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  1. Multiculturalism: The Challenge to Adult Education in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassara, Beverly B.

    Ethnic minorities are underserved in adult education in the United States. Reasons for the lack of a national education initiative actively promoting education equity for ethnic minorities include the low status of adult education, discrimination, and lack of financial support. Programs of English as a Second Language are examples of good programs…

  2. Noninfluenza vaccination coverage among adults - United States, 2012.

    PubMed

    Williams, Walter W; Lu, Peng-Jun; O'Halloran, Alissa; Bridges, Carolyn B; Pilishvili, Tamara; Hales, Craig M; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2014-02-01

    Vaccinations are recommended throughout life to prevent vaccine-preventable diseases and their sequelae. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains low for most routinely recommended vaccines and well below Healthy People 2020 targets. In October 2013, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) approved the adult immunization schedule for 2014. With the exception of influenza vaccination, which is recommended for all adults each year, vaccinations recommended for adults target different populations based on age, health conditions, behavioral risk factors (e.g., injection drug use), occupation, travel, and other indications. To assess vaccination coverage among adults aged ≥19 years for selected vaccines, CDC analyzed data from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). This report summarizes the results of that analysis for pneumococcal, tetanus toxoid-containing (tetanus and diphtheria vaccine [Td] or tetanus and diphtheria with acellular pertussis vaccine [Tdap]), hepatitis A, hepatitis B, herpes zoster (shingles), and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines by selected characteristics (age, race/ethnicity, and vaccination target criteria). Influenza vaccination coverage estimates for the 2012-13 influenza season have been published separately. Compared with 2011, only modest increases occurred in Tdap vaccination among adults aged 19-64 years, herpes zoster vaccination among adults aged ≥60 years, and HPV vaccination among women aged 19-26 years; coverage among adults in the United States for the other vaccines did not improve. Racial/ethnic gaps in coverage persisted for all six vaccines and widened for Tdap, herpes zoster, and HPV vaccination. Increases in vaccination coverage are needed to reduce the occurrence of vaccine-preventable diseases among adults. The Community Preventive Services Task Force and other authorities have recommended that health-care providers incorporate vaccination needs assessment, recommendation, and offer of

  3. Current cigarette smoking among adults - United States, 2011.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    Tobacco use remains the single largest preventable cause of death and disease in the United States. According to the 2010 U.S. Surgeon General's report, approximately 443,000 U.S. adults die from smoking-related illnesses each year. In addition, smoking has been estimated to cost the United States $96 billion in direct medical expenses and $97 billion in lost productivity annually. To assess progress toward the Healthy People 2020 (HP2020) objective to reduce cigarette smoking by adults (objective TU-1.1),* CDC's Office on Smoking and Health used data from the 2011 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to estimate current national cigarette smoking prevalence. The findings indicate that 19.0% of adults smoked cigarettes in 2011 and no statistically significant change in current adult smoking prevalence occurred from 2010 (19.3%) to 2011 (19.0%). Among daily smokers, the proportion who smoked ≥30 cigarettes per day (CPD) declined significantly, from 12.6% in 2005 to 9.1% in 2011, whereas the proportion of those who smoked 1-9 CPD increased significantly, from 16.4% to 22.0%. To help reduce the national prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults to the HP2020 target of 12%, population-based prevention strategies (e.g., increasing prices of tobacco products, antitobacco media campaigns featuring graphic personal stories on the adverse health impact of smoking, smoke-free laws for workplaces and public places, and barrier-free access to help quitting) will need to be implemented more extensively. Such evidence-based tobacco control interventions can help adults quit and prevent the initiation of tobacco use.

  4. Vaccination coverage among adults, excluding influenza vaccination - United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Williams, Walter W; Lu, Peng-Jun; O'Halloran, Alissa; Bridges, Carolyn B; Kim, David K; Pilishvili, Tamara; Hales, Craig M; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2015-02-01

    Vaccinations are recommended throughout life to prevent vaccine-preventable diseases and their sequelae. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains low for most routinely recommended vaccines and below Healthy People 2020 targets. In October 2014, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) approved the adult immunization schedule for 2015. With the exception of influenza vaccination, which is recommended for all adults each year, other adult vaccinations are recommended for specific populations based on a person's age, health conditions, behavioral risk factors (e.g., injection drug use), occupation, travel, and other indications. To assess vaccination coverage among adults aged ≥19 years for selected vaccines, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). This report highlights results of that analysis for pneumococcal, tetanus toxoid-containing (tetanus and diphtheria vaccine [Td] or tetanus and diphtheria with acellular pertussis vaccine [Tdap]), hepatitis A, hepatitis B, herpes zoster (shingles), and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines by selected characteristics (age, race/ethnicity,† and vaccination indication). Influenza vaccination coverage estimates for the 2013-14 influenza season have been published separately. Compared with 2012, only modest increases occurred in Tdap vaccination among adults aged ≥19 years (a 2.9 percentage point increase to 17.2%), herpes zoster vaccination among adults aged ≥60 years (a 4.1 percentage point increase to 24.2%), and HPV vaccination among males aged 19-26 years (a 3.6 percentage point increase to 5.9%); coverage among adults in the United States for the other vaccines did not improve. Racial/ethnic disparities in coverage persisted for all six vaccines and widened for Tdap and herpes zoster vaccination. Increases in vaccination coverage are needed to reduce the occurrence of vaccine-preventable diseases among adults. Awareness of the need for vaccines for adults is low

  5. Tobacco Product Use Among Adults - United States, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Hu, S Sean; Neff, Linda; Agaku, Israel T; Cox, Shanna; Day, Hannah R; Holder-Hayes, Enver; King, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    While significant declines in cigarette smoking have occurred among U.S. adults during the past 5 decades, the use of emerging tobacco products* has increased in recent years (1-3). To estimate tobacco use among U.S. adults aged ≥18 years, CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) analyzed data from the 2013-2014 National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS). During 2013-2014, 21.3% of U.S. adults used a tobacco product every day or some days, and 25.5% of U.S. adults used a tobacco product every day, some days, or rarely. Despite progress in reducing cigarette smoking, during 2013-2014, cigarettes remained the most commonly used tobacco product among adults. Young adults aged 18-24 years reported the highest prevalence of use of emerging tobacco products, including water pipes/hookahs and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Furthermore, racial/ethnic and sociodemographic differences in the use of any tobacco product were observed, with higher use reported among males; non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and non-Hispanics of other races(†); persons aged <45 years; persons living in the Midwest or South; persons with a General Educational Development (GED) certificate; persons who were single/never married/not living with a partner or divorced/separated/widowed; persons with annual household income <$20,000; and persons who were lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB). Population-level interventions that focus on all forms of tobacco product use, including tobacco price increases, high-impact anti-tobacco mass media campaigns, comprehensive smoke-free laws, and enhanced access to help quitting tobacco use, in conjunction with FDA regulation of tobacco products, are critical to reducing tobacco-related diseases and deaths in the United States.(§). PMID:27416365

  6. Alcohol-Impaired Driving Among Adults - United States, 2012.

    PubMed

    Jewett, Amy; Shults, Ruth A; Banerjee, Tanima; Bergen, Gwen

    2015-08-01

    Alcohol-impaired driving crashes account for approximately one third of all crash fatalities in the United States. In 2013, 10,076 persons died in crashes in which at least one driver had a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) ≥0.08 grams per deciliter (g/dL), the legal limit for adult drivers in the United States. To estimate the prevalence, number of episodes, and annual rate of alcohol-impaired driving, CDC analyzed self-reported data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey. An estimated 4.2 million adults reported at least one alcohol-impaired driving episode in the preceding 30 days, resulting in an estimated 121 million episodes and a national rate of 505 episodes per 1,000 population annually. Alcohol-impaired driving rates varied by more than fourfold among states, and were highest in the Midwest U.S. Census region. Men accounted for 80% of episodes, with young men aged 21-34 years accounting for 32% of all episodes. Additionally, 85% of alcohol-impaired driving episodes were reported by persons who also reported binge drinking, and the 4% of the adult population who reported binge drinking at least four times per month accounted for 61% of all alcohol-impaired driving episodes. Effective strategies to reduce alcohol-impaired driving include publicized sobriety checkpoints, enforcement of 0.08 g/dL BAC laws, requiring alcohol ignition interlocks for everyone convicted of driving while intoxicated, and increasing alcohol taxes.

  7. Current cigarette smoking among adults - United States, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Ahmed; Homa, David M; O'Connor, Erin; Babb, Stephen D; Caraballo, Ralph S; Singh, Tushar; Hu, S Sean; King, Brian A

    2015-11-13

    Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, resulting in approximately 480,000 premature deaths and more than $300 billion in direct health care expenditures and productivity losses each year (1). To assess progress toward achieving the Healthy People 2020 objective of reducing the percentage of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes to ≤12.0%,* CDC assessed the most recent national estimates of smoking prevalence among adults aged ≥18 years using data from the 2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The percentage of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes declined from 20.9% in 2005 to 16.8% in 2014. Among daily cigarette smokers, declines were observed in the percentage who smoked 20–29 cigarettes per day (from 34.9% to 27.4%) or ≥30 cigarettes per day (from 12.7% to 6.9%). In 2014, prevalence of cigarette smoking was higher among males, adults aged 25–44 years, multiracial persons and American Indian/Alaska Natives, persons who have a General Education Development certificate, live below the federal poverty level, live in the Midwest, are insured through Medicaid or are uninsured, have a disability or limitation, or are lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Proven population-based interventions, including tobacco price increases, comprehensive smoke-free laws, high impact mass media campaigns, and barrier-free access to quitting assistance, are critical to reduce cigarette smoking and smoking-related disease and death among U.S. adults. PMID:26562061

  8. State-specific prevalence of obesity among adults--United States, 2007.

    PubMed

    2008-07-18

    Obesity is associated with reduced quality of life, development of serious chronic conditions such as heart disease and diabetes, increased medical care costs, and premature death. A Healthy People 2010 objective is to reduce to 15% the proportion of adults who are obese. In 2005, no state met this target, and (based on self-reported height and weight) 23.9% of adults in the United States were obese. To update 2005 estimates of the prevalence of obesity in adults, CDC analyzed data from the 2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey. The results of that analysis indicated that 25.6% of respondents overall in 2007 were obese; the prevalence of obesity among adults remained above 15% in all states and was above 30% in Alabama, Mississippi, and Tennessee. Enhanced collaborative efforts among national, state, and community groups are needed to establish, evaluate, and sustain effective programs and policies to reduce the prevalence of obesity in the United States.

  9. Adult Hospice Social Work Intervention Outcomes in the United States.

    PubMed

    Alcide, Amary; Potocky, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    A descriptive and critical analysis of the available empirical literature on social work psychosocial intervention outcomes for adult hospice patients and caregivers was conducted. The electronic bibliographic databases CINHAL (EBSCO), MEDLINE, ProQuest, EMBASE, Campbell Collaboration, and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library) were searched. Search criteria were (a) social work interventions, (b) intervention was tested, (c) adult hospice patients and/or caregivers, (d) studies within the United States, (e) and studies between 2004 and 2014. Of the 21 studies that met the initial search criteria, 5 publications met all review criteria. Based on assessment of study results, intervention effect, and quality of evidence, the ADAPT Problem-Solving Intervention (PSI) and the Hospice Caregiver Support Project have some indications of practical effect on caregiver quality of life, anxiety, stress, and problem-solving skills. The Caregiver Life Line (CaLL) intervention had little to no effect on caregiver role stress or coping skills. The few available studies provide foundational insight into the need for the expansion of research efforts to evaluate hospice social work interventions and document the contributions of social work to the field.

  10. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults--United States, 2011.

    PubMed

    2012-11-23

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a group of progressive, debilitating respiratory conditions, including emphysema and chronic bronchitis, characterized by difficulty breathing, lung airflow limitations, cough, and other symptoms. COPD often is associated with a history of cigarette smoking and is the primary contributor to mortality caused by chronic lower respiratory diseases, which became the third leading cause of death in the United States in 2008. Despite this substantial disease burden, state-level data on the prevalence of COPD and associated health-care resource use in the United States have not been available for all states. To assess the state-level prevalence of COPD among adults, the impact of COPD on their quality of life, and the use of health-care resources by those with COPD, CDC analyzed data from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Among BRFSS respondents in all 50 states, the District of Columbia (DC), and Puerto Rico, 6.3% reported having been told by a physician or other health professional that they had COPD. In addition to the screening question asked of all respondents, 21 states, DC, and Puerto Rico elected to include an optional COPD module. Among persons who reported having COPD and completed the optional module, 76.0% reported that they had been given a diagnostic breathing test, 64.2% felt that shortness of breath impaired their quality of life, and 55.6% were taking at least one daily medication for their COPD. Approximately 43.2% of them reported visiting a physician for COPD-related symptoms in the previous 12 months, and 17.7% had either visited an emergency department or been admitted to a hospital for their COPD in the previous 12 months. Continued surveillance for COPD, particularly at state and local levels, is critical to 1) identify communities that likely will benefit most from awareness and outreach campaigns and 2) evaluate the effectiveness of public health efforts related to the

  11. Quitting smoking among adults--United States, 2001-2010.

    PubMed

    2011-11-11

    Quitting smoking is beneficial to health at any age, and cigarette smokers who quit before age 35 years have mortality rates similar to those who never smoked. From 1965 to 2010, the prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults in the United States decreased from 42.4% to 19.3%, in part because of an increase in the number who quit smoking. Since 2002, the number of former U.S. smokers has exceeded the number of current smokers. Mass media campaigns, increases in the prices of tobacco products, and smoke-free policies have been shown to increase smoking cessation. In addition, brief cessation advice by health-care providers; individual, group, and telephone counseling; and cessation medications are effective cessation treatments. To determine the prevalence of 1) current interest in quitting smoking, 2) successful recent smoking cessation, 3) recent use of cessation treatments, and 4) trends in quit attempts over a 10-year period, CDC analyzed data from the 2001--2010 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS). This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which found that, in 2010, 68.8% of adult smokers wanted to stop smoking, 52.4% had made a quit attempt in the past year, 6.2% had recently quit, 48.3% had been advised by a health professional to quit, and 31.7% had used counseling and/or medications when they tried to quit. The prevalence of quit attempts increased during 2001--2010 among smokers aged 25--64 years, but not among other age groups. Health-care providers should identify smokers and offer them brief cessation advice at each visit; counseling and medication should be offered to patients willing to make a quit attempt.

  12. The Status of Adult Education Historical Research in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubblefield, Harold W.

    Early studies of adult education in the United States included James Truslow Adams' book, "Frontiers of American Culture: A Study of Adult Education in a Democracy" (1944), an unconvincing attempt to classify adult education instructions and programs and to establish the relation of democracy to adult education; C. Hartley Grattan's "In Quest of…

  13. A Survey of Graduate Programs in Adult Education in the United States and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingham, Roy J.; Qazilbash, Hussain

    Graduate programs in adult education at 24 universities in the United States and Canada are surveyed here. An overall review of program content (mainly surveys of the field, program development in adult education, adult learning, and general administration) is followed by unique features and specialties of several programs; information on…

  14. De Facto Language Policy in Legislation Defining Adult Basic Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanek, Jenifer

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of differing interpretation of federal education policy in three different states. The policy, the Workforce Investment Act Title II, has defined the services provided for adult English language learners (ELLs) enrolled in Adult Basic Education programs in the United States since it was passed in 1998. At the…

  15. Adults Meeting Fruit and Vegetable Intake Recommendations - United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Moore, Latetia V; Thompson, Frances E

    2015-07-10

    Eating more fruits and vegetables adds nutrients to diets, reduces the risk for heart disease, stroke, and some cancers, and helps manage body weight when consumed in place of more energy-dense foods. Adults who engage in <30 minutes of moderate physical activity daily should consume 1.5-2.0 cup equivalents of fruit and 2-3 cups of vegetables daily.* However, during 2007-2010, half of the total U.S. population consumed <1 cup of fruit and <1.5 cups of vegetables daily; 76% did not meet fruit intake recommendations, and 87% did not meet vegetable intake recommendations. Although national estimates indicate low fruit and vegetable consumption, substantial variation by state has been observed (3). Fruit and vegetable intake information from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is the sole source of dietary surveillance information for most states, but frequency of intake captured by BRFSS is not directly comparable to federal intake recommendations, which are expressed in cup equivalents. CDC analyzed median daily frequency of fruit and vegetable intake based on 2013 BRFSS data for the 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC) and applied newly developed prediction equations to BRFSS to calculate the percentage of each state's population meeting fruit and vegetable intake recommendations. Overall, 13.1% of respondents met fruit intake recommendations, ranging from 7.5% in Tennessee to 17.7% in California, and 8.9% met vegetable recommendations, ranging from 5.5% in Mississippi to 13.0% in California. Substantial new efforts are needed to build consumer demand for fruits and vegetables through competitive pricing, placement, and promotion in child care, schools, grocery stores, communities, and worksites.

  16. Employment in Adults with Down Syndrome in the United States: Results from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumin, Libby; Schoenbrodt, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is no current data about employment/unemployment of adults with Down syndrome in the United States. The data that exists includes adults with Down syndrome as part of the larger group of people with disabilities or people with intellectual disability. Method: This study used a survey to investigate paid and volunteer employment,…

  17. The health status of young adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Park, M Jane; Paul Mulye, Tina; Adams, Sally H; Brindis, Claire D; Irwin, Charles E

    2006-09-01

    The health issues of young adulthood have received relatively little attention compared with those of adolescence, although the critical issues in young adulthood parallel those of adolescence. Young adults often fare worse than adolescents on health indicators, with many measures of negative outcomes--including rates of injury, homicide, and substance use--peaking during the young adult years. The contextual factors shaping health status and access to care in young adulthood differ significantly from the context of adolescence. This article synthesizes national data to present a health profile of young adults, reviewing social indicators that describe the context of young adulthood and presenting measures of health status. We examine mortality, morbidity, risky behaviors, and health care access and utilization, identifying the most significant gender and racial/ethnic disparities. The article also identifies limitations of existing data and offers suggestions for future research and health monitoring in this area. We conclude with a discussion of current efforts to address the health and well-being of young adults and argue for creating a national health agenda for young adults that includes research, programs and policies to address health issues during this period of the lifespan.

  18. Electronic Cigarette Use Among Working Adults - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Syamlal, Girija; Jamal, Ahmed; King, Brian A; Mazurek, Jacek M

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-powered devices that deliver a heated aerosol, which typically contains nicotine, flavorings, and other additives, to the user. The e-cigarette marketplace is rapidly evolving, but the long-term health effects of these products are not known. Carcinogens and toxins such as diacetyl, acetaldehyde, and other harmful chemicals have been documented in the aerosol from some e-cigarettes (1-3). On May 5, 2016, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) finalized a rule extending its authority to all tobacco products, including e-cigarettes.* The prevalence of e-cigarette use among U.S. adults has increased in recent years, particularly among current and former conventional cigarette smokers (4); in 2014, 3.7% of all U.S. adults, including 15.9% of current cigarette smokers, and 22.0% of former cigarette smokers, used e-cigarettes every day or some days (5). The extent of current e-cigarette use among U.S. working adults has not been assessed. Therefore, CDC analyzed 2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data for adults aged ≥18 years who were working during the week before the interview, to provide national estimates of current e-cigarette use among U.S. working adults by industry and occupation. Among the estimated 146 million working adults, 3.8% (5.5 million) were current (every day or some days) e-cigarette users; the highest prevalences were among males, non-Hispanic whites, persons aged 18-24 years, persons with annual household income <$35,000, persons with no health insurance, cigarette smokers, other combustible tobacco users, and smokeless tobacco users. By industry and occupation, workers in the accommodation and food services industry and in the food preparation and serving-related occupations had the highest prevalence of current e-cigarette use. Higher prevalences of e-cigarette use among specific groups and the effect of e-cigarette use on patterns of conventional tobacco use underscore the importance

  19. Electronic Cigarette Use Among Working Adults - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Syamlal, Girija; Jamal, Ahmed; King, Brian A; Mazurek, Jacek M

    2016-06-10

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-powered devices that deliver a heated aerosol, which typically contains nicotine, flavorings, and other additives, to the user. The e-cigarette marketplace is rapidly evolving, but the long-term health effects of these products are not known. Carcinogens and toxins such as diacetyl, acetaldehyde, and other harmful chemicals have been documented in the aerosol from some e-cigarettes (1-3). On May 5, 2016, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) finalized a rule extending its authority to all tobacco products, including e-cigarettes.* The prevalence of e-cigarette use among U.S. adults has increased in recent years, particularly among current and former conventional cigarette smokers (4); in 2014, 3.7% of all U.S. adults, including 15.9% of current cigarette smokers, and 22.0% of former cigarette smokers, used e-cigarettes every day or some days (5). The extent of current e-cigarette use among U.S. working adults has not been assessed. Therefore, CDC analyzed 2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data for adults aged ≥18 years who were working during the week before the interview, to provide national estimates of current e-cigarette use among U.S. working adults by industry and occupation. Among the estimated 146 million working adults, 3.8% (5.5 million) were current (every day or some days) e-cigarette users; the highest prevalences were among males, non-Hispanic whites, persons aged 18-24 years, persons with annual household income <$35,000, persons with no health insurance, cigarette smokers, other combustible tobacco users, and smokeless tobacco users. By industry and occupation, workers in the accommodation and food services industry and in the food preparation and serving-related occupations had the highest prevalence of current e-cigarette use. Higher prevalences of e-cigarette use among specific groups and the effect of e-cigarette use on patterns of conventional tobacco use underscore the importance

  20. Adult Cigarette Smoking in the United States: Current Estimates

    MedlinePlus

    ... Report 2015;64(44):1233–40 [accessed 2016 Mar 14]. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. ... Office on Smoking and Health, 2014 [accessed 2016 Mar 14]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . State ...

  1. Border Crossings: Undocumented Migration between Mexico and the United States in Contemporary Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This study identifies patterns in 11 English language young adult novels from the past three decades (1981-2011) which depict undocumented migration between Mexico and the United States. The increase in YA novels on this topic demonstrates rising public concern. These books offer sympathetic identification with border crossing youth. Eight of the…

  2. Current Tobacco Use Among Adults in the United States: Findings From the National Adult Tobacco Survey

    PubMed Central

    Dube, Shanta R.; Tynan, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of tobacco use among US adults. Methods. We used data from the 2009–2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a national landline and cell phone survey of adults aged 18 years and older, to estimate current use of any tobacco; cigarettes; cigars, cigarillos, or small cigars; chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip; water pipes; snus; and pipes. We stratified estimates by gender, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, sexual orientation, and US state. Results. National prevalence of current use was 25.2% for any tobacco; 19.5% for cigarettes; 6.6% for cigars, cigarillos, or small cigars; 3.4% for chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip; 1.5% for water pipes; 1.4% for snus; and 1.1% for pipes. Tobacco use was greatest among respondents who were male, younger, of non-Hispanic “other” race/ethnicity, less educated, less wealthy, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender. Prevalence ranged from 14.1% (Utah) to 37.4% (Kentucky). Conclusions. Tobacco use varies by geography and sociodemographic factors, but remains prevalent among US adults. Evidence-based prevention strategies are needed to decrease tobacco use and the health and economic burden of tobacco-related diseases. PMID:22994278

  3. The burden of acute traumatic spinal cord injury among adults in the united states: an update.

    PubMed

    Selvarajah, Shalini; Hammond, Edward R; Haider, Adil H; Abularrage, Christopher J; Becker, Daniel; Dhiman, Nitasha; Hyder, Omar; Gupta, Deepak; Black, James H; Schneider, Eric B

    2014-02-01

    The current incidence estimate of 40 traumatic spinal cord injuries (TSCI) per million population/year in the United States (U.S.) is based on data from the 1990s. We sought to update the incidence and epidemiology of TSCI in U.S adults by using the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS), the largest all-payer emergency department (ED) database in the United States. Adult ED visits between 2007 and 2009 with a principal diagnosis of TSCI were identified using International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 codes (806.0-806.9 and 952.0-952.9). We describe TSCI cumulative incidence, mortality, discharge disposition, and hospital charges weighted to the U.S. population. The estimated 3-year cumulative incidence of TSCI was 56.4 per million adults. Cumulative incidence of TSCI in older adults increased from 79.4 per million older adults in 2007 to 87.7 by the end of 2009, but remained steady among younger adults. Overall, falls were the leading cause of TSCI (41.5%). ED charges rose by 20% over the study period, and death occurred in 5.7% of patients. Compared with younger adults, older adults demonstrated higher adjusted odds of mortality in the ED (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=4.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-16.6), mortality during hospitalization (AOR=5.9; 95% CI: 4.7-7.4), and being discharged to chronic care (AOR=3.7; 95% CI: 3.0-4.5). The incidence of TSCI is higher than previously reported with a progressive increase among older adults who also experience worse outcomes compared with younger adults. ED-related TSCI charges are also increasing. These updated national estimates support the development of customized prevention strategies based on age-specific risk factors.

  4. International issues: Obtaining an adult neurology residency position in the United States: an overview.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Justin T; Sellner, Johann; Struhal, Walter; Schneider, Logan; Mayans, David

    2014-04-01

    Around the world, there are marked differences in neurology training, including training duration and degree of specialization. In the United States, adult neurology residency is composed of 1 year of internal medicine training (preliminary year) and 3 years of neurology-specific training. Child neurology, which is not the focus of this article, is 2 years of pediatrics and 3 years of neurology training. The route to adult neurology residency training in the United States is standardized and is similar to most other US specialties. Whereas US medical graduates often receive stepwise guidance from their medical school regarding application for residency training, international graduates often enter this complex process with little or no such assistance. Despite this discrepancy, about 10%-15% of residency positions in the United States are filled by international medical graduates.(1,2) In adult neurology specifically, 35% of matched positions were filled by international graduates in 2013, 75% of whom were not US citizens.(1) In an effort to provide a preliminary understanding of the application process and related terminology (table 1) and thereby encourage international residency applicants, we describe the steps necessary to apply for neurology residency in the United States.

  5. State-specific trends in fruit and vegetable consumption among adults --- United States, 2000-2009.

    PubMed

    2010-09-10

    A diet high in fruits and vegetables can reduce the risk for many leading causes of death and can play an important role in weight management. Healthy People 2010 objectives for fruits and vegetables include targets of increasing to 75% the proportion of persons aged ≥2 years who consume two or more servings of fruit daily and to 50% those who consume three or more servings of vegetables daily. To assess states' progress over the past decade in meeting these targets among adults and to provide an update of the 2005 subgroup estimates, CDC analyzed data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, in 2009, an estimated 32.5% of adults consumed fruit two or more times per day and 26.3% consumed vegetables three or more times per day, far short of the national targets. Overall, the proportion of adults who met the fruit target declined slightly, but significantly, from 34.4% in 2000 to 32.5% in 2009; no significant change was observed in meeting the vegetable target. No state met either target, and substantial variability occurred among states. Only one state had statistically significant increases in the percentages of adults meeting each target. These findings underscore the need for interventions at national, state, and community levels, across multiple settings (e.g., worksites, community venues, and restaurants) to improve fruit and vegetable access, availability, and affordability, as a means of increasing individual consumption.

  6. Current status and uptake of influenza vaccination over time among senior adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Peng-jun; O'Halloran, Alissa; Ding, Helen; Greby, Stacie M; Williams, Walter W

    2015-01-01

    Influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among older adults in the United States, who may also have chronic medical conditions that place them at high risk for complications from influenza. The U.S. Public Health Service recommended influenza vaccination of adults ≥65 y and chronically ill persons since 1961 and beginning with the 2010–11 influenza season, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has expanded its recommendation to vaccinate all persons 6 months of age and older. Medicare coverage for influenza vaccination began in 1993. However, despite the presence of a safe and effective vaccine, long-standing recommendations on vaccination, and federal financial support for vaccination, vaccination levels among adults ≥65 y are not optimal. Studies have shown that influenza vaccination coverage among U.S. adults ≥ 65 y steadily increased from 30.1% in 1989 to 64.2% in 1997, but plateaued near 65% from 1998 to 2013. Increasing influenza vaccination coverage among older adults in the United States will require more cooperation among health-care providers, professional organizations, vaccine manufacturers, and public health departments to raise public awareness about the benefits of influenza vaccination and to ensure continued administration of vaccinations throughout the influenza season. PMID:26697974

  7. Use of indoor tanning devices by adults--United States, 2010.

    PubMed

    2012-05-11

    Indoor tanning is associated with an increased risk for skin cancer, the most common form of cancer in the United States. The World Health Organization considers ultraviolet (UV) tanning devices to be a cause of cancer in humans. Exposure to UV radiation, either from sunlight or indoor tanning devices, is the most important, avoidable known risk factor for skin cancer. Annually, skin cancer costs an estimated $1.7 billion to treat and results in $3.8 billion in lost productivity. Reducing the proportions of adolescents and adults who report using artificial sources of UV light for tanning are Healthy People 2020 objectives. Current state-level policies to restrict indoor tanning are directed at youths aged <18 years. To examine the proportion of the adult U.S. population reporting indoor tanning in the past 12 months, CDC and the National Cancer Institute analyzed data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Overall, the age-adjusted proportion of adults reporting indoor tanning in the past 12 months was 5.6%, with higher rates among whites, women, and adults aged 18-25 years. Nationwide, the highest rates of indoor tanning were among white women aged 18-21 years (31.8%) and 22-25 years (29.6%). Among white adults who reported indoor tanning, 57.7% of women and 40.0% of men reported indoor tanning ≥10 times in the past 12 months. Continued public health efforts are needed to identify and implement effective strategies for reducing indoor tanning among adults in the United States, particularly among whites, women, and adults aged 18-25 years.

  8. Current cigarette smoking among adults--United States, 2005-2013.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Ahmed; Agaku, Israel T; O'Connor, Erin; King, Brian A; Kenemer, John B; Neff, Linda

    2014-11-28

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, resulting in more than 480,000 premature deaths and $289 billion in direct health care expenditures and productivity losses each year. Despite progress over the past several decades, millions of adults still smoke cigarettes, the most commonly used tobacco product in the United States. To assess progress made toward the Healthy People 2020 target of reducing the proportion of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes to ≤12.0% (objective TU-1.1), CDC used data from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to provide updated national estimates of cigarette smoking prevalence among adults aged ≥18 years. Additionally, for the first time, estimates of cigarette smoking prevalence were assessed among lesbian, gay, or bisexual persons (LGB) using NHIS data. The proportion of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes declined from 20.9% in 2005 to 17.8% in 2013, and the proportion of daily smokers declined from 16.9% to 13.7%. Among daily cigarette smokers, the proportion who smoked 20-29 cigarettes per day (CPD) declined from 34.9% to 29.3%, and the proportion who smoked ≥30 CPD declined from 12.7% to 7.1%. However, cigarette smoking remains particularly high among certain groups, including adults who are male, younger, multiracial or American Indian/Alaska Native, have less education, live below the federal poverty level, live in the South or Midwest, have a disability/limitation, or who are LGB. Proven population-based interventions, including tobacco price increases, comprehensive smoke-free policies in worksites and public places, high-impact anti-tobacco mass media campaigns, and easy access to smoking cessation assistance, are critical to reducing cigarette smoking and smoking-related disease and death among U.S. adults, particularly among subpopulations with the greatest burden. PMID:25426653

  9. Employment and activity limitations among adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease--United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Wheaton, Anne G; Cunningham, Timothy J; Ford, Earl S; Croft, Janet B

    2015-03-27

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a group of progressive respiratory conditions, including emphysema and chronic bronchitis, characterized by airflow obstruction and symptoms such as shortness of breath, chronic cough, and sputum production. COPD is an important contributor to mortality and disability in the United States. Healthy People 2020 has several COPD-related objectives,* including to reduce activity limitations among adults with COPD. To assess the state-level prevalence of COPD and the association of COPD with various activity limitations among U.S. adults, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Among U.S. adults in all 50 states, the District of Columbia (DC), and two U.S. territories, 6.4% (an estimated 15.7 million adults) had been told by a physician or other health professional that they have COPD. Adults who reported having COPD were more likely to report being unable to work (24.3% versus 5.3%), having an activity limitation caused by health problems (49.6% versus 16.9%), having difficulty walking or climbing stairs (38.4% versus 11.3%), or using special equipment to manage health problems (22.1% versus 6.7%), compared with adults without COPD. Smokers who have been diagnosed with COPD are encouraged to quit smoking, which can slow the progression of the disease and reduce mobility impairment. In addition, COPD patients should consider participation in a pulmonary rehabilitation program that combines patient education and exercise training to address barriers to physical activity, such as respiratory symptoms and muscle wasting.

  10. Adults Eligible for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Counseling and Participation in Aerobic Physical Activity - United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Omura, John D; Carlson, Susan A; Paul, Prabasaj; Watson, Kathleen B; Loustalot, Fleetwood; Foltz, Jennifer L; Fulton, Janet E

    2015-09-25

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, and physical inactivity is a major risk factor (1). Health care professionals have a role in counseling patients about physical activity for CVD prevention. In August 2014, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended that adults who are overweight or obese and have additional CVD risk factors be offered or referred to intensive behavioral counseling interventions to promote a healthful diet and physical activity for CVD prevention. Although the USPSTF recommendation does not specify an amount of physical activity, the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans state that for substantial health benefits adults should achieve ≥150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity or ≥75 minutes per week of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity. To assess the proportion of adults eligible for intensive behavioral counseling and not meeting the aerobic physical activity guideline, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). This analysis indicated that 36.8% of adults were eligible for intensive behavioral counseling for CVD prevention. Among U.S. states and the District of Columbia (DC), the prevalence of eligible adults ranged from 29.0% to 44.6%. Nationwide, 19.9% of all adults were eligible and did not meet the aerobic physical activity guideline. These data can inform the planning and implementation of health care interventions for CVD prevention that are based on physical activity.

  11. Use of Opioids and Other Analgesics by Older Adults in the United States, 1999–2010

    PubMed Central

    Steinman, Michael A.; Komaiko, Kiya D.R.; Fung, Kathy Z.; Ritchie, Christine S.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Objective There has been concern over rising use of prescription opioids in young and middle-aged adults. Much less is known about opioid prescribing in older adults, for whom clinical recommendations and the balance of risks and benefits differ from younger adults. We evaluated changes in use of opioids and other analgesics in a national sample of clinic visits made by older adults between 1999 to 2010. Design, Setting, Subjects Observational study of adults age 65 and older from the 1999–2010 National Ambulatory and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys, serial cross-sectional surveys of outpatient visits in the United States. Methods Medication use was assessed at each study visit and included medications in use prior to the visit and medications newly prescribed at the visit. Results were adjusted for survey weights and design factors to provide nationally representative estimates. Results Mean age was 75 +/−7 years, and 45% of visits occurred in primary care settings. Between 1999–2000 and 2009–10, the percent of clinic visits at which an opioid was used rose from 4.1% to 9.0% (P<.001). Although use of all major opioid classes increased, the largest contributor to increased use was hydrocodone-containing combination opioids, which rose from 1.1% to 3.5% of visits over the study period (P<.001). Growth in opioid use was observed across a wide range of patient and clinic characteristics, including in visits for musculoskeletal problems (10.7% of visits in 1999–00 to 17.0% in 2009–10, P<.001) and in visits for other reasons (2.8% to 7.3%, P<.001). Conclusions Opioid use by older adults visiting clinics more than doubled between 1999–2010, and occurred across a wide range of patient characteristics and clinic settings. PMID:25352175

  12. Self-Efficacy and Participation in Physical and Social Activity among Older Adults in Spain and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Jessica M.; Multhaup, Kristi S.; Perkins, H. Wesley; Barton, Cole

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We explored Bandura's self-efficacy theory as applied to older adult (aged 63-92) participation in physical and social activity in a cross-cultural study. Design and Methods: Older adults in Spain (n = 53) and the United States (n = 55) completed questions regarding self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and participation in physical and…

  13. Health Consequences of Uninsurance among Adults in the United States: Recent Evidence and Implications

    PubMed Central

    McWilliams, J Michael

    2009-01-01

    Context: Uninsured adults have less access to recommended care, receive poorer quality of care, and experience worse health outcomes than insured adults do. The potential health benefits of expanding insurance coverage for these adults may provide a strong rationale for reform. However, evidence of the adverse health effects of uninsurance has been largely based on observational studies with designs that do not support causal conclusions. Although recent research using more rigorous methods may offer a better understanding of this important subject, it has not been comprehensively reviewed. Methods: The clinical and economic literature since 2002 was systematically searched. New research contributions were reviewed and evaluated based on their methodological strength. Because the effectiveness of medical care varies considerably by clinical risk and across conditions, the consistency of study findings with clinical expectations was considered in their interpretation. Updated conclusions were formulated from the current body of research. Findings: The quality of research has improved significantly, as investigators have employed quasi-experimental designs with increasing frequency to address limitations of earlier research. Recent studies have found consistently positive and often significant effects of health insurance coverage on health across a range of outcomes. In particular, significant benefits of coverage have now been robustly demonstrated for adults with acute or chronic conditions for which there are effective treatments. Conclusions: Based on the evidence to date, the health consequences of uninsurance are real, vary in magnitude in a clinically consistent manner, strengthen the argument for universal coverage in the United States, and underscore the importance of evidence-based determinations in providing health care to a diverse population of adults. PMID:19523125

  14. Prevalence of Healthy Sleep Duration among Adults--United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Wheaton, Anne G; Chapman, Daniel P; Cunningham, Timothy J; Lu, Hua; Croft, Janet B

    2016-02-19

    To promote optimal health and well-being, adults aged 18-60 years are recommended to sleep at least 7 hours each night (1). Sleeping <7 hours per night is associated with increased risk for obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, coronary heart disease, stroke, frequent mental distress, and all-cause mortality (2-4). Insufficient sleep impairs cognitive performance, which can increase the likelihood of motor vehicle and other transportation accidents, industrial accidents, medical errors, and loss of work productivity that could affect the wider community (5). CDC analyzed data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to determine the prevalence of a healthy sleep duration (≥ 7 hours) among 444,306 adult respondents in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. A total of 65.2% of respondents reported a healthy sleep duration; the age-adjusted prevalence of healthy sleep was lower among non-Hispanic blacks, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and multiracial respondents, compared with non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, and Asians. State-based estimates of healthy sleep duration prevalence ranged from 56.1% in Hawaii to 71.6% in South Dakota. Geographic clustering of the lowest prevalence of healthy sleep duration was observed in the southeastern United States and in states along the Appalachian Mountains, and the highest prevalence was observed in the Great Plains states. More than one third of U.S. respondents reported typically sleeping <7 hours in a 24-hour period, suggesting an ongoing need for public awareness and public education about sleep health; worksite shift policies that ensure healthy sleep duration for shift workers, particularly medical professionals, emergency response personnel, and transportation industry personnel; and opportunities for health care providers to discuss the importance of healthy sleep duration with patients and address reasons for poor sleep health. PMID:26890214

  15. Prevalence of Healthy Sleep Duration among Adults--United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Wheaton, Anne G; Chapman, Daniel P; Cunningham, Timothy J; Lu, Hua; Croft, Janet B

    2016-02-19

    To promote optimal health and well-being, adults aged 18-60 years are recommended to sleep at least 7 hours each night (1). Sleeping <7 hours per night is associated with increased risk for obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, coronary heart disease, stroke, frequent mental distress, and all-cause mortality (2-4). Insufficient sleep impairs cognitive performance, which can increase the likelihood of motor vehicle and other transportation accidents, industrial accidents, medical errors, and loss of work productivity that could affect the wider community (5). CDC analyzed data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to determine the prevalence of a healthy sleep duration (≥ 7 hours) among 444,306 adult respondents in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. A total of 65.2% of respondents reported a healthy sleep duration; the age-adjusted prevalence of healthy sleep was lower among non-Hispanic blacks, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and multiracial respondents, compared with non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, and Asians. State-based estimates of healthy sleep duration prevalence ranged from 56.1% in Hawaii to 71.6% in South Dakota. Geographic clustering of the lowest prevalence of healthy sleep duration was observed in the southeastern United States and in states along the Appalachian Mountains, and the highest prevalence was observed in the Great Plains states. More than one third of U.S. respondents reported typically sleeping <7 hours in a 24-hour period, suggesting an ongoing need for public awareness and public education about sleep health; worksite shift policies that ensure healthy sleep duration for shift workers, particularly medical professionals, emergency response personnel, and transportation industry personnel; and opportunities for health care providers to discuss the importance of healthy sleep duration with patients and address reasons for poor sleep health.

