Antibody-Forming Cells and Serum Hemolysin Responses of Pastel and Sapphire Mink Inoculated with Aleutian Disease Virus
Lodmell, Donald L.; Bergman, R. Kaye; Hadlow, William J.
The effect of Aleutian disease virus (ADV) on serum hemolysin titers and antibody-forming cells in lymph nodes and spleens of sapphire and pastel mink inoculated with goat erythrocytes (G-RBC) was investigated. ADV injected 1 day after primary antigenic stimulation with G-RBC did not depress the immune responses of either color phase for a period of 26 days. However, when G-RBC were injected 47 days after ADV, both the number of antibody-forming cells and hemolysin titers were more markedly depressed in sapphire than in pastel mink. The results are discussed in relation to the greater susceptibility of sapphire mink and the variable susceptibility of pastel mink to the Pullman isolate of ADV. PMID:4584051
17 CFR 275.204-1 - Amendments to application for registration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
... registration. (a) When amendment is required. You must amend your Form ADV (17 CFR 279.1): (1) At least... Registration Depository (“IARD”) is available on our website at www.sec.gov/iard. (b) Electronic filing...
The Design and Characterization of Wideband Spline-profiled Feedhorns for Advanced Actpol
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simon, Sara M.; Austermann, Jason; Beall, James A.; Choi, Steve K.; Coughlin, Kevin P.; Duff, Shannon M.; Gallardo, Patricio A.; Henderson, Shawn W.; Hills, Felicity B.; Ho, Shuay-Pwu Patty; Hubmayr, Johannes; Josaitis, Alec; Koopman, Brian J.; McMahon, Jeff J.; Nati, Federico; Newburgh, Laura; Niemack, Michael D.; Salatino, Maria; Schillaci, Alessandro; Wollack, Edward J.
Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) is an upgraded camera for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) that will measure the cosmic microwave background in temperature and polarization over a wide range of angular scales and five frequency bands from 28-230 GHz. AdvACT will employ four arrays of feedhorn-coupled, polarization- sensitive multichroic detectors. To accommodate the higher pixel packing densities necessary to achieve Ad- vACTs sensitivity goals, we have developed and optimized wideband spline-profiled feedhorns for the AdvACT multichroic arrays that maximize coupling efficiency while carefully controlling polarization systematics. We present the design, fabrication, and testing of wideband spline-profiled feedhorns for the multichroic arrays of AdvACT.
17 CFR 275.203A-1 - Eligibility for SEC registration; Switching to or from SEC registration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
...)), you must file Form ADV-W (17 CFR 279.2) to withdraw your SEC registration within 180 days of your... and registration buffer. You may, but are not required to register with the Commission if you...
Progress Towards Prognostic Health Management of Passive Components in Advanced Small Modular Reactors
Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Pardini, Allan F.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Prowant, Matthew S.
Sustainable nuclear power to promote energy security and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions are two key national energy priorities. The development of deployable small modular reactors (SMRs) is expected to support these objectives by developing technologies that improve the reliability, sustain safety, and improve affordability of new reactors. Advanced SMRs (AdvSMRs) refer to a specific class of SMRs and are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts. Prognostic health management (PHM) systems can benefit both the safety and economics of deploying AdvSMRs and can play an essential role in managing the inspection and maintenance of passive components in AdvSMR systems. This paper describes progress on development of a prototypic PHM system for AdvSMR passive components, with thermal creep chosen as the target degradation mechanism.
Polyethyleneimine-coating enhances adenoviral transduction of mesenchymal stem cells.
Yao, Xinglei; Zhou, Na; Wan, Li; Su, Xiaodong; Sun, Zhao; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Nakagawa, Shinsaku; Zhao, Robert Chunhua; Gao, Jian-Qing
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are non-hematopoietic cells with multi-lineage potential, which makes them attractive targets for regenerative medicine applications. Efficient gene transfer into MSCs is essential for basic research in developmental biology and for therapeutic applications involving gene-modification in regenerative medicine. Adenovirus vectors (Advs) can efficiently and transiently introduce an exogenous gene into many cell types via their primary receptors, the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptors (CARs), but not into MSCs, which lack CAR expression. To overcome this problem, an Adv coated with cationic polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI) was developed. In this study, we demonstrated that PEI coating with an optimal ratio can enhance adenoviral transduction of MSCs without cytotoxicity. We also investigated the physicochemical properties and internalization mechanisms of the PEI-coated Adv. These results could help to evaluate the potentiality of the PEI-coated Adv as a prototype vector for efficient and safe transduction into MSCs. PMID:24727452
Rapid detection and identification of human adenovirus species by adenoplex, a multiplex PCR-enzyme hybridization assay.
