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Sample records for adults undergoing elective

  1. Comparison of GlideScope video laryngoscope with Macintosh laryngoscope in adult patients undergoing elective surgical procedures

    PubMed Central

    Parasa, Mrunalini; Yallapragada, Srivishnu Vardhan; Vemuri, Nagendra Nath; Shaik, Mastan Saheb

    2016-01-01

    Background: GlideScope (GS) is a video laryngoscope that allows a real-time view of the glottis and endotracheal intubation. It provides a better view of the larynx without the need for alignment of the airway axes. Aim: This prospective randomized comparative study is designed to compare the intubation time, hemodynamic response, and complications associated with intubation using a GS or Macintosh laryngoscope (ML) in adult subjects undergoing elective surgical procedures. Materials and Methods: Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1–2 patients were included in this prospective randomized comparative study. Patients were randomized to be intubated using either a GS or an ML. The primary outcome measure was the intubation time. The secondary outcome measures were the hemodynamic response to intubation and the incidence of mucosal injury. Statistical Analysis: Mean and standard deviation were calculated for different parameters under the study. The observed results were analyzed using Student's t-test for quantitative data and Z-test of proportions. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Intubation time was longer in GS group (45.7033 ± 11.649 s) as compared to ML (27.773 ± 5.122 s) P< 0.0001 with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) −13.2794 to −22.5806. GS provided better Cormack and Lehane laryngoscopic view (P = 0.0016 for grade 1 view) with 95% CI −0.1389 to −0.5951. GS group exhibited more laryngoscopic response than ML group with more increase in blood pressure and heart rate, but the difference was not statistically significant. More cases of mucosal trauma were documented in GS group. Conclusion: Use of GS to facilitate intubation led to better glottic view but took a longer time to achieve endotracheal intubation. GS was associated with more hemodynamic response to intubation and mucosal injury in comparison with an ML. PMID:27212755

  2. Comparison of ondansetron and combination of ondansetron and dexamethasone as a prophylaxis for postoperative nausea and vomiting in adults undergoing elective laparoscopic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bhattarai, Basant; Shrestha, Santosh; Singh, Jeevan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Laparoscopic surgeries are the second most common cause of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), which would cause unexpected delay in hospital discharge. This study intends to compare the efficacy and safety of the combination of ondansetron and dexamethasone with ondansetron alone given as prophylaxis for PONV in adults undergoing elective laparoscopic surgery. Materials and Methods: One hundred adult patients undergoing elective laparoscopic surgeries were selected and were randomly divided into 2 groups of 50 each. Group I received 4 mg of ondansetron intravenously (i.v.), whereas Group II received ondansetron 4 mg and dexamethasone 4 mg i.v. just before induction of anesthesia. Postoperatively, the patients were assessed for episodes of nausea, vomiting, and need for rescue antiemetic at intervals of 0–2, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. Postoperative pain scores and time for the first analgesic dose were also noted. Results: Results were analyzed statistically. Complete response defined as no nausea or emesis and no need for rescue antiemetic during first 24 h, was noted in 76% of patients who received ondansetron alone, while similar response was seen in 92% of patients in combination group. Rescue antiemetic requirement was less in combination group (8%) as compared with ondansetron group. Conclusion: Combination of ondanserton and dexamethasone is more effective in preventing post operative nausea vomiting in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery than ondansetron alone. PMID:21769200

  3. Comparative Study of Two Laryngeal Mask Airways: Proseal Laryngeal Mask Airway and Supreme Laryngeal Mask Airway in Anesthetized Paralyzed Adults Undergoing Elective Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Ravneet Kaur; Tarat, Abhijit; Pathak, Debagopal; Dutta, Suneeta

    2017-01-01

    Context: Supraglottic airway devices can act as an alternative to endotracheal intubation in both normal and difficult airway. LMA Proseal (P-LMA) and LMA Supreme (S-LMA) alongwith acting as effective ventilating device, provide port for gastric drainage. Aim: The objective of this study was to compare the two devices for effective ventilation and complications. Setting and Design: A prospective, randomized, single-blinded study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Methods: 100 patients of ASA grade I–II undergoing elective surgery under general anaesthesia were included after ethical committee clearance and written consent. Patients were randomly allocated size 4 P-LMA (Group P) or S-LMA (Group S) (50 patients in each group). Insertion attempt, insertion time, oropharyngeal leak pressure (OLP) and complications were compared. Results: There was no difference demographically. The first insertion attempts were successful in 92% with P-LMA and 96% with S-LMA. Insertion time was faster in S-LMA. The mean OLP was 24.04 cmH2O in Group P and 20.05 cmH2O in Group S. Complications were cough, mild blood staining. Conclusion: Both can act as an effective ventilatory devices. But where LMA Proseal provides a more effective glottic seal by having a greater OLP, single use LMA Supreme provides acceptable glottic seal with easier and faster insertion, therefore, it can be accepted as better alternative to LMA Proseal. PMID:28298751

  4. Nursing students' perceptions of clients undergoing elective cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Leah Beth

    2007-01-01

    Aesthetic obsession is commonplace in current society. Supermarket a isles dedicated to beauty products, makeup, and anti-aging creams seem to expand daily. Television and publications flood the public with messages of what constitutes beauty and how to achieve the ideal. Surgical alteration of the body is swiftly becoming a form of self-care technique along with other heath-promoting behavior. Since 2003, the general acceptance of plastic surgery among all Americans surpassed 50% (American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, 2003). Elective cosmetic surgical procedures have increased by an astounding 444% since 1997 (American Society of Plastic Surgeons, 2006). This quest for body satisfaction based on modern cultural norms increases the public's need for accurate information and understanding from those in the healthcare profession. Despite a transformation in the general population's conception of cosmetic surgery and its clients, stigma still lies in many individuals, including those in the healthcare profession. As this progressively growing patient population emerges, many in healthcare question their attitudes toward plastic surgery and the patients receiving aesthetic operations. With clients undergoing plastic surgery becoming increasingly visible within the healthcare system, some unique aspects of patient care must be addressed.

  5. Value of extended warming in patients undergoing elective surgery.

    PubMed

    Wasfie, Tarik J; Barber, Kimberly R

    2015-01-01

    Perioperative temperature management is imperative for positive surgical outcomes. This study assessed the clinical and wellbeing benefits of extending normothermia by using a portable warming gown. A total of 94 patients undergoing elective surgery were enrolled. They were randomized pre-operatively to either a portable warming gown or the standard warming procedure. The warming gown stayed with patients from pre-op to operating room to postrecovery room discharge. Core temperature was tracked throughout the study. Patients also provided responses to a satisfaction and comfort status survey. The change in average core temperature did not differ significantly between groups (P = 0.23). A nonsignificant 48% relative decrease in hypothermic events was observed for the extended warming group (P = 0.12). Patients receiving the warming gown were more likely to report always having their temperature controlled (P = 0.04) and significantly less likely to request additional blankets for comfort (P = 0.006). Clinical outcomes and satisfaction were improved for patients with extended warming.

  6. Postoperative urinary retention in patients undergoing elective spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Altschul, David; Kobets, Andrew; Nakhla, Jonathan; Jada, Ajit; Nasser, Rani; Kinon, Merritt D; Yassari, Reza; Houten, John

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Postoperative urinary retention (POUR) is a common problem leading to morbidity and an increased hospital stay. There are limited data regarding its baseline incidence in patients undergoing spinal surgery and the risk factors with which it may be associated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of POUR in elective spine surgery patients and determine the factors associated with its occurrence. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who had undergone elective spine surgery and had been prospectively monitored for POUR during an 18-month period. Collected data included operative positioning, surgery duration, volume of intraoperative fluid, length of hospital stay, and patient characteristics such as age, sex, and medical comorbidities. Dialysis patients or those with complete urinary retention preoperatively were excluded from analysis. RESULTS Of the 397 patients meeting the study inclusion criteria, 35 (8.8%) developed POUR. An increased incidence of POUR was noted in those who underwent posterior lumbar surgery, those with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), those with chronic constipation or prior urinary retention, and those using a patient-controlled analgesia pump postoperatively. An increased incidence of POUR was seen with a longer operative time but not with intraoperative intravenous fluid administration. A significant relationship between the female sex and POUR was noted after controlling for BPH, yet there was no association between POUR and diabetes or intraoperative instrumentation. Postoperative retention significantly prolonged the hospital stay. Three patients developed epidural hematomas necessitating operative reexploration, and while they experienced POUR, they also developed the full constellation of cauda equina syndrome. CONCLUSIONS Awareness of the risk factors for POUR may be useful in perioperative Foley catheter management and in identifying patients who need particular

  7. The burden of bowel preparations in patients undergoing elective colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    El Reda, Zeinab D; Harb, Ali H; Abou Fadel, Carla G; Sarkis, Fayez S; Chalhoub, Jean M; Abou Mrad, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Background An adequate bowel preparation is an important quality measure for optimal colonoscopy. Aims The aim of this article is to study the burden of bowel preparations by examining seven specific variables (hunger, taste, volume, sleep, social, work, and adverse events (AEs)). Methods Ambulatory patients undergoing elective colonoscopy completed a questionnaire regarding their experience with the prescribed preparation. The seven study variables were graded using a numerical scale of 0–10 (best to worst). A score >6 was considered to indicate a significant impact and used as primary outcome. Patients were also asked to grade in descending order what they perceived as the worst aspect of the preparation. Results A total of 216 patients completed the survey. Preparations consisted of split-dose sodium picosulfate (SPS) (n = 49), split-dose 4 l PEG ± menthol (n = 49), full-dose PEG (n = 68), and 2 l split-dose PEG + ascorbic acid (n = 50). Except for work and AEs, all variables were considered to have a negative impact by >20% of patients (range 20.4–34.2). SPS was superior to PEG regimens in taste (4.1% vs. 35.9%) and volume (0% vs. 44.9%) (p < 0.05 for both) but inferior for hunger (30.6% vs. 19.2%; p = 0.09). The addition of menthol to PEG significantly improved taste (22.4% vs. 41.5%; p = 0.02). Sleep disturbances were most common with SPS and least with split-dose PEG (30.6% vs. 17.4%; p < 0.05). Overall, patients ranked volume, taste, and hunger as most burdensome. Conclusions The burden of bowel preparation is substantial. An informed personalized choice of preparation may improve adherence, tolerability and colon cleansing. PMID:27087962

  8. Modified ultrafiltration in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Zakkar, Mustafa; Guida, Gustavo; Angelini, Gianni D

    2015-03-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was the impact of modified ultrafiltration on adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery in terms of inflammatory and metabolic changes, blood loss and early clinical outcomes. A total of 155 papers were identified using the search as described below. Of these, six papers presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question as they reported data to reach conclusions regarding the issues of interest for this review. The author, date and country of publication, patient group, study type and weaknesses and relevant outcomes were tabulated. Modified ultrafiltration in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery seems to attenuate the levels of inflammatory molecules associated with surgery, reduces blood loss and blood transfusion and improves cardiac output, index and systemic vascular resistance. However, this was not translated in any reduction in length of stay in intensive care unit or hospital. Most studies were single-centre prospective non-blinded trials that included a small cohort of elective coronary artery bypass grafting patients, which makes it underpowered to provide unbiased evidence regarding clinical outcomes. Properly designed and conducted prospective randomized studies are required to answer whether the beneficial effect of modified ultrafiltration on systemic inflammatory molecules associated with surgery can translate with improvement in clinical outcome.

  9. Evaluating the role of incidental diagnostic dilation and curettage in young women undergoing elective laparoscopic sterilization.

    PubMed

    Varaklis, K; Stubblefield, P G

    1995-06-01

    Two hundred twenty-two women undergoing incidental diagnostic dilation and curettage (D&C) at the time of elective laparoscopic tubal ligation were studied retrospectively to ascertain if the risks of a D&C were warranted in a group of young, healthy women with a low risk of endometrial pathology. The endometrial sampling was associated with five uterine perforations and one readmission for bleeding and did not uncover any significant pathology in women under 35. The endocervical curettings did yield pathology of some clinical significance in women of all ages. The risk of uterine perforation was significantly higher in women who were < 15 weeks postpartum. We conclude that in a population of asymptomatic women under the age of 35, a diagnostic D&C is not indicated at the time of elective laparoscopic tubal ligation.

  10. The Information and Consent Process in Patients undergoing Elective ENT surgery: A cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Georgalas, Christos; Ganesh, Kulandaivelu; Papesch, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Background To assess the importance of different information pathways for patients undergoing elective ENT surgery (General Practitioner, Specialist consultation, pre assessment clinic and consent process as well as printed information material and non medical sources) and to correlate their relative importance with patient and doctor factors Methods – Patients Cross – sectional questionnaire survey 226 consecutive patients undergoing elective non-oncological otolaryngology procedures at a District General Hospital between May and August 2004 Results Overall patients were moderately satisfied with the information they received prior to surgery (score 63/100). Although they were generally satisfied with the quality of information they received at their outpatient consultation and at the preadmission clinic, they were less satisfied with the quality of information provided by their GPs and by the quality of self – obtained information. Most importantly, linear regression modeling showed that the overall level of information could be predicted by three factors: The quality of written information received at the hospital, the quality of self-obtained information and the information provided by the specialist at the time of listing for surgery. While patient's education level was correlated with the information process, the age and gender of the patient as well as the grade of the doctor at the outpatients were not associated with his overall levels of satisfaction. Conclusion Although the impact of the initial outpatient consultation for patients undergoing elective surgery can not be over emphasized, written information provided at the hospital as well as patient – initiated, parallel information pathways are at least as important: It is our duty to recognize them and use them for the patient's advantage. PMID:18798994

  11. The cardiovascular effects of sevoflurane and isoflurane after premedication of healthy dogs undergoing elective surgery.

    PubMed

    Abed, Janan M; Pike, Fred S; Clare, Monica C; Brainard, Benjamin M

    2014-01-01

    Sevoflurane and isoflurane are commonly used in veterinary anesthesia. The objective of this prospective, randomized, open-label clinical study was to compare the cardiovascular effects of sevoflurane and isoflurane via direct arterial blood pressure measurements and the lithium dilution cardiac output (LDCO) on premedicated healthy dogs undergoing elective tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO). Nineteen client-owned dogs were included. All dogs were premedicated with hydromorphone (0.05 mg/kg IV and glycopyrrolate 0.01 mg/kg subcutaneously). Ten dogs were anesthetized with sevoflurane and nine dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane. Eighteen dogs were instrumented with a dorsal pedal arterial catheter, and one dog had a femoral arterial catheter. All dogs had continuous, direct systolic (SAP), diastolic (DAP), and mean arterial (MAP) blood pressure readings as well as heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), cardiac index (CI), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), stroke volume variation (SVV), and pulse pressure variation (PPV) recorded q 5 min during the surgical procedure. There was no significant statistical difference in all parameters between the sevoflurane and isoflurane treatment groups. Both sevoflurane and isoflurane inhalant anesthetics appear to have similar hemodynamic effects when used as part of a multimodal anesthetic protocol in premedicated healthy dogs undergoing an elective surgical procedure.

  12. [Nursing practice of care to patients undergoing elective surgery in the immediate preoperative period].

    PubMed

    de Sena, Adnairdes Cabral; do Nascimento, Eliane Regina Pereira; Maia, Ana Rosete Camargo Rodrigues

    2013-09-01

    Research that aimed to analyze the care of nurses to patients, in the daily professional practice, provided in the preoperative period for patients undergoing elective surgery. It is a descriptive research with a qualitative approach that involved 15 nurses from Surgical Units and two nurses from the Surgical Centre of a hospital in the southern region of Brazil. Data was collected in semi-structured interviews conducted from April to July 2011. Data was analyzed using the Collective Subject Discourse (CSD) technique. The information obtained generated three CDS focused on the following ideas: administrative care, instruction in the preoperative period and surgical care in the immediate preoperative period. The results showed that caring consists mostly of giving instructions to the patient in the preoperative period. It is concluded that the care was directed to the physical aspects to the detriment of the psychological, in disagreement with the assistance methodology adopted in the hospital, supported by the Theory of Basic Human Needs.

  13. Surgical Stress Reduction in Elderly Patients Undergoing Elective Colorectal Laparoscopic Surgery within an ERAS Protocol.

    PubMed

    Mari, Giulio; Costanzi, Andrea; Crippa, Jacopo; Falbo, Rosanna; Miranda, Angelo; Rossi, Michele; Berardi, Valter; Maggioni, Dario

    2016-01-01

    ERAS program applied to colorectal laparoscopic surgery is well known to reduce hospitalization improving short terms outcomes and minimizing the Surgical Stress Response. However its effectiveness in elderly population is yet to be demonstrated. The primary aim of this study is to compare the level of immune and nutritional serum indexes across surgery in patients aged over 70 years old undergoing elective colorectal laparoscopic surgery within an ERAS protocol or according to a Standard program. 83 patients undergoing colorectal laparoscopic surgery were enrolled and randomized in two groups (ERAS Group 40, Standard Group 43) within a larger randomized trial on a general population. Surgical stress parameters were collected preoperatively, 1, 3 and 5 days after surgery. Nutritional parameters were collected preoperatively, 1 and 5 days after surgery. Short Term Outcomes were also prospectively assessed. IL-6 levels were lower in the EG on 1, 3, and 5 days post-operatively (p 0.05). IL-6 levels in the Enhanced group returned to pre operative level 3 days after surgery. C-reactive protein level was lower in the Enhanced group on day 1, 3, and 5 (p 0.05). There was no difference in Cortisol and Prolactin levels between groups. Prealbumin serum level was higher on day 5 (p 0.05) compared to standard group. Postoperative outcomes in terms of normal bowel function and length of hospital stay were significantly improved in the ERAS group. Colorectal laparoscopic surgery within an ERAS prototcol in elderly patients affects Surgical Stress Response, decreasing IL-6 and CRP levels postoperatively and improving Prealbumin post operative synthesis.

  14. Systematic Review: Audiovisual Interventions for Reducing Preoperative Anxiety in Children Undergoing Elective Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Van Lieshout, Ryan J.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Dobson, Kathleen G.; Buckley, Norman

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the effectiveness of Audiovisual (AV) interventions at reducing preoperative anxiety and its associated outcomes in children undergoing elective surgery. Methods A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and nonrandomized studies where the primary outcome was children’s preoperative anxiety was conducted. Secondary outcomes included postoperative pain, behavioral changes, recovery, induction compliance, satisfaction, and cost-effectiveness. The risk of bias of each study was assessed. Results In all, 18 studies were identified. A meta-analytic approach and narrative synthesis of findings were used to summarize the results of the studies. Conclusions This systematic review suggests that AV interventions can be effective in reducing children’s preoperative anxiety. Videos, multi-faceted programs, and interactive games appear to be most effective, whereas music therapy and Internet programs are less effective. While AV interventions appear potentially useful, adequately powered RCTs are required to conclusively pinpoint the components and mechanisms of the most effective AV interventions and guide practice. PMID:26476281

  15. Evaluation of peripheral muscle strength of patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Kelli Maria Souza; de Cerqueira Neto, Manoel Luiz; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira; de Santana Filho, Valter Joviniano; da Silva Junior, Walderi Monteiro; Araújo Filho, Amaro Afrânio; Cerqueira, Telma Cristina Fontes; Cacau, Lucas de Assis Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Peripheral muscle strength has been little explored in the literature in the context of cardiac rehabilitation. Objective To evaluate the peripheral muscle strength of patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Methods This was a longitudinal observational study. The peripheral muscle strength was measured using isometric dynamometry lower limb (knee extensors and flexors) at three different times: preoperatively (M1), the day of discharge (M2) and hospital discharge (M3). Participants received physiotherapy pre and postoperatively during the days of hospitalization during the morning and afternoon. Results Twenty-two patients were evaluated. The values of peripheral muscle strength of knee extensors preoperative found were about 50% lower than those predicted for the healthy population. When comparing muscle strength prior (M1), with the remaining evaluation, found himself in a fall of 29% for the movement of knee extension and 25% for knee flexion in M2 and a decrease of 10% movement for knee extension and 13% for knee flexion in M3 when comparing with M1. Conclusion The values of peripheral muscle strength prior of the study patients were lower than predicted for the healthy population of the same age. After the surgical event this reduction is even more remarkable, being reestablished until the time of discharge, to values close to baseline. PMID:25372909

  16. Insulin Resistance Increases the Risk of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Patients Undergoing Elective Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Li, Yueping; Liu, Yuyang; Shi, Dongmei; Yang, Lixia; Liang, Jing; Zhou, Yujie

    2016-02-01

    We assessed the influence of insulin resistance (IR) on the development of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients (n = 719) undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients were divided into diabetes mellitus (DM = 242), nondiabetic IR (IR = 120), and nondiabetic insulin sensitivity (IS = 357) groups according to medical history and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index. Serum creatinine (SCr) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were measured before and 72 hours after PCI. There were no differences in SCr and eGFR among the groups before PCI; SCr increased and eGFR decreased significantly in the DM and IR groups post-PCI (P < .001). The incidence of CIN in the IR group was as high as in the DM group and were both significantly higher than in the IS group (6.7% vs 8.7% vs 2.2%, P < .05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed DM (odds ratio [OR] = 1.19, 95%CI = 1.08-1.510, P < .001), HOMA-IR (OR = 1.39, 95%CI = 1.23-1.58, P < 0.001), and eGFR (OR = 0.88, 95%CI = 0.84-0.92, P < .001) were independent risk factors in predicting CIN. Screening IR patients and taking appropriate prophylactic strategy before PCI may reduce the incidence of CIN.

  17. Preoperative Laboratory Testing in Patients Undergoing Elective, Low-Risk Ambulatory Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Benarroch-Gampel, Jaime; Sheffield, Kristin M.; Duncan, Casey B.; Brown, Kimberly M.; Han, Yimei; Townsend, Courtney M.; Riall, Taylor S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Routine preoperative laboratory testing for ambulatory surgery is not recommended. Methods Patients who underwent elective hernia repair (N = 73,596) were identified from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database (2005–2010). Patterns of preoperative testing were examined. Multivariate analyses were used to identify factors associated with testing and postoperative complications. Results A total of 46,977 (63.8%) patients underwent testing, with at least one abnormal test recorded in 61.6% of patients. In patients with no NSQIP comorbidities (N = 25,149) and no clear indication for testing, 54% received at least one test. In addition, 15.3% of tested patients underwent laboratory testing the day of the operation. In this group, surgery was done despite abnormal results in 61.6% of same day tests. In multivariate analyses, testing was associated with older age, ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) class >1, hypertension, ascites, bleeding disorders, systemic steroids, and laparoscopic procedures. Major complications (reintubation, pulmonary embolus, stroke, renal failure, coma, cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, septic shock, bleeding, or death) occurred in 0.3% of patients. After adjusting for patient and procedure characteristics, neither testing nor abnormal results were associated with postoperative complications. Conclusions Preoperative testing is overused in patients undergoing low-risk, ambulatory surgery. Neither testing nor abnormal results were associated with postoperative outcomes. On the basis of high rates of testing in healthy patients, physician and/or facility preference and not only patient condition currently dictate use. Involvement from surgical societies is necessary to establish guidelines for preoperative testing. PMID:22868362

  18. TOTAL COST OF HOSPITALIZATION OF PATIENTS UNDERGOING ELECTIVE LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY RELATED TO NUTRITIONAL STATUS

    PubMed Central

    de MENEZES, Francisco Julimar Correia; de MENEZES, Lara Gadelha Luna; da SILVA, Guilherme Pinheiro Ferreira; MELO-FILHO, Antônio Aldo; MELO, Daniel Hardy; da SILVA, Carlos Antonio Bruno

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: In the Western world, the population developed an overweight profile. The morbidly obese generate higher cost to the health system. However, there is a gap in this approach with regard to individuals above the eutrofic pattern, who are not considered as morbidly obese. Aim: To correlate nutritional status according to BMI with the costs of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a public hospital. Method: Data were collected from medical records about: nutritional risk assessment, nutricional state and hospital cost in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Results: Were enrolled 814 procedures. Average age was 39.15 (±12.16) years; 47 subjects (78.3%) were women. The cost was on average R$ 6,167.32 (±1830.85) to 4.06 (±2.76) days of hospitalization; 41 (68.4%) presented some degree of overweight; mean BMI was 28.07 (±5.41) kg/m²; six (10%) individuals presented nutritional risk ≥3. There was a weak correlation (r=0.2) and not significant (p <0.08) between the cost of hospitalization of the sample and length of stay; however, in individuals with normal BMI, the correlation was strong (r=0,57) and significant (p<0.01). Conclusion: Overweight showed no correlation between cost and length of stay. However, overweight individuals had higher cost of hospitalization than those who had no complications, but with no correlation with nutritional status. Compared to those with normal BMI, there was a strong and statistically significant correlation with the cost of hospital stay, stressing that there is normal distribution involving adequate nutritional status and success of the surgical procedure with the consequent impact on the cost of hospitalization. PMID:27438031

  19. Younger, middle-aged, and older adults' memories for the 2008 U.S. Presidential Election.

    PubMed

    Holland, Alisha C; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2012-09-01

    Adults, aged 18 to 88 years, recalled details about the 2008 U.S. Presidential Election shortly following the election and 6 months later. Individuals who felt positive about the election outcome reported a greater quantity of information at both time points. However, across the lifespan, individuals who felt negative about the election outcome demonstrated a greater proportion of detail consistency over time, a finding that had previously been shown only for younger adults. Individuals who felt positive about the outcome showed increased confidence in their ability to retain information accurately, as did individuals who felt emotionally intense about the election. These results indicate that for adults of all ages, positive emotion is associated with a reduced ability to retain details consistently over time; yet people may not recognize this tendency when recalling information, thereby retaining higher confidence in their ability to remember event details if they felt positive about the event.

  20. Anesthetic considerations for adults undergoing fontan conversion surgery.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Emad B; Motta, Pablo; Vener, David F

    2013-06-01

    There are currently in North America more adults with congenital heart disease than children. This article discusses the anesthetic considerations in adults with single-ventricle physiology and prior repairs who present for Fontan conversion surgery as a demonstration of the challenges of caring for adults undergoing interventions for the repair of congenital heart defects. The care of these patients requires an understanding of the impact of passive pulmonary blood flow and single systemic ventricular physiology. The perioperative morbidity in this patient population remains high.

  1. MELD Score as a Predictor of Early Death in Patients Undergoing Elective Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS) Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, Aaron; Ferral, Hector Vasan, Rajiv; Postoak, Darren W.

    2005-04-15

    Purpose. To Evaluate the MELD score as a predictor of 30-day mortality in patients undergoing elective TIPS procedures. Methods. This was a retrospective, IRB-approved study. The medical records of all patients who underwent a TIPS procedure between May 1, 1999 and June 1, 2003 in a single institution were reviewed. Patients who underwent elective TIPS were selected. Elective TIPS was performed in 119 patients with a mean age of 55.1 ({+-} 9.6) years. The MELD and Child-Pugh scores before TIPS, etiology of cirrhosis, portosystemic gradients before and after TIPS, procedure time, and procedural complications were obtained from the medical records. The MELD and Child-Pugh scores before TIPS were compared between the survivor group (SG) and the early death (EDG) group. The early death rate was calculated for MELD score subgroups (1-10, 11-17, 18-24, and >24). Data were analyzed using the Fisher exact test, chi-square test and independent-sample t-test. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results. Technical success rate was 100%. The early death rate was 10.9% (13/119). The mean MELD scores before TIPS were 19.4 ({+-} 5.9) (EDG) and 14 ({+-} 4.2) (SG) (p = 0.025). The early death rate was highest in the pre-TIPS MELD > 24 subgroup. The Child-Pugh scores were 9.0 ({+-} 1.6) (SG) and 9.8 {+-} 1.06 (EDG) (p 0.08). The mean portosystemic gradients before TIPS were 20.5 ({+-} 7.7) mmHg (EDG) and 22.7 ({+-} 7.3) (SG) (p > 1) and the mean portosystemic gradients after TIPS were 6.5 ({+-} 3.5) (EDG) and 6.9 ({+-} 2.4) (SG) (p > 1). The mean procedural times were 95.6 ({+-} 8.4) min (EDG) and 89.2 ({+-} 7.5) min (SG) (p > 1). No early death was attributed to a fatal complication during TIPS. Conclusion. The MELD score is useful in identifying patients at a higher risk of early death after an elective TIPS. On the basis of our results, we do not endorse elective TIPS in patients with MELD scores > 24.

  2. Preventive effect of oral nicorandil on contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing elective cardiac catheterization.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yanming; Wei, Qingmin; Cai, Junna; Shi, Yongtang; Zhang, Youliang; Yao, Limei; Wang, Xiaogang; Lin, Shupo; Li, Yilin; Lv, Jing; Zhou, Bin; Du, Ruijuan

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to investigate the preventive effect of oral nicorandil on contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing elective cardiac catheterization. A total of 240 patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 60 mL/min or less, who were undergoing elective cardiac catheterization, were randomly assigned to nicorandil group (n = 120, 10 mg nicorandil, three times daily from 2 days before to 3 days after procedure) or control group (n = 120, matching placebo as the same method). The primary endpoint was the incidence of CIN defined as 25 % increase in serum creatinine (SCr) from baseline or 44 μmol/L (0.5 mg/dL) increase in absolute value within 72 h after exposure to contrast medium. The secondary endpoints were: (1) the changes of SCr, Cystatin-C (Cys-C) and eGFR within 72 h; (2) major adverse events (MACE) occurring within 30 days. Baseline characteristics of the patients in the two groups were similar. The incidence of CIN was significantly lower in nicorandil group compared with control group (6.67 vs. 17.5 %, P = 0.017). Compared with the control group, nicorandil group tended to have a lower SCr and Cys-C levels as well as a higher eGFR at 48 h after the procedure (all P < 0.05). There was no difference about the incidence of MACE within 30 days between nicorandil group and control group (4.16 vs. 5.83 %, P = 0.767). Multivariate logistic analysis showed that nicorandil was an independent protective factor against CIN (OR = 0.260, 95 % CI = 0.1-0.676, P = 0.006). Therefore, we concluded that oral nicorandil was associated with a decline in the incidence of CIN in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing elective cardiac catheterization.

  3. Recommendations for management of antiplatelet therapy in patients undergoing elective noncardiac surgery after coronary stent implantation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pei-Hsiu; Croce, Kevin J; Bhatt, Deepak L; Resnic, Frederic S

    2012-12-01

    Patients commonly undergo noncardiac surgical procedures after implantation of a coronary stent. In the case where surgery cannot be deferred until completing the minimum duration of dual antiplatelet therapy, the Brigham and Women's Hospital Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory recommends using a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa bridging protocol to minimize the risk of perioperative ischemic events. We discuss our algorithm for managing antiplatelet agents, including the newer agents, prasugrel and ticagrelor, in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery after coronary stenting and present our glycoprotein IIb/IIIa bridging strategy along with a review of the relevant pharmacodynamic and clinical evidence.

  4. Low-molecular-weight heparin prophylaxis: preoperative versus postoperative initiation in patients undergoing elective hip surgery.

    PubMed

    Hull, R D; Pineo, G F; MacIsaac, S

    2001-01-01

    Administration of low-molecular-weight heparin prophylaxis in elective hip implant patients commonly begins 12 h preoperatively in European practices to optimize effectiveness, and 12 to 24 h postoperatively in North American practices to optimize safety. A meta-analysis comparing these two treatment regimes revealed that preoperative initiation demonstrated greater efficacy and superior safety for patients (10.0% rate of total deep-vein thrombosis vs. 15.3%, P = .023). In addition to the pre/postsurgical debate, proximity of initiation of low-molecular-weight heparin in relation to surgery is an issue of critical importance. Recent studies revealed that beginning therapy immediately within 2 h preoperatively or 6 h postoperatively dramatically decreased the risk of venous thrombosis. An investigation of low-molecular-weight heparin prophylaxis initiated 2 h before elective hip surgery or approximately 6 h after surgery compared with warfarin sodium revealed that total and proximal deep-vein thrombosis rates were reduced in patients receiving low-molecular-weight heparin compared with warfarin. The frequencies of deep-vein thrombosis for patients receiving preoperative and postoperative dalteparin vs. warfarin for all deep-vein thrombosis were 36 of 337 (10.7%, P < .001) and 44 of 336 (13.1%, P < .001) vs. 81 of 338 (24.0%); and for proximal deep-vein thrombosis were 3 of 354 (0.8%, P = .035) and 3 of 358 (0.8%, P = .033) vs. 11 of 363 (3.0%). Relative risk reductions for the dalteparin groups vs. warfarin ranged from 45% to 72%. In this case, low-molecular-weight heparin administered in close proximity to surgery provided superior efficacy over warfarin. Major bleeding was significantly increased with the preoperative regimen but not the postoperative regimen.

  5. Impact of different intravenous fluids on blood glucose levels in nondiabetic patients undergoing elective major noncardiac surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Khetarpal, Ranjana; Chatrath, Veena; Kaur, Jagjit; Bala, Anju; Singh, Harjeet

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intravenous (IV) fluids are an integral part of perioperative management. Intraoperative hyperglycemia is associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients undergoing major surgeries even in nondiabetics. Aim: This study was conducted to observe the effect of different maintenance fluid regimens on intraoperative blood glucose levels in nondiabetic patients undergoing major surgeries under general anesthesia. Settings and Design: Randomized double-blind study. Materials and Methods: One hundred nondiabetic patients of either sex were divided randomly into two Groups I and II of 50 each undergoing elective major surgeries of more than 90 min duration under general anesthesia. Both groups were given calculated dosage of IV fluids accordingly 4-2-1 formula while Group I was given Ringer lactate (RL) and Group II was given 0.45% dextrose normal saline and potassium chloride 20 mmol/L. Changes in vital parameters, % oxygen saturation, and urine output were monitored at regular intervals. Capillary blood glucose (CBG) was measured half-hourly until end of surgery. If CBG level was more than 150 mg%, then calculated dose of human insulin (CBG/100) was given as IV bolus dose. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 22.0 software (IBM Corporation, Armonk, New York, USA), paired t-test and Chi-square test. Results: A significant increase of CBG level and was observed during intraoperative and immediate postoperative period (P < 0.001) in Group II. Conclusion: RL solution is probably the alternative choice of IV fluid for perioperative maintenance and can be used as replacement fluid in nondiabetic patients undergoing major surgeries. PMID:27746527

  6. Effectiveness of a Surgery Admission Unit for patients undergoing major elective surgery in a tertiary university hospital

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The increasing demand on hospitalisation, either due to elective activity from the waiting lists or due to emergency admissions coming from the Emergency Department (ED), requires looking for strategies that lead to effective bed management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a surgery admission unit for major elective surgery patients who were admitted for same-day surgery. Methods We included all patients admitted for elective surgery in a university tertiary hospital between the 1st of September and the 31st of December 2006, as well as those admitted during the same period of 2008, after the introduction of the Surgery Admission Unit. The main outcome parameters were global length of stay, pre-surgery length of stay, proportion of patients admitted the same day of the surgery and number of cancellations. Differences between the two periods were evaluated by the T-test and Chi-square test. Significance at P < 0.05 was assumed throughout. Results We included 6,053 patients, 3,003 during 2006 and 3,050 patients during 2008. Global length of stay was 6.2 days (IC 95%:6.4-6) in 2006 and 5.5 days (IC 95%:5.8-5.2) in 2008 (p < 0.005). Pre-surgery length of stay was reduced from 0.46 days (IC 95%:0.44-0.48) in 2006 to 0.29 days (IC 95%:0.27-0.31) in 2008 (p < 0.005). The proportion of patients admitted for same-day surgery was 67% (IC 95%:69%-65%) in 2006 and 76% (IC 95%:78%-74%) in 2008 (p < 0.005). The number of cancelled interventions due to insufficient preparation was 31 patients in 2006 and 7 patients in 2008. Conclusions The implementation of a Surgery Admission Unit for patients undergoing major elective surgery has proved to be an effective strategy for improving bed management. It has enabled an improvement in the proportion of patients admitted on the same day as surgery and a shorter length of stay. PMID:20096114

  7. Metabolic and clinical traits in horses undergoing feed deprivation for elective orthopaedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Reinprecht, Birgit; Hackl, Sigrun; Reisinger, Renate; Zickl, Michaela; Spona, Jürgen; Stanek, Christian; Zentek, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate some metabolic and clinical effects of feed deprivation in horses that were submitted for orthopaedic surgery. The effects of preoperative feed restriction were investigated in 20 horses submitted for elective orthopaedic surgery. The patients were fasted from 12 hours before until 4 hours after surgery. Serum free amino acids, glucose,free fatty acids (FFA), white blood cell counts, creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined 24 hours before surgery, 2 hours after the end of anaesthesia and 24 and 72 hours after surgery. Besides, abdominal sounds, appetite, faecal quality and body temperature were examined. Serum free amino acids did not react homogenously, concentrations were partly increasing or decreasing. Plasma glucose and FFA increased after surgery and returned to their preoperative levels 72 hours after surgery. A significant rise of the segmented granulocytes occurred 24 hours after surgery, all other parameters of the leukogram did not exceed the physiological range. AST reached its highest activity 24 hours after surgery, whereas CK activities were highest at 2 hours after surgery. Abdominal sounds were significantly reduced until 24 hours after surgery, however, appetite was not depressed. Faecal quality was physiological after surgery. Mean body temperature stayed within the physiological range. In conclusion, a relatively short perioperative fasting period had significant effects on the metabolic traits in horses, however the effects on physiological functions were minor. The consequences of major surgical procedures need to be addressed in future studies.

  8. Outcomes and predictors of prolonged ventilation in patients undergoing elective coronary surgery†

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Hesham Z.; Shaw, Matthew; Al-Rawi, Omar; Yates, Jonathan; Pullan, D. Mark; Chalmers, John A.C.; Fabri, Brian M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Despite the seriousness of prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) as a postoperative complication, previously proposed risk prediction models were met with limited success. The purpose of this study was to identify perioperative variables associated with PMV in elective primary coronary bypass surgery. PMV was defined as the need for intubation and mechanical ventilation for >72 h, after completion of the operation. METHODS Between April 1997 and September 2010, 10 977 consecutive patients were retrospectively reviewed. A series of two multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify preoperative predictors of prolonged ventilation and the impact of operative variables. RESULTS PMV occurred in 215 (1.96%) patients; 119 (55.3%) of these underwent tracheostomy. At multivariate analysis, predictors included NYHA higher than class II (odds ratio [OR], 1.77; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.34–2.34), renal dialysis (OR, 5.5; 95% CI, 2.08–14.65), age at operation (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02–1.06), reduced FEV1 (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.98–0.99), body mass index >35 kg/m2 (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.14–2.63). On serial logistic regression analyses, operative variables added little to the discriminatory power of the model. Kaplan–Meier survival curves showed reduced survival among PMV patients (P < 0.001) with an improved survival in the tracheostomy subgroup. CONCLUSIONS PMV after coronary bypass is associated with a reduction in early and mid-term survival. Risk modelling for PMV remains problematic even when examining a more homogenous lower risk group. PMID:22495507

  9. Comparable mid-term survival in patients undergoing elective fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair and endovascular aneurysm repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Gottsäter, Anders; Acosta, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate mid-term survival in patients undergoing elective fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair and standard endovascular aneurysm repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm. Methods: Consecutive patients treated from 2007 to 2011 with elective fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (n = 81) and endovascular aneurysm repair (n = 201) were evaluated concerning age, cardiovascular medication, comorbidities, and mid-term mortality. Results: Patients in the elective fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair group were younger than the endovascular aneurysm repair group (p = 0.006). In comparison with the endovascular aneurysm repair group, a lower proportion of patients in the elective fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair group had diabetes (p = 0.013) and anemia (p = 0.003), and a higher proportion had arterial hypertension (p = 0.009). When entering age, endovascular aneurysm repair or fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair operation, diabetes, anemia, and hypertension in a Cox regression model, only age (hazard ratio: 1.07; 95% confidence interval: 1.03–1.11; p < 0.001) was a risk factor for mid-term mortality. Conclusion: Careful patient selection and medical optimization resulted in comparable mid-term survival in patients undergoing elective fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair and endovascular aneurysm repair. PMID:26770700

  10. Pulmonary effects of bupivacaine and ropivacaine in parturients undergoing spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean delivery

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Guiqi; Li, Wenhui; Huang, Shaoqiang

    2014-01-01

    To study the change of maternal pulmonary function when ropivacaine and bupivacaine were used in spinal anesthesia for cesarean section, 40 ASA physical status I and II parturient scheduled to undergo cesarean section were randomly divided into bupivacaine and ropivacaine groups. Bupivacaine 9 mg and ropivacaine 14 mg were intrathecal injected respectively. FVC, FEV1 and PEFR were measured with spirometry before anesthesia and 2 h after intrathecal injection. Anesthesia level, the degree of motor block and VAS were also recorded. Results: The final level of sensory blockade was not different between groups. Forced vital capacity was significantly decreased with bupivacaine (3.0 ± 0.4 L to 2.7 ± 0.3 L, P < 0.05) and ropivacaine (2.9 ± 0.4 L to 2.5 ± 0.4 L, P < 0.05) while there were no difference between two groups. Forced expiratory volume during the first second and Peak expiratory flow rate were not decreased in each group. The degree of motor block in group R was less than group B at 2 h after intrathecal injection. Conclusions: Decreases in maternal pulmonary function tests were similar following spinal anaesthesia with bupivacaine or ropivacaine for cesarean section. The clinical maternal effects of these alterations appeared negligible. PMID:24995105

  11. Large pericardial effusion as a complication in adults undergoing SCT

    PubMed Central

    Norkin, M; Ratanatharathorn, V; Ayash, L; Abidi, MH; Al-Kadhimi, Z; Lum, LG; Uberti, JP

    2013-01-01

    Large pericardial effusion (LPE) leading to cardiac tamponade is a rare complication described in patients undergoing SCT. This complication is considered to be a manifestation of chronic GVHD; however its pathophysiology is poorly understood. Currently, there are no published data systematically describing the incidence, clinical characteristics and outcomes of LPEs in adult stem cell transplant recipients. We retrospectively evaluated 858 adult patients (512 autologous, 148 related and 198 unrelated donor) who underwent hematopoietic stem cell and BM transplants at our institution from 2005 to 2008 for the development of post transplant LPE. Seven patients (0.8%) were found to have LPEs and all these patients had undergone unrelated allografts. The median day of diagnosis post transplant was 229 (range 42–525). None of these patients had active manifestations of GVHD other than serositis at the time of LPE detection. Pericardial window (PW) was successfully placed in all patients who developed cardiac tamponade and most patients with LPE were effectively treated by increasing immunosuppression. We conclude that LPE is a rare late complication after allogeneic transplant in adults and in our study developed only after unrelated transplant. PW can be safely performed in these patients and LPEs can be successfully treated with intensification of systemic immunosupression. PMID:21113188

  12. Large pericardial effusion as a complication in adults undergoing SCT.

    PubMed

    Norkin, M; Ratanatharathorn, V; Ayash, L; Abidi, M H; Al-Kadhimi, Z; Lum, L G; Uberti, J P

    2011-10-01

    Large pericardial effusion (LPE) leading to cardiac tamponade is a rare complication described in patients undergoing SCT. This complication is considered to be a manifestation of chronic GVHD; however its pathophysiology is poorly understood. Currently, there are no published data systematically describing the incidence, clinical characteristics and outcomes of LPEs in adult stem cell transplant recipients. We retrospectively evaluated 858 adult patients (512 autologous, 148 related and 198 unrelated donor) who underwent hematopoietic stem cell and BM transplants at our institution from 2005 to 2008 for the development of post transplant LPE. Seven patients (0.8%) were found to have LPEs and all these patients had undergone unrelated allografts. The median day of diagnosis post transplant was 229 (range 42-525). None of these patients had active manifestations of GVHD other than serositis at the time of LPE detection. Pericardial window (PW) was successfully placed in all patients who developed cardiac tamponade and most patients with LPE were effectively treated by increasing immunosuppression. We conclude that LPE is a rare late complication after allogeneic transplant in adults and in our study developed only after unrelated transplant. PW can be safely performed in these patients and LPEs can be successfully treated with intensification of systemic immunosupression.