  16. Adult sports-related traumatic brain injury in United States trauma centers.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Ethan A; Yue, John K; Burke, John F; Chan, Andrew K; Dhall, Sanjay S; Berger, Mitchel S; Manley, Geoffrey T; Tarapore, Phiroz E

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Sports-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important public health concern estimated to affect 300,000 to 3.8 million people annually in the United States. Although injuries to professional athletes dominate the media, this group represents only a small proportion of the overall population. Here, the authors characterize the demographics of sports-related TBI in adults from a community-based trauma population and identify predictors of prolonged hospitalization and increased morbidity and mortality rates. METHODS Utilizing the National Sample Program of the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB), the authors retrospectively analyzed sports-related TBI data from adults (age ≥ 18 years) across 5 sporting categories-fall or interpersonal contact (FIC), roller sports, skiing/snowboarding, equestrian sports, and aquatic sports. Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify predictors of prolonged hospital length of stay (LOS), medical complications, inpatient mortality rates, and hospital discharge disposition. Statistical significance was assessed at α < 0.05, and the Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons was applied for each outcome analysis. RESULTS From 2003 to 2012, in total, 4788 adult sports-related TBIs were documented in the NTDB, which represented 18,310 incidents nationally. Equestrian sports were the greatest contributors to sports-related TBI (45.2%). Mild TBI represented nearly 86% of injuries overall. Mean (± SEM) LOSs in the hospital or intensive care unit (ICU) were 4.25 ± 0.09 days and 1.60 ± 0.06 days, respectively. The mortality rate was 3.0% across all patients, but was statistically higher in TBI from roller sports (4.1%) and aquatic sports (7.7%). Age, hypotension on admission to the emergency department (ED), and the severity of head and extracranial injuries were statistically significant predictors of prolonged hospital and ICU LOSs, medical complications, failure to discharge to home, and death. Traumatic

  17. Adult sports-related traumatic brain injury in United States trauma centers.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Ethan A; Yue, John K; Burke, John F; Chan, Andrew K; Dhall, Sanjay S; Berger, Mitchel S; Manley, Geoffrey T; Tarapore, Phiroz E

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Sports-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important public health concern estimated to affect 300,000 to 3.8 million people annually in the United States. Although injuries to professional athletes dominate the media, this group represents only a small proportion of the overall population. Here, the authors characterize the demographics of sports-related TBI in adults from a community-based trauma population and identify predictors of prolonged hospitalization and increased morbidity and mortality rates. METHODS Utilizing the National Sample Program of the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB), the authors retrospectively analyzed sports-related TBI data from adults (age ≥ 18 years) across 5 sporting categories-fall or interpersonal contact (FIC), roller sports, skiing/snowboarding, equestrian sports, and aquatic sports. Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify predictors of prolonged hospital length of stay (LOS), medical complications, inpatient mortality rates, and hospital discharge disposition. Statistical significance was assessed at α < 0.05, and the Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons was applied for each outcome analysis. RESULTS From 2003 to 2012, in total, 4788 adult sports-related TBIs were documented in the NTDB, which represented 18,310 incidents nationally. Equestrian sports were the greatest contributors to sports-related TBI (45.2%). Mild TBI represented nearly 86% of injuries overall. Mean (± SEM) LOSs in the hospital or intensive care unit (ICU) were 4.25 ± 0.09 days and 1.60 ± 0.06 days, respectively. The mortality rate was 3.0% across all patients, but was statistically higher in TBI from roller sports (4.1%) and aquatic sports (7.7%). Age, hypotension on admission to the emergency department (ED), and the severity of head and extracranial injuries were statistically significant predictors of prolonged hospital and ICU LOSs, medical complications, failure to discharge to home, and death. Traumatic

  18. Multicultural voices: Attitudes of older adults in the United States about elder mistreatment.

    PubMed

    Enguidanos, Susan; DeLiema, Marguerite; Aguilar, Iris; Lambrinos, Jorge; Wilber, Kathleen

    2014-05-01

    Despite international growth in policies to increase the identification and response to elder abuse and neglect, there remain considerable barriers to treating the problem. Some of these barriers may be attributed to how older adults from different racial/ethnic backgrounds define, experience, and seek to remedy elder mistreatment. Using focus group discussions based on case vignettes, this paper examines how older adults from different racial and ethnic backgrounds in the United States perceive elder mistreatment. Five focus groups were conducted with African Americans, English-speaking Latinos, Spanish-speaking Latinos, non-Latino Whites and African American caregivers for older adults. While similar definitions and meanings of elder abuse were expressed across the different racial/ethnic groups, Latino participants introduced additional themes of machismo, respect, love, and early intervention to stop abuse, suggesting that perceptions/beliefs about elder mistreatment are determined by culture and degree of acculturation in addition to race/ethnicity. Most differences in attitudes occurred within groups, demonstrating that perceptions vary by individual as well as by culture. In identifying scenarios that constitute elder mistreatment, some participants felt that certain cases of abuse are actually the persistence of intimate partner violence into old age. Participants also indicated that victims may prefer to tolerate mistreatment in exchange for other perceived benefits (e.g., companionship, security); and out of fear that they could be placed in an institution if mistreatment is reported. Findings suggest the need for person-centred intervention and prevention models that integrate the cultural background, care needs, and individual preferences of older adults. PMID:25364064

  19. Multicultural voices: Attitudes of older adults in the United States about elder mistreatment

    PubMed Central

    Enguidanos, Susan; DeLiema, Marguerite; Aguilar, Iris; Lambrinos, Jorge; Wilber, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Despite international growth in policies to increase the identification and response to elder abuse and neglect, there remain considerable barriers to treating the problem. Some of these barriers may be attributed to how older adults from different racial/ethnic backgrounds define, experience, and seek to remedy elder mistreatment. Using focus group discussions based on case vignettes, this paper examines how older adults from different racial and ethnic backgrounds in the United States perceive elder mistreatment. Five focus groups were conducted with African Americans, English-speaking Latinos, Spanish-speaking Latinos, non-Latino Whites and African American caregivers for older adults. While similar definitions and meanings of elder abuse were expressed across the different racial/ethnic groups, Latino participants introduced additional themes of machismo, respect, love, and early intervention to stop abuse, suggesting that perceptions/beliefs about elder mistreatment are determined by culture and degree of acculturation in addition to race/ethnicity. Most differences in attitudes occurred within groups, demonstrating that perceptions vary by individual as well as by culture. In identifying scenarios that constitute elder mistreatment, some participants felt that certain cases of abuse are actually the persistence of intimate partner violence into old age. Participants also indicated that victims may prefer to tolerate mistreatment in exchange for other perceived benefits (e.g., companionship, security); and out of fear that they could be placed in an institution if mistreatment is reported. Findings suggest the need for person–centred intervention and prevention models that integrate the cultural background, care needs, and individual preferences of older adults. PMID:25364064

  20. Multicultural voices: Attitudes of older adults in the United States about elder mistreatment.

    PubMed

    Enguidanos, Susan; DeLiema, Marguerite; Aguilar, Iris; Lambrinos, Jorge; Wilber, Kathleen

    2014-05-01

    Despite international growth in policies to increase the identification and response to elder abuse and neglect, there remain considerable barriers to treating the problem. Some of these barriers may be attributed to how older adults from different racial/ethnic backgrounds define, experience, and seek to remedy elder mistreatment. Using focus group discussions based on case vignettes, this paper examines how older adults from different racial and ethnic backgrounds in the United States perceive elder mistreatment. Five focus groups were conducted with African Americans, English-speaking Latinos, Spanish-speaking Latinos, non-Latino Whites and African American caregivers for older adults. While similar definitions and meanings of elder abuse were expressed across the different racial/ethnic groups, Latino participants introduced additional themes of machismo, respect, love, and early intervention to stop abuse, suggesting that perceptions/beliefs about elder mistreatment are determined by culture and degree of acculturation in addition to race/ethnicity. Most differences in attitudes occurred within groups, demonstrating that perceptions vary by individual as well as by culture. In identifying scenarios that constitute elder mistreatment, some participants felt that certain cases of abuse are actually the persistence of intimate partner violence into old age. Participants also indicated that victims may prefer to tolerate mistreatment in exchange for other perceived benefits (e.g., companionship, security); and out of fear that they could be placed in an institution if mistreatment is reported. Findings suggest the need for person-centred intervention and prevention models that integrate the cultural background, care needs, and individual preferences of older adults.

  1. Management of Gonorrhea in Adolescents and Adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Sarah; Workowski, Kimberly A

    2015-12-15

    Gonorrhea is the second most commonly reported notifiable disease in the United States and is associated with serious health sequelae, including pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy. Treatment for gonorrhea has been complicated by antimicrobial resistance. Neisseria gonorrhoeae has developed resistance to each of the antimicrobials that were previously recommended as first-line treatment regimens, and current treatment options are severely limited. This article summarizes the key questions and data that were discussed at the Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) Treatment Guidelines Expert Consultation meeting in April 2013, and the rationale for the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention STD treatment guidelines for gonococcal infections in adolescents and adults. Key issues addressed include whether to change the dosage of ceftriaxone and azithromycin used in the recommended dual treatment regimen, whether to continue to list dual treatment with cefixime and azithromycin as an alternative treatment regimen, and management of gonococcal infections in persons with severe cephalosporin allergy or suspected treatment failure.

  2. Adult nephrology fellowship training in the United States: trends and issues.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Mark E

    2007-04-01

    This article reviews trends and issues related to adult nephrology fellowship education in the United States. The number of nephrology fellowship programs and trainees has continued to increase slowly despite limitations in funding of graduate medical education. The use of the Electronic Residency Application System has provided information for the first time on the number, demographics, and behavior of applicants that can be used as baseline data for tracking trends in fellowship applications and for formulating training policies. Issues that nephrology training programs face are discussed in this review: (1) A more stringent graduate medical education regulatory environment, (2) the use of the National Resident Matching Program to enhance the nephrology fellowship applicant selection process, (3) future nephrology workforce shortages, and (4) the continued subspecialization of nephrology. By working together, nephrology fellowship programs can overcome barriers that are raised by these issues and improve the fellowship training experience.

  3. Differences Among Older Adults in the Types of Dental Services Used in the United States.

    PubMed

    Manski, Richard J; Hyde, Jody Schimmel; Chen, Haiyan; Moeller, John F

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore differences in the socioeconomic, demographic characteristics of older adults in the United States with respect to their use of different types of dental care services. The 2008 Health and Retirement Study (HRS) collected information about patterns of dental care use and oral health from individuals aged 55 years and older in the United States. We analyze these data and explore patterns of service use by key characteristics before modeling the relationship between service use type and those characteristics. The most commonly used service category was fillings, inlays, or bonding, reported by 43.6% of those with any utilization. Just over one third of those with any utilization reported a visit for a crown, implant, or prosthesis, and one quarter reported a gum treatment or tooth extraction. The strongest consistent predictors of use type are denture, dentate, and oral health status along with dental insurance coverage and wealth. Our results provide insights into the need for public policies to address inequalities in access to dental services among an older US population. Our findings show that lower income, less wealthy elderly with poor oral health are more likely to not use any dental services rather than using only preventive dental care, and that cost prevents most non-users who say they need dental care from going to the dentist. These results suggest a serious access problem and one that ultimately produces even worse oral health and expensive major procedures for this population in the future. PMID:27284127

  4. The Connections among Immigration, Nation Building, and Adult Education English as a Second Language Instruction in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Char

    2010-01-01

    Since its inception at the turn of the last century, adult education English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction in the United States has been entwined with immigration processes and ideas of the nation. In spite of current uncertainty about the overhauling of federal immigration policy, increasingly anti-immigrant laws in states such as…

  5. Case Studies of Internationalization in Adult and Higher Education: Inside the Processes of Four Universities in the United States and the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coryell, Joellen Elizabeth; Durodoye, Beth A.; Wright, Robin Redmon; Pate, P. Elizabeth; Nguyen, Shelbee

    2012-01-01

    This report outlines a method for learning about the internationalization processes at institutions of adult and higher education and then provides the analysis of data gathered from the researchers' own institution and from site visits to three additional universities in the United States and the United Kingdom. It was found that campus…

  6. Antisocial Behavioral Syndromes and Three-Year Quality of Life Outcomes in United States Adults

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Risë B.; Dawson, Deborah A.; Smith, Sharon M.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine 3-year quality-of-life (QOL) outcomes among United States adults with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), syndromal adult antisocial behavior without conduct disorder (CD) before age 15 (AABS, not a DSM-IV diagnosis), or no antisocial behavioral syndrome at baseline. Method Face-to-face interviews (n= 34,653). Psychiatric disorders were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule – DSM-IV Version. Health-related QOL was assessed using the Short-Form 12-Item Health Survey, version 2 (SF-12v2). Other outcomes included past-year Perceived Stress Scale-4 (PSS-4) scores, employment, receipt of Supplemental Security Income (SSI), welfare, and food stamps, and participation in social relationships. Results ASPD and AABS predicted poorer employment, financial dependency, social relationship, and physical health outcomes. Relationships of antisociality to SSI and food stamp receipt and physical health scales were modified by baseline age. Both antisocial syndromes predicted higher PSS-4, AABS predicted lower SF-12v2 Vitality, and ASPD predicted lower SF-12v2 Social Functioning scores in women. Conclusion Similar prediction of QOL by ASPD and AABS suggests limited utility of requiring CD before age 15 to diagnose ASPD. Findings underscore the need to improve prevention and treatment of antisocial syndromes. PMID:22375904

  7. Sunburn prevalence among adults--United States, 1999, 2003, and 2004.

    PubMed

    2007-06-01

    Episodic acute overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation (i.e., sunburn) is an important risk factor for two types of skin cancer: basal cell carcinoma and melanoma. Melanoma is the most lethal type of skin cancer. In 2003, a total of 45,625 new cases of melanoma were diagnosed in the United States, and 7,818 persons died from the disease. A meta-analysis of 57 studies indicated that the relative risk for melanoma among persons with sunburn history compared with those without sunburn history was 2.03 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.73-2.37). Monitoring sunburn prevalence with population-based surveys allows an estimate of compliance with sun-protection behaviors, assessments of risk for developing skin cancer, and measurement of the success of prevention programs. To evaluate trends in sunburn prevalence among U.S. adults, CDC analyzed cross-sectional data from the 1999, 2003, and 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that sunburn prevalence among all adults increased from 31.8% in 1999 to 33.7% in 2004. Further research is needed to determine which interventions will best improve sun-protection behaviors among the public.

  8. Cervical Cancer Screening Among Young Adult Women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Roland, Katherine B.; Benard, Vicki B.; Soman, Ashwini; Breen, Nancy; Kepka, Deanna; Saraiya, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer screening guidelines have evolved significantly in the last decade for young adult women, with current recommendations promoting later initiation and longer intervals. Methods Using self-reported cross-sectional National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 2000–2010 data, trends in Papanicolaou (Pap) testing among women ages 18–29 years were examined. NHIS 2010 data were used to investigate age at first Pap test (N =2,198), time since most recent Pap test (n =1,622), and predictors of Pap testing within the last 12 months (n = 1,622). Results The percentage of 18-year-olds who reported ever having a Pap test significantly decreased from 49.9% in 2000 to 37.9% in 2010. Mean age at first Pap test in 2010 was significantly younger for non-Hispanic black women (16.9 years), women < high school education (16.9 years), women who received the HPV vaccine (17.1 years), and women who have ever given birth (17.3 years). The majority reported their last Pap test within the previous 12 months (73.1%). Usual source of healthcare (OR, 2.31) and current birth control use (OR, 1.64) significantly increased chances of having a Pap test within the previous 12 months. Conclusions From 2000 to 2010, there was a gradual decline in Pap test initiation among 18-year-olds; however, in 2010, many women reported ≤12 months since last screening. Evidence-based guidelines should be promoted, as screening young adult women for cervical cancer more frequently than recommended can cause considerable harms. Impact A baseline of cervical cancer screening among young adult women in the United States to assess adherence to evidence-based screening guidelines. PMID:23355601

  9. The use of chiropractors by older adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wolinsky, Fredric D; Liu, Li; Miller, Thomas R; Geweke, John F; Cook, Elizabeth A; Greene, Barry R; Wright, Kara B; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A; Pavlik, Claire E; An, Hyonggin; Ohsfeldt, Robert L; Richardson, Kelly K; Rosenthal, Gary E; Wallace, Robert B

    2007-01-01

    Background In a nationally representative sample of United States Medicare beneficiaries, we examined the extent of chiropractic use, factors associated with seeing a chiropractor, and predictors of the volume of chiropractic use among those having seen one. Methods We performed secondary analyses of baseline interview data on 4,310 self-respondents who were 70 years old or older when they first participated in the Survey on Assets and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD). The interview data were then linked to their Medicare claims. Multiple logistic and negative binomial regressions were used. Results The average annual rate of chiropractic use was 4.6%. During the four-year period (two years before and two years after each respondent's baseline interview), 10.3% had one or more visits to a chiropractor. African Americans and Hispanics, as well as those with multiple depressive symptoms and those who lived in counties with lower than average supplies of chiropractors were much less likely to use them. The use of chiropractors was much more likely among those who drank alcohol, had arthritis, reported pain, and were able to drive. Chiropractic services did not substitute for physician visits. Among those who had seen a chiropractor, the volume of chiropractic visits was lower for those who lived alone, had lower incomes, and poorer cognitive abilities, while it was greater for the overweight and those with lower body limitations. Conclusion Chiropractic use among older adults is less prevalent than has been consistently reported for the United States as a whole, and is most common among Whites, those reporting pain, and those with geographic, financial, and transportation access. PMID:17822549

  10. Pesticide residues in urine of adults living in the United States: reference range concentrations.

    PubMed

    Hill, R H; Head, S L; Baker, S; Gregg, M; Shealy, D B; Bailey, S L; Williams, C C; Sampson, E J; Needham, L L

    1995-11-01

    We measured 12 analytes in urine of 1000 adults living in the United States to establish reference range concentrations for pesticide residues. We frequently found six of these analytes: 2,5-dichlorophenol (in 98% of adults); 2,4-dichlorophenol (in 64%); 1-naphthol (in 86%); 2-naphthol (in 81%); 3,5,6- trichloro-2-pyridinol (in 82%); and pentachlorophenol (in 64%). The 95th percentile concentration (95th PC) for 2,5-dichlorophenol (indicative of p-dichlorobenzene exposure) was 790 micrograms/liter; concentrations ranged up to 8700 micrograms/liter. 2,4-Dichlorophenol concentrations ranged up to 450 micrograms/ liter, and the 95thPC was 64 micrograms/liter. 1-Naphthol and 2-naphthol (indicative of naphthalene exposure) had 95thPCs of 43 and 30 micrograms/liter, respectively; concentrations of 1-naphthol ranged up to 2500 micrograms/liter. Chlorpyrifos exposure was indicated by 3,5,6-tricholoro-2-pyridinol concentrations of 13 (95thPC) and 77 micrograms/liter (maximum observed). Pentachlorophenol had a 95thPC of 8.2 micrograms/liter. Other analytes measured included 4-nitrophenol (in 41%); 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (in 20%); 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (in 9.5%); 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (in 12%); 2-isopropoxyphenol (in 6.8%); and 7-carbofuranphenol (in 1.5%). The 95thPCs of these analytes were < 6 micrograms/liter. p-Dichlorobenzene exposure is ubiquitous; naphthalene and chlorpyrifos are also major sources of pesticide exposure. Exposure to chlorpyrifos appears to be increasing. Although pentachlorophenol exposure is frequent, exposure appears to be decreasing. These reference range concentrations provide information about pesticide exposure and serve as a basis against which to compare concentrations in subjects who may have been exposed to pesticides.

  11. Discontinuation of Antiretroviral Therapy Among Adults Receiving HIV Care in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Alison J.; Mattson, Christine L.; Scheer, Susan; Beer, Linda; Skarbinski, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Background Continuous antiretroviral therapy (ART) is important for maintaining viral suppression. This analysis estimates prevalence of and reason for ART discontinuation. Methods Three-stage sampling was used to obtain a nationally representative, cross-sectional sample of HIV-infected adults receiving HIV care. Face-to-face interviews and medical record abstractions were collected from June 2009 to May 2010. Data were weighted based on known probabilities of selection and adjusted for nonresponse. Patient characteristics of ART discontinuation, defined as not currently taking ART, stratified by provider-initiated versus non–provider-initiated discontinuation, were examined. Weighted logistic regression models predicted factors associated with ART discontinuation. Results Of adults receiving HIV care in the United States who reported ever initiating ART, 5.6% discontinued treatment. Half of those who discontinued treatment reported provider-initiated discontinuation. Provider-initiated ART discontinuation patients were more likely to have a nadir CD4 ≥200 cells per cubic millimeter. Non–provider-initiated ART discontinuation patients were more likely to have unmet need for supportive services and to have not received HIV care in the past 3 months. Among all patients who discontinued, younger age, female gender, not having continuous health insurance, incarceration, injection drug use, nadir CD4 count ≥200 cells per cubic millimeter, unmet need for supportive services, no care in the past 3 months and HIV diagnosis ≥5 years before interview were independently associated with ART discontinuation. Conclusions These findings inform development of interventions to increase ART persistence by identifying groups at increased risk of ART discontinuation. Evidence-based interventions targeting vulnerable populations are needed and are increasingly important as recent HIV treatment guidelines have recommended universal ART. PMID:24326608

  12. Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA) Oncology in the United States: A Specialty in Its Late Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Peter H; Reed, Damon R; Yeager, Nicholas; Zebrack, Bradley; Castellino, Sharon M; Bleyer, Archie

    2015-04-01

    Over the last 30 years, it has become apparent that oncology patients ages 15 to 39 have not reaped the same rewards of improved survival that we have seen in younger and older patients. As a result, in 2006 the Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA) Oncology Progress Review Group convened and examined the factors that impact the care of the 70,000 new cases per year (approximately 7% of all new cases) in the United States and published their findings. The reasons for inferior survival gains are of course multiple and include the settings in which patients are cared for, clinical trial enrollment, insurance coverage, varied treatment of sarcomas, varied treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the psychosocial impact of cancer and cancer survivorship. A new area of a yet-to-be completely defined subspecialty was born out of this meeting: AYA oncology. As a medical community we realized that these patients do not fit neatly into the pediatric nor adult world and, therefore, require a unique approach which many individuals, oncology centers, advocacy groups, and cooperative trial groups have started to address. This group of dedicated providers and advocates has made strides but there is still much work to be done on the local, national, and international level to make up for shortcomings in the medical system and improve outcomes. We review key components of AYA cancer care in 2015 that all providers should be aware of, how far we have come, where this movement is headed, and the obstacles that continue to stand in the way of better cure rates and quality of life after cure for this unique group of patients. Like an adolescent maturing into adulthood, this movement has learned from the past and is focused on moving into the future to achieve its goals.

  13. Some Indicators of Fathering Behaviors in the United States: A Crosscultural Examination of Adult Male-Child Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Wade C.; Day, Randal D.

    1979-01-01

    Adult male-child dyads of the United States, Ireland, Spain, Japan, and Mexico were examined at the proxemic level. Findings challenge the idea that American children are relatively more deprived of nurturing behavior from the father figure. American men do not interact with children much differently than men from other countries. (Author/BEF)

  14. Effects of Geographic Region upon Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Results: A Hawaii-Mainland United States Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsushima, William T.; Bratton, Joseph C.

    1977-01-01

    Investigated geographic differences in Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) results by comparing 60 Hawaiian and 60 mainland United States psychiatric outpatients. The influence of pidgin English led to expectations that Hawaiian subjects would have significantly lower WAIS Verbal scores than mainland subjects. Data verified these…

  15. Management of Gonorrhea in Adolescents and Adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Sarah; Workowski, Kimberly A

    2015-12-15

    Gonorrhea is the second most commonly reported notifiable disease in the United States and is associated with serious health sequelae, including pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy. Treatment for gonorrhea has been complicated by antimicrobial resistance. Neisseria gonorrhoeae has developed resistance to each of the antimicrobials that were previously recommended as first-line treatment regimens, and current treatment options are severely limited. This article summarizes the key questions and data that were discussed at the Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) Treatment Guidelines Expert Consultation meeting in April 2013, and the rationale for the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention STD treatment guidelines for gonococcal infections in adolescents and adults. Key issues addressed include whether to change the dosage of ceftriaxone and azithromycin used in the recommended dual treatment regimen, whether to continue to list dual treatment with cefixime and azithromycin as an alternative treatment regimen, and management of gonococcal infections in persons with severe cephalosporin allergy or suspected treatment failure. PMID:26602618

  16. Measures of sexual minority status and suicide risk among young adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Almazan, Elbert P; Roettger, Michael E; Acosta, Pauline S

    2014-01-01

    Multiple measures of sexual minority status are necessary to accurately describe the diversity of attractions, identities, and behaviors in sexual minority populations. We investigated whether four measures of sexual minority status (sexual minority attraction, sexual minority identity, sexual minority lifetime behavior, and sexual minority recent 12-month behavior) were associated with suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts among young adults ages 24 to 34 in the United States. We analyzed data from Wave IV (2007-2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. We employed logistic regression models in the analysis. Multiple sexual minority status measures had significant associations with increased suicidal thoughts among women and men. Multiple sexual minority status measures had significant associations with increased suicide attempts among women, but not among men. Diverse sexual minority populations are at increased risk for suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts. Multiple measures of sexual minority status should be utilized in future studies of sexual minority status and suicide risk. Suicide prevention programs should ensure intervention is available across diverse sexual minority populations.

  17. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Recommended Immunization Schedule for Adults Aged 19 Years or Older--United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Kim, David K; Bridges, Carolyn B; Harriman, Kathleen H

    2016-02-05

    In October 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)* approved the Recommended Immunization Schedule for Adults Aged 19 Years or Older, United States, 2016. This schedule provides a summary of ACIP recommendations for the use of vaccines routinely recommended for adults aged 19 years or older in two figures, footnotes for each vaccine, and a table that describes primary contraindications and precautions for commonly used vaccines for adults. Although the figures in the adult immunization schedule illustrate recommended vaccinations that begin at age 19 years, the footnotes contain information on vaccines that are recommended for adults that may begin at age younger than age 19 years. The footnotes also contain vaccine dosing, intervals between doses, and other important information and should be read with the figures.

  18. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking in the United States: Findings from the National Adult Tobacco Survey

    PubMed Central

    Salloum, Ramzi G.; Thrasher, James F.; Kates, Frederick R.; Maziak, Wasim

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report prevalence and correlates of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) use among U.S. adults. Methods Data were from the 2009–2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Estimates of WTS ever and current use were reported overall, and by sex, age, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, annual household income, sexual orientation, and cigarette smoking status. State-level prevalence rates of WTS ever were reported using choropleth thematic maps for the overall population and by sex. Results The national prevalence of WTS ever was 9.8% and 1.5% for current use. WTS ever was more prevalent among those who are male (13.4%), 18–24 years old (28.4%) compared to older adults, non-Hispanic White (9.8%) compared to non-Hispanic Black, with some college education (12.4%) compared to no high school diploma, and reporting sexual minority status (21.1%) compared to heterosexuals. States with highest prevalence included DC(17.3%), NV(15.8%), and CA(15.5%). Conclusion WTS is now common among young adults in the US and high in regions where cigarette smoking prevalence is lowest and smoke-free policies have a longer history. To reduce its use, WTS should be included in smoke-free regulations and state and federal regulators should consider policy development in other areas, including taxes, labeling, and distribution. PMID:25535678

  19. Diet and acculturation among Hispanic/Latino older adults in the United States: a review of literature and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Arandia, Gabriela; Nalty, Courtney; Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R

    2012-01-01

    Among U.S. and foreign-born Hispanic/Latino older adults living in the United States, associations of dietary acculturation and health outcomes have yielded no consistent findings. The purpose of this review was to present current knowledge and research disparities on acculturation, dietary intake, and health outcomes among the fastest growing minority group in the United States. Fifteen peer-reviewed studies that measured dietary acculturation among Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Dominican older adults living in the United States were identified and examined. This literature review divulged contradictory associations between dietary acculturation and dietary intake, along with nutritional and general health outcomes. Conclusive evidence has yet to be attained due to use of cross-sectional study designs and numerous acculturation measures as well as unique cultural and dietary patterns across diverse Hispanic/Latino populations. Further research is needed to ascertain dietary acculturation among U.S. and foreign-born Hispanic/Latino older adults in the United States and should strive to develop instruments that consider the social, economic, and political environments that influence the dietary acculturation process. Furthermore, longitudinal study designs and qualitative methodologies are warranted. PMID:22335438

  20. Disparities in Adult Cigarette Smoking - United States, 2002-2005 and 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    Martell, Brandi N; Garrett, Bridgette E; Caraballo, Ralph S

    2016-01-01

    Although cigarette smoking has substantially declined since the release of the 1964 Surgeon General's report on smoking and health,* disparities in tobacco use exist among racial/ethnic populations (1). Moreover, because estimates of U.S. adult cigarette smoking and tobacco use are usually limited to aggregate racial or ethnic population categories (i.e., non-Hispanic whites [whites]; non-Hispanic blacks or African Americans [blacks]; American Indians and Alaska Natives [American Indians/Alaska Natives]; Asians; Native Hawaiians or Pacific Islanders [Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders]; and Hispanics/Latinos [Hispanics]), these estimates can mask differences in cigarette smoking prevalence among subgroups of these populations. To assess the prevalence of and changes in cigarette smoking among persons aged ≥18 years in six racial/ethnic populations and 10 select subgroups in the United States,(†) CDC analyzed self-reported data collected during 2002-2005 and 2010-2013 from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) (2) and compared differences between the two periods. During 2010-2013, the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking among the racial/ethnic populations and subgroups ranged from 38.9% for American Indians/Alaska Natives to 7.6% for both Chinese and Asian Indians. During 2010-2013, although cigarette smoking prevalence was relatively low among Asians overall (10.9%) compared with whites (24.9%), wide within-group differences in smoking prevalence existed among Asian subgroups, from 7.6% among both Chinese and Asian Indians to 20.0% among Koreans. Similarly, among Hispanics, the overall prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 19.9%; however, within Hispanic subgroups, prevalences ranged from 15.6% among Central/South Americans to 28.5% among Puerto Ricans. The overall prevalence of cigarette smoking was higher among men than among women during both 2002-2005 (30.0% men versus 23.9% women) and 2010-2013 (26.4% versus 21.1%) (p<0.05). These

  1. Attitudes Towards Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing for Aneuploidy Among United States Adults of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Sayres, Lauren C.; Goodspeed, Taylor A.; Cho, Mildred K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s) To determine how adults in the United States (US) view non-invasive prenatal testing using cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA testing) in order to help estimate uptake. Study Design A national sample of 1,861 US-based adults was surveyed using a validated online survey instrument. The survey was administered by a commercial survey research company. Respondents were randomized to receive a survey about prenatal testing for trisomy 13 and 18 or trisomy 21. Participants were asked to select among testing modalities, including cffDNA testing, and rank the features of testing that they considered most important to decision making. Results There was substantive interest in the use of cffDNA testing rather than traditional screening mechanisms with a minority of respondents reporting that they would support the use of both methods in combination. The lower rates of false negative and false positive test results and the ability to use the test earlier in the pregnancy were the most highly rated benefits of cffDNA testing. Participants expressed strong support for diagnostic confirmation via invasive testing after a positive result from either screening or cffDNA testing. However, almost one-third of participants reported that they would not endorse the use of either invasive or non-invasive prenatal testing. Conclusion(s) There appears to be support for uptake of non-invasive prenatal tests. Clinical guidelines should therefor go forward in providing guidance on how to integrate non-invasive methods into current standard of care. However, our findings indicate that even when accuracy, which is rated by patients as the most important aspect of prenatal testing, is significantly improved over existing screening methods and testing is offered non-invasively, the number of individuals who reported that they would decline any testing remained the same. Attention should therefor be directed at ensuring that the right of informed refusal of prenatal testing is not impacted

  2. An Innovative Website in the United States for Meeting the Emotional and Supportive Care Needs of Young Adults with Cancer.

    PubMed

    Fasciano, Karen M; Souza, Phoebe M; Braun, Ilana; Trevino, Kelly

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes the development of an institution-specific website designed to meet the supportive and emotional needs of young adults (18-39 years old) with cancer in the United States. The website contains information about topics of particular interest to young adults, coping skills education, and resources; and has social networking capacity. In a survey of website users, participants reported increased "connectedness" and variable impact on feelings of sadness, fear, and worry. Recommendations are made for fostering peer interactions, encouraging staff to educate website users around self-monitoring for distress, and incorporating relevant content on the website. PMID:26812430

  3. Economic Impact of Childhood and Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doshi, Jalpa A.; Hodgkins, Paul; Kahle, Jennifer; Sikirica, Vanja; Cangelosi, Michael J.; Setyawan, Juliana; Erder, M. Haim; Neumann, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent mental disorders in children in the United States and often persists into adulthood with associated symptomatology and impairments. This article comprehensively reviews studies reporting ADHD-related incremental (excess) costs for children/adolescents and…

  4. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking and Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking Among Young Adults in the United States, 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Haider, M. Rifat; Barnett, Tracey E.; Guo, Yi; Getz, Kayla R.; Thrasher, James F.; Maziak, Wasim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Waterpipe tobacco smoking, also known as hookah and shisha, has surged in popularity among young people in the United States. Waterpipe is also increasingly becoming the first tobacco product that young people try. Given the limited access to and limited portability of waterpipes, waterpipe smokers who become more nicotine dependent over time may be more likely to turn to cigarettes. This study examined the relationship between waterpipe tobacco smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Methods Using data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative sample of US adults, we reported rates of current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking by demographic characteristics and by use of other tobacco products among survey participants aged 18 to 24 years. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or within the next year. Results Of 2,528 young adults who had never established cigarette smoking, 15.7% (n = 398) reported being waterpipe smokers (every day or some days [n = 97; 3.8%] or rarely [n = 301; 11.9%]); 44.2% (176/398) of waterpipe smokers reported being susceptible to cigarette smoking. Those who smoked waterpipe rarely were 2.3 times as susceptible to cigarette smoking as those who were not current waterpipe smokers (OR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6–3.4). Conclusion Current waterpipe smoking is associated with susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Longitudinal studies are needed to demonstrate causality between waterpipe smoking and initiation of cigarette smoking. PMID:26890407

  5. Estimated Human and Economic Burden of Four Major Adult Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in the United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, John M; McGinnis, Justin J; Tan, Litjen; Mercatante, Annette; Fortuna, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    Low uptake of routinely recommended adult immunizations is a public health concern. Using data from the peer-reviewed literature, government disease-surveillance programs, and the US Census, we developed a customizable model to estimate human and economic burden caused by four major adult vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD) in 2013 in the United States, and for each US state individually. To estimate the number of cases for each adult VPD for a given population, we multiplied age-specific incidence rates obtained from the literature by age-specific 2013 Census population data. We then multiplied the estimated number of cases for a given population by age-specific, estimated medical and indirect (non-medical) costs per case. Adult VPDs examined were: (1) influenza, (2) pneumococcal disease (both invasive disease and pneumonia), (3) herpes zoster (shingles), and (4) pertussis (whooping cough). Sensitivity analyses simulated the impact of various epidemiological scenarios on the total estimated economic burden. Estimated US annual cost for the four adult VPDs was $26.5 billion (B) among adults aged 50 years and older, $15.3B (58 %) of which was attributable to those 65 and older. Among adults 50 and older, influenza, pneumococcal disease, herpes zoster, and pertussis made up $16.0B (60 %), $5.1B (19 %), $5.0B (19 %), and $0.4B (2 %) of the cost, respectively. Among those 65 and older, they made up $8.3B (54 %), $3.8B (25 %), $3.0B (20 %), and 0.2B (1 %) of the cost, respectively. Most (80-85 %) pneumococcal costs stemmed from nonbacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (NPP). Cost attributable to adult VPD in the United States is substantial. Broadening adult immunization efforts beyond influenza only may help reduce the economic burden of adult VPD, and a pneumococcal vaccination effort, primarily focused on reducing NPP, may constitute a logical starting place. Sensitivity analyses revealed that a pandemic influenza season or change in size of the US elderly population

  6. Hypertension, abnormal cholesterol, and high body mass index among non-Hispanic Asian adults: United States, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Yutaka; Yoon, Sung Sug; Chong, Yinong; Carroll, Margaret D

    2014-01-01

    not completely captured by BMI (10). This report builds on recently published estimates of hypertension, cholesterol, and obesity from NHANES 2011–2012 (3,6,11) by providing related estimates for Asian adults by select demographic characteristics. Hypertension, abnormal cholesterol levels, and elevated body weight are important risk factors for major chronic diseases, for which differences by race as well as ethnicity have been reported. The Asian population includes many ethnic groups, and the majority of non-Hispanic Asian adults in the United States are immigrants (12). Note that these estimates are for non-Hispanic Asian persons overall and may not reflect patterns for specific subgroups of Asian persons.