Pehler-Harrington, Karen; Khanna, Marilyn; Waters, Chris R; Henrickson, Kelly J
Human adenoviruses (AdV) have been implicated in a wide variety of diseases and are ubiquitous in populations worldwide. These agents are of concern particularly in immunocompromised patients, children, and military recruits, resulting in severe disease or death. Clinical diagnosis of AdV is usually achieved through routine viral cell culture, which can take weeks for results. Immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based techniques are more timely but lack sensitivity. The ability to distinguish between the six different AdV species (A to F) is diagnostically relevant, as infections with specific AdV species are often associated with unique clinical outcomes and epidemiological features. Therefore, we developed a multiplex PCR-enzyme hybridization assay, the Adenoplex, using primers to the fiber gene that can simultaneously detect all six AdV species A through F in a single test. The limit of detection (LOD) based on the viral 50% tissue culture infective dose/ml for AdV A, B, C, D, E, and F was 10(-2), 10(-1), 10(-1), 10(-2), 10(-1), and 10(-2), respectively. Similarly, the LOD for the six DNA controls ranged from 10(2) to 10(3) copies/ml. Twelve common respiratory pathogens were tested with the Adenoplex, and no cross-reactivity was observed. We also validated our assay using clinical specimens spiked with different concentrations of AdV strains of each species type and tested by multiplex PCR and culture. The results demonstrated an overall sensitivity and specificity of Adenoplex of 100%. This assay can be completed in as few as 5 h and provides a rapid, specific, and sensitive method to detect and subtype AdV species A through F.
Technical Needs for Prototypic Prognostic Technique Demonstration for Advanced Small Modular Reactor Passive Components
Meyer, Ryan M.; Coble, Jamie B.; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Mitchell, Mark R.; Wootan, David W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Henager, Charles H.
This report identifies a number of requirements for prognostics health management of passive systems in AdvSMRs, documents technical gaps in establishing a prototypical prognostic methodology for this purpose, and describes a preliminary research plan for addressing these technical gaps. AdvSMRs span multiple concepts; therefore a technology- and design-neutral approach is taken, with the focus being on characteristics that are likely to be common to all or several AdvSMR concepts. An evaluation of available literature is used to identify proposed concepts for AdvSMRs along with likely operational characteristics. Available operating experience of advanced reactors is used in identifying passive components that may be subject to degradation, materials likely to be used for these components, and potential modes of degradation of these components. This information helps in assessing measurement needs for PHM systems, as well as defining functional requirements of PHM systems. An assessment of current state-of-the-art approaches to measurements, sensors and instrumentation, diagnostics and prognostics is also documented. This state-of-the-art evaluation, combined with the requirements, may be used to identify technical gaps and research needs in the development, evaluation, and deployment of PHM systems for AdvSMRs. A preliminary research plan to address high-priority research needs for the deployment of PHM systems to AdvSMRs is described, with the objective being the demonstration of prototypic prognostics technology for passive components in AdvSMRs. Greater efficiency in achieving this objective can be gained through judicious selection of materials and degradation modes that are relevant to proposed AdvSMR concepts, and for which significant knowledge already exists. These selections were made based on multiple constraints including the analysis performed in this document, ready access to laboratory-scale facilities for materials testing and measurement, and
A novel baseline hepatitis B virus sequencing-based strategy for predicting adefovir antiviral response.
