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Sample records for adv space res

  1. 75 FR 49233 - Amendments to Form ADV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Part III Securities and... / Vol. 75 , No. 155 / Thursday, August 12, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 275 and 279 RIN 3235-AI17 Amendments to Form ADV AGENCY: Securities and...

  2. Optical Detection of Space Debris Using a Large Achromatic Coronagraph

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    34Exploter 46 Meteoroid Bumper Experiment: Earth orbital debris interpretation", in "Properties and Interactions of Interplanetary Dust", Astrophy- sics and...communication, 9th Sacramento Peak Workshop on Coronal Structure, 17-21th August. Su, S. Y.: 1986, " Orbital Debris Environement resulting from Future Activities...in Space", Adv. Sp. Res., 6, 7, 109. Taff, L. G., Jonuskis, D. M.: 1986, "Results and Analysis of a bi-telescopic Sur- vey of low Altitude Orbital

  3. Floc Growth and Changes in ADV Acoustic Backscatter Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouhnia, M.; Keyvani, A.; Strom, K.

    2013-12-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to examine the effect of mud floc growth on the acoustic back-scatter signal recorded by a Nortek Vector acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV). Several studies have shown that calibration equations can be developed to link the backscatter strength with average suspended sediment concentration (SSC) when the sediment particle size distribution remains constant. However, when mud is present, the process of flocculation can alter the suspended particle size distribution. Past studies have shown that it is still unclear as to the degree of dependence of the calibration equation on changes in floc size. Part of the ambiguity lies in the fact that flocs can be porous and rather loosely packed and therefore might not scatter to the same extent as a grain of sand. In addition, direct, detailed measurements of floc size have not accompanied experiments examining the dependence of ADV backscatter and suspended sediment concentration. In this research, a set of laboratory experiments is used to test how floc growth affects the backscatter strength. The laboratory data is examined in light of an analytic model that was developed based on scatter theory to account for changes in both SSC and the floc properties of size and density. For the experiments, a turbulent suspension was created in a tank with a rotating paddle. Fixed concentrations of a mixture of kaolinite and montmorillonite were added to the tank in a step-wise manner. For each step, the flocs were allowed to grow to their equilibrium size before breaking the flocs with high turbulent mixing, adding more sediment, and then returning the mixing rate to a range suitable for the re-growth of flocs. During each floc growth phase, data was simultaneously collected at the same elevation in the tank using a floc camera to capture the changes in floc size, a Nortek Vector ADV for the acoustic backscatter, and a Campbell Scientific OBS 3+ for optical backscatter. Physical samples of the

  4. Research Gaps and Technology Needs in Development of PHM for Passive AdvSMR Components

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Coble, Jamie B.; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Wootan, David W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Henager, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMRs), which are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts, may provide a longer-term alternative to traditional light-water reactors and near term small modular reactors (SMRs), which are based on integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR) concepts. SMRs are challenged economically due to losses in economy of scale, thus, there is increased motivation to reduce the controllable operations and maintenance (O&M) costs through automation technologies including prognostics health management (PHM) systems. In this regard, PHM systems have the potential to play a vital role in supporting the deployment of AdvSMRs and face several unique challenges with respect to implementation for passive AdvSMR components. This paper presents a summary of a research gaps and technical needs assessment performed for implementation of PHM for passive AdvSMR components. state-of-the-art in PHM.

  5. Research gaps and technology needs in development of PHM for passive AdvSMR components

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Wootan, David W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Henagar, Chuck H. Jr.; Coble, Jamie B.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2014-02-18

    Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMRs), which are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts, may provide a longer-term alternative to traditional light-water reactors and near-term small modular reactors (SMRs), which are based on integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR) concepts. SMRs are challenged economically because of losses in economy of scale; thus, there is increased motivation to reduce the controllable operations and maintenance costs through automation technologies including prognostics health management (PHM) systems. In this regard, PHM systems have the potential to play a vital role in supporting the deployment of AdvSMRs and face several unique challenges with respect to implementation for passive AdvSMR components. This paper presents a summary of a research gaps and technical needs assessment performed for implementation of PHM for passive AdvSMR components.

  6. Local-Level Prognostics Health Management Systems Framework for Passive AdvSMR Components. Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Roy, Surajit; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Pardini, Allan F.; Jones, Anthony M.; Deibler, John E.

    2014-09-12

    This report describes research results to date in support of the integration and demonstration of diagnostics technologies for prototypical AdvSMR passive components (to establish condition indices for monitoring) with model-based prognostics methods. The focus of the PHM methodology and algorithm development in this study is at the localized scale. Multiple localized measurements of material condition (using advanced nondestructive measurement methods), along with available measurements of the stressor environment, enhance the performance of localized diagnostics and prognostics of passive AdvSMR components and systems.

  7. The PHITS code for space applications: status and recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sihver, Lembit; Ploc, Ondrej; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji; Hashimoto, Shintaro; El-Jaby, Samy

    Since COSPAR 2012, the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS, has been upgraded and released to the public [1]. The code has been improved and so has the contents of its package, such as the attached data libraries. In the new version, the intra-nuclear cascade models INCL4.6 and INC-ELF have been implemented as well as the Kurotama model for the total reaction cross sections. The accuracies of the new reaction models for transporting the galactic cosmic-rays were investigated by comparing with experimental data. The incorporation of these models has improved the capabilities of PHITS to perform particle transport simulations for different space applications. A methodology for assessing the pre-mission exposure of space crew aboard the ISS has been developed in terms of an effective dose equivalent [2]. PHITS was used to calculate the particle transport of the GCR and trapped radiation through the hull of the ISS. By using the predicted spectra, and fluence-to-dose conversion factors, the semi-empirical ISSCREM [3,4,5] code was then scaled to predict the effective dose equivalent. This methodology provides an opportunity for pre-flight predictions of the effective dose equivalent, which can be compared to post-flight estimates, and therefore offers a means to assess the impact of radiation exposure on ISS flight crew. We have also simulated [6] the protective curtain experiment, which was performed to test the efficiency of water-soaked hygienic tissue wipes and towels as a simple and cost-effective additional spacecraft shielding. The dose from the trapped particles and low energetic GCR, was significantly reduced, which shows that the protective curtains are efficient when they are applied on spacecraft at LEO. The results of these benchmark calculations, as well as the mentioned applications of PHITS to space dosimetry, will be presented. [1] T. Sato et al. J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 50, 913-923 (2013). [2] S. El-Jaby, et al. Adv. Space Res. doi: http

  8. 76 FR 255 - Amendments To Form ADV; Extension of Compliance Date

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... Commission is extending the compliance date generally for four months to provide certain investment advisers... of Investment Adviser Regulation, Division of Investment Management, U.S. Securities and Exchange... Commission adopted amendments to Part 2 of Form ADV , and related rules under the Investment Advisers Act...

  9. SACR ADVance 3-D Cartesian Cloud Cover (SACR-ADV-3D3C) product

    DOE Data Explorer

    Meng Wang, Tami Toto, Eugene Clothiaux, Katia Lamer, Mariko Oue

    2017-03-08

    SACR-ADV-3D3C remaps the outputs of SACRCORR for cross-wind range-height indicator (CW-RHI) scans to a Cartesian grid and reports reflectivity CFAD and best estimate domain averaged cloud fraction. The final output is a single NetCDF file containing all aforementioned corrected radar moments remapped on a 3-D Cartesian grid, the SACR reflectivity CFAD, a profile of best estimate cloud fraction, a profile of maximum observable x-domain size (xmax), a profile time to horizontal distance estimate and a profile of minimum observable reflectivity (dBZmin).

  10. Tumor-targeted gene therapy using Adv-AFP-HRPC/IAA prodrug system suppresses growth of hepatoma xenografted in mice.

    PubMed

    Dai, M; Liu, J; Chen, D-E; Rao, Y; Tang, Z-J; Ho, W-Z; Dong, C-Y

    2012-02-01

    Clinical efficacy of current therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment is limited. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is non-toxic for mammalian cells. Oxidative decarboxylation of IAA by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) leads to toxic effects of IAA. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a novel gene-targeted enzyme prodrug therapy with IAA on hepatoma growth in vitro and in vivo mouse hepatoma models. We generated a plasmid using adenovirus to express HRP isoenzyme C (HRPC) with the HCC marker, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), as the promoter (pAdv-AFP-HRPC). Hepatocellular cells were infected with pAdv-AFP-HRPC and treated with IAA. Cell death was detected using MTT assay. Hepatoma xenografts were developed in mice by injection of mouse hepatoma cells. The size and weight of tumors and organs were evaluated. Cell death in tumors was assessed using hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections. HRPC expression in tissues was detected using Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction. IAA stimulated death of hepatocellular cells infected with pAdv-AFP-HRPC, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but not in control cells. Growth of hepatoma xenografts, including the size and weight, was inhibited in mice treated with pAdv-AFP-HRPC and IAA, compared with that in control group. pAdv-AFP-HRPC/IAA treatment induced cell death in hepatoma xenografts in mice. HRPC gene expressed only in hepatoma, but not in other normal organs of mice. pAdv-AFP-HRPC/IAA treatment did not cause any side effects on normal organs. These findings suggest that pAdv-AFP-HRPC/IAA enzyme/prodrug system may serve as a strategy for HCC therapy.

  11. EVALUATION OF RANGE ESTIMATES FOR TOYOTA FCHV-ADV UNDER OPEN ROAD DRIVING CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Anton, D.; Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.

    2009-07-10

    The objective of this evaluation was to independently and objectively verify driving ranges of >400 miles announced by Toyota for its new advanced Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle (FCHV-adv) utilizing 70 MPa compressed hydrogen. To accomplish this, participants from both Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) witnessed and participated in a 2-vehicle evaluation with Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America, Inc. (TEMA) over a typical open road route for over 11 hours in one day with all relevant data recorded. SRNL and TEMA first entered into discussions of verifying the range of the advanced Toyota Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle (FCHV-adv) in August 2008 resulting from reported 400+ mile range by Toyota. After extended negotiations, a CRADA agreement, SRNS CRADA No. CR-04-003, was signed on May 6, 2009. Subsequently, on June 30, 2009 SRNL and NREL participated in an all-day evaluation of the FCHV-adv with TEMA to determine the real-world driving range of this vehicle through on-road driving on an extended round-trip drive between Torrance and San Diego, California. SRNL and NREL observed the vehicles being refueled at Toyota's headquarters the day before the evaluation in Torrance, CA on June 29. At 8:00 AM on June 30, the vehicles departed Torrance north toward downtown Los Angeles, then west to the Pacific Coast Highway, and down to San Diego. After lunch the vehicles retraced their route back to Torrance. The traffic encountered was much heavier than anticipated, causing the vehicles to not return to Torrance until 9 PM. Each vehicle was driven by the same Toyota driver all day, with one SRNL/NREL observer in each vehicle the entire route. Data was logged by Toyota and analyzed by NREL. The maximum range of the FCHV-adv vehicles was calculated to be 431 miles under these driving conditions. This distance was calculated from the actual range of 331.5 miles during over 11 hours driving, plus 99.5 miles of

  12. Plasma interferon-gamma, interleukin-10 and soluble markers of immune activation in infants with primary adenovirus (ADV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection.

    PubMed

    Fernández, J Alonso; Tapia, Lorena; Palomino, M Angélica; Larrañaga, Carmen; Peña, Mónica; Jaramillo, Héctor

    2005-01-01

    Adenovirus (ADV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are etiological agents of acute respiratory tract infection in infants. Long-term prognosis of ADV infection includes severe lung damage, bronchiectasis and hyperlucent lung, while RSV infection is associated with development of recurrent wheezing and subsequent asthma. These differences may be related to differences in the primary immune responses elicited by these viruses. In this paper, we investigated the type of cytokine responses and the magnitude of immune activation in ADV and RSV infections in infants. We examined plasma concentrations of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-10 (IL-10), soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sCD25) and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor II (sTNFR-II) in previously healthy infants during the acute phase of primary ADV infection (n = 21) and RSV infection (n = 68), and in uninfected controls (n = 44). In ADV-infected infants, IFN-gamma plasma levels were significantly higher than those observed in RSV cases and the control group (p < 0.05). RSV cases did not show any differences in IFN-gamma plasma levels compared to the other groups. sCD25 levels were significantly higher in ADV- and RSV-infected infants than in controls (p < 0.0001), and higher in ADV than in RSV cases (p < 0.05). sTNFR-II levels were significantly higher in RSV- and ADV-infected infants than in controls (p < 0.0001, p < 0.05, respectively), and higher in RSV than in ADV infection (p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in IL-10 plasma concentrations between the three groups. These results indicate that ADV and RSV infections in infants differ significantly with regard to the magnitude of production of interferon-gamma and soluble immune activation markers sCD25 and sTNFR-II. These immunological differences may be involved in the different clinical outcomes associated with these viral infections.

  13. Configuration studies for active electrostatic space radiation shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Ravindra P.; Qiu, Hao; Tripathi, Ram K.

    2013-07-01

    Developing successful and optimal solutions to mitigating the hazards of severe space radiation in deep space long duration missions is critical for the success of deep-space explorations. Space crews traveling aboard interplanetary spacecraft will be exposed to a constant flux of galactic cosmic rays (GCR), as well as intense fluxes of charged particles during solar particle events (SPEs). A recent report (Tripathi et al., Adv. Space Res. 42 (2008) 1043-1049), had explored the feasibility of using electrostatic shielding in concert with the state-of-the-art materials shielding technologies. Here we continue to extend the electrostatic shielding strategy and quantitatively examine a different configuration based on multiple toroidal rings. Our results show that SPE radiation can almost be eliminated by these electrostatic configurations. Also, penetration probabilities for novel structures such as toroidal rings are shown to be substantially reduced as compared to the simpler all-sphere geometries. More interestingly, the dimensions and aspect ratio of the toroidal rings could be altered and optimized to achieve an even higher degree of radiation protection.

  14. The Neurospora Transcription Factor ADV-1 Transduces Light Signals and Temporal Information to Control Rhythmic Expression of Genes Involved in Cell Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Dekhang, Rigzin; Wu, Cheng; Smith, Kristina M.; Lamb, Teresa M.; Peterson, Matthew; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Ibarra, Oneida; Emerson, Jillian M.; Karunarathna, Nirmala; Lyubetskaya, Anna; Azizi, Elham; Hurley, Jennifer M.; Dunlap, Jay C.; Galagan, James E.; Freitag, Michael; Sachs, Matthew S.; Bell-Pedersen, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Light and the circadian clock have a profound effect on the biology of organisms through the regulation of large sets of genes. Toward understanding how light and the circadian clock regulate gene expression, we used genome-wide approaches to identify the direct and indirect targets of the light-responsive and clock-controlled transcription factor ADV-1 in Neurospora crassa. A large proportion of ADV-1 targets were found to be light- and/or clock-controlled, and enriched for genes involved in development, metabolism, cell growth, and cell fusion. We show that ADV-1 is necessary for transducing light and/or temporal information to its immediate downstream targets, including controlling rhythms in genes critical to somatic cell fusion. However, while ADV-1 targets are altered in predictable ways in Δadv-1 cells in response to light, this is not always the case for rhythmic target gene expression. These data suggest that a complex regulatory network downstream of ADV-1 functions to generate distinct temporal dynamics of target gene expression relative to the central clock mechanism. PMID:27856696

  15. Detection of Soft Gamma-Ray Emission from the Seyfert II Galaxy NGC 4507 by the OSSE Telescope (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    botes1.tesre.bo.cnr.it G. Malaguti : 38045:: MALAGUTI , malaguti @icarus.tesre.bo.cnr.it E. Jourdain: 17424::ROQUES J.P. Roques: 17424::ROQUES W.N. Johnson...Press), 537 Awaki, H, and Koyama, K. 1993, Adv. Space Res. Vol. 13,N.12, 221 Bassani L., Malaguti G. and Palumbo G.G.C., 1995, Adv. Space Res., in

  16. A test of the ADV-based Reynolds flux method for in situ estimation of sediment settling velocity in a muddy estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Grace M.; Friedrichs, Carl T.; Smith, S. Jarrell

    2013-12-01

    Under conditions common in muddy coastal and estuarine environments, acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADVs) can serve to estimate sediment settling velocity ( w s) by assuming a balance between upward turbulent Reynolds flux and downward gravitational settling. Advantages of this method include simple instrument deployment, lack of flow disturbance, and relative insensitivity to biofouling and water column stratification. Although this method is being used with increasing frequency in coastal and estuarine environments, to date it has received little direct ground truthing. This study compared in situ estimates of w s inferred by a 5-MHz ADV to independent in situ observations from a high-definition video settling column over the course of a flood tide in the bottom boundary layer of the York River estuary, Virginia, USA. The ADV-based measurements were found to agree with those of the settling column when the current speed at about 40 cm above the bed was greater than about 20 cm/s. This corresponded to periods when the estimated magnitude of the settling term in the suspended sediment continuity equation was four or more times larger than the time rate of change of concentration. For ADV observations restricted to these conditions, ADV-based estimates of w s (mean 0.48±0.04 mm/s) were highly consistent with those observed by the settling column (mean 0.45±0.02 mm/s). However, the ADV-based method for estimating w s was sensitive to the prescribed concentration of the non-settling washload, C wash. In an objective operational definition, C wash can be set equal to the lowest suspended solids concentration observed around slack water.

  17. CeREs, A Compact Radiation Belt Explorer to study charged particle dynamics in geospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanekal, S. G.; Summerlin, E. J.; Christian, E. R.; Crum, G.; Desai, M. I.; Evans, A.; Dumonthier, J.; Jamison, T.; Jones, A. D.; Livi, S. A.; Ogasawara, K.; Paschalidis, N.; Suarez, G.; Patel, D.

    2015-12-01

    The CeREs 3U CubeSat, set to be launched in mid-2016, will study the physics of the acceleration and loss of radiation belt electrons, particularly loss due to electron microbursts. CeRES will also observe solar electrons and protons entering the magnetosphere via the open field-line polar caps. CeREs is expected to be in a low earth high inclination orbit and carries onboard the Miniaturized Electron pRoton Telescope (MERiT). The MERiT instrument measures electrons and protons ranging in energy from 5 keV to >10 MeV with high time resolution of ~5ms in multiple differential energy channels. MERiT is particle telescope using a stack of solid-state detectors and space-facing avalanche photo diodes.We will describe the CeRES spacecraft, science goals and the MERiT instrument.

  18. Work Domain Analysis of a Predecessor Sodium-cooled Reactor as Baseline for AdvSMR Operational Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Farris; David Gertman; Jacques Hugo

    2014-03-01

    This report presents the results of the Work Domain Analysis for the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II). This is part of the phase of the research designed to incorporate Cognitive Work Analysis in the development of a framework for the formalization of an Operational Concept (OpsCon) for Advanced Small Modular Reactors (AdvSMRs). For a new AdvSMR design, information obtained through Cognitive Work Analysis, combined with human performance criteria, can and should be used in during the operational phase of a plant to assess the crew performance aspects associated with identified AdvSMR operational concepts. The main objective of this phase was to develop an analytical and descriptive framework that will help systems and human factors engineers to understand the design and operational requirements of the emerging generation of small, advanced, multi-modular reactors. Using EBR-II as a predecessor to emerging sodium-cooled reactor designs required the application of a method suitable to the structured and systematic analysis of the plant to assist in identifying key features of the work associated with it and to clarify the operational and other constraints. The analysis included the identification and description of operating scenarios that were considered characteristic of this type of nuclear power plant. This is an invaluable aspect of Operational Concept development since it typically reveals aspects of future plant configurations that will have an impact on operations. These include, for example, the effect of core design, different coolants, reactor-to-power conversion unit ratios, modular plant layout, modular versus central control rooms, plant siting, and many more. Multi-modular plants in particular are expected to have a significant impact on overall OpsCon in general, and human performance in particular. To support unconventional modes of operation, the modern control room of a multi-module plant would typically require advanced HSIs that would

  19. RES-E-NEXT: Next Generation of RES-E Policy Instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.; Bird, L.; Cochran, J.; Milligan, M.; Bazilian, M.; Denny, E.; Dillon, J.; Bialek, J.; O'Malley, M.; Neuhoff, K.

    2013-07-04

    The rapid deployment of renewable sources of electricity (RES-E) is transforming power systems globally. This trend is likely to continue with large increases in investment and deployment of RES-E capacity over the coming decades. Several countries now have penetration levels of variable RES-E generation (i.e., wind and solar) in excess of 15% of their annual electricity generation; and many jurisdictions (e.g., Spain, Portugal, Ireland, Germany, and Denmark; and, in the United States, Colorado) have experienced instantaneous penetration levels of more than 50% variable generation.1 These penetration levels of variable RES-E have prompted many jurisdictions to begin modifying practices that evolved in an era of readily dispatchable, centralised power systems. Providing insights for the transition to high levels of variable RES-E generation is the focus of this document, which is the final report of the RES-E-NEXT project commissioned by the International Energy Agency’s implementing agreement on Renewable Energy Technology Deployment (IEA-RETD). It presents a comprehensive assessment of issues that will shape power system evolution during the transition to high levels of variable RES-E generation. While policy will be a central tool to sustain the growth of RES-E capacity and to enable power system transitions, the scope of the report extends beyond policy considerations to include the related domains of regulation, power market design, and system operation protocols. This broad scope is in recognition that a changing resource mix with greater penetration levels of variable RES-E has broad implications for grid operations, wholesale and retail power markets, and infrastructure needs. The next decade will be a critical transition period for power system stakeholders, as global deployment of RES-E capacity (and especially variable RES-E capacity) continues to scale-up in many regions of the world. To address increased penetration levels of RES-E in power systems

  20. MODFLOW-2000 : the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model--documentation of the Advective-Transport Observation (ADV2) Package

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderman, Evan R.; Hill, Mary Catherine

    2001-01-01

    Observations of the advective component of contaminant transport in steady-state flow fields can provide important information for the calibration of ground-water flow models. This report documents the Advective-Transport Observation (ADV2) Package, version 2, which allows advective-transport observations to be used in the three-dimensional ground-water flow parameter-estimation model MODFLOW-2000. The ADV2 Package is compatible with some of the features in the Layer-Property Flow and Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow Packages, but is not compatible with the Block-Centered Flow or Generalized Finite-Difference Packages. The particle-tracking routine used in the ADV2 Package duplicates the semi-analytical method of MODPATH, as shown in a sample problem. Particles can be tracked in a forward or backward direction, and effects such as retardation can be simulated through manipulation of the effective-porosity value used to calculate velocity. Particles can be discharged at cells that are considered to be weak sinks, in which the sink applied does not capture all the water flowing into the cell, using one of two criteria: (1) if there is any outflow to a boundary condition such as a well or surface-water feature, or (2) if the outflow exceeds a user specified fraction of the cell budget. Although effective porosity could be included as a parameter in the regression, this capability is not included in this package. The weighted sum-of-squares objective function, which is minimized in the Parameter-Estimation Process, was augmented to include the square of the weighted x-, y-, and z-components of the differences between the simulated and observed advective-front locations at defined times, thereby including the direction of travel as well as the overall travel distance in the calibration process. The sensitivities of the particle movement to the parameters needed to minimize the objective function are calculated for any particle location using the exact sensitivity

  1. Experimental Space Weathering: A coordinated LIBS, TEM, VIS and NIR/MIR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojic, Aleksandra N.; Pavlov, Sergey; Markus, Kathrin; Morlok, Andreas; Wirth, Richard; Weber, Iris; Schreiber, Anja; Hiesinger, Harald; Sohn, Martin; Huebers, Heinz-Wilhelm

    2016-04-01

    selected grains were chosen from which TEM samples were obtained. [1] Domingue et al. (2014) Space Sci Rev. 121-214. [2] Pieters (1998) Int Geol Rev. 981-989. [3] Benkhoff et al. (2010) Planet Space Sci. 2-20. [4] Hiesinger et al. (2010) Planet Space Sci. 144-165. [5] Noble et al. (2003) Sol Syst Res. 31-35. [6] Yamada et al. (1999) Earth, Planets Sp. 1255-1265. [7] Brucato et al. (2003) Earth, Moon, and Planets. 307-314. [8] Sasaki et al. (2003) Adv Sp Res. 2537-2542. [9] Brunetto et al. (2007) Icarus. 381-393. [10] Morlok et al. (2016) Icarus. 352-368.

  2. Planetary and Space Simulation Facilities (PSI) at DLR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panitz, Corinna; Rabbow, E.; Rettberg, P.; Kloss, M.; Reitz, G.; Horneck, G.

    2010-05-01

    organisms in space and will contribute to the understanding of the organic chemistry processes in space, the biological adaptation strategies to extreme conditions, e.g. on early Earth and Mars, and the distribution of life beyond its planet of origin The results gained during the simulation experiments demonstrated mission preparation as a basic requirement for successful and significant results of every space flight experiment. Hence, the Mission preparation program that was performed in the context of the space missions EXPOSE-E and EXPOSE-R proofed the outstanding importance and accentuated need for ground based experiments before and during a space mission. The facilities are also necessary for the performance of the ground control experiment during the mission, the so-called Mission Simulation Test (MST) under simulated space conditions, by parallel exposure of samples to simulated space parameters according to flight data received by telemetry. Finally the facilities also provide the possibility to simulate the surface and climate conditions of the planet Mars. In this way they offer the possibility to investigate under simulated Mars conditions the chances for development of life on Mars and to gain previous knowledge for the search for life on today's Mars and in this context especially the parameters for a manned mission to Mars. References [1] Rabbow E, Rettberg P, Panitz C, Drescher J, Horneck G, Reitz G (2005) SSIOUX - Space Simulation for Investigating Organics, Evolution and Exobiology, Adv. Space Res. 36 (2) 297-302, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2005.08.040Aman, A. and Bman, B. (1997) JGR, 90,1151-1154. [2] Fekete A, Modos K, Hegedüs M, Kovacs G, Ronto Gy, Peter A, Lammer H, Panitz C (2005) DNA Damage under simulated extraterrestrial conditions in bacteriophage T7 Adv. Space Res. 305-310Aman, A. et al. (1997) Meteoritics & Planet. Sci., 32,A74. [3] Cockell Ch, Schuerger AC, Billi D., Friedmann EI, Panitz C (2005) Effects of a Simulated Martian UV Flux on the

  3. Multipoint observations of plasma phenomena made in space by Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, M. L.; Escoubet, P.; Hwang, K.-Joo; Wendel, D. E.; Viñas, A.-F.; Fung, S. F.; Perri, S.; Servidio, S.; Pickett, J. S.; Parks, G. K.; Sahraoui, F.; Gurgiolo, C.; Matthaeus, W.; Weygand, J. M.

    2015-06-01

    of ISSI. Berlin: Springer, Goldstein et al. 2006 Adv. Space Res. 38, 21-36, Taylor et al. 2010 The Cluster Mission: Space Plasma in Three Dimensions, Springer, pp. 309-330 and Escoubet et al. 2013 Ann. Geophys. 31, 1045-1059).

  4. Progress Towards a NASA Earth Science Reuse Enablement System (RES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, James J.; Downs, Robert R.; Mattmann, Chris A.