  7. Difference in adult food group intake by sex and age groups comparing Brazil and United States nationwide surveys

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background International comparisons of dietary intake are an important source of information to better understand food habits and their relationship to nutrition related diseases. The objective of this study is to compare food intake of Brazilian adults with American adults identifying possible dietary factors associated with the increase in obesity in Brazil. Methods This research used cross-national analyses between the United States and Brazil, including 5,420 adults in the 2007–2008 What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and 26,390 adults in the 2008–2009 Brazilian Household Budget Survey, Individual Food Intake. Dietary data were collected through 24 h recalls in the U.S. and through food records in Brazil. Foods and beverages were combined into 25 food categories. Food intake means and percentage of energy contribution by food categories to the population’s total energy intake were compared between the countries. Results Higher frequencies of intake were reported in the United States compared to Brazil for the majority of food categories except for meat, rice and rice dishes; beans and legumes; spreads; and coffee and tea. In either country, young adults (20-39 yrs) had greater reports of meat, poultry and fish mixed dishes; pizza and pasta; and soft drinks compared to older adults (60 + yrs). Meat, poultry and fish mixed dishes (13%), breads (11%), sweets and confections (8%), pizza and pasta (7%), and dairy products (6%) were the top five food category sources of energy intake among American adults. The top five food categories in Brazil were rice and rice dishes (13%), meat (11%), beans and legumes (10%), breads (10%), and coffee and tea (6%). Thus, traditional plant-based foods such as rice and beans were important contributors in the Brazilian diet. Conclusion Although young adults had higher reports of high-calorie and nutrient-poor foods than older adults in both countries, Brazilian young adults did not

  8. Health and Access to Care among Employed and Unemployed Adults: United States, 2009-2010

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2010 were more likely to have fair or poor health than employed adults across all categories of ... adults aged 18–64 years had fair or poor health compared with 5.3% of employed adults ( ...

  9. Trends in Quit Attempts Among Adult Cigarette Smokers - United States, 2001-2013.

    PubMed

    Lavinghouze, S René; Malarcher, Ann; Jama, Amal; Neff, Linda; Debrot, Karen; Whalen, Laura

    2015-10-16

    What is already known on this topic? Quitting smoking is beneficial to health at any age, and cigarette smokers who quit before age 35 years have mortality rates similar to those of persons who never smoked. What is added by this report?During 2001–2010, the proportion of adult cigarette smokers who had made a quit attempt in the past year increased significantly in 29 states and the U.S. Virgin Islands. During 2011–2013, the proportion who had made a quit attempt increased in Hawaii and Puerto Rico and decreased in New Mexico. In 2013, the proportion who had made a quit attempt ranged from 56.2% (Kentucky) to 76.4% (Puerto Rico and Guam) with a median of 65.9%, and was generally lower in older age groups. What are the implications for public health practice? Continued implementation of effective evidence-based public health interventions can reduce the health and costs impacts of smoking-related disease and death and accelerate progress toward meeting the Healthy People 2020 target to increase to ≥80% the proportion of U.S. adult cigarette smokers who made a quit attempt in the past year. These interventions include increasing the price of tobacco products, implementing comprehensive smoke-free laws, conducting educational mass media campaigns, and providing insurance coverage for all effective cessation treatments as well as access to quitlines. PMID:26468619

  10. Advisory committee on immunization practices recommended immunization schedule for adults aged 19 years or older--United States, 2015.

    PubMed

    Kim, David K; Bridges, Carolyn B; Harriman, Kathleen H

    2015-02-01

    In October 2014, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) approved the Recommended Immunization Schedule for Adults Aged 19 Years or Older, United States, 2015. This schedule provides a summary of ACIP recommendations for the use of vaccines routinely recommended for adults aged 19 years or older in two figures, footnotes for each vaccine, and a table that describes primary contraindications and precautions for commonly used vaccines for adults. Changes in the 2015 adult immunization schedule from the 2014 schedule included the August 2014 recommendation for routine administration of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in series with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) for all adults aged 65 years or older, the August 2014 revision on contraindications and precautions for the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV), and the October 2014 approval by the Food and Drug Administration to expand the approved age for use of recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV). These revisions were also reviewed and approved by the American College of Physicians, American Academy of Family Physicians, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  11. The Relationship Between Discrimination and Substance Use Disorders Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bostwick, Wendy B.; Hughes, Tonda L.; West, Brady T.; Boyd, Carol J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the associations between 3 types of discrimination (sexual orientation, race, and gender) and substance use disorders in a large national sample in the United States that included 577 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults. Methods. Data were collected from wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, which used structured diagnostic face-to-face interviews. Results. More than two thirds of LGB adults reported at least 1 type of discrimination in their lifetimes. Multivariate analyses indicated that the odds of past-year substance use disorders were nearly 4 times greater among LGB adults who reported all 3 types of discrimination prior to the past year than for LGB adults who did not report discrimination (adjusted odds ratio = 3.85; 95% confidence interval = 1.71, 8.66). Conclusions. Health professionals should consider the role multiple types of discrimination plays in the development and treatment of substance use disorders among LGB adults. PMID:20075317

  12. Vaccination benefits and cost-sharing policy for non-institutionalized adult Medicaid enrollees in the United States.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Alexandra M; Lindley, Megan C; Chang, Kristen H M; Cox, Marisa A

    2014-01-23

    Medicaid is the largest funding source of health services for the poorest people in the United States. Medicaid enrollees have greater health care, needs, and higher health risks than other individuals in the country and, experience disproportionately low rates of preventive care. Without, Medicaid coverage, poor uninsured adults may not be vaccinated or would, rely on publicly-funded programs that provide vaccinations. We examined each programs' policies related to benefit coverage and, copayments for adult enrollees. Our study was completed between October 2011 and September 2012 using a document review and a survey of Medicaid administrators that assessed coverage and cost-sharing policy for fee-for-service programs. Results were compared to a similar review, conducted in 2003. Over the past 10 years, Medicaid programs have typically maintained or expanded vaccination coverage benefits for adults and nearly half have explicitly prohibited copayments. The 17 programs that cover all recommended vaccines while prohibiting, copayments demonstrate a commitment to providing increased access to vaccinations for adult enrollees. When developing responses to fiscal and political challenges, the programs that do not cover all ACIP recommended adult vaccines or those that permit copayments for vaccinations, should consider all strategies to increase vaccinations and reduce costs to enrollees.

  13. Vaccination benefits and cost-sharing policy for non-institutionalized adult Medicaid enrollees in the United States.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Alexandra M; Lindley, Megan C; Chang, Kristen H M; Cox, Marisa A

    2014-01-23

    Medicaid is the largest funding source of health services for the poorest people in the United States. Medicaid enrollees have greater health care, needs, and higher health risks than other individuals in the country and, experience disproportionately low rates of preventive care. Without, Medicaid coverage, poor uninsured adults may not be vaccinated or would, rely on publicly-funded programs that provide vaccinations. We examined each programs' policies related to benefit coverage and, copayments for adult enrollees. Our study was completed between October 2011 and September 2012 using a document review and a survey of Medicaid administrators that assessed coverage and cost-sharing policy for fee-for-service programs. Results were compared to a similar review, conducted in 2003. Over the past 10 years, Medicaid programs have typically maintained or expanded vaccination coverage benefits for adults and nearly half have explicitly prohibited copayments. The 17 programs that cover all recommended vaccines while prohibiting, copayments demonstrate a commitment to providing increased access to vaccinations for adult enrollees. When developing responses to fiscal and political challenges, the programs that do not cover all ACIP recommended adult vaccines or those that permit copayments for vaccinations, should consider all strategies to increase vaccinations and reduce costs to enrollees. PMID:24291539

  14. Clustering of Five Health-Related Behaviors for Chronic Disease Prevention Among Adults, United States, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Croft, Janet B.; Wheaton, Anne G.; Kanny, Dafna; Cunningham, Timothy J.; Lu, Hua; Onufrak, Stephen; Malarcher, Ann M.; Greenlund, Kurt J.; Giles, Wayne H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Five key health-related behaviors for chronic disease prevention are never smoking, getting regular physical activity, consuming no alcohol or only moderate amounts, maintaining a normal body weight, and obtaining daily sufficient sleep. The objective of this study was to estimate the clustering of these 5 health-related behaviors among adults aged 21 years or older in each state and the District of Columbia and to assess geographic variation in clustering. Methods We used data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to assess the clustering of the 5 behaviors among 395,343 BRFSS respondents aged 21 years or older. The 5 behaviors were defined as currently not smoking cigarettes, meeting the aerobic physical activity recommendation, consuming no alcohol or only moderate amounts, maintaining a normal body mass index (BMI), and sleeping at least 7 hours per 24-hour period. Prevalence of having 4 or 5 of these behaviors, by state, was also examined. Results Among US adults, 81.6% were current nonsmokers, 63.9% obtained 7 hours or more sleep per day, 63.1% reported moderate or no alcohol consumption, 50.4% met physical activity recommendations, and 32.5% had a normal BMI. Only 1.4% of respondents engaged in none of the 5 behaviors; 8.4%, 1 behavior; 24.3%, 2 behaviors; 35.4%, 3 behaviors; and 24.3%, 4 behaviors; only 6.3% reported engaging in all 5 behaviors. The highest prevalence of engaging in 4 or 5 behaviors was clustered in the Pacific and Rocky Mountain states. Lowest prevalence was in the southern states and along the Ohio River. Conclusion Additional efforts are needed to increase the proportion of the population that engages in all 5 health-related behaviors and to eliminate geographic variation. Collaborative efforts in health care systems, communities, work sites, and schools can promote all 5 behaviors and produce population-wide changes, especially among the socioeconomically disadvantaged. PMID:27236381

  15. Acrolein and Asthma Attack Prevalence in a Representative Sample of the United States Adult Population 2000 – 2009

    PubMed Central

    deCastro, B. Rey

    2014-01-01

    Background Acrolein is an air toxic and highly potent respiratory irritant. There is little epidemiology available, but US EPA estimates that outdoor acrolein is responsible for about 75 percent of non-cancer respiratory health effects attributable to air toxics in the United States, based on the Agency's 2005 NATA (National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment) and acrolein's comparatively potent inhalation reference concentration of 0.02 µg/m3. Objectives Assess the association between estimated outdoor acrolein exposure and asthma attack reported by a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population. Methods NATA 2005 chronic outdoor acrolein exposure estimates at the census tract were linked with residences oif adults (≥18 years old) in the NHIS (National Health Interview Survey) 2000 – 2009 (n = 271,348 subjects). A sample-weighted logistic regression model characterized the association between the prevalence of reporting at least one asthma attack in the 12 months prior to survey interview and quintiles of exposure to outdoor acrolein, controlling for potential confounders. Results In the highest quintile of outdoor acrolein exposure (0.05 – 0.46 µg/m3), there was a marginally significant increase in the asthma attack pOR (prevalence-odds ratio [95% CI]  = 1.08 [0.98∶1.19]) relative to the lowest quintile. The highest quintile was also associated with a marginally significant increase in prevalence-odds (1.13 [0.98∶1.29]) in a model limited to never smokers (n = 153,820). Conclusions Chronic exposure to outdoor acrolein of 0.05 – 0.46 µg/m3 appears to increase the prevalence-odds of having at least one asthma attack in the previous year by 8 percent in a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population. PMID:24816802

  16. Cross-cultural Temperamental Differences in Infants, Children, and Adults in the United States of America and Finland

    PubMed Central

    Gaias, Larissa M.; Gartstein, Maria A.; Fisher, Philip A.; Putnam, Samuel P.; Räikkönen, Katri; Komsi, Niina

    2012-01-01

    Cross-cultural differences in temperament were investigated between infants (n = 131, 84 Finns), children (n = 653, 427 Finns), and adults (n = 759, 538 Finns) from the United States of America and Finland. Participants from both cultures completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire, Childhood Behavior Questionnaire, and the Adult Temperament Questionnaire. Across all ages, Americans received higher ratings on temperamental fearfulness than Finnish individuals, and also demonstrated higher levels of other negative affects at several time points. During infancy and adulthood, Finns tended to score higher on positive affect and elements of temperamental effortful control. Gender differences consistent with prior studies emerged cross-culturally, and were found to be more pronounced in the U.S. during childhood and in Finland during adulthood. PMID:22428997

  17. Differences in prevalence of obesity among black, white, and Hispanic adults - United States, 2006-2008.

    PubMed

    2009-07-17

    Obesity is associated with increased health-care costs, reduced quality of life, and increased risk for premature death. Common morbidities associated with obesity include coronary heart disease, hypertension and stroke, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer. As of 2007, no state had met the Healthy People 2010 objective to reduce to 15% the prevalence of obesity among U.S. adults. An overarching goal of Healthy People 2010 is to eliminate health disparities among racial/ethnic populations. To assess differences in prevalence of obesity among non-Hispanic blacks, non-Hispanic whites, and Hispanics, CDC analyzed data from Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys conducted during 2006--2008. Overall, for the 3-year period, 25.6% of non-Hispanic blacks, non-Hispanic whites, and Hispanics were obese. Non-Hispanic blacks (35.7%) had 51% greater prevalence of obesity, and Hispanics (28.7%) had 21% greater prevalence, when compared with non-Hispanic whites (23.7%). This pattern was consistent across most U.S. states. However, state prevalences varied substantially, ranging from 23.0% (New Hampshire) to 45.1% (Maine) for non-Hispanic blacks, from 21.0% (Maryland) to 36.7% (Tennessee) for Hispanics, and from 9.0% (District of Columbia [DC]) to 30.2% (West Virginia) for non-Hispanic whites. Given the overall high prevalence of obesity and the significant differences among non-Hispanic blacks, non-Hispanic whites, and Hispanics, effective policies and environmental strategies that promote healthy eating and physical activity are needed for all populations and geographic areas, but particularly for those populations and areas disproportionally affected by obesity.

  18. Cancers attributable to infections among adults with HIV in the United States

    PubMed Central

    DE MARTEL, Catherine; SHIELS, Meredith S.; FRANCESCHI, Silvia; SIMARD, Edgar P.; VIGNAT, Jérôme; HALL, H. Irene; ENGELS, Eric A.; PLUMMER, Martyn

    2015-01-01

    Objective HIV-infected people are at increased risk of cancers of infectious origin. We estimated the burden of cancer attributable to infections among HIV-infected people in the United States in 2008. Design Incidence rates for cancer sites associated with infections were estimated from record linkage between HIV/AIDS registries and cancer registries. Methods Rates were applied to estimates of the population living with diagnosed HIV in the United States in 2008 to obtain the number of incident cancer cases. Site-specific attributable fractions (AF) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from infection prevalence among cancer cases. Infection prevalence data were derived from literature review of case series. Results Of an estimated 6200 incident cancer cases (95%CI: 6000–6500), 2500 (95%CI: 2400–2700) were attributable to infection (AF=40%, 95%CI: 39–42). The most important infections were Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human papillomavirus, which together were responsible for 2200 new cancer cases (95%CI: 2100–2400), mainly Kaposi sarcoma, lymphomas, and ano-genital cancers. The AF in HIV-infected people was highest in the age group 20–29 years (69%, 95%CI: 65–72). Men who have sex with men were the HIV transmission group with the highest AF (48%, 95%CI: 46–50), due to the high incidence of both Kaposi sarcoma and anal cancer. Conclusion The very high fraction of cancer attributable to infection in HIV-infected people points to special opportunities to prevent these cancers, i.e., avoidance, detection, and early treatment of cancer-associated infections and universal early detection and uninterrupted treatment of HIV infection to avoid immunosuppression. PMID:26182198

  19. Religious Background and Gambling Among Young Adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Uecker, Jeremy E; Stokes, Charles E

    2016-03-01

    Despite the rapid growth of the gambling industry over the last 40 years, there have been few large-scale, nationally representative longitudinal studies of gambling among young adults. We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health to investigate whether and how the gambling behavior of young adults is associated with their religious beliefs and practices during adolescence. We find that young adults who grew up as conservative Protestants, mainline Protestants, Mormons, and Jehovah's Witnesses; those were raised in a community with a higher percentage of conservative Protestants; and those who attended religious services weekly are less likely to have ever gambled. Among gamblers, young adults who attended religious services up to three times per month as adolescents are more likely to experience gambling problems than those who never attend. Notably, accounting for a young adult's propensity for risk-taking behavior does not explain the associations between religion and gambling.

  20. Religious Background and Gambling Among Young Adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Uecker, Jeremy E; Stokes, Charles E

    2016-03-01

    Despite the rapid growth of the gambling industry over the last 40 years, there have been few large-scale, nationally representative longitudinal studies of gambling among young adults. We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health to investigate whether and how the gambling behavior of young adults is associated with their religious beliefs and practices during adolescence. We find that young adults who grew up as conservative Protestants, mainline Protestants, Mormons, and Jehovah's Witnesses; those were raised in a community with a higher percentage of conservative Protestants; and those who attended religious services weekly are less likely to have ever gambled. Among gamblers, young adults who attended religious services up to three times per month as adolescents are more likely to experience gambling problems than those who never attend. Notably, accounting for a young adult's propensity for risk-taking behavior does not explain the associations between religion and gambling. PMID:25722077

  1. Parenting Among Adolescents and Young Adults with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in the United States: Challenges, Unmet Needs, and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Hatfield-Timajchy, Kendra; Brown, Jennifer L; Haddad, Lisa B; Chakraborty, Rana; Kourtis, Athena P

    2016-07-01

    Given the realistic expectations of HIV-infected adolescents and young adults (AYA) to have children and start families, steps must be taken to ensure that youth are prepared to deal with the challenges associated with their HIV and parenting. Literature reviews were conducted to identify published research and practice guidelines addressing parenting or becoming parents among HIV-infected AYA in the United States. Research articles or practice guidelines on this topic were not identified. Given the paucity of information available on this topic, this article provides a framework for the development of appropriate interventions and guidelines for use in clinical and community-based settings. First, the social, economic, and sexual and reproductive health challenges facing HIV-infected AYA in the United States are summarized. Next, family planning considerations, including age-appropriate disclosure of HIV status to those who are perinatally infected, and contraceptive and preconception counseling are described. The impact of early childbearing on young parents is discussed and considerations are outlined during the preconception, antenatal, and postnatal periods with regard to antiretroviral medications and clinical care guidelines. The importance of transitioning AYA from pediatric or adolescent to adult-centered medical care is highlighted. Finally, a comprehensive approach is suggested that addresses not only medical needs but also emphasizes ways to mitigate the impact of social and economic factors on the health and well-being of these young parents and their children. PMID:27410495

  2. Selected Health Status Indicators and Behaviors of Young Adults, United States-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Okoro, Catherine A.; Collins, Janet

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of selected clinical preventive health services, health status indicators, health risk behaviors, and health-promoting behaviors among adults aged 18 to 24 years in the general U.S. population. The study analyzed data from the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Nearly 30% of young adults lacked…

  3. Domestic Trauma and Adult Education on the United States-Mexico Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muro, Andres; Mein, Erika

    2010-01-01

    While there are increasing efforts to address the problem of domestic violence and trauma in the justice, health care, and social service systems, the adult education system still lags behind. The inattention to this issue in adult education is particularly troubling because these programs often play a significant role in the lives of women who…

  4. Reaching beyond the United States: Adventures in International Adult Education and Human Resource Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henschke, John A.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author shares his experience of how travel and adult education merged, for him, into a major emphasis in international adult education (AE) and human resource development (HRD). International ventures have been some of the most exciting and learning-filled aspects of the author's career in AE and HRD. His involvement in…

  5. Characteristics of Physician Office Visits for Obesity by Adults Aged 20 and Over: United States, 2012.

    PubMed

    Talwalkar, Anjali; McCarty, Frances

    2016-03-01

    In 2011–2014, current asthma prevalence was higher among adults with obesity compared with adults in lower weight categories. This pattern was consistent across most demographic subgroups, except among men, for whom no statistically significant difference in current asthma prevalence by weight status was observed. Other epidemiologic studies of asthma prevalence have shown conflicting results about whether obesity is a risk factor for asthma among males. By race and Hispanic origin, current asthma prevalence was highest among adults with obesity for all groups. Patterns differed slightly among groups. For non-Hispanic black and Hispanic adults, prevalence for those with obesity was higher than for those in the normal weight and overweight categories. For non-Hispanic white adults, there was no signficant difference in asthma prevalence between the obese and overweight categories. For all age groups, current asthma prevalence was highest among adults with obesity, and there was no significant difference in asthma prevalence between those in the normal weight and overweight categories. There was an increasing trend in asthma prevalence as weight increased that was observed most clearly in the 60 and over age group. From 2001 to 2014, there was an increasing trend in current asthma prevalence among adults overall and among overweight adults. However, no significant trend was observed among adults in other weight categories. Findings from an American Thoracic Society workshop on obesity and asthma concluded that obesity is a major risk factor for asthma, and that obesity-related asthma is likely different from other types of asthma (e.g., allergic, occupational, exercise-induced, nocturnal, aspirin-sensitive, and severe asthma). PMID:27018815

  6. State and Regional Prevalence of Diagnosed Multiple Chronic Conditions Among Adults Aged ≥18 Years - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Ward, Brian W; Black, Lindsey I

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence and care management of multiple (two or more) chronic conditions (MCC) are important public health concerns (1). Approximately 25% of U.S. adults have diagnoses of MCC (2). Care management of MCC presents a challenge to both patients and providers because of the substantial costs associated with treating more than one condition and the traditional care strategies that focus on single conditions as opposed to enhanced care coordination (3,4). Maintaining surveillance, targeting service delivery, and projecting resources are all important to meet this challenge, and these actions can be informed by identifying state and other regional variations in MCC prevalence (5,6). Data from the 2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to estimate prevalence of MCC (defined as two or more of 10 diagnosed chronic conditions) for each U.S. state and region by age and sex. Significant state and regional variation in MCC prevalence was found, with state-level estimates ranging from 19.0% in Colorado to 38.2% in Kentucky. MCC prevalence also varied by region, ranging from 21.4% in the Pacific region to 34.5% in the East South Central region. The prevalence of MCC was higher among women than among men within certain U.S. regions, and was higher in older persons in all regions. Such findings further the research and surveillance objectives stated in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) publication, Multiple Chronic Conditions: A Strategic Framework (1). Furthermore, geographic disparities in MCC prevalence can inform state-level surveillance programs and groups targeting service delivery or allocating resources for MCC prevention activities. PMID:27467707

  7. Differential correlates of physical activity in urban and rural adults of various socioeconomic backgrounds in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Parks, S; Housemann, R; Brownson, R

    2003-01-01

    Study objectives: Few studies have analysed the rates and correlates of physical activity in economically and geographically diverse populations. Objectives were to examine: (1) urban-rural differences in physical activity by several demographic, geographical, environmental, and psychosocial variables, (2) patterns in environmental and policy factors across urban-rural setting and socioeconomic groups, (3) socioeconomic differences in physical activity across the same set of variables, and (4) possible correlations of these patterns with meeting of physical activity recommendations. Design: A cross sectional study with an over sampling of lower income adults was conducted in 1999–2000. Setting: United States. Participants: 1818 United States adults. Main results: Lower income residents were less likely than higher income residents to meet physical activity recommendations. Rural residents were least likely to meet recommendations; suburban residents were most likely to meet recommendations. Suburban, higher income residents were more than twice as likely to meet recommendations than rural, lower income residents. Significant differences across income levels and urban/rural areas were found for those reporting neighbourhood streets, parks, and malls as places to exercise; fear of injury, being in poor health, or dislike as barriers to exercise and those reporting encouragement from relatives as social support for exercise. Evidence of a positive dose-response relation emerged between number of places to exercise and likelihood to meet recommendations for physical activity. Conclusions: Both income level and urban rural status were important predictors of adults' likelihood to meet physical activity recommendations. In addition, environmental variables vary in importance across socioeconomic status and urban-rural areas. PMID:12490645

  8. Relationship between home food-handling practices and sporadic salmonellosis in adults in Louisiana, United States.

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, K. S.; Rietberg, K.; Wilson, S.; Farley, T. A.

    2002-01-01

    Salmonellosis is the leading cause of death caused by foodborne bacterial pathogens in the United States. Approximately 90% of salmonella infections are sporadic, but most of what is known about salmonellosis has come from outbreak investigations. We studied the risk for sporadic salmonellosis among 115 persons aged > or = 15 years reported to the Louisiana Office of Public Health during May 1998-April 1999, compared with 115 age-matched controls. Significantly more case-patients than controls had chronic underlying medical conditions [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 4.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.2-8.7]. Although reported consumption of specific food items likely to contain salmonella was not associated with illness, inconsistent handwashing between preparation of meat and non-meat items was associated with illness (aOR = 8.3; CI = 1.1-61.8). Enhanced measures to provide a consistently safe food supply and promote safer food preparation in households will depend on prevention of sporadic salmonellosis. PMID:12403102

  9. Breast cancer screening among adult women--Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, United States, 2010.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jacqueline W; King, Jessica B; Joseph, Djenaba A; Richardson, Lisa C

    2012-06-15

    Breast cancer continues to have a substantial impact on the health of women in the United States. It is the most commonly diagnosed cancer (excluding skin cancers) among women, with more than 210,000 new cases diagnosed in 2008 (the most recent year for which data are available). Incidence rates are highest among white women at 122.6 per 100,000, followed by blacks at 118 per 100,000, Hispanics at 92.8, Asian/Pacific Islanders at 87.9, and American Indian/Alaskan Natives at 65.6. Although deaths from breast cancer have been declining in recent years, it has remained the second leading cause of cancer deaths for women since the late 1980s with >40,000 deaths reported in 2008. Although white women are more likely to receive a diagnosis of breast cancer, black women are more likely to die from breast cancer than women of any other racial/ethnic group. In addition, studies have demonstrated that nonwhite minority women tend to have a more advanced stage of disease at the time of diagnosis. Breast cancer also occurs more often among women aged ≥50 years, those with first-degree family members with breast cancer, and those who have certain genetic mutations. Understanding who is at risk for breast cancer helps inform guidelines for who should get screened for breast cancer.

  10. Medical decision making for older adults: an international perspective comparing the United States and India

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Ankur; Forman, Daniel E; Goodlin, Sarah J

    2015-01-01

    There has been a significant decline in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality amidst pervasive advances in care, including percutaneous revascularization, mechanical circulatory support, and transcatheter valvular therapies. While advancing therapies may add significant longevity, they also bring about new end-of-life decision-making challenges for patients and their families who also must weigh the advantages of reduced mortality to the possibility of longer lives consisting of high morbidity, frailty, pain, and poor quality of living. Advance care entails options of withholding or withdrawing therapies, and has become a familiar part of cardiovascular care for older patients in Western countries. However, as advanced cardiovascular practices extend to developing countries, the interrelated concept of advance care is rarely straight forward as it is affected by local cultural traditions and mores, and can lead to very different inferences and use. This paper discusses the concepts of advance care planning, surrogate decision-making, orders for resuscitation and futility in patients with cardiac disease with comparisons of West to East, focusing particularly on the United States versus India. PMID:26346983

  11. Immunization in the United States: Recommendations, Barriers, and Measures to Improve Compliance: Part 2: Adult Vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Ventola, C Lee

    2016-08-01

    Despite annual recommendations, American adults remain inadequately vaccinated. The author outlines how compliance may be improved through health care professional interventions, as well as government and community-based programs. PMID:27504066

  12. Social Capital and Sexual Risk-Taking Behaviors Among Older Adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Amin, Iftekhar

    2016-09-01

    Using the General Social Survey (GSS) 2012, a national household-based probability sample of non-institutionalized U.S. adults, this study examined the association of social capital and sexual risk behaviors among older adults aged 55 years and older. Of the 547 respondents, 87% reported not using condoms during their last intercourse, and nearly 15% reported engaging in sexual risk behaviors, such as casual sex, paid sex, male to male sex, and drug use. Binary logistic regression results showed that age, gender, marital status, education, race, sexual orientation, and sexual frequencies were significant predictors of older adults' unprotected sex. Social capital was not a predictor of unprotected sex but was positively associated with other human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted disease (HIV/STD) risk behaviors such as sex with strangers, having multiple sex partners, injecting drugs, and having male to male sex. Findings of this study highlight the importance of HIV/STD prevention programs for older adults.

  13. Physical Inactivity Among Adults Aged 50 Years and Older - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Watson, Kathleen B; Carlson, Susan A; Gunn, Janelle P; Galuska, Deborah A; O'Connor, Ann; Greenlund, Kurt J; Fulton, Janet E

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity can help delay, prevent, or manage many of the chronic diseases for which adults aged ≥50 years are at risk (1-3). These diseases can impact the length and quality of life, as well as the long-term ability to live independently.* All adults aged ≥50 years, with or without chronic disease, gain health benefits by avoiding inactivity (2,3). To examine the prevalence of inactivity by selected demographic characteristics and chronic disease status in mid-life and older adults, CDC analyzed data on adults aged ≥50 years from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Overall, 27.5% of adults aged ≥50 years reported no physical activity outside of work during the past month. Inactivity prevalence significantly increased with increasing age and was 25.4% among adults aged 50-64 years, 26.9% among those aged 65-74 years, and 35.3% among those aged ≥75 years. Inactivity prevalence was significantly higher among women than men, among Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks than among non-Hispanic whites, and among adults who reported ever having one or more of seven selected chronic diseases than among those not reporting one. Inactivity prevalence significantly increased with decreasing levels of education and increasing body mass index. To help adults with and without chronic disease start or maintain an active lifestyle, communities can implement evidence-based strategies, such as creating or enhancing access to places for physical activity, designing communities and streets to encourage physical activity, and offering programs that address specific barriers to physical activity. PMID:27632143

  14. Trends in blood pressure among adults with hypertension: United States, 2003 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sung Sug; Gu, Qiuping; Nwankwo, Tatiana; Wright, Jacqueline D; Hong, Yuling; Burt, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe trends in the awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension; mean blood pressure; and the classification of blood pressure among US adults 2003 to 2012. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2012, a total of 9255 adult participants aged ≥18 years were identified as having hypertension, defined as measured blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg or taking prescription medication for hypertension. Awareness and treatment among hypertensive adults were ascertained via an interviewer administered questionnaire. Controlled hypertension among hypertensive adults was defined as systolic blood pressure <140 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg. Blood pressure was categorized as optimal blood pressure, prehypertension, and stage I and stage II hypertension. Between 2003 and 2012, the percentage of adults with controlled hypertension increased (P-trend <0.01). Hypertensive adults with optimal blood pressure and with prehypertension increased from 13% to 19% and 27% to 33%, respectively (P-trend <0.01 for both groups). Among hypertensive adults who were taking antihypertensive medication, uncontrolled hypertension decreased from 38% to 30% (P-trend <0.01). Similarly, a decrease in mean systolic blood pressure was observed (P-trend <0.01); however, mean diastolic blood pressure remained unchanged. The trend in the control of blood pressure has improved among hypertensive adults resulting in a higher percentage with blood pressure at the optimal or prehypertension level and a lower percentage in stage I and stage II hypertension. Overall, mean systolic blood pressure decreased as did the prevalence of uncontrolled hypertension among the treated hypertensive population.

  15. Differences in Alcohol Brand Consumption between Underage Youth and AdultsUnited States, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Michael; Chen, Kelsey; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; Ostroff, Joshua; Ross, Craig S.; Jernigan, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Background The alcohol brand preferences of U.S. underage drinkers have recently been identified, but it is not known whether youth are simply mimicking adult brand choices or whether other factors are impacting their preferences. This study is the first to compare the alcohol brand preferences of underage drinkers and adults. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional assessment of youth and adult alcohol brand preferences. A 2012 internet-based survey of a nationally representative sample of 1,032 underage drinkers, ages 13–20, was used to determine the prevalence of past 30-day consumption for each of 898 alcohol brands, and each brand’s youth market share, based on the total number of standard drinks consumed. Data on the brand-specific prevalence of past 30-day or past 7-day consumption among older youth (ages 18–20), adults (ages 21+), and young adults (ages 21–34) was obtained from Gfk MRI’s Survey of the Adult Consumer for the years 2010–12. Overall market shares for each brand, also measured by the total number of standard drinks consumed, were estimated from national data compiled by Impact Databank for the year 2010. Results Although most alcohol brands popular among underage drinkers were also popular among adult drinkers, there were several brands that appeared to be disproportionately consumed by youth. Conclusions This paper provides preliminary evidence that youth do not merely mimic the alcohol brand choices of adults. Further research using data derived from fully comparable data sources is necessary to confirm this finding. PMID:24483601

  16. Collective memories of three wars in United States history in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Zaromb, Franklin; Butler, Andrew C; Agarwal, Pooja K; Roediger, Henry L

    2014-04-01

    A collective memory is a representation of the past that is shared by members of a group. We investigated similarities and differences in the collective memories of younger and older adults for three major wars in U.S. history (the Civil War, World War II, and the Iraq War). Both groups were alive during the recent Iraq War, but only the older subjects were alive during World War II, and both groups learned about the Civil War from historical sources. Subjects recalled the 10 most important events that occurred during each war and then evaluated the emotional valence, the relative importance, and their level of knowledge for each event. They also estimated the percentage of people that would share their memory of each event within their age group and the other age group. Although most historical events were recalled by fewer than 25 % of subjects, younger and older adults commonly recalled a core set of events for each war that conform to a narrative structure that may be fundamental to collective remembering. Younger adults showed greater consensus in the events that they recalled for all three wars, relative to older adults, but there was less consensus in both groups for the Iraq War. Whereas younger adults recalled more specific events of short duration, older adults recalled more extended and summarized events of long duration. Our study shows that collective memories can be studied empirically and can differ depending on whether the events are experienced personally or learned from historical sources.

  17. Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Antibiotic Use Among Adult Consumers, Adult Hispanic Consumers, and Health Care Providers--United States, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Francois Watkins, Louise K; Sanchez, Guillermo V; Albert, Alison P; Roberts, Rebecca M; Hicks, Lauri A

    2015-07-24

    Appropriate antibiotic use, in particular avoidance of antibiotics for upper respiratory infections likely to be caused by viruses, is a key component of efforts to slow the increase in antibiotic-resistant infections. Studies suggest that Hispanic consumers might differ from non-Hispanic consumers in their knowledge and attitudes regarding antibiotic use (4). To better understand health care provider and consumer knowledge and attitudes that influence antibiotic use, CDC analyzed national internet survey data collected from participants living in the United States during 2012-2013. The participants represented three groups: 1) the total population of adult consumers (all ethnicities); 2) adult Hispanic consumers; and 3) health care providers. Hispanic consumers were more likely than all consumers to believe that if they have a cold, antibiotics would help them to get better more quickly (48% versus 25%), and more likely to obtain antibiotics not prescribed by a clinician, such as antibiotics left over from a previous illness (25% versus 9%), obtained from a neighborhood grocery store (23% versus 5%), or obtained from a friend or family member (17% versus 6%). Most providers surveyed (54%) reported that they believed their patients expect antibiotics during visits for a cough or cold, whereas 26% of all consumers reported this expectation. To maximize knowledge about appropriate antibiotic use among outpatients in the United States, public health initiatives should target Hispanic as well as general audiences.

  18. Religion, Acculturation, and Incarceration: Determinants of Substance Use among Hispanic Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, Benjamin J.; Becerra, Monideepa B.; Gerdine, Miryam C.; Banta, Jim E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The influence of religion, acculturation, and incarceration on substance abuse has been studied, though predominantly among adolescents. Little research exists on how such factors influence substance use among Hispanic adults. The objective of this study was to assess key determinants of substance use among Hispanic adults. Methods. Public access 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health was utilized. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted while accounting for complex survey design to obtain population-weighted estimates. Receiver operator curve analysis was used to evaluate the relative contribution of each variable. Results. Importance of religious influence in life and Spanish language interview were associated with lower odds of substance use, while history of incarceration increased the likelihood of substance use among Hispanic adults. Other factors associated with lower odds were increasing age, being female, and currently married. Other factors associated with increased odds were high school graduate and some college in addition to living above the 200% federal poverty level. Discussion. Results from this study add to the limited body of the literature on determinants of substance use among Hispanic adults. Health education measures should target acculturated Hispanic adults and those with incarceration history to reduce substance use. PMID:25214855

  19. Medication Use Among Ethnically Diverse Older Adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Chiang-Hanisko, Lenny; Williams, Christine L; Newman, David; Tappen, Ruth M

    2015-01-01

    As primary consumers of health care and prescription medication, older adults are more susceptible to potential drug-related adverse effects and medication interactions. With growing diversity among the older adult population, understanding ethnic differences in medication use becomes increasingly important. The current study describes polypharmacy and the occurrence of underprescribing among community-dwelling, low-income individuals 55 and older from four ethnic groups: (a) African American, (b) Afro-Caribbean, (c) European American, and (d) Hispanic American. Results revealed that number of illnesses, income level, and age were three major predictors associated with polypharmacy. No underprescription was identified. Overall, prevalence of polypharmacy was 47.5%. European American individuals had the highest prevalence followed by Hispanic American, African American, and Afro-Caribbean individuals. When caring for older adults from various ethnic groups, nurses should focus their efforts on those who have multiple illnesses and sufficient income to purchase medications to reduce the risk of polypharmacy.

  20. Food Insecurity and Health Care Utilization Among Older Adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Vibha; Lee, Jung Sun

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between food insecurity and utilization of four health services among older Americans: office visits, inpatient hospital nights, emergency department visits, and home health care. Nationally representative data from the 2011 and 2012 National Health Interview Survey were used (N = 13,589). Nearly 83.0% of the sample had two or more office visits, 17.0% reported at least one hospital night, 23.0% had at least one emergency room visit, and 8.1% used home health care during the past 12 months. Adjusting for confounders, food-insecure older adults had higher odds of using more office visits, inpatient hospital nights, and emergency department visits than food-secure older adults, but similar odds of home health care utilization. The findings of this study suggest that programs and policies aimed at reducing food insecurity among older adults may have a potential to reduce utilization of health care services.

  1. Current cigarette smoking prevalence among working adults--United States, 2004-2010.

    PubMed

    2011-09-30

    Cigarette smoking is among the most important modifiable risk factors for adverse health outcomes and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Current cigarette smoking prevalence among all adults aged ≥18 years has decreased 42.4% since 1965, but declines in current smoking prevalence have slowed during the past 5 years (declining from 20.9% in 2005 to 19.3% in 2010) and did not meet the Healthy People 2010 (HP2010) objective to reduce cigarette smoking among adults to ≤12%. Targeted workplace tobacco control interventions have been effective in reducing smoking prevalence and exposure to secondhand smoke; therefore, CDC analyzed National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data for 2004-2010 to describe current cigarette smoking prevalence among currently working U.S. adults by industry and occupation. This report describes the results of that analysis, which found that, overall, age-adjusted cigarette smoking prevalence among working adults was 19.6% and was highest among those with less than a high school education (28.4%), those with no health insurance (28.6%), those living below the federal poverty level (27.7%), and those aged 18-24 years (23.8%). Substantial differences in smoking prevalence were observed across industry and occupation groups. By industry, age-adjusted cigarette smoking prevalence among working adults ranged from 9.7% in education services to 30.0% in mining; by occupation group, prevalence ranged from 8.7% in education, training, and library to 31.4% in construction and extraction. Although some progress has been made in reducing smoking prevalence among working adults, additional effective employer interventions need to be implemented, including health insurance coverage for cessation treatments, easily accessible help for those who want to quit, and smoke-free workplace policies.