Wang, Yu-Wei; Shan, Xuefeng; Huang, Yao; Deng, Haijun; Huang, Wen-Xiang; Zhang, Da-Zhi; Chen, Juan; Tang, Ni; Shan, You-Lan; Guo, Jin-Jun; Huang, Ailong
Adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) is used as first-line monotherapy or rescue therapy in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. In this study, we sought to identify nucleotide changes in the reverse transcriptase (RT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) at baseline and explore their predictive value for ADV antiviral response. Ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS) was utilized to determine HBV genetic variability within the RT region at baseline and during a 48-week ADV therapy. According to the viral load at the end of ADV treatment, all patients were classified into responders (HBV DNA level reduction of ⩾ 3 log 10 IU/mL) and suboptimal responders (HBV DNA level reduction of <3 log 10 IU/mL). Based on UDPS data at baseline, we identified 11 nucleotide substitutions whose combination frequency was significantly associated with the antiviral response among 36 CHB patients in the study group. However, the baseline distribution and frequency of rt181 and rt236 substitutions known to confer ADV resistance was a poor predictor for the antiviral response. Compared with baseline serum HBeAg, HBV-DNA and ALT levels, the baseline HBV sequence-based model showed higher predictive accuracy for ADV response. In an independent cohort of 31 validation patients with CHB, the sequence-based model provided greater predictive potency than the HBeAg/HBV-DNA/ALT and the HBeAg/HBV-DNA/ALT/sequence combinations. Taken together, we confirm the presence of ADV resistance variants in treatment-naïve patients and firstly unravel the predictive value of the baseline mutations in the HBV RT region for ADV antiviral response.
Influence of mycorhization and soil organic matters on lead and antimony transfers to vegetables cultivated in urban gardens: environmental and sanitary consequences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pierart, Antoine; Braud, Armelle; Lebeau, Thierry; Séjalon-Delmas, Nathalie; Dumat, Camille
. References: Feng, R., Wei, C., Tu, S., Ding, Y., Wang, R., Guo, J., 2013. The uptake and detoxification of antimony by plants: a review. Environ. Exp. Bot. 96, 28-34. Foucault, Y., Lévêque, T., Xiong, T., Schreck, E., Austruy, A., Shahid, M., Dumat, C., 2013. Green manure plants for remediation of soils polluted by metals and metalloids: Ecotoxicity and human bioavailability assessment. Chemosphere 93, 1430-1435. Gu, H.H., Li, F.P., Yu, Q., Gao, Y.Q., Yuan, X.T., 2013. The Roles of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Glomus mosseae and Festuca arundinacea in Phytostabilization of Lead/Zinc Tailings. Adv. Mater. Res. 699, 245-250. Lebeau, T., Braud, A., Jézéquel, K., 2008. Performance of bioaugmentation-assisted phytoextraction applied to metal contaminated soils: A review. Environ. Pollut. 153, 497-522. Sharma, A., Sharma, H., 2013. Role of Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza in the Mycoremediation of Heavy Toxic Metals From Soil. Int J LifeSc Bt Pharm Res 2, 2418-2431. Wu, F., Fu, Z., Liu, B., Mo, C., Chen, B., Corns, W., Liao, H., 2011. Health risk associated with dietary co-exposure to high levels of antimony and arsenic in the world's largest antimony mine area. Sci. Total Environ. 409, 3344-3351. Xiong, T., Austruy, A., Dappe, V., Leveque, T., Sobanska, S., Foucault, Y., Dumat, C., 2013. Phytotoxicity and bioaccessibility of metals for vegetables exposed to atmosphere fine particles in polluted urban areas". Urban Environmental Pollution, Asian Edition, 17-20, Beijing, China.
Imaging nanomaterials in vitro and in vivo by exploring their intrinsic nonlinear optical signals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
. First, receptor-medicated endocytosis is visualized with a polymeric nanoparticle-based CARS probe (J. Phys. Chem. B, 2007, 111, 9980-9985). Second, the cellular drug delivery mechanism by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA NPs) is reexamined by CARS microscopy and new discoveries that PLGA NPs are not readily taken up by cells and delivered the payload to cells by extracellular drug release and/or direct drug transfer to contacting cells are found (Mol. Pharmaceutics, 2009, 6, 190-201). Third, the sensitivity of SRS microscopy is improved to monitor liposomal drug delivery in live cells. The last part of my thesis depicts the applications of GNRs in diagnosis and phtotothermal therapy of tumor cells and activated macrophages. Photothermal effect of GNRs is monitored by TPL, confocal microscopy and biological assays. The formation of membrane blebs is observed. The subcellular mechanism is investigated to be a downstream effect of compromised membrane integrity, which permits influx of calcium and subsequent disruption of the actin network (Adv. Mater. 2007, 109, 3136-3141, cover story). In addition, cell death through necrosis or apoptosis is induced by controlling laser irradiation. The molecular mechanisms are determined as the loss of plasma membrane integrity for necrosis and intracellular perturbation with damage of mitochondria for apoptosis (Nanomedicine, 2009, 4, 265-276).