    2010-01-01

    A Reuse Enablement System (RES) allows developers of Earth science software to contribute software for reuse by others and.for users to find, select, and obtain software for reuse in their own systems. This paper describes work that the X4S,4 Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS) Software Reuse Working Group has completed to date in the development of an RES for NASA.

  5. Proliferation of reticuloendothelial system (RES) in rats with altered vision or smell (to the hypothetic neural regulation of the RES).

    PubMed

    Jansa, P; Urbánek, K; Riegrová, D

    1993-12-01

    A long-term administration of an azo-dye, trypan blue, induced a reactive proliferation of RES in rats. Reaction of the RES was followed in rats whose optical analyzer was eliminated by enucleation of bulbs after the birth, in rats whose smell analyzer was altered by a repeated long-term exposition to ammoniac and in normal rats. Blind rats showed a striking proliferation of histiocytes of the RES in the liver, while the reaction was weak in the spleen and lymph nodes. In contrary to that, rats with altered smell and also the normal rats exhibited standard reactive changes in the spleen and lymph nodes and distinctly weaker reaction in the liver. The obtained results support an idea that vegetative neural mechanisms play a role in control and coordination of RES reactions.

  6. Manufactured residential utility wall system (ResCore), overview

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, R.; Lundell, C.; Lau, T.M.

    1997-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of the design and development of a manufactured residential utility wall system referred to as ResCore. ResCore is a self-contained, manufactured, residential utility wall that provides complete rough-in of utilities (power, gas, water, and phone) and other functions (exhaust, combustion make-up air, refrigerant lines, etc.) to serve the residential kitchen, bath, utility, and laundry rooms. Auburn University, Department of Industrial Design faculty and students, supported by a team of graduate student researchers and the project`s advisory team, developed the ResCore. The project was accomplished through a research subcontract from the US Department of Energy administered by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The ResCore wall system features a ``layered`` manufacturing technique that allows each major component group--structural, cold water, hot water, drain, gas, electric, etc.--to be built as a separate subassembly and easily brought together for final assembly. The two structural layers are reinforced with bridging that adds strength and also permits firm attachment of plumbing pipes and other systems to the wall frame.

  7. 32 CFR 1802.22 - Challenges barred by res judicata.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Challenges barred by res judicata. 1802.22 Section 1802.22 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO SECTION 1.9...

  8. 32 CFR 1802.22 - Challenges barred by res judicata.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Challenges barred by res judicata. 1802.22 Section 1802.22 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO SECTION 1.9...

  9. 32 CFR 1803.22 - Requests barred by res judicata.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requests barred by res judicata. 1803.22 Section 1803.22 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC REQUESTS FOR MANDATORY DECLASSIFICATION REVIEW OF CLASSIFIED INFORMATION PURSUANT...

  10. 32 CFR 1802.22 - Challenges barred by res judicata.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Challenges barred by res judicata. 1802.22 Section 1802.22 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO SECTION 1.9...

  11. 32 CFR 1802.22 - Challenges barred by res judicata.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Challenges barred by res judicata. 1802.22 Section 1802.22 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO SECTION 1.9...

  12. 32 CFR 1802.22 - Challenges barred by res judicata.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Challenges barred by res judicata. 1802.22 Section 1802.22 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO SECTION 1.9...

  13. 32 CFR 1803.22 - Requests barred by res judicata.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requests barred by res judicata. 1803.22 Section 1803.22 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC REQUESTS FOR MANDATORY DECLASSIFICATION REVIEW OF CLASSIFIED INFORMATION PURSUANT...

  14. 7 CFR 4280.115 - RES and EEI grant funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... benefits of the renewable energy system; (4) The quantity of energy savings expected to be derived from the... General Renewable Energy System and Energy Efficiency Improvement Grants § 4280.115 RES and EEI grant... contributions are acceptable for renewable energy system projects, including those that are eligible for...

  15. 7 CFR 4280.115 - RES and EEI grant funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... benefits of the renewable energy system; (4) The quantity of energy savings expected to be derived from the... General Renewable Energy System and Energy Efficiency Improvement Grants § 4280.115 RES and EEI grant... contributions are acceptable for renewable energy system projects, including those that are eligible for...

  16. 7 CFR 4280.115 - RES and EEI grant funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... benefits of the renewable energy system; (4) The quantity of energy savings expected to be derived from the... General Renewable Energy System and Energy Efficiency Improvement Grants § 4280.115 RES and EEI grant... contributions are acceptable for renewable energy system projects, including those that are eligible for...

  17. Residential Utility Core Wall System - ResCore

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.; Lundell, C.; Wendt, R.

    1999-06-01

    This paper describes activities associated with the RESidential utility CORE wall system (ResCore) developed by students and faculty in the Department of Industrial Design at Auburn University between 1996 and 1998. These activities analyize three operational prototype units installed in Habitat for Humanity Houses. The paper contains two Parts: 1) analysis of the three operational prototype units, 2) exploration of alternative design solutions. ResCore is a manufactured construction component designed to expedite home building by decreasing the need for skilled labor at the work site. The unit concentrates untility elements into a wall unit(s), which is shipped to the construction site and installed in minimum time. The ResCore unit is intended to be built off-site in a manufacturing environment where the impact of vagaries of weather and work-crew coordination and scheduling are minimized. The controlled environment of the factory enhances efficient production of building components through material and labor throughput controls, enabling the production of components at a substantially reduced per-unit cost. The ResCore unit when compared to traditional "stick-built" utility wall components is in may ways analogous to the factory built roof truss compared to on-site "stick-Built" roof framing.

  18. Manufactured Residential Utility Wall System (ResCore),

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Robert; Lundell, Clark; Lau, Tin Man

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the design and development of a manufactured residential utility wall system referred to as ResCore. ResCore is a self contained, manufactured, residential utility wall that provides complete rough-in of utilities (power, gas, water, and phone) and other functions (exhaust, combustion make-up air, refrigerant lines, etc.) to serve the kitchen, bath, utility, and laundry rooms. Auburn University, Department of Industrial Design faculty, students, supported by a team of graduate student researchers and the project`s advisory team, developed the ResCore. The project was accomplished through a research subcontract from the U.S. Department of Energy administered by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The ResCore wall system features a layered manufacturing technique that allows each major component group: structural, cold water, hot water, drain, gas, electric, etc. to be built as a separate subassembly and easily brought together for final assembly. The two structural layers are reinforced with bridging that adds strength and also permits firm attachment of plumbing pipes and other systems to the wall frame.

  19. Electroluminescence from indirect band gap semiconductor ReS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Lezama, Ignacio; Aditya Reddy, Bojja; Ubrig, Nicolas; Morpurgo, Alberto F.

    2016-12-01

    It has been recently claimed that bulk crystals of transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) ReS2 are direct band gap semiconductors, which would make this material an ideal candidate, among all TMDs, for the realization of efficient opto-electronic devices. The situation is however unclear, because even more recently an indirect transition in the PL spectra of this material has been detected, whose energy is smaller than the supposed direct gap. To address this issue we exploit the properties of ionic liquid gated field-effect transistors (FETs) to investigate the gap structure of bulk ReS2. Using these devices, whose high quality is demonstrated by a record high electron FET mobility of 1100 cm2 V-1 s-1 at 4 K, we can induce hole transport at the surface of the material and determine quantitatively the smallest band gap present in the material, irrespective of its direct or indirect nature. The value of the band gap is found to be 1.41 eV, smaller than the 1.5 eV direct optical transition but in good agreement with the energy of the indirect optical transition, providing an independent confirmation that bulk ReS2 is an indirect band gap semiconductor. Nevertheless, contrary to the case of more commonly studied semiconducting TMDs (e.g., MoS2, WS2, etc) in their bulk form, we also find that ReS2 FETs fabricated on bulk crystals do exhibit electroluminescence when driven in the ambipolar injection regime, likely because the difference between direct and indirect gap is only 100 meV. We conclude that ReS2 does deserve more in-depth investigations in relation to possible opto-electronic applications.

  20. Radition belt dynamics : Recent results from van Allen Probes and future observations from CeREs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanekal, Shrikanth; O'Brien, Paul; Baker, Daniel N.; Ogasawara, Keiichi; Fennell, Joseph; Christian, Eric; Claudepierre, Seth; Livi, Stefano; Desai, Mihir; Li, Xinlin; Jaynes, Allison; Turner, Drew; Jones, Ashley; Schiller, Quintin

    2016-07-01

    We describe recent observations of the Earth's radiation belts made by instruments on board the Van Allen Probes mission, particularly the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT) and the Magnetic Electron Ion spectrometer (MagEIS). These observations have significantly advanced our understanding of terrestrial radiation belt dynamics. The Van Allen Probes mission comprises two identically instrumented spacecraft which were launched 31 August, 2012 into low-inclination lapping equatorial orbits. The orbit periods are about 9 hours, with perigees and apogees of of ~600 km and 5.8 RE respectively. We discuss the new scientific findings of the Van Allen Probes mission regarding the physics of energization and loss of relativistic electrons and their implications for future low-cost missions, especially CubeSats. We describe the CeREs (a Compact Radiation belt Explorer) CubeSat mission currently being built at the Goddard Space Flight Center, and carrying on board, an innovative instrument, the Miniaturized Electron Proton Telescope (MERiT). The MERiT is a compact low-mass low-power instrument measuring electrons from a few keV to tens of MeV in multiple differential channels. MERiT is optimized to measure electron microbursts with a high time resolution of a few milliseconds. We present and discuss possible future scientific contributions from CeREs.

  1. HiRes camera and LIDAR ranging system for the Clementine mission

    SciTech Connect

    Ledebuhr, A.G.; Kordas, J.F.; Lewis, I.T.

    1995-04-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory developed a space-qualified High Resolution (HiRes) imaging LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) system for use on the DoD Clementine mission. The Clementine mission provided more than 1.7 million images of the moon, earth, and stars, including the first ever complete systematic surface mapping of the moon from the ultra-violet to near-infrared spectral regions. This article describes the Clementine HiRes/LIDAR system, discusses design goals and preliminary estimates of on-orbit performance, and summarizes lessons learned in building and using the sensor. The LIDAR receiver system consists of a High Resolution (HiRes) imaging channel which incorporates an intensified multi-spectral visible camera combined with a Laser ranging channel which uses an avalanche photo-diode for laser pulse detection and timing. The receiver was bore sighted to a light-weight McDonnell-Douglas diode-pumped ND:YAG laser transmitter that emmitted 1.06 {micro}m wavelength pulses of 200 mJ/pulse and 10 ns pulse-width, The LIDAR receiver uses a common F/9.5 Cassegrain telescope assembly. The optical path of the telescope is split using a color-separating beamsplitter. The imaging channel incorporates a filter wheel assembly which spectrally selects the light which is imaged onto a custom 12 mm gated image intensifier fiber-optically-coupled into a 384 x 276 pixel frame transfer CCD FPA. The image intensifier was spectrally sensitive over the 0.4 to 0.8 {micro}m wavelength region. The six-position filter wheel contained 4 narrow spectral filters, one broadband and one blocking filter. At periselene (400 km) the HiRes/LIDAR imaged a 2.8 km swath width at 20-meter resolution. The LIDAR function detected differential signal return with a 40-meter range accuracy, with a maximum range capability of 640 km, limited by the bit counter in the range return counting clock.

  2. Improved Tumor Uptake by Optimizing Liposome Based RES Blockade Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaolian; Yan, Xuefeng; Jacobson, Orit; Sun, Wenjing; Wang, Zhantong; Tong, Xiao; Xia, Yuqiong; Ling, Daishun; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2017-01-01

    Minimizing the sequestration of nanomaterials (NMs) by the reticuloendothelial system (RES) can enhance the circulation time of NMs, and thus increase their tumor-specific accumulation. Liposomes are generally regarded as safe (GRAS) agents that can block the RES reversibly and temporarily. With the help of positron emission tomography (PET), we monitored the in vivo tissue distribution of 64Cu-labeled 40 × 10 nm gold nanorods (Au NRs) after pretreatment with liposomes. We systematically studied the effectiveness of liposome administration by comparing (1) differently charged liposomes; (2) different liposome doses; and (3) varying time intervals between liposome dose and NR dose. By pre-injecting 400 μmol/kg positively charged liposomes into mice 5 h before the Au NRs, the liver and spleen uptakes of Au NRs decreased by 30% and 53%, respectively. Significantly, U87MG tumor uptake of Au NRs increased from 11.5 ± 1.1 %ID/g to 16.1 ± 1.3 %ID/g at 27 h post-injection. Quantitative PET imaging is a valuable tool to understand the fate of NMs in vivo and cationic liposomal pretreatment is a viable approach to reduce RES clearance, prolong circulation, and improve tumor uptake. PMID:28042337

  3. Time-dependent radiation hazard estimations during space flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobynde, Mikhail; Shprits, Yuri; Drozdov, Alexander

    minimizing most harmful particle types flows. 1.Nymmik et. al., “Galactic cosmic ray flux simulation and prediction”, Adv. Space Res. 17:19-30, (1996); 2. Xu et. al., “VIP-Man: an image-based whole-body adult male model constructed from color photographs of the Visible Human Project for multi-particle Monte Carlo calculations” Health Phys. 78:476-86, (2000).

  4. Comparison of telogen hair analyses: genRES MPX-2SP kit versus genRES MPX-SP1 and genRES MPX-SP2 kits.

    PubMed

    Schmid, D; Bayer, B; Anslinger, K

    2008-12-01

    STR investigations of telogen hair are invariably difficult due to the small amounts of nuclear DNA and its degradation products. However, in recent years there has been a considerable improvement. This study examined the suitability of a new STR kit with shortened amplicons for the investigation of hair in routine casework. This kit allows the simultaneous amplification of the eight STR-loci D3S1358, VWA, FGA, TH01, SE33, D8S1179, D18S51, and D21S11, and the sex-determining amelogenin system. It was tested against the genRES MPX-SP1 and genRES MPX-SP2 kits. The sensitivity of the new genRES MPX-2SP kit was demonstrated to be inferior to that of the genRES MPX-SP1, but almost equal to that of the genRES MPX-SP2 kit.

  5. NuSTAR in Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's newest X-ray telescope will have a lengthy structure thatunfolds in space, allowing it to see high-energy objects like feedingblack holes.› Download high-res video› NuSTAR's mission ...

  6. TOPICAL REVIEW: Highest energy cosmic-rays and results from the HiRes experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolsky, P.; Thomson, G. B.

    2007-11-01

    The status of the field of ultrahigh energy cosmic-ray physics is summarized, from the point of view of the latest results of the High-Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) Experiment. HiRes results are presented, and compared with those of the Akeno Giant Air Shower Array (AGASA), plus the Telescope Array and Pierre Auger experiments. The HiRes measurement of the cosmic-ray spectrum and the observation of the GZK cutoff are presented. HiRes results on composition, searches for anisotropy, measurement of the proton-air total cross-section and shapes of shower profiles are presented.

  7. Two-component regulatory proteins ResD-ResE are required for transcriptional activation of fnr upon oxygen limitation in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, M M; Zuber, P; Glaser, P; Danchin, A; Hulett, F M

    1996-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis can grow anaerobically in the presence of nitrate as a terminal electron acceptor. The two component regulatory proteins, ResD and ResE, and an anaerobic gene regulator, FNR, were previously shown to be indispensable for nitrate respiration in B. subtilis. Unlike Escherichia coli fnr, B. subtilis fnr transcription was shown to be highly induced by oxygen limitation. fnr is transcribed from its own promoter as well as from a promoter located upstream of narK, the first gene in the narK-fnr dicistronic operon. DNA fragments containing the narK promoter, the fnr promoter, and both of the promoters were used to construct three lacZ fusions to examine the transcriptional regulation of the narK-fnr operon. ResDE was found to be required for transcriptional activation of fnr from the fnr-specific promoter, and FNR was required for activation of narK-fnr transcription from the FNR-dependent narK operon promoter under anaerobiosis. In order to determine if the requirement for ResDE in nitrate respiration is solely to activate fnr transcription, fnr was placed under control of the IPTG (isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside)-inducible promoter, Pspac. The observed defect in anaerobic growth of a Pspac-fnr delta resDE mutant in the presence of IPTG indicated that resDE has an additional role in B. subtilis anaerobic gene regulation. PMID:8682783

  8. EPRI/NRC-RES fire human reliability analysis guidelines.

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Stuart R.; Cooper, Susan E.; Najafi, Bijan; Collins, Erin; Hannaman, Bill; Kohlhepp, Kaydee; Grobbelaar, Jan; Hill, Kendra; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt; Forester, John Alan; Julius, Jeff

    2010-03-01

    During the 1990s, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) developed methods for fire risk analysis to support its utility members in the preparation of responses to Generic Letter 88-20, Supplement 4, 'Individual Plant Examination - External Events' (IPEEE). This effort produced a Fire Risk Assessment methodology for operations at power that was used by the majority of U.S. nuclear power plants (NPPs) in support of the IPEEE program and several NPPs overseas. Although these methods were acceptable for accomplishing the objectives of the IPEEE, EPRI and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) recognized that they required upgrades to support current requirements for risk-informed, performance-based (RI/PB) applications. In 2001, EPRI and the USNRC's Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) embarked on a cooperative project to improve the state-of-the-art in fire risk assessment to support a new risk-informed environment in fire protection. This project produced a consensus document, NUREG/CR-6850 (EPRI 1011989), entitled 'Fire PRA Methodology for Nuclear Power Facilities' which addressed fire risk for at power operations. NUREG/CR-6850 developed high level guidance on the process for identification and inclusion of human failure events (HFEs) into the fire PRA (FPRA), and a methodology for assigning quantitative screening values to these HFEs. It outlined the initial considerations of performance shaping factors (PSFs) and related fire effects that may need to be addressed in developing best-estimate human error probabilities (HEPs). However, NUREG/CR-6850 did not describe a methodology to develop best-estimate HEPs given the PSFs and the fire-related effects. In 2007, EPRI and RES embarked on another cooperative project to develop explicit guidance for estimating HEPs for human failure events under fire generated conditions, building upon existing human reliability analysis (HRA) methods. This document provides a methodology and guidance for conducting

  9. The Borrelia burgdorferi telomere resolvase, ResT, possesses ATP-dependent DNA unwinding activity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shu Hui; Cozart, McKayla R; Hart, Madison A; Kobryn, Kerri

    2016-12-09

    Spirochetes of the genus Borrelia possess unusual genomes harboring multiple linear and circular replicons. The linear replicons are terminated by covalently closed hairpin (hp) telomeres. Hairpin telomeres are formed from replicated intermediates by the telomere resolvase, ResT, in a phosphoryl transfer reaction with mechanistic similarities to those promoted by type 1B topoisomerases and tyrosine recombinases. There is growing evidence that ResT is multifunctional. Upon ResT depletion DNA replication unexpectedly ceases. Additionally, ResT possesses RecO-like biochemical activities being able to promote single-strand annealing on both free ssDNA and ssDNA complexed with cognate single-stranded DNA binding protein. We report here that ResT possesses DNA-dependent ATPase activity that promotes DNA unwinding with a 3'-5' polarity. ResT can unwind a variety of substrates including synthetic replication forks and D-loops. We demonstrate that ResT's twin activities of DNA unwinding and annealing can drive regression of a model replication fork. These properties are similar to those of the RecQ helicase of the RecF pathway involved in DNA gap repair. We propose that ResT's combination of activities implicates it in replication and recombination processes operating on the linear chromosome and plasmids of Borrelia burgdorferi.

  10. Intelligent energy buildings based on RES and nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplanis, S.; Kaplani, E.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the design features, the energy modelling and optical performance details of two pilot Intelligent Energy Buildings, (IEB). Both are evolution of the Zero Energy Building (ZEB) concept. RES innovations backed up by signal processing, simulation models and ICT tools were embedded into the building structures in order to implement a new predictive energy management concept. In addition, nano-coatings, produced by TiO2 and ITO nano-particles, were deposited on the IEB structural elements and especially on the window panes and the PV glass covers. They exhibited promising SSP values which lowered the cooling loads and increased the PV modules yield. Both pilot IEB units were equipped with an on-line dynamic hourly solar radiation prediction model, implemented by sensors and the related software to manage effectively the energy source, the loads and the storage or the backup system. The IEB energy sources covered the thermal loads via a south façade embedded in the wall and a solar roof which consists of a specially designed solar collector type, while a PV generator is part of the solar roof, like a compact BIPV in hybrid configuration to a small wind turbine.

  11. Intelligent energy buildings based on RES and nanotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplanis, S. Kaplani, E.

    2015-12-31

    The paper presents the design features, the energy modelling and optical performance details of two pilot Intelligent Energy Buildings, (IEB). Both are evolution of the Zero Energy Building (ZEB) concept. RES innovations backed up by signal processing, simulation models and ICT tools were embedded into the building structures in order to implement a new predictive energy management concept. In addition, nano-coatings, produced by TiO2 and ITO nano-particles, were deposited on the IEB structural elements and especially on the window panes and the PV glass covers. They exhibited promising SSP values which lowered the cooling loads and increased the PV modules yield. Both pilot IEB units were equipped with an on-line dynamic hourly solar radiation prediction model, implemented by sensors and the related software to manage effectively the energy source, the loads and the storage or the backup system. The IEB energy sources covered the thermal loads via a south façade embedded in the wall and a solar roof which consists of a specially designed solar collector type, while a PV generator is part of the solar roof, like a compact BIPV in hybrid configuration to a small wind turbine.

  12. RES-E Support Policies In The Baltic States: Development Aspect (Part I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobinaite, V.; Priedite, I.

    2015-02-01

    Despite quite similar conditions (natural resources) for electricity production from renewable energy sources (RES-E) in three Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania), significant differences exist in these countries as to the RES-E production volume. In Latvia this volume is the highest, while in Estonia and Lithuania it is half as high. One of the factors that determine the RES-E production volumes is support policies, which in the Baltic States are different. The main objective of this work was to analyze and compare these support policies. The results have shown that for rapid RES-E development the most effective policy is to be market-oriented (as in Estonia), whereas for more stable development such policy should be producer-oriented (as in Lithuania).

  13. Disorder engineering and conductivity dome in ReS2 with electrolyte gating

    PubMed Central

    Ovchinnikov, Dmitry; Gargiulo, Fernando; Allain, Adrien; Pasquier, Diego José; Dumcenco, Dumitru; Ho, Ching-Hwa; Yazyev, Oleg V.; Kis, Andras

    2016-01-01

    Atomically thin rhenium disulphide (ReS2) is a member of the transition metal dichalcogenide family of materials. This two-dimensional semiconductor is characterized by weak interlayer coupling and a distorted 1T structure, which leads to anisotropy in electrical and optical properties. Here we report on the electrical transport study of mono- and multilayer ReS2 with polymer electrolyte gating. We find that the conductivity of monolayer ReS2 is completely suppressed at high carrier densities, an unusual feature unique to monolayers, making ReS2 the first example of such a material. Using dual-gated devices, we can distinguish the gate-induced doping from the electrostatic disorder induced by the polymer electrolyte itself. Theoretical calculations and a transport model indicate that the observed conductivity suppression can be explained by a combination of a narrow conduction band and Anderson localization due to electrolyte-induced disorder. PMID:27499375

  14. ResA3: a web tool for resampling analysis of arbitrary annotations.

    PubMed

    Ruhs, Aaron; Cemic, Franz; Braun, Thomas; Krüger, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Resampling algorithms provide an empirical, non-parametric approach to determine the statistical significance of annotations in different experimental settings. ResA(3) (Resampling Analysis of Arbitrary Annotations, short: ResA) is a novel tool to facilitate the analysis of enrichment and regulation of annotations deposited in various online resources such as KEGG, Gene Ontology and Pfam or any kind of classification. Results are presented in readily accessible navigable table views together with relevant information for statistical inference. The tool is able to analyze multiple types of annotations in a single run and includes a Gene Ontology annotation feature. We successfully tested ResA using a dataset obtained by measuring incorporation rates of stable isotopes into proteins in intact animals. ResA complements existing tools and will help to evaluate the increasing number of large-scale transcriptomics and proteomics datasets (resa.mpi-bn.mpg.de).

  15. Aerosol reduction/expansion synthesis (A-RES) for zero valent metal particles

    DOEpatents

    Leseman, Zayd; Luhrs, Claudia; Phillips, Jonathan; Soliman, Haytham

    2016-04-12

    Various embodiments provide methods of forming zero valent metal particles using an aerosol-reductive/expansion synthesis (A-RES) process. In one embodiment, an aerosol stream including metal precursor compound(s) and chemical agent(s) that produces reducing gases upon thermal decomposition can be introduced into a heated inert atmosphere of a RES reactor to form zero valent metal particles corresponding to metals used for the metal precursor compound(s).

  16. Vertically oriented arrays of ReS2 nanosheets for electrochemical energy storage and electrocatalysis

    DOE PAGES

    Gao, Jian; Li, Lu; Tan, Jiawei; ...

    2016-05-17

    Here, transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) nanolayers show potential as high-performance catalysts in energy conversion and storage devices. Synthetic TMDs produced by chemical-vapor deposition (CVD) methods tend to grow parallel to the growth substrate. Here, we show that with the right precursors and appropriate tuning of the CVD growth conditions, ReS2 nanosheets can be made to orient perpendicular to the growth substrate. This accomplishes two important objectives; first, it drastically increases the wetted or exposed surface area of the ReS2 sheets, and second, it exposes the sharp edges and corners of the ReS2 sheets. We show that these structural features of themore » vertically grown ReS2 sheets can be exploited to significantly improve their performance as polysulfide immobilizers and electrochemical catalysts in lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries and in hydrogen evolution reactions (HER). After 300 cycles, the specific capacity of the Li–S battery with vertical ReS2 catalyst is retained above 750 mA h g–1, with only ~0.063% capacity decay per cycle, much better than the baseline battery (without ReS2), which shows ~0.184% capacity decay per cycle under the same test conditions. As a HER catalyst, the vertical ReS2 provides very small onset overpotential (<100 mV) and an exceptional exchange-current density (~67.6 μA/cm2), which is vastly superior to the baseline electrode without ReS2.« less

  17. Impaired consciousness in epilepsy investigated by a prospective responsiveness in epilepsy scale (RES)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li; Shklyar, Irina; Lee, Hyang Woon; Ezeani, Celestine C.; Anaya, Joseph; Balakirsky, Samantha; Han, Xiao; Enamandram, Sheila; Men, Clara; Cheng, Joyce Y.; Nunn, Abigail; Mayer, Tanya; Francois, Czestochowa; Albrecht, Molly; Hutchison, Alan L.; Yap, Ee-Lynn; Ing, Kevin; Didebulidze, Gvantsa; Xiao, Bo; Hamid, Hamada; Farooque, Pue; Detyniecki, Kamil; Giacino, Joseph T.; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Impaired consciousness in epileptic seizures has a major negative impact on patient quality of life. Prior work on epileptic unconsciousness has mainly used retrospective and nonstandardized methods. Our goal was to validate and to obtain initial data using a standardized prospective testing battery. Methods The responsiveness in epilepsy scale (RES) was used on 52 patients during continuous video/EEG monitoring. RES begins with higher-level questions and commands, and switches adaptively to more basic sensorimotor responses depending on patient performance. RES continues after seizures and includes postictal memory testing. Scoring was conducted based on video review. Key Findings Testing on standardized seizure simulations yielded good intra-rater and inter-rater reliability. We captured 59 seizures from 18 patients (35% of participants) during 1420 hours of RES monitoring. RES impairment was greatest during and after tonic-clonic seizures, less in partial seizures, and minimal in auras and subclinical seizures. In partial seizures, ictal RES impairment was significantly greater if EEG changes were present. Maximum RES impairment (lowest ictal score) was also significantly correlated with long postictal recovery time, and poor postictal memory. Significance We found that prospective testing of responsiveness during seizures is feasible and reliable. RES impairment was related to EEG changes during seizures, as well as to postictal memory deficits and recovery time. With a larger patient sample it is hoped that this approach can identify brain networks underlying specific components of impaired consciousness in seizures. This may allow the development of improved treatments targeted at preventing dysfunction in these networks. PMID:22150524

  18. New Techniques in Space Weather Forecasting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    during Solar Cycle 23, J. Geophys. Res. (accepted ) 2006. [2] M. Kartalev, M. Dryer , K. Grigorov, E. Stoimenova. Solar wind polytropic index...Magneto Hydrodynamics (MHD) discontinuities that occur due to the solar wind, and its effects on communications. 15. SUBJECT...TERMS EOARD, Communications, Space Weather, Solar Physics 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON MICHAEL KJ MILLIGAN, Lt Col

  19. The phenotype alterations showed by the res tomato mutant disappear when the plants are grown under semi-arid conditions: Is the res mutant tolerant to multiple stresses?

