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Sample records for adv mater weinheim

  1. Tissue Boundaries: Mimicking Tissue Boundaries by Sharp Multiparameter Matrix Interfaces (Adv. Healthcare Mater. 15/2016).

    PubMed

    Sapudom, Jiranuwat; Rubner, Stefan; Martin, Steve; Pompe, Tilo

    2016-08-01

    Engineering interfaces of extracellular compartments mimicking native tissues is key to study cell behavior in a physiologically relevant context and for a successful translation of these new biomaterials engineering principles in regenerative and therapeutic applications. Tilo Pompe and co-workers demonstrate a strategy to engineer multiparameter matrix interfaces using a sequential reconstitution of two well-defined Collagen I based matrices on page 1861. Such matrix interfaces trigger cell migration directionality normal to the interface plane in dependence on matrix pore size.

  2. Gold Nanocups: Colloidal Gold Nanocups with Orientation-Dependent Plasmonic Properties (Adv. Mater. 30/2016).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ruibin; Qin, Feng; Liu, Yejing; Ling, Xing Yi; Guo, Jun; Tang, Minghua; Cheng, Si; Wang, Jianfang

    2016-08-01

    On page 6322, J. F. Wang and co-workers report a wet-chemistry method for the preparation of colloidal Au nanocups and their plasmonic properties. The Au nanocups are prepared through single-vertex-initiated Au deposition on PbS nano-octahedrons and subsequent selective dissolution of PbS. Owing to the orientation-dependent coupling strengths, the obtained Au nanocups display orientation-dependent plasmonic properties and Raman enhancements when deposited on substrates.

  3. Artificial Synapses: Organometal Halide Perovskite Artificial Synapses (Adv. Mater. 28/2016).

    PubMed

    Xu, Wentao; Cho, Himchan; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Young-Tae; Wolf, Christoph; Park, Chan-Gyung; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2016-07-01

    A synapse-emulating electronic device based on organometal halide perovskite thin films is described by T.-W. Lee and co-workers on page 5916. The device successfully emulates important characteristics of a biological synapse. This work extends the application of organometal halide perovskites to bioinspired electronic devices, and contributes to the development of neuromorphic electronics.

  4. Carbon Nanotubes: Printed Carbon Nanotube Electronics and Sensor Systems (Adv. Mater. 22/2016).

    PubMed

    Chen, Kevin; Gao, Wei; Emaminejad, Sam; Kiriya, Daisuke; Ota, Hiroki; Nyein, Hnin Yin Yin; Takei, Kuniharu; Javey, Ali

    2016-06-01

    Printed electronics and sensors enable new applications ranging from low-cost disposable analytical devices to large-area sensor networks. Recent progress in printed carbon nanotube electronics in terms of materials, processing, devices, and applications is discussed on page 4397 by A. Javey and co-workers. The research challenges and opportunities regarding the processing and system-level integration are also discussed for enabling of practical applications.

  5. From Virgil to Alma Mater

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitz, Ellen Handler

    2007-01-01

    For a college to become an alma mater in the hearts of its students, it must show, true to the Latin meaning, the wisdom and comfort of a good foster mother. Since "alma mater" is Latin, and since the study of Latin has waned on all educational levels in both pious and secular milieus, the author wonders whether folks who use that term really know…

  6. 75 FR 49233 - Amendments to Form ADV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Part III Securities and... / Vol. 75 , No. 155 / Thursday, August 12, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 275 and 279 RIN 3235-AI17 Amendments to Form ADV AGENCY: Securities and...

  7. Organosilica: Chemistry of Mesoporous Organosilica in Nanotechnology: Molecularly Organic-Inorganic Hybridization into Frameworks (Adv. Mater. 17/2016).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Shi, Jianlin

    2016-05-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials can combine the advantages of organic and inorganic materials, and overcome their drawbacks accordingly. On page 3235, Y. Chen and J. L. Shi review and discuss research progress on the design, synthesis, structure, and composition control of organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles (MONs). Extensive applications of MONs in nanotechnology, mainly in nanomedicine, nanocatalysis and nanofabrication are discussed.

  8. Wearable Strain Sensors: Carbonized Silk Fabric for Ultrastretchable, Highly Sensitive, and Wearable Strain Sensors (Adv. Mater. 31/2016).

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunya; Li, Xiang; Gao, Enlai; Jian, Muqiang; Xia, Kailun; Wang, Qi; Xu, Zhiping; Ren, Tianling; Zhang, Yingying

    2016-08-01

    A novel carbonized plain-weave silk-fabric-based wearable strain sensor is proposed by Y. Y. Zhang and co-workers on page 6640. The sensor can be stretched up to 500% with high sensitivity in a wide strain range and can be assembled into wearable devices for the detection of both large and subtle human activities, showing great potential in human-motion detection and robotics.

  9. Liquid Metals: Stretchable, High-k Dielectric Elastomers through Liquid-Metal Inclusions (Adv. Mater. 19/2016).

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Michael D; Fassler, Andrew; Kazem, Navid; Markvicka, Eric J; Mandal, Pratiti; Majidi, Carmel

    2016-05-01

    An all-soft-matter composite consisting of liquid metal microdroplets embedded in a soft elastomer matrix is presented by C. Majidi and co-workers on page 3726. This composite exhibits a high dielectric constant while maintaining exceptional elasticity and compliance. The image shows the composite's microstructure captured by 3D X-ray imaging using a nano-computed tomographic scanner.

  10. Flexible Batteries: Hierarchical Assemblies of Carbon Nanotubes for Ultraflexible Li-Ion Batteries (Adv. Mater. 31/2016).

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Shahab; Copic, Davor; George, Chandramohan; De Volder, Michael

    2016-08-01

    An advanced battery architecture composed of 3D carbon nanotube (CNT) current collectors is used to mitigate stresses in flexible batteries. On Page 6705, C. George, M. De Volder, and co-workers describe the fabrication process and characteristics of this new generation of ultraflexible batteries, which show high rate and cyclablility. These batteries may find applications in the powering of flexible displays and logics.

  11. Batteries: encapsulated monoclinic sulfur for stable cycling of li-s rechargeable batteries (adv. Mater. 45/2013).

    PubMed

    Moon, San; Jung, Young Hwa; Jung, Wook Ki; Jung, Dae Soo; Choi, Jang Wook; Kim, Do Kyung

    2013-12-03

    On page 6547 Do Kyung Kim, Jang Wook Choi and co-workers describe a highly aligned and carbon-encapsulated sulfur cathode synthesized with an AAO template that exhibits a high and long cycle life, and the best rate capability based on the complete encapsulation of sulfur (physical) and implementation of the monoclinic sulfur phase (chemical).

  12. Ferromagnetism: Sulfur Doping Induces Strong Ferromagnetic Ordering in Graphene: Effect of Concentration and Substitution Mechanism (Adv. Mater. 25/2016).

    PubMed

    Tuček, Jiří; Błoński, Piotr; Sofer, Zdeněk; Šimek, Petr; Petr, Martin; Pumera, Martin; Otyepka, Michal; Zbořil, Radek

    2016-07-01

    R. Zbořil and co-workers show that doping a graphene lattice with sulfur induces magnetic centers which display ferromagnetic order below ≈62 K. As described on page 5045, sulfur doping promotes magnetically active configurations resembling the gamma-thiothiapyrone motif. Enhanced magnetic properties of sulfur-doped graphene are attributed to two unpaired electrons from each sulfur atom injected into the graphene conducting band where they are delocalized between the S and C atoms.

  13. Flexible Electronics: High Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Films and Solar Cells (Adv. Mater. 28/2016).

    PubMed

    He, Rongrui; Day, Todd D; Sparks, Justin R; Sullivan, Nichole F; Badding, John V

    2016-07-01

    On page 5939, J. V. Badding and co-workers describe the unrolling of a flexible hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cell, deposited by high-pressure chemical vapor deposition. The high-pressure deposition process is represented by the molecules of silane infiltrating the small voids between the rolled up substrate, facilitating plasma-free deposition over a very large area. The high-pressure approach is expected to also find application for 3D nanoarchitectures.

  14. 3D Printing: 3D Printing of Shape Memory Polymers for Flexible Electronic Devices (Adv. Mater. 22/2016).

    PubMed

    Zarek, Matt; Layani, Michael; Cooperstein, Ido; Sachyani, Ela; Cohn, Daniel; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2016-06-01

    On page 4449, D. Cohn, S. Magdassi, and co-workers describe a general and facile method based on 3D printing of methacrylated macromonomers to fabricate shape-memory objects that can be used in flexible and responsive electrical circuits. Such responsive objects can be used in the fabrication of soft robotics, minimal invasive medical devices, sensors, and wearable electronics. The use of 3D printing overcomes the poor processing characteristics of thermosets and enables complex geometries that are not easily accessible by other techniques.

  15. Perovskite Solar Cells: High Efficiency Pb-In Binary Metal Perovskite Solar Cells (Adv. Mater. 31/2016).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao-Kui; Li, Meng; Yang, Ying-Guo; Hu, Yun; Ma, Heng; Gao, Xing-Yu; Liao, Liang-Sheng

    2016-08-01

    On page 6695, X. Y. Gao, L.-S. Liao, and co-workers describe the fabrication of mixed Pb-In perovskite solar cells, using indium (III) chloride and lead (II) chloride with methylammonium iodide. A maximum power conversion efficiency as high as 17.55% is achieved owing to the high quality of the perovskites with multiple ordered crystal orientations. This work demonstrates the possibility of substituting the Pb (II) by using In (III), which opens a broad route to fabricating alloy perovskite solar cells with mitigated ecological impact.

  16. Nanoparticle Assemblies: Nanoparticle Clusters: Assembly and Control Over Internal Order, Current Capabilities, and Future Potential (Adv. Mater. 27/2016).

    PubMed

    Stolarczyk, Jacek K; Deak, Andras; Brougham, Dermot F

    2016-07-01

    Clusters or assemblies of nanoparticles exhibit unique features which arise from the enhancement of properties of single nanoparticles or due to new collective properties. On page 5400, D. F. Brougham and co-workers review the role of nanoparticle interactions in controlling cluster formation, and classify the assembly mechanisms. Emerging applications for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), optical labeling, light harvesting, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hyperthermia, photocatalysis, enrichment, and separation are presented. Cover image by Christoph Hohmann, Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM).

  17. High-Resolution Electronics: Spontaneous Patterning of High-Resolution Electronics via Parallel Vacuum Ultraviolet (Adv. Mater. 31/2016).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuying; Kanehara, Masayuki; Liu, Chuan; Sakamoto, Kenji; Yasuda, Takeshi; Takeya, Jun; Minari, Takeo

    2016-08-01

    On page 6568, T. Minari and co-workers describe spontaneous patterning based on the parallel vacuum ultraviolet (PVUV) technique, enabling the homogeneous integration of complex, high-resolution electronic circuits, even on large-scale, flexible, transparent substrates. Irradiation of PVUV to the hydrophobic polymer surface precisely renders the selected surface into highly wettable regions with sharply defined boundaries, which spontaneously guides a metal nanoparticle ink into a series of circuit lines and gaps with the widths down to a resolution of 1 μm.

  18. Mater semper incertus est: who's your mummy?

    PubMed

    D'alton-Harrison, Rita

    2014-01-01

    In English law, the legal term for father has been given a broad definition but the definition of mother remains rooted in biology with the Roman law principle mater semper certa est (the mother is always certain) remaining the norm. However, motherhood may be acquired through giving birth to a child, by donation of gametes or by caring and nurturing a child so that the identity of the mother is no longer certain particularly in the case of surrogacy arrangements. While the law in the UK may automatically recognise the parental status of a commissioning father in a traditional surrogacy arrangement, the parental status of the commissioning mother is not automatically recognised in either a traditional or a gestational surrogacy arrangement. Thus the maxim mater est quam gestation demonstrat (meaning the mother is demonstrated by gestation) is also not approached consistently in the legal interpretation of parentage or motherhood in surrogacy as against other assisted reproduction methods. This raises questions about the extent to which motherhood should be affected by the method of reproduction and whether the sociological and philosophical concept of motherhood should, in the case of surrogacy, give rise to a new principle of 'mater semper incertus est' (the mother is uncertain). This article will argue that the time has come to move away from a legal definition of 'mother' that is based on biology to one that recognises the different forms of motherhood.

  19. 21 CFR 882.5975 - Human dura mater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Human dura mater. 882.5975 Section 882.5975 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5975 Human dura mater....

  20. 21 CFR 882.5975 - Human dura mater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Human dura mater. 882.5975 Section 882.5975 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5975 Human dura mater....

  1. 21 CFR 882.5975 - Human dura mater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Human dura mater. 882.5975 Section 882.5975 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5975 Human dura mater....

  2. 21 CFR 882.5975 - Human dura mater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Human dura mater. 882.5975 Section 882.5975 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5975 Human dura mater....

  3. 21 CFR 882.5975 - Human dura mater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Human dura mater. 882.5975 Section 882.5975 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5975 Human dura mater....

  4. Floc Growth and Changes in ADV Acoustic Backscatter Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouhnia, M.; Keyvani, A.; Strom, K.

    2013-12-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to examine the effect of mud floc growth on the acoustic back-scatter signal recorded by a Nortek Vector acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV). Several studies have shown that calibration equations can be developed to link the backscatter strength with average suspended sediment concentration (SSC) when the sediment particle size distribution remains constant. However, when mud is present, the process of flocculation can alter the suspended particle size distribution. Past studies have shown that it is still unclear as to the degree of dependence of the calibration equation on changes in floc size. Part of the ambiguity lies in the fact that flocs can be porous and rather loosely packed and therefore might not scatter to the same extent as a grain of sand. In addition, direct, detailed measurements of floc size have not accompanied experiments examining the dependence of ADV backscatter and suspended sediment concentration. In this research, a set of laboratory experiments is used to test how floc growth affects the backscatter strength. The laboratory data is examined in light of an analytic model that was developed based on scatter theory to account for changes in both SSC and the floc properties of size and density. For the experiments, a turbulent suspension was created in a tank with a rotating paddle. Fixed concentrations of a mixture of kaolinite and montmorillonite were added to the tank in a step-wise manner. For each step, the flocs were allowed to grow to their equilibrium size before breaking the flocs with high turbulent mixing, adding more sediment, and then returning the mixing rate to a range suitable for the re-growth of flocs. During each floc growth phase, data was simultaneously collected at the same elevation in the tank using a floc camera to capture the changes in floc size, a Nortek Vector ADV for the acoustic backscatter, and a Campbell Scientific OBS 3+ for optical backscatter. Physical samples of the

  5. Glucose and mannitol diffusion in human dura mater.

    PubMed

    Bashkatov, Alexey N; Genina, Elina A; Sinichkin, Yuri P; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I; Lakodina, Nina A; Tuchin, Valery V

    2003-11-01

    An in vitro experimental study of the control of the human dura mater optical properties at administration of aqueous solutions of glucose and mannitol has been presented. The significant increase of the dura mater optical transmittance under action of immersion liquids has been demonstrated. Diffusion coefficients of glucose and mannitol in the human dura mater tissue at 20 degrees C have been estimated as (1.63 +/- 0.29) x 10(-6)cm(2)/s and as (1.31 +/- 0.41) x 10(-6) cm(2)/s, respectively. Experiments show that administration of immersion liquids allows for the effective control of tissue optical characteristics that make dura mater more transparent, thereby increasing the ability of light penetration through the tissue.

  6. "Mater puerorum'. A medieval naming for an enigmatic children's disease.

    PubMed

    Kottek, S S

    1981-09-01

    The pediatric clinical entity called "Mater Puerorum' appears first in the latin translation of Rhazes' "Practica Puerorum' and in his "Continens'. His descriptions of the disease could give some likeness either to a diagnosis of night terrors, or of hyperpyretic convulsions, or of a slight form of epilepsy. Mater Puerorum is afterwards described by most pediatric authors till the Renaissance period without much originality. Rhazes being one of their main sources anyway. Mater Puerorum has been considered by Still and Radbill as a synonym for hysterical fits in children. Going back to the Arabic original naming: Ummu's Sibyan, we venture another etymology based on Babylonian-Judeo-Arabic demonology. The "Mother of the Children' could be the female demon Karina--or Lilith--which is said to come to plague the children at night. The naming Mater Puerorum could thus be ascribed to a folklore origin, rather than to hysteria.

  7. From channel-forming ionic liquid crystals exhibiting humidity-induced phase transitions to nanostructured ion-conducting polymer membranes (adv. Mater. 26/2013).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heng; Li, Lei; Möller, Martin; Zhu, Xiaomin; Rueda, Jaime J Hernandez; Rosenthal, Martin; Ivanov, Dimitri A

    2013-07-12

    A novel wedge-shaped amphiphilic molecule bearing a sulfonate group at the tip displays humidity-induced phase transitions from a hexagonal columnar structure to a bicontinuous cubic phase. The mesophases can be frozen by photopolymerization of acrylic end-groups resulting in free-standing membranes with different topology of ionic nanochannels. The obtained membranes with a well-ordered ionic channel structure hold promise for applications in separation and catalysis.

  8. Photoacoustic Imaging: Semiconducting Oligomer Nanoparticles as an Activatable Photoacoustic Probe with Amplified Brightness for In Vivo Imaging of pH (Adv. Mater. 19/2016).

    PubMed

    Miao, Qingqing; Lyu, Yan; Ding, Dan; Pu, Kanyi

    2016-05-01

    Despite the great potential of photoacoustic imaging in the life sciences, the development of smart activatable photoacoustic probes remains elusive. On page 3662, K. Pu and co-workers report a facile nanoengineering approach based on semiconducting oligomer nano-particles to develop ratiometric photoacoustic probes with amplified brightness and enhanced sensing capability for accurate photoacoustic mapping of pH in the tumors of living mice.

  9. Solar Cells: Homo-Tandem Polymer Solar Cells with VOC >1.8 V for Efficient PV-Driven Water Splitting (Adv. Mater. 17/2016).

    PubMed

    Gao, Yangqin; Le Corre, Vincent M; Gaïtis, Alexandre; Neophytou, Marios; Hamid, Mahmoud Abdul; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Beaujuge, Pierre M

    2016-05-01

    On page 3366, P. M. Beaujuge and co-workers describe homo-tandem solar cells constructed by stacking identical subcells solution-processed from blends of the wide-bandgap polymer donor PBDTTPD and the fullerene acceptor PCBM, which achieve power conversion efficiencies >8% and open-circuit voltages >1.8 V. The homo-tandem devices provide sufficient voltage to induce the dissociation of water in an electrochemical cell. The authors acknowledge Hyun Ho Hwang (Heno) for developing the artwork.

  10. Sensors: A Highly Sensitive Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Based Ambipolar Transistor for Selective Detection and Discrimination of Xylene Isomers (Adv. Mater. 21/2016).

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Huynh, Tan-Phat; Wu, Weiwei; Hayek, Naseem; Do, Thu Trang; Cancilla, John C; Torrecilla, Jose S; Nahid, Masrur Morshed; Colwell, John M; Gazit, Oz M; Puniredd, Sreenivasa Reddy; McNeill, Christopher R; Sonar, Prashant; Haick, Hossam

    2016-06-01

    An ambipolar organic field-effect transistor (OFET) based on poly(diketopyrrolopyrrole-terthiophene) (PDPPHD-T3) is shown by P. Sonar, H. Haick, and co-workers on page 4012 to sensitively detect xylene isomers at low to 40 ppm level in multiple sensing features. Combined with pattern-recognition algorithms, a sole ambipolar FET sensor, rather than arrays of sensors, is able to discriminate highly similar xylene structural isomers from each other.

  11. Field-Effect Transistors: Ultrathin MXene-Micropattern-Based Field-Effect Transistor for Probing Neural Activity (Adv. Mater. 17/2016).

    PubMed

    Xu, Bingzhe; Zhu, Minshen; Zhang, Wencong; Zhen, Xu; Pei, Zengxia; Xue, Qi; Zhi, Chunyi; Shi, Peng

    2016-05-01

    A field-effect transistor (FET) based on ultrathin Ti3 C2 -MXene micropatterns is developed by C. Zhi, P. Shi, and co-workers, as described on page 3333. The FET can be utilized for label-free probing of small molecules in typical biological environments, e.g., for fast detection of action potentials in primary neurons. This device is produced with a microcontact printing technique, harnessing the unique advantages for easy fabrication.

  12. Microfluidics-Based Biosensors: A Microfluidic Paper-Based Origami Nanobiosensor for Label-Free, Ultrasensitive Immunoassays (Adv. Healthcare Mater. 11/2016).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao; Liu, Xinyu

    2016-06-01

    The first microfluidic paper-based origami nano-biosensor featuring zinc oxide nanowires and an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy biosensing mechanism, for label-free, ultrasensitive immunoassays is reported by X. Li and X. Liu on page 1326. The sensor consists of cellulose paper, a carbon ink electrode, and zinc oxide nanowires directly grown on the top. Possible parallelization of assays and high storage stability render the sensor promising for clinical diagnostics applications.

  13. Cellular Microcultures: Programming Mechanical and Physicochemical Properties of 3D Hydrogel Cellular Microcultures via Direct Ink Writing (Adv. Healthcare Mater. 9/2016).

    PubMed

    McCracken, Joselle M; Badea, Adina; Kandel, Mikhail E; Gladman, A Sydney; Wetzel, David J; Popescu, Gabriel; Lewis, Jennifer A; Nuzzo, Ralph G

    2016-05-01

    R. Nuzzo and co-workers show on page 1025 how compositional differences in hydrogels are used to tune their cellular compliance by controlling their polymer mesh properties and subsequent uptake of the protein poly-l-lysine (green spheres in circled inset). The cover image shows pyramid micro-scaffolds prepared using direct ink writing (DIW) that differentially direct fibroblast and preosteoblast growth in 3D, depending on cell motility and surface treatment.

  14. Photothermal Gene Delivery: Stimuli-Regulated Enzymatically Degradable Smart Graphene-Oxide-Polymer Nanocarrier Facilitating Photothermal Gene Delivery (Adv. Healthcare Mater. 15/2016).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunwoo; Kim, Jinhwan; Lee, Minkyung; Choi, Hee Cheul; Kim, Won Jong

    2016-08-01

    On page 1918, Won Jong Kim and co-workers use disulfide bonding for the rational design of graphene oxide (GO) based nanocarriers. In the lower left side, photothermally triggered gene release is illustrated in cancer cell. Polymer-detached GOis exocytosed, and subsequently gets into the macrophage (middle right). In the macrophage, peroxidase binds to GO, thus degrades it to small fragments which are fluorescent.

  15. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: The Future of Using Earth-Abundant Elements in Counter Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (Adv. Mater. 20/2016).

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Joe; Dunn, Steve

    2016-05-01

    Sustainability is an important concept generating traction in the research community. To be really sustainable the full life cycle of a product needs to be carefully considered. A key aspect of this is using elements that are either readily recycled or accessible in the Earth's biosphere. Jigsawing these materials together in compounds to address our future energy needs represents a great opportunity for the current generation of researchers. On page 3802, S. Dunn and J. Briscoe summarize the performance of a selection of alternative materials to replace platinum in the counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells.

  16. Electrospun Scaffolds: Enhanced Lineage-Specific Differentiation Efficiency of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells by Engineering Colony Dimensionality Using Electrospun Scaffolds (Adv. Healthcare Mater. 12/2016).

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Maricela; Ico, Gerardo; Low, Karen; Luu, Rebeccah J; Nam, Jin

    2016-06-01

    Electrospun scaffolds provide soft nanofibrous networks pliable by human induced pluripotent stem cells. J. Nam and co-workers show on page 1408 that such compliant scaffolding leads to the formation of stem cell colonies with a distinctive three-dimensional morphology. The morphological modulation resulted in the lineage-specific differentiation, suggesting a potential means to enhance translational applications of the stem cells.

  17. [Contemplation of the alma mater song of Hoshi University].

    PubMed

    Misawa, Miwa; Iijima, Ayako

    2006-01-01

    Respective alma mater songs (school songs) are a spiritual symbol of each school. The alma mater song of Hoshi Commercial School was composed in 1923, and strongly reflected the spirit of Hajime Hoshi, the founder of the school. The alma mater song of present day Hoshi University was poeticized by Yoshio Katsu, and composed by Kosaku Yamada in 1941. The two famous artists produced a lovely song rich in artistic flavor. This study analyzes the words and music from various viewpoints for the first time after its production. Cultivating a better understanding of the present song is a valuable asset for educating the mind, and creating a meaningfulness for those students and graduates singing it.

  18. Electronic dura mater for long-term multimodal neural interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minev, Ivan R.; Musienko, Pavel; Hirsch, Arthur; Barraud, Quentin; Wenger, Nikolaus; Moraud, Eduardo Martin; Gandar, Jérôme; Capogrosso, Marco; Milekovic, Tomislav; Asboth, Léonie; Torres, Rafael Fajardo; Vachicouras, Nicolas; Liu, Qihan; Pavlova, Natalia; Duis, Simone; Larmagnac, Alexandre; Vörös, Janos; Micera, Silvestro; Suo, Zhigang; Courtine, Grégoire; Lacour, Stéphanie P.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical mismatch between soft neural tissues and stiff neural implants hinders the long-term performance of implantable neuroprostheses. Here, we designed and fabricated soft neural implants with the shape and elasticity of dura mater, the protective membrane of the brain and spinal cord. The electronic dura mater, which we call e-dura, embeds interconnects, electrodes, and chemotrodes that sustain millions of mechanical stretch cycles, electrical stimulation pulses, and chemical injections. These integrated modalities enable multiple neuroprosthetic applications. The soft implants extracted cortical states in freely behaving animals for brain-machine interface and delivered electrochemical spinal neuromodulation that restored locomotion after paralyzing spinal cord injury.

  19. The Labour Market Effects of "Alma Mater": Evidence from Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunello, Giorgio; Cappellari, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    We use data from a nationally representative survey of Italian graduates to study whether "Alma Mater" matters for employment and earnings 3 years after graduation. We find that the attended college matters, and that there are important college-related differences, both among and within regions of the country. These differences, however,…

  20. Research Gaps and Technology Needs in Development of PHM for Passive AdvSMR Components

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Coble, Jamie B.; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Wootan, David W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Henager, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMRs), which are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts, may provide a longer-term alternative to traditional light-water reactors and near term small modular reactors (SMRs), which are based on integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR) concepts. SMRs are challenged economically due to losses in economy of scale, thus, there is increased motivation to reduce the controllable operations and maintenance (O&M) costs through automation technologies including prognostics health management (PHM) systems. In this regard, PHM systems have the potential to play a vital role in supporting the deployment of AdvSMRs and face several unique challenges with respect to implementation for passive AdvSMR components. This paper presents a summary of a research gaps and technical needs assessment performed for implementation of PHM for passive AdvSMR components. state-of-the-art in PHM.

  1. Research gaps and technology needs in development of PHM for passive AdvSMR components

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Wootan, David W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Henagar, Chuck H. Jr.; Coble, Jamie B.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2014-02-18

    Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMRs), which are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts, may provide a longer-term alternative to traditional light-water reactors and near-term small modular reactors (SMRs), which are based on integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR) concepts. SMRs are challenged economically because of losses in economy of scale; thus, there is increased motivation to reduce the controllable operations and maintenance costs through automation technologies including prognostics health management (PHM) systems. In this regard, PHM systems have the potential to play a vital role in supporting the deployment of AdvSMRs and face several unique challenges with respect to implementation for passive AdvSMR components. This paper presents a summary of a research gaps and technical needs assessment performed for implementation of PHM for passive AdvSMR components.

  2. Local-Level Prognostics Health Management Systems Framework for Passive AdvSMR Components. Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Roy, Surajit; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Pardini, Allan F.; Jones, Anthony M.; Deibler, John E.

    2014-09-12

    This report describes research results to date in support of the integration and demonstration of diagnostics technologies for prototypical AdvSMR passive components (to establish condition indices for monitoring) with model-based prognostics methods. The focus of the PHM methodology and algorithm development in this study is at the localized scale. Multiple localized measurements of material condition (using advanced nondestructive measurement methods), along with available measurements of the stressor environment, enhance the performance of localized diagnostics and prognostics of passive AdvSMR components and systems.

  3. 76 FR 255 - Amendments To Form ADV; Extension of Compliance Date

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... Commission is extending the compliance date generally for four months to provide certain investment advisers... of Investment Adviser Regulation, Division of Investment Management, U.S. Securities and Exchange... Commission adopted amendments to Part 2 of Form ADV , and related rules under the Investment Advisers Act...

  4. Cavernous hemangioma of the dura mater mimicking meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Di Vitantonio, Hambra; De Paulis, Danilo; Ricci, Alessandro; Marzi, Sara; Dehcordi, Soheila Raysi; Galzio, Renato Juan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cavernomas are benign lesions that most commonly occur intra-parenchymally, but occasionally they have been described as arising from the dura mater. Extra-axial cavernous angiomas (or hemangiomas) account for 0.4–2% of all intracranial vascular malformations, and they usually occur in the middle cranial fossa, associated with the cavernous sinus. Other possible localizations (e.g. tentorium, convexity, anterior cranial fossa, cerebellopontine angle, Meckel's cave, sella turcica and internal auditory meatus) are rare, and they account only for 0.2–0.5%. Case Description: We report a case of a 30-year-old female presenting with a 2 years history of headache unresponsive to drug therapy. The magnetic resonance imaging showed a dural-based lesion in the left frontal region; the lesion size was: 1.5 cm × 3.5 cm. The appearance suggested a convexity meningioma. A left frontal craniotomy was performed, and the histopathological diagnosis deposed for a cavernous hemangioma of the dura mater. The follow-up at 1-year was good without any neurologic deficit. Conclusions: Dural-based cavernous hemangiomas of the convexity are uncommon lesions. Up to now, only 13 cases have been described in the literature. The authors have discussed clinical aspects, radiological features, surgical treatment, and operative findings. PMID:26421218

  5. [Venous sinuses of the dura mater of the bird brain].

    PubMed

    Krasnikov, Iu A

    1988-04-01

    By means of corrosive, injection and tracheoscopy methods venous formations of the brain have been studied in 19 species of birds--endemical for Far East--from 12 orders. Four types of the venous sinuses structure have been distinguished in the dura mater: the first type of the structure is specific for birds that live an inactive and quiet life (blue rock pigeon, Ussuric pheasant, Tetrastes bonasia, domestic hen). The second type of the sinus structure occurs in birds, that sharply change the speed and height of their flight (Otus bakkamoena). The most manifested changes in the sinus structure are noted in waterfowl and diving birds, that spend much time in flight, in dendrocolaptidae and in day predaceous birds; in them the longitudinal sinus forms a rhombus.

  6. SACR ADVance 3-D Cartesian Cloud Cover (SACR-ADV-3D3C) product

    DOE Data Explorer

    Meng Wang, Tami Toto, Eugene Clothiaux, Katia Lamer, Mariko Oue

    2017-03-08

    SACR-ADV-3D3C remaps the outputs of SACRCORR for cross-wind range-height indicator (CW-RHI) scans to a Cartesian grid and reports reflectivity CFAD and best estimate domain averaged cloud fraction. The final output is a single NetCDF file containing all aforementioned corrected radar moments remapped on a 3-D Cartesian grid, the SACR reflectivity CFAD, a profile of best estimate cloud fraction, a profile of maximum observable x-domain size (xmax), a profile time to horizontal distance estimate and a profile of minimum observable reflectivity (dBZmin).

  7. Tumor-targeted gene therapy using Adv-AFP-HRPC/IAA prodrug system suppresses growth of hepatoma xenografted in mice.

    PubMed

    Dai, M; Liu, J; Chen, D-E; Rao, Y; Tang, Z-J; Ho, W-Z; Dong, C-Y

    2012-02-01

    Clinical efficacy of current therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment is limited. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is non-toxic for mammalian cells. Oxidative decarboxylation of IAA by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) leads to toxic effects of IAA. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a novel gene-targeted enzyme prodrug therapy with IAA on hepatoma growth in vitro and in vivo mouse hepatoma models. We generated a plasmid using adenovirus to express HRP isoenzyme C (HRPC) with the HCC marker, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), as the promoter (pAdv-AFP-HRPC). Hepatocellular cells were infected with pAdv-AFP-HRPC and treated with IAA. Cell death was detected using MTT assay. Hepatoma xenografts were developed in mice by injection of mouse hepatoma cells. The size and weight of tumors and organs were evaluated. Cell death in tumors was assessed using hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections. HRPC expression in tissues was detected using Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction. IAA stimulated death of hepatocellular cells infected with pAdv-AFP-HRPC, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but not in control cells. Growth of hepatoma xenografts, including the size and weight, was inhibited in mice treated with pAdv-AFP-HRPC and IAA, compared with that in control group. pAdv-AFP-HRPC/IAA treatment induced cell death in hepatoma xenografts in mice. HRPC gene expressed only in hepatoma, but not in other normal organs of mice. pAdv-AFP-HRPC/IAA treatment did not cause any side effects on normal organs. These findings suggest that pAdv-AFP-HRPC/IAA enzyme/prodrug system may serve as a strategy for HCC therapy.

  8. EVALUATION OF RANGE ESTIMATES FOR TOYOTA FCHV-ADV UNDER OPEN ROAD DRIVING CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Anton, D.; Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.

    2009-07-10

    The objective of this evaluation was to independently and objectively verify driving ranges of >400 miles announced by Toyota for its new advanced Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle (FCHV-adv) utilizing 70 MPa compressed hydrogen. To accomplish this, participants from both Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) witnessed and participated in a 2-vehicle evaluation with Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America, Inc. (TEMA) over a typical open road route for over 11 hours in one day with all relevant data recorded. SRNL and TEMA first entered into discussions of verifying the range of the advanced Toyota Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle (FCHV-adv) in August 2008 resulting from reported 400+ mile range by Toyota. After extended negotiations, a CRADA agreement, SRNS CRADA No. CR-04-003, was signed on May 6, 2009. Subsequently, on June 30, 2009 SRNL and NREL participated in an all-day evaluation of the FCHV-adv with TEMA to determine the real-world driving range of this vehicle through on-road driving on an extended round-trip drive between Torrance and San Diego, California. SRNL and NREL observed the vehicles being refueled at Toyota's headquarters the day before the evaluation in Torrance, CA on June 29. At 8:00 AM on June 30, the vehicles departed Torrance north toward downtown Los Angeles, then west to the Pacific Coast Highway, and down to San Diego. After lunch the vehicles retraced their route back to Torrance. The traffic encountered was much heavier than anticipated, causing the vehicles to not return to Torrance until 9 PM. Each vehicle was driven by the same Toyota driver all day, with one SRNL/NREL observer in each vehicle the entire route. Data was logged by Toyota and analyzed by NREL. The maximum range of the FCHV-adv vehicles was calculated to be 431 miles under these driving conditions. This distance was calculated from the actual range of 331.5 miles during over 11 hours driving, plus 99.5 miles of

  9. Li-Ion Battery Cathodes: Enhancing Interfacial Bonding between Anisotropically Oriented Grains Using a Glue-Nanofiller for Advanced Li-Ion Battery Cathode (Adv. Mater. 23/2016).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyejung; Lee, Sanghan; Cho, Hyeon; Kim, Junhyeok; Lee, Jieun; Park, Suhyeon; Joo, Se Hun; Kim, Su Hwan; Cho, Yoon-Gyo; Song, Hyun-Kon; Kwak, Sang Kyu; Cho, Jaephil

    2016-06-01

    The formation of a spinel Lix CoO2 layer in a Ni-rich secondary particle for lithium-ion batteries is reported by S. K. Kwak, J. Cho, and co-workers on page 4705, who find that the spinel-like Lix CoO2 layer, between layered primary particles, can enhance the mechanical strength of secondary particles by enhancing the interfacial binding energy among the grains. Moreover, the layer can effectively protect the unstable surface of the primary particles and offers a fast electron-ion pathway, resulting in overall enhancements of stability and kinetics in battery performance.

  10. Photothermal Therapy: Cancer Cell Internalization of Gold Nanostars Impacts Their Photothermal Efficiency In Vitro and In Vivo: Toward a Plasmonic Thermal Fingerprint in Tumoral Environment (Adv. Healthcare Mater. 9/2016).

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Ana; Silva, Amanda K A; Sánchez-Iglesias, Ana; Grzelczak, Marek; Péchoux, Christine; Desboeufs, Karine; Liz-Marzán, Luis M; Wilhelm, Claire

    2016-05-01

    Because the ultimate target for photothermal therapy is the cancer cell, heating performances must be evaluated intracellularly. On page 1040 C. Wilhelm and team provide the first in vitro and in vivo photothermal measurements in cancer cells with gold nanostars. They demonstrate that once nanostars are internalized within endosomes, heat generation can change significantly.

  11. Human Neuron Cultures: Micropatterning Facilitates the Long-Term Growth and Analysis of iPSC-Derived Individual Human Neurons and Neuronal Networks (Adv. Healthcare Mater. 15/2016).

    PubMed

    Burbulla, Lena F; Beaumont, Kristin G; Mrksich, Milan; Krainc, Dimitri

    2016-08-01

    Dimitri Krainc, Milan Mrksich, and co-workers demonstrate the utility of microcontact printing technology for culturing of human neurons in defined patterns over extended periods of time on page 1894. This approach facilitates studies of neuronal development, cellular trafficking, and related mechanisms that require assessment of individual neurons and neuronal networks.

  12. Addendum: Compliant electrostatic chuck based on hairy microstructure (2013 Smart Mater. Struct. 22 015019) and Electrostatic chuck consisting of polymeric electrostatic inductive fibers for handling of objects with rough surfaces (2013 Smart Mater. Struct. 22 095010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shigeki; Kikutani, Takeshi; Takahashi, Kunio; Takarada, Wataru; Soda, Fumiaki; Sawai, Kenji; Dhelika, Radon

    2014-07-01

    The recent papers Saito et al 2013 Smart Mater. Struct. 22 015019 and Dhelika et al 2013 Smart Mater. Struct. 22 095010 described studies of an electrostatic chuck that mimics the structure of gecko-like toes. Earlier work published by the authors and other researchers is cited to further illustrate the origin and motivation of the research.

  13. Plasma interferon-gamma, interleukin-10 and soluble markers of immune activation in infants with primary adenovirus (ADV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection.

    PubMed

    Fernández, J Alonso; Tapia, Lorena; Palomino, M Angélica; Larrañaga, Carmen; Peña, Mónica; Jaramillo, Héctor

    2005-01-01

    Adenovirus (ADV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are etiological agents of acute respiratory tract infection in infants. Long-term prognosis of ADV infection includes severe lung damage, bronchiectasis and hyperlucent lung, while RSV infection is associated with development of recurrent wheezing and subsequent asthma. These differences may be related to differences in the primary immune responses elicited by these viruses. In this paper, we investigated the type of cytokine responses and the magnitude of immune activation in ADV and RSV infections in infants. We examined plasma concentrations of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-10 (IL-10), soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sCD25) and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor II (sTNFR-II) in previously healthy infants during the acute phase of primary ADV infection (n = 21) and RSV infection (n = 68), and in uninfected controls (n = 44). In ADV-infected infants, IFN-gamma plasma levels were significantly higher than those observed in RSV cases and the control group (p < 0.05). RSV cases did not show any differences in IFN-gamma plasma levels compared to the other groups. sCD25 levels were significantly higher in ADV- and RSV-infected infants than in controls (p < 0.0001), and higher in ADV than in RSV cases (p < 0.05). sTNFR-II levels were significantly higher in RSV- and ADV-infected infants than in controls (p < 0.0001, p < 0.05, respectively), and higher in RSV than in ADV infection (p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in IL-10 plasma concentrations between the three groups. These results indicate that ADV and RSV infections in infants differ significantly with regard to the magnitude of production of interferon-gamma and soluble immune activation markers sCD25 and sTNFR-II. These immunological differences may be involved in the different clinical outcomes associated with these viral infections.

  14. 76 FR 36993 - Medical Devices; Neurological Devices; Clarification of Classification for Human Dura Mater...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 882 (formerly Docket No. 1997N-0484P) Medical Devices; Neurological Devices; Clarification of Classification for Human Dura Mater; Technical Amendment AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule; technical amendment. SUMMARY: The Food...

  15. Discovery of a novel fibrous tissue in the spinal pia mater by polarized light microscopy.

    PubMed

    Nam, Min-Ho; Baek, Miok; Lim, Jaekwan; Lee, Sehee; Yoon, Joohwan; Kim, Jungdae; Lee, Min-Sun; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2014-04-01

    Abstract It is very well known that spinal meninges are composed of three layers, dura, arachnoid and pia mater, and that the main components of pia mater are collagen and reticular fibers. However, the distribution of those fibers has not been extensively investigated but just described as a mesh of fibers. In this study, we detected novel structures, which are composed of unidirectionally arranged fibers, in a rat spinal pia mater by using a polarized light microscope. They were seen as three parallel lines, one of which ran along a posterior spinal vein and the rest two of which ran along a pair of posterior spinal arteries. Histological analysis including Masson's trichrome, picrosirius-red staining, Gordon & Sweet's staining and immunohistochemistry with anti-collagen type 1 and 3 antibodies uncovered that they are mainly composed of collagen fibers and some reticular fibers. In addition, a putative primo vessel was detected in the novel fibrous tissue, which was proven out to be different from a blood vessel. In conclusion, we report a newly detected fibrous structure in the spinal pia mater, which may contribute to provide tensile force to the spinal meninges and to harbor the primo vascular system inside.

  16. Absorbable or nonabsorbable suture materials for closure of the dura mater?

    PubMed

    Vällfors, B; Hansson, H A; Svensson, J

    1981-10-01

    This study was undertaken to determine which suture material would give the best results for closure of the dura mater. Because there is no need for the suture to remain longer than until healing has occurred and as remaining foreign material will predispose to foreign body reactions and infection, it was considered important to test new absorbable materials like polyglactin 910 (Vicryl) and polyglycolic acid (Dexon) for closure of the dura mater. The reactions from these materials were compared to those of silk and polyester (Ethibond) in dogs 60 days after the suture of dural incisions. The quality of healing with respect to the smoothness of the subdural surface, the presence of adhesions between sutures and the brain surface, the degree of absorption of the material, and reactions around the sutures were evaluated. Vicryl gave the best results, providing a smooth subdural surface without adhesions. It was almost totally absorbed when healing was completed, in contrast to Dexon and the other materials. The cellular reaction around Vicryl was slight. Silk, Ethibond, and Dexon protruded from the subdural surface and adhesions to the arachnoid were common. When the dura mater was removed, these adhesions tore off the leptomeninges with their vascular supply to the cortex. The results of these experiments seem to justify the recommendation of Vicryl for suturing of the dura mater. Such an absorbable material decreases the risk of foreign body reactions, and infections will be more easily combated because of the absence of foreign material. The lack of subdural adhesions is an advantage if reoperation is necessary.

  17. The Neurospora Transcription Factor ADV-1 Transduces Light Signals and Temporal Information to Control Rhythmic Expression of Genes Involved in Cell Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Dekhang, Rigzin; Wu, Cheng; Smith, Kristina M.; Lamb, Teresa M.; Peterson, Matthew; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Ibarra, Oneida; Emerson, Jillian M.; Karunarathna, Nirmala; Lyubetskaya, Anna; Azizi, Elham; Hurley, Jennifer M.; Dunlap, Jay C.; Galagan, James E.; Freitag, Michael; Sachs, Matthew S.; Bell-Pedersen, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Light and the circadian clock have a profound effect on the biology of organisms through the regulation of large sets of genes. Toward understanding how light and the circadian clock regulate gene expression, we used genome-wide approaches to identify the direct and indirect targets of the light-responsive and clock-controlled transcription factor ADV-1 in Neurospora crassa. A large proportion of ADV-1 targets were found to be light- and/or clock-controlled, and enriched for genes involved in development, metabolism, cell growth, and cell fusion. We show that ADV-1 is necessary for transducing light and/or temporal information to its immediate downstream targets, including controlling rhythms in genes critical to somatic cell fusion. However, while ADV-1 targets are altered in predictable ways in Δadv-1 cells in response to light, this is not always the case for rhythmic target gene expression. These data suggest that a complex regulatory network downstream of ADV-1 functions to generate distinct temporal dynamics of target gene expression relative to the central clock mechanism. PMID:27856696

  18. Evidence for CGRP re-uptake in rat dura mater encephali

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Saurabh; Amrutkar, Dipak Vasantrao; Mataji, Aydin; Salmasi, Hassan; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Sheykhzade, Majid; Messlinger, Karl; Olesen, Jes; Jansen-Olesen, Inger

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is widely distributed in the trigeminovascular system and released from sensory fibres of the cranial dura mater upon noxious stimulation. Such release may be a mechanism underlying migraine headache. Based on data from guinea pig basilar artery preparations, we have here studied CGRP release and uptake in an organ preparation of the hemisected rat skull. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH CGRP release from the cranial dura was quantified by a commercial enzyme-linked immunoassay. CGRP was depleted using repetitive challenges of capsaicin. After incubating the tissue with CGRP for 20 min and extensive washing, another capsaicin challenge was performed. Immunohistochemistry was used to visualize CGRP immunofluorescence in dural nerve fibres. KEY RESULTS Capsaicin-induced CGRP release was attenuated by the transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor type I antagonist capsazepine or by Ca2+-free solutions. After the CGRP-depleted preparation had been exposed to exogenous CGRP, capsaicin-induced CGRP release was increased compared to the challenge just prior to incubation. CGRP uptake was not influenced by Ca2+-free solutions. Olcegepant and CGRP8–37 (CGRP receptor antagonists) did not affect uptake of CGRP. However, a monoclonal CGRP-binding antibody decreased CGRP uptake significantly. Release of CGRP after incubation was attenuated by Ca2+-free solutions and by capsazepine. Immunohistochemical assays indicated a weak trend towards CGRP uptake in rat dura mater. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS We have presented evidence for CGRP uptake in nerves and its re-release in rat dura mater. This may have implications for the pathophysiology and treatment of migraine. PMID:20804493

  19. Dumbbell-shaped intradiploic epidermoid cyst involving the dura mater and cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Ichimura, Shinya; Hayashi, Toshiyuki; Yazaki, Takahito; Yoshida, Kazunari; Kawase, Takeshi

    2008-02-01

    A 55-year-old woman presented with an epidermoid cyst extending to the cerebellum manifesting as headaches and pain in the left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an intradiploic part with ring enhancement and an intracerebellar part. Intraoperative inspection revealed erosion of the occipital bone and defective dura mater. The tumor was located both epidurally and subdurally and the cyst consisted of pearly white keratin. The tumor was totally removed and the patient was discharged with no neurological deficit. The intradiploic part of the tumor formed the body and the intracerebellar part was caused by inflammatory reaction, which resulted in the atypical enhancement of the intradiploic part.

  20. [Identification and characterization of alternativly splicing variants for murine mater gene].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Hai-Bo; Zhang, Yi; Huang, Zhao-Feng; Ma, Run-Lin

    2004-08-01

    Mater encoding an oocyte-specific autoantigen,and is associated with premature autoimmune ovarian dysgenesis (AOD) in mouse. Based on RT-PCR, cDNA cloning, screening, sequencing and analysis, we have detected a total of four Mater splice variants, designated as variant B, E, F and G. All these splicing forms are in frame in terms of expected protein products. Among these, B was consistent with the previous report, whereas E, F, G belong to novel splice variants that have not been reported previously. Variant E lacks exon 6, variant F both lacks exon 10 and retains a part of intron 8, variant G lacks part of exon 14, and variant H lacks part of exon 13. The cDNA sequences at all the exon-intron boundaries confirms to the "GT-AG" splicing rule. Variant B, E, F exist in all the four strains. Variant G exists only in SWR/J. According to the cDNA sequences of these four splice variants, amimo acid sequences of the corresponding expected protein isoforms were deduced, and their potential functional effects were predicted in this thesis. Further identification and characterization of these expected protein isoforms would provide valuable information for their functional importance.

  1. Use of equine pericardium sheet (LYOMESH®) as dura mater substitute in endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cavallo, Luigi M.; Solari, Domenico; Somma, Teresa; Di Somma, Alberto; Chiaramonte, Carmela; Cappabianca, Paolo

    Objective The aim of this study was to describe the use of equine pericardium sheet (Lyomesh ® ) as dural substitute for sellar reconstruction after endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery for the removal of pituitary adenomas. Methods We reviewed data of patients that underwent surgery by means of an endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach for the removal of pituitary adenomas over a 12-months period, starting in May 2012, i.e. when we adopted Lyomesh ® (Audio Technologies, Piacenza, Italy) an equine pericardium sheet, as dura mater substitute. Results: During the 12-months period evaluated, we performed an endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal operation for a variety of pituitary lesions on 102 consecutive patients. Among these, in 12 patients (9.4%) harboring a pituitary adenoma, the implant of the pericardium sheet was used. Four patients (33.3%) presented a small intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak; in these cases the Lyomesh ® was placed intradurally with fibrin glue and, thereafter, several layers were positioned in extradural space. In 8 other subjects without any evidence of CSF leak, the dural substitute was placed intradurally and fibrin glue was injected intradurally to hold the material in place. Conclusions: Even if based on a relatively small patient series, our experience demonstrated that the use of equine pericardium sheet (Lyomesh ® ) as dura mater substitute in transsphenoidal surgery is safe and biocompatible, as compared with other dural substitutes. PMID:24251248

  2. MATER - Pianeta Terra-Mare: an interactive and multidisciplinary approach to Geosphere sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piangiamore, Giovanna Lucia; Fanelli, Emanuela; Furia, Stefania; Garau, Daniela; Merlino, Silvia; Musacchio, Gemma; Carla Centineo, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that Earth and Marine Sciences are not properly treated in scholastic programs and in textbooks are included in a superficial way. These topics are interdisciplinary and experimental (biology, ecology, oceanography and geology) and the recent advance in these fields is strictly linked to technologic improvement. School cannot keep up with the huge advances of knowledge experimented in the last 20 years, also for the lack of didactic laboratories sufficiently updated to support experimental activities. In this context, in 2014-15 three Italian Research Institutes (INGV, ISMAR-CNR and ENEA-CRAM) have decided to support the Unified School District "ISA 10"of Lerici (Liguria, Italy) - comprehensive of kindergartner, primary and middle schools - to develop the project MATER - Pianeta Terra-Mare (Planet Earth and Sea). The acronym MATER (MARe and TERra) has also a gender value, as people involved in the projects were women, mostly researchers and teachers, which have worked side by side with other women belonging to environmental and cultural associations of the territory. This heterogeneous group has a common objective: to promote the diffusion of a scientific culture and to sensitize students from 3 to 14 years towards problems occurring in marine and terrestrial environments, fostering the settlement of a sustainable attitude to the exploitation of natural resources and consciousness to natural hazards, such as earthquakes and floods, quite common in the Ligurian region. MATER has been considered as one of the best projects funded by MIUR (Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research) inside the Dissemination of Scientific and Technological Culture call for the year 2014. Natural hazards (Planet Earth) and the chemical-physical aspects and resources of the marine environment (Planet Sea) were the two modules of the project. Planet Earth developed through Piovono Idee! (Cloudy with a chance of Ideas!), an interactive exhibition on

  3. A test of the ADV-based Reynolds flux method for in situ estimation of sediment settling velocity in a muddy estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Grace M.; Friedrichs, Carl T.; Smith, S. Jarrell

    2013-12-01

    Under conditions common in muddy coastal and estuarine environments, acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADVs) can serve to estimate sediment settling velocity ( w s) by assuming a balance between upward turbulent Reynolds flux and downward gravitational settling. Advantages of this method include simple instrument deployment, lack of flow disturbance, and relative insensitivity to biofouling and water column stratification. Although this method is being used with increasing frequency in coastal and estuarine environments, to date it has received little direct ground truthing. This study compared in situ estimates of w s inferred by a 5-MHz ADV to independent in situ observations from a high-definition video settling column over the course of a flood tide in the bottom boundary layer of the York River estuary, Virginia, USA. The ADV-based measurements were found to agree with those of the settling column when the current speed at about 40 cm above the bed was greater than about 20 cm/s. This corresponded to periods when the estimated magnitude of the settling term in the suspended sediment continuity equation was four or more times larger than the time rate of change of concentration. For ADV observations restricted to these conditions, ADV-based estimates of w s (mean 0.48±0.04 mm/s) were highly consistent with those observed by the settling column (mean 0.45±0.02 mm/s). However, the ADV-based method for estimating w s was sensitive to the prescribed concentration of the non-settling washload, C wash. In an objective operational definition, C wash can be set equal to the lowest suspended solids concentration observed around slack water.

  4. Histological examination of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene artificial dura mater at 14 years after craniotomy: case report.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yoshihisa; Aikawa, Hiroshi; Tsutsumi, Masanori; Narita, Sumito; Yoshida, Hidenori; Etou, Housei; Sakamoto, Kimiya; Kazekawa, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) porous material (GORE(®) PRECLUDE(®) Dura Substitute) does not degenerate or deteriorate in vivo, and is currently used as artificial dura mater. This material does not adhere well to the surrounding tissues, but cerebrospinal fluid leakage along the suture line has been observed in several cases. We describe a case of craniotomy for tumor resection performed 14 years after dural repair with ePTFE sheet. Histological examination of the ePTFE sheet revealed that the sheet was structurally intact, with no evidence of tissue adhesion or cellular infiltration. However, collagen deposition was observed around the suture thread. When the suture thread was removed the collagen was also removed, and the original needle hole appeared again. No significant changes were observed in the features of the ePTFE sheet even 14 years postoperatively. The formation of fibrous tissue around the needle hole was important in preventing cerebrospinal fluid leakage.

  5. A sewing needle in contact with the cervical dura mater and vertebral artery

    PubMed Central

    Fumihiro, Arizumi; Shinichi, Inoue; Toshiya, Tachibana; Keishi, Maruo; Shinichi, Yoshiya

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Although cervical foreign bodies have been previously reported, the report of a needle in the cervical spinal cord is rare. Herein, we report a rare case of a sewing needle in contact with the cervical dura mater and vertebral artery. Patients concerns: A 47-year-old man presented with discomfort in the posterior region of his neck. Approximately 2 years before admission, he suffered a stiff neck and had stabbed the posterior region of his neck with a sewing needle. The sewing needle had deeply entered his neck, and he left it alone because it could not be identified or removed. On examination, the patient had a full range of neck motion, but was experiencing discomfort. Cervical spine radiographs revealed a metal foreign body oriented from between the C2 and C3 spinous processes to the anterior cervical spine. Diagnosis: Computed tomography (CT) myelogram and CT angiogram revealed that the sewing needle was penetrating into the foramen transversarium and was in contact with the cervical dura mater and the right vertebral artery. Interventions: The sewing needle was removed under general anesthesia. Outcomes: Cerebrospinal fluid leakage occurred immediately after removal of the needle. Symptoms of discomfort disappeared without any complications. Lessons: This is the first report of a sewing needle that entered the cervical spinal canal while avoiding the cervical spine and the vertebral artery. Although no symptoms occurred for nearly 2 years, surgical removal of a foreign body near the cervical spinal cord and vertebral artery should be performed as soon as possible, before the occurrence of symptoms. PMID:28033295

  6. Work Domain Analysis of a Predecessor Sodium-cooled Reactor as Baseline for AdvSMR Operational Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Farris; David Gertman; Jacques Hugo

    2014-03-01

    This report presents the results of the Work Domain Analysis for the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II). This is part of the phase of the research designed to incorporate Cognitive Work Analysis in the development of a framework for the formalization of an Operational Concept (OpsCon) for Advanced Small Modular Reactors (AdvSMRs). For a new AdvSMR design, information obtained through Cognitive Work Analysis, combined with human performance criteria, can and should be used in during the operational phase of a plant to assess the crew performance aspects associated with identified AdvSMR operational concepts. The main objective of this phase was to develop an analytical and descriptive framework that will help systems and human factors engineers to understand the design and operational requirements of the emerging generation of small, advanced, multi-modular reactors. Using EBR-II as a predecessor to emerging sodium-cooled reactor designs required the application of a method suitable to the structured and systematic analysis of the plant to assist in identifying key features of the work associated with it and to clarify the operational and other constraints. The analysis included the identification and description of operating scenarios that were considered characteristic of this type of nuclear power plant. This is an invaluable aspect of Operational Concept development since it typically reveals aspects of future plant configurations that will have an impact on operations. These include, for example, the effect of core design, different coolants, reactor-to-power conversion unit ratios, modular plant layout, modular versus central control rooms, plant siting, and many more. Multi-modular plants in particular are expected to have a significant impact on overall OpsCon in general, and human performance in particular. To support unconventional modes of operation, the modern control room of a multi-module plant would typically require advanced HSIs that would

  7. Lectin histochemistry and alkaline phosphatase activity in the pia mater vessels of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).

    PubMed

    Szumańska, G; Gadamski, R

    1992-01-01

    Some lectins were used to study the localization of sugar residues on the endothelial cell surface in the pia mater blood vessels of control (WKY) and hypertensive rats (SHR). The lectins tested recognized the following residues: beta-D-galactosyl (Ricinus communis agglutinin 120, RCA-1), alpha-L-fucosyl (Ulex europaeus agglutinin, UEA-1), N-acetylglucosaminyl and sialyl (Wheat germ agglutinin, WGA), N-glycolyl-neuraminic acid (Limax flavus agglutinin, LFA), and N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl (Helix pomatia agglutinin, HPA). Several differences were revealed in the presence of sugar receptors on the surface of endothelial cells between the control and the hypertensive rats. Our studies showed also differences in the localization of the tested glycoconjugates between pial capillaries, small, medium-size and large pial arteries. The histochemical evaluation of alkaline phosphatase revealed an increased activity of the enzyme in the pial vessels of SHRs as compared with control rats with a similar localization of the enzyme activity. Some differences in the distribution of lectin binding sites and alkaline phosphatase activity could be associated with the different functions of particular segments of the pial vascular network.