EDITORIAL: Bioengineering nanotechnology: towards the clinic Bioengineering nanotechnology: towards the clinic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Weian; Karp, Jeffrey M.; Ferrari, Mauro; Serda, Rita
special issue highlights some of the most recent advances in the exciting field of bioengineering nanotechnology. The themes covered in this issue include nanoparticle systems for tracking transplanted stem cells using a variety of imaging modalities, synthesis of smart nanomaterials for drug delivery and targeting specific intracellular organalles, elucidating how physical cues provided by nano- or micro-fabricated scaffolds impact cell phenotype, novel nanocomposite materials for biosensing, biomimetic assembly of nanostructures for studying molecular interactions, and high content analysis for assessing nanotoxicity. We believe next-generation nanomaterials that are currently under development will transform our understanding of biological mechanisms, and revolutionize clinical practice through ushering in new diagnostics and therapeutic paradigms. As nanotechnology becomes increasingly accessible to research laboratories, significant advances leading to paradigm shifts in basic biology and medicine will require connecting the right technology to the right problem and ensuring that the most pertinent criteria are correctly identified and addressed. References  Peer D et al Nat. Nanotechnol. 2 751-60  Wang A Z, Langer R S and Farokhzad O C 2011 Annu. Rev. Med. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-040210-162544  Farokhzad O C and Langer R 2006 Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 58 1456-9  Zhao W and Karp J M 2009 Nat. Mater. 8 453-4  Ferreira L, Karp J M, Nobre L and Langer R 2008 Cell Stem Cell 3 136-46  Zhao W and Karp J M 2009 ChemBioChem 10 2308-10  Zhao W et al 2011 Nat. Nanotechnol. 6 524-31  Stephan M T, Moon J J, Um S H, Bershteyn A and Irvine D J 2010 Nat. Med. 16 1035-41  Sarkar D, Ankrum J A, Teo G S, Carman C V and Karp J M 2011 Biomaterials 32 3053-61
Hydrochromic Approaches to Mapping Human Sweat Pores.
Park, Dong-Hoon; Park, Bum Jun; Kim, Jong-Man
colorimetric change near body temperature. This feature enables the use of this technique to generate high-quality images of sweat pores. This Account also focuses on the results of the most recent phase of this investigation, which led to the development of a simple yet efficient and reliable technique for sweat pore mapping. The method utilizes a hydrophilic polymer composite film containing fluorescein, a commercially available dye that undergoes a fluorometric response as a result of water-dependent interconversion between its ring-closed spirolactone (nonfluorescent) and ring-opened fluorone (fluorescent) forms. Surface-modified carbon nanodots (CDs) have also been found to be efficient for hydrochromic mapping of human sweat pores. The results discovered by Lou et al. [ Adv. Mater. 2015 , 27 , 1389 ] are also included in this Account. Sweat pore maps obtained from fingertips using these materials were found to be useful for fingerprint analysis. In addition, this hydrochromism-based approach is sufficiently sensitive to enable differentiation between sweat-secreting active pores and inactive pores. As a result, the techniques can be applied to clinical diagnosis of malfunctioning sweat pores. The directions that future research in this area will follow are also discussed. PMID:27159417
Colored ultra-thin hybrid photovoltaics with high quantum efficiency for decorative PV applications (Presentation Recording)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, L. Jay
adopted by other material systems as well. Based on these understandings, we have also developed colored perovskite PV by integrating an optical cavity with the perovskite semiconductors . The principle and experimental results will be presented. 1. J. Y. Lee, K. T. Lee, S.Y. Seo, L. J. Guo, "Decorative power generating panels creating angle insensitive transmissive colors," Sci. Rep. 4, 4192, 2014. 2. K. T. Lee, J.Y. Lee, S.-Y. Seo, and L. J. Guo, "Colored ultra-thin hybrid photovoltaics with high quantum efficiency," Light: Science and Applications, 3, e215, 2014. 3. K. T. Lee, S.-Y. Seo, J.Y. Lee, and L. J. Guo, "Ultrathin metal-semiconductor-metal resonator for angle invariant visible band transmission filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 231112, (2014); and "Strong resonance effect in a lossy medium-based optical cavity for angle robust spectrum filters," Adv. Mater, 26, 6324-6328, 2014. 4. K. T. Lee, M. Fukuda, L. J. Guo, "Colored, see-through perovskite solar cells employing an optical cavity," Submitted, 2015
Alfalfa dwarf cytorhabdovirus P protein is a local and systemic RNA silencing supressor which inhibits programmed RISC activity and prevents transitive amplification of RNA silencing.