  2. Calcium intake and hypertension among obese adults in United States: associations and implications explored.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Strasser, S; Cao, Y; Wang, K-S; Zheng, S

    2015-09-01

    The relationship between calcium intake and hypertension is receiving increased research attention. The prevalence of hypertension is high among the obese populations. Calcium is a mineral that influences blood pressure. The aim of the study was to examine the association between calcium intake and hypertension in a large nationally representative sample of obese American adults. A total of 14,408 obese adults aged 20 years or older were obtained from the 1999-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Analysis of variance and linear regression models were used to examine relationships between calcium intake and systolic blood pressure (SBP) as well as diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the association between calcium intake and hypertension after adjusting for potential confounders and interactions, including: age, race, education level, alcohol use, smoking, diabetes status, sodium intake and potassium intake. Calcium intake was significantly lower for the hypertensive group compared with the normotensive group (P<0.0001), especially among those obese female young adults aged 20-44 years and among non-diabetic obese adults. Based on ordinary linear regression analysis, a significant inverse relationship was detected, SBP and DBP decreased if calcium intake increased (SBP: regression coefficient estimate=-0.015, P<0.0001; DBP: regression coefficient estimate=-0.028, P<0.0001). Multiple logistic regression showed that calcium intake was negatively associated with the probability of hypertension (odds ratio (OR)=0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74-0.87, P<0.0001). In stratified analysis, calcium intake in youngest adults (age 20-44 years) had the lowest likelihood of hypertension (OR=0.77, 95% CI: 0.64-0.93, P<0.0001), the inverse relationship between calcium intake and probability of hypertension was stronger among females (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.55-0.84, P<0.0001), when compared with the whole

  3. HIV Antibody Testing among Adults in the United States: Data from 1988 NHIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Ann M.; Dawson, Deborah A.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes statistical data from 1988 National Health Interview Survey to determine adult awareness of and experience with HIV antibody testing. Following findings reported: most knew of test; 17 percent had been tested; Blacks and Hispanics were more likely than Whites to have been voluntarily tested; and high-risk group members were more likely…

  4. Presenting Laurence Yep. Twayne's United States Authors Series, Young Adult Authors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Feelings, Dianne

    Taking off from the theme that makes Laurence Yep such a popular and beloved young adult author--the outsider seeking identity and connection in a strange, foreign world--this study of Yep's most important works shows how his experiences as a Chinese American in San Francisco fill his stories with firsthand knowledge of what it is like to be an…

  5. Making Skills Everyone's Business: A Call to Transform Adult Learning in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawn, Julie

    2015-01-01

    To address the need to connect Americans with learning opportunities, the Office of Career, Technical, and Adult Education released the present report. Grounded in evidence and informed by effective and emerging practices, "Making Skills Everyone's Business" offers seven strategies that hold great promise for improving the conditions…

  6. The Universities and the Public. A History of Higher Adult Education in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portman, David N.

    The development of the higher adult education movement in the U.S. over the past century is reviewed in this book. Focus is on the cultural conditions that made it possible, the persons who played key roles, the characteristics that distinguished each period, and the trends that emerged and continue to the present day. An overview is first given…

  7. Outstanding AFCPE[R] Conference Paper: Debt Burden of Young Adults in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinhee; Chatterjee, Swarn; Kim, Jung Eun

    2012-01-01

    Factors associated with the borrowing behavior of young adults who are transitioning from financial dependence to financial independence were identified. Data used were from the 2009 Transition to Adulthood and its parental companion data set, Panel Studies of Income Dynamics. Results indicate that age, gender, race, and work status are associated…

  8. Skills Education for Adult Tibetan Immigrants in the United States: Identification, Prioritization, Resources, and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeshi, Tenzin

    2012-01-01

    Generally, the Global Tibetan Professional Network of North America (GTPN-NA) considers lack of skills a problem among adult Tibetan immigrants. The GTPN-NA is a non-profit, volunteer-based networking forum focusing on Tibetan professionals and students from North America. By skills education, it means skills that may help support the transition…

  9. Update on Prevalence of Periodontitis in Adults in the United States: NHANES 2009 – 2012

    PubMed Central

    Eke, Paul I.; Dye, Bruce A.; Wei, Liang; Slade, Gary D.; Thornton-Evans, Gina O.; Borgnakke, Wenche S.; Taylor, George W.; Page, Roy C.; Beck, James D.; Genco, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes prevalence, severity, and extent of periodontitis in the US adult population using combined data from the 2009–2010 and 2011–2012 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods Estimates were derived for dentate adults 30 years and older from the civilian non-institutionalized population. Periodontitis was defined by combinations of clinical attachment loss (CAL) and periodontal probing depth (PPD) from six sites per tooth on all teeth, except third molars, using standard surveillance case definitions. For the first time in NHANES history, sufficient numbers of Non-Hispanic Asians were sampled in 2011–2012 to provide reliable estimates of their periodontitis prevalence. Results In 2009–2012, 46% of US adults representing 64.7 million people had periodontitis, with 8.9% having severe periodontitis. Overall, 3.8% of all periodontal sites (10.6% of all teeth) had PPD≥4 mm and 19.3% of sites (37.4% teeth) had CAL≥3 mm. Periodontitis prevalence was positively associated with increasing age and was higher among males. Periodontitis prevalence was highest in Hispanics (63.5%) and Non-Hispanic blacks (59.1%), followed by Non-Hispanic Asian Americans (50.0%), and lowest in Non-Hispanic whites (40.8%). Prevalence varied two-fold between the lowest and highest levels of socioeconomic status, whether defined by poverty or education. Conclusion(s) This study confirms a high prevalence of periodontitis in US adults aged 30 years and older. Prevalence was greater in Non-Hispanic Asians than Non-Hispanic whites, although lower than other minorities. The distribution provides valuable information for population-based action to prevent periodontitis in US adults. PMID:25688694

  10. Sexual risk behaviour and viral suppression among HIV-infected adults receiving medical care in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Mattson, Christine L.; Freedman, Mark; Fagan, Jennifer L.; Frazier, Emma L.; Beer, Linda; Huang, Ping; Valverde, Eduardo E.; Johnson, Christopher; Sanders, Catherine; McNaghten, A.D.; Sullivan, Patrick; Lansky, Amy; Mermin, Jonathan; Heffelfinger, James; Skarbinski, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe the prevalence and association of sexual risk behaviours and viral suppression among HIV-infected adults in the United States. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of weighted data from a probability sample of HIV-infected adults receiving outpatient medical care. The facility and patient response rates were 76 and 51%, respectively. Methods: We analysed 2009 interview and medical record data. Sexual behaviours were self-reported in the past 12 months. Viral suppression was defined as all viral load measurements in the medical record during the past 12 months less than 200 copies/ml. Results: An estimated 98 022 (24%) HIV-infected adults engaged in unprotected vaginal or anal sex; 50 953 (12%) engaged in unprotected vaginal or anal sex with at least one partner of negative or unknown HIV status; 23 933 (6%) did so while not virally suppressed. Persons who were virally suppressed were less likely than persons who were not suppressed to engage in vaginal or anal sex [prevalence ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.82–0.93]; unprotected vaginal or anal sex (prevalence ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.73–0.98); and unprotected vaginal or anal sex with a partner of negative or unknown HIV status (prevalence ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.64–0.99). Conclusion: The majority of HIV-infected adults receiving medical care in the U.S. did not engage in sexual risk behaviours that have the potential to transmit HIV, and of the 12% who did, approximately half were not virally suppressed. Persons who were virally suppressed were less likely than persons who were not suppressed to engage in sexual risk behaviours. PMID:25000558

  11. Rising Obesity Prevalence and Weight Gain Among Adults Starting Antiretroviral Therapy in the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Koethe, John R; Jenkins, Cathy A; Lau, Bryan; Shepherd, Bryan E; Justice, Amy C; Tate, Janet P; Buchacz, Kate; Napravnik, Sonia; Mayor, Angel M; Horberg, Michael A; Blashill, Aaron J; Willig, Amanda; Wester, C William; Silverberg, Michael J; Gill, John; Thorne, Jennifer E; Klein, Marina; Eron, Joseph J; Kitahata, Mari M; Sterling, Timothy R; Moore, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    The proportion of overweight and obese adults in the United States and Canada has increased over the past decade, but temporal trends in body mass index (BMI) and weight gain on antiretroviral therapy (ART) among HIV-infected adults have not been well characterized. We conducted a cohort study comparing HIV-infected adults in the North America AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) to United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) controls matched by sex, race, and age over the period 1998 to 2010. Multivariable linear regression assessed the relationship between BMI and year of ART initiation, adjusting for sex, race, age, and baseline CD4(+) count. Temporal trends in weight on ART were assessed using a generalized least-squares model further adjusted for HIV-1 RNA and first ART regimen class. A total of 14,084 patients from 17 cohorts contributed data; 83% were male, 57% were nonwhite, and the median age was 40 years. Median BMI at ART initiation increased from 23.8 to 24.8 kg/m(2) between 1998 and 2010 in NA-ACCORD, but the percentage of those obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)) at ART initiation increased from 9% to 18%. After 3 years of ART, 22% of individuals with a normal BMI (18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)) at baseline had become overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m(2)), and 18% of those overweight at baseline had become obese. HIV-infected white women had a higher BMI after 3 years of ART as compared to age-matched white women in NHANES (p = 0.02), while no difference in BMI after 3 years of ART was observed for HIV-infected men or non-white women compared to controls. The high prevalence of obesity we observed among ART-exposed HIV-infected adults in North America may contribute to health complications in the future.

  12. Prevalence of Cholesterol Treatment Eligibility and Medication Use Among Adults--United States, 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Carla; DeSimone, Ariadne K; Odom, Erika; Gillespie, Cathleen; Ayala, Carma; Loustalot, Fleetwood

    2015-12-01

    A high blood level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) remains a major risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), although data from 2005 through 2012 has shown a decline in high cholesterol (total and LDL cholesterol) along with an increase in the use of cholesterol-lowering medications. The most recent national guidelines (published in 2013) from the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) expand previous recommendations for reducing cholesterol to include lifestyle modifications and medication use as part of complete cholesterol management and to lower risk for ASCVD. Because changes in cholesterol treatment guidelines might magnify existing disparities in care and medication use, it is important to describe persons currently eligible for treatment and medication use, particularly as more providers implement the 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines. To understand baseline estimates of U.S. adults on or eligible for cholesterol treatment, as well as to identify sex and racial/ethnic disparities, CDC analyzed data from the 2005-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). Because the 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines focus on initiation or continuation of cholesterol treatment, adults meeting the guidelines' eligibility criteria as well as adults who were currently taking cholesterol-lowering medication were assessed as a group. Overall, 36.7% of U.S. adults or 78.1 million persons aged ≥21 years were on or eligible for cholesterol treatment. Within this group, 55.5% were currently taking cholesterol-lowering medication, and 46.6% reported making lifestyle modifications, such as exercising, dietary changes, or controlling their weight, to lower cholesterol; 37.1% reported making lifestyle modifications and taking medication, and 35.5% reported doing neither. Among adults on or eligible for cholesterol-lowering medication, the proportion taking cholesterol-lowering medication was higher for women

  13. Prevalence of Cholesterol Treatment Eligibility and Medication Use Among Adults--United States, 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Carla; DeSimone, Ariadne K; Odom, Erika; Gillespie, Cathleen; Ayala, Carma; Loustalot, Fleetwood

    2015-12-01

    A high blood level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) remains a major risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), although data from 2005 through 2012 has shown a decline in high cholesterol (total and LDL cholesterol) along with an increase in the use of cholesterol-lowering medications. The most recent national guidelines (published in 2013) from the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) expand previous recommendations for reducing cholesterol to include lifestyle modifications and medication use as part of complete cholesterol management and to lower risk for ASCVD. Because changes in cholesterol treatment guidelines might magnify existing disparities in care and medication use, it is important to describe persons currently eligible for treatment and medication use, particularly as more providers implement the 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines. To understand baseline estimates of U.S. adults on or eligible for cholesterol treatment, as well as to identify sex and racial/ethnic disparities, CDC analyzed data from the 2005-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). Because the 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines focus on initiation or continuation of cholesterol treatment, adults meeting the guidelines' eligibility criteria as well as adults who were currently taking cholesterol-lowering medication were assessed as a group. Overall, 36.7% of U.S. adults or 78.1 million persons aged ≥21 years were on or eligible for cholesterol treatment. Within this group, 55.5% were currently taking cholesterol-lowering medication, and 46.6% reported making lifestyle modifications, such as exercising, dietary changes, or controlling their weight, to lower cholesterol; 37.1% reported making lifestyle modifications and taking medication, and 35.5% reported doing neither. Among adults on or eligible for cholesterol-lowering medication, the proportion taking cholesterol-lowering medication was higher for women

  14. Fruit and Vegetable Intake Among Adolescents and Adults in the United States: Percentage Meeting Individualized Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Kimmons, Joel; Gillespie, Cathleen; Seymour, Jennifer; Serdula, Mary; Blanck, Heidi Michels

    2009-01-01

    Context Fruit and vegetable intake is an important part of a healthy diet and is associated with numerous positive health outcomes. MyPyramid provides recommendations for fruit and vegetable consumption based on individual calorie requirements as determined by an individual's age, sex, and physical activity level. Objectives To determine (1) median fruit and vegetable consumption from all dietary sources among adolescent and adult consumers and the percentage of adolescents and adults meeting individual recommended intake levels based on caloric requirements and (2) consumption levels among various demographic groups, intake levels from subtypes of fruits and vegetables, and primary contributors to fruit and vegetable intake. Design Analysis of 2-day, 24-hour recall data from the 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a continuous, nationally representative, cross-sectional survey. Results This study included dietary contributions of fruits and vegetables from all dietary sources. Fewer than 1 in 10 Americans meet their calorie-specific MyPyramid fruit or vegetable recommendations. Higher intake was not observed in subgroups with higher recommendations for fruit and vegetable consumption based on caloric requirements. The primary contributors to total fruit intake were whole fruits among adults and fruit juices among adolescents. The largest single contributor to overall fruit intake was orange juice. Potatoes dominated vegetable consumption, particularly among adolescents, in whom fried potatoes increased the median vegetable intake from 0.72 cup to 1.21 cups per day. Dark green and orange vegetables and legumes accounted for a small portion of vegetable intake, and few people met the recommendations. Conclusions Few American adolescents or adults reported consuming the recommended amounts of fruits or vegetables. Increasing consumption will probably require multifaceted approaches that augment educational campaigns with policy and

  15. Communication Inequalities and Public Health Implications of Adult Social Networking Site Use in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kontos, Emily Z.; Emmons, Karen M.; Puleo, Elaine; Viswanath, K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Social media, and specifically social networking sites (SNS), are emerging as an important platform for communication and health information exchange. Yet, despite the increase in popularity and use, only a limited number of empirical studies document which segments of the adult population are and are not using social networking sites and with what, if any, affect on health. Methods The purpose of this study is to identify potential communication inequalities in social networking site use among a representative sample of US adults and to examine the association between SNS-use and psychological well-being. We analyzed data from the National Cancer Institute’s 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). Results Thirty-five percent of online adults reported SNS-use within the past 12 months, and; there were no significant differences in SNS-use by race/ethnicity or socio-economic position. Younger age (p=.00) was the most significant predictor of SNS-use while being married (p=.02) and having a history of cancer (p=.02) were associated with a decreased odds of SNS-use. Social networking site use was significantly associated with a 0.80 (p=.00) increment in psychological distress score after controlling for other factors. Conclusion The absence of inequalities in adult SNS-use across race/ethnicity and class offers some support for the continued use of social media to promote public health efforts; however, issues such as the persisting Digital Divide and potential deleterious effects of SNS-use on psychological well-being need to be addressed. PMID:21154095

  16. Communication inequalities and public health implications of adult social networking site use in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kontos, Emily Z; Emmons, Karen M; Puleo, Elaine; Viswanath, K

    2010-01-01

    Social media, and specifically social networking sites (SNSs), are emerging as an important platform for communication and health information exchange. Yet, despite the increase in popularity and use, only a limited number of empirical studies document which segments of the adult population are and are not using social networking sites and with what, if any, affect on health. The purpose of this study is to identify potential communication inequalities in social networking site use among a representative sample of U.S. adults and to examine the association between SNS use and psychological well-being. We analyzed data from the National Cancer Institute's 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). Thirty-five percent of online adults reported SNS use within the past 12 months, and there were no significant differences in SNS use by race/ethnicity or socioeconomic position. Younger age (p = .00) was the most significant predictor of SNS use, while being married (p = .02) and having a history of cancer (p = .02) were associated with a decreased odds of SNS use. SNS use was significantly associated with a 0.80 (p = .00) increment in psychological distress score after controlling for other factors. The absence of inequalities in adult SNS use across race/ethnicity and class offers some support for the continued use of social media to promote public health efforts; however, issues such as the persisting digital divide and potential deleterious effects of SNS use on psychological well-being need to be addressed. PMID:21154095

  17. Sick of our loans: Student borrowing and the mental health of young adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Walsemann, Katrina M; Gee, Gilbert C; Gentile, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Student loans are increasingly important and commonplace, especially among recent cohorts of young adults in the United States. These loans facilitate the acquisition of human capital in the form of education, but may also lead to stress and worries related to repayment. This study investigated two questions: 1) what is the association between the cumulative amount of student loans borrowed over the course of schooling and psychological functioning when individuals are 25-31 years old; and 2) what is the association between annual student loan borrowing and psychological functioning among currently enrolled college students? We also examined whether these relationships varied by parental wealth, college enrollment history (e.g. 2-year versus 4-year college), and educational attainment (for cumulative student loans only). We analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), a nationally representative sample of young adults in the United States. Analyses employed multivariate linear regression and within-person fixed-effects models. Student loans were associated with poorer psychological functioning, adjusting for covariates, in both the multivariate linear regression and the within-person fixed effects models. This association varied by level of parental wealth in the multivariate linear regression models only, and did not vary by college enrollment history or educational attainment. The present findings raise novel questions for further research regarding student loan debt and the possible spillover effects on other life circumstances, such as occupational trajectories and health inequities. The study of student loans is even more timely and significant given the ongoing rise in the costs of higher education.

  18. Prevalence of reduced muscle strength in older U.S. adults: United States, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Looker, Anne C; Wang, Chia-Yih

    2015-01-01

    Five percent of adults aged 60 and over had weak muscle strength and 13% had intermediate muscle strength, as defined by the new FNIH criteria. Weak muscle strength is clinically relevant because it is associated with slow gait speed, an important mobility impairment. It is also linked to an increased risk of death. The prevalence of reduced muscle strength increased with age and was higher in non-Hispanic Asian and Hispanic persons than in non-Hispanic white or non-Hispanic black persons. Decreasing muscle strength was linked with increased difficulty in rising from an armless chair, which is another important type of mobility impairment. PMID:25633238

  19. Trends and differentials in adolescent and young adult mortality in the United States, 1950 through 1993.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, G K; Yu, S M

    1996-01-01

    Using data from the National Vital Statistics System and the National Longitudinal Mortality Study, this study examined mortality trends and differentials from 1950 through 1993 among US adolescents and young adults according to sex, race/ethnicity, education, family income, marital status, and cause of dealth. No appreciable reduction in youth mortality has occurred, especially among men. Declines in youth mortality from accidents have been nearly ofset by increases in death rates from homicide, suicide, and firearm injuries. American Indians, Blacks, males, and those with least education and income were at increased risk of both overall and injury-specific youth mortality. PMID:8604791

  20. Trends and differentials in adolescent and young adult mortality in the United States, 1950 through 1993.

    PubMed

    Singh, G K; Yu, S M

    1996-04-01

    Using data from the National Vital Statistics System and the National Longitudinal Mortality Study, this study examined mortality trends and differentials from 1950 through 1993 among US adolescents and young adults according to sex, race/ethnicity, education, family income, marital status, and cause of dealth. No appreciable reduction in youth mortality has occurred, especially among men. Declines in youth mortality from accidents have been nearly ofset by increases in death rates from homicide, suicide, and firearm injuries. American Indians, Blacks, males, and those with least education and income were at increased risk of both overall and injury-specific youth mortality.

  1. HIV Testing Among Adults with Mental Illness in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Wanjun; Thompson, William W.; Zack, Matthew M.; McKnight-Eily, Lela; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Rose, Charles E.; Blank, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Nationally representative data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to compare HIV testing prevalence among US adults with mental illness (schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, depression, and/or anxiety) to those without, providing an update of prior work using 1999 and 2002 NHIS data. Logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the probability of ever being tested for HIV by mental illness status, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, substance abuse, excessive alcohol or tobacco use, and HIV risk factors. Based on data from 21,785 respondents, 15% of adults had a psychiatric disorder and 37% ever had an HIV test. Persons with schizophrenia (64%), bipolar disorder (63%), and depression and/or anxiety (47%) were more likely to report ever being tested for HIV than those without mental illness (35%). In multivariable models, individuals reporting schizophrenia (adjusted prevalence ratio=1.68, 95% confidence interval=1.33–2.13), bipolar disease (1.58, 1.39–1.81), and depression and/or anxiety (1.31, 1.25–1.38) were more likely to be tested for HIV than persons without these diagnoses. Similar to previous analyses, persons with mental illness were more likely to have been tested than those without mental illness. However, the elevated prevalence of HIV in populations with mental illness suggests that high levels of testing along with other prevention efforts are needed. PMID:25459230

  2. Awareness of heart attack and stroke symptoms among Hispanic male adults living in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lutfiyya, May Nawal; Bardales, Ricardo; Bales, Robert; Aguero, Carlos; Brady, Shelly; Tobar, Adriana; McGrath, Cynthia; Zaiser, Julia; Lipsky, Martin S

    2010-10-01

    There is evidence that Hispanic men are a high risk group for treatment delay for both heart attack and stroke. More targeted research is needed to elucidate this specific population's knowledge of warning signs for these acute events. This study sought to describe within-group disparities in Hispanic men's knowledge of heart attack and stroke symptomology. Multivariate techniques were used to analyze a multi-year Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Heart and Stroke module database. The data were cross-sectional and focused on health risk factors and behaviors. The research participants were U.S. male Hispanic adults aged 18-99. The main outcome measure for the study was heart attack and stroke symptom knowledge score. Multivariate logistic regression analysis yielded that Hispanic men aged >or=18 years who earned low scores on the composite heart attack and stroke knowledge questions (range 0-8 points) were more likely to: have less than a high school education, have deferred medical care because of cost, not have an identified health care provider, and be uninsured. There were significant within-group differences. Targeting educational efforts toward older (>or=55 years) Hispanic men with less than high school education, those who do not have an identified health care provider or health insurance, and who defer health care because of cost could be ways to improve the outcome of acute vascular events among the U.S. Hispanic adult male population.

  3. HIV testing among adults with mental illness in the United States.

    PubMed

    Yehia, Baligh R; Cui, Wanjun; Thompson, William W; Zack, Matthew M; McKnight-Eily, Lela; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Rose, Charles E; Blank, Michael B

    2014-12-01

    Nationally representative data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to compare HIV testing prevalence among US adults with mental illness (schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, depression, and/or anxiety) to those without, providing an update of prior work using 1999 and 2002 NHIS data. Logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the probability of ever being tested for HIV by mental illness status, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, substance abuse, excessive alcohol or tobacco use, and HIV risk factors. Based on data from 21,785 respondents, 15% of adults had a psychiatric disorder and 37% ever had an HIV test. Persons with schizophrenia (64%), bipolar disorder (63%), and depression and/or anxiety (47%) were more likely to report ever being tested for HIV than those without mental illness (35%). In multivariable models, individuals reporting schizophrenia (adjusted prevalence ratio=1.68, 95% confidence interval=1.33-2.13), bipolar disease (1.58, 1.39-1.81), and depression and/or anxiety (1.31, 1.25-1.38) were more likely to be tested for HIV than persons without these diagnoses. Similar to previous analyses, persons with mental illness were more likely to have been tested than those without mental illness. However, the elevated prevalence of HIV in populations with mental illness suggests that high levels of testing along with other prevention efforts are needed.

  4. Smokeless tobacco use among working adults - United States, 2005 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, Jacek M; Syamlal, Girija; King, Brian A; Castellan, Robert M

    2014-06-01

    Smokeless tobacco causes cancers of the oral cavity, esophagus, and pancreas. CDC analyzed National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data to estimate the proportion of U.S. working adults who used smokeless tobacco in 2005 and 2010, by industry and occupation. This report describes the results of that analysis, which showed no statistically significant change in the prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among workers from 2005 (2.7%) to 2010 (3.0%). In 2010, smokeless tobacco use was highest among adults aged 25-44 years (3.9%), males (5.6%), non-Hispanic whites (4.0%), those with no more than a high school education (3.9%), and those living in the South (3.9%). By industry, the prevalence of smokeless tobacco use ranged from 1.5% in education services to 18.8% in mining industries, and by occupation from 1.3% in office and administrative support to 10.8% in construction and extraction. These findings highlight opportunities for reducing the health and economic burdens of tobacco use among U.S. workers, especially those in certain industries (e.g., mining) and occupations (e.g., construction and extraction) where use of smokeless tobacco is especially common. CDC recommends best practices for comprehensive tobacco control programs, including effective employer interventions, such as providing employee health insurance coverage for proven cessation treatments, offering easily accessible help for those who want to quit, and establishing and enforcing tobacco-free workplace policies.

  5. Trends in Smokeless Tobacco Use Among Adults and Adolescents in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, David E.; Mowery, Paul; Tomar, Scott; Marcus, Stephen; Giovino, Gary; Zhao, Luhua

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. Smokeless tobacco has many adverse health effects. We analyzed long-term national trends in smokeless tobacco use. Methods. We used 1987 to 2000 National Health Interview Survey data for adults aged 18 years and older, 1986 to 2003 data from Monitoring the Future surveys of adolescents, and 1991 to 2003 data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey for 9th- to 12th-grade students to examine overall and demographic-specific trends. Results. Smokeless tobacco use among adult and adolescent females was low and showed little change. Smokeless tobacco use among men declined slowly (relative decline=26%), with the largest declines among those aged 18 to 24 years or 65 years and older, Blacks, residents of the South, and persons in more rural areas. Overall and demographic-specific data for adolescent boys indicate that smokeless tobacco use increased for 12th-grade students from 1986 until the early 1990s, but has subsequently declined rapidly in all grades since then (range of relative overall declines=43% to 48%). Conclusions. Smokeless tobacco use has declined sharply, especially among adolescent boys. Ongoing prevention and cessation efforts are needed to continue this trend. PMID:16571699

  6. Cohabitation Expectations among Young Adults in the United States: Do They Match Behavior?

    PubMed

    Manning, Wendy D; Smock, Pamela J; Dorius, Cassandra; Cooksey, Elizabeth

    2014-04-01

    Cohabitation continues to rise, but there is a lack of knowledge about expectations to cohabit and the linkage between expectations and subsequent cohabitation. We capitalize on a new opportunity to study cohabitation expectations by drawing on the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY79) main youth and two waves (2008 and 2010) of the NLSY young adult (YA) surveys (n=1,105). We find considerable variation in cohabitation expectations: 39.9% have no expectation of cohabiting in the future and 16.6% report high odds of cohabiting in the next two years. Cohabitation expectations are associated with higher odds of entering a cohabiting relationship, but are not perfectly associated. Only 38% of young adults with certain cohabitation expectations in 2008 entered a cohabiting union by 2010. Further investigation of the mismatch between expectations and behaviors indicates that a substantial minority (30%) who entered a cohabiting union had previously reported no or low expectations, instances of what we term "unplanned cohabitation." Our findings underscore the importance of considering not just behavior, but also individuals' expectations for understanding union formation, and more broadly, family change.

  7. Receipt of clinical and prevention services, clinical outcomes, and sexual risk behaviors among HIV-infected young adults in care in the United States.

    PubMed

    Beer, Linda; Mattson, Christine L; Shouse, R Luke; Prejean, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    We describe receipt of clinical and prevention services, clinical outcomes, and sexual risk behaviors among young adult HIV patients in the United States during 2009-2013, using a sample designed to produce nationally representative estimates. Compared with older HIV patients, proportionately more young adults received provider-delivered prevention services and reported sexual risk behaviors. Young adults had similar care patterns as older HIV patients, but were less likely to have or adhere to an antiretroviral therapy prescription and achieve viral suppression. These estimates establish a national baseline from which to monitor changes in clinical outcomes and transmission behaviors among young HIV-infected adults. PMID:27011102

  8. Prevalence and trends of isolated systolic hypertension among untreated adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuefeng; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Wang, Kesheng

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence and long-term trends of isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) among untreated adults have not been reported. Data from 24,653 participants aged ≥18 years were selected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010. The prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of untreated ISH were estimated by conducting the independent survey t-test. The prevalence of untreated ISH was 9.4% and decreased from 10.3% in 1999-2004 to 8.5% in 2005-2010 (P = .00248). Old persons, females, and non-Hispanic blacks had higher prevalence of untreated ISH. Compared with 1999-2004, the prevalence of untreated ISH in 2005-2010 decreased among older (33.6%; 95% CI, 30.9%-36.3% vs. 25.1%; 95% CI, 22.7%-27.5%) and female individuals (8.3%; 95% CI, 7.5-9.2% vs. 11.4%; 95% CI, 10.4-12.3%). The stratified prevalence of untreated ISH declined in 2005-2010 (vs. 1999-2004) for older non-Hispanic whites (24.6% vs. 32.8%; P < .0001) and blacks (27.7% vs. 40.8%; P = .0013), non-Hispanic white females (7.5% vs. 10.8%; P < .0001), older individuals with higher education (21.0% vs. 30.6%; P = .0024), and females with lower education (10.1% vs. 13.1%; P = .006). Untreated ISH is more prevalent in older adults and females. Significant decreases in untreated ISH prevalence over time among these groups suggest that public health measures and/or treatment patterns are trending in the right direction. PMID:25795550

  9. Geographic Variations in Retention in Care among HIV-Infected Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Rebeiro, Peter F.; Gange, Stephen J.; Horberg, Michael A.; Abraham, Alison G.; Napravnik, Sonia; Samji, Hasina; Yehia, Baligh R.; Althoff, Keri N.; Moore, Richard D.; Kitahata, Mari M.; Sterling, Timothy R.; Curriero, Frank C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand geographic variations in clinical retention, a central component of the HIV care continuum and key to improving individual- and population-level HIV outcomes. Design We evaluated retention by US region in a retrospective observational study. Methods Adults receiving care from 2000–2010 in 12 clinical cohorts of the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) contributed data. Individuals were assigned to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-defined regions by residential data (10 cohorts) and clinic location as proxy (2 cohorts). Retention was ≥2 primary HIV outpatient visits within a calendar year, >90 days apart. Trends and regional differences were analyzed using modified Poisson regression with clustering, adjusting for time in care, age, sex, race/ethnicity, and HIV risk, and stratified by baseline CD4+ count. Results Among 78,993 adults with 444,212 person-years of follow-up, median time in care was 7 years (Interquartile Range: 4–9). Retention increased from 2000 to 2010: from 73% (5,000/6,875) to 85% (7,189/8,462) in the Northeast, 75% (1,778/2,356) to 87% (1,630/1,880) in the Midwest, 68% (8,451/12,417) to 80% (9,892/12,304) in the South, and 68% (5,147/7,520) to 72% (6,401/8,895) in the West. In adjusted analyses, retention improved over time in all regions (p<0.01, trend), although the average percent retained lagged in the West and South vs. the Northeast (p<0.01). Conclusions In our population, retention improved, though regional differences persisted even after adjusting for demographic and HIV risk factors. These data demonstrate regional differences in the US which may affect patient care, despite national care recommendations. PMID:26752637

  10. Recreational ice hockey injuries in adult non-checking leagues: a United States perspective.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Pasqualino; Mattson, Douglas J

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze injuries among adult recreational ice hockey players. This was an observational prospective cohort study with data collected on injuries sustained during one season in the adult recreational ice hockey leagues of Oneida County, NY. The injury incidence rate was found to be 12.2/1000 player-exposures. The most common anatomic region injured was the head/neck/face (35%). Collisions were most often reported as the mechanism of injury (44%). Fracture was the most common diagnosis. Of players wearing face protection (full cage or shield, or partial visor/half shield), none suffered facial injuries, while all facial injuries reported were to players not wearing facial protection. The concussion rate was 1.1/1000 player-exposures. A lack of protective equipment was associated with 38% of injuries and 24% of injuries involved penalties. A history of prior injuries was found in 89% of injured players with 28% re-injuring the same body part. This study's findings suggested various strategies to address player injuries such as mandatory full facial protection and shoulder pads, strict enforcement of game rules, and game rule modifications (no body checking). Further research is needed on the role of preventive rehabilitation in players with previous injury history. Key PointsThe injury incidence rate was found to be 12.2/1000 player-exposures, similar to previous Canadian literature.The concussion rate was 1.1/1000 player-exposures.38% of injuries involved a lack of protective equipment and 24% of injuries involved penalties.Full facial protection and shoulder pads should be compulsory.Strict enforcement of game rules is necessary.History of prior injuries was found in 89% of injured players. PMID:24431962

  11. Recreational ice hockey injuries in adult non-checking leagues: a United States perspective.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Pasqualino; Mattson, Douglas J

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze injuries among adult recreational ice hockey players. This was an observational prospective cohort study with data collected on injuries sustained during one season in the adult recreational ice hockey leagues of Oneida County, NY. The injury incidence rate was found to be 12.2/1000 player-exposures. The most common anatomic region injured was the head/neck/face (35%). Collisions were most often reported as the mechanism of injury (44%). Fracture was the most common diagnosis. Of players wearing face protection (full cage or shield, or partial visor/half shield), none suffered facial injuries, while all facial injuries reported were to players not wearing facial protection. The concussion rate was 1.1/1000 player-exposures. A lack of protective equipment was associated with 38% of injuries and 24% of injuries involved penalties. A history of prior injuries was found in 89% of injured players with 28% re-injuring the same body part. This study's findings suggested various strategies to address player injuries such as mandatory full facial protection and shoulder pads, strict enforcement of game rules, and game rule modifications (no body checking). Further research is needed on the role of preventive rehabilitation in players with previous injury history. Key PointsThe injury incidence rate was found to be 12.2/1000 player-exposures, similar to previous Canadian literature.The concussion rate was 1.1/1000 player-exposures.38% of injuries involved a lack of protective equipment and 24% of injuries involved penalties.Full facial protection and shoulder pads should be compulsory.Strict enforcement of game rules is necessary.History of prior injuries was found in 89% of injured players.

  12. Sunburn and sun protective behaviors among adults aged 18-29 years--United States, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    2012-05-11

    Skin cancer is an important public health concern. Nonmelanoma skin cancers, comprised mainly of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, are the most common malignancies in the United States. Melanoma, although less common, is the deadliest form of skin cancer. Both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers can be disfiguring, negatively affect quality of life, and create economic burden. Furthermore, age-adjusted incidence rates of both have increased in recent years. Different patterns of sun exposure are associated with different types of skin cancer. Continuous, chronic sun exposure, such as that observed among outdoor workers is associated with squamous cell carcinoma. Intermittent exposure, such as recreational exposure, is associated with melanoma and basal cell carcinoma. Sunburn typically occurs after intermittent exposure, and the risk for melanoma increases with an increasing number of sunburns during all periods of life. Sunburn is more common among persons aged 18-29 years compared with older adults. To evaluate trends in sunburn and sun protective behaviors among persons aged 18-29 years, CDC and the National Cancer Institute analyzed data from the 2000, 2003, 2005, 2008, and 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The results indicated that although protective behaviors such as sunscreen use, shade use, and wearing long clothing to the ankles have increased in recent years, sunburn prevalence remains high, with 50.1% of all adults and 65.6% of whites aged 18-29 years reporting at least one sunburn in the past 12 months. These results suggest that additional efforts are needed to identify and implement effective strategies targeting younger adults to improve their sun protective behaviors and prevent sunburn and ultimately skin cancer.

  13. The Relationship between Education and Adult Mortality in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lleras-Muney, Adriana

    This study examines whether education had a causal impact on health, following synthetic cohorts using successive U.S. Censuses to estimate the impact of educational attainment on mortality rates. It focuses on compulsory education laws from 1915 to 1939, a time when at least 30 states changed their compulsory schooling and child labor laws, as…

  14. Mixed emotions across the adult life span in the United States.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Stefan; Stone, Arthur A

    2015-06-01

    Mixed emotions involve the co-occurrence of positive and negative affect, such that people feel happy and sad at the same time. The purpose of the present study was to investigate age-related differences in the experience of mixed emotions across the adult life span in 2 nationally representative samples of U.S. residents. Data collected by the Princeton Affect and Time Survey (PATS, n = 3,948) and by the 2010 Wellbeing Module of the American Time Use Survey (ATUS, n = 12,828) were analyzed. In both surveys, respondents (aged 15 years or older) provided a detailed time diary about the preceding day and rated their happiness and sadness for 3 of the day's episodes. From these reports, 3 different indices of mixed emotions were derived. Results indicated small, but robust, increases in mixed emotions with age. Linear age increases were consistently evident in both PATS and ATUS, and replicated across the different indices of mixed emotions. There was no significant evidence for curvilinear age trends in either study. Several sociodemographic factors that could plausibly explain age-differences in mixed emotions (e.g., retirement, disability) did not alter the age-effects. The present study adds to the growing literature documenting vital changes in the complexity of emotional experience over the life span.

  15. Attitudes toward Bisexual Men and Women among a Nationally Representative Probability Sample of Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Herbenick, Debby; Friedman, M. Reuel; Schick, Vanessa; Fu, Tsung-Chieh (Jane); Bostwick, Wendy; Bartelt, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Pletta, David; Reece, Michael; Sandfort, Theo G. M.

    2016-01-01

    As bisexual individuals in the United States (U.S.) face significant health disparities, researchers have posited that these differences may be fueled, at least in part, by negative attitudes, prejudice, stigma, and discrimination toward bisexual individuals from heterosexual and gay/lesbian individuals. Previous studies of individual and social attitudes toward bisexual men and women have been conducted almost exclusively with convenience samples, with limited generalizability to the broader U.S. population. Our study provides an assessment of attitudes toward bisexual men and women among a nationally representative probability sample of heterosexual, gay, lesbian, and other-identified adults in the U.S. Data were collected from the 2015 National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior (NSSHB), via an online questionnaire with a probability sample of adults (18 years and over) from throughout the U.S. We included two modified 5-item versions of the Bisexualities: Indiana Attitudes Scale (BIAS), validated sub-scales that were developed to measure attitudes toward bisexual men and women. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, gamma regression, and paired t-tests. Gender, sexual identity, age, race/ethnicity, income, and educational attainment were all significantly associated with participants' attitudes toward bisexual individuals. In terms of responses to individual scale items, participants were most likely to “neither agree nor disagree” with all attitudinal statements. Across sexual identities, self-identified other participants reported the most positive attitudes, while heterosexual male participants reported the least positive attitudes. As in previous research on convenience samples, we found a wide range of demographic characteristics were related with attitudes toward bisexual individuals in our nationally-representative study of heterosexual, gay/lesbian, and other-identified adults in the U.S. In particular, gender emerged as a significant

  16. Hispanic Older Adult Health & Longevity in the United States: Current Patterns & Concerns for the Future

    PubMed Central

    Hummer, Robert A.; Hayward, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    The Hispanic population aged sixty-five and over – the most socioeconomically disadvantaged subset of America’s elderly – is projected to quintuple between 2012 and 2050. While current longevity patterns for Hispanics relative to whites are favorable, old-age functioning and disability patterns for Hispanics are unfavorable and have serious implications for caregivers; families; and local, state, and federal governments. Troubling signs for the future Hispanic population (which are shared to varying degrees with other vulnerable groups) include the unresolved legal status of unauthorized immigrants, continued low levels of insurance coverage even after health care reform, some unfavorable trends in health behaviors, and continued disadvantages in educational attainment and income relative to whites. We urge policy-makers to deal with these potentially problematic health and well-being issues. Not doing so could have detrimental consequences for the future of the Hispanic population as well as other at-risk groups and, by extension, the U.S. elderly population as a whole. PMID:26082561

  17. Growing parental economic power in parent-adult child households: coresidence and financial dependency in the United States, 1960-2010.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Joan R; Goldscheider, Frances; García-Manglano, Javier

    2013-08-01

    Research on coresidence between parents and their adult children in the United States has challenged the myth that elders are the primary beneficiaries, instead showing that intergenerationally extended households generally benefit the younger generation more than their parents. Nevertheless, the economic fortunes of those at the older and younger ends of the adult life course have shifted in the second half of the twentieth century, with increasing financial well-being among older adults and greater financial strain among younger adults. This article uses U.S. census and American Community Survey (ACS) data to examine the extent to which changes in generational financial well-being over the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries have been reflected in the likelihood of coresidence and financial dependency in parent-adult child U.S. households between 1960 and 2010. We find that younger adults have become more financially dependent on their parents and that while older adults have become more financially independent of their adult children, they nevertheless coreside with their needy adult children. We also find that the effect of economic considerations in decisions about coresidence became increasingly salient for younger adults, but decreasingly so for older adults.