  8. MODFLOW-2000 : the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model--documentation of the Advective-Transport Observation (ADV2) Package

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderman, Evan R.; Hill, Mary Catherine

    2001-01-01

    Observations of the advective component of contaminant transport in steady-state flow fields can provide important information for the calibration of ground-water flow models. This report documents the Advective-Transport Observation (ADV2) Package, version 2, which allows advective-transport observations to be used in the three-dimensional ground-water flow parameter-estimation model MODFLOW-2000. The ADV2 Package is compatible with some of the features in the Layer-Property Flow and Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow Packages, but is not compatible with the Block-Centered Flow or Generalized Finite-Difference Packages. The particle-tracking routine used in the ADV2 Package duplicates the semi-analytical method of MODPATH, as shown in a sample problem. Particles can be tracked in a forward or backward direction, and effects such as retardation can be simulated through manipulation of the effective-porosity value used to calculate velocity. Particles can be discharged at cells that are considered to be weak sinks, in which the sink applied does not capture all the water flowing into the cell, using one of two criteria: (1) if there is any outflow to a boundary condition such as a well or surface-water feature, or (2) if the outflow exceeds a user specified fraction of the cell budget. Although effective porosity could be included as a parameter in the regression, this capability is not included in this package. The weighted sum-of-squares objective function, which is minimized in the Parameter-Estimation Process, was augmented to include the square of the weighted x-, y-, and z-components of the differences between the simulated and observed advective-front locations at defined times, thereby including the direction of travel as well as the overall travel distance in the calibration process. The sensitivities of the particle movement to the parameters needed to minimize the objective function are calculated for any particle location using the exact sensitivity

  9. Idiopathic spinal cord herniation with duplicated dura mater and dorsal subarachnoid septum. Report of a case and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Norio; Higashino, Kousaku; Sairyo, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Background Idiopathic spinal cord herniation (ISCH) is a rare condition and its pathogenesis remains unclear. The purpose of this case report is to present an ISCH case with dorsal subarachnoid septum suggesting the pathogenesis of ISCH being adhesions from preexisting inflammation. Methods Single case report. Results A 60-year-old woman presented with Brown-Séquard syndrome below the level of T6. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the thoracic spinal cord was displaced ventrally, and the dorsal subarachnoid space was enlarged and had a septum between the spinal cord and dura mater. Intraoperatively, the dorsal dura mater was seen to be adherent and the subarachnoid septum was identified after durotomy. The inner layer defect of the duplicated dura mater was found in the ventral dura mater, through which the spinal cord had herniated. After releasing the septum, the adhesions around the dura mater, and the hiatus, the spinal cord was reduced. Conclusions The present case indicates that adhesions around the dura mater can be the pathogenesis of ISCH. PMID:25694934

  10. Biological Effects of Clinically Relevant CoCr Nanoparticles in the Dura Mater: An Organ Culture Study

    PubMed Central

    Papageorgiou, Iraklis; Abberton, Thomas; Fuller, Martin; Tipper, Joanne L.; Fisher, John; Ingham, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Medical interventions for the treatment of spinal disc degeneration include total disc replacement and fusion devices. There are, however, concerns regarding the generation of wear particles by these devices, the majority of which are in the nanometre sized range with the potential to cause adverse biological effects in the surrounding tissues. The aims of this study were to develop an organ culture model of the porcine dura mater and to investigate the biological effects of CoCr nanoparticles in this model. A range of histological techniques were used to analyse the structure of the tissue in the organ culture. The biological effects of the CoCr wear particles and the subsequent structural changes were assessed using tissue viability assays, cytokine assays, histology, immunohistochemistry, and TEM imaging. The physiological structure of the dura mater remained unchanged during the seven days of in vitro culture. There was no significant loss of cell viability. After exposure of the organ culture to CoCr nanoparticles, there was significant loosening of the epithelial layer, as well as the underlying collagen matrix. TEM imaging confirmed these structural alterations. These structural alterations were attributed to the production of MMP-1, -3, -9, -13, and TIMP-1. ELISA analysis revealed that there was significant release of cytokines including IL-8, IL-6, TNF-α, ECP and also the matrix protein, tenascin-C. This study suggested that CoCr nanoparticles did not cause cytotoxicity in the dura mater but they caused significant alterations to its structural integrity that could lead to significant secondary effects due to nanoparticle penetration, such as inflammation to the local neural tissue.

  11. Laser bonding with ICG-infused chitosan patches: preliminary experiences in suine dura mater and vocal folds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Francesca; Matteini, Paolo; Ratto, Fulvio; Pini, Roberto; Iacoangeli, Maurizio; Giannoni, Luca; Fortuna, Damiano; Di Cicco, Emiliano; Corbara, Sylwia; Dallari, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Laser bonding is a promising minimally invasive approach, emerging as a valid alternative to conventional suturing techniques. It shows widely demonstrated advantages in wound treatment: immediate closuring effect, minimal inflammatory response and scar formation, reduced healing time. This laser based technique can overcome the difficulties in working through narrow surgical corridors (e.g. the modern "key-hole" surgery as well as the endoscopy setting) or in thin tissues that are impossible to treat with staples and/or stitches. We recently proposed the use of chitosan matrices, stained with conventional chromophores, to be used in laser bonding of vascular tissue. In this work we propose the same procedure to perform laser bonding of vocal folds and dura mater repair. Laser bonding of vocal folds is proposed to avoid the development of adhesions (synechiae), after conventional or CO2 laser surgery. Laser bonding application in neurosurgery is proposed for the treatment of dural defects being the Cerebro Spinal Fluid leaks still a major issue. Vocal folds and dura mater were harvested from 9-months old porks and used in the experimental sessions within 4 hours after sacrifice. In vocal folds treatment, an IdocyanineGreen-infused chitosan patch was applied onto the anterior commissure, while the dura mater was previously incised and then bonded. A diode laser emitting at 810 nm, equipped with a 600 μm diameter optical fiber was used to weld the patch onto the tissue, by delivering single laser spots to induce local patch/tissue adhesion. The result is an immediate adhesion of the patch to the tissue. Standard histology was performed, in order to study the induced photothermal effect at the bonding sites. This preliminary experimental activity shows the advantages of the proposed technique in respect to standard surgery: simplification of the procedure; decreased foreign-body reaction; reduced inflammatory response; reduced operating times and better handling in

  12. Environmental Dependence of Artifact CD Peaks of Chiral Schiff Base 3d-4f Complexes in Soft Mater PMMA Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Yu; Nidaira, Keisuke; Akitsu, Takashiro

    2011-01-01

    Four chiral Schiff base binuclear 3d-4f complexes (NdNi, NdCu, GdNi, and GdCu) have been prepared and characterized by means of electronic and CD spectra, IR spectra, magnetic measurements, and X-ray crystallography (NdNi). A so-called artifact peak of solid state CD spectra, which was characteristic of oriented molecules without free molecular rotation, appeared at about 470 nm. Magnetic data of the complexes in the solid state (powder) and in PMMA cast films or solutions indicated that only GdCu preserved molecular structures in various matrixes of soft maters. For the first time, we have used the changes of intensity of artifact CD peaks to detect properties of environmental (media solid state (KBr pellets), PMMA cast films, concentration dependence of PMMA in acetone solutions, and pure acetone solution) for chiral 3d-4f complexes (GdCu). Rigid matrix keeping anisotropic orientation exhibited a decrease in the intensity of the artifact CD peak toward negative values. The present results suggest that solid state artifact CD peaks can be affected by environmental viscosity of a soft mater matrix. PMID:22072930

  13. Impact of holmium fibre laser radiation (λ = 2.1 μm) on the spinal cord dura mater and adipose tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatova, S. A.; Kamynin, V. A.; Ryabova, A. V.; Loshchenov, V. B.; Zelenkov, P. V.; Zolotovskii, I. O.; Tsvetkov, V. B.; Kurkov, A. S.

    2015-08-01

    The impact of holmium fibre laser radiation on the samples of biologic tissues (dura mater of spinal cord and adipose tissue with interlayers of muscle) is studied. The experimental results are evaluated by the size of carbonisation and coagulation necrosis zones. The experiment shows that in the case of irradiation of the spinal cord dura mater samples the size of carbonisation and coagulation necrosis zones is insignificant. In the adipose tissue the carbonisation zone is also insignificant, but the region of cellular structure disturbance is large. In the muscle tissue the situation is opposite. The cw laser operation provides clinically acceptable degree of destruction in tissue samples with a minimal carbonisation zone.

  14. Visualization of the network of primo vessels and primo nodes above the pia mater of the brain and spine of rats by using Alcian blue.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho-Sung; Lee, Byung-Cheon

    2012-10-01

    By spraying and injecting Alcian blue into the lateral ventricle, we were able to visualize the network of the nerve primo vascular system above the pia mater of the brain and spine of rats. Staining these novel structures above the pia mater with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole demonstrated that they coexisted in cellular and extracellular DNA forms. The cellular primo node consisted of many cells surrounded by rod-shaped nuclei while the extracellular primo node had a different morphology from that of a general cell in terms of DNA signals, showing granular DNA in a threadlike network of extracellular DNA. Also, differently from F-actin in general cells, the F-actin in the primo vessel was short and rod-shaped. Light and transmission electron microscopic images of the PN showed that the nerve primo vascular system above the pia mater of the brain and spine was a novel dynamic network, suggesting the coexistence of DNA and extracellular DNA. Based on these data, we suggest that a novel dynamic system with a certain function exists above the pia mater of the central nerve system. We also discuss the potential of this novel network system in the brain and spine as related to acupuncture meridians and neural regeneration.

  15. Uncover the mantle: rediscovering Gregório Lopes palette and technique with a study on the painting "Mater Misericordiae"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, Vanessa; Candeias, António; Oliveira, Maria J.; Carvalho, Maria L.; Dias, Cristina Barrocas; Manhita, Ana; Francisco, Maria J.; Costa, Sónia; Lauw, Alexandra; Manso, Marta

    2016-11-01

    Gregório Lopes (c. 1490-1550) was one of the most prominent painters of the renaissance and Mannerism in Portugal. The painting "Mater Misericordiae" made for the Sesimbra Holy House of Mercy, circa 1535-1538, is one of the most significant works of the artist, and his only painting on this theme, being also one of the most significant Portuguese paintings of sixteenth century. The recent restoration provided the possibility to study materially the painting for the first time, with a multianalytical methodology incorporating portable energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy, micro-X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array and mass spectrometry detectors. The analytical study was complemented by infrared reflectography, allowing the study of the underdrawing technique and also by dendrochronology to confirm the date of the wooden panels (1535-1538). The results of this study were compared with previous ones on the painter's workshop, and significant differences and similitudes were found in the materials and techniques used.

  16. Evidence that the compound action potential (CAP) from the auditory nerve is a stationary potential generated across dura mater.

    PubMed

    Brown, Daniel J; Patuzzi, Robert B

    2010-08-01

    We have investigated the generation of the compound action potential (CAP) from the auditory nerve of guinea pigs. Responses to acoustic tone-bursts were recorded from the round window (RW), throughout the cochlear fluids, from the surface of the cochlear nucleus, from the central end of the auditory nerve after removal of the cochlear nucleus, from the scalp vertex, and from the contralateral ear. Responses were compared before, during and after experimental manipulations including pharmacological blockade of the auditory nerve, section of the auditory nerve, section of the efferent nerves, removal of the cochlear nucleus, and focal cooling of the cochlear nerve and/or cochlear nucleus. Regardless of the waveform changes occurring with these manipulations, the responses were similar in waveform but inverted polarity across the internal auditory meatus. The CAP waveforms were very similar before and after removal of the cochlear nucleus, apart from transient changes that could last many minutes. This suggests that the main CAP components are generated entirely by the eighth nerve. Based on previous studies and a clear understanding of the generation of extracellular potentials, we suggest that the early components in the responses recorded from the round window, from the cochlear fluids, from the surface of the cochlear nucleus, or from the scalp are a far-field or stationary potential, generated when the circulating action currents associated with each auditory neurone encounters a high extracellular resistance as it passes through the dura mater.

  17. Archaeometric analysis of Roman bronze coins from the Magna Mater temple using solid-state voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Di Turo, Francesca; Montoya, Noemí; Piquero-Cilla, Joan; De Vito, Caterina; Coletti, Fulvio; Favero, Gabriele; Doménech-Carbó, Antonio

    2017-02-22

    Voltammetry of microparticles (VMP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques, complemented by SEM-EDX and Raman spectroscopy, were applied to a set of 15 Roman bronze coins and one Tessera from the temple of Magna Mater (Rome, Italy). The archaeological site, dated back between the second half and the end of the 4th century A.D., presented a complicated stratigraphic context. Characteristic voltammetric patterns for cuprite and tenorite for sub-microsamples of the corrosion layers of the coins deposited onto graphite electrodes in contact with 0.10 M HClO4 aqueous solution yielded a grouping of the coins into three main groups. This grouping was confirmed and refined using EIS experiments of the coins immersed in air-saturated mineral water using the reduction of dissolved oxygen as a redox probe. The electrochemical grouping of coins corroborated the complex stratigraphy of the archaeological site and, above all, the reuse of the coins during the later periods due to the economic issues related to the fall of the Roman Empire.

  18. Impact of holmium fibre laser radiation (λ = 2.1 μm) on the spinal cord dura mater and adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Filatova, S A; Kamynin, V A; Ryabova, A V; Loshchenov, V B; Tsvetkov, V B; Kurkov, A S; Zelenkov, P V; Zolotovskii, I O

    2015-08-31

    The impact of holmium fibre laser radiation on the samples of biologic tissues (dura mater of spinal cord and adipose tissue with interlayers of muscle) is studied. The experimental results are evaluated by the size of carbonisation and coagulation necrosis zones. The experiment shows that in the case of irradiation of the spinal cord dura mater samples the size of carbonisation and coagulation necrosis zones is insignificant. In the adipose tissue the carbonisation zone is also insignificant, but the region of cellular structure disturbance is large. In the muscle tissue the situation is opposite. The cw laser operation provides clinically acceptable degree of destruction in tissue samples with a minimal carbonisation zone. (laser applications in medicine)

  19. Stimulation of rat cranial dura mater with potassium chloride causes CGRP release into the cerebrospinal fluid and increases medullary blood flow.

    PubMed

    Dux, Mária; Will, Christine; Eberhardt, Mirjam; Fischer, Michael J M; Messlinger, Karl

    2017-02-10

    Primary headaches may be accompanied by increased intracranial blood flow induced by the release of the potent vasodilator calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from activated meningeal afferents. We aimed to record meningeal and medullary blood flow simultaneously and to localize the sites of CGRP release in rodent preparations in vivo and ex vivo. Blood flow in the exposed rat parietal dura mater and the medulla oblongata was recorded by laser Doppler flowmetry, while the dura was stimulated by topical application of 60mM potassium chloride (KCl). Samples of jugular venous plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected from the cisterna magna were analysed for CGRP concentrations using an enzyme immunoassay. In a hemisected rat skull preparation lined with dura mater the CGRP releasing effect of KCl superfusion was examined. Superfusion of the dura mater with KCl decreased meningeal blood flow unless alpha-adrenoceptors were blocked by phentolamine, whereas the medullary blood flow was increased. The same treatment caused increased CGRP concentrations in jugular plasma and CSF and induced significant CGRP release in the hemisected rat skull preparation. Anaesthesia of the trigeminal ganglion by injection of lidocaine reduced increases in medullary blood flow and CGRP concentration in the CSF upon meningeal KCl application. CGRP release evoked by depolarisation of meningeal afferents is accompanied by increased blood flow in the medulla oblongata but not the dura mater. This discrepancy can be explained by the smooth muscle depolarising effect of KCl and the activation of sympathetic vasoconstrictor mechanisms. The medullary blood flow response is most likely mediated by CGRP released from activated central terminals of trigeminal afferents. Increased blood supply of the medulla oblongata and CGRP release into the CSF may also occur in headaches accompanying vigorous activation of meningeal afferents.

  20. Evidence for novel age-dependent network structures as a putative primo vascular network in the dura mater of the rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho-Sung; Kang, Dai-In; Yoon, Seung Zhoo; Ryu, Yeon Hee; Lee, Inhyung; Kim, Hoon-Gi; Lee, Byung-Cheon; Lee, Ki Bog

    2015-01-01

    With chromium-hematoxylin staining, we found evidence for the existence of novel age-dependent network structures in the dura mater of rat brains. Under stereomicroscopy, we noticed that chromium-hematoxylin-stained threadlike structures, which were barely observable in 1-week-old rats, were networked in specific areas of the brain, for example, the lateral lobes and the cerebella, in 4-week-old rats. In 7-week-old rats, those structures were found to have become larger and better networked. With phase contrast microscopy, we found that in 1-week-old rats, chromium-hematoxylin-stained granules were scattered in the same areas of the brain in which the network structures would later be observed in the 4- and 7-week-old rats. Such age-dependent network structures were examined by using optical and transmission electron microscopy, and the following results were obtained. The scattered granules fused into networks with increasing age. Cross-sections of the age-dependent network structures demonstrated heavily-stained basophilic substructures. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the basophilic substructures to be clusters with high electron densities consisting of nanosized particles. We report these data as evidence for the existence of age-dependent network structures in the dura mater, we discuss their putative functions of age-dependent network structures beyond the general concept of the dura mater as a supporting matrix. PMID:26330833

  1. Evidence for novel age-dependent network structures as a putative primo vascular network in the dura mater of the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho-Sung; Kang, Dai-In; Yoon, Seung Zhoo; Ryu, Yeon Hee; Lee, Inhyung; Kim, Hoon-Gi; Lee, Byung-Cheon; Lee, Ki Bog

    2015-07-01

    With chromium-hematoxylin staining, we found evidence for the existence of novel age-dependent network structures in the dura mater of rat brains. Under stereomicroscopy, we noticed that chromium-hematoxylin-stained threadlike structures, which were barely observable in 1-week-old rats, were networked in specific areas of the brain, for example, the lateral lobes and the cerebella, in 4-week-old rats. In 7-week-old rats, those structures were found to have become larger and better networked. With phase contrast microscopy, we found that in 1-week-old rats, chromium-hematoxylin-stained granules were scattered in the same areas of the brain in which the network structures would later be observed in the 4- and 7-week-old rats. Such age-dependent network structures were examined by using optical and transmission electron microscopy, and the following results were obtained. The scattered granules fused into networks with increasing age. Cross-sections of the age-dependent network structures demonstrated heavily-stained basophilic substructures. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the basophilic substructures to be clusters with high electron densities consisting of nanosized particles. We report these data as evidence for the existence of age-dependent network structures in the dura mater, we discuss their putative functions of age-dependent network structures beyond the general concept of the dura mater as a supporting matrix.

  2. The "RESEAU MATER": An efficient infection control for endometritis, but not for urinary tract infection after vaginal delivery.

    PubMed

    Ayzac, Louis; Caillat-Vallet, Emmanuelle; Girard, Raphaële; Berland, Michel

    2016-09-01

    "RESEAU MATER" is useful to monitor nosocomial infections in maternity and contributes to the decreasing trend of it, since its implementation. Specifically, this network demonstrates its efficiency in the control of endometritis following vaginal deliveries, but not in the control of urinary tract infections. The aim of this study is to determine whether the difference between the control of endometritis and of urinary tract infection could be explained by an unsuitable regression model or by an unsuitable care policy concerning urinary cares. This study includes (1) the analysis of historic data of the network and (2) the description of French guidelines for maternity cares and available evaluations, concerning endometritis and urinary tract infection prevention. Univariate and multivariate odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for the total study period of 1999-2013, for these infections and their risk factors. The endometritis frequency is decreasing, in association with no significant evolution of associated risk factors, but urinary tract infection frequency is constant, in association with a increasing trend of its risk factors such as intermittent catheterization and epidural analgesia. In French guidelines, all preventive measures against endometritis are clearly broadcasted by all field operators, and repeated audits have reinforced the control of their application. But preventive measures against urinary tract infection seem to be broadcasted exclusively in the circle of infection prevention agencies and not in the obstetrics societies or in the Health Ministry communication. Urinary tract infection prevention requires a clearer public and professional policy in favor of a more efficient urinary cares, with a specific target to maternity.

  3. Post-mortem imaging of the infant and perinatal dura mater and superior sagittal sinus using optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Cheshire, Emma C; Malcomson, Roger D G; Joseph, Shiju; Adnan, Asif; Adlam, David; Rutty, Guy N

    2017-04-07

    Infants and young children are likely to present with subdural haemorrhage (SDH) if they are the victims of abusive head trauma. In these cases, the most accepted theory for the source of bleeding is the bridging veins traversing from the surface of the brain to the dura mater. However, some have suggested that SDH may result from leakage of blood from a dural vascular plexus. As post-mortem examination of the bridging veins and dura is challenging, and imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance and computed tomography do not have the resolution capabilities to image small blood vessels, we have trialled the use of intravascular and benchtop optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems for imaging from within the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) and through the dura during five infant/perinatal autopsies. Numerous vessel-like structures were identified using both OCT systems. Measurements taken with the intravascular rotational system indicate that the approximate median diameters of blood vessels entering anterior and posterior segments of the SSS were 110 μm (range 70 to 670 μm, n = 21) and 125 μm (range 70 to 740 μm, n = 23), respectively. For blood vessels close to the wall of the SSS, the median diameters for anterior and posterior segments of the SSS were 80 μm (range 40 to 170 μm, n = 25) and 90 μm (range 30 to 150 μm), respectively. Detailed characterisation of the dural vasculature is important to aid understanding of the source of SDH. High resolution 3-dimensional reconstructions of the infant dural vasculature may be possible with further development of OCT systems.

  4. Banking on Alma Mater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detweiler, Gerri

    1995-01-01

    Four common services offered by college alumni associations for their alumni (credit cards, telephone services, mortgages, and insurance) can provide benefits to alumni while they raise money for the institution. Considerations in planning such services include what products to offer, choice of company, customer service standards, end-of-contract…

  5. Granulomatous inflammation of dura mater--a rare side effect after application of hemostatic and insulation materials in case of two-stage operation of huge meningioma.

    PubMed

    Andrychowski, Jarosław; Czernicki, Zbigniew; Taraszewska, Anna; Frontczak-Baniewicz, Małgorzata; Przytuła, Ewa; Zębala, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Haemostatic and isolating materials may cause local reactions as a foreign body. The case presented here of intracranial granulomatous lesion pertains to a patient operated in two stages due to a huge meningioma. During the first operation the tumour was partially removed. Because of persistent intraoperative haemorrhage haemostatic flakes of Oxycel and Spongostan were applied locally. In order to cover the lack of the dura, an insulation material--Tachosil was used. Histological examination of the tumour specimens confirmed the preoperative diagnosis of benign meningioma, mainly of the angiomatous subtype. The second stage of operation was performed after 3 months and the meningioma was completely removed, as well as dura mater and meningioma attachment with its oncological margin. The resected dura mater was thickened and histologically showed intensive granulomatous infiltrations and foreign body reactions most likely to Oxycel. Clinically no local and general infection and improper healing was observed after the first and the second treatment stage, but an allergic skin lesions and increased eosinophils in peripheral blood smear were noted. It was stated that systemic allergic reaction and granulomatous inflammation of dura mater were an uncommon response to the applied haemostatics and/or insulation material used during the first operation. This report show that haemostatic and isolating agents, generally used in neurosurgical procedure, may rarely cause local granulomatous processes considered as delayed hypersensitivity and the foreign body reactions. Therefore, they may hinder morphological assessment of the tissues during re-exploration and must be differentiate with the other infectious and non-infectious granulomatous processes.

  6. Follicular progesterone concentrations and messenger RNA expression of MATER and OCT-4 in immature bovine oocytes as predictors of developmental competence.

    PubMed

    Urrego, R; Herrera-Puerta, E; Chavarria, N A; Camargo, O; Wrenzycki, C; Rodriguez-Osorio, N

    2015-04-15

    The ability of bovine embryos to develop to the blastocyst stage and to implant and generate healthy offspring depends greatly on the competence of the oocyte. Oocyte competence is attributed to its close communication with the follicular environment and to its capacity to synthesize and store substantial amounts of messenger RNA. Higher developmental competence of bovine oocytes has been associated with both the expression of a cohort of developmental genes and the concentration of sex steroids in the follicular fluid. The aim of this study was to identify differences in the expression of FST in cumulus cells and OCT-4 and MATER in oocytes and the influence of the follicular progesterone and follicular estrogen concentration on the competence of bovine oocytes retrieved 30 minutes or 4 hours after slaughter. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were left in postmortem ovaries for 30 minutes (group I) or 4 hours (group II) at 30 °C. Aspirated oocytes were then subjected to IVM, IVF, and IVC or were evaluated for MATER and OCT-4 messenger RNA abundance by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Total RNA was isolated from pools of 100 oocytes for each experimental replicate. Progesterone and estradiol concentration in follicular fluid was evaluated by immunoassay using an IMMULITE 2000 analyzer. Three repeats of in vitro embryo production were performed with a total of 455 (group I) and 470 (group II) COCs. There were no significant differences between the cleavage rates (72 hours postinsemination [hpi]) between both groups (63.5% vs. 69.1%). However, blastocyst (168 hpi) and hatching (216 hpi) rates were higher (P < 0.05) in group II compared with those of group I (21.3% vs. 30.7% and 27.6% vs. 51.5%, respectively). Group II oocytes exhibited the highest MATER and OCT-4 abundance (P < 0.05). Follicular estradiol concentration was not different between both the groups, whereas the progesterone concentration was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in group II follicles. These

  7. Modified three-dimensional skull base model with artificial dura mater, cranial nerves, and venous sinuses for training in skull base surgery: technical note.

    PubMed

    Mori, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Takuji; Oyama, Kazutaka; Ueno, Hideaki; Nakao, Yasuaki; Honma, Keiichirou

    2008-12-01

    Experience with dissection of the cavernous sinus and the temporal bone is essential for training in skull base surgery, but the opportunities for cadaver dissection are very limited. A modification of a commercially available prototype three-dimensional (3D) skull base model, made by a selective laser sintering method and incorporating surface details and inner bony structures such as the inner ear structures and air cells, is proposed to include artificial dura mater, cranial nerves, venous sinuses, and the internal carotid artery for such surgical training. The transpetrosal approach and epidural cavernous sinus surgery (Dolenc's technique) were performed on this modified model using a high speed drill or ultrasonic bone curette under an operating microscope. The model could be dissected in almost the same way as a real cadaver. The modified 3D skull base model provides a good educational tool for training in skull base surgery.

  8. Higher toxicity of dibutyltin and poly-L-lactide with a large amount of tin but lower toxicity of poly-L-lactide of synthetic artificial dura mater exhibited on murine astrocyte cell line.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Masayoshi; Inoue, Yoko; Sugaya, Chiemi; Tsunoda, Masashi; Sugaya, Tsukiko; Takahashi, Masami; Yuba, Toshiyasu; Tsuchiya, Toshie; Aizawa, Yoshiharu

    2010-06-01

    Neurotoxicities of dibutyltin (DBT), tin(II) octylate (OT), poly-L-lactides (PLLA, molecular weight [MW]=5000, PLLA 5000), PLLA without tin (MW=3000, PLLA 3000), PLLA with a large amount (590 ppm) of tin (S3), poly(glycolic acid-co-epsilon-caprolactone) oligomer (MW=6200, PGC oligomer), and poly(L-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid-co-epsilon-caprolactone) oligomer (MW=6400, PLGC oligomer) related to artificial dura mater were examined using the murine astrocyte cell line, CRL-2534. The indices were cell viability, glutamate concentration in the cell supernatant, and cell proliferation. Lower cell viability was observed among cells exposed to 0.5 microM DBT or 10 microg/ml of S3. There were no differences in cell viability of astrocytes exposed to OT, PLLA 5000, PLLA 3000, PGC oligomer, or PLGC oligomer. Mean glutamate concentration in the supernatant of cells exposed to 0.25 muM DBT was higher than that of the control after 2 h incubation. Lower mean concentration of glutamate in the supernatant of cells exposed to 5 microg/ml of S3 was observed after 2 h incubation. Cells exposed to 50 microg/ml of PGC oligomer had a higher mean concentration of glutamate in the supernatant. OT only inhibited cell proliferation at 100 microM. Proliferation of cells exposed to 0.25 microM or 0.5 microM DBT was inhibited, as was that of cells exposed to 100 microM OT, 50 microg/ml PLLA 5000, 50 microg/ml PLLA 3000, and 5 microg/ml S3, 5 d and 7 d after exposure. Although DBT does not reach levels that induced neurotoxicity in artificial dura mater, these results suggest that DBT is neurotoxic and PLLA toxicity increases with the increase in tin concentration.

  9. Osteogenic differentiation of dura mater stem cells cultured in vitro on three-dimensional porous scaffolds of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) fabricated via co-extrusion and gas foaming.

    PubMed

    Petrie Aronin, C E; Cooper, J A; Sefcik, L S; Tholpady, S S; Ogle, R C; Botchwey, E A

    2008-09-01

    A novel scaffold fabrication method utilizing both polymer blend extrusion and gas foaming techniques to control pore size distribution is presented. Seventy-five per cent of all pores produced using polymer blend extrusion alone were less than 50microm. Introducing a gas technique provided better control of pore size distribution, expanding the range from 0-50 to 0-350microm. Varying sintering time, annealing temperature and foaming pressure also helped to reduce the percentage of pore sizes below 50microm. Scaffolds chosen for in vitro cellular studies had a pore size distribution of 0-300microm, average pore size 66+/-17microm, 0.54+/-0.02% porosity and 98% interconnectivity, measured by micro-computed tomography (microCT) analysis. The ability of the scaffolds to support osteogenic differentiation for subsequent cranial defect repair was evaluated by static and dynamic (0.035+/-0.006ms(-1) terminal velocity) cultivation with dura mater stem cells (DSCs). In vitro studies showed minimal increases in proliferation over 28 days in culture in osteogenic media. Alkaline phosphatase expression remained constant throughout the study. Moderate increases in matrix deposition, as assessed by histochemical staining and microCT analysis, occurred at later time points, days 21 and 28. Although constructs cultured dynamically showed greater mineralization than static conditions, these trends were not significant. It remains unclear whether bioreactor culture of DSCs is advantageous for bone tissue engineering applications. However, these studies show that polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds alone, without the addition of other co-polymers or ceramics, support long-term attachment and mineralization of DSCs throughout the entire porous scaffold.

  10. Photoenergy Harvesting Organic PV Cells Using Modified Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting Complex for Energy Harvesting Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-03

    7. M. Nagata, M. Nango, A. Kashiwada, S. Yamada, S. Ito, N. Sawa , M. Ogawa, K. Iida, Y. Kurono and T. Ohtsuka, Chem. Lett. 32, 216 (2003). 8. M...calculation is under 0 vias volt. 50. H. Ishii , K. Sugiyama, E. Ito, K. Seki, Adv. Mater. 11, 605 (1999). 51. R. Akiyama, T. Matsumoto, T. Kawai, T

  11. Realization of New and Enhanced Materials Properties Through Nanostructural Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-15

    Fifield, L. R. Dalton, A. Mazzoldi, D. De-Rossi, I. I. Khayrullin , and R. H. Baughman, "Pneumatic Carbon Nanotube Actuators," Adv. Mater., 14, 1728-32 (2002... Khayrullin , and B. H. Baughman, "Pneumatic Actuator Response from Carbon Nanotube Sheets," Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, v. 706

  12. Optimizing organic photovoltaics using tailored heterojunctions: A photoinduced absorption study of oligothiophenes with low band gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schueppel, R.; Schmidt, K.; Uhrich, C.; Schulze, K.; Wynands, D.; Brédas, J. L.; Brier, E.; Reinold, E.; Bu, H.-B.; Baeuerle, P.; Maennig, B.; Pfeiffer, M.; Leo, K.

    2008-02-01

    A power conversion efficiency of 3.4% with an open-circuit voltage of 1V was recently demonstrated in a thin film solar cell utilizing fullerene C60 as acceptor and a new acceptor-substituted oligothiophene with an optical gap of 1.77eV as donor [K. Schulze , Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 18, 2872 (2006)]. This prompted us to systematically study the energy- and electron transfer processes at the oligothiophene:fullerene heterojunction for a homologous series of these oligothiophenes. Cyclic voltammetry and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy data show that the heterojunction is modified due to tuning of the highest occupied molecular orbital energy for different oligothiophene chain lengths, while the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy remains essentially fixed due to the presence of electron-withdrawing end groups (dicyanovinyl) attached to the oligothiophene. Use of photoinduced absorption (PA) allows the study of the electron transfer process at the heterojunction to C60 . Quantum-chemical calculations performed at the density functional theory and/or time-dependent density functional theory level and cation absorption spectra of diluted DCVnT provide an unambiguous identification of the transitions observed in the PA spectra. Upon increasing the effective energy gap of the donor-acceptor pair by increasing the ionization energy of the donor, photoinduced electron transfer is eventually replaced with energy transfer, which alters the photovoltaic operation conditions. The optimum open-circuit voltage of a solar cell is thus a trade-off between efficient charge separation at the interface and maximized effective gap. It appears that the open-circuit voltages of 1.0-1.1V in our solar cell devices have reached an optimum since higher voltages result in a loss in charge separation efficiency.

  13. Saving Alma Mater: A Rescue Plan for America's Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, James C.

    2009-01-01

    America's public universities educate 80% of our nation's college students. But in the wake of rising demands on state treasuries, changing demographics, growing income inequality, and legislative indifference, many of these institutions have fallen into decline. Tuition costs have skyrocketed, class sizes have gone up, the number of courses…

  14. The Marriage of Alma Mater to Adam Smith.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buescher, John B.

    1987-01-01

    Businesses and universities must be encouraged to act from their traditional positions of strength, based on the longest view and the broadest interests. They must examine carefully their potential sources of conflict as well as opportunities for benefit before engaging in alliances that may become complex and difficult to manage. (MSE)

  15. Warm dense mater: another application for pulsed power hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Reinovsky, Robert Emil

    2009-01-01

    Pulsed Power Hydrodynamics (PPH) is an application of low-impedance pulsed power, and high magnetic field technology to the study of advanced hydrodynamic problems, instabilities, turbulence, and material properties. PPH can potentially be applied to the study of the properties of warm dense matter (WDM) as well. Exploration of the properties of warm dense matter such as equation of state, viscosity, conductivity is an emerging area of study focused on the behavior of matter at density near solid density (from 10% of solid density to slightly above solid density) and modest temperatures ({approx}1-10 eV). Conditions characteristic of WDM are difficult to obtain, and even more difficult to diagnose. One approach to producing WDM uses laser or particle beam heating of very small quantities of matter on timescales short compared to the subsequent hydrodynamic expansion timescales (isochoric heating) and a vigorous community of researchers are applying these techniques. Pulsed power hydrodynamic techniques, such as large convergence liner compression of a large volume, modest density, low temperature plasma to densities approaching solid density or through multiple shock compression and heating of normal density material between a massive, high density, energetic liner and a high density central 'anvil' are possible ways to reach relevant conditions. Another avenue to WDM conditions is through the explosion and subsequent expansion of a conductor (wire) against a high pressure (density) gas background (isobaric expansion) techniques. However, both techniques demand substantial energy, proper power conditioning and delivery, and an understanding of the hydrodynamic and instability processes that limit each technique. In this paper we will examine the challenges to pulsed power technology and to pulsed power systems presented by the opportunity to explore this interesting region of parameter space.

  16. Volume 1B. Modification of mater - MISC 4.

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, Walter K.; Schenewerk, Philip A.; Kimbrell, W. Clay

    1995-12-31

    MISC4, the modified PC version of the MASTER reservoir simulation model is for use in simulating miscible gas injection processes in steeply dipping reservoirs, is a three-dimensional, three-phase, finite-difference, black oil simulator based on the implicit pressure, explicit saturation (WIPES) algorithm. The simulation code has been modified and includes a dip feature for dealing with steeply dipping reservoirs, and the program has been successfully installed and operated on in-house PCs.

  17. Protein Localization in Silica Nanospheres Derived via Biomimetic Mineralization (POSTPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    can be used for characterizing a wide range of mesoporous and ultrastructural materials. neutron scattering, silica, lysozyme, biomineralization U U...used for characterizing a wide range of mesoporous and ultrastructural materials. FU LL P A P ER © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim Adv...The nitrogen adsorption isotherms of the silica-lysozyme composites show typical type IV characteristics, with hysteresis indicative of a

  18. pi-Conjugated Gradient Copolymers Suppress Phase Separation and Improve Stability in Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    discussion Polymer synthesis The gradient copolymers described herein were prepared using a living, chain-growth polymerization method known as catalyst...and C. S. Hsu, Adv. Funct. Mater., 2011, 21, 1723–1732; (d) V. A. Kostyanovsky, D. K. Susarova, A. S. Peregudov and P. A. Troshin, Thin Solid Films ...bromohexyl)thiophene (10 mol%) were synthesized by catalyst transfer polycondensation. Post- polymerization conversion of the side-chain bromides into azides

  19. Reflection Spectra of Distorted Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Structures in Cells with Interdigitated Electrodes (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    adjusting the magnitude of the electric field. 15. SUBJECT TERMS liquid crystals, liquid-crystal devices, Bragg reflectors, optical properties, chiral ...160.3710) Liquid crystals; (230.3720) Liquid-crystal devices; (230.1480) Bragg reflectors; (160.4760) Optical properties; (160.1585) Chiral media...polymerizing chiral - nematic media,” Adv. Mater. 11(7), 573–578 (1999). 13. M. Rumi, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning

  20. Supersaturated Self-Assembled Charge-Selective Interfacial Layers for Organic Solar Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-24

    Zeng,§ Henry M. Heitzer,† Eric F. Manley,†,∥ Samuel Goldman,⊥ Lin X. Chen,*,†,∥ Mark A. Ratner,*,†,‡ Michael J. Bedzyk,*,‡,§ Robert P. H. Chang,*,‡ Mark...Li, G.; Ray, C.; Yu, L. Adv. Mater. 2010, 22, 1−4. (58) Oliveira, O. N.; Taylor, D. M.; Lewis, T. J.; Salvagno, S.; Stirling , C. J. M. J. Chem. Soc

  1. Recent Developments in the Photophysics of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Their Use as Active and Passive Material Elements in Thin Film Photovoltaics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    3 , 1235–1238. 3 R . C. Tenent, T. M . Barnes, J . D . Bergeson, A. J . Ferguson, B. To, L . M . Gedvilas, M . J . Heben and J . L . Blackburn, Adv. Mater ...ACS Nano, 2012 , 6, 904–911. 64 M . Gao, J . M . Zuo , R . D . Twesten, I. Petrov, L . a. Nagahara and R . Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett., 2003, 82, 2703. 65 T. W...Johnston, L . M .

  2. Cation coordination reactions on nanocrystals: surface/interface, doping control and advanced photocatalysis applications (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiatao

    2016-10-01

    Abstract: Including the shape and size effect, the controllable doping, hetero-composite and surface/interface are the prerequisite of colloidal nanocrystals for exploring their optoelectronic properties, such as fluorescence, plasmon-exciton coupling, efficient electron/hole separation, and enhanced photocatalysis applications. By controlling soft acid-base coordination reactions between cation molecular complexes and colloidal nanocrystals, we showed that chemical thermodynamics could drive nanoscale monocrystalline growth of the semiconductor shell on metal nano-substrates and the substitutional heterovalent doping in semiconductor nanocrystals. We have demonstrated evolution of relative position of Au and II-VI semiconductor in Au-Semi from symmetric to asymmetric configuration, different phosphines initiated morphology engineering, oriented attachment of quantum dots into micrometer nanosheets with synergistic control of surface/interface and doing, which can further lead to fine tuning of plasmon-exciton coupling. Therefore, different hydrogen photocatalytic performance, Plasmon enhanced photocatalysis properties have been achieved further which lead to the fine tuning of plasmon-exciton coupling. Substitutional heterovalent doping here enables the tailoring of optical, electronic properties and photocatalysis applications of semiconductor nanocrystals because of electronic impurities (p-, n-type doping) control. References: (1) J. Gui, J. Zhang*, et al. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2015, 54, 3683. (2) Q. Zhao, J. Zhang*, etc., Adv. Mater. 2014, 26, 1387. (3) J. Liu, Q. Zhao, S. G. Wang*, J. Zhang*, etc., Adv. Mater. 2015, 27-2753-2761. (4) H. Qian, J. Zhang*, etc., NPG Asia Mater. (2015) 7, e152. (5) M. Ji, M. Xu, etc., J. Zhang*, Adv. Mater. 2016, in proof. (6) S. Yu, J. T. Zhang, Y. Tang, M. Ouyang*, Nano Lett. 2015, 15, 6282-6288. (7) J. Zhang, Y. Tang, K. Lee and M. Ouyang*, Science 2010, 327, 1634. (8) J. Zhang, Y. Tang, K. Lee, M. Ouyang*, Nature 2010, 466

  3. Adv. Simulation for Additive Manufacturing: 11/2014 Wkshp. Report for U.S. DOE/EERE/AMO

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, John A.; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Blue, Craig A.

    2015-07-01

    The overarching question for the workshop was as following: How do we best utilize advanced modeling and high-performance computing (HPC) to address key challenges and opportunities in order to realize the full potential of additive manufacturing; and what are the key challenges of additive manufacturing to which modeling and simulation can contribute solutions, and what will it take to meet these challenges?

  4. Coming Home: "Hermanos Academicos" Reflect on Past and Present Realities as Professors at Their Alma Mater

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddick, Richard J.; Saenz, Victor B.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, Richard J. (Rich) Reddick and Victor B. Saenz, two assistant professors of color, utilize scholarly personal narrative to reflect on their trajectory from undergraduates at a predominantly White institution--one prominently mired in a legacy of discrimination and exclusion toward people of color--to faculty members at that same…

  5. Alumni to the Rescue: Black College Alumni and Their Historical Impact on Alma Mater

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Rodney T.

    2008-01-01

    Throughout their history many black colleges, also referred to as Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs), have struggled to maintain financial footing. This paper explores the history of alumni involvement in HBCUs and highlights their importance for future success.

  6. Hail to Thee, Our Alma Mater: Alumni Role Identity and the Relationship to Institutional Support Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDearmon, J. Travis

    2013-01-01

    With the decline in state and federal support for higher education continuing to plague colleges and universities across the U.S., many institutions are looking to increase the levels of support annually received from alumni and other constituencies. Research on alumni relations in American colleges and universities has historically focused on…

  7. Cross-modal associations between materic painting and classical Spanish music.

    PubMed

    Albertazzi, Liliana; Canal, Luisa; Micciolo, Rocco

    2015-01-01

    The study analyses the existence of cross-modal associations in the general population between a series of paintings and a series of clips of classical (guitar) music. Because of the complexity of the stimuli, the study differs from previous analyses conducted on the association between visual and auditory stimuli, which predominantly analyzed single tones and colors by means of psychophysical methods and forced choice responses. More recently, the relation between music and shape has been analyzed in terms of music visualization, or relatively to the role played by emotion in the association, and free response paradigms have also been accepted. In our study, in order to investigate what attributes may be responsible for the phenomenon of the association between visual and auditory stimuli, the clip/painting association was tested in two experiments: the first used the semantic differential on a unidimensional rating scale of adjectives; the second employed a specific methodology based on subjective perceptual judgments in first person account. Because of the complexity of the stimuli, it was decided to have the maximum possible uniformity of style, composition and musical color. The results show that multisensory features expressed by adjectives such as "quick," "agitated," and "strong," and their antonyms "slow," "calm," and "weak" characterized both the visual and auditory stimuli, and that they may have had a role in the associations. The results also suggest that the main perceptual features responsible for the clip/painting associations were hue, lightness, timbre, and musical tempo. Contrary to what was expected, the musical mode usually related to feelings of happiness (major mode), or to feelings of sadness (minor mode), and spatial orientation (vertical and horizontal) did not play a significant role in the association. The consistency of the associations was shown when evaluated on the whole sample, and after considering the different backgrounds and expertise of the subjects. No substantial difference was found between expert and non-expert subjects. The methods used in the experiment (semantic differential and subjective judgements in first person account) corroborated the interpretation of the results as associations due to patterns of qualitative similarity present in stimuli of different sensory modalities and experienced as such by the subjects. The main result of the study consists in showing the existence of cross-modal associations between highly complex stimuli; furthermore, the second experiment employed a specific methodology based on subjective perceptual judgments.

  8. Cross-modal associations between materic painting and classical Spanish music

    PubMed Central

    Albertazzi, Liliana; Canal, Luisa; Micciolo, Rocco

    2015-01-01

    The study analyses the existence of cross-modal associations in the general population between a series of paintings and a series of clips of classical (guitar) music. Because of the complexity of the stimuli, the study differs from previous analyses conducted on the association between visual and auditory stimuli, which predominantly analyzed single tones and colors by means of psychophysical methods and forced choice responses. More recently, the relation between music and shape has been analyzed in terms of music visualization, or relatively to the role played by emotion in the association, and free response paradigms have also been accepted. In our study, in order to investigate what attributes may be responsible for the phenomenon of the association between visual and auditory stimuli, the clip/painting association was tested in two experiments: the first used the semantic differential on a unidimensional rating scale of adjectives; the second employed a specific methodology based on subjective perceptual judgments in first person account. Because of the complexity of the stimuli, it was decided to have the maximum possible uniformity of style, composition and musical color. The results show that multisensory features expressed by adjectives such as “quick,” “agitated,” and “strong,” and their antonyms “slow,” “calm,” and “weak” characterized both the visual and auditory stimuli, and that they may have had a role in the associations. The results also suggest that the main perceptual features responsible for the clip/painting associations were hue, lightness, timbre, and musical tempo. Contrary to what was expected, the musical mode usually related to feelings of happiness (major mode), or to feelings of sadness (minor mode), and spatial orientation (vertical and horizontal) did not play a significant role in the association. The consistency of the associations was shown when evaluated on the whole sample, and after considering the different backgrounds and expertise of the subjects. No substantial difference was found between expert and non-expert subjects. The methods used in the experiment (semantic differential and subjective judgements in first person account) corroborated the interpretation of the results as associations due to patterns of qualitative similarity present in stimuli of different sensory modalities and experienced as such by the subjects. The main result of the study consists in showing the existence of cross-modal associations between highly complex stimuli; furthermore, the second experiment employed a specific methodology based on subjective perceptual judgments. PMID:25954217

  9. Factors Associated with Non-Traditional and Traditional Undergraduate Alumni Giving to Alma Maters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Elizabeth Ann Miller

    2013-01-01

    Both public and private institutions of higher education face revenue shortfalls. In order to close budget gaps, colleges and universities must identify new revenue sources. Historically alumni are large providers of voluntary support to higher education institutions, but the numbers of alumni contributing financially is decreasing. The purpose of…

  10. Neurogenically mediated leakage of plasma protein occurs from blood vessels in dura mater but not brain

    SciTech Connect

    Markowitz, S.; Saito, K.; Moskowitz, M.A.

    1987-12-01

    Utilizing /sup 125/I-BSA administered intravenously, a simple, reliable, and sensitive method was established for the detection of plasma protein extravasation in the dura of rats and guinea pigs following chemical, electrical, or immunological stimulation. Extravasated /sup 125/I-BSA or Evans blue was noted in the dura and conjunctiva but not in the temporalis muscle of saline-perfused rats following intravenous capsaicin, 1 mumol/kg. Capsaicin-induced extravasation was mediated by unmyelinated and small myelinated fibers since leakage did not develop in adult animals in whom these fibers were destroyed by capsaicin pretreatment (50 mg/kg) as neonates. An ipsilateral increase in Evans blue and /sup 125/I-BSA was found in the dura, eyelids, lips and gingival mucosa, and snout following electrical stimulation of the rat trigeminal ganglion. This increase was also C-fiber dependent. Among those peptides contained in perivascular afferent fibers and administered intravenously, substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA), but not calcitonin gene-related peptide, caused a dose-dependent extravasation in the dura and conjunctiva of rats. Neonatal capsaicin pretreatment did not attenuate SP- nor NKA-induced effects in the dura and actually increased extravasation in the conjunctiva. Intravenous administration of 5-HT or bradykinin to normal adult rats or adult rats pretreated as neonates with capsaicin increased levels of /sup 125/I-BSA in both the dura and the conjunctiva. Histamine and prostaglandin E2, on the other hand, caused protein leakage in the conjunctiva but not in the dura of rats; however, histamine did induce extravasation in the dura of guinea pigs.

  11. Local cerebral hyperthermia induces spontaneous thrombosis and arteriolar constriction in the pia mater of the mouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sabban, Farouk; Fahim, Mohamed A.

    1995-06-01

    The effect of local cerebral hyperthermia on responses of pial microvessels of the mouse was investigated. A set protocol was followed, involving the performance of a craniotomy on anaesthetized animals and using intravital microscope-television closed circuitry. Controlled hyperthermic exposure was applied regionally by heating the brain surface with irrigating artificial cerebrospinal fluid. Microvascular responses such as changes in diameter, thrombosis and embolism were monitored and video-taped observations were further viewed and analysed. When both brain surface and core body temperatures were kept at 37° C, no changes in pial microvessels were noted. With core body temperature kept at 37° C and at a brain surface temperature of 43.1° C, passing emboli and arteriolar constriction were observed. A few minutes later, visible thrombosis was prevalent. Further spontaneous thrombo-embolic activity continued and at the end of a 50-min hyperthermic exposure, arterioles attained a constriction of 37%. Thrombus formation was sometimes massive enough to occlude fully the microvessel. The protocol followed in this study can be adopted to other small animal species and for a variety of experimental procedures involving hyperthermia and the pial microcirculation.

  12. Anomalous Magnetoresistance Phenomena in Organic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeson, Jeremy D.; Lincoln, Derek M.; Shima Edelstein, Ruth; Prigodin, Vladimir N.; Epstein, Arthur J.

    2006-03-01

    We report magnetoresistance (MR) phenomena with temperature and bias dependence in organic semiconductor thin films with either nonmagnetic or magnetic contacts through high field reaching 9T. For nonmagnetic organic thin films such as Alq3 we find a low field MR up to 15%. A similar magnetic field effect has been reported earlier^1 but, as noted, the mechanism remains unclear. We propose a model of the anomalous MR where charge transport is space-charge limited. The current is determined by the e-h recombination rate. The recombination rate is field dependent, analogous to the chemical yield for radical pairs^2. Using an organic- based magnetic semiconductor^3, V[TCNE]x, and Co as magnetic contacts, with a nonmagnetic organic semiconductor (α-6T) leads to an order-of-magnitude broader zero-centered MR peak superimposed on a spin-valve effect. Possible origins of this broader MR will be discussed. 1. Francis, et al., New J. Phys. 6 185 (2004); Frankevich, et al., Phys. Rev. B 53 4498 (1996) 2. Steiner and Ulrich, Chem. Rev. 89 51 (1989) 3. Pokhodnya, et al., Adv. Mater. 12 410 (2000); Prigodin, et al., Adv. Mater. 14 1230 (2002); Shima Edelstein, et al., Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 871E I7.3 (2005)

  13. Light emitting transistors: A new route for display pixels (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namdas, Ebinazar B.

    2015-10-01

    Organic light emitting transistors (LEFETs) are an emerging class of light emitting devices that have been successfully demonstrated in single-layer [1] and mutli-layer device structures [2]. LEFETs can simultaneously execute light-emission and standard logic functions (ON/OFF) of a transistor in a single device architecture [1]. This dual functionality of LEFETs has a potential to offer a new route to simplify fabrication of display pixels. However, the key problem of existing LEFETs thus far has been their low external quantum efficiency (EQE) at high brightness, poor ON/OFF ratio, and mobility. More recently, hybrid light emitting transistors [3-4], consisting of solution processed n-type metal oxide (inorganic) as the charge transport layer and light emitting conjugated polymer (organic), have been used to achieve higher mobility, ON/OFF ratio and brightness. In this talk, I will discuss the various factors that currently influence device performance in LEFETs, and will provide insights into our recent progress in developing high-performance hybrid LEFETs. References: (1). E. B. Namdas, J. S. Swensen, P. Ledochowitsch, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, Adv. Mater.,20, 1321 (2008). (2). M. Ullah, K. Tandy, S. D. Yambem, M. Aljada, P. L. Burn, P. Meredith, E. B. Namdas. Adv. Mater. 25, 6213-6218 (2013). (3). B. Walker, M. Ullah, G. J. Chae, P. L Burn, S. Cho, J. Y. Kim, E. B. Namdas, J. H. Seo. Appl Phys Lett, 105, 183302 (2014). (4). K. Muhieddine, M. Ullah, B. N. Pal, P. Burn, E. B. Namdas, Adv. Mater. 26, 6410 (2014).

  14. Interface engineering in inorganic hybrid structures towards improved photocatalysis (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yujie

    2016-10-01

    Designing new photocatalytic materials for improving photoconversion efficiency is a promising route to alleviate the steadily worsening environmental issues and energy crisis. Despite the invention of a large number of catalytic materials with well-defined structures, their overall efficiency in photocatalysis is still quite limited as the three key steps - light harvesting, charge generation and separation, and charge transfer to surface for redox reactions - have not been substantially improved. To improve each step in the complex process, there is a major trend to develop materials based on inorganic hybrid structures. In this case, interface engineering holds the promise for boosting the overall efficiency, given the key roles of interface structures in charge and energy transfer. In this talk, I will demonstrate several different approaches to designing inorganic hybrid structures with improved photocatalytic performance via interface engineering. The typical demonstrations include semiconductor-plasmonics systems for broad-spectrum light harvesting, metal-semiconductor interfaces for improved charge separation, semiconductor-MOF (metal-organic framework) configurations for activated surface reactions. It is anticipated that this series of works open a new window to rationally designing inorganic hybrid materials for photo-induced applications. References: (1) Bai, S.; Yang, L.; Wang, C.; Lin, Y.; Lu, J.; Jiang, J. and Xiong, Y.*, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 54, 14810-14814 (2015). (2) Bai, S.; Jiang, J.; Zhang, Q. and Xiong, Y.*, Chem. Soc. Rev. 44, 2893-2939 (2015). (3) Bai, S.; Li, X.; Kong, Q.; Long, R.; Wang, C.; Jiang, J. and Xiong, Y.*, Adv. Mater. 27, 3444-3452 (2015). (4) Bai, S.; Ge, J.; Wang, L.; Gong, M.; Deng, M.; Kong, Q.; Song, L.; Jiang, J.;* Zhang, Q.;* Luo, Y.; Xie, Y. and Xiong, Y.*, Adv. Mater. 26, 5689-5695 (2014). (5) Li, R.; Hu, J.; Deng, M.; Wang, H.; Wang, X.; Hu, Y.; Jiang, H. L.; Jiang, J.;* Zhang, Q.;* Xie, Y. and Xiong, Y.*, Adv. Mater

  15. Preparation and Characterization of High-Purity Metal Fluorides for Photonic Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    I . Epstein and M. Sheik- Bahae , “Optical Refrigeration in Solids: Fun- damentals and Overview”; pp. 1–32 in Optical Refrigeration. Science and...Applications of Laser Cooling of Solids, Edited by R. I . Epstein and M. Sheik- Bahae . Wiley, Weinheim, 2009. 12W. G. Rellergert, D. DeMille, R. R. Greco, M. P...Green and Blue Emitting Upconversion Phosphors,” Chem. Mater., 16, 1244–51 (2004). 39W. M. Patterson, D. V. Seletskiy, M. Sheik- Bahae , R. I . Epstein

  16. The relationship between photooxidation defects and quantum yield loss in a liquid crystalline oligofluorene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesely, E. Jane; Rothberg, Lewis; Geng, Yanhou; Chen, Shaw

    2004-03-01

    We have studied the photophysics of a liquid crystalline oligofluorene which emits blue light with a quantum efficiency of forty-nine percent.( Y. Geng, S. Culligan, A. Trajkovska, J. Wallace and S. Chen, Chem. Mater; 2003, 15, 542-549.) The fluorescent yield is reduced when the film has been exposed to ultra-violet light and air. The resulting photooxidation creates luminescent defects that have previously been observed in some polyfluorenes.( E. J. W. List, R. Guentner, P. Scanducci de Freitas, and U. Scherf, Adv Mater., 2002, 14, 374-378.) The defects decrease the overall fluorescent yield because they divert energy away from the blue-emitting chromophores and emit at longer wavelengths with low efficiency. In contrast with previous studies of photooxidized polyfluorenes, we observe two emission peaks associated with defects that have distinct intensity dependence and decay dynamics.

  17. Soluble P3HT-Grafted Graphene for Efficient Bilayer-Heterojunction Photovoltaic Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    5,11 Along with certain inorganic nanoparticles (e.g., CdSe ,12,13 CdTe,5 and ZnO14,15 nanocrystals), carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have recently been used in...Performance of Heterostructured Tetrapod-Shaped CdSe /CdTe Nanocrystals Using C60 Interlayer. Adv. Mater. 2009, 21, 4461–4466. 11. Peumans, P.; Uchida, S...Cells. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 6550–6551. 14. Law, M.; Greene, L. E.; Johnson, J. C.; Saykally, R.; Yang, P. Nanowire Dye-sensitized Solar Cells. Nat

  18. Optical spectra of graded nanostructured TiO 2 chiral sculptured thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaei, F.; Esfandiar, A.; Savaloni, H.

    2010-07-01

    The optical properties of graded chiral sculptured TiO 2 thin films in axial and non-axial excited states are calculated using the rigorous coupled wave analysis method (RCWA) in conjunction with the Bruggeman homogenization formalism. The filtering frequency and polarization selectivity of these graded nanostructured TiO 2 sculptured thin films showed dependence on both structural and deposition parameters. The results achieved are consistent with the experimental data [K. M. Krause and M. J. Bret, Adv. Funct. Mater. 18 (2008) 3111].

  19. Topological Insulators and Superconductors for Innovative Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-20

    Ong , and R. J. Cava, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 057001 (2010). [12] S. Sasaki, M. Kriener, K. Segawa, K. Yada, Y. Tanaka, M. Sato, and Y. Ando, Phys. Rev...Baumberger , C. R. A. Catlow , Adv. Mater. 2012 , 24 , 2154 . [ 7 ] D. X. Qu , Y. S. Hor , J. Xiong , R. J. Cava , N. P. Ong ...Xiong, R. J. Cava, and N. P. Ong , Science 329, 821 (2010). [6] Z. Ren, A.A. Taskin, S. Sasaki, K. Segawa, and Y. Ando, Phys. Rev. B 82, 241306(R

  20. Broadband light absorption enhancement in polymer photovoltaics using metal nanowall gratings as transparent electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Zhuo; Chaudhary, Sumit; Kuang, Ping; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2012-05-15

    The authors investigate light absorption in organic solar cells in which indium tin oxide (ITO) is replaced by a new metallic architecture (grating) as a transparent electrode. Different from typical metal nanowire gratings, our gratings consist of metal nanowalls with nanoscale footprint and (sub)microscale height [Adv. Mater. 23, 2469 (2011)], thus ensuring high optical transmittance and electrical conductivity. Simulations reveal that a broadband and polarization-insensitive light absorption enhancement is achieved via two mechanisms, when such silver nanowall gratings are employed in P3HT:PCBM based solar cells. Overall absorption enhanced by ~23% compared to a reference cell with ITO electrode.

