tens of nanometers) domains with specific lipid composition that differs from the average composition of the membrane. These small domains are composed mainly of lipids with completely saturated hydrocarbon tails that show good orientational order in the membrane. The surrounding phase consists mostly of lipids with at least one unsaturated bond in the hydrocarbon tails which forces a ``kink'' in the chain and inhibits ordering. In vitro, this phase separation can be replicated; however, the finite domains coarsen into macroscopic domains with time. We have extended a model for the interactions of lipids in the membrane, akin to that developed in the group of Schick (Elliott et al., PRL 2006 and Garbes Putzel and Schick, Biophys. J. 2008), which depends entirely on the local ordering of hydrocarbon tails. We generalize this model to an additional species and identify a biologically relevant component, a lipid with one fully saturated hydrocarbon chain and one chain with at least one unsaturated bond, that may serve as a line-active component, capable of reducing the line tension between domains to zero, thus stabilizing finite sized domains in equilibrium.

  2. Lipid metabolism in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xinyu; Daniels, Garrett; Lee, Peng; Monaco, Marie E

    2014-01-01

    The malignant transformation of cells requires adaptations across multiple metabolic processes to satisfy the energy required for their increased rate of proliferation. Dysregulation of lipid metabolism has been a hallmark of the malignant phenotype; increased lipid accumulation secondary to changes in the levels of a variety of lipid metabolic enzymes has been documented in a variety of tumors, including prostate. Alterations in prostate lipid metabolism include upregulation of several lipogenic enzymes as well as of enzymes that function to oxidize fatty acids as an energy source. Cholesterol metabolism and phospholipid metabolism are also affected. With respect to lipogenesis, most studies have concentrated on increased expression and activity ofthe de novo fatty acid synthesis enzyme, fatty acid synthase (FASN), with suggestions that FASN might function as an oncogene. A central role for fatty acid oxidation in supplying energy to the prostate cancer cell is supported by the observation that the peroxisomal enzyme, α-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR), which facilitates the transformation of branched chain fatty acids to a form suitable for β-oxidation, is highly overexpressed in prostate cancer compared with normal prostate. Exploitation of the alterations in lipid metabolic pathways in prostate cancer could result in the development of new therapeutic modalities as well as provide candidates for new prognostic and predictive biomarkers. AMACR has already proven to be a valuable biomarker in distinguishing normal from malignant prostate tissue, and is used routinely in clinical practice. PMID:25374912

  3. Serum lipid & lipoprotein profiles of obese Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Ho, T F; Paramsothy, S; Aw, T C; Yip, W C

    1996-03-01

    The serum lipid and lipoprotein levels of 59 obese Chinese children with a mean age of 13.0 years and mean relative weight of 164.2% were analysed. Between 40% to 54% of these children had elevated lipid and lipoprotein levels and about 78% had reduced high density lipoprotein (HDL) level when compared to healthy American and Japanese children. The obese children also had higher mean levels of total cholesterol (TC) and lower HDL compared to male adults in the local population. Those with elevated TC had higher mean relative weight (170% vs 159%, p < 0.05). In view of the close association between hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis, obese children should be carefully screened and managed to prevent long term morbidity and mortality of coronary artery disease. PMID:10967982

  4. The role of cardiorespiratory fitness on plasma lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Parto, Parham; Lavie, Carl J; Swift, Damon; Sui, Xuemei

    2015-11-01

    Dyslipidemia is a treatable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the importance of treatment for abnormalities in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides. Aside from pharmacotherapy, exercise and cardio-respiratory fitness have been shown to have beneficial effects on decreasing cardiovascular disease risk. Even though previous data regarding the benefits of exercise on plasma lipids have been somewhat conflicting, numerous studies have demonstrated that exercise increases HDL-cholesterol and reduces the triglyceride levels. Also, smaller, more atherogenic LDL particles seem to decrease with increases in cardio-respiratory fitness and exercise, and favorable blood lipid profiles seem to persist longer through the adult life span. PMID:26436463

  5. Testosterone-Induced Effects on Lipids and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Vodo, Stella; Bechi, Nicoletta; Petroni, Anna; Muscoli, Carolina; Aloisi, Anna Maria

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pain has to be considered in all respects a debilitating disease and 10–20% of the world's adult population is affected by this disease. In the most general terms, pain is symptomatic of some form of dysfunction and (often) the resulting inflammatory processes in the body. In the study of pain, great attention has been paid to the possible involvement of gonadal hormones, especially in recent years. In particular, testosterone, the main androgen, is thought to play a beneficial, protective role in the body. Other important elements to be related to pain, inflammation, and hormones are lipids, heterogenic molecules whose altered metabolism is often accompanied by the release of interleukins, and lipid-derived proinflammatory mediators. Here we report data on interactions often not considered in chronic pain mechanisms. PMID:23606790