  13. Negligible Effect of Perioperative Epidural Analgesia Among Patients Undergoing Elective Gastric and Pancreatic Resections

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Dhruvil R.; Brown, Erin; Russo, Jack E.; Li, Chin-Shang; Martinez, Steve R.; Coates, Jodi M.; Bold, Richard J.; Canter, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Background There are conflicting data regarding improvements in postoperative outcomes with perioperative epidural analgesia. We sought to examine the effect of perioperative epidural analgesia versus intravenous narcotic analgesia on perioperative outcomes including pain control, morbidity, and mortality in patients undergoing gastric and pancreatic resections. Methods We evaluated 169 patients from 2007 to 2011 who underwent open gastric and pancreatic resections for malignancy at a university medical center. Emergency, traumatic, pediatric, enucleations, and disseminated cancer cases were excluded. Clinicopathologic data were reviewed among epidural (E) and non-epidural (NE) patients for their association with perioperative endpoints. Results 120 patients (71%) received an epidural, and 49 (29%) did not. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in mean pain scores at each of the four days (days 0-3) among E ( 3.2 ± 2.7, 3.2 ± 2.3, 2.3 ± 1.9, and 2.1 ± 1.9, respectively) and NE patients ( 3.7 ± 2.7, 3.4 ± 1.9, 2.9 ± 2.1, and 2.4 ± 1.9, respectively). Within each of the E and NE patient groups, there were significant differences (P < 0.0001) in mean pain scores from day 0 to day 3 (P < 0.0001). 69% of E patients also received intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). Ileus (13% E vs. 8% NE), pneumonia (12% E vs. 8% NE), venous thromboembolism (6% E vs. 4% NE), length of stay [ 11.0±12.1(8,4-107) E vs. 12.2±10.7(7,3-54) NE], overall morbidity (36% E vs. 39% NE), and mortality (4% E vs. 2% NE) were not significantly different. Conclusions Routine use of epidurals in this group of patients does not appear to be superior to PCA. PMID:23345053

  14. Risk Factors of Emergence Agitation in Adults Undergoing General Anesthesia for Nasal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Hyo-Yeol; Kim, Jin-Kyoung; Choi, Seung-Won

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify the incidence and the risk factors of emergence agitation in adults undergoing general anesthesia for nasal surgery. Methods We retrospectively examined 792 patients aged ≥18 years who underwent general anesthesia for elective nasal surgery between July 2012 and August 2013. Patients in the postanesthesia care unit with a Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale≥+1 at any time were considered to have emergence agitation. Results The overall incidence of emergence agitation is 22.2%. From multivariate regression analysis, the following six variables were found to be significantly associated with emergence agitation (P<0.05): younger age, recent smoking, sevoflurane anesthesia, postoperative pain on the numerical rating scale (NRS)≥5, presence of a tracheal tube, and presence of a urinary catheter. Presence of a tracheal tube was the greatest risk factor, increasing the risk of developing emergence agitation by approximately fivefold (odds ratio, 5.448; 95% confidence interval, 2.973 to 9.982). Younger age was also a strong risk factor (odds ratio, 0.975 for each 1-year increase; 95% confidence interval, 0.964 to 0.987). Current smoking, sevoflurane anesthesia, postoperative pain of NRS≥5, and the presence of a urinary catheter nearly doubled the risk of emergence agitation. Conclusion Emergence agitation following general anesthesia is a common complication in adult nasal surgery patients. To reduce the occurrence and consequences of agitation episodes, elimination of the associated risk factors is necessary, especially in at-risk patients. PMID:25729495

  15. Aetiology of preoperative anaemia in patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery-the challenge of pillar one of Patient Blood Management.

    PubMed

    Abraham, J; Sinha, R; Robinson, K; Scotland, V; Cardone, D

    2017-01-01

    Preoperative anaemia is common in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Whilst there is a strong association with increased morbidity and mortality, it is currently unclear whether treatment of anaemia leads to patient benefit. This retrospective study aimed to determine the aetiology of preoperative anaemia in a cohort of patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery over two years at a tertiary hospital. Laboratory data obtained at the preoperative assessment clinic visit were assessed to stratify patients into four groups-iron deficiency anaemia (IDA), possible IDA, anaemia of chronic disease (ACD) and non-anaemic patients with low ferritin according to the 'Preoperative haemoglobin assessment and optimisation template' of the Australian Patient Blood Management (PBM) Guidelines. Of patients with preoperative anaemia, 23.1% had IDA, 6.6% had possible IDA and 70.3% had possible ACD. Of the patients with possible ACD, 30% had a ferritin <100 µg/l, representing limited iron stores or coexisting absolute iron deficiency in the setting of chronic disease. In addition, 46.2% of those with possible ACD had iron studies indicative of functional iron deficiency. Time between assessment and surgery was as little as one day in a third of patients and in only 7% was it more than seven days. Our findings indicate that about one-third of our patients with preoperative anaemia had evidence of iron deficiency, a potentially reversible cause of anaemia. In addition, a significant number had either limited iron stores that may render them iron deficient by surgery, or a functional iron deficiency.

  16. Predictive Factors of Postoperative Pain and Postoperative Anxiety in Children Undergoing Elective Circumcision: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Tsamoudaki, Stella; Ntomi, Vasileia; Yiannopoulos, Ioannis; Christianakis, Efstratios; Pikoulis, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Background Although circumcision for phimosis in children is a minor surgical procedure, it is followed by pain and carries the risk of increased postoperative anxiety. This study examined predictive factors of postoperative pain and anxiety in children undergoing circumcision. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of children scheduled for elective circumcision. Circumcision was performed applying one of the following surgical techniques: sutureless prepuceplasty (SP), preputial plasty technique (PP), and conventional circumcision (CC). Demographics and base-line clinical characteristics were collected, and assessment of the level of preoperative anxiety was performed. Subsequently, a statistical model was designed in order to examine predictive factors of postoperative pain and postoperative anxiety. Assessment of postoperative pain was performed using the Faces Pain Scale (FPS). The Post Hospitalization Behavior Questionnaire study was used to assess negative behavioral manifestations. Results A total of 301 children with a mean age of 7.56 ± 2.61 years were included in the study. Predictive factors of postoperative pain measured with the FPS included a) the type of surgical technique, b) the absence of siblings, and c) the presence of postoperative complications. Predictive factors of postoperative anxiety included a) the type of surgical technique, b) the level of education of mothers, c) the presence of preoperative anxiety, and d) a history of previous surgery. Conclusions Although our study was not without its limitations, it expands current knowledge by adding new predictive factors of postoperative pain and postoperative anxiety. Clearly, further randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm its results. PMID:26495079

  17. Effects of preoperative local ropivacaine infiltration on postoperative pain scores in infants and small children undergoing elective cleft palate repair.

    PubMed

    Coban, Yusuf Kenan; Senoglu, Nimet; Oksuz, Hafize

    2008-09-01

    Previous data have shown that preoperative analgesia may reduce postoperative analgesic demands. The aim of the current study was to determine if preincisional ropivacaine infiltration may reduce postoperative oral pain in infants and small children undergoing elective cleft palate patients.Twenty nonsyndromic cleft palate patients were randomly divided into 2 groups. Injection with ropivacaine hydrochloride, at dose of 0.2 mg/kg, was performed by submucous infiltration of the proposed incisional site groups of patients. In control group, no medication was given before cleft palate repair under general anesthesia. Postoperative pain scores were measured according to Children and Infants Postoperative Pain Scale. Heart rate recordings and noninvasive blood pressure measurements were also done in all the patients.Measurements of Children and Infants Postoperative Pain Scale scores at all the observational postoperative periods showed significantly favorable values in ropivacaine group than in control group (P < 0.05). Six patients in the control group required rescue analgesia, whereas 2 patients required analgesic therapy in the treatment group.Preemptive analgesia using ropivacaine may enhance early postoperative comfort by reducing early postoperative pain in primary cleft repair.

  18. Effect of different phenylephrine bolus doses for treatment of hypotension during spinal anaesthesia in patients undergoing elective caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Mohta, M; Harisinghani, P; Sethi, A K; Agarwal, D

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of phenylephrine might be improved by giving doses higher than that traditionally used (100 µg). This study compared the effects of three initial bolus doses of intravenous phenylephrine; 100 µg (group P100), 125 µg (group P125) and 150 µg (group P150), for the treatment of post-spinal hypotension in patients undergoing elective caesarean delivery. If hypotension was not corrected by this dose, additional boluses of 25 µg were given every minute. Further hypotensive episodes were treated with half the initial bolus dose, followed by 25 µg boluses, as required. Umbilical arterial and venous blood samples were obtained for blood gas analysis and Apgar scores recorded. One hundred and twenty subjects (40 per group) who developed post-spinal hypotension (75%) were included in this randomised, double blind trial. Although systolic blood pressure was higher at certain time-points after 150 µg phenylephrine, there were no statistically significant differences in the effectiveness of the first bolus of phenylephrine to treat hypotension (85%, 95% and 95% in groups P100, P125 and P150, respectively, P=0.215); the additional dose of phenylephrine after the first bolus (P=0.810); the number of additional boluses (P=0.318) or of hypotensive episodes (P=0.118). There were no significant differences in the number of patients developing reactive hypertension or bradycardia, in maternal side-effects or in neonatal outcomes. Although the study may have been underpowered, initial phenylephrine bolus doses of 100 µg, 125 µg and 150 µg did not significantly differ in efficacy to treat post-spinal hypotension in these patients.

  19. Shrunken Pore Syndrome is associated with a sharp rise in mortality in patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Dardashti, Alain; Nozohoor, Shahab; Grubb, Anders; Bjursten, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Shrunken Pore Syndrome was recently suggested for the pathophysiologic state in patients characterized by an estimation of their glomerular filtration rate (GFR) based upon cystatin  C, which is lower or equal to 60% of their estimated GFR based upon creatinine, i.e. when eGFRcystatin  C ≤ 60% of eGFRcreatinine. Not only the cystatin  C level, but also the levels of other low molecular mass proteins are increased in this condition. The preoperative plasma levels of cystatin  C and creatinine were measured in 1638 patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting. eGFRcystatin  C and eGFRcreatinine were calculated using two pairs of estimating equations, CAPA and LMrev, and CKD-EPIcystatin  C and CKD-EPIcreatinine, respectively. The Shrunken Pore Syndrome was present in 2.1% of the patients as defined by the CAPA and LMrev equations and in 5.7% of the patients as defined by the CKD-EPIcystatin  C and CKD-EPIcreatinine equations. The patients were studied over a median follow-up time of 3.5 years (2.0–5.0 years) and the mortality determined. Shrunken Pore Syndrome defined by both pairs of equations was a strong, independent, predictor of long-term mortality as evaluated by Cox analysis and as illustrated by Kaplan-Meier curves. Increased mortality was observed also for the subgroups of patients with GFR above or below 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Changing the cut-off level from 60 to 70% for the CAPA and LMrev equations increased the number of patients with Shrunken Pore Syndrome to 6.5%, still displaying increased mortality. PMID:26647957

  20. Comparison of fractionated dose versus bolus dose injection in spinal anaesthesia for patients undergoing elective caesarean section: A randomised, double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Badheka, Jigisha Prahaladray; Oza, Vrinda Pravinbhai; Vyas, Ashutosh; Baria, Deepika; Nehra, Poonam; Babu, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: Spinal anaesthesia (SA) with bolus dose has rapid onset but may precipitate hypotension. When we inject local anaesthetic in fractions with a time gap, it provides a dense block with haemodynamic stability and also prolongs the duration of analgesia. We aimed to compare fractionated dose with bolus dose in SA for haemodynamic stability and duration of analgesia in patients undergoing elective lower segment caesarean section (LSCS). Methods: After clearance from the Institutional Ethics Committee, the study was carried out in sixty patients undergoing elective LSCS. Patients were divided into two groups. Group B patients received single bolus SA with injection bupivacaine heavy (0.5%) and Group F patients fractionated dose with two-third of the total dose of injection bupivacaine heavy (0.5%) given initially followed by one-third dose after 90 s. Time of onset and regression of sensory and motor blockage, intraoperative haemodynamics and duration of analgesia were recorded and analysed with Student's unpaired t-test. Result: All the patients were haemodynamically stable in Group F as compared to Group B. Five patients in Group F and fourteen patients in Group B required vasopressor. Duration of sensory and motor block and duration of analgesia were longer in Group F (273.83 ± 20.62 min) compared to Group B (231.5 ± 31.87 min) P < 0.05. Conclusion: Fractionated dose of SA provides greater haemodynamic stability and longer duration of analgesia compared to bolus dose. PMID:28216705

  1. A randomized multicenter study of remifentanil compared with alfentanil, isoflurane, or propofol in anesthetized pediatric patients undergoing elective strabismus surgery.

    PubMed

    Davis, P J; Lerman, J; Suresh, S; McGowan, F X; Coté, C J; Landsman, I; Henson, L G

    1997-05-01

    Remifentanil hydrochloride is a new, ultrashort-acting opioid metabolized by nonspecific plasma and tissue esterases. We conducted this multicenter study to examine the hemodynamic response and recovery profile of premedicated children undergoing strabismus repair who were randomly assigned to receive one of four treatment drugs (remifentanil, alfentanil, isoflurane, or propofol) along with nitrous oxide and oxygen for maintenance of anesthesia. Induction of anesthesia was by nitrous oxide, oxygen, and halothane or nitrous oxide, oxygen, and propofol. Anesthesia was then maintained with remifentanil 1.0 microgram/kg over 30-60 s, followed by a constant infusion of 1.0 microgram.kg-1.min-1, alfentanil 100 micrograms/kg bolus followed by a constant infusion of 2.5 micrograms.kg-1.min-1, propofol 2.5 mg/kg bolus followed by a constant infusion of 200 micrograms.kg-1.min-1, or isoflurane 1.0 minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration. The infusions of the anesthetics and the administration of the inhaled gases were adjusted clinically by predetermined protocols. Elapsed time intervals from the end of surgery to the time the patients were tracheally extubated and displayed purposeful movement, as well as the time the patients met the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) and hospital discharge times, were recorded. Heart rate and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured at fixed intervals. In addition, cardiovascular side effects (bradycardia, hypotension, and hypertension) as well as vomiting, pruritus, agitation, and postoperative hypoxemia were also noted. There were no significant differences in patient demographics among the treatment groups. There was no difference in the early recovery variables (times to extubation and purposeful movement) or the times to PACU and hospital discharge among groups. There were significant differences in side effects among the groups. Patients who received remifentanil had higher PACU objective pain-discomfort scores than those

  2. Comparison of spinal anesthesia dosage based on height and weight versus height alone in patients undergoing elective cesarean section

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Khalid Maudood; Ullah, Hameed

    2016-01-01

    Background Spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine, typically used for elective and emergency cesarean section, is associated with a significant incidence of hypotension resulting from sympathetic blockade. A variety of dosing regimens have been used to administer spinal anesthesia for cesarean section. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of hypotension following two different fixed dosing regimens. Methods This was a randomized double-blind clinical trial with a two-sided design, 5% significance level and 80% power. After approval of the hospital ethics review committee, 60 patients were divided randomly into two groups. In one group, the local anesthetic dose was adjusted according to height and weight, and in the other, the dose was adjusted according to height only. Results Sixty women with a singleton pregnancy were included. Of the factors that could affect dose and blood pressure, including age, weight, height, and dose, only height differed between the groups. Mean heart rate was similar between the groups. Hypotension was significantly more frequent with dosage based on height alone than with two-factor dose calculation (56.7% vs. 26.7%; P = 0.018). Conclusions Adjusting the dose of isobaric bupivacaine to a patient's height and weight provides adequate anesthesia for elective cesarean section and is associated with a decreased incidence and severity of maternal hypotension and less use of ephedrine. PMID:27066205

  3. Estimating cancer risks to adults undergoing body CT examinations.

    PubMed

    Huda, Walter; He, Wenjun

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the study is to estimate cancer risks from the amount of radiation used to perform body computed tomography (CT) examination. The ImPACT CT Patient Dosimetry Calculator was used to compute values of organ doses for adult body CT examinations. The radiation used to perform each examination was quantified by the dose-length product (DLP). Patient organ doses were converted into corresponding age and sex dependent cancer risks using data from BEIR VII. Results are presented for cancer risks per unit DLP and unit effective dose for 11 sensitive organs, as well as estimates of the contribution from 'other organs'. For patients who differ from a standard sized adult, correction factors based on the patient weight and antero-posterior dimension are provided to adjust organ doses and the corresponding risks. At constant incident radiation intensity, for CT examinations that include the chest, risks for females are markedly higher than those for males, whereas for examinations that include the pelvis, risks in males were slightly higher than those in females. In abdominal CT scans, risks for males and female patients are very similar. For abdominal CT scans, increasing the patient age from 20 to 80 resulted in a reduction in patient risks of nearly a factor of 5. The average cancer risk for chest/abdomen/pelvis CT examinations was ∼26 % higher than the cancer risk caused by 'sensitive organs'. Doses and radiation risks in 80 kg adults were ∼10 % lower than those in 70 kg patients. Cancer risks in body CT can be estimated from the examination DLP by accounting for sex, age, as well as patient physical characteristics.

  4. Effects of Lignocaine Administered Intravenously or Intratracheally on Airway and Hemodynamic Responses during Emergence and Extubation in Patients Undergoing Elective Craniotomies in Supine Position

    PubMed Central

    Shabnum, Tabasum; Ali, Zulfiqar; Naqash, Imtiaz Ahmad; Mir, Aabid Hussain; Azhar, Khan; Zahoor, Syed Amer; Mir, Abdul Waheed

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Sympathoadrenergic responses during emergence and extubation can lead to an increase in heart rate (HR) and blood pressure whereas increased airway responses may lead to coughing and laryngospasm. The aim of our study was to compare the effects of lignocaine administered intravenously (IV) or intratracheally on airway and hemodynamic responses during emergence and extubation in patients undergoing elective craniotomies. Methodology: Sixty patients with physical status American Society of Anaesthesiologists Classes I and II aged 18–70 years, scheduled to undergo elective craniotomies were included. The patients were randomly divided into three groups of twenty patients; Group 1 receiving IV lignocaine and intratracheal placebo (IV group), Group 2 receiving intratracheal lignocaine and IV placebo (I/T group), and Group 3 receiving IV and intratracheal placebo (placebo group). The tolerance to the endotracheal tube was monitored, and number of episodes of cough was recorded during emergence and at the time of extubation. Hemodynamic parameters such as HR and blood pressure (systolic, diastolic, mean arterial pressure) were also recorded. Results: There was a decrease of HR in both IV and intratracheal groups in comparison with placebo group (P < 0.005). Rise in blood pressure (systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure) was comparable in both Groups 1 and 2 but was lower in comparison with placebo group (P < 0.005). Cough suppression was comparable in all the three groups. Grade III cough (15%) was documented only in placebo group. Conclusion: Both IV and intratracheal lignocaine are effective in attenuation of hemodynamic response if given within 20 min from skull pin removal to extubation. There was comparable cough suppression through intratracheal route and IV routes than the placebo group. PMID:28298788

  5. Efficacy of short-term cordyceps sinensis for prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Kai; Lin, Yu; Li, Yong-Jian; Gao, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is one of the major causes of hospital-acquired acute renal failure. The pathophysiological mechanism of CIN remains unknown. There has been little evidence regarding the effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) on CIN. Cordyceps sinensis (CS), a traditional Chinese herb, has been widely used clinically for the prevention of the progression of renal failure. We performed a prospective, randomized controlled trial to investigate the role of CS in the prevention of CIN in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The 150 ACS patients were randomly assigned to three groups, basic treatment group (n=51), standard CS therapy group (n=49, corbrin capsule 2 g, 3 times/d were used 3 days before and after angiography), and intensive CS therapy group (n=50, corbrin capsule 3 g, 3 times/d were used 3 days before and after angiography). Renal function was assessed at the time of hospital admission and on days 1, 2, and 3 after PCI. CIN occurred in 13 of 150 patients (8.67%). The incidence of CIN was lower in the CS treatment groups than in the basic treatment group (P<0.05), and a significant decrease in the incidence of CIN in the intensive CS therapy group was shown (P<0.01). In conclusion, prophylactic treatment with CS during the peri-procedural stage in ACS patients undergoing elective PCI has a preventive role against CIN, and intensive CS therapy could be more effective. PMID:25664103

  6. Nutritional Status and Nosocomial Infections among Adult Elective Surgery Patients in a Mexican Tertiary Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-García, Judith; Gamiño-Iriarte, Astrid; Rodea-Montero, Edel Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Background Controversy exists as to whether obesity constitutes a risk-factor or a protective-factor for the development of nosocomial Infection (NI). According to the obesity-paradox, there is evidence that moderate obesity is a protective-factor. In Mexico few studies have focused on the nutritional status (NS) distribution in the hospital setting. Objectives The aim of this study was to estimate the distribution of NS and the prevalence of nosocomial infection NI among adult elective surgery (ES) patients and to compare the clinical and anthropometric characteristics and length of stays (LOS) between obese and non-obese patients and between patients with and without NI. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study with a sample (n = 82) adult ES patients (21–59 years old) who were recruited from a tertiary-care hospital. The prevalences of each NS category and NI were estimated, the assessments were compared between groups (Mann-Whitney, Chi-squared or the Fisher's-exact-test), and the association between preoperative risk-factors and NI was evaluated using odds ratios. Results The distribution of subjects by NS category was: underweight (3.66%), normal-weight (28.05%), overweight (35.36%), and obese (32.93%). The prevalence of NI was 14.63%. The LOS was longer (p<0.001) for the patients who developed NI. The percentages of NI were: 33.3% in underweight, 18.52% in obese, 17.39% in normal-weight, and 6.90% in overweight patients. Conclusion The prevalence of overweight and obesity in adult ES patients is high. The highest prevalence of NI occurred in the underweight and obese patients. The presence of NI considerably increased the LOS, resulting in higher medical care costs. PMID:25803860

  7. Retrospective audit of blood transfusion and comparison with haemoglobin concentration in patients undergoing elective primary and revision lower limb arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Evans, S; O'Loughlin, E; Bruce, J

    2011-05-01

    We retrospectively audited the incidence of blood transfusion and related this to preoperative haemoglobin levels in 181 patients undergoing lower limb arthroplasty over a six-month period. This included 102 primary total knee replacements, 52 primary total hip replacements, 11 revision total knee replacements and 16 revision total hip replacements. The overall incidence of transfusion was 16.0%. The incidence in primary arthroplasty was 11% (9.8% for total knee replacements and 13.5% for total hip replacements), and in revision surgery was 44.4% (27.3% for total knee replacements and 56.3% for total hip replacements). Combining data for primary total knee replacements and primary total hip replacements, a preoperative haemoglobin threshold of 120 g/l divided patients into high and low risk groups for transfusion. Below or equal to this threshold the incidence of transfusion was 47.7%; above this threshold the incidence was 7.2%. We suggest that patients having primary lower limb arthroplasty with a preoperative haemoglobin of 120 g/l or less should undergo investigation of their anaemia and optimisation of erythropoeisis.

  8. Association between Serum IGF-I levels and Postoperative Delirium in Elderly Subjects Undergoing Elective Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Yen, Timothy E; Allen, John C; Rivelli, Sarah K; Patterson, Stephanie C; Metcalf, Meredith R; Flink, Benjamin J; Mirrakhimov, Aibek E; Lagoo, Sandhya A; Vail, Thomas P; Young, Christopher C; Moon, Richard E; Trzepacz, Paula T; Kwatra, Madan M

    2016-02-05

    Evidence is mixed for an association between serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels and postoperative delirium (POD). The current study assessed preoperative serum IGF-I levels as a predictor of incident delirium in non-demented elderly elective knee arthroplasty patients. Preoperative serum levels of total IGF-I were measured using a commercially available Human IGF-I ELISA kit. POD incidence and severity were determined using DSM-IV criteria and the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R98), respectively. Median IGF-I levels in delirious (62.6 ng/ml) and non-delirious groups (65.9 ng/ml) were not significantly different (p = 0.141). The ratio (95% CI) of geometric means, D/ND, was 0.86 (0.70, 1.06). The Hodges-Lehmann median difference estimate was 7.23 ng/mL with 95% confidence interval (-2.32, 19.9). In multivariate logistic regression analysis IGF-I level was not a significant predictor of incident POD after correcting for medical comorbidities. IGF-I levels did not correlate with DRS-R98 scores for delirium severity. In conclusion, we report no evidence of association between serum IGF-I levels and incidence of POD, although the sample size was inadequate for a conclusive study. Further efforts to investigate IGF-I as a delirium risk factor in elderly should address comorbidities and confounders that influence IGF-I levels.

  9. Intrathecal Midazolam as an Adjuvant in Pregnancy-Induced Hypertensive Patients Undergoing an Elective Caesarean Section: A Clinical Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Dodawad, Ravichandra; G. B., Sumalatha; Pandarpurkar, Sandeep; Jajee, Parashuram

    2016-01-01

    Background A pain-free postoperative period is essential following a caesarean section so new mothers may care for and bond with their neonates. Intrathecal adjuvants are often administered during this procedure to provide significant analgesia, but they may also have bothersome side effects. Intrathecal midazolam produces effective postoperative analgesia with no significant side effects. Objectives This prospective, randomized, double-blind study was designed to compare the analgesic efficacy and safety of intrathecal midazolam vs. plain bupivacaine as an adjunct to bupivacaine in pregnancy-induced hypertension patients scheduled for elective caesarean section. Methods Sixty patients diagnosed with pregnancy-induced hypertension on regular treatment who were scheduled for a caesarean section were randomly allocated into two groups: a control group (Group BC, n = 30) and a midazolam group (Group BM, n = 30). Both groups received 10 mg (2 mL) of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine. Group BC received 0.4 mL of distilled water, while group BM received 0.4 mL (2 mg) of midazolam intrathecally. The duration of postoperative analgesia, analgesic requirements during the first 24 hours after surgery, onset times and durations of sensory and motor blocks, incidence of hypotension, vasopressor requirements, and side effects were recorded. Results Postoperative analgesia was significantly longer in the midazolam group compared to the control group (201.5 minutes vs. 357.6 minutes). The mean onset times of the sensory and motor blocks were significantly faster (P < 0.01) in the midazolam group compared to the control group. The mean times to attain the maximum sensory level and motor blocks were also significantly faster in the midazolam group compared to the control group (P < 0.05). The incidence of hypotension was 6.6% in the midazolam group and 36.6% in the control group, which was highly significant. In addition, the number of patients with side effects was significantly lower

  10. Patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting exhibit poor pre-operative intakes of fruit, vegetables, dietary fibre, fish and vitamin D.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Núñez, B; van den Hurk, G H A M; de Vries, J H M; Mariani, M A; de Jongste, M J L; Dijck-Brouwer, D A J; Muskiet, F A J

    2015-05-14

    CHD may ensue from chronic systemic low-grade inflammation. Diet is a modifiable risk factor for both, and its optimisation may reduce post-operative mortality, atrial fibrillation and cognitive decline. In the present study, we investigated the usual dietary intakes of patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), emphasising on food groups and nutrients with putative roles in the inflammatory/anti-inflammatory balance. From November 2012 to April 2013, we approached ninety-three consecutive patients (80% men) undergoing elective CABG. Of these, fifty-five were finally included (84% men, median age 69 years; range 46-84 years). The median BMI was 27 (range 18-36) kg/m(2). The dietary intake items were fruits (median 181 g/d; range 0-433 g/d), vegetables (median 115 g/d; range 0-303 g/d), dietary fibre (median 22 g/d; range 9-45 g/d), EPA+DHA (median 0.14 g/d; range 0.01-1.06 g/d), vitamin D (median 4.9 μg/d; range 1.9-11.2 μg/d), saturated fat (median 13.1% of energy (E%); range 9-23 E%) and linoleic acid (LA; median 6.3 E%; range 1.9-11.3 E%). The percentages of patients with dietary intakes below recommendations were 62% (fruits; recommendation 200 g/d), 87 % (vegetables; recommendation 150-200 g/d), 73% (dietary fibre; recommendation 30-45 g/d), 91% (EPA+DHA; recommendation 0.45 g/d), 98% (vitamin D; recommendation 10-20 μg/d) and 13% (LA; recommendation 5-10 E%). The percentages of patients with dietary intakes above recommendations were 95% (saturated fat; recommendation < 10 E%) and 7% (LA). The dietary intakes of patients proved comparable with the average nutritional intake of the age- and sex-matched healthy Dutch population. These unbalanced pre-operative diets may put them at risk of unfavourable surgical outcomes, since they promote a pro-inflammatory state. We conclude that there is an urgent need for intervention trials aiming at rapid improvement of their diets to reduce peri-operative risks.

  11. Effect of the duration of food withholding prior to anesthesia on gastroesophageal reflux and regurgitation in healthy dogs undergoing elective orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Viskjer, Sivert; Sjöström, Lennart

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the incidence of and risk factors for gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and regurgitation associated with preanesthetic food withholding for periods of 18 hours (overnight) and 3 hours in healthy dogs undergoing elective orthopedic surgery. ANIMALS 82 healthy (American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification I or II) client-owned dogs. PROCEDURES Food was withheld for 18 hours (18-hour group [n = 41]) or each dog was allowed to consume half its daily ration of canned food approximately 3 hours (3-hour group [n = 41]) prior to induction of anesthesia. In each anesthetized dog, a pH catheter was introduced through the oropharynx into the distal portion of the esophagus; the pH was continuously recorded throughout the period of anesthesia. Gastroesophageal reflux was defined as pH < 4.0. RESULTS Gastroesophageal reflux was significantly associated with age, dorsal recumbency, and duration of preanesthetic food withholding. Regurgitation was significantly associated with duration of GER and duration of preanesthetic food withholding. During anesthesia, 25 (61%) dogs in the 3-hour group had GER and 12 (48%) of those dogs regurgitated gastric content; 18 (43.9%) dogs in the 18-hour group had GER and 2 (11.1%) of those dogs regurgitated gastric content. The mean lowest pH measured in the refluxate in the 3-hour group (2.3) was significantly greater than that in the 18-hour group (1.3). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Among the study dogs undergoing orthopedic surgery, consumption of a light meal 3 hours prior to anesthesia was associated with significantly greater odds of reflux and regurgitation, compared with overnight food withholding.

  12. The clinical effect of nicorandil on perioperative myocardial protection in patients undergoing elective PCI: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ziliang; Su, Qiang; Li, Lang

    2017-01-01

    Many scholars have studied the effect of nicorandil on perioperative myocardial protection in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), but results are inconsistent. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis. Finally, 16 articles, including 1616 patients, were included into this meta-analysis. Meta-analysis results showed that: (1) Nicorandil can reduce the level of CK-MB after PCI, including at 6 hours, 12 hours, 18 hours and 24 hours. (2) Nicorandil can reduce the level of TnT after PCI, including at 6 hours, 12 hours, 18 hours and 24 hours. (3) Nicorandil can reduce the incidence of adverse reactions after PCI. (4) Nicorandil cannot reduce the level of MVP after PCI, including at 12 hours and 24 hours. (5) Subgroup analysis showed that nicorandil can reduce CK-MB and TnT level at 24 hours after PCI for Chinese’s population (P < 0.05), but can not reduce CK-MB and TnT level at 24 hours after PCI for non Chinese’s population (P > 0.05). Our meta-analysis indicate that nicorandil can reduce myocardial injury and reduce the incidence of adverse reaction caused by PCI for Chinese’s population, but is not obvious for non Chinese’s population. However, this conclusion still needs to be confirmed in the future. PMID:28322321

  13. Eosinophilic esophagitis prevalence in an adult population undergoing upper endoscopy in southeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    De la Cruz-Patiño, E; Ruíz Juárez, I; Meixueiro Daza, A; Grube Pagola, P; Roesch-Dietlen, F; Remes-Troche, J M

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) prevalence fluctuates according to the population studied and varies from 0.4% in an open population to 6.5% in subjects with esophageal symptoms. Even though this entity has been described in North American and European populations, it is still considered an 'unusual' condition in Latin America. The study aimed to determine EoE prevalence in patients undergoing elective endoscopy in a tertiary referral center in southeastern Mexico. Consecutive patients were evaluated that had been referred to the Medical and Biological Research Institute, Veracruz, Mexico, for upper endoscopy due to gastrointestinal symptoms. Demographic variables and symptoms were analyzed in all the cases. Eight mucosal biopsies of the esophagus (four proximal and four distal) were obtained and were reviewed by a blinded pathologist. Histological diagnosis was established when the mean eosinophil count at a large magnification was ≥15. A total of 235 subjects (137 women, 51.16 years) were evaluated, and EoE prevalence was 1.7% (4/235 95% confidence interval 0.2-3.6%). In all four cases, pH test were normal. Among patients with histological diagnosis of EoE, a greater number of patients with a past history of asthma (50% vs. 19.3%, P = 0.04) and a tendency for a greater frequency of dysphagia (50% vs. 25%, P = 0.10). There were no differences in the endoscopic findings (rings, grooves, plaques, or stricture) when compared with the patients presenting with erosive esophagitis. EoE prevalence among patients undergoing upper endoscopy from southeastern Mexico was 1.7%, which can be regarded as intermediate to low.

  14. Ability of preoperative falls to predict postsurgical outcomes in non-selected patients undergoing elective surgery at an academic medical centre: protocol for a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ben Abdallah, Arbi; McKinnon, Sherry L; Wildes, Troy S; Avidan, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Falls are increasingly recognised for their ability to herald impending health decline. Despite the likely susceptibility of postsurgical patients to falls, a detailed description of postoperative falls in an unselected surgical population has never been performed. One study suggests that preoperative falls may forecast postoperative complications. However, a larger study with non-selected surgical patients and patient-centred outcomes is needed to provide the generalisability and justification necessary to implement preoperative falls assessment into routine clinical practice. The aims of this study are therefore twofold. First, we aim to describe the main features of postoperative falls in a population of unselected surgical patients. Second, we aim to test the hypothesis that a history of falls in the 6 months prior to surgery predicts postoperative falls, poor quality of life, functional dependence, complications and readmission. Methods and analysis To achieve these goals, we study adult patients who underwent elective surgery at our academic medical centre and were recruited to participate in a prospective, survey-based cohort study called Systematic Assessment and Targeted Improvement of Services Following Yearlong Surgical Outcomes Surveys (SATISFY-SOS) (NCT02032030). Patients who reported falling in the 6 months prior to surgery will be considered ‘exposed.’ The primary outcome of interest is postoperative falls within 30 days of surgery. Secondary outcomes include postoperative functional dependence, quality of life (both physical and mental), in-hospital complications and readmission. Regression models will permit controlling for important confounders. Ethics and dissemination The home institution's Institutional Review Board approved this study (IRB ID number 201505035). The authors will publish the findings, regardless of the results. PMID:27655260

  15. Ratio of C-Reactive Protein to Albumin Predicts Muscle Mass in Adult Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Tong; Wu, Pei-Yu; Chen, Hsi-Hsien; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Hsu, Yung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the ratio of C-reactive protein to albumin (CRP–Alb ratio) is associated with clinical outcomes in patients with disease. We examined the predictive value of this ratio in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). In this cross-sectional study, 91 eligible adult HD patients were analyzed, and the correlation between the CRP–Alb ratio and skeletal muscle mass normalized for body weight (SMM/wt; estimated using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer) was investigated. The mean age of the study participants was 54.9 ± 6.6 years (ranging from 27 to 64 years); 43 (47.2%) were men. The mean values for the SMM/wt were 39.1% ± 5.4%. The CRP–Alb ratio was found to be negatively correlated with SMM/wt (r = −0.33, P = 0.002) and creatinine (r = −0.20, P = 0.056). All the univariate significant and nonsignificant relevant covariates were selected for multivariable stepwise regression analysis. We determined that the homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance and CRP–Alb ratio were independent risk determinants for SMM/wt (βHOMA-IR = −0.18 and βCRP–Alb ratio = −3.84, adjusted R2 = 0.32). This study indicated that the CRP–Alb ratio may help clinicians in predicting muscle mass in adult patients undergoing HD. PMID:27768746

  16. Acupuncture and PC6 stimulation for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic resection of colorectal cancer: a study protocol for a three-arm randomised pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kun Hyung; Kim, Dae Hun; Bae, Ji Min; Son, Gyung Mo; Kim, Kyung Hee; Hong, Seung Pyo; Yang, Gi Young; Kim, Hee Young

    2017-01-01

    Introduction This study aims to assess the feasibility of acupuncture and a Pericardium 6 (PC6) wristband as an add-on intervention of antiemetic medication for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic colorectal cancer resection. Methods and analysis A total of 60 participants who are scheduled to undergo elective laparoscopic resection of colorectal cancer will be recruited. An enhanced recovery after surgery protocol using standardised antiemetic medication will be provided for all participants. Participants will be equally randomised into acupuncture plus PC6 wristband (Acupuncture), PC6 wristband alone (Wristband), or no acupuncture or wristband (Control) groups using computer-generated random numbers concealed in opaque, sealed, sequentially numbered envelopes. For the acupuncture combined with PC6 wristband group, the embedded auricular acupuncture technique for preoperative anxiolysis and up to three sessions of acupuncture treatments with manual and electrical stimulation within 48 hours after surgery will be provided by qualified Korean medicine doctors. The PC6 wristband will be applied in the Acupuncture and Wristband groups, beginning 1 hour before surgery and lasting 48 hours postoperatively. The primary outcome will be the number of participants who experience moderate or severe nausea, defined as nausea at least 4 out of 10 on a severity numeric rating scale or vomiting at 24 hours after surgery. Secondary outcomes, including symptom severity, participant global assessments and satisfaction, quality of life, physiological recovery, use of medication and length of hospital stay, will be assessed. Adverse events and postoperative complications will be measured for 1 month after surgery. Ethics and dissemination All participants will provide written informed consent. The study has been approved by the institutional review board (IRB). This pilot trial will inform a full

  17. Nosocomial Infection in Adult Patients Undergoing Veno-Arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Data on the frequency of nosocomial infections during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in adult populations remain scarce. We investigated the risk factors for nosocomial infections in adult patients undergoing venoarterial ECMO (VA-ECMO) support. From January 2011 to December 2015, a total of 259 patients underwent ECMO. Of these, patients aged 17 years or less and patients undergoing ECMO for less than 48 hours were excluded. Of these, 61 patients diagnosed with cardiogenic shock were evaluated. Mean patient age was 60.6 ± 14.3 years and 21 (34.4%) patients were female. The mean preoperative Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score was 8.6 ± 2.2. The mean duration of ECMO support was 6.8 ± 7.4 days. The rates of successful ECMO weaning and survival to discharge were 44.3% and 31.1%, respectively. There were 18 nosocomial infections in 14 (23.0%) patients. These included respiratory tract infections in 9 cases and bloodstream infections in a further 9. In multivariate analysis, independent predictors of infection during ECMO were the preoperative creatinine level (hazard ratio [HR], 2.176; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.065–4.447; P = 0.033) and the duration of ECMO support (HR, 1.400; 95% CI, 1.081–1.815; P = 0.011). A higher preoperative creatinine level and an extended duration of ECMO support are risk factors for infection. Therefore, to avoid the development of nosocomial infections, strategies to shorten the length of ECMO support should be applied whenever possible. PMID:28244284

  18. Nosocomial Infection in Adult Patients Undergoing Veno-Arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gwan Sic; Lee, Kyo Seon; Park, Choung Kyu; Kang, Seung Ku; Kim, Do Wan; Oh, Sang Gi; Oh, Bong Suk; Jung, Yochun; Kim, Seok; Yun, Ju Sik; Song, Sang Yun; Na, Kook Joo; Jeong, In Seok; Ahn, Byoung Hee

    2017-04-01

    Data on the frequency of nosocomial infections during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in adult populations remain scarce. We investigated the risk factors for nosocomial infections in adult patients undergoing venoarterial ECMO (VA-ECMO) support. From January 2011 to December 2015, a total of 259 patients underwent ECMO. Of these, patients aged 17 years or less and patients undergoing ECMO for less than 48 hours were excluded. Of these, 61 patients diagnosed with cardiogenic shock were evaluated. Mean patient age was 60.6 ± 14.3 years and 21 (34.4%) patients were female. The mean preoperative Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score was 8.6 ± 2.2. The mean duration of ECMO support was 6.8 ± 7.4 days. The rates of successful ECMO weaning and survival to discharge were 44.3% and 31.1%, respectively. There were 18 nosocomial infections in 14 (23.0%) patients. These included respiratory tract infections in 9 cases and bloodstream infections in a further 9. In multivariate analysis, independent predictors of infection during ECMO were the preoperative creatinine level (hazard ratio [HR], 2.176; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.065-4.447; P = 0.033) and the duration of ECMO support (HR, 1.400; 95% CI, 1.081-1.815; P = 0.011). A higher preoperative creatinine level and an extended duration of ECMO support are risk factors for infection. Therefore, to avoid the development of nosocomial infections, strategies to shorten the length of ECMO support should be applied whenever possible.

  19. Participation in the 2005 General Election by Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, H.; Redley, M.; Holland, A. J.; Clare, I. C. H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: International and UK legislation confirms and supports the right of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) to vote. It is widely accepted, although not previously empirically confirmed, that citizens with ID are under-represented at the polls. Method: To document the extent of their under-representation at the polls, the names and…

  20. Burden of Geriatric Events Among Older Adults Undergoing Major Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Saliba, Debra; Kwan, Lorna; Moore, Alison A.; Litwin, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Most malignancies are diagnosed in older adults who are potentially susceptible to aging-related health conditions; however, the manifestation of geriatric syndromes during surgical cancer treatment is not well quantified. Accordingly, we sought to assess the prevalence and ramifications of geriatric events during major surgery for cancer. Patients and Methods Using Nationwide Inpatient Sample data from 2009 to 2011, we examined hospital admissions for major cancer surgery among elderly patients (ie, age ≥ 65 years) and a referent group age 55 to 64 years. From these observations, we identified geriatric events that included delirium, dehydration, falls and fractures, failure to thrive, and pressure ulcers. We then estimated the collective prevalence of these events according to age, comorbidity, and cancer site and further explored their relationship with other hospital-based outcomes. Results Within a weighted sample of 939,150 patients, we identified at least one event in 9.2% of patients. Geriatric events were most common among patients age ≥ 75 years, with a Charlson comorbidity score ≥ 2, and who were undergoing surgery for cancer of the bladder, ovary, colon and/or rectum, pancreas, or stomach (P < .001). Adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics, those patients who experienced a geriatric event had a greater likelihood of concurrent complications (odds ratio [OR], 3.73; 95% CI, 3.55 to 3.92), prolonged hospitalization (OR, 5.47; 95% CI, 5.16 to 5.80), incurring high cost (OR, 4.97; 95% CI, 4.58 to 5.39), inpatient mortality (OR, 3.22; 95% CI, 2.94 to 3.53), and a discharge disposition other than home (OR, 3.64; 95% CI, 3.46 to 3.84). Conclusion Many older patients who receive cancer-directed surgery experience a geriatric event, particularly those who undergo major abdominal surgery. These events are linked to operative morbidity, prolonged hospitalization, and more expensive health care. As our population ages, efforts focused on

  1. The Importance of Symptom Validity Testing in Adolescents and Young Adults Undergoing Assessments for Learning or Attention Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Allyson G.; Green, Paul; Flaro, Lloyd

    2012-01-01

    It is almost self-evident that test results will be unreliable and misleading if those undergoing assessments do not make a full effort on testing. Nevertheless, objective tests of effort have not typically been used with young adults to determine whether test results are valid or not. Because of the potential economic and/or recreational benefits…

  2. Gelastic seizures: incidence, clinical and EEG features in adult patients undergoing video-EEG telemetry.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Stjepana; Diehl, Beate; Wehner, Tim; Fois, Chiara; Toms, Nathan; Walker, Matthew C; Duncan, John S

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine clinical features of adult patients with gelastic seizures recorded on video -electroencephalography (EEG) over a 5-year period. We screened video-EEG telemetry reports for the occurrence of the term "gelastic" seizures, and assessed the semiology, EEG features, and duration of those seizures. Gelastic seizures were identified in 19 (0.8%) of 2,446 admissions. The presumed epileptogenic zone was in the hypothalamus in one third of the cases, temporal lobe epilepsy was diagnosed in another third, and the remainder of the cases presenting with gelastic seizures were classified as frontal, parietal lobe epilepsy or remained undetermined or were multifocal. Gelastic seizures were embedded in a semiology, with part of the seizure showing features of automotor seizures. A small proportion of patients underwent epilepsy surgery. Outcome of epilepsy surgery was related to the underlying pathology; two patients with hippocampal sclerosis had good outcomes following temporal lobe resection and one of four patients with hypothalamic hamartomas undergoing gamma knife surgery had a good outcome.