Bejerman, Nicolás; Mann, Krin S; Dietzgen, Ralf G
Plants employ RNA silencing as an innate defense mechanism against viruses. As a counter-defense, plant viruses have evolved to express RNA silencing suppressor proteins (RSS), which target one or more steps of the silencing pathway. In this study, we show that the phosphoprotein (P) encoded by the negative-sense RNA virus alfalfa dwarf virus (ADV), a species of the genus Cytorhabdovirus, family Rhabdoviridae, is a suppressor of RNA silencing. ADV P has a relatively weak local RSS activity, and does not prevent siRNA accumulation. On the other hand, ADV P strongly suppresses systemic RNA silencing, but does not interfere with the short-distance spread of silencing, which is consistent with its lack of inhibition of siRNA accumulation. The mechanism of suppression appears to involve ADV P binding to RNA-induced silencing complex proteins AGO1 and AGO4 as shown in protein-protein interaction assays when ectopically expressed. In planta, we demonstrate that ADV P likely functions by inhibiting miRNA-guided AGO1 cleavage and prevents transitive amplification by repressing the production of secondary siRNAs. As recently described for lettuce necrotic yellows cytorhabdovirus P, but in contrast to other viral RSS known to disrupt AGO activity, ADV P sequence does not contain any recognizable GW/WG or F-box motifs, which suggests that cytorhabdovirus P proteins may use alternative motifs to bind to AGO proteins.
Sustained Viremia and High Viral Load in Respiratory Tract Secretions Are Predictors for Death in Immunocompetent Adults with Adenovirus Pneumonia
Sun, Bing; Yu, Xiaomin; Li, Hui; Cao, Bin
The predictors for fatal adenovirus (AdV) pneumonia among immunocompetent adults are unclear. Laboratory-confirmed, hospitalized AdV pneumonia adults were prospectively enrolled in Beijing Chao-Yang hospital from March to June 2013. Clinical data and serial whole blood and respiratory tract secretions from such patients were collected. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to quantify the viral load. A total of 14 AdV pneumonia cases were consecutively enrolled, and four of them were fatal. Ten cases were caused by AdV-55, three by AdV-7 and one by AdV-3. There were no differences in age, gender or underlying diseases between the patients in the fatal cases and surviving cases. At admission (on day 5–7 after illness onset), the patients in fatal cases presented higher initial viral loads in respiratory tract secretions (8.578 ± 2.115 vs 6.263 ± 1.225 Log10 copies/ml, p = 0.023). All patients in fatal cases presented with viremia on day 12–14 (100% vs 66.7%, p = 0.017). A higher initial viral load in the respiratory tract and sustained viremia (more than 2 weeks) may be predictors for fatal clinical outcomes. PMID:27532864
The Role of Endosomal Escape and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases in Adenoviral Activation of the Innate Immune Response
Smith, Jeffrey S.; Xu, Zhili; Tian, Jie; Palmer, Donna J.; Ng, Philip; Byrnes, Andrew P.
Adenoviral vectors (AdV) activate multiple signaling pathways associated with innate immune responses, including mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). In this study, we investigated how systemically-injected AdVs activate two MAPK pathways (p38 and ERK) and the contribution of these kinases to AdV-induced cytokine and chemokine responses in mice. Mice were injected intravenously either with a helper-dependent Ad2 vector that does not express viral genes or transgenes, or with the Ad2 mutant ts1, which is defective in endosomal escape. We found that AdV induced rapid phosphorylation of p38 and ERK as well as a significant cytokine response, but ts1 failed to activate p38 or ERK and induced only a limited cytokine response. These results demonstrate that endosomal escape of virions is a critical step in the induction of these innate pathways and responses. We then examined the roles of p38 and ERK pathways in the innate cytokine response by administering specific kinase inhibitors to mice prior to AdV. The cytokine and chemokine response to AdV was only modestly suppressed by a p38 inhibitor, while an ERK inhibitor has mixed effects, lowering some cytokines and elevating others. Thus, even though p38 and ERK are rapidly activated after i.v. injection of AdV, cytokine and chemokine responses are mostly independent of these kinases. PMID:22046344
Development and validation of a novel hydrolysis probe real-time polymerase chain reaction for agamid adenovirus 1 in the central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).