  6. Mass Spectrometry Methodology in Lipid Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Han, Juanjuan; Wang, Zhenpeng; Liu, Jian’an; Wei, Jinchao; Xiong, Shaoxiang; Zhao, Zhenwen

    2014-01-01

    Lipidomics is an emerging field, where the structures, functions and dynamic changes of lipids in cells, tissues or body fluids are investigated. Due to the vital roles of lipids in human physiological and pathological processes, lipidomics is attracting more and more attentions. However, because of the diversity and complexity of lipids, lipid analysis is still full of challenges. The recent development of methods for lipid extraction and analysis and the combination with bioinformatics technology greatly push forward the study of lipidomics. Among them, mass spectrometry (MS) is the most important technology for lipid analysis. In this review, the methodology based on MS for lipid analysis was introduced. It is believed that along with the rapid development of MS and its further applications to lipid analysis, more functional lipids will be identified as biomarkers and therapeutic targets and for the study of the mechanisms of disease. PMID:24921707

  7. Lipid metabolism, apoptosis and cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chunfa; Freter, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Lipid metabolism is regulated by multiple signaling pathways, and generates a variety of bioactive lipid molecules. These bioactive lipid molecules known as signaling molecules, such as fatty acid, eicosanoids, diacylglycerol, phosphatidic acid, lysophophatidic acid, ceramide, sphingosine, sphingosine-1-phosphate, phosphatidylinositol-3 phosphate, and cholesterol, are involved in the activation or regulation of different signaling pathways. Lipid metabolism participates in the regulation of many cellular processes such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, survival, apoptosis, inflammation, motility, membrane homeostasis, chemotherapy response, and drug resistance. Bioactive lipid molecules promote apoptosis via the intrinsic pathway by modulating mitochondrial membrane permeability and activating different enzymes including caspases. In this review, we discuss recent data in the fields of lipid metabolism, lipid-mediated apoptosis, and cancer therapy. In conclusion, understanding the underlying molecular mechanism of lipid metabolism and the function of different lipid molecules could provide the basis for cancer cell death rationale, discover novel and potential targets, and develop new anticancer drugs for cancer therapy. PMID:25561239

  8. Nonvesicular lipid transfer from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Lev, Sima

    2012-01-01

    The transport of lipids from their synthesis site at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to different target membranes could be mediated by both vesicular and nonvesicular transport mechanisms. Nonvesicular lipid transport appears to be the major transport route of certain lipid species, and could be mediated by either spontaneous lipid transport or by lipid-transfer proteins (LTPs). Although nonvesicular lipid transport has been extensively studied for more than four decades, its underlying mechanism, advantage and regulation, have not been fully explored. In particular, the function of LTPs and their involvement in intracellular lipid movement remain largely controversial. In this article, we describe the pathways by which lipids are synthesized at the ER and delivered to different cellular membranes, and discuss the role of LTPs in lipid transport both in vitro and in intact cells. PMID:23028121

  9. Influence of methoprene and dietary protein on male Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) lipid and protein contents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both, the application of a juvenile hormone analog, methoprene, and the addition of protein to the adult diet increased the sexual success and have an impact on nutritional status of male Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew). Total lipid and protein contents in males’ bodies were measured...

  10. DIETARY LIPID AS A FACTOR MODULATING XENOBIOTIC METABOLISM IN CHANNEL CATFISH (ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adult channel catfish (Ictaiurus punctatus) were fed diets containing menhaden oil (MHO), soybean oil (SBO), or beef tallow (BFT) as lipid sources for 116 d. The effects of these diets on two important hepatic xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme systems, cytochrome p-45O-dependent mon...

  11. Lipid metabolism predicts changes in body composition during energy restriction in overweight humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this analysis of a subset from a multi-center 12 wk weight-loss trial was to determine if calcium supplementation or dairy food consumption during energy restriction changed circulating lipids compared with an energy-restricted placebo group. Overweight adults (n = 63) were randomiz...

  12. Fuel from microalgae lipid products

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, A.M.; Feinberg, D.A.

    1984-04-01

    The large-scale production of microalgae is a promising method of producing a renewable feedstock for a wide variety of fuel products currently refined from crude petroleum. These microalgae-derived products include lipid extraction products (triglycerides, fatty acids, and hydrocarbons) and catalytic conversion products (paraffins and olefins). Microalgal biomass productivity and lipid composition of current experimental systems are estimated at 66.0 metric tons per hectare year and 30% lipid content. Similar yields in a large-scale facility indicate that production costs are approximately six times higher than the average domestic price for crude, well-head petroleum. Based on achievable targets for productivity and production costs, the potential for microalgae as a fuel feedstock is presented in context with selected process refining routes and is compared with conventional and alternative feedstocks (e.g., oilseeds) with which microalgae must compete. 24 references, 9 figures, 4 tables.