  18. Ethnic disparities among food sources of energy and nutrients of public health concern and nutrients to limit in adults in the United States: NHANES 2003-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification of current food sources of energy and nutrients among United States non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Mexican American adults is needed to help with public health efforts in implementing culturally sensitive and feasible dietary recommendations. The objective of this study...

  19. Major depressive disorder and smoking relapse among adults in the United States: a 10-year, prospective investigation.

    PubMed

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Sheffer, Christine; Perez, Adriana; Goodwin, Renee D

    2015-03-30

    This study investigated the relation between major depressive disorder (MDD) and smoking relapse in the U.S. over a 10-year period. Data were drawn from the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) Survey Waves I & II. Logistic regression analyses were used to explore the associations between past-year MDD in 1994, past-year MDD in 2005 and persistent depression (1994 and 2005) and risk of smoking relapse in 2005 among former smokers, adjusting for demographics, anxiety disorders, and substance use problems and smoking characteristics. Among former smokers, MDD in 1994, compared to without MDD in 1994, was associated with significantly increased odds of smoking relapse by 2005. Current MDD in 2005 was associated with an even stronger risk of relapse in 2005 and persistent depression even more strongly predicted relapse by 2005. These associations remained significant and were not substantially attenuated by the covariates. In conclusion, MDD appears to confer long-term vulnerability to smoking relapse among adults in the general population. These results suggest interventions for smoking cessation should include screening and treatment for MDD if programs are to be optimally effective at achieving initial quit success as well as enduring abstinence.

  20. Gambling and Substance Use: Co-occurrence among Adults in a Recent General Population Study in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Grace M.; Welte, John W.; Tidwell, Marie-Cecile O.; Hoffman, Joseph H.

    2014-01-01

    This study is an up-to-date examination of gambling behaviors as well as gambling problems and their relationships to substance use and abuse. Further, the co-occurrence between problem gambling and substance abuse is studied using a large-scale, representative sample of adults aged 18 years and older in the United States. This random-digit-dial national survey was carried out in 2011–2013 with completed interviews from 2,963 respondents. Of the four gambling and substance use behaviors considered, past year gambling was the most prevalent (76.9%), followed by alcohol use (67.6%), tobacco use (28.7%) and marijuana use (11.2%). Problem gambling and the three substance abuse measures were highly related. Current problem gambling (3+ DIS criteria) was predicted by being male, being black, having low socioeconomic status and by alcohol abuse/dependence, tobacco dependence, and marijuana abuse/dependence. Thus, problem gambling is linked to other problem behaviors, especially substance abuse. Consequently, effective treatment approaches should screen and intervene for both problem gambling as well as co-occurring substance abuse. PMID:25914605

  1. Improvement in adequacy of delivered dialysis for adult in-center hemodialysis patients in the United States, 1993 to 1995.

    PubMed

    Helgerson, S D; McClellan, W M; Frederick, P R; Beaver, S K; Frankenfield, D L; McMullan, M

    1997-06-01

    The objective of this review is to describe the adequacy of delivered dialysis provided to in-center hemodialysis patients in the United States and to compare the findings with published guidelines. The medical records of random samples of 6,138, 6,919, and 6,861 patients in hemodialysis facilities were studied from all Medicare-eligible adult in-center hemodialysis patients alive on December 31, 1993, 1994, and 1995, respectively. The main clinical measure used was the urea reduction ratio (URR), the mean of which was 0.63 in 1993, 0.64 in 1994, and 0.66 in 1995. The proportion of patients with URR > or = 0.65, as recommended by the Renal Physicians Association and a National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement, increased from 43% in 1993 to 49% in 1994 and 59% in 1995. In each of these 3 years, women were more likely than men to have a URR > or = 0.65 (1993: 54% v 31%, odds ratio 2.6; 1994: 61% v 38%, odds ratio 2.5; and 1995: 70% v 50%, odds ratio 24), as were older patients (65+ years) compared with younger patients (18 to 44 years) (1993: 47% v 37%, odds ratio 1.4; 1994: 54% v 45%, odds ratio 1.5; and 1995: 65% v 53%, odds ratio 1.6) and white patients compared with black patients (1993: 46% v 36%, odds ratio 1.5; 1994: 53% v 43%, odds ratio 1.5; and 1995: 63% v 54%, odds ratio 1.4). There was also substantial geographic variation in the proportion of patients receiving hemodialysis with a URR > or = 0.65. In conclusion, marked differences existed in 1993, 1994, and 1995 between observed practice and consensus guidelines for the delivery of adequate dialysis. Nevertheless, notable improvement occurred during this time period. A system to monitor further improvements in hemodialysis care in the United States is in place.

  2. Parental Influence on Their Adult Children's Sexual Values: A Multi-National Comparison Between the United States, Spain, Costa Rica, and Peru.

    PubMed

    Negy, Charles; Velezmoro, Rodrigo; Reig-Ferrer, Abilio; Smith-Castro, Vanessa; Livia, Jose

    2016-02-01

    We examined the influence of perceived parental sexual values, religiosity, and family environment on young adults' sexual values from the United States (n = 218), Spain (n = 240), Costa Rica (n = 172), and Peru (n = 105). On average, and across the four national groups, the messages young adults received from their parents about broad domains of sexual behaviors (masturbation, non-intercourse types of heterosexual sexual activity, premarital sex, same-sex activity, and cohabiting) were unequivocally restrictive. By contrast, across the four groups, young adults on average held rather permissive sexual values and their values differed significantly from those of their parents. Moreover, the nature of perceived parental sexual values (restrictive vs. permissive) was not associated significantly with young adults' sexual values, age of sexual debut, or number of sexual partners. Comparatively, Spanish young adults held the most permissive sexual values, whereas US young adults held the most restrictive sexual values. Religiosity was the strongest predictor of young adults' sexual values, followed by perceived parental sexual values and influence. In conclusion, it appears that despite having perceived restrictive parental messages about sex, these young adults currently hold permissive sexual attitudes, thus calling into question the influence parents actually have on their adult children's sexual values. PMID:26198747

  3. Parental Influence on Their Adult Children's Sexual Values: A Multi-National Comparison Between the United States, Spain, Costa Rica, and Peru.

    PubMed

    Negy, Charles; Velezmoro, Rodrigo; Reig-Ferrer, Abilio; Smith-Castro, Vanessa; Livia, Jose

    2016-02-01

    We examined the influence of perceived parental sexual values, religiosity, and family environment on young adults' sexual values from the United States (n = 218), Spain (n = 240), Costa Rica (n = 172), and Peru (n = 105). On average, and across the four national groups, the messages young adults received from their parents about broad domains of sexual behaviors (masturbation, non-intercourse types of heterosexual sexual activity, premarital sex, same-sex activity, and cohabiting) were unequivocally restrictive. By contrast, across the four groups, young adults on average held rather permissive sexual values and their values differed significantly from those of their parents. Moreover, the nature of perceived parental sexual values (restrictive vs. permissive) was not associated significantly with young adults' sexual values, age of sexual debut, or number of sexual partners. Comparatively, Spanish young adults held the most permissive sexual values, whereas US young adults held the most restrictive sexual values. Religiosity was the strongest predictor of young adults' sexual values, followed by perceived parental sexual values and influence. In conclusion, it appears that despite having perceived restrictive parental messages about sex, these young adults currently hold permissive sexual attitudes, thus calling into question the influence parents actually have on their adult children's sexual values.

  4. Prevalence and impact of pain among older adults in the United States: findings from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kushang V; Guralnik, Jack M; Dansie, Elizabeth J; Turk, Dennis C

    2013-12-01

    This study sought to determine the prevalence and impact of pain in a nationally representative sample of older adults in the United States. Data from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study were analyzed. In-person interviews were conducted in 7601 adults ages ≥65 years. The response rate was 71.0% and all analyses were weighted to account for the sampling design. The overall prevalence of bothersome pain in the last month was 52.9%, afflicting 18.7 million older adults in the United States. Pain did not vary across age groups (P = 0.21), and this pattern remained unchanged when accounting for cognitive performance, dementia, proxy responses, and residential care living status. Pain prevalence was higher in women and in older adults with obesity, musculoskeletal conditions, and depressive symptoms (P < 0.001). The majority (74.9%) of older adults with pain endorsed multiple sites of pain. Several measures of physical capacity, including grip strength and lower-extremity physical performance, were associated with pain and multisite pain. For example, self-reported inability to walk 3 blocks was 72% higher in participants with than without pain (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.72 [95% confidence interval 1.56-1.90]). Participants with 1, 2, 3, and ≥4 sites of pain had gait speeds that were 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.08 meters per second slower, respectively, than older adults without pain, adjusting for disease burden and other potential confounders (P < 0.001). In summary, bothersome pain in the last month was reported by half of the older adult population of the United States in 2011 and was strongly associated with decreased physical function.

  5. State-specific prevalence of current cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adults aged ≥18 years - United States, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kimberly; Marshall, LaTisha; Hu, Sean; Neff, Linda

    2015-05-22

    Cigarette smoking and the use of smokeless tobacco both cause substantial morbidity and premature mortality. The concurrent use of these products might increase dependence and the risk for tobacco-related disease and death. State-specific estimates of prevalence and relative percent change in current cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and concurrent cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among U.S. adults during 2011-2013, developed using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), indicate statistically significant (p<0.05) changes for all three behaviors. From 2011 to 2013, there was a statistically significant decline in current cigarette smoking prevalence overall and in 26 states. During the same period, use of smokeless tobacco significantly increased in four states: Louisiana, Montana, South Carolina, and West Virginia; significant declines were observed in two states: Ohio and Tennessee. In addition, the use of smokeless tobacco among cigarette smokers (concurrent use) significantly increased in five states (Delaware, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, and West Virginia). Although annual decreases in overall cigarette smoking among adults in the United States have occurred in recent years, there is much variability in prevalence of cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco, and concurrent use across states. In 2013, the prevalence ranged from 10.3% (Utah) to 27.3% (West Virginia) for cigarette smoking; 1.5% (District of Columbia and Massachusetts) to 9.4% (West Virginia) for smokeless tobacco; and 3.1% (Vermont) to 13.5% (Idaho) for concurrent use. These findings highlight the importance of sustained comprehensive state tobacco-control programs funded at CDC-recommended levels, which can accelerate progress toward reducing tobacco-related disease and deaths by promoting evidence-based population-level interventions. These interventions include increasing the price of tobacco products, implementing comprehensive smoke-free laws

  6. State-specific prevalence of current cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adults aged ≥18 years - United States, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kimberly; Marshall, LaTisha; Hu, Sean; Neff, Linda

    2015-05-22

    Cigarette smoking and the use of smokeless tobacco both cause substantial morbidity and premature mortality. The concurrent use of these products might increase dependence and the risk for tobacco-related disease and death. State-specific estimates of prevalence and relative percent change in current cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and concurrent cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among U.S. adults during 2011-2013, developed using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), indicate statistically significant (p<0.05) changes for all three behaviors. From 2011 to 2013, there was a statistically significant decline in current cigarette smoking prevalence overall and in 26 states. During the same period, use of smokeless tobacco significantly increased in four states: Louisiana, Montana, South Carolina, and West Virginia; significant declines were observed in two states: Ohio and Tennessee. In addition, the use of smokeless tobacco among cigarette smokers (concurrent use) significantly increased in five states (Delaware, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, and West Virginia). Although annual decreases in overall cigarette smoking among adults in the United States have occurred in recent years, there is much variability in prevalence of cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco, and concurrent use across states. In 2013, the prevalence ranged from 10.3% (Utah) to 27.3% (West Virginia) for cigarette smoking; 1.5% (District of Columbia and Massachusetts) to 9.4% (West Virginia) for smokeless tobacco; and 3.1% (Vermont) to 13.5% (Idaho) for concurrent use. These findings highlight the importance of sustained comprehensive state tobacco-control programs funded at CDC-recommended levels, which can accelerate progress toward reducing tobacco-related disease and deaths by promoting evidence-based population-level interventions. These interventions include increasing the price of tobacco products, implementing comprehensive smoke-free laws

  7. The Health Impact of Symptomatic Adult Spinal Deformity: Comparison of Deformity Types to United States Population Norms and Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bess, Shay; Line, Breton; Fu, Kai-Ming; McCarthy, Ian; Lafage, Virgine; Schwab, Frank; Shaffrey, Christopher; Ames, Christopher; Akbarnia, Behrooz; Jo, Han; Kelly, Michael; Burton, Douglas; Hart, Robert; Klineberg, Eric; Kebaish, Khaled; Hostin, Richard; Mundis, Gregory; Mummaneni, Praveen; Smith, Justin S.

    2016-01-01

    Study Design. A retrospective analysis of a prospective, multicenter database. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the health impact of symptomatic adult spinal deformity (SASD) by comparing Standard Form Version 2 (SF-36) scores for SASD with United States normative and chronic disease values. Summary of Background Data. Recent data have identified radiographic parameters correlating with poor health-related quality of life for SASD. Disability comparisons between SASD patients and patients with chronic diseases may provide further insight to the disease burden caused by SASD. Methods. Consecutive SASD patients, with no history of spine surgery, were enrolled into a multicenter database and evaluated for type and severity of spinal deformity. Baseline SF-36 physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) values for SASD patients were compared with reported U.S. normative and chronic disease SF-36 scores. SF-36 scores were reported as normative-based scores (NBS) and evaluated for minimally clinical important difference (MCID). Results. Between 2008 and 2011, 497 SASD patients were prospectively enrolled and evaluated. Mean PCS for all SASD was lower than U.S. total population (ASD = 40.9; US = 50; P < 0.05). Generational decline in PCS for SASD patients with no other reported comorbidities was more rapid than U.S. norms (P < 0.05). PCS worsened with lumbar scoliosis and increasing sagittal vertical axis (SVA). PCS scores for patients with isolated thoracic scoliosis were similar to values reported by individuals with chronic back pain (45.5 vs 45.7, respectively; P > 0.05), whereas patients with lumbar scoliosis combined with severe sagittal malalignment (SVA >10 cm) demonstrated worse PCS scores than values reported by patients with limited use of arms and legs (24.7 vs 29.1, respectively; P < 0.05). Conclusions. SASD is a heterogeneous condition that, depending upon the type and severity of the deformity

  8. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory...

  9. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory...

  10. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory...

  11. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory...

  12. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory...

  13. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory...

  14. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory...

  15. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory...

  16. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust...

  17. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory...

  18. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory...

  19. Housing Arrangements among a National Sample of Adults with Chronic Schizophrenia Living in the United States: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Jack; Stroup, T. Scott; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    There has been no recent national description of where and with whom people with chronic mental illness reside. Using data from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness, the living arrangements of 1,446 clients with schizophrenia from 57 sites throughout the United States were characterized over 1 year. At baseline, 46% of…

  20. Promoting Sexual Health Equity in the United States: Implications from Exploratory Research with African-American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Allison L.; Uhrig, Jennifer; Poehlman, Jon; Scales, Monica; Hogben, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to inform communication efforts to promote sexual health equity in the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sought to explore African-Americans' perceptions of the sexually transmitted disease (STD) problem in their communities, reactions to racially comparative STD data and opinions about dissemination…

  1. State hydrologic unit maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seaber, P.R.; Kapinos, F.P.; Knapp, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    A set of maps depicting approved boundaries of, and numerical codes for, river-basin units of the United States has been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. These ' State Hydrologic Unit Maps ' are four-color maps that present information on drainage, culture, hydrography, and hydrologic boundaries and codes: (1) the 21 major water-resources regions and the 222 subregions designated by the U.S. Water Resources Council; (2) the 352 accounting units of the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Network; and (3) the 2,149 cataloging units of the U.S. Geological Survey 's Catalog of Information on Water Data. The maps are plotted on the Geological Survey State base-map series at a scale of 1:500,000 and, except for Alaska, depict hydrologic unit boundaries for all drainage basins greater than 700 mi squared (1,813 km squared). A complete list of all the hydrologic units, along with their drainage areas, their names, and the names of the States or outlying areas in which they reside, is contained in the report. These maps and associated codes provide a standardized base for use by water-resources organizations in locating, storing, retrieving, and exchanging hydrologic data. The Hydrologic Unit Codes shown on the maps have been approved as a Federal Information Processing Standard for use by the Federal establishment. (USGS)

  2. A Review and Critique of the 2008 United States "National Report on the Development and State of the Art of Adult Learning and Education" (ALE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Robert J.; Daigle, Elizabeth Anne; Graybeal, Lesley; Walker, Wayland; Avalon, Christian; Fowler, Nan; Massey, Michael W.

    2008-01-01

    This study is a review and a critique of the 2008 U.S. "National Report on the Development and State of the Art of Adult Learning and Education" (ALE) prepared by the U.S. Commission for UNESCO and the U.S. Department of Education as a preparatory document for CONFINTEA VI, the 6th International Conference on Adult Education. The study focuses on…

  3. Sexual Minority Health Disparities in Adult Men and Women in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2010

    PubMed Central

    Gamarel, Kristi E.; Grin, Benjamin M.; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kahler, Christopher W.; Marshall, Brandon D. L.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Zaller, Nickolas D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We used nationally representative data to investigate health disparities associated with sexual minority status among adults in the United States. Methods. We analyzed data from 11 114 adults who participated in the 2001 to 2010 waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Using multiple logistic regressions, we examined the prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, mental health problems, cigarette smoking, and alcohol and illicit drug use in sexual minorities and heterosexual adults. Results. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, sexual minority men had greater odds of mental health problems, testing positive for HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 and self-reported gonorrhea and chlamydia. Sexual minority women had greater odds of mental health problems, testing positive for hepatitis C, smoking, heavy drinking, and illicit drug use. Conclusions. Numerous health disparities continue to face sexual minority men and women in the United States. Notably, health disparities persisted beyond the role of sociodemographic factors, including access to insurance and primary care, suggesting that further research is warranted to identify the determinants of health inequity for sexual minorities. PMID:26270288

  4. The State of Evaluation Research on Food Policies to Reduce Obesity and Diabetes Among Adults in the United States, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Franzosa, Emily; Sohler, Nancy; Li, Rui; Devlin, Heather; Albu, Jeanine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Improvements in diet can prevent obesity and type 2 diabetes. Although policy changes provide a foundation for improvement at the population level, evidence for the effectiveness of such changes is slim. This study summarizes the literature on recent efforts in the United States to change food-related policies to prevent obesity and diabetes among adults. Methods We conducted a systematic review of evidence of the impact of food policies. Websites of government, academic, and nonprofit organizations were scanned to generate a typology of food-related policies, which we classified into 18 categories. A key-word search and a search of policy reports identified empirical evaluation studies of these categories. Analyses were limited to strategies with 10 or more reports. Of 422 articles identified, 94 met these criteria. Using publication date, study design, study quality, and dietary outcomes assessed, we evaluated the strength of evidence for each strategy in 3 assessment categories: time period, quality, and study design. Results Five strategies yielded 10 or more reports. Only 2 of the 5 strategies, menu labeling and taxes on unhealthy foods, had 50% or more studies with positive findings in at least 2 of 3 assessment categories. Most studies used methods that were rated medium quality. Although the number of published studies increased over 11 years, study quality did not show any clear trend nor did it vary by strategy. Conclusion Researchers and policy makers can improve the quality and rigor of policy evaluations to synthesize existing evidence and develop better methods for gleaning policy guidance from the ample but imperfect data available. PMID:26513438

  5. Prevalence and Impact of Pain among Older Adults in the United States: Findings from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kushang V.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Dansie, Elizabeth J.; Turk, Dennis C.

    2013-01-01

    The study sought to determine the prevalence and impact of pain in a nationally representative sample of older adults in the United States (US). Data from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study were analyzed. In-person interviews were conducted in 7,601 adults ages ≥65 years. The response rate was 71.0% and all analyses were weighted to account for the sampling design. The overall prevalence of bothersome pain in the last month was 52.9%, afflicting 18.7 million older adults in the US. Pain did not vary across age groups (P=0.21) and this pattern remained unchanged when accounting for cognitive performance, dementia, proxy-responses, and residential care living status. Pain prevalence was higher in women and in older adults with obesity, musculoskeletal conditions, and depressive symptoms (P<0.001). The majority (74.9%) of older adults with pain endorsed multiple sites of pain. Several measures of physical capacity, including grip strength and lower extremity physical performance, were associated with pain and multisite pain. For example, self-reported inability to walk 3 blocks was 72% higher in participants with than without pain [adjusted Prevalence Ratio=1.72 (95% Confidence Interval: 1.56–1.90)]. Participants with 1, 2, 3, and >4 sites of pain had gait speeds that were 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.08 meters per second slower, respectively, than older adults without pain, adjusting for disease burden and other confounders (P<0.001). In summary, bothersome pain in the last month was reported by half of the older adult population of the US in 2011 and was strongly associated with decreased physical function. PMID:24287107

  6. United States East Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    MODIS captured this true-color image of clear skies over the eastern United States on December 22, 2001. To the northeast the country is blanketed with snow, but in this image only the higher elevations of the Appalachian Mountains in eastern West Virginia are dusted with white. Rod dots in Georgia indicate MODIS' detection of fires.

  7. Eating behaviors among low-income obese adults in the United States: Does health care provider's advice carry any weight.

    PubMed

    Lorts, Cori; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam

    2016-06-01

    The U.S. Preventive Task Force recommends that all patients be screened for obesity and given appropriate weight loss advice, if needed, as nutrition counseling by primary care physicians is a key objective for Healthy People 2020. This study assesses the association between health care provider's (HCP) advice to lose weight and eating behaviors among obese individuals. Data were collected using a household survey of adults in five New Jersey cities in 2009-10. Analyses presented are limited to 548 obese participants. Negative-binomial regression analysis determined the association of participants' eating behaviors and HCP's advice to lose weight, after adjusting for the participant's attempt to lose weight and demographic variables. Despite being obese, only 48% of the participants received weight loss advice from their HCP while 68% stated they were attempting to lose weight. HCP's advice to lose weight was associated with increased salad and fruit consumption (PR 1.3, 95% CI 1.06-1.61; PR 1.23, 95% CI 1.02-1.48). Attempting to lose weight was positively associated with a higher consumption of fruit (PR 1.39, 95% CI 1.13-1.72), vegetables (PR 1.22, 95% CI 1.07-1.39), and with eating fruits and vegetables as snacks (PR 1.62, 95% CI 1.28-2.05). Attempting to lose weight was negatively associated with consumption of sweet snacks (PR 0.68, 95% CI 0.49-0.94), sugar sweetened beverages (PR 0.71, 95% CI 0.58-0.87) and fast food (PR 0.77, 95% CI 0.62-0.97). There were no significant interactions between HCP's advice and attempts to lose weight. Obese adult's attempt to lose weight, and not HCP's advice to lose weight, was a predictor for healthy eating behaviors. Interventions in medical practices should train HCPs on effective strategies for motivating obese patients to adopt healthier lifestyles. PMID:26876632

  8. Predictors of tetanus-diphtheria- acellular pertussis vaccination among adults receiving tetanus vaccine in the United States: data from the 2008 national health interview survey.

    PubMed

    Johns, Tracy L; Roetzheim, Richard; Chen, Ren

    2013-04-01

    BACKGROUND . The incidence of pertussis in the United States has been increasing. Adult vaccination is important to reduce disease burden and prevent transmission to infants at high risk of complications. The tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine has been available in the United States since 2005 and is indicated as a one-time replacement for the routine tetanus-diphtheria (Td) booster. However, among adults receiving tetanus vaccination, only about half receive Tdap. PURPOSE . To identify predictors of adult Tdap vaccination among individuals who receive tetanus vaccine. METHODS . National Health Interview Survey data from 2008 were analyzed in 2011. Respondents were 18 to 64 years old, received tetanus vaccination during 2005-2008, and were aware if it contained pertussis. Predictors of Tdap vaccination were identified with multivariate logistic regression using procedures for complex survey methods. RESULTS . Overall, 51.1% of respondents received Tdap. Vaccination was less likely for those 50 to 64 years old compared with those 18 to 24 years old (odds ratio [OR] = 0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.38-0.96). Some college education was associated with higher odds of vaccination compared with lower education levels (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.16-2.07). Having 2 to 3 office visits (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.32-3.06) or 4 to 9 office visits (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.06-2.42) in the previous year increased the odds of vaccination compared with no visits. Individuals with functional limitation due to illness had lower odds compared with no limitation (OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.54-0.91). CONCLUSIONS . In 2008, 51.1% of adult Td vaccinations included pertussis, suggesting continued efforts to remove barriers are needed. Interventions should target older, functionally impaired, and educationally disadvantaged populations.

  9. The Association between Active and Passive Smoking and Latent Tuberculosis Infection in Adults and Children in the United States: Results from NHANES

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Ryan P.; Shin, Sanghyuk S.; Garfein, Richard S.; Rusch, Melanie L. A.; Novotny, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies assessing the relationship between active and passive smoking and tuberculosis have used biomarkers to measure smoke exposure. We sought to determine the association between active and passive smoking and LTBI in a representative sample of US adults and children. Methods We used the 1999–2000 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset with tuberculin skin test (TST) data to assess the association between cotinine-confirmed smoke exposure and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among adults ages ≥20 years (n = 3598) and children 3–19 years (n = 2943) and estimate the prevalence of smoke exposure among those with LTBI. Weighted multivariate logistic regression was used to measure the associations between active and passive smoking and LTBI. Results LTBI prevalence in 1999–2000 among cotinine-confirmed active, passive, and non-smoking adults and children was 6.0%, 5.2%, 3.3% and 0.3%, 1.0%, 1.5%, respectively. This corresponds to approximately 3,556,000 active and 3,379,000 passive smoking adults with LTBI in the US civilian non-institutionalized population in 1999–2000. Controlling for age, gender, socioeconomic status, race, birthplace (US vs. foreign-born), household size, and having ever lived with someone with TB, adult active smokers were significantly more likely to have LTBI than non-smoking adults (AOR = 2.31 95% CI 1.17–4.55). Adult passive smokers also had a greater odds of LTBI compared with non-smokers, but this association did not achieve statistical significance (AOR = 2.00 95% CI 0.87–4.60). Neither active or passive smoking was associated with LTBI among children. Among only the foreign-born adults, both active (AOR = 2.56 (95% CI 1.20–5.45) and passive smoking (AOR = 2.27 95% CI 1.09–4.72) were significantly associated with LTBI. Conclusions Active adult smokers and both foreign-born active and passive smokers in the United States are at elevated risk for LTBI

  10. 77 FR 48542 - United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... Antitrust Division United States v. SG Interests I, Ltd., et al.; Public Comments and Response on the... United States hereby publishes below the United States' Response to Public Comments on the proposed Final Judgment in United States v. SG Interests I, Ltd. et. al., Civil Action No. 12-cv-000395- RPM-MEH,...

  11. Daily Family Interactions among Young Adults in the United States from Latin American, Filipino, East Asian, and European Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuligni, Andrew; Masten, Carrie L.

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to the abundant research on family relationships during adolescence, the nature of family interactions during young adulthood remains comparatively unexamined. The current study explored ethnic differences in young adults' interactions with parents and siblings, the role of other activities in young adults' family interactions, and the…

  12. Empirical redefinition of comprehensive health and well-being in the older adults of the United States

    PubMed Central

    McClintock, Martha K.; Dale, William; Laumann, Edward O.; Waite, Linda

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as a “state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” Despite general acceptance of this comprehensive definition, there has been little rigorous scientific attempt to use it to measure and assess population health. Instead, the dominant model of health is a disease-centered Medical Model (MM), which actively ignores many relevant domains. In contrast to the MM, we approach this issue through a Comprehensive Model (CM) of health consistent with the WHO definition, giving statistically equal consideration to multiple health domains, including medical, physical, psychological, functional, and sensory measures. We apply a data-driven latent class analysis (LCA) to model 54 specific health variables from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), a nationally representative sample of US community-dwelling older adults. We first apply the LCA to the MM, identifying five health classes differentiated primarily by having diabetes and hypertension. The CM identifies a broader range of six health classes, including two “emergent” classes completely obscured by the MM. We find that specific medical diagnoses (cancer and hypertension) and health behaviors (smoking) are far less important than mental health (loneliness), sensory function (hearing), mobility, and bone fractures in defining vulnerable health classes. Although the MM places two-thirds of the US population into “robust health” classes, the CM reveals that one-half belong to less healthy classes, independently associated with higher mortality. This reconceptualization has important implications for medical care delivery, preventive health practices, and resource allocation. PMID:27185911

  13. Civic Engagement in the United States: Roots and Branches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imel, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The adult education and civic education movements are not synonymous, but the two were intertwined during the early years of adult education's formation as a field in the United States. This chapter traces the development of adult civic education in the United States, focusing on the 1920s through the 1950s. First, the roots of civic education…

  14. The Importance of Spousal Education for the Self-Rated Health of Married Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Dustin C.; Hummer, Robert A.; Hayward, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Education's benefits for individuals’ health are well documented, but it is unclear whether health benefits also accrue from the education of others in important social relationships. We assess the extent to which individuals’ own education combines with their spouse's education to influence self-rated health among married persons ages 25 and older in the United States (N = 337,846) with pooled data from the 1997-2010 National Health Interview Survey. Results from age and gender-specific models revealed that own education and spouse's education each share an inverse association with fair/poor self-rated health among married men and women. Controlling for spousal education substantially attenuated the association between individuals’ own education and fair/poor self-rated health and the reduction in this association was greater for married women than married men. The results also suggest that husbands’ education is more important for wives’ self-rated health than vice versa. Spousal education particularly was important for married women ages 45-64. Overall, the results imply that individuals’ own education and spousal education combine to influence self-rated health within marriage. The results highlight the importance of shared resources in marriage for producing health. PMID:24511172

  15. 78 FR 4439 - United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... Antitrust Division United States v. Oklahoma State Chiropractic Independent Physicians Association and Larry..., Stipulation, and Competitive Impact Statement have been filed with the United States District Court for the Northern District of Oklahoma in United States of America v. Oklahoma State Chiropractic...

  16. Hypertension, Abnormal Cholesterol, and High Body Mass Index among Non-Hispanic Asian Adults: United States, 2011-2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... high total cholesterol among non-Hispanic Asian adults did not differ by sex, age, education, or foreign- ... Figure 3 ). The prevalence of high total cholesterol did not differ significantly by sex, age, education, or ...

  17. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended immunization schedule for adults aged 19 years or older - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Carolyn B; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera

    2014-02-01

    Vaccines are recommended for adults on the basis of their age, prior vaccinations, health conditions, lifestyle, occupation, and travel. Reasons for current low levels of vaccination coverage for adult vaccines are multifactorial and include limited awareness among the public about vaccines for adults and gaps in incorporation of regular assessments of vaccine needs and vaccination into routine medical care. Updated standards for immunization of adults were approved by the National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC) in September 2013. These standards acknowledge the current low levels of vaccination coverage among adults and the role that all health-care providers, including those who do not offer all recommended adult vaccines in their practices, have in ensuring that their patients are up-to-date on recommended vaccines. NVAC recommends that providers assess vaccination needs for their patients at each visit, recommend needed vaccines, and then, ideally, offer the vaccine or, if the provider does not stock the needed vaccines, refer the patient to a provider who does vaccinate. Vaccinating providers should also ensure that patients and their referring health-care providers have documentation of the vaccination.

  18. Trends in Esophageal Cancer Survival in United States Adults from 1973 to 2009: A SEER Database Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Njei, Basile; McCarty, Thomas R.; Birk, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Background The rise in incidence of esophageal cancer (EC) in the United States (U.S.) over the last four decades has been well documented; however, data on trends in long-term survival and impact on modern therapies associated with survival is lacking. Methods The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was queried to identify patients with confirmed EC. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to determine independent mortality factors. Results Of 93,167 patients diagnosed with EC between 1973 and 2009, 49% had a histologic diagnosis of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). There was an increase (almost double) in the proportion of patients with adenocarcinoma from the 1970's to 2000's (n = 2,350; 35% to n = 32,212; 61%, p<0.001). Surgery was performed for localized disease in a majority of EC regardless of type (n = 46,683; 89%). Use of surgical treatment increased significantly over the study period (49% to 64%, p<0.001). There was also an increase in overall median survival (6 months versus 10 months, p<0.001) and 5-year survival rate (9% to 22%, p<0.001). Median survival increased consistently for EAC and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) until the 1990's. After this period, median survival of EAC continued to increase more rapidly while SCC remained relatively stable. Conclusion A significant survival improvement in esophageal cancer was seen from 1973 to 2009, largely due to earlier detection at a curative stage and greater utilization of treatment modalities (especially surgery). Despite the rising prevalence, patients with EAC have better long-term survival outcomes than those SCC. PMID:26749521

  19. Prevalence of complex activity limitations among racial/ethnic groups and Hispanic subgroups of adults: United States, 2003-2009.

    PubMed

    Ward, Brian W; Schiller, Jeannine S

    2011-09-01

    This brief has shown that racial and ethnic differences exist in the prevalence of complex activity limitations among adults. Further, within the U.S. Hispanic adult population, a number of significant differences were found in complex activity limitations among Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, and other Hispanic adults—differences that would likely go unnoticed if the Hispanic population were treated as a single group. These disparities in the prevalence of complex activity limitations are further influenced by sex and age.

  20. Developing Cultural Competency in Adult Pre-Service Teachers Helps Diverse Learners: Graduates' Perspectives in the United States of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonnquist, Peg; RB-Banks, Yvonne; Huber, Katie

    2009-01-01

    This study reports the results of an electronic survey and two focus groups that included former Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT), students who took a required multicultural education course. As instructors in a pre-service teaching program for adult learners, we used a matrix of relevant materials to promote cultural competency within the…

  1. What Accounts for Race and Ethnic Differences in Parental Financial Transfers to Adult Children in the United States?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Brent

    2006-01-01

    Financial assistance that parents give to their young adult children is part of the bundle of flows that constitutes intergenerational support. Are there racial and ethnic differences in this financial assistance, and if so, why? Wave 2 data from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 17,996) suggest group differences in both the incidence and…

  2. Unwanted Sex among Young Adults in the United States: The Role of Physical Disability and Cognitive Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haydon, Abigail A.; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2011-01-01

    This study examined associations between unwanted sexual experiences and both physical disability and cognitive performance in a nationally representative sample of young adults. We used data from 11,878 participants (ages 26-32) in Waves I, III, and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Logistic regressions…

  3. Adult Literacy in the United States: A Compendium of Qualitative Data and Interpretive Comments. Research to Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, William B.; Sticht, Thomas G.

    Human cognitive system and information processing theories were used as the theoretical base that frames an interpretation of adult literacy research from World War I (WWI) through 1993. These theoretical perspectives are as follows: (1) literacy learning is grounded in a distinct developmental sequence; and (2) literacy learning is dependent on…

  4. Adult English as a Second Language Students in the United States: Learner Characteristics, Goals, and Academic Writing Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Olga Demin

    2009-01-01

    Adult English as a second language (ESL) students learning English outside of traditional academic settings are an understudied population of second language learners. The purpose of the research reported here is to contribute to meeting the instructional needs of these students more effectively by investigating the relationships between their…

  5. Reports of Parental Maltreatment during Childhood in a United States Population-Based Survey of Homosexual, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corliss, Heather L.; Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined childhood maltreatment among 2917 heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual adults. Homosexual/bisexual men reported higher rates than heterosexual men of childhood emotional and physical maltreatment by their mothers and major physical maltreatment by their fathers. Homosexual/bisexual women reported higher rates of major physical…

  6. Prevalence of Obesity among Adults from Rural and Urban Areas of the United States: Findings from NHANES (2005-2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Befort, Christie A.; Nazir, Niaman; Perri, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Rural residents have higher rates of chronic diseases compared to their urban counterparts, and obesity may be a major contributor to this disparity. This study is the first analysis of obesity prevalence in rural and urban adults using body mass index classification with measured height and weight. In addition, demographic, diet, and…

  7. Prevalence and trends in physical activity among older adults in the United States: A comparison across three national surveys.

    PubMed

    Keadle, Sarah Kozey; McKinnon, Robin; Graubard, Barry I; Troiano, Richard P

    2016-08-01

    This paper examined how many older adults (65+years) are meeting physical activity (PA) Guidelines (PAG; 150min/week of moderate-to-vigorous PA) using data from three leading national surveys (NHANES, BRFSS and NHIS). The proportion of individuals meeting aerobic PAG was determined for the most recent cycle available for each survey (NHANES 2011-12, NHIS and BRFSS 2013). We also assessed whether PAG adherence has changed over time. Predicted margins from multinomial logistic regression were computed after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity and gender and sample weights. The proportion of older adults meeting PAG was 27.3% for NHANES, 35.8% for NHIS and 44.3% for BRFSS. Across all surveys, men reported higher levels of activity than women, Non-Hispanic whites reported higher levels than Non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, activity declined with age and was lower in those with functional limitations, all P<0.05. The proportion of older adults meeting PAG in the NHIS survey, the only survey where PA questions remained the same over time, increased from 25.7% in 1998 to 35.8% in 2013 (P<0.01). Point-estimates for activity levels are different between surveys but they consistently identify sub-groups who are less active. Although older adults are reporting more activity over time, adherence to aerobic and strength training PAG remains low in this population and there is a need for effective interventions to prevent age-related declines in PA and address health disparities among older adults. PMID:27196146

  8. Adolescent and young adult health in the United States in the past decade: little improvement and young adults remain worse off than adolescents.