  3. Prospective controlled cohort study of Troponin I levels in patients undergoing elective spine surgery for degenerative conditions: Prone versus supine position.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, A I; Rudd, D; Knight, E; Marshman, L A G; Guazzo, E P; Anderson, D S

    2017-01-01

    Prior studies have suggested that elevated serum Troponin-I (TnI) levels immediately after non-cardiac surgical procedures (8-40%) represent subclinical cardiac stress which independently predicts increased 30-day mortality. Routine post-operative TnI monitoring has therefore been suggested as a standard of care. However, no prior studies have focussed on elective degenerative spine surgery, whilst few have measured pre-op TnI. Further, prolonged prone positioning could represent an additional, independent, cardiac stress. We planned a prospective controlled cohort study of consecutive TnI levels in routine elective spine surgery for degenerative spine conditions, incorporating 3 groups: 'prone<2h', 'prone>2h' and 'supine' positioning. TnI levels (>0.04μg/L) were recorded immediately pre-/post-surgery, and by 24h of surgery. N=120 patients were recruited. Complete results were obtained in 92 (39 supine, 53 prone). No significant between-groups differences were observed in demographic or cardiovascular risk factors. Validated TnI-elevation by 24h was not observed in any group. Spurious elevations were recorded in one 'prone<2h' and one 'prone>2h'. One non-ST segment myocardial infarction (STEMI) occurred on day 7 without TnI elevation by 24h (prone>2h). There was no 30-day mortality.

  4. Hypovitaminosis D and Cervical Disk Herniation among Adults Undergoing Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Stoker, Geoffrey E.; Buchowski, Jacob M.; Chen, Christopher T.; Kim, Han Jo; Park, Moon Soo; Riew, K. Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Single-center, retrospective study. Objective Suboptimal concentrations of vitamin D have been linked to hip and knee osteoarthritis in large, population-based cohort studies. We sought to examine the association of vitamin D levels with intervertebral disk disease. Methods From January 2010 through May 2011, 91 consecutive, eligible adult spine surgery patients who had undergone cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and preoperative serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s25D) measurement were retrospectively included. MRI was read for C2–T1 disk herniation and degeneration (grades I to V). Logistic regressions were performed. Results Compared with the 384 disks of nondeficient patients, 162 disks of vitamin D-deficient (< 20 ng/mL) patients were more frequently herniated (40% versus 27%, p = 0.004); deficiency was not predictive of individual disk grade (unadjusted odds ratio [uOR] = 0.98, p = 0.817). On regression analysis, deficiency was associated with increased number of herniations per patient (uOR = 2.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22 to 3.87, p = 0.009; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.11 to 4.03, p = 0.023). When disks were analyzed individually, and levels (e.g., C5 to C6), additionally controlled for, deficiency correlated with greater likelihood of herniation per disk (uOR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.22 to 2.66, p = 0.003; aOR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.25 to 3.41, p = 0.005). Conclusion Among adults undergoing spine surgery at our institution, vitamin D deficiency was associated with cervical disk herniation. Considering the current epidemics of vitamin D insufficiency and neck pain, further investigation is warranted, as these data were retrospectively collected and subject to sampling bias. PMID:24436874

  5. Comparison of rocuronium at two different doses and succinylcholine for endotracheal intubation in adult patients for elective surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, SG; Gangadharan, S; Gopakumar, AK

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effects of rocuronium at two different doses, that is, 0.6 mg/kg (2 × ED95) and 0.9 mg/kg (3 × ED95), were compared with succinylcholine (2 mg/kg) when used for endotracheal intubation in adult patients for elective surgeries under general anesthesia. Materials and Methods: Ninety patients were divided into three groups of 30 each. Groups A, B received injection rocuronium at 0.6 mg/kg, 0.9 mg/kg respectively and Group C received succinylcholine at 2 mg/kg. Onset of action of relaxant, intubation conditions, time taken to intubate and duration of action were compared. Statistical Analysis Used: To compare the statistical difference in the age, weight, height of the study subjects, onset of action of relaxant, intubation conditions, time taken to intubate, and duration of action analysis of variance and unpaired t-test were used. Results: The onset time was considerably shorter with rocuronium 0.9 mg/kg than 0.6 mg/kg. The onset time of rocuronium 0.9 mg/kg was found to be significantly longer than succinylcholine 2 mg/kg. Time taken to intubate was shortest with succinylcholine 2 mg/kg. The time taken to intubate with the rocuronium 0.9 mg/kg was found to be comparable to that of rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg. Intubation score of rocuronium 0.9 mg/kg was the best (17.75), which was comparable with succinylcholine. However, the intubation score obtained with rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was inferior. Duration of action was shortest with succinylcholine. The duration of action is prolonged when the dose of rocuronium is increased from 0.6 to 0.9 mg/kg. Conclusion: Rapid sequence induction of anesthesia with propofol and fentanyl, succinylcholine allowed a more rapid endotracheal intubation sequence and created superior intubation conditions than rocuronium. However, the technique of using a large dose of rocuronium to achieve perfect conditions for tracheal intubation may have application whenever succinylcholine is relatively contraindicated. PMID:27833478

  6. [Preoperative evaluation of adult patients prior to elective, non-cardiac surgery. Joint recommendations of German Society of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, German Society of Surgery and German Society of Internal Medicine].

    PubMed

    2011-09-01

    Evaluation of the patient's medical history and a physical examination are the cornerstones of risk assessment prior to elective surgery and may help to optimize the patient's preoperative medical condition and to guide perioperative management. Whether the performance of additional technical tests (e.g. blood chemistry, ECG, spirometry, chest-x-ray) can contribute to a reduction of perioperative risk is often not very well known or controversial. Similarly, there is considerable uncertainty among anesthesiologists, internists and surgeons with respect to the perioperative management of the patient's long-term medication. Therefore, the German Scientific Societies of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (DGAI), Internal Medicine (DGIM) and Surgery (DGCH) have joined to elaborate and publish recommendations on the preoperative evaluation of adult patients prior to elective, non-cardiac and non-lung resection surgery. In the first part the general principles of preoperative evaluation are described (part A). The current concepts for extended evaluation of patients with known or suspected major cardiovascular disease are presented in part B. Finally, the perioperative management of patients' long-term medication is discussed (part C). The concepts proposed in these interdisciplinary recommendations endorsed by the DGAI, DGIM and DGCH provide a common basis for a structured preoperative risk assessment and management. These recommendations aim to ensure that surgical patients undergo a rational preoperative assessment and at the same time to avoid unnecessary, costly and potentially dangerous testing. The joint recommendations reflect the current state-of-the-art knowledge as well as expert opinions because scientific-based evidence is not always available. These recommendations will be subject to regular re-evaluation and updating when new validated evidence becomes available.

  7. High-Dose Statin Pretreatment Decreases Periprocedural Myocardial Infarction and Cardiovascular Events in Patients Undergoing Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Meta-Analysis of Twenty-Four Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Le; Peng, Pingan; Zhang, Ou; Xu, Xiaohan; Yang, Shiwei; Zhao, Yingxin; Zhou, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that high-dose statin pretreatment may reduce the risk of periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) for certain patients; however, previous analyses have not considered patients with a history of statin maintenance treatment. In this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), we reevaluated the efficacy of short-term high-dose statin pretreatment to prevent PMI and MACE in an expanded set of patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention. Methods We searched the PubMed/Medline database for RCTs that compared high-dose statin pretreatment with no statin or low-dose statin pretreatment as a prevention of PMI and MACE. We evaluated the incidence of PMI and MACE, including death, spontaneous myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization at the longest follow-up for each study for subgroups stratified by disease classification and prior low-dose statin treatment. Results Twenty-four RCTs with a total of 5,526 patients were identified. High-dose statin pretreatment was associated with 59% relative reduction in PMI (odds ratio [OR]: 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.34–0.49; P<0.00001) and 39% relative reduction in MACE (OR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.45–0.83; P = 0.002). The benefit of high-dose statin pretreatment on MACE was significant for statin-naive patients (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.50–0.95; P = 0.02) and prior low dose statin-treated patients (OR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.12–0.65; P = 0.003); and for patients with acute coronary syndrome (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.34–0.79; P = 0.003), but not for patients with stable angina (OR: 0.71; 95% CI 0.45–1.10; P = 0.12). Long-term effects on survival were less obvious. Conclusions High-dose statin pretreatment can result in a significant reduction in PMI and MACE for patients undergoing elective PCI. The positive effect of high-dose statin pretreatment on PMI and MACE is significant for statin

  8. Population pharmacokinetics of daptomycin in adult patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaoying; Khadzhynov, Dmytro; Peters, Harm; Chaves, Ricardo L.; Levi, Micha; Corti, Natascia

    2016-01-01

    Aim The objective of this population pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis was to provide guidance for the dosing interval of daptomycin in patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Methods A previously published population PK model for daptomycin was updated with data from patients undergoing continuous veno‐venous haemodialysis (CVVHD; n = 9) and continuous veno‐venous haemodiafiltration (CVVHDF; n = 8). Model‐based simulations were performed to compare the 24 h AUC, C max and C min of daptomycin following various dosing regimens (4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 mg kg−1 every [Q] 24 h and Q48 h), with the safety and efficacy exposure references for Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia/right‐sided infective endocarditis. Results The previously developed daptomycin structural population PK model could reasonably describe data from the patients on CRRT. The clearance in patients undergoing CVVHDF and CVVHD was estimated at 0.53 and 0.94 l h−1, respectively, as compared with 0.75 l h−1 in patients with creatinine clearance (CrCl) ≥ 30 ml min−1. Daptomycin Q24 h dosing in patients undergoing CRRT resulted in optimal exposure for efficacy, with AUC comparable to that in patients with CrCl ≥ 30 ml min−1. In contrast, Q48 h dosing was associated with considerably lower AUC24–48h in all patients for doses up to 12 mg kg−1 and is therefore inappropriate. Conclusions Q24 h dosing of daptomycin up to 12 mg kg−1 provides comparable drug exposure in patients on CVVHD and in those with CrCl ≥ 30 ml min−1. Daily daptomycin use up to 8 mg kg−1 doses are appropriate for patients on CVVHDF, but higher doses may increase the risk of toxicity. PMID:27628437

  9. The effect of addition of low dose fentanyl to epidural bupivacaine (0.5%) in patients undergoing elective caesarean section: A randomized, parallel group, double blind, placebo controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Parate, LH; Manjrekar, SP; Anandaswamy, TC; Manjunath, B

    2015-01-01

    Background: Opioids have synergistic action with local anesthetics which may alter characteristics of epidural block. Giving opioids to mother before delivery of baby is still fully not accepted with some fearing risk of neonatal depression. Aims: Our primary aim was to evaluate the analgesic effect of addition of 50 μg fentanyl to epidural 0.5% bupivacaine in patients undergoing elective caesarean section using visual analog scale. The secondary aim was to assess onset of analgesia, volume of drug required to achieve T6 level, grade and duration of motor block and Apgar score. Materials and Methods: In this prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study 64 patients scheduled for elective caesarean section under epidural anesthesia were randomly divided into two groups of 32 each. The fentanyl group received 1ml of 50 μg fentanyl and the saline group received 1ml of normal saline mixed with 10ml of 0.5% bupivacaine for epidural anesthesia. VAS score, time to achieve T6 level, dose of bupivacaine, intraoperative analgesic consumption and duration of analgesia, grade and duration of motor block and any adverse maternal and neonatal effects were noted. Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed using Students t test, chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U-test. The values of P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Fentanyl improved the VAS score significantly (1.6 ± 1.32) compared to the saline group (3.77 ± 1.0, P < 0.0001). It also reduced the intraoperaitve analgesic supplementation compared to the saline group. (P = 0.031). The postoperative duration of analgesia was prolonged in the fentanyl group (275.80 ± 13.61 min) compared to the saline group (191.47 ± 12.16 min, P < 0.0001). The other characteristics of epidural block were unaltered. Conclusion: Addition of 50 μg fentanyl to epidural 0.5% bupivacaine significantly reduces the VAS score. It also reduces intra-operative analgesia supplementation and prolongs the duration

  10. Incidence and risk factors for postoperative cognitive dysfunction in older adults undergoing major noncardiac surgery: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Shoair, Osama A.; Grasso II, Mario P.; Lahaye, Laura A.; Daniel, Ronsard; Biddle, Chuck J.; Slattum, Patricia W.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a decline in cognitive function that occurs after surgery. The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence and identify potential risk factors of POCD in older adults undergoing major noncardiac surgery. Materials and Methods: A total of 69 patients aged 65 years or older undergoing major noncardiac surgery were enrolled. Patients’ cognitive function was assessed before and 3 months after surgery using a computerized neurocognitive battery. A nonsurgical control group of 54 older adults was recruited to adjust for learning effects from repeated administration of neurocognitive tests. Data about potential risk factors for POCD were collected before, during, and after surgery, including patient, medication, and surgery factors. The incidence of POCD was calculated using the Z-score method. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors for POCD. Results: POCD was present in eleven patients (15.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.3-24.6) 3 months after major noncardiac surgery. Carrying the apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) genotype (odds ratio [OR] = 4.74, 95% CI = 1.09-22.19), using one or more highly anticholinergic or sedative-hypnotic drugs at home prior to surgery (OR = 5.64, 95% CI = 1.35-30.22), and receiving sevoflurane for anesthesia (OR = 6.43, 95% CI = 1.49-34.66) were associated with the development of POCD. Conclusions: POCD was observed in 15.9% of older adults after major noncardiac surgery. Risk factors for POCD in these patients were carrying the APOE4 genotype, using one or more highly anticholinergic or sedative-hypnotic drugs prior to surgery, and receiving sevoflurane for anesthesia. PMID:25788770

  11. Organ doses for reference adult male and female undergoing computed tomography estimated by Monte Carlo simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Choonsik; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Long, Daniel; Fisher, Ryan; Tien, Chris; Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To develop a computed tomography (CT) organ dose estimation method designed to readily provide organ doses in a reference adult male and female for different scan ranges to investigate the degree to which existing commercial programs can reasonably match organ doses defined in these more anatomically realistic adult hybrid phantomsMethods: The x-ray fan beam in the SOMATOM Sensation 16 multidetector CT scanner was simulated within the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX2.6. The simulated CT scanner model was validated through comparison with experimentally measured lateral free-in-air dose profiles and computed tomography dose index (CTDI) values. The reference adult male and female hybrid phantoms were coupled with the established CT scanner model following arm removal to simulate clinical head and other body region scans. A set of organ dose matrices were calculated for a series of consecutive axial scans ranging from the top of the head to the bottom of the phantoms with a beam thickness of 10 mm and the tube potentials of 80, 100, and 120 kVp. The organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis examinations were calculated based on the organ dose matrices and compared to those obtained from two commercial programs, CT-EXPO and CTDOSIMETRY. Organ dose calculations were repeated for an adult stylized phantom by using the same simulation method used for the adult hybrid phantom. Results: Comparisons of both lateral free-in-air dose profiles and CTDI values through experimental measurement with the Monte Carlo simulations showed good agreement to within 9%. Organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis scans reported in the commercial programs exceeded those from the Monte Carlo calculations in both the hybrid and stylized phantoms in this study, sometimes by orders of magnitude. Conclusions: The organ dose estimation method and dose matrices established in this study readily provides organ doses for a reference adult male and female for different

  12. Reduced Long-Term Relative Survival in Females and Younger Adults Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Enger, Tone Bull; Pleym, Hilde; Stenseth, Roar; Greiff, Guri; Wahba, Alexander; Videm, Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess long-term survival and mortality in adult cardiac surgery patients. Methods 8,564 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery in Trondheim, Norway from 2000 until censoring 31.12.2014 were prospectively followed. Observed long-term mortality following surgery was compared to the expected mortality in the Norwegian population, matched on gender, age and calendar year. This enabled assessment of relative survival (observed/expected survival rates) and relative mortality (observed/expected deaths). Long-term mortality was compared across gender, age and surgical procedure. Predictors of reduced survival were assessed with multivariate analyses of observed and relative mortality. Results During follow-up (median 6.4 years), 2,044 patients (23.9%) died. The observed 30-day, 1-, 3- and 5-year mortality rates were 2.2%, 4.4%, 8.2% and 13.8%, respectively, and remained constant throughout the study period. Comparing observed mortality to that expected in a matched sample from the general population, patients undergoing cardiac surgery showed excellent survival throughout the first seven years of follow-up (relative survival ≥ 1). Subsequently, survival decreased, which was more pronounced in females and patients undergoing other procedures than isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Relative mortality was higher in younger age groups, females and patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR). The female survival advantage in the general population was obliterated (relative mortality ratio (RMR) 1.35 (1.19–1.54), p<0.001). Increasing observed long-term mortality seen with ageing was due to population risk, and younger age was independently associated with increased relative mortality (RMR per 5 years 0.81 (0.79–0.84), p<0.001)). Conclusions Cardiac surgery patients showed comparable survival to that expected in the general Norwegian population, underlining the benefits of cardiac surgery in appropriately selected patients. The

  13. Election '08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Every four years, the presidential election campaign unfolds, and the position of the candidates on education is predictable: They are in favor of it. Something else is easy to predict: In every presidential campaign, hot-button issues--some important and some infuriatingly not--suck up most of the oxygen, and the hoped-for focus on education…

  14. Election Fever

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Erich

    2012-01-01

    Kids learn by doing, which, experts agree, is the only real way to teach citizenship. This article presents election-year activities that stress action. These activities will show students what it means to be a good citizen. (Contains 6 online resources.)

  15. The impact of adverse events on health care costs for older adults undergoing nonelective abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Jonathan G.; Davis, Philip J.B.; Levy, Adrian R.; Molinari, Michele; Johnson, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Postoperative complications have been identified as an important and potentially preventable cause of increased hospital costs. While older adults are at increased risk of experiencing complications and other adverse events, very little research has specifically examined how these events impact inpatient costs. We sought to examine the association between postoperative complications, hospital mortality and loss of independence and direct inpatient health care costs in patients 70 years or older who underwent nonelective abdominal surgery. Methods We prospectively enrolled consecutive patients 70 years or older who underwent nonelective abdominal surgery between July 1, 2011, and Sept. 30, 2012. Detailed patient-level data were collected regarding demographics, diagnosis, treatment and outcomes. Patient-level resource tracking was used to calculate direct hospital costs (2012 $CDN). We examined the association between complications, hospital mortality and loss of independence cost using multiple linear regression. Results During the study period 212 patients underwent surgery. Overall, 51.9% of patients experienced a nonfatal complication (32.5% minor and 19.4% major), 6.6% died in hospital and 22.6% experienced a loss of independence. On multivariate analysis nonfatal complications (p < 0.001), hospital mortality (p = 0.021) and loss of independence at discharge (p < 0.001) were independently associated with health care costs. These adverse events respectively accounted for 30%, 4% and 10% of the total costs of hospital care. Conclusion Adverse events were common after abdominal surgery in older adults and accounted for 44% of overall costs. This represents a substantial opportunity for better patient outcomes and cost savings with quality improvement strategies tailored to the needs of this high-risk surgical population. PMID:26999476

  16. Nephrotoxicity of high-dose ifosfamide/carboplatin/etoposide in adults undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Agaliotis, D P; Ballester, O F; Mattox, T; Hiemenz, J W; Fields, K K; Zorsky, P E; Goldstein, S C; Perkins, J B; Rosen, R M; Elfenbein, G J

    1997-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate nephrotoxicity in adult patients treated with high-dose ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide followed by autologous stem cell transplantation. We conducted a retrospective analysis of clinical and laboratory data from 131 patients with various malignancies who received treatment with escalating doses of ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide followed by autologous stem cell transplantation as part of a phase I/II therapeutic trial. Abnormalities in glomerular filtration were evaluated by measuring peak creatinine levels and tubular dysfunction by the lowest recorded serum levels of potassium, magnesium, and bicarbonate, at different time periods after administration of ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide, and after autologous stem cell transplantation. For the entire group of 131 patients, peak creatinine levels were > 1.5 mg/dL but < 3.0 mg/dL in 37% and levels were > 3.0 mg/dL in 11% at some time during their hospital stay. At the time of discharge, creatinine levels were 1.6 mg/dL to 3.0 mg/dL in 25% of patients and were > 3 mg/dL in 5%. Immediately after high-dose therapy, peak creatinine levels were significantly higher in patients receiving higher doses of ifosfamide compared to those receiving lower doses (P < 0.00001) and those receiving intermediate doses (P < 0.005). There was a dramatic decrease in serum bicarbonate, potassium, and magnesium levels immediately after chemotherapy, and they remained significantly decreased throughout the patient's hospital stay, despite massive replacement efforts (P ranging between < 0.008 and < 0.001). This is the largest adult population study documenting the incidence and severity of ifosfamide/carboplatin/etoposide-associated acute nephrotoxicity. Renal dysfunction was dose related and reversible in the majority of patients.

  17. Triggering the decision to undergo medical male circumcision: a qualitative study of adult men in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Kathleen E; Semo, Bazghina-Werq; Ntsuape, Conrad; Ramabu, Nankie M; Otlhomile, Boyce; Plank, Rebeca M; Barnhart, Scott; Ledikwe, Jenny H

    2016-08-01

    In 2007, the World Health Organization endorsed voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) as part of comprehensive HIV-prevention strategies. A major challenge facing VMMC programs in sub-Saharan Africa remains demand creation; there is urgent need for data on key elements needed to trigger the decision among eligible men to seek VMMC. Using qualitative methods, we sought to better understand the circumcision decision-making process in Botswana related to VMMC. From July to November 2013, we conducted 27 focus group discussions in four purposively selected communities in Botswana with men (stratified by circumcision status and age), women (stratified by age) and community leaders. All discussions were facilitated by a trained same-sex interviewer, audio recorded, transcribed and translated to English, and analyzed for key themes using an inductive content analytic approach. Improved hygiene was frequently cited as a major benefit of circumcision and many participants believed that cleanliness was directly responsible for the protective effect of VMMC on HIV infection. While protection against HIV was frequently noted as a benefit of VMMC, the data indicate that increased sexual pleasure and perceived attractiveness, not fear of HIV infection, was an underlying reason why men sought VMMC. Data from this qualitative study suggest that more immediate benefits of VMMC, such as improved hygiene and sexual pleasure, play a larger role in the circumcision decision compared with protection from potential HIV infection. These findings have immediate implications for targeted demand creation and mobilization activities for increasing uptake of VMMC among adult men in Botswana.

  18. Blood transcriptomic biomarkers in adult primary care patients with major depressive disorder undergoing cognitive behavioral therapy.

    PubMed

    Redei, E E; Andrus, B M; Kwasny, M J; Seok, J; Cai, X; Ho, J; Mohr, D C

    2014-09-16

    An objective, laboratory-based diagnostic tool could increase the diagnostic accuracy of major depressive disorders (MDDs), identify factors that characterize patients and promote individualized therapy. The goal of this study was to assess a blood-based biomarker panel, which showed promise in adolescents with MDD, in adult primary care patients with MDD and age-, gender- and race-matched nondepressed (ND) controls. Patients with MDD received cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and clinical assessment using self-reported depression with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). The measures, including blood RNA collection, were obtained before and after 18 weeks of CBT. Blood transcript levels of nine markers of ADCY3, DGKA, FAM46A, IGSF4A/CADM1, KIAA1539, MARCKS, PSME1, RAPH1 and TLR7, differed significantly between participants with MDD (N=32) and ND controls (N=32) at baseline (q< 0.05). Abundance of the DGKA, KIAA1539 and RAPH1 transcripts remained significantly different between subjects with MDD and ND controls even after post-CBT remission (defined as PHQ-9 <5). The ROC area under the curve for these transcripts demonstrated high discriminative ability between MDD and ND participants, regardless of their current clinical status. Before CBT, significant co-expression network of specific transcripts existed in MDD subjects who subsequently remitted in response to CBT, but not in those who remained depressed. Thus, blood levels of different transcript panels may identify the depressed from the nondepressed among primary care patients, during a depressive episode or in remission, or follow and predict response to CBT in depressed individuals.

  19. AGE-RELATED DIFFERENCES IN SLEEP-WAKE SYMPTOMS OF ADULTS UNDERGOING POLYSOMNOGRAPHY

    PubMed Central

    Vaz Fragoso, Carlos A.; Van Ness, Peter H.; Araujo, Katy L.B; Iannone, Lynne P.; Yaggi, H. Klar

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To evaluate age-related differences in sleep-wake symptoms. DESIGN Cross-sectional. SETTING Technologist-attended, laboratory-based polysomnography (PSG). PARTICIPANTS 201 community-dwelling adults aged 20–89, including 52 aged 18–39, 72 aged 40–59, and 77 aged ≥60. MEASUREMENTS 1) Medical burden: Charlson Comorbidity Index, medications, and health status; 2) PSG-defined sleep disorders: sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), sleep-associated hypoxemia, and periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS); 3) sleep-wake symptoms: Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and fatigue (Facit-F Scale). RESULTS Medical burden increased significantly across the age groups of 18–39, 40–59 and ≥60 (p<.001 for Charlson Comorbidity Index and number of medications; p=.005 for reduced health status). In addition, the severity of sleep disorders increased significantly across the age groups of 18–39, 40–59 and ≥60 (p<.001 for SDB and hypoxemia; p=.008 for PLMS). Conversely, significant reductions were observed for sleep-wake symptoms across the age groups of 18–39, 40–59 and ≥60 (p=.020 for daytime drowsiness [ESS≥10]; p=.036 for insomnia [ISI≥8]; p<.001 for fatigue). In adjusted models, a 1-year increase in age was significantly associated with a 4% decrease in the odds of having daytime drowsiness (odds ratio: 0.96 [0.93, 0.98]). Similarly, but only in those with mild SDB, a 1-year increase in age was significantly associated with a 5% decrease in the odds of having insomnia (odds ratio: 0.95 [0.92, 0.99]). CONCLUSION In our PSG-based sample, advancing age was characterized by a decrease in sleep-wake symptoms (daytime drowsiness, insomnia and fatigue), despite an age-related increase in disease severity (medical burden and sleep disorders). Because the increase in disease severity included well-established risk factors for having sleep-wake symptoms, we posit that the age-related decrease in sleep-wake symptoms may reflect

  20. Focus on Phase Electives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Victor H., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    In this thematic issue, articles focus on the use of phase electives in the English classroom. Discussions include "Death in the Classroom,""Soapbox Operas in the English Classroom,""Language and History in Phase-Elective Programs,""Phase Electives and the Problem of Composition," and "Phase Electives and College Preparation.""Phase Electives Are…

  1. Use of Floseal and effects on wound healing and pain in adults undergoing tonsillectomy: randomised comparison versus electrocautery.

    PubMed

    Mozet, Christian; Prettin, Christiane; Dietze, Maria; Fickweiler, Ulrich; Dietz, Andreas

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of FloSeal(®) (FS, Baxter Healthcare, Deerfield, IL, USA) as a haemostatic matrix in comparison to bipolar electrocautery (EC) after tonsillectomy. Eligible patients were adults undergoing cold-knife tonsillectomy because of recurrent tonsillitis, tonsillar hypertrophy, or peritonsillar abscess (more than 3 months previously). Patients were randomly allocated, on a single-blind basis, to either FS or EC for haemostasis during tonsillectomy. Five experienced surgeons judged the handling of FS application using a five-point scale (very good, good, fair, poor, very poor). Postoperative pain scores were evaluated with a visual analogue scale for 20 days, and the duration under pain medication together with the consumption of pain medication was compared. Wound healing was documented on Days 1-5, 10, and 20. A total of 176 patients were enrolled. Overall, 76/77 (98.7%) of surgeon evaluations of FS handling were judged at least "good". FS-treated patients showed significantly improved wound healing (less thickness of wound plaques) throughout the postoperative observation period, a trend for less postoperative pain (cumulative pain intensity score; P = 0.074), and a significantly shorter duration of pain-medication use (9.5 vs. 11.6 days; P = 0.014) as well as reduced pain-medication consumption/demand (P = 0.032). No difference in the rate of postoperative haemorrhage was observed between the two treatment groups (4.9% for FS patients, 6.0% for EC patients, P = 0.76). In conclusion, this study demonstrates the easy handling of FS application in tonsillectomy. Its use instead of EC after cold-steel tonsillectomy shows beneficial effects on mucosal recovery, as assessed by a decrease in the thickness of wound coating. Furthermore, FS is associated with a significantly shortened duration of pain-medication use and overall reduction in consumption/demand.

  2. Risk of perioperative blood transfusions and postoperative complications associated with serotonergic antidepressants in older adults undergoing hip fracture surgery.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Dallas P; Bell, Chaim M; Gill, Sudeep S; Reimer, Cara L; Herrmann, Nathan; Anderson, Geoffrey M; Newman, Alice; Rochon, Paula A

    2013-12-01

    Serotonergic antidepressants (SAds) are associated with bleeding-related adverse events. An increased risk of bleeding with SAds may have important implications in surgical settings. Our study evaluates the risk of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions and postoperative complications associated with SAds among older adults undergoing hip fracture surgery. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of individuals 66 years or older who underwent hip fracture surgery in Ontario, Canada. The risk of RBC transfusion among current users of SAds and nonserotonergic antidepressants (NSAds) was compared with recent former SAd users. Secondary outcomes included measures of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Subgroup analyses were undertaken in groups who were coprescribed other medications known to effect bleeding. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to determine the odds ratios (ORs) for antidepressants and postoperative outcomes. A total 11,384 individuals were included in the study sample. Current SAd users had an increased risk of RBC transfusion compared with recent former users of SAds (OR, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-1.43) as did current NSAd users (OR, 1.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.33). The risk of RBC transfusion with SAds or NSAds was further increased among individuals receiving antiplatelet agents. However, postoperative morbidity and mortality were not increased among either group of antidepressant users. In conclusion, SAds are associated with an increased risk of RBC transfusions, although this does not appear to result in major postoperative complications. Clinicians should be aware of this increased risk, although routine discontinuation of antidepressants before surgery is likely unwarranted in most cases.

  3. Application of Mechanical Ventilation Weaning Predictors After Elective Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Mayara Gabrielle Barbosa e; Borges, Daniel Lago; Costa, Marina de Albuquerque Gonçalves; Baldez, Thiago Eduardo Pereira; da Silva, Luan Nascimento; Oliveira, Rafaella Lima; Ferreira, Teresa de Fátima Ramos; Albuquerque, Renato Adams Matos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test several weaning predictors as determinants of successful extubation after elective cardiac surgery. METHODS The study was conducted at a tertiary hospital with 100 adult patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery from September to December 2014. We recorded demographic, clinical and surgical data, plus the following predictive indexes: static compliance (Cstat), tidal volume (Vt), respiratory rate (f), f/ Vt ratio, arterial partial oxygen pressure to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2/FiO2), and the integrative weaning index (IWI). Extubation was considered successful when there was no need for reintubation within 48 hours. Sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), positive likelihood ratio (LR+), and negative likelihood ratio (LR-) were used to evaluate each index. RESULTS The majority of the patients were male (60%), with mean age of 55.4±14.9 years and low risk of death (62%), according to InsCor. All of the patients were successfully extubated. Tobin Index presented the highest SE (0.99) and LR+ (0.99), followed by IWI (SE=0.98; LR+ =0.98). Other scores, such as SP, NPV and LR-were nullified due to lack of extubation failure. CONCLUSION All of the weaning predictors tested in this sample of patients submitted to elective cardiac surgery showed high sensitivity, highlighting f/Vt and IWI. PMID:26934398

  4. 5 CFR 2422.16 - Election agreements or directed elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Election agreements or directed elections... Election agreements or directed elections. (a) Election agreements. Parties are encouraged to enter into election agreements. (b) Regional Director directed election. If the parties are unable to agree...

  5. Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating Dialkylcarbamoyl Chloride Impregnated Dressings for the Prevention of Surgical Site Infections in Adult Women Undergoing Cesarean Section

    PubMed Central

    Bizoń, Magdalena; Cendrowski, Krzysztof; Sawicki, Włodzimierz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Surgical site infections (SSI) occur in 1.8%–9.2% of women undergoing cesarean section (CS) and lead to greater morbidity rates and increased treatment costs. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of dialkylcarbamoyl chloride (DACC) impregnated dressings to prevent SSI in women subject to CS. Methods: Randomized, controlled trial was conducted at the Mazovian Bródno Hospital, a tertiary care center performing approximately 1300 deliveries per year, between June 2014 and April 2015. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either DACC impregnated dressing or standard surgical dressing (SSD) following skin closure. In order to analyze cost-effectiveness of the selected dressings in the group of patients who developed SSI, the costs of ambulatory visits, additional hospitalization, nursing care, and systemic antibiotic therapy were assessed. Independent risk factors for SSI were determined by multivariable logistic regression. Results: Five hundred and forty-three women undergoing elective or emergency CS were enrolled. The SSI rates in the DACC and SSD groups were 1.8% and 5.2%, respectively (p = 0.04). The total cost of SSI prophylaxis and treatment was greater in the control group as compared with the study group (5775 EUR vs. 1065 EUR, respectively). Independent risk factors for SSI included higher pre-pregnancy body mass index (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.08; [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0–1.2]; p < 0.05), smoking in pregnancy (aOR = 5.34; [95% CI: 1.6–15.4]; p < 0.01), and SSD application (aOR = 2.94; [95% CI: 1.1–9.3]; p < 0.05). Conclusion: The study confirmed the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of DACC impregnated dressings in SSI prevention among women undergoing CS. PMID:26891115

  6. Comparison of three point-of-care testing devices to detect hemostatic changes in adult elective cardiac surgery: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bleeding complications in cardiac surgery may lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Traditional blood coagulation tests are not always suitable to detect rapid changes in the patient's coagulation status. Point-of-care instruments such as the TEG (thromboelastograph) and RoTEM (thromboelastometer) have been shown to be useful as a guide for the clinician in the choice of blood products and they may lead to a reduction in the need for blood transfusion, contributing to better patient blood management. Methods The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of the TEG, RoTEM and Sonoclot instruments to detect changes in hemostasis in elective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and to investigate possible correlations between variables from these three instruments and routine hematological coagulation tests. Blood samples from thirty-five adult patients were drawn before and after surgery and analyzed in TEG, RoTEM, Sonoclot and routine coagulation tests. Data were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance and Pearson's test for linear correlation. Results We found significant changes for all TEG variables after surgery, for three of the RoTEM variables, and for one variable from the Sonoclot. There were significant correlations postoperatively between plasma fibrinogen levels and variables from the three instruments. Conclusions TEG and RoTEM may be used to detect changes in hemostasis following cardiac surgery with CPB. Sonoclot seems to be less suitable to detect such changes. Variables from the three instruments correlated with plasma fibrinogen and could be used to monitor treatment with fibrinogen concentrate. PMID:25276093

  7. AGU election FAQs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Robert

    2012-08-01

    Many of you are aware that this is an election year, and I don't mean electing the next president of the United States! This is AGU's election year, and the polls are opening soon. Your vote matters. Eligible voters should vote, and now is the time to learn about the candidates. There are no TV ads, and the candidates won't be covered in the news. However, electing AGU leaders for the next term affects the future direction of the Union. Please take a few minutes to visit the election Web site (http://sites.agu.org/elections/) and review the candidate bios.

  8. Election Behavior and Union Representation Elections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, David

    1980-01-01

    Examines the National Labor Relations Board's policy on intervention in union representation elections prior to the "Shopping Kart" decision and as a result of the "General Knit" decision. The effect of a research study on the board's decision on when to intervene in elections is also discussed. (IRT)

  9. Adaptation of glutathion-peroxidase activity to oxidative stress occurs in children but not in adult patients with end-stage renal failure undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Sommerburg, O; Grune, T; Ehrich, J H H; Siems, W G

    2002-07-01

    Lipid peroxidation (LPO) products formed after reaction of free radicals with membrane lipids are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac diseases. Also in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) LPO was shown to be accelerated and concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants were measured lower than in control subjects. However, up to now only limited knowledge about the role of antioxidant enzymes was available. Whether or not activity of those antioxidants might be induced due to oxidative stress in ESRD patients is not known. To answer the question the activity of 3 enzymatic antioxidants, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathion peroxidase (GPx), was measured in red blood cells of the ESRD patients undergoing hemodialysis (2 groups: children and adults) and matching controls. LPO in these subjects was determined by measurement of the LPO product 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) in blood plasma. Plasma HNE was significantly increased by factor 3 in both patient groups children and adults compared to the control groups. The activity of the enzymatic antioxidants was measured differently. While SOD was significantly lower in patients (children and adults) than in the matching controls this was not the case for catalase and GPx. While GPx activity in adult patients was comparable to that in the control groups (childrens and adults), the GPx in children with ESRD was almost twice as high than in the other groups. Since children were shown to have higher levels of glutathion, activated GPx might be a sign of adaptation of these children to the increased rate of oxidation.

  10. Effect-site concentration of remifentanil for preventing cough during emergence in elderly patients undergoing nasal surgery: a comparison with adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Yeop; Kwak, Hyun Jeong; Lee, Dong Chul; Kim, Go Wun; Lee, Sook Young; Chae, Yun Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Prevention of cough during emergence after nasal surgery is important for avoiding surgical site bleeding. We investigated the remifentanil effect-site concentration in 50% (EC50) of the elderly patients undergoing nasal surgery for smooth emergence without cough and compared it with that of adult patients. Methods Twenty-two elderly (aged 65–80 years) and 25 adult patients (aged 20–60 years) with an American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I/II undergoing nasal surgery were enrolled. Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane and remifentanil. Remifentanil EC50 and EC95 for preventing cough were determined using the modified Dixon’s up-and-down method and isotonic regression with bootstrapping approach. Recovery profiles were also recorded. Results With Dixon’s up-and-down method, the EC50 of remifentanil in elderly patients (2.40±0.25 ng/mL) was not significantly different from that of adults (2.33±0.30 ng/mL) (P=0.687). With isotonic regression, the EC95 of remifentanil in elderly patients (3.32 [95% confidence interval: 3.06–3.38] ng/mL) was not significantly different from that of adults (3.30 [95% confidence interval: 2.96–3.37] ng/mL). However, eye opening time (14.1±3.8 vs 12.0±2.9 seconds), extubation time (17.2±4.1 vs 14.0±3.0 seconds), and postanesthesia care unit duration (44.5±7.6 vs 38.7±3.4 minutes) in elderly patients were significantly longer than those in adults (P<0.05). Conclusion Remifentanil EC50 for preventing cough after nasal surgery with sevoflurane anesthesia did not differ between elderly and adult patients. However, delayed awakening and respiratory adverse events may warrant attention in elderly patients. PMID:27672319

  11. Improving election prediction internationally.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Ryan; Wojcik, Stefan; Lazer, David

    2017-02-03

    This study reports the results of a multiyear program to predict direct executive elections in a variety of countries from globally pooled data. We developed prediction models by means of an election data set covering 86 countries and more than 500 elections, and a separate data set with extensive polling data from 146 election rounds. We also participated in two live forecasting experiments. Our models correctly predicted 80 to 90% of elections in out-of-sample tests. The results suggest that global elections can be successfully modeled and that they are likely to become more predictable as more information becomes available in future elections. The results provide strong evidence for the impact of political institutions and incumbent advantage. They also provide evidence to support contentions about the importance of international linkage and aid. Direct evidence for economic indicators as predictors of election outcomes is relatively weak. The results suggest that, with some adjustments, global polling is a robust predictor of election outcomes, even in developing states. Implications of these findings after the latest U.S. presidential election are discussed.

  12. Evaluation of the estimated continuous cardiac output monitoring system in adults and children undergoing kidney transplant surgery: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Terada, Takashi; Maemura, Yumi; Yoshida, Akiko; Muto, Rika; Ochiai, Ryoichi

    2014-02-01

    Evaluation of the estimated continuous cardiac output (esCCO) allows non-invasive and continuous assessment of cardiac output. However, the applicability of this approach in children has not been assessed thus far. We compared the correlation coefficient, bias, standard deviation (SD), and the lower and upper 95 % limits of agreement for esCCO and dye densitography-cardiac output (DDG-CO) measurements by pulse dye densitometry (PDD) in adults and children. On the basis of these assessments, we aimed to examine whether esCCO can be used in pediatric patients. DDG-CO was measured by pulse dye densitometry (PDD) using indocyanine green. Modified-pulse wave transit time, obtained using pulse oximetry and electrocardiography, was used to measure esCCO. Correlations between DDG-CO and esCCO in adults and children were analyzed using regression analysis with the least squares method. Differences between the two correlation coefficients were statistically analyzed using a correlation coefficient test. Bland-Altman plots were used to evaluate bias and SD for DDG-CO and esCCO in both adults and children, and 95 % limits of agreement (bias ± 1.96 SD) and percentage error (1.96 SD/mean DDG-CO) were calculated and compared. The average age of the adult patients (n = 10) was 39.3 ± 12.1 years, while the average age of the pediatric patients (n = 7) was 9.4 ± 3.1 years (p < 0.001). For adults, the correlation coefficient was 0.756; bias, -0.258 L/min; SD, 1.583 L/min; lower and upper 95 % limits of agreement for DDG-CO and esCCO, -3.360 and 2.844 L/min, respectively; and percentage error, 42.7 %. For children, the corresponding values were 0.904; -0.270; 0.908; -2.051 and 1.510 L/min, respectively; and 35.7 %. Due to the high percentage error values, we could not establish a correlation between esCCO and DDG-CO. However, the 95 % limits of agreement and percentage error were better in children than in adults. Due to the high percentage error, we could not confirm a correlation

  13. 11 CFR 9002.10 - Presidential election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Presidential election. 9002.10 Section 9002.10 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: GENERAL ELECTION FINANCING DEFINITIONS § 9002.10 Presidential election. Presidential election means the election...

  14. Daily activity patterns of an adult experiencing lower back pain undergoing electro-acupuncture: a case study.

    PubMed

    Koski, Bonnie L; Dunn, Karen S; Shebuski, Mark R

    2009-12-01

    In the United States, adults experiencing lower back pain (LBP) have reported using alternative health care to manage symptoms. Chiropractic techniques, relaxation, and massage have been cited as the most commonly used alternative therapies. Electro-acupuncture (EA), along with conventional health care, has been found to be a useful complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modality in alleviating the disability associated with LBP. The purpose of this single-subject case study was to evaluate the daily activity pattern effects of EA and CAM modality usage on pain intensity levels and functional status of an adult experiencing LBP. Activity patterns and pain intensity ratings were recorded for two consecutive weeks through the use of a daily pain diary in natural environments. Results from the data analyses revealed daily LBP intensity ratings ranging from slight to moderate pain. On average, the participant reported using approximately ten CAM modalities per day. The participant reported decreases in pain intensity levels, increases in energy levels, and feeling better after EA and acupuncture treatments, maintaining an exercise and weight loss regimen, taking megavitamins, drinking teas, praying, singing, and using humor, distraction, and relaxation techniques. Use of herbs and too much exercise were the least effective. Findings suggest that for this patient, EA and certain CAM modalities were effective interventions that promoted well-being and self-healing. In addition, the daily pain diary was found to provide rich research and assessment data.

  15. 2008 Election Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonough, William; Bamzai, Anjuli; Robinson, Robert

    2008-02-01

    Voting by the membership for Union and Section officers for the 2008-2010 term was completed on 10 January 2008. Voting was conducted electronically through an Internet Web site using commercial surveying software. Paper ballots were available upon request. The tallying and recording of the election was managed by AGU staff using Vovici software. The results of the election are given below.