  1. Graphene sheets stacked polyacrylate latex composites for ultra-efficient electromagnetic shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Song; Ni, Yuwei

    2016-07-01

    Graphene sheets (GS) are at the forefront of electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding/attenuation materials science research because of their excellent electrical properties (Wen B et al 2014 Adv. Mater. 26 3484, Zhang Y et al 2015 Adv. Mater. 27 2049). GS/polyacrylate (PA) composites were prepared using a solvent-free latex technology, which favored the build-up of a segregated GS architecture stacked in the polymer matrix. GS were obtained from graphite flakes (GF) via a mechanical delamination approach in water. The microstructure, electrical, dielectric and electromagnetic shielding properties of the GS/PA composites were correlated in this manuscript. A remarkably low percolation threshold of ˜0.11 mass per cent for room-temperature electrical conductivity was obtained in the GS/PA composites owing to the stacked architecture of GS with high aspect ratios. This unique nanostructured GS architecture not only enhanced the electrical conductivity of composites, but also dramatically increased complex permittivity by inducing strong Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars (MWS) polarization at the highly conductive GS/non-conductive PA interfaces. The EMI shielding effectiveness (SE) of these composites was enhanced with increasing GS content, and the composite with 6 wt% GS loading exhibited a high EMI SE of ˜66 dB over a frequency of 8.2-12.4 GHz, resulting from the pronounced conduction loss, dielectric relaxation, and multi-scattering.

  2. Corrigendum to "Thermophysical properties of U3Si2 to 1773 K" [J. Nucl. Mater. 464 (2015) 275-280

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, J. T.; Nelson, A. T.; Dunwoody, J. T.; Safarik, D. J.; McClellan, K. J.

    2017-02-01

    An error was discovered by the authors in the calculation of thermal diffusivity in "Thermophysical properties of U3Si2 to 1773 K" [1]. The error was caused by operator error in entry of parameters used to fit the temperature rise versus time model necessary to calculate the thermal diffusivity. This error propagated to the calculation of thermal conductivity, leading to values that were 18%-28% larger along with the corresponding calculated Lorenz values. This error affects Figs. 5 and 6, Eqn. (4), and Table A.1 of the text. The corrected Figs. 5 and 6 are shown below along with the updated residual squares analysis of thermal conductivity versus temperature in Eqn. (4) and tabulated thermophysical property values in Table A.1. The residual sum of squares, R2, for Eqn. (4) did not change with the updated thermal conductivity values. Thermal conductivity values in Fig. 6 are in better accord with Shimizu's arc-cast data [2] and the calculated Lorentz values, shown in the inset of Fig. 6, are in better agreement with the expected Lorentz value.

  3. Histopathological study of the outer membrane of the dura mater in chronic sub dural hematoma: Its clinical and radiological correlation

    PubMed Central

    Bokka, Sriharsha; Trivedi, Adarsh

    2016-01-01

    Background: A chronic subdural hematoma is an old clot of blood on the surface of the brain between dura and arachnoid membranes. These liquefied clots most often occur in patients aged 60 and older with brain atrophy. When the brain shrinks inside the skull over time, minor head trauma can cause tearing of blood vessels over the brain surface, resulting in a slow accumulation of blood over several days to weeks. Aim of the Study: To evaluate the role of membrane in hematoma evaluation and to correlate its histopathology with clinic-radiological aspects of the condition and overall prognosis of patients. Material and Methods: The study incorporated all cases of chronic SDH admitted to the Neurosurgery department of JLN Hospital and Research Centre, Bhilai, between November 2011 and November 2013. All such cases were analyzed clinically, radiologically like site, size, thickness in computed tomography, the attenuation value, midline shift and histopathological features were recorded. Criteria for Inclusion: All cases of chronic subdural haematoma irrespective of age and sex were incorporated into the study. Criteria for Exclusion: All cases of acute subdural haematoma and cases of chronic sub dural hematoma which were managed conservatively irrespective of age and sex were excluded from the study Results: In our series of cases, the most common histopathological type of membrane was the inflammatory membrane (Type II) seen in 42.30% of cases followed by hemorrhagic inflammatory membrane (Type III) seen in 34.62% of cases while scar inflammatory type of membrane (Type IV) was seen in 23.08% of cases. No case with noninflammatory type (Type I) was encountered. PMID:26889276

  4. Artium mater in relativistic astrophysics : New perspectives for a European-Latin American PhD program

    SciTech Connect

    Chardonnet, Pascal

    2015-12-17

    Following the successful scientific space missions by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Chile, as well as the high-energy particle activities at CERN in Genve, we have created a Ph.D. program dedicated to the formation of scientists in the field of relativistic astrophysics. The students of such a program will lead the theoretical developments of one of the most active fields of research, based on the above observational and experimental facilities. This program needs expertise in the most advanced topics of mathematical and theoretical physics, and in relativistic field theories. It requires the ability to model the observational data received from the above facilities, as well as all the basic knowledge in astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology. This activity is necessarily international, no single university can cover the broad expertises. From this, the proposed program of the IRAP Ph.D., in one of the youngest and most dynamical French universities, pole of research and teaching in the Euro-Mediterranean region (PRES): the University of Nice. It benefits from the presence of the astrophysics research institute of Observatoire de la Cte d’Azur involved in relativistic and non-photonic astrophysics. The participation of the Freie Universitaet Berlin, Oldenburg and Bremen Universities and of the Einstein Institute in Potsdam offers the possibility of teaching in relativistic field theories at the highest level. The University of Savoy offers the link to the particle physics at CERN. The activities at the University of Rome, at Stockholm University and at ICRANet offer teaching programs in all the fields of relativistic astrophysics, including cosmology, the physics of gravitational collapse, gamma-ray bursts, and black hole physics. Finally, the University of Ferrara will be present with lectures and researches in the topics they have pioneered such as x-ray astrophysics and observational cosmology. Through ICRANet the extra-European connections with Brazil, China and India will be guaranteed: in China, with the Shanghai Observatory of the Chinese Academy of Science, studying the formation and evolution of large-scale structure and galaxies; in India, with the Indian Centre for Space Physics (ICSP), renowned for its research on compact objects as well as on solar physics and astrochemistry; in Brazil with ICRANet Brazil where a successful program of research and teaching in relativistic astrophysics has been established in recent years.

  5. Proton Transport in Nanocrysttaline Bioceramic Materals:. AN Investigative Study of Synthetic Bone with that of Natural Bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jena, Hrudananda; Rambabu, B.; Saunders, Ramsey

    2006-06-01

    Hydroxy apatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) is a ceramic material. This has been used for biological applications such as bone and teeth enamel. In this paper various preparation methods including sonochemical followed by microwave sintering technique has been used to prepare the material. The material was characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM and its electrical transport (proton) is measured by impedance spectroscopy. The conductivity measured is 0.091×10-6 to 19.20×10-6 Scm-1 at 25 - 850°C range of temperature at 100 kHz applied frequency. Conductivity found to increase with increasing applied frequency at a given temperature of measurement. The prevalence of protons in the lattice has been confirmed by proton NMR studies. The results of the experimental observations on proton migration in the apatite lattice for electrical conduction are discussed.

  6. Traumatic Pseudoaneurysm Related to Calcified Nodules of Cerebral Convexity Dura Mater in an American College Football Player

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Yoo Sung; Lee, Jong Gon; Cho, Joon; Choe, Woo Jin

    2016-01-01

    Repeated concussion is common among football players; however, these minor blunt head trauma rarely result in serious complications. We report a case of a young college football player who presented acute subdural hematoma, cerebral edema, and seizure due to pseudoaneurysm rupture. The pseudoaneurysm, located at the cortical branch of the middle cerebral artery, was speculated to be formed by dural calcification and adhesion with the underlying brain, possibly due to repeated concussions. Following successful excision of the pseudoaneurysm and control of brain swelling, the patient recovered without sequelae and was discharged after a short while. PMID:27847782

  7. Biocompatible Mater Constructed Microneedle Arrays as a Novel Vaccine Adjuvant- Delivery System for Cutaneous and Mucosal Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Wang, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is the most cost-effective and the best prophylactic strategy for the treatment of many diseases and, therefore, is widely used to improve human health. However, currently, most vaccines are given by injection which has a number of intrinsic disadvantages, such as inoculation needing professionals, waste metal needle pollution and infection, and low vaccination compliance. To overcome these drawbacks, in the past two decades a variety of microneedles have been developed and these are increasingly being widely tried to deliver vaccines due to many prominent advantages, such as their convenience, and effectiveness, over other delivery systems. In particular, the biocompatible material-constituted microneedle arrays (bioMMAs) that are fabricated with biocompatible materials in the form of a matrix or formulated micro/nanoparticles, such as liposomes, PLA/PLGA/ chitosan nanoparticles, hydrogels, polyelectrolyte multiplelayers (PEMs), plasmids, and nonvirulent pathogens, have proven an effective and stable vaccine adjuvant-delivery system (VADS) allowing painless vaccination via the cutaneous or mucosal route by minimally trained workers or by self-administration. When given to mammals through the skin or oral mucosa where affluent professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as Langerhans cells, dendritic cells and macrophages, are actively patrolling for immune surveillance, the bioMMAs can efficiently elicit robust systemic as well as mucosal immunoresponses against the loaded antigens. In addition, when different vaccine adjuvants, such as TLR (toll-like receptor) ligands, have been incorporated, the bioMMAs can govern and redirect the immunoresponse toward a Th1, Th2 or a mixed Th1/Th2 pathway to establish cellular and humoral immunity to the target pathogens. In this review, various types of bioMMAs used as a VADS are described to show the latest advances and their diverse uses and potential applications in vaccine-related fields.

  8. Artium mater in relativistic astrophysics : New perspectives for a European-Latin American PhD program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chardonnet, Pascal

    2015-12-01

    Following the successful scientific space missions by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Chile, as well as the high-energy particle activities at CERN in Genve, we have created a Ph.D. program dedicated to the formation of scientists in the field of relativistic astrophysics. The students of such a program will lead the theoretical developments of one of the most active fields of research, based on the above observational and experimental facilities. This program needs expertise in the most advanced topics of mathematical and theoretical physics, and in relativistic field theories. It requires the ability to model the observational data received from the above facilities, as well as all the basic knowledge in astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology. This activity is necessarily international, no single university can cover the broad expertises. From this, the proposed program of the IRAP Ph.D., in one of the youngest and most dynamical French universities, pole of research and teaching in the Euro-Mediterranean region (PRES): the University of Nice. It benefits from the presence of the astrophysics research institute of Observatoire de la Cte d'Azur involved in relativistic and non-photonic astrophysics. The participation of the Freie Universitaet Berlin, Oldenburg and Bremen Universities and of the Einstein Institute in Potsdam offers the possibility of teaching in relativistic field theories at the highest level. The University of Savoy offers the link to the particle physics at CERN. The activities at the University of Rome, at Stockholm University and at ICRANet offer teaching programs in all the fields of relativistic astrophysics, including cosmology, the physics of gravitational collapse, gamma-ray bursts, and black hole physics. Finally, the University of Ferrara will be present with lectures and researches in the topics they have pioneered such as x-ray astrophysics and observational cosmology. Through ICRANet the extra-European connections with Brazil, China and India will be guaranteed: in China, with the Shanghai Observatory of the Chinese Academy of Science, studying the formation and evolution of large-scale structure and galaxies; in India, with the Indian Centre for Space Physics (ICSP), renowned for its research on compact objects as well as on solar physics and astrochemistry; in Brazil with ICRANet Brazil where a successful program of research and teaching in relativistic astrophysics has been established in recent years.

  9. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of a dye-sensitized solar cell using graphene-TiO2 photoanode prepared by a novel in situ simultaneous reduction-hydrolysis technique.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Zhou, Yong; Tu, Wenguang; Li, Zhengdao; Bao, Chunxiong; Dai, Hui; Yu, Tao; Liu, Jianguo; Zou, Zhigang

    2013-04-21

    Enhanced photovoltaic performance of a DSSC using graphene-TiO2 photoelectrodes prepared by our recent in situ simultaneous reduction-hydrolysis technique (Adv. Funct. Mater., 2012, DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202349, in press) was achieved. The DSSCs based on the G-TiO2 nanocomposites improved their overall energy conversion efficiency to 7.1%. The results prove that the promoting effect of graphene is strongly dependent on its content; namely, the efficiency of DSSCs increases and then decreases with increasing graphene content in TiO2-graphene composites. Excessive graphene in the nanocomposite leads to a decrease of the light harvest of dye molecules and thus a negative effect on the power conversion efficiency of DSSCs.

  10. Wrinkling of a stiff thin film bonded to a pre-strained, compliant substrate with finite thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yinji; Xue, Yeguang; Jang, Kyung-In; Feng, Xue; Rogers, John A.; Huang, Yonggang

    2016-08-01

    A stiff thin film bonded to a pre-strained, compliant substrate wrinkles into a sinusoidal form upon release of the pre-strain. Many analytical models developed for the critical pre-strain for wrinkling assume that the substrate is semi-infinite. This critical pre-strain is actually much smaller than that for a substrate with finite thickness (Ma Y et al. 2016 Adv. Funct. Mater. (doi:10.1002/adfm.201600713)). An analytical solution of the critical pre-strain for a system of a stiff film bonded to a pre-strained, finite-thickness, compliant substrate is obtained, and it agrees well with the finite-element analysis. The finite-thickness effect is significant when the substrate tensile stiffness cannot overwhelm the film tensile stiffness.

  11. Physics of bandgap formation in Cu-Sb-Se based novel thermoelectrics: the role of Sb valency and Cu d levels.

    PubMed

    Do, Dat; Ozolins, Vidvuds; Mahanti, S D; Lee, Mal-Soon; Zhang, Yongsheng; Wolverton, C

    2012-10-17

    In this paper we discuss the results of ab initio electronic structure calculations for Cu(3)SbSe(4) (Se4) and Cu(3)SbSe(3) (Se3), two narrow bandgap semiconductors of thermoelectric interest. We find that Sb is trivalent in both the compounds, in contrast to a simple nominal valence (ionic) picture which suggests that Sb should be 5 + in Se4. The gap formation in Se4 is quite subtle, with hybridization between Sb 5s and the neighboring Se 4s, 4p orbitals, position of Cu d states, and non-local exchange interaction, each playing significant roles. Thermopower calculations show that Se4 is a better p-type system. Our theoretical results for Se4 agree very well with recent experimental results obtained by Skoug et al (2011 Sci. Adv. Mater. 3 602).

  12. Wrinkling of a stiff thin film bonded to a pre-strained, compliant substrate with finite thickness.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yinji; Xue, Yeguang; Jang, Kyung-In; Feng, Xue; Rogers, John A; Huang, Yonggang

    2016-08-01

    A stiff thin film bonded to a pre-strained, compliant substrate wrinkles into a sinusoidal form upon release of the pre-strain. Many analytical models developed for the critical pre-strain for wrinkling assume that the substrate is semi-infinite. This critical pre-strain is actually much smaller than that for a substrate with finite thickness (Ma Y et al. 2016 Adv. Funct. Mater. (doi:10.1002/adfm.201600713)). An analytical solution of the critical pre-strain for a system of a stiff film bonded to a pre-strained, finite-thickness, compliant substrate is obtained, and it agrees well with the finite-element analysis. The finite-thickness effect is significant when the substrate tensile stiffness cannot overwhelm the film tensile stiffness.

  13. Particle processing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakka, Yoshio

    2014-02-01

    . Mater. 12 013001 [3] Sakka Y and Uchikoshi T 2010 KONA Powder Particle J. 28 74 (kona.or.jp/search/28_074.pdf) [4] Naguib M, Mashtalir O, Carle J, Presser V, Lu J, Hultman L, Gogotsi Y and Barsoum M W 2012 ACS Nano 6 1322 [5] Sakka Y and Suzuki T S 2005 J. Ceram. Soc. Japan 113 26 [6] Grasso S, Sakka Y and Maizza G 2009 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 10 053001 [7] Nakao H, Tokonami S, Hamada T, Shiigi H, Nagaoka T, Iwate F and Takeda Y 2012 Nanoscale 4 6814 [8] Miyazawa K and Hotta K 2010 J. Cryst. Growth 312 2764 [9] Suehiro T, Xie R and Hirosaki N 2013 Indust. Eng. Chem. Res. 52 7453 [10] Zhu Q, Li J-G, Li X, Sun X and Sakka Y 2011 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 12 055001 [11] Li J, Li J-G, Zhang Z, Wu X, Liu S, Li X, Sun X and Sakka Y 2012 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 13 035007 [12] Kawamura F, Yusa H and Taniguchi T 2012 Appl. Phys. Lett. 100 251910 [13] Watanabe K and Taniguchi T 2011 Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol. 8 977 [14] Deng Z-Y, Ferreira J M F and Sakka Y 2008 J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 91 3825 [15] Uda M, Okuyama H, Suzuki T S and Sakka Y 2012 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 13 025009 [16] Takeya H, Kato R, Wakahara T, Miyazawa K, Yamaguchi T, Ozaki T, Okazaki H and Takano Y 2013 Mater. Res. Bull. 48 343 [17] Wakahara T, D'Angelo P, Miyazawa K, Nemoto Y, Ito O, Tanigaki N, Bradley D D C and Anthopoulos T D 2012 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134 7204 [18] Wiecinska P, Sakka Y, Suzuki T S, Uchikoshi T, Mizerski T and Szafran M 2013 J. Ceram. Soc. Japan 121 89 [19] Kawakita M, Uchikoshi T, Kawakita J and Sakka Y 2009 J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92 984 [20] Hu C, Sakka Y, Grasso S, Nishimura T, Guo S and Tanaka H 2011 Scr. Mater. 64 765 [21] Hu C, Sakka Y, Nishimura T, Guo S, Grasso S and Tanaka H 2011 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 12 044603 [22] Kakisawa H and Sumitomo T 2011 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 12 064710 [23] Grasso S, Hu C F, Maizza G, Kim B N and Sakka Y 2011 J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94 1405 [24] Grasso S, Kim B N, Hu C F, Maizza G and Sakka Y 2010 J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93 2460 [25] Zhang H B, Kim B N, Morita K

  14. Effect of Ce doping on the electrocaloric effect of SrxBa1-xNb2O6 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Goupil, Florian; Axelsson, Anna-Karin; Valant, Matjaz; Lukasiewicz, Tadeusz; Dec, Jan; Berenov, Andrey; Alford, Neil McN.

    2014-06-01

    The electrocaloric effect (ECE) of SrxBa(1-x)Nb2O6 (SBN100x) single crystals, with a tetragonal tungsten bronze structure and a high ECE near room temperature, is studied by direct measurements. It is shown that although the onset of the ECE peak is closer to room temperature in SBN80 than in SBN75, the effect of the increase of the strontium content is very detrimental to the ECE performances with a decrease to ΔTEC = 0.23 K for SBN80 from the reported value of ΔTEC = 0.42 K under 10 kV/cm for SBN75 [F. Le Goupil et al., "Anisotropy of the electrocaloric effect in lead-free relaxor ferroelectrics," Adv. Energy Mater. (published online)]. However, when 1.40% of cerium is introduced in SBN61, the temperature of depolarisation is shifted below 30 °C, while an ECE above 0.6 K is maintained over more than 70 K for a low electric field of 28 kV/cm. The maximum ECE ΔTEC = 0.85 K is measured at 61 °C. In addition to having an ECE peak close to room temperature, the ECE measured in Ce-doped SBN61 is comparable with the best reported values for lead-free materials [Y. Bai et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 094103 (2011); X.-S. Qian et al., Adv. Funct. Mater. 24, 1300 (2014)], when linearly extrapolated to higher electric fields.

  15. Retraction Statement: "High-Volumetric Performance Aligned Nano-Porous Microwave Exfoliated Graphite Oxide-based Electrochemical Capacitors" and "Aligned Nano-Porous Microwave Exfoliated Graphite Oxide Ionic Actuators with High Strain and Elastic Energy Density".

    PubMed

    2016-11-01

    These articles first published on 15 August 2013 and 21 August 2013 on the Wiley Online Library have been retracted at the request of the Research Integrity Officer (RIO) of The Pennsylvania State University, in agreement with the corresponding authors, the journal's Editor-in-Chief, and Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, because portions of the reported results cannot be considered reliable or reproducible. Following an investigation by the RIO of The Pennsylvania State University, it was found that the data in Figure 2a,b and Figure S1a,b (Supporting Information) of the article with DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301243, and Figure S3 (Supporting Information) of the article with DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301370 were falsified. Data regarding the carbon electrode material, A-aMEGO, reported to have a density of 1.15 g cm(-3) , in the article with DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301243, were falsified. The RIO of The Pennsylvania State University confirms that the investigation found that the mentioned data were falsified by the first author. No findings of research misconduct were made against the co-authors of these publications. [1] M. Ghaffari, Y. Zhou, H. Xu, M. Lin, T. Y. Kim, R. S. Ruoff, Q. M. Zhang, Adv. Mater. 25: 2013, 4879. doi:10.1002/adma.201301243 [2] M. Ghaffari, W. Kinsman, Y. Zhou, S. Murali, Q. Burlingame, M. Lin, R. S. Ruoff, Q. M. Zhang, Adv. Mater. 25: 2013, 6277. doi:10.1002/adma.201301370.

  16. Effect of Ce doping on the electrocaloric effect of Sr{sub x}Ba{sub 1−x}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Le Goupil, Florian Berenov, Andrey; Alford, Neil McN.; Axelsson, Anna-Karin; Valant, Matjaz; Lukasiewicz, Tadeusz; Dec, Jan

    2014-06-02

    The electrocaloric effect (ECE) of Sr{sub x}Ba{sub (1−x)}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} (SBN100x) single crystals, with a tetragonal tungsten bronze structure and a high ECE near room temperature, is studied by direct measurements. It is shown that although the onset of the ECE peak is closer to room temperature in SBN80 than in SBN75, the effect of the increase of the strontium content is very detrimental to the ECE performances with a decrease to ΔT{sub EC} = 0.23 K for SBN80 from the reported value of ΔT{sub EC} = 0.42 K under 10 kV/cm for SBN75 [F. Le Goupil et al., “Anisotropy of the electrocaloric effect in lead-free relaxor ferroelectrics,” Adv. Energy Mater. (published online)]. However, when 1.40% of cerium is introduced in SBN61, the temperature of depolarisation is shifted below 30 °C, while an ECE above 0.6 K is maintained over more than 70 K for a low electric field of 28 kV/cm. The maximum ECE ΔT{sub EC} = 0.85 K is measured at 61 °C. In addition to having an ECE peak close to room temperature, the ECE measured in Ce-doped SBN61 is comparable with the best reported values for lead-free materials [Y. Bai et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 094103 (2011); X.-S. Qian et al., Adv. Funct. Mater. 24, 1300 (2014)], when linearly extrapolated to higher electric fields.

  17. Review of corrosion behavior of ceramic heat exchanger materals: Corrosion characteristics of silicon carbide and silicon nitride. Final report, September 11, 1992--March 11, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, R.G.; Dapkunas, S.J.

    1993-09-01

    The present work is a review of the substantial effort that has been made to measure and understand the effects of corrosion with respect to the properties, performance, and durability of various forms of silicon carbide and silicon nitride. The review encompasses corrosion in diverse environments, usually at temperatures of 1000C or higher. The environments include dry and moist oxygen, mixtures of hot gaseous vapors, molten salts, molten metals, and complex environments pertaining to coal ashes and slags.

  18. Corrigendum to "Energy spectra of primary knock-on atoms under neutron irradiation" [J. Nucl. Mater. 467 (Part 1) (2015) 121-134

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, M. R.; Marian, J.; Sublet, J.-Ch.

    2016-08-01

    In Equation (4), an important constant factor was missing from the expression for η , without which the equation for computing the number of Frenkel Pairs N for a given PKA energy Epkadoes not produce a meaningful result. The complete Equation (4) should have read:

  19. How melt stretching affect the brittle-ductile transition temperature of polymer glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shiwang; Wang, Shi-Qing

    2013-03-01

    Upon increasing temperature a brittle polymer glass can turn ductile. PMMA is a good example. For a while this brittle-ductile transition (BDT) was thought to be determined by the emergence of a secondary relaxation....1-3 On the other hand, it has been known for a long time...4-6 that predeformation in the melt state (e.g., melt stretching) can also make brittle glasses behave in a ductile manner. This transformation has recently received a satisfactory explanation based on a picture of structural hybrid for polymer glasses....7 It appears that BDT is dictated by the relative mechanical characteristics of the primary structure (due to the van der Waals bonds) and the chain network. The present work, based on conventional Instron tensile extension tests and DMA tests, shows that melt stretching does not alter the secondary relaxation behavior of PMMA and PC yet can turn them the brittle PMMA ductile and the ductile PC brittle. Moreover, sufficient melt stretching makes the brittle PS ductile although it does not produce any secondary relaxation process..1. Monnerie, L.; Laupretre, F.; Halary, J. L. Adv. Polym. Sci2005, 187, 35-213. 2. Monnerie, L.; Halary, J. L.; Kausch, H. Adv. Polym. Sci2005, 187, 215-364. 3. Wu, S. J. Appl. Polym. Sci.1992, 46, (4), 619-624. 4. Vincent, P. I. Polymer1960, 1, (0), 425-444. 5. Harris, J. S.; Ward, I. M. J. Mater. Sci.1970, 5, (7), 573-579. 6. Ender, D. H.; Andrews, R. D. J. Appl. Phys.1965, 36, (10), 3057-3062. 7. Zartman, G. D.; Cheng, S.; Li, X.; Lin, F.; Becker, M. L.; Wang, S.-Q. Macromolecules2012, 45, (16), 6719-6732.

  20. Deformation in amorphous–crystalline nanolaminates—an effective-temperature theory and interaction between defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieou, Charles K. C.; Mayeur, Jason R.; Beyerlein, Irene J.

    2017-04-01

    Experiments and atomic-scale simulations suggest that the transmission of plasticity carriers in deforming amorphous–crystalline nanolaminates is mediated by the biphase interface between the amorphous and crystalline layers. In this paper, we present a micromechanics model for these biphase nanolaminates that describes defect interactions through the amorphous–crystalline interface (ACI). The model is based on an effective-temperature framework to achieve a unified description of the slow, configurational atomic rearrangements in both phases when driven out of equilibrium. We show how the second law of thermodynamics constrains the density of defects and the rate of configurational rearrangements, and apply this framework to dislocations in crystalline solids and shear transformation zones (STZs) in amorphous materials. The effective-temperature formulation enables us to interpret the observed movement of dislocations to the ACI and the production of STZs at the interface as a ‘diffusion’ of configurational disorder across the material. We demonstrate favorable agreement with experimental findings reported in (Kim et al 2011 Adv. Funct. Mater. 21 4550–4), and demonstrate how the ACI acts as a sink of dislocations and a source of STZs.

  1. Impact of structural heterogeneity in solar absorber layers (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toney, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Impact of structural heterogeneity in solar absorber layers Michael F Toney SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory Structural and morphological heterogeneity is common in thin film and emerging solar cell absorber layers, including organic photovoltaic bulk heterojunctions (OPV BHJs), hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOIP), and Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe), and has a significant impact on the (opto)electronic heterogeneity and hence absorber properties. In this talk I will use X-ray based methods, including scattering and spectroscopies, to characterize and quantify the heterogeneity in OPV BHJs and HOIP absorber layers. The BHJ films are blends of the small molecule X2 and [6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) where it has been established that there are three distinct region of the films - pure PC71BM, pure X2 and intimately mixed X2:PC71BM. This talk will show how the absolute concentration of the mixed phase can be used to explain the large PC71BM:X2 composition range where good performance is observed [1]. The talk will also show that spin cast CH3NH3PbI3 films consistent of both crystalline and amorphous regions, which can explain previous heterogeneity in the PL imaging [2]. [1] Huang et al., Adv. Energy Mater. 4, 1301886 (2014). [2] deQuilettes et al., Science 348, 683 (2015).

  2. Electroactive-Zone Extension in Flow-Battery Stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, KC; Brunini, VE; Dong, YJ; Chiang, YM; Carter, WC

    2014-11-20

    Flowable suspensions that conduct both electrons and ions can enable the use of energy-dense electroactive species in flow batteries [M. Duduta et al., Adv. Energy Mater., 1, 511 (2011); Z. Li et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 15, 15,833 (2013); F. Fan et al., Nano Lett., 14, 2210 (2014)]. In comparison with conventional flow batteries where electrochemical reactions are confined to a fixed current-collector region, electronically conductive flow electrodes permit electrochemical reactions to extend outside of the physical confines of the stack. We have measured and modeled how mixed-conduction enables an electroactive zone (EAZ, in which electrochemical reactions occur) that is of greater spatial extent than current collectors, the extension being termed side zone, SZ. Electrochemical reactions in SZs can reduce coulombic and energetic efficiency. Here we show that for realistic suspension properties and operating conditions, the added inefficiency is small in practice, and can be further mitigated by using appropriate operating conditions and/or materials choices. For the specific example of a non-aqueous Li4Ti5O12 suspension, we show that EAZ extension contributes less than 1% additional efficiency loss at C/10 rates for current collectors greater than 20 mm long. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Intense deep blue exciplex electroluminescence from NPB/TPBi:PPh3O-based OLEDs and their intrinsic degradation mechanisms (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinar, Joseph; Hippola, Chamika; Danilovic, Dusan; Bhattacharjee, Ujjal; Petrich, Jacob W.; Shinar, Ruth

    2016-09-01

    We describe intense and efficient deep blue (430 - 440 nm) exciplex emission from NPB/TPBi:PPh3O OLEDs where the luminous efficiency approaches 4 Cd/A and the maximal brightness exceeds 22,000 Cd/m2. Time resolved PL measurements confirm the exciplex emission from NPB:TPBi, as studied earlier by Monkman and coworkers [Adv. Mater. 25, 1455 (2013)]. However, the inclusion of PPh3O improves the OLED performance significantly. The effect of PPh3O on the EL and PL will be discussed. The NPB/TPBi:PPh3O-based OLEDs were also studied by optically and electrically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR and EDMR, respectively). In particular, the amplitude of the negative (EL- and current-quenching) spin 1/2 resonance, previously attributed to enhanced formation of strongly EL-quenching positive bipolarons, increases as the OLEDs degrade in a dry nitrogen atmosphere. This degradation mechanism is discussed in relation to degradation induced by hot polarons that are energized by exciton annihilation.

  4. Plasmon resonant gold-coated liposomes for spectrally coded content release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Sarah J.; Troutman, Timothy S.; Romanowski, Marek

    2009-02-01

    We have recently introduced liposome-supported plasmon resonant gold nanoshells (Troutman et al., Adv. Mater. 2008, 20, 2604-2608). These plasmon resonant gold-coated liposomes are degradable into components of a size compatible with renal clearance, potentially enabling their use as multifunctional agents in applications in nanomedicine, including imaging, diagnostics, therapy, and drug delivery. The present research demonstrates that laser illumination at the wavelength matching the plasmon resonance band of a gold-coated liposome leads to the rapid release of encapsulated substances, which can include therapeutic and diagnostic agents. Leakage of encapsulated contents is monitored through the release of self-quenched fluorescein, which provides an increase in fluorescence emission upon release. Moreover, the resonant peak of these gold-coated liposomes is spectrally tunable in the near infrared range by varying the concentration of gold deposited on the surface of liposomes. Varying the plasmon resonant wavelengths of gold-coated liposomes can provide a method for spectrally-coding their light-mediated content release, so that the release event is initiated by the specific wavelength of light used to illuminate the liposomes. The development of spectrally-coded release can find applications in controlled delivery of multiple agents to support complex diagnostic tests and therapeutic interventions.

  5. Plasmon resonant gold-coated liposomes for spectrally coded content release.

    PubMed

    Leung, Sarah J; Troutman, Timothy S; Romanowski, Marek

    2009-02-01

    We have recently introduced liposome-supported plasmon resonant gold nanoshells (Troutman et al., Adv. Mater. 2008, 20, 2604-2608). These plasmon resonant gold-coated liposomes are degradable into components of a size compatible with renal clearance, potentially enabling their use as multifunctional agents in applications in nanomedicine, including imaging, diagnostics, therapy, and drug delivery. The present research demonstrates that laser illumination at the wavelength matching the plasmon resonance band of a gold-coated liposome leads to the rapid release of encapsulated substances, which can include therapeutic and diagnostic agents. Leakage of encapsulated contents is monitored through the release of self-quenched fluorescein, which provides an increase in fluorescence emission upon release. Moreover, the resonant peak of these gold-coated liposomes is spectrally tunable in the near infrared range by varying the concentration of gold deposited on the surface of liposomes. Varying the plasmon resonant wavelengths of gold-coated liposomes can provide a method for spectrally-coding their light-mediated content release, so that the release event is initiated by the specific wavelength of light used to illuminate the liposomes. The development of spectrally-coded release can find applications in controlled delivery of multiple agents to support complex diagnostic tests and therapeutic interventions.

  6. Molecular structure of the discotic liquid crystalline phase of hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene/oligothiophene hybrid and their charge transport properties

    SciTech Connect

    Bag, Saientan; Maingi, Vishal; Maiti, Prabal K.; Yelk, Joe; Glaser, Matthew A.; Clark, Noel A.; Walba, David M.

    2015-10-14

    Using atomistic molecular dynamics simulation, we study the discotic columnar liquid crystalline (LC) phases formed by a new organic compound having hexa-peri-Hexabenzocoronene (HBC) core with six pendant oligothiophene units recently synthesized by Nan Hu et al. [Adv. Mater. 26, 2066 (2014)]. This HBC core based LC phase was shown to have electric field responsive behavior and has important applications in organic electronics. Our simulation results confirm the hexagonal arrangement of columnar LC phase with a lattice spacing consistent with that obtained from small angle X-ray diffraction data. We have also calculated various positional and orientational correlation functions to characterize the ordering of the molecules in the columnar arrangement. The molecules in a column are arranged with an average twist of 25° having an average inter-molecular separation of ∼5 Å. Interestingly, we find an overall tilt angle of 43° between the columnar axis and HBC core. We also simulate the charge transport through this columnar phase and report the numerical value of charge carrier mobility for this liquid crystal phase. The charge carrier mobility is strongly influenced by the twist angle and average spacing of the molecules in the column.

  7. Interface Energy Alignment of Atomic-Layer-Deposited VOx on Pentacene: an in Situ Photoelectron Spectroscopy Investigation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ran; Gao, Yuanhong; Guo, Zheng; Su, Yantao; Wang, Xinwei

    2017-01-18

    Ultrathin atomic-layer-deposited (ALD) vanadium oxide (VOx) interlayer has recently been demonstrated for remarkably reducing the contact resistance in organic electronic devices (Adv. Funct. Mater. 2016, 26, 4456). Herein, we present an in situ photoelectron spectroscopy investigation (including X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopies) of ALD VOx grown on pentacene to understand the role of the ALD VOx interlayer for the improved contact resistance. The in situ photoelectron spectroscopy characterizations allow us to monitor the ALD growth process of VOx and trace the evolutions of the work function, pentacene HOMO level, and VOx defect states during the growth. The initial VOx growth is found to be partially delayed on pentacene in the first ∼20 ALD cycles. The underneath pentacene layer is largely intact after ALD. The ALD VOx is found to contain a high density of defect states starting from 0.67 eV below the Fermi level, and the energy level of these defect states is in excellent alignment with the HOMO level of pentacene, which therefore allows these VOx defect states to provide an efficient hole-injection pathway at the contact interface.

  8. Polymer-silicon nanosheet composites: bridging the way to optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyuleeva, Alina; Helbich, Tobias; Rieger, Bernhard; Lugli, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    The fabrication of electronic devices from sensitive, functional, two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials with anisotropic structural properties has attracted much attention. Many theoretical and experimental studies have been performed; however, such materials have not been used in applications. In this context, the focus has shifted toward the study and synthesis of new materials. Freestanding hydrogen-terminated silicon nanosheets (SiNSs) are a new class of material with outstanding (opto)electronic properties (e.g. photoluminescence at approximately 510 nm) (Nakano 2014 J. Ceram. Soc. Japan 122 748). SiNSs are promising candidates for use in nanoelectronic devices and flexible electronics. Additional reasons for interest in such nanomaterials are their structural anisotropy and the fact that they are made from silicon. Here, we present examples for the application of functionalized SiNS-based composites as active materials for photonic sensors. The implementation of SiNSs in a covalent nanocomposite not only improves their stability but also facilitates subsequent device fabrication. Thus, SiNSs can be used in a straightforward setup preparation procedure. We show that the modification of novel Si-based 2D nanosheets with selected organic components not only opens a new field of photosensitive applications but also improves the processability of these nanosheets (Niu et al 2014 Sci. Rep. 4 4810, Chimene et al 2015 Adv. Mater. 27 7261).

  9. Ideal strength and phonon instability in single-layer MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tianshu

    2012-06-01

    Ideal tensile stress strain relations for single-layer MoS2 are investigated based on first-principle calculation, for biaxial tension and uniaxial tension along zigzag and armchair directions. The predicted ideal tensile strengths and elastic moduli are in excellent agreement with the very recent experimental measurements of Bertolazzi [ACS Nano1936-085110.1021/nn203879f 5, 9703 (2011)] and Castellanos-Gomez [Adv. Mater.ADVMEW0935-964810.1002/adma.201103965 24, 772 (2012)]. It is identified that the tensile strength of single-layer MoS2 are dictated by out-of-plane soft-mode phonon instability under biaxial tension and uniaxial tension along the armchair direction. This failure mechanism, different from that of the truly two-dimensional material graphene, is attributed to the out-of-plane atomic relaxation upon tensile strain. Investigation of the electronic structures of single-layer MoS2 under tensile strain shows the material becomes an indirect semiconductor at small tensile strain (<2%) and turns into metallic before reaching the ideal tensile strength.

  10. Nanophotonic interactions between organic excitons and plasmonic metasurfaces (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Carroll, Deirdre M.

    2016-09-01

    Thin-film organic semiconductor materials are emerging as energy-efficient, versatile alternatives to inorganic semiconductors for display and solid-state lighting applications. Additionally, thin-film organic laser and photovoltaic technologies, while not yet competitive with inorganic semiconductor-based analogues, can exhibit small device embodied energies (due to comparatively low temperature and low energy-use fabrication processes) which is of interest for reducing overall device cost. To improve energy conversion efficiency in thin-film organic optoelectronics, light management using nanophotonic structures is necessary. Here, our recent work on improving light trapping and light extraction in organic semiconductor thin films using nanostructured silver plasmonic metasurfaces will be presented [1,2]. Numerous optical phenomena, such as absorption induced scattering, out-of-plane waveguiding and morphology-dependent surface plasmon outcoupling, are identified due to exciton-plasmon coupling between the organic semiconductor and the metasurface. Interactions between localized and propagating surface plasmon polaritons and the excitonic transitions of a variety of organic conjugated polymer materials will be discussed and ways in which these interactions may be optimized for particular optoelectronic applications will be presented. [1] C. E. Petoukhoff, D. M. O'Carroll, Absorption-Induced Scattering and Surface Plasmon Out-Coupling from Absorber-Coated Plasmonic Metasurfaces. Nat. Commun. 6, 7899-1-13 (2015). [2] Z. Shen, D. M. O'Carroll, Nanoporous Silver Thin Films: Multifunctional Platforms for Influencing Chain Morphology and Optical Properties of Conjugated Polymers. Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 3302-3313 (2015).

  11. Formation of Periodic 2D Metallic Nanostructures by Template-Assisted Electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mu; Zhang, Bo; Weng, Yuyan; Peng, Ruwen; Ming, Naiben

    2008-03-01

    Two-dimensional ordered metallic nanostructures on solid surface with specific patterns may have potential applications in photonics and optoelectronics. Yet it remains a challenge to produce regular nanostructures over a large area with low cost and with a simple method. Here we report a novel method to fabricate well-aligned copper nanowire array on silicon surface by template-assisted electrodeposition. The template is introduced onto silicon surface by nanoimprinting. With our previously reported unique electrodeposition system [1-2], we find that the array of straight copper wires with their width varying from 400 nm to 20 nm can be fabricated. The wire width can be tuned by the control parameters in electrodeposition. It is shown that this method is not limited to straight wires only. It can be used to form more complicated patterns. The physical properties of the metallic nanostructures are also discussed. [1] M. Zhang, S. Lenhert, M. Wang, L. Chi, et al., Adv. Mater. 16, 409 (2004) [2] M. Wang, S. Zhong, X. Yin, J. Zhu, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 86, 3827 (2001)

  12. Black Arsenic-Phosphorus: Layered Anisotropic Infrared Semiconductors with Highly Tunable Compositions and Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bilu; Zhou, Chongwu

    2D layered materials with diverse properties have attracted significant interest in the past decade. The layered materials discovered so far have covered a wide, yet discontinuous electromagnetic spectral range from semimetallic graphene, insulating boron nitride, to semiconductors with bandgaps from middle infrared to visible light. Here, we introduce new layered semiconductors, black arsenic-phosphorus (b-AsP), with highly tunable chemical compositions and electronic and optical properties. Transport and infrared absorption studies demonstrate the semiconducting nature of b-AsP with tunable bandgaps, ranging from 0.3 to 0.15 eV. These bandgaps fall into long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) regime and cannot be readily reached by other layered materials. Moreover, polarization-resolved infrared absorption and Raman studies reveal in-plane anisotropic properties of b-AsP. This family of layered b-AsP materials extend the electromagnetic spectra covered by 2D layered materials to the LWIR regime, and may find unique applications for future all 2D layered material based devices. Ref. Liu, B., et al., Black Arsenic-Phosphorus: Layered Anisotropic Infrared Semiconductors with Highly Tunable Compositions and Properties. Adv. Mater., 2015, 27, 4423-4429.

  13. Spin-polarized electron transport through helicene molecular junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Ting-Rui; Guo, Ai-Min; Sun, Qing-Feng

    2016-12-01

    Recently, the spin-selectivity effect of chiral molecules has been attracting extensive and growing interest among the scientific communities. Here, we propose a model Hamiltonian to study spin-dependent electron transport through helicene molecules which are connected by two semi-infinite graphene nanoribbons and try to elucidate a recent experiment of the spin-selectivity effect observed in the helicene molecules. The results indicate that the helicene molecules can present a significant spin-filtering effect in the case of extremely weak spin-orbit coupling, which is three orders of magnitude smaller than the hopping integral. The underlying physics is attributed to intrinsic chiral symmetry of the helicene molecules. When the chirality is switched from the right-handed species to the left-handed species, the spin polarization is reversed exactly. These results are consistent with a recent experiment [V. Kiran et al., Adv. Mater. 28, 1957 (2016), 10.1002/adma.201504725]. In addition, the spin-filtering effect of the helicene molecules is robust against molecular lengths, dephasing strengths, and space position disorder. This theoretical work may motivate further studies on chiral-induced spin selectivity in molecular systems.

  14. Performance analysis of energy conversion via caloric effects in first-order ferroic phase transformations.

    PubMed

    Song, Yintao

    2014-07-07

    A finite-time thermodynamic model of ferroic refrigerators and generators, based on first order phase transformation, is given. We use this model to evaluate a novel method of converting heat directly into electricity based on the martensitic phase transformation accompanied by an abrupt change in magnetic ordering recently discovered [Srivastava et al., Adv. Energy Mater., 2011, 1, 97]. In this paper, we study the efficiency and power output of this method. The formulas of efficiency and power output in terms of material constants, design parameters, and working conditions are derived. The Clausius-Clapeyron coefficient is shown to be important to the efficiency. The figure of merit, as a dimensionless parameter, of energy conversion using the new method is introduced. It is shown that, as the figure of merit goes to infinity, the efficiency approaches the Carnot efficiency. Thermodynamic cycles of the new energy conversion method are optimized for a maximum power output. The matching criteria between materials and working temperatures of such optimized cycles are derived. Using these criteria, one can choose the most suitable materials under given working conditions, or decide the best working conditions for available materials.

  15. Organic Magnetoresistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Arthur

    2009-03-01

    In recent years a broad range of magnetoresistance phenomena have been reported for organic-based semiconductors, conductors and magnets. Organic systems illustrating magnetoresistance, include molecular- and polymer-based nonmagnetic semiconductors[1], organic-based spin polarized magnetic semiconductors,[2] nonmagnetic conducting polymers, and ferromagnet/organic semiconductor/ferromagnet heterojunctions. Examples of each of these organic-based systems will be presented together with a discussion of the roles of magnetotransport mechanisms including interconversion of singlets and triplets, compression of the electronic wavefunction in presence of a magnetic field, quantum interference phenomena, effects of a ``Coulomb gap'' in π* subbands of organic magnetic semiconductors with resulting near complete spin polarization in conduction and valence bands of magnetic organic semiconductors.[2,3] Opportunities for magnetotransport in Ferromagnet/Organic Semiconductor/Ferromagnet heterojunctions will be discussed.[4] [4pt] [1] V.N. Prigodin et al., Synth. Met. 156, 757 (2006); J.D. Bergeson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 067201 (2008) [0pt] [2] V.N. Prigodin et al., Adv. Mater. 14, 1230 (2002. [0pt] [3] J.B. Kortright et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 100, 257204 (2008). [0pt] [4] J.D. Bergeson, et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 172505 (2008).

  16. Vacuum-assisted fluid flow in microchannels to pattern substrates and cells.

    PubMed

    Shrirao, Anil B; Kung, Frank H; Yip, Derek; Cho, Cheul H; Townes-Anderson, Ellen

    2014-09-01

    Substrate and cell patterning are widely used techniques in cell biology to study cell-to-cell and cell-substrate interactions. Conventional patterning techniques work well only with simple shapes, small areas and selected bio-materials. This paper describes a method to distribute cell suspensions as well as substrate solutions into complex, long, closed (dead-end) polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannels using negative pressure. Our method builds upon a previous vacuum-assisted method used for micromolding (Jeon et al 1999 Adv. Mater 11 946) and successfully patterned collagen-I, fibronectin and Sal-1 substrates on glass and polystyrene surfaces, filling microchannels with lengths up to 120 mm and covering areas up to 13 × 10 mm(2). Vacuum-patterned substrates were subsequently used to culture mammalian PC12 and fibroblast cells and amphibian neurons. Cells were also patterned directly by injecting cell suspensions into microchannels using vacuum. Fibroblast and neuronal cells patterned using vacuum showed normal growth and minimal cell death indicating no adverse effects of vacuum on cells. Our method fills reversibly sealed PDMS microchannels. This enables the user to remove the PDMS microchannel cast and access the patterned biomaterial or cells for further experimental purposes. Overall, this is a straightforward technique that has broad applicability for cell biology.

  17. Size Fractionation of Mechanochemical Synthesized Alkyl-Passivated Silicon Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdoni, Luigi; Mitchell, Brian

    2010-03-01

    A novel top-down procedure was employed for the synthesis of stable alkyl-passivated silicon nanoparticles using reactive high energy ball milling (HEBM) as described in Heintz et al., (Adv. Mater. 2007, 19). The method provides for the simultaneous production of photo luminescent silicon nanoparticles and the passivation of the particle surface with alkyl groups covalently linked through Si-C bonds. As fresh silicon surface is formed during HEBM by particle fracture, the surface Si atoms react in-situ with liquid alkyls, such as 1-octyne and 1-hexyne. We present a multistage size selective fractionation process to isolate and purify initial sample polydispersities ranging from microns down to single nanometers (1 um - 1 nm). This process employs centrifugation, inline nano-filtration, both normal phase gel permission (GPC) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC), followed by recursive size selective precipitation (SSP). Size evolutions of fractions are monitored via UV/VIS absorbance, photoluminescence (PL), and electron microscopy (SEM/TEM). Elemental impurities are quantified through atomic absorption (AAS) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Stages are performed in series to isolate and investigate the influence of initial alkyl and silicon reactants on product yields, size dispersity, and optical behavior.

  18. 77 FR 71461 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... the Commission a Form ADV-E and accompanying statement within four business days of the resignation... Commission, c/o Remi Pavlik-Simon, 6432 General Green Way, Alexandria, VA 22312; or send an email ] to:...

  19. 17 CFR 275.203-1 - Application for investment adviser registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., substantial changes to Part II of Form ADV. Thus, the rules for preparing, delivering, and offering Part II...) When filed. Each Form ADV is considered filed with the Commission upon acceptance by the IARD....

  20. Open-Label, Multicenter, Phase 1/2 Study of Tazemetostat (EZH2 Histone Methyl Transferase [HMT] Inhibitor) as a Single Agent in Subjects With Adv. Solid Tumors or With B-cell Lymphomas and Tazemetostat in Combination With Prednisolone in Subjects With DLBCL

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-28

    B-cell Lymphomas (Phase 1); Advanced Solid Tumors (Phase 1); Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (Phase 2); Follicular Lymphoma (Phase 2); Transformed Follicular Lymphoma; Primary Mediastinal Large B-Cell Lymphoma

  1. Reply to the comments by Willem J. Zaadnoordijk on "An analytical solution for predicting the transient seepage from a subsurface drainage system" by P. Xin, H.C. Dan, T. Zhou, C. Lu, J. Kong, L. Li [Adv. Water Resour. 91 (2016) 1-10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Pei; Dan, Han-Cheng; Zhou, Tingzhang; Lu, Chunhui; Kong, Jun; Li, Ling

    2016-10-01

    We appreciate Willem J. Zaadnoordijk's comments, which led us to revisit the results in Xin et al. (2016). Zaadnoordijk (2016) solved numerically the Boussinesq equation-based (BE) model, Eq. (6) in Xin et al. (2016), and found that (1) the transient groundwater tables predicted by the numerical BE model didn't match Fig. 5b in Xin et al. (2016) and (2) with an adjusted effective specific yield (discussed further below), the BE model predicted similar results to the analytical solution that accounts for the unsaturated zone effects. We address these two points in the following. (1) The results of Fig. 5b in Xin et al. (2016) were calculated from the analytical solution with the unsaturated zone neglected. Although the governing equation of the saturated-unsaturated mathematical model presented in Xin et al. (2016) can be reduced to the Boussinesq equation with the unsaturated zone neglected (i.e., α and β approaching infinity), the application of the approximate analytical solution directly to this limiting condition incurs large errors as contained in Fig. 5b of Xin et al. (2016). In this reply we derive a new analytical solution separately for the BE model (detailed derivation given in the appendix) with such errors removed.

  2. Adolescent Dating Violence Prevention and Intervention in a Community Setting: Perspectives of Young Adults and Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martsolf, Donna S.; Colbert, Crystal; Draucker, Claire B.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent dating violence (ADV) is a significant community problem. In this study, we examine the perspectives of two groups (young adults who experienced ADV as teens and professionals who work with teens) on ADV prevention/intervention in a community context. We interviewed 88 young adults and 20 professionals. Our research team used Thorne's…

  3. 77 FR 39767 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; National Stock Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... rebate tier depends on an ETP Holder's ADV. Endnote 3 provides that ``ADV'' means, with respect to an ETP... occurred. Endnote 3 further clarifies that ``ADV'' as used with respect to the Exchange's Automatic.... Endnote 5, which is proposed to apply to each of the four rebate tiers in Order Delivery, provides that...

  4. 78 FR 62778 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ...) (``Fee Schedule'') to add orders yielding Flag AA to the calculation of the average daily trading (``ADV... add orders yielding Flag AA to the calculation of the ADV threshold required to meet the MidPoint... orders yielding Flag AA (MidPoint Match Cross (same MPID)) to the calculation of the ADV...

  5. Organic permeable-base transistors - superb power efficiency at highest frequencies (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinger, Markus P.; Fischer, Axel; Kaschura, Felix; Scholz, Reinhard; Lüssem, Björn; Kheradmand-Boroujeni, Bahman; Ellinger, Frank; Kasemann, Daniel; Leo, Karl

    2016-11-01

    Organic field-effect transistors (OFET) are important elements in thin-film electronics, being considered for flat-panel or flexible displays, radio frequency identification systems, and sensor arrays. To optimize the devices for high-frequency operation, the channel length, defined as the horizontal distance between the source and the drain contact, can be scaled down. Here, an architecture with a vertical current flow, in particular the Organic Permeable-Base Transistors (OPBT), opens up new opportunities, because the effective transit length in vertical direction is precisely tunable in the nanometer range by the thickness of the semiconductor layer. We present an advanced OPBT, competing with best OFETs while a low-cost, OLED-like fabrication with low-resolution shadow masks is used (Klinger et al., Adv. Mater. 27, 2015). Its design consists of a stack of three parallel electrodes separated by two semiconductor layers of C60 . The vertical current flow is controlled by the middle base electrode with nano-sized openings passivated by an native oxide. Using insulated layers to structure the active area, devices show an on/off ratio of 10⁶ , drive 11 A/cm² at an operation voltage of 1 V, and have a low subthreshold slope of 102 mV/decade. These OPBTs show a unity current-gain transit frequency of 2.2 MHz and off-state break-down fields above 1 MV/cm. Thus, our optimized setup does not only set a benchmark for vertical organic transistors, but also outperforms best lateral OFETs using similar low-cost structuring techniques in terms of power efficiency at high frequencies.

  6. Highly active nanocrystalline TiO(2) photoelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Paronyan, Tereza M; Kechiantz, A M; Lin, M C

    2008-03-19

    A simple method for the fabrication of highly photoactive nanocrystalline two-layer TiO(2) electrodes for solar cell applications is presented. Diluted titanium acetylacetonate has been used as a precursor for covering SnO(2):F (FTO) films with dense packed TiO(2) nanocrystallites. The nanoporous thick TiO(2) film follows the dense packed thin TiO(2) film as a second layer. For the latter, amorphous TiO(2) nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by a sol-gel technique in an acidic environment with pH<1 and hydrothermal growth at a temperature of 200 °C. The acidic nanoparticle gel was neutralized by basic ammonia and a TiO(2) gel of pH 5 was obtained; this pH value is higher than the recently reported value of 3.1 (Park et al 2005 Adv. Mater. 17 2349-53). Highly interconnected, nanoporous, transparent and active TiO(2) films have been fabricated from the pH 5 gel. SEM, AFM and XRD analyses have been carried out for investigation of the crystal structure and the size of nanoparticles as well as the surface morphology of the films. Investigation of the photocurrent-voltage characteristics has shown improvement in cell performance along with the modification of the surface morphology, depending on pH of the TiO(2) gel. Increasing the pH of the gel from 2.1 to 5 enhanced the overall conversion efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cells by approximately 30%. An energy conversion efficiency of 8.83% has been achieved for the cell (AM1.5, 100  mWcm(-2) simulated sunlight) compared to 6.61% efficiency in the absence of ammonia in the TiO(2) gel.

  7. High resolution reversible color images on photonic crystal substrates.

    PubMed

    Kang, Pilgyu; Ogunbo, Samuel O; Erickson, David

    2011-08-16

    When light is incident on a crystalline structure with appropriate periodicity, some colors will be preferentially reflected (Joannopoulos, J. D.; Meade, R. D.; Winn, J. N. Photonic crystals: molding the flow of light; Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ, 1995; p ix, 137 pp). These photonic crystals and the structural color they generate represent an interesting method for creating reflective displays and drawing devices, since they can achieve a continuous color response and do not require back lighting (Joannopoulos, J. D.; Villeneuve, P. R.; Fan, S. H. Photonic crystals: Putting a new twist on light. Nature 1997, 386, 143-149; Graham-Rowe, D. Tunable structural colour. Nat. Photonics 2009, 3, 551-553.; Arsenault, A. C.; Puzzo, D. P.; Manners, I.; Ozin, G. A. Photonic-crystal full-colour displays. Nat. Photonics 2007, 1, 468-472; Walish, J. J.; Kang, Y.; Mickiewicz, R. A.; Thomas, E. L. Bioinspired Electrochemically Tunable Block Copolymer Full Color Pixels. Adv. Mater.2009, 21, 3078). Here we demonstrate a technique for creating erasable, high-resolution, color images using otherwise transparent inks on self-assembled photonic crystal substrates (Fudouzi, H.; Xia, Y. N. Colloidal crystals with tunable colors and their use as photonic papers. Langmuir 2003, 19, 9653-9660). Using inkjet printing, we show the ability to infuse fine droplets of silicone oils into the crystal, locally swelling it and changing the reflected color (Sirringhaus, H.; Kawase, T.; Friend, R. H.; Shimoda, T.; Inbasekaran, M.; Wu, W.; Woo, E. P. High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits. Science 2000, 290, 2123-2126). Multicolor images with resolutions as high as 200 μm are obtained from oils of different molecular weights with the lighter oils being able to penetrate deeper, yielding larger red shifts. Erasing of images is done simply by adding a low vapor pressure oil which dissolves the image, returning the substrate to its original state.

  8. Structure-property relations in engineered semiconductor nanomaterials (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Htoon, Han

    2016-09-01

    Particle-size or `quantum-confinement' effects have been used for decades to tune semiconductor opto-electronic properties. More recently, particle size control as the primary means for properties control has been succeeded by nanoscale hetero-structuring. In this case, the nanosized particle is modified to include internal, nanoscale interfaces, generally defined by compositional variations that induce additional changes to semiconductor properties. These changes can entail enhancements to the size-induced properties as well as unexpected or `emergent' behaviors. Common structural motifs include enveloping a spherical semiconductor nanocrystal, i.e., a quantum dot, within a shell of a different composition. In this talk, I will discuss how solution-phase synthesis can be used to create these structures with precisely `engineered' complexity. Most notably, I will review our experiences with so-called `giant' quantum dots that, due to their internal nanoscale structure, exhibit a range of novel behaviors, including being non-blinking and non-photobleaching (Chen et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 5026; Ghosh et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 9634; Dennis et al. Nano Lett. 2012 12, 5545; Acharya et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 137, 3755), and remarkably efficient emitters of `multi-excitons' due to extreme suppression of Auger recombination (Mangum et al. Nanoscale 2014, 6, 3712; Gao et al. Adv. Optical Mater. 2015, 3, 39). I will discuss recent work extending non-blinking behavior to the blue/green and "dual-color" emission, and show how correlated optical/structural characterization can reveal new information regarding structure-property relations to guide new nanomaterials development (Orfield et al. ACS Nano, Article ASAP).

  9. Plasma enhanced atomic layer batch processing of aluminum doped titanium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lehnert, Wolfgang; Ruhl, Guenther; Gschwandtner, Alexander

    2012-01-15

    Among many promising high-k dielectrics, TiO{sub 2} is an interesting candidate because of its relatively high k value of over 40 and its easy integration into existing semiconductor manufacturing schemes. The most critical issues of TiO{sub 2} are its low electrical stability and its high leakage current density. However, doping TiO{sub 2} with Al has shown to yield significant improvement of layer quality on Ru electrodes [S. K. Kim et al., Adv. Mater. 20, 1429 (2008)]. In this work we investigated if atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al doped TiO{sub 2} is feasible in a batch system. Electrical characterizations were done using common electrode materials like TiN, TaN, or W. Additionally, the effect of plasma enhanced processing in this reactor was studied. For this investigation a production batch ALD furnace has been retrofitted with a plasma source which can be used for post deposition anneals with oxygen radicals as well as for directly plasma enhanced ALD. After evaluation of several Ti precursors a deposition process for AlTiO{sub x} with excellent film thickness and composition uniformity was developed. The effects of post deposition anneals, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interlayers between electrode and TiO{sub 2}, Al doping concentration, plasma enhanced deposition and electrode material type on leakage current density are shown. An optimized AlTiO{sub x} deposition process on TaN electrodes yields to leakage current density of 5 x 10{sup -7} A/cm{sup 2} at 2 V and k values of about 35. Thus, it could be demonstrated that a plasma enhanced batch ALD process for Al doped TiO{sub 2} is feasible with acceptable leakage current density on a standard electrode material.