    PubMed

    Park, M Jane; Scott, Jazmyn T; Adams, Sally H; Brindis, Claire D; Irwin, Charles E

    2014-07-01

    Adolescence and young adulthood are unique developmental periods that present opportunities and challenges for improving health. Health at this age can affect health throughout the lifespan. This review has two aims: (1) to examine trends in key indicators in outcomes, behaviors, and health care over the past decade for U.S. adolescents and young adults; and (2) to compare U.S. adolescents and young adults on these indicators. The review also assesses sociodemographic differences in trends and current indicators. Guided by our aims, previous reviews, and national priorities, the present review identified 21 sources of nationally representative data to examine trends in 53 areas and comparisons of adolescents and young adults in 42 areas. Most health and health care indicators have changed little over the past decade. Encouraging exceptions were found for adolescents and young adults in unintentional injury, assault, and tobacco use, and, for adolescents, in sexual/reproductive health. Trends in violence and chronic disease and related behaviors were mixed. Review of current indicators demonstrates that young adulthood continues to entail greater risk and worse outcomes than adolescence. Young adults fared worse on about two-thirds of the indicators examined. Differences among sociodemographic subgroups persisted for both trends and current indicators.

  9. Emergency Department Visits Related to Schizophrenia Among Adults Aged 18-64: United States, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Albert, Michael; McCaig, Linda F

    2015-09-01

    ED care is important for the treatment of acute presentations of schizophrenia and may serve as a safety net for schizophrenic patients not otherwise receiving care (4,5). This analysis of National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) data indicates that during 2009-2011, an average of 382,000 ED visits related to schizophrenia occurred each year among adults aged 18-64, corresponding to an overall visit rate of 20.1 per 10,000 adults. A visit having a first-, second-, or third-listed diagnosis of schizophrenia (i.e., whether the visit was directly or indirectly related to schizophrenia) was included in the analysis to provide a broader description of ED use by these patients. The distribution of the primary diagnosis of visits related to schizophrenia was: schizophrenia (58.8%), another mental disorder (15.4%), and a nonmental health disorder (25.7%) (data not shown). Among adults aged 18-64, the rate for ED visits related to schizophrenia was about twice as high for men as for women. Public insurance (Medicaid, Medicare, or dual Medicare and Medicaid) was more frequently the primary expected source of payment for ED visits related to schizophrenia compared with ED visits not related to schizophrenia. ED visits related to schizophrenia were more frequently made by patients who were homeless compared with ED visits not related to schizophrenia. About one-third of ED visits related to schizophrenia resulted in a hospital admission, and another 16.7% resulted in a transfer to a psychiatric hospital--both higher than the percentages for ED visits not related to schizophrenia. One of the goals of Healthy People 2020 is to improve mental health through prevention and by ensuring access to appropriate, quality mental health services (6). National data on the rates and characteristics of ED visits related to schizophrenia will help policymakers and practitioners address disparities and meet this goal.

  10. Inverse Association between Diabetes and Altitude: A Cross Sectional Study in the Adult Population of the United States

    PubMed Central

    Woolcott, Orison O.; Castillo, Oscar A.; Gutierrez, Cesar; Elashoff, Robert M.; Stefanovski, Darko; Bergman, Richard N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether geographical elevation is inversely associated with diabetes, while adjusting for multiple risk factors. Design and Methods This is a cross-sectional analysis of publicly available online data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2009. Final dataset included 285,196 US adult subjects. Odds ratios were obtained from multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analysis. Results Among US adults (≥20 years old), the odds ratio for diabetes were 1.00 between 0−499 m of altitude (reference), 0.95 (95% confidence interval, 0.90 to 1.01) between 500−1,499 m, and 0.88 (0.81 to 0.96) between 1,500−3,500 m, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, ethnicity, self-reported fruit and vegetable consumption, self-reported physical activity, current smoking status, level of education, income, health status, employment status, and county-level information on migration rate, urbanization, and latitude. The inverse association between altitude and diabetes in the US was found among men [0.84 (0.76 to 0.94)], but not women [1.09 (0.97 to 1.22)]. Conclusions Among US adults, living at high altitude (1,500−3,500 m) is associated with lower odds of having diabetes than living between 0−499 m, while adjusting for multiple risk factors. Our findings suggest that geographical elevation may be an important factor linked to diabetes. PMID:24890677

  11. The influence of parental divorce and alcohol abuse on adult offspring risk of lifetime suicide attempt in the United States.

    PubMed

    Alonzo, Dana; Thompson, Ronald G; Stohl, Mahlki; Hasin, Deborah

    2014-05-01

    The influences of parental divorce and alcohol abuse on adult offspring lifetime suicide attempt have not been examined in national data. This study analyzed data from the 2001-2002 NESARC to estimate main and interaction effects of parental divorce and alcohol abuse on lifetime suicide attempt. Adjusted for controls, parental divorce and parental alcohol abuse independently increased odds of lifetime suicide attempt. The effect of parental divorce was not significantly moderated by parental alcohol abuse. Further research is needed to examine whether additional parental and offspring psychiatric and substance use covariates attenuate the association between parental divorce and lifetime suicide attempt.

  12. 76 FR 23839 - United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... Federal Register on December 28, 2010, see United States, et al. v. Lucasfilm Ltd., 75 FR 81651; and... Antitrust Division United States v. Lucasfilm Ltd.; Public Comments and Response on Proposed Final Judgment Pursuant to the Antitrust Procedures and Penalties Act, 15 U.S.C. 16(b)-(h), the United States...

  13. Hispanic older adult mortality in the United States: new estimates and an assessment of factors shaping the Hispanic paradox.

    PubMed

    Lariscy, Joseph T; Hummer, Robert A; Hayward, Mark D

    2015-02-01

    Hispanics make up a rapidly growing proportion of the U.S. older adult population, so a firm grasp of their mortality patterns is paramount for identifying racial/ethnic differences in life chances in the population as a whole. Documentation of Hispanic mortality is also essential for assessing whether the Hispanic paradox--the similarity in death rates between Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites despite Hispanics' socioeconomic disadvantage--characterizes all adult Hispanics or just some age, gender, nativity, or national-origin subgroups. We estimate age-/sex- and cause-specific mortality rate ratios and life expectancy for foreign-born and U.S.-born Hispanics, foreign-born and U.S.-born Mexican Americans, non-Hispanic blacks, and non-Hispanic whites ages 65 and older using the 1989-2006 National Health Interview Survey Linked Mortality Files. Results affirm that Hispanic mortality estimates are favorable relative to those of blacks and whites, but particularly so for foreign-born Hispanics and smoking-related causes. However, if not for Hispanics' socioeconomic disadvantage, their mortality levels would be even more favorable. PMID:25550142

  14. Hispanic older adult mortality in the United States: new estimates and an assessment of factors shaping the Hispanic paradox.

    PubMed

    Lariscy, Joseph T; Hummer, Robert A; Hayward, Mark D

    2015-02-01

    Hispanics make up a rapidly growing proportion of the U.S. older adult population, so a firm grasp of their mortality patterns is paramount for identifying racial/ethnic differences in life chances in the population as a whole. Documentation of Hispanic mortality is also essential for assessing whether the Hispanic paradox--the similarity in death rates between Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites despite Hispanics' socioeconomic disadvantage--characterizes all adult Hispanics or just some age, gender, nativity, or national-origin subgroups. We estimate age-/sex- and cause-specific mortality rate ratios and life expectancy for foreign-born and U.S.-born Hispanics, foreign-born and U.S.-born Mexican Americans, non-Hispanic blacks, and non-Hispanic whites ages 65 and older using the 1989-2006 National Health Interview Survey Linked Mortality Files. Results affirm that Hispanic mortality estimates are favorable relative to those of blacks and whites, but particularly so for foreign-born Hispanics and smoking-related causes. However, if not for Hispanics' socioeconomic disadvantage, their mortality levels would be even more favorable.

  15. Favorite foods of older adults living in the Black Belt Region of the United States. Influences of ethnicity, gender, and education.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongbin; Buys, David R; Judd, Suzanne E; Gower, Barbara A; Locher, Julie L

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine food preferences of older adults living in the Black Belt Region of the Southeastern United States and the extent to which food preferences vary according to ethnicity, gender, and educational level. 270 older adults who were receiving home health services were interviewed in their home and were queried regarding their favorite foods. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample. Chi-square analysis or one-way analyses of variance was used, where appropriate, in bivariate analyses, and logistic regression models were used in multivariate analyses. A total of 1,857 favorite foods were reported (mean per person=6.88). The top ten favorite foods reported included: (1) chicken (of any kind), (2) collard greens, (3) cornbread, (4) green or string beans, (5) fish (fried catfish is implied), (6) turnip greens, (7) potatoes, (8) apples, (9) tomatoes, fried chicken, and eggs tied, and (10) steak and ice cream tied. African Americans and those with lower levels of education were more likely to report traditional Southern foods among their favorite foods and had a more limited repertoire of favorite foods. Findings have implications for understanding health disparities that may be associated with diet and development of culturally-appropriate nutrition interventions.

  16. Favorite Foods of Older Adults Living in the Black Belt Region of the United States: Influences of Ethnicity, Gender, and Education

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yongbin; Buys, David R.; Judd, Suzanne E.; Gower, Barbara A.; Locher, Julie L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine food preferences of older adults living in the Black Belt Region of the Southeastern United States and the extent to which food preferences vary according to ethnicity, gender, and educational level. 270 older adults who were receiving home health services were interviewed in their home and were queried regarding their favorite foods. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample. Chi-square analysis or one-way analyses of variance was used, where appropriate, in bivariate analyses, and logistic regression models were used in multivariate analyses. A total of 1,857 favorite foods were reported (mean per person = 6.88). The top ten favorite foods reported included: 1) chicken (of any kind), 2) collard greens, 3) cornbread, 4) green or string beans, 5) fish (fried catfish is implied), 6) turnip greens, 7) potatoes, 8) apples, 9) tomatoes, fried chicken, and eggs tied, and 10) steak and ice cream tied. African Americans and those with lower levels of education were more likely to report traditional Southern foods among their favorite foods and had a more limited repertoire of favorite foods. Findings have implications for understanding health disparities that may be associated with diet and development of culturally-appropriate nutrition interventions. PMID:23262296

  17. Medical advice and diabetes self-management reported by Mexican-American, Black- and White-non-Hispanic adults across the United States

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetes has reached epidemic proportions in the United States, particularly among minorities, and if improperly managed can lead to medical complications and death. Healthcare providers play vital roles in communicating standards of care, which include guidance on diabetes self-management. The background of the client may play a role in the patient-provider communication process. The aim of this study was to determine the association between medical advice and diabetes self care management behaviors for a nationally representative sample of adults with diabetes. Moreover, we sought to establish whether or not race/ethnicity was a modifier for reported medical advice received and diabetes self-management behaviors. Methods We analyzed data from 654 adults aged 21 years and over with diagnosed diabetes [130 Mexican-Americans; 224 Black non-Hispanics; and, 300 White non-Hispanics] and an additional 161 with 'undiagnosed diabetes' [N = 815(171 MA, 281 BNH and 364 WNH)] who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate whether medical advice to engage in particular self-management behaviors (reduce fat or calories, increase physical activity or exercise, and control or lose weight) predicted actually engaging in the particular behavior and whether the impact of medical advice on engaging in the behavior differed by race/ethnicity. Additional analyses examined whether these relationships were maintained when other factors potentially related to engaging in diabetes self management such as participants' diabetes education, sociodemographics and physical characteristics were controlled. Sample weights were used to account for the complex sample design. Results Although medical advice to the patient is considered a standard of care for diabetes, approximately one-third of the sample reported not receiving dietary, weight management, or physical activity self

  18. A focus group study of healthy eating knowledge, practices, and barriers among adult and adolescent immigrants and refugees in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Immigrants and refugees to the United States exhibit lower dietary quality than the general population, but reasons for this disparity are poorly understood. In this study, we describe the meanings of food, health and wellbeing through the reported dietary preferences, beliefs, and practices of adults and adolescents from four immigrant and refugee communities in the Midwestern United States. Methods Using a community based participatory research approach, we conducted a qualitative research study with 16 audio-recorded focus groups with adults and adolescents who self-identified as Mexican, Somali, Cambodian, and Sudanese. Focus group topics were eating patterns, perceptions of healthy eating in the country of origin and in the U.S., how food decisions are made and who in the family is involved in food preparation and decisions, barriers and facilitators to healthy eating, and gender and generational differences in eating practices. A team of investigators and community research partners analyzed all transcripts in full before reducing data to codes through consensus. Broader themes were created to encompass multiple codes. Results Results show that participants have similar perspectives about the barriers (personal, environmental, structural) and benefits of healthy eating (e.g., ‘junk food is bad’). We identified four themes consistent across all four communities: Ways of Knowing about Healthy Eating (‘Meanings;’ ‘Motivations;’ ‘Knowledge Sources’), Eating Practices (‘Family Practices;’ ‘Americanized Eating Practices’ ‘Eating What’s Easy’), Barriers (‘Taste and Cravings;’ ‘Easy Access to Junk Food;’ ‘Role of Family;’ Cultural Foods and Traditions;’ ‘Time;’ ‘Finances’), and Preferences for Intervention (‘Family Counseling;’ Community Education;’ and ‘Healthier Traditional Meals.’). Some generational (adult vs. adolescents) and gender differences were observed. Conclusions Our study

  19. The association of recent incarceration and health outcomes among HIV-infected adults receiving care in the United States.

    PubMed

    Nasrullah, Muazzam; Frazier, Emma; Fagan, Jennifer; Hardnett, Felicia; Skarbinski, Jacek

    2016-09-12

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe factors associated with incarceration as well as the association between recent incarceration and HIV-related sexual risk behaviors, access to insurance, healthcare utilization (emergency department (ED) and hospital use), antiretroviral therapy (ART) prescription, and viral suppression. Design/methodology/approach Using 2009-2010 data from a cross-sectional, nationally representative three-stage sample of HIV-infected adults receiving care in the USA, the authors assessed the demographic characteristics, healthcare utilization, and clinical outcomes of HIV-infected persons who had been recently incarcerated (detention for>24 hours in the past year) using bivariate analyses. The authors used multivariable logistic regression to examine associations of recent incarceration with insurance status as well as clinical and behavioral outcomes. Findings An estimated 22,949 (95 percent confidence interval (CI) 19,062-26,836) or 5.4 percent (CI: 4.7-6.1) of all HIV-infected persons receiving care were recently incarcerated. Factors associated with recent incarceration were age <50 years, being a smoker, having high school diploma or less, being homeless, income at or below the poverty guidelines, having a geometric mean of CD4 count <500 cells/ μL, and using drugs in the past 12 months. Results from multivariable modeling indicated that incarcerated persons were more likely to use ED services, and to have been hospitalized, and less likely to have achieved viral suppression. Originality/value Recent incarceration independently predicted worse health outcomes and greater use of emergency services among HIV-infected adults currently in HIV care. Options to improve the HIV continuum of care, including pre-enrollment for healthcare coverage and discharge planning, may lead to better health outcomes for HIV-infected inmates post-release.

  20. Relationships of Disability with Age Among Adults Aged 50 to 85: Evidence from the United States, England and Continental Europe

    PubMed Central

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Reinhardt, Jan D.; Siegrist, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To extend existing research on the US health disadvantage relative to Europe by studying the relationships of disability with age from midlife to old age in the US and four European regions (England/Northern and Western Europe/Southern Europe/Eastern Europe) including their wealth-related differences, using a flexible statistical approach to model the age-functions. Methods We used data from three studies on aging, with nationally representative samples of adults aged 50 to 85 from 15 countries (N = 48225): the US-American Health and Retirement Study (HRS), the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) and the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Outcomes were mobility limitations and limitations in instrumental activities of daily living. We applied fractional polynomials of age to determine best fitting functional forms for age on disability in each region, while controlling for socio-demographic characteristics and important risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, obesity, smoking, physical inactivity). Results Findings showed high levels of disability in the US with small age-related changes between 50 and 85. Levels of disability were generally lower in Eastern Europe, followed by England and Southern Europe and lowest in Northern and Western Europe. In these latter countries age-related increases of disability, though, were steeper than in the US, especially in Eastern and Southern Europe. For all countries and at all ages, disability levels were higher among adults with low wealth compared to those with high wealth, with largest wealth-related differences among those in early old age in the USA. Conclusions This paper illustrates considerable variations of disability and its relationship with age. It supports the hypothesis that less developed social policies and more pronounced socioeconomic inequalities are related to higher levels of disability and an earlier onset of disability. PMID:23977172

  1. The association of recent incarceration and health outcomes among HIV-infected adults receiving care in the United States.

    PubMed

    Nasrullah, Muazzam; Frazier, Emma; Fagan, Jennifer; Hardnett, Felicia; Skarbinski, Jacek

    2016-09-12

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe factors associated with incarceration as well as the association between recent incarceration and HIV-related sexual risk behaviors, access to insurance, healthcare utilization (emergency department (ED) and hospital use), antiretroviral therapy (ART) prescription, and viral suppression. Design/methodology/approach Using 2009-2010 data from a cross-sectional, nationally representative three-stage sample of HIV-infected adults receiving care in the USA, the authors assessed the demographic characteristics, healthcare utilization, and clinical outcomes of HIV-infected persons who had been recently incarcerated (detention for>24 hours in the past year) using bivariate analyses. The authors used multivariable logistic regression to examine associations of recent incarceration with insurance status as well as clinical and behavioral outcomes. Findings An estimated 22,949 (95 percent confidence interval (CI) 19,062-26,836) or 5.4 percent (CI: 4.7-6.1) of all HIV-infected persons receiving care were recently incarcerated. Factors associated with recent incarceration were age <50 years, being a smoker, having high school diploma or less, being homeless, income at or below the poverty guidelines, having a geometric mean of CD4 count <500 cells/ μL, and using drugs in the past 12 months. Results from multivariable modeling indicated that incarcerated persons were more likely to use ED services, and to have been hospitalized, and less likely to have achieved viral suppression. Originality/value Recent incarceration independently predicted worse health outcomes and greater use of emergency services among HIV-infected adults currently in HIV care. Options to improve the HIV continuum of care, including pre-enrollment for healthcare coverage and discharge planning, may lead to better health outcomes for HIV-infected inmates post-release. PMID:27548016

  2. Invariance of the Measurement Model Underlying the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III in the United States and Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Stephen C.; Lange, Rael T.; Weiss, Lawrence G.; Saklofske, Donald H.

    2008-01-01

    A measurement model is invoked whenever a psychological interpretation is placed on test scores. When stated in detail, a measurement model provides a description of the numerical and theoretical relationship between observed scores and the corresponding latent variables or constructs. In this way, the hypothesis that similar meaning can be…

  3. Food Assistance: Efforts To Control Fraud and Abuse in the Child and Adult Care Food Program Should Be Strengthened. United States General Accounting Office Report to Congressional Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Robert E.

    The Child and Adult Care Food Program provides over $1.5 billion in benefits annually to children and adults in day care. In order to address the longstanding problems of fraud and abuse present in the program, state agencies have been charged with the responsibility for implementing Food and Nutrition Service's (FNS) regulations to prevent and…

  4. Classic psychedelic use is associated with reduced psychological distress and suicidality in the United States adult population.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Peter S; Thorne, Christopher B; Clark, C Brendan; Coombs, David W; Johnson, Matthew W

    2015-03-01

    Mental health problems are endemic across the globe, and suicide, a strong corollary of poor mental health, is a leading cause of death. Classic psychedelic use may occasion lasting improvements in mental health, but the effects of classic psychedelic use on suicidality are unknown. We evaluated the relationships of classic psychedelic use with psychological distress and suicidality among over 190,000 USA adult respondents pooled from the last five available years of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2008-2012) while controlling for a range of covariates. Lifetime classic psychedelic use was associated with a significantly reduced odds of past month psychological distress (weighted odds ratio (OR)=0.81 (0.72-0.91)), past year suicidal thinking (weighted OR=0.86 (0.78-0.94)), past year suicidal planning (weighted OR=0.71 (0.54-0.94)), and past year suicide attempt (weighted OR=0.64 (0.46-0.89)), whereas lifetime illicit use of other drugs was largely associated with an increased likelihood of these outcomes. These findings indicate that classic psychedelics may hold promise in the prevention of suicide, supporting the view that classic psychedelics' most highly restricted legal status should be reconsidered to facilitate scientific study, and suggesting that more extensive clinical research with classic psychedelics is warranted. PMID:25586402

  5. Rationale for periodic reporting on the use of adult clinical preventive services of public health priority--United States.

    PubMed

    Coates, Ralph J; Yoon, Paula W; Zaza, Stephanie; Ogden, Lydia; Thacker, Stephen B

    2012-06-15

    This supplement introduces a CDC initiative to monitor and report periodically on the use of a set of selected clinical preventive services in the U.S. adult population in the context of recent national initiatives to improve access to and use of such services. Increasing the use of these services has the potential to lead to substantial reductions in the burden of illness, death, and disability and to lower treatment costs. The majority of clinical preventive services are provided by the health-care sector, and public health agencies play important roles in helping to support increases in the use of these services (e.g., by identifying and implementing policies that are effective in increasing use of the services and by collaborating with stakeholders to conduct programs to improve use). Recent health reform initiatives, including efforts to increase the accessibility and affordability of preventive services, fund community prevention programs, and improve the use of health information technologies, offer opportunities to enhance use of preventive services. This supplement provides baseline information on a set of selected clinical preventive services before implementation of these recent reforms and discusses opportunities to increase the use of such services. This information can help public health practitioners collaborate with other stakeholders that have key roles to play in improving public health (e.g., employers, health plans, health professionals, and voluntary associations), understand the potential benefits of the recommended services, address the problem of underuse, and identify opportunities to apply effective strategies to improve use and foster accountability among stakeholders.

  6. Gender Differences in Weight-Related Attitudes and Behaviors Among Overweight and Obese Adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Sandra A; Lv, Nan; Xiao, Lan; Ma, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Few studies have used nationally representative data to focus specifically on gender differences in weight-related outcomes. This article examines gender differences in weight-related outcomes across the body mass index (BMI) spectrum in overweight and obese adults. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010 was analyzed. Weight-related outcomes were accurate weight perception, weight dissatisfaction, attempted weight loss, successful weight loss, and weight loss strategies. Compared with women, overweight and obese men were less likely to have accurate weight perception (odds ratio [OR] = 0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30-0.44), weight dissatisfaction (OR = 0.39; 95% CI = 0.32-0.47), and attempted weight loss (OR = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.48-0.63). The modifying effect of gender on these associations decreased as BMI increased. By BMI 35, the mean probability of women and men to have accurate weight perception and weight dissatisfaction was 90%; attempted weight loss was 60% (women) and 50% (men). At lower BMIs, men had up to 40% less probability than women for these weight loss outcomes. Men who attempted weight loss were more likely than women to lose and maintain ≥10 lb over 1 year (OR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.20-1.65) and increase exercise and eat less fat as weight loss strategies; women were more likely to join weight loss programs, take prescription diet pills, and follow special diets. A need exists for male-specific interventions to improve overweight and obese men's likelihood for accurate weight perception, attempted weight loss, and ultimately, successful weight loss. PMID:25595019

  7. Overweight duration in older adults and cancer risk: a study of cohorts in Europe and the United States.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Melina; Freisling, Heinz; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Kee, Frank; O'Doherty, Mark George; Ordóñez-Mena, José Manuel; Wilsgaard, Tom; May, Anne Maria; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Hendrik Bas; Tjønneland, Anne; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Boffetta, Paolo; Bray, Freddie; Jenab, Mazda; Soerjomataram, Isabelle

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that cancer risk related to overweight and obesity is mediated by time and might be better approximated by using life years lived with excess weight. In this study we aimed to assess the impact of overweight duration and intensity in older adults on the risk of developing different forms of cancer. Study participants from seven European and one US cohort study with two or more weight assessments during follow-up were included (n = 329,576). Trajectories of body mass index (BMI) across ages were estimated using a quadratic growth model; overweight duration (BMI ≥ 25) and cumulative weighted overweight years were calculated. In multivariate Cox models and random effects analyses, a longer duration of overweight was significantly associated with the incidence of obesity-related cancer [overall hazard ratio (HR) per 10-year increment: 1.36; 95 % CI 1.12-1.60], but also increased the risk of postmenopausal breast and colorectal cancer. Additionally accounting for the degree of overweight further increased the risk of obesity-related cancer. Risks associated with a longer overweight duration were higher in men than in women and were attenuated by smoking. For postmenopausal breast cancer, increased risks were confined to women who never used hormone therapy. Overall, 8.4 % of all obesity-related cancers could be attributed to overweight at any age. These findings provide further insights into the role of overweight duration in the etiology of cancer and indicate that weight control is relevant at all ages. This knowledge is vital for the development of effective and targeted cancer prevention strategies. PMID:27300353

  8. Elevated risk for squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva among adults with AIDS in the United States.

    PubMed

    Guech-Ongey, Mercy; Engels, Eric A; Goedert, James J; Biggar, Robert J; Mbulaiteye, Sam M

    2008-06-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva (SCCC) has been associated with HIV infection in equatorial Africa, but the evidence for association with HIV in developed countries, where SCCC is rarer, is controversial. We investigated the risk for SCCC and other eye cancers in the updated U.S. HIV/AIDS Cancer Match Registry Study. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) to estimate excess risk for SCCC, primary ocular lymphoma, ocular Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and other eye tumors among 491, 048 adults (aged > 15 years or older) with HIV/AIDS diagnosed from 1980 to 2004. We calculated relative proportions (per 10(5)) to gain insight into risk factors. We identified 73 eye cancers (15 SCCC, 35 primary ocular lymphoma, 17 ocular KS and 6 other). Overall SIRs were elevated for SCCC (SIR, 12.2, 95% CI 6.8-20.2), primary ocular lymphoma (21.7, 95% CI 15.1-30.2) and ocular KS (109, 95% CI 63.5-175). Risk for SCCC was elevated regardless of HIV acquisition category, CD4 lymphocyte count and time relative to AIDS-onset. Relative proportions of SCCC risk were highest with age >or=50 (8/10(5)), Hispanic ethnicity (7/10(5)) and residence in regions with high-solar ultraviolet radiation (10/10(5)). We show significantly increased incidence of SCCC among persons with HIV/AIDS in the U.S. The associations with age and geography are in accord with etiological role for ultraviolet radiation in SCCC.

  9. United States West Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On Thursday (Feb. 14, 2002), the cloud cover that often overshadows the western United States this time of year broke to provide those at the Olympic Games with a beautiful day. The nearly cloud-free day was captured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASAs Terra spacecraft. A thick layer of snow blankets northernmost Nevada, northern Utah, most of Idaho and western Wyoming. The snow surrounds and highlights Utahs Great Salt Lake. Just south of the lake, clouds can be seen hovering over southern Utah. (In general, clouds appear streaky and uneven on a satellite image, and snow cover appears solid with definable borders.) North of the Great Salt Lake, one can clearly discern the light gray Northern Rocky Mountains cutting through Idaho and up into Canada. Moving southwest, the spine-like Sierra Nevada mountains separate the greenery of Southern California from the brown deserts of Arizona and Nevada. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  10. Metals in blood and urine, and thyroid function among adults in the United States 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Yorita Christensen, Krista L

    2013-11-01

    The thyroid is integral to regulation of development and metabolism. Certain metals have been shown to affect thyroid function in occupationally exposed persons, but few studies have been conducted in the general population. This study evaluates the association between biomarkers of metal exposure and thyroid hormones in the US population. Analyses included adults participating in the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, with no history of thyroid disease or use of thyroid medications, and with data on metals in blood (lead, cadmium and mercury) and urine (lead, cadmium, mercury, barium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, antimony, thallium, tungsten and uranium), and thyroid hormones (TSH, free and total T3 and T4) in serum (N=1587). Multivariate linear regression was used to model the association between thyroid hormone levels, and metals in either urine (creatinine-adjusted) or blood. Metal concentrations were considered as both continuous and categorical variables. Models were adjusted for: age, sex, race, BMI, serum lipids, serum cotinine, pregnancy and menopausal status, and use of selected medications. Few participants (<5%) had free T3, free T4, or TSH levels outside the reference range. However, 9.2% (SE=1.2%) had low T3 and 9.4% (SE=1.1%) had low T4. Metals were detected in nearly all blood and urine samples, with the highest levels seen for urinary molybdenum (median 42.5μg/L). When including all blood metals, mercury was associated with decreases in T3 and T4, while cadmium was associated with decreased TSH. Urinary cadmium was associated with increases in both T3 and T4 (models including all metals measured in urine). Urinary thallium and barium were associated with decreased T4 (both) and T3 (barium). For TSH, cesium was associated with decreased, and tungsten with increased levels. Given the high prevalence of exposure to metals, associations of the size reported here could indicate an appreciable contribution of metals exposure to

  11. Health Care Access and Utilization Among Adults Aged 18-64, by Race and Hispanic Origin: United States, 2013 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Michael E; Ward, Brian W; Adams, Patricia F

    2015-07-01

    In 2014, U.S. adults could buy a private health insurance plan through the Health Insurance Marketplace or state-based exchanges established as part of the Affordable Care Act. Moreover, some states opted to expand Medicaid coverage to low-income adults. Data from the 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) are used to describe recent changes in health insurance coverage and selected measures of health care access and utilization for adults aged 18–64, by race and Hispanic origin.

  12. Computer Use in the United States: 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kominski, Robert

    1988-01-01

    This report provides statistical information on computer use in the United States in 1984, including home, work, and school use, and use according to socioeconomic status, race, and sex. The data show that over 15 million American adults owned home computers, but only 53% actually use them. About 8% of U.S. households, or 6.98 million, had a…

  13. Hospitalizations for Alcohol and Drug Overdoses in Young Adults Ages 18–24 in the United States, 1999–2008: Results From the Nationwide Inpatient Sample

    PubMed Central

    White, Aaron M.; Hingson, Ralph W.; Pan, I-jen; yi, Hsiao-ye

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Recent reports indicate an increase in rates of hospitalizations for drug overdoses in the United States. The role of alcohol in hospitalizations for drug overdoses remains unclear. Excessive consumption of alcohol and drugs is prevalent in young adults ages 18–24. The present study explores rates and costs of inpatient hospital stays for alcohol overdoses, drug overdoses, and their co-occurrence in young adults ages 18–24 and changes in these rates between 1999 and 2008. Method: Data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample were used to estimate numbers, rates, and costs of inpatient hospital stays stemming from alcohol overdoses (and their subcategories, alcohol poisonings and excessive consumption of alcohol), drug overdoses (and their subcategories, drug poisonings and nondependent abuse of drugs), and their co-occurrence in 18- to 24-year-olds. Results: Hospitalization rates for alcohol overdoses alone increased 25% from 1999 to 2008, reaching 29,412 cases in 2008 at a cost of $266 million. Hospitalization rates for drug overdoses alone increased 55%, totaling 113,907 cases in 2008 at a cost of $737 million. Hospitalization rates for combined alcohol and drug overdoses increased 76%, with 29,202 cases in 2008 at a cost of $198 million. Conclusions: Rates of hospitalizations for alcohol overdoses, drug overdoses, and their combination all increased from 1999 to 2008 among 18- to 24-year-olds. The cost of such hospitalizations now exceeds $1.2 billion annually. The steepest increase occurred among cases of combined alcohol and drug overdoses. Stronger efforts are needed to educate medical practitioners and the public about the risk of overdoses, particularly when alcohol is combined with other drugs. PMID:21906505

  14. Reading: United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Rose-Marie

    1983-01-01

    An exploration of the increasingly important role of linguistics in literacy research and instruction reviews literature on reading comprehension, written language, orthography, metalinguistics, classroom language use, reading disabilities, native tongues, nonstandard dialects, bilingual education, adult literacy, and second-language reading. (86…

  15. Multidimensional religious involvement and tobacco smoking patterns over 9-10 years: A prospective study of middle-aged adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Zinzi D; Slopen, Natalie; Albert, Michelle; Williams, David R

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between multiple dimensions of religious involvement and transitions of tobacco smoking abstinence, persistence, cessation and relapse over 9-10 years of follow-up in a national sample of adults in the United States. Using data provided at baseline and follow-up, participants were categorized as non-smokers, persistent smokers, ex-smokers, and relapsed smokers. Religious involvement over the two time points were categorized into combinations of "high" and "low" involvement within the domains of (a) religious attendance, (b) religious importance, (c) spiritual importance, (d) religious/spiritual comfort seeking, and (e) religious/spiritual decision-making. High levels of religious involvement across five dimensions (religious attendance, religious importance, spiritual importance, religious/spiritual comfort-seeking, and religious/spiritual decision-making) were associated with lower odds of being a persistent smoker or ex-smoker. Religious involvement was not associated with smoking cessation among smokers at baseline. Interventions to increase smoking abstinence may be more effective if they draw on ties to religious and spiritual organizations and beliefs. Meanwhile, religious involvement is unlikely to affect smoking cessation effectiveness.

  16. 7 CFR 1160.104 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true United States. 1160.104 Section 1160.104 Agriculture... Definitions § 1160.104 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous states in the continental United States and the District of Columbia, except that United States means the 50 states of the United......

  17. 7 CFR 1160.104 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States. 1160.104 Section 1160.104 Agriculture... Definitions § 1160.104 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous states in the continental United States and the District of Columbia, except that United States means the 50 states of the United......

  18. Landforms of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in landforms of the United States with a nontechnical introduction to the subject. Separate sections examine deposital versus erosional landforms in the central stable region of the United States, the Appalachian Highlands, the Ozark Region,…

  19. Climates of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, John L.

    This document is designed to provide basic information about the climates of the United States and the causes of these climates. Events of interest in the climatological history of the United States are described and illustrated by many maps, charts and diagrams. The booklet has three major parts. Part I discusses climate and climate control in…

  20. State Variations in United States Divorce Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenelon, Bill

    1971-01-01

    The "frontier atmosphere" explanation of high divorce rates in western areas of the United States was partially vindicated when comparisons were made between divorce rates in states having high migration rates and lower social costs with those states having low migration rates and higher social costs. (Author/CG)

  1. Impact of diabetes mellitus on risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality: Evidence on health outcomes and antidiabetic treatment in United States adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Longjian; Simon, Barbara; Shi, Jinggaofu; Mallhi, Arshpreet Kaur; Eisen, Howard J

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the epidemic of diabetes mellitus (DM) and its impact on mortality from all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and to test the effect of antidiabetic therapy on the mortality in United States adults. METHODS The analysis included a randomized population sample of 272149 subjects ages ≥ 18 years who participated in the National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) in 2000-2009. Chronic conditions (hypertension, DM and CVD) were classified by participants’ self-reports of physician diagnosis. NHIS-Mortality Linked Files, and NHIS-Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Linkage Files on prescribed medicines for patients with DM were used to test the research questions. χ2, Poisson and Cox’s regression models were applied in data analysis. RESULTS Of all participants, 22305 (8.2%) had DM. The prevalence of DM significantly increased from 2000 to 2009 in all age groups (P < 0.001). Within an average 7.39 (SD = 3) years of follow-up, male DM patients had 1.56 times higher risk of death from all-cause (HR = 1.56, 95%CI: 1.49-1.64), 1.72 times higher from heart disease [1.72 (1.53-1.93)], 1.48 times higher from cerebrovascular disease [1.48 (1.18-1.85)], and 1.67 times higher from CVD [1.67 (1.51-1.86)] than subjects without DM, respectively. Similar results were observed in females. In males, 10% of DM patients did not use any antidiabetic medications, 38.1% used antidiabetic monotherapy, and 51.9% used ≥ 2 antidiabetic medications. These corresponding values were 10.3%, 40.4% and 49.4% in females. A significant protective effect of metformin monotherapy or combination therapy (except for insulin) on all-cause mortality and a protective but non-significant effect on CVD mortality were observed. CONCLUSION This is the first study using data from multiple linkage files to confirm a significant increased prevalence of DM in the last decade in the United States. Patients with DM have significantly higher risk of death from all-cause and CVD than those without

  2. The Effects of Smoking-Related Television Advertising on Smoking and Intentions to Quit Among Adults in the United States: 1999–2007

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoonsang; Choi, Young Ku; Szczypka, Glen; Wakefield, Melanie; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether state-sponsored antitobacco advertisements are associated with reduced adult smoking, and interactions between smoking-related advertising types. Methods. We measured mean exposure to smoking-related advertisements with television ratings for the top-75 US media markets from 1999 to 2007. We combined these data with individual-level Current Population Surveys Tobacco Use Supplement data and state tobacco control policy data. Results. Higher exposure to state-sponsored, Legacy, and pharmaceutical advertisements was associated with less smoking; higher exposure to tobacco industry advertisements was associated with more smoking. Higher exposure to state- and Legacy-sponsored advertisements was positively associated with intentions to quit and having made a past-year quit attempt; higher exposure to ads for pharmaceutical cessation aids was negatively associated with having made a quit attempt. There was a significant negative interaction between state- and Legacy-sponsored advertisements. Conclusions. Exposure to state-sponsored advertisements was far below Centers for Disease Control and Prevention–recommended best practices. The significant negative relationships between antismoking advertising and adult smoking provide strong evidence that tobacco-control media campaigns help reduce adult smoking. The significant negative interaction between state- and Legacy-sponsored advertising suggests that the campaigns reinforce one another. PMID:22397350

  3. Comparison of ideal body weight equations and published height-weight tables with body mass index tables for healthy adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Shah, Bhumika; Sucher, Kathryn; Hollenbeck, Clarie B

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to compare the ideal body weight (IBW) formulas and published height-weight tables for healthy adults in the United States with the body mass index (BMI) of 22 kg/m2, which is associated with lowest mortality. There are numerous formulas and published height-weight tables available to determine IBW, but there are no published studies comparing the validity of formulas with each other or comparing formulas with BMIs. Data from height-weight tables, weight for specific heights determined by IBW formulas, and weight for BMIs of 20, 22, 25, and 30 kg/m2 at different heights were plotted for both men and women. Slopes based on a range of heights were determined for each formula using relational database software. The value for each slope obtained by linear regression was compared with the BMIs to determine which fit best with BMI of 22 kg/m2. Most height-weight tables and formulas predicted IBWs within the range of BMI of 20-25 kg/m2. However, for shorter heights the formulas were closer to BMI 20 kg/m2 and for taller heights, were closer to BMI 25 kg/m2. Height-weight tables' slopes were closer to the BMI slopes than formula slopes. Robinson's formula appears to be the best equation for calculating desirable/healthy weights in men; however, no formula predicted close to a BMI of 22 kg/m2 for women. Thus, in practice it might be more useful to use BMI ranges instead of IBW formulas for men and women.

  4. 7 CFR 1160.104 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States. 1160.104 Section 1160.104 Agriculture... Definitions § 1160.104 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous states in the continental United States and the District of Columbia, except that United States means the 50 states of the......

  5. 7 CFR 1160.104 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false United States. 1160.104 Section 1160.104 Agriculture... Definitions § 1160.104 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous states in the continental United States and the District of Columbia, except that United States means the 50 states of the......

  6. 7 CFR 1160.104 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false United States. 1160.104 Section 1160.104 Agriculture... Definitions § 1160.104 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous states in the continental United States and the District of Columbia, except that United States means the 50 states of the......