  16. Hyperlactatemia in patients undergoing adult cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass: Causative factors and its effect on surgical outcome

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Rakesh; George, Gladdy; Karuppiah, Sathappan; Philip, Madhu Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Objectives of the Study: To identify the factors causing high lactate levels in patients undergoing cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and to assess the association between high blood lactate levels and postoperative morbidity and mortality. Methods: A retrospective observational study including 370 patients who underwent cardiac surgeries under cardiopulmonary bypass. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on serum lactate levels; those with serum lactate levels greater than or equal to 4 mmol/L considered as hyperlactatemia and those with serum lactate levels less than 4 mmol/L. Blood lactate samples were collected intraoperatively and postoperatively in the ICU. Preoperative and intraoperative risk factors for hyperlactatemia were identified using the highest intraoperative value of lactate. The postoperative morbidity and mortality associated with hyperlactatemia was studied using the overall (intraoperative and postoperative values) peak lactate levels. Preoperative clinical data, perioperative events and postoperative morbidity and mortality were recorded. Results: Intraoperative peak blood lactate levels of 4.0 mmol/L or more were present in 158 patients (42.7%). Females had higher peak intra operative lactate levels (P = 0.011). There was significant correlation between CPB time (Pearson correlation coefficient r = 0.024; P = 0.003) and aortic cross clamp time (r = 0.02, P = 0.007) with peak intraoperative blood lactate levels. Patients with hyperlactatemia had significantly higher rate of postoperative morbidity like atrial fibrillation (19.9% vs. 5.3%; P = 0.004), prolonged requirement of inotropes (34% vs. 11.8%; P = 0.001), longer stay in the ICU (P = 0.013) and hospital (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Hyperlactatemia had significant association with post-operative morbidity. Detection of hyperlactatemia in the perioperative period should be considered as an indicator of inadequate tissue oxygen delivery and must be aggressively

  17. Evaluation of the influence of pulmonary hypertension in ultra-fast-track anesthesia technique in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Paulo Sérgio; Cartacho, Márcio Portugal Trindade; de Castro, Casimiro Cardoso; Salgado Filho, Marcello Fonseca; Brandão, Antônio Carlos Aguiar

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the influence of pulmonary hypertension in the ultra-fast-track anesthesia technique in adult cardiac surgery. Methods A retrospective study. They were included 40 patients divided into two groups: GI (without pulmonary hypertension) and GII (with pulmonary hypertension). Based on data obtained by transthoracic echocardiography. We considered as the absence of pulmonary hypertension: a pulmonary artery systolic pressure (sPAP) <36 mmHg, with tricuspid regurgitation velocity <2.8 m/s and no additional echocardiographic signs of PH, and PH as presence: a sPAP >40 mmHg associated with additional echocardiographic signs of PH. It was established as influence of pulmonary hypertension: the impossibility of extubation in the operating room, the increase in the time interval for extubation and reintubation the first 24 hours postoperatively. Univariate and multivariate analyzes were performed when necessary. Considered significant a P value <0.05. Results The GI was composed of 21 patients and GII for 19. All patients (100%) were extubated in the operating room in a medium time interval of 17.58±8.06 min with a median of 18 min in GII and 17 min in GI. PH did not increase the time interval for extubation (P=0.397). It required reintubation of 2 patients in GII (5% of the total), without statistically significant as compared to GI (P=0.488). Conclusion In this study, pulmonary hypertension did not influence on ultra-fast-track anesthesia in adult cardiac surgery. PMID:27163419

  18. 2012 election results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Robert; Tetzlaff, Doerthe

    2012-10-01

    On 4 October 2012, AGU members completed voting for the 2013-2014 leadership term. Union officers, Board members, section and focus group officers, and student and early career representatives to the Council were elected. All members who joined or renewed their membership by 1 July 2012 were eligible to vote in this year's leadership election. The vote was held electronically, and access to voting was provided to all eligible voters for a period of 31 days. The voting was conducted by Survey and Ballot Systems, Inc. (SBS). SBS, which offers election planning and management services, provided unique login credentials and other support services for eligible voters throughout the election. Voting results were certified by SBS on 8 October and by the AGU Tellers Committee on 9 October. The overall participation rate was 21.9%, an increase over previous AGU elections.

  19. Impact On Outcomes Of Hla Matching By Allele-Level Typing In Adults With Acute Myeloid Leukemia Undergoing Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Jaime; Jaramillo, Francisco J; Planelles, Dolores; Montesinos, Pau; Lorenzo, Ignacio; Moscardó, Federico; Martin, Guillermo; López, Francisca; Martínez, Jesús; Jarque, Isidro; Javier de; la Rubia; Larrea, Luis; Sanz, Miguel A; Sanz, Guillermo F

    2013-10-25

    This retrospective study analyzed the impact of directional donor-recipient HLA disparity, using allele-level typing at HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1, in 79 adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who received single-unit umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplant at a single institution. With extended high-resolution HLA typing, the donor-recipient compatibility ranged from 2/8 to 8/8. HLA disparity showed no negative impact on non-relapse mortality (NRM), GVH disease or engraftment. Considering disparities in the GVH direction, the 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 44% and 22% for patients receiving an UCB unit matched ≥ 6/8 and < 6/8, respectively (P = 0.04). In multivariable analysis, a higher HLA disparity in the GVH direction using extended high-resolution typing (RR 2.8; 95% CI 1.5-5.1; P = 0.0009) and first complete remission at time of transplantation (RR 2.1; 95% CI 1.2-3.8; P = 0.01) were the only variables significantly associated with an improved disease-free survival (DFS). In conclusion, we found that in adults with AML undergoing sUCBT an increased number of HLA disparities at allele-level typing improved DFS by decreasing the relapse rate without a negative effect on NRM.

  20. Impact on outcomes of human leukocyte antigen matching by allele-level typing in adults with acute myeloid leukemia undergoing umbilical cord blood transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Jaime; Jaramillo, Francisco J; Planelles, Dolores; Montesinos, Pau; Lorenzo, Ignacio; Moscardó, Federico; Martin, Guillermo; López, Francisca; Martínez, Jesús; Jarque, Isidro; de la Rubia, Javier; Larrea, Luis; Sanz, Miguel A; Sanz, Guillermo F

    2014-01-01

    This retrospective study analyzed the impact of directional donor-recipient human leukocyte antigen (HLA) disparity using allele-level typing at HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 in 79 adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who received single-unit umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplant at a single institution. With extended high-resolution HLA typing, the donor-recipient compatibility ranged from 2/8 to 8/8. HLA disparity showed no negative impact on nonrelapse mortality (NRM), graft-versus-host (GVH) disease or engraftment. Considering disparities in the GVH direction, the 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 44% and 22% for patients receiving an UCB unit matched ≥ 6/8 and < 6/8, respectively (P = .04). In multivariable analysis, a higher HLA disparity in the GVH direction using extended high-resolution typing (Risk ratio [RR] 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5 to 5.1; P = .0009) and first complete remission at time of transplantation (RR 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2 to 3.8; P = .01) were the only variables significantly associated with an improved disease-free survival. In conclusion, we found that in adults with AML undergoing single-unit UCBT, an increased number of HLA disparities at allele-level typing improved disease-free survival by decreasing the relapse rate without a negative effect on NRM.

  1. 11 CFR 9032.7 - Primary election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary election. 9032.7 Section 9032.7 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY MATCHING FUND DEFINITIONS § 9032.7 Primary election. (a) Primary election means an election held by a State or...

  2. Preoperative evaluation of the adult patient undergoing non-cardiac surgery: guidelines from the European Society of Anaesthesiology.

    PubMed

    De Hert, Stefan; Imberger, Georgina; Carlisle, John; Diemunsch, Pierre; Fritsch, Gerhard; Moppett, Iain; Solca, Maurizio; Staender, Sven; Wappler, Frank; Smith, Andrew

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of these guidelines on the preoperative evaluation of the adult non-cardiac surgery patient is to present recommendations based on available relevant clinical evidence. The ultimate aims of preoperative evaluation are two-fold. First, we aim to identify those patients for whom the perioperative period may constitute an increased risk of morbidity and mortality, aside from the risks associated with the underlying disease. Second, this should help us to design perioperative strategies that aim to reduce additional perioperative risks. Very few well performed randomised studies on the topic are available and many recommendations rely heavily on expert opinion and are adapted specifically to the healthcare systems in individual countries. This report aims to provide an overview of current knowledge on the subject with an assessment of the quality of the evidence in order to allow anaesthetists all over Europe to integrate - wherever possible - this knowledge into daily patient care. The Guidelines Committee of the European Society of Anaesthesiology (ESA) formed a task force with members of subcommittees of scientific subcommittees and individual members of the ESA. Electronic databases were searched from the year 2000 until July 2010 without language restrictions. These searches produced 15 425 abstracts. Relevant systematic reviews with meta-analyses, randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional surveys were selected. The Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network grading system was used to assess the level of evidence and to grade recommendations. The final draft guideline was posted on the ESA website for 4 weeks and the link was sent to all ESA members, individual or national (thus including most European national anaesthesia societies). Comments were collated and the guidelines amended as appropriate. When the final draft was complete, the Guidelines Committee and ESA Board ratified the guidelines.

  3. Seizure characteristics and outcomes in 508 Chinese adult patients undergoing primary resection of low-grade gliomas: a clinicopathological study.

    PubMed

    You, Gan; Sha, Zhi-Yi; Yan, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yong-Zhi; Li, Shao-Wu; Sang, Lin; Wang, Zi; Li, Gui-Lin; Li, Shou-Wei; Song, Yi-Jun; Kang, Chun-Sheng; Jiang, Tao

    2012-02-01

    Seizure is a common presenting manifestation and plays an important role in the clinical presentation and quality of life for patients with low-grade gliomas (LGGs). The authors set out to identify factors that influence preoperative seizure characteristics and postoperative seizure control. Cases involving adult patients who had undergone initial surgery for LGGs in a single institution between 2005 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with preoperative seizures and postoperative seizure control. Of the 508 patients in the series, 350 (68.9%) presented with seizures. Age less than 38 years and cortical involvement of tumor were more likely to be associated with seizures (P = .003 and .001, respectively, multivariate logistic analysis). For the cohort of 350 patients with seizures, Engel classification was used to evaluate 6- and 12-month outcome after surgery: completely seizure free (Engel class I), 65.3% and 62.5%; not seizure free (Engel classes II, III, IV), 34.7% and 37.5%. After multivariate logistic analysis, favorable seizure prognosis was more common in patients with secondary generalized seizure (P = .006) and with calcification on MRI (.031). With respect to treatment-related variables, patients achieved much better seizure control after gross total resection than after subtotal resection (P < .0001). Ki67 was an independent molecular marker predicting poor seizure control in the patients with a history of seizure if overexpressed but was not a predictor for those without preoperative seizures. These factors may provide insight into developing effective treatment strategies aimed at prolonging patients' survival.

  4. Evaluation of the Pharmacokinetics and Efficacy of a Busulfan Test Dose in Adult Patients Undergoing Myeloablative Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Weil, Elizabeth; Zook, Felicia; Oxencis, Carolyn; Canadeo, Angela; Urmanski, Angela; Waggoner, Mindy; Eastwood, Daniel; Pasquini, Marcelo; Hamadani, Mehdi; Hari, Parameswaran

    2017-03-10

    Owing to interpatient variability in busulfan exposure, therapeutic monitoring of busulfan is often used in myeloablative allogeneic transplantation to ensure that patients are near the optimal steady-state goal of 900 ng/mL. One challenge in therapeutic monitoring of busulfan is the brief course of busulfan treatment, requiring prompt analysis and dose adjustments as needed. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of a busulfan test dose before the start of the conditioning regimen would allow for all conditioning regimen doses to be given at the calculated optimized dose. An observational study was completed to evaluate the effects of a busulfan test dose of .9 mg/kg administered before the start of a myeloablative intravenous busulfan-based conditioning regimen. Sixty adult patients who received a busulfan conditioning regimen were reviewed, including 30 patients who had not yet received the busulfan test dose (pretest dose group) and 30 patients who had received the busulfan test dose (posttest dose group). The primary objective was a pharmacokinetic evaluation of the percentage of patients who achieved the desired steady-state goal using the test dose strategy. The safety and efficacy of the busulfan test dose were evaluated as well. The average busulfan steady-state level after the first dose of the conditioning regimen was significantly lower in the pre-test dose group compared with the post-test dose group (660 ng/mL versus 879.9 ng/mL; P < .001). Compared with the post-test dose group, significantly fewer patients in the pre-test dose group were within 10% of the busulfan steady-state goal (10% versus 73.3%; P < .001) or within 5% of the goal (0% versus 53%; P < .001). Requirements for parenteral nutrition and/or patient-controlled analgesia owing to mucositis and veno-occlusive disease rates were not significantly different between the pre-test dose group and the post-test dose group. The rates of disease relapse, mortality, and acute graft

  5. Comparison of propofol (1%) with admixture (1:1) of thiopentone (1.25%) and propofol (0.5%) for laryngeal mask airway insertion in children undergoing elective eye surgery: Double-masked randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Renu; Shende, Dilip; Garg, Rakesh

    2010-01-01

    Intravenous propofol 1% has been the preferred agent for Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) insertion. Admixture of thiopentone 1.25% and propofol 0.5% (1:1) has been used by various authors for induction as well as insertion of LMA in adults. There is no previous report where this admixture has been used for insertion of LMA in children. This study has been designed to investigate whether this admixture can be a suitable alternative to propofol, in relation to ease of insertion of the LMA, haemodynamic stability, cost containment, pain on injection and recovery in children. In this randomized, double-masked study, 50 ASA grade 1 and 2 patients of age 3 – 15 years and weighing more than 10 kg were included. The patients were divided into two groups; the P group received propofol 1%, while the Ad group received an admixture of thiopentone 1.25% and propofol 0.5% (1:1). All the children were evaluated for incidence of apnoea, pain on injection, jaw relaxation, ease of LMA insertion, coughing, gagging, laryngospasm, involuntary limb movements, incidence of hypotension and recovery. The demographic data, incidence of apnoea, pain on injection, jaw relaxation, ease of LMA insertion, coughing, gagging and involuntary movements were comparable in both groups. In the P group recovery was faster as compared to the Ad group. The admixture was cost effective as compared to Propofol alone [Indian National Rupees (INR) 24.64 ± 7.62 vs. INR 48.75 ± 23.25] (P = 0.001)). Admixture of propofol and thiopentone was a cheap, safe and effective alternative to propofol alone, for LMA insertion in children. PMID:20661346

  6. Evaluation of the use of electronic health data to classify four-year mortality risk for older adults undergoing screening colonoscopies.

    PubMed

    Synnestvedt, Marie B; Weiner, Mark G

    2011-01-01

    Current cancer screening recommendations often apply coarse age cutoffs for screening requirements without regard to predicted life expectancy. Using these cutoffs, healthier older patients may be under-screened, and sicker younger patients may be screened too often. Mortality risk classification using EHR data could be used to tailor screening reminders to physicians in ways that better align screening recommendations with patients who are more likely to live long enough to benefit from early detection. We have evaluated the performance of an existing prognostic index for 4-year mortality using data readily available in the electronic health record (EHR), and investigated the effect of the index in retrospective cohorts of adults age 65 and older undergoing screening colonoscopy. Risk scores in this adaptation of a four-year prognostic index were found to be associated with actual death rates and consistent with mortality rates from a national sample. Our results demonstrate that data extracted from electronic health records can be used to classify mortality risk. With improvements, including extension to a 5-year mortality model with inclusion of additional variables and extension of variable definitions, informatics methods to implement mortality models may prove to be clinically useful in tailoring screening guidelines.

  7. A protocol for postoperative admission of elective craniotomy patients to a non-ICU or step-down setting.

    PubMed

    Florman, Jeffrey E; Cushing, Deborah; Keller, Lynne A; Rughani, Anand I

    2017-03-03

    OBJECTIVE Selecting the appropriate patients undergoing craniotomy who can safely forgo postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) monitoring remains a source of debate. Through a multidisciplinary work group, the authors redefined their institutional care process for postoperative monitoring of patients undergoing elective craniotomy to include transfer from the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) to the neurosurgical floor. The hypothesis was that an appropriately selected group of patients undergoing craniotomy could be safely managed outside the ICU in the postoperative period. METHODS The work group developed and implemented a protocol for transfer of patients to the neurosurgical floor after 4-hour recovery in the PACU following elective craniotomy for supratentorial tumor. Criteria included hemodynamically stable adults without significant new postoperative neurological impairment. Data were prospectively collected including patient demographics, clinical characteristics, surgical details, postoperative complications, and events surrounding transfer to a higher level of care. RESULTS Of the first 200 consecutive patients admitted to the floor, 5 underwent escalation of care in the first 48 hours. Three of these escalations were for agitation, 1 for seizure, and 1 for neurological change. Ninety-eight percent of patients meeting criteria for transfer to the floor were managed without incident. No patient experienced a major complication or any permanent morbidity or mortality following this care pathway. CONCLUSIONS Care of patients undergoing uneventful elective supratentorial craniotomy for tumor on a neurosurgical floor after 4 hours of PACU monitoring appears to be a safe practice in this patient population. This tailored practice safely optimized hospital resources, is financially responsible, and is a strong tool for improving health care value.

  8. Effectiveness of non-cardiac preoperative testing in non-cardiac elective surgery: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Johansson, T; Fritsch, G; Flamm, M; Hansbauer, B; Bachofner, N; Mann, E; Bock, M; Sönnichsen, A C

    2013-06-01

    Elective surgery is usually preceded by preoperative diagnostics to minimize risk. The results are assumed to elicit preventive measures or even cancellation of surgery. Moreover, physicians perform preoperative tests as a baseline to detect subsequent changes. This systematic review aims to explore whether preoperative testing leads to changes in management or reduces perioperative mortality or morbidity in unselected patients undergoing elective, non-cardiac surgery. We systematically searched all relevant databases from January 2001 to February 2011 for studies investigating the relationship between preoperative diagnostics and perioperative outcome. Our methodology was based on the manual of the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Health Technology Assessment, the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) handbook, and the PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews. One hundred and one of the 25 281 publications retrieved met our inclusion criteria. Three test grid studies used a randomized controlled design and 98 studies used an observational design. The test grid studies show that in cataract surgery and ambulatory surgery, there are no significant differences between patients with indicated preoperative testing and no testing regarding perioperative outcome. The observational studies do not provide valid evidence that preoperative testing is beneficial in healthy adults undergoing non-cardiac surgery. There is no evidence derived from high-quality studies that supports routine preoperative testing in healthy adults undergoing non-cardiac surgery. Testing according to pathological findings in a patient's medical history or physical examination seems justified, although the evidence is scarce. High-quality studies, especially large randomized controlled trials, are needed to explore the effectiveness of indicated preoperative testing.

  9. Pacific Northwest election results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qamar, Anthony

    Six AGU members have been elected members of the Regional Committee of the AGU Pacific Northwest Region. Their terms are July 1, 1986, to June 30, 1988. The Regional Committee, which directs the activities of the branch, is composed of a representative of each of the AGU sections taking part in branch activities.Those elected are Robert M. Ellis, Tectonophysics Section; Stephen L. Gillett, Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism Section; Tark S. Hamilton, Volcanology, Geochemistry, and Petrology Section; Renner B. Hofmann, Seismology Section; Charles W. Slaughter, Hydrology Section; and Richard E. Thomson, Ocean Sciences Section.

  10. Elective English Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palm Springs High School, CA.

    This document contains course descriptions of 37 elective English courses divided into five levels for sophomore, junior, and senior high school students--the higher levels having more difficult reading and more demanding work, and requiring better writing skills and more independent study habits. An explanation of the composition, grammar,…

  11. AGU elects 1989 Fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twenty-two distinguished scientists have been elected Fellows of the Union. Fellows are scientists who are judged by their peers as having attained ackowledged eminence in a branch of geophysics. The number of Fellows elected each year is limited to 0.1 % of the total membership at the time of election. The newly elected Fellows are Walter Alvarez, University of California, Berkeley; John R. Booker, University of Washington, Seattle; Peter G. Brewer, Woods Hole Oceanographie Institution, Woods Hole, Mass.; Michael H. Carr, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, Calif.; Gedeon Dagan, Tel Aviv University, Israel; James H. Dieterich, USGS, Menlo Park; Thomas Dunne, University of Washington, Seattle; Jack Fooed Evernden, USGS, Menlo Park; Edward A. Flinn, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.; Arnold L. Gordon, Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Palisades, N.Y.; Gerhard Haerendel, Max Planck Institut, Garching, Federal Republic of Germany; David L. Kohlstedt, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.; Robert A. Langel, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD; James G. Moore, USGS, Menlo Park; Marcia Neugebauer, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Robert C. Newton, University of Chicago, Illinois; John A. Orcutt, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif.; Robert B. Smith, University of Utah, Salt Lake City; Bengt U. Sonnerup, Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H.; Martin A. Uman, University of Florida, Gainesville; Joe Veverka, Cornell University; and James C.G. Walker, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

  12. Constitutional Law--Elective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Joan; Wood, Robert J.

    The elective unit on Constitutional Law is intended for 11th and 12th grade students. The unit is designed around major course goals which are to develop those concepts whereby students recognize and understand the following three topic areas: 1) Role of the Federal Judicial Branch of Government, 2) Supreme Court Cases Involving the Three Branches…

  13. Consumer Arithmetic Elective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whatham, Don

    1977-01-01

    An elective course aimed at giving tenth-grade students some experience with practical arithmetic problems is outlined. The two-week course is designed primarily for students who will be leaving at the end of the year and includes topics such as calculators; earning, spending, and saving money; tax; and buying a car. (MN)

  14. 2006 Election Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudt, Amanda C.; Given, Holly K.; McDonough, William F.

    2006-02-01

    The voting by the membership for Union and Section officers for the 2006-2008 term was completed on 10 January. Voting was conducted electronically through the Internet using commercial surveying software. Paper ballots were available upon request. The tallying and recording of the elections was managed by AGU staff using the Web-Surveyor software. The results of the voting are listed below.

  15. Student School Elections and Political Engagement: A Cradle of Democracy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saha, Lawrence J.; Print, Murray

    2010-01-01

    Studies have found that prior involvement in student politics while in school seems to be a good predictor of adult political engagement. While most studies of adults have obtained retrospective data on participation in school elections, there have been few studies of students about this activity. We contribute to this latter relatively unexplored…

  16. Electives in Graduate Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Santosh; Zayapragassarazan, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Modern curricula have both compulsory portions and electives or portions chosen by students. Electives have been a part of graduate and postgraduate general higher education. Electives are included in various standards for graduate medical education and are also included in proposed Medical Council of India Regulations on Graduate Medical…

  17. 2009 Elections: The Candidates Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the candidates for the 2009 Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) election and their statements. The candidates are: (1) Andy Gibbons (President-Elect); (2) Barbara B. Lockee (President-Elect); (3) Mary Jean Bishop (At-Large Representative); and (4) Deepak Subramony (At-Large Representative). In…

  18. 26 CFR 1.4-2 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Elections. 1.4-2 Section 1.4-2 Internal Revenue....4-2 Elections. (a) Making of election. The election to pay the optional tax imposed under section 3... the standard deduction provided by section 141. (b) Election under section 3 and election of...

  19. 5 CFR 1600.12 - Contribution elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contribution elections. 1600.12 Section... ELECTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION ALLOCATIONS Elections § 1600.12 Contribution elections. (a) An employee may make a contribution election at any time. (b) A participant must submit a contribution election to his...

  20. Complications in Adult Patients with Down Syndrome Undergoing Cervical Spine Surgery Using Current Instrumentation Techniques and rhBMP-2: A Long-Term Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Siemionow, Kris; Hansdorfer, Mark; Janusz, Piotr; Mardjetko, Steven

    2017-03-01

    Introduction Cervical spine pathologies are common in Down syndrome (DS) patients. Cervical pathologies may cause cord compression and neurologic deterioration if left untreated. Complication rates of 73-100% have been reported in DS patients after cervical spine surgery in historical studies. This study reports updated perioperative complications rates and long-term outcome in patients with DS undergoing cervical spine surgery. Methods Retrospective review of patients with DS who have undergone cervical spine surgery from 1998 to 2011 (≥ 24 months of follow-up) was undertaken. Series of 17 adults with preoperative diagnoses that included atlantoaxial instability, stenosis, spondylosis, or cervical spondylolisthesis were evaluated. Nine patients received recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). Neurologic and ambulatory status was evaluated at regular intervals included pre- and postoperative imaging, range of motion evaluation, strength/neurologic testing, ambulation observation, and patient and caretaker pain reporting. Results A total of 20 surgical procedures were performed in 17 patients. Average follow-up was 78.7 months (range: 25-156 months). Overall, 37 complications were observed including pneumonia, respiratory distress, reintubation, dysphagia, deep venous thrombosis, sepsis, wound infection, dehiscence, neurologic complications, loss of reduction (LOR), pseudarthrosis, and hardware failure. Postoperative pneumonia was most common (23.5%). Three patients developed pseudarthrosis (all in the rhBMP-2 group); three demonstrated LOR. Neurologic complications (N = 3) included spasticity, loss of ambulation, and postoperative weakness with myelomalacia. Two were transient. Respiratory complications in the rhBMP-2 group were the most common (N = 3). The anterior approach resulted in a higher likelihood of complications than the posterior (p = 0.032). Conclusions Current techniques may improve pseudarthrosis (p = 0

  1. AGU elects 1986 Fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eighteen distinguished scientists have been elected Fellows of AGU. The total number of Fellows elected each year may not exceed 0.1% of the total membership at the time of election.The newly elected Fellows are John D. Bossier, Office of Charting and Geodetic Services, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Rockville, Md.Ian S. Carmichael, Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of California, Berkeley.Paul J. Crutzen, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Federal Republic of Germany.Dieter H. Ehhalt, Institute of Atmospheric Chemistry, Jülich, and Department of Geophysics, University of Cologne, Cologne, Federal Republic of Germany.Thomas C. Hanks, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, Calif.C. G. A. Harrison, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, Fla.Stanley R. Hart, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.Charles W. Howe, Department of Economics, University of Colorado, Boulder.Charlotte E. Keen, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada.T. J. Kukkamäki, Finnish Geodetic Institute, Helsinki.Ronald T. Merrill, Geophysics Program, University of Washington, Seattle.Pearn P. Niiler, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif.Mervyn S. Paterson, Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra.Joseph Pedlosky, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass.W. R. Peltier, Department of Physics, University of Toronto , Toronto , Canada.Raymond G. Roble, Solar Variability Section, High-Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo.David J. Stevenson, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.David A. Woolhiser, Southwest Watershed Research Center, Tucson, Ariz.

  2. Upcoming Leadership Elections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhaden, Mike

    2014-05-01

    AGU continues to evolve into a stronger, more innovative organization thanks to the dedication of volunteer leaders working in partnership with AGU staff. The Board and Council, which form the core of AGU's bicameral governance structure, provide guidance for the organization within the framework of its stakeholder-driven strategic plan. Members elected to Board and Council leadership positions are critically important to AGU's continued success.

  3. Memory for the 2008 presidential election in healthy ageing and mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Waring, Jill D; Seiger, Ashley N; Solomon, Paul R; Budson, Andrew E; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined memory accuracy and confidence for personal and public event details of the 2008 presidential election in healthy older adults and those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Participants completed phone interviews within a week after the election and after a 10-month delay. MCI patients and healthy older adults had comparable emotional reactions to learning the outcome of the election, with most people finding it to be a positive experience. After the delay period, details about the election were better remembered by all participants than a less emotionally arousing comparison event. However, MCI patients had more difficulty than healthy older adults correctly recalling details of public information about the election, although often the MCI patients could recognise the correct details. This is the first study to show that MCI patients' memory can benefit from emotionally arousing positive events, complementing the literature demonstrating similar effects for negative events.

  4. Younger, middle-aged, and older adults’ memories for the 2008 U.S. Presidential Election

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Adults, aged 18 to 88 years, recalled details about the 2008 U.S. Presidential Election shortly following the election and 6 months later. Individuals who felt positive about the election outcome reported a greater quantity of information at both time points. However, across the lifespan, individuals who felt negative about the election outcome demonstrated a greater proportion of detail consistency over time, a finding that had previously been shown only for younger adults. Individuals who felt positive about the outcome showed increased confidence in their ability to retain information accurately, as did individuals who felt emotionally intense about the election. These results indicate that for adults of all ages, positive emotion is associated with a reduced ability to retain details consistently over time; yet people may not recognize this tendency when recalling information, thereby retaining higher confidence in their ability to remember event details if they felt positive about the event. PMID:23264932

  5. Memory for the 2008 Presidential election in healthy aging and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Waring, Jill D.; Seiger, Ashley N.; Solomon, Paul R.; Budson, Andrew E.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study examined memory accuracy and confidence for personal and public event details of the 2008 Presidential election in healthy older adults and those with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Method Participants completed phone interviews within a week after the election and after a 10-month delay. Results MCI patients and healthy older adults had comparable emotional reactions to learning the outcome of the election, with most people finding it to be a positive experience. After the delay period, details about the election were better remembered by all participants than a less emotionally arousing comparison event. However, MCI patients had more difficulty than healthy older adults correctly recalling details of public information about the election, although often the MCI patients could recognize the correct details. Conclusion This is the first study to show that MCI patients’ memory can benefit from emotionally arousing positive events, complementing the literature demonstrating similar effects for negative events. PMID:24533684

  6. 5 CFR 2422.29 - Inconclusive elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inconclusive elections. 2422.29 Section... elections. (a) Inconclusive elections. An inconclusive election is one where challenged ballots are not sufficient to affect the outcome of the election and one of the following occurs: (1) The ballot provides...

  7. 22 CFR 1422.22 - Inconclusive elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Inconclusive elections. 1422.22 Section 1422.22... PROCEEDINGS § 1422.22 Inconclusive elections. (a) An inconclusive election is one in which none of the choices... results of the election, the Regional Director may declare the election a nullity and may order...

  8. 25 CFR 90.37 - Election notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election notices. 90.37 Section 90.37 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT ELECTION OF OFFICERS OF THE OSAGE TRIBE Elections § 90.37 Election notices. The election notice shall set forth the place, date and time for...

  9. 39 CFR 955.9 - Hearing election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hearing election. 955.9 Section 955.9 Postal... CONTRACT APPEALS § 955.9 Hearing election. As directed by Board order, each party shall inform the Board... elected, the election should state where and when the electing party desires the hearing to be...

  10. 5 CFR 1604.3 - Contribution elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contribution elections. 1604.3 Section... § 1604.3 Contribution elections. A service member may make contribution elections as described in 5 CFR... incentive pay when the contribution election is made); those elections will take effect when the...

  11. 5 CFR 891.201 - Election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIRED FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS Election and Change of Election § 891.201 Election. (a) The original... election. For any other retired employee receiving compensation, changes of election made under...

  12. 5 CFR 891.201 - Election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIRED FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS Election and Change of Election § 891.201 Election. (a) The original... election. For any other retired employee receiving compensation, changes of election made under...

  13. 25 CFR 90.37 - Election notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Election notices. 90.37 Section 90.37 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT ELECTION OF OFFICERS OF THE OSAGE TRIBE Elections § 90.37 Election notices. The election notice shall set forth the place, date and time for...

  14. 25 CFR 90.37 - Election notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Election notices. 90.37 Section 90.37 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT ELECTION OF OFFICERS OF THE OSAGE TRIBE Elections § 90.37 Election notices. The election notice shall set forth the place, date and time for...

  15. Neurodynamics of an election.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Armando Freitas; Rocha, Fábio Theoto; Burattini, Marcelo Nascimento; Massad, Eduardo

    2010-09-10

    Variables influencing decision-making in real settings, as in the case of voting decisions, are uncontrollable and in many times even unknown to the experimenter. In this case, the experimenter has to study the intention to decide (vote) as close as possible in time to the moment of the real decision (election day). Here, we investigated the brain activity associated with the voting intention declared 1 week before the election day of the Brazilian Firearms Control Referendum about prohibiting the commerce of firearms. Two alliances arose in the Congress to run the campaigns for YES (for the prohibition of firearm commerce) and NO (against the prohibition of firearm commerce) voting. Time constraints imposed by the necessity of studying a reasonable number (here, 32) of voters during a very short time (5 days) made the EEG the tool of choice for recording the brain activity associated with voting decision. Recent fMRI and EEG studies have shown decision-making as a process due to the enrollment of defined neuronal networks. In this work, a special EEG technique is applied to study the topology of the voting decision-making networks and is compared to the results of standard ERP procedures. The results show that voting decision-making enrolled networks in charge of calculating the benefits and risks of the decision of prohibiting or allowing firearm commerce and that the topology of such networks was vote- (i.e., YES/NO-) sensitive.

  16. Women, Politics, Elections, and Citizenship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Gerald R.

    2000-01-01

    Outlines the historical development of women's legal and political status in the United States, focusing on suffrage, the three "waves" of women's movements, and access to elected office. Discusses three impediments of electing women candidates to public office: (1) solidarity; (2) political culture; and (3) the impact of the single-member…

  17. Successful Community College Election Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, D. Brian

    This study identifies successful election strategies employed by community colleges in bond issues or tax levy increase elections, and distills these strategies into a list of principles or rules that can be utilized by colleges in preparing for such an event. Results of case studies conducted at Maricopa (Arizona), Santa Monica (California), and…

  18. Bayesian Inference on Proportional Elections

    PubMed Central

    Brunello, Gabriel Hideki Vatanabe; Nakano, Eduardo Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Polls for majoritarian voting systems usually show estimates of the percentage of votes for each candidate. However, proportional vote systems do not necessarily guarantee the candidate with the most percentage of votes will be elected. Thus, traditional methods used in majoritarian elections cannot be applied on proportional elections. In this context, the purpose of this paper was to perform a Bayesian inference on proportional elections considering the Brazilian system of seats distribution. More specifically, a methodology to answer the probability that a given party will have representation on the chamber of deputies was developed. Inferences were made on a Bayesian scenario using the Monte Carlo simulation technique, and the developed methodology was applied on data from the Brazilian elections for Members of the Legislative Assembly and Federal Chamber of Deputies in 2010. A performance rate was also presented to evaluate the efficiency of the methodology. Calculations and simulations were carried out using the free R statistical software. PMID:25786259

  19. Elective Reading Course for Grades 7-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Kathy

    The program of studies for a reading elective course for avid or potentially avid readers at the junior high school level contained in this guide represents an attempt to address problems experienced by young adult readers. The program would provide time for them to read, and it would allow students the opportunity to value reading whether it be…

  20. Intra-Operative Fluid Management in Adult Neurosurgical Patients Undergoing Intracranial Tumour Surgery: Randomised Control Trial Comparing Pulse Pressure Variance (PPV) and Central Venous Pressure (CVP)

    PubMed Central

    Salins, Serina Ruth; Kumar, Amar Nandha; Korula, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Fluid management in neurosurgery presents specific challenges to the anaesthesiologist. Dynamic para-meters like Pulse Pressure Variation (PPV) have been used successfully to guide fluid management. Aim To compare PPV against Central Venous Pressure (CVP) in neurosurgical patients to assess hemodynamic stability and perfusion status. Materials and Methods This was a single centre prospective randomised control trial at a tertiary care centre. A total of 60 patients undergoing intracranial tumour excision in supine and lateral positions were randomised to two groups (Group 1, CVP n=30), (Group 2, PPV n=30). Intra-operative fluid management was titrated to maintain baseline CVP in Group 1(5-10cm of water) and in Group 2 fluids were given to maintain PPV less than 13%. Acid base status, vital signs and blood loss were monitored. Results Although intra-operative hypotension and acid base changes were comparable between the groups, the patients in the CVP group had more episodes of hypotension requiring fluid boluses in the first 24 hours post surgery. {CVP group median (25, 75) 2400ml (1850, 3110) versus PPV group 2100ml (1350, 2200) p=0.03} The patients in the PPV group received more fluids than the CVP group which was clinically significant. {2250 ml (1500, 3000) versus 1500ml (1200, 2000) median (25, 75) (p=0.002)}. The blood loss was not significantly different between the groups The median blood loss in the CVP group was 600ml and in the PPV group was 850 ml; p value 0.09. Conclusion PPV can be used as a reliable index to guide fluid management in neurosurgical patients undergoing tumour excision surgery in supine and lateral positions and can effectively augment CVP as a guide to fluid management. Patients in PPV group had better hemodynamic stability and less post operative fluid requirement. PMID:27437329

  1. 29 CFR 452.103 - Primary elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Primary elections. 452.103 Section 452.103 Labor... STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.103 Primary elections. The...

  2. 5 CFR 2422.28 - Runoff elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Runoff elections. 2422.28 Section 2422.28... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY REPRESENTATION PROCEEDINGS § 2422.28 Runoff elections. (a) When a runoff may be held. A runoff election is required in an election involving at least three (3) choices, one...

  3. 5 CFR 850.203 - Other elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other elections. 850.203 Section 850.203...) RETIREMENT SYSTEMS MODERNIZATION Applications for Benefits; Elections § 850.203 Other elections. (a) Any other election may be effected in such form as the Director prescribes under § 850.104. Such...

  4. 5 CFR 847.421 - Election requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Election requirements. 847.421 Section... (CONTINUED) ELECTIONS OF RETIREMENT COVERAGE BY CURRENT AND FORMER EMPLOYEES OF NONAPPROPRIATED FUND INSTRUMENTALITIES Elections of Coverage Under the Retroactive Provisions Elections to Remain in Fers Coverage...

  5. 28 CFR 51.17 - Special elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special elections. 51.17 Section 51.17... THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED General Provisions § 51.17 Special elections. (a) The conduct of a special election (e.g., an election to fill a vacancy; an initiative, referendum, or...

  6. 5 CFR 1601.13 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elections. 1601.13 Section 1601.13... Future Deposits § 1601.13 Elections. (a) Contribution allocation. Each participant may indicate his or... elections for different sources of contributions; (3) A participant who elects for the first time to...

  7. 5 CFR 842.704 - Election requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Election requirements. 842.704 Section... Election requirements. (a) The election of an alternative form of annuity and evidence of spousal consent... certify that the current spouse presented identification, gave consent to the specific election...

  8. 29 CFR 102.70 - Runoff election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Runoff election. 102.70 Section 102.70 Labor Regulations... Runoff election. (a) The regional director shall conduct a runoff election, without further order of the Board, when an election in which the ballot provided for not less than three choices (i.e., at least...

  9. 5 CFR 2421.20 - Election agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Election agreement. 2421.20 Section 2421... Election agreement. Election agreement means an agreement under part 2422 of this subchapter signed by all... representation election in an appropriate unit....

  10. 12 CFR 269.5 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elections. 269.5 Section 269.5 Banks and... LABOR RELATIONS FOR THE FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS § 269.5 Elections. (a) Once there has been a final... such unit requesting a representation election, an election shall be ordered by the Special Tribunal....

  11. 5 CFR 847.431 - Election requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Election requirements. 847.431 Section... (CONTINUED) ELECTIONS OF RETIREMENT COVERAGE BY CURRENT AND FORMER EMPLOYEES OF NONAPPROPRIATED FUND INSTRUMENTALITIES Elections of Coverage Under the Retroactive Provisions Elections to Remain in Nafi Coverage...

  12. 12 CFR 1261.7 - Election process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Election process. 1261.7 Section 1261.7 Banks... Federal Home Loan Bank Boards of Directors: Eligibility and Elections § 1261.7 Election process. (a... directorships are to be filled in the election, an alphabetical listing of the names of each nominee for...

  13. 25 CFR 90.32 - Election Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election Board. 90.32 Section 90.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT ELECTION OF OFFICERS OF THE OSAGE TRIBE Elections § 90.32 Election Board. The Principal Chief, or in his absence, the Assistant Principal...

  14. 26 CFR 1.936-1 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Elections. 1.936-1 Section 1.936-1 Internal... TAXES Possessions of the United States § 1.936-1 Elections. (a) Making an election. A domestic corporation shall make an election under section 936(e), for any taxable year beginning after December...

  15. 5 CFR 847.411 - Election requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Election requirements. 847.411 Section... (CONTINUED) ELECTIONS OF RETIREMENT COVERAGE BY CURRENT AND FORMER EMPLOYEES OF NONAPPROPRIATED FUND INSTRUMENTALITIES Elections of Coverage Under the Retroactive Provisions Elections of Csrs Or Fers Coverage Based...

  16. 5 CFR 847.441 - Election requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Election requirements. 847.441 Section... (CONTINUED) ELECTIONS OF RETIREMENT COVERAGE BY CURRENT AND FORMER EMPLOYEES OF NONAPPROPRIATED FUND INSTRUMENTALITIES Elections of Coverage Under the Retroactive Provisions Elections of Nafi Coverage Based on A...

  17. 5 CFR 847.303 - Election forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Election forms. 847.303 Section 847.303...) ELECTIONS OF RETIREMENT COVERAGE BY CURRENT AND FORMER EMPLOYEES OF NONAPPROPRIATED FUND INSTRUMENTALITIES Procedures for Elections Under the Retroactive Provisions § 847.303 Election forms. (a) Eligible...

  18. 25 CFR 90.47 - Contesting elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contesting elections. 90.47 Section 90.47 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT ELECTION OF OFFICERS OF THE OSAGE TRIBE Elections § 90.47 Contesting elections. Any unsuccessful candidate may before noon on Monday...

  19. 25 CFR 81.8 - Election board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election board. 81.8 Section 81.8 Indians BUREAU OF... STATUTE § 81.8 Election board. (a) There shall be an election board consisting of the officer in charge... the board. (b) It shall be the duty of the board to conduct elections in compliance with...

  20. 29 CFR 452.119 - Indirect elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indirect elections. 452.119 Section 452.119 Labor... STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.119 Indirect elections. National...

  1. 5 CFR 850.202 - Survivor elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Survivor elections. 850.202 Section 850... (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT SYSTEMS MODERNIZATION Applications for Benefits; Elections § 850.202 Survivor elections. (a) A survivor election under subsection (j) or (k) of section 8339, or under section 8416,...

  2. 32 CFR 48.205 - Election form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RETIRED SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Election of Options § 48.205 Election form. The form for making election after October 31, 1968, is prescribed as Election of Options, Retired Serviceman's Family...

  3. 32 CFR 48.205 - Election form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RETIRED SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Election of Options § 48.205 Election form. The form for making election after October 31, 1968, is prescribed as Election of Options, Retired Serviceman's Family...

  4. 32 CFR 48.205 - Election form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RETIRED SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Election of Options § 48.205 Election form. The form for making election after October 31, 1968, is prescribed as Election of Options, Retired Serviceman's Family...

  5. 32 CFR 48.205 - Election form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RETIRED SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Election of Options § 48.205 Election form. The form for making election after October 31, 1968, is prescribed as Election of Options, Retired Serviceman's Family...

  6. 32 CFR 48.205 - Election form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RETIRED SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Election of Options § 48.205 Election form. The form for making election after October 31, 1968, is prescribed as Election of Options, Retired Serviceman's Family...

  7. 12 CFR 1261.8 - Election process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Election process. 1261.8 Section 1261.8 Banks... Federal Home Loan Bank Boards of Directors: Eligibility and Elections § 1261.8 Election process. (a... directorships are to be filled in the election, an alphabetical listing of the names of each nominee for...

  8. 12 CFR 1261.8 - Election process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Election process. 1261.8 Section 1261.8 Banks... Federal Home Loan Bank Boards of Directors: Eligibility and Elections § 1261.8 Election process. (a... directorships are to be filled in the election, an alphabetical listing of the names of each nominee for...

  9. 5 CFR 1601.13 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elections. 1601.13 Section 1601.13... Future Deposits § 1601.13 Elections. (a) Contribution allocation. Each participant may indicate his or... elections for different sources of contributions; (3) A participant who elects for the first time to...

  10. 25 CFR 90.47 - Contesting elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Contesting elections. 90.47 Section 90.47 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT ELECTION OF OFFICERS OF THE OSAGE TRIBE Elections § 90.47 Contesting elections. Any unsuccessful candidate may before noon on Monday...