  10. Cohesive zone model for intergranular slow crack growth in ceramics: influence of the process and the microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero de la Osa, M.; Estevez, R.; Olagnon, C.; Chevalier, J.; Tallaron, C.

    2011-10-01

    Ceramic polycrystals are prone to slow crack growth (SCG) which is stress and environmentally assisted, similarly to observations reported for silica glasses. The kinetics of fracture are known to be dependent on the load level, the temperature and the relative humidity. In addition, evidence is available on the influence of the microstructure on the SCG rate with an increase in the crack velocity with decreasing the grain size. Crack propagation takes place beyond a load threshold, which is grain size dependent. We present a cohesive zone model for the intergranular failure process. The methodology accounts for an intrinsic opening that governs the length of the cohesive zone and allows the investigation of grain size effects. A rate and temperature-dependent cohesive model is proposed (Romero de la Osa M, Estevez R et al 2009 J. Mech. Adv. Mater. Struct. 16 623-31) to mimic the reaction-rupture mechanism. The formulation is inspired by Michalske and Freiman's picture (Michalske and Freiman 1983 J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 66 284-8) together with a recent study by Zhu et al (2005 J. Mech. Phys. Solids 53 1597-623) of the reaction-rupture mechanism. The present investigation extends a previous work (Romero de la Osa et al 2009 Int. J. Fracture 158 157-67) in which the problem is formulated. Here, we explore the influence of the microstructure in terms of grain size, their elastic properties and residual thermal stresses originating from the cooling from the sintering temperature down to ambient conditions. Their influence on SCG for static loadings is reported and the predictions compared with experimental trends. We show that the initial stress state is responsible for the grain size dependence reported experimentally for SCG. Furthermore, the account for the initial stresses enables the prediction of a load threshold below which no crack growth is observed: a crack arrest takes place when the crack path meets a region in compression.

  11. Magnetoelectric imaging of multiferroic heterostructures (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghidini, Massimo; Lesaine, Arnaud; Zhu, Bonan; Moya, Xavier; Yan, Wenjing; Crossley, Sam; Nair, Bhasi; Mansell, Rhodri; Cowburn, Russell P.; Barnes, Crispin H. W.; Kronast, Florian; Valencia, Sergio; Maccherozzi, Francesco; Dhesi, Sarnjeet S.; Mathur, Neil

    2015-09-01

    Electrical control of magnetism has been demonstrated in multiferroic compounds and ferromagnetic semiconductors, but electrical switching of a substantial net magnetization at room temperature has not been demonstrated in these materials. This goal has instead been achieved in heterostructures comprising ferromagnetic films in which electrically driven magnetic changes arise due to strain or exchange bias from ferroic substrates, or due to charge effects induced by a gate. However, previous work focused on electrical switching of an in-plane magnetization or involved the assistance of applied magnetic fields. In heterostructures made of juxtaposed ferroelectric and ferromagnetic layers, we have shown electrical control with no applied magnetic field of the perpendicular magnetization of small features [1] and of magnetic stripe domains patterns [2]. Here we investigate Ni81Fe19 films on ferroelectric substrates with and without buffer layers of Cu, whose presence precludes charge-mediated coupling. Ni81Fe19 has virtually zero magnetostriction, but sufficiently thin films show large magnetostriction, and thus, on increasing film thickness through the threshold for zero magnetostriction, we have seeked the crossover from charge- to strain-mediated coupling. We will then show that strain associated with the motion of 90°- ferroelectric domain walls in a BaTiO3 substrate, can switch the magnetization of an array of overlying single-domain Ni dots. [1] M. Ghidini, R. Pellicelli, J. L. Prieto, X. Moya, J. Soussi, J. Briscoe, S. Dunn and N. D. Mathur, Nature Communications 4 (2013) 1453. [2] M. Ghidini, F.Maccherozzi, X. Moya, L. C. Phillips, W.Yan, J. Soussi, N. Métallier, M.Vickers, , N. -J.Steinke, R. Mansell, C. H. W. Barnes, S. S. Dhesi, and N. D. Mathur, Adv. Mater.doi: 10.1002/adma.201404799 (2015).

  12. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of the efficiency roll-off, emission color, and degradation of organic light-emitting diodes (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coehoorn, Reinder; van Eersel, Harm; Bobbert, Peter A.; Janssen, Rene A. J.

    2015-10-01

    The performance of Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) is determined by a complex interplay of the charge transport and excitonic processes in the active layer stack. We have developed a three-dimensional kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) OLED simulation method which includes all these processes in an integral manner. The method employs a physically transparent mechanistic approach, and is based on measurable parameters. All processes can be followed with molecular-scale spatial resolution and with sub-nanosecond time resolution, for any layer structure and any mixture of materials. In the talk, applications to the efficiency roll-off, emission color and lifetime of white and monochrome phosphorescent OLEDs [1,2] are demonstrated, and a comparison with experimental results is given. The simulations show to which extent the triplet-polaron quenching (TPQ) and triplet-triplet-annihilation (TTA) contribute to the roll-off, and how the microscopic parameters describing these processes can be deduced properly from dedicated experiments. Degradation is treated as a result of the (accelerated) conversion of emitter molecules to non-emissive sites upon a triplet-polaron quenching (TPQ) process. The degradation rate, and hence the device lifetime, is shown to depend on the emitter concentration and on the precise type of TPQ process. Results for both single-doped and co-doped OLEDs are presented, revealing that the kMC simulations enable efficient simulation-assisted layer stack development. [1] H. van Eersel et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 143303 (2014). [2] R. Coehoorn et al., Adv. Funct. Mater. (2015), publ. online (DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201402532)

  13. Design of N-doped anatase TiO2 photocatalyst with visible-light-response based on Ti-O bond weakening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, L.-C.; Liu, G.; Cheng, H.-M.; Advanced Carbon Division Team

    2013-03-01

    Nitrogen bulk doping is an effective strategy to change the electronic structures of anatase TiO2 photocatalyst for visible light response improvement. Unfortunately, it is hard to achieve nitrogen bulk doping in practice, due to both limited thermodynamic solubility of substitutional nitrogen and N-induced recombination centers. It remains challenging yet highly desirable to develop new doping approach to increase nitrogen solubility in bulk. This challenge is originally stemmed from both strong Ti-O bond and charge difference (O2- versus N3-) between lattice oxygen and nitrogen dopant. In this work, we propose a new doping approach to promote the bulk substitution of lattice oxygen with nitrogen in bulk anatase TiO2, based on the Ti-O bond weakening by pre-implanted interstitial boron.1 By using the first-principles calculations, we study the interstitial boron induced Ti-O bonding weakening and the thermodynamics/kinetics changes for nitrogen bulk doping.2 In experiment, we realize to synthesize a bulk gradient B-N co-doping red anatase TiO2 microsphere which has an extended absorption edge up to ca. 700 nm covering the full visible light spectrum and has a bandgap varying from 1.94 eV on its surface to 3.22 eV in its core by gradually elevating VBM. This approach could be extended to modify other electronic materials that demand bulk substitutional doping. 1. G. Liu, J. Pan, L. C. Yin et al., Adv. Funct. Mater., 2012, 22, 3233. 2. G. Liu, L. C. Yin, J. Q. Wang et al., Energy Environ. Sci. 2012, 5, 9603. Financial support from Ministry of Science and Technology of China (no. 2009CB220001), NSFC (no. 50921004, 51002160, 21090343, 51172243, 51202255), CAS China (KJCX2-YW-H21-01).

  14. Dimensional crossover and thermoelectric properties in CeTe2-xSbx single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhyee, Jong-Soo; Lee, Kyung Eun; Nyeong Kim, Jae; Shim, Ji Hoon; Min, Byeong Hun; Kwon, Yong Seung

    2013-03-01

    Several years before, we proposed that the charge density wave is a new pathway for high thermoelectric performance in In4Se3-x bulk crystalline materials. (Nature v.459, p. 965, 2009) Recently, from the increase of the chemical potential by halogen doped In4Se3-xH0.03 (H =Halogen elements) crystals, we achieved high ZT (maximum ZT 1.53) over a wide temperature range. (Adv. Mater. v.23, p.2191, 2011) Here we demonstrate the low dimensionality increases power factor in CeTe2-xSbx single crystals. The band structures of CeTe2 show the 2-dimensional (2D) Fermi surface nesting behavior as well as a 3-dimensional (3D) electron Fermi surface hindering the perfect charge density wave (CDW) gap opening. By hole doping with the substitution of Sb at the Te-site, the 3D-like Fermi surface disappears and the 2D perfect CDW gap opening enhances the power factor up to x = 0.1. With further hole doping, the Fermi surfaces become 3-dimensional structure with heavy hole bands. The enhancement of the power factor is observed near the dimensional crossover of CDW, at x = 0.1, where the CDW gap is maximized. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program (2011-0021335), Mid-career Research Program (Strategy) (No. 2012R1A2A1A03005174) through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, and TJ Park Junior Faculty Fellowship funded by the POSCO TJ Park Foundation.

  15. Defects responsible for abnormal n-type conductivity in Ag-excess doped PbTe thermoelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Byungki Lee, Jae Ki; Lee, Ji Eun; Joo, Sung-Jae; Kim, Bong-Seo; Min, Bok-Ki; Lee, Hee-Woong; Park, Su-Dong; Oh, Min-Wook

    2015-07-07

    Density functional calculations have been performed to investigate the role of Ag defects in PbTe thermoelectric materials. Ag-defects can be either donor, acceptor, or isovalent neutral defect. When Ag is heavily doped in PbTe, the neutral (Ag-Ag) dimer defect at Pb-site is formed and the environment changes to the Pb-rich/Te-poor condition. Under Pb-rich condition, the ionized Ag-interstitial defect (Ag{sub I}{sup +}) becomes the major donor. The formation energy of Ag{sub I}{sup +} is smaller than other native and Ag-related defects. Also it is found that Ag{sub I}{sup +} is an effective dopant. There is no additional impurity state near the band gap and the conduction band minimum. The charge state of Ag{sub I}{sup +} defect is maintained even when the Fermi level is located above the conduction band minimum. The diffusion constant of Ag{sub I}{sup +} is calculated based on the temperature dependent Fermi level, formation energy, and migration energy. When T > 550 K, the diffusion length of Ag within a few minutes is comparable to the grain size of the polycrystalline PbTe, implying that Ag is dissolved into PbTe and this donor defect is distributed over the whole lattice in Ag-excess doped polycrystalline PbTe. The predicted solubility of Ag{sub I}{sup +} well explains the increased electron carrier concentration and electrical conductivity reported in Ag-excess doped polycrystalline PbTe at T = 450–750 K [Pei et al., Adv. Energy Mater. 1, 291 (2011)]. In addition, we suggest that this abnormal doping behavior is also found for Au-doped PbTe.

  16. Adenovirus as a gene therapy vector for hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Marini, F C; Yu, Q; Wickham, T; Kovesdi, I; Andreeff, M

    2000-06-01

    Adenovirus (Adv)-mediated gene transfer has recently gained new attention as a means to deliver genes for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) or progenitor cell gene therapy. In the past, HSCs have been regarded as poor Adv targets, mainly because they lack the specific Adv receptors required for efficient and productive Adv infection. In addition, the nonintegrating nature of Adv has prevented its application to HSC and bone marrow transduction protocols where long-term expression is required. There is even controversy as to whether Adv can infect hematopoietic cells at all. In fact, the ability of Adv to infect epithelium-based targets and its inability to effectively transfect HSCs have been used in the development of eradication schemes that use Adv to preferentially infect and "purge" tumor cell-contaminating HSC grafts. However, there are data supporting the existence of productive Adv infections into HSCs. Such protocols involve the application of cytokine mixtures, high multiplicities of infection, long incubation periods, and more recently, immunological and genetic modifications to Adv itself to enable it to efficiently transfer genes into HSCs. This is a rapidly growing field, both in terms of techniques and applications. This review examines the two sides of the Adv/CD34 controversy as well as the current developments in this field.

  17. Cost-effectiveness analysis of lamivudine, telbivudine, and entecavir in treatment of chronic hepatitis B with adefovir dipivoxil resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guiliang; Liu, Yan; Qiu, Ping; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Xu, Linfang; Wen, Ping; Wen, Jianbo; Xiao, Xianzhong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the cost-effectiveness of lamivudine (LMV), telbivudine (LdT), and entecavir (ETV) in treatment of chronic hepatitis B with adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) resistance. Two hundred and fifty-two patients were recruited and screened for resistance to ADV and randomly assigned into three groups: LMV + ADV, LdT + ADV, and ETV + ADV. The ratio of biochemical response, virological response, seroconversion of hepatitis Be antigen (HBeAg)/hepatitis Be antibody (HBeAb), viral breakthrough, and the cost and effectiveness of treatments were analyzed. A comparison of the results of the ratio of biochemical response, virological response and seroconversion of HBeAg/HBeAb, showed no statistical difference between the three groups, with the economic cost of LMV + ADV the lowest, LdT + ADV the middle, and ETV + ADV the highest. The side effects of the three plans are all rare and tolerable. LMV + ADV is the optimal rescue strategy, and LdT + ADV the alternative selection in the economically less developed regions, while ETV + ADV was used in the economically developed regions.

  18. Development of Multiplexed Real-Time Quantitative PCR Assay for Detecting Human Adenoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Meei-Li; Nguy, Long; Ferrenberg, James; Boeckh, Michael; Cent, Anne; Corey, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    Adenoviruses (AdV) have been associated with a wide variety of human disease and are increasingly recognized as viral pathogens that can cause significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Early detection of AdV DNA in plasma and sterile fluids has been shown to be useful for identifying patients at risk for invasive AdV disease. Due to the large number of existing Adv types, few real-time quantitative AdV PCR assays published effectively cover all AdV types. We designed a series of AdV PCR primers and probes and empirically multiplexed them into two separate real-time PCR assays to quantitatively detect all 49 serotypes of human AdV (Types 1-49) available from ATCC. We then subsequently multiplexed all the primers and probes into one reaction. The sensitivity of these assays was determined to be less than 10 copies per reaction (500 copies/ml plasma). In a retrospective evaluation we detected all 84 clinical AdV isolates isolated in cell culture from patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) between 1981 and 1987. Prospective analysis of 46 consecutive clinical samples submitted for adenovirus testing showed greater sensitivity and equal specificity of the AdV PCR than viral culture. This real time PCR assay allows rapid, sensitive and specific quantification of all currently defined adenoviruses into either two or one multiplex assay for clinical samples. PMID:18707838

  19. Replication of Aleutian Mink Disease Parvovirus In Vivo Is Influenced by Residues in the VP2 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Fox, James M.; McCrackin Stevenson, Mary A.; Bloom, Marshall E.

    1999-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) is the etiological agent of Aleutian disease of mink. Several ADV isolates have been identified which vary in the severity of the disease they elicit. The isolate ADV-Utah replicates to high levels in mink, causing severe Aleutian disease that results in death within 6 to 8 weeks, but does not replicate in Crandell feline kidney (CrFK) cells. In contrast, ADV-G replicates in CrFK cells but does not replicate in mink. The ability of the virus to replicate in vivo is determined by virally encoded determinants contained within a defined region of the VP2 gene (M. E. Bloom, J. M. Fox, B. D. Berry, K. L. Oie, and J. B. Wolfinbarger. Virology 251:288–296, 1998). Within this region, ADV-G and ADV-Utah differ at only five amino acid residues. To determine which of these five amino acid residues comprise the in vivo replication determinant, site-directed mutagenesis was performed to individually convert the amino acid residues of ADV-G to those of ADV-Utah. A virus in which the ADV-G VP2 residue at 534, histidine (H), was converted to an aspartic acid (D) of ADV-Utah replicated in CrFK cells as efficiently as ADV-G. H534D also replicated in mink, causing transient viremia at 30 days postinfection and a strong antibody response. Animals infected with this virus developed diffuse hepatocellular microvesicular steatosis, an abnormal accumulation of intracellular fat, but did not develop classical Aleutian disease. Thus, the substitution of an aspartic acid at residue 534 for a histidine allowed replication of ADV-G in mink, but the ability to replicate was not sufficient to cause classical Aleutian disease. PMID:10482625

  20. Prognostics Health Management for Advanced Small Modular Reactor Passive Components

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Coble, Jamie B.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Wootan, David W.; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Berglin, Eric J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Henager, Charles H.

    2013-10-18

    In the United States, sustainable nuclear power to promote energy security is a key national energy priority. Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMR), which are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts using non-light-water reactor (LWR) coolants such as liquid metal, helium, or liquid salt may provide a longer-term alternative to more conventional LWR-based concepts. The economics of AdvSMRs will be impacted by the reduced economy-of-scale savings when compared to traditional LWRs and the controllable day-to-day costs of AdvSMRs are expected to be dominated by operations and maintenance costs. Therefore, achieving the full benefits of AdvSMR deployment requires a new paradigm for plant design and management. In this context, prognostic health management of passive components in AdvSMRs can play a key role in enabling the economic deployment of AdvSMRs. In this paper, the background of AdvSMRs is discussed from which requirements for PHM systems are derived. The particle filter technique is proposed as a prognostics framework for AdvSMR passive components and the suitability of the particle filter technique is illustrated by using it to forecast thermal creep degradation using a physics-of-failure model and based on a combination of types of measurements conceived for passive AdvSMR components.

  1. 77 FR 49463 - National Science Board; Sunshine Act Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ....m. SUBJECT MATTER: Chairman's remarks, discussion of Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (AdvLIGO) Construction Project Change in Scope, and discussion of and action on...

  2. Fatal systemic adenoviral infection superimposed on pulmonary mucormycosis in a child with acute leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Yu Mi; Hwang-Bo, Seok; Kim, Seong koo; Han, Seung Beom; Chung, Nack-Gyun; Kang, Jin Han

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Although adenovirus (ADV) infection usually causes self-limiting respiratory disorders in immune competent children; severe and systemic ADV infection in children undergoing chemotherapy for leukemia has been continuously reported. Nevertheless, there has been no consensus on risk factors and treatment strategies for severe ADV infection in children undergoing chemotherapy. Case summary: We report a case of a 15-year-old boy with a fatal systemic ADV infection. He had received reinduction chemotherapy for relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia under continuing antifungal therapy for previously diagnosed fungal pneumonia. He complained of fever and right shoulder pain 4 days after completing the reinduction chemotherapy. In spite of appropriate antibiotic and antifungal therapy, pneumonia was aggravated and gross hematuria was accompanied. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction test for respiratory viruses was positive for ADV in a blood sample, and a urine culture was positive for ADV. He received oral ribavirin, intravenous immunoglobulin, and intravenous cidofovir therapy; however, he eventually died. Relapsed leukemia, concurrent fungal pneumonia, and delayed cidofovir administration were considered the cause of the grave outcome in this patient. Conclusion: ADV may cause severe infections not only in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients, but also in patients undergoing chemotherapy for acute leukemia. The risk factors for severe ADV infection in patients undergoing chemotherapy should be determined in the future studies, and early antiviral therapy should be administered to immune compromised patients with systemic ADV infection. PMID:27749571

  3. Controlling Cellular Endocytosis at the Nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglia, Giuseppe

    2011-03-01

    , amphiphilic molecules, and hydrophilic molecules without affecting the viability of cells or even triggering inflammatory pathways. Finally we show how size, surface chemistry and surface topology of the vesicles affect their interaction with the cell membrane and hence their cellular uptake. References: C. Lo Presti, M. Massignani, T. Smart, H. Lomas, and G. Battaglia J. Mater. Chem. (2009) 19, 3576-3590 H. Lomas, I. Canton, S. MacNeil, J. Du, S.P. Armes, A.J. Ryan, A.L. Lewis and G. Battaglia Adv. Mater. (2007). 19, 4238-4243 M. Massignani, I. Canton, N. Patikarnmonthon, N. J. Warren, S. P. Armes, A. L. Lewis and G. Battaglia, Nature Prec., 2010, http://hdl.handle.net/10101/npre.2010.4427.1 M. Massignani, C. LoPresti, A. Blanazs, J. Madsen, S. P. Armes, A. L. Lewis and G. Battaglia Small, 2009, 5, 2424-2432. M. Massignani, T. Sun, A. Blanazs, V. Hearnden, I. Canton, P. Desphande, S. Armes, S. MacNeil, A. Lewis and G. Battaglia PLoS One, 2010, 5, e10459.

  4. Highly-efficient all-dielectric Huygens' surface holograms (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Katie; Wang, Lei; Staude, Isabelle; James, Anthony; Dominguez, Jason; Subramania, Ganapathi; Liu, Sheng; Decker, Manuel; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Brener, Igal; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2016-04-01

    that lack dissipative losses and also suppress unwanted reflections without relying on cross-polarization schemes that additionally suffer from polarization-conversion losses. We now use such Huygens' surfaces in order to create a highly-efficient phase masks for the generation of optical holograms. By varying only one geometrical parameter, namely the lattice periodicity that can be controlled easily during the fabrication process we can effectively generate arbitrary hologram images from a 4-level phase discretization. In order to design the arrangement of the pixels in the metasurfaces, we calculate the phase mask required for a hologram generating the letters `hv' in the hologram plane. In the next step the Huygens' hologram is fabricated on a back-side polished SOI wafer by electron-beam lithography followed by a reactive-ion etching process. Then, we measure the phase of the generated hologram using a home-built Mach-Zehnder interferometer and perform a phase retrieval process to compare the experimental phase with the designed phase. Finally, we record the holographic image in the hologram plane and demonstrate that the device functionality is completely polarization insensitive with a transmission efficiency of 82%, in contrast to all the earlier works utilizing geometric phase. References [1] Yu et al., Nat. Mater. 13, 139 (2014). [2] Pfeiffer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 197401 (2013). [3] Monticone et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 203903 (2013). [4] Decker et al., Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 813 (2015).

  5. Characterizing filamentary switching in resistive memories (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busby, Yan; Pireaux, Jean-Jacques

    2015-09-01

    .J.W. List-Kratochvil, Adv. Mater. 2014, 26, 2508-2513. [2] Y. Busby, N. Crespo-Monteiro, M. Girleanu, M. Brinkmann, O. Ersen, J.-J. Pireaux, Organic Electronics 2015, 16, 40-45. [3] C. Wolf, S. Nau, S. Sax, Y. Busby, J.-J. Pireaux, E.J.W. List-Kratochvil (under submission). [4] G. Casula, P. Cosseddu, Y. Busby, J.-J. Pireaux, M. Rosowski, B. Tkacz Szczesna, K. Soliwoda, G. Celichowski, J. Grobelny, J. Novák, R. Banerjee, F. Schreiber, A. Bonfiglio, Organic Electronics, 2015, 18, 17-23. [5] Y. Busby, S. Nau, S. Sax, E.J.W. List- Kratochvil, J. Novak, R. Banerjee, F. Schreiber, J.-J. Pireaux, (under submission)

  6. Toughening Mechanism of Double Network Hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Jian Ping

    2010-03-01

    The fundamental toughening mechanism of DN gels [1] is of great interest to researchers. Extensive experimental and theoretical studies have been performed to explain this mechanism [2-7]. Yielding and necking deformation [2] that was observed through tensile tests and rate-independent hysteresis [3] observed through cyclic loading tests have indicated that DN gels can accumulate internal damage before the suffering macroscopic fracture; after damage accumulation, the DN gels become much softer. We assume that on the microscopic level, yielding is caused by the partial breakage and fragmentation of the brittle first network and interconnection among the fragments by the polymer chains of second network [2]. Brown [4] and Tanaka [5] have proposed similar models that can qualitatively explain the anomalously high fracture energy, assuming that the DN gel is locally damaged (yielded) around the crack tip and that the energy dissipated for damage accumulation enhances the effective fracture energy. Using AFM measurements [6] and 3D color laser microscope[7], we successfully detected the existence of softened regions, of several hundreds μm in thickness, at the crack tip just below the fracture surfaces, which supports the assumption of localized damage accumulation. A linear relationship between the thickness of the softened yielding zone and the fracture energy of the gel was observed, which is in agreement with the local yielding zone explanation. [4pt] [1] Gong, J. P.; Katsuyama, Y.; Kurokawa, T.; Osada, Y. Adv. Mater. 2003, 15, 1155. [0pt] [2] Na Y.H., Tanaka Y., Kawauchi Y., Furukawa H., Sumiyoshi T., Gong J. P., Osada Y., Macromolecules 2006, 39(14), 4641. [0pt] [3] Webber, R. E.; Creton, C.; Brown, H. R.; Gong, J. P. Macromolecules 2007, 40, 2919. [0pt] [4] Brown, H. R. Macromolecules 2007, 40, 3815. [0pt] [5] Tanaka, Y. Euro Phys. Letter. 2007, 78, 56005. [0pt] [6] Tanaka Y.; Kawauchi Y.; Kurokawa T.; Furukawa H.; Okajima T.; Gong J. P. Macrom. Rapid Comm

  7. FOREWORD: Focus on Superconductivity in Semiconductors Focus on Superconductivity in Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Yoshihiko

    2008-12-01

    Since the discovery of superconductivity in diamond, much attention has been given to the issue of superconductivity in semiconductors. Because diamond has a large band gap of 5.5 eV, it is called a wide-gap semiconductor. Upon heavy boron doping over 3×1020 cm-3, diamond becomes metallic and demonstrates superconductivity at temperatures below 11.4 K. This discovery implies that a semiconductor can become a superconductor upon carrier doping. Recently, superconductivity was also discovered in boron-doped silicon and SiC semiconductors. The number of superconducting semiconductors has increased. In 2008 an Fe-based superconductor was discovered in a research project on carrier doping in a LaCuSeO wide-gap semiconductor. This discovery enhanced research activities in the field of superconductivity, where many scientists place particular importance on superconductivity in semiconductors. This focus issue features a variety of topics on superconductivity in semiconductors selected from the 2nd International Workshop on Superconductivity in Diamond and Related Materials (IWSDRM2008), which was held at the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Japan in July 2008. The 1st workshop was held in 2005 and was published as a special issue in Science and Technology of Advanced Materials (STAM) in 2006 (Takano 2006 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 7 S1). The selection of papers describe many important experimental and theoretical studies on superconductivity in semiconductors. Topics on boron-doped diamond include isotope effects (Ekimov et al) and the detailed structure of boron sites, and the relation between superconductivity and disorder induced by boron doping. Regarding other semiconductors, the superconducting properties of silicon and SiC (Kriener et al, Muranaka et al and Yanase et al) are discussed, and In2O3 (Makise et al) is presented as a new superconducting semiconductor. Iron-based superconductors are presented as a new series of high

  8. Nanostructured silicon via metal assisted catalyzed etch (MACE): chemistry fundamentals and pattern engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toor, Fatima; Miller, Jeffrey B.; Davidson, Lauren M.; Nichols, Logan; Duan, Wenqi; Jura, Michael P.; Yim, Joanne; Forziati, Joanne; Black, Marcie R.

    2016-10-01

    There are a range of different methods to generate a nanostructured surface on silicon (Si) but the most cost effective and optically interesting is the metal assisted wet chemical etching (MACE) (Koynov et al 2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 88 203107). MACE of Si is a controllable, room-temperature wet-chemical technique that uses a thin layer of metal to etch the surface of Si, leaving behind various nano- and micro-scale surface features or ‘black silicon’. MACE-fabricated nanowires (NWs) provide improved antireflection and light trapping functionality (Toor et al 2016 Nanoscale 8 15448-66) compared with the traditional ‘iso-texturing’ (Campbell and Green 1987 J. Appl. Phys. 62 243-9). The resulting lower reflection and improved light trapping can lead to higher short circuit currents in NW solar cells (Toor et al 2011 Appl. Phys. Lett. 99 103501). In addition, NW cells can have higher fill factors and voltages than traditionally processed cells, thus leading to increased solar cell efficiencies (Cabrera et al 2013 IEEE J. Photovolt. 3 102-7). MACE NW processing also has synergy with next generation Si solar cell designs, such as thin epitaxial-Si and passivated emitter rear contact (Toor et al 2016 Nanoscale 8 15448-66). While several companies have begun manufacturing black Si, and many more are researching these techniques, much of the work has not been published in traditional journals and is publicly available only through conference proceedings and patent publications, which makes learning the field challenging. There have been three specialized review articles published recently on certain aspects of MACE or black Si, but do not present a full review that would benefit the industry (Liu et al 2014 Energy Environ. Sci. 7 3223-63 Yusufoglu et al 2015 IEEE J. Photovolt. 5 320-8 Huang et al 2011 Adv. Mater. 23 285-308). In this feature article, we review the chemistry of MACE and explore how changing parameters in the wet etch process effects the resulting

  9. Ultrafast magnetization dynamics of cobalt nanoparticles and individual ferromagnetic dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigot, Jean-Yves

    2009-03-01

    The ultrafast magnetization dynamics of magnetic materials can be investigated using femtosecond laser pulses to perform femtosecond magneto-optical Kerr and Faraday measurements [1]. In this talk, we will focus on the magnetization dynamics of cobalt nanoparticles which are either ferromagnetic or super-paramagnetic at room temperature and on the dynamics of individual ferromagnetic dots. In the first case (Co nanoparticles), we will demonstrate that the magnetization dynamics preceding the fluctuations over the anisotropy energy barrier is coherent but exhibits a strongly damped precession [2]. These results, which have been obtained with a three dimensional analysis of the magnetization vector [3] will be discussed in the context of the N'eel-Brown models involving the gyromagnetic character of the magnetization. We will also examine the dynamics of self-organized supra-crystals of cobalt nanoparticles [4]. In the second case, we will present the ultrafast magnetization dynamics of individual ferromagnetic dots (CoPt3, Permalloy, Nickel) made either by e-beam lithography or induced optically on thin films deposited on sapphire and glass substrates. The technique employed is the magneto-optical pump probe imaging (MOPPI) which allows performing time resolved magneto-optical Kerr images with with spatial and temporal resolutions of 300 nm and 150 fs [5]. The study of the demagnetization of the dots for different laser intensities shows that it is possible to write and read ultrafast monodomains on thin films. [3pt] [1] E. Beaurepaire, J.-C. Merle, A. Daunois, J.-Y. Bigot Phys. Rev. Lett., 76, 4250 (1996) [0pt] [2] L.H.F. Andrade, A. Laraoui, M. Vomir, D. Muller, J.-P. Stoquert, C. Estournès, E. Beaurepaire, J.-Y. Bigot Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 127401 (2006). [0pt] [3] M. Vomir, L. H.F. Andrade, L. Guidoni, E. Beaurepaire, J.-Y. Bigot Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 237601 (2005). [0pt] [4] I. Lisiecki, V. Halt'e, C. Petit, M.-P. Pileni, J.-Y. Bigot Adv. Mater., 20, 4176 (2008

  10. Nanostructured silicon via metal assisted catalyzed etch (MACE): chemistry fundamentals and pattern engineering.

    PubMed

    Toor, Fatima; Miller, Jeffrey B; Davidson, Lauren M; Nichols, Logan; Duan, Wenqi; Jura, Michael P; Yim, Joanne; Forziati, Joanne; Black, Marcie R

    2016-10-14

    There are a range of different methods to generate a nanostructured surface on silicon (Si) but the most cost effective and optically interesting is the metal assisted wet chemical etching (MACE) (Koynov et al 2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 88 203107). MACE of Si is a controllable, room-temperature wet-chemical technique that uses a thin layer of metal to etch the surface of Si, leaving behind various nano- and micro-scale surface features or 'black silicon'. MACE-fabricated nanowires (NWs) provide improved antireflection and light trapping functionality (Toor et al 2016 Nanoscale 8 15448-66) compared with the traditional 'iso-texturing' (Campbell and Green 1987 J. Appl. Phys. 62 243-9). The resulting lower reflection and improved light trapping can lead to higher short circuit currents in NW solar cells (Toor et al 2011 Appl. Phys. Lett. 99 103501). In addition, NW cells can have higher fill factors and voltages than traditionally processed cells, thus leading to increased solar cell efficiencies (Cabrera et al 2013 IEEE J. Photovolt. 3 102-7). MACE NW processing also has synergy with next generation Si solar cell designs, such as thin epitaxial-Si and passivated emitter rear contact (Toor et al 2016 Nanoscale 8 15448-66). While several companies have begun manufacturing black Si, and many more are researching these techniques, much of the work has not been published in traditional journals and is publicly available only through conference proceedings and patent publications, which makes learning the field challenging. There have been three specialized review articles published recently on certain aspects of MACE or black Si, but do not present a full review that would benefit the industry (Liu et al 2014 Energy Environ. Sci. 7 3223-63; Yusufoglu et al 2015 IEEE J. Photovolt. 5 320-8; Huang et al 2011 Adv. Mater. 23 285-308). In this feature article, we review the chemistry of MACE and explore how changing parameters in the wet etch process effects the resulting texture

  11. Electrically tunable laser based on heliconical cholesteric (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Jie; Varanytsia, Andrii; Minkowski, Fred; Paterson, Daniel A.; Imrie, Corrie T.; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.; Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Tunable Selective Reflection of Light from Ultraviolet to Visible and Infrared by Heliconical Cholesterics, Adv Mater, 27 (2015) 3014-3018.

  12. Novel Adenoviruses in Wild Primates: a High Level of Genetic Diversity and Evidence of Zoonotic Transmissions ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Wevers, Diana; Metzger, Sonja; Babweteera, Fred; Bieberbach, Marc; Boesch, Christophe; Cameron, Kenneth; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Cranfield, Mike; Gray, Maryke; Harris, Laurie A.; Head, Josephine; Jeffery, Kathryn; Knauf, Sascha; Lankester, Felix; Leendertz, Siv Aina J.; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth; Mugisha, Lawrence; Nitsche, Andreas; Reed, Patricia; Robbins, Martha; Travis, Dominic A.; Zommers, Zinta; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Ehlers, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Adenoviruses (AdVs) broadly infect vertebrate hosts, including a variety of nonhuman primates (NHPs). In the present study, we identified AdVs in NHPs living in their natural habitats, and through the combination of phylogenetic analyses and information on the habitats and epidemiological settings, we detected possible horizontal transmission events between NHPs and humans. Wild NHPs were analyzed with a pan-primate AdV-specific PCR using a degenerate nested primer set that targets the highly conserved adenovirus DNA polymerase gene. A plethora of novel AdV sequences were identified, representing at least 45 distinct AdVs. From the AdV-positive individuals, 29 nearly complete hexon genes were amplified and, based on phylogenetic analysis, tentatively allocated to all known human AdV species (Human adenovirus A to Human adenovirus G [HAdV-A to -G]) as well as to the only simian AdV species (Simian adenovirus A [SAdV-A]). Interestingly, five of the AdVs detected in great apes grouped into the HAdV-A, HAdV-D, HAdV-F, or SAdV-A clade. Furthermore, we report the first detection of AdVs in New World monkeys, clustering at the base of the primate AdV evolutionary tree. Most notably, six chimpanzee AdVs of species HAdV-A to HAdV-F revealed a remarkably close relationship to human AdVs, possibly indicating recent interspecies transmission events. PMID:21835802

  13. Molecular characterization, phylogeny analysis and pathogenicity of a Muscovy duck adenovirus strain isolated in China in 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study aimed to characterize a novel adenovirus (AdV) isolated from diseased Muscovy ducks in China. After the AdV was successfully propagated in duck embryo fibroblasts, the morphological and physicochemical properties of the virions were studied by electron microscopy and different tests. The ...

  14. Complete genome sequence and integrated protein localization and interaction map for alfalfa dwarf virus, which combines properties of both cytoplasmic and nuclear plant rhabdoviruses

    SciTech Connect

    Bejerman, Nicolás; Giolitti, Fabián; Breuil, Soledad de; Trucco, Verónica; Nome, Claudia; Lenardon, Sergio; Dietzgen, Ralf G.

    2015-09-15

    Summary: We have determined the full-length 14,491-nucleotide genome sequence of a new plant rhabdovirus, alfalfa dwarf virus (ADV). Seven open reading frames (ORFs) were identified in the antigenomic orientation of the negative-sense, single-stranded viral RNA, in the order 3′-N-P-P3-M-G-P6-L-5′. The ORFs are separated by conserved intergenic regions and the genome coding region is flanked by complementary 3′ leader and 5′ trailer sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleoprotein amino acid sequence indicated that this alfalfa-infecting rhabdovirus is related to viruses in the genus Cytorhabdovirus. When transiently expressed as GFP fusions in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, most ADV proteins accumulated in the cell periphery, but unexpectedly P protein was localized exclusively in the nucleus. ADV P protein was shown to have a homotypic, and heterotypic nuclear interactions with N, P3 and M proteins by bimolecular fluorescence complementation. ADV appears unique in that it combines properties of both cytoplasmic and nuclear plant rhabdoviruses. - Highlights: • The complete genome of alfalfa dwarf virus is obtained. • An integrated localization and interaction map for ADV is determined. • ADV has a genome sequence similarity and evolutionary links with cytorhabdoviruses. • ADV protein localization and interaction data show an association with the nucleus. • ADV combines properties of both cytoplasmic and nuclear plant rhabdoviruses.

  15. Adenovirus 36 and Obesity: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Ponterio, Eleonora; Gnessi, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    There is an epidemic of obesity starting about 1980 in both developed and undeveloped countries definitely associated with multiple etiologies. About 670 million people worldwide are obese. The incidence of obesity has increased in all age groups, including children. Obesity causes numerous diseases and the interaction between genetic, metabolic, social, cultural and environmental factors are possible cofactors for the development of obesity. Evidence emerging over the last 20 years supports the hypothesis that viral infections may be associated with obesity in animals and humans. The most widely studied infectious agent possibly linked to obesity is adenovirus 36 (Adv36). Adv36 causes obesity in animals. In humans, Adv36 associates with obesity both in adults and children and the prevalence of Adv36 increases in relation to the body mass index. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that the viral E4orf1 protein (early region 4 open reading frame 1, Adv) mediates the Adv36 effect including its adipogenic potential. The Adv36 infection should therefore be considered as a possible risk factor for obesity and could be a potential new therapeutic target in addition to an original way to understand the worldwide rise of the epidemic of obesity. Here, the data indicating a possible link between viral infection and obesity with a particular emphasis to the Adv36 will be reviewed. PMID:26184280

  16. Adenoviruses C in non-hospitalized Mexican children older than five years of age with acute respiratory infection.

    PubMed

    Rosete, Dora P; Manjarrez, María Eugenia; Barrón, Blanca L

    2008-03-01

    Adenoviruses (AdV) are commonly involved in acute respiratory infections (ARI), which cause high morbidity and mortality in children. AdV are grouped in six species (A-F), which are associated with a wide range of diseases. The aim of this study was to identify the AdV species infecting non-hospitalized Mexican children with ARI symptoms, attending to the same school. For that, a PCR/RFLP assay was designed for a region of the hexon gene, which was chosen, based on the bioinformatical analysis of AdV genomes obtained from GenBank. A total of 100 children's nasopharyngeal samples were collected from January to June, 2005, and used for viral isolation in A549 cells and PCR/RFLP analysis. Only 15 samples produced cytopathic effect, and in all of them AdV C was identified. AdV C was also identified in eight additional nasopharyngeal samples which were negative for viral isolation. In summary, this outpatient population showed a rate of AdV infection of 23%, and only AdV C was detected.

  17. A novel adenovirus of Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    PubMed

    Wevers, Diana; Leendertz, Fabian H; Scuda, Nelly; Boesch, Christophe; Robbins, Martha M; Head, Josephine; Ludwig, Carsten; Kühn, Joachim; Ehlers, Bernhard

    2010-11-05

    Adenoviruses (AdV) broadly infect vertebrate hosts including a variety of primates. We identified a novel AdV in the feces of captive gorillas by isolation in cell culture, electron microscopy and PCR. From the supernatants of infected cultures we amplified DNA polymerase (DPOL), preterminal protein (pTP) and hexon gene sequences with generic pan primate AdV PCR assays. The sequences in-between were amplified by long-distance PCRs of 2-10 kb length, resulting in a final sequence of 15.6 kb. Phylogenetic analysis placed the novel gorilla AdV into a cluster of primate AdVs belonging to the species Human adenovirus B (HAdV-B). Depending on the analyzed gene, its position within the cluster was variable. To further elucidate its origin, feces samples of wild gorillas were analyzed. AdV hexon sequences were detected which are indicative for three distinct and novel gorilla HAdV-B viruses, among them a virus nearly identical to the novel AdV isolated from captive gorillas. This shows that the discovered virus is a member of a group of HAdV-B viruses that naturally infect gorillas. The mixed phylogenetic clusters of gorilla, chimpanzee, bonobo and human AdVs within the HAdV-B species indicate that host switches may have been a component of the evolution of human and non-human primate HAdV-B viruses.

  18. 78 FR 62907 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... for adding liquidity to the Exchange. Specifically, the Exchange is proposing to amend the methodology... that eliminating days where the Exchange experiences an Exchange Outage from the definition of ADV and... among Exchange constituents as the methodology for calculating ADV and TCV will apply equally to...

  19. Detection of Soft Gamma-Ray Emission from the Seyfert II Galaxy NGC 4507 by the OSSE Telescope (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    botes1.tesre.bo.cnr.it G. Malaguti : 38045:: MALAGUTI , malaguti @icarus.tesre.bo.cnr.it E. Jourdain: 17424::ROQUES J.P. Roques: 17424::ROQUES W.N. Johnson...Press), 537 Awaki, H, and Koyama, K. 1993, Adv. Space Res. Vol. 13,N.12, 221 Bassani L., Malaguti G. and Palumbo G.G.C., 1995, Adv. Space Res., in

  20. Sublingual immunization with recombinant adenovirus encoding SARS-CoV spike protein induces systemic and mucosal immunity without redirection of the virus to the brain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sublingual (s.l.) administration of soluble protein antigens, inactivated viruses, or virus-like particles has been shown to induce broad immune responses in mucosal and extra-mucosal tissues. Recombinant replication-defective adenovirus vectors (rADVs) infect mucosa surface and therefore can serve as a mucosal antigen delivery vehicle. In this study we examined whether s.l. immunization with rADV encoding spike protein (S) (rADV-S) of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) induces protective immunity against SARS-CoV and could serve as a safe mucosal route for delivery of rADV. Results Here, we show that s.l. administration of rADV-S induced serum SARS-CoV neutralizing and airway IgA antibodies in mice. These antibody responses are comparable to those induced by intranasal (i.n.) administration. In addition, s.l. immunization induced antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses in the lungs that are superior to those induced by intramuscular immunization. Importantly, unlike i.n. administration, s.l. immunization with rADV did not redirect the rADV vector to the olfactory bulb. Conclusion Our study indicates that s.l. immunization with rADV-S is safe and effective in induction of a broad spectrum of immune responses and presumably protection against infection with SARS-CoV. PMID:22995185

  1. 75 FR 69507 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; National Stock Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... Endnote 3 of the Fee Schedule, ``Liquidity Adding ADV'') is less than 25 million shares (``Tier 1''); a rebate of $0.0027 per share if Liquidity Adding ADV is at least 25 million shares and less than 40... is less than 20 basis points of TCADV. The Tier 2 rebate of $0.0027 is proposed to be...

  2. Adenovirus vectors lacking virus-associated RNA expression enhance shRNA activity to suppress hepatitis C virus replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Zheng; Shi, Guoli; Kondo, Saki; Ito, Masahiko; Maekawa, Aya; Suzuki, Mariko; Saito, Izumu; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Kanegae, Yumi

    2013-12-01

    First-generation adenovirus vectors (FG AdVs) expressing short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) effectively downregulate the expressions of target genes. However, this vector, in fact, expresses not only the transgene product, but also virus-associated RNAs (VA RNAs) that disturb cellular RNAi machinery. We have established a production method for VA-deleted AdVs lacking expression of VA RNAs. Here, we showed that the highest shRNA activity was obtained when the shRNA was inserted not at the popularly used E1 site, but at the E4 site. We then compared the activities of shRNAs against hepatitis C virus (HCV) expressed from VA-deleted AdVs or conventional AdVs. The VA-deleted AdVs inhibited HCV production much more efficiently. Therefore, VA-deleted AdVs were more effective than the currently used AdVs for shRNA downregulation, probably because of the lack of competition between VA RNAs and the shRNAs. These VA-deleted AdVs might enable more effective gene therapies for chronic hepatitis C.

  3. Effects of Levels of Automation for Advanced Small Modular Reactors: Impacts on Performance, Workload, and Situation Awareness

    SciTech Connect

    Johanna Oxstrand; Katya Le Blanc

    2014-07-01

    The Human-Automation Collaboration (HAC) research effort is a part of the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) program conducted at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The DOE AdvSMR program focuses on plant design and management, reduction of capital costs as well as plant operations and maintenance costs (O&M), and factory production costs benefits.

  4. Efficient genome replication of hepatitis B virus using adenovirus vector: a compact pregenomic RNA-expression unit

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Mariko; Kondo, Saki; Yamasaki, Manabu; Matsuda, Norie; Nomoto, Akio; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Saito, Izumu; Kanegae, Yumi

    2017-01-01

    The complicated replication mechanisms of hepatitis B virus (HBV) have impeded HBV studies and anti-HBV therapy development as well. Herein we report efficient genome replication of HBV applying adenovirus vectors (AdVs) showing high transduction efficiency. Even in primary hepatocytes derived from humanized mice the transduction efficiencies using AdVs were 450-fold higher compared than those using plasmids. By using an expression unit consisting of the CMV promoter, 1.03-copy HBV genome and foreign poly(A) signal, we successfully generated an improved AdV (HBV103-AdV) that efficiently provided 58 times more pregenomic RNA than previously reported AdVs. The HBV103-AdV-mediated HBV replication was easily and precisely detected using quantitative real-time PCR in primary hepatocytes as well as in HepG2 cells. Notably, when the AdV containing replication-defective HBV genome of 1.14 copy was transduced, we observed that HBV DNA-containing circular molecules (pseudo-ccc DNA) were produced, which were probably generated through homologous recombination. However, the replication-defective HBV103-AdV hardly yielded the pseudo-ccc, probably because the repeated sequences are vey short. Additionally, the efficacies of entecavir and lamivudine were quantitatively evaluated using this system at only 4 days postinfection with HBV103-AdVs. Therefore, this system offers high production of HBV genome replication and thus could become used widely. PMID:28157182

  5. Optimization and internalization mechanisms of PEGylated adenovirus vector with targeting peptide for cancer gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xing-Lei; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Ruan, Gui-Xin; Chen, Yu-Zhe; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Mukai, Yohei; Okada, Naoki; Gao, Jian-Qing; Nakagawa, Shinsaku

    2012-08-13

    We have previously developed a novel adenovirus vector (Adv) that targeted tumor tissues/vasculatures after systemic administration. The surface of this Adv is conjugated with CGKRK tumor homing peptide by the cross-linking reaction of polyethyleneglycol (PEG). In this study, we showed that the condition of PEG modification was important to minimize the gene expression in normal tissues after systemic treatment. When Adv was modified only with PEG-linked CGKRK, its luciferase expression was enhanced even in the liver tissue, as well as the tumor tissue. However, in the reaction with the mixture of non-cross-linking PEG and PEG-linked CGKRK, we found out that the best modification could suppress its gene expression in the liver, without losing that in the tumor. We also studied the internalization mechanisms of CGKRK-conjugated Adv. Results suggested that there is a specific interaction of the CGKRK peptide with a receptor at the cell surface enabling efficient internalization of CGKRK-conjugated Adv. The presence of cell-surface heparan sulfate is important receptor for the cellular binding and uptake of CGKRK-conjugated Adv. Moreover, macropinocytosis-mediated endocytosis is also important in endocytosis of CGKRK-conjugated Adv, aside from clathrin-mediated and caveolae-mediated endocytosis. These results could help evaluate the potentiality of CGKRK-conjugated Adv as a prototype vector with suitable efficacy and safety for systemic cancer gene therapy.

  6. Characteristics of Adenovirus Pneumonia in Korean Military Personnel, 2012–2016

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hee; Yoo, Hongseok; Park, Sung Bum

    2017-01-01

    Adenovirus (AdV) can cause severe pneumonia in non-immunocompromised host, but limited data exist on the distinctive characteristics of AdV pneumonia in non-immunocompromised patients. We evaluated distinctive clinico-laboratory and radiological characteristics and outcomes of AdV pneumonia (n = 179), compared with non-AdV pneumonia (n = 188) in Korean military personnel between 2012 and 2016. AdV pneumonia patients had a higher rate of consolidation with ground-glass opacity (101/152) in lobar distribution (89/152) on computed tomography (CT) (P < 0.001). Laboratory findings showed a higher incidence of unusual blood profiles such as leukopenia (55/179, P < 0.001) or thrombocytopenia (100/179, P < 0.001). The patients had more systemic symptoms such as myalgia (82/179, P = 0.001) or diarrhea (23/179, P < 0.001), compared with non-AdV pneumonia patients. Bacterial co-infection was identified in 28.5% of AdV pneumonia. Most of the AdV isolates typed (69/72, 95.8%) were AdV-55. Patients with a pneumonia severity index ≥ class III were more commonly observed in AdV pneumonia patients compared with non-AdV pneumonia patients (11.2% vs. 2.1%, P < 0.001), and time to clinical stabilization from admission was longer in the AdV pneumonia patients compared with the non-AdV pneumonia patients (3.8 vs. 2.6 days, P < 0.001). Mechanical ventilation (n = 6) was only required in AdV pneumonia patients, one of whom died due to AdV-55. Our data showed that AdV pneumonia in non-immunocompromised patients had distinct characteristics and most of the isolates typed in our study were AdV-55. It is suggested that AdV-55 is an important pathogen of pneumonia in Korean military personnel. PMID:28049240

  7. Characteristics of Adenovirus Pneumonia in Korean Military Personnel, 2012-2016.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hee; Jhun, Byung Woo; Kim, Hojoong; Yoo, Hongseok; Park, Sung Bum

    2017-02-01

    Adenovirus (AdV) can cause severe pneumonia in non-immunocompromised host, but limited data exist on the distinctive characteristics of AdV pneumonia in non-immunocompromised patients. We evaluated distinctive clinico-laboratory and radiological characteristics and outcomes of AdV pneumonia (n = 179), compared with non-AdV pneumonia (n = 188) in Korean military personnel between 2012 and 2016. AdV pneumonia patients had a higher rate of consolidation with ground-glass opacity (101/152) in lobar distribution (89/152) on computed tomography (CT) (P < 0.001). Laboratory findings showed a higher incidence of unusual blood profiles such as leukopenia (55/179, P < 0.001) or thrombocytopenia (100/179, P < 0.001). The patients had more systemic symptoms such as myalgia (82/179, P = 0.001) or diarrhea (23/179, P < 0.001), compared with non-AdV pneumonia patients. Bacterial co-infection was identified in 28.5% of AdV pneumonia. Most of the AdV isolates typed (69/72, 95.8%) were AdV-55. Patients with a pneumonia severity index ≥ class III were more commonly observed in AdV pneumonia patients compared with non-AdV pneumonia patients (11.2% vs. 2.1%, P < 0.001), and time to clinical stabilization from admission was longer in the AdV pneumonia patients compared with the non-AdV pneumonia patients (3.8 vs. 2.6 days, P < 0.001). Mechanical ventilation (n = 6) was only required in AdV pneumonia patients, one of whom died due to AdV-55. Our data showed that AdV pneumonia in non-immunocompromised patients had distinct characteristics and most of the isolates typed in our study were AdV-55. It is suggested that AdV-55 is an important pathogen of pneumonia in Korean military personnel.

  8. Acoustic Doppler velocimeter-induced acoustic streaming and its implications for measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poindexter, C. M.; Rusello, P. J.; Variano, E. A.

    2011-05-01

    The acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) is widely used for the characterization of fluid flow. Secondary flows ("acoustic streaming") generated by the ADV's acoustic pulses may affect the accuracy of measurements in experiments with small velocities. We assessed the impact of acoustic streaming on flow measurement using particle image velocimetry. The probes of two different ADVs were successively mounted in a tank of quiescent water. The probes' ultrasound emitters were aligned with a laser light sheet. Observed flow was primarily in the axial direction, accelerating from the ultrasound emitter and peaking within centimeters of the velocimeter sampling volume before dropping off. We measured the dependence of acoustic streaming velocity on ADV configuration, finding that different settings induce streaming ranging from negligible to more than 2.0 cm s-1. From these results, we describe cases where acoustic streaming affects velocity measurements and also cases where ADVs accurately measure their own acoustic streaming.

  9. Draft Function Allocation Framework and Preliminary Technical Basis for Advanced SMR Concepts of Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques Hugo; John Forester; David Gertman; Jeffrey Joe; Heather Medema; Julius Persensky; April Whaley

    2013-08-01

    This report presents preliminary research results from the investigation into the development of new models and guidance for Concepts of Operations in advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) designs. AdvSMRs are nuclear power plants (NPPs), but unlike conventional large NPPs that are constructed on site, AdvSMRs systems and components will be fabricated in a factory and then assembled on site. AdvSMRs will also use advanced digital instrumentation and control systems, and make greater use of automation. Some AdvSMR designs also propose to be operated in a multi-unit configuration with a single central control room as a way to be more cost-competitive with existing NPPs. These differences from conventional NPPs not only pose technical and operational challenges, but they will undoubtedly also have regulatory compliance implications, especially with respect to staffing requirements and safety standards.

  10. Molecular characterization, phylogeny analysis and pathogenicity of a Muscovy duck adenovirus strain isolated in China in 2014.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinheng; Zhong, Yangjin; Zhou, Zhenhai; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Huanmin; Chen, Feng; Chen, Weiguo; Xie, Qingmei

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to characterize a novel adenovirus (AdV) isolated from diseased Muscovy ducks in China. After the AdV was successfully propagated in duck embryo fibroblasts, the morphological and physicochemical properties of the virions were studied by electron microscopy and different tests. The results of the analyses were in conformity with AdV properties. The full genome sequence was determined and analyzed. The new isolate (named CH-GD-12-2014) shared over 91% sequence identity with duck AdV-2 representing the species Duck aviadenovirus B. The most important distinguishing feature between the two DAdV strains was the presence of a second fiber gene in the Chinese isolate. Phylogeny reconstruction confirmed the affiliation of the virus with goose and duck AdVs in the genus Aviadenovirus. Experimental infection resulted in embryo death, and intramuscular inoculation provoked morbidity and mortality among ducks and chickens.

  11. Atmospheric dump valve engineering analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, B.; McNemar, P.

    1990-01-01

    This report documents the activities undertaken after the atmospheric dump valves (ADVs) failed to operate following a Unit 3 reactor trip. The activities consisted of testing valves in all three units, examining Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station (PVNGS) history with the valves, determining causes for failures, and making recommendations. The PVNGS engineering departments performed an in-depth review of the history, operation, maintenance, and design of ADVs. A preliminary mathematical model of the valves' dynamic behavior was developed by Arizona State University. The corrective actions are designed to eliminate the anomalies noted with the Unit 1 and 3 ADVs. Subsequent monitoring and testing activities following the planned modifications will ensure the ADVs remain operable during modes required by the PVNGS technical specifications. Through this increased monitoring and testing program, the valve modifications will be evaluated to confirm that the required level of reliability has been reached for the ADVs. The specific failures have been evaluated and the causes determined.

  12. Molecular cloning of the Aleutian disease virus genome: expression of Aleutian disease virus antigens by a recombinant plasmid.

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, L W; Aasted, B; Garon, C F; Bloom, M E

    1983-01-01

    Three nonoverlapping segments representing approximately 80% of the 4.8-kilobase pair Aleutian disease virus (ADV-G) duplex genome were molecularly cloned into either bacteriophage M13mp9 (M13bm2 = 0.07 to 0.15 map unit; M13bm1 = 0.15 to 0.54 map unit) or plasmid pUC8 (pBM1 = 0.54 to 0.88 map units). In addition the 0.54- to 0.88-map unit segment of a Danish isolate of ADV (DK ADV) was also cloned into pUC8 (pBM2). The recombinant plasmids pBM1 and pBM2 induced expression of several polypeptides in Escherichia coli JM103 that were specifically recognized by sera from mink infected with ADV. The same three proteins with approximate molecular weights of 55,000, 34,000, and 27,000 were detected both by immune blotting and by immunoprecipitation of [35S]methionine-labeled JM103 (pBM1). None of these proteins were recognized in JM103 or JM103 (pUC8), nor were they detected by sera from normal mink. Purified pBM1 and pBM2 DNA appeared identical in size by gel analysis and contour length measurement, and electron microscopic heteroduplex mapping revealed no visible areas of heterology. However, restriction endonuclease mapping showed that pBM2 was different from pBM1, indicating that this segment of the ADV genome was similar but not identical for two strains of ADV (ADV-G and DK ADV). Furthermore, when cloned DNA from ADV-G was labeled with [32P]dCTP by nick translation, DNA relatedness to several field strains of ADV (Utah I, Pullman, and DK), but not to mink enteritis virus or cellular DNA, was shown by Southern blot hybridization. Images PMID:6313959

  13. Entecavir plus adefovir combination therapy versus lamivudine add-on adefovir for lamivudine-resistant chronic hepatitis B: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Teng; Xu, Hua; Liu, Jun-Ying; Lei, Yu; Zhong, Shan; Zhou, Zhi

    2014-09-01

    To determine whether adefovir (ADV) in combination with entecavir (ETV) is more effective than with lamivudine (LAM) in patients with lamivudine-resistant chronic HBV infection, electronic databases were searched through May 10th, 2013 to obtain relevant trials which met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis was performed on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized studies. Four trials containing a total of 323 patients were included. Serum HBV DNA reductions after 3 and 6 months of treatment in the ETV + ADV group were greater than that of LAM + ADV group (mean difference (MD) = 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74-1.07, P < 0.00001; MD = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.57-1.06, P < 0.00001). The rate of 6 months HBV DNA undetectability with ETV and ADV was higher than that of LAM and ADV (relative risk (RR) = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.14-2.34, P < 0.007). There were higher rates of serum ALT normalization than those in LAM + ADV group after 6 months of treatment (RR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.11-1.77, P < 0.005). The ETV + ADV group had lower viral breakthrough and genotypic mutation rates than LAM + ADV group after 12 months of treatment (RR = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.10-0.58, P = 0.002). The combination of ETV plus ADV is a more effective rescue therapy than LAM add-on ADV in patients with LAM-resistant HBV.