  13. Membrane lipids of Mycoplasma fermentans.

    PubMed

    Salman, M; Deutsch, I; Tarshis, M; Naot, Y; Rottem, S

    1994-11-01

    Membranes of Mycoplasma fermentans, incognitus strain, were isolated by a combination of osmotic lysis and sonication. Analysis of membrane lipids revealed, in addition to free and esterified cholesterol, six major polar lipids dominated by a de novo synthesized compound (compound X), which accounts for 64% of the total lipid phosphorus. Compound X was labeled by palmitate, but not by oleate. Mass spectrometry and gas liquid chromatography analyses of compound X revealed two molecular species with molecular masses of 1048 and 1076 representing, a dipalmitoyl- and a stearoyl-palmitoyl-glycerodiphosphatidylcholine. Compound X has the ability to stimulate human monocytes to secret TNF alpha and to enhance the fusion of small unilamellar vesicles with MOLT-3 lymphocytes. PMID:7988908

  14. Source apportionment of PAHs and n-alkanes in respirable particles in Tehran, Iran by wind sector and vertical profile.

    PubMed

    Moeinaddini, Mazaher; Esmaili Sari, Abbas; Riyahi bakhtiari, Alireza; Chan, Andrew Yiu-Chung; Taghavi, Seyed Mohammad; Hawker, Darryl; Connell, Des

    2014-06-01

    The vertical concentration profiles and source contributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and n-alkanes in respirable particle samples (PM4) collected at 10, 100, 200 and 300-m altitude from the Milad Tower of Tehran, Iran during fall and winter were investigated. The average concentrations of total PAHs and total n-alkanes were 16.7 and 591 ng/m(3), respectively. The positive matrix factorization (PMF) model was applied to the chemical composition and wind data to apportion the contributing sources. The five PAH source factors identified were: 'diesel' (56.3% of total PAHs on average), 'gasoline' (15.5%), 'wood combustion, and incineration' (13%), 'industry' (9.2%), and 'road soil particle' (6.0%). The four n-alkane source factors identified were: 'petrogenic' (65% of total n-alkanes on average), 'mixture of petrogenic and biomass burning' (15%), 'mixture of biogenic and fossil fuel' (11.5%), and 'biogenic' (8.5%). Source contributions by wind sector were also estimated based on the wind sector factor loadings from PMF analysis. Directional dependence of sources was investigated using the conditional probability function (CPF) and directional relative strength (DRS) methods. The calm wind period was found to contribute to 4.4% of total PAHs and 5.0% of total n-alkanes on average. Highest average concentrations of PAHs and n-alkanes were found in the 10 and 100 m samples, reflecting the importance of contributions from local sources. Higher average concentrations in the 300 m samples compared to those in the 200 m samples may indicate contributions from long-range transport. The vertical profiles of source factors indicate the gasoline and road soil particle-associated PAHs, and the mixture from biogenic and fossil fuel source-associated n-alkanes were mostly from local emissions. The smaller average contribution of diesel-associated PAHs in the lower altitude samples also indicates that the restriction of diesel-fueled vehicle use in the central area

  15. Lipid Regulation of Acrosome Exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Roy; Mukai, Chinatsu; Travis, Alexander J

    2016-01-01

    Lipids are critical regulators of mammalian sperm function, first helping prevent premature acrosome exocytosis, then enabling sperm to become competent to fertilize at the right place/time through the process of capacitation, and ultimately triggering acrosome exocytosis. Yet because they do not fit neatly into the "DNA--RNA-protein" synthetic pathway, they are understudied and poorly understood. Here, we focus on three lipids or lipid classes-cholesterol, phospholipids, and the ganglioside G(M1)--in context of the modern paradigm of acrosome exocytosis. We describe how these various- species are precisely segregated into membrane macrodomains and microdomains, simultaneously preventing premature exocytosis while acting as foci for organizing regulatory and effector molecules that will enable exocytosis. Although the mechanisms responsible for these domains are poorly defined, there is substantial evidence for their composition and functions. We present diverse ways that lipids and lipid modifications regulate capacitation and acrosome exocytosis, describing in more detail how removal of cholesterol plays a master regulatory role in enabling exocytosis through at least two complementary pathways. First, cholesterol efflux leads to proteolytic activation of phospholipase B, which cleaves both phospholipid tails. The resultant changes in membrane curvature provide a mechanism for the point fusions now known to occur far before a sperm physically interacts with the zona pellucida. Cholesterol efflux also enables G(M1) to regulate the voltage-dependent cation channel, Ca(V)2.3, triggering focal calcium transients required for acrosome exocytosis in response to subsequent whole-cell calcium rises. We close with a model integrating functions for lipids in regulating acrosome exocytosis. PMID:27194352

  16. Crystallization modifiers in lipid systems.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana Paula Badan; Masuchi, Monise Helen; Miyasaki, Eriksen Koji; Domingues, Maria Aliciane Fontenele; Stroppa, Valter Luís Zuliani; de Oliveira, Glazieli Marangoni; Kieckbusch, Theo Guenter