  11. Elective Delivery Before 39 Weeks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Delivery, and Postpartum Care Elective Delivery Before 39 Weeks • What is a “medically indicated” delivery? • What is ... the baby grow and develop during the last weeks of pregnancy? • What are the risks for babies ...

  12. Quantum leader election

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganz, Maor

    2017-03-01

    A group of n individuals A1,ldots An who do not trust each other and are located far away from each other, want to select a leader. This is the leader election problem, a natural extension of the coin flipping problem to n players. We want a protocol which will guarantee that an honest player will have at least 1/n-ɛ chance of winning (forall ɛ >0), regardless of what the other players do (whether they are honest, cheating alone or in groups). It is known to be impossible classically. This work gives a simple algorithm that does it, based on the weak coin flipping protocol with arbitrarily small bias derived by Mochon (Quantum weak coin flipping with arbitrarily small bias, arXiv:0711.4114, 2000) in 2007, and recently published and simplified in Aharonov et al. (SIAM J Comput, 2016). A protocol with linear number of coin flipping rounds is quite simple to achieve; we further provide an improvement to logarithmic number of coin flipping rounds. This is a much improved journal version of a preprint posted in 2009; the first protocol with linear number of rounds was achieved independently also by Aharon and Silman (New J Phys 12:033027, 2010) around the same time.

  13. Anaesthesia for elective neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Dinsmore, J

    2007-07-01

    Neuroanaesthesia continues to develop and expand. It is a speciality where the knowledge and expertise of the anaesthetist can directly influence patient outcome. Evolution of neurosurgical practice is accompanied by new challenges for the anaesthetist. Increasingly, we must think not only as an anaesthetist but also as a neurosurgeon and neurologist. With the focus on functional and minimally invasive procedures, there is an increased emphasis on the provision of optimal operative conditions, preservation of neurocognitive function, minimizing interference with electrophysiological monitoring, and a rapid, high-quality recovery. Small craniotomies, intraoperative imaging, stereotactic interventions, and endoscopic procedures increase surgical precision and minimize trauma to normal tissues. The result should be quicker recovery, minimal perioperative morbidity, and reduced hospital stay. One of the peculiarities of neuroanaesthesia has always been that as much importance is attached to wakening the patient as sending them to sleep. With the increasing popularity of awake craniotomies, there is even more emphasis on this skill. However, despite high-quality anaesthetic research and advances in drugs and monitoring modalities, many controversies remain regarding best clinical practice. This review will discuss some of the current controversies in elective neurosurgical practice, future perspectives, and the place of awake craniotomies in the armamentarium of the neuroanaesthetist.

  14. Adult lipids associated with early life growth in traditional Melanesian societies undergoing rapid modernization: a longitudinal study of the mid-20th century.

    PubMed

    Weitz, Charles A; Friedlaender, Françoise Y; Friedlaender, Jonathan S

    2014-04-01

    Both poor fetal development and accelerated post-natal growth have been linked to adult dyslipidemias in many studies conducted in developed societies. It is not known, however, whether these relationships only characterize populations with typical Western diets or if they also may develop in groups at the early stages of a dietary transition. Our longitudinal study of traditional rural populations in the Southwest Pacific during a period of extremely rapid modernization in diet and life-styles shows a nascent association between child growth retardation, subsequent growth acceleration, and adult lipid values in spite of a continuing prevalence of very low lipid levels. However, our results do not entirely conform to results from populations with "modern" diets. Outcome (i.e., young adult) cholesterol and triglyceride levels are more consistently related to initial measures of body fat and growth in body fat measures than with stature, while outcome apo A-1 is more consistently related to initial stature or stature growth than to measures of body fat. We suggest this may reflect a pattern characteristic of the initial stages of "modernization" associated with dietary change, with stronger and more pervasive relationships emerging only later as populations complete the dietary transition.

  15. NMDA receptor subunits in the adult rat hippocampus undergo similar changes after 5 minutes in an open field and after LTP induction.

    PubMed

    Baez, Maria Veronica; Oberholzer, Maria Victoria; Cercato, Magali Cecilia; Snitcofsky, Marina; Aguirre, Alejandra Ines; Jerusalinsky, Diana Alicia

    2013-01-01

    NMDA receptor subunits change during development and their synaptic expression is modified rapidly after synaptic plasticity induction in hippocampal slices. However, there is scarce information on subunits expression after synaptic plasticity induction or memory acquisition, particularly in adults. GluN1, GluN2A and GluN2B NMDA receptor subunits were assessed by western blot in 1) adult rats that had explored an open field (OF) for 5 minutes, a time sufficient to induce habituation, 2) mature rat hippocampal neuron cultures depolarized by KCl and 3) hippocampal slices from adult rats where long term potentiation (LTP) was induced by theta-burst stimulation (TBS). GluN1 and GluN2A, though not GluN2B, were significantly higher 70 minutes--but not 30 minutes--after a 5 minutes session in an OF. GluN1 and GluN2A total immunofluorescence and puncta in neurites increased in cultures, as evaluated 70 minutes after KCl stimulation. Similar changes were found in hippocampal slices 70 minutes after LTP induction. To start to explore underlying mechanisms, hippocampal slices were treated either with cycloheximide (a translation inhibitor) or actinomycin D (a transcription inhibitor) during electrophysiological assays. It was corroborated that translation was necessary for LTP induction and expression. The rise in GluN1 depends on transcription and translation, while the increase in GluN2A appears to mainly depend on translation, though a contribution of some remaining transcriptional activity during actinomycin D treatment could not be rouled out. LTP effective induction was required for the subunits to increase. Although in the three models same subunits suffered modifications in the same direction, within an apparently similar temporal course, further investigation is required to reveal if they are related processes and to find out whether they are causally related with synaptic plasticity, learning and memory.

  16. A Study of Global Health Elective Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Russ, Christiana M.; Tran, Tony; Silverman, Melanie; Palfrey, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: To identify the effects of global health electives over a decade in a pediatric residency program. Methods: This was an anonymous email survey of the Boston Combined Residency alumni funded for global health electives from 2002 to 2011. A test for trend in binomial proportions and logistic regression were used to document associations between elective and participant characteristics and the effects of the electives. Qualitative data were also analyzed. Results: Of the 104 alumni with available email addresses, 69 (66%) responded, describing 94 electives. Elective products included 27 curricula developed, 11 conference presentations, and 7 academic publications. Thirty-two (46%) alumni continued global health work. Previous experience, previous travel to the site, number of global electives, and cumulative global elective time were associated with postresidency work in global health or with the underserved. Conclusions: Resident global electives resulted in significant scholarship and teaching and contributed to long-term career trajectories. PMID:28229096

  17. Elastase, α1-proteinase inhibitor, and interleukin-8 in children and young adults with end-stage kidney disease undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Polańska, Bożena; Augustyniak, Daria; Makulska, Irena; Niemczuk, Maria; Jankowski, Adam; Zwolińska, Danuta

    2014-06-01

    Peritoneal dialysis is one of the main modality of treatment in end-stage kidney diseases (ESKD) in children. In our previous work in chronic kidney disease patients, in pre-dialyzed period and on hemodialysis, the neutrophils were highly activated. The aim of this study was to assess an inflammatory condition and neutrophil activation in ESKD patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Thirteen CAPD patients without infection, both sexes, aged 2.5-24 years, and group of healthy subjects (C) were studied. For comparative purposes the conservatively treated (CT) group of ESKD patients was included. Neutrophil elastase in complex with α1-proteinase inhibitor (NE-α1PI; ELISA), α1-proteinase inhibitor (α1PI; radial immunodiffusion) and interleukin-8 (IL-8; ELISA) were measured in the blood samples from CAPD, CT, and C group and in the peritoneal dialysate fluid (PDF) samples of patients on CAPD. A significantly increased plasma NE-α1PI levels (median 176.5 μg/L, range 85.2-373.2 μg/L; p < 0.00005), serum IL-8 (median 18.6 pg/mL, range 15.73-35.28 pg/mL; p < 0.05), and slightly decreased serum α1PI (median 1,540 mg/L, range 1,270-1,955; p ≤ 0.05) compared to the control groups were found. There were no significant differences of analyzed parameters between CAPD and CT patients. The concentration ratio of NE-α1PI, α1PI and IL-8 in blood/PDF was 29.97, 8.24, and 4.48, respectively. There were significantly positive correlations between serum and PDF concentration of α1PI and IL-8 (r = 0.613, p < 0.05; r = 0.59; p < 0.005, respectively). The results of our study demonstrate that neutrophils are highly activated in non-infected CAPD patients. The pivotal marker of this activation is NE-α1PI. It may contribute to chronic inflammation and tissues injury.

  18. A psychodynamic perspective on elections.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Norman A

    2010-11-01

    In a democracy, elections are the way in which the collective thought processes of the voters arrive at a decision to direct their government. The author explores how the individual voter assesses and resolves many conflicting internal and external forces to arrive at a vote. The midterm elections of 2010 illustrate the parallel between individual resolution of conflicting forces and the process of a campaign leading to the outcome of an election. The psychodynamic concepts of conflict and compromise, affects, aggression, unconscious forces, mechanisms of defense, superego, and the ego's integrative functions are evident in both the individual voter and the collective electoral process. The author expresses concern about the historical vulnerability of democracies and the unbalancing effect of allowing limitless infusion of anonymous corporate money to pour into campaigns.

  19. Effects of different degrees of insulin resistance on endothelial function in obese adults undergoing alternate day fasting

    PubMed Central

    Hoddy, Kristin K.; Bhutani, Surabhi; Phillips, Shane A.; Varady, Krista A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity can have deleterious effects on insulin sensitivity leading to endothelial dysfunction. Whether alternate day fasting (ADF) can ameliorate insulin sensitivity in a way that improves endothelial function remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the impact of ADF on endothelium dependent flow mediated dilation (FMD) in obese subjects with different degrees of insulin resistance. METHODS: Obese non-diabetic adults (n = 54) participated in an 8-week ADF protocol (25% energy intake “fast day”, alternated with ad libitum intake “feast day”). Subjects were divided into tertiles according to degree of insulin resistance based on HOMA-IR (Homeostatic model assessment-Insulin resistance): tertile 1 (0.8–2.4), tertile 2 (2.5–3.6), tertile 3 (3.7–12.4). RESULTS: Body weight decreased (P < 0.001) by 4% in each tertile. Fat mass, lean mass, and visceral fat mass also decreased (P < 0.001) similarly in each tertile. After 8 weeks of ADF, FMD and adiponectin differed (P < 0.05) between tertile 1 (3±0%; 26±23%) versus tertile 3 (–3±0%; –13±10%). Changes in leptin did not differ between tertiles (tertile 1: –23±7%; tertile 2: –20±7%; tertile 3: –9±7%). Fasting glucose did not change in any tertile. Fasting insulin and HOMA-IR differed (P < 0.05) between tertile 1 (10±11%; 11±11%) versus tertile 3 (–27±8%; –30±9%). Plasma lipids, blood pressure and heart rate did not change in any tertile. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that ADF may be effective for decreasing insulin resistance in insulin resistant subjects, but these changes have no effect on endothelial function. PMID:28035343

  20. Effects of different degrees of insulin resistance on endothelial function in obese adults undergoing alternate day fasting.

    PubMed

    Hoddy, Kristin K; Bhutani, Surabhi; Phillips, Shane A; Varady, Krista A

    2016-10-27

    BACKGROUND: Obesity can have deleterious effects on insulin sensitivity leading to endothelial dysfunction. Whether alternate day fasting (ADF) can ameliorate insulin sensitivity in a way that improves endothelial function remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the impact of ADF on endothelium dependent flow mediated dilation (FMD) in obese subjects with different degrees of insulin resistance. METHODS: Obese non-diabetic adults (n = 54) participated in an 8-week ADF protocol (25% energy intake "fast day", alternated with ad libitum intake "feast day"). Subjects were divided into tertiles according to degree of insulin resistance based on HOMA-IR (Homeostatic model assessment-Insulin resistance): tertile 1 (0.8-2.4), tertile 2 (2.5-3.6), tertile 3 (3.7-12.4). RESULTS: Body weight decreased (P < 0.001) by 4% in each tertile. Fat mass, lean mass, and visceral fat mass also decreased (P < 0.001) similarly in each tertile. After 8 weeks of ADF, FMD and adiponectin differed (P < 0.05) between tertile 1 (3±0%; 26±23%) versus tertile 3 (-3±0%; -13±10%). Changes in leptin did not differ between tertiles (tertile 1: -23±7%; tertile 2: -20±7%; tertile 3: -9±7%). Fasting glucose did not change in any tertile. Fasting insulin and HOMA-IR differed (P < 0.05) between tertile 1 (10±11%; 11±11%) versus tertile 3 (-27±8%; -30±9%). Plasma lipids, blood pressure and heart rate did not change in any tertile. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that ADF may be effective for decreasing insulin resistance in insulin resistant subjects, but these changes have no effect on endothelial function.

  1. Eating habits of a population undergoing a rapid dietary transition: portion sizes of traditional and non-traditional foods and beverages consumed by Inuit adults in Nunavut, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine the portion sizes of traditional and non-traditional foods being consumed by Inuit adults in three remote communities in Nunavut, Canada. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between June and October, 2008. Trained field workers collected dietary data using a culturally appropriate, validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ) developed specifically for the study population. Results Caribou, muktuk (whale blubber and skin) and Arctic char (salmon family), were the most commonly consumed traditional foods; mean portion sizes for traditional foods ranged from 10 g for fermented seal fat to 424 g for fried caribou. Fried bannock and white bread were consumed by >85% of participants; mean portion sizes for these foods were 189 g and 70 g, respectively. Sugar-sweetened beverages and energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods were also widely consumed. Mean portion sizes for regular pop and sweetened juices with added sugar were 663 g and 572 g, respectively. Mean portion sizes for potato chips, pilot biscuits, cakes, chocolate and cookies were 59 g, 59 g, 106 g, 59 g, and 46 g, respectively. Conclusions The present study provides further evidence of the nutrition transition that is occurring among Inuit in the Canadian Arctic. It also highlights a number of foods and beverages that could be targeted in future nutritional intervention programs aimed at obesity and diet-related chronic disease prevention in these and other Inuit communities. PMID:23724920

  2. Association Between Single Gene Polymorphisms and Bone Biomarkers and Response to Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation in Young Adults Undergoing Military Training.

    PubMed

    Gaffney-Stomberg, Erin; Lutz, Laura J; Shcherbina, Anna; Ricke, Darrell O; Petrovick, Martha; Cropper, Thomas L; Cable, Sonya J; McClung, James P

    2017-03-01

    Initial military training (IMT) is associated with increased stress fracture risk. In prior studies, supplemental calcium (Ca) and vitamin D provided daily throughout IMT reduced stress fracture incidence, suppressed parathyroid hormone (PTH), and improved measures of bone health compared with placebo. Data were analyzed from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Ca and vitamin D-related genes were associated with circulating biomarkers of bone metabolism in young adults entering IMT, and whether responses to Ca and vitamin D supplementation were modulated by genotype. Associations between SNPs, including vitamin D receptor (VDR), vitamin D binding protein (DBP), and 1-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), and circulating biomarkers were measured in fasting blood samples from volunteers (n = 748) starting IMT. Volunteers were block randomized by race and sex to receive Ca (2000 mg) and vitamin D (1000 IU) or placebo daily throughout Army or Air Force IMT (7 to 9 weeks). Total Ca and vitamin D intakes were calculated as the sum of supplemental intake based on intervention compliance and dietary intake. Relationships between SNPs, Ca, and vitamin D intake tertile and change in biomarkers were evaluated in trial completers (n = 391). At baseline, the minor allele of a DBP SNP (rs7041) was positively associated with both 25OHD (B = 4.46, p = 1.97E-10) and 1,25(OH)2 D3 (B = 9.63, p < 0.001). Combined genetic risk score (GRS) for this SNP and a second SNP in the VDR gene (rs1544410) was inversely associated with baseline 25OHD (r = -0.28, p < 0.001) and response to Ca and vitamin D intake differed by GRS (p < 0.05). In addition, presence of the minor allele of a second VDR SNP (rs2228570) was associated with lower P1NP (B = -4.83, p = 0.04) and osteocalcin (B = -0.59, p = 0.03). These data suggest that VDR and DBP SNPs are associated with 25OHD

  3. 42 CFR 422.60 - Election process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Eligibility, Election, and Enrollment § 422.60 Election process. (a) Acceptance of enrollees: General rule. (1) Except for the limitations on enrollment in an MA...

  4. Drama: A Junior High Elective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheeley, Stuart L.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a junior high school program offering drama as a course elective. Cites fairy tales, and Western or melodramatic plays as most effective for student involvement; recommends avoiding those about teenagers. Notes educational advantages of this program for handicapped, special education, disruptive, and low reading skills students. (JG)

  5. Visualizing Elections Using Saari Triangles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfaro, Ricardo; Han, Lixing; Schilling, Kenneth; Birgen, Mariah

    2010-01-01

    Students sometimes have difficulty calculating the result of a voting system applied to a particular set of voter preference lists. Saari triangles offer a way to visualize the result of an election and make this calculation easier in the case of several important voting systems.

  6. Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-08

    Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks Congressional Research Service 2 Kirkuk ( Tamim province) will join the Kurdish region (Article 140); designation...security control over areas inhabited by Kurds, and the Kurds’ claim that the province of Tamim (Kirkuk) be formally integrated into the KRG. These

  7. Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    referendum on whether Kirkuk ( Tamim province) would join the Kurdish region (Article 140); designation of Islam as “a Iraq: Politics, Elections, and...1 Sulaymaniyah 17 Kurdistan Alliance: 8; other Kurds: 9 Kirkuk ( Tamim ) 12 Iraqiyya: 6; Kurdistan Alliance: 6 Babil 16 Maliki: 8; INA: 5

  8. Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-15

    referendum on whether . Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks Congressional Research Service 2 Kirkuk ( Tamim province) would join the Kurdish...areas inhabited by Kurds, and the Kurds’ claim that the province of Tamim (Kirkuk) be formally integrated into the KRG. These disputes were aggravated

  9. Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-28

    Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks Congressional Research Service 2 Kirkuk ( Tamim province) would join the Kurdish region (Article 140...18 Maliki: 8; INA: 9; Iraqiyya: 1 Sulaymaniyah 17 Kurdistan Alliance: 8; other Kurds: 9 Kirkuk ( Tamim ) 12 Iraqiyya: 6; Kurdistan Alliance: 6

  10. Fiscal Worries Shadow State Elections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that the new class of governors and state legislators to be elected November 4 will inherit financial problems that pose both immediate and long-term threats to existing education programs, while constraining their ability to mount new initiatives. The prospect of a deepening economic slowdown--with state-level budget deficits…

  11. Comparative Elections: Building a Basic Reference Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalen, James E.

    2001-01-01

    This annotated bibliography focuses on resources for the study of international elections and electoral systems and outcomes that will be useful for collection development and for answering reference questions about foreign elections. Discusses comparative politics, comparative elections, and possible electoral reform. (LRW)

  12. Elections and Social Conflict in Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    democratic process will be allowed to take its course. In countries that lack these traits , elections have often led to violence. In the Democratic...participation. While elections are COUNTRY ELECTION DATE DEATHS Kenya December, 2007 1502 South Africa April, 1994 239 Nigeria April, 2007 226 Cote

  13. Teaching Elections in a Secondary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulzki, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Social studies teachers can certainly teach about elections at any time, but in light of the importance of a presidential election, this once-every-four-year civic extravaganza should not be missed! With the election of 2016 coming in the fall, it provides rich opportunities for discussions, classroom lessons, and community service opportunities…

  14. School, Community Leadership, and Election Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ann

    2008-01-01

    This article examines how the political structure of school elections contributes to leadership perspectives related to school-community engagement. Interview data from school superintendents, school board presidents, and city mayors across four cities and two election types were analyzed to determine if differences in school election structure…

  15. 29 CFR 44.3 - Election process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Election process. 44.3 Section 44.3 Labor Office of the... WITH DEPARTMENT OF LABOR § 44.3 Election process. (a) Process. The Commissioner of Labor Statistics of... shall conduct the elections. The Commissioner shall provide a ballot containing the names of...

  16. 10 CFR 706.11 - Consent elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consent elections. 706.11 Section 706.11 Energy DEPARTMENT... and Procedures in National Labor Relations Board Proceedings § 706.11 Consent elections. In accordance... determine bargaining units and representatives by agreement and consent elections in preference to...

  17. 5 CFR 2422.23 - Election procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Election procedures. 2422.23 Section 2422... OF THE FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY REPRESENTATION PROCEEDINGS § 2422.23 Election procedures. (a) Regional Director conducts or supervises election. The Regional Director will decide to conduct...

  18. 25 CFR 81.14 - Election notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election notices. 81.14 Section 81.14 Indians BUREAU OF... STATUTE § 81.14 Election notices. Not less than 30 nor more than 60 days notice shall be given of the date of the election. Such notice shall include the location of where the results will be posted....

  19. 5 CFR 870.1103 - Election procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Election procedures. 870.1103 Section 870... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Living Benefits § 870.1103 Election procedures... individual has cashed or deposited the payment, the Living Benefit election becomes effective and cannot...

  20. School Board Election Structure and Democratic Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ann; Plank, David N.

    2005-01-01

    Policies governing the organization and timing of school elections affect democratic representation in school decision making. Some argue that school board elections should be consolidated with general municipal elections on the grounds that this will increase participation and representation, but little empirical work addresses the consequences…

  1. New England Takes Stock of Midterm Elections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, John O.; Morwick, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    The recent midterm elections brought New England two new governors. Rhode Island elected its first woman chief executive in Gina Raimondo (D). Massachusetts elected Charlie Baker (R), a former Harvard Pilgrim CEO and official in the Weld and Cellucci administrations. Otherwise, the New England corner offices cautiously welcomed back incumbents:…

  2. 75 FR 32273 - Representation Election Procedure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... 29 CFR Parts 1202 and 1206 RIN 3140-ZA00 Representation Election Procedure AGENCY: National Mediation... delaying the effective date of its rule regarding representation election procedures from June 10, 2010 to... Representation Election Procedure Rule have been made. The NMB will notify participants if there are any...

  3. Speak Out (K-8) [and] Election '80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    These two teaching guides contain step-by-step procedures for an election education program in which all Illinois school children vote for and elect a State animal. The program, mandated by the Illinois State Legislature, is intended to provide students with the unique opportunity to learn about the entire election process through actual voting…

  4. Teaching about Primary Elections with the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2004-01-01

    One topic that is frequently taught at any and all grade levels is elections, particularly during presidential election years. There are numerous organizations that produce materials and maintain websites to help students at all grade levels learn about and even participate in mock election activities. There is, however, one aspect of elections…

  5. 29 CFR 452.29 - Primary elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Primary elections. 452.29 Section 452.29 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS... OF 1959 Frequency and Kinds of Elections § 452.29 Primary elections. Where a union holds...

  6. Presidential Election '80 and the Past Presidents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolger, Charlene

    Activities in this elementary school unit about the 1980 presidential election can easily be adapted to any election. Fact sheets list the main functions of the president, 10 steps in becoming president, qualifications for the presidency, qualifications and duties of the vice president, election vocabulary, an explanation of the electoral college,…

  7. Elective and emergent operative management of ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Amanda M

    2007-06-01

    Surgical therapy of ulcerative colitis is effective, safe, and provides an improved quality of life in those whose disease cannot be managed medically. In the elective setting, widespread acceptance of restorative proctocolectomy has made surgical therapy an attractive option in the overall management of ulcerative colitis. Enthusiasm for this procedure should be tempered by the acknowledgment of the significant incidence of pouchitis in the long term, however. Proctocolectomy with ileostomy remains a good surgical option for patients who are unsuitable for restorative procedures. The standard therapy for fulminant colitis or toxic megacolon remains subtotal colectomy with ileostomy. Patients undergoing subtotal colectomy are candidates for conversion to restorative procedures.

  8. Pharmacokinetic and Maximum Tolerated Dose Study of Micafungin in Combination with Fluconazole versus Fluconazole Alone for Prophylaxis of Fungal Infections in Adult Patients Undergoing a Bone Marrow or Peripheral Stem Cell Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Hiemenz, J.; Cagnoni, P.; Simpson, D.; Devine, S.; Chao, N.; Keirns, J.; Lau, W.; Facklam, D.; Buell, D.

    2005-01-01

    In this dose escalation study, 74 adult cancer patients undergoing bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation received fluconazole (400 mg/day) and either normal saline (control) (12 subjects) or micafungin (12.5 to 200 mg/day) (62 subjects) for up to 4 weeks. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of micafungin was not reached, based on the development of Southwest Oncology Group criteria for grade 3 toxicity; drug-related toxicities were rare. Commonly occurring adverse events considered related to micafungin were headache (6.8%), arthralgia (6.8%), hypophosphatemia (4.1%), insomnia (4.1%), maculopapular rash (4.1%), and rash (4.1%). Pharmacokinetic profiles for micafungin on days 1 and 7 were similar. The mean half-life was approximately 13 h, with little variance after repeated or increasing doses. Mean maximum concentrations of the drug in serum and areas under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h were approximately proportional to dose. There was no clinical or kinetic evidence of interaction between micafungin and fluconazole. Five of 12 patients (42%) in the control group and 14 of 62 (23%) in the micafungin-plus-fluconazole groups had a suspected fungal infection during treatment which resulted in empirical treatment with amphotericin B. The combination of micafungin and fluconazole was found to be safe in this high-risk patient population. The MTD of micafungin was not reached even at doses up to 200 mg/day for 4 weeks. The pharmacokinetic profile of micafungin in adult cancer patients with blood or marrow transplants is consistent with the profile in healthy volunteers, and the area under the curve is proportional to dose. PMID:15793107

  9. Pharmacokinetic and maximum tolerated dose study of micafungin in combination with fluconazole versus fluconazole alone for prophylaxis of fungal infections in adult patients undergoing a bone marrow or peripheral stem cell transplant.

    PubMed

    Hiemenz, J; Cagnoni, P; Simpson, D; Devine, S; Chao, N; Keirns, J; Lau, W; Facklam, D; Buell, D

    2005-04-01

    In this dose escalation study, 74 adult cancer patients undergoing bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation received fluconazole (400 mg/day) and either normal saline (control) (12 subjects) or micafungin (12.5 to 200 mg/day) (62 subjects) for up to 4 weeks. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of micafungin was not reached, based on the development of Southwest Oncology Group criteria for grade 3 toxicity; drug-related toxicities were rare. Commonly occurring adverse events considered related to micafungin were headache (6.8%), arthralgia (6.8%), hypophosphatemia (4.1%), insomnia (4.1%), maculopapular rash (4.1%), and rash (4.1%). Pharmacokinetic profiles for micafungin on days 1 and 7 were similar. The mean half-life was approximately 13 h, with little variance after repeated or increasing doses. Mean maximum concentrations of the drug in serum and areas under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h were approximately proportional to dose. There was no clinical or kinetic evidence of interaction between micafungin and fluconazole. Five of 12 patients (42%) in the control group and 14 of 62 (23%) in the micafungin-plus-fluconazole groups had a suspected fungal infection during treatment which resulted in empirical treatment with amphotericin B. The combination of micafungin and fluconazole was found to be safe in this high-risk patient population. The MTD of micafungin was not reached even at doses up to 200 mg/day for 4 weeks. The pharmacokinetic profile of micafungin in adult cancer patients with blood or marrow transplants is consistent with the profile in healthy volunteers, and the area under the curve is proportional to dose.

  10. Nuclear technology requires free elections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Synek, Miroslav

    1999-10-01

    The historical development on our planet has reached a powerful technology of nuclear intercontinental ballistic missiles, conceivably controllable through a computerized ``push-button." If this technology ever falls under the control of an irresponsible, miscalculating, or insane DICTATOR, with powerful means of a mass-produced nuclear built-up, anywhere on our planet, the very SURVIVAL OF ALL HUMANITY on our planet could be threatened. Therefore, it is a historical urgency that this technology is under the control by the people, through a sufficiently secure system of FREE ELECTIONS, in any country, wherever and whenever such a threatening possibility exists. Of course, a starting system of FREE ELECTIONS, even if quite rudimentary, should try to provide for its continuous functioning, with an underlying appropriate freedom of expression and with rules for its continuation, while aiming towards continuous improvements.

  11. Coercion-Resistant Electronic Elections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juels, Ari; Catalano, Dario; Jakobsson, Markus

    We introduce a model for electronic election schemes that involves a more powerful adversary than previous work. In particular, we allow the adversary to demand of coerced voters that they vote in a particular manner, abstain from voting, or even disclose their secret keys. We define a scheme to be coercion-resistant if it is infeasible for the adversary to determine whether a coerced voter complies with the demands.

  12. Did Hurricane Sandy influence the 2012 US presidential election?

    PubMed

    Hart, Joshua

    2014-07-01

    Despite drawing on a common pool of data, observers of the 2012 presidential campaign came to different conclusions about whether, how, and to what extent "October surprise" Hurricane Sandy influenced the election. The present study used a mixed correlational and experimental design to assess the relation between, and effect of, the salience of Hurricane Sandy on attitudes and voting intentions regarding President Barack Obama and Mitt Romney in a large sample of voting-aged adults. Results suggest that immediately following positive news coverage of Obama's handling of the storm's aftermath, Sandy's salience positively influenced attitudes toward Obama, but that by election day, reminders of the hurricane became a drag instead of a boon for the President. In addition to theoretical implications, this study provides an example of how to combine methodological approaches to help answer questions about the impact of unpredictable, large-scale events as they unfold.

  13. Elective repeat cesarean sections: how many could be vaginal births?

    PubMed Central

    Norman, P; Kostovcik, S; Lanning, A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine (a) the proportion of women undergoing elective repeat cesarean section without a trial of labour who were eligible for such a trial by the 1986 guidelines of the panel of the National Consensus Conference on Aspects of Cesarean Birth, (b) whether vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC) was discussed with these women and (c) the reasons cited for not having a trial of labour. DESIGN: Chart audit. SETTING: Level 2 perinatal care centre in a general teaching hospital. PATIENTS: All 313 women with a history of previous cesarean section who gave birth at the centre during 1989. RESULTS: Only 93 (30%) of the 313 women underwent a trial of labour. According to the 1986 guidelines 71% were eligible. A further 13% would have been eligible according to the revised 1991 guidelines. Of the 220 women who underwent elective repeat cesarean section, only 24 (11%) had a discussion of VBAC noted in their hospital charts. However, of all 117 patients whose charts indicated discussion of VBAC 93 (79%) chose to try it. Most of the women had either questionable indications or no indication noted for undergoing repeat cesarean section. CONCLUSION: Most of the women who underwent repeat cesarean section were eligible for a trial of labour. However, few charts noted a discussion of VBAC. Further physician and patient education is necessary to promote the appropriate use of VBAC and repeat cesarean section. PMID:8348425

  14. Modern induced skull deformity in adults.

    PubMed

    Gump, William

    2010-12-01

    The practice of induced skull deformity has long existed in numerous disparate cultures, but for the first time in history it can be applied to adults. While extremely limited in application, some ideas have persisted in the far fringes of modern Western culture with remarkable tenacity. Practitioners of extreme body modification undergo procedures, outside the sphere of traditional medical practice, to make striking, permanent, nontraditional esthetic tissue distortions with the goal of transgressing societal norms. The International Trepanation Advocacy Group represents another example of a fringe cultural movement, whose goal, rather than being purely aesthetic in nature, is to promote elective trepanation as a method for achieving a heightened level of consciousness. Both movements have relatively short and well-defined histories. Despite their tiny numbers of adherents, neurosurgeons may be called on to address relevant patient concerns preprocedurally, or complications postprocedurally, and would benefit from awareness of these peculiar subcultures.

  15. Emergency Major Abdominal Surgical Procedures in Older Adults: A Systematic Review of Mortality and Functional Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Zara; Scott, John W.; Rosenthal, Ronnie A.; Mitchell, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To systematically review the current literature on mortality and functional outcomes after emergency major abdominal surgery in older adults. DESIGN Systematic literature search and standardized data collection of primary research publications from January 1994 through December 2013 on mortality or functional outcome in adults aged 65 and older after emergency major abdominal surgery using PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane, and CINAHL. Bibliographies of relevant reports were also hand-searched to identify all potentially eligible studies. SETTING Systematic review of retrospective and cohort studies using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses, Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology, Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology, and A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews guidelines. PARTICIPANTS Older adults. MEASUREMENTS Articles were assessed using a standardized quality scoring system based on study design, measurement of exposures, measurement of outcomes, and control for confounding. RESULTS Of 1,459 articles screened, 93 underwent full-text review, and 20 were systematically reviewed. In-hospital and 30-day mortality of all older adults exceeded 15% in 14 of 16 studies, where reported. Older adults undergoing emergency major abdominal surgery consistently had higher mortality across study settings and procedure types than younger individuals undergoing emergency procedures and older adults undergoing elective procedures. In studies that stratified older adults, odds of death increased with age. None of these studies examined postoperative functional status, which precluded including functional outcomes in this review. Differences in exposures, outcomes, and data presented in the studies did not allow for quantification of association using metaanalysis. CONCLUSION Age independently predicts mortality after emergency major abdominal surgery. Data on changes in

  16. Randomized Clinical Trial of Therapeutic Music Video Intervention for Resilience Outcomes in Adolescents/Young Adults Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant: A Report from the Children’s Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Robb, Sheri L.; Burns, Debra S.; Stegenga, Kristin A.; Haut, Paul R.; Monahan, Patrick O.; Meza, Jane; Stump, Timothy E.; Cherven, Brooke O.; Docherty, Sharron L.; Hendricks-Ferguson, Verna L.; Kintner, Eileen K.; Haight, Ann E.; Wall, Donna A.; Haase, Joan E.

    2013-01-01

    Background To reduce the risk of adjustment problems associated with Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant (HSCT) for adolescents/young adults (AYA), we examined efficacy of a therapeutic music video (TMV) intervention delivered during the acute phase of HSCT to: (a) increase protective factors of spiritual perspective, social integration, family environment, courageous coping, and hope-derived meaning; (b) decrease risk factors of illness-related distress and defensive coping; and (c) increase outcomes of self-transcendence and resilience. Methods A multi-site, randomized controlled trial (COG-ANUR0631) conducted at 8 Children’s Oncology Group sites involving 113 AYA aged 11–24 years undergoing myeloablative HSCT. Participants, randomized to the TMV or low-dose control (audiobooks) group, completed 6 sessions over 3 weeks with a board-certified music therapist. Variables were based on Haase’s Resilience in Illness Model. Participants completed measures related to latent variables of illness-related distress, social integration, spiritual perspective, family environment, coping, hope-derived meaning and resilience at baseline (T1), post-intervention (T2), and 100-days post-transplant (T3). Results At T2, the TMV group reported significantly better courageous coping (ES=0.505; P=0.030). At T3, the TMV group reported significantly better social integration (ES=0.543; P=.028) and family environment (ES=0.663; P=0.008), as well as moderate non-significant effect sizes for spiritual perspective (E=0.450; P=0.071) and self-transcendence (ES=0.424; P=0.088). Conclusion The TMV intervention improves positive health outcomes of courageous coping, social integration, and family environment during a high risk cancer treatment. We recommend the TMV be examined in a broader population of AYA with high risk cancers. PMID:24469862

  17. Intravenous iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer®) reduces postoperative anaemia in preoperatively non-anaemic patients undergoing elective or subacute coronary artery bypass graft, valve replacement or a combination thereof: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial (the PROTECT trial)

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, P I; Rasmussen, A S; Thomsen, L L

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives This trial explores whether intravenous iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer®) results in a better regeneration of haemoglobin levels and prevents anaemia compared to placebo in preoperative non-anaemic patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Study Design and Methods The trial is a prospective, double-blind, comparative, placebo-controlled trial of 60 non-anaemic patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The patients were randomized 1:1 to either 1000 mg intravenous iron isomaltoside 1000 administered perioperatively by infusion or placebo. Results Mean preoperative haemoglobin in the active treatment group was 14·3 g/dl vs. 14·0 g/dl in the placebo group. At discharge 5 days after surgery, haemoglobin levels were reduced to 10·7 and 10·5 g/dl, respectively. One month after surgery, haemoglobin concentration had increased to an average of 12·6 g/dl vs. 11·8 g/dl (p = 0·012) and significantly more patients were non-anaemic in the intravenous iron isomaltoside 1000-treated group compared to the placebo group (38·5% vs. 8·0%; p = 0·019). There were no differences in side-effects between the groups. Conclusion A single perioperative 1000 mg dose of intravenous iron isomaltoside 1000 significantly increased the haemoglobin level and prevented anaemia 4 weeks after surgery, with a short-term safety profile similar to placebo. Future trials on potential clinical benefits of preoperative treatment with intravenous iron in non-anaemic patients are needed. PMID:25900643

  18. Bowel Preparation before Elective Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anjali S.; Kelleher, Deirdre C.; Sigle, Gavin W.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical bowel preps were initially thought to decrease the bacterial load of the colon and therefore decrease infection. Traditional bowel preps include osmotic, laxative, and combination regimen. Data demonstrate that mechanical bowel preps are generally equivalent; however, the addition of oral antibiotics may further reduce the risk of infection. Recent data suggest that mechanical bowel preparations may not be necessary, and that dietary restrictions before surgery may also be obsolete. In this review, the authors address the types of mechanical bowel preparations (MBPs), differences in outcomes between MBPs, the role of oral antibiosis and enemas, the benefits of no MBP, and dietary preparations for elective colon and rectal surgery. PMID:24436665

  19. Electronic Elections: A Balancing Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezende, Pedro A. D.

    This article aims to share some major lessons learned from the pioneering experience in Brazil with the world's first full national implementation of universal electronic voting. Differing notions of security, and their "collateral entanglements", appear to play a key role and are contrasted in Brazil's pioneering electronic voting saga. After an introduction, we puzzle through what election security may mean. We elaborate on how technological innovations may affect the underlying risks, their nature, corrections and balance. Then we describe some ways in which innovations have been deployed and validated, and how the results are being perceived, before some closing remarks.

  20. Election Consolidation Handbook for School Board Secretaries. Annotated and Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardoni, Ronald S.

    In response to Illinois's consolidation of all elections, this handbook aims to assist school board secretaries in coordinating election duties and responsibilities with local election authorities. The handbook comprises 13 sections. Section 1 defines 11 election consolidation terms. Section 2 explains how specific elections are scheduled, and…

  1. 11 CFR 9428.6 - Chief state election official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chief state election official. 9428.6 Section 9428.6 Federal Elections ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION NATIONAL VOTER REGISTRATION ACT (42 U.S.C. 1973gg-1 et seq.) National Mail Voter Registration Form § 9428.6 Chief state election official. (a)...

  2. 11 CFR 9428.6 - Chief state election official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chief state election official. 9428.6 Section 9428.6 Federal Elections ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION NATIONAL VOTER REGISTRATION ACT (42 U.S.C. 1973gg-1 et seq.) National Mail Voter Registration Form § 9428.6 Chief state election official. (a)...

  3. 11 CFR 9428.6 - Chief state election official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Chief state election official. 9428.6 Section 9428.6 Federal Elections ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION NATIONAL VOTER REGISTRATION ACT (42 U.S.C. 1973gg-1 et seq.) National Mail Voter Registration Form § 9428.6 Chief state election official. (a)...

  4. 11 CFR 9428.6 - Chief state election official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chief state election official. 9428.6 Section 9428.6 Federal Elections ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION NATIONAL VOTER REGISTRATION ACT (42 U.S.C. 1973gg-1 et seq.) National Mail Voter Registration Form § 9428.6 Chief state election official. (a)...

  5. 11 CFR 9428.6 - Chief state election official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chief state election official. 9428.6 Section 9428.6 Federal Elections ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION NATIONAL VOTER REGISTRATION ACT (42 U.S.C. 1973gg-1 et seq.) National Mail Voter Registration Form § 9428.6 Chief state election official. (a)...

  6. 26 CFR 1.409A-2 - Deferral elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... not include an election as to the medium of payment (for example, an election between a payment of... to make an initial deferral election, and further provides that the election remains in effect until... remain in effect until changed or revoked, but that as of each December 31 the election...

  7. How Much Does Social Status Matter to Longevity?-Evidence from China's Academician Election.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gordon G; Kwon, Ohyun; Xue, Xindong; Fleisher, Belton M

    2017-03-01

    We provide evidence for the causal impact of social status on longevity by exploiting a natural experiment in which subjects undergo a shift in their social status without considerable economic impact. We gather data on 4190 scientists who were either nominated for or successfully elected to the Chinese Academy of Science or of Engineering. Being elected as an academician in China is a boost in social status (vice-ministerial level) with negligible direct economic impact (US$30 monthly before 2009). After correcting for two sources of bias, (1) some potential academicians decease too young to be elected, leading to selection bias in favor of academicians and (2) the endogenous relationship between health and social status, we find that the enhanced social status of becoming an academician leads to approximately 1.2 years longer life. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Suggestions for better election security.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R.G.; Warner, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Summary of Common Security Mistakes: (1) Electronic voting machines that fundamentally lack security thought and features, including an ability to detect tampering or intrusion, or to be reliably locked or sealed; (2) Failure to disassemble, inspect, and thoroughly inspect (not just test) a sufficient number of voting machines before and after elections in order to detect hardware or software tampering; (3) Assuming that tamper - indicating seals will either be blatantly ripped/smashed open, or else there is no tampering. In reality, even amateurs can spoof most seals leaving (at most) subtle evidence; (4) Inadequate seal use protocols and training of seal installers and inspectors. Failure to show examples of blatantly and subtly attacked seals to seal inspectors; (5) Over confidence in use of a voter verified paper record (VVPR), a VVPR is an excellent security countermeasure, but it is not a silver bullet, especially for an election organization with poor overall security; (6) Little or no insider thr at mitigation; and (7) A poor security culture, including denial and no a priori procedures for dealing with security questions or concerns.

  9. Fetal outcome in emergency versus elective cesarean sections at Souissi Maternity Hospital, Rabat, Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Benzouina, Soukayna; Boubkraoui, Mohamed El-mahdi; Mrabet, Mustapha; Chahid, Naima; Kharbach, Aicha; El-hassani, Amine; Barkat, Amina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Perinatal mortality rates have come down in cesarean sections, but fetal morbidity is still high in comparison to vaginal delivery and the complications are more commonly seen in emergency than in elective cesarean sections. The objective of the study was to compare the fetal outcome and the indications in elective versus emergency cesarean section performed in a tertiary maternity hospital. Methods This comparative cross-sectional prospective study of all the cases undergoing elective and emergency cesarean section for any indication at Souissi maternity hospital of Rabat, Morocco, was carried from January 1, to February 28, 2014. Data were analyzed with emphasis on fetal outcome and cesarean sections indications. Mothers who had definite antenatal complications that would adversely affect fetal outcome were excluded from the study. Results There was 588 (17.83%) cesarean sections among 3297 births of which emergency cesarean section accounted for 446 (75.85%) and elective cesarean section for 142 cases (24.15%). Of the various factors analyzed in relation to the two types of cesarean sections, statistically significant associations were found between emergency cesarean section and younger mothers (P < 0.001), maternal illiteracy (P = 0.049), primiparity (P = 0.005), insufficient prenatal care (P < 0.001), referral from other institution for pregnancy complications or delivery (P < 0.001), cesarean section performed under general anesthesia (P < 0.001), lower birth weight (P < 0.016), neonatal morbidity and early mortality (P < 0.001), and admission in neonatal intensive care unit (P = 0.024). The commonest indication of emergency cesarean section was fetal distress (30.49%), while the most frequent indication in elective cesarean section was previous cesarean delivery (47.18%). Conclusion The overall fetal complications rate was higher in emergency cesarean section than in elective cesarean section. Early recognition and referral of mothers who are

  10. 29 CFR 458.29 - Election of officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Substantive Requirements Concerning Standards of Conduct Elections § 458.29 Election of... in a fair and democratic manner. All elections of officers shall be governed by the...