  14. A Rationale for Deformation Twinning in Nanocrystalline Magnesium and Magnesium AZ80 Alloy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    8h of cryomilling. Nieh and Wadsworth [18] estimated the minimum grain size in which a metal could exist without supporting dislocations by...Lavernia, Mater. Sci. Eng. A., 528 (2011) 2180-2191. [17] N. Ono, R. Nowak, S. Miura, Mater. Let., 58 (2003) 39-43. [18] T.G. Nieh , J. Wadsworth

  15. CORRIGENDUM: The relationship between electromechanical cyclic loading and the performance degradation of a smart bending piezoelectric actuator The relationship between electromechanical cyclic loading and the performance degradation of a smart bending piezoelectric actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Sung-Choong; Goo, Nam Seo

    2010-05-01

    This corrigendum corrects a citation error in our article (Woo et al 2009 Smart Mater. Struct. 18 104021) in which the journal name of the reference [14] is wrongly cited as 'Smart Mater. Struct. 39 2433-7' instead of 'J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 39 2433-7' on page 10.

  16. Critical Percolation Stresses of Random Frank-Read Sources in Micron-Sized Crystals of Superalloys (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    tendency for a saturation stress value, most likely because the experimental size-effect data does not include small enough sizes of micron-sized crystals...D, Gumbsch P, Kraft O, Scripta Mater 2008; 58:587. 7) Tang H, Schwarz KW, Espinosa HD, Acta Mater 2007; 55:1607. 8) Zhou C, Biner S, Lesar R

  17. Critical Percolation Stresses of Random Frank-Read Sources in Micrometer-Sized Crystals of Superalloys (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-09

    controls the yield stress [20]. However, the experimental data [4] do not show any such tendency for a saturation stress value, most likely because the...D M, Parthasarathy T A, Uchic M D, Tang M and Woodward C 2008 Acta Mater. 56 3245 [6] Senger J, Weygand D, Gumbsch P and Kraft O 2008 Scr. Mater. 58

  18. Effect of Substitution (Ta, Al, Ga) on the Conductivity of Li7La3Zr2O12

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-30

    13] Y. Li, C.-A. Wang, H. Xie, J. Cheng, J.B. Goodenough , Electrochem. Commun. 13 (2011) 1289. J.L. Allen et al. / Journal of Power Sources 206 (2012...Ionics 28 (1998) 862. [17] Y. Li, C. Sun, J.B. Goodenough , Chem. Mater. 23 (2011) 2292. [18] J.M. Amarilla, B. Casal, E. Ruiz-Hitzky, J. Mater. Chem

  19. Variability of the Surface Circulation and Temperature in the Adriatic Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-30

    of Otranto (Fig. 3). A strong cyclonic gyre around the South Adriatic Pit was shown by two drifters. A cyclonic circulation feature at the end of the...Mare Adriatico” (PRISMA-2a) are closely related to this project. MATER Project: Surveys in the southern Adriatic and strait of Otranto (MATER, 1997

  20. Components of Adenovirus Genome Packaging

    PubMed Central

    Ahi, Yadvinder S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (AdVs) are icosahedral viruses with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genomes. Genome packaging in AdV is thought to be similar to that seen in dsDNA containing icosahedral bacteriophages and herpesviruses. Specific recognition of the AdV genome is mediated by a packaging domain located close to the left end of the viral genome and is mediated by the viral packaging machinery. Our understanding of the role of various components of the viral packaging machinery in AdV genome packaging has greatly advanced in recent years. Characterization of empty capsids assembled in the absence of one or more components involved in packaging, identification of the unique vertex, and demonstration of the role of IVa2, the putative packaging ATPase, in genome packaging have provided compelling evidence that AdVs follow a sequential assembly pathway. This review provides a detailed discussion on the functions of the various viral and cellular factors involved in AdV genome packaging. We conclude by briefly discussing the roles of the empty capsids, assembly intermediates, scaffolding proteins, portal vertex and DNA encapsidating enzymes in AdV assembly and packaging. PMID:27721809

  1. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis for the study of adenoviral diversity in urban rivers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheonghoon; Kim, Sang-Jong

    2010-05-01

    The diversity of human adenoviruses (AdVs) in river waters was studied by single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. Water samples were collected between 2002 and 2003 from 4 rivers in the Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. Forty-six (79.3%) of the 58 samples were positive for AdVs as determined on PCR amplification. Nine different SSCP profiles (profiles A to I) were detected in all the AdVs-positive samples by SSCP analysis, and most of the AdVs-positive samples (38 of 46 samples; 82.6%) showed the SSCP profile D. Nine different sequences were obtained in the SSCP profiles; sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis identified 5 different sequences that were closely related to the human AdV type 41, and the 4 different sequences that were closely related to human AdV types 3, 4, 12, and 40. Two AdVs genomic variants were detected (types 3 and 41 in A, types 12 and 41 in B, and 2 genomic variants of type 41 in C) in SSCP profiles A, B, and C, respectively. SSCP analysis could be a useful technique for the identification of genetic variants of AdVs and for studying AdVs diversity in urban rivers.

  2. The relationship between adenovirus-36 seropositivity, obesity and metabolic profile in Turkish children and adults.

    PubMed

    Karamese, M; Altoparlak, U; Turgut, A; Aydogdu, S; Karamese, S Aksak

    2015-12-01

    Obesity potentially arising from viral infection is known as 'infectobesity'. The latest reports suggest that adenovirus-36 (Adv36) is related to obesity in adults and children. Our aim was not only to determine the Adv36 seropositivity in both obese and non-obese children and adults, but also to investigate correlations between antibody positivity and serum lipid profiles. Both Adv36 positivity and tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha, leptin and interleukin-6 levels were detected in blood samples collected from 146 children and 130 adults by ELISA. Fasting plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels were also measured. Adv36 positivity was determined to be 27·1% and 6% in obese and non-obese children and 17·5% and 4% in obese and non-obese adults, respectively. There was no difference with regard to total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha and interleukin-6 levels (P > 0·05). However, there was a significant difference between groups in terms of leptin levels (P < 0·05). We determined the prevalence of Adv36 positivity in obese children and adults. Our results showed that Adv36 may be an obesity agent for both adults and children, parallel with current literature data. However, the available data on a possible relationship between Adv36 infection and obesity both in children and adults do not completely solve the problem.

  3. Wild boar: an increasing concern for Aujeszky's disease control in pigs?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was describing the temporal evolution of Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) contact prevalence among Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations under different management regimes and contact likelihoods with domestic pigs. Given the recent increase in wild boar abundance throughout Europe, we hypothesized that wild boar contact with ADV would remain stable in time even after significant reduction of ADV prevalence in domestic pigs. Results Sera from 1659 wild boar were collected from 2000 to 2010 within 6 areas of the Iberian Peninsula and tested for the presence of antibodies against ADV by ELISA. According to sampling date, wild boar were grouped into three time periods. ADV prevalence was compared through period both globally and by geographic area. Overall seroprevalence for the ten-year study period was 49.6 ± 2.4%. The highest seroprevalence was recorded in areas with intense wild boar management. The annual proportion of positive wild boar sampling sites remained stable through the study period, while the percentage of domestic pig AD positive counties decreased from 70% in 2003 to 1.7% in 2010. Conclusions Results presented herein confirmed our hypothesis that ADV would remain almost stable in wild boar populations. This evidences the increasing risk wild boar pose in the final stages of ADV eradication in pigs and for wildlife conservation. PMID:22251441

  4. Association of adenovirus 36 infection with obesity-related gene variants in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dušátková, L; Zamrazilová, H; Aldhoon Hainerová, I; Atkinson, R L; Sedláčková, B; Lee, Z P; Včelák, J; Bendlová, B; Kunešová, M; Hainer, V

    2015-01-01

    Both, common gene variants and human adenovirus 36 (Adv36) are involved in the pathogenesis of obesity. The potential relationship between these two pathogenic factors has not yet been investigated. The aim of our study was to examine the association of obesity susceptibility loci with Adv36 status. Genotyping of ten gene variants (in/near TMEM18, SH2B1, KCTD15, PCSK1, BDNF, SEC16B, MC4R, FTO) and analysis of Adv36 antibodies was performed in 1,027 Czech adolescents aged 13.0-17.9 years. Variants of two genes (PCSK1 and BDNF) were associated with Adv36 seropositivity. A higher prevalence of Adv36 antibody positivity was observed in obesity risk allele carriers of PCSK1 rs6232, rs6235 and BDNF rs4923461 vs. non-carriers (chi(2)=6.59, p=0.010; chi(2)=7.56, p=0.023 and chi(2)=6.84, p=0.033, respectively). The increased risk of Adv36 positivity was also found in PCSK1 variants: rs6232 (OR=1.67, 95 % CI 1.11-2.49, p=0.016) and rs6235 (OR=1.34, 95 % CI 1.08-1.67, p=0.010). PCSK1 rs6232 and BDNF rs925946 variants were closely associated with Adv36 status in boys and girls, respectively (chi(2)=5.09, p=0.024; chi(2)=7.29, p=0.026). Furthermore, PCSK1 rs6235 risk allele was related to Adv36 seropositivity (chi(2)=6.85, p=0.033) in overweight/obese subgroup. In conclusion, our results suggest that obesity risk variants of PCSK1 and BDNF genes may be related to Adv36 infection.

  5. Steroid-independent male sexual behavior in B6D2F2 male mice.

    PubMed

    McInnis, Christine M; Venu, Samitha; Park, Jin Ho

    2016-09-01

    It is well established that male sexual behavior (MSB) is regulated by gonadal steroids; however, individual differences in MSB, independent of gonadal steroids, are prevalent across a wide range of species, and further investigation is necessary to advance our understanding of steroid-independent MSB. Studies utilizing B6D2F1 hybrid male mice in which a significant proportion retain MSB after long-term orchidectomy, identified as steroid-independent-maters (SI-maters), have begun to unravel the genetic underpinnings of steroid-independent MSB. A recent study demonstrated that steroid-independent MSB is a heritable behavioral phenotype that is mainly passed down from B6D2F1 hybrid SI-maters when crossed with C57BL6J female mice. To begin to uncover whether the strain of the dam plays a role in the inheritance of steroid-independent MSB, B6D2F1 hybrid females were crossed with B6D2F1 hybrid males. While the present study confirms the finding that steroid-independent MSB is a heritable behavioral phenotype and that SI-mater sires are more likely to pass down some components of MSB than SI-non-maters to their offspring, it also reveals that the B6D2F2 male offspring that were identified as SI-maters that displayed the full repertoire of steroid-independent MSB had the same probability of being sired from either a B6D2F1 SI-mater or SI-non-mater. These results, in conjunction with previous findings, indicate that the specific chromosomal loci pattern that codes for steroid-independent MSB in the B6D2F2 male offspring may result regardless of whether the father was a SI-mater or SI-non-mater, and that the maternal strain may be an important factor in the inheritance of steroid-independent MSB.

  6. Detection of Aleutian disease virus by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuo; Wang, Bin; Hu, Shouping; Zhang, Jiaoer; He, Xijun; Zheng, Shimin

    2015-09-01

    In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed and optimized for the detection of Aleutian disease virus (ADV) in minks. The amplification could be completed within 45 min under isothermal condition by employing a set of six ADV genome-specific primers. The amplification results could be visualized directly with the naked eye by using fluorescent dye. Comparative experiments showed that the LAMP assay is superior to conventional polymerase chain reaction for the detection of both experimental and field samples. Results of current study indicated that the LAMP assay is a rapid and reliable technique for routine diagnosis of ADV infection in minks.

  7. Compact, Robust Chips Integrate Optical Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Located in Bozeman, Montana, AdvR Inc. has been an active partner in NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs. Langley Research Center engineers partnered with AdvR through the SBIR program to develop new, compact, lightweight electro-optic components for remote sensing systems. While the primary customer for this technology will be NASA, AdvR foresees additional uses for its NASA-derived circuit chip in the fields of academic and industrial research anywhere that compact, low-cost, stabilized single-frequency lasers are needed.

  8. Brincidofovir clearance of acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus-1 and adenovirus infection after stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Voigt, S; Hofmann, J; Edelmann, A; Sauerbrei, A; Kühl, J-S

    2016-10-01

    Infections with adenovirus (AdV) and herpesviruses can result in considerable morbidity and mortality in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant (SCT) recipients. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivations are usually prevented by acyclovir (ACV) prophylaxis, whereas cidofovir (CDV) has been used off indication to manage AdV infections. We report a child with myelodysplastic syndrome undergoing multiple SCT, who experienced HSV-1 disease including severe mucositis and herpetic whitlow, as well as high viral load AdV DNAemia. Both ACV and CDV were ineffective; however, viral loads were decreased with brincidofovir, resulting in viral clearance. A subsequent Epstein-Barr virus disease with relevant meningoencephalitis responded to rituximab.

  9. The design and characterization of wideband spline-profiled feedhorns for Advanced ACTPol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Sara M.; Austermann, Jason; Beall, James A.; Choi, Steve K.; Coughlin, Kevin P.; Duff, Shannon M.; Gallardo, Patricio A.; Henderson, Shawn W.; Hills, Felicity B.; Ho, Shuay-Pwu Patty; Hubmayr, Johannes; Josaitis, Alec; Koopman, Brian J.; McMahon, Jeff J.; Nati, Federico; Newburgh, Laura; Niemack, Michael D.; Salatino, Maria; Schillaci, Alessandro; Schmitt, Benjamin L.; Staggs, Suzanne T.; Vavagiakis, Eve M.; Ward, Jonathan; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-07-01

    Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) is an upgraded camera for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) that will measure the cosmic microwave background in temperature and polarization over a wide range of angular scales and five frequency bands from 28-230 GHz. AdvACT will employ four arrays of feedhorn-coupled, polarization- sensitive multichroic detectors. To accommodate the higher pixel packing densities necessary to achieve Ad- vACT's sensitivity goals, we have developed and optimized wideband spline-profiled feedhorns for the AdvACT multichroic arrays that maximize coupling efficiency while carefully controlling polarization systematics. We present the design, fabrication, and testing of wideband spline-profiled feedhorns for the multichroic arrays of AdvACT.

  10. Ether lipid-ester prodrugs of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates: activity against adenovirus replication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hartline, Caroll B; Gustin, Kortney M; Wan, William B; Ciesla, Stephanie L; Beadle, James R; Hostetler, Karl Y; Kern, Earl R

    2005-02-01

    The acyclic nucleoside phosphonate cidofovir (CDV) and its closely related analogue (S)-9-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)-adenine ([S]-HPMPA) have been reported to have activity against many adenovirus (AdV) serotypes. A new series of orally active ether lipid-ester prodrugs of CDV and of (S)-HPMPA that have slight differences in the structure of their lipid esters were evaluated, in tissue-culture cells, for activity against 5 AdV serotypes. The results indicated that, against several AdV serotypes, the most active compounds were 15-2500-fold more active than the unmodified parent compounds and should be evaluated further for their potential to treat AdV infections in humans.

  11. What Would They Do? Parents' Responses to Hypothetical Adolescent Dating Violence Situations.

    PubMed

    Weisz, Arlene N; Black, Beverly M; Hawley, Alicia C

    2017-04-01

    Although adolescent dating violence (ADV) is recognized as a significant public health problem, little is known about how parents respond to it. This article analyzes exploratory, qualitative data from a public opinion survey of 529 Midwestern, U. S. parents' ideas about how they would respond to a daughter victimized by ADV. It examines differing responses between mothers and fathers across 3 vignettes. Most parents viewed the ADV as serious, meriting deeper discussions with the daughter, boyfriend, or his parents. Many planned to handle the incident by trying to end the adolescents' relationship, talking to the boyfriend, or informing the daughter about ADV. These findings can help prevention workers show how knowledge about parents' typical reactions can help parents modulate their responses to increase effective communication with adolescents.

  12. Assembly and Integration Process of the First High Density Detector Array for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Yaqiong; Choi, Steve; Ho, Shuay-Pwu; Crowley, Kevin T.; Salatino, Maria; Simon, Sara M.; Staggs, Suzanne T.; Nati, Federico; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) upgrade on the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) consists of multichroicTransition Edge Sensor (TES) detector arrays to measure the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization anisotropies in multiple frequency bands. The first AdvACT detector array, sensitive to both 150 and 230 GHz, is fabricated on a 150 mm diameter wafer and read out with a completely different scheme compared to ACTPol. Approximately 2000 TES bolometers are packed into the wafer leading to both a much denser detector density and readout circuitry. The demonstration of the assembly and integration of the AdvACT arrays is important for the next generation CMB experiments, which will continue to increase the pixel number and density. We present the detailed assembly process of the first AdvACT detector array.

  13. The Design and Characterization of Wideband Spline-profiled Feedhorns for Advanced Actpol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Sara M.; Austermann, Jason; Beall, James A.; Choi, Steve K.; Coughlin, Kevin P.; Duff, Shannon M.; Gallardo, Patricio A.; Henderson, Shawn W.; Hills, Felicity B.; Ho, Shuay-Pwu Patty; Hubmayr, Johannes; Josaitis, Alec; Koopman, Brian J.; McMahon, Jeff J.; Nati, Federico; Newburgh, Laura; Niemack, Michael D.; Salatino, Maria; Schillaci, Alessandro; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) is an upgraded camera for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) that will measure the cosmic microwave background in temperature and polarization over a wide range of angular scales and five frequency bands from 28-230 GHz. AdvACT will employ four arrays of feedhorn-coupled, polarization- sensitive multichroic detectors. To accommodate the higher pixel packing densities necessary to achieve Ad- vACTs sensitivity goals, we have developed and optimized wideband spline-profiled feedhorns for the AdvACT multichroic arrays that maximize coupling efficiency while carefully controlling polarization systematics. We present the design, fabrication, and testing of wideband spline-profiled feedhorns for the multichroic arrays of AdvACT.

  14. The Crossbyton project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, J. D.

    1980-05-01

    The Analog Design Verification System (ADVS), the largest single solar collector built, was tested. Referred to as the Solar Gridiron or Bowl Concept, it employs a stationary mirror, with tracking accomplished by the mirror.

  15. DM-2 Chilling

    NASA Video Gallery

    How do you chill down 1.4 million pounds of solid rocket fuel in the hot Utah desert? Lots of air conditioning! Learn how ATK chilled down DM-2, the second Ares first stage development motor in adv...

  16. Assembly and integration process of the first high density detector array for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yaqiong; Choi, Steve; Ho, Shuay-Pwu; Crowley, Kevin T.; Salatino, Maria; Simon, Sara M.; Staggs, Suzanne T.; Nati, Federico; Ward, Jonathan; Schmitt, Benjamin L.; Henderson, Shawn; Koopman, Brian J.; Gallardo, Patricio A.; Vavagiakis, Eve M.; Niemack, Michael D.; McMahon, Jeff; Duff, Shannon M.; Schillaci, Alessandro; Hubmayr, Johannes; Hilton, Gene C.; Beall, James A.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-07-01

    The Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) upgrade on the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) consists of multichroic Transition Edge Sensor (TES) detector arrays to measure the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization anisotropies in multiple frequency bands. The first AdvACT detector array, sensitive to both 150 and 230 GHz, is fabricated on a 150 mm diameter wafer and read out with a completely different scheme compared to ACTPol. Approximately 2000 TES bolometers are packed into the wafer leading to both a much denser detector density and readout circuitry. The demonstration of the assembly and integration of the AdvACT arrays is important for the next generation CMB experiments, which will continue to increase the pixel number and density. We present the detailed assembly process of the first AdvACT detector array.

  17. Screening ecological impacts of environmental surface waters using cell-based metabolomics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenic chemicals are routinely detected in aquatic ecosystems downstream from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), industrial and agricultural operations, and numerous other sources. Various studies have shown that exposure to such complex chemical mixtures can produce adv...

  18. Antibody-Forming Cells and Serum Hemolysin Responses of Pastel and Sapphire Mink Inoculated with Aleutian Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Lodmell, Donald L.; Bergman, R. Kaye; Hadlow, William J.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of Aleutian disease virus (ADV) on serum hemolysin titers and antibody-forming cells in lymph nodes and spleens of sapphire and pastel mink inoculated with goat erythrocytes (G-RBC) was investigated. ADV injected 1 day after primary antigenic stimulation with G-RBC did not depress the immune responses of either color phase for a period of 26 days. However, when G-RBC were injected 47 days after ADV, both the number of antibody-forming cells and hemolysin titers were more markedly depressed in sapphire than in pastel mink. The results are discussed in relation to the greater susceptibility of sapphire mink and the variable susceptibility of pastel mink to the Pullman isolate of ADV. PMID:4584051

  19. Partial characterization of new adenoviruses found in lizards.

    PubMed

    Ball, Inna; Behncke, Helge; Schmidt, Volker; Geflügel, F T A; Papp, Tibor; Stöhr, Anke C; Marschang, Rachel E

    2014-06-01

    In the years 2011-2012, a consensus nested polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection of adenovirus (AdV) infection in reptiles. During this screening, three new AdVs were detected. One of these viruses was detected in three lizards from a group of green striped tree dragons (Japalura splendida). Another was detected in a green anole (Anolis carolinensis). A third virus was detected in a Jackson's chameleon (Chamaeleo jacksonii). Analysis of a portion of the DNA-dependent DNA polymerase genes of each of these viruses revealed that they all were different from one another and from all previously described reptilian AdVs. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial DNA polymerase gene sequence showed that all newly detected viruses clustered within the genus Atadenovirus. This is the first description of AdVs in these lizard species.

  20. Nuclear Import of Adenovirus DNA Involves Direct Interaction of Hexon with an N-Terminal Domain of the Nucleoporin Nup214

    PubMed Central

    Ragues, Jessica; Guan, Tinglu; Bégu, Dominique; Wodrich, Harald; Kann, Michael; Nemerow, Glen R.; Gerace, Larry

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study, we characterized the molecular basis for binding of adenovirus (AdV) to the cytoplasmic face of the nuclear pore complex (NPC), a key step during delivery of the viral genome into the nucleus. We used RNA interference (RNAi) to deplete cells of either Nup214 or Nup358, the two major Phe-Gly (FG) repeat nucleoporins localized on the cytoplasmic side of the NPC, and evaluated the impact on hexon binding and AdV infection. The accumulation of purified hexon trimers or partially disassembled AdV at the nuclear envelope (NE) was observed in digitonin-permeabilized cells in the absence of cytosolic factors. Both in vitro hexon binding and in vivo nuclear import of the AdV genome were strongly reduced in Nup214-depleted cells but still occurred in Nup358-depleted cells, suggesting that Nup214 is a major binding site of AdV during infection. The expression of an NPC-targeted N-terminal domain of Nup214 in Nup214-depleted cells restored the binding of hexon at the NE and the nuclear import of protein VII (pVII), indicating that this region is sufficient to allow AdV binding. We further narrowed the binding site to a 137-amino-acid segment in the N-terminal domain of Nup214. Together, our results have identified a specific region within the N terminus of Nup214 that acts as a direct NPC binding site for AdV. IMPORTANCE AdVs, which have the largest genome of nonenveloped DNA viruses, are being extensively explored for use in gene therapy, especially in alternative treatments for cancers that are refractory to traditional therapies. In this study, we characterized the molecular basis for binding of AdV to the cytoplasmic face of the NPC, a key step for delivery of the viral genome into the nucleus. Our data indicate that a 137-amino-acid region of the nucleoporin Nup214 is a binding site for the major AdV capsid protein, hexon, and that this interaction is required for viral DNA import. These findings provide additional insight on how AdV exploits the

  1. Surface Grafting of Thermoresponsive Microgel Nanoparticles (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    and cell immobilization, as biosensors, and for in vivo drug delivery .33,34,36,49–53 PNIPAM-containing microgels have been synthesized and...2007, 25, 577–583. 51 J. Jagur-Grodzinski, Polym. Adv. Technol., 2010, 21, 27–47.Soft Matter52 M. Hamidi, A. Azadi and P. Rafiei,Adv. Drug Delivery ...prospective applications in micro- and nanofluidics, biocompatible materials, controlled drug release, nano- and biotribology, controlled cell growth

  2. Technical Needs for Prototypic Prognostic Technique Demonstration for Advanced Small Modular Reactor Passive Components

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Coble, Jamie B.; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Mitchell, Mark R.; Wootan, David W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Henager, Charles H.

    2013-05-17

    This report identifies a number of requirements for prognostics health management of passive systems in AdvSMRs, documents technical gaps in establishing a prototypical prognostic methodology for this purpose, and describes a preliminary research plan for addressing these technical gaps. AdvSMRs span multiple concepts; therefore a technology- and design-neutral approach is taken, with the focus being on characteristics that are likely to be common to all or several AdvSMR concepts. An evaluation of available literature is used to identify proposed concepts for AdvSMRs along with likely operational characteristics. Available operating experience of advanced reactors is used in identifying passive components that may be subject to degradation, materials likely to be used for these components, and potential modes of degradation of these components. This information helps in assessing measurement needs for PHM systems, as well as defining functional requirements of PHM systems. An assessment of current state-of-the-art approaches to measurements, sensors and instrumentation, diagnostics and prognostics is also documented. This state-of-the-art evaluation, combined with the requirements, may be used to identify technical gaps and research needs in the development, evaluation, and deployment of PHM systems for AdvSMRs. A preliminary research plan to address high-priority research needs for the deployment of PHM systems to AdvSMRs is described, with the objective being the demonstration of prototypic prognostics technology for passive components in AdvSMRs. Greater efficiency in achieving this objective can be gained through judicious selection of materials and degradation modes that are relevant to proposed AdvSMR concepts, and for which significant knowledge already exists. These selections were made based on multiple constraints including the analysis performed in this document, ready access to laboratory-scale facilities for materials testing and measurement, and

  3. Optics, Acoustics and Stress in Situ (OASIS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    seafloor bedform measurements (Rotary Sidescan and Pencil-beam sonars ) APPROACH Our project is focused on obtaining direct measurements of the...September 2011, showing Pulse Coherent Doppler Profiler (PCDP), Imagenex rotary sidescan sonar , Imagenex 2- axis rotary pencil beam sonar , Aquatec ABS and...Nortek Vector ADVs. Rotary Pencil Beam Sonar Rotary Sidescan Sonar PCDP ABS ADVs 5 Figure 3. Rotary Sidescan Image showing 70 cm

  4. Armament for the Army in Transition Session II Interim Brigade Combat Team (IBCT) & Legacy Force Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-18

    Coco Director, Adv Sys Concepts Office TACOM–ARDEC, Picatinny, NJ Tank-automotive & Armaments COMmand Session Co-Chairs: Mr. Donald...Program Element Number Author(s) Del Coco , Gene; Howe, Donald Project Number Task Number Work Unit Number Performing Organization Name(s) and...SESSION CHAIRMAN 0800 HOURS MR. GENE DEL COCO CHIEF, TACOM-ARDEC ADV. SYSTEMS CONCEPTS DIR MR. DONALD HOWE BCT PROGRAM, DIR. FOR GM-GDLS, DEFENSE

  5. Air Evacuation and Its Effect on Theater and Zone of Interior Hospitalization Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1947-10-13

    34:,; invalided home. 9 Medical Service- Communication Zone, Subj~ct 4308, Adv Sheet, par 8, p. 12 10 Historical Review, WuV II, Apend P, P• 58 11 FM...Service in Communication Zone", Apend 4 to Adv Sheet, par 9, p.26 25 liiJiil FM 8-35, par 102 f. 26 Maj Gen Kirk, op. cit. PP• 27-29 -12- skilled

  6. A Novel Platform to Study the Effect of Small-scale Turbulent Density Fluctuations on Underwater Imaging in the Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-29

    camera and optical target mounted on a 5m-long frame, along with several Nortek Vector Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter and PME Conductivity -Temperature...BOTEX. the array free-fall through the water column. In the present study, we settled on the use of Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters (ADVs) and high...as optical target (bottom). a Nortek Vector Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) and PME Conductivity–Temperature (CT) mi- crostructure probe

  7. Measuring Turbulence from Moored Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters. A Manual to Quantifying Inflow at Tidal Energy Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kilcher, Levi; Thomson, Jim; Talbert, Joe; DeKlerk, Alex

    2016-03-01

    This work details a methodology for measuring hub height inflow turbulence using moored acoustic Doppler velocimiters (ADVs). This approach is motivated by the shortcomings of alternatives. For example, remote velocity measurements (i.e., from acoustic Doppler profilers) lack sufficient precision for device simulation, and rigid tower-mounted measurements are very expensive and technically challenging in the tidal environment. Moorings offer a low-cost, site-adaptable and robust deployment platform, and ADVs provide the necessary precision to accurately quantify turbulence.

  8. Prevalence of neutralising antibodies against adenoviruses in lizards and snakes.

    PubMed

    Ball, Inna; Ofner, Sabine; Funk, Richard S; Griffin, Chris; Riedel, Ulf; Möhring, Jens; Marschang, Rachel E

    2014-10-01

    Adenoviruses (AdVs) are relatively common in lizards and snakes, and several genetically distinct AdVs have been isolated in cell culture. The aims of this study were to examine serological relationships among lizard and snake AdVs and to determine the frequency of AdV infections in these species. Isolates from a boa constrictor (Boa constrictor), a corn snake (Pantherophis gutattus) and a central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps), and two isolates from helodermatid lizards (Heloderma horridum and H. suspectum) were used in neutralisation tests for the detection of antibodies in plasma from 263 lizards from seven families (including 12 species) and from 141 snakes from four families (including 28 species) from the USA and Europe. Most lizard and snake samples had antibodies against a range of AdV isolates, indicating that AdV infection is common among these squamates. Neutralisation tests with polyclonal antibodies raised in rabbits demonstrated serological cross-reactivity between both helodermatid lizard isolates. However, squamate plasma showed different reactions to each of these lizard isolates in neutralisation tests.

  9. Construction and characterization of adenoviral vectors for the delivery of TALENs into human cells.

    PubMed

    Holkers, Maarten; Cathomen, Toni; Gonçalves, Manuel A F V

    2014-09-01

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are designed to cut the genomic DNA at specific chromosomal positions. The resulting DNA double strand break activates cellular repair pathways that can be harnessed for targeted genome modifications. TALENs thus constitute a powerful tool to interrogate the function of DNA sequences within complex genomes. Moreover, their high DNA cleavage activity combined with a low cytotoxicity make them excellent candidates for applications in human gene therapy. Full exploitation of these large and repeat-bearing nucleases in human cell types will benefit largely from using the adenoviral vector (AdV) technology. The genetic stability and the episomal nature of AdV genomes in conjunction with the availability of a large number of AdV serotypes able to transduce various human cell types make it possible to achieve high-level and transient expression of TALENs in numerous target cells, regardless of their mitotic state. Here, we describe a set of protocols detailing the rescue, propagation and purification of TALEN-encoding AdVs. Moreover, we describe procedures for the characterization and quantification of recombinant viral DNA present in the resulting AdV preparations. The protocols are preceded by information about their underlying principles and applied in the context of second-generation capsid-modified AdVs expressing TALENs targeted to the AAVS1 "safe harbor" locus on human chromosome 19.

  10. Pulmonary Artery Adventitial Fibroblasts Cooperate with Vasa Vasorum Endothelial Cells to Regulate Vasa Vasorum Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Davie, Neil J.; Gerasimovskaya, Evgenia V.; Hofmeister, Stephen E.; Richman, Aaron P.; Jones, Peter L.; Reeves, John T.; Stenmark, Kurt R.

    2006-01-01

    The precise cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating adventitial vasa vasorum neovascularization, which occurs in the pulmonary arterial circulation in response to hypoxia, remain unknown. Here, using a technique to isolate and culture adventitial fibroblasts (AdvFBs) and vasa vasorum endothelial cells (VVECs) from the adventitia of pulmonary arteries, we report that hypoxia-activated pulmonary artery AdvFBs exhibited pro-angiogenic properties and influenced the angiogenic phenotype of VVEC, in a process of cell-cell communication involving endothelin-1 (ET-1). We demonstrated that AdvFBs, either via co-culture or conditioned media, stimulated VVEC proliferation and augmented the self-assembly and integrity of cord-like networks that formed when VVECs where cultured on Matrigel. In addition, hypoxia-activated AdvFBs produced ET-1, suggesting a paracrine role for this pro-angiogenic molecule in these processes. When co-cultured on Matrigel, AdvFBs and VVECs self-assembled into heterotypic cord-like networks, a process augmented by hypoxia but attenuated by either selective endothelin receptor antagonists or oligonucleotides targeting prepro-ET-1 mRNA. From these observations, we propose that hypoxia-activated AdvFBs exhibit pro-angiogenic properties and, as such, communicate with VVECs, in a process involving ET-1, to regulate vasa vasorum neovascularization occurring in the adventitia of pulmonary arteries in response to chronic hypoxia. PMID:16723696

  11. Immunoglobulin classes of Aleutian disease virus antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Porter, D D; Porter, H G; Suffin, S C; Larsen, A E

    1984-01-01

    Aleutian disease virus (ADV) persistently infects mink and causes marked hypergammaglobulinemia. Immunoglobulin class-specific antisera were used to define the total immunoglobulin of each class by radial immunodiffusion and the immunoglobulin class of ADV-specific antibody by immunofluorescence in experimentally and naturally infected mink. Electrophoretic gamma globulin closely reflects the immunoglobulin G (IgG) level in mink, and the majority of the increased immunoglobulin and ADV antibody in infected mink is IgG. IgM becomes elevated within 6 days after infection, reaches peak levels by 15 to 18 days, and returns to normal by 60 days after infection. The first ADV antibody demonstrable is IgM, and most mink have virus-specific IgM antibody for at least 85 days postinfection. Serum IgA levels in normal mink are not normally distributed, and ADV infection causes a marked elevation of IgA. Low levels of ADV-specific IgA antibody can be shown throughout the course of infection. Failure of large amounts of virus-specific IgG antibody to inhibit the reaction of virus-specific IgM and IgA antibodies suggests that the various classes of antibodies are directed against spatially different antigenic determinants. The IgM and IgA were shown not to be rheumatoid factors. PMID:6319283

  12. Chemistry and Mineralogy of Antarctica Dry Valley Soils: Implications for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, J. E.; Golden, D. C.; Graff, T. G.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Douglas, S.; Kounaves, S. P.; McKay, C. P.; Tamppari, L, K.; Smith, P. H.; Zent, A. P.; Archer, P. D., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The Antarctic Dry Valleys (ADV) comprise the largest ice-free region of Antarctica. Precipitation almost always occurs as snow, relative humidity is frequently low, and mean annual temperatures are about -20 C. The ADV soils have previously been categorized into three soil moisture regimes: subxerous, xerous and ultraxerous, based on elevation and climate influences. The subxerous regime is predominately a coastal zone soil, and has the highest average temperature and precipitation, while the ultraxerous regime occurs at high elevation (>1000 m) and have very low temperature and precipitation. The amounts and types of salts present in the soils vary between regions. The nature, origin and significance of salts in the ADV have been previously investigated. Substantial work has focused on soil formation in the ADVs, however, little work has focused on the mineralogy of secondary alteration phases. The dominant weathering process in the ADV region is physical weathering, however, chemical weathering has been well documented. The objective of this study was to characterize the chemistry and mineralogy, including the alteration mineralogy, of soils from two sites, a subxerous soil in Taylor Valley, and an ultraxerous soil in University Valley. The style of aqueous alteration in the ADVs may have implications for pedogenic processes on Mars.

  13. Pulmonary artery adventitial fibroblasts cooperate with vasa vasorum endothelial cells to regulate vasa vasorum neovascularization: a process mediated by hypoxia and endothelin-1.

    PubMed

    Davie, Neil J; Gerasimovskaya, Evgenia V; Hofmeister, Stephen E; Richman, Aaron P; Jones, Peter L; Reeves, John T; Stenmark, Kurt R

    2006-06-01

    The precise cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating adventitial vasa vasorum neovascularization, which occurs in the pulmonary arterial circulation in response to hypoxia, remain unknown. Here, using a technique to isolate and culture adventitial fibroblasts (AdvFBs) and vasa vasorum endothelial cells (VVECs) from the adventitia of pulmonary arteries, we report that hypoxia-activated pulmonary artery AdvFBs exhibited pro-angiogenic properties and influenced the angiogenic phenotype of VVEC, in a process of cell-cell communication involving endothelin-1 (ET-1). We demonstrated that AdvFBs, either via co-culture or conditioned media, stimulated VVEC proliferation and augmented the self-assembly and integrity of cord-like networks that formed when VVECs where cultured on Matrigel. In addition, hypoxia-activated AdvFBs produced ET-1, suggesting a paracrine role for this pro-angiogenic molecule in these processes. When co-cultured on Matrigel, AdvFBs and VVECs self-assembled into heterotypic cord-like networks, a process augmented by hypoxia but attenuated by either selective endothelin receptor antagonists or oligonucleotides targeting prepro-ET-1 mRNA. From these observations, we propose that hypoxia-activated AdvFBs exhibit pro-angiogenic properties and, as such, communicate with VVECs, in a process involving ET-1, to regulate vasa vasorum neovascularization occurring in the adventitia of pulmonary arteries in response to chronic hypoxia.

  14. Recombinant adenovirus vectors for gene therapy and clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Nász, I; Adám, E

    2001-01-01

    In the last decade adenovirus (AdV) vectors have emerged as promising technology in gene therapy. They have been used for genetic modification of a variety of somatic cells in vitro and in vivo. They have been widely used as gene delivery vectors in experiments both with curative and preventive purposes. AdV vectors have been used in the experimental and in some extent in the clinical gene therapy of a variety of cancers. The combination of recombinant AdV technology with chemotherapy (pro drug system) seems to be promising, too. AdV vectors offer several advantages over other vectors. Replication defective vectors can be produced in very high titers (10(11) pfu/ml) thus allowing a substantially greater efficiency of direct gene transfer; they have the capacity to infect both replicating and nonreplicating (quiescent) cells from a variety of tissues and species. Several important limitations of adenovirus mediated gene transfer are also known, such as the relatively short-term (transient) expression of foreign genes, induction of the host humoral and cellular immune response to viral proteins and viral infected cells, which may substantially inhibit the effect of repeated treatment with AdV vectors, the limited cloning capacity and the lack of target cell specificity. However, the well-understood structure, molecular biology and host cell interactions of AdV-s offer some potential solutions to these limitations.

  15. Development and validation of a novel hydrolysis probe real-time polymerase chain reaction for agamid adenovirus 1 in the central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Fredholm, Daniel V; Coleman, James K; Childress, April L; Wellehan, James F X

    2015-03-01

    Agamid adenovirus 1 (AgAdv-1) is a significant cause of disease in bearded dragons (Pogona sp.). Clinical manifestations of AgAdv-1 infection are variable and often nonspecific; the manifestations range from lethargy, weight loss, and inappetence, to severe enteritis, hepatitis, and sudden death. Currently, diagnosis of AgAdv-1 infection is achieved through a single published method: standard nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) and sequencing. Standard nPCR with sequencing provides reliable sensitivity, specificity, and validation of PCR products. However, this process is comparatively expensive, laborious, and slow. Probe hybridization, as used in a TaqMan assay, represents the best option for validating PCR products aside from the time-consuming process of sequencing. This study developed a real-time PCR (qPCR) assay using a TaqMan probe-based assay, targeting a highly conserved region of the AgAdv-1 genome. Standard curves were generated, detection results were compared with the gold standard conventional PCR and sequencing assay, and limits of detection were determined. Additionally, the qPCR assay was run on samples known to be positive for AgAdv-1 and samples known to be positive for other adenoviruses. Based on the results of these evaluations, this assay allows for a less expensive, rapid, quantitative detection of AgAdv-1 in bearded dragons.

  16. THE ROLE OF INERTIAL CAVITATION IN ACOUSTIC DROPLET VAPORIZATION

    PubMed Central

    Fabiilli, Mario L.; Haworth, Kevin J.; Fakhri, Nasir H.; Kripfgans, Oliver D.; Carson, Paul L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian

    2011-01-01

    The vaporization of a superheated droplet emulsion into gas bubbles using ultrasound – termed acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) – has potential therapeutic applications in embolotherapy and drug delivery. The optimization of ADV for therapeutic applications can be enhanced by understanding the physical mechanisms underlying ADV, which are currently not clearly elucidated. Acoustic cavitation is one possible mechanism. This paper investigates the relationship between the ADV and inertial cavitation (IC) thresholds (measured as peak rarefactional pressures) by studying parameters that are known to influence the IC threshold. These parameters include bulk fluid properties such as gas saturation, temperature, viscosity, and surface tension; droplet parameters such as degree of superheat, surfactant type, and size; and acoustic properties such as pulse repetition frequency and pulse width. In all cases the ADV threshold occurred at a lower rarefactional pressure than the IC threshold indicating that the phase-transition occurs before IC events. The viscosity and temperature of the bulk fluid are shown to influence both thresholds directly and inversely, respectively. An inverse trend is observed between threshold and diameter for droplets in the 1 to 2.5 μ range. Based on a choice of experimental parameters, it is possible to achieve ADV with or without IC. PMID:19473917

  17. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Glass Matrix Composites for Structural Space Based Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-31

    1988) 2745-2752. 2 R89-917704-1 10. V. C. Nardone and K. M. Prewo, "Tensile Performance of Carbon-Fibre-Reinforced Glass," J. Mater. Sci., 23 (1988...168-180. 11. K. M. Prewo and V. C. Nardone , "Carbon Fiber Reinforced Glass Matrix Composites for Space Based Applications," UTRC Report R86-917161-1...Mater. Sci., 23 (1988) 2745-2752. 11. V. C. Nardone and K. M. Prewo, "Tensile Performance of Carbon-Fibre-Reinforced Glass," J. Mater. Sci., 23 (1988

  18. Hydrochromic Approaches to Mapping Human Sweat Pores.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong-Hoon; Park, Bum Jun; Kim, Jong-Man

    2016-06-21

    colorimetric change near body temperature. This feature enables the use of this technique to generate high-quality images of sweat pores. This Account also focuses on the results of the most recent phase of this investigation, which led to the development of a simple yet efficient and reliable technique for sweat pore mapping. The method utilizes a hydrophilic polymer composite film containing fluorescein, a commercially available dye that undergoes a fluorometric response as a result of water-dependent interconversion between its ring-closed spirolactone (nonfluorescent) and ring-opened fluorone (fluorescent) forms. Surface-modified carbon nanodots (CDs) have also been found to be efficient for hydrochromic mapping of human sweat pores. The results discovered by Lou et al. [ Adv. Mater. 2015 , 27 , 1389 ] are also included in this Account. Sweat pore maps obtained from fingertips using these materials were found to be useful for fingerprint analysis. In addition, this hydrochromism-based approach is sufficiently sensitive to enable differentiation between sweat-secreting active pores and inactive pores. As a result, the techniques can be applied to clinical diagnosis of malfunctioning sweat pores. The directions that future research in this area will follow are also discussed.

  19. Evidence for variable crystallinity in bivalve shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, D. E.; Wehrmeister, U.

    2012-04-01

    ]. Remnants of ACC can be traced by Raman spectroscopy and allow insight into the processes of biomineralization in bivalves. The crystallinity of solid materials can be quantified Raman spectroscopy by comparison of the FWHM of the ν1- Raman peak. We developed a Raman crystallinity index in order to get a measure of the degree of crystallinity [4]. Results presented for shells from several different marine and freshwater bivalve species and compare these with synthetically ACC and stable ACC from Porcellio scaber. The crystalline fraction in the different ACC-areas in shells and pearls supports the hypothesis that ACC acts as a transient precursor to crystalline CaCO3, in which the polymorph is already moulded into nanoclusters. The distribution and the state of crystallization of the calcium carbonate polymorphs in most of the ACC areas are not homogenous and the term ACC includes structurally different material. [1] Jacob et al., 2008, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 72, 229, [2] Jacob et al., 2011; J. Struct. Biol. 173 (2), 241, [3] Addadi et al., Adv. Mater. 2003; (15), 959, [4] Wehrmeister et al., 2011. J. Raman Spectrosc. 42, (5), 926.

  20. Colored ultra-thin hybrid photovoltaics with high quantum efficiency for decorative PV applications (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, L. Jay

    2015-10-01

    adopted by other material systems as well. Based on these understandings, we have also developed colored perovskite PV by integrating an optical cavity with the perovskite semiconductors [4]. The principle and experimental results will be presented. 1. J. Y. Lee, K. T. Lee, S.Y. Seo, L. J. Guo, "Decorative power generating panels creating angle insensitive transmissive colors," Sci. Rep. 4, 4192, 2014. 2. K. T. Lee, J.Y. Lee, S.-Y. Seo, and L. J. Guo, "Colored ultra-thin hybrid photovoltaics with high quantum efficiency," Light: Science and Applications, 3, e215, 2014. 3. K. T. Lee, S.-Y. Seo, J.Y. Lee, and L. J. Guo, "Ultrathin metal-semiconductor-metal resonator for angle invariant visible band transmission filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 231112, (2014); and "Strong resonance effect in a lossy medium-based optical cavity for angle robust spectrum filters," Adv. Mater, 26, 6324-6328, 2014. 4. K. T. Lee, M. Fukuda, L. J. Guo, "Colored, see-through perovskite solar cells employing an optical cavity," Submitted, 2015

  1. Influence of mycorhization and soil organic matters on lead and antimony transfers to vegetables cultivated in urban gardens: environmental and sanitary consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierart, Antoine; Braud, Armelle; Lebeau, Thierry; Séjalon-Delmas, Nathalie; Dumat, Camille

    2014-05-01

    . References: Feng, R., Wei, C., Tu, S., Ding, Y., Wang, R., Guo, J., 2013. The uptake and detoxification of antimony by plants: a review. Environ. Exp. Bot. 96, 28-34. Foucault, Y., Lévêque, T., Xiong, T., Schreck, E., Austruy, A., Shahid, M., Dumat, C., 2013. Green manure plants for remediation of soils polluted by metals and metalloids: Ecotoxicity and human bioavailability assessment. Chemosphere 93, 1430-1435. Gu, H.H., Li, F.P., Yu, Q., Gao, Y.Q., Yuan, X.T., 2013. The Roles of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Glomus mosseae and Festuca arundinacea in Phytostabilization of Lead/Zinc Tailings. Adv. Mater. Res. 699, 245-250. Lebeau, T., Braud, A., Jézéquel, K., 2008. Performance of bioaugmentation-assisted phytoextraction applied to metal contaminated soils: A review. Environ. Pollut. 153, 497-522. Sharma, A., Sharma, H., 2013. Role of Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza in the Mycoremediation of Heavy Toxic Metals From Soil. Int J LifeSc Bt Pharm Res 2, 2418-2431. Wu, F., Fu, Z., Liu, B., Mo, C., Chen, B., Corns, W., Liao, H., 2011. Health risk associated with dietary co-exposure to high levels of antimony and arsenic in the world's largest antimony mine area. Sci. Total Environ. 409, 3344-3351. Xiong, T., Austruy, A., Dappe, V., Leveque, T., Sobanska, S., Foucault, Y., Dumat, C., 2013. Phytotoxicity and bioaccessibility of metals for vegetables exposed to atmosphere fine particles in polluted urban areas". Urban Environmental Pollution, Asian Edition, 17-20, Beijing, China.

  2. EDITORIAL: Bioengineering nanotechnology: towards the clinic Bioengineering nanotechnology: towards the clinic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Weian; Karp, Jeffrey M.; Ferrari, Mauro; Serda, Rita

    2011-12-01

    special issue highlights some of the most recent advances in the exciting field of bioengineering nanotechnology. The themes covered in this issue include nanoparticle systems for tracking transplanted stem cells using a variety of imaging modalities, synthesis of smart nanomaterials for drug delivery and targeting specific intracellular organalles, elucidating how physical cues provided by nano- or micro-fabricated scaffolds impact cell phenotype, novel nanocomposite materials for biosensing, biomimetic assembly of nanostructures for studying molecular interactions, and high content analysis for assessing nanotoxicity. We believe next-generation nanomaterials that are currently under development will transform our understanding of biological mechanisms, and revolutionize clinical practice through ushering in new diagnostics and therapeutic paradigms. As nanotechnology becomes increasingly accessible to research laboratories, significant advances leading to paradigm shifts in basic biology and medicine will require connecting the right technology to the right problem and ensuring that the most pertinent criteria are correctly identified and addressed. References [1] Peer D et al Nat. Nanotechnol. 2 751-60 [2] Wang A Z, Langer R S and Farokhzad O C 2011 Annu. Rev. Med. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-040210-162544 [3] Farokhzad O C and Langer R 2006 Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 58 1456-9 [4] Zhao W and Karp J M 2009 Nat. Mater. 8 453-4 [5] Ferreira L, Karp J M, Nobre L and Langer R 2008 Cell Stem Cell 3 136-46 [6] Zhao W and Karp J M 2009 ChemBioChem 10 2308-10 [7] Zhao W et al 2011 Nat. Nanotechnol. 6 524-31 [8] Stephan M T, Moon J J, Um S H, Bershteyn A and Irvine D J 2010 Nat. Med. 16 1035-41 [9] Sarkar D, Ankrum J A, Teo G S, Carman C V and Karp J M 2011 Biomaterials 32 3053-61

  3. TEM analysis of the initial stages of BaSO4 crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Agudo, Cristina; Putnis, Christine V.; Ruiz Agudo, Encarnación; Putnis, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    observed ex-situ in a Transmission Electron Microscope. We found that barite precipitation involves the initial formation of nanometer-size (5-10 nm) particles that fuse in an oriented way to form larger particles. Two hierarchical levels of aggregation are observed: first, the aggregation of 5-10 nm particles to form larger, but still nanometer-sized (20-60 nm) particles. In a second stage, these latter particles aggregate to produce larger single crystals (200-500 nm). No evidence of an amorphous or crystalline precursor phase previous to crystalline barite was found. These results are of importance for the design of scale prevention methods, particularly in the choice of the most suitable scale inhibitor. Gebauer D., Cölfen H., Verch A. and Antonietti M. (2009) The multiple roles of additives in CaCO3 crystallization: a quantitative case study. Adv. Mater. 21, 435-439. Gebauer D., Völkel A. and Cölfen H. (2008) Stable prenucleation calcium carbonate clusters. Science 332, 1819-1822. Van Driessche A.E.S., Benning L.G., Rodriguez-Blanco J. D., Ossorio M., Bots P. and García-Ruiz J. M. (2012) The role and implications of bassanite as a stable precursor phase to gypsum precipitation. Science 336, 69-71. Baumgartner J., Dey A., Bomans P. H. H., Le Coadou C., Fratzl P., Sommerdijk N. A. J. M. and Faivre D. (2013) Nucleation and growth of magnetite from solution. Nature 12, 310-314. Li D., Nielsen M.H., Lee J.R.I, Frandsen C., Banfield J.F. and De Yoreo J.J.(2012) Direction-Specific Interactions Control Crystal Growth by Oriented Attachment. Science 336, 1014-1018.

  4. Expression of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus proteins in a baculovirus vector system.

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, J; Storgaard, T; Bloch, B; Alexandersen, S; Aasted, B

    1993-01-01

    We have previously published a detailed transcription map of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) and proposed a model for the translation of the two virion structural proteins (VP1 and VP2) and three nonstructural proteins (NS-1, NS-2, and NS-3) (S. Alexandersen, M. E. Bloom, and S. Perryman, J. Virol. 62:3684-3994, 1988). To verify and further characterize this model, we cloned the predicted open reading frames for NS-1, NS-2, NS-3, VP1-VP2, and VP2 alone into a recombinant baculovirus and expressed them in Sf9 insect cells. Expression of VP1-VP2 or VP2 alone in cDNA and in the genomic form was achieved. The expressed proteins had molecular weights similar to those of the corresponding proteins of wild-type ADV-G, although the ratio of VP1 to VP2 was altered. The recombinant baculovirus-expressed ADV VP1 and VP2 showed nuclear localization in Sf9 cells and were able to form particles indistinguishable, by electron microscopy, from wild-type virus. The large nonstructural protein, NS-1, showed predominantly nuclear localization in Sf9 cells when analyzed by immunofluorescence and had a molecular weight similar to that of wild-type ADV NS-1. Moreover, expression of NS-1 in Sf9 cells caused a change in morphology of the cells and resulted in 10-times-lower titers of recombinant baculovirus during infection, suggesting a cytostatic or cytotoxic action of this protein. The smaller NS-2 gene product seems to be located in the cytoplasm. When analyzed by Western immunoblotting, NS-2 comigrated with an approximately 16-kDa band seen in lysates of ADV-infected feline kidney cells. The putative NS-3 gene product exhibited a diffuse distribution in Sf9 cells and had a molecular weight of approximately 10,000. All of the expressed ADV-encoded proteins were recognized by sera from ADV-infected mink. Thus, expression of ADV cDNAs allowed assignment of the different mRNAs to the viral proteins observed during ADV infection in cell culture and supported our previously proposed

  5. Investigation of enteric adenovirus and poliovirus removal by coagulation processes and suitability of bacteriophages MS2 and φX174 as surrogates for those viruses.

    PubMed

    Shirasaki, N; Matsushita, T; Matsui, Y; Marubayashi, T; Murai, K

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated the removal of enteric adenovirus (AdV) type 40 and poliovirus (PV) type 1 by coagulation, using water samples from 13 water sources for drinking water treatment plants in Japan. The behaviors of two widely accepted enteric virus surrogates, bacteriophages MS2 and φX174, were compared with the behaviors of AdV and PV. Coagulation with polyaluminum chloride (PACl, basicity 1.5) removed AdV and PV from virus-spiked source waters: the infectious AdV and PV removal ratios evaluated by means of a plaque-forming-unit method were 0.1-1.4-log10 and 0.5-2.4-log10, respectively. A nonsulfated high-basicity PACl (basicity 2.1) removed infectious AdV and PV more efficiently than did other commercially available PACls (basicity 1.5-2.1), alum, and ferric chloride. The MS2 removal ratios tended to be larger than those of AdV and PV, partly because of differences in the hydrophobicities of the virus particles and the sensitivity of the virus to the virucidal activity of PACl; the differences in removal ratios were not due to differences in the surface charges of the virus particles. MS2, which was more hydrophobic than the other viruses, was inactivated during coagulation with PACl. Therefore, MS2 does not appear to be an appropriate surrogate for AdV and PV during coagulation. In contrast, because φX174, like AdV and PV, was not inactivated during coagulation, and because the hydrophobicity of φX174 was similar to or somewhat lower than the hydrophobicities of AdV and PV, the φX174 removal ratios tended to be similar to or somewhat smaller than those of the enteric viruses. Therefore, φX174 is a potential conservative surrogate for AdV and PV during coagulation. In summary, the surface hydrophobicity of virus particles and the sensitivity of the virus to the virucidal activity of the coagulant are probably important determinants of the efficiency of virus removal during coagulation.

  6. Current and future disease progression of the chronic HCV population in the United States.

    PubMed

    Zalesak, Martin; Francis, Kevin; Gedeon, Alex; Gillis, John; Hvidsten, Kyle; Kidder, Phyllis; Li, Hong; Martyn, Derek; Orne, Leslie; Smith, Amanda; Kwong, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can lead to advanced liver disease (AdvLD), including cirrhosis, decompensated cirrhosis, and liver cancer. The aim of this study was to determine recent historical rates of HCV patient progression to AdvLD and to project AdvLD prevalence through 2015. We first determined total 2008 US chronic HCV prevalence from the National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Surveys. Next, we examined disease progression and associated non-pharmacological costs of diagnosed chronic HCV-infected patients between 2007-2009 in the IMS LifeLink and CMS Medicare claims databases. A projection model was developed to estimate AdvLD population growth through 2015 in patients diagnosed and undiagnosed as of 2008, using the 2007-2009 progression rates to generate a "worst case" projection of the HCV-related AdvLD population (i.e., scenario where HCV treatment is the same in the forecasted period as it was before 2009). We found that the total diagnosed chronic HCV population grew from 983,000 to 1.19 million in 2007-2009, with patients born from 1945-1964 accounting for 75.0% of all patients, 83.7% of AdvLD patients, and 79.2% of costs in 2009, indicating that HCV is primarily a disease of the "baby boomer" population. Non-pharmacological costs grew from $7.22 billion to $8.63 billion, with the majority of growth derived from the 60,000 new patients that developed AdvLD in 2007-2009, 91.5% of whom were born between 1945 and 1964. The projection model estimated the total AdvLD population would grow from 195,000 in 2008 to 601,000 in 2015, with 73.5% of new AdvLD cases from patients undiagnosed as of 2008. AdvLD prevalence in patients diagnosed as of 2008 was projected to grow 6.5% annually to 303,000 patients in 2015. These findings suggest that strategies to diagnose and treat HCV-infected patients are urgently needed to increase the likelihood that progression is interrupted, particularly for patients born from 1945-1964.

  7. VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES OF A BIOLOGICAL HYDROGEL PRODUCED FROM SOYBEAN OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrogels formed from biopolymers or natural sources have special advantages because of their biodegradable and biocompatible properties. The viscoelastic properties of a newly developed biological hydrogel made from modified vegetable oil, epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) were investigated. The mater...

  8. Graphit-ceramic RF Faraday-thermal shield and plasma limiter

    DOEpatents

    Hwang, David L.; Hosea, Joel C.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a process of brazing a ceramic mater to graphite. In particular, the brazing procedure is directed to the production of a novel brazed ceramic graphite product useful as a Faraday shield.

  9. Densification and Sintering of a Microwave-Plasma-Synthesized Iron Nanopowder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    R.J., "Nanoparticulate Materials Densification," Nanostr . Mater. 7 [7], 749-768 (1996). 8. Goetzel, C.G., Treatise on Powder Metallurg,, Vol. 1, Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York, NY, 515 (1949). 204

  10. FY 89 Acoustics Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-11

    small. (=0.3%) a result which exhibits qualitative agreemnent with the results of Korobko and Chernobaiŕ . We saw no detectable change in...Senlis, France, (1990). 5. A Practical Sensor for Acoustic Detection of Larvae and Insects in Harvested Commodities, R. Hickling, S.T. Chang , J.C. Webb...to detect or gene;rate ;Couste ,,vc’-. "hcsc mater;als are unitiue in that thcv can he formed into largecxihlc sheet. lhmrelut, it is possible to

  11. Surface-Modified Nanofibrous Biomaterial Bridge for the Enhancement and Control of Neurite Outgrowth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-22

    K . B . Mycek, Q. Chen, S . Samuel, E. L. Feldman, and D. C. Martin, J . Biomed. Mater. Res. Part A...Gandhi, F. K . Ko, and P. I . Lelkes, J . Biomed. Mater. Res. Part A 79A, 963 2006. 30E. Schnell, K . Klinkhammer, S . Balzer, G. Brook, D. Klee, P. Dalton...Biomaterials 29, 3574 2008. 34C. E. Ayres, B . S . Jha, H . Meredith, J . R. Bowman, G. L. Bowlin, S . C. Henderson, and D. G. Simpson, J .