    PubMed

    Garcia-Abellan, José O; Albaladejo, Irene; Egea, Isabel; Flores, Francisco B; Capel, Carmen; Capel, Juan; Angosto, Trinidad; Lozano, Rafael; Bolarin, Maria C

    2016-02-23

    The res (restored cell structure by salinity) mutant, recently identified as the first tomato mutant accumulating jasmonate (JA) without stress, exhibited important morphological alterations when plants were grown under control conditions but these disappeared under salt stress. Since the defense responses against stresses are activated in the res mutant as a consequence of the increased expression of genes from the JA biosynthetic and signaling pathways, the mutant may display a tolerance response not only to salt stress but also to multiple stresses. Here, we show that when res mutant plants are grown under the summer natural conditions of the Mediterranean area, with high temperatures and low relative humidity, the characteristic leaf chlorosis exhibited by the mutant disappears and leaves become dark green over time, with a similar aspect to WT leaves. Moreover, the mutant plants are able to achieve chlorophyll and fluorescence levels similar to those of WT. These results hint that research on res tomato mutant may allow very significant advances in the knowledge of defense responses activated by JA against multiple stresses.

  20. ESA radiation and micro-meteoroid models applied to Space Weathering of atmosphere-less bodies: icy moons and asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallat, Claire; Altobelli, Nicolas; Cornet, Thomas; Schmidt, Jürgen; Navarro, Sara; Erd, Christian; Witasse, Olivier; Rodmann, Jens; Mints, Alexey

    2016-10-01

    al, Dynamics and distribution of Jovian dust ejected from the Galilean satellites, JGR, 2016[2] Dikarev et al., The new ESA meteoroid model, Adv. Space Res., 2005[3] Sicard-Piet et al, JOSE: A new Jovian Specification Environment model, EPSC, 2010

  1. Solar Drivers of 11-yr and Long-Term Cosmic Ray Modulation (PostPrint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-06

    largely reproduce the observed GCR intensity for the past ∼35 years. The failure to do so during cycle 20 appears to be a relatively rare occurrence. Fig... Terr . Phys. 70, 207 (2008) M.S. Potgieter, Adv. Space Res. 46, 402 (2010) M.S. Potgieter, J.A. Le Roux, Astrophys. J. 423, 817 (1994) M.S. Potgieter

  2. Tropical Cyclone Intensity and Structure: Improved Understanding and Prediction. Evaluation of Existing and Development of New Techniques for Global and Mesoscale NWP Model Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-30

    published, refereed] 6 Leslie, LM, MS Speer,and L Qi, (2003) Prediction of Extreme Rainfall for the Coffs Harbour Catchment. Aust. Meteor. Mag...Adv. Space Res.,30, 2479-2486. [published, refereed] Shao, Y, E Jung and LM Leslie (2002): Numerical prediction of northeast Asian dust storms using

  3. Tropical Cyclone Intensity and Structure: Improved Understanding and Prediction. Evaluation of Existing and Development of New Techniques for Global and Mesoscale NWP Model Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-30

    Asian dust storms: Real-time numerical prediction and validation. J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 108, No. D22, 4691 DOI:10.1029/2003JD003667 (Online November... Coffs Harbour Catchment. Aust. Meteor. Mag., 52, 95-100. Speer, MS, LM Leslie, and L.Qi, (2003): Numerical Prediction of Severe Convection...data, Adv. Space Res., 30, 2479-2486. Shao, Y, E Jung and LM Leslie (2002): Numerical prediction of northeast Asian dust storms using an integrated

  4. Fireworks in Space.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-21

    Ib-Rt166 260 FIREWORKS IN SPACE(U) FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVI NRIGHT-PATTERSON RFD OH 21 FES S6 FTD-IDCRS)T-0US3-SS 7UNCLASSIFIED F/O 21/8 NL L1.L 13. 2...L __ 2 L h~l1.25 1 111 .~ -4 1 . MICROC()py RES(1, I OlN T- C A~ % % |’- I FTD-JD(RS )T-0863-85 FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION 00 to w FIREWORKS IN...0863-85 21 Feb 86 MICROFICHE NR: FTD-86-C-001529 FIREWORKS IN SPACE English pages: 4 Source: Hangkong Zhishi, Nr. 2, February 1985, pp. 17-18 Country of

  5. Anisotropy in the optical properties of bulk and layered transition metal dichalcogenide ReS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Suvadip; Pradhan, Nihar; Garcia, Carlos; Rhodes, Daniel; McGill, Stephen; Balicas, Luis; Manousakis, Efstratios

    Unlike most transition metal dichalcogenides, ReS2 in the distorted 1T' phase, is a direct gap semiconductor. We measured the temperature dependent photoluminescence in both bulk and layered ReS2 and examined the evolution of the peaks with the number of layers. We obtained strong signatures of optical anisotropy in the absorption spectroscopy and photocurrent response which makes this material a potential candidate for optoelectronic applications. Many body calculations including electron-hole interactions as implemented in the GW+BSE approach, agrees with the strong anisotropy in the optical properties of bulk and monolayer ReS2. A shift in the excitonic peaks by about 0.8 eV introduced by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation indicates strong contribution from excitonic bound states in this transition metal dichalcogenide.

  6. Industrial solutions trends for the control of HiRes spectrograph@E-ELT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Marcantonio, P.; Baldini, V.; Calderone, G.; Cirami, R.; Coretti, I.; Cristiani, S.

    Starting a few years ago, ESO initiated a number of projects aiming to explore the possible adoption of industrial standards and commercial off-the-shelf components (COTS) for the control of future VLT and E-ELT instrumentations. In this context, ESPRESSO, the next generation high-stability spectrograph for the VLT and to a certain extent, a precursor of HiRes, has adopted since the preliminary design phase those solutions. Based on the ESPRESSO experience and taking into account the requirements inferred from the preliminary Hi-Res studies in terms of both high-level operations as well as low-level control, I will present in this paper the current proposal for the HiRes hardware architecture.

  7. Anisotropic optical properties of few-layer transition metal dichalcogenide ReS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenglu; Cao, Ting; da Jornada, Felipe H.; Wu, Meng; Louie, Steven G.

    We present first-principles (DFT, GW and GW-BSE) calculations of the electronic and optical properties of few-layer rhenium disulfide (ReS2). Monolayer ReS2 shows strong many-electron effects with a fundamental quasiparticle band gap of 2.38 eV based on G0W0 calculation and a large exciton binding energy of 690 meV based on solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation. Highly anisotropic linear-polarized optical absorptions are revealed for few-layer and bulk ReS2. The band gap shows a decreasing trend with the optical polarization direction near the absorption edge gradually rotating from around 67 degree in the monolayer to 85 degree in the bulk, referencing to the Re-chain. Our calculations are consistent with recent experimental data and theoretical studies, and provide a systematic understanding of the electronic and optical properties in few-layer ReS2. This work was supported by National Science Foundation Grant No. DMR15-1508412 and the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Computational resources have been provided by DOE at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's NERSC facility.

  8. Hi-Res Electronic Design. Courseware Evaluation for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Gordon; And Others

    This courseware evaluation rates the Hi-Res Electronic Design program developed by Avant-Garde Creations. (The program--not contained in this document--is designed to determine closure and area of a survey.) Part A describes the program in terms of subject area (schematic diagrams and symbols) and hardware requirements (Apple II, color monitor,…

  9. Strain-engineering the anisotropic electrical conductance in ReS2 monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Sheng; Zhu, Hao; Eshun, Kwesi; Shi, Chen; Zeng, Min; Li, Qiliang

    2016-05-01

    Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) is a semiconducting layered transition metal dichalcogenide that exhibits a stable distorted 1 T (Re in octahedral coordination) phase. The reduced symmetry in ReS2 leads to in-plane anisotropy in various material properties. In this work, we performed a comprehensive first-principle computational study of strain effect on the anisotropic mechanical and electronic properties of ReS2 monolayers. We found that the anisotropic ratio in electron mobility along two principle axes is 2.36 while the ratio in hole mobility reaches 7.76. The study of strain applied along different directions shows that the elastic modulus is largest for out-of-plane direction, and the strain along a-direction induces indirect bandgap while strain along b- or c-direction does not. In addition, the carrier mobility can be significantly improved by the c-direction tensile strain. This study indicates that the ReS2 monolayer has promising applications in nanoscale strain sensor and conductance-switch FETs.

  10. Res-Parity: Parity Violation in Inelastic scattering at Low Q2

    SciTech Connect

    Reimer, Paul; Bosted, Peter; Arrington, John; Mkrtchyan, Hamlet; Zheng, Xiaochao

    2006-05-16

    Parity violating electron scattering has become a well established tool which has been used, for example, to probe the Standard Model and the strange-quark contribution to the nucleon. While much of this work has focused on elastic scattering, the RES-Parity experiment, which has been proposed to take place at Jefferson Laboratory, would focus on inelastic scattering in the low-Q2, low-W domain. RES-Parity would search for evidence of quark-hadron duality and resonance structure with parity violation in the resonance region. In terms of parity violation, this region is essentially unexplored, but the interpretation of other high-precision electron scattering experiments will rely on a reasonable understanding of scattering at lower energy and low-W through the effects of radiative corrections. RES-Parity would also study nuclear effects with the weak current. Because of the intrinsic broad band energy spectrum of neutrino beams, neutrino experiments are necessarily dependent on an untested, implicit assumption that these effects are identical to electromagnetic nuclear effects. RES-Parity is a relatively straight forward experiment. With a large expected asymmetry (~ 0.5 × 10-4) these studies may be completed with in a relatively brief period.

  11. Constructing CoRes--A Strategy for Building PCK in Pre-Service Science Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hume, Anne; Berry, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents findings from an exploratory study into a science teacher education initiative that seeks to build the foundations on which novice teachers can begin developing their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). The initiative involved the use of Content Representations (CoRes), which were originally developed as part of a strategy for…

  12. Metal to insulator quantum-phase transition in few-layered ReS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Nihar; McCreary, Amber; Rhodes, Daniel; Lu, Zhenguang; Smirnov, Dmitry; Manousakis, Efstratios; Feng, Simin; Namburu, Raju; Dubey, Madan; Hight Walker, Angela; Terrones, Humberto; Terrones, Mauricio; Dobrosavljevic, Vladimir; Balicas, Luis

    ReS2 a layer-independent direct band-gap semiconductor of 1.5 eV implies a potential for its use in optoelectronic applications. Here, we present an overall evaluation of transport and anisotropic Raman of few-layered ReS2 FET. ReS2 exfoliated on SiO2 behaves as an n-type semiconductor with an intrinsic carrier mobility surpassing μi ~30 cm2/Vs at T = 300 K which increases up to ~350 cm2/vs at 2 K. Semiconducting behavior is observed at low electron densities n, but at high values of nthe resistivity decreases by a factor >7 upon cooling to 2 K and displays a metallicT2 -dependence. The electric-field induced metallic state observed in MoS2 was recently claimed to result from a percolation type of transition. Instead, through a scaling analysis of the conductivity as a function of Tand n, we find that the metallic state of ReS2 results from a second-order metal to insulator transition driven by electronic correlations. Supported by U.S. Army Research Office MURI Grant No. W911NF-11-1-0362.

  13. Metal to insulator quantum-phase transition in few-layered ReS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Nihar; Rhodes, Daniel; Lu, Zhenguang; Smirnov, Dmitry; Manousakis, Efstratios; Dobrosavljevic, Vladimir; Balicas, Luis; McCreary, Amber; Feng, Simin; Terrones, Maurico; Namburu, Raju; Dubey, Madan; Hight Walker, Angela; Terrones, Humberto

    ReS2 a layer-independent direct band-gap semiconductor of 1.5 eV implies a potential for its use in optoelectronic applications. Here, we present an overall evaluation of transport and anisotropic Raman of few-layered ReS2 FET. ReS2 exfoliated on SiO2 behaves as an n-type semiconductor with an intrinsic carrier mobility surpassing μi ~ 30cm2 /Vs at T = 300 K which increases up to ~ 350cm2 /vs at 2 K. Semiconducting behavior is observed at low electron densities n, but at high values of nthe resistivity decreases by a factor > 7 upon cooling to 2 K and displays a metallicT2-dependence. The electric-field induced metallic state observed in MoS2 was recently claimed to result from a percolation type of transition. Instead, through a scaling analysis of the conductivity as a function of Tand n, we find that the metallic state of ReS2 results from a second-order metal to insulator transition driven by electronic correlations. Supported by U.S. Army Research Office MURI Grant No. W911NF-11-1-0362.

  14. Humidity sensing using vertically oriented arrays of ReS2 nanosheets deposited on an interdigitated gold electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Aijun; Gao, Jian; Li, Baichang; Tan, Jiawei; Xiang, Yu; Gupta, Tushar; Li, Lu; Suresh, Shravan; Idrobo, Juan Carlos; Lu, Toh-Ming; Rong, Mingzhe; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2016-12-01

    We report a novel humidity sensor featuring vertically oriented arrays of ReS2 nanosheets grown on an interdigitated gold electrode by chemical vapor deposition. The vertical orientation of the nanosheets is important since it maximizes the exposed surface area for water adsorption/desorption. We find that the resistance of the ReS2 film decreases sensitively with increasing relative humidity, which we attribute to charge transfer from the absorbed H2O molecules to the n-doped ReS2 nanosheets. In addition to high sensitivity, the ReS2 sensors exhibit fast response/recovery time and excellent reversibility with minimal hysteresis. Moreover, our fabrication approach involving the direct (1-step) growth of the ReS2 films on an interdigitated electrode (without any transfer using wet chemistry or lithography) greatly simplifies the device architecture and has important practical benefits for the low-cost and scalable deployment of such sensor devices.

  15. Les applications des faisceaux d'ions dans la physique des polymères

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratier, B.; Moliton, A.; Lucas, B.; Guille, B.; Clamadieu, M.

    1998-06-01

    Experimental configurations of ions beams are illustrated by diagrams in the case of low energy implantation, Reactive Ion Beam Etching (RIBE), Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD) of molecular layers (or oligomers). Nous présentons les configurations expérimentales (illustrées par des schémas) de trois applications des faisceaux d'ions au traitement physique des polymères : dopage par implantation (cité pour mémoire), gravure par faisceaux d'ions réactifs (RIBE), dépôt des couches moléculaires (ou oligomères) assistés par faisceau (IBAD).

  16. Structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of transition metal doped ReS2 monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, M.; Shen, Y. H.; Yin, T. L.

    2017-02-01

    Magnetic properties of transition-metal (TM) atoms (TM=Co, Cu, Mn, Fe, and Ni) doped ReS2 monolayer are investigated by first-principles calculations. It is found that magnetism appears in the cases of Co, Fe, and Ni. Among all the samples, the Co-doped system has the largest magnetic moment. Therefore, we further study the interaction in the two-Co-doped system. Our results show that the interaction between two Co atoms is always ferromagnetic (FM), but such FM interaction is obviously depressed by the increasing Co-Co distance, which is well described by a simple Heisenberg model based on the Zener theory. Our results provide useful insight for promising applications of TM-doped ReS2 monolayer in the future.

  17. Optical anisotropy of tungsten-doped ReS2 layered crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, H. P.; Lin, K. H.; Huang, Y. S.

    2016-12-01

    The optical anisotropy of tungsten-doped rhenium disulfide (ReS2:W) layered crystals have been studied by polarization and temperature dependent piezoreflectance (PzR) spectroscopy from 25 to 300 K. The direct band edge excitonic transitions E1ex feature at E∥b polarization and E2ex feature at E⊥b polarization of tungsten-doped ReS2 layered crystals were determined from a detailed line-shape fit of the PzR spectra. The PzR spectra reveal a slightly blue shifted of excitonic transition with the tungsten incorporation. The angular dependence of the excitonic feature amplitudes agrees with Malus' rule. The parameters that describe the temperature variation of the energies and broadening function of the excitonic transitions are determined and discussed.

  18. EPRI/NRC-RES fire PRA guide for nuclear power facilities. Volume 1, summary and overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-09-01

    This report documents state-of-the-art methods, tools, and data for the conduct of a fire Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for a commercial nuclear power plant (NPP) application. The methods have been developed under the Fire Risk Re-quantification Study. This study was conducted as a joint activity between EPRI and the U. S. NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) under the terms of an EPRI/RES Memorandum of Understanding [RS.1] and an accompanying Fire Research Addendum [RS.2]. Industry participants supported demonstration analyses and provided peer review of this methodology. The documented methods are intended to support future applications of Fire PRA, including risk-informed regulatory applications. The documented method reflects state-of-the-art fire risk analysis approaches. The primary objective of the Fire Risk Study was to consolidate recent research and development activities into a single state-of-the-art fire PRA analysis methodology. Methodological issues raised in past fire risk analyses, including the Individual Plant Examination of External Events (IPEEE) fire analyses, have been addressed to the extent allowed by the current state-of-the-art and the overall project scope. Methodological debates were resolved through a consensus process between experts representing both EPRI and RES. The consensus process included a provision whereby each major party (EPRI and RES) could maintain differing technical positions if consensus could not be reached. No cases were encountered where this provision was invoked. While the primary objective of the project was to consolidate existing state-of-the-art methods, in many areas, the newly documented methods represent a significant advancement over previously documented methods. In several areas, this project has, in fact, developed new methods and approaches. Such advances typically relate to areas of past methodological debate.

  19. Gestion de la douleur chronique par les infirmières des Groupes de médecine de famille

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Dave A; Bourgault, Patricia; Gallagher, Frances

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION : Des milliers de personnes souffrent actuellement de douleur chronique (DC) pour laquelle la prise en charge s’avère souvent inadéquate. Au Québec, les infirmières qui oeuvrent dans les Groupes de médecine de famille (GMF) jouent un rôle clé dans le suivi des personnes aux prises avec des problèmes de santé chroniques dont la DC. OBJECTIFS : Cette étude a pour objectifs de décrire les activités réalisées par les infirmières œuvrant en GMF en lien avec la gestion de la douleur chez la clientèle souffrant de DC, ainsi que les barrières à ces activités. MÉTHODE : Un dispositif descriptif corrélationnel transversal de type enquête postale a été utilisé. La population accessible à l’étude comprend les infirmières qui figurent sur la liste des membres de l’Ordre des infirmières et infirmiers du Québec travaillant en GMF. L’ensemble des infirmières figurant sur cette liste ayant consenti à être contactées à leur domicile pour des fins de recherche ont été contactées. Un questionnaire postal auto-administré (Pain Management Activities Questionnaire) a été complété par 53 infirmières travaillant en GMF. RÉSULTATS : Les trois activités le plus souvent réalisées par les infirmières sont d’établir une relation thérapeutique avec le client; de discuter avec le médecin de l’efficacité des mesures thérapeutiques et de faire un enseignement personnalisé au client. Les infirmières ont la perception qu’elles rencontrent en moyenne 2,68 personnes par semaine qui souffrent de DC. La méconnaissance des interventions possibles en douleur (71,7%) et la non-disponibilité de l’information sur la gestion de la douleur (52,8%) constituent les principales barrières selon les infirmières sondées. CONCLUSION : Les infirmières au sein des GMF font actuellement peu d’activités en gestion de la DC probablement en raison du manque de reconnaissance de la DC. PMID:25848847

  20. US defensive operations against Libya and the nuclear accident at Chernobyl. Markup before the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session on H. Res. 424 and H. Res 440, May 1, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The House Foreign Affairs Committee met to mark up two resolutions: H. Res. 424 and H. Res. 440. H. Res. 424 thanks the United Kingdom for its assistance in the April 14, 1986 operation against Libya. Despite objections to the raid and to including the British, as well as questions about the quality of the US response and about the President's compliance with the Constitution and the War Powers Resolution, the resolution passed. H. Res. 440 expresses sympathy to the victims of the Chernobyl accident and asks the Soviet Union to relax restrictions on communications and the transfer of whatever technology and assistance will be helpful. It also criticizes the Soviet handling of information about the accident. An amendment strengthened the wording of the criticism, and the resolution passed. The report includes the committee discussion and the tests of the two resolutions.

  1. Inversion activity of the Tn5053 and Tn402 resolution system, which possess an uncommon res region

    SciTech Connect

    Kholodii, G.Ya.

    1995-12-01

    The classical bacterial site-specific systems of DNA resolution are characterized, despite their considerable divergence, by a regularly arranged res region represented as a triad of res sites. DNA resolution (deletion) is carried out more efficiently than DNA inversion, primarily due to this structure. In this report, the ratio of deletion to inversion activities is evaluated for the resolution systems of Tn5053 and Tn402, which belong to a novel family and possess an irregularly arranged res region. By this criterion, the system studied is shown to be similar to the classical ones. These data suggest that in the course of evolution of the resolvase systems, the same degree of recombination specialization could be attained by different arrangement of the res region. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Serendipity, International Cooperation and Navigational Aids: A History of Radio Echo Sounding (RES) Technologies, 1958-1979

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchetti, S.; Dean, K.; Naylor, S.; Siegert, M. J.

    2006-12-01

    This paper explores the history of RES and examines major technological advances that fostered the use of this technique in the sub-glacial exploration of Antarctica. The paper will especially focus on three themes: the role played by accidental discoveries in the origins of RES; the importance of international collaboration in its technological development; and the need of establishing new technological networks in the deployment of RES apparatus during Antarctic missions. The origins of RES can be traced back to two important -albeit accidental- findings. First, during post-war US military operations in the Antarctic radio altimeters produced gross errors in height indication. Furthermore, during the IGY ionospheric research and sounding was hampered by interference due to bottom echoes. These serendipitous events helped to figure out that the Antarctic ice was transparent to certain frequencies, and therefore new radio technologies could be used to sound what lay beneath it. The establishment of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and the Antarctic Treaty (AT) provided a new international framework vital to the development of RES technologies. This allowed researchers from different countries to come together and discuss important technological features for the first time. At a technical level, the setting up of international experiments (such as those of 1963 and 1964 in Greenland) gave an opportunity for experts from different countries to compare the performance of new RES apparatus. At a political level, the parallel debate within the AT community on the allocation of Antarctic radio frequencies helped radio engineers to work out ways to circumvent interference with radio communications. Finally, the deployment of RES equipment in Antarctic exploration relied upon a number of technological aids to improve the potential and accuracy of geophysical sounding. The use of new aircrafts, guidance systems, and computers proved vital in many

  3. DoD Space Radiation Concerns.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-15

    cosmic - ray transport. NASA TM X-2440, 1972:117-122. DoD Space Radiation Concerns 8 2. Atkins SG, Small JT, McFarland TH. Military Man-in Space (MMIS...136. 29. Silberberg R, Tsao CH, Adams JH Jr., Letaw JR. Radiation doses and LET distributions of cosmic rays . Rad. Res., 1984, 98:209-226. 30. Stauber...levels on mission success and completion. Natural Radiation Trapped Radiation Belts Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) Solar Particle Events (SPEs) Man-Made

  4. Polytypism and unexpected strong interlayer coupling in two-dimensional layered ReS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Xiao-Fen; Wu, Jiang-Bin; Zhou, Linwei; Qiao, Jingsi; Shi, Wei; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Jun; Ji, Wei; Tan, Ping-Heng

    2016-04-01

    Anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) layered materials, with both scientific interest and application potential, offer one more dimension than isotropic 2D materials to tune their physical properties. Various physical properties of 2D multi-layer materials are modulated by varying their stacking orders owing to significant interlayer vdW coupling. Multilayer rhenium disulfide (ReS2), a representative anisotropic 2D material, was expected to be randomly stacked and lack interlayer coupling. Here, we demonstrate two stable stacking orders, namely isotropic-like (IS) and anisotropic-like (AI) N layer (NL, N > 1) ReS2 are revealed by ultralow- and high-frequency Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence and first-principles density functional theory calculation. Two interlayer shear modes are observed in AI-NL-ReS2 while only one shear mode appears in IS-NL-ReS2, suggesting anisotropic- and isotropic-like stacking orders in IS- and AI-NL-ReS2, respectively. This explicit difference in the observed frequencies identifies an unexpected strong interlayer coupling in IS- and AI-NL-ReS2. Quantitatively, the force constants of them are found to be around 55-90% of those of multilayer MoS2. The revealed strong interlayer coupling and polytypism in multi-layer ReS2 may stimulate future studies on engineering physical properties of other anisotropic 2D materials by stacking orders.Anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) layered materials, with both scientific interest and application potential, offer one more dimension than isotropic 2D materials to tune their physical properties. Various physical properties of 2D multi-layer materials are modulated by varying their stacking orders owing to significant interlayer vdW coupling. Multilayer rhenium disulfide (ReS2), a representative anisotropic 2D material, was expected to be randomly stacked and lack interlayer coupling. Here, we demonstrate two stable stacking orders, namely isotropic-like (IS) and

  5. Studies of Ionospheric Irregularities: Origins and Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-30

    and Ionospheric Scintillations that can be found at: GPS and ionospheric scintillations, P.M. Kintner, B.M. Ledvina , and E.R. de Paula, Space... Ledvina , and P.M. Kintner, Measurements of equatorial scintillations on the WAAS satellite signal, Radio Sci., submitted, 2005. [refereed] 7...Adv. Space Res., 31(3), 741-747, 2003. [refereed] Humphreys, T.E., B.M. Ledvina , M.L. Psiaki, A.P. Cerruti, and P.M. Kintner, Analysis of