    2015-07-01

    Crystallization of fats is a determinant physical event affecting the structure and properties of fat-based products. The stability of these processed foods is regulated by changes in the physical state of fats and alterations in their crystallization behavior. Problems like polymorphic transitions, oil migration, fat bloom development, slow crystallization and formation of crystalline aggregates stand out. The change of the crystallization behavior of lipid systems has been a strategic issue for the processing of foods, aiming at taylor made products, reducing costs, improving quality, and increasing the applicability and stability of different industrial fats. In this connection, advances in understanding the complex mechanisms that govern fat crystallization led to the development of strategies in order to modulate the conventional processes of fat structuration, based on the use of crystallization modifiers. Different components have been evaluated, such as specific triacyglycerols, partial glycerides (monoacylglycerols and diacylglycerols), free fatty acids, phospholipids and emulsifiers. The knowledge and expertise on the influence of these specific additives or minor lipids on the crystallization behavior of fat systems represents a focus of current interest for the industrial processing of oils and fats. This article presents a comprehensive review on the use of crystallization modifiers in lipid systems, especially for palm oil, cocoa butter and general purpose fats, highlighting: i) the removal, addition or fractionation of minor lipids in fat bases; ii) the use of nucleating agents to modify the crystallization process; iii) control of crystallization in lipid bases by using emulsifiers. The addition of these components into lipid systems is discussed in relation to the phenomena of nucleation, crystal growth, morphology, thermal behavior and polymorphism, with the intention of providing the reader with a complete panorama of the associated mechanisms

  17. Fracture healing and lipid mediators.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, J Patrick; Manigrasso, Michaele B; Kim, Brian D; Subramanian, Sangeeta

    2014-01-01

    Lipid mediators regulate bone regeneration during fracture healing. Prostaglandins and leukotrienes are well-known lipid mediators that regulate inflammation and are synthesized from the Ω-6 fatty acid, arachidonic acid. Cyclooxygenase (COX-1 or COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) catalyze the initial enzymatic steps in the synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes, respectively. Inhibition or genetic ablation of COX-2 activity impairs fracture healing in animal models. Genetic ablation of COX-1 does not affect the fracture callus strength in mice, suggesting that COX-2 activity is primarily responsible for regulating fracture healing. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is performed clinically to reduce heterotopic ossification, although clinical evidence that NSAID treatment impairs fracture healing remains controversial. In contrast, inhibition or genetic ablation of 5-LO activity accelerates fracture healing in animal models. Even though prostaglandins and leukotrienes regulate inflammation, loss of COX-2 or 5-LO activity appears to primarily affect chondrogenesis during fracture healing. Prostaglandin or prostaglandin analog treatment, prostaglandin-specific synthase inhibition and prostaglandin or leukotriene receptor antagonism also affect callus chondrogenesis. Unlike the Ω-6-derived lipid mediators, lipid mediators derived from Ω-3 fatty acids, such as resolvin E1 (RvE1), have anti-inflammatory activity. In vivo, RvE1 can inhibit osteoclastogenesis and limit bone resorption. Although Ω-6 and Ω-3 lipid mediators have clear-cut effects on inflammation, the role of these lipid mediators in bone regeneration is more complex, with apparent effects on callus chondrogenesis and bone remodeling. PMID:24795811

  18. Lipid signals and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chongben; Klett, Eric L; Coleman, Rosalind A

    2013-12-01

    The metabolic syndrome, a cluster of metabolic derangements that include obesity, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia and hypertension, is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Insulin resistance has been proposed to be the common feature that links obesity to the metabolic syndrome, but the mechanism remains obscure. Although the excess content of triacylglycerol in muscle and liver is highly associated with insulin resistance in these tissues, triacylglycerol itself is not causal but merely a marker. Thus, attention has turned to the accumulation of cellular lipids known to have signaling roles. This review will discuss recent progress in understanding how glycerolipids and related lipid intermediates may impair insulin signaling. PMID:24533033

  19. Sensing voltage across lipid membranes

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Kenton J.

    2009-01-01

    The detection of electrical potentials across lipid bilayers by specialized membrane proteins is required for many fundamental cellular processes such as the generation and propagation of nerve impulses. These membrane proteins possess modular voltage-sensing domains, a notable example being the S1-S4 domains of voltage-activated ion channels. Ground-breaking structural studies on these domains explain how voltage sensors are designed and reveal important interactions with the surrounding lipid membrane. Although further structures are needed to fully understand the conformational changes that occur during voltage sensing, the available data help to frame several key concepts that are fundamental to the mechanism of voltage sensing. PMID:19092925

  20. Lipids of Sarcina lutea III. Composition of the Complex Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Huston, Charles K.; Albro, Phillip W.; Grindey, Gerald B.