  11. Teachers' Unions Take Own Path on Election

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on two national teachers' unions' different approaches to the 2008 U.S. election campaign. The National Education Association is ready to spend $40 million this election year, but it is not ready to endorse a candidate for president. The American Federation Teachers, by contrast, is working aggressively for U.S. Sen. Hillary…

  12. 5 CFR 1650.11 - Withdrawal elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal elections. 1650.11 Section 1650.11 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN Post-Employment Withdrawals § 1650.11 Withdrawal elections....

  13. 32 CFR 239.5 - Benefit elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benefit elections. 239.5 Section 239.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS HOMEOWNERS ASSISTANCE PROGRAM-APPLICATION PROCESSING § 239.5 Benefit elections. Section 3374 of Title...

  14. Federal Aid Adds Twist to Election

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2010-01-01

    The massive flow of federal funding into schools has created a new and unfamiliar political dynamic in state elections this fall, with many candidates voicing concerns about the government involvement while acknowledging its role in saving jobs, propping up budgets, and supporting innovations in education. State elected officials have a long…

  15. Evolution of Elections Management in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, A. S.; Mdegella, O. M.; Lubawa, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a discussion on the evolution of elections management in Tanzania with a focus on technological advancement in administering registration of voters. The paper provides the merits that permanent voters register has brought over the thumb practice. It traces the management of elections during colonialism, after independence…

  16. 42 CFR 422.60 - Election process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (a) Acceptance of enrollees: General rule. (1) Except for the limitations on enrollment in an MA MSA... who are eligible to elect an MA plan that the MA organization offers and who elect an MA plan during... information on enrollment capacity of plans. (2) If CMS determines that an MA plan offered by an...

  17. Election Resource Guide: Social Studies. Fourth Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evansville-Vanderburgh School Corp., IN.

    Designed to help students understand basic election issues, campaign practices, election processes, and voting procedures, this curriculum guide contains information about U.S. politics in relation to the concept of freedom and historical material on the founding of U.S. political parties, Jeffersonian democracy, and political parties after 1850.…

  18. Cardiac magnetic resonance findings predict increased resource utilization in elective coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Berry, Colin; Zimmerli, Lukas U; Steedman, Tracey; Foster, John E; Dargie, Henry J; Berg, Geoffrey A; Dominiczak, Anna F; Delles, Christian

    2008-03-01

    Morbidity following CABG (coronary artery bypass grafting) is difficult to predict and leads to increased healthcare costs. We hypothesized that pre-operative CMR (cardiac magnetic resonance) findings would predict resource utilization in elective CABG. Over a 12-month period, patients requiring elective CABG were invited to undergo CMR 1 day prior to CABG. Gadolinium-enhanced CMR was performed using a trueFISP inversion recovery sequence on a 1.5 tesla scanner (Sonata; Siemens). Clinical data were collected prospectively. Admission costs were quantified based on standardized actual cost/day. Admission cost greater than the median was defined as 'increased'. Of 458 elective CABG cases, 45 (10%) underwent pre-operative CMR. Pre-operative characteristics [mean (S.D.) age, 64 (9) years, mortality (1%) and median (interquartile range) admission duration, 7 (6-8) days] were similar in patients who did or did not undergo CMR. In the patients undergoing CMR, eight (18%) and 11 (24%) patients had reduced LV (left ventricular) systolic function by CMR [LVEF (LV ejection fraction) <55%] and echocardiography respectively. LE (late enhancement) with gadolinium was detected in 17 (38%) patients. The average cost/day was $2723. The median (interquartile range) admission cost was $19059 ($10891-157917). CMR LVEF {OR (odds ratio), 0.93 [95% CI (confidence interval), 0.87-0.99]; P=0.03} and SV (stroke volume) index [OR 1.07 (95% CI, 1.00-1.14); P=0.02] predicted increased admission cost. CMR LVEF (P=0.08) and EuroScore tended to predict actual admission cost (P=0.09), but SV by CMR (P=0.16) and LV function by echocardiography (P=0.95) did not. In conclusion, in this exploratory investigation, pre-operative CMR findings predicted admission duration and increased admission cost in elective CABG surgery. The cost-effectiveness of CMR in risk stratification in elective CABG surgery merits prospective assessment.

  19. Clinical use of a low-dose medetomidine infusion in healthy dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Rioja, Eva; Gianotti, Giacomo; Valverde, Alexander

    2013-09-01

    Eight healthy dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy were anesthetized with a standard protocol and received a low-dose medetomidine constant rate infusion during surgery. Cardiorespiratory parameters, including non-invasive cardiac output, were measured at various times. This protocol resulted in acceptable and stable cardiovascular performance, allowed low isoflurane concentrations, and provided smooth recoveries.

  20. Candidate preferences and expectations of election outcomes.

    PubMed

    Delavande, Adeline; Manski, Charles F

    2012-03-06

    Analysis of data from the American Life Panel shows that in the presidential election of 2008 and in multiple statewide elections in 2010, citizens exhibited large differences in their expectations of election outcomes. Expectations were strongly positively associated with candidate preferences, persons tending to believe that their preferred candidate is more likely to win the election. Committed supporters of opposing candidates regularly differed by 20-30% in their assessments of the likelihood that each candidate would win. These findings contribute evidence on the false consensus effect, the empirical regularity that own preferences tend to be positively associated with perceptions of social preferences. We used unique measures of preferences and perceptions that enabled respondents to express uncertainty flexibly. We studied a setting that would a priori seem inhospitable to false consensus--one where persons have little private information on social preferences but substantial common knowledge provided by media reports of election polls.

  1. Endurance of Undergraduate Attitudes toward Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funderburk, Brooke; Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Storms, Lene Levy; Solomon, David H.

    2006-01-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed undergraduate attitudes toward older adults and attitude endurance 3 to 18 months after aging coursework. Survey respondents included 349 students who took an aging elective and 430 comparison students. Aging-elective students indicated more positive attitudes than comparison students. Attitudes did not vary…

  2. Elective Tracheotomy Practices in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Atalan, Hakan Korkut

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Elective tracheotomy (ET) procedures in intensive care units (ICU) might be different in accordance with countries and ICUs’ features. The aim of the present study was to search the epidemiology of ET procedures in Turkey. Methods A questionnaire which consists of 43 questions was sent by e-mail to 238 ICUs which were officially recognized by The Turkish Ministry of Health. All answers were obtained between August 1, 2015 and August 31, 2015. Results Two hundred and three ICUs (85.3%) participated in this study. 177 (87.2%) and 169 (83.4%) of ICU’s were level III and mixed ICUs respectively. Anesthesiologists were the director of 189 (93.0%) ICUs. Estimated total count of admitted, mechanically ventilated and tracheotomized patients in 2014 were 126282, 80569 (63.8%) and 8989 (7.1%) respectively. Most common indication for ET was prolonged mechanical ventilation (76.9%). The first choice for ET procedure was percutaneous in 162 (79.8%) ICUs. Griggs guide wire dilatational forceps (GWDF) technique was used as the first choice for elective percutaneous tracheotomy (EPT) by 143 (70.4%) ICUs. Most common early EPT complication was bleeding (68.0%) and late EPT complication was stenosis (35.0%). While facilitation of weaning was most important advantage (26.1%), bleeding and tracheal complications were most important disadvantages for EPT (29.1%). Conclusions Most common indications for ET are prolonged MV and coma in Turkish ICUs. EPT is the preferred procedure for ET and GWDF is the most common technique. Bronchoscopy and USG are rarely used as a guide. PMID:27846248

  3. Statistical detection of systematic election irregularities

    PubMed Central

    Klimek, Peter; Yegorov, Yuri; Hanel, Rudolf; Thurner, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Democratic societies are built around the principle of free and fair elections, and that each citizen’s vote should count equally. National elections can be regarded as large-scale social experiments, where people are grouped into usually large numbers of electoral districts and vote according to their preferences. The large number of samples implies statistical consequences for the polling results, which can be used to identify election irregularities. Using a suitable data representation, we find that vote distributions of elections with alleged fraud show a kurtosis substantially exceeding the kurtosis of normal elections, depending on the level of data aggregation. As an example, we show that reported irregularities in recent Russian elections are, indeed, well-explained by systematic ballot stuffing. We develop a parametric model quantifying the extent to which fraudulent mechanisms are present. We formulate a parametric test detecting these statistical properties in election results. Remarkably, this technique produces robust outcomes with respect to the resolution of the data and therefore, allows for cross-country comparisons. PMID:23010929

  4. Statistical detection of systematic election irregularities.

    PubMed

    Klimek, Peter; Yegorov, Yuri; Hanel, Rudolf; Thurner, Stefan

    2012-10-09

    Democratic societies are built around the principle of free and fair elections, and that each citizen's vote should count equally. National elections can be regarded as large-scale social experiments, where people are grouped into usually large numbers of electoral districts and vote according to their preferences. The large number of samples implies statistical consequences for the polling results, which can be used to identify election irregularities. Using a suitable data representation, we find that vote distributions of elections with alleged fraud show a kurtosis substantially exceeding the kurtosis of normal elections, depending on the level of data aggregation. As an example, we show that reported irregularities in recent Russian elections are, indeed, well-explained by systematic ballot stuffing. We develop a parametric model quantifying the extent to which fraudulent mechanisms are present. We formulate a parametric test detecting these statistical properties in election results. Remarkably, this technique produces robust outcomes with respect to the resolution of the data and therefore, allows for cross-country comparisons.

  5. Global perspectives on elective induction of labor.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Joshua P; Gülmezoglu, Ahmet M Metin; Hofmeyr, George J; Temmerman, Marleen

    2014-06-01

    Elective labor induction is an increasingly common practice not only in high-income countries, but also in many low-income and middle-income countries. Many questions remain unanswered on the safety and cost-effectiveness of elective labor induction, particularly in resource-constrained settings where there may be a high unmet need for medically indicated inductions, as well as limited or no access to appropriate medications and equipment for induction and monitoring, comprehensive emergency obstetric care, safe and timely cesarean section, and appropriate supervision from health professionals. This article considers the global perspective on the epidemiology, practices, safety, and costs associated with elective labor induction.

  6. Risk-limiting Audits for Nonplurality Elections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    ballot cast in the election can be independently selected and 2In a presentation at the EVN 2011 conference , Emily Shen gave another such example. 1...the pacific island nations of Nauru and Kiribati [26], but is most popular in the worlds of sports — e.g., the Heis- man Trophy [17] — and academic...election system. Isis , 44(1/2):42–51, June 1953. [16] Joseph Lorenzo Hall. On the margin: The effects of introducing or swapping votes on election mar

  7. Management of Complications Following Emergency and Elective Surgery for Diverticulitis

    PubMed Central

    Holmer, Christoph; Kreis, Martin E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The clinical spectrum of sigmoid diverticulitis (SD) varies from asymptomatic diverticulosis to symptomatic disease with potentially fatal complications. Sigmoid colectomy with restoration of continuity has been the prevailing modality for treating acute and recurrent SD, and is often performed as a laparoscopy-assisted procedure. For elective sigmoid colectomy, the postoperative morbidity rate is 15-20% whereas morbidity rates reach up to 30% in patients who undergo emergency surgery for perforated SD. Some of the more common and serious surgical complications after sigmoid colectomy are anastomotic leaks and peritonitis, wound infections, small bowel obstruction, postoperative bleeding, and injuries to the urinary tract structures. Regarding the management of complications, it makes no difference whether the complication is a result of an emergency or an elective procedure. Methods The present work gives an overview of the management of complications in the surgical treatment of SD based on the current literature. Results To achieve successful management, early diagnosis is mandatory in cases of deviation from the normal postoperative course. If diagnostic procedures fail to deliver a correlate for the clinical situation of the patient, re-laparotomy or re-laparoscopy still remain among the most important diagnostic and/or therapeutic principles in visceral surgery when a patient's clinical status deteriorates. Conclusion The ability to recognize and successfully manage complications is a crucial part of the surgical treatment of diverticular disease and should be mastered by any surgeon qualified in this field. PMID:26989382

  8. The prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia in patients undergoing bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Khanbhai, M; Dubb, S; Patel, K; Ahmed, A; Richards, T

    2015-01-01

    As bariatric surgery rates continue to climb, anaemia will become an increasing concern. We assessed the prevalence of anaemia and length of hospital stay in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Prospective data (anaemia [haemoglobin <12 g/dL], haematinics and length of hospital stay) was analysed on 400 hundred patients undergoing elective laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Results from a prospective database of 1530 patients undergoing elective general surgery were used as a baseline. Fifty-seven patients (14%) were anaemic pre-operatively, of which 98% were females. Median MCV (fL) and overall median ferritin (μg/L) was lower in anaemic patients (83 vs. 86, p=0.001) and (28 vs. 61, p<0.0001) respectively. In the elective general surgery patients, prevalence of anaemia was similar (14% vs. 16%) but absolute iron deficiency was more common in those undergoing bariatric surgery; microcytosis p<0.0001, ferritin <30 p<0.0001. Mean length of stay (days) was increased in the anaemic compared to in the non-anaemic group (2.7 vs. 1.9) and patients who were anaemic immediately post-operatively, also had an increased length of stay (2.7 vs. 1.9), p<0.05. Absolute iron deficiency was more common in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. In bariatric patients with anaemia there was an overall increased length of hospital stay.

  9. 28 CFR 55.10 - Types of elections covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... elections of officers as well as elections regarding such matters as bond issues, constitutional amendments..., such as school districts and water districts. (b) Elections for statewide office. If an election conducted by a county relates to Federal or State offices or issues as well as county offices or issues,...

  10. The European System for Electing University Presidents and University Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Huaide

    2014-01-01

    The system of electing university presidents in Spain, Switzerland, Italy, and the United Kingdom has distinctive characteristics. Almost all university presidents are elected by teachers and students, either directly or indirectly through elections with government approval of the appointment a mere formality. Principles of these elections include…

  11. 29 CFR 452.102 - Notice in mail ballot election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Notice in mail ballot election. 452.102 Section 452.102... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.102 Notice in mail ballot election. If the election is conducted by mail and no separate notice is mailed to the members, the...

  12. 29 CFR 452.102 - Notice in mail ballot election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Notice in mail ballot election. 452.102 Section 452.102... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.102 Notice in mail ballot election. If the election is conducted by mail and no separate notice is mailed to the members, the...

  13. 29 CFR 452.102 - Notice in mail ballot election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice in mail ballot election. 452.102 Section 452.102... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.102 Notice in mail ballot election. If the election is conducted by mail and no separate notice is mailed to the members, the...

  14. 29 CFR 452.102 - Notice in mail ballot election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Notice in mail ballot election. 452.102 Section 452.102... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.102 Notice in mail ballot election. If the election is conducted by mail and no separate notice is mailed to the members, the...

  15. 29 CFR 452.102 - Notice in mail ballot election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Notice in mail ballot election. 452.102 Section 452.102... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.102 Notice in mail ballot election. If the election is conducted by mail and no separate notice is mailed to the members, the...

  16. 42 CFR 418.24 - Election of hospice care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Election of hospice care. 418.24 Section 418.24... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Eligibility, Election and Duration of Benefits § 418.24 Election of hospice care. (a) Filing an election statement. An individual who meets the eligibility requirement...

  17. 42 CFR 418.24 - Election of hospice care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Election of hospice care. 418.24 Section 418.24... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HOSPICE CARE Eligibility, Election and Duration of Benefits § 418.24 Election of hospice care. (a) Filing an election statement. An individual who meets the...

  18. 42 CFR 418.24 - Election of hospice care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Election of hospice care. 418.24 Section 418.24... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HOSPICE CARE Eligibility, Election and Duration of Benefits § 418.24 Election of hospice care. (a) Filing an election statement. An individual who meets the...

  19. 25 CFR 90.43 - Canvass of election returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canvass of election returns. 90.43 Section 90.43 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT ELECTION OF OFFICERS OF THE OSAGE TRIBE Elections § 90.43 Canvass of election returns. (a) Immediately after the polls are closed at 8...

  20. 25 CFR 90.43 - Canvass of election returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canvass of election returns. 90.43 Section 90.43 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT ELECTION OF OFFICERS OF THE OSAGE TRIBE Elections § 90.43 Canvass of election returns. (a) Immediately after the polls are closed at 8...

  1. 25 CFR 90.43 - Canvass of election returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Canvass of election returns. 90.43 Section 90.43 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT ELECTION OF OFFICERS OF THE OSAGE TRIBE Elections § 90.43 Canvass of election returns. (a) Immediately after the polls are closed at 8...

  2. 25 CFR 90.43 - Canvass of election returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canvass of election returns. 90.43 Section 90.43 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT ELECTION OF OFFICERS OF THE OSAGE TRIBE Elections § 90.43 Canvass of election returns. (a) Immediately after the polls are closed at 8...

  3. 25 CFR 90.43 - Canvass of election returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canvass of election returns. 90.43 Section 90.43 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT ELECTION OF OFFICERS OF THE OSAGE TRIBE Elections § 90.43 Canvass of election returns. (a) Immediately after the polls are closed at 8...

  4. 42 CFR 418.24 - Election of hospice care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Election of hospice care. 418.24 Section 418.24... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Eligibility, Election and Duration of Benefits § 418.24 Election of hospice care. (a) Filing an election statement. An individual who meets the eligibility requirement...

  5. 5 CFR 870.504 - Optional insurance: Election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Optional insurance: Election. 870.504...: Election. (a)(1) Each employee must elect or waive Option A, Option B, and Option C coverage, in a manner... election or waiver which remains in effect. The 31-day time limit for Option B or Option C begins on...

  6. 26 CFR 1.853-4 - Manner of making election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner of making election. 1.853-4 Section 1.853... making election. (a) General rule. To make an election under section 853 for a taxable year, a regulated investment company must file a statement of election as part of its Federal income tax return for the...

  7. 24 CFR 964.130 - Election procedures and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election procedures and standards... § 964.130 Election procedures and standards. At a minimum, a resident council may use local election boards/commissions. The resident council shall use an independent third-party to oversee elections...

  8. 26 CFR 1.853-2 - Effect of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of election. 1.853-2 Section 1.853-2... election. (a) Regulated investment company. A regulated investment company making a valid election with... made the election under section 853, is, in effect, placed in the same position as a person...

  9. 5 CFR 843.313 - Elections between survivor annuities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elections between survivor annuities. 843... Former Spouse Benefits § 843.313 Elections between survivor annuities. (a) A current spouse annuity... spouse annuity based on an election under § 842.612 only upon electing this current spouse...

  10. 5 CFR 870.703 - Election of Basic insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Election of Basic insurance. 870.703....703 Election of Basic insurance. (a) Unless he/she has elected a Living Benefit, an individual who makes an election under § 870.701(c) must select one of the following options: (1) Termination of...

  11. 5 CFR 734.206 - Participation in elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Participation in elections. 734.206... in elections. An employee may: (a) Register and vote in any election; (b) Act as recorder, watcher, challenger, or similar officer at polling places; (c) Serve as an election judge or clerk, or in a...

  12. 29 CFR 1202.5 - Rules to govern elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rules to govern elections. 1202.5 Section 1202.5 Labor... elections. In the conduct of a representation election, the Board shall designate who may participate in the election, which may include a public hearing on craft or class, and establish the rules to govern...

  13. 26 CFR 1.150-5 - Filing notices and elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing notices and elections. 1.150-5 Section 1... notices and elections. (a) In general. Notices and elections under the following sections must be filed.... This section applies to notices and elections filed on or after January 19, 2001....

  14. 7 CFR 7.7 - Calling of elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calling of elections. 7.7 Section 7.7 Agriculture... CONSERVATION STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.7 Calling of elections. (a) Each election of community... not later than December 30 each year. Each such election shall be held in accordance with...

  15. 26 CFR 701.9006-1 - Presidential Election Campaign Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... been transferred to the Presidential Election Campaign Fund under § 701.9006-1(a). (e) Limit on... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Presidential Election Campaign Fund. 701.9006-1...) INTERNAL REVENUE PRACTICE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND § 701.9006-1 Presidential Election...

  16. 7 CFR 1230.32 - Conduct of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conduct of election. 1230.32 Section 1230.32... Delegate Body § 1230.32 Conduct of election. If a State association selects nominees for appointment to the Delegate Body through an election, it shall be conducted in the following manner: (a) Elections shall...

  17. 26 CFR 1.1361-5 - Termination of QSub election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Termination of QSub election. 1.1361-5 Section... Termination of QSub election. (a) In general—(1) Effective date. The termination of a QSub election is effective— (i) On the effective date contained in the revocation statement if a QSub election is...

  18. 26 CFR 1.663(b)-2 - Election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... extensions thereof). Such election shall become irrevocable after the last day prescribed for making it. (2... election shall become irrevocable after the last day prescribed for making it. (b) Elections under prior... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Election. 1.663(b)-2 Section 1.663(b)-2...

  19. 26 CFR 1.663(b)-2 - Election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... extensions thereof). Such election shall become irrevocable after the last day prescribed for making it. (2... election shall become irrevocable after the last day prescribed for making it. (b) Elections under prior... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Election. 1.663(b)-2 Section 1.663(b)-2...

  20. 26 CFR 15.1-1 - Elections to deduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... deducted pursuant to an election under section 617(a). (ii) Exception. The last sentence of subdivision (i... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Elections to deduct. 15.1-1 Section 15.1-1... Elections to deduct. (a) Manner of making election—(1) Election to deduct under section 617(a). The...

  1. 26 CFR 1.1361-5 - Termination of QSub election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Termination of QSub election. 1.1361-5 Section... Termination of QSub election. (a) In general—(1) Effective date. The termination of a QSub election is effective— (i) On the effective date contained in the revocation statement if a QSub election is...

  2. 26 CFR 1.663(b)-2 - Election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... extensions thereof). Such election shall become irrevocable after the last day prescribed for making it. (2... election shall become irrevocable after the last day prescribed for making it. (b) Elections under prior... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Election. 1.663(b)-2 Section 1.663(b)-2...

  3. 26 CFR 15.1-1 - Elections to deduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... deducted pursuant to an election under section 617(a). (ii) Exception. The last sentence of subdivision (i... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Elections to deduct. 15.1-1 Section 15.1-1... Elections to deduct. (a) Manner of making election—(1) Election to deduct under section 617(a). The...

  4. Doing the Presidential Election: Or Bringing the Past to Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, Stuart Seely

    1988-01-01

    Describes a method for re-enacting presidential elections as a classroom activity, stressing the importance of student involvement in learning. Provides a way to structure each election for classroom instruction and suggests some of the more significant elections to study. Includes a number of nineteenth century election songs as examples of…

  5. 28 CFR 55.10 - Types of elections covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... elections of officers as well as elections regarding such matters as bond issues, constitutional amendments..., such as school districts and water districts. (b) Elections for statewide office. If an election conducted by a county relates to Federal or State offices or issues as well as county offices or issues,...

  6. 29 CFR 452.30 - Run-off elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Run-off elections. 452.30 Section 452.30 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS... OF 1959 Frequency and Kinds of Elections § 452.30 Run-off elections. A run-off election must meet...

  7. Novel risk markers and long-term outcomes of delirium: The Successful Aging after Elective Surgery (SAGES) Study Design and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Eva M.; Marcantonio, Edward R.; SM; Alsop, David C.; Jones, Richard N.; Rogers, Selwyn O.; Fong, Tamara G.; Metzger, Eran; Inouye, Sharon K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Delirium--a costly, life-threatening, and potentially preventable condition--is a common complication for older adults following major surgery. While the basic epidemiology of delirium after surgery has been defined, the contribution of delirium to long-term outcomes remains uncertain, and novel biomarkers from plasma and neuroimaging have yet to be examined. This program project was designed to contribute to our understanding of the complex multifactorial syndrome of delirium. Design Long-term prospective cohort study. Setting 3 academic medical centers (2 hospitals and 1 coordinating center). Participants Patients without recognized dementia (targeted cohort = 550 patients) age 70 and older scheduled to undergo elective major surgery are assessed at baseline prior to surgery, daily during their hospital stay, and for 18-36 months after discharge. Measurements The Successful Aging after Elective Surgery (SAGES) study is an innovative, interdisciplinary study that includes biomarkers, neuroimaging, cognitive reserve markers, and serial neuropsychological testing to examine the contribution of delirium to long-term cognitive and functional decline. The primary goal is to examine the contribution of delirium to long-term cognitive and functional decline. In addition, novel risk markers, for delirium are being examined, including plasma biomarkers (e.g., cytokines, proteomics), advanced neuroimaging markers (e.g., volumetric, white matter hyperintensity, noncontrast blood flow, and diffusion tensor measures) and cognitive reserve markers (e.g., education, occupation, lifetime activities). Conclusion Results from this study will contribute to a fuller understanding of the etiology and prognosis of delirium. Ultimately, we hope this project will provide the groundwork for future development of prevention and treatment strategies for delirium, designed to minimize the long-term negative impact of delirium in older adults. PMID:22999782

  8. What Is Elective Surgery? (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... electively," they can be significant and potentially life-changing operations. Another category is an urgent procedure . This ...

  9. Microbiology as a High-School Elective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Priscilla

    1973-01-01

    Describes a course in microbiology offered as a high school science elective. The laboratory-oriented course has proved to be very popular and provides students with the basic techniques for handling equipment and working safely with bacteria. (JR)

  10. 1980-81 Literature Electives Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Art

    1981-01-01

    A group of 97 college English departments was surveyed regarding the most popular elective literature courses. Most popular were courses in Shakespeare, fiction, American literature, genre literature, modern and contemporary literature, and the novel. (AEA)

  11. 5 CFR 2422.28 - Runoff elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the largest and second largest number of votes in the election. ... Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY AND FEDERAL SERVICE IMPASSES PANEL FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY AND GENERAL COUNSEL OF...

  12. Patients electing medical versus surgical treatment: emotional domain of the rhinosinusitis disability index associates with treatment selection

    PubMed Central

    Orb, Quinn; Mace, Jess C.; DeConde, Adam S.; Steele, Toby O.; Cox, Steve T.; Smith, Timothy L.; Alt, Jeremiah A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Rhinosinusitis Disability Index (RSDI) consists of multiple subdomains shown to be useful in studying CRS. The objective of this study was to determine if RSDI subdomain scores are associated with selection of treatment modality (endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) or continued medical management (CMM)) in subjects with CRS. Methods Patients with CRS were prospectively enrolled into a multi-institutional cohort study. Following an initial period of medical management, patients elected to undergo treatment with either ESS or CMM. Baseline RSDI total and subdomain scores were compared between patients electing different treatment modalities. Results A total of 684 subjects were enrolled with 122 (17.8%) electing CMM and 562 (82.2%) electing ESS. When compared to patients undergoing CMM, patients electing ESS exhibited significantly higher mean baseline RSDI total scores (mean ± [SD]: 48.1[24.9] vs. 40.1[24.1]; p=0.001) and subdomain scores (emotional: 13.2[9.1] vs. 10.4[8.3]; p=0.001; functional: 15.3[8.9] vs. 12.6[8.4]; p=0.002; and physical: 19.6[9.3] vs. 17.1[9.6]; p=0.007). Emotional subdomain scores were found to be the most associated with choice of treatment modality. Conclusions Patients with CRS electing ESS had worse baseline RSDI total and subdomain scores compared to those electing CMM. Although both rhinologic and non-rhinologic symptoms contributed to the selection of treatment modality, emotional symptoms appeared to exhibit the greatest influence on patient-centered treatment decisions. PMID:26536520

  13. Does Television Viewership Predict Presidential Election Outcomes?

    PubMed

    Barfar, Arash; Padmanabhan, Balaji

    2015-09-01

    The days of surprise about actual election outcomes in the big data world are likely to be fewer in the years ahead, at least to those who may have access to such data. In this paper we highlight the potential for forecasting the Unites States presidential election outcomes at the state and county levels based solely on the data about viewership of television programs. A key consideration for relevance is that given the infrequent nature of elections, such models are useful only if they can be trained using recent data on viewership. However, the target variable (election outcome) is usually not known until the election is over. Related to this, we show here that such models may be trained with the television viewership data in the "safe" states (the ones where the outcome can be assumed even in the days preceding elections) to potentially forecast the outcomes in the swing states. In addition to their potential to forecast, these models could also help campaigns target programs for advertisements. Nearly two billion dollars were spent on television advertising in the 2012 presidential race, suggesting potential for big data-driven optimization of campaign spending.

  14. Does Television Viewership Predict Presidential Election Outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Barfar, Arash; Padmanabhan, Balaji

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The days of surprise about actual election outcomes in the big data world are likely to be fewer in the years ahead, at least to those who may have access to such data. In this paper we highlight the potential for forecasting the Unites States presidential election outcomes at the state and county levels based solely on the data about viewership of television programs. A key consideration for relevance is that given the infrequent nature of elections, such models are useful only if they can be trained using recent data on viewership. However, the target variable (election outcome) is usually not known until the election is over. Related to this, we show here that such models may be trained with the television viewership data in the “safe” states (the ones where the outcome can be assumed even in the days preceding elections) to potentially forecast the outcomes in the swing states. In addition to their potential to forecast, these models could also help campaigns target programs for advertisements. Nearly two billion dollars were spent on television advertising in the 2012 presidential race, suggesting potential for big data–driven optimization of campaign spending. PMID:26487986

  15. Preoperative anemia increases postoperative morbidity in elective cranial neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Bydon, Mohamad; Abt, Nicholas B.; Macki, Mohamed; Brem, Henry; Huang, Judy; Bydon, Ali; Tamargo, Rafael J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preoperative anemia may affect postoperative mortality and morbidity following elective cranial operations. Methods: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database was used to identify elective cranial neurosurgical cases (2006-2012). Morbidity was defined as wound infection, systemic infection, cardiac, respiratory, renal, neurologic, and thromboembolic events, and unplanned returns to the operating room. For 30-day postoperative mortality and morbidity, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were estimated with multivariable logistic regression. Results: Of 8015 patients who underwent elective cranial neurosurgery, 1710 patients (21.4%) were anemic. Anemic patients had an increased 30-day mortality of 4.1% versus 1.3% in non-anemic patients (P < 0.001) and an increased 30-day morbidity rate of 25.9% versus 14.14% in non-anemic patients (P < 0.001). The 30-day morbidity rates for all patients undergoing cranial procedures were stratified by diagnosis: 26.5% aneurysm, 24.7% sellar tumor, 19.7% extra-axial tumor, 14.8% intra-axial tumor, 14.4% arteriovenous malformation, and 5.6% pain. Following multivariable regression, the 30-day mortality in anemic patients was threefold higher than in non-anemic patients (4.1% vs 1.3%; OR = 2.77; 95% CI: 1.65-4.66). The odds of postoperative morbidity in anemic patients were significantly higher than in non-anemic patients (OR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.03-1.61). There was a significant difference in postoperative morbidity event odds with a hematocrit level above (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.78-1.48) and below (OR = 2.30; 95% CI: 1.55-3.42) 33% [hemoglobin (Hgb) 11 g/dl]. Conclusions: Preoperative anemia in elective cranial neurosurgery was independently associated with an increased risk of 30-day postoperative mortality and morbidity when compared to non-anemic patients. A hematocrit level below 33% (Hgb 11 g/dl) was associated with a significant increase in postoperative morbidity. PMID

  16. 26 CFR 301.9100-19T - Election relating to passive investment income of electing small business corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... subsequent year pursuant to section 1372(e) of the Code. (2) Election by corporation. An election by a... before April 15, 1966, for which an election terminated under section 1372(e)(5) of the Code. Such...) New shareholders. Section 1372(e)(1) of the Code provides that an election by a corporation...

  17. 29 CFR 452.30 - Run-off elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Run-off elections. 452.30 Section 452.30 Labor Regulations... OF 1959 Frequency and Kinds of Elections § 452.30 Run-off elections. A run-off election must meet the... example, if the run-off is to be held at the same meeting as the original election, the original notice...

  18. 29 CFR 452.30 - Run-off elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Run-off elections. 452.30 Section 452.30 Labor Regulations... OF 1959 Frequency and Kinds of Elections § 452.30 Run-off elections. A run-off election must meet the... example, if the run-off is to be held at the same meeting as the original election, the original notice...

  19. 29 CFR 452.30 - Run-off elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Run-off elections. 452.30 Section 452.30 Labor Regulations... OF 1959 Frequency and Kinds of Elections § 452.30 Run-off elections. A run-off election must meet the... example, if the run-off is to be held at the same meeting as the original election, the original notice...

  20. 29 CFR 452.30 - Run-off elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Run-off elections. 452.30 Section 452.30 Labor Regulations... OF 1959 Frequency and Kinds of Elections § 452.30 Run-off elections. A run-off election must meet the... example, if the run-off is to be held at the same meeting as the original election, the original notice...

  1. Preoperative IABP in high risk patients undergoing CABG.

    PubMed

    Theologou, T; Field, M L

    2011-01-01

    A recent international consensus conference on the reduction in mortality in cardiac anesthesia and intensive care included intraoperative aortic balloon pump among the ancillary (i.e. non-surgical) drugs/techniques/strategies that might influence survival rates in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The consensus conferences state that "Pre-operative intraoperative aortic balloon pump might reduce 30-day mortality in elective high risk patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery unless specifically contraindicated". The authors of this "expert opinion" presents their insights into the use of the preoperative intraoperative aortic balloon pump and conclude that based on available limited randomized controlled trials and clinical experience preoperative intraoperative aortic balloon pump saves lives in unstable patients.

  2. "Elections" or "Selections"? Blogging and Twittering the Nigerian 2007 General Elections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifukor, Presley

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the linguistic construction of textual messages in the use of blogs and Twitter in the Nigerian 2007 electoral cycle comprising the April 2007 general elections and rerun elections in April, May, and August 2009. A qualitative approach of discourse analysis is used to present a variety of discursive acts that blogging and…

  3. Preoperative Nutritional Assessment in Elderly Cancer Patients Undergoing Elective Surgery: MNA or PG-SGA?

    PubMed

    Dubhashi, S P; Kayal, Akshat

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate and compare the use of patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) and mini nutritional assessment (MNA) as a preoperative nutritional assessment tool in elderly cancer patients. This was a prospective study carried out on 47 patients, 45 years and above suffering from cancer and admitted to Padmashree Dr. D.Y. Patil Medical College and Hospital, Pune. The patients were evaluated with PG-SGA and MNA tools at the time of admission and baseline data were collected. All patients had undergone surgeries as per indications. Postoperatively, the surgical outcomes and adverse events were noted and statistically evaluated. The average age of the study sample was 61.46 years and 29 patients were females. The patients classified by PG-SGA were ten in group A and 37 in group B and C. The patients classified by MNA were five in no risk group and 42 in group with patients at risk and malnourished. When evaluated with PG-SGA in group B and C, wound infections and requirement of change of antibiotic were seen in 86.4 % patients and their average day of onset of infection was 5.6 days. Antibiotics were administered to these patients for an average of 14.2 days and their average duration of stay was 29 days. On the other hand, the evaluation of patients with MNA, at risk and malnourished patients, wound infections, and requirement of change of antibiotic were seen in 81 % of patients and their average day of onset of infection was 5.6 days. Antibiotics were administered to these patients for an average of 13.8 days and their average duration of stay was 27 days. The results were statistically significant. The mini nutritional assessment is more exhaustive in identifying patients at risk and is useful in screening populations to identify frail elderly persons allowing us to intervene earlier, thereby improving the patient prognosis. The patient-generated subjective global assessment is a more comprehensive tool for elderly cancer patients, which identifies a more extensive range of nutrition impact symptoms and predicts the postoperative outcomes more accurately. Authors recommend its usage in evaluating the aforementioned subset of patients.

  4. Sciatic-femoral nerve block with bupivacaine in goats undergoing elective stifle arthrotomy.

    PubMed

    Adami, Chiara; Bergadano, Alessandra; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Stoffel, Michael H; Doherr, Marcus G; Spadavecchia, Claudia

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the sciatic-femoral nerve block (SFNB) in goats and to evaluate the peri-operative analgesia when the goats underwent stifle arthrotomy. The animals were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: groups 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 received 0.25%, 0.5% and 0.75% of bupivacaine, respectively, while group C (control group) received 0.9% NaCl. In all groups, the volume administered was 0.2 mL/kg. Intra-operatively, the proportion of animals receiving rescue propofol was significantly lower in groups 0.5 and 0.75, compared to group C. Post-operatively, the visual analogue scale (VAS) and total pain score were significantly higher in group C than in the other groups. Group 0.75 had the highest percentage of animals showing motor blockade. SFNB performed with bupivacaine resulted in better intra- and post-operative analgesia than SFNB performed with saline. Compared to the other concentrations, 0.5% bupivacaine resulted in satisfactory analgesia with acceptable side effects.

  5. Effect of elective surgery on subjective health in veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Wofford, Ken; Hertzberg, Michael; Silva, Susan; Vacchiano, Charles

    2014-08-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common, is often chronic, and has been associated with greater risk of postoperative mortality in veterans. The purpose of this study was to determine if elective outpatient surgery had a persistent effect on the physical or mental health of veterans with chronic PTSD. A longitudinal, quasi-experimental study was conducted that followed up 60 veterans with chronic PTSD over 12 weeks. Self-reported physical and mental health, depressive symptom severity, and posttraumatic symptom severity were measured in 29 veterans undergoing outpatient elective surgery and 31 veterans not having elective surgery (controls). Data collection was performed at baseline and repeated 1, 4, and 12 weeks after surgery or enrollment. At baseline, both surgical and control subjects reported poor physical and mental subjective health status. After surgery, surgical group subjects reported mean age- and gender-adjusted reductions of 3.9 points on the Physical Component Summary score and 2.9 points on the Mental Component Summary score of the Veterans Rand 36-item Health Survey, which resolved by 4 weeks after surgery. These findings suggest that veterans with PTSD were at greater risk of mortality because of poor baseline health, but did not demonstrate persistent decline in health following common elective surgical procedures.

  6. Safety and Efficacy of Caproamin Fides and Tranexamic Acid Versus Placebo in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh Ghavidel, Alireza; Totonchi, Ziae; Chitsazan, Mitra; Gholampour Dehaki, Maziar; Jalili, Farshid; Farsad, Fariborz; Hejrati, Maral

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Excessive fibrinolysis contributes to post-cardiopulmonary bypass bleeding. Tranexamic Acid (TXA) and Caproamin Fides are synthetic lysine analogues that inhibit plasminogen-fibrin binding. The present study aimed to compare TXA and Caproamin Fides versus placebo in patients undergoing elective coronary artery revascularization. Methods: We analyzed perioperative data of 300 adult patients undergoing coronary artery revascularization. Patients were randomly allocated to receive TXA (n=100), Caproamin Fides (n=100) or placebo (n=100) during perioperative time. Mediastinal bleeding during the first 24 hours post-operation, transfusion requirement and post-surgical complications were assessed. Results: Most descriptive and intra-operative parameters were well comparable between the 3 study groups. Except for mean number of packed red blood cell (PRBC) units transfused during ICU stay (P=0.01), patients in the Caproamin Fides and TXA groups did not show any statistically significant differences regarding transfusion of blood products during peri-operative period. There was no evidence of a significant difference in mediastinal blood loss during the first 24 hours post-operation between the patients receiving TXA or placebo, while patients in the Caproamin Fides group had significantly lower mediastinal bleeding than the other 2 groups (Caproamin Fides vs. placebo, P=0.002, <0.001 and <0.001 at 6, 12 and 24 hours post-operation; Caproamin Fides vs. TXA, P=0.009, 0.003, <0.001 at 6, 12 and 24 hours post-operation). The incidence of postoperative complications were comparable between Caproamin Fides and TXA groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: In conclusion, Caproamin Fides seems to be superior to TXA regarding the blood saving effects in patients undergoing coronary artery revascularization. PMID:25320669

  7. Clinical effectiveness of centrifugal pump to produce pulsatile flow during cardiopulmonary bypass in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Gu, Y John; van Oeveren, Willem; Mungroop, Hubert E; Epema, Anne H; den Hamer, Inez J; Keizer, Jorrit J; Leuvenink, Ron P; Mariani, Massimo A; Rakhorst, Gerhard

    2011-02-01

    Although the centrifugal pump has been widely used as a nonpulsatile pump for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), little is known about its performance as a pulsatile pump for CPB, especially on its efficacy in producing hemodynamic energy and its clinical effectiveness. We performed a study to evaluate whether the Rotaflow centrifugal pump produces effective pulsatile flow during CPB and whether the pulsatile flow in this setting is clinically effective in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Thirty-two patients undergoing CPB for elective coronary artery bypass grafting were randomly allocated to a pulsatile perfusion group (n = 16) or a nonpulsatile perfusion group (n = 16). All patients were perfused with the Rotaflow centrifugal pump. In the pulsatile group, the centrifugal pump was adjusted to the pulsatile mode (60 cycles/min) during aortic cross-clamping, whereas in the nonpulsatile group, the pump was kept in its nonpulsatile mode during the same period of time. Compared with the nonpulsatile group, the pulsatile group had a higher pulse pressure (P < 0.01) and a fraction higher energy equivalent pressure (EEP, P = 0.058). The net gain of pulsatile flow, represented by the surplus hemodynamic energy (SHE), was found much higher in the CPB circuit than in patients (P < 0.01). Clinically, there was no difference between the pulsatile and nonpulsatile groups with regard to postoperative acute kidney injury, endothelial activation, or inflammatory response. Postoperative organ function and the duration of hospital stay were similar in the two patient groups. In conclusion, pulsatile CPB with the Rotaflow centrifugal pump is associated with a small gain of EEP and SHE, which does not seem to be clinically effective in adult cardiac surgical patients.

  8. Effects of Parliamentary Elections on Suicide Rates in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Zonda, Tamás; Kmetty, Zoltán; Lester, David; Tóth, Mónika Ditta

    2015-02-23

    Background: Phillips and Feldman reported a decline in suicides leading up to the American presidential elections, but Wasserman argued that elections had no impact on suicide. Aims: The present study explored the impact of elections on suicides in Hungary. Method: The study examined changes in the number of suicides in Hungary during the period 1990-2010 on the days of parliamentary elections, and in the weeks and months surrounding the elections. Results: There was no significant impact from the elections on the number of suicides. Conclusion: The data from Hungary replicated the results of Wasserman rather than those of Phillips and Feldman.

  9. 'Elective' ventilation: an unethical and harmful misnomer?

    PubMed

    Stammers, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    The demand for organs prompted the first use of elective ventilation in the UK in the 1990s. Recently the shortfall in supply of organs has once again prompted calls for elective ventilation to be instituted even in patients who are not brain dead. This paper proposes that the term 'elective' ventilation is a misnomer and the term non-therapeutic ventilation (NTV) should be used instead. It is further argued that the practice of NTV in cases of severe stroke is unethical and has the potential of causing a variety of harms to the patient, their relatives, and the healthcare professionals working in transplant teams and this may result in a backlash of reductions in the number of organ donations.

  10. Blisters associated with elective wrist surgery.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Tsipora; Chernofsky, Michael A; Luria, Shai

    2015-01-01

    Blistering of the skin has been reported after high energy trauma or arthroplasties of large joints. It is rare in wrist trauma and seldom reported following elective wrist surgery. We present three cases of skin blistering after elective wrist surgery. Two female patients aged 18 and 35 years and one male patient aged 53 years were treated with total wrist fusion, carpometacarpal fusion, and open wrist ligament repair. They reported burning pain at the blister site. The blisters were clear and treated with dressing changes. There were no infections or wound complications and all blisters resolved without sequelae. These complications were probably due to a combination of factors, including swelling, compression from dressing and splint, multiple surgical incisions, and the use of adhesive dressing. Reassurance and proper wound care are recommended for the complication of clear blistering following elective wrist surgery.

  11. Elective induction of labor: part 2.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Warren

    2008-12-01

    The elective induction of labor has become commonplace, and many are concerned that the practice introduces risks for the woman and the fetus that would not be incurred if labor had been allowed to begin spontaneously. This second paper of a two-part communication reviews the risks and benefits of the elective induction of labor, and concludes that the risks of the induction of labor are few when the patient is properly screened medically and appropriately informed. The principal worry is a doubled risk of Cesarean delivery among primigravidas (not multiparas) in whom labor is electively induced. The benefits of selecting the date of delivery are powerful incentives for busy working women. But the benefits are primarily social, and add to the convenience of both the patient and her doctor. The risks, however, are medical, and are not confined to the pregnancy at risk. Appropriately informed consent is the key to balance the risks and benefits.