  6. Bio-SCoRes: A Smorgasbord Architecture for Coreference Resolution in Biomedical Text.

    PubMed

    Kilicoglu, Halil; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2016-01-01

    Coreference resolution is one of the fundamental and challenging tasks in natural language processing. Resolving coreference successfully can have a significant positive effect on downstream natural language processing tasks, such as information extraction and question answering. The importance of coreference resolution for biomedical text analysis applications has increasingly been acknowledged. One of the difficulties in coreference resolution stems from the fact that distinct types of coreference (e.g., anaphora, appositive) are expressed with a variety of lexical and syntactic means (e.g., personal pronouns, definite noun phrases), and that resolution of each combination often requires a different approach. In the biomedical domain, it is common for coreference annotation and resolution efforts to focus on specific subcategories of coreference deemed important for the downstream task. In the current work, we aim to address some of these concerns regarding coreference resolution in biomedical text. We propose a general, modular framework underpinned by a smorgasbord architecture (Bio-SCoRes), which incorporates a variety of coreference types, their mentions and allows fine-grained specification of resolution strategies to resolve coreference of distinct coreference type-mention pairs. For development and evaluation, we used a corpus of structured drug labels annotated with fine-grained coreference information. In addition, we evaluated our approach on two other corpora (i2b2/VA discharge summaries and protein coreference dataset) to investigate its generality and ease of adaptation to other biomedical text types. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of our novel smorgasbord architecture. The specific pipelines based on the architecture perform successfully in linking coreferential mention pairs, while we find that recognition of full mention clusters is more challenging. The corpus of structured drug labels (SPL) as well as the components of Bio-SCoRes and

  7. High Resolution Model Intercomparison Project (HighResMIP v1.0) for CMIP6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haarsma, Reindert J.; Roberts, Malcolm J.; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Senior, Catherine A.; Bellucci, Alessio; Bao, Qing; Chang, Ping; Corti, Susanna; Fučkar, Neven S.; Guemas, Virginie; von Hardenberg, Jost; Hazeleger, Wilco; Kodama, Chihiro; Koenigk, Torben; Leung, L. Ruby; Lu, Jian; Luo, Jing-Jia; Mao, Jiafu; Mizielinski, Matthew S.; Mizuta, Ryo; Nobre, Paulo; Satoh, Masaki; Scoccimarro, Enrico; Semmler, Tido; Small, Justin; von Storch, Jin-Song

    2016-11-01

    Robust projections and predictions of climate variability and change, particularly at regional scales, rely on the driving processes being represented with fidelity in model simulations. The role of enhanced horizontal resolution in improved process representation in all components of the climate system is of growing interest, particularly as some recent simulations suggest both the possibility of significant changes in large-scale aspects of circulation as well as improvements in small-scale processes and extremes. However, such high-resolution global simulations at climate timescales, with resolutions of at least 50 km in the atmosphere and 0.25° in the ocean, have been performed at relatively few research centres and generally without overall coordination, primarily due to their computational cost. Assessing the robustness of the response of simulated climate to model resolution requires a large multi-model ensemble using a coordinated set of experiments. The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 6 (CMIP6) is the ideal framework within which to conduct such a study, due to the strong link to models being developed for the CMIP DECK experiments and other model intercomparison projects (MIPs). Increases in high-performance computing (HPC) resources, as well as the revised experimental design for CMIP6, now enable a detailed investigation of the impact of increased resolution up to synoptic weather scales on the simulated mean climate and its variability. The High Resolution Model Intercomparison Project (HighResMIP) presented in this paper applies, for the first time, a multi-model approach to the systematic investigation of the impact of horizontal resolution. A coordinated set of experiments has been designed to assess both a standard and an enhanced horizontal-resolution simulation in the atmosphere and ocean. The set of HighResMIP experiments is divided into three tiers consisting of atmosphere-only and coupled runs and spanning the period 1950-2050, with the

  8. High Resolution Model Intercomparison Project (HighResMIP v1.0) for CMIP6

    SciTech Connect

    Haarsma, Reindert J.; Roberts, Malcolm J.; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Senior, Catherine A.; Bellucci, Alessio; Bao, Qing; Chang, Ping; Corti, Susanna; Fučkar, Neven S.; Guemas, Virginie; von Hardenberg, Jost; Hazeleger, Wilco; Kodama, Chihiro; Koenigk, Torben; Leung, L. Ruby; Lu, Jian; Luo, Jing-Jia; Mao, Jiafu; Mizielinski, Matthew S.; Mizuta, Ryo; Nobre, Paulo; Satoh, Masaki; Scoccimarro, Enrico; Semmler, Tido; Small, Justin; von Storch, Jin-Song

    2016-01-01

    Robust projections and predictions of climate variability and change, particularly at regional scales, rely on the driving processes being represented with fidelity in model simulations. The role of enhanced horizontal resolution in improved process representation in all components of the climate system is of growing interest, particularly as some recent simulations suggest both the possibility of significant changes in large-scale aspects of circulation as well as improvements in small-scale processes and extremes.

    However, such high-resolution global simulations at climate timescales, with resolutions of at least 50 km in the atmosphere and 0.25° in the ocean, have been performed at relatively few research centres and generally without overall coordination, primarily due to their computational cost. Assessing the robustness of the response of simulated climate to model resolution requires a large multi-model ensemble using a coordinated set of experiments. The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 6 (CMIP6) is the ideal framework within which to conduct such a study, due to the strong link to models being developed for the CMIP DECK experiments and other model intercomparison projects (MIPs).

    Increases in high-performance computing (HPC) resources, as well as the revised experimental design for CMIP6, now enable a detailed investigation of the impact of increased resolution up to synoptic weather scales on the simulated mean climate and its variability.

    The High Resolution Model Intercomparison Project (HighResMIP) presented in this paper applies, for the first time, a multi-model approach to the systematic investigation of the impact of horizontal resolution. A coordinated set of experiments has been designed to assess both a standard and an enhanced horizontal-resolution simulation in the atmosphere and ocean. The set of HighResMIP experiments is divided into three tiers consisting of atmosphere-only and coupled runs and

  9. Res-E Support Policies in the Baltic States: Electricity Price Aspect (Part II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobinaite, V.; Priedite, I.

    2015-04-01

    Increasing volumes of electricity derived from renewable energy sources (RES-E) affect the electricity market prices and the prices for final electricity consumers in the Baltic States. The results of a multivariate regression analysis show that in 2013 the RES-E contributed to decreasing the electricity market prices in the Baltic States. However, the final electricity consumers pay for the promotion of RES-E through the approved RES-E component which has a tendency to increase. It is estimated that in 2013 the net benefits from the wind electricity promotion were achieved in Lithuania and Latvia while the net cost - in Estonia. This suggests that the economic efficiency of the wind electricity support scheme based on the application of feed-in tariffs was higher than that based on the feed-in premium. Rakstā analizēta elektroenerģijas ražošanas no atjaunojamiem energoresursiem (AER-E) palielināšanas ietekme uz elektroenerģijas tirgus cenu un gala cenu elektroenerģijas lietotājiem Baltijas valstīs. Daudzfaktoru regresijas analīzes rezultāti atklāja, ka AER-E 2013. gadā varētu samazināt elektroenerģijas tirgus cenas Baltijas valstīs. Tomēr jāņem vērā, ka elektroenerģijas lietotāja gala cenā ir iekļauta AER-E atbalsta komponente, kurai ir raksturīgi palielināties. Aprēķināts, ka no vēja elektroenerģijas ražošanas Latvijā un Lietuvā tika iegūta tīrā peļņa, bet Igaunijā tikai nosedza pašizmaksu. Tas liecina, ka vēja elektroenerģijas atbalsta shēmai, kas balstīta uz obligātā iepirkuma atbalsta principu, ir augstāka ekonomiskā efektivitāte, nekā atbalsta shēmai, kas balstīta uz piemaksu par no AER saražoto elektroenerģiju obligātā iepirkuma ietvaros.

  10. High Resolution Model Intercomparison Project (HighResMIP v1.0) for CMIP6

    DOE PAGES

    Haarsma, Reindert J.; Roberts, Malcolm J.; Vidale, Pier Luigi; ...

    2016-11-22

    Robust projections and predictions of climate variability and change, particularly at regional scales, rely on the driving processes being represented with fidelity in model simulations. The role of enhanced horizontal resolution in improved process representation in all components of the climate system is of growing interest, particularly as some recent simulations suggest both the possibility of significant changes in large-scale aspects of circulation as well as improvements in small-scale processes and extremes. However, such high-resolution global simulations at climate timescales, with resolutions of at least 50 km in the atmosphere and 0.25° in the ocean, have been performed at relativelymore » few research centres and generally without overall coordination, primarily due to their computational cost. Assessing the robustness of the response of simulated climate to model resolution requires a large multi-model ensemble using a coordinated set of experiments. The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 6 (CMIP6) is the ideal framework within which to conduct such a study, due to the strong link to models being developed for the CMIP DECK experiments and other model intercomparison projects (MIPs). Increases in high-performance computing (HPC) resources, as well as the revised experimental design for CMIP6, now enable a detailed investigation of the impact of increased resolution up to synoptic weather scales on the simulated mean climate and its variability. The High Resolution Model Intercomparison Project (HighResMIP) presented in this paper applies, for the first time, a multi-model approach to the systematic investigation of the impact of horizontal resolution. A coordinated set of experiments has been designed to assess both a standard and an enhanced horizontal-resolution simulation in the atmosphere and ocean. The set of HighResMIP experiments is divided into three tiers consisting of atmosphere-only and coupled runs and spanning the period 1950

  11. High Resolution Model Intercomparison Project (HighResMIP v1.0) for CMIP6

    SciTech Connect

    Haarsma, Reindert J.; Roberts, Malcolm J.; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Senior, Catherine A.; Bellucci, Alessio; Bao, Qing; Chang, Ping; Corti, Susanna; Fuckar, Neven S.; Guemas, Virginie; von Hardenberg, Jost; Hazeleger, Wilco; Kodama, Chihiro; Koenigk, Torben; Leung, L. Ruby; Lu, Jian; Luo, Jing -Jia; Mao, Jiafu; Mizielinski, Matthew S.; Mizuta, Ryo; Nobre, Paulo; Satoh, Masaki; Scoccimarro, Enrico; Semmler, Tido; Small, Justin; von Storch, Jin -Song

    2016-11-22

    Robust projections and predictions of climate variability and change, particularly at regional scales, rely on the driving processes being represented with fidelity in model simulations. The role of enhanced horizontal resolution in improved process representation in all components of the climate system is of growing interest, particularly as some recent simulations suggest both the possibility of significant changes in large-scale aspects of circulation as well as improvements in small-scale processes and extremes.

    However, such high-resolution global simulations at climate timescales, with resolutions of at least 50 km in the atmosphere and 0.25° in the ocean, have been performed at relatively few research centres and generally without overall coordination, primarily due to their computational cost. Assessing the robustness of the response of simulated climate to model resolution requires a large multi-model ensemble using a coordinated set of experiments. The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 6 (CMIP6) is the ideal framework within which to conduct such a study, due to the strong link to models being developed for the CMIP DECK experiments and other model intercomparison projects (MIPs).

    Increases in high-performance computing (HPC) resources, as well as the revised experimental design for CMIP6, now enable a detailed investigation of the impact of increased resolution up to synoptic weather scales on the simulated mean climate and its variability.

    The High Resolution Model Intercomparison Project (HighResMIP) presented in this paper applies, for the first time, a multi-model approach to the systematic investigation of the impact of horizontal resolution. A coordinated set of experiments has been designed to assess both a standard and an enhanced horizontal-resolution simulation in the atmosphere and ocean. The set of HighResMIP experiments is divided into three tiers consisting of atmosphere-only and coupled runs and spanning

  12. Ammonification in Bacillus subtilis Utilizing Dissimilatory Nitrite Reductase Is Dependent on resDE

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Tamara; Frankenberg, Nicole; Marino, Marco; Jahn, Dieter

    1998-01-01

    During anaerobic nitrate respiration Bacillus subtilis reduces nitrate via nitrite to ammonia. No denitrification products were observed. B. subtilis wild-type cells and a nitrate reductase mutant grew anaerobically with nitrite as an electron acceptor. Oxygen-sensitive dissimilatory nitrite reductase activity was demonstrated in cell extracts prepared from both strains with benzyl viologen as an electron donor and nitrite as an electron acceptor. The anaerobic expression of the discovered nitrite reductase activity was dependent on the regulatory system encoded by resDE. Mutation of the gene encoding the regulatory Fnr had no negative effect on dissimilatory nitrite reductase formation. PMID:9422613

  13. Bio-SCoRes: A Smorgasbord Architecture for Coreference Resolution in Biomedical Text

    PubMed Central

    Kilicoglu, Halil; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2016-01-01

    Coreference resolution is one of the fundamental and challenging tasks in natural language processing. Resolving coreference successfully can have a significant positive effect on downstream natural language processing tasks, such as information extraction and question answering. The importance of coreference resolution for biomedical text analysis applications has increasingly been acknowledged. One of the difficulties in coreference resolution stems from the fact that distinct types of coreference (e.g., anaphora, appositive) are expressed with a variety of lexical and syntactic means (e.g., personal pronouns, definite noun phrases), and that resolution of each combination often requires a different approach. In the biomedical domain, it is common for coreference annotation and resolution efforts to focus on specific subcategories of coreference deemed important for the downstream task. In the current work, we aim to address some of these concerns regarding coreference resolution in biomedical text. We propose a general, modular framework underpinned by a smorgasbord architecture (Bio-SCoRes), which incorporates a variety of coreference types, their mentions and allows fine-grained specification of resolution strategies to resolve coreference of distinct coreference type-mention pairs. For development and evaluation, we used a corpus of structured drug labels annotated with fine-grained coreference information. In addition, we evaluated our approach on two other corpora (i2b2/VA discharge summaries and protein coreference dataset) to investigate its generality and ease of adaptation to other biomedical text types. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of our novel smorgasbord architecture. The specific pipelines based on the architecture perform successfully in linking coreferential mention pairs, while we find that recognition of full mention clusters is more challenging. The corpus of structured drug labels (SPL) as well as the components of Bio-SCoRes and

  14. Raman vibrational spectra of bulk to monolayer ReS2 with lower symmetry

    DOE PAGES

    Feng, Yanqing; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Yaojia; ...

    2015-08-26

    Lattice structure and symmetry of two-dimensional (2D) layered materials are of key importance to their fundamental mechanical, thermal, electronic and optical properties. Raman spectroscopy, as a convenient and nondestructive tool, however has its limitations on identifying all symmetry allowing Raman modes and determining the corresponding crystal structure of 2D layered materials with high symmetry like graphene and MoS2. Due to lower structural symmetry and extraordinary weak interlayer coupling of ReS2, we successfully identified all 18 first-order Raman active modes for bulk and monolayer ReS2. Without van der Waals (vdW) correction, our local density approximation (LDA) calculations successfully reproduce all themore » Raman modes. Our calculations also suggest no surface reconstruction effect and the absence of low frequency rigid-layer Raman modes below 100 cm-1. As a result, combining with Raman and LDA thus provides a general approach for studying the vibrational and structural properties of 2D layered materials with lower symmetry.« less

  15. Description and evaluation of the Res-Q Arrhythmia Control Device.

    PubMed

    Miller, R E; Wilkoff, B L

    1995-02-01

    The Res-Q Arrhythmia Control Device (Intermedics Inc.) is one of the latest entries into the growing implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) market. Dysrhythmias are classified according to their zone of detection, with a bradycardia zone, up to 3 tachycardia zones, and a fibrillation zone. Detection criterion, therapies, and redetection criterion within each zone are independently programmable, tailoring the setup to each individual's needs. In a hierarchical manner, this allows efficacy, urgency, and patient comfort to be appropriately balanced. Tachycardia therapy options include antitachycardia pacing (ATP), low-energy cardioversion, and high-energy shock, while VVI pacing provides bradycardia therapy. ATP programming is extremely flexible. Biphasic waveform and a maximum output of 700 V have yielded a high rate of successful implantation. Unique features include the multiprogrammable sensing autogain, which tracks evoked T waves during pacing, as well as the use of the pulse generator to perform implant testing. Major strengths include programming flexibility and individualized therapy for multiple dysrhythmias. The major shortcoming relates to a lack of stored electrograms. Although long-term follow-up is not yet available, the Res-Q appears to be a capable challenger to a peer group of advanced generation ICDs.

  16. Space Discovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackman, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Describes one teacher's experience taking Space Discovery courses that were sponsored by the United States Space Foundation (USSF). These courses examine the history of space science, theory of orbits and rocketry, the effects of living in outer space on humans, and space weather. (DDR)

  17. The tomato res mutant which accumulates JA in roots in non-stressed conditions restores cell structure alterations under salinity.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Abellan, José O; Fernandez-Garcia, Nieves; Lopez-Berenguer, Carmen; Egea, Isabel; Flores, Francisco B; Angosto, Trinidad; Capel, Juan; Lozano, Rafael; Pineda, Benito; Moreno, Vicente; Olmos, Enrique; Bolarin, Maria C

    2015-11-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) regulates a wide spectrum of plant biological processes, from plant development to stress defense responses. The role of JA in plant response to salt stress is scarcely known, and even less known is the specific response in root, the main plant organ responsible for ionic uptake and transport to the shoot. Here we report the characterization of the first tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant, named res (restored cell structure by salinity), that accumulates JA in roots prior to exposure to stress. The res tomato mutant presented remarkable growth inhibition and displayed important morphological alterations and cellular disorganization in roots and leaves under control conditions, while these alterations disappeared when the res mutant plants were grown under salt stress. Reciprocal grafting between res and wild type (WT) (tomato cv. Moneymaker) indicated that the main organ responsible for the development of alterations was the root. The JA-signaling pathway is activated in res roots prior to stress, with transcripts levels being even higher in control condition than in salinity. Future studies on this mutant will provide significant advances in the knowledge of JA role in root in salt-stress tolerance response, as well as in the energy trade-off between plant growth and response to stress.

  18. Optical study of the structural change in ReS2 single crystals using polarized thermoreflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Ching-Hwa

    2005-01-01

    In this report the optical properties of ReS2 are characterized using polarized thermoreflectance (PTR) measurements in the temperature range between 25 and 300 K. Single crystals of ReS2 were grown by chemical vapor transport method using Br2 as a transport agent. Crystal morphologies of the as-grown rhenium disulfides were shown to possess two different kinds of the structural phases after crystallization. Observing in detail on the crystallized solids, the crystal phases can be essentially divided into two distinct types of normal triclinic layer and tetragonal structure. The PTR experiments were done with optical polarizations along and perpendicular to the crystals' b-axis for both layer and tetragonal crystals. From the experimental analyses of PTR measurements the occurrence of structural change in ReS2 is mostly probable caused by the atomic bonding deformation along -axis, which is parallel to the Re4 parallelogram consisted diamond chains. Temperature dependences of the band-edge transitions for the different structural phases of ReS2 are analyzed. The parameters that describe temperature variations of the transition energies and broadening parameters for both layered and tetragonal ReS2 are evaluated and discussed.

  19. Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  20. Space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Donald F.; Hayes, Judith

    1989-01-01

    The history of American space flight indicates that a space station is the next logical step in the scientific pursuit of greater knowledge of the universe. The Space Station and its complement of space vehicles, developed by NASA, will add new dimensions to an already extensive space program in the United States. The Space Station offers extraordinary benefits for a comparatively modest investment (currently estimated at one-ninth the cost of the Apollo Program). The station will provide a permanent multipurpose facility in orbit necessary for the expansion of space science and technology. It will enable significant advancements in life sciences research, satellite communications, astronomy, and materials processing. Eventually, the station will function in support of the commercialization and industrialization of space. Also, as a prerequisite to manned interplanetary exploration, the long-duration space flights typical of Space Station missions will provide the essential life sciences research to allow progressively longer human staytime in space.

  1. FunResDB-A web resource for genotypic susceptibility testing of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Weber, Michael; Schaer, Jonas; Walther, Grit; Kaerger, Kerstin; Steinmann, Jörg; Rath, Peter-Michael; Spiess, Birgit; Buchheidt, Dieter; Hamprecht, Axel; Kurzai, Oliver

    2017-03-11

    Therapy of invasive aspergillosis is becoming more difficult due to the emergence of azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus. A majority of resistant strains carries mutations in the CYP51A gene. Due to a lack of sensitivity of culture-based methods, molecular detection of A. fumigatus has become an important diagnostic tool. We set up the database FunResDB (www.nrz-myk.de/funresdb) to gather all available information about CYP51A-dependent azole resistance from published literature. In summary, the screening resulted in 79 CYP51A variants, which are linked to 59 nonsynonymous mutations. A tailor-made online sequence analysis tool allows for genotypic susceptibility testing of A. fumigatus.

  2. Réalisation de réseaux sur polymères par laser UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castex, M. C.; Fischer, A.; Simeonov, D.; Adès, D.; Siove, A.

    2003-06-01

    Nous présentons ici une méthode très simple de réalisation de réseaux d'amplitude de pas sub-micronique sur des films polymères à base de carbazote déposés sur des substrat de silice. Les réseaux sont fabriqués en irradiant avec un faisceau laser à 193nm un masque de phase placé au contact du film. La qualité des réseaux obtenus permet désormais d'envisager la réalisation de micro-cavités lasers de type planaire permettant de sélectionner une émission laser monomode autour de 400nm.

  3. [The differential diagnosis in Menières disease: the basilar impression (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Elies, W

    1978-11-22

    We examined the cranio-cervical region in 180 patients with nonspecific dizziness and in most cases unilateral sensory-neural hearing loss. In 32 cases we found malformations of the cranio-cervical region. The sympatomatology of the basilar impression is probably caused by the compression of the vessels of the lower cerebellar regions and the brain stem as well as disturbances of the cerebro-spinal fluid circulation. The basilar impression is diagnosed by means of lateral X-rays of the skull base, tomography of this region and in some cases computertomography of the posterior cranial fossa. The importance of basilar impression in the differential diagnosis of Menières disease and acoustic neuroma is discussed.

  4. Inflammatory myopathy in a patient with Aicardi-Goutières syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tumienė, Birutė; Voisin, Norine; Preikšaitienė, Eglė; Petroška, Donatas; Grikinienė, Jurgita; Samaitienė, Rūta; Utkus, Algirdas; Reymond, Alexandre; Kučinskas, Vaidutis

    2017-03-01

    Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is an inflammatory disorder belonging to the recently characterized group of type I interferonopathies. The most consistently affected tissues in AGS are the central nervous system and skin, but various organ systems and tissues have been reported to be affected, pointing to the systemic nature of the disease. Here we describe a patient with AGS due to a homozygous p.Arg114His mutation in the TREX1 gene. The histologically proven inflammatory myopathy in our patient expands the range of clinical features of AGS. Histological signs of muscle biopsies in the proband, and in two other AGS patients described earlier, are similar to those seen in various autoimmune myositises and could be ascribed to inapproapriate IFN I activation. In view of signs of possible mitochondrial damage in AGS, we propose that mitochondrial DNA could be a trigger of autoimmune responses in AGS.

  5. Space Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Appropriate directions for the applied research and technology programs that will develop space power systems for U.S. future space missions beyond 1995 are explored. Spacecraft power supplies; space stations, space power reactors, solar arrays, thermoelectric generators, energy storage, and communication satellites are among the topics discussed.

  6. Themed Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Christopher O.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a classroom activity that introduces students to the concept of themed space. Students learn to think critically about the spaces they encounter on a regular basis by analyzing existing spaces and by working in groups to create their own themed space. This exercise gives students the chance to see the relevance of critical…

  7. Space colonization.

    PubMed

    2002-12-01

    NASA interest in colonization encompasses space tourism; space exploration; space bases in orbit, at L1, on the Moon, or on Mars; in-situ resource utilization; and planetary terraforming. Activities progressed during 2002 in areas such as Mars colonies, hoppers, and biomass; space elevators and construction; and in-situ consumables.

  8. An RES-Based Model for Risk Assessment and Prediction of Backbreak in Bench Blasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faramarzi, F.; Ebrahimi Farsangi, M. A.; Mansouri, H.

    2013-07-01

    Most blasting operations are associated with various forms of energy loss, emerging as environmental side effects of rock blasting, such as flyrock, vibration, airblast, and backbreak. Backbreak is an adverse phenomenon in rock blasting operations, which imposes risk and increases operation expenses because of safety reduction due to the instability of walls, poor fragmentation, and uneven burden in subsequent blasts. In this paper, based on the basic concepts of a rock engineering systems (RES) approach, a new model for the prediction of backbreak and the risk associated with a blast is presented. The newly suggested model involves 16 effective parameters on backbreak due to blasting, while retaining simplicity as well. The data for 30 blasts, carried out at Sungun copper mine, western Iran, were used to predict backbreak and the level of risk corresponding to each blast by the RES-based model. The results obtained were compared with the backbreak measured for each blast, which showed that the level of risk achieved is in consistence with the backbreak measured. The maximum level of risk [vulnerability index (VI) = 60] was associated with blast No. 2, for which the corresponding average backbreak was the highest achieved (9.25 m). Also, for blasts with levels of risk under 40, the minimum average backbreaks (<4 m) were observed. Furthermore, to evaluate the model performance for backbreak prediction, the coefficient of correlation ( R 2) and root mean square error (RMSE) of the model were calculated ( R 2 = 0.8; RMSE = 1.07), indicating the good performance of the model.

  9. Monocular measurement of the spectrum of UHE cosmic rays by the FADC detector of the HiRes experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, R. U.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Amman, J. F.; Archbold, G. C.; Bellido, J. A.; Belov, K.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Cao, Z.; Clay, R. W.; Cooper, M. D.; Dai, H.; Dawson, B. R.; Everett, A. A.; Girard, J. H. V.; Gray, R. C.; Hanlon, W. F.; Hoffman, C. M.; Holzscheiter, M. H.; Hüntemeyer, P.; Jones, B. F.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kieda, D. B.; Kim, K.; Kirn, M. A.; Loh, E. C.; Manago, N.; Marek, L. J.; Martens, K.; Martin, G.; Manago, N.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthews, J. N.; Meyer, J. R.; Moore, S. A.; Morrison, P.; Moosman, A. N.; Mumford, J. R.; Munro, M. W.; Painter, C. A.; Perera, L.; Reil, K.; Riehle, R.; Roberts, M.; Sarracino, J. S.; Schnetzer, S.; Shen, P.; Simpson, K. M.; Sinnis, G.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Song, C.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Thomas, S. B.; Thompson, T. N.; Thomson, G. B.; Tupa, D.; Westerhoff, S.; Wiencke, L. R.; VanderVeen, T. D.; Zech, A.; Zhang, X.

    2005-03-01

    We have measured the spectrum of UHE cosmic rays using the Flash ADC (FADC) detector (called HiRes-II) of the High Resolution Fly's Eye experiment running in monocular mode. We describe in detail the data analysis, development of the Monte Carlo simulation program, and results. We also describe the results of the HiRes-I detector. We present our measured spectra and compare them with a model incorporating galactic and extragalactic cosmic rays. Our combined spectra provide strong evidence for the existence of the spectral feature known as the "ankle."

  10. Space Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    invest in and support commercial efforts. In testimony before the House Committee on Space and Aeronautics in April of 2005, Elon Musk provided the...Response Launch Vehicle. Space Daily. Retrieved April 9, 2006 from www.spacedaily.com. 81 Musk , Elon (2005, April 20). Commercialization of Space...Space Transportation Policy. (2006, January 5). Retrieved May 30, 2006 from http://www.ostp.gov/html/SpaceTransFactSheetJan2005.pdf. 86 Musk , Elon

  11. Space prospects. [european space programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A strategy for keeping the Common Market's space effort independent of and competitive with NASA and the space shuttle is discussed. Limited financing is the chief obstacle to this. Proposals include an outer space materials processing project and further development of the Ariane rocket. A manned space program is excluded for the foreseeable future.