  12. Slip Continuity in Explicit Crystal Plasticity Simulations Using Nonlocal Continuum and Semi-discrete Approaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    C. F .; Canova, G. R .; Boulanger, L. Three-Dimensional Modeling of Indent-Induced Plastic Zone at a Mesoscale. Acta Mater. 1998, 46, 6183–6194...Dynamics. Modelling Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 2007, 15, 553–595. Arsenlis, A.; Parks, D. M.; Becker, R .; Bulatov, V. On the Evolution of Crystallographic...Dislocation Density in Homogeneously Deforming Crystals. J. Mech. Phys. Solids 2004, 52, 1213–1246. Asaro, R . J. Micromechanics of Crystals and

  13. Increased dendritic spine density and tau expression are associated with individual differences in steroidal regulation of male sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, Pranay; McInnis, Christine; Madden, Amanda M K; Bonthuis, Paul J; Zup, Susan; Rissman, Emilie F; Park, Jin Ho

    2013-01-01

    Male sexual behavior (MSB) is modulated by gonadal steroids, yet this relationship is highly variable across species and between individuals. A significant percentage (~30%) of B6D2F1 hybrid male mice demonstrate MSB after long-term orchidectomy (herein after referred to as "maters"), providing an opportunity to examine the mechanisms that underlie individual differences in steroidal regulation of MSB. Use of gene expression arrays comparing maters and non-maters has provided a first pass look at the genetic underpinnings of steroid-independent MSB. Surprisingly, of the ~500 genes in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) that differed between maters and non-maters, no steroid hormone or receptor genes were differentially expressed between the two groups. Interestingly, best known for their association with Alzheimer's disease, amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) were elevated in maters. Increased levels of their protein products (APP and tau) in their non-pathological states have been implicated in cell survival, neuroprotection, and supporting synaptic integrity. Here we tested transgenic mice that overexpress tau and found facilitated mounting and intromission behavior after long-term orchidectomy relative to littermate controls. In addition, levels of synaptophysin and spinophilin, proteins generally enriched in synapses and dendritic spines respectively, were elevated in the MPOA of maters. Dendritic morphology was also assessed in Golgi-impregnated brains of orchidectomized B6D2F1 males, and hybrid maters exhibited greater dendritic spine density in MPOA neurons. In sum, we show for the first time that retention of MSB in the absence of steroids is correlated with morphological differences in neurons.

  14. Biocompatibility Analysis of an Electrically-Activated Silver-Based Antibacterial Surface System for Medical Device Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-16

    unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 non -infected patients, and in some cases these...antibacterial activity of silver and silver products has been widely investigated and implemented into medical devices in various forms for thousands of years...P. Developing an engineered antimicrobial/prophylactic system using electrically acti- vated bactericidal metals. J Mater Sci-Mater M. 2010;21(7):2103

  15. Grain-Structure Development in Heavily Cold-Rolled Alpha-Titanium (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    H.P. Lee, C. Esling , H.J. Bunge, Textures Microstruct. 7 (1988) 317–337. [10] S. Nourbakhsh, T.D. O’Brien, Mater. Sci. Eng. 100 (1988) 109–114. [11...2010) 4536–4548. [20] Y. Zhong, F. Yin, K. Nagai, J. Mater. Res. 23 (2008) 2954–2966. [21] M.J. Philippe, M. Serghat, P. Van Houtte, C. Esling , Acta

  16. Precision Composite Space Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-15

    analysis of composite laminates with bolted joints under bending loads. J Compos Mater 1995;29(1):15-36. 283 [D.52]. Lee JD. Three dimensional...fiber reinforced composite bends . J Compos Mater 1986;20(1):30-45. [D.57]. Nagesh. Finite-element analysis of pressure vessels with progressive...composite cylinder subjected to three-point bending : Correlation of beam theory with experiment. Compos Struct 2004;63(3-4):439-445. [D.135]. Huang ZM

  17. Scavenging dissolved oxygen via acoustic droplet vaporization.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Kirthi; Holland, Christy K; Haworth, Kevin J

    2016-07-01

    Acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) of perfluorocarbon emulsions has been explored for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Previous studies have demonstrated that vaporization of a liquid droplet results in a gas microbubble with a diameter 5-6 times larger than the initial droplet diameter. The expansion factor can increase to a factor of 10 in gassy fluids as a result of air diffusing from the surrounding fluid into the microbubble. This study investigates the potential of this process to serve as an ultrasound-mediated gas scavenging technology. Perfluoropentane droplets diluted in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were insonified by a 2 MHz transducer at peak rarefactional pressures lower than and greater than the ADV pressure amplitude threshold in an in vitro flow phantom. The change in dissolved oxygen (DO) of the PBS before and after ADV was measured. A numerical model of gas scavenging, based on conservation of mass and equal partial pressures of gases at equilibrium, was developed. At insonation pressures exceeding the ADV threshold, the DO of air-saturated PBS decreased with increasing insonation pressures, dropping as low as 25% of air saturation within 20s. The decrease in DO of the PBS during ADV was dependent on the volumetric size distribution of the droplets and the fraction of droplets transitioned during ultrasound exposure. Numerically predicted changes in DO from the model agreed with the experimentally measured DO, indicating that concentration gradients can explain this phenomenon. Using computationally modified droplet size distributions that would be suitable for in vivo applications, the DO of the PBS was found to decrease with increasing concentrations. This study demonstrates that ADV can significantly decrease the DO in an aqueous fluid, which may have direct therapeutic applications and should be considered for ADV-based diagnostic or therapeutic applications.

  18. Modulation of lung inflammation by the Epstein-Barr virus protein Zta

    PubMed Central

    Guenther, James F.; Cameron, Jennifer E.; Nguyen, Hong T.; Wang, Yu; Sullivan, Deborah E.; Shan, Bin; Lasky, Joseph A.; Flemington, Erik K.

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have implicated gamma-herpesviruses, particularly Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), in the progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The data presented here examine the possible role that EBV plays in the potentiation of this disease by evaluating the pulmonary response to expression of the EBV lytic transactivator protein Zta. Expression of Zta in the lungs of mice via adenovirus-mediated delivery (Adv-Zta) produced profibrogenic inflammation that appeared most pronounced by day 7 postexposure. Relative to mice exposed to control GFP-expressing adenovirus (Adv-GFP), mice exposed to Adv-Zta displayed evidence of lung injury and a large increase in inflammatory cells, predominantly neutrophils, recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Cytokine and mRNA profiling of the BAL fluid and cells recovered from Adv-Zta-treated mice revealed a Th2 and Th17 bias. mRNA profiles from Adv-Zta-infected lung epithelial cells revealed consistent induction of mRNAs encoding Th2 cytokines. Coexpression in transient assays of wild-type Zta, but not a DNA-binding-defective mutant Zta, activated expression of the IL-13 promoter in lung epithelial cells, and detection of IL-13 in Adv-Zta-treated mice correlated with expression of Zta. Induction of Th2 cytokines in Zta-expressing mice corresponded with alternative activation of macrophages. In cell culture and in mice, Zta repressed lung epithelial cell markers. Despite the profibrogenic character at day 7, the inflammation resolves by 28 days postexposure to Adv-Zta without evidence of fibrosis. These observations indicate that the EBV lytic transactivator protein Zta displays activity consistent with a pathogenic role in pulmonary fibrosis associated with herpesvirus infection. PMID:20817778

  19. Expression of Coxsackie-Adenovirus receptor (CAR) in the developing mouse olfactory system.

    PubMed

    Venkatraman, Giri; Behrens, Maik; Pyrski, Martina; Margolis, Frank L

    2005-09-01

    Interest in manipulating gene expression in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) has led to the use of adenoviruses (AdV) as gene delivery vectors. OSNs are the first order neurons in the olfactory system and the initial site of odor detection. They are highly susceptible to adenovirus infection although the mechanism is poorly understood. The Coxsackie-Adenovirus receptor (CAR) and members of the integrin family have been implicated in the process of AdV infection in various systems. Multiple serotypes of AdV efficiently bind to the CAR, leading to entry and infection of the host cell by a mechanism that can also involve integrins. Cell lines that do not express CAR are relatively resistant, but not completely immune to AdV infection, suggesting that other mechanisms participate in mediating AdV attachment and entry. Using in situ hybridization and western blot analyses, we show that OSNs and olfactory bulbs (OB) of mice express abundant CAR mRNA at embryonic and neonatal stages, with progressive diminution during postnatal development. By contrast to the olfactory epithelium (OE), CAR mRNA is still present in the adult mouse OB. Furthermore, despite a similar postnatal decline, CAR protein expression in the OE and OB of mice continues into adulthood. Our results suggest that the robust AdV infection observed in the postnatal olfactory system is mediated by CAR and that expression of even small amounts of CAR protein as seen in the adult rodent, permits efficient AdV infection and entry. CAR is an immunoglobulin domain-containing protein that bears homology to cell-adhesion molecules suggesting the possibility that it may participate in organization of the developing olfactory system.

  20. A long-term serological survey on Aujeszky's disease virus infections in wild boar in East Germany.

    PubMed

    Pannwitz, G; Freuling, C; Denzin, N; Schaarschmidt, U; Nieper, H; Hlinak, A; Burkhardt, S; Klopries, M; Dedek, J; Hoffmann, L; Kramer, M; Selhorst, T; Conraths, F J; Mettenleiter, T; Müller, T

    2012-02-01

    Between 1985 and 2008, a total of 102,387 wild boar sera originating from Eastern Germany covering an area of 108 589 km2 were tested for the presence of Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV)-specific antibodies. From 1985 until 1991 and from 1992 until 2008, wild boar sera were exclusively investigated using either conventional seroneutralization assays (n=39 621) or commercial gB and full antigen ELISAs (n=62,766), respectively. Spatial-temporal analysis revealed an increasing ADV seroprevalence from 0·4% to 15·9%, on average, during the 24-year observation period that went along with a continuous spread of the infection in a western direction. During 2006 and 2008, 18% of the 66 affected districts had ADV seroprevalences >30%. There was a significant correlation between ADV seroprevalence and the hunting index of population density (HIPD) of wild boar in the entire study area, although this did not hold true for some regions. Seroprevalences did not differ between sexes but were age-dependent. East Germany has been officially free of Aujeszky's disease (pseudorabies) in domestic pigs since 1985. Although a risk for domestic pigs cannot be completely ruled out, experience has shown that ADV in domestic pigs could be eliminated although the virus was present in the wild boar population. Despite increasing ADV seroprevalence in the East German wild boar population no spillover infections from wild boar to domestic pigs have been reported. To further trace ADV infections in the wild boar population in Germany, a nationwide serological monitoring programme should be implemented.

  1. An optofluidic mechanical system for elasticity measurement of thin biological tissues.

    PubMed

    Cha, Chaenyung; Oh, Jonghyun

    2013-05-01

    As dura mater has an anisotropic fibrous structure and exists under wet and dynamic stretching conditions in the brain, its mechanical properties have not yet been properly investigated. Here we developed a fluid-assisted mechanical system integrated with a photonic sensor and a pressure sensor in order to measure the elasticity of the dura mater. Porcine dura mater sample was loaded as a stretched diaphragm into a liquid chamber to mimic the in vivo condition. Increasing the flow rate of saline solution into the chamber swelled and deformed the dura mater. The micron-scale deflection of the dura mater was optically detected by the photonic sensor. Fluid pressure and deflection values were then used to calculate the elastic modulus. The average elastic modulus of the porcine dura mater was 31.14 MPa. We further measured the elasticity of a well-known material to further validate the system. We expect that this optofluidic system developed in this study will be useful to measure the elasticity of a variety of thin biological tissues.

  2. Clinical Impact of Mixed Respiratory Viral Infection in Children with Adenoviral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Young Eun

    2016-01-01

    Background Although adenovirus (ADV) infection occurs steadily all year round in Korea and the identification of respiratory viral coinfections has been increasing following the introduction of multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction tests, the clinical impact of viral coinfection in children with ADV infection has rarely been reported. Materials and Methods Medical records of children diagnosed with ADV infection were retrospectively reviewed. The enrolled children were divided into two groups based on the identified respiratory viruses: ADV group and coinfection group. Clinical and laboratory parameters were compared between the two groups. Results In total, 105 children (60 males and 45 females) with a median age of 29 months (range: 0-131 months) diagnosed with an ADV infection were enrolled. Fever (99.0%) was by far the most frequent symptom, followed by respiratory (82.9%), and gastrointestinal (22.9%) symptoms. Upper and lower respiratory tract infections were diagnosed in 56 (53.3%), and 32 (30.5%) children, respectively. Five (4.8%) children received oxygen therapy, and no child died due to ADV infection. Coinfection was diagnosed in 32 (30.5%) children, with rhinovirus (46.9%), and respiratory syncytial virus (21.9%) being the most frequent. The proportions of children younger than 24 months (P <0.001), with underlying medical conditions (P = 0.020), and diagnosed with lower respiratory tract infection (P = 0.011) were significantly higher in the coinfection group than in the ADV group. In a multivariate analysis, only the younger age was significantly associated with coinfection (P <0.001). Although more children in the coinfection group received oxygen therapy (P = 0.029), the duration of fever and hospitalization was not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion Respiratory viral coinfection with ADV occurred more frequently in children younger than 24 months of age compared with children aged 24 months or older. Respiratory

  3. Adefovir dipivoxil is less expensive than lamivudine and associated with similar prognosis in patients with hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma after radical resection

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jian-Hong; Ke, Yang; Zhu, Shao-Liang; Wang, Lin; Luo, Cheng-Piao; Gong, Wen-Feng; You, Xue-Mei; Ma, Liang; Xiang, Bang-De; Li, Le-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Aim Lamivudine (LAM) and adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) are widely used in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but few studies have directly compared their therapeutic efficacy and treatment cost. This study aims to compare LAM with ADV head-to-head in these patients. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 201 patients with HBV-related HCC who underwent radical resection and subsequently received LAM (n=155) or ADV (n=46). The two groups were compared in terms of HBV-DNA levels, liver function, antiviral resistance, recurrence-free, and overall survival, as well as antiviral medication costs. Results Despite significant improvement in HBV-DNA and alanine aminotransferase level in the LAM group after 1 year of antiviral therapy, these parameters did not differ significantly between the two groups over the following 2 years. Incidence of antiviral resistance after 1, 2, and 3 years of antiviral treatment was significantly higher in the LAM group (19.5%, 45.7%, and 56.4%) than in the ADV group (0%, 3.3%, and 14.5%; P<0.001). Overall survival at 1, 2, and 3 years after resection was similar for the LAM group (84.5%, 69.3%, and 64.6%) and the ADV group (84.1%, 77.8%, and 63.4%; P=0.905). Recurrence-free survival at the three follow-up points was also similar for the LAM group (71.7%, 58.3%, and 43.9%) and the ADV group (81.1%, 66.1%, and 53.0%; P=0.452). Cox regression analysis confirmed that both nucleos(t)ide analogues were associated with similar overall and recurrence-free survival. However, the average medication costs after 1, 2, and 3 years of antiviral treatment were significantly higher in the LAM group (€3.0, €4.8, and €5.6 per person per day) than in the ADV group (€2.2, €2.4, and €3.1 per person per day; all P<0.05). Conclusion ADV and LAM are associated with similar survival benefit in patients with HBV-related HCC after radical resection, but ADV is more cost-effective. PMID:27877054

  4. Monoclonal antibodies against Aleutian disease virus distinguish virus strains and differentiate sites of virus replication from sites of viral antigen sequestration.

    PubMed Central

    Race, R E; Chesebro, B; Bloom, M E; Aasted, B; Wolfinbarger, J

    1986-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were used to study antigenic differences among strains of Aleutian disease virus (ADV) and to characterize viral proteins in vitro and in vivo. A number of ADV field strains could be discriminated, and highly virulent Utah I ADV was clearly delineated from the tissue culture-adapted avirulent ADV-G strain. This specificity could be demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence against infected cultures of Crandell feline kidney cells or against tissues of Utah I ADV-infected mink. Viral antigens were demonstrated in both the nuclei and the cytoplasm of infected tissue culture cells. However, in mink mesenteric lymph node, spleen, and liver, viral antigen was observed only in the cytoplasm. Absence of nuclear fluorescence suggested that the detected antigen represented phagocytized viral antigens rather than replicating virus. This conclusion was supported by the finding that mAbs reactive only against low-molecular-weight polypeptides derived from intact viral proteins gave the same pattern of in vivo fluorescence as mAbs with broad reactivity for large or small (or both) viral polypeptides. The distribution of infected cells was the same as that described for macrophages in these tissues and suggested that cells of the reticuloendothelial system had sequestered viral antigens. Images PMID:3001352

  5. The Evolution of Advanced Merger (U)LIRGs on the Color-Stellar Mass Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Rui; Hao, Cai-Na; Xia, Xiao-Yang

    2016-08-01

    Based on a sample of 79 local advanced merger (adv-merger) (U)LIRGs, we search for evidence of quenching processes by investigating the distributions of star formation history indicators (EW(Hα), EW(HΔA) and Dn(4000)) on the NUV-r color-mass and SFR-M * diagrams. The distributions of EW(Hα) and Dn(4000) on the NUV-r color-mass diagram show clear trends that at a given stellar mass, galaxies with redder NUV-r colors have smaller EW(Hα) and larger D n (4000). The reddest adv-merger (U)LIRGs close to the green valley mostly have D n (4000)> 1.4. In addition, in the SFR-M * diagram, as the SFR decreases, the EW(Hα) decreases and the D n (4000) increases, implying that the adv-merger (U)LIRGs on the star formation main sequence have more evolved stellar populations than those above the main sequence. These results indicate that a fraction of the adv-merger (U)LIRGs have already exhibited signs of fading from the starburst phase and that the NUV-r reddest adv-merger (U)LIRGs are likely at the initial stage of post-starbursts with an age of ˜ 1 Gyr, which is consistent with the gas exhaustion time-scales. Therefore, our results offer additional support for the fast evolutionary track from the blue cloud to the red sequence.

  6. Localization of neutralization epitopes on adenovirus fiber knob from species C.

    PubMed

    Lang, Shuai; Wang, Lizheng; Wang, Zixuan; Zhu, Rui; Yan, Jingyi; Wang, Baoming; Wu, Jiaxin; Zhang, Haihong; Wu, Hui; Zhou, Yan; Kong, Wei; Yu, Bin; Yu, Xianghui

    2016-04-01

    Although potential neutralization epitopes on the fiber knob of adenovirus (AdV) serotype 2 (Ad2) and Ad5 have been revealed, few studies have been carried out to identify neutralization epitopes on the knob from a broader panel of AdV serotypes. In this study, based on sequence and structural analysis of knobs from Ad1, Ad2, Ad5 and Ad6 (all from species C), several trimeric chimeric knob proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli to identify the locations of neutralization epitopes on the knobs by analysing their reactivity with mouse and rabbit polyclonal sera raised against AdVs and human sera with natural AdV infection. The dominant neutralization epitopes were located mainly in the N-terminal part of knobs from Ad1, Ad2 and Ad5, but they seemed to be located in the C-terminal part of the Ad6 knob, with some individual differences in rabbit and human populations. Our study adds to our understanding of humoral immune responses to AdVs and will facilitate the construction of more desirable capsid-modified recombinant Ad5 vectors.

  7. Molecular characterization, phylogeny analysis and pathogenicity of a Muscovy duck adenovirus strain isolated in China in 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xinheng; Zhong, Yangjin; Zhou, Zhenhai; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Huanmin; Chen, Feng; Chen, Weiguo; Xie, Qingmei

    2016-06-15

    This study aimed to characterize a novel adenovirus (AdV) isolated from diseased Muscovy ducks in China. After the AdV was successfully propagated in duck embryo fibroblasts, the morphological and physicochemical properties of the virions were studied by electron microscopy and different tests. The results of the analyses were in conformity with AdV properties. The full genome sequence was determined and analyzed. The new isolate (named CH-GD-12-2014) shared over 91% sequence identity with duck AdV-2 representing the species Duck aviadenovirus B. The most important distinguishing feature between the two DAdV strains was the presence of a second fiber gene in the Chinese isolate. Phylogeny reconstruction confirmed the affiliation of the virus with goose and duck AdVs in the genus Aviadenovirus. Experimental infection resulted in embryo death, and intramuscular inoculation provoked morbidity and mortality among ducks and chickens. - Highlights: • A duck adenovirus type 3 was isolated and the complete genome of DAdV-3 was obtained. • Physicochemical properties and electron microscopy were researched. • Pathogenicity of duck adenovirus type 3 was researched.

  8. High-Density Superconducting Cables for Advanced ACTPol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappas, C. G.; Austermann, J.; Beall, J. A.; Duff, S. M.; Gallardo, P. A.; Grace, E.; Henderson, S. W.; Ho, S. P.; Koopman, B. J.; Li, D.; McMahon, J.; Nati, F.; Niemack, M. D.; Niraula, P.; Salatino, M.; Schillaci, A.; Schmitt, B. L.; Simon, S. M.; Staggs, S. T.; Vavagiakis, E. M.; Ward, J. T.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) is an upcoming Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) receiver upgrade, scheduled to deploy in 2016, that will allow measure- ment of the cosmic microwave background polarization and temperature to the highest precision yet with ACT. The AdvACT increase in sensitivity is partly provided by an increase in the number of transition-edge sensors (TESes) per array by up to a factor of two over the current ACTPol receiver detector arrays. The high-density AdvACT TES arrays require 70 µ m pitch superconducting flexible cables (flex) to connect the detec- tor wafer to the first-stage readout electronics. Here, we present the flex fabrication process and test results. For the flex wiring layer, we use a 400-nm-thick sputtered alu- minum film. In the center of the cable, the wiring is supported by a polyimide substrate, which smoothly transitions to a bare (uncoated with polyimide) silicon substrate at the ends of the cable for a robust wedge wire-bonding interface. Tests on the first batch of flex made for the first AdvACT array show that the flex will meet the requirements for AdvACT, with a superconducting critical current above 1 mA at 500 mK, resilience to mechanical and cryogenic stress, and a room temperature yield of 97%.

  9. Characterization of single disseminated prostate cancer cells reveals tumor cell heterogeneity and identifies dormancy associated pathways

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Ilsa; Lakely, Bryce; Coleman, Roger; Larson, Sandy; Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A.; Xia, Jing; Gulati, Roman; Nelson, Peter S.; Montgomery, Bruce; Lange, Paul; Snyder, Linda A.; Vessella, Robert L.; Morrissey, Colm

    2014-01-01

    Cancer dormancy refers to the prolonged clinical disease-free time between removal of the primary tumor and recurrence, which is common in prostate cancer (PCa), breast cancer, esophageal cancer, and other cancers. PCa disseminated tumor cells (DTC) are detected in both patients with no evidence of disease (NED) and advanced disease (ADV). However, the molecular and cellular nature of DTC is unknown. We performed a first-in-field study of single DTC transcriptomic analyses in cancer patients to identify a molecular signature associated with cancer dormancy. We profiled eighty-five individual EpCAM+/CD45− cells from the bone marrow of PCa patients with NED or ADV. We analyzed 44 DTC with high prostate-epithelial signatures, and eliminated 41 cells with high erythroid signatures and low prostate epithelial signatures. DTC were clustered into 3 groups: NED, ADV_1, and ADV_2, in which the ADV_1 group presented a distinct gene expression pattern associated with the p38 stress activated kinase pathway. Additionally, DTC from the NED group were enriched for a tumor dormancy signature associated with head and neck squamous carcinoma and breast cancer. This study provides the first clinical evidence of the p38 pathway as a potential biomarker for early recurrence and an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25301725

  10. Preferential and Bidirectional Labeling of the Rubrospinal Tract with Adenovirus-GFP for Monitoring Normal and Injured Axons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaofei; Smith, George M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The rodent rubrospinal tract (RST) has been studied extensively to investigate regeneration and remodeling of central nervous system (CNS) axons. Currently no retrograde tracers can specifically label rubrospinal axons and neurons (RSNs). The RST can be anterogradely labeled by injecting tracers into the red nucleus (RN), but accurately locating the RN is a technical challenge. Here we developed a recombinant adenovirus carrying a green fluorescent protein reporter gene (Adv-GFP) which can preferentially, intensely, and bi-directionally label the RST. When Adv-GFP was injected into the second lumbar spinal cord, the GFP was specifically transported throughout the entire RST, with peak labeling seen at 2 weeks post-injection. When Adv-GFP was injected directly into the RN, GFP was anterogradely transported throughout the RST. Following spinal cord injury (SCI), injection of Adv-GFP resulted in visualization of GFP in transected, spared, or sprouted RST axons bi-directionally. Thus Adv-GFP could be used as a novel tool for monitoring and evaluating strategies designed to maximize RST axonal regeneration and remodeling following SCI. PMID:21299337

  11. Mechanical designs and development of TES bolometer detector arrays for the Advanced ACTPol experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Jonathan T.; Austermann, Jason; Beall, James A.; Choi, Steve K.; Crowley, Kevin T.; Devlin, Mark J.; Duff, Shannon M.; Gallardo, Patricio A.; Henderson, Shawn W.; Ho, Shuay-Pwu Patty; Hilton, Gene; Hubmayr, Johannes; Khavari, Niloufar; Klein, Jeffrey; Koopman, Brian J.; Li, Dale; McMahon, Jeffrey; Mumby, Grace; Nati, Federico; Niemack, Michael D.; Page, Lyman A.; Salatino, Maria; Schillaci, Alessandro; Schmitt, Benjamin L.; Simon, Sara M.; Staggs, Suzanne T.; Thornton, Robert; Ullom, Joel N.; Vavagiakis, Eve M.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-07-01

    The next generation Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) experiment is currently underway and will consist of four Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometer arrays, with three operating together, totaling 5800 detectors on the sky. Building on experience gained with the ACTPol detector arrays, AdvACT will utilize various new technologies, including 150 mm detector wafers equipped with multichroic pixels, allowing for a more densely packed focal plane. Each set of detectors includes a feedhorn array of stacked silicon wafers which form a spline profile leading to each pixel. This is then followed by a waveguide interface plate, detector wafer, back short cavity plate, and backshort cap. Each array is housed in a custom designed structure manufactured from high purity copper and then gold plated. In addition to the detector array assembly, the array package also encloses cryogenic readout electronics. We present the full mechanical design of the AdvACT high frequency (HF) detector array package along with a detailed look at the detector array stack assemblies. This experiment will also make use of extensive hardware and software previously developed for ACT, which will be modified to incorporate the new AdvACT instruments. Therefore, we discuss the integration of all AdvACT arrays with pre-existing ACTPol infrastructure.

  12. High-Density Superconducting Cables for Advanced ACTPol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappas, C. G.; Austermann, J.; Beall, J. A.; Duff, S. M.; Gallardo, P. A.; Grace, E.; Henderson, S. W.; Ho, S. P.; Koopman, B. J.; Li, D.; McMahon, J.; Nati, F.; Niemack, M. D.; Niraula, P.; Salatino, M.; Schillaci, A.; Schmitt, B. L.; Simon, S. M.; Staggs, S. T.; Stevens, J. R.; Vavagiakis, E. M.; Ward, J. T.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-07-01

    Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) is an upcoming Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) receiver upgrade, scheduled to deploy in 2016, that will allow measurement of the cosmic microwave background polarization and temperature to the highest precision yet with ACT. The AdvACT increase in sensitivity is partly provided by an increase in the number of transition-edge sensors (TESes) per array by up to a factor of two over the current ACTPol receiver detector arrays. The high-density AdvACT TES arrays require 70 \\upmu m pitch superconducting flexible cables (flex) to connect the detector wafer to the first-stage readout electronics. Here, we present the flex fabrication process and test results. For the flex wiring layer, we use a 400-nm-thick sputtered aluminum film. In the center of the cable, the wiring is supported by a polyimide substrate, which smoothly transitions to a bare (uncoated with polyimide) silicon substrate at the ends of the cable for a robust wedge wire-bonding interface. Tests on the first batch of flex made for the first AdvACT array show that the flex will meet the requirements for AdvACT, with a superconducting critical current above 1 mA at 500 mK, resilience to mechanical and cryogenic stress, and a room temperature yield of 97 %.

  13. Mechanical Design and Development of TES Bolometer Detector Arrays for the Advanced ACTPol Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Jonathan T.; Austermann, Jason; Beall, James A.; Choi, Steve K.; Crowley, Kevin T.; Devlin, Mark J.; Duff, Shannon M.; Gallardo, Patricio M.; Henderson, Shawn W.; Ho, Shuay-Pwu Patty; Hilton, Gene; Hubmayr, Johannes; Khavari, Niloufar; Klein, Jeffrey; Koopman, Brian J.; Li, Dale; McMahon, Jeffrey; Mumby, Grace; Nati, Federico; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    The next generation Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) experiment is currently underway and will consist of four Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometer arrays, with three operating together, totaling 5800 detectors on the sky. Building on experience gained with the ACTPol detector arrays, AdvACT will utilize various new technologies, including 150 mm detector wafers equipped with multichroic pixels, allowing for a more densely packed focal plane. Each set of detectors includes a feedhorn array of stacked silicon wafers which form a spline pro le leading to each pixel. This is then followed by a waveguide interface plate, detector wafer, back short cavity plate, and backshort cap. Each array is housed in a custom designed structure manufactured from high purity copper and then gold plated. In addition to the detector array assembly, the array package also encloses cryogenic readout electronics. We present the full mechanical design of the AdvACT high frequency (HF) detector array package along with a detailed look at the detector array stack assemblies. This experiment will also make use of extensive hardware and software previously developed for ACT, which will be modi ed to incorporate the new AdvACT instruments. Therefore, we discuss the integration of all AdvACT arrays with pre-existing ACTPol infrastructure.

  14. Male predominance among Japanese adult patients with late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Asano, Y; Kanda, Y; Ogawa, N; Sakata-Yanagimoto, M; Nakagawa, M; Kawazu, M; Goyama, S; Kandabashi, K; Izutsu, K; Imai, Y; Hangaishi, A; Kurokawa, M; Tsujino, S; Ogawa, S; Aoki, K; Chiba, S; Motokura, T; Hirai, H

    2003-12-01

    Late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis (LHC) after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is mainly caused by viral infections. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 141 Japanese adult patients who underwent a first allogeneic HSCT from 1995 to 2002. In all, 19 patients developed LHC a median of 51 days after HSCT. Adenovirus (AdV) was detected in the urine of 10 LHC patients, of whom eight had AdV type 11. Five of the six available serum samples from these patients were also positive for AdV type 11, but the detection of AdV in serum was not associated with a worse outcome. Male sex and the development of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease were identified as independent significant risk factors for LHC. Male predominance was detected in LHC after HSCT, as has been previously shown in children with AdV-induced acute HC. The detection of AdV DNA in serum did not predict a poor outcome.

  15. Assessment of Sensor Technologies for Advanced Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Korsah, Kofi; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Vlim, R.; Kisner, Roger A.; Britton, Jr, Charles L.; Wootan, D. W.; Anheier, Jr, N. C.; Diaz, A. A.; Hirt, E. H.; Chien, H. T.; Sheen, S.; Bakhtiari, Sasan; Gopalsami, S.; Heifetz, A.; Tam, S. W.; Park, Y.; Upadhyaya, B. R.; Stanford, A.

    2016-10-01

    Sensors and measurement technologies provide information on processes, support operations and provide indications of component health. They are therefore crucial to plant operations and to commercialization of advanced reactors (AdvRx). This report, developed by a three-laboratory team consisting of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), provides an assessment of sensor technologies and a determination of measurement needs for AdvRx. It provides the technical basis for identifying and prioritizing research targets within the instrumentation and control (I&C) Technology Area under the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Reactor Technology (ART) program and contributes to the design and implementation of AdvRx concepts.

  16. Coating with spermine-pullulan polymer enhances adenoviral transduction of mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Li; Yao, Xinglei; Faiola, Francesco; Liu, Bojun; Zhang, Tianyuan; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Shinsaku; Gao, Jian-Qing; Zhao, Robert Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells with multilineage potential, which makes them attractive tools for regenerative medicine applications. Efficient gene transfer into MSCs is essential not only for basic research in developmental biology but also for therapeutic applications involving gene-modification in regenerative medicine. Adenovirus vectors (Advs) can efficiently and transiently introduce an exogenous gene into many cell types via their primary receptors, the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptors, but not into MSCs, which are deficient in coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptors expression. To overcome this problem, we developed an Adv coated with a spermine-pullulan (SP) cationic polymer and investigated its physicochemical properties and internalization mechanisms. We demonstrated that the SP coating could enhance adenoviral transduction of MSCs without detectable cytotoxicity or effects on differentiation. Our results argue in favor of the potentiality of the SP-coated Adv as a prototype vector for efficient and safe transduction of MSCs. PMID:28008251

  17. Development of an Acoustic Droplet Vaporization, Ultrasound Drug Delivery Emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabiilli, Mario L.; Sebastian, Ian E.; Fowlkes, J. Brian

    2010-03-01

    Many therapeutic applications of ultrasound (US) include the use of pefluorocarbon (PFC) microbubbles or emulsions. These colloidal systems can be activated in the presence of US, which in the case of emulsions, results in the production of bubbles—a process known as acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV). ADV can be used as a drug delivery mechanism, thereby yielding the localized release of toxic agents such a chemotherapeutics. In this work, emulsions that contain PFC and chlorambucil, a chemotherapy drug, are formulated using albumin or lipid shells. For albumin droplets, the oil phase—which contained CHL—clearly enveloped the PFC phase. The albumin emulsion also displayed better retention of CHL in the absence of US, which was evaluated by incubating Chinese hamster ovary cells with the various formulations. Thus, the developed emulsions are suitable for further testing in ADV-induced release of CHL.

  18. Comparative study of two extraction methods for enteric virus recovery from sewage sludge by molecular methods.

    PubMed

    Schlindwein, A D; Simões, C M O; Barardi, C R M

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two nucleic acid extraction methods for the recovery of enteric viruses from activated sludge. Test samples were inoculated with human adenovirus (AdV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), poliovirus (PV) and rotavirus (RV) and were then processed by an adsorption-elution-precipitation method. Two extraction methods were used: an organic solvent-based method and a silica method. The organic-based method was able to recoup 20% of the AdV, 90% of the RV and 100% of both the PV and HAV from seeded samples. The silica method was able to recoup 1.8% of the AdV and 90% of the RV. These results indicate that the organic-based method is more suitable for detecting viruses in sewage sludge.

  19. Adenovirus-Vectored Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies Directed Against gp120 Prevent Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Acquisition in Humanized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shan; Jackson, Andrew; Beloor, Jagadish; Kumar, Priti; Sutton, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    Despite nearly three decades of research, a safe and effective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has yet to be achieved. More recently, the discovery of highly potent anti-gp160 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) has garnered renewed interest in using antibody-based prophylactic and therapeutic approaches. Here, we encoded bNAbs in first-generation adenoviral (ADV) vectors, which have the distinctive features of a large coding capacity and ease of propagation. A single intramuscular injection of ADV-vectorized bNAbs in humanized mice generated high serum levels of bNAbs that provided protection against multiple repeated challenges with a high dose of HIV-1, prevented depletion of peripheral CD4+ T cells, and reduced plasma viral loads to below detection limits. Our results suggest that ADV vectors may be a viable option for the prophylactic and perhaps therapeutic use of bNAbs in humans. PMID:25953321

  20. Contribution of viruses, Chlamydia spp. and Mycoplasma pneumoniae to acute respiratory infections in Iranian children.

    PubMed

    Naghipour, Mohammadreza; Cuevas, Luis E; Bakhshinejad, Tahereh; Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz; Noursalehi, Smaeil; Alavy, Ali; Dove, Winifred; Hart, Charles Anthony

    2007-06-01

    The study reports the frequency and clinical presentation of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus, influenza (Inf V), parainfluenza, adenovirus (Adv), Chlamydia spp. and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in children with acute respiratory infections (ARI) in Rasht, Iran. Nasopharyngeal aspirates and swabs were collected from 261 children in 2003 and 2004. Pathogens were detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), confirmed with sequence analysis. Ninety-three pathogens were detected in 83 children. RSV was present in 39 (15%), Adv in 37 (14%), Inf A in 11 (4%), C. trachomatis in 4 (2%) and M. pneumoniae, in 2 (1%) children. Neither parainfluenza nor metapneumovirus were detected. RSV, Inf A and C. trachomatis were more frequent in children with lower respiratory infections. Adv presented more frequently as upper respiratory infection. All pathogens, except M. pneumoniae, were detected in children with severe pneumonia. Viruses play a significant role in Iranian children with community-acquired ARI.

  1. Discovery of natural perchlorate in the Antarctic Dry Valleys and its global implications.

    PubMed

    Kounaves, Samuel P; Stroble, Shannon T; Anderson, Rachel M; Moore, Quincy; Catling, David C; Douglas, Susanne; McKay, Christopher P; Ming, Douglas W; Smith, Peter H; Tamppari, Leslie K; Zent, Aaron P

    2010-04-01

    In the past few years, it has become increasingly apparent that perchlorate (ClO(4)(-)) is present on all continents, except the polar regions where it had not yet been assessed, and that it may have a significant natural source. Here, we report on the discovery of perchlorate in soil and ice from several Antarctic Dry Valleys (ADVs) where concentrations reach up to 1100 microg/kg. In the driest ADV, perchlorate correlates with atmospherically deposited nitrate. Far from anthropogenic activity, ADV perchlorate provides unambiguous evidence that natural perchlorate is ubiquitous on Earth. The discovery has significant implications for the origin of perchlorate, its global biogeochemical interactions, and possible interactions with the polar ice sheets. The results support the hypotheses that perchlorate is produced globally and continuously in the Earth's atmosphere, that it typically accumulates in hyperarid areas, and that it does not build up in oceans or other wet environments most likely because of microbial reduction on a global scale.

  2. Optimization of adenovirus 40 and 41 recovery from tap water using small disk filters.

    PubMed

    McMinn, Brian R

    2013-11-01

    Currently, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Information Collection Rule (ICR) for the primary concentration of viruses from drinking and surface waters uses the 1MDS filter, but a more cost effective option, the NanoCeram® filter, has been shown to recover comparable levels of enterovirus and norovirus from both matrices. In order to achieve the highest viral recoveries, filtration methods require the identification of optimal concentration conditions that are unique for each virus type. This study evaluated the effectiveness of 1MDS and NanoCeram filters in recovering adenovirus (AdV) 40 and 41 from tap water, and optimized two secondary concentration procedures the celite and organic flocculation method. Adjustments in pH were made to both virus elution solutions and sample matrices to determine which resulted in higher virus recovery. Samples were analyzed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and Most Probable Number (MPN) techniques and AdV recoveries were determined by comparing levels of virus in sample concentrates to that in the initial input. The recovery of adenovirus was highest for samples in unconditioned tap water (pH 8) using the 1MDS filter and celite for secondary concentration. Elution buffer containing 0.1% sodium polyphosphate at pH 10.0 was determined to be most effective overall for both AdV types. Under these conditions, the average recovery for AdV40 and 41 was 49% and 60%, respectively. By optimizing secondary elution steps, AdV recovery from tap water could be improved at least two-fold compared to the currently used methodology. Identification of the optimal concentration conditions for human AdV (HAdV) is important for timely and sensitive detection of these viruses from both surface and drinking waters.

  3. Detection of known and novel adenoviruses in cattle wastes via broad-spectrum primers.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Samuel D; Goldberg, Tony L; Pedersen, Joel A

    2011-07-01

    The critical assessment of bovine adenoviruses (BAdV) as indicators of environmental fecal contamination requires improved knowledge of their prevalence, shedding dynamics, and genetic diversity. We examined DNA extracted from bovine and other animal waste samples collected in Wisconsin for atadenoviruses and mastadenoviruses using novel, broad-spectrum PCR primer sets. BAdV were detected in 13% of cattle fecal samples, 90% of cattle urine samples, and 100% of cattle manure samples; 44 percent of BAdV-positive samples contained both Atadenovirus and Mastadenovirus DNA. Additionally, BAdV were detected in soil, runoff water from a cattle feedlot, and residential well water. Overall, we detected 8 of 11 prototype BAdV, plus bovine, rabbit, and porcine mastadenoviruses that diverged significantly from previously reported genotypes. The prevalence of BAdV shedding by cattle supports targeting AdV broadly as indicators of the presence of fecal contamination in aqueous environments. Conversely, several factors complicate the use of AdV for fecal source attribution. Animal AdV infecting a given livestock host were not monophyletic, recombination among livestock mastadenoviruses was detected, and the genetic diversity of animal AdV is still underreported. These caveats highlight the need for continuing genetic surveillance for animal AdV and for supporting data when BAdV detection is invoked for fecal source attribution in environmental samples. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report natural BAdV excretion in urine, BAdV detection in groundwater, and recombination in AdV of livestock origin.

  4. The Role of Major Gas-rich Mergers on the Evolution of Galaxies from the Blue Cloud to the Red Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Rui; Hao, Cai-Na; Xia, X. Y.; Mao, Shude; Shi, Yong

    2016-07-01

    With the aim of exploring the fast evolutionary path from the blue cloud of star-forming galaxies to the red sequence of quiescent galaxies in the local universe, we select a local advanced merging infrared luminous and ultraluminous galaxy (adv-merger (U)LIRGs) sample and perform careful dust extinction corrections to investigate their positions in the star formation rate-M *, u - r, and NUV - r color-mass diagrams. The sample consists of 89 (U)LIRGs at the late merger stage, obtained from cross-correlating the Infrared Astronomical Satellite Point Source Catalog Redshift Survey and 1 Jy ULIRGs samples with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 database. Our results show that 74 % +/- 5 % of adv-merger (U)LIRGs are localized above the 1σ line of the local star-forming galaxy main sequence. We also find that all adv-merger (U)LIRGs are more massive than and as blue as the blue cloud galaxies after corrections for Galactic and internal dust extinctions, with 95 % +/- 2 % and 81 % +/- 4 % of them outside the blue cloud on the u - r and NUV - r color-mass diagrams, respectively. These results, combined with the short timescale for exhausting the molecular gas reservoir in adv-merger (U)LIRGs (3× {10}7 to 3× {10}8 years), imply that the adv-merger (U)LIRGs are likely at the starting point of the fast evolutionary track previously proposed by several groups. While the number density of adv-merger (U)LIRGs is only ˜ 0.1 % of the blue cloud star-forming galaxies in the local universe, this evolutionary track may play a more important role at high redshift.

  5. An oral Aujeszky's disease vaccine (YS-400) induces neutralizing antibody in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Aujeszky's disease (AD) is an economically important disease affecting both wild and domestic pigs of the species Sus scrofa. A previous study yielded serological evidence of AD in Korean wild boars, which could spread AD to other animals. A new Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) bait vaccine is required to prevent AD outbreaks in swine. In the present study, we investigated the safety and immunogenicity of a gE-deleted marker vaccine, strain YS-400, in young domestic pigs. Materials and Methods The YS-400 strain was propagated in Vero cells, and the trial ADV bait vaccine (a vaccine blister in a matrix including an attractant) was prepared. Pigs were orally immunized with the vaccine (2 mL, 107.5 TCID50/mL) delivered using a syringe or in the bait vaccine. The animals were observed for 9 weeks after vaccination, and immunogenicity was assessed using a virus neutralization (VN) test and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results The YS-400 strain was non-pathogenic to pigs when given orally and induced high VN titers (1:32-1:128) 6 weeks post-administration. Of the pigs given the ADV bait vaccine twice or three times, 40% were seropositive by 2 weeks, and 100% were seropositive by 7 weeks after the first dose. Pigs that consumed the AD bait vaccine three times developed VN titers that were slightly higher than those of pigs given the vaccine twice. Conclusion Domestic pigs given the trial ADV bait vaccine exhibited no adverse effects and developed high VN titers against ADV, indicating that the YS-400 strain is safe and can prevent ADV infection in domestic pigs. PMID:27489803

  6. Correction of chromosomal mutation and random integration in embryonic stem cells with helper-dependent adenoviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Ohbayashi, Fumi; Balamotis, Michael A; Kishimoto, Atsuhiro; Aizawa, Emi; Diaz, Arturo; Hasty, Paul; Graham, Frank L; Caskey, C Thomas; Mitani, Kohnosuke

    2005-09-20

    For gene therapy of inherited diseases, targeted integration/gene repair through homologous recombination (HR) between exogenous and chromosomal DNA would be an ideal strategy to avoid potentially serious problems of random integration such as cellular transformation and gene silencing. Efficient sequence-specific modification of chromosomes by HR would also advance both biological studies and therapeutic applications of a variety of stem cells. Toward these goals, we developed an improved strategy of adenoviral vector (AdV)-mediated HR and examined its ability to correct an insertional mutation in the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (Hprt) locus in male mouse ES cells. The efficiency of HR was compared between four types of AdVs that contained various lengths of homologies at the Hprt locus and with various multiplicities of infections. The frequency of HR with helper-dependent AdVs (HD AdVs) with an 18.6-kb homology reached 0.2% per transduced cell at a multiplicity of infection of 10 genomes per cell. Detection of random integration at DNA levels by PCR revealed extremely high efficiency of 5% per cell. We also isolated and characterized chromosomal sites where HD AdVs integrated in a random manner. In contrast to retroviral, lentiviral, and adeno-associated viral vectors, which tend to integrate into genes, the integration sites of AdV was distributed randomly inside and outside genes. These findings suggest that HR mediated by HD AdVs is efficient and relatively safe and might be a new viable option for ex vivo gene therapy as well as a tool for chromosomal manipulation of a variety of stem cells.

  7. Comparative evaluation of long-term monotherapies & combination therapies in patients with chronic hepatitis B: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Manjita; Singh, Neha; Dixit, Vinod Kumar; Nath, Gopal; Jain, Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Reduction of viraemia in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection using nucleoside/nucleotide analogues reduces fatal liver disease-related events, but development of resistance in virus presents serious clinical challenge. Therefore, comparative evaluation of prolonged antiviral monotherapy and combination therapies was prospectively studied to assess their influence on viral suppression, rapidity of response, development of drug resistance and surfacing mutants in chronic liver disease (CLD) patients. Methods: A total of 158 (62eAg-ve) chronic hepatitis B patients were prospectively studied for 24 months. Final analysis was performed on patients treated with lamivudine (LAM, n = 28), adefovirdipivoxil (ADV, n = 24), tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF, n = 26), entecavir (ETV, n = 25), LAM + ADV (n = 28) and LAM + TDF (n = 27). Quantitative hepatitis B virus DNA was detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Multiple comparisons among drugs and genotypic mutations were analyzed. Results: Progressive biochemical and virological response were noted with all the regimens at 24 months except LAM and ADV which were associated with viral breakthrough (VBT) in 46.4 and 25 per cent, respectively. Mutations: rtM204V (39.3%), M204V+L180M (10.7%) while rtA181V (8.1%) and rtN236T (8.3%) were observed with LAM and ADV regimen, respectively. LAM + ADV combination therapy revealed VBT in seven per cent of the cases without mutations whereas TDF, ETV and LAM + TDF therapies neither showed VBT nor mutations. Interpretation & conclusions: LAM was the least potent drug among all therapeutic options followed by ADV. TDF and ETV were genetically stable antivirals with a strong efficacy. Among newer combination therapies, LAM + TDF revealed more efficacy in virological remission and acted as a profound genetic barrier on long term. Hence, newer generation molecules (TDF, ETV) and effective combination therapy should be a certain choice

  8. Effects of an advanced temperature cycle on smolt development and endocrinology indicate that temperature is not a zeitgeber for smolting in Atlantic salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, S.D.; Shrimpton, J.M.; Moriyama, S.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur

    2002-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) juveniles were reared under simulated conditions of normal photoperiod (LDN) or short days (LD 9:15) and ambient temperature (AMB: normal temperature increases in April) or an advanced temperature cycle (ADV: temperature increases in February). Under both photoperiod conditions, the timing of increased and peak levels of gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity were not altered by temperature, although the rate of increase was initially greater under ADV. ADV/LD 9:15 resulted in peak gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity that was half of that seen under normal photoperiod and temperature conditions. Plasma growth hormone (GH) levels increased threefold in late March under ADV/LDN, but not under ADV/LD 9:15, indicating that there is a photoperiod-dependent effect of temperature on levels of this hormone. Plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) increased in spring in all groups, with increases occurring significantly earlier in the ADV/LDN group. In each photoperiod condition, the advanced temperature cycle resulted in large decreases in plasma thyroxine (T4) levels in March, which subsequently recovered, whereas plasma 3,5,3???-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) levels were not substantially affected by either photoperiod or temperature. There was no consistent pattern of change in plasma cortisol levels. The results do not provide support for the role of temperature as a zeitgeber, but do indicate that temperature has a role in the timing of smolting by affecting the rate of development and interacting with the photoperiod.

  9. The Effect of Prophylactic Lamivudine plus Adefovir Therapy Compared with Lamivudine Alone in Preventing Hepatitis B Reactivation in Lymphoma Patients with High Baseline HBV DNA during Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shaoxu; Geng, Qirong; Huang, Huiqiang; Lin, Tongyu; Jiang, Wenqi; Xia, Zhongjun; Duan, Huaxin; Rao, Huilan; Yao, Mengfei; Hu, Liyang

    2016-01-01

    Prophylactic antiviral therapy is essential for lymphoma patients with high baseline HBV DNA who undergo cytotoxic chemotherapy. However, there are limited data on the optimal options. The present study was designed to compare the efficacy of prophylactic lamivudine (LAM) with lamivudine plus adefovir dipivoxil (LAM+ADV) in preventing hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in lymphoma with, pre-chemotherapy HBV DNA load ≥2000 IU/ml. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 86 lymphoma patients with baseline HBV DNA load ≥2000 IU/ml during chemotherapy and received LAM or LAM+ADV as prophylaxis between January 1, 2008 and November 30, 2014 at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, China. Sixty-five patients received LAM and 21 received LAM+ADV. The rate was significantly lower in the LAM+ADV group compared with the LAM group for HBV reactivation (23.8% vs 55.4%; p = 0.012), while no difference was observed between the two groups in patients for HBV-related hepatitis (21.3% vs 33.3%; p   =  0.349), and chemotherapy disruption (10.9% vs 19.0%; p = 0.337). In a multivariate analysis of factors associated with HBV reactivation in these patients, LAM+ADV treatment and HBeAg negative were the independent protective factors. Therefore, LAM+ADV should be considered for antiviral prophylaxis in lymphoma patients with pre-chemotherapy HBV DNA load ≥2000 IU/ml. Further study is warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:27711135

  10. Functional characterization of a PEI-CyD-FA-coated adenovirus as delivery vector for gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hong; Chen, Shih-Chi; Shen, Zan; Huang, Yun-Chao; Zhu, Xiao; Wang, Xiao-mei; Jiang, Wenqi; Wang, Zi-Feng; Bian, Xiu-Wu; Ling, Eng-Ang; Kung, Hsiang-fu; Lin, Marie C

    2013-01-01

    The recombinant adenovirus is evolving as a promising gene delivery vector for gene therapy due to its efficiency in transducing different genes into most types of cells. However, the host-immune response elicited by primary inoculation of an adenovirus can cause rapid clearance of the vector, impairing the efficacy of the adenovirus and hence obstructing its clinical application. We have previously synthesized a biodegradable co-polymer consisting of a low molecular weight PEI (MW 600 Da), cross-linked with β-cyclodextrin, and conjugated with folic acid (PEI-CyD-FA, named H1). Here we report that coating the adenovirus vector (Adv) with H1 (H1/rAdv) could significantly improve both the efficacy and biosafety of Adv. Enhanced transfection efficiency as well as prolonged duration of gene expression were clearly demonstrated either by intratumoral or systemic injection of a single dose of H1/rAdv in immunocompetent mice. Importantly, repeated injections of H1/rAdv did not reduce the transfection efficiency in immunocompetent mice. Furthermore, H1 transformed the surface charge of the adenovirus capsomers from negative to positive in physiological solution, suggesting that H1 coated the capsid protein of the adenovirus. This could shelter the epitopes of capsid proteins of the adenovirus, resulting in a reduced host-immune response and enhanced transfection efficiency. Taken together, these findings suggest that H1/rAdv is an effective gene delivery system superior to the adenovirus alone and that it could be considered as a preferred vehicle for gene therapy.

  11. Investigation of the pathogenesis of transplacental transmission of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus in experimentally infected mink.

    PubMed Central

    Broll, S; Alexandersen, S

    1996-01-01

    The transplacental transmission of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) was studied in experimental infection of 1-year-old female non-Aleutian mink. The ADV-seronegative female mink were inoculated with ADV prior to mating or after the expected implantation of the embryos during pregnancy. A group of uninfected females served as a control group. Animals from each group were killed prior to or shortly after parturition. The in situ hybridization technique with radiolabeled strand-specific RNA probes was used to determine target cells of virus infection and virus replication. In both infected groups, ADV crossed the endotheliochorial placental barrier, although animals infected before mating already had high antibody titers against ADV at the time of implantation. The percentage of dead and resorbed fetuses was much higher in dams infected before mating. In the placentae of these mink, virus DNA and viral mRNA were detected in cells in the mesenchymal stroma of the placental labyrinth and hematoma but only occasionally in the cytotrophoblast of the placental hematoma. Placentae of animals infected during pregnancy showed in addition very high levels of virus and also viral replication in a large number of cytotrophoblast cells in the placental hematoma, which exhibited distinct inclusion bodies. In both groups, neither virus nor virus replication could be detected in maternal endothelial cells or fetal syncytiotrophoblast of the placental labyrinth. Fetuses were positive for virus and viral replication at high levels in a wide range of tissues. Possible routes of transplacental transmission of ADV and the role of trophoblast cells as targets for viral replication are discussed. PMID:8627663

  12. Assessing Photocatalytic Oxidation Using Modified TiO 2 Nanomaterials for Virus Inactivation in Drinking Water: Mechanisms and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liga, Michael Vincent

    Photocatalytic oxidation is an alternative water treatment method under consideration for disinfecting water. Chlorine disinfection can form harmful byproducts, and some viruses (e.g. adenoviruses) are resistant to other alternative disinfection methods. Photocatalytic oxidation using nano-sized photocatalytic particles (e.g. TiO2, fullerene) holds promise; however, it is limited by its low efficiency and long required treatment times. This research focuses on improving virus inactivation by photocatalytic oxidation by modifying catalysts for improved activity, by analyzing virus inactivation kinetics, and by elucidating the inactivation mechanisms of adenovirus serotype 2 (AdV2) and bacteriophage MS2. Modifying TiO2 with silver (nAg/TiO2) or silica (SiO2-TiO2) improves the inactivation kinetics of bacteriophage MS2 by a factor of 3-10. nAg/ TiO2 increases hydroxyl radical (HO·) production while SiO2 increases the adsorption of MS2 to TiO 2. These results suggest that modifying the photocatalyst surface to increase contaminant adsorption is an important improvement strategy along with increasing HO· production. The inactivation kinetics of AdV2 by P25 TiO2 is much slower than the MS2 inactivation kinetics and displays a strong shoulder, which is not present in the MS2 kinetics. nAg/TiO2 initially improves the inactivation rate of AdV2. SiO2-TiO2 reduces the AdV2 inactivation kinetics since adsorption is not significantly enhanced, as it is with MS2. Amino-C60 is highly effective for AdV2 inactivation under visible light irradiation, making it a good material for use in solar disinfection systems. The efficacy of amino-fullerene also demonstrates that singlet oxygen is effective for AdV2 inactivation. When exposed to irradiated TiO2, AdV2 hexon proteins are heavily damaged resulting in the release of DNA. DNA damage is also present but may occur after capsids break. With MS2, the host interaction protein is rapidly damaged, but not the coat protein. The kinetics

  13. Effect of ammonia production on intracellular pH: Consequent effect on adenovirus vector production.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, T B; Carrondo, M J T; Alves, P M

    2007-05-01

    Recombinant adenoviral vectors (AdV) have proven to be highly efficient for the delivery and expression of foreign genes in a broad spectrum of cell types and species both for vaccination and gene therapy in a number of specific applications. In this study, the effect of ammonia production on intracellular pH (pH(i)) and consequently inhibition of AdV production at high cell densities is assessed. Different specific ammonia production rates were obtained for 293 cells adapted to grow in glutamate supplemented medium (non-ammoniagenic medium) as compared with 293 cells growing in glutamine supplemented medium (ammoniagenic medium); pH(i) was observed to be lower during cell growth and AdV production at both high and low CCI in the ammoniagenic medium, where the specific ammonia production rate is higher. In addition, after infection at CCI of 3x10(6)cell/ml, the cell viability decreased significantly in the ammoniagenic medium, attributed to the activation of an acidic pathway of apoptosis. Furthermore, AdV DNA was observed to be degraded at the observed pH(i) in the ammoniagenic medium, decreasing significantly the amount of AdV DNA available for encapsulation. To elucidate the pH(i) effect upon AdV production, 293 cells were infected at a CCI of 1 x 10(6)cell/ml in the non-ammoniagenic medium with a manipulated pH(i) as observed at the time of infection at CCI of 3 x 10(6)cell/ml in the ammoniagenic (pH(i) 7.0) and non-ammoniagenic (pH(i) 7.3) media; AdV volumetric productivities were observed to be lower when the cells were exposed to the lower pH(i). Thus, the importance of controlling all the factors contributing to pH(i) on AdV production, such as ammonia production, has been established.

  14. Novel adenovirus detected in kowari (Dasyuroides byrnei) with pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Gál, János; Mándoki, Míra; Sós, Endre; Kertész, Péter; Koroknai, Viktória; Bányai, Krisztián; Farkas, Szilvia L

    2017-02-15

    A male kowari (Dasyuroides byrnei) originating from a zoo facility was delivered for post mortem evaluation in Hungary. Acute lobar pneumonia with histopathologic changes resembling an adenovirus (AdV) infection was detected by light microscopic examination. The presence of an AdV was confirmed by obtaining partial sequence data from the adenoviral DNA-dependent DNA-polymerase. Although the exact taxonomic position of this novel marsupial origin virus could not be determined, pairwise identity analyses and phylogenetic calculations revealed that it is distantly related to other members in the family Adenoviridae.