Fredholm, Daniel V; Coleman, James K; Childress, April L; Wellehan, James F X
Agamid adenovirus 1 (AgAdv-1) is a significant cause of disease in bearded dragons (Pogona sp.). Clinical manifestations of AgAdv-1 infection are variable and often nonspecific; the manifestations range from lethargy, weight loss, and inappetence, to severe enteritis, hepatitis, and sudden death. Currently, diagnosis of AgAdv-1 infection is achieved through a single published method: standard nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) and sequencing. Standard nPCR with sequencing provides reliable sensitivity, specificity, and validation of PCR products. However, this process is comparatively expensive, laborious, and slow. Probe hybridization, as used in a TaqMan assay, represents the best option for validating PCR products aside from the time-consuming process of sequencing. This study developed a real-time PCR (qPCR) assay using a TaqMan probe-based assay, targeting a highly conserved region of the AgAdv-1 genome. Standard curves were generated, detection results were compared with the gold standard conventional PCR and sequencing assay, and limits of detection were determined. Additionally, the qPCR assay was run on samples known to be positive for AgAdv-1 and samples known to be positive for other adenoviruses. Based on the results of these evaluations, this assay allows for a less expensive, rapid, quantitative detection of AgAdv-1 in bearded dragons.
Chemistry and Mineralogy of Antarctica Dry Valley Soils: Implications for Mars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Quinn, J. E.; Golden, D. C.; Graff, T. G.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Douglas, S.; Kounaves, S. P.; McKay, C. P.; Tamppari, L, K.; Smith, P. H.; Zent, A. P.; Archer, P. D., Jr.
The Antarctic Dry Valleys (ADV) comprise the largest ice-free region of Antarctica. Precipitation almost always occurs as snow, relative humidity is frequently low, and mean annual temperatures are about -20 C. The ADV soils have previously been categorized into three soil moisture regimes: subxerous, xerous and ultraxerous, based on elevation and climate influences. The subxerous regime is predominately a coastal zone soil, and has the highest average temperature and precipitation, while the ultraxerous regime occurs at high elevation (>1000 m) and have very low temperature and precipitation. The amounts and types of salts present in the soils vary between regions. The nature, origin and significance of salts in the ADV have been previously investigated. Substantial work has focused on soil formation in the ADVs, however, little work has focused on the mineralogy of secondary alteration phases. The dominant weathering process in the ADV region is physical weathering, however, chemical weathering has been well documented. The objective of this study was to characterize the chemistry and mineralogy, including the alteration mineralogy, of soils from two sites, a subxerous soil in Taylor Valley, and an ultraxerous soil in University Valley. The style of aqueous alteration in the ADVs may have implications for pedogenic processes on Mars.
Prevalence of neutralising antibodies against adenoviruses in lizards and snakes.
Ball, Inna; Ofner, Sabine; Funk, Richard S; Griffin, Chris; Riedel, Ulf; Möhring, Jens; Marschang, Rachel E
Adenoviruses (AdVs) are relatively common in lizards and snakes, and several genetically distinct AdVs have been isolated in cell culture. The aims of this study were to examine serological relationships among lizard and snake AdVs and to determine the frequency of AdV infections in these species. Isolates from a boa constrictor (Boa constrictor), a corn snake (Pantherophis gutattus) and a central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps), and two isolates from helodermatid lizards (Heloderma horridum and H. suspectum) were used in neutralisation tests for the detection of antibodies in plasma from 263 lizards from seven families (including 12 species) and from 141 snakes from four families (including 28 species) from the USA and Europe. Most lizard and snake samples had antibodies against a range of AdV isolates, indicating that AdV infection is common among these squamates. Neutralisation tests with polyclonal antibodies raised in rabbits demonstrated serological cross-reactivity between both helodermatid lizard isolates. However, squamate plasma showed different reactions to each of these lizard isolates in neutralisation tests. PMID:25163614