  12. Microgravity can activate signals urging cells to S-phase entry during tissue and organ regeneration in Urodele amphibians exposed to real and simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, E.; Anton, H.-J.; Mitashov, V.

    Regenerative response following local injury or tissue removal in urodele amphibians is dependent on cell cycle entry of cells sources for regeneration in the remaining tissue. In a number of our experiments performed aboard biosatellites in orbital flights and fast rotated clinostat we found enhanced proliferative activity and, as a result, regeneration quicker than that in controls. In each investigated case an activity of cell proliferation evaluated by 3H-thymidine radioautography and BrdU assay at the early stages of lens, retina, forelimb and tail regeneration in newts was about 1,2-1,7 fold higher both under conditions of real and physiological weightlessness as compared with controls. Faster S-phase entry under conditions of micro- g was demonstrated by cycling multipotent cells as well as by differentiated postmitotic cells both participated in regeneration. Important, that cycling cells outside areas of regeneration were also found as displayed faster cellular growth. In our papers (1,2,3,4) we offered some hypothesis that could explain mechanisms of low g stimulating effect upon cell growth in regeneration in Urodela. In particular, changes in expression of some growth factors and their receptors, as well as the synthesis of specific range of generalized stress proteins (AGSPs) were proposed. However, in fact, molecular mechanisms of micro- g effect upon cell proliferation are mediated by changes on organismic level induced by micro- g environment. Some of them which are able to trigger off signaling changes on the cellular level that, in turn, evoke cells to grow faster would be represented in our report. 1. Mitashov V. et al. Adv. Space Res. 1996. 17 (6/7): 241-255 2. Anton H.-J. et al. Adv. Space Res. 1996. 17 (6/7): 55-65 3. Grigoryan E. et al. Adv. Space Res. 1998. 22 (2): 293-301 4. Grigoryan E. et al. Adv. Space Res. 2002. 30 (4): 757-764

  13. Toxoplasmosis in a bar-shouldered dove (Geopelia humeralis) from the zoo of Clères, France

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasmosis causes mortality in several avian species, especially passerine birds. Toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a bar-shouldered dove (Geopelia humeralis) found dead at the zoo of Clères (France). The bird had necrotizing pneumonia and nephritis with intralesional tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondi...

  14. Les nouveaux critères de la Maladie d’Alzheimer – Perspective gériatrique*

    PubMed Central

    Molin, Pierre; Rockwood, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Deux nouvelles séries de critères pour le diagnostic de la maladie d’Alzheimer sont maintenant en vigueur, incluant une série publiée en 2014. Un « nouveau lexique » conceptualisant la maladie a également été proposé. En 2012, la Conférence consensuelle canadienne affirmait que, pour l’instant, ni les nouveaux critères ni la nouvelle terminologie ne modifiaient la pratique en première ligne. Néanmoins, pour les consultants spécialisés en démence, l’avènement de ces critères ouvre la porte à de nombreux défis et occasions. En général, les nouveaux critères accordent une place grandissante aux biomarqueurs. Toutefois, les évidences qui sous-tendent leur utilisation demeurent incomplètes. L’étude de sujets provenant de la communauté ayant raffiné notre compréhension des critères neuropathologiques des démences, il est probable que notre expérience avec les biomarqueurs en bénéficierait également. Pour l’instant, ces critères sont réservés à la recherche. Cependant, leur adoption à plus large échelle est pressentie, particulièrement aux États-Unis. Les gériatres canadiens doivent être conscients de la terminologie maintenant utilisée et du changement fondamental qui en découle : un diagnostic de maladie d’Alzheimer ne requiert plus un diagnostic de démence. Dans l’attente de nouvelles données – auxquelles les gériatres peuvent contribuer – il y a lieu de faire preuve de prudence dans l’adoption des nouveaux critères, car ils sont susceptibles de moins bien s’appliquer aux personnes âgées. PMID:27403215

  15. Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The plans for utilizing reusable space shuttles which could replace almost all present expendable launch vehicles are briefly described. Many illustrations are included showing the artists' concepts of various configurations proposed for space shuttles. (PR)

  16. Space Basics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbert, Dexter (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    In this education video series, 'Liftoff to Learning', astronauts (Bruce Melnick, Thomas Akers, William Shepherd, Robert Cabana, and Richard Richards) describe the historical beginnings of space exploration from the time of Robert H. Goddard (considered the Father of Rocketry), who, in 1929, invented the first propellant rocket, the prototype of modern liquid propellant rockets, up to the modern Space Shuttles. The questions - where is space, what is space, and how do astronauts get to, stay in, and come back from space are answered through historical footage, computer graphics, and animation. The space environment effects, temperature effects, and gravitational effects on the launching, orbiting, and descent of the Shuttles are discussed. Included is historical still photos and film footage of past space programs and space vehicles.

  17. Space medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The medical aspects of space flight are briefly discussed. The problems of space adaptation syndrome, commonly known as space sickness, are described, and its cause is shown. The adaptation of the cardiovascular system to weightlessness, the problems of radiation in space, atrophy of bones and muscles, and loss of blood volume are addressed. The difficulties associated with the reexperience of gravity on return to earth are briefly considered.

  18. Space Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-29

    as the Solar Heliospheric Observatory —a joint European Space Agency-NASA mission) (Ka) was launched in December 1995 and NASA’s Advanced Composition...Command, United States Central Command, United States European Command, and others. The US has missile defense cooperative programs with a number of...Therefore, civilian space agencies have often taken the leadership role for space. Agencies such as the European Space Agency, the United Kingdom

  19. Sphères diélectriques non concentriques par MMP-3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiener, S.; Ney, M.

    1992-11-01

    The aim of this communication is to present shortly the well known MMP coeds (Multiple Multipoles Programs) based on the GMT (Generalized Multipole Technique). A specific application is also computed. The scattering of a plane wave on spherical dielectric resonators is a classical problem with an analytic solution. For non concentric spheres, the analytic computation requires a “heavy” formalism and some approximation. However, this problem can be computed with the MMP 3D codes. Great care will be given to the self validation process of the computation with special features belonging to the code as well as external validation which is given, in the case of the single sphere, by the Mie's series and for the non concentric spheres by results computed with another numerical method. Cette communication se propose de présenter rapidement les codes MMP (Multiples MultiPôles) basés sur la TMG (Technique des Multipôles Généralisés) et ensuite de montrer une application spécifique. La diffraction d'une onde plane sur des sphères diélectriques en résonance avec ou sans pertes est un problème classique et qui possède une solution analytique. En revanche, si l'on cherche à calculer à généraliser le problème avec des sphères non concentriques, un formalisme complexe et quelques approximations sont nécessaires. Ce problème peut être calculés par les codes MMP 3D. On s'attachera aussi à valider les résultats d'une manière interne en utilisant les possibilités du code ainsi que d'une manière externe en comparant avec les séries de Mie, mais aussi avec les résultats obtenus par une autre méthode numérique.

  20. Les cellulites cervico-faciales graves, facteurs et critères de gravité

    PubMed Central

    Lakouichmi, Mohammed; Tourabi, Khalid; Abir, Bader-eddine; Zouhair, Said; Lahmiti, Saad; Hattab, Nadia Mansouri

    2014-01-01

    La cellulite cervico-faciale grave est une infection polymicrobienne extensive et redoutable du tissu cellulo-adipeux de la face et du cou. L'objectif de cette étude est d'analyser certains facteurs favorisants et d’évaluer les critères de gravité en fonction des formes anatomo-cliniques. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective réalisée, entre janvier 2007 et décembre 2012, au service de chirurgie maxillo faciale de l'hôpital militaire Avicenne de Marrakech. Sur 147 cas de cellulites cervico-faciales pris en charge au niveau du service, 13 dossiers de cellulites graves ont été retenus. Neuf hommes (69%) et quatre femmes (31%) ont fait l'objet de cette étude, avec un âge moyen de 35 ans. Tous les patients ont été adressés pour prise en charge secondaire après avoir pris des anti-inflammatoires (AI). Sept cas (54%) étaient immunocompétents. La cause dentaire était soulevée chez neufs cas (69%). Cinq cas (38%) ont présenté une forme pseudo phlegmoneuse avec des signes compressifs des voies aéro-digestives. L'extension médiastinale a été observée chez quatre patients (31%). La forme nécrosante extensive a été retrouvée dans trois cas (23%). L’étude bactériologique, réalisée chez tous les patients, avait mis en évidence une flore microbienne mixte et polymorphe. Les cellulites cervico-faciales graves posent un réel problème de prise en charge thérapeutique. L'analyse des facteurs favorisants et l’évaluation des critères de gravité dans cette série ont permis de limiter une évolution défavorable. PMID:26113891

  1. Cancer de la cavité orale chez trois frères germains en Mauritanie

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Nacer Dine

    2016-01-01

    Les facteurs de risque majeurs pour les cancers de la cavité orale sont la consommation d'alcool et le tabac mais une composante héréditaire a également été évoquée. L’observation que nous vous présentons ci-dessous a pour objectif d’illustrer cette composante parmi les autres facteurs de risque plus connus. C’est l’histoire de trois frères germains ayant présenté chacun un cancer de la cavité orale avec une évolution très rapide en moins d’une année pour chacun d’entre eux. En plus du facteur familial, les facteurs de risque retrouvés chez ces patients étaient: le tabagisme, une mauvaise hygiène bucco-dentaire, une alimentation pauvre en légumes et en fruits. Le risque familial des cancers de la cavité orale était pendant très longtemps un sujet controversé mais plusieurs études récentes ont suggérées l’existence de ce risque ce qui concorde avec notre observation chez ces trois frères. Ces études ont montré aussi que bien que la composante héréditaire pour les carcinomes des voies aéro-digestives supérieures semble probable, il est important que les membres de la famille à risque comprennent que leur vulnérabilité à ces tumeurs peut être considérablement réduite par l'arrêt du tabac, la modération de la consommation d'alcool et la consommation fréquente de fruits et légumes crus. Des études plus poussées devront être réalisées dans notre pays pour préciser la place respective de ces différents facteurs de risque pour ce cancer. En attendant, la prévention et le diagnostic précoce restent les moyens les plus appropriées pour la lutte contre ce type de cancers. PMID:28292118

  2. Space Battery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-13

    Space Command SPACE AND MISSILE SYSTEMS CENTER STANDARD SPACE BATTERY APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE ...person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control ... release , distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  3. Space Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermida, Julian

    2006-01-01

    This chapter examines the salient characteristics of Space Law. It analyzes the origins and evolution of Space Law, its main international principles, and some current topics of interest to the scientific community: the delimitation of airspace and outer space, intellectual property, and criminal responsibility.

  4. Constructing Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Austin

    This chapter chronicles the growth of the author's understanding of Media Space through his 20-year experience with coupling spaces, using video. It is a “technology-first” understanding of the construction of space. Key ideas from research studies and practice are presented, and contrasts with other genres of communication are made. The implications for distributed collaboration are explored.

  5. Selectively tunable optical Stark effect of anisotropic excitons in atomically thin ReS2

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Sangwan; Lee, Doeon; Noh, Minji; Cha, Soonyoung; Soh, Chan Ho; Sung, Ji Ho; Jo, Moon-Ho; Choi, Hyunyong

    2016-01-01

    The optical Stark effect is a coherent light–matter interaction describing the modification of quantum states by non-resonant light illumination in atoms, solids and nanostructures. Researchers have strived to utilize this effect to control exciton states, aiming to realize ultra-high-speed optical switches and modulators. However, most studies have focused on the optical Stark effect of only the lowest exciton state due to lack of energy selectivity, resulting in low degree-of-freedom devices. Here, by applying a linearly polarized laser pulse to few-layer ReS2, where reduced symmetry leads to strong in-plane anisotropy of excitons, we control the optical Stark shift of two energetically separated exciton states. Especially, we selectively tune the Stark effect of an individual state with varying light polarization. This is possible because each state has a completely distinct dependence on light polarization due to different excitonic transition dipole moments. Our finding provides a methodology for energy-selective control of exciton states. PMID:27857053

  6. The Union and Médecins Sans Frontières approach to operational research.

    PubMed

    Harries, A D; Rusen, I D; Reid, T; Detjen, A K; Berger, S D; Bissell, K; Hinderaker, S G; Edginton, M; Fussell, M; Fujiwara, P I; Zachariah, R

    2011-02-01

    Operational research (OR) has become a hot topic at national meetings, international conferences and donor fora. The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) Operational Centre Brussels strongly promote and implement OR with colleagues in low- and middle-income countries. Here we describe how the two organisations define OR, and explain the guiding principles and methodology that underpin the strategy for developing and expanding OR in those countries. We articulate The Union's and MSF's approach to supporting OR, highlighting the main synergies and differences. Then, using the Malawi National Tuberculosis Control Programme as an example, we show how OR can be embedded within tuberculosis control activities, leading to changes in policy and practice at the national level. We discuss the difficult, yet vitally important, issue of capacity building, and share our vision of a new paradigm of product-related training and performance-based OR fellowships as two ways of developing the necessary skills at country level to ensure research is actually performed. Finally, we highlight the need to consider and incorporate into practice the ethical components of OR. This is a key moment to be involved in OR. We are confident that in partnership with interested stakeholders, including the World Health Organization, we can stimulate the implementation of quality, relevant OR as an integral part of health service delivery that in turn will lead to better health for people, particularly for those living in the poorer parts of the world.

  7. Multiscale anisotropy controlled by folding: the example of the Chaudrons fold (Corbières, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, Laurent; Robion, Philippe; David, Christian; Frizon de Lamotte, Dominique

    2006-04-01

    In this paper, anisotropies developed in silicoclastic continental deposits during the building of the Chaudrons anticline (Corbières, France) are studied. A microstructural analysis of the deformational features in three different panels within the fold (crest, hinge, and forelimb, respectively) is reported and compared with early field observations (distribution and orientation of cleavage) and laboratory measurements (estimation of magnetic and acoustic anisotropies). The main finding of this investigation is the preservation of unwelded joints between grains of calcite promoted by the presence of quartz grains. These joints, which appear as discontinuities in a matrix of calcite, are analyzed in orientation and composition. In the three panels of the fold that are investigated, a range of dip angles is observed with at least two major generations of joints, the average orientation of which is found to be consistent with both macroscopic cleavage and magnetic and acoustic fabrics. To account for the multimodal distribution of the joints orientation, we suggest an original scenario in which they are successively generated by sets. Two processes have operated simultaneously during the development of the fold: (1) horizontal rock mass compaction inducing pressure solution and twinning in calcite; (2) preservation of unwelded calcite/calcite grain joints due to stress heterogeneities associated with quartz inclusions. From these results, we suggest that microstructural processes are the same before and during folding, ruling out a passive shearing of cleavage plane formed during a first step of layer parallel shortening.

  8. Effects of Aicardi-Goutières syndrome mutations predicted from ADAR-RNA structures.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Andrew J; Beal, Peter A

    2017-02-01

    Adenosine (A) to inosine (I) RNA editing is important for life in metazoan organisms. Dysregulation or mutations that compromise the efficacy of A to I editing results in neurological disorders and a shorten life span. These reactions are catalyzed by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs), which hydrolytically deaminate adenosines in regions of duplex RNA. Because inosine mimics guanosine in hydrogen bonding, this prolific RNA editing alters the sequence and structural information in the RNA landscape. Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is a severe childhood autoimmune disease that is one of a broader set of inherited disorders characterized by constitutive upregulation of type I interferon (IFN) referred to as type I interferonopathies. AGS is caused by mutations in multiple genes whose protein products, including ADAR1, are all involved in nucleic acid metabolism or sensing. The recent crystal structures of human ADAR2 deaminase domain complexed with duplex RNA substrates enabled modeling of how AGS causing mutations may influence RNA binding and catalysis. The mutations can be broadly characterized into three groups; mutations on RNA-binding loops that directly affect RNA binding, "second-layer" mutations that can alter the disposition of RNA-binding loops, and mutations that can alter the position of an α-helix bearing an essential catalytic residue.

  9. Selectively tunable optical Stark effect of anisotropic excitons in atomically thin ReS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Sangwan; Lee, Doeon; Noh, Minji; Cha, Soonyoung; Soh, Chan Ho; Sung, Ji Ho; Jo, Moon-Ho; Choi, Hyunyong

    2016-11-01

    The optical Stark effect is a coherent light-matter interaction describing the modification of quantum states by non-resonant light illumination in atoms, solids and nanostructures. Researchers have strived to utilize this effect to control exciton states, aiming to realize ultra-high-speed optical switches and modulators. However, most studies have focused on the optical Stark effect of only the lowest exciton state due to lack of energy selectivity, resulting in low degree-of-freedom devices. Here, by applying a linearly polarized laser pulse to few-layer ReS2, where reduced symmetry leads to strong in-plane anisotropy of excitons, we control the optical Stark shift of two energetically separated exciton states. Especially, we selectively tune the Stark effect of an individual state with varying light polarization. This is possible because each state has a completely distinct dependence on light polarization due to different excitonic transition dipole moments. Our finding provides a methodology for energy-selective control of exciton states.

  10. Space Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  11. Space law and space resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Nathan C.

    1992-01-01

    Space industrialization is confronting space law with problems that are changing old and shaping new legal principles. The return to the Moon, the next logical step beyond the space station, will establish a permanent human presence there. Science and engineering, manufacturing and mining will involve the astronauts in the settlement of the solar system. These pioneers, from many nations, will need a legal, political, and social framework to structure their lives and interactions. International and even domestic space law are only the beginning of this framework. Dispute resolution and simple experience will be needed in order to develop, over time, a new social system for the new regime of space.

  12. Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark; Flanagan, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Space telescopes have been a dominant force in astrophysics and astronomy over the last two decades. As Lyman Spitzer predicted in 1946, space telescopes have opened up much of the electromagnetic spectrum to astronomers, and provided the opportunity to exploit the optical performance of telescopes uncompromised by the turbulent atmosphere. This special section of Optical Engineering is devoted to space telescopes. It focuses on the design and implementation of major space observatories from the gamma-ray to far-infrared, and highlights the scientific and technical breakthroughs enabled by these telescopes. The papers accepted for publication include reviews of major space telescopes spanning the last two decades, in-depth discussions of the design considerations for visible and x-ray telescopes, and papers discussing concepts and technical challenges for future space telescopes.

  13. Space Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-06

    adversaries’ perceptions of US space capabilities and makes them less confident of success in interfering with those capabilities. DSC is built on...Responsibilities IV-17 transportation and space-based tourism , are no longer out of reach. Due to the demand for space-based products and services, the USG has...1) A well-organized missile warning system structure allows commanders to maximize detection and warning of inbound ballistic missiles, thereby

  14. Space suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, L. F.; Durney, G. P.; Case, M. C.; Kenneway, A. J., III; Wise, R. C.; Rinehart, D.; Bessette, R. J.; Pulling, R. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A pressure suit for high altitude flights, particularly space missions is reported. The suit is designed for astronauts in the Apollo space program and may be worn both inside and outside a space vehicle, as well as on the lunar surface. It comprises an integrated assembly of inner comfort liner, intermediate pressure garment, and outer thermal protective garment with removable helmet, and gloves. The pressure garment comprises an inner convoluted sealing bladder and outer fabric restraint to which are attached a plurality of cable restraint assemblies. It provides versitility in combination with improved sealing and increased mobility for internal pressures suitable for life support in the near vacuum of outer space.

  15. Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, Sam L.

    2000-01-01

    The National Academy of Sciences Committee on Space Biology and Medicine points out that space medicine is unique among space sciences, because in addition to addressing questions of fundamental scientific interest, it must address clinical or human health and safety issues as well. Efforts to identify how microgravity affects human physiology began in earnest by the United States in 1960 with the establishment of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA's) Life Sciences program. Before the first human space missions, prediction about the physiological effects of microgravity in space ranged from extremely severe to none at all. The understanding that has developed from our experiences in space to date allows us to be guardedly optimistic about the ultimate accommodations of humans to space flight. Only by our travels into the microgravity environment of space have we begun to unravel the mysteries associated with gravity's role in shaping human physiology. Space medicine is still at its very earliest stages. Development of this field has been slow for several reasons, including the limited number of space flights, the small number of research subjects, and the competition within the life sciences community and other disciplines for flight opportunities. The physiological changes incurred during space flight may have a dramatic effect on the course of an injury or illness. These physiological changes present an exciting challenge for the field of space medicine: how to best preserve human health and safety while simultaneously deciphering the effects of microgravity on human performance. As the United States considers the future of humans in long-term space travel, it is essential that the many mysteries as to how microgravity affects human systems be addressed with vigor. Based on the current state of our knowledge, the justification is excellent indeed compelling- for NASA to develop a sophisticated capability in space medicine. Teams of physicians

  16. Ready for a world without antibiotics? The Pensières Antibiotic Resistance Call to Action

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Resistance to antibiotics has increased dramatically over the past few years and has now reached a level that places future patients in real danger. Microorganisms such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, which are commensals and pathogens for humans and animals, have become increasingly resistant to third-generation cephalosporins. Moreover, in certain countries, they are also resistant to carbapenems and therefore susceptible only to tigecycline and colistin. Resistance is primarily attributed to the production of beta-lactamase genes located on mobile genetic elements, which facilitate their transfer between different species. In some rare cases, Gram-negative rods are resistant to virtually all known antibiotics. The causes are numerous, but the role of the overuse of antibiotics in both humans and animals is essential, as well as the transmission of these bacteria in both the hospital and the community, notably via the food chain, contaminated hands, and between animals and humans. In addition, there are very few new antibiotics in the pipeline, particularly for Gram-negative bacilli. The situation is slightly better for Gram-positive cocci as some potent and novel antibiotics have been made available in recent years. A strong and coordinated international programme is urgently needed. To meet this challenge, 70 internationally recognized experts met for a two-day meeting in June 2011 in Annecy (France) and endorsed a global call to action ("The Pensières Antibiotic Resistance Call to Action"). Bundles of measures that must be implemented simultaneously and worldwide are presented in this document. In particular, antibiotics, which represent a treasure for humanity, must be protected and considered as a special class of drugs. PMID:22958833

  17. Clinical and Molecular Phenotype of Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Gillian ; Patrick, Teresa ; Parmar, Rekha ; Taylor, Claire F. ; Aeby, Alec ; Aicardi, Jean ; Artuch, Rafael ; Montalto, Simon Attard ; Bacino, Carlos A. ; Barroso, Bruno ; Baxter, Peter ; Benko, Willam S. ; Bergmann, Carsten ; Bertini, Enrico ; Biancheri, Roberta ; Blair, Edward M. ; Blau, Nenad ; Bonthron, David T. ; Briggs, Tracy ; Brueton, Louise A. ; Brunner, Han G. ; Burke, Christopher J. ; Carr, Ian M. ; Carvalho, Daniel R. ; Chandler, Kate E. ; Christen, Hans-Jürgen ; Corry, Peter C. ; Cowan, Frances M. ; Cox, Helen ; D’Arrigo, Stefano ; Dean, John ; De Laet, Corinne ; De Praeter, Claudine ; Déry, Catherine ; Ferrie, Colin D. ; Flintoff, Kim ; Frints, Suzanna G. M. ; Garcia-Cazorla, Angels ; Gener, Blanca ; Goizet, Cyril ; Goutières, Françoise ; Green, Andrew J. ; Guët, Agnès ; Hamel, Ben C. J. ; Hayward, Bruce E. ; Heiberg, Arvid ; Hennekam, Raoul C. ; Husson, Marie ; Jackson, Andrew P. ; Jayatunga, Rasieka ; Jiang, Yong-Hui ; Kant, Sarina G. ; Kao, Amy ; King, Mary D. ; Kingston, Helen M. ; Klepper, Joerg ; van der Knaap, Marjo S. ; Kornberg, Andrew J. ; Kotzot, Dieter ; Kratzer, Wilfried ; Lacombe, Didier ; Lagae, Lieven ; Landrieu, Pierre Georges ; Lanzi, Giovanni ; Leitch, Andrea ; Lim, Ming J. ; Livingston, John H. ; Lourenco, Charles M. ; Lyall, E. G. Hermione ; Lynch, Sally A. ; Lyons, Michael J. ; Marom, Daphna ; McClure, John P. ; McWilliam, Robert ; Melancon, Serge B. ; Mewasingh, Leena D. ; Moutard, Marie-Laure ; Nischal, Ken K. ; Østergaard, John R. ; Prendiville, Julie ; Rasmussen, Magnhild ; Rogers, R. Curtis ; Roland, Dominique ; Rosser, Elisabeth M. ; Rostasy, Kevin ; Roubertie, Agathe ; Sanchis, Amparo ; Schiffmann, Raphael ; Scholl-Bürgi, Sabine ; Seal, Sunita ; Shalev, Stavit A. ; Corcoles, C. Sierra ; Sinha, Gyan P. ; Soler, Doriette ; Spiegel, Ronen ; Stephenson, John B. P. ; Tacke, Uta ; Tan, Tiong Yang ; Till, Marianne ; Tolmie, John L. ; Tomlin, Pam ; Vagnarelli, Federica ; Valente, Enza Maria ; Van Coster, Rudy N. A. ; Van der Aa, Nathalie ; Vanderver, Adeline ; Vles, Johannes S. H. ; Voit, Thomas ; Wassmer, Evangeline ; Weschke, Bernhard ; Whiteford, Margo L. ; Willemsen, Michel A. A. ; Zankl, Andreas ; Zuberi, Sameer M. ; Orcesi, Simona ; Fazzi, Elisa ; Lebon, Pierre ; Crow, Yanick J. 

    2007-01-01

    Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is a genetic encephalopathy whose clinical features mimic those of acquired in utero viral infection. AGS exhibits locus heterogeneity, with mutations identified in genes encoding the 3′→5′ exonuclease TREX1 and the three subunits of the RNASEH2 endonuclease complex. To define the molecular spectrum of AGS, we performed mutation screening in patients, from 127 pedigrees, with a clinical diagnosis of the disease. Biallelic mutations in TREX1, RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, and RNASEH2C were observed in 31, 3, 47, and 18 families, respectively. In five families, we identified an RNASEH2A or RNASEH2B mutation on one allele only. In one child, the disease occurred because of a de novo heterozygous TREX1 mutation. In 22 families, no mutations were found. Null mutations were common in TREX1, although a specific missense mutation was observed frequently in patients from northern Europe. Almost all mutations in RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, and RNASEH2C were missense. We identified an RNASEH2C founder mutation in 13 Pakistani families. We also collected clinical data from 123 mutation-positive patients. Two clinical presentations could be delineated: an early-onset neonatal form, highly reminiscent of congenital infection seen particularly with TREX1 mutations, and a later-onset presentation, sometimes occurring after several months of normal development and occasionally associated with remarkably preserved neurological function, most frequently due to RNASEH2B mutations. Mortality was correlated with genotype; 34.3% of patients with TREX1, RNASEH2A, and RNASEH2C mutations versus 8.0% RNASEH2B mutation–positive patients were known to have died (P=.001). Our analysis defines the phenotypic spectrum of AGS and suggests a coherent mutation-screening strategy in this heterogeneous disorder. Additionally, our data indicate that at least one further AGS-causing gene remains to be identified. PMID:17846997

  18. Des lasers à excimères pour cristalliser le silicium des écrans plats : pourquoi ? comment ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prat, C.