  15. Evaluation of Synthetic Fuel for Army Ground Applications Tasks II-VI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-29

    Fluorocarbon (Viton) 27245 Seal, O-ring (cam ring/hyd head) Fluorocarbon (Viton) 27601 Seal, O-ring Fluorocarbon (Viton) 27608 Seal, (transfer pump... 27601 27608 11507 24585 27609 27610 27163 27602 27607 27W 1417010008 1410210503 1410210501 1410210041 7603014106 5234281 1148718 129888...Rod Guide 5331~1-236~476 27601 Viton TM 9-�-465-24P Seal, 0-Ring, Adv Plug 5331~1-399-2160 29282 Viton TM 9-�-465-24P Seal, 0-Ring, Adv Plug

  16. Implications of DOD Funds Execution Policy for Acquisition Program Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    Reman ) and New Build  The total quantities were reduced, which increased unit cost  Mods line structured to provide significant upgrades to software and...Obligation Rate Disbursements Disbursement Rate FY13 Proc. -BLK IIIA Reman 594 134 23% Proc.-Blk IIIB New Build 325 23 7% Mods 128 63 49% RDT&E 202 103 51...6 3% FY12 Proc. -BLK IIIA Reman 381 351 92% Adv. Proc. ( Reman ) 213 187 88% Adv. Proc. (New Build) 84 19 22% Mods 330 6 2% RDT&E 145 101 69% 13 9% FY11

  17. High-level recombinant protein production in CHO cells using an adenoviral vector and the cumate gene-switch.

    PubMed

    Gaillet, Bruno; Gilbert, Rénald; Amziani, Rachid; Guilbault, Claire; Gadoury, Christine; Caron, Antoine W; Mullick, Alaka; Garnier, Alain; Massie, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    To facilitate and accelerate the production of eukaryotic proteins with correct post-translational modifications, we have developed a protein production system based on the transduction of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells using adenovirus vectors (AdVs). We have engineered a CHO cell line (CHO-cTA) that stably expresses the transactivator (cTA) of our newly developed cumate gene-switch transcription system. This cell line is adapted to suspension culture and can grow in serum-free and protein-free medium. To increase the transduction level of AdVs, we have also generated a cell line (CHO-cTA-CAR) that expresses additional amounts of the coxackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) on its surface. Recombinant protein production was tested using an AdV carrying the secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) under the control of the CR5 promoter, which is strongly and specifically activated by binding to cTA. The SEAP expression was linked to the expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) through an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) to facilitate titration of the AdV. We monitored SEAP expression on a daily basis for 9 days after transduction of CHO-cTA and CHO-cTA-CAR using different quantities of AdVs at 37 and 30 degrees C. Incubation at the latter temperature increased the production of SEAP at least 10-fold, and the presence of CAR increased the transduction level of the AdV. Maximum SEAP production (63 mg/L) was achieved at 6-7 days post-infection at 30 degrees C by transducing CHO-cTA-CAR with 500 infectious particles/cell. Because numerous AdVs can now be generated within a few weeks and large-scale production of AdVs is now a routine procedure, this system could be used to produce rapidly milligram quantities of a battery of recombinant proteins as well as for large-scale protein production.

  18. Effect of self-interstitial diffusion anisotropy in electron-irradiated zirconium: A cluster dynamics modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christien, F.; Barbu, A.

    2005-11-01

    A model based on the cluster dynamics approach was proposed in [A. Hardouin Duparc, C. Moingeon, N. Smetniansky-de-Grande, A. Barbu, J. Nucl. Mater. 302 (2002) 143] to describe point defect agglomeration in metals under irradiation. This model is restricted to materials where point defect diffusion is isotropic and is thus not applicable to anisotropic metals such as zirconium. Following the approach proposed by Woo [C.H. Woo, J. Nucl. Mater. 159 (1988) 237], we extended in this work the model to the case where self-interstitial atoms (SIA) diffusion is anisotropic. The model was then applied to the loop microstructure evolution of a zirconium thin foil irradiated with electrons in a high-voltage microscope. First, the inputs were validated by comparing the numerical results with Hellio et al. experimental results [C. Hellio, C.H. de Novion, L. Boulanger, J. Nucl. Mater. 159 (1988) 368]. Further calculations were made to evidence the effect of the thin foil orientation on the dislocation loop microstructure under irradiation. The result is that it is possible to reproduce for certain orientations the 'unexpected' vacancy loop growth experimentally observed in electron-irradiated zirconium [M. Griffiths, M.H. Loretto, R.E. Sallmann, J. Nucl. Mater. 115 (1983) 313; J. Nucl. Mater. 115 (1983) 323; Philos. Mag. A 49 (1984) 613]. This effect is directly linked to SIA diffusion anisotropy.

  19. Discrimination between spinal extradural meningioma and both intra and extradural meningioma: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Kenyu; Imagama, Shiro; Ando, Kei; Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Hida, Tetsuro; Tsushima, Mikito; Matsumoto, Akiyuki; Morozumi, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Satoshi; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Meningiomas are common spinal tumor and mostly located at intradura. Recurrence rate after surgery for extradural meningioma was higher than intradural meningioma. A patient with intra and extradural spinal meningioma was treated and discussed its features and clinical management. A 41-year-old woman noted numbness of bilateral legs, gait disturbance, and mild bladder disturbance for over the two-month period. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an epidural mass at T8-9 involving the dura mater from the left side. Intraoperatively, ultrasonography showed extradural tumor suppress the dura from the left side and no subarachnoid space. Therefore, it was difficult to diagnose the tumor was located at only extradural or both intra and extradural. The extradural tumor was resected as much as possible, then ultrasonography was performed for the second time. The spinal cord was decompressed and subarachnoid space was appeared with intradural tumor. The dura mater was opened in the midline for intradural exploration, and the intradural tumor appeared beside the spinal cord. The dura mater with attachment to the tumor was rescected. To prevent a recurrence, ultrasonography after removing extradural tumor is recommended to detect intra dural tumor and invasion of tumor into dura mater. In such case, removing only extradural meningioma is not enough, and gross total resection including intradural meningioma and dura mater is required. PMID:28303070

  20. Discrimination between spinal extradural meningioma and both intra and extradural meningioma: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kenyu; Imagama, Shiro; Ando, Kei; Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Hida, Tetsuro; Tsushima, Mikito; Matsumoto, Akiyuki; Morozumi, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Satoshi; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2017-02-01

    Meningiomas are common spinal tumor and mostly located at intradura. Recurrence rate after surgery for extradural meningioma was higher than intradural meningioma. A patient with intra and extradural spinal meningioma was treated and discussed its features and clinical management. A 41-year-old woman noted numbness of bilateral legs, gait disturbance, and mild bladder disturbance for over the two-month period. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an epidural mass at T8-9 involving the dura mater from the left side. Intraoperatively, ultrasonography showed extradural tumor suppress the dura from the left side and no subarachnoid space. Therefore, it was difficult to diagnose the tumor was located at only extradural or both intra and extradural. The extradural tumor was resected as much as possible, then ultrasonography was performed for the second time. The spinal cord was decompressed and subarachnoid space was appeared with intradural tumor. The dura mater was opened in the midline for intradural exploration, and the intradural tumor appeared beside the spinal cord. The dura mater with attachment to the tumor was rescected. To prevent a recurrence, ultrasonography after removing extradural tumor is recommended to detect intra dural tumor and invasion of tumor into dura mater. In such case, removing only extradural meningioma is not enough, and gross total resection including intradural meningioma and dura mater is required.

  1. Ultrasound-guided evaluation of the lumbar subarachnoid space in lateral and sitting positions in pregnant patients to receive elective cesarean operation

    PubMed Central

    Gulay, Ucarli; Meltem, Turkay; Nadir, Sinikoglu Sitki; Aysin, Alagol

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: The aim was to compare visibility of the spinal space in sitting and lateral positions, number of attempts, spinal needle depth, skin-dura mater distance and the possible complications; in application of spinal anesthesia, using ultrasound in pregnant patients scheduled to receive elective cesarean operations. Methods: The study was conducted prospective-randomly after receiving approval from the ethics committee and the patients’ permission. ASA I-II 50 pregnant patients were divided into two groups. The patients in Group SP were those placed in a sitting position and the patients in Group LP were those placed in a lateral position. In both groups, the skin-dura mater distance was recorded through an out-of plane technique accompanied by ultrasound. The depth of the spinal needle was measured. The number of attempts, the level of attempts recorded. The degree of visibility of the vertebral space was observed through ultrasound and was numerically scored. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded. Results: There was no difference between the number of attempts, Modified Bromage Scale and mean measurements of skin-dura mater distance observed through ultrasound. The mean needle depths of Group LP were statistically found significantly higher than Group SP (p=0.002). Conclusion: Our study supports the notion that access to the skin-dura mater distance is longer in the lateral decubitus position when skin-dura mater distance is evaluated by measuring needle depth. PMID:25878618

  2. EDITORIAL: Nanomemory: information and ingenuity Nanomemory: information and ingenuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-04-01

    Adv. Funct. Mater 20 330-7 [11] Bose S, Kim N H, Kuila T, Lau K-T and Lee J H 2011 Electrochemical performance of a graphene-polypyrrole nanocomposite as a supercapacitor electrode Nanotechnology 22 295202 [12] Loomis J, King B, Burkhead T, Xu P, Bessler N, Terentjev E and Panchapakesan B 2012 Graphene-nanoplatelet-based photomechanical actuators Nanotechnology 23 045501 [13] Finn C A 2001 Artifacts: An Archaeologist's Year in Silicon Valley (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press)

  3. A New Family of Ionic Liquids 1-Amino-3-Alkyl-1,2,3-Triazolium Nitrates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    157. (5) Wilkes, J.S. Green Chemistry . 2002, 4, 3. (6) Wasserscheid, P.; Welton, T. (Eds) Ionic Liquids in Synthesis; Wiley VCH Verlag: Weinheim...2003 (7) Rogers R. D. ; Seddon, K. R. Ionic Liquids: Industrial Applications for Green Chemistry , ACS Symposium Series, 818 Oxford Univ. Press, NY, NY

  4. Combination Sorbent and Reactive Chemistries for Use in Highly Efficient Aerobic Oxidations (W911NF0510081)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-14

    oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds is a common and important transformation in organic synthesis . Although there are many different methods...Metals for Organic Synthesis , 2nd ed. (Eds.: M. Beller, C. Bolm), Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2004, pp. 437-478; d) B.-Z. Zhan, A. Thompson, Tetrahedron

  5. Holographically Fabricated Photonic Crystals with Large Reflectance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-16

    for helpful discussions, and A. Griffith and J. Busbee for assistance with the laser system. J. B. Geddes III and J. T. Lee gratefully acknowledge...Weinheim, Ger. 18, 2964 2006. 16A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics : The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 3rd ed

  6. 77 FR 24239 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... meet the 10% ADV requirement, and use of specified SLP mnemonics. In addition, the business unit of the... unique mnemonics specifically dedicated to SLMM activity. Use of these unique mnemonics will enable SLMMs... to the Exchange. As proposed, such mnemonics may not be used for trading in securities other than...

  7. Random Sampling of Squamate Reptiles in Spanish Natural Reserves Reveals the Presence of Novel Adenoviruses in Lacertids (Family Lacertidae) and Worm Lizards (Amphisbaenia)

    PubMed Central

    Szirovicza, Leonóra; López, Pilar; Kopena, Renáta; Benkő, Mária; Martín, José; Pénzes, Judit J.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the results of a large-scale PCR survey on the prevalence and diversity of adenoviruses (AdVs) in samples collected randomly from free-living reptiles. On the territories of the Guadarrama Mountains National Park in Central Spain and of the Chafarinas Islands in North Africa, cloacal swabs were taken from 318 specimens of eight native species representing five squamate reptilian families. The healthy-looking animals had been captured temporarily for physiological and ethological examinations, after which they were released. We found 22 AdV-positive samples in representatives of three species, all from Central Spain. Sequence analysis of the PCR products revealed the existence of three hitherto unknown AdVs in 11 Carpetane rock lizards (Iberolacerta cyreni), nine Iberian worm lizards (Blanus cinereus), and two Iberian green lizards (Lacerta schreiberi), respectively. Phylogeny inference showed every novel putative virus to be a member of the genus Atadenovirus. This is the very first description of the occurrence of AdVs in amphisbaenian and lacertid hosts. Unlike all squamate atadenoviruses examined previously, two of the novel putative AdVs had A+T rich DNA, a feature generally deemed to mirror previous host switch events. Our results shed new light on the diversity and evolution of atadenoviruses. PMID:27399970

  8. Providing Assistance to the Victims of Adolescent Dating Violence: A National Assessment of School Nurses' Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khubchandani, Jagdish; Telljohann, Susan K.; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph A.; Hendershot, Candace

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the perceptions and practices of school nurses regarding adolescent dating violence (ADV). Methods: The membership list of the National Association of School Nurses was used to identify a national random cross-sectional sample of high school nurses in the United States (N?=?750). A valid and reliable survey…

  9. 10. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH: WEST FRONT AT NIGHT, Date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH: WEST FRONT AT NIGHT, Date unknown. from FOURTH CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTIST ARCHIVE (used with permission) E. S. Cheney and R. B. Bird, Photographers Cheney Photo Adv. Co., Oakland, California - Fourth Church of Christ, Scientist, 1330 Lakeshore Avenue, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  10. 14. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH: DOMED CEILING OF AUDITORIUM, Date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH: DOMED CEILING OF AUDITORIUM, Date unknown. from FOURTH CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTIST ARCHIVE (used with permission) E. S. Cheney and R. B. Bird, Photographers, Cheney Photo Adv. Co., Oakland, California. - Fourth Church of Christ, Scientist, 1330 Lakeshore Avenue, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  11. 13. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH: AUDITORIUM, LOOKING WEST TOWARD BALCONY AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH: AUDITORIUM, LOOKING WEST TOWARD BALCONY AND FOYER, Date unknown. from FOURTH CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTIST ARCHIVE (used with permission) E. S. Cheney and R. B. Bird, Photographers, Cheney Photo Adv. Co., Oakland, California - Fourth Church of Christ, Scientist, 1330 Lakeshore Avenue, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  12. Modeling of Finite Depth Wind Wave Dissipation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-30

    source-sink energy balance. At Lake George, two different devices, the standard SonTek ADV and the Dopbeam ( Veron and Melville, 1999), were used to...for deep water waves. Part 1: Unforced irrotational wave groups. Submitted to JPO. Veron , F. and W.K. Melville, 1999. Pulse-to-pulse coherent

  13. Convective Heat Transfer in Internal Gas Flows with Temperature-Dependent Properties.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-30

    effects of variable properties have been provided by Petukhov [1970],specifically for turbulent flow in circular tubes.and by Leontiev o for the...243-249. Leontiev , A. I., 1966. Heat and mass transfer in turbulent boundary layers, Adv. Heat Transfer, 3, pp. 33-100. Leung, E. Y., V. M. Kays and W

  14. Comparative Evaluation of Viability Assays for Storage of Ornamental Giner (Hedychium spp.) Pollen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States, Hedychium plants are mostly grown in the southern part of the country where they generally flower in the summer and fall, but some species bloom in winter and spring times. This asynchronous flowering could constitute an impediment for breeders of that region to fully take adv...

  15. AdChoices? Compliance with Online Behavioral Advertising Notice and Choice Requirements. Revised Version

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-07

    Alliance Announces Self-Regulatory Program For Online Behavioural Advertising, http://www.dglaw.com/images_user/newsalerts/AdvMktngPromo_Behavioral...including AOL Advertising, Collective, Google, interCLICK, and Traffic Marketplace. This suggests that some online advertising buyers are interested in...AdChoices? Compliance with Online Behavioral Advertising Notice and Choice Requirements Saranga Komanduri, Richard Shay, Greg

  16. Mycoleptodiscus terrestris: An Endophyte Turned Latent Pathogen of Eurasian Watermilfoil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    plants. Some fungal endophytes have also been reported to inhibit plant pathogens . Fewer lesions have been reported on Panicum agrostoides when the...and ecosystem dynamics: Biological aspects of plant pathogens , plant endophytes and saprophytes. Adv. in Bot. Res. 24:170–193. Shearer, J. F. 2001

  17. The Relationship between Preservice Early Childhood Teachers' Cultural Values and Their Perceptions of Scientists' Cultural Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akerson, Valarie L.; Buzzelli, Cary A.; Eastwood, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes research that compares preservice early childhood teachers' cultural values and the values they believe are held by scientists. Using the Schwartz Values Inventory (SVI) (Schwartz (1992) "Adv Exp Soc Psychol" 25:331-351) preservice early childhood teachers cultural values were assessed, followed by an assessment of…

  18. Department of Defense Chemical and Biological Defense Programs: DoD Advance Planning Briefing for Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-16

    Tech Development - Adv Dev for CB Prep at Univ of Med & Dentistry of NJ - Miniaturization of CB Detectors - Biodefense Statewide Med Response - Bio...aerobiolgoical research, forensic genomics and certified forensic biological threat agent capability 28 Biological Defense Homeland Security Support Program

  19. Acoustic droplet–hydrogel composites for spatial and temporal control of growth factor delivery and scaffold stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Fabiilli, Mario L.; Wilson, Christopher G.; Padilla, Frédéric; Martín-Saavedra, Francisco M.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Franceschi, Renny T.

    2013-01-01

    Wound healing is regulated by temporally and spatially restricted patterns of growth factor signaling, but there are few delivery vehicles capable of the “on-demand” release necessary for recapitulating these patterns. Recently we described a perfluorocarbon double emulsion that selectively releases a protein payload upon exposure to ultrasound through a process known as acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV). In this study, we describe a delivery system composed of fibrin hydrogels doped with growth factor-loaded double emulsion for applications in tissue regeneration. Release of immunoreactive basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) from the composites increased up to 5-fold following ADV and delayed release was achieved by delaying exposure to ultrasound. Releasates of ultrasound-treated materials significantly increased the proliferation of endothelial cells compared to sham controls, indicating that the released bFGF was bioactive. ADV also triggered changes in the ultrastructure and mechanical properties of the fibrin as bubble formation and consolidation of the fibrin in ultrasound-treated composites were accompanied by up to a 22-fold increase in shear stiffness. ADV did not reduce the viability of cells suspended in composite scaffolds. These results demonstrate that an acoustic droplet–hydrogel composite could have broad utility in promoting wound healing through on-demand control of growth factor release and/or scaffold architecture. PMID:23535233

  20. PROCESS TRANSFER FUNCTIONS TO RELATE STREAM ECOLOGICAL CONDITION METRICS TO NITRATE RETENTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecologists have developed hydrological metrics to characterize the nutrient processing capability of streams. In most cases these are used qualitatively to draw inferences on ecological function. In this work, several of these metrics have been integrated in a nonsteady state adv...

  1. 75 FR 48338 - Intel Corporation; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order to Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... (1966) (quoting F.T.C. v. Motion Picture Adv. Serv. Co., 344 U.S. 392, 394-95 (1953)); see also F.T.C. v..., not to force a third party to take any particular action. Second, the Proposed Consent Order...

  2. Experimental Evidence for Nematic Order of Cuprates in Relation to Lattice Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-08

    A. Kivelson, Science 327, 155 (2010). 12 S. A. Kivelson, E. Fradkin, and V. J. Emery, Nature (Lon- don) 393, 550 (1998). 13 M. Vojta , Adv. Phys. 58...al., Nature (London) 463, 519 (2010). 15 A. Hackl and M. Vojta , Phys. Rev. B 80, 220514(R) (2009). 16 V. Hinkov, D. Haug, B. Fauque, P. Bourges, Y

  3. "Futures" of Space Technology "Frontiers of the Responsibly Imaginable"

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    in the Macro/Classical World • Lasers • Bose-Einstein Condensate • Super-Fluidity • Super-Conductivity • Quantum Entanglement • Fermionic Condensate ...Army Costs,IVHM] • Reduced cost/Ruggedized “Conventional Rockets” • Revolutionary Rockets [PDWR, Ejector ,Beamed MWs/MHD,HEDM/Adv. Fuels,CNT Materials

  4. MODELS-3 COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY (CMAQ) MODEL AEROSOL COMPONENT 2. MODEL EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient air concentrations of particulate matter (atmospheric suspensions of solid of liquid materials, i.e., aerosols) continue to be a major concern for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). High particulate matter (PM) concentrations are associated not only with adv...

  5. Assessment of the Navy’s North West Region Advance Food Menu Gallery Workload and Food Cost Impact Trade-Offs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    Adv Pre-made frozen boil in bag D Q02001 French Fried Okra SpScr Breaded frozen product - galley deep fried D Q04501 French Fried Potatoes (Fz) SpScr...raw ribs, parboiled, then baked, and galley prepared sauce applied. D P01000 Chicken Gumbo Soup Scr From chicken stock plus fresh okra and vegetable

  6. The Effects of Elevated pCO2, Hypoxia and Temperature on Larval Sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus: How much stress is too much?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuarine fish are acclimated to living in an environment with rapid and frequent changes in temperature, salinity, pH, and dissolved oxygen (DO) levels; the physiology of these organisms is well suited to cope with extreme thermal, hypercapnic, and hypoxic stress. While the adve...

  7. 76 FR 14702 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change by NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ...% (Schlumberger N.V., Halliburton Company, National ] Oilwell Varco, Inc., Baker Hughes Incorporated, Transocean...., Halliburton Company, National Oilwell Varco, Inc., Baker Hughes Incorporated, Transocean Ltd (Switzerland...'') of the components, (a) The highest six-month ADV of a component was 14.61 million shares...

  8. Enhanced Oxidation and Solvolysis Reactions in Chemically Inert Microheterogeneous Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-13

    Mackay, Adv.Coll.Interf.Sc{. 15, 131 (1981) 11 C. Bodea and J. Silberg, "Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Phenothiazines" in "Advances in Heterocyclic ... Chemistry ", A.R. Katritzky and A.J. Boulton, , eds., Vol. 9, Academic Press, New York, 1968, p. 321 12 A.M. Braun, M.-A. Gilson, M. Krieg, M.-T

  9. 78 FR 25101 - Proposal Review Panel for Physics, Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... Proposal Review Panel for Physics, Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act...: AdvLIGO Construction Review Site Visit at Livingston Observatory for Physics, 1208 Date and Time.... Contact Person: Mark Coles, Director of Large Facilities, Division of Physics, National Science...

  10. 76 FR 20412 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; National Stock Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... daily volume (as such term is defined in Endnote 3 of the Fee Schedule, ``Liquidity Adding ADV'') is less than 20 basis points of Total Consolidated Average Daily Volume (as defined in Endnote 13 of the... with Endnote 8), and NSX Rule 16.4 would be deleted in its entirety. \\5\\ NSX Rule 16.4(b). To...

  11. Operator identities involving the bivariate Rogers-Szegö polynomials and their applications to the multiple q-series identities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhizheng; Wang, Tianze

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, we first give several operator identities involving the bivariate Rogers-Szegö polynomials. By applying the technique of parameter augmentation to the multiple q-binomial theorems given by Milne [S.C. Milne, Balanced summation theorems for U(n) basic hypergeometric series, AdvE Math. 131 (1997) 93-187], we obtain several new multiple q-series identities involving the bivariate Rogers-Szegö polynomials. These include multiple extensions of Mehler's formula and Rogers's formula. Our U(n+1) generalizations are quite natural as they are also a direct and immediate consequence of their (often classical) known one-variable cases and Milne's fundamental theorem for An or U(n+1) basic hypergeometric series in Theorem 1E49 of [S.C. Milne, An elementary proof of the Macdonald identities for , Adv. Math. 57 (1985) 34-70], as rewritten in Lemma 7.3 on p. 163 of [S.C. Milne, Balanced summation theorems for U(n) basic hypergeometric series, Adv. Math. 131 (1997) 93-187] or Corollary 4.4 on pp. 768-769 of [S.C. Milne, M. Schlosser, A new An extension of Ramanujan's summation with applications to multilateral An series, Rocky Mountain J. Math. 32 (2002) 759-792].

  12. Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals in the Serum and Milk of Breastfeeding Women.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) comprise a group of man-made organic compounds, some of which are persistent contaminants with developmental toxicity shown in laboratory animals. There is a paucity of human perinatal exposure data. The US EPA conducted a pilot study (Methods Adv...

  13. Information Processing, Specificity of Practice, and the Transfer of Learning: Considerations for Reconsidering Fidelity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grierson, Lawrence E. M.

    2014-01-01

    Much has been made in the recent medical education literature of the incorrect characterization of simulation along a continuum of low to high fidelity (Cook et al. "JAMA" 306(9): 978-988, 2011; Norman et al. "Med Educ" 46(7): 636-647, 2012; Teteris et al. "Adv Health Sci Educ" 17(1): 137-144, 2012). For the most…

  14. MICRO DOSE ASESSMENT OF INHALED PARTICLES IN HUMAN LUNGS: A STEP CLOSER TOWARDS THE TARGET TISSUE DOSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Inhaled particles deposit inhomogeneously in the lung and this may result in excessive deposition dose at local regions of the lung, particularly at the anatomic sites of bifurcations and junctions of the airways, which in turn leads to injuries to the tissues and adve...

  15. DEVELOPING AZO AND FORMAZAN DYES BASED ON ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS: SALMONELLA MUTAGENICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    In previous papers, the synthesis and chemical properties of iron-complexed azo and formazan dyes were reported. In this regard, it was shown that in certain cases iron could be substituted for the traditionally used metals, chromium and cobalt, without having an adve...

  16. DESTRUCTION OF PCBS USING SULFATE RADICAL-BASED ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of 209 congeners that were extensively used in industrial applications during 1929 to early 1970s, The presence of PCBs in the environment poses long-term risk to public health and wildlife due to their persistent and toxic nature. Adv...

  17. Sustained Release Oral Nanoformulated Green Tea for Prostate Cancer Prevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    delivery to treat age-related macular degeneration . Mol Vis, 18, 2300-8. 23. Borchard, G. (2001) Chitosans for gene delivery. Adv Drug Deliv Rev, 52...imadzu Pro s, a SIL-20 fireTM C18 mobile phas ml/min and API 4000 ada) equipp spectromet ive analyses tive analyse ical chroma (i) shows e chromato

  18. Are endothelial cell bioeffects from acoustic droplet vaporization proximity dependent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seda, Robinson; Li, David; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Bull, Joseph

    2013-11-01

    Acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) produces gas microbubbles that provide a means of selective occlusion in gas embolotherapy. Vaporization and subsequent occlusion occur inside blood vessels supplying the targeted tissue, such as tumors. Theoretical and computational studies showed that ADV within a vessel can impart high fluid mechanical stresses on the vessel wall. Previous in vitro studies have demonstrated that vaporization at an endothelial layer may affect cell attachment and viability. The current study is aimed at investigating the role of vaporization distance away from the endothelial layer. HUVECs were cultured in OptiCell™ chambers until reaching confluence. Dodecafluoropentane microdroplets were added, attaining a 10:1 droplet to cell ratio. A single ultrasound pulse (7.5 MHz) consisting of 16 cycles (~ 2 μs) and a 5 MPa peak rarefactional pressure was used to produce ADV while varying the vaporization distance from the endothelial layer (0 μm, 500 μm, 1000 μm). Results indicated that cell attachment and viability was significantly different if the distance was 0 μm (at the endothelial layer). Other distances were not significantly different from the control. ADV will significantly affect the endothelium if droplets are in direct contact with the cells. Droplet concentration and flow conditions inside blood vessels may play an important role. This work was supported by NIH grant R01EB006476.

  19. Metabolic responses to prolonged consumption of glucose- and fructose-sweetened beverages are not associated with postprandial or 24-hour glucose and insulin excursions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been proposed that the adverse metabolic effects of chronic consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages which contain both glucose and fructose are a consequence of increased circulating glucose and insulin excursions, i.e dietary glycemic index (GI). Objective: We determined if the greater adv...

  20. Transfected Cell Microarrays for the Expression of Membrane-Displayed Single-Chain Antibodies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Appli- cations of single-chain variable fragment antibodies in therapeutics and diagnostics. Biotechnology Adv 27, 502–520. 6. Denzin , L. K...4-20. J Biol Chem 266, 14095–14103. Transfected Cell Microarrays 137 7. Denzin , L. K., Gulliver, G. A., Voss, E. W., Jr. (1993) Mutational analysis of

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Human Adenovirus 7 Associated with Fatal Adult Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Yatsyshina, Svetlana B; Ageeva, Margarita R; Deviatkin, Andrey A; Pimkina, Ekaterina V; Markelov, Mikhail L; Dedkov, Vladimir G; Safonova, Marina V; Shumilina, Elena Y; Lukashev, Alexander N; Shipulin, German A

    2016-10-27

    Human adenovirus 7 (hAdv7) 19BOVLB/Volgograd/Rus/2014 was isolated from the autopsy material from an adult with fatal pneumonia in Volgograd, Russia, in March 2014. Whole-genome sequencing of the virus isolate was performed.

  2. Practical Photonic Bandgap Calculations using MPB

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-22

    R. Soc. Interface, doi: 10.1098/ rsif.2011.0730, 2011. Distribution A 19 14. Galusha, J.W., Richey, L.R., Gardner, J.S., Cha, J.N. and Bartl ...J.W., Jorgensen, M.R. and Bartl , M.H., “Diamond-structured titania photonic- bandgap crystals from biological templates”, Adv. Materials, Vol. 22

  3. Steric Control of Complex Chemical Reactions - 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-26

    their contrasting behaviors upon vibrational and translational excitations can serve as benchmark for gaining deeper insights into polyatomic reaction...equipped with a uniquely designed ion velocity map imaging detector capable of measuring the product pair correlation. The ultrafast femtosecond laser...From A + BC to Polyatomic Systems” K. Liu, Adv. in Chem. Phys. 149, (in press). Invited Review Invited talks at Conferences (* denoting

  4. EM Properties of High Tc Superconductors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    those calculated by Kes and van den Berg’ 9 for pinning 12A. M. CamDbell and J. Evetts, Adv. Phys. 21. 199 (1972). by twin boundaries . Our...consstet wih dnsey poulaed pnni 9~nter. ao ’J. Clem, in Proceedings of the International Conf’erence on pinning due to twin boundaries is Unlikely to be the

  5. Enhancing Active Learning in the Student Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modell, Harold I.; Michael, Joel A.; Adamson, Tom; Horwitz, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    We previously examined how three approaches to directing students in a laboratory setting impacted their ability to repair a faulty mental model in respiratory physiology (Modell, HI, Michael JA, Adamson T, Goldberg J, Horwitz BA, Bruce DS, Hudson ML, Whitescarver SA, and Williams S. Adv Physiol Educ 23: 82?90, 2000). This study addresses issues…

  6. Occurrence of Bacterial and Viral Pathogens in Common and Noninvasive Diagnostic Sampling from Parrots and Racing Pigeons in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Dovč, Alenka; Jereb, Gregor; Krapež, Uroš; Gregurić-Gračner, Gordana; Pintarič, Štefan; Slavec, Brigita; Knific, Renata Lindtner; Kastelic, Marjan; Kvapil, Pavel; Mićunović, Jasna; Vadnjal, Stanka; Ocepek, Matjaž; Zadravec, Marko; Zorman-Rojs, Olga

    2016-06-01

    Airborne pathogens can cause infections within parrot (Psittaciformes) and pigeon (Columbiformes) holdings and, in the case of zoonoses, can even spread to humans. Air sampling is a useful, noninvasive method which can enhance the common sampling methods for detection of microorganisms in bird flocks. In this study, fecal and air samples were taken from four parrot holdings. Additionally, cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs as well as air samples were taken from 15 racing pigeon holdings. Parrots were examined for psittacine beak and feather disease virus (PBFDV), proventricular dilatation disease virus (PDDV), adenoviruses (AdVs), avian paramyxovirus type-1 (APMV-1), avian influenza virus (AIV), Chlamydia psittaci (CP), and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). MAC and AdVs were detected in three parrot holdings, CP was detected in two parrot holdings, and PBFDV and PDDV were each detected in one parrot holding. Pigeons were examined for the pigeon circovirus (PiCV), AdVs, and CP; PiCV and AdVs were detected in all investigated pigeon holdings and CP was detected in five pigeon holdings.

  7. Solar Drivers of 11-yr and Long-Term Cosmic Ray Modulation (PostPrint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-06

    largely reproduce the observed GCR intensity for the past ∼35 years. The failure to do so during cycle 20 appears to be a relatively rare occurrence. Fig... Terr . Phys. 70, 207 (2008) M.S. Potgieter, Adv. Space Res. 46, 402 (2010) M.S. Potgieter, J.A. Le Roux, Astrophys. J. 423, 817 (1994) M.S. Potgieter

  8. CONCENTRATION AND PROCESSING OF WATERBORNE VIRUSES BY POSITIVE CHARGE 1MDS CARTRIDGE FILTERS AND ORGANIC FLOCCULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes the most widely used virus adsorption-elution (VIRADEL) method for recovering human enteric viruses from water matrices (Fout et al., 1996). The method takes advantage of postively charged cartridge filters to concentrate viruses from water. The major adv...

  9. Research of Ionospheric Scintillation in Asia (RISA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    as from satellite observations (Bilitza et al., 2003). More information on the IRI project, including information on the IRI Newsletter and the IRI...Science, 36 (6), 1559–1572. Chauhan, Vishal., Singh, O.P. A morphological study of GPS-TEC dataat Agra and their comparison with the IRI model. Adv

  10. Mineralogy of Antarctica Dry Valley Soils: Implications for Pedogenic Processes on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, J. E.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Douglas, S.; Kounaves, S. P.; McKay, C. P.; Tamppari, L, K.; Smith, P. H.; Zent, A. P.; Archer, P. D., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The Antarctic Dry Valleys (ADVs) located in the Transantarctic Mountains are the coldest and driest locations on Earth. The mean annual air temperature is -20 C or less and the ADVs receive 100mm or less of precipitation annually in the form of snow. The cold and dry climate in the ADVs is one of the best terrestrial analogs for the climatic conditions on Mars [2]. The soils in the ADVs have been categorized into three soil moisture zones: subxerous, xerous and ultraxerous. The subxerous zone is a coastal region in which soils have ice-cemented permafrost relatively close to the surface. Moisture is available in relatively large amounts and soil temperatures are above freezing throughout the soil profile (above ice permafrost) in summer months. The xerous zone, the most widespread of the three zones, is an inland region with a climate midway between the subxerous and ultraxerous. The soils from this zone have dry permafrost at moderate depths (30-75cm) but have sufficient water in the upper soil horizons to allow leaching of soluble materials. The ultraxerous zone is a high elevation zone, where both temperature and precipitation amounts are very low resulting in dry permafrost throughout the soil profile. The three moisture regime regions are similar to the three microclimatic zones (coastal thaw, inland mixed, stable upland) defined by Marchant and Head.

  11. The transduction of Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-negative cells and protection against neutralizing antibodies by HPMA-co-oligolysine copolymer-coated adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chung-Huei K.; Chan, Leslie W.; Johnson, Russell N.; Chu, David S.H.; Shi, Julie; Schellinger, Joan G.; Lieber, Andre; Pun, Suzie H.

    2011-01-01

    Adenoviral (AdV) gene vectors offer efficient nucleic acid transfer into both dividing and non-dividing cells. However issues such as vector immunogenicity, toxicity and restricted transduction to receptor-expressing cells have prevented broad clinical translation of these constructs. To address this issue, engineered AdV have been prepared by both genetic and chemical manipulation. In this work, a polymer-coated Ad5 formulation is optimized by evaluating a series of N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA)-co-oligolysine copolymers synthesized by living polymerization techniques. This synthesis approach was used to generate highly controlled and well-defined polymers with varying peptide length (K5, K10 and K15), polymer molecular weight, and degradability to coat the viral capsid. The optimal formulation was not affected by the presence of serum during transduction and significantly increased Ad5 transduction of several cell types that lack the Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor (CAR) by up to 6-fold compared to unmodified AdV. Polymer-coated Ad5 also retained high transduction capability in the presence of Ad5 neutralizing antibodies. The critical role of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) in mediating cell binding and internalization of polymer-coated AdV was also demonstrated by evaluating transduction in HSPG-defective recombinant CHO cells. The formulations developed here are attractive vectors for ex vivo gene transfer in applications such as cell therapy. In addition, this platform for adenoviral modification allows for facile introduction of alternative targeting ligands. PMID:21959008

  12. Modulation of Stem Cell Differentiation and Myostatin as an Approach to Counteract Fibrosis in Muscle Dystrophy and Regeneration After Injury. Addendum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    currently studied clinically as a vasodilator for the treatment of coronary artery disease and angina pectoris [ 22 – 24 ] , and experimentally for its...formulations of molsidomine in patients with stable angina pectoris : double-blind and open-label studies . Adv Ther 2006 ; 23 : 107 – 30 25 Ozt

  13. Peer Influences on the Dating Aggression Process among Brazilian Street Youth: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonio, Tiago; Koller, Silvia H.; Hokoda, Audrey

    2012-01-01

    This study explored risk factors for adolescent dating aggression (ADA) among Brazilian street youth. Forty-three adolescents, between the ages of 13 and 17 years, were recruited at services centers in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Simultaneous multiple regression revealed that ADA was significantly predicted by adolescent dating victimization (ADV), and…

  14. Induction of Olefin Metathesis by Acetylenes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-20

    essentially that of 2. The acetylene is thus an activator, but unlike the organometallic co- catalysts like C2 H5A1C1 2 , which it replaces, it is unique in...J.C.; Moulijn, J.A. Adv. Catal. 1975, 24, 131. (4) Some of the results were discussed at the 3rd NSF Workshop on Organo - metallic Chemistry, Pingree

  15. 78 FR 75644 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... Average Daily Volume Calculations Any Trading Day on Which the Exchange Is Closed for Trading Due To an... the average daily volume calculation for any trading day on which the Exchange is closed for trading... daily volume (``ADV'') calculation for any trading day on which the Exchange is closed for trading...

  16. How I treat adenovirus in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Lindemans, Caroline A.; Leen, Ann M.

    2010-01-01

    Adenovirus (AdV) infections are very common in the general pediatric population. The delayed clearance in young persons imposes a threat to immunocompromised patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), who can reactivate the virus, resulting in life-threatening disseminated disease. Although a definitive cure requires adequate immune reconstitution, 2 approaches appear to be feasible and effective to improve the outcomes of AdV infections. Strict monitoring with AdV quantitative polymerase chain reaction followed by preemptive treatment with low-dose (1 mg/kg) cidofovir 3 times a week, is effective in most cases to bridge the severely immunocompromised period shortly after HSCT, with acceptable toxicity rates. For centers who have the access, AdV-specific cytotoxic T cells can be the other important cornerstone of anti-AdV therapy with promising results so far. Methods to positively influence the reconstitution of the immune system after HSCT and optimizing new and currently available cellular immunotherapies will make HSCT safer against the threat of AdV infection/reactivation and associated disease. PMID:20837781

  17. Printed Biopolymer-Based Electro-Optic Device Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1...S. Sariciftci, J. G. Grote, Adv Polym Sci. DOI:10.1007/12 2009 6 [6] J. G. Grote, D. E. Diggs, R. L. Nelson, J. S. Zetts, F. K. Hopkins, N. Ogata

  18. [Development of immunoenzyme methods for detecting antibodies to Aujeszky's disease virus gB glycoprotein in swine serum].

    PubMed

    Morenkov, O S

    2000-01-01

    Four ELISA methods have been developed for detecting antibodies to Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) glycoprotein gB. Indirect ELISA is based on affinity-purified gB (affi-gB-ELISA); three blocking ELISAs: indirect blocking ELISA (lbgB-ELISA), direct blocking ELISA (db-gB-ELISA), and two-site "sandwich" ELISA (sb-gB-ELISA) are based on monoclonal antibodies to conservative immunodominant epitopes of gB. The specificities and sensitivities of ELISAs were compared with each other and with indirect ELISA based on purified ADV virions (vir-ELISA). Affi-gB ELISA, db-gB-ELISA, and sb-gB-ELISA possess 100% sensitivity, ib-gB-ELISA 98% sensitivity, and vir-ELISA 93% sensitivity. Affi-gB ELISA, ib-gB-ELISA, db-gB-ELISA, and sb-gB-ELISA possess 100% specificity and vir-ELISA 92% specificity. The efficiency of detection of ADV-specific antibodies by affi-gB ELISA, db-gB-ELISA, and sb-gB-ELISA was comparable to that of analogous commercial test. Since db-gB-ELISA is easier to perform than affi-gB-ELISA or sb-gB-ELISA, it is concluded to be the most appropriate test for detecting pigs infected with ADV among non-vaccinated animals.

  19. Effects of viscosity on endothelial cell damage under acoustic droplet vaporization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seda, Robinson; Singh, Rahul; Li, David; Pitre, John; Putnam, Andrew; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Bull, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    Acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) is a process by which stabilized superheated microdroplets are able to undergo phase transition with the aid of focused ultrasound. Gas bubbles resulting from ADV can provide local occlusion of the blood vessels supplying diseased tissue, such as tumors. The ADV process can also induce bioeffects that increase vessel permeability, which is beneficial for localized drug delivery. Previous in vitro studies have demonstrated that vaporization at the endothelial layer will affect cell attachment and viability. Several hypotheses have been proposed to elucidate the mechanism of damage including the generation of normal and shear stresses during bubble expansion. A single 3.5 MHz ultrasound pulse consisting of 8 cycles (~2.3 μs) and a 6 MPa peak rarefactional pressure was used to induce ADV on endothelial cells in media of different viscosities. Carboxylmethyl cellulose was added to the cell media to increase the viscosity up to 300 cP to and aid in the reduction of stresses during bubble expansion. The likelihood of cell damage was decreased when compared to our control (~1 cP), but it was still present in some cases indicating that the mechanism of damage does not depend entirely on viscous stresses associated with bubble expansion. This work was supported by NIH Grant R01EB006476.

  20. New Applications of Ionization and Fluorescence Techniques for Detection and Characterization of Open-Shell Organometallics in the Gas Phase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    112, 3668. 20. Poliakoff , M.; Weitz, E. Adv Organomet. Chem. 19 86, 25,277. 21. (a) Graham, M. A.; Perutz, R. N.; Poliakoff , M.; Turner, J. J. J...Perutz, R. N.; Turner, J. J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1975,97,4800. (e) Burdett, J. K.; Graham, M. A.; Perutz, R. N.; Poliakoff , M.; Turner, J. J.; Turner

  1. New Applications of Ionization and Fluorescence Techniques for Detecting and Characterization of Open-Shell Organometallics in the Gas Phase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    Poliakoff , M.; Weitz, E. Adv~ Organomet Chem. 19 86,25,277. 21. (a) Graham, M. A.; Perutz, R. N.; Poliakoff , M.; Turner, J. J. J. Organomet Chem. 1972,34...Turner, J. J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1975,97,4800. (e) Burdett, J. K.; Graham, M. A.; Perutz, R. N.; Poliakoff , M.; Turner, J. J.; Turner, R. F. J. Am. Chem

  2. Tropical Cyclone Intensity and Structure: Improved Understanding and Prediction. Evaluation of Existing and Development of New Techniques for Global and Mesoscale NWP Model Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-30

    published, refereed] 6 Leslie, LM, MS Speer,and L Qi, (2003) Prediction of Extreme Rainfall for the Coffs Harbour Catchment. Aust. Meteor. Mag...Adv. Space Res.,30, 2479-2486. [published, refereed] Shao, Y, E Jung and LM Leslie (2002): Numerical prediction of northeast Asian dust storms using

  3. Selecting a Benchmark Suite to Profile High-Performance Computing (HPC) Machines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    Performance Evaluation Corporation . Gainesville (VA): SPEC; c1995 [accessed 2014 Jun 2]. http://www.spec.org/. 16. Woo SC, Ohara M, Torrie E, Singh JP... communicatons systems. In Proceedings of the 30th Annual ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Microarchitecture; 1997, p. 330–335. 20. Li ML, Sasanka R, Adve

  4. Comparison between Sendai virus and adenovirus vectors to transduce HIV-1 genes into human dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Noriaki; Miura, Toshiyuki; Kawana-Tachikawa, Ai; Koibuchi, Tomohiko; Shioda, Tatsuo; Odawara, Takashi; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Kitamura, Yoshihiro; Kano, Munehide; Kato, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Mamoru; Nagai, Yoshiyuki; Iwamoto, Aikichi

    2008-03-01

    Immuno-genetherapy using dendritic cells (DCs) can be applied to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Sendai virus (SeV) has unique features such as cytoplasmic replication and high protein expression as a vector for genetic manipulation. In this study, we compared the efficiency of inducing green fluorescent protein (GFP) and HIV-1 gene expression in human monocyte-derived DCs between SeV and adenovirus (AdV). Human monocyte-derived DCs infected with SeV showed the maximum gene expression 24 hr after infection at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 2. Although SeV vector showed higher cytopathic effect on DCs than AdV, SeV vector induced maximum gene expression earlier and at much lower MOI. In terms of cell surface phenotype, both SeV and AdV vectors induced DC maturation. DCs infected with SeV as well as AdV elicited HIV-1 specific T-cell responses detected by interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) enzyme-linked immunospot (Elispot). Our data suggest that SeV could be one of the reliable vectors for immuno-genetherapy for HIV-1 infected patients.

  5. Controlled Stochastic Dynamical Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-18

    the existence of value functions of two-player zero-sum stochastic differential games Indiana Univ. Math. Journal, 38 (1989), pp 293-314. [6] George ...control problems, Adv. Appl. Prob., 15, (1983) pp 225-254. [10] Karatzas, I. Ocone, D., Wang, H. and Zervos , M., Finite fuel singular control with

  6. ToxiFly: Can Fruit Flies be Used to Identify Toxicity Pathways for Airborne Chemicals?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current high-throughput and alternative screening assays for chemical toxicity are unable to test volatile organic compounds (VOCs), thus limiting their scope. Further, the data generated by these assays require mechanistic information to link effects at molecular targets to adve...

  7. Decontamination of a drinking water pipeline system contaminated with adenovirus and Escherichia coli utilizing peracetic acid and chlorine.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Ari; Ikonen, Jenni; Pursiainen, Anna; Pitkänen, Tarja; Miettinen, Ilkka T

    2012-09-01

    A contaminated drinking water distribution network can be responsible for major outbreaks of infections. In this study, two chemical decontaminants, peracetic acid (PAA) and chlorine, were used to test how a laboratory-scale pipeline system can be cleaned after simultaneous contamination with human adenovirus 40 (AdV40) and Escherichia coli. In addition, the effect of the decontaminants on biofilms was followed as heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) and total cell counts (TCC). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to determine AdV40 and plate counting was used to enumerate E. coli. PAA and chlorine proved to be effective decontaminants since they decreased the levels of AdV40 and E. coli to below method detection limits in both water and biofilms. However, without decontamination, AdV40 remained present in the pipelines for up to 4 days. In contrast, the concentration of cultivable E. coli decreased rapidly in the control pipelines, implying that E. coli may be an inadequate indicator for the presence of viral pathogens. Biofilms responded to the decontaminants by decreased HPCs while TCC remained stable. This indicates that the mechanism of pipeline decontamination by chlorine and PAA is inactivation rather than physical removal of microbes.

  8. A Multicenter, Open-label Study of CMX001 Treatment of Serious Diseases or Conditions Caused by dsDNA Viruses

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-08-28

    Male or Female Patients With a Serious or Immediately Life-threatening; Disease or Condition Caused by CMV, ADV, HSV, VAVC, VARV or; Monkeypox Viruses(s) Who Have a Life Expectancy of ≥ 2 Weeks and for; Whom no Comparable or Satisfactory Alternative Therapy is Available

  9. Event-Related Potentials Index Subclinical Neurological Differences in HIV Patients During Rapid Decision-Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    Pashler H: Atentional limitations In doing two tasks at the same time. Current Directions in Psychological Science 1992, 1:44-48. 13. Donchin E...clinically evident CNS deficits . In P.M. Rossini and F. Mauguibre (Eds.), New Trends and Adv~anced Techniques in Clinical Neurophysiology 1990, EEG Suppl

  10. Electrostatic Effects on the Free-Energy Balance in Folding a Ribosome-Inactivating Protein

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    Tidor , M. Karplus, Science 244 (1989) 1069. [24] B. Tidor , M. Karplus, Biochemistry 30 (1991) 3217. [25] T. Simonson, AT. Briinger...775. [30] Z.S. Hendsch, B. Tidor , Protein Sei. 3 (1994) 211. [31] B. Honig, A.S. Yang, Adv. Protein Chem. 46 (1995) 27. [32] J.K. Myers

  11. The Kidney and Acid-Base Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koeppen, Bruce M.

    2009-01-01

    Since the topic of the role of the kidneys in the regulation of acid base balance was last reviewed from a teaching perspective (Koeppen BM. Renal regulation of acid-base balance. Adv Physiol Educ 20: 132-141, 1998), our understanding of the specific membrane transporters involved in H+, HCO , and NH transport, and especially how these…

  12. Fiber-Level Modeling of Dynamic Strength of Kevlar (registered trademark) KM2 Ballistic Fabric

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Ballistic-Performance Optimization of a Hybrid Carbon - Nanotube /E-glass Reinforced Poly-Vinyl-Ester-Epoxy-Matrix Com- posite Armor, J. Mater. Sci...2007, 42, p 5347–5359 4. M. Grujicic, W.C. Bell, L.L. Thompson, K.L. Koudela, and B.A. Cheeseman, Ballistic-Protection Performance of Carbon - Nanotube ...Armor via the Use of a Carbon - Nanotube Forest-Mat Strike Face, Mater. Des. Appl., 2008, 222, p 15–28 6. Y. Wang and X. Sun, Determining the Geometry

  13. Expert Database Support of the Integrated Manufacturing Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    ineiber(Fce,..), narmal..ZFae,-l), conta ins(Fac*, LI), mambo (Covw-, L I), i s..a(Cover, cover), Property( Couer , mater ialI -.tpe, "type), lIqicd(IMtyp...Inches). face(frme6jfcee). face( froo, foc*4). part.of(f, Pfoce). s...(sub...cover 10, suk..cover). propety(suk.. couer 1, mater io I type...face 10 for frame frameS check for subcover sub-cove 12 check for couer c, o 1l 119 Production Sequence Report for houseI - house style is single

  14. Mode I and Mode II Interlaminar Crack Growth Resistances of Ceramic Matrix Composites at Ambient Temperature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-02

    Sci. Proc., 25[4] 71-78 (2004). 9. L. P. Zawada , “Longitudinal and Transthickness Tensile Behavior of Several Oxide/Oxide Composites,” Ceram. Eng...Unidirectional C-C Composite,” J. Nucl. Mater., 230 226-232 (1996). 11. S. Mall, R. P. Vozzola, and L. Zawada , “Characterization of Fracture in Fiber...Behavior of a Unidirectional C-C Composite,” J. Nucl. Mater., 230 226-232 (1996). 34. L. P. Zawada , “Longitudinal and Transthickness Tensile Behavior

  15. Three-Dimensional Characterization of Microstructure by Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-28

    2003. Reconstruction of Berea sandstone and pore-scale modelling of wettability effects. J. Petrol. Sci. Eng. 39:177–99 31. Sundararaghavan V...high-pressure die-cast magnesium alloy. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 427:92–98 66. Lewis AC, Bingert JF, Rowenhorst DJ, Gupta A, Geltmacher AB , Spanos G. 2006...Geltmacher AB . 2006. Image-based modeling of the response of ex- perimental 3D microstructures to mechanical loading. Scripta Mater. 55:81–85 68. Lieberman

  16. Carborane-Based Metal-Organic Framework with High Methane and Hydrogen Storage Capacities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    American Chemical Society A dx.doi.org/10.1021/cm4020942 | Chem. Mater. XXXX, XXX , XXX − XXX This family of MOFs shows great promise in the areas of methane...along the ab plane. Blue squares = Cu2 paddlewheels; pink rectangles = carborane bis(isophthalic acid) ligands. (b) Detail of pores, viewed along the...lined pores. Atom code: C = gray; H = white; O = red; B = pink ; Cu = blue. Chemistry of Materials Article dx.doi.org/10.1021/cm4020942 | Chem. Mater

  17. Nanolamellar Magnetoelectric BaTiO3-CoFe2O4 Bicrystal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-13

    Ma, L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, T . Zhao, L. Salamanca-Riba, S. R. Shinde , S. B. Ogale, F. Bai, D. Viehland, D. G. Schlom, M. Wuttig, and R. Ramesh, Science...and N. D. Mathur, Nature Mater. 6, 348 2007. 14S. Q. Ren, L. Q. Weng, S. H. Song, and F. Li, J . Mater. Sci. 40, 4375 2005. 15R. D. Burbank and H. T ...nanoparticles in ultra-low magnetic fields J . Appl. Phys. 113, 043911 (2013) Edge-induced flattening in the fabrication of ultrathin freestanding

  18. Fracture and Yield Strengths of Composition B and TNT as a Function of Processing Conditions and Composition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    B. W., J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 8, 757 (1973). 25. Hagan, J. T and r’.h- ciii, M. M., J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 12, 1055 ( 1977 ). 26. Rice, R. W., "Treatise on...Material Science and Technology," Vol. 11, ed. Mac- Crone, R. K., Academic Press, New York, 1977 . 27. Costain, T. and Motto, R., Technical Report 4587...Alford, N. McN., Matl. Sci. and Engr. 56, 279 (1982). 32. Bentur, A. and Mindess , S., Cement and Concrete Res. 16, 59 (1986). 33. Zielinski, A. J. and

  19. Hyperbolic and Plasmonic Properties of Silicon/Ag Aligned Nanowire Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-17

    Evans, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, W. Hendren, D. O’Connor, W. Dickson, R. J. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic core/shell nanorod arrays...and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009). 41. J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun...M. Leskela, “Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of silver thin films,” Chem. Mater. 23(11), 2901–2907 (2011). 52. O. J. Glembocki, S. M. Prokes

  20. Terrestrial cold-desert analogs: Antarctic landforms and implications for regional glaciation on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. W.; Marchant, D. R.; Dickson, J. L.; Baker, D. M.; Mackay, S.; Lamp, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Antarctic Dry Valleys (ADV) are generally classified as a hyper-arid, cold-polar desert. The region has long been considered an important terrestrial analog for Mars because of its cold and dry climate and because it contains a suite of landforms at macro-, meso-, and microscales that closely resemble those occurring on the martian surface. The extreme hyperaridity of both Mars and the ADV has focused attention on the importance of salts and brines on soil development, phase transitions from liquid water to ice, and ultimately, on process geomorphology and landscape evolution at a range of scales on both planets. The ADV can be subdivided into three microclimate zones: a coastal thaw zone, an inland mixed zone, and a stable upland zone; zones are defined on the basis of summertime measurements of atmospheric temperature, soil moisture, and relative humidity. Subtle variations in these climate parameters result in considerable differences in the distribution and morphology of: (1) macroscale features (e.g., slopes and gullies); (2) mesoscale features (e.g., polygons, including ice-wedge, sand-wedge, and sublimation-type polygons, as well as viscous-flow features, including solifluction lobes, gelifluction lobes, and debris-covered glaciers); and (3) microscale features (e.g., rock-weathering processes/features, including salt weathering, wind erosion, and surface pitting). Equilibrium landforms are those features that formed in balance with environmental conditions within fixed microclimate zones. We report on our multi-year field and instrument analysis of four important ADV landforms: 1) sublimation polygons and relation to buried ice, 2) gullies and the environmental controls responsible for their episodic activity, 3) slope streaks, the role of water and brines in their formation and the timing of their activity, and 4) debris-covered glaciers and their three-dimensional geometry, mode and rates of formation. The relative geomorphic and climate stability for

  1. Comparison of the Phoenix Mars Lander WCL soil analyses with Antarctic Dry Valley soils, Mars meteorite EETA79001 sawdust, and a Mars simulant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroble, Shannon T.; McElhoney, Kyle M.; Kounaves, Samuel P.

    2013-08-01

    The results of the Mars Phoenix Lander's Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) for the analyses of the soluble ionic species present in the soil at the northern polar plains of Mars are compared to soil from the Antarctic Dry Valleys (ADVs), martian meteorite EETA79001 sawdust, and a Mars simulant. The ADV soil was compared to the Phoenix site by averaging the samples at analogous 0-5 cm depths and also all the samples from the pavement to the ice-table. Results from each analysis reveal similar ion concentrations ranging plus or minus one order-of-magnitude for all ions except perchlorate (ClO4-), which was three orders-of-magnitude greater in the Phoenix soil. The pH and solution electrical conductivity were also found to be similar for the ADV and Mars soils. The ADV profiles confirm that ClO4- gradients are sensitive indicators for the presence and form of liquid H2O on both Earth and Mars. The Phoenix and meteorite samples contained similar species and ratios but the meteorite concentrations were on average ˜4% of those for the Phoenix soil. The only exception was the ˜16% higher level of Ca2+ in the meteorite due to the CaCO3 druse. The ADV results imply that the Phoenix site is significantly more arid than University Valley, and has been for a greater period of time, as evidenced by the lack of salt gradients and the age of the soils. A Mars simulant was also formulated according to a MINEQL equilibrium model of the WCL results, and its analysis provides confidence that the soluble composition and parent salts at the Phoenix site are reasonably constrained. Overall, comparison of these samples of soil and sawdust indicates that not only does the martian meteorite EETA79001 contain similar soluble ionic species as the martian soil from the northern polar plains, but also that the soils from the ADV are similar to both, thus strengthening the argument for the ADV as a suitable terrestrial Mars analog environment.

  2. Anti-adenovirus activity, antioxidant potential, and phenolic content of black tea (Camellia sinensis Kuntze) extract.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Ali; Moradi, Mohammad-Taghi; Alidadi, Somayeh; Hashemi, Leila

    2016-12-01

    BackgroundAdenovirus (ADV) causes a number of diseases in human, and to date, no specific antiviral therapy is approved against this virus. Thus, searching for effective anti-ADV agents seems to be an urgent requirement. Many studies have shown that components derived from medicinal plants have antiviral activity. Therefore, the present study was aimed to evaluate in vitro anti-ADV activity and also antioxidant potential and total phenolic compounds of black tea (Camellia sinensis) crude extract. MethodsIn this study, the hydroalchoholic extract of black tea was prepared and its anti-ADV activity was evaluated on HEp2 cell line using MTT [3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide] assay. The 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC50) and 50 % cytotoxicity concentration (CC50) of the extract were determined using regression analysis. Its inhibitory effect on adsorption and/or post-adsorption stages of the virus replication cycle was evaluated. To determine antioxidant activity, total phenol content, and flavonoids content of the extract, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, Folin-Ciocalteu method, and aluminum chloride colorimetric method were used, respectively. ResultsThe CC50 and the IC50 of the extract were 165.95±12.7 and 6.62±1.4 µg/mL, respectively, with the selectivity index (SI) of 25.06. This extract inhibited ADV replication in post-adsorption stage. The IC50 of DPPH radical was 8±1.41 μg/mL, compared with butylated hydroxytoluene, with IC50 of 25.41±1.89 μg/mL. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extract were 341.8±4.41 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram and 21.1±2.11 mg/g, respectively. ConclusionsHaving SI value of 25.06 with inhibitory effect on ADV replication, particularly during the post-adsorption period, black tea extract could be considered as a potential anti-ADV agent. The antiviral activity of this extract could be attributed to its phenolic compounds.