  12. The 2016 Presidential Election: Reality vs. Myths.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Deborah B

    2016-01-01

    Politics in a democracy requires governance through debate. Nurses are an important part of the voting public and we need to assess our own anger, expectations, and values for this election. Recognizing four myths during this election season can improve the political conversation. This conversation must acknowledge different groups, interests, and opinions and then seek ways to balance or reconcile those interests. Using this as a mental model to define our politics rather than succumbing to divisive rhetoric, we can take a major step toward building a better political system.

  13. Low dose aprotinin and low dose tranexamic acid in elective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Waldow, Thomas; Krutzsch, Diana; Wils, Michael; Plötze, Katrin; Matschke, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    The antifibrinolytic agents aprotinin and tranexamic acid have both been proven to be efficient in reducing postoperative blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients in cardiac surgery. In light of recent safety issues regarding aprotinin, this single-centre study compared efficacy and safety of low dose aprotinin (2 million KIU, pump-prime volume only) and low dose tranexamic acid (1 g, pump-prime volume) in 708 consecutive patients from two prospective registers undergoing elective cardiac procedures with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Incidences of postoperative complications showed no significant differences between groups. Postoperative blood loss and transfusion requirements were significantly lower in aprotinin compared to tranexamic acid patients. Overall, both antifibrinolytic low dose regimens are safe components of perioperative patient management in elective cardiac surgery with CPB. Cardiac procedures requiring longer CPB times might benefit from the administration of low dose aprotinin.

  14. Elective cesarean hysterectomy vs elective cesarean section followed by remote hysterectomy: reassessing the risks.

    PubMed

    Bost; Rising; Bost

    1998-07-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the risks of elective cesarean hysterectomy with the risks of elective cesarean section followed by remote hysterectomy.Methods: A census of elective cesarean hysterectomies (n = 31) and a random sample of 200 cesarean sections and 200 hysterectomies performed by the authors between 1987 and 1996 were evaluated. Only elective repeat and primary cesarean section patients without labor were selected for study (n = 86). Total abdominal hysterectomies were drawn from the sample (n = 60), excluding cancer cases, patients over 50 years old, and those with ancillary procedures other than adnexectomy and lysis of adhesions. General probability theory was used to calculate a predicted complication rate of cesarean section followed by TAH from the complication rates of the component procedures done independently. This predicted combined complication rate was then compared to the observed rate of complications from cesarean hysterectomy to evaluate the risks of the two alternative treatment regimens.Results: Elective cesarean section and total abdominal hysterectomy had complication rates of 12.8% and 13.4%, respectively. The predicted combined complication rate for elective cesarean section followed by TAH was 24.5%. The observed rate of complications for elective cesarean hysterectomy was much lower (16.1%). Although bleeding complications were similar for the two regimens, the rate of transfusion was higher for cesarean hysterectomy (13.0%) than for cesarean section (0%) and TAH (3.4%) alone. Eighty percent of the cesarean hysterectomy patients would have been candidates for autologous blood donation, had it been available.Conclusions: Elective cesarean hysterectomy has a lower risk of complications than elective cesarean section followed by remote abdominal hysterectomy and should be preferred. Transfusion risks are higher for cesarean hysterectomy but can be decreased by the use of autologous blood.

  15. Benefits of preoperative education for adult elective surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Kruzik, Nancy

    2009-09-01

    Patient education is a major concern for perioperative nurses in an ambulatory surgery setting. It has proven difficult to develop formal preoperative teaching programs in this environment, but research has shown that preoperative education can improve patient outcomes and satisfaction with the surgical experience. Typical patient education consists of pamphlets that are given to the patient before surgery and verbal instructions from the physicians and nurses on the day of surgery. Ideally, preoperative patient education should begin in the surgeon's office, continue through preadmission testing, and be completed at admission. Having a well-designed preoperative education program enables perioperative nurses in ambulatory surgery centers to provide a thoughtful approach to perioperative teaching in a limited time. AORN J 90 (September 2009) 381-387. (c) AORN, Inc, 2009.

  16. Economic Effects of Anti-Depressant Usage on Elective Lumbar Fusion Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sayadipour, Amirali; Kepler, Chrisopher K.; Mago, Rajnish; Certa, Kenneth M.; Rasouli, Mohammad R.; Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Albert, Todd J.; Anderson, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested, although not proven, that presence of concomitant psychiatric disorders may increase the inpatient costs for patients undergoing elective surgery. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that elective lumbar fusion surgery is more costly in patients with under treatment for depression. Methods: This is a retrospective case-control study of 142 patients who underwent elective lumbar fusion. Of those 142 patients, 41 patients were chronically using an antidepressant medication that considered as a “study group”, and 101 patients were not taking an antidepressant medication that considered as a “control group”. Data was collected for this cohort regarding antidepressant usage patient demographics, length of stay (LOS), age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index scores and cost. Costs were compared between those with a concomitant antidepressant usage and those without antidepressant usage using multivariate analysis. Results: Patients using antidepressants and those with no history of antidepressant usage were similar in terms of gender, age and number of operative levels. The LOS demonstrated a non-significant trend towards longer stays in those using anti-depressants. Total charges, payments, variable costs and fixed costs were all higher in the antidepressant group but none of the differences reached statistical significance. Using Total Charges as the dependent variable, gender and having psychiatric comorbidities were retained independent variables. Use of an antidepressant was independently predictive of a 36% increase in Total Charges. Antidepressant usage as an independent variable also conferred a 22% increase in cost and predictive of a 19% increase in Fixed Cost. Male gender was predictive of a 30% increase in Total Charges. Conclusion: This study suggests use of antidepressant in patients who undergo elective spine fusion compared with control group is associated with increasing total cost and length of

  17. Cortical spreading depression occurs during elective neurosurgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Andrew P; William Shuttleworth, C; Mead, Brittany; Burlbaw, Brittany; Krasberg, Mark; Yonas, Howard

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Cortical spreading depression (CSD) has been observed with relatively high frequency in the period following human brain injury, including traumatic brain injury and ischemic/hemorrhagic stroke. These events are characterized by loss of ionic gradients through massive cellular depolarization, neuronal dysfunction (depression of electrocorticographic [ECoG] activity) and slow spread (2-5 mm/min) across the cortical surface. Previous data obtained in animals have suggested that even in the absence of underlying injury, neurosurgical manipulation can induce CSD and could potentially be a modifiable factor in neurosurgical injury. The authors report their initial experience with direct intraoperative ECoG monitoring for CSD. METHODS The authors prospectively enrolled patients undergoing elective craniotomy for supratentorial lesions in cases in which the surgical procedure was expected to last > 2 hours. These patients were monitored for CSD from the time of dural opening through the time of dural closure, using a standard 1 × 6 platinum electrode coupled with an AC or full-spectrum DC amplifier. The data were processed using standard techniques to evaluate for slow potential changes coupled with suppression of high-frequency ECoG propagating across the electrodes. Data were compared with CSD validated in previous intensive care unit (ICU) studies, to evaluate recording conditions most likely to permit CSD detection, and identify likely events during the course of neurosurgical procedures using standard criteria. RESULTS Eleven patients underwent ECoG monitoring during elective neurosurgical procedures. During the periods of monitoring, 2 definite CSDs were observed to occur in 1 patient and 8 suspicious events were detected in 4 patients. In other patients, either no events were observed or artifact limited interpretation of the data. The DC-coupled amplifier system represented an improvement in stability of data compared with AC-coupled systems. Compared

  18. Elective ventilation for organ donation: law, policy and public ethics.

    PubMed

    Coggon, John

    2013-03-01

    This paper examines questions concerning elective ventilation, contextualised within English law and policy. It presents the general debate with reference both to the Exeter Protocol on elective ventilation, and the considerable developments in legal principle since the time that that protocol was declared to be unlawful. I distinguish different aspects of what might be labelled elective ventilation policies under the following four headings: 'basic elective ventilation'; 'epistemically complex elective ventilation'; 'practically complex elective ventilation'; and 'epistemically and practically complex elective ventilation'. I give a legal analysis of each. In concluding remarks on their potential practical viability, I emphasise the importance not just of ascertaining the legal and ethical acceptability of these and other forms of elective ventilation, but also of assessing their professional and political acceptability. This importance relates both to the successful implementation of the individual practices, and to guarding against possible harmful effects in the wider efforts to increase the rates of posthumous organ donation.

  19. 75 FR 10483 - Filing Dates for the Pennsylvania Special Election in the 12th Congressional District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION Filing Dates for the Pennsylvania Special Election in the 12th Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for special election. SUMMARY: Pennsylvania...

  20. Long-Term Verifiability of Remote Electronic Elections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Lucie

    Retention of election documents is essential for verifying the proper conduct of an election ex post. The documents retained provide for later review in case an election contest is filed. Moreover, the principle of public elections laid down in German basic law implies the need for public verifiability. This applies to remote electronic voting in particular as physical observation is not achievable in this case.

  1. An Elective Course in Separation Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wankat, Phillip C.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews an elective course designed to incorporate: (1) study of operating methods for adsorption, chromatography, and ion exchange in a pattern set by the instructor; (2) study of student selected topics with instructor developed lectures and assignments; and (3) course project done by each student. (SK)

  2. Critical Care Specialty Elective: Nursing 401A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jepson, Cheri A.

    This course guide describes an elective speciality course on critical/intensive care nursing. A rationale for the course is followed by general information, including a description of the theoretical and clinical course components, an enumeration of major goals and objectives, a detailed outline of the units of instruction, a calendar of…

  3. Older Voters and the 2004 Election

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binstock, Robert H.

    2006-01-01

    For several decades, candidates in U.S. presidential election campaigns have articulated policy issues designed to appeal to older Americans. However, exit-poll data have consistently shown that older people have distributed their votes among presidential candidates in roughly the same proportions as the electorate as a whole, favoring the winner…

  4. Election Year Hints at Shifts for Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali; Keller, Bess

    2008-01-01

    The National Education Association is poised for a change in leadership this year as its president of six years, Reg Weaver, bumps up against term limits. Now, speculation is widespread that Edward J. McElroy, his counterpart at the American Federation of Teachers, might not seek re-election in July. The possible exit of Mr. McElroy--and the…

  5. Brazilian elections: voting for a scaling democracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa Filho, R. N.; Almeida, M. P.; Moreira, J. E.; Andrade, J. S.

    2003-05-01

    The proportional elections held in Brazil in 1998 and 2002 display identical statistical signatures. In particular, the distribution of votes among candidates includes a power-law regime. We suggest that the rationale behind this robust scaling invariance is a multiplicative process in which the voter's choice for a candidate is governed by a product of probabilities.

  6. The Thematic Elective Program: Five Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Roberta T.

    J.E.B. Stuart High School moved into the minicourse elective program five years ago from an anthology-survey oriented English curriculum. The students are grouped into two levels, one offering minicourses for eleventh and twelfth graders and the other offering minicourses for ninth and tenth grade students, with some courses open to all of the…

  7. Elective Home Education in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Thousands of children are educated at home by their parents. This book is an overview of the phenomenon of elective home education in the United Kingdom. It examines the history of the practice and reveals why more and more parents are choosing not to send their children to school. Simon Webb, himself a home educator, explores in detail the…

  8. America Elects a Professor in Chief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monastersky, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 presidential election has broken so many political barriers that historians may overlook one unusual fact: When Barack Obama takes the oath of office in January alongside his running mate, Joe Biden, it will be the first time that the president, the vice president, and both of their spouses have worked in higher education. Taken together,…

  9. Crunch Seen on Ed. Issues after Election

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2012-01-01

    From the White House to Capitol Hill, the winners in this week's elections won't have much time to savor their victories. Even as federal policymakers sort out the political landscape, the remainder of 2012 and the early months of 2013 are likely to be dominated by divisive, unresolved issues with broad consequences for K-12 and higher…

  10. Get Real: Teaching about the Presidential Election

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Margit; Waldman, John

    2008-01-01

    A paramount duty of education is to prepare young people for their role as citizens in a democratic society. Voting is one of the important responsibilities of a citizen but statistics indicate that young people often don't vote and don't believe they have a stake in the outcome of the presidential election. Storypath is a teaching strategy that…

  11. School Board Elections: Theories Meet Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garn, Gregg; Copeland, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory article relies on qualitative data generated from observations and focus group interviews to investigate what motivates citizens to vote in school board elections and how they choose among candidates. Our review of literature suggests that capture theory, dissatisfaction theory, retrospective voting, partisanship, issue voting,…

  12. Demographic Trends in Texas Bond Elections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, Wesley D.; Bingham Linn, Genie; Vaughn, Vance

    2008-01-01

    The ability to hold a successful bond election is a vital part of the superintendency in Texas. Aging facilities, increasing student enrollments, and technological needs exacerbate the need to gain community support for capital improvement projects. Appropriate facilities are needed not only for the physical space they provide, but also because…

  13. Peace, Security and the 1980 Elections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woito, Robert, Ed.; And Others

    This booklet offers a perspective on U.S. foreign policy for election year 1980. It can be used as a discussion starter at the secondary and college levels. Long range goals essential to a warless world are proposed. They are: mediating regional and national crises; gaining arms control and disarmament agreements; strengthening international…

  14. Older Voters and the 2008 Election

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binstock, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: In the 2008 presidential election, a majority of older persons voted for John McCain, the loser. The purposes of this report are to help illuminate why older voters were the only age-group that gave a majority to McCain and to delineate some ongoing issues in the analysis of older persons' voting behavior. Methods: Analysis was undertaken…

  15. 12 CFR 269.5 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) POLICY ON LABOR RELATIONS FOR THE FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS § 269.5 Elections. (a) Once there has been a... of the Special Tribunal may be taken within thirty (30) calendar days to the Federal Reserve...

  16. 12 CFR 269.5 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) POLICY ON LABOR RELATIONS FOR THE FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS § 269.5 Elections. (a) Once there has been a... of the Special Tribunal may be taken within thirty (30) calendar days to the Federal Reserve...

  17. Field Archeology as a General Elective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Ronald L.

    1977-01-01

    An archeological field program developed at California State College in Pennsylvania has been restructured to appeal to students as an elective. Four objectives are included: primary research, scientific investigation of culture, portrayal of prehistoric and historic life styles of man, and recognition of cultural ecology. (LBH)

  18. Congressional Elections: A Political Turning Point?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Democrats have their best chance in 10 years to make major gains in the congressional elections on November 7, 2006 while Republicans are striving to retain control of both the House and the Senate. For Republicans to lose control of both houses of the legislature, the Democrats need net gains of 15 House seats and six Senate seats. This…

  19. Elections, Image or Issues? Media & Values 44.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoman, Elizabeth, Ed.; Silver, Rosalind, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This issue of "Media & Values" explores the growing influence of mass media on the election process in the United States. The essays present various interpretations of that influence and the implications for the nation. The magazine is divided into three sections. The introductory section includes: (1) "Where Have All the Leaders Gone?" (Daniel…

  20. Media Agenda-Building and Election Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning-Miller, Carmen L.

    To examine factors which influenced the media's agenda-building process during a primary election period in Mississippi, a study explored candidates' personal attributes, campaign resourcefulness, and media connectedness as important agenda-building variables. Candidates for Mississippi's United States House of Representatives seats in 1982 and…

  1. Voter Involvement in the 1980 Presidential Election.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Roger; Hamilton, Peter K.

    A study explored the relationship between voters' involvement in political elections and their reactions to different media as sources of political information. Data were gathered from 246 telephone interviews conducted 1 month prior to the 1980 United States presidential campaign. Respondents were asked to (1) name political issues discussed in…

  2. Election 2000: Voting Issues and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Donald L.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the many issues that the close 2000 presidential election brought to the forefront, such as: problems with the punch card systems, the need for convenient registration, the topic of provisional ballots, and the relevance of the Electoral College. (CMK)

  3. Presidential Elections in the Age of Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, Jennifer Truran

    2000-01-01

    Explores the role of television in politics providing historical examples of the use of television and its possible effects on elections. Focuses on television as the dominant medium for politics, the connections among television, advertising, and political money, and ideas for reforming the electoral process. Includes a teaching activity on…

  4. 29 CFR 44.3 - Election process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... round of votes are counted, the Commissioner shall conduct additional rounds of voting using a ballot... additional round of voting and will tally the votes received within the prescribed time limit. The director... distribute the ballots relating to the election under this part by electronic mail or other methods...

  5. 29 CFR 44.3 - Election process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... round of votes are counted, the Commissioner shall conduct additional rounds of voting using a ballot... additional round of voting and will tally the votes received within the prescribed time limit. The director... distribute the ballots relating to the election under this part by electronic mail or other methods...

  6. 29 CFR 44.3 - Election process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... round of votes are counted, the Commissioner shall conduct additional rounds of voting using a ballot... additional round of voting and will tally the votes received within the prescribed time limit. The director... distribute the ballots relating to the election under this part by electronic mail or other methods...

  7. 29 CFR 44.3 - Election process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... round of votes are counted, the Commissioner shall conduct additional rounds of voting using a ballot... additional round of voting and will tally the votes received within the prescribed time limit. The director... distribute the ballots relating to the election under this part by electronic mail or other methods...

  8. 29 CFR 452.131 - Casting of ballots; delegate elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Casting of ballots; delegate elections. 452.131 Section 452... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.131 Casting of ballots; delegate elections. The manner in which the votes of the representatives are cast in the convention is...

  9. 29 CFR 452.131 - Casting of ballots; delegate elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Casting of ballots; delegate elections. 452.131 Section 452... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.131 Casting of ballots; delegate elections. The manner in which the votes of the representatives are cast in the convention is...

  10. 29 CFR 452.131 - Casting of ballots; delegate elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Casting of ballots; delegate elections. 452.131 Section 452... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.131 Casting of ballots; delegate elections. The manner in which the votes of the representatives are cast in the convention is...

  11. 29 CFR 452.131 - Casting of ballots; delegate elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Casting of ballots; delegate elections. 452.131 Section 452... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.131 Casting of ballots; delegate elections. The manner in which the votes of the representatives are cast in the convention is...

  12. 29 CFR 452.131 - Casting of ballots; delegate elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Casting of ballots; delegate elections. 452.131 Section 452... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.131 Casting of ballots; delegate elections. The manner in which the votes of the representatives are cast in the convention is...

  13. Congo: Elections and the Battle for Mineral Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Twenty million voters cast ballots July 30, 2006, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo's first free election since 1960. A runoff election three months later, between transitional president Joseph Kabila and transitional vice president Jean-Pierre Bemba, gave Kabila a mandate to lead the war-torn nation for five more years. The elections, in…

  14. 7 CFR 1412.21 - Election of base acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Election of base acres. 1412.21 Section 1412.21... CROP REVENUE ELECTION PROGRAM FOR THE 2008 AND SUBSEQUENT CROP YEARS Establishment of Base Acres for a Farm for Covered Commodities § 1412.21 Election of base acres. (a) Subject to adjustments in...

  15. 7 CFR 1412.21 - Election of base acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Election of base acres. 1412.21 Section 1412.21... CROP REVENUE ELECTION PROGRAM FOR THE 2008 AND SUBSEQUENT CROP YEARS Establishment of Base Acres for a Farm for Covered Commodities § 1412.21 Election of base acres. (a) Subject to adjustments in...

  16. 7 CFR 1412.21 - Election of base acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Election of base acres. 1412.21 Section 1412.21... CROP REVENUE ELECTION PROGRAM FOR THE 2008 AND SUBSEQUENT CROP YEARS Establishment of Base Acres for a Farm for Covered Commodities § 1412.21 Election of base acres. (a) Subject to adjustments in...

  17. 7 CFR 1412.21 - Election of base acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Election of base acres. 1412.21 Section 1412.21... CROP REVENUE ELECTION PROGRAM FOR THE 2008 AND SUBSEQUENT CROP YEARS Establishment of Base Acres for a Farm for Covered Commodities § 1412.21 Election of base acres. (a) Subject to adjustments in...

  18. 7 CFR 1412.21 - Election of base acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Election of base acres. 1412.21 Section 1412.21... CROP REVENUE ELECTION PROGRAM FOR THE 2008 AND SUBSEQUENT CROP YEARS Establishment of Base Acres for a Farm for Covered Commodities § 1412.21 Election of base acres. (a) Subject to adjustments in...

  19. 5 CFR 1620.42 - Processing TSP contribution elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Military Service § 1620.42 Processing TSP contribution elections. (a) Current contribution election. If the... employee files a new contribution election. If the employee separated to perform military service, he or... on file when he or she separated or entered nonpay status to perform military service, that...

  20. 26 CFR 1.1291-10 - Deemed sale election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...(d)(2)(A) (deemed sale election). Under that section, a shareholder (as defined in § 1.1291-9(j)(3)) of a PFIC that is an unpedigreed QEF may elect to recognize gain with respect to the stock of the... shareholder makes the deemed sale election, the PFIC will become a pedigreed QEF with respect to...

  1. 7 CFR 7.16 - Report of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... held. (b) The election report must include: (1) The number of eligible voters in the local administrative area; (2) The number of ballots cast in the election by eligible voters; (3) The percentage of eligible voters that cast ballots; (4) The number of ballots disqualified in the election; (5)...

  2. 7 CFR 7.16 - Report of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... held. (b) The election report must include: (1) The number of eligible voters in the local administrative area; (2) The number of ballots cast in the election by eligible voters; (3) The percentage of eligible voters that cast ballots; (4) The number of ballots disqualified in the election; (5)...

  3. 75 FR 55257 - Definition of Federal Election Activity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... 11 CFR Part 100 Definition of Federal Election Activity AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION.... Specifically, these final rules modify the definitions of ``voter registration activity'' and ``get-out-the... regarding ``Federal election activity,'' including the definitions of the terms ``voter...

  4. 17 CFR 12.13 - Complaint; election of procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Complaint; election of...; election of procedure. (a) In general. Any person complaining of a violation of any provision of the Act or... receivership or bankruptcy proceedings that are presently pending; (viii) An election of a decisional...

  5. 26 CFR 1.1361-3 - QSub election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true QSub election. 1.1361-3 Section 1.1361-3...) INCOME TAXES Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1361-3 QSub election. (a) Time and manner of making election—(1) In general. The corporation for which the QSub election is made must...

  6. 5 CFR 847.203 - Elections of CSRS coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elections of CSRS coverage. 847.203... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ELECTIONS OF RETIREMENT COVERAGE BY CURRENT AND FORMER EMPLOYEES OF NONAPPROPRIATED FUND INSTRUMENTALITIES Elections To Continue Retirement Coverage After a Qualifying Move §...

  7. 38 CFR 3.711 - Improved pension elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... elections. 3.711 Section 3.711 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Concurrent Benefits and Elections § 3.711 Improved pension elections. Except as otherwise provided by this section and § 3.712, a...

  8. 38 CFR 21.6015 - Claims and elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims and elections. 21... Recipients General § 21.6015 Claims and elections. (a) Claims by veterans under age 45 for whom participation... make this election, the veteran must file a claim, in a form prescribed by VA, for services under...

  9. 5 CFR 847.208 - Changes of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Changes of election. 847.208 Section 847... (CONTINUED) ELECTIONS OF RETIREMENT COVERAGE BY CURRENT AND FORMER EMPLOYEES OF NONAPPROPRIATED FUND INSTRUMENTALITIES Elections To Continue Retirement Coverage After a Qualifying Move § 847.208 Changes of...

  10. 4 CFR 28.116 - Conduct of elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conduct of elections. 28.116 Section 28.116 Accounts... Special Procedures; Representation Proceedings § 28.116 Conduct of elections. (a) The Board shall supervise any election it orders to be conducted, but may delegate ministerial functions relating to...

  11. 5 CFR 847.302 - Notice of election rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of election rights. 847.302... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ELECTIONS OF RETIREMENT COVERAGE BY CURRENT AND FORMER EMPLOYEES OF NONAPPROPRIATED FUND INSTRUMENTALITIES Procedures for Elections Under the Retroactive Provisions § 847.302 Notice...

  12. 26 CFR 1.168A-2 - Election of amortization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election of amortization. 1.168A-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.168A-2 Election of amortization. (a) General rule. An election by the taxpayer to take amortization deductions...

  13. 22 CFR 1422.7 - Agreement for consent election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Agreement for consent election. 1422.7 Section... REPRESENTATION PROCEEDINGS § 1422.7 Agreement for consent election. (a) All parties desiring to participate in an election being conducted pursuant to this section or § 1422.16, including intervenors who have met...

  14. 42 CFR 403.724 - Valid election requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valid election requirements. 403.724 Section 403..., Conditions of Participation, and Payment § 403.724 Valid election requirements. (a) General requirements. An election statement must be made by the Medicare beneficiary or his or her legal representative. (1)...

  15. 5 CFR 831.645 - Elections between survivor annuities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elections between survivor annuities. 831... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Survivor Annuities Eligibility § 831.645 Elections between survivor... Fund. (b) A current spouse is entitled to a current spouse annuity based on an election under §...

  16. 7 CFR 930.23 - Nomination and election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nomination and election. 930.23 Section 930.23... Handling Administrative Body § 930.23 Nomination and election. (a) Forms and ballots. Nomination and election of initial and successor members and alternate members of the Board shall be conducted...

  17. 5 CFR 847.204 - Elections of FERS coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elections of FERS coverage. 847.204... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ELECTIONS OF RETIREMENT COVERAGE BY CURRENT AND FORMER EMPLOYEES OF NONAPPROPRIATED FUND INSTRUMENTALITIES Elections To Continue Retirement Coverage After a Qualifying Move §...

  18. 5 CFR 734.403 - Participation in elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Participation in elections. 734.403... § 734.403 Participation in elections. Each employee covered under this subpart retains the right to: (a) Register and vote in any election; (b) Take an active part, as a candidate or in support of a candidate,...

  19. 5 CFR 847.704 - Maximum survivor annuity election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum survivor annuity election. 847... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ELECTIONS OF RETIREMENT COVERAGE BY CURRENT AND FORMER EMPLOYEES OF NONAPPROPRIATED... survivor annuity election. The amount of the employee's benefit after reduction for any deficiency...

  20. 5 CFR 847.207 - Effective dates of elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective dates of elections. 847.207... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ELECTIONS OF RETIREMENT COVERAGE BY CURRENT AND FORMER EMPLOYEES OF NONAPPROPRIATED FUND INSTRUMENTALITIES Elections To Continue Retirement Coverage After a Qualifying Move §...

  1. 26 CFR 1.663(b)-2 - Election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election. 1.663(b)-2 Section 1.663(b)-2 Internal... TAXES Estates and Trusts Which May Accumulate Income Or Which Distribute Corpus § 1.663(b)-2 Election. (a) Manner and time of election; irrevocability—(1) When return is required to be filed. If a...

  2. 20 CFR 320.19 - Election to participate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election to participate. 320.19 Section 320... APPEALS FROM SUCH DETERMINATIONS § 320.19 Election to participate. (a) Claimant files an appeal. Where the... with the hearings officer an election to participate in the appeal. A claimant who fails to file...

  3. Power Indices and U.S. Presidential Elections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colen, Yong S.; Navaratna, Channa; Colen, Jung; Kim, Jinho

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 U.S. presidential election is the perfect opportunity to present a timely civics lesson on how a U.S. president is elected. More important, it offers opportunities for students to reason mathematically about election issues--for example, about how much time and resources the candidates should invest in particular states. The results of…

  4. 17 CFR 12.18 - Answer; election of procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Answer; election of procedure...; election of procedure. An answer filed pursuant to § 12.16 of these rules shall meet the following... wishes to pursue under § 12.19 of these rules; (7) An election of an alternative decisional...

  5. 26 CFR 1.243-5 - Effect of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of election. 1.243-5 Section 1.243-5...) INCOME TAXES Special Deductions for Corporations § 1.243-5 Effect of election. (a) General—(1) Corporations subject to restrictions and limitations. If an election by an affiliated group under section...

  6. 26 CFR 1.616-2 - Election to defer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Election to defer. 1.616-2 Section 1.616-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.616-2 Election to defer. (a) General rule. In lieu of... natural deposit. However, in the case of such expenditures made in the development stage, this election...

  7. 26 CFR 1.472-5 - Revocation of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revocation of election. 1.472-5 Section 1.472-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Inventories § 1.472-5 Revocation of election. An election made to adopt and use the...

  8. 5 CFR 891.202 - Change of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Change of election. 891.202 Section 891.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIRED FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS Election and Change of Election § 891.202 Change...

  9. 5 CFR 891.202 - Change of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Change of election. 891.202 Section 891.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIRED FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS Election and Change of Election § 891.202 Change...

  10. School Finance Elections: A Comprehensive Planning Model for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lifto, Don E.; Senden, J. Bradford

    2004-01-01

    "Education officials need to furnish leadership in school elections.... An unsuccessful election reduces educational opportunities for students" (Kimbrough and Nunnery, 1971, p. 4). Who can argue with this simple statement? Providing effective leadership, however, is not that easy. Research and practice have yet to yield an election formula that…

  11. 26 CFR 1.9003-2 - Effect of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of election. 1.9003-2 Section 1.9003-2...) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9003-2 Effect of election. (a) In general. If a taxpayer... making cement. (b) Effect on gross income from mining. The election is only determinative of...

  12. 26 CFR 1.853-2 - Effect of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effect of election. 1.853-2 Section 1.853-2... Effect of election. (a) Regulated investment company. A regulated investment company making a valid... investment company, which has made the election under section 853, is, in effect, placed in the same...

  13. 38 CFR 21.7032 - Time limits for making elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... elections. 21.7032 Section 21.7032 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... (Montgomery GI Bill-Active Duty) Claims and Applications § 21.7032 Time limits for making elections. (a) Scope of this section. The provisions of this section are applicable to certain elections to...

  14. 29 CFR 452.99 - Notice of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... his last known home address not less than fifteen days prior to the election. 48 For purposes of... to members who are eligible to vote in the election. Where the notice, if mailed to the last known... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Notice of election. 452.99 Section 452.99 Labor...

  15. 26 CFR 1.1362-6 - Elections and consents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Elections and consents. 1.1362-6 Section 1.1362... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1362-6 Elections and consents. (a) Time and manner of making elections—(1) In general. An election statement made...

  16. 26 CFR 1.1362-6 - Elections and consents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Elections and consents. 1.1362-6 Section 1.1362... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1362-6 Elections and consents. (a) Time and manner of making elections—(1) In general. An election statement made...

  17. 29 CFR 452.99 - Notice of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... his last known home address not less than fifteen days prior to the election. 48 For purposes of... to members who are eligible to vote in the election. Where the notice, if mailed to the last known... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Notice of election. 452.99 Section 452.99 Labor...

  18. 26 CFR 1.1362-6 - Elections and consents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Elections and consents. 1.1362-6 Section 1.1362... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1362-6 Elections and consents. (a) Time and manner of making elections—(1) In general. An election statement made...

  19. 26 CFR 1.47-4 - Electing small business corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Electing small business corporation. 1.47-4... business corporation. (a) In general—(1) Disposition or cessation in hands of corporation. If an electing small business corporation (as defined in section 1371(b)) or a former electing small...

  20. 26 CFR 1.47-4 - Electing small business corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Electing small business corporation. 1.47-4... business corporation. (a) In general—(1) Disposition or cessation in hands of corporation. If an electing small business corporation (as defined in section 1371(b)) or a former electing small...

  1. 29 CFR 452.23 - Frequency of elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Frequency of elections. 452.23 Section 452.23 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Frequency and Kinds of Elections § 452.23 Frequency of elections. The Act...

  2. 29 CFR 452.26 - Elections in local labor organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Elections in local labor organizations. 452.26 Section 452.26 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Frequency and Kinds of Elections § 452.26 Elections in local...

  3. Teaching about the 2006 Elections with the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to teach the 2006 elections in middle or high school social studies and provides ways and some websites for social studies teachers at all grade levels to help teach about the 2006 midterm elections. One way to teach about the midterm elections would be to develop individual or group assignments that focus…

  4. 25 CFR 81.5 - Request to call election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Request to call election. 81.5 Section 81.5 Indians... FEDERAL STATUTE § 81.5 Request to call election. (a) The Secretary shall authorize the calling of an... tribal government. (b) The Secretary shall authorize the calling of an election to adopt a...

  5. Development of Geospatial Map Based Election Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, A. Kumar Chandra; Kumar, P.; Vasanth Kumar, N.

    2014-11-01

    The Geospatial Delhi Limited (GSDL), a Govt. of NCT of Delhi Company formed in order to provide the geospatial information of National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCTD) to the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD) and its organs such as DDA, MCD, DJB, State Election Department, DMRC etc., for the benefit of all citizens of Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD). This paper describes the development of Geospatial Map based Election portal (GMEP) of NCT of Delhi. The portal has been developed as a map based spatial decision support system (SDSS) for pertain to planning and management of Department of Chief Electoral Officer, and as an election related information searching tools (Polling Station, Assembly and parliamentary constituency etc.,) for the citizens of NCTD. The GMEP is based on Client-Server architecture model. It has been developed using ArcGIS Server 10.0 with J2EE front-end on Microsoft Windows environment. The GMEP is scalable to enterprise SDSS with enterprise Geo Database & Virtual Private Network (VPN) connectivity. Spatial data to GMEP includes delimited precinct area boundaries of Voters Area of Polling stations, Assembly Constituency, Parliamentary Constituency, Election District, Landmark locations of Polling Stations & basic amenities (Police Stations, Hospitals, Schools and Fire Stations etc.). GMEP could help achieve not only the desired transparency and easiness in planning process but also facilitates through efficient & effective tools for management of elections. It enables a faster response to the changing ground realities in the development planning, owing to its in-built scientific approach and open-ended design.

  6. 11 CFR 100.2 - Election (2 U.S.C. 431(1)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... elections, as set forth at 11 CFR 100.2 (b), (c), (d), (e) and (f) are included in this definition. (b... election. (2) An election which is held to fill a vacancy in a Federal office (i.e., a special election... officeholder elect, is a runoff election. (e) Caucus or Convention. A caucus or convention of a political...

  7. A national population-based assessment of 2007–2008 election-related violence in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Following the contested national elections in 2007, violence occurred throughout Kenya. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence, characteristics, and health consequences of the 2007–2008 election-related violence. Methods A cross-sectional, national, population-based cluster survey of 956 Kenyan adults aged ≥ 18 years was conducted in Kenya in September 2011 utilizing a two-stage 90 x 10 cluster sample design and structured interviews and questionnaires. Prevalence of all forms of violence surrounding the 2007 election period, symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and morbidity related to sexual and physical violence were assessed. Results Of 956 households surveyed, 916 households participated (response rate 95.8%). Compared to pre-election, election-related sexual violence incidents/1000 persons/year increased over 60-fold (39.1-2370.1; p < .001) with a concurrent 37-fold increase in opportunistic sexual violence (5.2-183.1; p < .001). Physical and other human rights violations increased 80-fold (25.0-1987.1; p < .001) compared to pre-election. Overall, 50% of households reported at least one physical or sexual violation. Households reporting violence were more likely to report violence among female household members (66.6% vs. 58.1%; p = .04) or among the Luhya ethnic group (17.0% vs. 13.8%; p = 0.03). The most common perpetrators of election-related sexual violence were reported to be affiliated with government or political groups (1670.5 incidents/1000 persons per year); the Kalenjin ethnic group for physical violations (54.6%). Over thirty percent of respondents met MDD and PTSD symptom criteria; however, symptoms of MDD (females, 63.3%; males, 36.7%; p = .01) and suicidal ideation (females, 68.5%; males, 31.5%; p = .04) were more common among females. Substance abuse was more common among males (males, 71.2%; females, 28.8%; p < .001). Conclusion On a

  8. 26 CFR 301.9100-19T - Election relating to passive investment income of electing small business corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Election relating to passive investment income... investment income of electing small business corporations. (a) In general. Section 3(a) of the Act of April... passive investment income of electing small business corporations). This amendment, which applies...

  9. The ethics of elective psychopharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Ahmed D.; Sahakian, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacological cognitive enhancers (PCEs) are used to improve cognitive functions, such as attention, learning, memory and planning in patients with impairments in cognition resulting from traumatic brain injury (TBI) or from neuropsychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment, schizophrenia, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Moreover, PCEs have been shown to improve cognition in healthy volunteers with no psychiatric disorders. This article describes the rationale behind the need for their use in neuropsychiatric patients and illustrates how PCEs can ameliorate cognitive impairments, improve quality of life and wellbeing, and therefore reduce the economic burden associated with these disorders. We also describe evidence that PCEs are being used as cognitive enhancers by healthy people. Crucially, as the lifestyle use of these drugs becomes very popular in the healthy population, a final aim is to present an overview of the current and future neuroethical considerations of enhancing the healthy brain. As information regarding their actual use, benefits and harms in various healthy populations is currently lacking, we propose research that aims to obtain relevant empirical data, monitor the short- and long-term effectiveness and side-effects, and initiate accurate surveys to determine current patterns and quantity of usage of PCE drugs by healthy people. Furthermore, in order to instigate a dialogue between neuroethics and neuropsychopharmacology, we urge scientists to explore and communicate the social and ethical implications of their research to the public. Finally, we discuss and highlight other means of enhancing cognition in both patients and healthy adults, including education and physical exercise. PMID:21396152

  10. Use of Dexmedetomidine in Patients Undergoing Craniotomies

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Nalini; Wagaskar, Vinayak; Kondwilkar, Bharati; Patil, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The neuroanaesthesia ensures stable perioperative cerebral haemodynamics, avoids sudden rise in intracranial pressure and prevents acute brain swelling. The clinical characteristics of dexmeditomidine make this intravenous agent a potentially attractive adjunct for neuroanaesthesia and in the neurological intensive care unit. Aim This study aimed to assess the effect of dexmedetomidine on intraoperative haemodynamic stability and to assess the intraoperative requirements of analgesic and other anaesthetic agents, and also to assess postoperative sedation, respiratory depression and any other side effects of dexmedetomidine as compared to placebo. Materials and Methods This prospective randomized study was done in 60 patients of either sex, age between 18 to 60 years and American Society of Anaesthesiologist (ASA) Grade I and II undergoing elective craniotomies under General Anaesthesia (GA) for intracranial Space Occupying Lesion (SOL). These 60 patients underwent thorough history, clinical examination and laboratory investigations. They were randomly divided into two groups, Group D (received Inj. Dexmedetomidine) and Group P (received Inj. Placebo). During bolus and infusion Heart Rate (HR), Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP), Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP), Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP), Peripheral oxygen saturation (SPO2) was recorded at every five minutes interval for first 20 minute. Results The mean age in Group D was 39.5 years and in Group P was 40 years. The sex distribution in two groups was in Group D, 12 patients (40%) were females and 18 (60%) patients were males. While in Group P 10 (33.3%) were females and 20 (66.7%) patients were males. The two groups were comparable with respect to diagnosis and type of surgery of patients and difference was not statistically significant. The mean HR, the mean DBP and the mean MAP was lower in Group D as compared to Group P and the difference was statistically significant. Conclusion Dexmedetomidine

  11. Multicandidate Elections: Aggregate Uncertainty in the Laboratory*

    PubMed Central

    Bouton, Laurent; Castanheira, Micael; Llorente-Saguer, Aniol

    2015-01-01

    The rational-voter model is often criticized on the grounds that two of its central predictions (the paradox of voting and Duverger’s Law) are at odds with reality. Recent theoretical advances suggest that these empirically unsound predictions might be an artifact of an (arguably unrealistic) assumption: the absence of aggregate uncertainty about the distribution of preferences in the electorate. In this paper, we propose direct empirical evidence of the effect of aggregate uncertainty in multicandidate elections. Adopting a theory-based experimental approach, we explore whether aggregate uncertainty indeed favors the emergence of non-Duverger’s law equilibria in plurality elections. Our experimental results support the main theoretical predictions: sincere voting is a predominant strategy under aggregate uncertainty, whereas without aggregate uncertainty, voters massively coordinate their votes behind one candidate, who wins almost surely. PMID:28298811

  12. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-02

    elections to the parliament, their service at many levels of government, including a governorship ( Bamiyan Province), and their growing presence in the...the Hazara tribes of central Afghanistan ( Bamiyan and Dai Kundi provinces) can celebrate their holidays openly, a development unknown before the...Affairs, Habiba Sohrabi, as governor of Bamiyan province, inhabited mostly by Hazaras. (She hosted then First Lady Laura Bush in Bamiyan in June

  13. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-23

    democratic Afghanistan governed by technocrats and newly emerging political figures, many seats in the lower house are held by personalities and factions...most of the corruption takes place in the course of performing mundane governmental functions, such as government processing of official documents, in...Meshrano Jirga representatives after the lower house elections planned for 2010. Security Benefits of Local Governance Programs The IDLG is also the

  14. A theory of measuring, electing, and ranking

    PubMed Central

    Balinski, Michel; Laraki, Rida

    2007-01-01

    The impossibility theorems that abound in the theory of social choice show that there can be no satisfactory method for electing and ranking in the context of the traditional, 700-year-old model. A more realistic model, whose antecedents may be traced to Laplace and Galton, leads to a new theory that avoids all impossibilities with a simple and eminently practical method, “the majority judgement.” It has already been tested. PMID:17496140

  15. Prevalence of acute post-operative pain in patients in adult age-group undergoing inpatient abdominal surgery and correlation of intensity of pain and satisfaction with analgesic management: A cross-sectional single institute-based study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Prashant Kumar; Saikia, Priyam; Lahakar, Mangala

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Considering the paucity of regional data, this study was designed to investigate the prevalence of post-operative pain and determine if there exists any correlation between the intensity of post-operative pain and patient's level of satisfaction with their pain management after inpatient abdominal surgery at an academic tertiary care government centre. Methods: Pain intensity was measured in 120 patients with numeric rating scale at the fifth post-operative hour, second and third post-operative day. A questionnaire was used to measure the level of satisfaction with nurse's and doctor's response to their pain and overall pain management. Results: The prevalence of post-operative pain was 84.17%, 92.5% and 96.66% at the fifth post-operative hour, second and third post-operative day, respectively. Less number of patients experienced severe intensity pain on the third post-operative day (P = 0.00046), whereas the number of patients experiencing mild pain increased (P < 0.000) compared to the fifth post-operative hour. The number of patients with complete analgesia decreased on the third post-operative day (P = 0.001 compared to fifth post-operative day). The Spearman correlation coefficient between pain score on the third post-operative day and level of satisfaction with nurse's response, doctor's response to pain and the overall pain management was − 0.0218 (P = 0.8107), 0.1307 (P = 0.1553) and 0.0743 (P = 0.4195), respectively. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of acute post-operative pain in patients undergoing inpatient abdominal surgery at our institute. There is a weak correlation between the intensity of pain and level of satisfaction with pain management. PMID:27761037

  16. An Elective Course in Aromatherapy Science

    PubMed Central

    Bystrek, Mary V.; Klein, JoAnn S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the impact of an innovative team-taught elective course on second-year (P2) students’ knowledge and skills relating to the relationship between aromatherapy and pharmacy. Design. An Aromatherapy Science elective course was offered to P2 students in an accelerated doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program and was designed to provide an elective course experience while focusing on active-learning skills such as group work, student-led presentations, and in-class activities. Lectures were designed to reinforce core curricular threads from the basic sciences within the pharmaceutical sciences department while highlighting key aromatherapy principles. Assessment. Course evaluations, grades, and student self-assessments were used to evaluate student fulfillment and knowledge gained. Students agreed this hands-on course integrated pharmaceutical science experiences, enriched their pharmacy education, and provided knowledge to enhance their confidence in describing essential oil uses, drug interactions, and key aromatherapy clinical implications. Conclusion. Students agreed this course prepared them to identify essential oil therapeutic uses and potential essential oil-drug interactions, and interpret literature. The introduction of aromatherapy principles to pharmacy students will prepare a new generation of healthcare professionals on the role of alternative medicines. PMID:24850941

  17. Age differences in affective forecasting and experienced emotion surrounding the 2008 US presidential election.

    PubMed

    Scheibe, Susanne; Mata, Rui; Carstensen, Laura L

    2011-09-01

    In everyday life, people frequently make decisions based on tacit or explicit forecasts about the emotional consequences associated with the possible choices. We investigated age differences in such forecasts and their accuracy by surveying voters about their expected and, subsequently, their actual emotional responses to the 2008 US presidential election. A sample of 762 Democratic and Republican voters aged 20 to 80 years participated in a web-based study; 346 could be re-contacted two days after the election. Older adults forecasted lower increases in high-arousal emotions (e.g., excitement after winning; anger after losing) and larger increases in low-arousal emotions (e.g., sluggishness after losing) than younger adults. Age differences in actual responses to the election were consistent with forecasts, albeit less pervasive. Additionally, among supporters of the winning candidate, but not among supporters of the losing candidate, forecasting accuracy was enhanced with age, suggesting a positivity effect in affective forecasting. These results add to emerging findings about the role of valence and arousal in emotional ageing and demonstrate age differences in affective forecasting about a real-world event with an emotionally charged outcome.