    1965-01-01

    Huston, Charles K. (Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.), Phillip W. Albro, and Gerald B. Grindey. Lipids of Sarcina lutea. III. Composition of the complex lipids. J. Bacteriol. 89:768–775. 1965.—The complex lipids from a strain of Sarcina lutea were isolated and separated into fractions on diethylaminoethyl cellulose acetate and silicic acid columns. These fractions were monitored in several thin-layer chromatography systems. The various lipid types were characterized by their behavior in thin-layer systems and by an analysis of their hydrolysis products. The fatty acid composition of the column fractions was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. A number of components (13) were separated by thin-layer chromatography and characterized. The major components were polyglycerol phosphatide (17.0%), lipoamino acids (15.1%), phosphatidyl glycerol (13.8%), and an incompletely characterized substance (15.0%). Minor constituents included phosphatidyl inositol (5.5%), phosphatidic acid (4.2%), phosphatidyl serine (2.0%), and phosphatidyl choline (1.0%). No phosphatidyl ethanolamine was observed. PMID:14273659

  1. Cholesterol lipids and cholesterol-containing lipid rafts in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhen; London, Erwin

    2016-09-01

    Sterols are important components of eukaryotic membranes, but rare in bacteria. Some bacteria obtain sterols from their host or environment. In some cases, these sterols form membrane domains analogous the lipid rafts proposed to exist in eukaryotic membranes. This review describes the properties and roles of sterols in Borrelia and Helicobacter. PMID:26964703

  2. Morphology and total lipids in Thysanoessa macura from the southern part of the Indian Ocean during summer. Spatial and sex differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Färber-Lorda, Jaime; Mayzaud, Patrick

    2010-04-01

    Samples obtained during austral summer (February) were utilized to study the morphological differences of Thysanoessa macrura and the total lipid content, in relation to sex and geographic location. This species shows an evolution in morphometry, its carapace length increases slightly with sexual maturation, and its second thoracic leg becomes bigger and stronger, as well as its dactylus and especially the setae in the dactylus, which are stronger in a bigger animal allowing them to feed on other lipid-rich zooplankton. All these characteristics seem to support the hypothesis that animals change their diet during this period, allowing them to grow faster during summer, and accumulate lipids as a reserve material. This hypothesis is supported by a steeper slope in the length-weight regression during summer and an even steeper slope of the regression between carapace length and total lipids, especially adults. Great differences in lipid content were found between subadults and adults during this season, being higher in adults and, especially females. Lipids were higher in the northern stations in frontal area. A significant difference in lipid content was found among the stations sampled. Also a significant difference in lipid content was found between subadults, males and females. The species has a longer reproductive season than previously thought, which could depend on local conditions. Its development is accelerated during the summer bloom. Life history strategies of subadults and adults are apparently quite different, according to our lipid results and morphometrics data. Lipids reserves in subadults are not accumulated during summer, thus, T. macrura must accumulate massive amounts of lipids during autumn or late summer as a survival strategy of the species, as proposed for other species.

  3. Duration of prepupal summer dormancy regulates synchronization of adult diapause with winter temperatures in bees of the genus Osmia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osmia (Osmia) bees are strictly univoltine and winter as diapausing adults. In these species, the timing of adult eclosion with the onset of wintering conditions is critical, because adults exposed to long pre-wintering periods show increased lipid loss and winter mortality. Populations from warm ar...

  4. Effects of Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) Feeding, Size, and Lipid Content on Egg Maturation.

    PubMed

    Sisterson, Mark S; Wallis, Christopher M; Stenger, Drake C

    2015-06-01

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis) is synovigenic and must feed as an adult to produce eggs. Egg maturation rates depend on the host plant species provided to the adult female for feeding and are variable for females provided with the same host plant species. Here, the contribution of female size and lipid content to variation in egg maturation rates among females held on the same host plant species was assessed. To assess effects of female size and lipid content on egg maturation, feeding assays followed by measurements of egg load, female size, and lipid content were conducted. To accomplish this, females were field collected and held on cowpea until producing approximately 0, 12, 25, or 50 ml of excreta. After reaching prescribed excreta thresholds, females were dissected to determine egg load, hind tibia length, and head capsule width. Mature eggs were removed from the abdomen and dry weight of eggs and bodies (head, thorax, and abdomen) were obtained. Lipid content of eggs and bodies were determined using a quantitative colorimetric assay. Rates of body weight gain and body lipid gain were rapid with low levels of feeding (12 ml of excreta) but decelerated with additional feeding (>12 ml of excreta). In contrast, low levels of feeding (12 ml of excreta) resulted in little egg production, with rates of egg production accelerating with additional feeding (>12 ml of excreta). Accordingly, egg production was preceded by an increase in body dry weight and body lipid content. In agreement, probability that a female carried eggs increased with body lipid content in the 0-, 12-, and 25-ml feeding treatments. Across treatments, larger females carried more eggs than smaller females. Collectively, results suggest that variation in glassy-winged sharpshooter egg maturation rates partially may be explained by availability of lipid reserves at the start of a feeding bout and female size. PMID:26470224

  5. Association of insulin sensitivity to lipids across the lifespan in people with Type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Maahs, D. M.; Nadeau, K.; Snell-Bergeon, J. K.; Schauer, I.; Bergman, B.; West, N. A.; Rewers, M.; Daniels, S. R.; Ogden, L. G.; Hamman, R. F.; Dabelea, D.