  7. United States laws under review.

    PubMed

    Leahey, M

    2007-01-01

    As well as reauthorisation of the Medical Device User Fee and Modernization Act, others isues are under consideration by the United States Congress. These include the introduction of incentives for the development of medical devices for paediatric care.

  8. 31 CFR 800.225 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States. 800.225 Section 800.225... FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.225 United States. The term United States or U.S. means the United States of America, the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any...

  9. 31 CFR 800.225 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States. 800.225 Section 800.225... FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.225 United States. The term United States or U.S. means the United States of America, the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any...

  10. 31 CFR 800.225 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 800.225 Section 800.225... FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.225 United States. The term United States or U.S. means the United States of America, the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any...

  11. 31 CFR 800.225 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States. 800.225 Section 800.225... FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.225 United States. The term United States or U.S. means the United States of America, the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any...

  12. 31 CFR 800.225 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 800.225 Section 800... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.225 United States. The term United States or U.S. means the United States of America, the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any...

  13. More Active Living–oriented County and Municipal Zoning is Associated with Increased Adult Leisure Time Physical Activity—United States, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Chriqui, Jamie F.; Nicholson, Lisa M.; Thrun, Emily; Leider, Julien; Slater, Sandy J.

    2016-01-01

    Although zoning is recognized for its role in facilitating healthy communities, no study has examined whether active living-oriented zoning codes are associated with adult leisure time physical activity (PA). This study sought to fill this gap and hypothesized that adult leisure time PA would be greater in communities with more progressive zoning code reforms and more active living-oriented zoning. Zoning codes for 1,617 county and municipal jurisdictions located in 30 states (covering ~40% of the U.S. population) were evaluated for code reform zoning and 11 active living markers. County-aggregated zoning measures were created for linking with five adult PA behaviors obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System controlling for individual and county sociodemographics. Zoning elements most associated with adult PA included requirements for mixed use, active and passive recreation, bike parking/street furniture, and bike-pedestrian trails/paths. This study provides new insights as to the role that zoning can play in facilitating adult PA. PMID:27587898

  14. 75 FR 81651 - United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... States v. Adobe Systems, Inc., No. 1:10- cv-01629, 75 FR 60820, 60828-30 (D.D.C. filed Sept. 24, 2010... firm's employees. United States v. Adobe Systems, Inc., No. 1:10-cv-01629, Complaint, 75 FR 60822 (D.D.C. filed Sept. 24, 2010); Competitive Impact ] Statement, 75 FR 60823 (D.D.C. filed Sept. 24,...

  15. 7 CFR 60.127 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false United States. 60.127 Section 60.127 Agriculture... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.127 United States. United States means the... the United States, and the waters of the United States as defined in § 60.132....

  16. 7 CFR 60.127 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false United States. 60.127 Section 60.127 Agriculture... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.127 United States. United States means the... the United States, and the waters of the United States as defined in § 60.132....

  17. 7 CFR 60.127 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false United States. 60.127 Section 60.127 Agriculture... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.127 United States. United States means the... the United States, and the waters of the United States as defined in § 60.132....

  18. 7 CFR 60.127 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States. 60.127 Section 60.127 Agriculture... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.127 United States. United States means the... the United States, and the waters of the United States as defined in § 60.132....

  19. 75 FR 5373 - United States Mint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... United States Mint ACTION: Notification of Pricing for 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Proof Set. \\TM\\ SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Proof Set. The 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Proof Set, featuring $1...

  20. 7 CFR 1220.615 - State and United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.615 Section 1220.615... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.615 State and United States. State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the District of...

  1. 7 CFR 1220.615 - State and United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.615 Section 1220.615... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.615 State and United States. State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the District of...

  2. 7 CFR 1220.615 - State and United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.615 Section 1220.615... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.615 State and United States. State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the District of...

  3. 7 CFR 1220.129 - State and United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.129 Section 1220.129... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.129 State and United States. The terms State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the...

  4. The Relationship between Local Economic Conditions and Acute Myocardial Infarction Hospital Utilization by Adults and Seniors in the United States, 1995–2011

    PubMed Central

    Carls, Ginger Smith; Henke, Rachel Mosher; Karaca, Zeynal; Marder, William D; Wong, Herbert S

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between aggregate unemployment and hospital discharges for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among adults and seniors, 1995–2011. Data Sources/Study Setting Community hospital discharge data from states collected for the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) State Inpatient Databases (SID) and economic data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1995–2011. Study Design Quarterly time series study of unemployment and aggregate hospital discharges in local areas using fixed effects to control for differences between local areas. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Secondary data on inpatient stays and unemployment rates aggregated to micropolitan and metropolitan areas. Principal Findings For both adults and seniors, a 1 percentage point increase in the contemporaneous unemployment rate was associated with a statistically significant 0.80 percent (adults) to 0.96 percent (seniors) decline in AMI hospitalization during the first half of the study but was unrelated to the economic cycle in the second half of the study period. Conclusions The study found evidence that the aggregate relationship between health and the economy may be shifting for cardiovascular events, paralleling recent research that has shown a similar shift for some types of mortality (Ruhm 2013), self-reported health, and inpatient use among seniors (McInerney and Mellor 2012). PMID:25772510

  5. Intellectual Disabilities and Mental Health: United States-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlot, Lauren; Beasley, Joan B.

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, research directed specifically at improving our understanding of the psychiatric assessment and treatment of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) has grown, yet lags far behind efforts for typically developing children and adults. In the United States, a lack of a national approach to the mental health problems of…

  6. State cigarette excise taxes - United States, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    2012-03-30

    Increasing the price of cigarettes reduces the demand for cigarettes, thereby reducing youth smoking initiation and cigarette consumption and decreasing the prevalence of cigarette use in the United States overall, particularly among youths and young adults. The most common way governments have increased the price of cigarettes is by increasing cigarette excise taxes, which currently are imposed by all states and the District of Columbia. To update data on state cigarette excise taxes in 2009, CDC conducted a survey of changes in state cigarette excise taxes during 2010-2011. During that period, eight states increased their cigarette excise taxes, and one state decreased its tax; as a result, the mean state tax increased from $1.34 in 2009 to $1.46 in 2011. Previous evidence indicates that further increases in cigarette excise taxes would be expected to result in further reductions in demand for cigarettes, decreasing smoking and associated morbidity and mortality.

  7. State cigarette excise taxes - United States, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    2012-03-30

    Increasing the price of cigarettes reduces the demand for cigarettes, thereby reducing youth smoking initiation and cigarette consumption and decreasing the prevalence of cigarette use in the United States overall, particularly among youths and young adults. The most common way governments have increased the price of cigarettes is by increasing cigarette excise taxes, which currently are imposed by all states and the District of Columbia. To update data on state cigarette excise taxes in 2009, CDC conducted a survey of changes in state cigarette excise taxes during 2010-2011. During that period, eight states increased their cigarette excise taxes, and one state decreased its tax; as a result, the mean state tax increased from $1.34 in 2009 to $1.46 in 2011. Previous evidence indicates that further increases in cigarette excise taxes would be expected to result in further reductions in demand for cigarettes, decreasing smoking and associated morbidity and mortality. PMID:22456118

  8. Update: Influenza Activity - United States.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sophie; Blanton, Lenee; Kniss, Krista; Mustaquim, Desiree; Steffens, Craig; Reed, Carrie; Bramley, Anna; Flannery, Brendan; Fry, Alicia M; Grohskopf, Lisa A; Bresee, Joseph; Wallis, Teresa; Garten, Rebecca; Xu, Xiyan; Elal, Anwar Isa Abd; Gubareva, Larisa; Barnes, John; Wentworth, David E; Burns, Erin; Katz, Jacqueline; Jernigan, Daniel; Brammer, Lynnette

    2015-12-11

    CDC collects, compiles, and analyzes data on influenza activity year-round in the United States. The influenza season generally begins in the fall and continues through the winter and spring months; however, the timing and severity of circulating influenza viruses can vary by geographic location and season. Influenza activity in the United States remained low through October and November in 2015. Influenza A viruses have been most frequently identified, with influenza A (H3) viruses predominating. This report summarizes U.S. influenza activity for the period October 4-November 28, 2015. PMID:26656182

  9. State cigarette excise taxes - United States, 2009.

    PubMed

    2010-04-01

    Increasing the price of cigarettes can reduce smoking substantially by discouraging initiation among youths and young adults, prompting quit attempts, and reducing average cigarette consumption among those who continue to smoke. Increasing cigarette excise taxes is one of the most effective tobacco control policies because it directly increases cigarette prices, thereby reducing cigarette use and smoking-related death and disease. All states and the District of Columbia (DC) impose an excise tax on cigarettes. Because many states increased their cigarette excise taxes in 2009, CDC conducted a survey of these tax increases. For this report, CDC reviewed data contained in a legislative database to identify cigarette excise tax legislation that was enacted during 2009 by the 50 states and DC. During that period, 15 states (including DC), increased their state excise tax on cigarettes, increasing the national mean from $1.18 per pack in 2008 to $1.34 per pack in 2009. However, none of the 15 states dedicated any of the new excise tax revenue by statute to tobacco control. Additionally, for the first time, two states (Connecticut and Rhode Island) had excise tax rates of at least $3.00 per pack. Additional increases in cigarette excise taxes, and dedication of all resulting revenues to tobacco control and prevention programs at levels recommended by CDC, could result in further reductions in smoking and associated morbidity and mortality.

  10. Maps of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) sells a variety of maps of the United States.  Who needs these maps?  Students, land planners, politicians, teachers, marketing specialists, delivery companies, authors and illustrators, attorneys, railroad enthusiasts, travelers, Government agencies, military recruiters, newspapers, map collectors, truckers, boaters, hikers, sales representatives, communication specialists.  Everybody.

  11. Mental Health, United States, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This document presents timely statistical information on the nation's organized mental health service delivery system. Included are: (1) "Chronic Mental Disorder in the United States" (Howard H. Goldman and Ronald W. Manderscheid); (2) "Specialty Mental Health System Characteristics" (Michael J. Witkin, Joanne E. Atay, Adele S. Fell, and Ronald W.…

  12. The Changing United States Diet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Louise; Friend, Berta

    1978-01-01

    The nature of the United States diet has changed markedly in this century. We are using more meat, poultry, fish, and dairy products; sugars and other sweeteners; fats and oils; and processed fruits and vegetables. We are using fewer grain products, potatoes, fresh fruits and vegetables, and eggs. (BB)

  13. 75 FR 34156 - United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... complaint alleging that the proposed acquisition by Amcor of the Alcan Packaging Medical Flexibles business...''), Rio Tinto plc (``Rio Tinto''), and Alcan Corporation to enjoin Amcor's proposed acquisition from Rio... medical use in the United States. 3. The proposed acquisition would eliminate competition between...

  14. 7 CFR 1219.26 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false United States. 1219.26 Section 1219.26 Agriculture..., AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.26 United States. United States means collectively the several 50 States of the United States, the District...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false United States. 1205.313 Section 1205.313 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.313 United States. United States means the 50 States of the United States of America....

  16. 7 CFR 1205.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false United States. 1205.313 Section 1205.313 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.313 United States. United States means the 50 States of the United States of America....

  17. 7 CFR 1219.26 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States. 1219.26 Section 1219.26 Agriculture..., AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.26 United States. United States means collectively the several 50 States of the United States, the District...

  18. 7 CFR 1250.308 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false United States. 1250.308 Section 1250.308 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.308 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States of the United States of America and the District of Columbia....

  19. 7 CFR 1219.26 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false United States. 1219.26 Section 1219.26 Agriculture..., AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.26 United States. United States means collectively the several 50 States of the United States, the District...

  20. 7 CFR 1205.23 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false United States. 1205.23 Section 1205.23 Agriculture... Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.23 United States. The term United States means the 50 states of the United States of America. Procedures...

  1. 22 CFR 120.13 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false United States. 120.13 Section 120.13 Foreign... United States. United States, when used in the geographical sense, includes the several states, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the insular possessions of the United States, the District of Columbia,...

  2. 7 CFR 1250.308 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States. 1250.308 Section 1250.308 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.308 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States of the United States of America and the District of Columbia....

  3. 7 CFR 1219.26 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false United States. 1219.26 Section 1219.26 Agriculture..., AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.26 United States. United States means collectively the several 50 States of the United States, the District...

  4. 22 CFR 120.13 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false United States. 120.13 Section 120.13 Foreign... United States. United States, when used in the geographical sense, includes the several states, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the insular possessions of the United States, the District of Columbia,...

  5. 22 CFR 120.13 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false United States. 120.13 Section 120.13 Foreign... United States. United States, when used in the geographical sense, includes the several states, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the insular possessions of the United States, the District of Columbia,...

  6. 7 CFR 1205.23 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States. 1205.23 Section 1205.23 Agriculture... Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.23 United States. The term United States means the 50 states of the United States of America. Procedures...

  7. 7 CFR 1205.23 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false United States. 1205.23 Section 1205.23 Agriculture... Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.23 United States. The term United States means the 50 states of the United States of America. Procedures...

  8. 7 CFR 1250.308 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false United States. 1250.308 Section 1250.308 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.308 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States of the United States of America and the District of Columbia....

  9. 7 CFR 1205.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false United States. 1205.313 Section 1205.313 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.313 United States. United States means the 50 States of the United States of America....

  10. 7 CFR 1205.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States. 1205.313 Section 1205.313 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.313 United States. United States means the 50 States of the United States of America....

  11. 7 CFR 1205.23 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false United States. 1205.23 Section 1205.23 Agriculture... Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.23 United States. The term United States means the 50 states of the United States of America. Procedures...

  12. 22 CFR 120.13 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false United States. 120.13 Section 120.13 Foreign... United States. United States, when used in the geographical sense, includes the several states, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the insular possessions of the United States, the District of Columbia,...

  13. 7 CFR 1250.308 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false United States. 1250.308 Section 1250.308 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.308 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States of the United States of America and the District of Columbia....

  14. 7 CFR 1205.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1205.313 Section 1205.313 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.313 United States. United States means the 50 States of the United States of America....

  15. 7 CFR 1205.23 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1205.23 Section 1205.23 Agriculture... Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.23 United States. The term United States means the 50 states of the United States of America. Procedures...

  16. 7 CFR 1219.26 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1219.26 Section 1219.26 Agriculture..., AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.26 United States. United States means collectively the several 50 States of the United States, the District...

  17. 31 CFR 592.311 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 592.311 Section 592... § 592.311 United States. The term United States, when used in the geographic sense, means the several States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States....

  18. 7 CFR 1150.106 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States. 1150.106 Section 1150.106 Agriculture... Order Definitions § 1150.106 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States in the continental United States....

  19. 7 CFR 1250.308 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1250.308 Section 1250.308 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.308 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States of the United States of America and the District of Columbia....

  20. 22 CFR 120.13 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false United States. 120.13 Section 120.13 Foreign... United States. United States, when used in the geographical sense, includes the several states, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the insular possessions of the United States, the District of Columbia,...

  1. Does Influenza Vaccination Modify Influenza Severity? Data on Older Adults Hospitalized With Influenza During the 2012−2013 Season in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Arriola, Carmen S.; Anderson, Evan J.; Baumbach, Joan; Bennett, Nancy; Bohm, Susan; Hill, Mary; Lindegren, Mary Lou; Lung, Krista; Meek, James; Mermel, Elizabeth; Miller, Lisa; Monroe, Maya L.; Morin, Craig; Oni, Oluwakemi; Reingold, Arthur; Schaffner, William; Thomas, Ann; Zansky, Shelley M.; Finelli, Lyn; Chaves, Sandra S.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Some studies suggest that influenza vaccination might be protective against severe influenza outcomes in vaccinated persons who become infected. We used data from a large surveillance network to further investigate the effect of influenza vaccination on influenza severity in adults aged ≥50 years who were hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed influenza. Methods. We analyzed influenza vaccination and influenza severity using Influenza Hospitalization Surveillance Network (FluSurv-NET) data for the 2012−2013 influenza season. Intensive care unit (ICU) admission, death, diagnosis of pneumonia, and hospital and ICU lengths of stay served as measures of disease severity. Data were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression, parametric survival models, and propensity score matching (PSM). Results. Overall, no differences in severity were observed in the multivariable logistic regression model. Using PSM, adults aged 50−64 years (but not other age groups) who were vaccinated against influenza had a shorter length of ICU stay than those who were unvaccinated (hazard ratio for discharge, 1.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.12−3.01). Conclusions. Our findings show a modest effect of influenza vaccination on disease severity. Analysis of data from seasons with different predominant strains and higher estimates of vaccine effectiveness are needed. PMID:25821227

  2. United States National seismograph network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masse, R.P.; Filson, J.R.; Murphy, A.

    1989-01-01

    The USGS National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) has planned and is developing a broadband digital seismograph network for the United States. The network will consist of approximately 150 seismograph stations distributed across the contiguous 48 states and across Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Data transmission will be via two-way satellite telemetry from the network sites to a central recording facility at the NEIC in Golden, Colorado. The design goal for the network is the on-scale recording by at least five well-distributed stations of any seismic event of magnitude 2.5 or greater in all areas of the United States except possibly part of Alaska. All event data from the network will be distributed to the scientific community on compact disc with read-only memory (CD-ROM). ?? 1989.

  3. 7 CFR 1209.21 - State and United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1209.21 Section 1209.21... Definitions § 1209.21 State and United States. (a) State means any of the several States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. (b) United States means collectively the several States...

  4. State Advisory Councils on Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Advisory Council on Adult Education, Washington, DC.

    This report on the current status of state advisory councils on adult education contains data concerning the 1975 and 1980 status of state councils in the 50 states. It consists of an introduction, four sections, and an appendix. Provided in the introduction are some conclusions of a 1975 survey on state advisory councils on adult education as…

  5. 31 CFR 539.312 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States. 539.312 Section 539.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 539.312 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  6. 31 CFR 547.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States. 547.310 Section 547.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 547.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  7. 31 CFR 537.318 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States. 537.318 Section 537.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  8. 31 CFR 537.318 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States. 537.318 Section 537.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  9. 31 CFR 598.317 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States. 598.317 Section 598.317 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 598.317 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  10. 31 CFR 549.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 549.310 Section 549.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  11. 31 CFR 539.312 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States. 539.312 Section 539.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 539.312 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  12. 31 CFR 593.311 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States. 593.311 Section 593.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... General Definitions § 593.311 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  13. 31 CFR 538.314 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States. 538.314 Section 538.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  14. 31 CFR 593.311 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 593.311 Section 593.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... General Definitions § 593.311 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  15. 31 CFR 570.311 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States. 570.311 Section 570.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  16. 31 CFR 598.317 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States. 598.317 Section 598.317 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 598.317 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  17. 7 CFR 1217.30 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false United States. 1217.30 Section 1217.30 Agriculture..., and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.30 United States. United States means collectively... possessions of the United States. Softwood Lumber Board...

  18. 31 CFR 551.309 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States. 551.309 Section 551.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  19. 7 CFR 63.13 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States. 63.13 Section 63.13 Agriculture... IMPROVEMENT CENTER General Provisions Definitions § 63.13 United States. United States means collectively the... possessions of the United States. Board of Directors...

  20. 31 CFR 576.315 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States. 576.315 Section 576.315 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... General Definitions § 576.315 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  1. 7 CFR 1217.30 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false United States. 1217.30 Section 1217.30 Agriculture..., and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.30 United States. United States means collectively... possessions of the United States. Softwood Lumber Board...

  2. 31 CFR 549.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States. 549.310 Section 549.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  3. 31 CFR 552.309 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States. 552.309 Section 552.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  4. 31 CFR 593.311 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States. 593.311 Section 593.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... General Definitions § 593.311 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  5. 31 CFR 541.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States. 541.310 Section 541.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  6. 31 CFR 539.312 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States. 539.312 Section 539.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 539.312 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  7. 31 CFR 539.312 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 539.312 Section 539.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 539.312 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  8. 31 CFR 576.315 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States. 576.315 Section 576.315 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... General Definitions § 576.315 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  9. 31 CFR 598.317 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States. 598.317 Section 598.317 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 598.317 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  10. 31 CFR 595.314 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States. 595.314 Section 595.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  11. 31 CFR 595.314 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States. 595.314 Section 595.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  12. 31 CFR 588.309 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States. 588.309 Section 588.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... § 588.309 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  13. 31 CFR 538.314 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States. 538.314 Section 538.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  14. 31 CFR 541.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States. 541.310 Section 541.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  15. 31 CFR 543.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States. 543.310 Section 543.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  16. 31 CFR 544.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 544.310 Section 544.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.310 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  17. 31 CFR 540.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States. 540.313 Section 540.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.313 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  18. 31 CFR 543.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 543.310 Section 543.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  19. 31 CFR 538.314 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States. 538.314 Section 538.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  20. 7 CFR 63.13 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false United States. 63.13 Section 63.13 Agriculture... IMPROVEMENT CENTER General Provisions Definitions § 63.13 United States. United States means collectively the... possessions of the United States. Board of Directors...

  1. 7 CFR 65.255 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false United States. 65.255 Section 65.255 Agriculture..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.255 United States. United States means the 50... United States....

  2. 31 CFR 540.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States. 540.313 Section 540.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.313 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  3. 31 CFR 538.314 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 538.314 Section 538.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  4. 31 CFR 543.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States. 543.310 Section 543.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  5. 31 CFR 570.311 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 570.311 Section 570.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  6. 31 CFR 593.311 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States. 593.311 Section 593.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... General Definitions § 593.311 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  7. 7 CFR 1217.30 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false United States. 1217.30 Section 1217.30 Agriculture..., and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.30 United States. United States means collectively... possessions of the United States. Softwood Lumber Board...

  8. 31 CFR 549.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States. 549.310 Section 549.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  9. 31 CFR 588.309 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 588.309 Section 588.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... § 588.309 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  10. 31 CFR 558.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States. 558.310 Section 558.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  11. 7 CFR 63.13 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false United States. 63.13 Section 63.13 Agriculture... IMPROVEMENT CENTER General Provisions Definitions § 63.13 United States. United States means collectively the... possessions of the United States. Board of Directors...

  12. 31 CFR 595.314 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 595.314 Section 595.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  13. 31 CFR 594.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 594.313 Section 594.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... § 594.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  14. 31 CFR 542.318 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States. 542.318 Section 542.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  15. 31 CFR 590.312 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States. 590.312 Section 590.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... General Definitions § 590.312 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  16. 31 CFR 547.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 547.310 Section 547.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 547.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  17. 31 CFR 551.309 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 551.309 Section 551.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  18. 31 CFR 560.307 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States. 560.307 Section 560.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 560.307 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  19. 31 CFR 542.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 542.310 Section 542.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  20. 31 CFR 594.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States. 594.313 Section 594.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... § 594.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  1. 31 CFR 551.309 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States. 551.309 Section 551.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  2. 31 CFR 576.315 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 576.315 Section 576.315 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... General Definitions § 576.315 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  3. 31 CFR 542.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States. 542.310 Section 542.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  4. 31 CFR 537.318 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 537.318 Section 537.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  5. 31 CFR 547.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States. 547.310 Section 547.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 547.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  6. 31 CFR 549.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States. 549.310 Section 549.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  7. 31 CFR 560.307 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States. 560.307 Section 560.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, including its territories and possessions....

  8. 31 CFR 594.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States. 594.313 Section 594.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... § 594.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  9. 31 CFR 544.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States. 544.310 Section 544.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.310 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  10. 31 CFR 570.311 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States. 570.311 Section 570.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  11. 7 CFR 65.255 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false United States. 65.255 Section 65.255 Agriculture..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.255 United States. United States means the 50... United States....

  12. 31 CFR 590.312 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States. 590.312 Section 590.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... General Definitions § 590.312 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  13. 7 CFR 65.255 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false United States. 65.255 Section 65.255 Agriculture..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.255 United States. United States means the 50... United States....

  14. 31 CFR 540.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States. 540.313 Section 540.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.313 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  15. 7 CFR 65.255 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States. 65.255 Section 65.255 Agriculture..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.255 United States. United States means the 50... United States....

  16. 31 CFR 546.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 546.310 Section 546.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  17. 7 CFR 63.13 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false United States. 63.13 Section 63.13 Agriculture... IMPROVEMENT CENTER General Provisions Definitions § 63.13 United States. United States means collectively the... possessions of the United States. Board of Directors...

  18. 31 CFR 551.309 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States. 551.309 Section 551.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  19. 31 CFR 552.309 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States. 552.309 Section 552.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  20. 31 CFR 542.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States. 542.310 Section 542.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  1. 31 CFR 570.311 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States. 570.311 Section 570.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  2. 31 CFR 544.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States. 544.310 Section 544.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.310 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  3. 31 CFR 588.309 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States. 588.309 Section 588.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... § 588.309 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  4. 31 CFR 576.315 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States. 576.315 Section 576.315 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... General Definitions § 576.315 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  5. 31 CFR 588.309 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States. 588.309 Section 588.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... § 588.309 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  6. 31 CFR 541.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 541.310 Section 541.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  7. 31 CFR 546.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States. 546.310 Section 546.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  8. 31 CFR 597.318 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States. 597.318 Section 597.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 597.318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories,...

  9. 31 CFR 547.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States. 547.310 Section 547.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 547.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  10. 31 CFR 546.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States. 546.310 Section 546.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  11. 31 CFR 540.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 540.313 Section 540.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.313 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  12. 31 CFR 594.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States. 594.313 Section 594.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... § 594.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  13. 31 CFR 598.317 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 598.317 Section 598.317 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 598.317 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  14. 31 CFR 597.318 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 597.318 Section 597.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 597.318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories,...

  15. 31 CFR 537.318 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States. 537.318 Section 537.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  16. 31 CFR 544.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States. 544.310 Section 544.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.310 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  17. 31 CFR 560.307 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States. 560.307 Section 560.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 560.307 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  18. 31 CFR 589.311 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States. 589.311 Section 589.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... § 589.311 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  19. 31 CFR 595.314 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States. 595.314 Section 595.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  20. 31 CFR 597.318 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States. 597.318 Section 597.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 597.318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories,...

  1. 31 CFR 560.307 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 560.307 Section 560.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, including its territories and possessions....

  2. 31 CFR 597.318 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States. 597.318 Section 597.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 597.318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories,...

  3. 31 CFR 543.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States. 543.310 Section 543.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  4. 31 CFR 541.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States. 541.310 Section 541.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  5. 31 CFR 546.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States. 546.310 Section 546.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  6. 31 CFR 590.312 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States. 590.312 Section 590.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... General Definitions § 590.312 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  7. 31 CFR 594.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 594.313 Section 594.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 594.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  8. 31 CFR 588.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 588.310 Section 588.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 588.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  9. 75 FR 25925 - United States Mint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... United States Mint ACTION: Notification of Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee May 25, 2010 Public Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to United States Code, Title 31, section 5135(b)(8)(C), the United States Mint...: May 25, 2010. Time: 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. Location: 8th Floor Board Room, United States Mint, 801...

  10. 31 CFR 536.315 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 536.315 Section 536.315 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 536.315 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  11. 31 CFR 537.318 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 537.318 Section 537.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  12. 31 CFR 560.307 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 560.307 Section 560.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 560.307 United States. The term United States means the United States, including its territories...

  13. 31 CFR 587.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 587.310 Section 587...) MILOSEVIC SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 587.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or...

  14. 31 CFR 595.314 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 595.314 Section 595.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 595.314 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  15. 7 CFR 1212.31 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1212.31 Section 1212.31 Agriculture..., Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.31 United States. “United States... territories and possessions of the United States....

  16. 31 CFR 541.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 541.310 Section 541.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 541.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  17. 31 CFR 598.317 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 598.317 Section 598.317 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 598.317 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  18. 31 CFR 544.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 544.310 Section 544.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.310 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  19. 31 CFR 551.309 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 551.309 Section 551.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....309 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  20. 31 CFR 593.311 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 593.311 Section 593.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.311 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  1. 31 CFR 540.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 540.313 Section 540.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.313 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  2. 31 CFR 575.319 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 575.319 Section 575.319 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....319 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  3. 31 CFR 542.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 542.310 Section 542.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  4. 7 CFR 65.255 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 65.255 Section 65.255 Agriculture..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.255 United States. United States means the 50... United States....

  5. 31 CFR 543.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 543.310 Section 543.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 543.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  6. 31 CFR 545.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 545.313 Section 545.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 545.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  7. 31 CFR 597.318 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 597.318 Section 597.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 597.318 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  8. 31 CFR 546.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 546.310 Section 546.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  9. 31 CFR 596.312 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 596.312 Section 596.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 596.312 United States. The term United States means the United States, including...

  10. 31 CFR 585.316 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 585.316 Section 585.316 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 585.316 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  11. 31 CFR 539.312 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 539.312 Section 539.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 539.312 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  12. 31 CFR 586.318 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 586.318 Section 586...) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or...

  13. 31 CFR 548.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 548.310 Section 548.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  14. 31 CFR 538.314 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 538.314 Section 538.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 538.314 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  15. 31 CFR 547.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 547.310 Section 547.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 547.310 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  16. Sterilization in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bartz, Deborah; Greenberg, James A

    2008-01-01

    Unintended pregnancies are expensive for patients and for society in terms of medical costs, the cost of caring for more children, and the cost to personal and professional goals. Sterilization is the most common contraceptive method utilized by couples in the United States. Given technological advances over the past few decades, male and female surgical sterilization has become a safe, convenient, easy, and highly effective birth control method for the long term. This article reviews current male and female sterilization options. PMID:18701927

  17. United States Life Tables, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Robert N.

    1999-01-01

    The life tables in this report are current life tables for the United States based on age-specific death rates in 1997. Beginning with the 1997 tables, U.S. life tables have been constructed with a new methodology that is similar to that used in the decennial life tables. Life expectancy and other tables are shown for the first time for ages 85 to…

  18. Landforms of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hack, John T.

    1969-01-01

    The United States contains a great variety of landforms which offer dramatic contrasts to a crosscountry traveler. Mountains and desert areas, tropical jungles and areas of permanently frozen subsoil, deep canyons and broad plains are examples of the Nation's varied surface. The present-day landforms the features that make up the face of the earth are products of the slow, sculpturing actions of streams and geologic processes that have been at work throughout the ages since the earth's beginning.

  19. Landforms of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hack, John T.

    1988-01-01

    The United States contains a great variety of landforms which offer dramatic contrasts to a cross-country traveler. Mountains and desert areas, tropical jungles and areas of permanently frozen subsoil, and deep canyons and broad plains are examples of the Nation's varied surface. The presentday landforms the features that make up the face of the Earth are products of the slow sculpturing actions of streams and geologic processes that have been at work throughout the ages since the Earth's beginning.

  20. United States National Seismographic Network

    SciTech Connect

    Buland, R.

    1993-09-01

    The concept of a United States National Seismograph Network (USNSN) dates back nearly 30 years. The idea was revived several times over the decades. but never funded. For, example, a national network was proposed and discussed at great length in the so called Bolt Report (U. S. Earthquake Observatories: Recommendations for a New National Network, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1980, 122 pp). From the beginning, a national network was viewed as augmenting and complementing the relatively dense, predominantly short-period vertical coverage of selected areas provided by the Regional Seismograph Networks (RSN`s) with a sparse, well-distributed network of three-component, observatory quality, permanent stations. The opportunity finally to begin developing a national network arose in 1986 with discussions between the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Under the agreement signed in 1987, the NRC has provided $5 M in new funding for capital equipment (over the period 1987-1992) and the USGS has provided personnel and facilities to develop. deploy, and operate the network. Because the NRC funding was earmarked for the eastern United States, new USNSN station deployments are mostly east of 105{degree}W longitude while the network in the western United States is mostly made up of cooperating stations (stations meeting USNSN design goals, but deployed and operated by other institutions which provide a logical extension to the USNSN).

  1. Africanization in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, M. Alice; Rubink, William L.; Patton, John C.; Coulson, Robert N.; Johnston, J. Spencer

    2005-01-01

    The expansion of Africanized honeybees from South America to the southwestern United States in <50 years is considered one of the most spectacular biological invasions yet documented. In the American tropics, it has been shown that during their expansion Africanized honeybees have low levels of introgressed alleles from resident European populations. In the United States, it has been speculated, but not shown, that Africanized honeybees would hybridize extensively with European honeybees. Here we report a continuous 11-year study investigating temporal changes in the genetic structure of a feral population from the southern United States undergoing Africanization. Our microsatellite data showed that (1) the process of Africanization involved both maternal and paternal bidirectional gene flow between European and Africanized honeybees and (2) the panmitic European population was replaced by panmitic mixtures of A. m. scutellata and European genes within 5 years after Africanization. The post-Africanization gene pool (1998–2001) was composed of a diverse array of recombinant classes with a substantial European genetic contribution (mean 25–37%). Therefore, the resulting feral honeybee population of south Texas was best viewed as a hybrid swarm. PMID:15937139

  2. Violence in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Sumner, Steven A.; Mercy, James A.; Dahlberg, Linda L.; Hillis, Susan D.; Klevens, Joanne; Houry, Debra

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Interpersonal violence, which includes child abuse and neglect, youth violence, intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and elder abuse, affects millions of US residents each year. However, surveillance systems, programs, and policies to address violence often lack broad, cross-sector collaboration, and there is limited awareness of effective strategies to prevent violence. OBJECTIVES To describe the burden of interpersonal violence in the United States, explore challenges to violence prevention efforts and to identify prevention opportunities. DATA SOURCES We reviewed data from health and law enforcement surveillance systems including the National Vital Statistics System, the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Reports, the US Justice Department’s National Crime Victimization Survey, the National Survey of Children’s Exposure to Violence, the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, and the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System—All Injury Program. RESULTS Homicide rates have decreased from a peak of 10.7 per 100 000 persons in 1980 to 5.1 per 100 000 in 2013. Aggravated assault rates have decreased from a peak of 442 per 100 000 in 1992 to 242 per 100 000 in 2012. Nevertheless, annually, there are more than 16 000 homicides and 1.6 million nonfatal assault injuries requiring treatment in emergency departments. More than 12 million adults experience intimate partner violence annually and more than 10 million children younger than 18 years experience some form of maltreatment from a caregiver, ranging from neglect to sexual abuse, but only a small percentage of these violent incidents are reported to law enforcement, health care clinicians, or child protective agencies. Moreover, exposure to violence increases vulnerability to a broad range of mental and physical health problems over the life course; for example

  3. Adult Women’s Blood Mercury Concentrations Vary Regionally in the United States: Association with Patterns of Fish Consumption (NHANES 1999–2004)

    PubMed Central

    Mahaffey, Kathryn R.; Clickner, Robert P.; Jeffries, Rebecca A.

    2009-01-01

    Background The current, continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) has included blood mercury (BHg) and fish/shellfish consumption since it began in 1999. NHANES 1999–2004 data form the basis for these analyses. Objectives This study was designed to determine BHg distributions within U.S. Census regions and within coastal and noncoastal areas among women of childbearing age, their association with patterns of fish consumption, and changes from 1999 through 2004. Methods We performed univariate and bivariate analyses to determine the distribution of BHg and fish consumption in the population and to investigate differences by geography, race/ethnicity, and income. We used multivariate analysis (regression) to determine the strongest predictors of BHg among geography, demographic factors, and fish consumption. Results Elevated BHg occurred more commonly among women of childbearing age living in coastal areas of the United States (approximately one in six women). Regionally, exposures differ across the United States: Northeast > South and West > Midwest. Asian women and women with higher income ate more fish and had higher BHg. Time-trend analyses identified reduced BHg and reduced intake of Hg in the upper percentiles without an overall reduction of fish consumption. Conclusions BHg is associated with income, ethnicity, residence (census region and coastal proximity). From 1999 through 2004, BHg decreased without a concomitant decrease in fish consumption. Data are consistent with a shift over this time period in fish species in women’s diets. PMID:19165386

  4. Drought in Southwestern United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The southwestern United States pined for water in late March and early April 2007. This image is based on data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite from March 22 through April 6, 2007, and it shows the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, or NDVI, for the period. In this NDVI color scale, green indicates areas of healthier-than-usual vegetation, and only small patches of green appear in this image, near the California-Nevada border and in Utah. Larger areas of below-normal vegetation are more common, especially throughout California. Pale yellow indicates areas with generally average vegetation. Gray areas appear where no data were available, likely due to persistent clouds or snow cover. According to the April 10, 2007, update from the U.S. Drought Monitor, most of the southwestern United Sates, including Utah, Nevada, California, and Arizona, experienced moderate to extreme drought. The hardest hit areas were southeastern California and southwestern Arizona. Writing for the Drought Monitor, David Miskus of the Joint Agricultural Weather Facility reported that March 2007 had been unusually dry for the southwestern United States. While California's and Utah's reservoir storage was only slightly below normal, reservoir storage was well below normal for New Mexico and Arizona. In early April, an international research team published an online paper in Science noting that droughts could become more common for the southwestern United States and northern Mexico, as these areas were already showing signs of drying. Relying on the same computer models used in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report released in early 2007, the researchers who published in Science concluded that global warming could make droughts more common, not just in the American Southwest, but also in semiarid regions of southern Europe, Mediterranean northern Africa, and the Middle East.

  5. 7 CFR 1206.23 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1206.23 Section 1206.23 Agriculture... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.23 United States. United... Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States....

  6. Maps of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) sells a variety of maps of the United States. Who needs these maps? Students, land planners, politicians, teachers, marketing specialists, delivery companies, authors and illustrators, attorneys, railroad enthusiasts, travelers, Government agencies, military recruiters, newspapers, map collectors, truckers, boaters, hikers, sales representatives, communication specialists. Everybody. Users of these maps range from a corporation planning a regional expansion or a national marketing campaign, to a person who wants a decoration to hang on the wall. If you are not sure which map best meets your needs, call the Earth Science Information Center for assistance.

  7. Earthquakes in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stover, C.

    1977-01-01

    To supplement data in the report Preliminary Determination of Epicenters (PDE), the National earthquake Information Service (NEIS) also publishes a quarterly circular, Earthquakes in the United States. This provides information on the felt area of U.S earthquakes and their intensity. The main purpose is to describe the larger effects of these earthquakes so that they can be used in seismic risk studies, site evaluations for nuclear power plants, and answering inquiries by the general public.

  8. Out-of-pocket expenditures and the financial burden of healthcare among older adults: by nativity and length of residence in the United States.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sunha

    2015-01-01

    Newly arrived older immigrants in the United States tend to be greatly affected by increasing out-of-pocket healthcare expenditures due to their limited insurance options. To examine such disparities in the out-of-pocket expenditures, this study analyzed the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey by immigrant status. Major findings of this study indicated that although recent immigrants had lower total healthcare expenditures, they spent much higher proportions of their annual income on out-of-pocket medical payments, compared with their US-born counterparts. Dramatically higher out-of-pocket burdens among recent immigrants represent a barrier to necessary healthcare, which needs to be addressed from both public health and economic perspectives. PMID:25036656

  9. Adherence to a healthy diet according to the World Health Organization guidelines and all-cause mortality in elderly adults from Europe and the United States.