    2003-06-01

    Les contraintes techniques et économiques de la fabrication d'écrans plats à cristaux liquides à matrice active ont suscité de nombreuses études de procédés de cristallisation de couches minces de silicium par laser à excimères, exploitant principalement trois types de phénomènes physiques, dans le but d'obtenir des cristaux micrométriques les plus uniformes possible.

  19. Mycorrhiza analyses in New Zealand truffières reveal frequent but variable persistence of Tuber melanosporum in co-existence with other truffle species.

    PubMed

    Guerin-Laguette, Alexis; Cummings, Nicholas; Hesom-Williams, Nina; Butler, Ruth; Wang, Yun

    2013-02-01

    This study compiles the results from an examination of mycorrhizae on root samples from Tuber melanosporum truffières in New Zealand. Samples were taken over 5 years from 328 trees in 43 truffières established with nursery-inoculated trees. Mycorrhizae were analysed using a combination of morphological and molecular techniques, focusing on the identification of Tuber species. Results show that 49% of the trees, and nearly 90% of the truffières, retained T. melanosporum mycorrhizae up to 21 years after planting. Tuber mycorrhizae with spiky cystidia were found on 26.9% of the tested trees: Tuber brumale (5.5%), Tuber maculatum (10.7%), and unidentified Tuber species (10.7%), and were detected in 67% of the truffières tested. T. brumale was found in 28% and T. maculatum in 35% of the truffières. In 56% of the truffières, T. melanosporum was found to occur with spiky Tuber species. The existence of T. brumale and T. maculatum in the same truffière was recorded only once. Forty-four percent of trees examined had Scleroderma-like (SCL) mycorrhizae and 50% of trees hosted other ectomycorrhizal species (OE). For all categories of mycorrhizal species examined, the variation between truffières was greater than variation within each truffière. Overall results indicate that Corylus avellana tends to be more receptive to mycorrhizae of Tuber species than Quercus robur but is not necessarily more productive. In productive truffières, Q. robur appears to host SCL mycorrhizae more often than C. avellana. This is the first study of its scale to analyse the mycorrhizal species associated with T. melanosporum truffières in the Southern Hemisphere.

  20. Space Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    This pamphlet describes the Space Telescope, an unmanned multi-purpose telescope observatory planned for launch into orbit by the Space Shuttle in the 1980s. The unique capabilities of this telescope are detailed, the major elements of the telescope are described, and its proposed mission operations are outlined. (CS)

  1. Space Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Horneck, Gerda; Klaus, David M.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: The responses of microorganisms (viruses, bacterial cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and lichens) to selected factors of space (microgravity, galactic cosmic radiation, solar UV radiation, and space vacuum) were determined in space and laboratory simulation experiments. In general, microorganisms tend to thrive in the space flight environment in terms of enhanced growth parameters and a demonstrated ability to proliferate in the presence of normally inhibitory levels of antibiotics. The mechanisms responsible for the observed biological responses, however, are not yet fully understood. A hypothesized interaction of microgravity with radiation-induced DNA repair processes was experimentally refuted. The survival of microorganisms in outer space was investigated to tackle questions on the upper boundary of the biosphere and on the likelihood of interplanetary transport of microorganisms. It was found that extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was the most deleterious factor of space. Among all organisms tested, only lichens (Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans) maintained full viability after 2 weeks in outer space, whereas all other test systems were inactivated by orders of magnitude. Using optical filters and spores of Bacillus subtilis as a biological UV dosimeter, it was found that the current ozone layer reduces the biological effectiveness of solar UV by 3 orders of magnitude. If shielded against solar UV, spores of B. subtilis were capable of surviving in space for up to 6 years, especially if embedded in clay or meteorite powder (artificial meteorites). The data support the likelihood of interplanetary transfer of microorganisms within meteorites, the so-called lithopanspermia hypothesis. PMID:20197502

  2. Collaborative Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippman, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    When architects discuss the educational facilities of the next century and beyond, the conversation turns to collaborative spaces. They envision flexible and fluid spaces that will encourage creative and critical thinking, and free students to communicate clearly about the task at hand. While these are admirable ideals, there are some fundamental…

  3. Space psychology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  4. Space Jurisdiction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, Declan

    United Societies In Space (USIS) marks its official beginning at Georgetown University Law School in October, 1992. The setting was the Moot Court proceedings of the International Institute of Space Lawyers at the law school. Dr. George S. Robinson, III was presiding over the Court Competition. Dr. Robinson was Associate General Counsel for the Smithsonian Institution at that time…

  5. Space engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Harold L.

    1991-01-01

    Human productivity was studied for extravehicular tasks performed in microgravity, particularly including in-space assembly of truss structures and other large objects. Human factors research probed the anthropometric constraints imposed on microgravity task performance and the associated workstation design requirements. Anthropometric experiments included reach envelope tests conducted using the 3-D Acoustic Positioning System (3DAPS), which permitted measuring the range of reach possible for persons using foot restraints in neutral buoyancy, both with and without space suits. Much neutral buoyancy research was conducted using the support of water to simulate the weightlessness environment of space. It became clear over time that the anticipated EVA requirement associated with the Space Station and with in-space construction of interplanetary probes would heavily burden astronauts, and remotely operated robots (teleoperators) were increasingly considered to absorb the workload. Experience in human EVA productivity led naturally to teleoperation research into the remote performance of tasks through human controlled robots.

  6. Space smarts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colucci, Frank

    1991-02-01

    A review is presented of design and development work in space data processors at the Honeywell Space Systems Group in Florida. Space computers, some hardened for the first time against radiation from both man-made nuclear events and the natural space environment, are described. A specific illustration of this is the Space Shuttle main engine control which monitors some 120 engine parameters 50 times per second and operates the actuators that control the liquid-fueled engine through its eight minute burn. It is further pointed out that Space Station processors will be tied together by three different data buses, each with its own protocol, while the backbone of the data management system will be an optical fiber distributed data interface handling up to 100 Mbits/sec. Radiation hardening without heavy shielding can be accomplished in several ways, i.e., at the materials level, by insulating substrates which can limit the photo-currents generated by a nuclear event, and at the topological level, by spacing transistors so that photocurrents cannot concentrate at any particular node.

  7. Space polypropulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellett, B. J.; Griffin, D. K.; Bingham, R.; Campbell, R. N.; Forbes, A.; Michaelis, M. M.

    2008-05-01

    Hybrid space propulsion has been a feature of most space missions. Only the very early rocket propulsion experiments like the V2, employed a single form of propulsion. By the late fifties multi-staging was routine and the Space Shuttle employs three different kinds of fuel and rocket engines. During the development of chemical rockets, other forms of propulsion were being slowly tested, both theoretically and, relatively slowly, in practice. Rail and gas guns, ion engines, "slingshot" gravity assist, nuclear and solar power, tethers, solar sails have all seen some real applications. Yet the earliest type of non-chemical space propulsion to be thought of has never been attempted in space: laser and photon propulsion. The ideas of Eugen Saenger, Georgii Marx, Arthur Kantrowitz, Leik Myrabo, Claude Phipps and Robert Forward remain Earth-bound. In this paper we summarize the various forms of nonchemical propulsion and their results. We point out that missions beyond Saturn would benefit from a change of attitude to laser-propulsion as well as consideration of hybrid "polypropulsion" - which is to say using all the rocket "tools" available rather than possibly not the most appropriate. We conclude with three practical examples, two for the next decades and one for the next century; disposal of nuclear waste in space; a grand tour of the Jovian and Saturnian moons - with Huygens or Lunoxod type, landers; and eventually mankind's greatest space dream: robotic exploration of neighbouring planetary systems.

  8. Space medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, Sam L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper attempts to underscore the importance of continued studies on the effects of space on human physiology. With particular reference to the Space Station, it is pointed out that there are two aspects which are challenging to life scientists: first is the development of a research capability for the life sciences which will be used to conduct investigations necessary to extend the time humans can remain in space; second is the challenge to develop a medical capability to provide prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. A discussion of physiological changes that have been observed in spacecrews follows along the lines of the two aspects mentioned.

  9. Space Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Mary Fae (Editor); McKay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Space resources must be used to support life on the Moon and exploration of Mars. Just as the pioneers applied the tools they brought with them to resources they found along the way rather than trying to haul all their needs over a long supply line, so too must space travelers apply their high technology tools to local resources. The pioneers refilled their water barrels at each river they forded; moonbase inhabitants may use chemical reactors to combine hydrogen brought from Earth with oxygen found in lunar soil to make their water. The pioneers sought temporary shelter under trees or in the lee of a cliff and built sod houses as their first homes on the new land; settlers of the Moon may seek out lava tubes for their shelter or cover space station modules with lunar regolith for radiation protection. The pioneers moved further west from their first settlements, using wagons they had built from local wood and pack animals they had raised; space explorers may use propellant made at a lunar base to take them on to Mars. The concept for this report was developed at a NASA-sponsored summer study in 1984. The program was held on the Scripps campus of the University of California at San Diego (UCSD), under the auspices of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE). It was jointly managed under the California Space Inst. and the NASA Johnson Space Center, under the direction of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) at NASA Headquarters. The study participants (listed in the addendum) included a group of 18 university teachers and researchers (faculty fellows) who were present for the entire 10-week period and a larger group of attendees from universities, Government, and industry who came for a series of four 1-week workshops. The organization of this report follows that of the summer study. Space Resources consists of a brief overview and four detailed technical volumes: (1) Scenarios; (2) Energy, Power, and Transport; (3) Materials; (4

  10. Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A general description of the space shuttle program is presented, with emphasis on its application to the use of space for commercial, scientific, and defense needs. The following aspects of the program are discussed: description of the flight system (orbiter, external tank, solid rocket boosters) and mission profile, direct benefits related to life on earth (both present and expected), description of the space shuttle vehicle and its associated supporting systems, economic impacts (including indirect benefits such as lower inflation rates), listing of participating organizations.

  11. The impact of rhetoric and education on the "Res Gestae" of Ammianus Marcellinus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Pablo

    The aim of this thesis is to explore and underline the impact of education and rhetoric on the Res Gestae of Ammianus Marcellinus. I will examine the concept of education in two different aspects. First, I will determine the role of education in regards to Ammianus' early life by describing the cultural climate in the East in the fourth century (Introduction and chapter 1). In this analysis, I will argue that the historian's familiarity with Latin suggests an early acquaintance with the language, indicating that he should not be invariably associated with earlier Greek historians. Second, I will look at how the content of the curriculum is reflected in the RG, explaining how literary sources shaped the composition of the historian's digressions on geography (Chapter 3) and astronomy (Chapter 4). In the past, scholars have examined Ammianus' cultural digressions as an example of the tension between things seen and things read. In my argumentation, I will concentrate on explaining the reasons why Ammianus often tended to rely on literary works rather than observation. I will show that the explanation greatly lies in the content of the curriculum. Concerning the role of rhetoric, I will examine how rhetorical training is articulated in the RG. In Chapter 2, I will show that Ammianus' selection of historical material can be explained in light of the ancient theory of styles. In this context, I will study the role of a rhetorical device designed to raise the emotions of readers by bringing the scene before their eyes: enargeia. In Chapters 3 and 4, I will demonstrate that the cultural digressions in the RG are mostly the product of cultural stereotypes and literary influences. In Chapter 5, I will show the impact of rhetorical treatises on some passages of the RG, arguing that the traditional classification of oratory into deliberative, epideictic and judicial is echoed in both the speeches and the historical narrative. To conclude: the main purpose of my dissertation

  12. Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierly, Ken; Dalheim, Mary

    1981-01-01

    Presents an elementary teaching unit on NASA's space program, including teacher background information, suggested student activities, and a list of resources. Appended is a transcript of an interview conducted by elementary children with astronaut candidate Sherwood (Woody) Spring. (SJL)

  13. Space science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A fact sheet on the NASA space science program is presented. Some of the subjects considered include the following: (1) the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory, (2) the Orbiting Solar Observatory, (3) the Small Astronomy Satellite, (4) lunar programs, (5) planetary programs using the Mariner, Pioneer 10, and Viking space probes, and (6) the Scout, Thor-Delta, and Atlas-Centaur launch vehicles. For each program there is a description of the effort, the schedule, management, program officials, and funding aspects in outline form.

  14. Space Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    ACCESSION NO 3. RECIPIENTS CATALOG NUIA3.R CMU-RI-TR-82-10 I4 1 (. 4. ;,;-LL (and Sublitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD CovEREO SPACE ROBOTICS Interim... Robotics Institute Pittsburgh, PA. 15213 It. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE Office of Naval Research -August 1982 Arlington, VA 22217...SXnet.eE . Space Robotics Richard E. Korf Department of Computer Science and The Robotics Institute Carnegie-Mellon University Pittsburgh, Oetusylvania

  15. Space Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Mary Fae (Editor); McKay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Space resources must be used to support life on the Moon and exploration of Mars. Just as the pioneers applied the tools they brought with them to resources they found along the way rather than trying to haul all their needs over a long supply line, so too must space travelers apply their high technology tools to local resources. The pioneers refilled their water barrels at each river they forded; moonbase inhabitants may use chemical reactors to combine hydrogen brought from Earth with oxygen found in lunar soil to make their water. The pioneers sought temporary shelter under trees or in the lee of a cliff and built sod houses as their first homes on the new land; settlers of the Moon may seek out lava tubes for their shelter or cover space station modules with lunar regolith for radiation protection. The pioneers moved further west from their first settlements, using wagons they had built from local wood and pack animals they had raised; space explorers may use propellant made at a lunar base to take them on to Mars. The concept for this report was developed at a NASA-sponsored summer study in 1984. The program was held on the Scripps campus of the University of California at San Diego (UCSD), under the auspices of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE). It was jointly managed under the California Space Inst. and the NASA Johnson Space Center, under the direction of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) at NASA Headquarters. The study participants (listed in the addendum) included a group of 18 university teachers and researchers (faculty fellows) who were present for the entire 10-week period and a larger group of attendees from universities, Government, and industry who came for a series of four 1-week workshops. The organization of this report follows that of the summer study. Space Resources consists of a brief overview and four detailed technical volumes: (1) Scenarios; (2) Energy, Power, and Transport; (3) Materials; (4

  16. The Borrelia burgdorferi telomere resolvase, ResT, anneals ssDNA complexed with its cognate ssDNA-binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shu Hui; Kobryn, Kerri

    2016-01-01

    Spirochetes of the genus Borrelia possess unusual genomes that consist in a linear chromosome and multiple linear and circular plasmids. The linear replicons are terminated by covalently closed hairpin ends, referred to as hairpin telomeres. The hairpin telomeres represent a simple solution to the end-replication problem. Deoxyribonucleic acid replication initiates internally and proceeds bidirectionally toward the hairpin telomeres. The telomere resolvase, ResT, forms the hairpin telomeres from replicated telomere intermediates in a reaction with similarities to those promoted by type IB topoisomerases and tyrosine recombinases. ResT has also been shown to possess DNA single-strand annealing activity. We report here that ResT promotes single-strand annealing of both free DNA strands and ssDNA complexed with single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB). The annealing of complementary strands bound by SSB requires a ResT–SSB interaction that is mediated by the conserved amphipathic C-terminal tail of SSB. These properties of ResT are similar to those demonstrated for the recombination mediator protein, RecO, of the RecF pathway. Borrelia burgdorferi is unusual in lacking identifiable homologs of the RecFOR proteins. We propose that ResT may provide missing RecFOR functions. PMID:27131360

  17. Space Rescue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muratore, John F.

    2007-01-01

    Space Rescue has been a topic of speculation for a wide community of people for decades. Astronauts, aerospace engineers, diplomats, medical and rescue professionals, inventors and science fiction writers have all speculated on this problem. Martin Caidin's 1964 novel Marooned dealt with the problems of rescuing a crew stranded in low earth orbit. Legend at the Johnson Space Center says that Caidin's portrayal of a Russian attempt to save the American crew played a pivotal role in convincing the Russians to join the real joint Apollo-Soyuz mission. Space Rescue has been a staple in science fiction television and movies portrayed in programs such as Star Trek, Stargate-SG1 and Space 1999 and movies such as Mission To Mars and Red Planet. As dramatic and as difficult as rescue appears in fictional accounts, in the real world it has even greater drama and greater difficulty. Space rescue is still in its infancy as a discipline and the purpose of this chapter is to describe the issues associated with space rescue and the work done so far in this field. For the purposes of this chapter, the term space rescue will refer to any system which allows for rescue or escape of personnel from situations which endanger human life in a spaceflight operation. This will span the period from crew ingress prior to flight through crew egress postlanding. For the purposes of this chapter, the term primary system will refer to the spacecraft system that a crew is either attempting to escape from or from which an attempt is being made to rescue the crew.

  18. Space Resources and Space Settlements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingham, J. (Editor); Gilbreath, W. P. (Editor); Oleary, B. (Editor); Gosset, B. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The technical papers from the five tasks groups that took part in the 1977 Ames Summer Study on Space Settlements and Industrialization Using Nonterrestrial Materials are presented. The papers are presented under the following general topics: (1) research needs for regenerative life-support systems; (2) habitat design; (3) dynamics and design of electromagnetic mass drivers; (4) asteroids as resources for space manufacturing; and (5) processing of nonterrestrial materials.

  19. The BonaRes Centre - A virtual institute for soil research in the context of a sustainable bio-economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollschläger, Ute; Helming, Katharina; Heinrich, Uwe; Bartke, Stephan; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Russell, David; Eberhardt, Einar; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2016-04-01

    Fertile soils are central resources for the production of biomass and provision of food and energy. A growing world population and latest climate targets lead to an increasing demand for both, food and bio-energy, which require preserving and improving the long-term productivity of soils as a bio-economic resource. At the same time, other soil functions and ecosystem services need to be maintained. To render soil management sustainable, we need to establish a scientific knowledge base about complex soil system processes that allows for the development of model tools to quantitatively predict the impact of a multitude of management measures on soil functions. This, finally, will allow for the provision of site-specific options for sustainable soil management. To face this challenge, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research recently launched the funding program "Soil as a Natural Resource for the Bio-Economy - BonaRes". In a joint effort, ten collaborative projects and the coordinating BonaRes Centre are engaged to close existing knowledge gaps for a profound and systemic understanding of soil functions and their sensitivity to soil management. This presentation provides an overview of the concept of the BonaRes Centre which is responsible for i) setting up a comprehensive data base for soil-related information, ii) the development of model tools aiming to estimate the impact of different management measures on soil functions, and iii) establishing a web-based portal providing decision support tools for a sustainable soil management. A specific focus of the presentation will be laid on the so-called "knowledge-portal" providing the infrastructure for a community effort towards a comprehensive meta-analysis on soil functions as a basis for future model developments.

  20. A high resolution coupled hydrologic-hydraulic model (HiResFlood-UCI) for flash flood modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Phu; Thorstensen, Andrea; Sorooshian, Soroosh; Hsu, Kuolin; AghaKouchak, Amir; Sanders, Brett; Koren, Victor; Cui, Zhengtao; Smith, Michael

    2016-10-01

    HiResFlood-UCI was developed by coupling the NWS's hydrologic model (HL-RDHM) with the hydraulic model (BreZo) for flash flood modeling at decameter resolutions. The coupled model uses HL-RDHM as a rainfall-runoff generator and replaces the routing scheme of HL-RDHM with the 2D hydraulic model (BreZo) in order to predict localized flood depths and velocities. A semi-automated technique of unstructured mesh generation was developed to cluster an adequate density of computational cells along river channels such that numerical errors are negligible compared with other sources of error, while ensuring that computational costs of the hydraulic model are kept to a bare minimum. HiResFlood-UCI was implemented for a watershed (ELDO2) in the DMIP2 experiment domain in Oklahoma. Using synthetic precipitation input, the model was tested for various components including HL-RDHM parameters (a priori versus calibrated), channel and floodplain Manning n values, DEM resolution (10 m versus 30 m) and computation mesh resolution (10 m+ versus 30 m+). Simulations with calibrated versus a priori parameters of HL-RDHM show that HiResFlood-UCI produces reasonable results with the a priori parameters from NWS. Sensitivities to hydraulic model resistance parameters, mesh resolution and DEM resolution are also identified, pointing to the importance of model calibration and validation for accurate prediction of localized flood intensities. HiResFlood-UCI performance was examined using 6 measured precipitation events as model input for model calibration and validation of the streamflow at the outlet. The Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) obtained ranges from 0.588 to 0.905. The model was also validated for the flooded map using USGS observed water level at an interior point. The predicted flood stage error is 0.82 m or less, based on a comparison to measured stage. Validation of stage and discharge predictions builds confidence in model predictions of flood extent and localized velocities

  1. Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    This abstract covers a one hour presentation on Space Exploration. The audience is elementary students; therefore there are few words on the slides, mostly pictures of living and working in space. The presentation opens with a few slides describing a day in the life of a space explorer. It begins with a launch, discussions of day-night cycles, eating, exercising, housekeeping, EVA, relaxation, and sleeping. The next section of the presentation shows photos of astronauts performing experiments on the ISS. Yokomi Elementary School launched this fall with the most advanced educational technology tools available in schools today. The science and technology magnet school is equipped with interactive white boards, digital projectors, integrated sound systems and several computers for use by teachers and students. The only elementary school in Fresno Unified with a science focus also houses dedicated science classrooms equipped specifically for elementary students to experience hands-on science instruction in addition to the regular elementary curriculum.

  2. Entering Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrin, Robert

    The authors is giving a classification of civilisations depending on the degree of colonisation of the Earth, Solar System and Our Galaxy. The problems of: History of geographic discoveries (The great geographical discoveries during the Middle Age, the concurence of Chinnese and Europeans in this Area); The Astrophysics, such as: Asteroids, Water and Atmosphere on outer planets, Planet Mars Planet, Agriculture on outer planets, Minerals on outer planets; Cosmic flights: Fuels, Robotics, Moon (as an intermediary basis for interplanetary flights), Mars colonisation; Interstellar flights, Space research costs, strategy and tactics of the space colonisation; Policy: War and Peace, International Collaboration are discussed.

  3. Space vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonpragenau, G. L. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A space vehicle having an improved ascent configuration for use in traveling in space is presented. Components of the vehicle are: (1) a winged orbiter having an elongater fuselage and rearwardly directed main engines fixed to the fuselage; (2) an elongated tank assembly of an improved configuration disposed forwardly of the fuselage and connected with the main engines of the vehicle for supplying liquid propellants; and (3) a booster stage comprising a pair of integrated solid rocket boosters connected with the orbiter immediately beneath the fuselage and extended in substantial parallelism.

  4. Space Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-15

    sponsored Survivability Analysis Group (SAG), (b) Reviewing for the Air Force some spacecraft radioisotope - thermoelectric - generator (RTG) and... Thermoelectric Generator SADA Solar Array Drive Assembly SAG Survivahilily Analysis Group SAMSO Space and Missile Systems Organization SAOS Solar Array Drive...over was accomplished without incident except that the third- generation gyro (TGG) drift-rate compensation was observed to have changed sometime after

  5. Found Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haug, Ted; Ogurek, Douglas J.

    2006-01-01

    When education providers confront obstacles such as shrinking budgets and swelling enrollments, a multi-million-dollar new facility or major additions probably are not feasible. Converting vacant and underused buildings into school facilities enables administrators to acquire additional space quickly and cheaply. In this article, the authors…

  6. Training Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    Creating a balanced learning space for employees is about more than trying different types of seating. It is a challenge that an affect how well employees absorb the lessons and whether they will be able to product better results for the company. The possible solutions are as diverse as the learners. This article describes how three companies…

  7. Space Gerontology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miquel, J. (Editor); Economos, A. C. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Presentations are given which address the effects of space flght on the older person, the parallels between the physiological responses to weightlessness and the aging process, and experimental possibilities afforded by the weightless environment to fundamental research in gerontology and geriatrics.

  8. Friendly Spaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Elia, William

    1996-01-01

    The creation of usable space for gatherings and socializing is an important consideration in any campus planning program. The University of California-San Diego has a large outdoor assembly area. An addition at Cal Poly-San Luis Obispo encompasses an existing pedestrian path. A new building at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks, is designed as a…

  9. Space languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Dan

    1987-01-01

    Applications of linguistic principles to potential problems of human and machine communication in space settings are discussed. Variations in language among speakers of different backgrounds and change in language forms resulting from new experiences or reduced contact with other groups need to be considered in the design of intelligent machine systems.

  10. Space Storms and Space Weather Hazards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the...magnetic field in the vicinity of the Earth. Thus the existence of an “ extraterrestrial ring current” (Figure 1) was inferred before the dawn of the...A., On the extraterrestrial ring current during geomagnetic storms, J. Geophys. Res., 72, 3753-3767, 1967. Friis-Christensen, E., Solar activity

  11. Second Symposium on Space Industrialization. [space commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jernigan, C. M. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The policy, legal, and economic aspects of space industrialization are considered along with satellite communications, material processing, remote sensing, and the role of space carriers and a space station in space industrialization.

  12. Inherit Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giarratano, Joseph C.; Jenks, K. C.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the proposed research was to begin development of a unique educational tool targeted at educating and inspiring young people 12-16 years old about NASA and the Space Program. Since these young people are the future engineers, scientists and space pioneers, the nurturing of their enthusiasm and interest is of critical importance to the Nation. This summer the basic infrastructure of the tool was developed in the context of an educational game paradigm. The game paradigm has achieved remarkable success in maintaining the interest of young people in a self-paced, student-directed learning environment. This type of environment encourages student exploration and curiosity which are exactly the traits that future space pioneers need to develop to prepare for the unexpected. The Inherit Space Educational Tool is an open-ended learning environment consisting of a finite-state machine classic adventure game paradigm. As the young person explores this world, different obstacles must be overcome. Rewards will be offered such as using the flight simulator to fly around and explore Titan. This simulator was modeled on conventional Earth flight simulators but has been considerably enhanced to add texture mapping of Titan's atmosphere utilizing the latest information from the NASA Galileo Space Probe. Additional scenery was added to provide color VGA graphics of a futuristic research station on Titan as well as an interesting story to keep the youngster's attention. This summer the game infrastructure has been developed as well as the Titan Flight Simulator. A number of other enhancements are planned.