    2010-01-01

    Aims Insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia both increase cardiovascular risk in Type 1 diabetes. However, little data exist on the associations of insulin resistance to lipids in Type 1 diabetes. Our objective was to explore the associations between insulin resistance (assessed by glucose infusion rate) and lipids in people with Type 1 diabetes and determine whether adiposity and/or average glycaemia influence these associations. Methods Hyperinsulinaemic–euglycaemic clamp studies were performed in 60 subjects with Type 1 diabetes aged 12–19 years (age 15 ± 2 years, 57% female, duration of diabetes 6.3 ± 3.8 years, HbA1c 8.6 ± 1.5%) and 40 subjects with Type 1 diabetes aged 27–61 years (age 45 ± 9 years, 53% female, duration of diabetes 23 ± 8 years, HbA1c 7.5 ± 0.9%). Multiple linear regression models were fit to examine the association between glucose infusion rate and fasting lipid levels with adjustment for possible confounders. Results Lower glucose infusion rate was significantly associated with lower levels of HDL cholesterol in youths with Type 1 diabetes and with higher levels of triglycerides and higher triglyceride/HDL ratio in both youths and adults. The magnitude of the associations between glucose infusion rate and lipid levels translate into interquartile differences of 0.098 mmol/l for HDL cholesterol, 0.17 mmol/l for triglycerides and 1.06 for triglycerides/HDL in the adolescents and 0.20 mmol/l for triglycerides and 1.01 for triglycerides/HDL in the adults. The associations were attenuated and no longer statistically significant by adjustment for adiposity among adults, while adjustment for HbA1c had a small effect in youths and adults. Conclusions Lower insulin sensitivity is associated with a more atherogenic lipid profile in both youths and adults with Type 1 diabetes. PMID:21219421

  6. Personal and Family Factors Affecting Life time Cigarette Smoking Among Adolescents in Tehran (Iran): A Community Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Baheiraei, Azam; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of smoking among adolescents varies in different parts of the world. The current study aims to survey the socio-demographic and family characteristics related to adolescent lifetime cigarette smoking among 1201 Iranian adolescents aged 15-18 years old. Methods This study is a population-based cross-sectional survey conducted using the multistage random cluster sampling method in Tehran, Iran in the summer of 2010. Results The prevalence of lifetime cigarette use amongst boys (30.2%) was about 1.5 times that of girls (22.2%), (p=0.002). Older age, low parental control, very little parental supervision in the adolescent’s selection of friends, and having a friend or family member who smokes were associated with lifetime cigarette use among male adolescents. Moreover, the use of verbal punishment by the parents was a protective factor for female lifetime cigarette use. Smoking has become one of the great health threats among Iranian adolescents. Conclusions As a result, health promotion programs should be gender based whilst educational and interventional programs for preventing tobacco use should begin before adolescence. PMID:23772284

  7. Application of global SST and SLP data for drought forecasting on Tehran plain using data mining and ANFIS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farokhnia, Ashkan; Morid, Saeed; Byun, Hi-Ryong

    2011-05-01

    Drought forecasting is a critical component of drought risk management. Identification of effective predictors is a major component of forecasting models. Sea surface temperature (SST) and sea level pressure (SLP) are relevant predictors for short- to long-term drought forecasts. However, these datasets are captured globally within a cell-wise network. This paper describes an approach to locate the most effective cells of the SST and SLP datasets using data mining. They are then applied as input to an adaptive neurofuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model to forecast possible droughts 3, 6, and 9 months in advance. Tehran plain was selected as the study area, and drought events are designated using the effective drought index (EDI). In another treatment, past values of the EDI time series were introduced to the ANFIS and the results compared with the previous findings. It was shown that R 2 values were higher for all cases applying the SST/SLP datasets. Additionally, the performance of SST/SLP datasets and the ANFIS model was assessed according to "drought" or "wet" classification, and it was concluded that more than 90% of the time the ANFIS model detected the drought status correctly or with only a one class error.