    PubMed

    Jankovic, Nicole; Geelen, Anouk; Streppel, Martinette T; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Orfanos, Philippos; van den Hooven, Edith H; Pikhart, Hynek; Boffetta, Paolo; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bobak, Martin; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Kee, Frank; Franco, Oscar H; Park, Yikyung; Hallmans, Göran; Tjønneland, Anne; May, Anne M; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Kubinova, Růžena; Amiano, Pilar; Kampman, Ellen; Feskens, Edith J

    2014-11-15

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has formulated guidelines for a healthy diet to prevent chronic diseases and postpone death worldwide. Our objective was to investigate the association between the WHO guidelines, measured using the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), and all-cause mortality in elderly men and women from Europe and the United States. We analyzed data from 396,391 participants (42% women) in 11 prospective cohort studies who were 60 years of age or older at enrollment (in 1988-2005). HDI scores were based on 6 nutrients and 1 food group and ranged from 0 (least healthy diet) to 70 (healthiest diet). Adjusted cohort-specific hazard ratios were derived by using Cox proportional hazards regression and subsequently pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. During 4,497,957 person-years of follow-up, 84,978 deaths occurred. Median HDI scores ranged from 40 to 54 points across cohorts. For a 10-point increase in HDI score (representing adherence to an additional WHO guideline), the pooled adjusted hazard ratios were 0.90 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87, 0.93) for men and women combined, 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.92) for men, and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.95) for women. These estimates translate to an increased life expectancy of 2 years at the age of 60 years. Greater adherence to the WHO guidelines is associated with greater longevity in elderly men and women in Europe and the United States.

  10. 7 CFR 1280.127 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false United States. 1280.127 Section 1280.127 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.127 United States. United States means collectively the 50 States and the District of Columbia....

  11. 7 CFR 1218.22 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false United States. 1218.22 Section 1218.22 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.22 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto...

  12. 7 CFR 1216.30 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false United States. 1216.30 Section 1216.30 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.30 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto...

  13. 7 CFR 1215.20 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false United States. 1215.20 Section 1215.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... United States. United States means all of the States. Popcorn Board...

  14. 7 CFR 1280.127 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false United States. 1280.127 Section 1280.127 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.127 United States. United States means collectively the 50 States and the District of Columbia....

  15. 7 CFR 1280.127 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false United States. 1280.127 Section 1280.127 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.127 United States. United States means collectively the 50 States and the District of Columbia....

  16. 7 CFR 1215.20 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false United States. 1215.20 Section 1215.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... United States. United States means all of the States. Popcorn Board...

  17. 7 CFR 1280.127 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States. 1280.127 Section 1280.127 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.127 United States. United States means collectively the 50 States and the District of Columbia....

  18. 7 CFR 1260.108 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false United States. 1260.108 Section 1260.108 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.108 United States. United States means the 50 States and...

  19. 7 CFR 1218.22 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false United States. 1218.22 Section 1218.22 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.22 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto...

  20. 7 CFR 1260.108 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States. 1260.108 Section 1260.108 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.108 United States. United States means the 50 States and...

  1. 7 CFR 1215.20 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States. 1215.20 Section 1215.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... United States. United States means all of the States. Popcorn Board...

  2. 7 CFR 1215.20 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false United States. 1215.20 Section 1215.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... United States. United States means all of the States. Popcorn Board...

  3. 7 CFR 1260.108 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false United States. 1260.108 Section 1260.108 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.108 United States. United States means the 50 States and...

  4. 7 CFR 1260.108 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false United States. 1260.108 Section 1260.108 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.108 United States. United States means the 50 States and...

  5. 7 CFR 1218.22 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false United States. 1218.22 Section 1218.22 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.22 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto...

  6. 7 CFR 1216.30 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false United States. 1216.30 Section 1216.30 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.30 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto...

  7. 7 CFR 1218.22 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States. 1218.22 Section 1218.22 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.22 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto...

  8. 7 CFR 1216.30 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false United States. 1216.30 Section 1216.30 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.30 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto...

  9. 7 CFR 1260.108 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1260.108 Section 1260.108 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.108 United States. United States means the 50 States and...

  10. 7 CFR 1215.20 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1215.20 Section 1215.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... United States. United States means all of the States. Popcorn Board...

  11. 7 CFR 1218.22 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1218.22 Section 1218.22 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.22 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto...

  12. 7 CFR 1221.32 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1221.32 Section 1221.32 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.32 United States. United States or U.S. means collectively the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth...

  13. 7 CFR 1216.30 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1216.30 Section 1216.30 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.30 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto...

  14. 7 CFR 1280.127 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1280.127 Section 1280.127 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.127 United States. United States means collectively the 50 States and the District of Columbia....

  15. The voluntary control of facial action units in adults.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, Pierre; Perron, Mélanie; Beaupré, Martin

    2010-04-01

    We investigated adults' voluntary control of 20 facial action units theoretically associated with 6 basic emotions (happiness, fear, anger, surprise, sadness, and disgust). Twenty young adults were shown video excerpts of facial action units and asked to reproduce them as accurately as possible. Facial Action Coding System (FACS; Ekman & Friesen, 1978a) coding of the facial productions showed that young adults succeeded in activating 18 of the 20 target actions units, although they often coactivated other action units. Voluntary control was clearly better for some action units than for others, with a pattern of differences between action units consistent with previous work in children and adolescents.

  16. Federation of State Medical Boards of the United States

    MedlinePlus

    ... Boards Representing the 70 medical boards of the United States and its territories. The Federation of State Medical ... the 70 medical and osteopathic boards of the United States and its territories. Since its founding, the FSMB ...

  17. North American Adult Literacy Programs and Latin American Immigrants: How Critical Pedagogy Can Help Nonprofit Literacy Programming in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straubhaar, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    As nonprofit adult literacy programs are often the only options for low-income Latin American immigrants in North America, problems accompanying these programs affect the ability of immigrants to benefit from them. North American nonprofit adult literacy programs often struggle due to the difficulties inherent in using volunteer instructors (often…

  18. Some Major Contributions of the Military to the Field of Adult and Continuing Education in the United States (A Work in Progress).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Clinton L.; Kime, Steve F.

    The U.S. military has made numerous important contributions to the development of adult and continuing education. As in civilian adult education, military innovations in education have consistently used workplace learning. The educational benefits produced by the GI Bill democratized education by exploding the myth that "common" people did not…

  19. 7 CFR 1216.30 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.30 United States..., and the territories and possessions of the United States. National Peanut Board...

  20. 7 CFR 1221.32 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.32 United States... Puerto Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States. Sorghum Promotion, Research,...

  1. 7 CFR 1221.32 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.32 United States... Puerto Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States. Sorghum Promotion, Research,...

  2. 7 CFR 1221.32 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.32 United States... Puerto Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States. Sorghum Promotion, Research,...

  3. 7 CFR 1221.32 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.32 United States... Puerto Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States. Sorghum Promotion, Research,...

  4. 'Heat Dome' Heats Up United States

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160028.html 'Heat Dome' Heats Up United States Much of the country to ... July 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- As a massive "heat dome" stretches across the United States this week, ...

  5. TB in Children in the United States

    MedlinePlus

    ... Statistics Related Links TB in Children in the United States TB disease in children under 15 years ... BCG vaccine is not generally used in the United States, because of the low risk of infection ...

  6. Does Reactance against Cigarette Warning Labels Matter? Warning Label Responses and Downstream Smoking Cessation amongst Adult Smokers in Australia, Canada, Mexico and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yoo Jin; Thrasher, James F.; Swayampakala, Kamala; Yong, Hua-Hie; McKeever, Robert; Hammond, David; Anshari, Dien; Cummings, K. Michael; Borland, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Objective Some researchers have raised concerns that pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) on cigarette packages may lead to message rejection and reduced effectiveness of HWL messages. This study aimed to determine how state reactance (i.e., negative affect due to perceived manipulation) in response to both pictorial and text-only HWLs is associated with other types of HWL responses and with subsequent cessation attempts. Methods Survey data were collected every 4 months between September 2013 and 2014 from online panels of adult smokers in Australia, Canada, Mexico, and the US were analyzed. Participants with at least one wave of follow-up were included in the analysis (n = 4,072 smokers; 7,459 observations). Surveys assessed psychological and behavioral responses to HWLs (i.e., attention to HWLs, cognitive elaboration of risks due to HWLs, avoiding HWLs, and forgoing cigarettes because of HWLs) and cessation attempts. Participants then viewed specific HWLs from their countries and were queried about affective state reactance. Logistic and linear Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) models regressed each of the psychological and behavioral HWL responses on reactance, while controlling for socio-demographic and smoking-related variables. Logistic GEE models also regressed having attempted to quit by the subsequent survey on reactance, each of the psychological and behavioral HWL responses (analyzed separately), adjustment variables. Data from all countries were initially pooled, with interactions between country and reactance assessed; when interactions were statistically significant, country-stratified models were estimated. Results Interactions between country and reactance were found in all models that regressed psychological and behavioral HWL responses on study variables. In the US, stronger reactance was associated with more frequent reading of HWLs and thinking about health risks. Smokers from all four countries with stronger reactance reported greater

  7. Reflections: Mexico and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paz, Octavio

    1980-01-01

    Illustrates how Mexico and the United States represent two versions of Western civilization that are profoundly different from one another. Concludes that the United States has always ignored minorities in foreign and domestic policy. Suggests that, to conquer its enemies, the United States must first conquer its historical attitude toward…

  8. Racial and Ethnic Profiles of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use Among Young Adults in the United States: Findings From the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

    PubMed

    Upchurch, Dawn M; Wexler Rainisch, Bethany K

    2012-10-01

    This study describes complementary and alternative medicine use among a national sample of young adults, with an emphasis on characterizing racial and ethnic differences, highlighting variation across subgroups of Hispanics. The authors examined young adults ages 18 to 27 years (n = 14 128) from wave III (2001-2002) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Prevalence estimates and logistic regression results were weighted and adjusted for complex sample design. The study examined recent complementary and alternative medicine use in the past 12 months, recent use for each of 15 specific complementary and alternative medicine modalities, and the 5 most commonly used modalities (herbs, massage, chiropractic, relaxation, and vitamins). Results showed that 29% of young adults aged 18 to 27 years recently used complementary and alternative medicine. Prevalence was highest among Cuban Americans (42%) and lowest among blacks (22%). Young adults used a diversity of complementary and alternative medicine modalities and there were substantial differences in use across racial and ethnic groups.

  9. Prominent emerging diseases within the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cipriano, R.C.; Bowser, A.; Dove, A.; Goodwin, A.; Puzach, C.; Cipriano, R.C.; Bruckner, A.W.; Shchelkunov, I.S.

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript reviews disease syndromes that have become significant aquatic animal health issues within the United States since 2003. The emergence of Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia (VHS) disease among wild fish in the Great Lakes is probably the most problematic and political issue. The emergence of this pathogen resulted in the issuance of a 2006 VHSV Federal order that placed restrictions on the movement of certain species of fish in the eight states that border the Great Lakes (New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin and Minnesota) as well as the movement of live fish into the United States from the Ontario and Quebec Provinces, Canada. Spring Viremia of Carp (SVC) was identified for the first times in the United States during 2002. It was diagnosed as the source of mortality among koi at a private facility in North Carolina as well as from feral carp in Cedar Lake (WI). In 2004, Koi Herpesvirus (KHV) killed 8,000 adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the Chadakoin River (NY); it reoccurred the next year within Chautauqua Lake (NY), killing an estimated 25,000 carp (20–30 lbs. apiece). During the summers of 2007 and 2008, KHV epizootics also occurred among carp in Ontario (Canada). Finally, outbreaks of epizootic shell disease in American lobster (Homarus americanus) have generated concern along the southern New England coast and eastern Long Island Sound. The prevalence and severity of shell disease have increased within inshore areas of southern New England and resulted in significant decreases in lobster catches and marketability.

  10. A league of their own: demographics, motivations and patterns of use of 1,955 male adult non-medical anabolic steroid users in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jason; Collins, Rick; Darkes, Jack; Gwartney, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Background Rule violations among elite-level sports competitors and tragedies among adolescents have largely defined the issue of non-medical anabolic-androgenic steroid (NMAAS) use for the public and policy makers. However, the predominant and oft-ignored segment of the NMAAS community exists in the general population that is neither participating in competitive sports nor adolescent. A clearer profile of NMAAS users within the general population is an initial step in developing a full understanding of NMAAS use and devising appropriate policy and interventions. This survey sought to provide a more comprehensive profile of NMAAS users by accessing a large sample of user respondents from around the United States. Methods U.S.-based male NMAAS users (n = 1955) were recruited from various Internet websites dedicated to resistance training activities and use of ergogenic substances, mass emails, and print media to participate in a 291-item web-based survey. The Internet was utilized to provide a large and geographically diverse sample with the greatest degree of anonymity to facilitate participation. Results The majority of respondents did not initiate AAS use during adolescence and their NMAAS use was not motivated by athletics. The typical user was a Caucasian, highly-educated, gainfully employed professional approximately 30 years of age, who was earning an above-average income, was not active in organized sports, and whose use was motivated by increases in skeletal muscle mass, strength, and physical attractiveness. These findings question commonly held views of the typical NMAAS user and the associated underlying motivations. Conclusion The focus on "cheating" athletes and at risk youth has led to ineffective policy as it relates to the predominant group of NMAAS users. Effective policy, prevention or intervention should address the target population(s) and their reasons for use while utilizing their desire for responsible use and education. PMID:17931410

  11. Sexual Activity and Counseling in the First Month After Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) Among Younger Adults in the United States and Spain: Prospective, Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Lindau, Stacy Tessler; Abramsohn, Emily M; Bueno, Héctor; D'Onofrio, Gail; Lichtman, Judith H; Lorenze, Nancy P; Sanghani, Rupa Mehta; Spatz, Erica S; Spertus, John A; Strait, Kelly; Wroblewski, Kristen; Zhou, Shengfan; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2015-01-01

    Background United States and European cardiovascular society guidelines recommend physicians counsel patients about resuming sexual activity after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but little is known about patients’ experience with counseling about sexual activity after AMI. Methods and Results The prospective, longitudinal Variation in Recovery: Role of Gender on Outcomes of Young AMI Patients (VIRGO) study, conducted at 127 hospitals in the U.S. and Spain, was designed, in part, to evaluate gender differences in baseline sexual activity, function and patient experience with physician counseling about sexual activity after an AMI. This study used baseline and 1-month data collected from the 2:1 sample of women (N=2349) and men (N=1152) ages 18-55 years with AMI. Median age was 48 years. Among those who reported discussing sexual activity with a physician in the month after AMI (12% of women, 19% of men), 68% were given restrictions: limit sex (35%), take a more passive role (26%), and/or keep the heart rate down (23%). In risk-adjusted analyses, factors associated with not discussing sexual activity with a physician included: female gender (RR 1.07, 95% CI 1.03-1.11), age (RR 1.05 per 10 years, 95% CI 1.02-1.08) and sexual inactivity at baseline (RR 1.11, 95% CI 1.08-1.15). Among patients who received counseling, women in Spain were significantly more likely to be given restrictions than U.S. women (RR 1.36, 95% CI 1.11-1.66). Conclusions Very few patients reported counseling for sexual activity after AMI. Those who did were commonly given restrictions not supported by evidence or guidelines. PMID:25512442

  12. Adult Literacy & Basic Skills Unit Newsletter. Nos. 32-35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult Literacy & Basic Skills Unit Newsletter, 1989

    1989-01-01

    This packet contains the four issues of a newsletter published in 1989 by the Adult Literacy & Basic Skills Unit in England. The Winter issue contains the following articles: "After the Act"; "An Evening at the Theatre"; "Horticulture: A Practical Project with Autistic Adults"; "Shared Reading"; and "Literacy and Adult Basic Education in…

  13. Preventing Unnecessary Costs of Drug-Induced Hypoglycemia in Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes in the United States and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Boulin, Mathieu; Diaby, Vakaramoko; Tannenbaum, Cara

    2016-01-01

    Background The costs of drug-induced hypoglycemia are a critical but often neglected component of value-based arguments to reduce tight glycemic control in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods An economic (decision-tree) analysis compared rates, costs, quality-adjusted life-years, and incremental costs per quality-adjusted life-year gained associated with mild, moderate and severe hypoglycemic events for 6 glucose-lowering medication classes in type 2 diabetic adults aged 65–79 versus those 80 years and older. The national U.S. (Center for Medicare Services) and Canadian public health payer perspectives were adopted. Findings Incidence rates of drug-induced hypoglycemia were the highest for basal insulin and sulfonylureas: 8.64 and 4.32 events per person-year in 65–79 year olds, and 12.06 and 6.03 events per person-year for 80 years and older. In both the U.S. and Canada, metformin dominated sulfonylureas, basal insulin and glucagon-like peptide1 receptor agonists. Relative to sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones had the lowest incremental cost-effectiveness ratios in the U.S. and dominated sulfonylureas in Canada for adults 80 years and older. Relative to sulfonylureas, dipeptidyl peptidase4 inhibitors were cost-effective for adults 80 years and older in both countries, and for 65–79 year olds in Canada. Annual costs of hypoglycemia for older adults attaining very tight glycemic control with the use of insulin or sulfonylureas were estimated at U.S.$509,214,473 in the U.S. and CAN$65,497,849 in Canada. Conclusions Optimizing drug therapy for older type 2 diabetic adults through the avoidance of drug-induced hypoglycemia will dramatically improve patient health while also generating millions of dollars by saving unnecessary medical costs. PMID:27648831

  14. QuickStats: Percentages* of Residential Care Communities and Adult Day Services Centers That Provided(†) Selected Services - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, a greater percentage of residential care communities than adult day service centers provided five of seven selected services. The majority of residential care communities provided pharmacy services (82%); followed by transportation for social activities (79%); physical, occupational, or speech therapy (69%); hospice (62%); skilled nursing (59%); and mental health services (52%). Fewer than half provided social work services (48%). The majority of adult day services centers provided transportation for social activities (69%); skilled nursing (66%); and social work (52%). %). Fewer than half provided physical, occupational, or speech therapy (49%). One third or less provided mental health (33%), pharmacy (27%), and hospice services (12%). PMID:27607333

  15. A Cross-Cultural Examination of the Positivity Effect in Memory: United States vs. China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Christie; Lin, Ziyong

    2012-01-01

    Many studies conducted in the United States (U.S.) have documented a positivity effect in aging--a tendency for older adults to remember more positive than negative information in comparison to young adults. Despite this cognitive emotional benefit, U.S. adults still hold a more negative view of aging compared to adults in Asia. We hypothesized…

  16. Untreated Isolated Sytolic Hypertension among Middle-Aged and Old Adults in the United States: Trends in the Prevalence by Demographic Factors During 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuefeng; Hoang, Van Minh; Liu, Yali; Brown, Rachel L W

    2015-01-01

    Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) predominates hemodynamic hypertension subtypes and becomes a significant factor for cardiovascular and renal outcomes in middle-aged and old adults. The prevalence and changes of untreated ISH have not been fully investigated in this population. A total of 12,097 participants aged ≥40 years were selected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010. The overall prevalence of untreated ISH was 15.2%. The prevalence decreased significantly from 16.8% in 1999-2004 to 13.5% in 2005-2010. Females, non-Hispanic blacks, and adults with low education had higher prevalence of untreated ISH than males, non-Hispanic whites, and adults with high education, respectively. Compared with 1999-2004, the prevalence of untreated ISH in 2005-2010 reduced in old adults (28.0% versus 37.7%), females (14.3% versus 19.5%), and non-Hispanic whites (12.7% versus 16.2%). The stratified prevalence of untreated ISH decreased in 2005-2010 in non-Hispanic white females (12.8% versus 18.6%) and females who did not attend college (16.9% versus 21.8%). Untreated ISH is more prevalent in old and female subjects, and significant improvements in these groups suggest that public health measures or changes are in the right direction. PMID:26464870

  17. Is It Really Worse to Have Public Health Insurance than to Have No Insurance at All? Health Insurance and Adult Health in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quesnel-Vallee, Amelie

    2004-01-01

    Using prospective cohort data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this study examines the extent to which health insurance coverage and the source of that coverage affect adult health. While previous research has shown that privately insured nonelderly individuals enjoy better health outcomes than their uninsured counterparts, the…

  18. Hate Crimes and Stigma-Related Experiences among Sexual Minority Adults in the United States: Prevalence Estimates from a National Probability Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herek, Gregory M.

    2009-01-01

    Using survey responses collected via the Internet from a U.S. national probability sample of gay, lesbian, and bisexual adults (N = 662), this article reports prevalence estimates of criminal victimization and related experiences based on the target's sexual orientation. Approximately 20% of respondents reported having experienced a person or…

  19. A comparison of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the United States (US) and Korea in young adults aged 20 to 39 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study estimated and compared the prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome and its individual components in young adults (ages 20-39 years) in the US and Korea using 2003-2004 US and 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. The mean body mass index and rate of metabolic abn...

  20. Water and beverage consumption among adults in the United States: cross-sectional study using data from NHANES 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined plain water consumption among US adults. This study evaluated the consumption of plain water (tap and bottled) and total water among US adults by age group (20-50y, 51-70y, and ≥71y), gender, income-to-poverty ratio, and race/ethnicity. Methods Data from up to two non-consecutive 24-hour recalls from the 2005–2006, 2007–2008 and 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was used to evaluate usual intake of water and water as a beverage among 15,702 US adults. The contribution of different beverage types (e.g., water as a beverage [tap or bottled], milk [including flavored], 100% fruit juice, soda/soft drinks [regular and diet], fruit drinks, sports/energy drinks, coffee, tea, and alcoholic beverages) to total water and energy intakes was examined. Total water intakes from plain water, beverages, and food were compared to the Adequate Intake (AI) values from the US Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Total water volume per 1,000 kcal was also examined. Results Water and other beverages contributed 75-84% of dietary water, with 17-25% provided by water in foods, depending on age. Plain water, from tap or bottled sources, contributed 30-37% of total dietary water. Overall, 56% of drinking water volume was from tap water while bottled water provided 44%. Older adults (≥71y) consumed much less bottled water than younger adults. Non-Hispanic whites consumed the most tap water, whereas Mexican-Americans consumed the most bottled water. Plain water consumption (bottled and tap) tended to be associated with higher incomes. On average, younger adults exceeded or came close to satisfying the DRIs for water. Older men and women failed to meet the Institute of Medicine (IOM) AI values, with a shortfall in daily water intakes of 1218 mL and 603 mL respectively. Eighty-three percent of women and 95% of men ≥71y failed to meet the IOM AI values for water. However, average water volume per 1,000 kcal was 1

  1. The Population Impact and Cost-Effectiveness of Statins for Primary Prevention in Adults 75 and Older in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Odden, Michelle C.; Pletcher, Mark J.; Coxson, Pamela G.; Thekkethala, Divya; Guzman, David; Heller, David; Goldman, Lee; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Over 40% of adults 75 and older are taking statins, yet there is little evidence to guide primary prevention in this population. OBJECTIVE To project the population impact and cost-effectiveness of statin therapy in adults aged 75 years and older. DESIGN Forecasting study using the Cardiovascular Disease Policy Model, a Markov model. DATA SOURCE Trial, cohort, and nationally-representative data sources. TARGET POPULATION U.S. adults aged 75–94 years. TIME HORIZON 10 years. PERSPECTIVE Health care system. INTERVENTION Statins for primary prevention based on: 1) Low density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥4.91 mmol/L (190 mg/dL), 2) ≥4.14 mmol/L (160 mg/dL), 3) ≥3.36 mmol/L (130 mg/dL), 4) diabetes, 5) 10-year risk score ≥7.5% (treat all). OUTCOME MEASURES Myocardial infarction (MI), coronary heart disease (CHD) death, disability adjusted life years, costs RESULT OF BASE-CASE ANALYSIS All adults aged 75 and older in NHANES have a 10-year risk score >7.5%. If statins have no effect on functional limitation or cognitive impairment, all primary prevention strategies would prevent MIs and CHD deaths and be cost effective. The broadest strategy, treatment of all adults aged 75–94 years would result in 8 million additional users, and prevent 105,000 (4.3%) incident MIs and 68,000 (2.3%) CHD deaths at an incremental cost per disability adjusted life year of $25,200. RESULT OF SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS An increased relative risk of functional limitation or mild cognitive impairment in the range of 1.10 to 1.30 could offset the cardiovascular benefits. LIMITATIONS Limited trial evidence targeting primary prevention in adults 75 and older. CONCLUSIONS At effectiveness similar to trial findings, statins are projected to be cost-effective for primary prevention in adults age 75–94 years; however, even a small increase in geriatric specific side effects could offset the cardiovascular benefit. Improved data on the potential benefits and harms of statins are needed to

  2. Uniting multi-adult households during emergency evacuation planning.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sirui; Murray-Tuite, Pamela M; Schweitzer, Lisa

    2014-07-01

    When a no-notice emergency prompts an evacuation, family members in different locations throughout a city may unite so that they can evacuate as a group. This paper draws on data from more than 300 interviews conducted in the metropolitan area of Chicago, Illinois, United States. The study uses discrete choice models to analyse the expectations of respondents regarding whether their likely plans for evacuation involve gathering spouses, parents, adult-age children, and/or non-family members. In addition, it addresses the matter of whether respondents plan to reunite with family members at home. Individuals' access to a personal car is the dominating factor in predicting whether respondents plan to gather a spouse. Being the parent of a child under the age of 18 years increases the tendency to report planning to reunite with family members at home. Both commute mode and car availability are not significantly associated with plans to reunite at home.

  3. Reactions to Graphic Health Warnings in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nonnemaker, James M.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Farrelly, Matthew C.; Kamyab, Kian; Davis, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    This study reports consumer reactions to the graphic health warnings selected by the Food and Drug Administration to be placed on cigarette packs in the United States. We recruited three sets of respondents for an experimental study from a national opt-in e-mail list sample: (i) current smokers aged 25 or older, (ii) young adult smokers aged 18-24…

  4. Cardiovascular Risk Factors of Adults Age 20–49 Years in the United States, 1971–2012: A Series of Cross-Sectional Studies

    PubMed Central

    Casagrande, Sarah S.; Menke, Andy; Cowie, Catherine C.

    2016-01-01

    Background The health of younger adults in the U.S. has important public health and economic-related implications. However, previous literature is insufficient to fully understand how the health of this group has changed over time. This study examined generational differences in cardiovascular risk factors of younger adults over the past 40 years. Methods Data were from 6 nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1971–2012; N = 44,670). Participants were adults age 20–49 years who self-reported sociodemographic characteristics and health conditions, and had examination/laboratory measures for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, obesity, and chronic kidney disease. Prevalences of sociodemographic characteristics and health status were determined by study period. Logistic regression was used to determine the odds [odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval] of health conditions by study period: models adjusted only for age, sex, and race, and fully adjusted models additionally adjusted for socioeconomic characteristics, smoking, BMI, diabetes, and/or hypertension (depending on the outcome) were assessed. Results Participants in 2009–2012 were significantly more likely to be obese and have diabetes compared to those in 1971–1975 (OR = 4.98, 3.57–6.97; OR = 3.49, 1.59–7.65, respectively, fully adjusted). Participants in 2009–2012 vs. 1988–1994 were significantly more likely to have had hypertension but uncontrolled hypertension was significantly less likely (OR = 0.67, 0.52–0.86, fully adjusted). There was no difference over time for high cholesterol, but uncontrolled high cholesterol was significantly less likely in 2009–2012 vs. 1988–1994 (OR = 0.80, 0.68–0.94, fully adjusted). The use of hypertensive and cholesterol medications increased while chronic kidney and cardiovascular diseases were relatively stable. Conclusions Cardiovascular risk factors of younger U.S. adults have worsened over

  5. Income inequality and tooth loss in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bernabé, E; Marcenes, W

    2011-06-01

    This study explored the relationship between state income inequality and individual tooth loss among 386,629 adults in the United States who participated in the 2008 Behavioral and Risk Factor Surveillance System. Multilevel models were used to test the association of the state Gini coefficient with tooth loss after sequential adjustment for state- (median household income) and individual-level confounders (sex, age, race, education, and household income), as well as state- (percent receiving fluoridated water and dentist-to-population ratio) and individual-level mediators (marital status and last dental visit). The state Gini coefficient was significantly associated with tooth loss even after adjustment for state- and individual-level confounders and potential mediators (Odds Ratio, 1.17; 95% Confidence Interval, 1.05 to 1.30). This study provides support for the relationship between state income inequality and individual tooth loss in the United States.

  6. Characteristic profiles of urinary p-hydroxybenzoic acid and its esters (parabens) in children and adults from the United States and China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Wu, Yinghong; Zhang, Wei; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2013-02-19

    Hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens) are used as preservatives in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals, which results in the exposure of humans to these compounds. Parabens and its metabolite, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (p-HB) are excreted from urine in free and conjugated forms. In this study, free and total forms (free plus conjugated) of parabens and their common metabolite, p-HB, were measured in urine samples collected from U.S. children (n = 40), Chinese children (n = 70), and Chinese adults (n = 26). The median concentrations of the sum of 6 parabens (Σparabens) in urine from U.S. and Chinese children were 54.6 and 10.1 ng/mL, respectively. The median concentration of urinary parabens measured for Chinese adults was 33.2 ng/mL, which was lower than that reported for U.S. adults. Elevated concentrations of parabens (1000-10,000 ng/mL) were found in urine from some Chinese adult females. Parabens were present predominantly (>90%) as conjugated species in urine. Among the six parabens analyzed, methyl paraben (MeP) and propyl paraben (PrP) were the predominant compounds, which accounted for 57-98% and 1.4-12%, respectively, of the total concentrations. A significant positive correlation was found between the concentrations of MeP and PrP. The geometric mean (GM) concentration of p-HB was 1380 and 2370 ng/mL for Chinese children and adults, respectively. The GM concentrations of p-HB in urine from U.S. children were 752 ng/mL for girls and 628 ng/mL for boys, which were 2-3 times lower than the concentrations determined for Chinese children. There was a significant difference in the ratios of concentrations of Σparabens and p-HB between demographic groups, which suggested the existence of various exposure routes to parabens. Based on the concentrations of urinary parabens and p-HB, the daily intake (DI) of MeP and PrP was estimated. The GM DI(MeP) estimated for Chinese children was 0.5-0.7 mg/day, which was similar to those determined for U.S. children. The GM DI

  7. United States Space Explorations 1958

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    United States Space Explorations 1958. The film describes preparation and launch of five satellites and two space probes during 1958. On January 31, a Jupiter vehicle launched Explorer I into space. Data from this satellite was used to identify the van Allen radiation belts. On March 17, a Vanguard I rocket launched an Earth satellite with solar batteries. Data from the mission was used to determine that the Earth is slightly pear-shaped. On March 26, Explorer III was launched to further study the van Allen belts, micrometeoroid impacts, and internal and external temperatures. Explorer IV, launched on July 26, was intended to study radiation and temperature data. A lunar probe, ABLE I, was intended to measure radiation, magnetic fields of Earth and the Moon, density of micrometeoric matter, and internal temperatures. A four-stage rocket was used in the launch. However, a turbo-pump failed and the liquid oxygen pump stopped, resulting in a failed mission. On October 10, Pioneer I was launched by an ABLE vehicle. First and second stage velocity was less than desired and the probe did not leave Earth orbit. Attempts to attain escape velocity were unsuccessful. On December, a Jupiter boost vehicle was used to launch Juno II, with Pioneer III as the payload. Escape velocity was reached and Pioneer III left Earth's atmosphere. Failed launches, such as those of Vanguard boost vehicles and several Explorer satellites, also added to scientific knowledge. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030963. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  8. Potato production in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes have been a staple in the American diet for almost 250 years. The United States is the world's fifth biggest producer, behind China, India, the Russian Federation, and the Ukraine. Potatoes in the United States are grown in nearly every state. Idaho produces approximately 1/3 of all potatoe...

  9. 7 CFR 1210.315 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.315 United States. United States means each of the several States and the District of Columbia. National Watermelon Promotion Board...

  10. 7 CFR 1210.315 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.315 United States. United States means each of the several States and the District of Columbia. National Watermelon Promotion Board...

  11. 7 CFR 1210.315 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.315 United States. United States means each of the several States and the District of Columbia. National Watermelon Promotion Board...

  12. 7 CFR 1210.315 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.315 United States. United States means each of the several States and the District of Columbia. National Watermelon Promotion Board...

  13. 7 CFR 1210.315 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.315 United States. United States means each of the several States and the District of Columbia. National Watermelon Promotion Board...

  14. Ethnic disparities among food sources of energy and nutrients of public health concern and nutrients to limit in adults in the United States: NHANES 2003–2006

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil, Carol E.; Nicklas, Theresa A.; Keast, Debra R.; Fulgoni, Victor L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Identification of current food sources of energy and nutrients among US non-Hispanic whites (NHW), non-Hispanic blacks (NHB), and Mexican American (MA) adults is needed to help with public health efforts in implementing culturally sensitive and feasible dietary recommendations. Objective The objective of this study was to determine the food sources of energy and nutrients to limit [saturated fatty acids (SFA), added sugars, and sodium] and nutrients of public health concern (dietary fiber, vitamin D, calcium, and potassium) by NHW, NHB, and MA adults. Design This was a cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample of NWH (n=4,811), NHB (2,062), and MA (n=1,950) adults 19+ years. The 2003–2006 NHANES 24-h recall (Day 1) dietary intake data were analyzed. An updated USDA Dietary Source Nutrient Database was developed using current food composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from food sources were sample-weighted. Percentages of total dietary intake contributed from food sources were ranked. Results Multiple differences in intake among ethnic groups were seen for energy and all nutrients examined. For example, energy intake was higher in MA as compared to NHB; SFA, added sugars, and sodium intakes were higher in NHW than NHB; dietary fiber was highest in MA and lowest in NHB; vitamin D was highest in NHW; calcium was lowest in NHB; and potassium was higher in NHW as compared to NHB. Food sources of these nutrients also varied. Conclusion Identification of intake of nutrients to limit and of public health concern can help health professionals implement appropriate dietary recommendations and plan interventions that are ethnically appropriate. PMID:25413643

  15. Sedentary and physically active behavior patterns among low-income African-American and white adults living in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Sarah S; Matthews, Charles E; Signorello, Lisa B; Schlundt, David G; Blot, William J; Buchowski, Maciej S

    2013-01-01

    Increased sedentary behavior and lack of physical activity are associated with increased risk for many chronic diseases. Differences in leisure-time physical activity between African American and white adults have been suggested to partially explain racial disparities in chronic disease outcomes, but expanding the definition of physical activity to include household and occupational activities may reduce or even eliminate racial differences in total physical activity. The objective of this study was to describe patterns of active and sedentary behaviors in black and white adults and to examine these behaviors across demographic measures. Sedentary and physically active behaviors were obtained from a validated physical activity questionnaire in 23,021 black men, 9,899 white men, 32,214 black women, and 15,425 white women (age 40-79) at enrollment into the Southern Community Cohort Study. Descriptive statistics for sedentary time; light, moderate, and vigorous household/occupational activity; sports/exercise; total activity; and meeting current physical activity recommendations via sports/exercise were examined for each race-sex group. Adjusted means were calculated using multiple linear regression models across demographic measures. Study participants spent approximately 60% of waking time in sedentary behaviors. Blacks reported more television viewing time than whites (45 minutes for females, 15 minutes for males), but when sitting time was expressed as a proportion of overall awake time, minimal racial differences were found. Patterns of light, moderate, and vigorous household/occupational activity were similar in all race/sex groups. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans were followed by 16% of women and 25% of men independent of race. Overall, black and white men and women in this study spent the majority of their daily time in sedentary behaviors and less than one-fourth followed current guidelines for physical activity. These results indicate that

  16. Sedentary and physically active behavior patterns among low-income African-American and white adults living in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Sarah S; Matthews, Charles E; Signorello, Lisa B; Schlundt, David G; Blot, William J; Buchowski, Maciej S

    2013-01-01

    Increased sedentary behavior and lack of physical activity are associated with increased risk for many chronic diseases. Differences in leisure-time physical activity between African American and white adults have been suggested to partially explain racial disparities in chronic disease outcomes, but expanding the definition of physical activity to include household and occupational activities may reduce or even eliminate racial differences in total physical activity. The objective of this study was to describe patterns of active and sedentary behaviors in black and white adults and to examine these behaviors across demographic measures. Sedentary and physically active behaviors were obtained from a validated physical activity questionnaire in 23,021 black men, 9,899 white men, 32,214 black women, and 15,425 white women (age 40-79) at enrollment into the Southern Community Cohort Study. Descriptive statistics for sedentary time; light, moderate, and vigorous household/occupational activity; sports/exercise; total activity; and meeting current physical activity recommendations via sports/exercise were examined for each race-sex group. Adjusted means were calculated using multiple linear regression models across demographic measures. Study participants spent approximately 60% of waking time in sedentary behaviors. Blacks reported more television viewing time than whites (45 minutes for females, 15 minutes for males), but when sitting time was expressed as a proportion of overall awake time, minimal racial differences were found. Patterns of light, moderate, and vigorous household/occupational activity were similar in all race/sex groups. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans were followed by 16% of women and 25% of men independent of race. Overall, black and white men and women in this study spent the majority of their daily time in sedentary behaviors and less than one-fourth followed current guidelines for physical activity. These results indicate that

  17. Distribution of toenail selenium levels in young adult Caucasians and African Americans in the United States: The CARDIA Trace Element Study

    SciTech Connect

    Xun, Pengcheng; Bujnowski, Deborah; Liu, Kiang; Steve Morris, J.; Guo, Zhongqin; He, Ka

    2011-05-15

    Background: Data on selenium (Se) levels in American young adults, especially in African Americans, are lacking. Objective: This study presented toenail Se distributions in American young adults of both genders, including both Caucasians and African Americans; and explored potential predictors of toenail Se levels. Data and methods: Data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study among 4252 American young adults, aged 20-32 in 1987 was used to examine toenail Se levels by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. The distribution of Se levels was described and multivariable linear regression was used to examine potential modifiers of toenail Se concentration within ethnicity-gender subgroups. Results: The geometric mean of toenail Se in this cohort was 0.844 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 {mu}g/g) and the median was 0.837 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.833-0.844 {mu}g/g). Median levels from lowest to highest quintile were 0.691, 0.774, 0.838, 0.913 and 1.037 {mu}g/g. Se levels varied geographically, and were generally in accordance with its concentrations in local soil. Males, African Americans, current smokers, heavy drinkers and less educated participants were more likely to have low Se levels. Conclusion: This study suggests that toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. In addition to gender, ethnicity and education level, smoking status and alcohol consumption are two important indicators of Se status since they are modifiable lifestyle factors. Findings from this study might aid public health professionals in identifying people at relatively high or low Se levels, so that chronic disease prevention efforts can be directed toward these subgroups. - Research highlights: {yields} Average of toenail Se levels in this cohort was 0.844 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 {mu}g/g). {yields} Toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. {yields} Males, African Americans and less educated participants have

  18. 7 CFR 1206.23 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.23 United States....

  19. 7 CFR 1206.23 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.23 United States....

  20. 7 CFR 1206.23 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.23 United States....