  13. Hunting the Extinct Steppe Bison (Bison priscus) Mitochondrial Genome in the Trois-Frères Paleolithic Painted Cave

    PubMed Central

    Marsolier-Kergoat, Marie-Claude; Palacio, Pauline; Berthonaud, Véronique; Maksud, Frédéric; Stafford, Thomas; Bégouën, Robert; Elalouf, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Despite the abundance of fossil remains for the extinct steppe bison (Bison priscus), an animal that was painted and engraved in numerous European Paleolithic caves, a complete mitochondrial genome sequence has never been obtained for this species. In the present study we collected bone samples from a sector of the Trois-Frères Paleolithic cave (Ariège, France) that formerly functioned as a pitfall and was sealed before the end of the Pleistocene. Screening the DNA content of the samples collected from the ground surface revealed their contamination by Bos DNA. However, a 19,000-year-old rib collected on a rock apart the pathway delineated for modern visitors was devoid of such contaminants and reproducibly yielded Bison priscus DNA. High-throughput shotgun sequencing combined with conventional PCR analysis of the rib DNA extract enabled to reconstruct a complete mitochondrial genome sequence of 16,318 bp for the extinct steppe bison with a 10.4-fold coverage. Phylogenetic analyses robustly established the position of the Bison priscus mitochondrial genome as basal to the clade delineated by the genomes of the modern American Bison bison. The extinct steppe bison sequence, which exhibits 93 specific polymorphisms as compared to the published Bison bison mitochondrial genomes, provides an additional resource for the study of Bovinae specimens. Moreover this study of ancient DNA delineates a new research pathway for the analysis of the Magdalenian Trois-Frères cave. PMID:26083419

  14. Hunting the Extinct Steppe Bison (Bison priscus) Mitochondrial Genome in the Trois-Frères Paleolithic Painted Cave.

    PubMed

    Marsolier-Kergoat, Marie-Claude; Palacio, Pauline; Berthonaud, Véronique; Maksud, Frédéric; Stafford, Thomas; Bégouën, Robert; Elalouf, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Despite the abundance of fossil remains for the extinct steppe bison (Bison priscus), an animal that was painted and engraved in numerous European Paleolithic caves, a complete mitochondrial genome sequence has never been obtained for this species. In the present study we collected bone samples from a sector of the Trois-Frères Paleolithic cave (Ariège, France) that formerly functioned as a pitfall and was sealed before the end of the Pleistocene. Screening the DNA content of the samples collected from the ground surface revealed their contamination by Bos DNA. However, a 19,000-year-old rib collected on a rock apart the pathway delineated for modern visitors was devoid of such contaminants and reproducibly yielded Bison priscus DNA. High-throughput shotgun sequencing combined with conventional PCR analysis of the rib DNA extract enabled to reconstruct a complete mitochondrial genome sequence of 16,318 bp for the extinct steppe bison with a 10.4-fold coverage. Phylogenetic analyses robustly established the position of the Bison priscus mitochondrial genome as basal to the clade delineated by the genomes of the modern American Bison bison. The extinct steppe bison sequence, which exhibits 93 specific polymorphisms as compared to the published Bison bison mitochondrial genomes, provides an additional resource for the study of Bovinae specimens. Moreover this study of ancient DNA delineates a new research pathway for the analysis of the Magdalenian Trois-Frères cave.

  15. Space Toxicology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Safe breathing air for space faring crews is essential whether they are inside an Extravehicular Mobility Suit (EMU), a small capsule such as Soyuz, or the expansive International Space Station (ISS). Sources of air pollution can include entry of propellants, excess offgassing from polymeric materials, leakage of systems compounds, escape of payload compounds, over-use of utility compounds, microbial metabolism, and human metabolism. The toxicological risk posed by a compound is comprised of the probability of escaping to cause air pollution and the magnitude of adverse effects on human health if escape occurs. The risk from highly toxic compounds is controlled by requiring multiple levels of containment to greatly reduce the probability of escape; whereas compounds that are virtually non-toxic may require little or no containment. The potential for toxicity is determined by the inherent toxicity of the compound and the amount that could potentially escape into the breathing air.

  16. Communication spaces

    PubMed Central

    Coiera, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective Annotations to physical workspaces such as signs and notes are ubiquitous. When densely annotated, work areas become communication spaces. This study aims to characterize the types and purpose of such annotations. Methods A qualitative observational study was undertaken in two wards and the radiology department of a 440-bed metropolitan teaching hospital. Images were purposefully sampled; 39 were analyzed after excluding inferior images. Results Annotation functions included signaling identity, location, capability, status, availability, and operation. They encoded data, rules or procedural descriptions. Most aggregated into groups that either created a workflow by referencing each other, supported a common workflow without reference to each other, or were heterogeneous, referring to many workflows. Higher-level assemblies of such groupings were also observed. Discussion Annotations make visible the gap between work done and the capability of a space to support work. Annotations are repairs of an environment, improving fitness for purpose, fixing inadequacy in design, or meeting emergent needs. Annotations thus record the missing information needed to undertake tasks, typically added post-implemented. Measuring annotation levels post-implementation could help assess the fit of technology to task. Physical and digital spaces could meet broader user needs by formally supporting user customization, ‘programming through annotation’. Augmented reality systems could also directly support annotation, addressing existing information gaps, and enhancing work with context sensitive annotation. Conclusions Communication spaces offer a model of how work unfolds. Annotations make visible local adaptation that makes technology fit for purpose post-implementation and suggest an important role for annotatable information systems and digital augmentation of the physical environment. PMID:24005797

  17. Spaced Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1950-11-20

    less resistance to the penetration of a projectile than does the midsection of the plate. This is so because the front and rear surfaces of the armor ...Front -7idsectio " Aberdeen Proving Ground Report .AD-943, "Ballistic Test of Spaced Armor Arrangements which can be used for Increasing the Protection of... Ground . The target was to be a 100 • thick cast armor plate which can be quite easily penetrated by this carbide cored projectile at O0 obliquity

  18. Space Telescopes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    the Kirkpatrick–Baez type systems and the focussing colli- mator or ‘ lobster -eye’ systems. 1http://henke.lbl.gov/optical constants/ 176 9. Space...mirror requires a longer telescope. Focussing collimator or ‘ lobster -eye’ telescopes The Wolter and the Kirkpatrick–Baez systems have in common a...9.13: Flat-mirror two-dimensional focussing collimator or detached lobster - eye configuration (Schmidt 1975). within one tube but from adjacent walls a

  19. Space colonization.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Clyde F

    2003-12-01

    A series of workshops were sponsored by the Physical Science Division of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research to address operational gravity-compliant in-situ resource utilization and life support techologies. Workshop participants explored a Mars simulation study on Devon Island, Canada; the processing of carbon dioxide in regenerative life support systems; space tourism; rocket technology; plant growth research for closed ecological systems; and propellant extraction of planetary regoliths.

  20. Space Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  1. America plans for space

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Contents include: pursuing a balanced space program; the space defense initiative; warfare in space; the lunar laboratory; the role of space in preserving the peace; living off the land - the use of resources in space for future civilian space operations; the military uses of space; C3I(command control communications and intelligence); aspects of space technology; arms control in space: preserving critical strategic space systems without weapons in space; space and arms control: a skeptical view; options for space arms control; space arms control.

  2. Observing BVOC emissions from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oetjen, Hilke; Hewson, William; Comyn-Platt, Edward M.; Barkley, Michael P.; Bösch, Hartmut

    2016-04-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is formed in the atmosphere as an intermediate from the oxidation of methane and other hydrocarbons such as isoprene, but also from combustion processes. Further, global and accurate measurements of HCHO from space are important since they can be used to infer global isoprene emission (e.g. Barkley et al., 2013), the primary biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) that cannot be monitored from space directly. However, isoprene is an important source of ozone and secondary organic aerosol, and a sink for the hydroxyl radical. HCHO absorbs in the ultraviolet wavelengths range and can therefore be detected by scattered sunlight absorption spectroscopy. Here we present measurements with the GOME-2 instrument. The first of the 3 GOME-2 instruments has been flying on MetOp-A since 2006 and MetOp-B has been launched in 2012. MetOp-C is expected to be launched in 2018. The University of Leicester retrieval (Hewson et al., 2015) is a well characterised state-of-the-art algorithm which has been used to infer HCHO vertical columns from MetOp-A, and more recently from MetOp-B. The results have been employed for creating a global, multi-year time series. This dataset has been exploited to analyse regional year-to-year variations in HCHO abundances and also to test emission models via comparisons to GEOS-Chem simulations. Barkley, M. P., et al. (2013), J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118, 6849-6868, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50552 Hewson, W., et al. (2015), Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4055-4074, doi:10.5194/amt-8-4055-2015

  3. Space Handbook,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    thle early life * of" the system. Figure 4-2 shows the variation in power output for polonium - 210 (Po- 210 ) with a 138-day half-life, curium-242 (Cm...can move large payloads through space. The radioisotope heat cycle engines use high-energy particle sources such as plutonium and polonium . The walls...place inI January 1959, when researchers tested and delive .red to the AEC’ the 2.5 v. att SNAI’-3. aI polonium -2 10-f’ueled’ radioisotope generator

  4. Space Technospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.; Steklov, A. F.; Primak, N. V.

    2000-01-01

    Two main tendencies of making the Solar System habitable are regarding nowadays: (1) making objects of the Solar System habitable; and (2) making the space of the Solar System habitable. We think that it's better to combine them. We should dezine and build settlements ('technospheres') on such objects as asteroids and comets, using their resources. That is, it is necessary to create 'space technospheres' - a long-termed human settlements in the space. To save energy resources it is necessary to use Near-Earth asteroids enriched with water ice (i. e. extinguished comets) with Near-Earth orbits. To realize listed conceptions it is necessary to decrease (up to 100 times) the cost price of the long-termed settlements. That's why even average UN country will be able to create it's own space house - artificial planet ('technosphere') and maintain life activities there. About 50-100 such artificial planets will represent the future civilization of our Solar System. At the same time Earth will stay basic, maternal planet. There is an interesting problem of correcting orbits of that objects. Orbits can be changed into circular or elongated to make them comfortable for living activities of 5000-10000 settlers, and to maintain connection with maternal planet. Technospheres with the elongated orbits are more advantageous to assimilate the Solar System. While technospheres with circular orbits suit to the industrial cycle with certain specialization. The specialization of the technosphere will depend on mine-workings and/or chosen high-technology industrial process. Because it is profitable to convert raw materials at the technosphere and then to transport finished products to the maternal planet. It worth to be mentioned that because of the low gravitation and changed life cycle technosphere settlers, new 'Columb' of the Solar System will transform into new mankind. It will happen though it is difficult to imaging this. Because long ago, when fish left the ocean, they didn

  5. Space Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    In planning for the long duration Apollo missions, NASA conducted extensive research into space food. One of the techniques developed was freeze drying. Action Products commercialized this technique, concentrating on snack food including the first freeze-dried ice cream. The foods are cooked, quickly frozen and then slowly heated in a vacuum chamber to remove the ice crystals formed by the freezing process. The final product retains 98 percent of its nutrition and weighs only 20 percent of its original weight. Action snacks are sold at museums, NASA facilities and are exported to a number of foreign countries. Sales run to several million dollars annually.

  6. Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Honglu

    2006-01-01

    Astronauts receive the highest occupational radiation exposure. Effective protections are needed to ensure the safety of astronauts on long duration space missions. Increased cancer morbidity or mortality risk in astronauts may be caused by occupational radiation exposure. Acute and late radiation damage to the central nervous system (CNS) may lead to changes in motor function and behavior, or neurological disorders. Radiation exposure may result in degenerative tissue diseases (non-cancer or non-CNS) such as cardiac, circulatory, or digestive diseases, as well as cataracts. Acute radiation syndromes may occur due to occupational radiation exposure.

  7. RES-529: a PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibitor that dissociates the mTORC1 and mTORC2 complexes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    RES-529 (previously named Palomid 529, P529) is a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway inhibitor that interferes with the pathway through both mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) dissociation. This compound is currently being developed in oncology and ophthalmology. The oncology focus is for the treatment of glioblastoma, where it has received orphan designation by the US Food and Drug Administration, and prostate cancer. We present a review of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, its role in tumorigenesis, and the potential of RES-529 in cancer treatment. RES-529 inhibits mTORC1/mTORC2 activity in various cancer cell lines, as noted by decreased phosphorylation of substrates including ribosomal protein S6, 4E-BP1, and AKT, leading to cell growth inhibition and death, with activity generally in the range of 5–15 μmol/l. In animal tumor models where the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is abnormally activated (i.e. glioblastoma, prostate cancer, and breast cancer), RES-529 reduces tumor growth by as much as 78%. RES-529 treatment is synergistic with radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hormonal therapy in reducing tumor growth, potentially by preventing PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway activation associated with these treatments. Furthermore, this compound has shown antiangiogenic activity in several animal models. mTORC1 and mTORC2 have redundant and distinct activities that contribute toward oncogenesis. Current inhibitors of this pathway have primarily targeted mTORC1, but have shown limited clinical efficacy. Inhibitors of mTORC1 and mTORC2 such as RES-529 may therefore have the potential to overcome the deficiencies found in targeting only mTORC1. PMID:26918392

  8. RES-529: a PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibitor that dissociates the mTORC1 and mTORC2 complexes.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Mark A

    2016-07-01

    RES-529 (previously named Palomid 529, P529) is a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway inhibitor that interferes with the pathway through both mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) dissociation. This compound is currently being developed in oncology and ophthalmology. The oncology focus is for the treatment of glioblastoma, where it has received orphan designation by the US Food and Drug Administration, and prostate cancer. We present a review of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, its role in tumorigenesis, and the potential of RES-529 in cancer treatment. RES-529 inhibits mTORC1/mTORC2 activity in various cancer cell lines, as noted by decreased phosphorylation of substrates including ribosomal protein S6, 4E-BP1, and AKT, leading to cell growth inhibition and death, with activity generally in the range of 5-15 μmol/l. In animal tumor models where the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is abnormally activated (i.e. glioblastoma, prostate cancer, and breast cancer), RES-529 reduces tumor growth by as much as 78%. RES-529 treatment is synergistic with radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hormonal therapy in reducing tumor growth, potentially by preventing PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway activation associated with these treatments. Furthermore, this compound has shown antiangiogenic activity in several animal models. mTORC1 and mTORC2 have redundant and distinct activities that contribute toward oncogenesis. Current inhibitors of this pathway have primarily targeted mTORC1, but have shown limited clinical efficacy. Inhibitors of mTORC1 and mTORC2 such as RES-529 may therefore have the potential to overcome the deficiencies found in targeting only mTORC1.

  9. Commercial Space Tourism and Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Ronald

    2007-08-01

    Space tourism, a concept which even a few years ago was perveived as science fantasy, is now a credible industry. Five individuals have paid up to $25 M to spend more than a week on the International Space Station. Several enterprises are working toward viable suborbital and orbital private space operations. while operational space weather support to human space flight has been the domain of government entities the emergence of space tourism now presents a new opportunity for the commercial space weather community. This article examines the space weather impact on crews and passengers of the future space tourism industry.

  10. Médecins Sans Frontières' Clinical Guidance mobile application: analysis of a new electronic health tool.

    PubMed

    Wright, V; Dalwai, M; Smith, R Vincent; Jemmy, J-P

    2015-12-21

    Many health care workers lack access to clinical support tools in rural and resource-limited settings. To address this gap, the Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) Clinical Guidelines manual was converted into a static mobile health reference application (app) entitled MSF Guidance. The app's utility and growth was examined, and within 6 months of its launch 150 countries had downloaded the app, with demonstrated retention among new and existing users. With over 3500 downloads and 36 000 sessions amounting to 250 000 screen views, MSF Guidance is a new mobile health platform with widely demonstrated utility, including potential use as an epidemiological tool, where clinical conditions investigated by app users were found to correlate with geographical outbreaks. These findings show that mobile apps can be used to disseminate health information effectively.

  11. The Theos/ComRes survey into public perception of Darwinism in the UK: a recipe for confusion.

    PubMed

    Baker, Sylvia

    2012-04-01

    A survey of the general public in the UK, conducted in 2008, suggested that more than half of the British population are unconvinced by Darwinism. That survey, conducted by the polling company ComRes on behalf of the theological think-tank Theos, reported its full findings in March 2009 and found them to be "complex and confused." This paper argues that the confusion identified may have been partly engendered by the way in which the survey questionnaire was constructed and that the survey itself, not simply its respondents, was confused. A source of the confusion, it is argued, could be found, first, in the definitions used for the four positions of young earth creationism, theistic evolution, atheistic evolution and intelligent design. Second, a failure to define the key terms "evolution" and "science," used in some of the survey questions, resulted in responses that were difficult to interpret.

  12. Storms from the past in a warmer climate. Results from high-res non-hydrostatic modeling over Crete.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutroulis, Aristeidis; Grillakis, Manolis; Tsanis, Ioannis

    2016-04-01

    Weather extremes such as precipitation can be a hazard for life and property. The region of Crete has suffered from numerous severe flood events in the past decades and local authorities have a great interest in future scenarios in order to develop measures against natural calamities. In this study we use high-res non-hydrostatic modeling outputs provided by three modeling groups (GERICS, UNI and SMHI) at horizontal resolution of about 2km. Three recent, high impact, extreme storms were selected for simulation. High spatiotemporal resolution precipitation fields were compared to observations. Simulations proved to be sufficiently efficient in realistic capturing storm events and thus valuable in impact modelling. Similar simulations, but with a perturbation of +2 degrees were conducted for the representation of warmer climate conditions. Similar storm events of today's climate over Crete could result in significantly higher precipitation accumulations and intensities in a warmer climate.

  13. Hyperemesis gravidarum avec troubles ioniques sévères: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Jarraya, Anouar; Elleuch, Sahar; Zouari, Jawhar; Trigui, Khaled; Sofiene, Abidi; Smaoui, Mohamed; Kolsi, Kamel

    2015-01-01

    L'hyperemesis gravidarum s'accompagne habituellement d'une perte de poids, d'une acétonurie et de troubles hydro-électrolytiques comme il peut également s'accompagner d'anomalies du bilan hépatique. Nous rapportons un cas de vomissements gravidiques à 10 semaines d'aménorrhée non traité et vu tardivement avec des troubles ioniques sévères associés à des répercussions cliniques dans un contexte de cytolyse, de cholestase et d'insuffisance rénale aigue. Ce cas a bien répondu au traitement médical. PMID:26161187

  14. Validation of SSiB model over grassland with CHeRES field experiment data in 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lan; Xue, Yongkang

    2004-08-01

    The Simplified Simple Biosphere model (SSiB) is validated in off-line simulations against field measurements in the summer of 2001 from the China Heavy Rainfall Experiment and Study (CHeRES) over a grassland site located in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River. When initialized and driven by the observed atmospheric forcing, the model reproduced the observed surface heat fluxes and surface skin temperature realistically. The model was also able to well simulate the variation of soil water content. The sensitivity experiments found that the leaf reflectance was the most significant parameter in improving the estimation of surface albedo during both wet and dry periods. This study suggests that the model is capable of simulating the physical processes and of assessing the impact of biophysical parameters that relate to land-atmosphere interactions over the eastern Asian monsoon regions, which is crucial for mesoscale atmospheric models.

  15. Mutations in ADAR1 cause Aicardi-Goutières syndrome associated with a type I interferon signature

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Gillian I; Kasher, Paul R; Forte, Gabriella M A; Mannion, Niamh M; Greenwood, Sam M; Szynkiewicz, Marcin; Dickerson, Jonathan E; Bhaskar, Sanjeev S; Zampini, Massimiliano; Briggs, Tracy A; Jenkinson, Emma M; Bacino, Carlos A; Battini, Roberta; Bertini, Enrico; Brogan, Paul A; Brueton, Louise A; Carpanelli, Marialuisa; Laet, Corinne De; de Lonlay, Pascale; del Toro, Mireia; Desguerre, Isabelle; Fazzi, Elisa; Garcia-Cazorla, Àngels; Heiberg, Arvid; Kawaguchi, Masakazu; Kumar, Ram; Lin, Jean-Pierre S-M; Lourenco, Charles M; Male, Alison M; Marques, Wilson; Mignot, Cyril; Olivieri, Ivana; Orcesi, Simona; Prabhakar, Prab; Rasmussen, Magnhild; Robinson, Robert A; Rozenberg, Flore; Schmidt, Johanna L; Steindl, Katharina; Tan, Tiong Y; van der Merwe, William G; Vanderver, Adeline; Vassallo, Grace; Wakeling, Emma L; Wassmer, Evangeline; Whittaker, Elizabeth; Livingston, John H; Lebon, Pierre; Suzuki, Tamio; McLaughlin, Paul J; Keegan, Liam P; O’Connell, Mary A; Lovell, Simon C; Crow, Yanick J

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) catalyze the hydrolytic deamination of adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and thereby potentially alter the information content and structure of cellular RNAs. Notably, although the overwhelming majority of such editing events occur in transcripts derived from Alu repeat elements, the biological function of non-coding RNA editing remains uncertain. Here, we show that mutations in ADAR1 (also known as ADAR) cause the autoimmune disorder Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS). As in Adar1-null mice, the human disease state is associated with upregulation of interferon-stimulated genes, indicating a possible role for ADAR1 as a suppressor of type I interferon signaling. Considering recent insights derived from the study of other AGS-related proteins, we speculate that ADAR1 may limit the cytoplasmic accumulation of the dsRNA generated from genomic repetitive elements. PMID:23001123

  16. Prédiction du comportement à long terme des matériaux polymères

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, J.

    1998-06-01

    Most of the world activity on research, development and control of polymer durability is still based on empirical techniques developed in the early ages of polymer uses. Those techniques should be critically analysed considering the state of the art in the fundamental understanding of these complex phenomena. A more rational approach is described, especially to predict the lifetime of polymeric materials in environmental conditions. That approach is based on the recognition of the chemical evolution mechanisms. Les activités de recherche, développement et contrôle de durabilité des matériaux polymères sont encore, pour une part très importante, basées sur l'emploi de techniques empiriques dont les principes ont été énoncés dès le début de l'exploitation de ces matériaux. Une analyse critique de ces méthodes s'impose aujourd'hui en tenant compte de l'avancement des connaissances. Une approche plus rationnelle est décrite, approche basée sur la reconnaissance des mécanismes d'évolution chimique. A titre d'exemple, le mécanisme d'évolution du PVC sous contraintes conjuguées de l'UV, de la chaleur et de l'oxygène, est décrit. Des études récentes de photooxydation de polymères conducteurs au sein de polyéthylène sont également succinctement rapportées.

  17. In-Plane Anisotropy in Mono- and Few-Layer ReS2 Probed by Raman Spectroscopy and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chenet, Daniel A; Aslan, O Burak; Huang, Pinshane Y; Fan, Chris; van der Zande, Arend M; Heinz, Tony F; Hone, James C

    2015-09-09

    Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) is a semiconducting layered transition metal dichalcogenide that exhibits a stable distorted 1T phase. The reduced symmetry of this system leads to in-plane anisotropy in various material properties. Here, we demonstrate the strong anisotropy in the Raman scattering response for linearly polarized excitation. Polarized Raman scattering is shown to permit a determination of the crystallographic orientation of ReS2 through comparison with direct structural analysis by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Analysis of the frequency difference of appropriate Raman modes is also shown to provide a means of precisely determining layer thickness up to four layers.

  18. Science Teachers' Views on CoRes and PaP-eRs as a Framework for Articulating and Developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertram, Adam; Loughran, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a study which was designed to examine how CoRes (Content Representations) and PaP-eRs (Pedagogical and Professional-experience Repertoires) might impact the practice of science teachers by considering how they might value (or not) pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) as part of their professional knowledge. The paper is based…

  19. The Rock Engineering System (RES) applied to landslide susceptibility zonation of the northeastern flank of Etna: methodological approach and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apuani, Tiziana; Corazzato, Claudia

    2015-04-01

    Ground deformations in the northeastern flank of Etna are well known. Despite only a few landslide events have been documented, these have significantly involved and damaged lifelines and buildings. These events are mainly related to the activity of the volcano-tectonic structures and associated seismicity, as in the case of the 2002 reactivation of the Presa landslide during an increased activity of the Pernicana fault system. In order to highlight the areal distribution of potentially unstable slopes based on a detailed, site-specific study of the factors responsible for landslide, and to ultimately contribute to risk management, a landslide susceptibility analysis of the northeastern flank of Etna in the Pernicana area was carried out, and a susceptibility map at 1:10.000 scale was produced, extending over an area of 168 km2. Different methods are proposed in the literature to obtain the regional distribution of potentially unstable slopes, depending on the problem scale, the slope dynamic evolution in the geological context, and the availability of data. Among semi-quantitative approaches, the present research combines the Rock Engineering System (RES) methodology with parameter zonation mapping in a GIS environment. The RES method represents a structured approach to manage a high number of interacting factors involved in the instability problem. A numerically coded, site-specific interaction matrix (IM) analyzes the cause-effect relationship in these factors, and calculates the degree of interactivity of each parameter, normalized by the overall interactivity of the system (weight factor). In the specific Etna case, the considered parameters are: slope attitude, lithotechnical properties (lithology, structural complexity, soil and rock mass quality), land use, tectonic structures, seismic activity (horizontal acceleration) and hydrogeological conditions (groundwater and drainage). Thematic maps are prepared at 1:10.000 scale for each of these parameters, and

  20. Large size space construction for space exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondyurin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Space exploitation is impossible without large space structures. We need to make sufficient large volume of pressurized protecting frames for crew, passengers, space processing equipment, & etc. We have to be unlimited in space. Now the size and mass of space constructions are limited by possibility of a launch vehicle. It limits our future in exploitation of space by humans and in development of space industry. Large-size space construction can be made with using of the curing technology of the fibers-filled composites and a reactionable matrix applied directly in free space. For curing the fabric impregnated with a liquid matrix (prepreg) is prepared in terrestrial conditions and shipped in a container to orbit. In due time the prepreg is unfolded by inflating. After polymerization reaction, the durable construction can be fitted out with air, apparatus and life support systems. Our experimental studies of the curing processes in the simulated free space environment showed that the curing of composite in free space is possible. The large-size space construction can be developed. A project of space station, Moon base, Mars base, mining station, interplanet space ship, telecommunication station, space observatory, space factory, antenna dish, radiation shield, solar sail is proposed and overviewed. The study was supported by Humboldt Foundation, ESA (contract 17083/03/NL/SFe), NASA program of the stratospheric balloons and RFBR grants (05-08-18277, 12-08-00970 and 14-08-96011).

  1. Space Science in Action: Space Exploration [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    In this videotape recording, students learn about the human quest to discover what is out in space. Students see the challenges and benefits of space exploration including the development of rocket science, a look back at the space race, and a history of manned space travel. A special section on the Saturn V rocket gives students insight into the…

  2. Conversion of raft associated prion protein to the protease-resistant state requires insertion of PrP-res (PrP(Sc)) into contiguous membranes.

    PubMed

    Baron, Gerald S; Wehrly, Kathy; Dorward, David W; Chesebro, Bruce; Caughey, Byron

    2002-03-01

    Prion protein (PrP) is usually attached to membranes by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor that associates with detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs), or rafts. To model the molecular processes that might occur during the initial infection of cells with exogenous transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) agents, we examined the effect of membrane association on the conversion of the normal protease-sensitive PrP isoform (PrP-sen) to the protease-resistant isoform (PrP-res). A cell-free conversion reaction approximating physiological conditions was used, which contained purified DRMs as a source of PrP-sen and brain microsomes from scrapie-infected mice as a source of PrP-res. Interestingly, DRM-associated PrP-sen was not converted to PrP-res until the PrP-sen was either released from DRMs by treatment with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC), or the combined membrane fractions were treated with the membrane-fusing agent polyethylene glycol (PEG). PEG-assisted conversion was optimal at pH 6--7, and acid pre-treating the DRMs was not sufficient to permit conversion without PI-PLC or PEG, arguing against late endosomes/lysosomes as primary compartments for PrP conversion. These observations raise the possibility that generation of new PrP-res during TSE infection requires (i) removal of PrP-sen from target cells; (ii) an exchange of membranes between cells; or (iii) insertion of incoming PrP-res into the raft domains of recipient cells.