  8. Barriers of Pre-Hospital Services in Road Traffic Injuries in Tehran: The Viewpoint of Service Providers

    PubMed Central

    Alinia, Shahrokh; Khankeh, Hamidreza; Maddah, Sadat Seyed Bagher; Negarandeh, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Iran is one of the countries with considerable road traffic injuries. Pre-hospital interventions have an important role in preventing mortalities and disabilities caused by traffic accidents. The present study aimed to explore the barriers of pre-hospital care in traffic injuries in Tehran, Iran. Methods: A qualitative content analysis approach was conducted based on 21 semi-structured interviews with 18 participants. A purposeful sampling method was applied until reaching data saturation. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, and then data condensing, labeling, coding and defining categories were performed by qualitative content analysis. Results: Four main barriers including 4 main categories and 13 subcategories emerged; they included Barriers related to people, Barriers related to metropolitan infrastructure, Barriers related to the profession and Barriers related to managerial issues. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, pre-hospital service barriers in traffic accidents have many dimensions including cultural, structural and managerial domains. Policy makers in health system can use these findings to promote the quality of pre-hospital services, especially in the field of traffic injuries. PMID:26448954

  9. Characterization of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains among inpatients and outpatients in a referral hospital in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Fateh; Shokoohizadeh, Leili

    2016-08-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of a variety of infections ranging from wound infections to urinary tract infections (UTI) in hospital and community. In this study during 3 years we characterized the antibiotic resistance patterns of 491 hospital acquired MRSA and community associated MRSA strains by the guidelines of clinical and laboratory standard institute. A combination of high resolution PhP typing method and SCCmec typing were used for clonal dissemination of isolates. Among all 491 MRSA strains, diverse PhP types consisting of 29 common types (CTs) and 4 single types (STs) and also 2 different SCCmec types (III and IVa) were detected. In addition, 18 CTs were common among CA- and HA-MRSA strains and the presence of all 4 STs was limited to HA-MRSA strains. All isolates were resistant to penicillin and high level resistance was observed against ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, tobramycin and kanamycin and the rate of resistance to most of the antibiotic tested among HA-MRSA was significantly higher than CA-MRSA isolates. Moreover, all isolates showed susceptibility to linezolid, vancomycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin and very low resistance to fusidic acid, nitrofurantoin and chloramphenicol were detected. Our findings illustrated the increasing rate of clonal dissemination and persistence of highly antibiotic resistant CA-MRSA strains in Tehran hospitals, and also indicated the important role of the hospitals as the reservoir of MRSA strains. PMID:27265678

  10. Design, construction and characterization of a new neutron beam for neutron radiography at the Tehran Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choopan Dastjerdi, M. H.; Khalafi, H.; Kasesaz, Y.; Mirvakili, S. M.; Emami, J.; Ghods, H.; Ezzati, A.

    2016-05-01

    To obtain a thermal neutron beam for neutron radiography applications, a neutron collimator has been designed and implemented at the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR). TRR is a 5 MW open pool light water moderated reactor with seven beam tubes. The neutron collimator is implemented in the E beam tube of the TRR. The design of the neutron collimator was performed using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. In this work, polycrystalline bismuth and graphite have been used as a gamma filter and an illuminator, respectively. The L/D parameter of the facility was chosen in the range of 150-250. The thermal neutron flux at the image plane can be varied from 2.26×106 to 6.5×106 n cm-2 s-1. Characterization of the beam was performed by ASTM standard IQI and foil activation technique to determine the quality of neutron beam. The results show that the obtained neutron beam has a good quality for neutron radiography applications.

  11. Frequency of “Nursing Strike” among 6-Month-Old Infants, at East Tehran Health Center and Contributing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Nayyeri, Fatemeh; Raji, Farima; Haghnazarian, Edith; Shariat, Mamak; Dalili, Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Objective: An abrupt refusal by the infant to breastfeed is often called “nursing strike”. In fact a common reason for cessation of nursing is infant’s refusal to breast feed. This problem can often be overcome. This paper has aimed to identify the causes of “breast feeding refusal” or “nursing strike” in 6 month old infants visiting the East Tehran health center for their scheduled vaccination of 6 months old. Materials and methods: Totally 175 six month old infants were enrolled in this study. A questionnaire was filled by mother for each child and later the infants with “nursing strike” were compared with all others. Results: In this study prevalence of breast feeding refusal in infants was 24%.There was significant relation between the “breastfeeding refusal” and maternal academic education or working status. In this study mothers reported various reasons associated with “refusal breast feeding. According to the mothers playful infant and nasal obstructions were the probable causes for refusal. Conclusion: There is a diverse variety of factors influencing nursing strike. Most of these factors can be prevented by identifying the background reasons and proper training. PMID:26622313

  12. High HIV prevalence in a respondent-driven sampling survey of injection drug users in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Malekinejad, Mohsen; Mohraz, Minoo; Razani, Nooshin; Akbari, Gholamreza; McFarland, Willi; Khairandish, Parastoo; Malekafzali, Housien; Gouya, Mohammad M; Zarghami, Asieh; Rutherford, George W