  3. Use of cidofovir in pediatric patients with adenovirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathi, Lakshmi; Arnold, Alana; Jones, Sarah; Patterson, Al; Graham, Dionne; Harper, Marvin; Levy, Ofer

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adenoviruses contribute to morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised pediatric patients including stem cell and solid organ transplant recipients. Cidofovir (CDV), an antiviral compound approved by the FDA in 1996, is used for treatment of adenoviral (ADV) infections in immunocompromised patients despite concern of potential nephrotoxicity.   Methods: We conducted a retrospective 5-year review at Boston Children’s Hospital of 16 patients (mean age = 6.5 years) receiving 19 courses of CDV. During therapy all pertinent data elements were reviewed to characterize potential response to therapy and incidence of renal dysfunction.   Results: Of the 19 CDV courses prescribed, 16 courses (84%) were in patients who had a positive blood ADV Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) alone or in combination with positive ADV PCR/ Direct Immunofluorescence Assay (DFA) at another site. Respiratory symptoms with or without pneumonia were the most common presentation (10/19, 53%). In the majority of blood positive courses (10/16, 63%), viral clearance was also accompanied by clinical response. This was not the case in four courses where patients expired despite viral clearance, including one in which death was directly attributable to adenovirus. There was reversible renal dysfunction observed during the use of CDV. Conclusions:  CDV appeared safe and reasonably tolerated for treatment of ADV in this pediatric population and was associated with viral response and clinical improvement in the majority of patients but reversible renal dysfunction was a side effect. Further studies of the efficacy of CDV for immunocompromised children with ADV infection are warranted. PMID:27239277

  4. Adenoviral L4 33K forms ring-like oligomers and stimulates ATPase activity of IVa2: implications in viral genome packaging

    PubMed Central

    Ahi, Yadvinder S.; Vemula, Sai V.; Hassan, Ahmed O.; Costakes, Greg; Stauffacher, Cynthia; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of genome packaging in adenoviruses (AdVs) is presumed to be similar to that of dsDNA viruses including herpesviruses and dsDNA phages. First, the empty capsids are assembled after which the viral genome is pushed through a unique vertex by a motor which consists of three minimal components: an ATPase, a small terminase and a portal. Various components of this motor exist as ring-like structures forming a central channel through which the DNA travels during packaging. In AdV, the IVa2 protein is believed to function as a packaging ATPase, however, the equivalents of the small terminase and the portal have not been identified in AdVs. IVa2 interacts with another viral protein late region 4 (L4) 33K which is important for genome packaging. Both IVa2 and 33K are expressed at high levels during the late stage of virus infection. The oligomeric state of IVa2 and 33K was analyzed in virus-infected cells, IVa2 and 33K transfected cells, AdV particles, or as recombinant purified proteins. Electron microscopy of the purified proteins showed ring-like oligomers for both proteins which is consistent with their putative roles as a part of the packaging motor. We found that the ATPase activity of IVa2 is stimulated in the presence of 33K and the AdV genome. Our results suggest that the 33K functions analogous to the small terminase proteins and so will be part of the packaging motor complex. PMID:25954255

  5. Nanomodified vermiculite NMV - a new material for recycling ammonium nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rama, Miradije; Laiho, Taina; Eklund, Olav; Lehto, Kirsi; Shebanov, Alex; Smått, Jan-Henrik

    2016-04-01

    Vermiculites ((Mg,Fe,Al)3(Al,Si)4O10(OH)24H2O) are naturally occurring minerals from hydromica group with a high cation exchange capacity and large surface area. Since vermiculite is a hydrated mineral, its structure can be changed with heat. In this study vermiculite samples were heated in an oven until the interlayer distance of them diminished from 14 Å to 11.7 Å. This method for improving vermiculites intake of ammonium ions by heating, is an invention made at the University of Turku. Nanomodified vermiculite (NMV) is able to absorb up to 4.7 wt% of ammonium. NMV can be used as an efficient filter and immobilizer of ammonium in different environments. NMV has been efficiently tested on waste water from a biogas plant, human urine, combustion experiments, industrial chimneys, excrements from farms etc. Ammonium doped vermiculite (ADV) is further developed for fertilizer use. Performed experiments have testified the usability of ADV as a fertilizer. At first step the NMV was processed with the reject water from a biogas plant, were it absorbed NH4+ into the lattice. At second, the ADV was used as nutrient source for garden plants. Geraniums and begonias were used as test plants of the work. Plant growth rate was evaluated based on plant weight. Results showed that significant increase of the growth of geraniums and of begonias were observed when comparing to those cultivations where plants have got normal fertilization. Moreover, ADV has been tested as a fertilizer in greenhouse experiments with spruces and pines. After five months, the weight of the plants that had grown in a substrate containing ADV was 10 times the weight of plants growing in the reference substrate.

  6. Effects of local and systemic viral interleukin-10 gene transfer on corneal allograft survival.

    PubMed

    Gong, N; Pleyer, U; Volk, H-D; Ritter, T

    2007-03-01

    In this study, we explored the immunomodulatory effects of viral interleukin (IL) IL-10 after ex vivo and in vivo gene transfer in experimental corneal transplantation. Wistar-Furth rats were used as donors and major histocompatibility complex class I/II-disparate Lewis rats served as recipients. For ex vivo gene therapy donor corneas were either transfected with liposome/vIL-10 plasmid DNA mixtures or transduced with a vIL-10 expressing adenovirus vector (AdvIL-10). For in vivo studies, recipients were treated with AdvIL-10 intraperitoneally 1 day before transplantation. Graft survival was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier survival method. To monitor the efficacy of the therapy messenger RNA (mRNA) cytokine expression profiles in grafts and draining lymph nodes were analysed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Moreover, anti-adenovirus immunity was also investigated. Neither ex vivo liposome-mediated vIL-10 gene transfer nor ex vivo AdvIL-10 gene transfer led to prolonged corneal allograft survival. In contrast, corneal allograft survival was significantly prolonged in animals receiving systemic AdvIL-10 gene transfer. Moreover, only systemic vIL-10 gene therapy modulated the cytokine mRNA expression profile in draining lymph nodes. Interestingly, systemic AdvIL-10 gene transfer could not inhibit the generation of anti-adenovirus antibodies. Our data indicate systemic expression of the vIL-10 gene is required to modulate the cytokine expression profile in the draining lymph nodes, which might be a pre-requisite for the success of cytokine gene therapy.

  7. Technical Report on Preliminary Methodology for Enhancing Risk Monitors with Integrated Equipment Condition Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Coles, Garill A.; Coble, Jamie B.; Hirt, Evelyn H.

    2013-09-17

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) generally include reactors with electric output of ~350 MWe or less (this cutoff varies somewhat but is substantially less than full-size plant output of 700 MWe or more). Advanced SMRs (AdvSMRs) refer to a specific class of SMRs and are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts. AdvSMRs may provide a longer-term alternative to traditional light-water reactors (LWRs) and SMRs based on integral pressurized water reactor concepts currently being considered. Enhancing affordability of AdvSMRs will be critical to ensuring wider deployment. AdvSMRs suffer from loss of economies of scale inherent in small reactors when compared to large (~greater than 600 MWe output) reactors. Some of this loss can be recovered through reduced capital costs through smaller size, fewer components, modular fabrication processes, and the opportunity for modular construction. However, the controllable day-to-day costs of AdvSMRs will be dominated by operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Technologies that help characterize real-time risk are important for controlling O&M costs. Risk monitors are used in current nuclear power plants to provide a point-in-time estimate of the system risk given the current plant configuration (e.g., equipment availability, operational regime, and environmental conditions). However, current risk monitors are unable to support the capability requirements listed above as they do not take into account plant-specific normal, abnormal, and deteriorating states of active components and systems. This report documents technology developments that are a step towards enhancing risk monitors that, if integrated with supervisory plant control systems, can provide the capability requirements listed and meet the goals of controlling O&M costs. The report describes research results from an initial methodology for enhanced risk monitors by integrating real-time information about equipment condition and POF into risk monitors.

  8. Transduction of skin-migrating dendritic cells by human adenovirus 5 occurs via an actin-dependent phagocytic pathway.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Efrain; Taylor, Geraldine; Hope, Jayne; Herbert, Rebecca; Cubillos-Zapata, Carolina; Charleston, Bryan

    2016-10-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are central to the initiation of immune responses, and various approaches have been used to target vaccines to DC in order to improve immunogenicity. Cannulation of lymphatic vessels allows for the collection of DC that migrate from the skin. These migrating DC are involved in antigen uptake and presentation following vaccination. Human replication-deficient adenovirus (AdV) 5 is a promising vaccine vector for delivery of recombinant antigens. Although the mechanism of AdV attachment and penetration has been extensively studied in permissive cell lines, few studies have addressed the interaction of AdV with DC. In this study, we investigated the interaction of bovine skin-migrating DC and replication-deficient AdV-based vaccine vectors. We found that, despite lack of expression of Coxsackie B-Adenovirus Receptor and other known adenovirus receptors, AdV readily enters skin-draining DC via an actin-dependent endocytosis. Virus exit from endosomes was pH independent, and neutralizing antibodies did not prevent virus entry but did prevent virus translocation to the nucleus. We also show that combining adenovirus with adjuvant increases the absolute number of intracellular virus particles per DC but not the number of DC containing intracellular virus. This results in increased trans-gene expression and antigen presentation. We propose that, in the absence of Coxsackie B-Adenovirus Receptor and other known receptors, AdV5-based vectors enter skin-migrating DC using actin-dependent endocytosis which occurs in skin-migrating DC, and its relevance to vaccination strategies and vaccine vector targeting is discussed.

  9. Production of first generation adenoviral vectors for preclinical protocols: amplification, purification and functional titration.

    PubMed

    Armendáriz-Borunda, Juan; Bastidas-Ramírez, Blanca Estela; Sandoval-Rodríguez, Ana; González-Cuevas, Jaime; Gómez-Meda, Belinda; García-Bañuelos, Jesús

    2011-11-01

    Gene therapy represents a promising approach in the treatment of several diseases. Currently, the ideal vector has yet to be designed; though, adenoviral vectors (Ad-v) have provided the most utilized tool for gene transfer due principally to their simple production, among other specific characteristics. Ad-v viability represents a critical variable that may be affected by storage or shipping conditions and therefore it is advisable to be assessed previously to protocol performance. The present work is unique in this matter, as the complete detailed process to obtain Ad-v of preclinical grade is explained. Amplification in permissive HEK-293 cells, purification in CsCl gradients in a period of 10 h, spectrophotometric titration of viral particles (VP) and titration of infectious units (IU), yielding batches of AdβGal, AdGFP, AdHuPA and AdMMP8, of approximately 10¹³-10¹⁴ VP and 10¹²-10¹³ IU were carried out. In vivo functionality of therapeutic AdHuPA and AdMMP8 was evidenced in rats presenting CCl₄-induced fibrosis, as more than 60% of fibrosis was eliminated in livers after systemic delivery through iliac vein in comparison with irrelevant AdβGal. Time required to accomplish the whole Ad-v production steps, including IU titration was 20 to 30 days. We conclude that production of Ad-v following standard operating procedures assuring vector functionality and the possibility to effectively evaluate experimental gene therapy results, leaving aside the use of high-cost commercial kits or sophisticated instrumentation, can be performed in a conventional laboratory of cell culture.

  10. Etiology of maculopapular rash in measles and rubella suspected patients from Belarus.

    PubMed

    Yermalovich, Marina A; Semeiko, Galina V; Samoilovich, Elena O; Svirchevskaya, Ekaterina Y; Muller, Claude P; Hübschen, Judith M

    2014-01-01

    As a result of successful implementation of the measles/rubella elimination program, the etiology of more and more double negative cases remains elusive. The present study determined the role of different viruses as causative agents in measles or rubella suspected cases in Belarus. A total of 856 sera sent to the WHO National Laboratory between 2009 and 2011 were tested for specific IgM antibodies to measles virus (MV), rubella virus (RV) and human parvovirus B19 (B19V). The negatives were further investigated for antibodies to enterovirus (EV) and adenovirus (AdV). Children of up to 3 years were tested for IgM antibodies to human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6). A viral etiology was identified in 451 (52.7%) cases, with 6.1% of the samples being positive for MV; 2.6% for RV; 26.2% for B19V; 9.7% for EV; 4.6% for AdV; and 3.6% for HHV6. Almost all measles and rubella cases occurred during limited outbreaks in 2011 and nearly all patients were at least 15 years old. B19V, EV and AdV infections were prevalent both in children and adults and were found throughout the 3 years. B19V occurred mainly in 3-10 years old children and 20-29 years old adults. EV infection was most common in children up to 6 years of age and AdV was confirmed mainly in 3-6 years old children. HHV6 infection was mostly detected in 6-11 months old infants. Laboratory investigation of measles/rubella suspected cases also for B19V, EV, AdV and HHV6 allows diagnosing more than half of all cases, thus strengthening rash/fever disease surveillance in Belarus.

  11. Admiralty Inlet Advanced Turbulence Measurements: May 2015

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kilcher, Levi

    2015-05-18

    This data is from measurements at Admiralty Head, in Admiralty Inlet (Puget Sound) in May of 2015. The measurements were made using Inertial Motion Unit (IMU) equipped ADVs mounted on a 'StableMoor' (Manufacturer: DeepWater Buoyancy) buoy and a Tidal Turbulence Mooring (TTM). These platforms position ADV heads above the seafloor to make mid-depth turbulence measurements. The inertial measurements from the IMU allows for removal of mooring motion in post processing. The mooring and buoy motion has been removed from the stream-wise and vertical velocity signals (u, w). The lateral (v) velocity has some 'persistent motion contamination' due to mooring sway. The TTM was deployed with one ADV, it's position was: 48 09.145', -122 41.209' The StableMoor was deployed twice, the first time it was deployed in 'wing-mode' with two ADVs ('Port' and 'Star') at: 48 09.166', -122 41.173' The second StableMoor deployment was in 'Nose' mode with one ADV at: 48 09.166', -122 41.174' Units ----- - Velocity data (_u, urot, uacc) is in m/s. - Acceleration (Accel) data is in m/s^2. - Angular rate (AngRt) data is in rad/s. - The components of all vectors are in 'ENU' orientation. That is, the first index is True East, the second is True North, and the third is Up (vertical). - All other quantities are in the units defined in the Nortek Manual. Motion correction and rotation into the ENU earth reference frame was performed using the Python-based open source DOLfYN library (http://lkilcher.github.io/dolfyn/). Details on motion correction can be found there. Additional details on TTM measurements at this site can be found in the included Marine Energy Technology Symposium paper.

  12. Admiralty Inlet Advanced Turbulence Measurements: June 2014

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kilcher, Levi

    2014-06-30

    This data is from measurements at Admiralty Head, in Admiralty Inlet (Puget Sound) in June of 2014. The measurements were made using Inertial Motion Unit (IMU) equipped ADVs mounted on Tidal Turbulence Mooring's (TTMs). The TTM positions the ADV head above the seafloor to make mid-depth turbulence measurements. The inertial measurements from the IMU allows for removal of mooring motion in post processing. The mooring motion has been removed from the stream-wise and vertical velocity signals (u, w). The lateral (v) velocity has some 'persistent motion contamination' due to mooring sway. Each ttm was deployed with two ADVs. The 'top' ADV head was positioned 0.5m above the 'bottom' ADV head. The TTMs were placed in 58m of water. The position of the TTMs were: ttm01 : (48.1525, -122.6867) ttm01b : (48.15256666, -122.68678333) ttm02b : (48.152783333, -122.686316666) Deployments TTM01b and TTM02b occurred simultaneously and were spaced approximately 50m apart in the cross-stream direction. Units ----- - Velocity data (_u, urot, uacc) is in m/s. - Acceleration (Accel) data is in m/s^2. - Angular rate (AngRt) data is in rad/s. - The components of all vectors are in 'ENU' orientation. That is, the first index is True East, the second is True North, and the third is Up (vertical). - All other quantities are in the units defined in the Nortek Manual. Motion correction and rotation into the ENU earth reference frame was performed using the Python-based open source DOLfYN library (http://lkilcher.github.io/dolfyn/). Details on motion correction can be found there. Additional details on TTM measurements at this site can be found in the included Marine Energy Technology Symposium paper.

  13. Estimation of suspended sediment concentration in rivers using acoustic methods.

    PubMed

    Elçi, Sebnem; Aydin, Ramazan; Work, Paul A

    2009-12-01

    Acoustic Doppler current meters (ADV, ADCP, and ADP) are widely used in water systems to measure flow velocities and velocity profiles. Although these meters are designed for flow velocity measurements, they can also provide information defining the quantity of particulate matter in the water, after appropriate calibration. When an acoustic instrument is calibrated for a water system, no additional sensor is needed to measure suspended sediment concentration (SSC). This provides the simultaneous measurements of velocity and concentration required for most sediment transport studies. The performance of acoustic Doppler current meters for measuring SSC was investigated in different studies where signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and suspended sediment concentration were related using different formulations. However, these studies were each limited to a single study site where neither the effect of particle size nor the effect of temperature was investigated. In this study, different parameters that affect the performance of an ADV for the prediction of SSC are investigated. In order to investigate the reliability of an ADV for SSC measurements in different environments, flow and SSC measurements were made in different streams located in the Aegean region of Turkey having different soil types. Soil samples were collected from all measuring stations and particle size analysis was conducted by mechanical means. Multivariate analysis was utilized to investigate the effect of soil type and water temperature on the measurements. Statistical analysis indicates that SNR readings ob tained from the ADV are affected by water temperature and particle size distribution of the soil, as expected, and a prediction model is presented relating SNR readings to SSC mea surements where both water temperature and sediment characteristics type are incorporated into the model. The coefficients of the suggested model were obtained using the multivariate anal ysis. Effect of high turbidity

  14. Structural, electronic, optical and vibrational properties of nanoscale carbons and nanowires: a colloquial review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Milton W.; Crespi, Vincent H.; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Dresselhaus, Gene; Fischer, John E.; Gutierrez, Humberto R.; Kojima, K.; Mahan, Gerald D.; Rao, Apparao M.; Sofo, Jorge O.; Tachibana, M.; Wako, K.; Xiong, Qihua

    2010-08-01

    This review addresses the field of nanoscience as viewed through the lens of the scientific career of Peter Eklund, thus with a special focus on nanocarbons and nanowires. Peter brought to his research an intense focus, imagination, tenacity, breadth and ingenuity rarely seen in modern science. His goal was to capture the essential physics of natural phenomena. This attitude also guides our writing: we focus on basic principles, without sacrificing accuracy, while hoping to convey an enthusiasm for the science commensurate with Peter's. The term 'colloquial review' is intended to capture this style of presentation. The diverse phenomena of condensed matter physics involve electrons, phonons and the structures within which excitations reside. The 'nano' regime presents particularly interesting and challenging science. Finite size effects play a key role, exemplified by the discrete electronic and phonon spectra of C60 and other fullerenes. The beauty of such molecules (as well as nanotubes and graphene) is reflected by the theoretical principles that govern their behavior. As to the challenge, 'nano' requires special care in materials preparation and treatment, since the surface-to-volume ratio is so high; they also often present difficulties of acquiring an experimental signal, since the samples can be quite small. All of the atoms participate in the various phenomena, without any genuinely 'bulk' properties. Peter was a master of overcoming such challenges. The primary activity of Eklund's research was to measure and understand the vibrations of atoms in carbon materials. Raman spectroscopy was very dear to Peter. He published several papers on the theory of phonons (Eklund et al 1995a Carbon 33 959-72, Eklund et al 1995b Thin Solid Films 257 211-32, Eklund et al 1992 J. Phys. Chem. Solids 53 1391-413, Dresselhaus and Eklund 2000 Adv. Phys. 49 705-814) and many more papers on measuring phonons (Pimenta et al 1998b Phys. Rev. B 58 16016-9, Rao et al 1997a Nature

  15. Guest Comment: Polyfluorinated Compounds Focus Issue

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past decade, a great deal has been learned about the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), a new class of environmental contaminants that includes the now well-known perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and many other related compounds. These mater...

  16. Molecular-Level Simulations of Shock Generation and Propagation in Soda-Lime Glass

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    1986, 19, p 139– 154 29. A.V. Amirkhizi, J. Isaacs, J. McGee, and S. Namet-Nasser, An Experimentally-Based Viscoelastic Constitutive Model for Polyurea ...Impact Mitigation of Polyurea When Used as a Helmet Suspension-Pad Material, Mater. Des., 2010, 31(9), p 4050–4065 31. M. Grujicic, W. C. Bell, B

  17. Does Child Abuse and Neglect Explain the Overrepresentation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Young People in Youth Detention? Findings from a Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolan, Ivan; Najman, Jake M.; Mills, Ryan; Cherney, Adrian; Strathearn, Lane

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Determine whether a history of family social disadvantage and/or child abuse and neglect explain the overrepresentation of Indigenous Australian young people in youth detention. Methods: Maternal survey data from the Mater University Study of Pregnancy was linked with child abuse and neglect and youth justice data from the Queensland…

  18. A Joyful and Exhilarating Ride: An Interview with Frank J. Vattano

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dik, Bryan J.

    2008-01-01

    Frank J. Vattano is Professor Emeritus of Psychology and Emeritus University Distinguished Teaching Scholar at Colorado State University (CSU), his undergraduate alma mater. He earned his PhD in experimental psychology from The Ohio State University and served as Associate Dean of Arts and Sciences and Vice Chancellor for Student Affairs at the…

  19. A Novel Battery Cathode Material Based on intercalation Chemistry: Redox Reactions of the 2,5-Dimercapto-1,3,4-Thiadiazole/V2O5 Xerogel System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-29

    F.I.E.E. "Electrochemical Power Sources, primary and secondary batteries", Peter Peregrinus LTD. 1980 . (2) Gabano, J. P. "Lithium Batteries...R. Inorg. Chem. 1977,11, 2950. (14) Mizushima, K.; Jones, P. C; Wiseman, P. J.; Goodenough, J. B. Mater. Res. Bull. 1980,15, 783. (15) Plichta , E

  20. Characterization of Bulk GaN Crystals Grown From Solution at Near Atmospheric Pressure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Diamond Relat. Mater. 13 (2004) 1802–1806. [21] G.P. Bulanova , J. Geochem. Explor. 53 (1995) 1–23. [22] E.A. Vasil’ev, S.V. Sofronev, Geol. Ore Deposits 49 (8) (2007) 784–791., doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2010.04.012

  1. Microstructurally Based Cross-slip Mechanisms and Their Effects on Dislocation Microstructure Evolution in fcc Crystals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    nickel microcrystals, Acta Mater. 56 (13) (2008) 2008. [58] G Makov P Landau , R Z Shneck, A. Venkert, Evolution of dislocation patterns in fcc metals, IOP...orientation: I. disloca- tion arrangement and cell structure of crystals deformed in tension, Philos. Mag. 28 (1973) 1057–1976. [61] P. Landau , R.Z. Shneck

  2. Red Genesis: The Hunan First Normal School and the Creation of Chinese Communism, 1903-1921. SUNY Series in Chinese Philosophy and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Liyan

    2012-01-01

    How did an obscure provincial teachers college produce graduates who would go on to become founders and ideologues of the Chinese Communist Party? Mao Zedong, Cai Hesen, Xiao Zisheng, and others attended the Hunan First Normal School. Focusing on their alma mater, this work explores the critical but overlooked role modern schools played in sowing…

  3. Failure by Creep Cracking and Creep Fatigue Interaction in Nickel Base Superalloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    S * - . ’I 14 The result in (12) shows that Nf 1/A p when cumulative creep damage is the mechanism of failure (in low-cycle-fatigue, Coffin - Manson ...L. C. Coffin Jr. Am. S,,c. Test. have poor resistance to cavitation. Apparently, at Mater. Spec. Tech. Publ. 520, 112(1972). least in alloys of Cu and

  4. Conversion of Biomass Hydrolysates and Other Substrates to Ethanol and Other Chemicals by Lactobacillus buchneri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Lactobacillus buchneri strain NRRL B-30929 can convert xylose and glucose into ethanol and chemicals. In this paper, L. buchneri NRRL B-30929 was initially compared with the type strains L. buchneri NRRL 1837 and DSM 5987 for growth and fermentation using single substrate derived from plant mater...

  5. Mechanical Properties of Nb25Mo25Ta25W25 and V20Nb20Mo20Ta20W20 Refractory High-Entropy Alloys (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    stability, oxidation resistance and other properties, rather than forming the conventionally expected complex and brittle intermetallic phases. Using...W. Yeh, Annales de Chimie: Science des Materiaux , 31 (2006) 633-648. 6 J.-W. Yeh, Y.-L. Chen, S.-J. Lin, S.-K. Chen, Mater. Sci. Forum, 560 (2007

  6. Anatomy of an Alumnus. Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weerts, David

    2011-01-01

    In today's resource scarce environment, it is no surprise that colleges and universities are seeking innovative ways to bolster charitable giving among their alumni. Stripling's article focuses on how alumni research conducted at Claremont McKenna College aims to find out what graduates need and expect from their alma mater. Claremont McKenna…

  7. The Effects of Surfactants on the Desorption of Organic Contaminants from Aquifer Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    aquifer material, and Schellenberg et a. (1984) found li- near sorption for chlorinated phenols on sediments and aquifer mater- ials. Karickhoff (1984...34 Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J.,50: 1406-1411 (1986). Schellenberg , K., C. Leuenberger and R. P. Schwarzenbach. "Sorption of Chlorinated Phenols by Natural

  8. Atomic-Scale Study of Plastic-Yield Criterion in Nanocrystalline Cu at High Strain Rates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    23. 2. V. Yamakov, D. Wolf, S.R. Phillpot, A.K. Mukherjee, and H. Gleiter: Nat. Mater., 2002, vol. 1, pp. 45–49. 3. V. Yamakov, D. Wolf, M. Salazar ...Caro, and D. Farkas: Phys. Rev. B, 1999, vol. 60, pp. 22–25. 9. D.W. Brenner: Computer Modeling of Nanostructured Materials, 2nd ed., Carl Koch, ed

  9. The La Verne Experience: A Common Core for Undergraduate and Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Devorah

    2014-01-01

    The lasting sense of connection that a graduate feels for his or her alma mater is often rooted in those especially memorable aspects of the college experience--the times spent bonding with friends and faculty, practicing and playing on athletic teams, collaborating with professors on research, and serving as leaders in student government. Such…

  10. The Leadership Ladder: How an Alumni Relations Director Built Her Leadership Toolkit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Long gone are the days when being an alumnus with great connections and leadership skills meant that one would get the job as the senior alumni relations professional at one's alma mater. Institutions are now seeking alumni relations leaders armed with operational and leadership experience and an understanding of advancement methodology and best…

  11. Making an Impact with Alumni Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrera, Alberto F.; Weerts, David J.; Zulick, Bradford J.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter discusses how alumni research can be used to inform key audiences about the impact of college on alumni, including the preparation of alumni for the workforce, alumni experiences as students, and whether alumni may be inclined to support their alma mater.

  12. Black College Alumni Giving: A Study of the Perceptions, Attitudes, and Giving Behaviors of Alumni Donors at Selected Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Rodney T.

    2006-01-01

    Historically, Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) have struggled in their attempt to solicit financial gifts from its alumni. Traditionally, black college alumni have appeared to show negligence in their effort to support their alma maters. As a result, many black colleges have ignored them as potential donors. This lack of…

  13. Course Correction at FAMU

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2011-01-01

    When Dr. James Ammons took the helm of his alma mater, Florida A&M University (FAMU), he inherited a nationally recognized school facing numerous crises. Ammons, who served as provost of FAMU during its heyday in the 1990s, knew the school was mired in trouble with the state, having accumulated dozens of state auditor questions about its…

  14. Higher Education over a Lifespan: A Gown to Grave Assessment of a Lifelong Relationship between Universities and Their Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Maria L.

    2013-01-01

    Graduation day often includes an oration by a Vice-Chancellor or President reminding the newest cohort of alumni to "keep in touch" with their alma mater. Often, graduates dismiss this invitation instead of embracing this lifelong opportunity. As the only constant -- and constantly growing -- stakeholder group of higher education…

  15. Shaking It up: How to Run the Best Club and Chapter Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Alumni clubs and chapters are powerful tools for keeping alumni connected to each other and the institution, gathering insight into what alumni want from their alma mater, and even raising money for the institution. And while alumni leaders do not need to devote a large amount of their budget to create successful groups, they do need to ensure…

  16. Tied but Not Bound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gayle

    2011-01-01

    Although many alumni leaders have experience both working for their alma mater and not, most go about it in the opposite order, starting out at their own institutions and then moving on to another as a seasoned veteran. However, unlike in development, where alumni status is much less of an issue, alumni leaders are often asked, "When did you…

  17. Transforming Nomads into Settlers: A Study of Community College Alumni Engagement Efforts in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starace, Melissa D.

    2012-01-01

    In an era of diminished state and community resources for higher education, community college alumni are increasingly viewed as an undefined and untapped source of support by their alma maters. Community college presidents and advancement professionals find themselves faced with the dilemma of how to develop and define meaningful and philanthropic…

  18. The Relationship between Alumni Worldview and Motivation for Giving at Biola University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Eun Jung

    2011-01-01

    This research explored the relationship between alumni donors' worldview characteristics and their motivations for supporting and giving to their "alma mater." The sample consisted of the whole alumni donor population (N = 7000) at Biola University, La Mirada, California. The research was conducted using quantitative method, and…

  19. Why Alumni Don't Give: A Qualitative Study of What Motivates Non-Donors to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wastyn, M. Linda

    2009-01-01

    This project explores why non-donors do not give to their alma mater by interviewing 12 non-donors for an in-depth examination of their decision-making processes. The Van Slyke and Brooks (2005) model of alumni giving provides the conceptual framework. This study concludes that where donors and non-donors differ is in the ways in which they…

  20. Sour Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Fight songs such as "The Victors" and "Notre Dame Victory March" have become part of the American music lexicon. Along with their sister songs, alma maters, they stir memories of carefree college days, elicit feelings of pride, and sometimes--especially fight songs--poke fun at athletic foes. They are the embodiment of…

  1. The Culture of Honors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    In this article Chancellor Susan Koch considers the value of the honors program at her institute, the University of Illinois at Springfield. She begins by reflecting on her own under graduate experience at her alma mater, Dakota State University and explains how her experience there helped her to create the honors program at the University of…

  2. Predictors of Alumni Association Membership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Melissa D.; Petrosko, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined factors associated with membership of university graduates in the dues-based alumni association of their alma mater. Logistic regression was used to analyze variables that came from survey responses and from an existing database. All participants had attended a public doctoral-granting research university in the South.…

  3. Mentoring Matters: A Room of One's Own--The Accidental Mentoring of a Traveling Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Amber M.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most exciting moments for early-career teachers is seeing their classroom for the first time. When the author accepted a position at her high school alma mater, she began planning the learning environment and atmosphere that she wanted to create for students. She was dismayed when she learned that she had to move to a different room…

  4. Influencing Factors of Alumni Giving in Religious Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boal, John R.

    2011-01-01

    The reasons that cause alumni to give to their alma mater have become more significant since 2008. In the recent issue of "Giving USA," the current recession, which began in December 2007 and continued through December 2009, has led to declines of 11.9% in giving to higher education (2010). Alumni giving and the reasons why they give has…

  5. Catholic Schools and the Immigrant Community: A Look Backward and Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Michael Collins, F.S.C., Ed.D. is a member of the Brothers of the Christian Schools, or Christian Brothers. He currently serves as the president of his alma mater, DeLa Salle High School, in Minneapolis, Minnesota. In 2007 Br. Collins received the National Catholic Educational Association Sr. Catherine McNamee Award for outstanding leadership in…

  6. Through a Social Space Lens--Interpreting Migration of the Tertiary Educated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Aimee

    2016-01-01

    Higher education institutions are thought to rejuvenate and replenish local labour markets with recent graduates, especially in rural locales. While some graduates stay in the area of their alma mater, others return home or to other areas. The aim of this paper is to contribute a synopsis of research results from current peer-reviewed literature…

  7. Effect of Aluminum on the Microstructure and Properties of Two Refractory High-Entropy Alloys (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    measured with an AccuPyc 1330 V1.03 helium pycnometer. Vickers microhardness was measured on polished cross-section surfaces using a 136 Vickers diamond ...Chang YA, Furrer D, Venkatesh V. J Mater Eng Perf 2005;14(6):717–21. [22] Scheil E. Z Metallkd 1942;34:70. [23] Porter DA, Easterling KE. Phase

  8. Seeing Both Sides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Toni

    2012-01-01

    For many development officers, giving to their alma maters, employers, or local nonprofit agencies makes them better at their jobs by deepening their understanding of donor motivations and reinforcing what to do--and what not to do. Some can testify to the importance of stewardship because they weren't treated well. Others find that seeing their…

  9. Thermomechanical Characterization of Shape Memory Polymers using High Temperature Nanoindentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    spherical indenter with a tip radius of 100 mmwas used in the present experiments. The latest tips provided by the manufacturer had all been brazed onto the...Nanoindentation of Au and Pt/ Cu thin films at elevated temperatures. J. Mater. Res. 19 (9) (2004) 2650–2657. [19] A. Sawant, S. Tin, High temperature

  10. Mesoscale Modeling of Nonlinear Elasticity and Fracture in Ceramic Polycrystals Under Dynamic Shear and Compression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    investigation of heterogeneous microplasticity in ceramics deformed under high confining stresses. Mech. Mater. 37, 95–112. Zhang, K., Wu, M., Feng, R., 2005b...Simulation of microplasticity -induced deformation in uniaxially strained ceramics by 3-D Voronoi polycrystal modeling. Int. J. Plasticity 21, 801–834

  11. Residual Stresses in Ground Steels.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-13

    stress near the surface can be lower. The level of residual stress is also strongly affected by carbon,’3 which influences the microplastic behaviour of...1966, Vol. 14, 99-104. 14. C. 3. )4cMahon: “ Microplastic Behaviour in Iron” in Mv. in Mater . S d . Res., Vol. 2, 121-140, Interscience, New York

  12. Use of a granular bioplastic formulation for carrying conidia of a non-aflatoxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Accinelli, Cesare; Saccà, M Ludovica; Abbas, Hamed K; Zablotowicz, Robert M; Wilkinson, Jeffery R

    2009-09-01

    Previous research demonstrated that aflatoxin contamination in corn is reduced by field application of wheat grains pre-inoculated with the non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain NRRL 30797. To facilitate field applications of this biocontrol isolate, a series of laboratory studies were conducted on the reliability and efficiency of replacing wheat grains with the novel bioplastic formulation Mater-Bi to serve as a carrier matrix to formulate this fungus. Mater-Bi granules were inoculated with a conidial suspension of NRRL 30797 to achieve a final cell density of approximately log 7 conidia/granule. Incubation of 20-g soil samples receiving a single Mater-Bi granule for 60-days resulted in log 4.2-5.3 propagules of A. flavus/g soil in microbiologically active and sterilized soil, respectively. Increasing the number of granules had no effect on the degree of soil colonization by the biocontrol fungus. In addition to the maintenance of rapid vegetative growth and colonization of soil samples, the bioplastic formulation was highly stable, indicating that Mater-Bi is a suitable substitute for biocontrol applications of A. flavus NRRL 30797.

  13. To Tug Alumni Heartstrings, Bucknell U. Reaches out and Text-Messages Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Andrea L.

    2007-01-01

    To get money flowing from alumni, colleges try to keep them feeling plugged in to their alma mater--even if the "plug" becomes wireless. Bucknell University rolled out a new service this month that pushes cell phone text messages to its 47,000 alumni. So far only a few dozen alumni have signed up for the service. If the service, which is…

  14. Nursing Alumni as Student Mentors: Nurturing Professional Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sword, Wendy; Byrne, Carolyn; Drummond-Young, Michele; Harmer, Maureen; Rush, Janet

    2002-01-01

    Undergraduate nursing students at McMaster University are mentored by program alumni. Feedback from surveys and group discussions revealed benefits beyond career and personal development, resulting from having experienced the same educational program. Alumni appreciated the opportunity to reconnect with their alma mater. (SK)

  15. Bright Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Harriet

    2012-01-01

    Rugby, football, and lacrosse; concerts by the bands of their university years; reunions with classmates and teammates. These attractions may draw undergraduate alumni back to campus, but graduate alumni are birds of a different feather. They, too, may be engaged by their alma mater, but their attachments often run contrary to the traditional…

  16. A Favorable Prognosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Pearl

    2006-01-01

    Dr. Keith Amos' undying support for his undergrad alma mater, Xavier University of Louisiana, took an unusual turn last year in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. Amos, who graduated from Harvard Medical School after earning his bachelor's from Xavier, also served as a mentor and advisor for Xavier students whose plans for applying to medical…

  17. The Overall Response of Composite Materials Undergoing Large Elastic Deformations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-30

    procedure in general to es.et the energy of the composite W (i). For the linear case, it has been shown (MILTON, 1985; AVELLANEDA , 1987) that the DSC...No. 89-0288. 26 P. . CASTAFEDA REFRENcEs AVELLANEDA . M. 1987 Commun. Pure appi. Math. 40, 527. BOUCHER. S. 1974 J. Compos. Mater. 8, 82. BUDIANSKY, B

  18. Dynamic Response of Metal-Polymer Bilayers - Viscoelasticity, Adhesion and Failure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-25

    without a die backing ( Plum 1995). Similar applications have also evolved in forming tubular parts. In these appli- cations, it is the regime of...and cavity fill experiments and model. J Mater Proc Tech 170:350-362 Plum M (1995) "Electromagnetic Forming", Metals Handbook, 14, 9th edition, ASM

  19. Colleges Too Small for Prime Time Take Sports Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Many small colleges have a dedicated fan base for their sports, yet ESPN will not be coming to campus anytime soon. The solution for some has been Webcasting. Faraway alumni are able to reconnect with their alma maters. Troops in Iraq who have ties to the university have been known to watch. Parents get to watch every time young Billy goes up to…

  20. Lithium Hydroxide Dihydrate: A New Type of Icy Material at Elevated Pressure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    M. Jansen, J. Appl. Crystallogr. 32, 864 (1999). 17A. L. Speck, PLATON , a multipurpose crystallographic tool Utrecht University, Utrecht, The...Netherlands, 2001. See http://www.cryst.chem. uu.nl/ platon /. 18G. Kresse and J. Furthmuller, Comput. Mater. Sci. 6, 15 (1996). 19G. Kresse and J. Hafner, J

  1. Designing Superoleophobic Surfaces (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-07

    Woodward, J. P. S. Badyal, S. A. Brewer, C. Willis, Chem. Mater. 12, 2031 (2000). 15. K. Tsujii, T. Yamamoto, T. Onda , S. Shibuichi, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed...Engl. 36, 1011 (1997). 16. S. Shibuichi, T. Yamamoto, T. Onda , K. Tsujii, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 208, 287 (1998). 17. W. Chen et al., Langmuir 15

  2. Open-Door Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Kim

    2010-01-01

    It wasn't really a surprise when alumni began ringing their alma maters looking for job help a few years ago. The recession hit nearly every industry and business, leaving recent college graduates without great prospects for their first jobs and older professionals without incomes for, in many cases, the first time in their lives. While some…

  3. Alumni Satisfaction with Their Undergraduate Academic Experience and the Impact on Alumni Giving and Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaier, Scott

    2005-01-01

    The hypothesis for this research was that the higher the level of academic satisfaction, the more likely it is for alumni to be involved with the university. Alumni involvement was defined as alumni giving and/or alumni participating with their alma mater within the last three years. There were 1,608 alumni from a large state university who…

  4. African American Alumni Feelings of Attachment to a Predominately White Research Intensive University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burley, Hansel; Butner, Bonita; Causey-Bush, Tonia; Bush, Lawson, V

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined African American alumni opinions of their experience at a predominately white research intensive university from the development office's perspective. Research on decades of African American alumni opinions of their alma mater is nonexistent. Gender, financial aid and matriculation period were the independent variables. The…

  5. A potential mechanism of dural ossification in ossification of ligamentum flavum.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Guo, Shigong; Qiu, Guixing; Li, Wenjing; Liu, Yongsheng; Zhao, Yu

    2016-07-01

    Ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) mostly occurs in the thoracic spine, leading to thoracic spinal stenosis. Surgical treatment is considered as the best option for OLF patients. When the dura mater ossifies, the difficulty of surgery and the risk of complications significantly increase. The cause of dural ossification (DO) is still unknown. Based on the existing research and clinical studies, we propose a potential mechanism of DO in OLF. Firstly, with the progression of OLF, it will compress the dura mater and even the spinal cord. Then, with flexion and extension of spine, relative movement (friction) between the ossified ligamentum flavum and compressed dura mater will lead to local inflammation, subsequently causing dural adhesion. Finally, the adhesion tissue can serve as a pathway for the transportation of osteogenic cytokines (BMP for example) from the ossified ligamentum flavum to the compressed dura mater. Dura will ossify under exposure of these osteogenic cytokines. If this hypothesis is confirmed, it will contribute to the prevention and management of DO. For progressive OLF patients, early surgical treatment before DO should be recommended.

  6. Landmine Detection by Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    14N nuclei present in the explosive (Hirshfeld and Klainer, 1980; Grechishkin, 1992; Rowe and Smith, 1996; Garroway et al., 2001; Deas et al., 2002...Mater. Chem., 7 (2), 229-235. Garroway , A.N., Buess, M.L., Miller, J.B., Suits, B.H., Hibbs, A.D., Barrall, G.A., Matthews, R. and Burnett, L.J

  7. How--and Why?!--Does One Go from the Classroom to the Dark Side?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Colin

    2015-01-01

    This essay describes Colin Irvine's process of applying and interviewing for the position of Vice President for Academic Affairs and Dean of the College at his alma mater. Irvine recounts the timeline of events from being notified of the position at the college to awaiting the notification of whether or not he was accepted for the position. He…

  8. Basic Studies of Nonlinear Optical Materials for Eye and Sensor Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Photorefractive Materials, D.A Oulianov, A.S. Dvornikov, P.M. Rentzepis, Proceedings of SPIE, 4482, 2002 Synthesis and Properties of Photochromic Fluorescing 2...Sensitive Photochromic Fluorescing Molecules, Yongchao Liang, A.S. Dvornikov, P.M. Rentzepis J. Mater. Chem. 13 286-290, 2003. Kinetics and

  9. Creating a Culture of Success for Staff: Five Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scully, Lisa Mosele

    2011-01-01

    After finishing her undergraduate degree in English, the author's first employment was in an academic department at her alma mater. At a large public state institution, the salary scale for non-academic appointees was--and remains--woefully low. Knowing that monetary compensation wasn't the source of staff satisfaction, her chairman made a…

  10. Layered Polymeric Optical Systems Using Continuous Coextrusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    nonlinear fashion in order to achieve the desired output. Examples of both an imaging and non-imaging system designed with spherical GRIN lenses will...Weder, C. "Continuous melt processing of all-polymer distributed feedback lasers." J. Mater. Chem. DOI:10.1039/b909348f (2009). [31] Dowling , J. P

  11. Intergenerational effect of juvenile hormone on offspring in Pogonomyrmex harvester ants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parents can influence the phenotypes of their offspring via a number of mechanisms. In harvester ants, whether female progeny develop into workers or daughter queens is strongly influenced by the age and temperature conditions experienced by their mother, which is associated with variation in mater...

  12. How Colleges Use Alumni to Recruit Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Piper

    2008-01-01

    Many college alumni wear their love for their alma maters on their sleeves, if not their sweatshirts. They are practically a walking advertisement for the college, so it often makes sense to rely on them when recruiting, a new survey of admissions officers suggests. The survey, however, also showed that admissions offices with budgets of less than…

  13. Design of solar thermal dryers for 24-hour food drying processes (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solar drying is a ubiquitous method that has been adopted for many years as a food preservation method. Most of the published articles in the literature provide insight on the performance of solar dryers in service but little information on the dryer construction material selection process or mater...

  14. Advances in Biomagnetic Interfacing Concepts Derived from Polymer-Magnetic Particle Complexes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Esker , J. S. Riffle, S. W. Charles, S. Wells, and J. P. Dailey, Magnetic Cobalt Dispersions in Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Fluids, J. Magn. Magn. Maters., 225...1-2), 47-58 (2001). 2. M. Rutnakornpituk, M. S. Thompson, L. A. Harris, K. E. Farmer, A. R Esker , J. S. Riffle, J. Connolly and T. G. St. Pierre

  15. Variation in anatomical characteristics in leaves of pecan seedstocks from Mexico and the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf anatomical traits of Mexican and U.S. pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] seedstocks grown in a single location were studied to determine patterns of ecogeographic variation within the natural range. Stomatal density (SD) was uniform among open-pollinated seedlings of a common mater...

  16. Synthesis of Freestanding HfO2 Nanostructures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-05

    Perebeinos V: Carbon-based electronics. Nature Nanotechnology 2007, 2:605-615. 8. Joensen P, Frindt RF, Morrison SR: Single-layer MoS2 . Mater Res Bull...standing single crystal silicon nanoribbons . J Am Chem Soc 2001, 123:11095-11096. 12. Hinode H, Ohtani T, Wakihara M: Homogeneity range and some

  17. Theory Analysis of Wavelength Dependence of Laser-Induced Phase Explosion of Silicon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    and P. Martin , Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 79, 1695 2004. 2R. E. Russo, X. Mao, and S. S. Mao, Anal. Chem. 74, 70A 2002. 3Laser Ablation...J. Radziemski and D. A. Cremers , Laser-Induced Plasmas and Appli- cation Dekker, New York, 1989. 13J. R. Ho, C. P. Grigoropoulos, and J. A

  18. A constrained theory for single crystal shape memory wires with application to restrained recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzoni, Raffaella

    2011-07-01

    The theory of thin wires developed in Dret and Meunier (Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences. Série I. Mathématique 337:143-147, 2003) is adapted to phase-transforming materials with large elastic moduli in the sense discussed in James and Rizzoni (J Elast 59:399-436, 2000). The result is a one-dimensional constitutive model for shape memory wires, characterized by a small number of material constants. The model is used to analyze self-accommodated and detwinned microstructures and to study superelasticity. It also turns out that the model successfully reproduces the behavior of shape memory wires in experiments of restrained recovery (Tsoi et al. in Mater Sci Eng A 368:299-310, 2004; Tsoi in 50:3535-3544, 2002; S̆ittner et al. in Mater Sci Eng A 286:298-311, 2000; vokoun in Smart Mater Struct 12:680-685, 2003; Zheng and Cui in Intermetallics 12:1305-1309, 2004; Zheng et al. in J Mater Sci Technol 20(4):390-394, 2004). In particular, the model is able to predict the shift to higher transformation temperatures on heating. The model also captures the effect of prestraining on the evolution of the recovery stress and of the martensite volume fraction.

  19. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (CR&D) Delivery Order 0034: Aircraft Coatings Modeling and Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    energy, molecular conformation, tilt angle, twist angle, dynamics, mean square displacement, molecular relaxation, polymer networks; self- healing... Polymeric Networks ...................................................................................47 2.4 Mechanisms of Gecko Adhesion...Simulations of Self-Healing Polymeric Networks Taner E. Dirama, Kelly L. Anderson, Joseph A. Shumaker, and Joel A. Johnson, Mech. Time-Depend. Mater

  20. Adiabatic Deformation and Strain Localization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    4,1978, p. 180·184. 17. TURLEY , D. M. The Nature of the White Erching Surface Layers Produced During Reaming Ulrra-High Strength Steel. Mater. Sci...Ducker 1 AFFDL/FES, J. Hodges 1 AFFDL/TST, Library Air Force Test and Eva luation Cente r, Kir tland Air Force Base , NM 87115 ATTN: AFTEC-JT No

  1. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Glass Matrix Composites for Space Based Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-31

    Nardone , "Carbon Fiber Reinforced Glass Matrix Composites for Space Based Applications", Office of Naval Research Contract N00014-85-C-0332, Report R86... Nardone and K M. Prewo, "Tensile Performance of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Glass", J. Mater. Sci. accepted for publication, 1987. 27. R. F. Cooper and K

  2. Comparison of Post-detonation Combustion in Explosives Incorporating Aluminum Nanoparticles: Influence of the Passivation Layer (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-31

    funding from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) through the support of Dr. Michael Berman, and the financial support of the Defense...Bunker, M. J. Smith, K. A. S. Fernando, B. A. Harruff, W. K. Lewis, J. R. Gord, E. A. Guliants, and D. K. Phelps , ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2, 11

  3. How Crucial Are Family Ties? Weighing the Importance of Campus Grads to Alumni Office Staffing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benninghoff, Diane; Heinlen, Dan; Brant, Keith H.

    2000-01-01

    Three chief alumni relations officers discuss their views on the importance of hiring graduates of the college or university as alumni relations staffers. Opinions ranged from the belief that it is helpful when alumni and staff share an alma mater, to alumni status is not particularly important, to an attempt to mix both in the alumni relations…

  4. 21 CFR 1271.3 - How does FDA define important terms in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., dura mater, heart valve, cornea, hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells derived from peripheral and cord... HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS General Provisions § 1271.3 How does FDA... use means the implantation, transplantation, infusion, or transfer of human cells or tissue back...

  5. 21 CFR 1271.3 - How does FDA define important terms in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., dura mater, heart valve, cornea, hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells derived from peripheral and cord... HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS General Provisions § 1271.3 How does FDA... use means the implantation, transplantation, infusion, or transfer of human cells or tissue back...

  6. Sentient Structures: Optimising Sensor Layouts for Direct Measurement of Discrete Variables

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    et al. (2008). Trendafilova et.al. (2001) also utilised a mutual information criterion for sensor layouts for damage detection. In this case the aim...distributions for impact detection in composite materials” Smart Mater. Struct. 9, 298- 303. Trendafilova , I., Heylen, W., Van Brussel, H. (2001

  7. Minimum Qualifications for Faculty and Administrators in California Community Colleges. [Fifth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

    This document is the fifth edition of Minimum Qualifications for Faculty and Administrators in California Community Colleges and it updates information presented in the last edition. The document is divided into the following sections: disciplines requiring a Mater's degree, disciplines in which a Master's degree is not generally expected for…

  8. Investigation of Nanophase Materials for Thermoelectric Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Fang, K.L. Stokes, J.A. Weimann, W.L. Zhou, J. Dai, F. Chen and C.J. O’Connor, “ Microemulsion -processed bismuth nanoparticles,” Mater. Sci. Engineer. B...56:1001 (2000). J. Fang, K.L. Stokes, J.A. Weimann and W. Zhou, Nanocrystalline bismuth synthesized via an in situ polymerization- microemulsion

  9. Keeping Faith at Princeton: A Brief History of Religious Pluralism at Princeton and Other Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borsch, Frederick Houk

    2012-01-01

    In 1981, Frederick Houk Borsch returned to Princeton University, his alma mater, to serve as dean of the chapel at the Ivy League school. In "Keeping Faith at Princeton," Borsch tells the story of Princeton's journey from its founding in 1746 as a college for Presbyterian ministers to the religiously diverse institution it is today. He…

  10. Targeting Your Phonathons to Alumni.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockriel, Irvin W.

    A study was conducted to determine whether alumni who were previous scholarship recipients were more likely to pledge financial assistance to their alma mater than were alumni who were not financially assisted. A total of 140 alumni were to be contacted through a regular phonathon, with a special script for the 70 previous scholarship recipients.…

  11. Effects of temperature generated from the Holmium: YAG laser on human osteoblasts in monolayer tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Moustafa I; Sandison, Anne; Coombs, Richard R H; McCarthy, Ian D; Hafez, Al-Shymaa M

    2012-01-01

    With the use of lasers for ablation purposes in spinal surgery, the tissue temperature increases above the boiling point of water, leading to tissue ablation by vaporisation. Due to the thermal environment engendered by the use of lasers, there is concern about the safety of the surrounding important structures, such as dura mater, dorsal root ganglia, and nerve roots.

  12. Not a Moment Too Soon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Maria Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    It may sound counterintuitive to teach incoming students what it means to be alumni before they've even set foot in a classroom. But as advancement professionals seek new ways to build passionate alumni bases prepared to devote time and financial resources to their alma maters after graduation, many alumni offices and associations are finding that…

  13. Aplasia cutis congenita: a conservative approach of a case with large, extensive skin, and underlying skull defect

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Dalila; Rodrigues, Joana; Marques, Jorge Sales; Pinto, Rui; Gomes, Anabela

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Aplasia cutis congenita is a disease in which skin, bone, and dura mater can be absent. In majority of the cases it affects the scalp. We report a baby girl born at term with a large scalp and skull defect measuring 9 × 10 cm. Conservative treatment led to complete epithelization. PMID:26509020

  14. Controlled light field concentration through turbid biological membrane for phototherapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fujuan; He, Hexiang; Zhuang, Huichang; Xie, Xiangsheng; Yang, Zhenchong; Cai, Zhigang; Gu, Huaiyu; Zhou, Jianying

    2015-06-01

    Laser propagation through a turbid rat dura mater membrane is shown to be controllable with a wavefront modulation technique. The scattered light field can be refocused into a target area behind the rat dura mater membrane with a 110 times intensity enhancement using a spatial light modulator. The efficient laser intensity concentration system is demonstrated to imitate the phototherapy for human brain tumors. The power density in the target area is enhanced more than 200 times compared with the input power density on the dura mater membrane, thus allowing continued irradiation concentration to the deep lesion without damage to the dura mater. Multibeam inputs along different directions, or at different positions, can be guided to focus to the same spot behind the membrane, hence providing a similar gamma knife function in optical spectral range. Moreover, both the polarization and the phase of the input field can be recovered in the target area, allowing coherent field superposition in comparison with the linear intensity superposition for the gamma knife.

  15. Controlled light field concentration through turbid biological membrane for phototherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fujuan; He, Hexiang; Zhuang, Huichang; Xie, Xiangsheng; Yang, Zhenchong; Cai, Zhigang; Gu, Huaiyu; Zhou, Jianying

    2015-01-01

    Laser propagation through a turbid rat dura mater membrane is shown to be controllable with a wavefront modulation technique. The scattered light field can be refocused into a target area behind the rat dura mater membrane with a 110 times intensity enhancement using a spatial light modulator. The efficient laser intensity concentration system is demonstrated to imitate the phototherapy for human brain tumors. The power density in the target area is enhanced more than 200 times compared with the input power density on the dura mater membrane, thus allowing continued irradiation concentration to the deep lesion without damage to the dura mater. Multibeam inputs along different directions, or at different positions, can be guided to focus to the same spot behind the membrane, hence providing a similar gamma knife function in optical spectral range. Moreover, both the polarization and the phase of the input field can be recovered in the target area, allowing coherent field superposition in comparison with the linear intensity superposition for the gamma knife. PMID:26114042

  16. An Investigation of the Factors that Can Predict Philanthropic Support for Former Female Student-Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Jason S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine factors that best describe the philanthropic motivations of female student-athletes when considering making financial contributions to their alma mater. A survey instrument was developed and administered to 2,351 alumnae student-athletes which had 347 respondents. The independent variables chosen were…

  17. Preparation, Electromechanical, and Structural Study of Carbon Nanotube/Gelatin Nanocomposites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-15

    Properties of smart hydrogels composed of polyacrylic acid /poly9vinyl sulfonic acid ) responsive to external stimuli. Smart Mater Struct 2004; 13:317...Composite; Hydrogel; Electric Response; Bending phenomenon; Swelling 3 Introduction Soft engineered actuation systems that have properties more in...poly (ethylene glycol) [21], and Daunert et al also investigated acrylic acid /acrylamide reinforced with a conductive polypyrrole/carbon black

  18. Studies on the Reduction of Intermodulation Generation in Communications Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-07

    New York, 1969), p. 94. 7. D.L. Mills (private communication). 8. W.H. Kraan and M. Th. Rekveldt, J. Magn. Mag. Mater,5, 247 (1977). 9. V.I. Minakov...find that for equal input power and input losses Thus l isgeoessie nott sensitiv toeis rea- 5(2 1_ T𔃻PIAL (thermoresistive) P,.t (thermoresistive) 6

  19. Simultaneous Evaporation of Cu and Sn from Liquid Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sung-Hoon; Kang, Youn-Bae

    2016-08-01

    In order to understand evaporation refining of tramp elements in molten ferrous scrap, Cu and Sn, a series of experiments were carried out using liquid-gas reaction in a levitation melting equipment. Effect of S and C, which are abundant in hot metal from ironmaking process, was examined and analyzed by employing a comprehensive evaporation kinetic model developed by the present authors (Jung et al. in Metall Mater Trans B 46B:250-258, 2014; Jung et al. in Metall Mater Trans B 46B:259-266, 2014; Jung et al. in Metall Mater Trans B 46B:267-277, 2014; Jung and Kang in Metall Mater Trans B 10.1007/s11663-016-0601-5, 2016). Evaporation of Cu and Sn were treated by evaporation of individual species such as Cu(g), CuS(g), Sn(g), and SnS(g), along with CS2(g). Decrease of Cu and Sn content in liquid steel was in good agreement with the model prediction. Optimum conditions of steel composition for the rapid evaporation of Cu and Sn were proposed by utilizing the model predictions.

  20. Inheritance of steroid-independent male sexual behavior in male offspring of B6D2F1 mice.

    PubMed

    McInnis, Christine M; Bonthuis, Paul J; Rissman, Emilie F; Park, Jin Ho

    2016-04-01

    The importance of gonadal steroids in modulating male sexual behavior is well established. Individual differences in male sexual behavior, independent of gonadal steroids, are prevalent across a wide range of species, including man. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying steroid-independent male sexual behavior are poorly understood. A high proportion of B6D2F1 hybrid male mice demonstrates steroid-independent male sexual behavior (identified as "maters"), providing a mouse model that opens up avenues of investigation into the mechanisms regulating male sexual behavior in the absence of gonadal hormones. Recent studies have revealed several proteins that play a significant factor in regulating steroid-independent male sexual behavior in B6D2F1 male mice, including amyloid precursor protein (APP), tau, and synaptophysin. The specific goals of our study were to determine whether steroid-independent male sexual behavior was a heritable trait by determining if it was dependent upon the behavioral phenotype of the B6D2F1 sire, and whether the differential expression of APP, tau, and synaptophysin in the medial preoptic area found in the B6D2F1 sires that did and did not mate after gonadectomy was similar to those found in their male offspring. After adult B6D2F1 male mice were bred with C57BL/6J female mice, they and their male offspring (BXB1) were orchidectomized and identified as either maters or "non-maters". A significant proportion of the BXB1 maters was sired only from B6D2F1 maters, indicating that the steroid-independent male sexual behavior behavioral phenotype of the B6D2F1 hybrid males, when crossed with C57BL/6J female mice, is inherited by their male offspring. Additionally, APP, tau, and synaptophysin were elevated in in the medial preoptic area in both the B6D2F1 and BXB1 maters relative to the B6D2F1 and BXB1 non-maters, respectively, suggesting a potential genetic mechanism for the inheritance of steroid-independent male sexual behavior.