  18. Comparison of Second-Generation Supraglottic Airway Devices (i-gel versus LMA ProSeal) During Elective Surgery in Children.

    PubMed

    Sanket, Bhargavi; Ramavakoda, Chandrika Yabagodu; Nishtala, Madhavi Ravindra; Ravishankar, Chandrakala Kunigal; Ganigara, Anuradha

    2015-08-01

    Second-generation supraglottic airway devices i-gel (Intersurgical Ltd) and LMA ProSeal (Teleflex Inc) are designed for a superior airway seal with a high success rate in adults. This study compared the efficacy of i-gel and LMA ProSeal (sizes 1, 1.5, and 2) as an airway device in a pediatric population, especially infants. The study included 163 ASA class 1 and 2 children, aged up to 10 years and weighing 2 to 25 kg, undergoing elective surgeries lasting less than 1 hour under general anesthesia on spontaneous respiration. Participants were randomly assigned to 2 groups: i-gel and LMA ProSeal. With each device, the ease of insertion, time of insertion, manipulations required for placement of the device, and oropharyngeal leak pressure were recorded. A lubricated gastric tube of the recommended size was passed through each device, and ease of insertion was noted. At the end of surgery, the device was removed and complications were noted, including laryngospasm, breath holding, and blood-stains. Mann-Whitney U test and χ2 tests were used to compare collected data. Both devices were found to be comparable in effectively securing the airway in children, even in infants. The insertion time was significantly faster with i-gel.

  19. Clinical evaluation of a leucocyte-depleting blood cardioplegia filter (BC1B) for elective open-heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, I; Ogoshi, N; Chiba, M; Komatsu, T; Moizumi, Y

    1998-05-01

    Activation of leucocytes during extracorporeal circulation has attracted attention in recent years as a cause of reperfusion injury in open-heart surgery patients. In the present study, 40 adult patients undergoing elective open-heart surgery were randomized into two groups: 20 using the Pall BC1B leucocyte-depleting filter for blood cardioplegia (group 1) and the other 20 without the filter (group 2). In order to determine if the filter was effective in protecting the myocardium, CPK-MB and troponin-T (TnT) were measured. In addition, efforts were also made to determine appropriate sites at which the BC1B blood cardioplegia filter should be positioned. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of conditions of perfusion. No adverse effects were seen in either group. The total leucocyte reduction rate through the filter was 98.1% with the passage of 2 liters of blood through the filter. A pressure drop of 4.4 +/- 3.2 mmHg was observed through the filter during use. Statistically significant differences were noted between the two groups in CPK-MB (p = 0.031) and TnT (p = 0.004). Findings obtained in previous studies demonstrate that the various advantages of leucocyte reduction, shown in experimental studies, can be translated into clinical advantages. In conclusion, based on the results in this clinical study showing significant difference in CPK-MB and TnT which are known effective indicators for myocardial injury, between leucoreduced and non-leucoreduced group, the Pall BC1B leucocyte-depleting filter for blood cardioplegia has been shown to be effective in alleviating reperfusion injury in open-heart surgery patients.

  20. Myenteric plexitis: A frequent feature in patients undergoing surgery for colonic diverticular disease

    PubMed Central

    Villanacci, Vincenzo; Sidoni, Angelo; Nascimbeni, Riccardo; Dore, Maria P; Binda, Gian A; Bandelloni, Roberto; Salemme, Marianna; Del Sordo, Rachele; Cadei, Moris; Manca, Alessandra; Bernardini, Nunzia; Maurer, Christoph A; Cathomas, Gieri

    2015-01-01

    Background Diverticular disease of the colon is frequent in clinical practice, and a large number of patients each year undergo surgical procedures worldwide for their symptoms. Thus, there is a need for better knowledge of the basic pathophysiologic mechanisms of this disease entity. Objectives Because patients with colonic diverticular disease have been shown to display abnormalities of the enteric nervous system, we assessed the frequency of myenteric plexitis (i.e. the infiltration of myenteric ganglions by inflammatory cells) in patients undergoing surgery for this condition. Methods We analyzed archival resection samples from the proximal resection margins of 165 patients undergoing left hemicolectomy (60 emergency and 105 elective surgeries) for colonic diverticulitis, by histology and immunochemistry. Results Overall, plexitis was present in almost 40% of patients. It was subdivided into an eosinophilic (48%) and a lymphocytic (52%) subtype. Plexitis was more frequent in younger patients; and it was more frequent in those undergoing emergency surgery (50%), compared to elective (28%) surgery (p = 0.007). All the severe cases of plexitis displayed the lymphocytic subtype. Conclusions In conclusion, myenteric plexitis is frequent in patients with colonic diverticular disease needing surgery, and it might be implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:26668745

  1. Microvascular response to transfusion in elective spine surgery

    PubMed Central

    Walz, J Matthias; Stundner, Ottokar; Girardi, Federico P; Barton, Bruce A; Koll-Desrosiers, Aimee R; Heard, Stephen O; Memtsoudis, Stavros G

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the microvascular (skeletal muscle tissue oxygenation; SmO2) response to transfusion in patients undergoing elective complex spine surgery. METHODS After IRB approval and written informed consent, 20 patients aged 18 to 85 years of age undergoing > 3 level anterior and posterior spine fusion surgery were enrolled in the study. Patients were followed throughout the operative procedure, and for 12 h postoperatively. In addition to standard American Society of Anesthesiologists monitors, invasive measurements including central venous pressure, continual analysis of stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), cardiac index (CI), and stroke volume variability (SVV) was performed. To measure skeletal muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) during the study period, a non-invasive adhesive skin sensor based on Near Infrared Spectroscopy was placed over the deltoid muscle for continuous recording of optical spectra. All administration of fluids and blood products followed standard procedures at the Hospital for Special Surgery, without deviation from usual standards of care at the discretion of the Attending Anesthesiologist based on individual patient comorbidities, hemodynamic status, and laboratory data. Time stamps were collected for administration of colloids and blood products, to allow for analysis of SmO2 immediately before, during, and after administration of these fluids, and to allow for analysis of hemodynamic data around the same time points. Hemodynamic and oxygenation variables were collected continuously throughout the surgery, including heart rate, blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, SV, CO, CI, SVV, and SmO2. Bivariate analyses were conducted to examine the potential associations between the outcome of interest, SmO2, and each hemodynamic parameter measured using Pearson’s correlation coefficient, both for the overall cohort and within-patients individually. The association between receipt of packed red blood cells and SmO2 was performed by

  2. Efficacy of intravenous dexmedetomidine on patient's satisfaction, comfort and sedation during awake fibre-optic intubation in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy posted for elective cervical fixation

    PubMed Central

    Niyogi, Saikat; Basak, Samir; Acharjee, Amita; Chakraborty, Indrani

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: Various anaesthetic drugs, in addition to airway block, are used for producing favourable intubation conditions during awake fibre-optic intubation (AFOI), but most of them cause respiratory depression and hypoxaemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intravenous (IV) dexmedetomidine (DEX) on sedation, patient comfort and cardiovascular responses during AFOI in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Methods: This randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, prospective study was conducted on 56 adult patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) undergoing elective cervical fixation, who were randomly allocated into two groups - Group D and Group C. Group D patients received DEX infusion at a rate of 1 μg/kg for the first 10 min followed by 0.5 μg/kg/h and Group C received 0.9% normal saline infusion in the same manner. Airway blocks with lignocaine were given to all patients before undergoing AFOI. Patient's alertness, sedation and cardiorespiratory changes during the procedure were assessed by the Observer Assessment Awareness and Sedation (OAA/S) scale. On the 1st post-operative day, patient's' comfort during AFOI was assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS). Results: Patients of Group D had an acceptable level of sedation (OAA/S score: 20 to 17 with greater comfort and satisfaction (VAS: 40–60), compared to control group (VAS: 50–90, P < 0.001.). Moreover, haemodynamic parameters were less significantly altered in the DEX group during AFOI. Conclusions: IV DEX infusion during AFOI improves patient's tolerances with an acceptable level of sedation without significant haemodynamic instability and respiratory depression. PMID:28250482

  3. Phenylephrine infusion for spinal-induced hypotension in elective cesarean delivery: Does preload make a difference?

    PubMed Central

    Bottiger, Brandi A; Bezinover, Dmitri S; Mets, Berend; Dalal, Priti G; Prozesky, Jansie; Ural, Serdar; Vaida, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Patients undergoing elective cesarean delivery (CD) have a high-risk of spinal-induced hypotension (SIH). We hypothesized that a colloid preload would further reduce SIH when compared with a crystalloid preload. Material and Methods: Eighty-two healthy parturients undergoing elective CD were included in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups (41 patients in each group) to receive either Lactated Ringer's solution (1500 ml) or hydroxyethyl starch (6% in normal saline, 500 ml) 30 min prior to placement of spinal anesthesia. All patients were treated with a phenylephrine infusion (100 mcg/min), titrated during the study. Results: There was no statistical difference between groups with regards to the incidence of hypotension (10.8% in the colloid group vs. 27.0% in the crystalloid group, P = 0.12). There was also no difference between groups with respect to bradycardia, APGAR scores, and nausea and vomiting. Significantly less phenylephrine (1077.5 ± 514 mcg) was used in the colloid group than the crystalloid group (1477 ± 591 mcg, P = 0.003). Conclusion: The preload with 6% of hydroxyethyl starch before CD might be beneficial for the prevention of SIH. PMID:27625478

  4. Well, I Wouldn't be Any Worse Off, Would I, Than I am Now? A Qualitative Study of Decision-Making, Hopes, and Realities of Adults With Type 1 Diabetes Undergoing Islet Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Speight, Jane; Woodcock, Alison J.; Reaney, Matthew D.; Amiel, Stephanie A.; Johnson, Paul; Parrott, Neil; Rutter, Martin K.; Senior, Peter; Shaw, James A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background For selected individuals with type 1 diabetes, pancreatic islet transplantation (IT) prevents recurrent severe hypoglycemia and optimizes glycemia, although ongoing systemic immunosuppression is needed. Our aim was to explore candidates and recipients' expectations of transplantation, their experience of being on the waiting list, and (for recipients) the procedure and life posttransplant. Methods Cross-sectional qualitative research design using semistructured interviews with 16 adults (8 pretransplant, 8 posttransplant; from 4 UK centers (n = 13) and 1 Canadian center (n = 3)). Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and underwent inductive thematic analysis. Results Interviewees were aged (mean ± SD) 52 ± 10 years (range, 30-64); duration of diabetes, 36 ± 9 years (range, 21-56); 12 (75%) were women. Narrative accounts centered on expectations, hopes, and realities; decision-making; waiting and uncertainty; the procedure, hospital stay, and follow-up. Expected benefits included fewer severe hypoglycemic episodes, reduced need for insulin, preventing onset/progression of complications and improved psychological well-being. These were realized for most, at least in the short term. Most interviewees described well-informed, shared decision-making with clinicians and family, and managing their expectations. Although life “on the list” could be stressful, and immunosuppressant side effects were severe, interviewees reported “no regrets.” Posttransplant, interviewees experienced increased confidence, through freedom from hypoglycemia and regained glycemic control, which tempered any disappointment about continued reliance on insulin. Most viewed their transplant as a success, though several reflected upon setbacks and hidden hopes for becoming “insulin-free.” Conclusions Independently undertaken interviews demonstrated realistic and balanced expectations of IT and indicate how to optimize the process and support for future IT candidates

  5. Who Would Have Thought? Asking an Older Adult if They Have Fallen Predicts Surgical Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Teresa S; Dunn, Christina L; Wu, Daniel S; Cleveland, Joseph C; Kile, Deidre; Robinson, Thomas N

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s) The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of a history of falls (a geriatric syndrome) to postoperative outcomes in older adults undergoing major elective operations. Design Prospective, cohort study. Setting Referral medical center. Patients Persons 65 years and older undergoing elective colorectal and cardiac operations were enrolled. The predictor variable was having fallen in the six months prior to the operation. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measures Postoperative outcomes measured included thirty-day complications, need for discharge institutionalization and thirty-day readmission. Results There were 235 subjects with a mean age of 74±6 years. Pre-operative falls occurred in 33%. One or more postoperative complications occurred more frequently in the group with prior falls compared to the non-fallers following both colorectal (59% vs. 25%; p=0.004) and cardiac (39% vs. 15%; p=0.002) operations. These findings were independent of advancing chronologic age. Need for discharge to an institutional care facility occurred more frequently in the group that had fallen in comparison to the non-fallers in both the colorectal (52% vs. 6%; p<0.001) and cardiac (62% vs. 32%; p=0.001) groups. Similarly, 30-day readmission was higher in the group with prior falls following both colorectal (p=0.043) and cardiac (p=0.016) operations. Conclusions A history of one or more falls in the six months prior to an operation forecasts increased postoperative complications, need for discharge institutionalization and thirty-day readmission across surgical specialties. Utilizing a history of prior falls in preoperative risk assessment for an older adult represents a shift from current preoperative assessment strategies. PMID:24108317

  6. 29 CFR 1206.1 - Run-off elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Run-off elections. 1206.1 Section 1206.1 Labor Regulations... LABOR ACT § 1206.1 Run-off elections. (a) If in an election among any craft or class no organization or individual receives a majority of the legal votes cast, or in the event of a tie vote, a second or...

  7. 29 CFR 1206.1 - Run-off elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Run-off elections. 1206.1 Section 1206.1 Labor Regulations... LABOR ACT § 1206.1 Run-off elections. (a) If in an election among any craft or class no organization or individual receives a majority of the legal votes cast, or in the event of a tie vote, a second or...

  8. Children's self-statements and adjustment to elective outpatient surgery.

    PubMed

    Brophy, C J; Erickson, M T

    1990-02-01

    Children's coping self-statements, levels of anxiety, degree of behavioral adjustment, as well as levels of maternal state anxiety and parenting style, and demographic variables were used to predict the reactions of 61 children to elective day surgery. Results indicated that elective day surgery was not psychologically traumatic for most children. However, the use of negative self-statements and both low and high maternal anxiety were found to be related to increased anxiety of the children experiencing elective day surgery.

  9. 26 CFR 20.2056A-3 - QDOT election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false QDOT election. 20.2056A-3 Section 20.2056A-3... ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable Estate § 20.2056A-3 QDOT election. (a) General rule. Subject to the time period prescribed in section 2056A(d), the election to treat...

  10. 26 CFR 16A.126-2 - Section 126 elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Section 126 elections. 16A.126-2 Section 16A...-SHARING PAYMENTS § 16A.126-2 Section 126 elections. (a) Election for section 126 not to apply in whole or... return (or amended return) for the taxable year in which the taxpayer received the last payment made by...

  11. 26 CFR 16A.126-2 - Section 126 elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Section 126 elections. 16A.126-2 Section 16A.126...-SHARING PAYMENTS § 16A.126-2 Section 126 elections. (a) Election for section 126 not to apply in whole or... return (or amended return) for the taxable year in which the taxpayer received the last payment made by...

  12. 29 CFR 1206.1 - Run-off elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Run-off elections. 1206.1 Section 1206.1 Labor Regulations... LABOR ACT § 1206.1 Run-off elections. (a) In an election among any craft or class where three or more... of the legal votes cast, or in the event of a tie vote, the Board shall authorize a run-off...

  13. 29 CFR 1206.1 - Run-off elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Run-off elections. 1206.1 Section 1206.1 Labor Regulations... LABOR ACT § 1206.1 Run-off elections. (a) If in an election among any craft or class no organization or individual receives a majority of the legal votes cast, or in the event of a tie vote, a second or...

  14. 29 CFR 1206.1 - Run-off elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Run-off elections. 1206.1 Section 1206.1 Labor Regulations... LABOR ACT § 1206.1 Run-off elections. (a) In an election among any craft or class where three or more... of the legal votes cast, or in the event of a tie vote, the Board shall authorize a run-off...

  15. 26 CFR 1.409A-2 - Deferral elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Deferral elections. 1.409A-2 Section 1.409A-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.409A-2 Deferral elections. (a) Initial elections as to the time...

  16. 26 CFR 1.409A-2 - Deferral elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Deferral elections. 1.409A-2 Section 1.409A-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.409A-2 Deferral elections. (a) Initial elections as to the time...

  17. International Child Health Elective for Pediatric Residents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are increasing evidence highlighting the importance of incorporating issues of global health into pre- and post-graduate medical curricula. Medical international cooperation is a fundamental component of strategies to include global health issues in post-graduate medical curricula. Methods Here we describe a seven-year cooperation between the Non Governmental Organization (NGO) “Doctors for Africa CUAMM” and the Pediatric Residency Program (PRP) of the University of Padua (Italy) that offers residents a well-articulated personalized international child’s health (ICH) elective in Africa, called “Junior Project Officer”. The elective includes: a careful candidate selection process; pre-departure educational course; preceptorship in Padua and Africa, personalized learning objectives, a personalized job description, a six-month hands-on learning experience in Africa, evaluation of the experience, and formal private and open feed-backs/reports. Results Between 2006 and 2012, 14 residents aged from 27 to 31 years, six attending the III, nine the IV and two the V year of residency completed the six-month stage in Africa. All worked in pediatric in-patient units; seven also worked in out-patient clinics, six in emergency rooms and seven in community health centers. Eleven were involved in teaching activities and four in clinical research projects. All residents claimed to have achieved their learning objectives. Conclusions A strong partnership between the NGO and the PRP, and well-articulated personalized learning objectives and job description contributed to a successful ICH elective. PMID:24499625

  18. The effect of Malaysia general election on stock market returns.

    PubMed

    Liew, Venus Khim-Sen; Rowland, Racquel

    2016-01-01

    During the latest episode of general election held in Malaysia, it is observed that the FBMKLCI index was lifted 62.52 points in a day soon after the announcement of election outcome. Moreover, the index registered a highest gain of 96.29 points in the middle of the intra-day trade. This suggests that investors who had got the right direction could make profitable intra-day trading the next trading day of the general election date. Results from statistical analysis uncover significant before-election-effect and after-election-effect from the most recent general elections held in Malaysia. Different subsets of macroeconomic variables are found to have significant role on stock market return depending on the market situation. Remarkably, when there was close fight between the two major political parties during the 2008 and 2013 election years, political uncertainty showed up its negative and significant role in influencing the stock market return. The major implication of these findings is that while investors may seek abnormal returns before and after the next general election, which is around the corner, they will have to pay attention on the influence of macroeconomic variables and political uncertainty on stock market return during the election year.

  19. Elective Treatment of Middle Colic Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Hamasaki, Takafumi; Ota, Rikako; Ohno, Takashi; Kodama, Wataru; Uchida, Naotaka; Hayashi, Eiichi; Fukino, Syunsuke

    2014-01-01

    Middle colic artery aneurysms are rare and most have been reported with rupture or symptom. We report the successful elective treatment of a middle colic artery aneurysm without symptom, which is very rare. It failed to perform transcatheter arterial embolization for anatomical reasons, and, thus, the patient, a 77-year-old man, underwent surgical resection in spite of a history of laparotomy. Although a common cause of middle colic artery aneurysms is segmental arterial mediolysis, the present pathological findings indicated that fragmented or degenerated elastic fibers may also play an important role like aortic aneurysms. PMID:25298839

  20. Elective treatment of middle colic artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Kengo; Hamasaki, Takafumi; Ota, Rikako; Ohno, Takashi; Kodama, Wataru; Uchida, Naotaka; Hayashi, Eiichi; Fukino, Syunsuke

    2014-01-01

    Middle colic artery aneurysms are rare and most have been reported with rupture or symptom. We report the successful elective treatment of a middle colic artery aneurysm without symptom, which is very rare. It failed to perform transcatheter arterial embolization for anatomical reasons, and, thus, the patient, a 77-year-old man, underwent surgical resection in spite of a history of laparotomy. Although a common cause of middle colic artery aneurysms is segmental arterial mediolysis, the present pathological findings indicated that fragmented or degenerated elastic fibers may also play an important role like aortic aneurysms.

  1. Towards Automatic Analysis of Election Verifiability Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, Ben; Ryan, Mark; Kremer, Steve; Kourjieh, Mounira

    We present a symbolic definition that captures some cases of election verifiability for electronic voting protocols. Our definition is given in terms of reachability assertions in the applied pi calculus and is amenable to automated reasoning using the software tool ProVerif. The definition distinguishes three aspects of verifiability, which we call individual, universal, and eligibility verifiability. We demonstrate the applicability of our formalism by analysing the protocols due to Fujioka, Okamoto & Ohta and a variant of the one by Juels, Catalano & Jakobsson (implemented as Civitas by Clarkson, Chong & Myers).

  2. The reflective elective: using the elective to develop medical students' skills in career planning.

    PubMed

    Elton, Caroline; Newport, Melanie

    2008-07-01

    The Tooke inquiry into Modernising Medical Careers highlighted the need for medical schools to become more actively involved in preparing their students for the critical career decisions that they will make during the foundation programme. Incorporating a reflective careers assignment into the elective module may be a useful way of encouraging students to become more highly skilled in self-assessment and career exploration.

  3. Electing Research: Creating a Research Elective Is a Great Way to Teach In-Depth Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmann, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Mary Hoffman, was having a hard time teaching in-depth research skills to her middle school students, due to time limitations. So last fall, she approached her principal with an unprecedented idea: to offer kids a semester-long elective on research. What better way to teach comprehensive, analytical skills to those who really wanted a challenge?…

  4. 26 CFR 12.4 - Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range... Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR). (a) Elections filed before February 1, 1972... election will be treated as an election under the Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR)...

  5. 26 CFR 12.4 - Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range... Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR). (a) Elections filed before February 1, 1972... election will be treated as an election under the Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR)...

  6. 78 FR 36548 - Filing Dates for the New Jersey Senate Special Elections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION Filing Dates for the New Jersey Senate Special Elections AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for special election. SUMMARY: New Jersey has scheduled special elections...

  7. 77 FR 9927 - Filing Dates for the Arizona Special Election in the 8th Congressional District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION Filing Dates for the Arizona Special Election in the 8th Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for special election. SUMMARY: Arizona has scheduled elections...

  8. 26 CFR 1.338-11 - Effect of section 338 election on insurance company targets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... stock purchase. (e) Effect of section 338 election on section 846(e) election—(1) In general. New target... target has a section 846(e) election in effect on the acquisition date, new target will continue to use... covered by the election, unless new target elects to revoke the section 846(e) election. In addition,...

  9. 26 CFR 12.8 - Elections with respect to net leases of real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... paragraph (d)(2) of this section for the making of an election. (e) Election by members of partnership... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Elections with respect to net leases of real... Elections with respect to net leases of real property. (a) In general. The elections described in...

  10. 26 CFR 54.4980B-6 - Electing COBRA continuation coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... coverage is elected: Q-1: What is the election period and how long must it last? A-1: (a) A group health plan can condition the availability of COBRA continuation coverage upon the timely election of such coverage. An election of COBRA continuation coverage is a timely election if it is made during the...

  11. 26 CFR 1.466-2 - Special protective election for certain taxpayers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special protective election for certain... protective election for certain taxpayers. (a) General rule. Section 373(c) of the Revenue Act of 1978 (92... protective election and the section 466(d) election. First, the protective election applies only to a...

  12. 26 CFR 1.43-6 - Election out of section 43.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... to which the election (or revocation) applies. For any taxable year, the last election (or revocation... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Election out of section 43. 1.43-6 Section 1.43... Credits Against Tax § 1.43-6 Election out of section 43. (a) Election to have the credit not apply—(1)...

  13. 11 CFR 100.2 - Election (2 U.S.C. 431(1)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... last major party primary election, caucus, or convention in that State may be designated as the primary... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Election (2 U.S.C. 431(1)). 100.2 Section 100.2 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS (2 U.S.C. 431)...

  14. 26 CFR 1.43-6 - Election out of section 43.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... to which the election (or revocation) applies. For any taxable year, the last election (or revocation... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Election out of section 43. 1.43-6 Section 1.43... Credits Against Tax § 1.43-6 Election out of section 43. (a) Election to have the credit not apply—(1)...

  15. 11 CFR 100.2 - Election (2 U.S.C. 431(1)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... last major party primary election, caucus, or convention in that State may be designated as the primary... 11 Federal Elections 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Election (2 U.S.C. 431(1)). 100.2 Section 100.2 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS (2 U.S.C. 431)...

  16. 26 CFR 1.466-2 - Special protective election for certain taxpayers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special protective election for certain... Special protective election for certain taxpayers. (a) General rule. Section 373(c) of the Revenue Act of... this protective election and the section 466(d) election. First, the protective election applies...

  17. 11 CFR 100.2 - Election (2 U.S.C. 431(1)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... last major party primary election, caucus, or convention in that State may be designated as the primary... 11 Federal Elections 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Election (2 U.S.C. 431(1)). 100.2 Section 100.2 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS (2 U.S.C. 431)...

  18. 11 CFR 100.2 - Election (2 U.S.C. 431(1)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... last major party primary election, caucus, or convention in that State may be designated as the primary... 11 Federal Elections 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Election (2 U.S.C. 431(1)). 100.2 Section 100.2 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS (2 U.S.C. 431)...

  19. Risk factors of postoperative pulmonary complications following elective craniotomy for patients with tumors of the brainstem or adjacent to the brainstem

    PubMed Central

    CHU, HUI; DANG, BIN-WEN

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the risk factors of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) of elective craniotomy for patients presenting with brainstem tumors or tumors adjacent to the brainstem. A total of 162 consecutive patients with a brainstem tumor or adjacent brainstem tumor undergoing elective craniotomy were included and monitored. Potential risk factors were identified by data collection and monitoring of the PPCs, as well as the performance of single factor analysis (using the χ2 test). In addition, the independent risk factors of PPCs were screened by logistic analysis. A total of 39 cases of PPC were included in the current study, with an incidence rate of 23.9%. The analysis indicated that smoking history, previous pulmonary diseases, an American Society of Anesthesiologists classification >II and partial tumor resection were risk factors of PPC following an elective craniotomy. Smoking history and partial tumor resection were identified to be independent risk factors of PPCs. PMID:25202352

  20. An Elective Course in Leader Development

    PubMed Central

    Sucher, Brandon; Nelson, Michael; Brown, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To describe the design, implementation, and evaluation of a leader-development elective course. Design. Students discovered, reflected on, and enhanced their leadership skills by participating in leadership quality presentations, selecting and facilitating team-building activities for pharmacy-based scenarios, creating a personal mission statement, maintaining a journal, creating pharmacy performance matrices, facilitating leadership discussions and activities, and completing a variety of leader-development inventories to identify their strengths and opportunities for growth. Assessment. Students successfully completed 98% of the assignments. The most valued topics and assignments involved validated instruments, which promoted self-discovery and development. End-of-course survey results revealed all students agreed the course achieved all learning outcomes except preventing conflict from escalating (9% disagreed) and applying knowledge of core values to achieve greater effectiveness in interpersonal communication (4% disagreed). Conclusions. Students perceived this leader-development elective course was effective in achieving learning outcomes. Assignments guided the creation of personalized leader-development tracks, ultimately promoting lifelong learning. PMID:24371348

  1. The abortion issue in the 1984 elections.

    PubMed

    Granberg, D

    1987-01-01

    In the 1984 election, Ronald Reagan, the Republican presidential incumbent and an opponent of legal abortion, defeated Walter Mondale, a prochoice Democrat, by a wide margin. Despite Reagan's sweep of 49 states, however, conservatives lost a little ground in the Senate, where four of the seven new senators elected take a prochoice position on abortion. On the other hand, antiabortion forces registered some gains in the House of Representatives. The voting groups were more divided over the abortion issue in 1984 than they had been in 1980: In 1980, Reagan voters and Carter voters did not differ significantly in their attitudes toward abortion, but in 1984, Reagan voters were significantly more likely to be opposed to abortion than were Mondale voters. Nevertheless, only a small minority of voters considered abortion to be a major national issue, and the two voter groups were far more divided on several other issues than they were on abortion. There was no antiabortion consensus among the electorate as a whole, or among Reagan voters in particular. The level of approval for legalized abortion has, in fact, remained quite stable since 1973, and a popular base in favor of banning abortion seems to be lacking.

  2. Monitoring temperature in children undergoing anaesthesia: a comparison of methods.

    PubMed

    Drake-Brockman, T F E; Hegarty, M; Chambers, N A; von Ungern-Sternberg, B S

    2014-05-01

    Children undergoing anaesthesia are prone to hypothermia. Perioperative monitoring of patient temperature is, therefore, standard practice. Postoperative temperature is regarded as a key anaesthetic performance indicator in Australian hospitals. Many different methods and sites of temperature measurement are used perioperatively. It is unclear to what degree these methods might be interchangeable. The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between temperatures measured at different sites in anaesthetised children. Two hundred children, 0 to 17 years, undergoing general anaesthesia for elective non-cardiac surgery, were prospectively recruited. Temperature measurements were taken in the operating theatre concurrently at the nasopharynx, tympanic membranes, temporal artery, axilla and skin (chest). Patient age and weight were documented. Temperatures varied according to site of measurement. The mean difference from nasopharyngeal temperature to temperatures at left and right tympanic, temporal, axillary and cutaneous sites were +0.24°C, +0.24°C, +0.35°C, -0.38°C and -1.70°C, respectively. Levels of agreement to nasopharyngeal temperature were similar at tympanic, temporal and axillary sites. Tympanic and temporal temperatures were superior to axillary temperatures for detection of mild hypothermia (<36°C). Skin temperature showed a large variation from nasopharyngeal measurements. Our findings indicate that measured temperatures vary between sites. Understanding these variations is important for interpreting temperature readings.

  3. 38 CFR 21.264 - Election of payment at the 38 U.S.C. chapter 30 educational assistance rate or election of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the 38 U.S.C. chapter 30 educational assistance rate or election of payment of Post-9/11 subsistence... educational assistance rate or election of payment of Post-9/11 subsistence allowance. (a) Election of chapter... veterans pursuing similar training under these programs. (b) Election of payment of Post-9/11...

  4. 38 CFR 21.264 - Election of payment at the 38 U.S.C. chapter 30 educational assistance rate or election of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the 38 U.S.C. chapter 30 educational assistance rate or election of payment of Post-9/11 subsistence... educational assistance rate or election of payment of Post-9/11 subsistence allowance. (a) Election of chapter... veterans pursuing similar training under these programs. (b) Election of payment of Post-9/11...

  5. 38 CFR 21.264 - Election of payment at the 38 U.S.C. chapter 30 educational assistance rate or election of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the 38 U.S.C. chapter 30 educational assistance rate or election of payment of Post-9/11 subsistence... educational assistance rate or election of payment of Post-9/11 subsistence allowance. (a) Election of chapter... veterans pursuing similar training under these programs. (b) Election of payment of Post-9/11...

  6. Intrathecal Opioid-Induced Hypothermia Following Subarachnoid Block With Morphine Injection for Elective Cesarean Delivery: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Mach, John; Van Havel, Teresa; Gadwood, John; Biegner, M Andrew

    2016-02-01

    Opioids have been administered intrathecally with subarachnoid block for postoperative pain relief in parturients undergoing elective cesarean deliveries. This case report presents the uncommon occurrence of intrathecal opioid-induced hypothermia in the latent phase of recovery following elective cesarean delivery. There are few case reports on the occurrence of latent-phase postanesthesia care hypothermia in patients receiving subarachnoid block with morphine sulfate injection (Duramorph). Hypothermia can occur postoperatively for many reasons and can be life-threatening. In this case, hypothermia developed and progressed throughout the postoperative period. The causes of hypothermia were evaluated and treated without success initially. Thyroid dysfunction and alternative differential diagnoses were ruled out. Further assessment determined that the morphine injection might have been a contributing factor. Naloxone at 40-μg increments was administered intravenously and corrected the hypothermia. Awareness of hypothermia postoperatively with associated morphine administration through subarachnoid block must be ruled out in cases of progressing hypothermia.

  7. 76 FR 18539 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Election...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Election.... Election Assistance Commission (EAC). ACTION: Notice; comment request. SUMMARY: As part of its...

  8. 77 FR 9905 - Proposed Information Collection; Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION Proposed Information Collection; Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas; Comment Request AGENCY: U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In compliance with...

  9. 78 FR 38042 - The Presidential Commission on Election Administration (PCEA); Upcoming Public Advisory Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... ADMINISTRATION The Presidential Commission on Election Administration (PCEA); Upcoming Public Advisory Meeting...: Meeting notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Presidential Commission on Election Administration (PCEA), is... CONTACT: Mr. Mark Nejbauer, Designated Federal Officer, President's Commission on Election...

  10. 26 CFR 1.1361-4 - Effect of QSub election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... qualified stock purchase of a target may make an election under section 338 with respect to the acquisition... target. If an S corporation makes an election under section 338 with respect to a subsidiary acquired in... section occurs immediately after the deemed asset purchase by the new target corporation under section...

  11. Using Mathematics to Elect the U.S. President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Alexis; Stevens, John

    2016-01-01

    How is the president of the United States elected? Why is this the method used? Is this the best and most efficient way of electing the president of the United States? Questions such as these are well suited for a mathematics discussion that promotes numeracy, because, "notwithstanding the immense value of numeracy for education and vocation,…

  12. Prospects for the Electoral College after Election 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, Jennifer Truran

    2001-01-01

    States that after the election of 2000, there will be calls to abolish the electoral college. Discusses the creation of the electoral college. Addresses the four disputed elections in U.S. history: (1) 1800; (2) 1824; (3) 1876; and (4) 1888. Focuses on the reasons for and against the electoral college. (CMK)

  13. 5 CFR 839.604 - When is my election effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When is my election effective? 839.604 Section 839.604 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE...? Your election is effective on the date that the retirement coverage error first occurred. This...

  14. The Growth of Children's Political Knowledge during an Election Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    Groups of first, third, and fifth graders were interviewed 12 months, 6 months, and 1 month prior to national elections to examine changes in their conceptions of the American presidency and of presidential elections. Differences among grade levels disappeared at the last measurement, as first and third graders' knowledge of the presidency and…

  15. 29 CFR 452.81 - Rights in intermediate body elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rights in intermediate body elections. 452.81 Section 452... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.81 Rights in intermediate body elections. While the literal language in section 401(c) relating to distribution of campaign literature and...

  16. Elective single blastocyst transfer in women older than 35.

    PubMed

    Davis, Lynn B; Lathi, Ruth B; Westphal, Lynn M; Milki, Amin A

    2008-01-01

    A retrospective review of all patients older than 35 who underwent elective single blastocyst transfer was performed. Twenty-three of the 45 patients (51.1%) have an ongoing pregnancy or liveborn delivery, with a mean age of 37.3 years, demonstrating a clear role for elective single transfer in this relatively older IVF population.

  17. The Presidency and Presidential Elections in the Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Mary E.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes how the author has found that very few lesson plans help teach about the presidency or about presidential elections at the primary level and only a few research studies about what elementary students know or teachers teach about the presidency and elections. The author provides directions and a short summary of a series of…

  18. Student perspectives on the value of rural electives

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Medical students in the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of the Witwatersrand (Wits) in Johannesburg have the opportunity to do electives at the end of the first and third years of a four-year graduate-entry medical programme. Upon their return they are required to write a short portfolio report. Over the period 2005 to 2011, 402 students chose to do rural electives. Aim and setting To understand the value of rural electives from the perspective of medical students in the Faculty of Health Sciences at Wits, as derived from their assessment reports. Methods A review was conducted of 402 elective reports. Common themes were identified through repeated reading of the reports, and then content analysis was undertaken using these themes. Results Major themes identified were the reasons for choosing a rural facility for the elective, including going to a home community; benefits of the elective, especially in terms of clinical skills and personal growth; relationship issues; the multiple roles of the rural doctor, who is often a role model working in difficult conditions; and the challenges of rural electives. Conclusion The electives were overwhelmingly positive and affirming experiences for students, who developed clinical skills and also learnt about both themselves and their chosen career. PMID:26245614

  19. Provincial elections and timing of cancer drug funding

    PubMed Central

    Srikanthan, A.; Gill, S.S.; Chan, K.K.W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Concerns have been raised about the potential influence of political pressures on drug funding decisions. We evaluated the temporal relationship between cancer drug funding and provincial elections in 9 Canadian provinces. Methods New indications for cancer drugs between January 2003 and December 2012 were identified, and the dates of official provincial funding dates and election dates between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2014 were retrieved. The probability of drug funding announcements in the 60-day period preceding a provincial election was evaluated using binomial probability distribution analysis. Results Data from 9 provinces (all Canadian provinces except Quebec) were available. During the period of interest, 69 new indications for 39 individual drugs were identified. Variation in the availability of funding dates was identified. At the time of data collection, 2 provinces did not have data available for all 69 indications. For the 9 provinces, the number of funded indications during the 60-day period preceding an election ranged from 0 to 3; however, no differences in the proportion of indications funded pre-election were identified. Additional analyses also failed to demonstrate any significant associations with the 90-day period before an election, or the 60- and 90-day periods after an election. Conclusions We observed no clear temporal relationship between provincial election dates and funding decisions in this recent Canadian sample of new indications for cancer drugs. PMID:27330343

  20. 26 CFR 1.1291-10 - Deemed sale election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...(j)(3)) of a PFIC that is an unpedigreed QEF may elect to recognize gain with respect to the stock of... the shareholder makes the deemed sale election, the PFIC will become a pedigreed QEF with respect to... fair market value, the stock of the PFIC that the shareholder held on the qualification date. The...

  1. 26 CFR 1.1295-3 - Retroactive elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... reasonably believes that, more likely than not, it ultimately will not be a PFIC. (3) Exceptions... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Retroactive elections. 1.1295-3 Section 1.1295-3...) INCOME TAXES Special Rules for Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1295-3 Retroactive elections....

  2. 26 CFR 1.1291-10 - Deemed sale election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...(j)(3)) of a PFIC that is an unpedigreed QEF may elect to recognize gain with respect to the stock of... the shareholder makes the deemed sale election, the PFIC will become a pedigreed QEF with respect to... fair market value, the stock of the PFIC that the shareholder held on the qualification date. The...

  3. 26 CFR 1.1291-10 - Deemed sale election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...(j)(3)) of a PFIC that is an unpedigreed QEF may elect to recognize gain with respect to the stock of... the shareholder makes the deemed sale election, the PFIC will become a pedigreed QEF with respect to... fair market value, the stock of the PFIC that the shareholder held on the qualification date. The...

  4. 26 CFR 1.1291-9 - Deemed dividend election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... defined in paragraph (j)(3) of this section) of a PFIC that is an unpedigreed QEF may elect to include in... a CFC and a PFIC, but not a QEF, for all of its taxable years. On December 3, 1996, M made a... regarding the election by a shareholder of a former PFIC, see § 1.1298-3. For the rules regarding...

  5. 26 CFR 1.1291-9 - Deemed dividend election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... defined in paragraph (j)(3) of this section) of a PFIC that is an unpedigreed QEF may elect to include in... a CFC and a PFIC, but not a QEF, for all of its taxable years. On December 3, 1996, M made a... regarding the election by a shareholder of a former PFIC, see § 1.1298-3. For the rules regarding...

  6. 26 CFR 1.1291-9 - Deemed dividend election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... paragraph (j)(3) of this section) of a PFIC that is an unpedigreed QEF may elect to include in income as a... a CFC and a PFIC, but not a QEF, for all of its taxable years. On December 3, 1996, M made a... regarding the election by a shareholder of a former PFIC, see § 1.1298-3. For the rules regarding...

  7. 26 CFR 1.1291-9 - Deemed dividend election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... defined in paragraph (j)(3) of this section) of a PFIC that is an unpedigreed QEF may elect to include in... a CFC and a PFIC, but not a QEF, for all of its taxable years. On December 3, 1996, M made a... regarding the election by a shareholder of a former PFIC, see § 1.1298-3. For the rules regarding...

  8. 26 CFR 1.1291-9 - Deemed dividend election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... defined in paragraph (j)(3) of this section) of a PFIC that is an unpedigreed QEF may elect to include in... a CFC and a PFIC, but not a QEF, for all of its taxable years. On December 3, 1996, M made a... regarding the election by a shareholder of a former PFIC, see § 1.1298-3. For the rules regarding...

  9. 26 CFR 1.1291-10 - Deemed sale election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...(j)(3)) of a PFIC that is an unpedigreed QEF may elect to recognize gain with respect to the stock of... the shareholder makes the deemed sale election, the PFIC will become a pedigreed QEF with respect to... fair market value, the stock of the PFIC that the shareholder held on the qualification date. The...

  10. 42 CFR 418.24 - Election of hospice care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... palliative rather than curative nature of hospice care, as it relates to the individual's terminal illness... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Election of hospice care. 418.24 Section 418.24... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HOSPICE CARE Eligibility, Election and Duration of Benefits §...

  11. 10 CFR 429.124 - Election of procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Election of procedures. 429.124 Section 429.124 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND... Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) under § 429.126 of this part; or (2) Elect to have the procedures of §...

  12. An Untimely Death: An Elegy for the Elective Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenbury, Leila

    1994-01-01

    Details the curricular reforms of the post-Sputnik era in American high schools, especially the national stampede to an elective curriculum in English instruction. Covers criticism of the movement and the profession's struggle to define English studies. Provides pros and cons of an elective curriculum. (HB)

  13. Choosing Our King: Religion and the 1984 Presidential Election.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, John W.

    1987-01-01

    Investigates the impact of religion upon presidential elections, looking specifically at the 1984 election. Reviews the history of religious freedom in the United States. Defines five types of religious, political relationships and concludes there is a civil religion in the United States which scholars should examine more thoroughly. (RKM)

  14. School Tax Elections: Testing Messages and Targeting Voters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senden, J. Bradford; Lifto, Don E.

    2010-01-01

    Anticipating a substantially larger voter turnout in the upcoming election, district officials needed to probe--more precisely than in past tax elections--exactly what demographic groups would most likely go to the polls and support the tax proposal. Message testing and voter targeting became critical components in building a foundation for…

  15. The Political Persuaders; The Techniques of Modern Election Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimmo, Dan

    Over the last 20 years, a successful election campaign has come to depend in large part on successful use of the broadcast media. As a result, media experts are part of most politicians' teams, and their strategies help determine the results of the election. Usually, themes or "images" are more important than issues. The techniques of mass…

  16. 44 CFR 295.12 - Election of remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Election of remedies. 295.12 Section 295.12 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... CGFAA § 295.12 Election of remedies. (a) By filing a Notice of Loss, an Injured Person waives the...

  17. 7 CFR 97.122 - Certified seed only election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certified seed only election. 97.122 Section 97.122 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Reissuance of Certificate § 97.122 Certified seed only election. When...

  18. 39 CFR 964.5 - Election as to hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Election as to hearing. 964.5 Section 964.5 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING DISPOSITION OF MAIL WITHHELD FROM DELIVERY PURSUANT TO 39 U.S.C. 3003, 3004 § 964.5 Election as to hearing. If both parties...

  19. 5 CFR 734.412 - Participation in elections; prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Participation in elections; prohibitions. 734.412 Section 734.412 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL... and Positions § 734.412 Participation in elections; prohibitions. An employee covered under...

  20. How to Teach about "Aligning Elections" Using the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author lists some websites that will both help teachers teach about the concept of realigning elections and help students learn about the concept and follow the news and primary returns to evaluate it. The list is divided into three groups: (1) one dealing with the election realignment concept; (2) a few sites that will help…