    2015-03-01

    Iran is facing unprecedented dual drug use and HIV epidemics. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to obtain HIV prevalence and risk behavior data from injection drug users (IDU) in Tehran. We used respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to recruit IDU through successive waves starting with 24 "seeds," conducted anonymous face-to-face interviews and HIV testing and counseling, and used RDSAT to adjust data. During 44 weeks, 1,726 study referral coupons resulted in 645 (37 %) IDU referrals, of whom 548 (85 %) were enrolled. From those enrolled, 84 % were incarcerated, 47 % employed, 55 % single, 27 % under 30 years of age, and 26 % homeless. The adjusted HIV prevalence was 26.6 % (95 % confidence interval 21.3-32.1), and was higher among certain IDU subgroups (e.g., those who sharing injection paraphernalia). Our estimates of HIV prevalence were higher than some other estimates; however, repeated surveys using similar methodology are needed to monitor the trend of HIV epidemic over time. PMID:25280446

  13. Ventilator-associated pneumonia in a teaching hospital in Tehran and use of the Iranian Nosocomial Infections Surveillance Software.

    PubMed

    Afhami, Sh; Hadadi, A; Khorami, E; Seifi, A; Bazaz, N Esmailpour

    2013-10-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia is the most common health-care-associated infection in the intensive care unit (ICU) and computer-assisted diagnosis and surveillance is called for. The frequency of ventilator-associated pneumonia was assessed prospectively during a 6-month period in the ICUs of a teaching hospital in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran. To determine the accuracy of the Iranian Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (INIS) system, patient data were input to the software and compared with physicians' judgement. The frequency of ventilator-associated pneumonia was 21.6%, or 9.96 episodes per 1000 ventilator days. The duration of admission to the ICU, duration of mechanical ventilator and number of re-intubations were significantly higher in patients who developed pneumonia. The INIS system identified 100% of cases, with no false-positive or false-negative results. Compared with developed countries, the frequency of ventilator-associated pneumonia was high in our ICUs, and INIS software was accurate in diagnosing nosocomial infection. PMID:24313153

  14. Efficient biodegradation of naphthalene by a newly characterized indigenous Achromobacter sp. FBHYA2 isolated from Tehran Oil Refinery Complex.

    PubMed

    Farjadfard, Sima; Borghei, Seyyed Mehdi; Hassani, Amir Hessam; Yakhchali, Bagher; Ardjmand, Mehdi; Zeinali, Majid

    2012-01-01

    A bacterial strain, FBHYA2, capable of degrading naphthalene, was isolated from the American Petroleum Institute (API) separator of the Tehran Oil Refinery Complex (TORC). Strain FBHYA2 was identified as Achromobacter sp. based on physiological and biochemical characteristics and also phylogenetic similarity of 16S rRNA gene sequence. The optimal growth conditions for strain FBHYA2 were pH 6.0, 30 °C and 1.0% NaCl. Strain FBHYA2 can utilize naphthalene as the sole source of carbon and energy and was able to degrade naphthalene aerobically very fast, 48 h for 96% removal at 500 mg/L concentration. The physiological response of Achromobacter sp., FBHYA2 to several hydrophobic chemicals (aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons) was also investigated. No biosurfactant was detected during bacterial growth on any aliphatic/aromatic hydrocarbons. The results of hydrophobicity measurements showed no significant difference between naphthalene- and LB-grown cells. The capability of the strain FBHYA2 to degrade naphthalene completely and rapidly without the need to secrete biosurfactant may make it an ideal candidate to remediate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated sites. PMID:22744691

  15. Evaluation of Educational Environment for Medical Students of a Tertiary Pediatric Hospital in Tehran, Using DREEM Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Andalib, Masoud Mohammad; Malekzadeh, Masoud Mohammad; Agharahimi, Zahra; Daryabeigi, Maede; Yaghmaei, Bahareh; Ashrafi, Mahmoud-Reza; Rabbani, Ali; Rezaei, Nima

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tertiary pediatric hospitals usually provide excellent clinical services, but such centers have a lot to do for educational perfection. Objectives: This study was performed to address under-graduate educational deficits and find feasible solutions. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done in a target population of 77 sixth year undergraduate medical students (response rate = 78%) who spent their 3-month pediatric rotation in the Children’s Medical Center, the Pediatrics Center of Excellence in Tehran, Iran. The Dundee ready educational environment measure (DREEM) instrument was used for assessing educational environment of this subspecialized pediatric hospital. Results: Among 60 students who answered the questionnaires, 24 were male (40%). Participants’ age ranged from 23 to 24 years. The mean total score was 95.8 (48%). Comparison of scores based on students’ knowledge showed no significant difference. Problematic areas were learning, academic self-perception, and social self-perception. Conclusions: Having an accurate schedule to train general practitioner, using new teaching methods, and providing a non-stressful atmosphere were suggested solutions. PMID:26495091

  16. The effect of new emergency program on patient length of stay in a teaching hospital emergency department of Tehran