  3. Le groupe de recherches transfusionnelles d’Afrique francophone: bilan des cinq premières années

    PubMed Central

    Tagny, Claude Tayou; Murphy, Edward L.; Lefrère, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Les travaux de recherches sur la sécurité transfusionnelle en Afrique sub-saharienne sont peu nombreux, souvent limités à des initiatives locales avec des conclusions difficilement représentatives de cette région. Le Groupe de recherches transfusionnelles en Afrique sub-saharienne francophone a été créé en mai 2007 avec pour objectif de développer des stratégies globales d’amélioration de la sécurité transfusionnelle mais adaptables à la situation de chaque pays. Les activités du Groupe à ce jour ont porté essentiellement sur l’obtention de données épidémiologiques et de laboratoire sur la transfusion sanguine et à proposer des stratégies de sécurité transfusionnelle dans le domaine des infections transmissibles par la transfusion. Pour mener à bien ces activités de recherche, le Groupe travaille en étroite collaboration avec les Centres nationaux de transfusion sanguine (CNTS), les Centres régionaux de transfusion sanguine (CRTS), les banques de sang hospitalières (BSH) et les postes de collecte de sang. Pour les 5 premières années, quatre priorités de recherche ont été identifiées: (i) des études descriptives sur les caractéristiques des donneurs de sang et des centres de transfusion; (ii) une estimation du risque résiduel post-transfusionnel des principales infections virales transmissibles par la transfusion; (iii) une analyse des stratégies de sélection médicale des donneurs de sang; et (iv) une description des stratégies de dépistage des ITT et une description du système d’assurance qualité externe existant. Durant cette période, sept projets ont été mis en œuvre au niveau national et publiés et cinq études multicentriques ont été réalisées et publiées. La présente étude rapporte les principales observations et recommandations de ces études. PMID:24360798

  4. Soft Mappings Space

    PubMed Central

    Ozturk, Taha Yasin; Bayramov, Sadi

    2014-01-01

    Various soft topologies are being introduced on a given function space soft topological spaces. In this paper, soft compact-open topology is defined in functional spaces of soft topological spaces. Further, these functional spaces are studied and interrelations between various functional spaces with soft compact-open topology are established. PMID:25374936

  5. Space physiology and medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Nicogossian, A.E.; Parker J.F. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The state of knowledge in space physiology and medicine are reviewed. Overviews of manned space flight, the space environment, spaceflight systems and procedures, physiological adaptation to space flight, health maintenance of space crew members, and medical problems of space flight are presented.

  6. Preparing future space leaders - International Space University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Barbara A.; Van Reeth, George P.

    1992-01-01

    The International Space University (ISU) concept of developing a cadre of space professionals that will lead the universities and industries into space is discussed. ISU is an innovative, permanent worldwide organization for training and academic instruction in all aspects of space studies. ISU's major goal is to provide the young professional academic instruction in technical and nontechnical areas of modern space exploration and research, and a forum to exchange ideas and develop both personal and professional ties at an international level.

  7. Space habitats. [prognosis for space colonization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    Differences between space industrialization and space colonization are outlined along with the physiological, psychological, and esthetic needs of the inhabitants of a space habitat. The detrimental effects of zero gravity on human physiology are reviewed, and the necessity of providing artificial gravity, an acceptable atmosphere, and comfortable relative humidity and temperature in a space habitat is discussed. Consideration is also given to social organization and governance, supply of food and water, and design criteria for space colonies.

  8. Space Biosciences, Space-X, and the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wigley, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Space Biosciences Research on the International Space Station uses living organisms to study a variety of research questions. To enhance our understanding of fundamental biological processes. To develop the fundations for a safe, productive human exploration of space. To improve the quality of life on earth.

  9. "Space, the Final Frontier"; Books on Space and Space Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Anne Devereaux

    1997-01-01

    Advocates play in a child's life. Describes how science fiction seizes the imaginations of young readers with its tales of the future and of outer space. Talks about various nonfiction books about space. Elaborates a workshop on books about space exploration. Gives 10 questions about stimulating student response. (PA)

  10. In Search of the ‘New Informal Legitimacy’ of Médecins Sans Frontières

    PubMed Central

    Calain, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    For medical humanitarian organizations, making their sources of legitimacy explicit is a useful exercise, in response to: misperceptions, concerns over the ‘humanitarian space’, controversies about specific humanitarian actions, challenges about resources allocation and moral suffering among humanitarian workers. This is also a difficult exercise, where normative criteria such as international law or humanitarian principles are often misrepresented as primary sources of legitimacy. This essay first argues for a morally principled definition of humanitarian medicine, based on the selfless intention of individual humanitarian actors. Taking Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) as a case in point, a common source of moral legitimacy for medical humanitarian organizations is their cosmopolitan appeal to distributive justice and collective responsibility. More informally, their legitimacy is grounded in the rightfulness of specific actions and choices. This implies a constant commitment to publicity and accountability. Legitimacy is also generated by tangible support from the public to individual organizations, by commitments to professional integrity, and by academic alliances to support evidence-based practice and operational research. PMID:22442647

  11. Kirkwood-Buff analysis of liquid mixtures in AdResS: Towards an open boundary simulation scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherji, Debashish; van der Vegt, Nico; Kremer, Kurt; Delle Site, Luigi

    2012-02-01

    Many biophysical processes in water are determined by interactions of cosolvents with the hydration shells of dissolved (bio)molecules. Computational approaches to study these systems are mostly limited to the closed boundary simulations. While closed boundaries are perfectly suitable in many cases, problems arise when concentration fluctuations are large, or intimately linked to the physical phenomenon. For example, in non-ideal mixtures of water/cosolvent and a biomolecule, the excess of water/cosolvent, close to a protein surface, leads to water/cosolvent depletion elsewhere. This complicates a comparison with experiments that are conducted under osmotic conditions. Therefore, we use Adaptive Resolution Simulation (AdResS) scheme, which describes a small sub-volume of a much larger system in atomistic detail, maintaining thermodynamic equilibrium with a surrounding coarse grained reservoir. We show that the Kirkwood-Buff integrals (KBI), which directly connect thermodynamic properties to the molecular distributions, can be efficiently calculated within the small open boundary all atom region and the coarse-grained reservoir maintains the correct particle fluctuations. Results will be presented for the methanol/water mixture and solvation of amino acids in urea/water mixture.

  12. Space on Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leder, Sandra J.

    1992-01-01

    Describes ideas for applying research from space programs to life science instruction including plants in space, exercise and diet on space flights, environmental advantages from space exploration, and the effects of microgravity on health. Discusses space spinoffs used in medicine including digital imaging processing and the Ingestible Thermal…

  13. Canada in Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Paz, Shoshana

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the history of the Canadian Space Agency. Explains that Canada's space program grew out of the need to manage resources and communicate over large distances. Reports that the small Canadian space industry is growing rapidly. Describes Canadian cooperation in international space programs. Identifies space careers and examines the future…

  14. Test spaces and characterizations of quadratic spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvurečenskij, Anatolij

    1996-10-01

    We show that a test space consisting of nonzero vectors of a quadratic space E and of the set all maximal orthogonal systems in E is algebraic iff E is Dacey or, equivalently, iff E is orthomodular. In addition, we present another orthomodularity criteria of quadratic spaces, and using the result of Solèr, we show that they can imply that E is a real, complex, or quaternionic Hilbert space.

  15. Space Science and Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James

    2005-01-01

    Space Science a t Marshall Space Flight Center is diverse and very interesting. It ranges from high energy astrophysics to astrobiology, from solar physics to space weather to dusty plasmas. I will present some of the more interesting investigations regarding auroral physics, what it takes to build a space camera, and laboratory investigations of dust. There will be time for questions and answers at the conclusion.

  16. Space Station - Implications for space manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tingey, D. L.; Willenberg, H. J.; Atkins, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    Space-based materials processing R&D is examined. It is proposed that the Space Station's Microgravity and Materials Processing Facility will be utilized by academic, government, and commercial customers. Users requirements for materials processing in space are discussed. Consideration is given to the time allocation of the facility, charges to users, and the property rights of the users.

  17. Space history, space policy, and executive leadership

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraemer, Sylvia K.

    1993-01-01

    A lecture that attempts to establish the role of space historians in formulating space policy is presented. The discussion focusses on two adages and their relevance to space policy. The adages are as follows: 'write about what you know;' and 'good managers do things right; good executives do the right things.'

  18. Geometry in Medias Res

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cukier, Mimi; Asdourian, Tony; Thakker, Anand

    2012-01-01

    Geometry provides a natural window into what it is like to do mathematics. In the world of geometry, playful experimentation is often more fruitful than following a procedure, and logic plus a few axioms can open new worlds. Nonetheless, teaching a geometry course in a way that combines both rigor and play can be difficult. Many geometry courses…

  19. Surgeons without borders: a brief history of surgery at Médecins Sans Frontières.

    PubMed

    Chu, Kathryn; Rosseel, Peter; Trelles, Miguel; Gielis, Pierre

    2010-03-01

    Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) is a humanitarian organization that performs emergency and elective surgical services in both conflict and non-conflict settings in over 70 countries. In 2006 MSF surgeons departed on approximately 125 missions, and over 64,000 surgical interventions were carried out in some 20 countries worldwide. Historically, the majority of MSF surgical projects began in response to conflicts or natural disasters. During an emergency response, MSF has resources to set up major operating facilities within 48 h in remote areas. One of MSF strengths is its supply chain. Large pre-packaged surgical kits, veritable "operating theatres to go," can be readied in enormous crates and quickly loaded onto planes. In more stable contexts, MSF has also strengthened the delivery of surgical services within a country's public health system. The MSF surgeon is the generalist in the broadest sense and performs vascular, obstetrical, orthopaedic, and other specialized surgical procedures. The organization aims to provide surgical services only temporarily. When there is a decrease in acute needs a program will be closed, or more importantly, turned over to the Ministry of Health or another non-governmental organization. The long-term solution to alleviating the global burden of surgical disease lies in building up a domestic surgical workforce capable of responding to the major causes of surgery-related morbidity and mortality. However, given that even countries with the resources of the United States suffer from an insufficiency of surgeons, the need for international emergency organizations to provide surgical assistance during acute emergencies will remain for the foreseeable future.

  20. The Miocene Sommières basin, SE France: Bioclastic carbonates in a tide-dominated depositional system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynaud, Jean-Yves; James, Noël P.

    2012-12-01

    The Miocene Sommières Basin in SE France is a semi-enclosed depression that was connected to the Mediterranean Sea by a flooded paleo-incised valley and then filled by a suite of sediments comprising carbonate grains coming from temperate factories that were largely deposited in tidal-dominated paleoenvironments. The strata are partitioned into two sequences that reflect repeated flooding of the incised valley system, one of several similar situations in this region of France. The carbonate grains are mostly bioclasts, namely from barnacles, bryozoans, coralline algae (encrusting, branching, and rhodoliths), echinoids, and benthic foraminifers (large and small) with ostracods, sponge spicules and planktic foraminifers prominent in muddy facies. Particles were produced by shallow water carbonate factories on hard substrates (valley walls in particular), associated with subaqueous dunes, and in deeper water basinal settings. Each depositional sequence is underlain by an eroded and bored hard surface that is progressively overlain by TST subaqueous tidal dunes or storm deposits that grade up, in one case, into HST marls (the HST of the upper sequence has been removed by erosion). The lower sequence is ebb tide dominated whereas the upper sequence is flood tide dominated. The succession is interpreted to represent a TST whose tidal currents were focused by the narrow valley and a HST that reflected flooding of the overbanks. This stratigraphic and depositional motif is comparable to that in other spatially separated Neogene paleovalleys that are filled with tide-dominated clastic carbonates in the region. Together with other recently documented similar systems, these limestones constitute an important new group of carbonate sand bodies in the carbonate depositional realm.

  1. Bruyères-le-Châtel Neutron Evaluations of Actinides with the TALYS Code: The Fission Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romain, P.; Morillon, B.; Duarte, H.

    2016-01-01

    For several years, various neutron evaluations of plutonium and uranium isotopes have been performed at Bruyères-le-Châtel (BRC), from 1 keV up to 30 MeV. Since only nuclear reaction models have been used to produce these evaluations, our approach was named the "Full Model" approach. Total, shape elastic and direct inelastic cross sections were obtained from the coupled channels model using a dispersive optical potential developed for actinides, with a large enough coupling scheme including the lowest octupolar band. All other cross sections were calculated using the Hauser-Feshbach theory (TALYS code) with a pre-equilibrium component above 8-10 MeV. In this paper, we focus our attention on the fission channel. More precisely, we will present the BRC contribution to fission modeling and the philosophy adopted in our "Full Model" approach. Performing evaluations with the "Full Model" approach implies the optimization of a large number of model parameters. With increasing neutron incident energy, many residual nuclei produced by nucleon emission also lead to fission. All available experimental data assigned to various fission mechanisms of the same nucleus were used to determine fission barrier parameters. For uranium isotopes, triple-humped fission barriers were required in order to reproduce accurately variations of the experimental fission cross sections. Our BRC fission modeling has shown that the effects of the class II or class III states located in the wells of the fission barrier sometimes provide an anti-resonant transmission rather than a resonant one. Consistent evaluations were produced for a large series of U and Pu isotopes. Resulting files were tested against integral data.

  2. The partnership: Space shuttle, space science, and space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbertson, Philip E.; Freitag, Robert F.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the NASA Space Station Program functions, design, and planned implementation is presented. The discussed functions for the permanently manned space facility include: (1) development of new technologies and related commercial products; (2) observations of the Earth and the universe; (3) provision of service facilities for resupply, maintenance, upgrade and repair of payloads and spacecraft; (4) provision of a transportation node for stationing, processing and dispatching payloads and vehicles; (5) provision of manufacturing and assembly facilities; (6) provision of a storage depot for parts and payloads; and (7) provision of a staging base for future space endeavors. The fundamental concept for the Space Station, as given, is that it be designed, operated, and evolved in response to a broad variety of scientific, technological, and commercial user interests. The Space Shuttle's role as the principal transportation system for the construction and maintenance of the Space Station and the servicing and support of the station crew is also discussed.

  3. Experimental determination of the hydrothermal solubility of ReS2 and the Re–ReO2 buffer assemblage and transport of rhenium under supercritical conditions

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yongliang; Wood, Scott A

    2002-01-01

    To understand the aqueous species important for transport of rhenium under supercritical conditions, we conducted a series of solubility experiments on the Re–ReO2 buffer assemblage and ReS2. In these experiments, pH was buffered by the K–feldspar–muscovite–quartz assemblage; in sulfur-free systems was buffered by the Re–ReO2 assemblage; and and in sulfur-containing systems were buffered by the magnetite–pyrite–pyrrhotite assemblage. Our experimental studies indicate that the species ReCl40 is dominant at 400°C in slightly acidic to near-neutral, and chloride-rich (total chloride concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 1.0 M) environments, and ReCl3+ may predominate at 500°C in a solution with total chloride concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 M. The results also demonstrate that the solubility of ReS2 is about two orders of magnitude less than that of ReO2. This finding not only suggests that ReS2 (or a ReS2 component in molybdenite) is the solubility-controlling phase in sulfur-containing, reducing environments but also implies that a mixing process involving an oxidized, rhenium-containing solution and a solution with reduced sulfur is one of the most effective mechanisms for deposition of rhenium. In analogy with Re, TcS2 may be the stable Tc-bearing phase in deep geological repositories of radioactive wastes.

  4. Should the Curricular Time Allocated to School Physical Education Be Increased? Insights from Participants in a Follow-up of the Trois-Rivières Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larouche, Richard; Laurencelle, Louis; Shephard, Roy J.; Trudeau, François

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we explored the effects of exposure to an experimental program of daily physical education (PE) during primary school on adult attitudes toward school PE. In 2008, 86 original participants in the Trois-Rivières study (44 women and 42 men aged 44.0 ± 1.2 years) underwent a semistructured interview in which their attitudes toward PE,…

  5. HiRes deconvolved Spitzer images of 89 protostellar jets and outflows: New data on the evolution of the outflow morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Velusamy, T.; Langer, W. D.; Thompson, T. E-mail: William.D.Langer@jpl.nasa.gov

    2014-03-01

    To study the role of protosellar jets and outflows in the time evolution of the parent cores and the protostars, the astronomical community needs a large enough database of infrared images of protostars at the highest spatial resolution possible to reveal the details of their morphology. Spitzer provides unprecedented sensitivity in the infrared to study both the jet and outflow features, however, its spatial resolution is limited by its 0.85 m mirror. Here, we use a high-resolution deconvolution algorithm, 'HiRes,' to improve the visualization of spatial morphology by enhancing resolution (to subarcsecond levels in the IRAC bands) and removing the contaminating side lobes from bright sources in a sample of 89 protostellar objects. These reprocessed images are useful for detecting (1) wide-angle outflows seen in scattered light, (2) morphological details of H{sub 2} emission in jets and bow shocks, and (3) compact features in MIPS 24 μm images as protostar/disk and atomic/ionic line emission associated with the jets. The HiRes FITS image data of such a large homogeneous sample presented here will be useful to the community in studying these protostellar objects. To illustrate the utility of this HiRes sample, we show how the opening angle of the wide-angle outflows in 31 sources, all observed in the HiRes-processed Spitzer images, correlates with age. Our data suggest a power-law fit to opening angle versus age with an exponent of ∼0.32 and 0.02, respectively, for ages ≤8000 yr and ≥8000 yr.

  6. International Space Apps Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    During the 2013 Space Apps Challenge, space enthusiasts with diverse backgrounds gathered April 20-21 for a collaborative, global problem-solving effort. Held at Kennedy Space Center Visitor Comple...

  7. International Space Station Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, William V., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The overview of the International Space Station (ISS) is comprised of the program vision and mission; Space Station uses; definition of program phases; as well as descriptions and status of several scheduled International Space Station Overview assembly flights.

  8. Angry Birds in Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    Aboard the International Space Station, Flight Engineer Don Pettit of NASA created a video using Angry Birds Space to explain how physics works in space, including demonstrating trajectories in mic...

  9. Decursin in Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) Enhances Doxorubicin Chemosensitivity in NCI/ADR-RES Ovarian Cancer Cells via Inhibition of P-glycoprotein Expression.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyeong Sim; Cho, Sung-Gook; Kim, Min Kyoung; Kim, Min Soo; Moon, Seung Hee; Kim, Il Hwan; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2016-12-01

    Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN, Korean Dang-gui) is traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases including cancer. Here, we investigated multidrug-resistant phenotype-reversal activities of AGN and its compounds (decursin, ferulic acid, and nodakenin) in doxorubicin-resistant NCI/ADR-RES ovarian cancer cells. Our results showed that a combination of doxorubicin with either AGN or decursin inhibited a proliferation of NCI/ADR-RES cells. These combinations increased the number of cells at sub-G1 phase when cells were stained with Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate. We also found that these combinations activated caspase-9, caspase-8, and caspase-3 and increased cleaved PARP level. Moreover, an inhibition of P-glycoprotein expression by either AGN or decursin resulted in a reduction of its activity in NCI/ADR-RES cells. Therefore, our data demonstrate that decursin in AGN inhibits doxorubicin-resistant ovarian cancer cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in the presence of doxorubicin via blocking P-glycoprotein expression. Therefore, AGN would be a potentially novel treatment option for multidrug-resistant tumors by sensitizing to anticancer agents. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Caractérisation de la structure des membranes ionomères (NAFION^{tinytextregistered}) par diffusion de rayons X aux petits angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubatat, L.; Rollet, A. L.; Diat, O.; Gébel, G.

    2002-07-01

    Ionomer membranes, like Nafion^{tinytextregistered} used in fuel cell, present a nano- phase separation between domains with different ionic concentrations. Up to now models describe the ionic domains as spheres of about 40 Å diameter. Small angles X-ray scattering studies over a large range of wave vectors, lead to a new assumption for the Nafion structure, describing the polymer aggregation as elongated objects surrounding by the ionic charges. Les membranes ionomères de type Nafion^{tinytextregistered} utilisées en pile à combustible, sont caractérisées par une nano-séparation de phases entre des domaines plus ou moins riches en sites ioniques. Les modèles proposés pour décrire ces domaines ioniques, les représentent généralement sous forme de sphères de 40 Å de diamètre. L'étude en diffusion de rayons X que nous avons menée récemment, sur une large gamme de vecteurs d'ondes, nous permet de proposer une vision différente de la structure du Nafion en considérant une agrégation de polymères sous formes d'objets très allongés, avec en surface les charges ioniques.

  11. Space Probe Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Managed by Marshall Space Flight Center, the Space Tug was a reusable multipurpose space vehicle designed to transport payloads to different orbital inclinations. Utilizing mission-specific combinations of its three primary modules (crew, propulsion, and cargo) and a variety of supplementary kits, the Space Tug was capable of numerous space applications. This 1970 artist's concept depicts the Tug's propulsion module launching a space probe into lunar orbit.

  12. Nutrition in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Davis-Street, J.; Rice, B. L.; Lane, H. W.

    1997-01-01

    The authors review studies conducted to define nutritional requirements for astronauts during space flight and to assess nutrition before, during, and after space flight. Topics include space food systems, research and limitations on spacecraft, physiological adaptation to weightlessness, energy requirements, dietary intake during space flight, bone demineralization, gastrointestinal function, blood volume, and nutrition requirements for space flight. Benefits of space-related nutrition research are highlighted.

  13. Advanced Space Suit PLSS 2.0 Cooling Loop Evaluation and PLSS 2.5 Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John; Quinn, Greg; Campbell, Colin; Makinen, Janice; Watts, Carly; Westheimer, Dave

    2016-01-01

    From 2012 to 2015 The NASA/JSC AdvSS (Advanced Space Suit) PLSS (Primary Life Support Subsystem) team, with support from UTC Aerospace Systems, performed the build-up, packaging and testing of PLSS 2.0. A key aspect of that testing was the evaluation of the long-term health of the water cooling circuit and the interfacing components. Intermittent and end-of-test water, residue and hardware analyses provided valuable information on the status of the water cooling circuit, and the approaches that would be necessary to enhance water cooling circuit health in the future. The evaluated data has been consolidated, interpreted and woven into an action plan for the maintenance of water cooling circuit health for the planned FY (fiscal year) 2016 through FY 2018 PLSS 2.5 testing. This paper provides an overview of the PLSS 2.0 water cooling circuit findings and the associated steps to be taken in that regard for the PLSS 2.5 testing.

  14. Advanced Space Suit PLSS 2.0 Cooling Loop Evaluation and PLSS 2.5 Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John; Quinn, Greg; Campbell, Colin; Makinen, Janice; Watts, Carly; Westheimer, David

    2016-01-01

    From 2012 to 2015 The NASA/JSC AdvSS (Advanced Space Suit) PLSS (Portable Life Support Subsystem) team, with support from UTC Aerospace Systems, performed the build-up, packaging and testing of PLSS 2.0. One aspect of that testing was the evaluation of the long-term health of the water cooling circuit and the interfacing components. Periodic and end-of-test water, residue and hardware analyses provided valuable information on the status of the water cooling circuit, and the approaches that would be necessary to enhance water cooling circuit health in the future. The evaluated data has been consolidated, interpreted and woven into an action plan for the maintenance of water cooling circuit health for the planned FY (fiscal year) 2016 through FY 2018 PLSS 2.5 testing. This paper provides an overview of the PLSS 2.0 water cooling circuit findings and the associated steps to be taken in that regard for the PLSS 2.5.

  15. The International Space Station in Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerstenmaier, William H.; McKay, Meredith M.

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Program has many lessons to offer for the future of space exploration. Among these lessons of the ISS Program, three stand out as instrumental for the next generation of explorers. These include: 1) resourcefulness and the value of a strong international partnership; 2) flexibility as illustrated by the evolution of the ISS Program and 3) designing with dissimilar redundancy and simplicity of sparing. These lessons graphically demonstrate that the ISS Program can serve as a test bed for future programs. As the ISS Program builds upon the strong foundation of previous space programs, it can provide insight into the prospects for continued growth and cooperation in space exploration. As the capacity for spacefaring increases worldwide and as more nations invest in space exploration and space sector development, the potential for advancement in space exploration is unlimited. By building on its engineering and research achievements and international cooperation, the ISS Program is inspiring tomorrow s explorers today.

  16. Spaced Retrieval: Absolute Spacing Enhances Learning Regardless of Relative Spacing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpicke, Jeffrey D.; Bauernschmidt, Althea

    2011-01-01

    Repeated retrieval enhances long-term retention, and spaced repetition also enhances retention. A question with practical and theoretical significance is whether there are particular schedules of spaced retrieval (e.g., gradually expanding the interval between tests) that produce the best learning. In the present experiment, subjects studied and…

  17. Space weather: European Space Agency perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, E. J.; Hilgers, A.

    Spacecraft and payloads have become steadily more sophisticated and therefore more susceptible to space weather effects. ESA has long been active in applying models and tools to the problems associated with such effects on its spacecraft. In parallel, ESA and European agencies have built a highly successful solar-terrestrial physics capability. ESA is now investigating the marriage of these technological and scientific capabilities to address perceived user needs for space weather products and services. Two major ESA-sponsored studies are laying the groundwork for a possible operational European space weather service. The wide-ranging activities of ESA in the Space Weather/Space Environment domain are summarized and recent important examples of space weather concerns given.

  18. Space Toxicology: Human Health during Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen; James, John T.; Tyl, ROchelle; Lam, Chiu-Wing

    2010-01-01

    Space Toxicology is a unique and targeted discipline for spaceflight, space habitation and occupation of celestial bodies including planets, moons and asteroids. Astronaut explorers face distinctive health challenges and limited resources for rescue and medical care during space operation. A central goal of space toxicology is to protect the health of the astronaut by assessing potential chemical exposures during spaceflight and setting safe limits that will protect the astronaut against chemical exposures, in a physiologically altered state. In order to maintain sustained occupation in space on the International Space Station (ISS), toxicological risks must be assessed and managed within the context of isolation continuous exposures, reuse of air and water, limited rescue options, and the need to use highly toxic compounds for propulsion. As we begin to explore other celestial bodies in situ toxicological risks, such as inhalation of reactive mineral dusts, must also be managed.

  19. Using space resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Thomas A.; Mckay, David S.

    1991-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: reducing the cost of space exploration; the high cost of shipping; lunar raw materials; some useful space products; energy from the moon; ceramic, glass, and concrete construction materials; mars atmosphere resources; relationship to the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI); an evolutionary approach to using space resources; technology development; and oxygen and metal coproduction.

  20. TCLS Arm for Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Benoit; Helfers, Tim; Poupat, Jean-Luc

    2015-09-01

    The TCLS ARM FOR SPACE proposal was an answer to the H2020 topic “COMPET-6-2014: Bottom-up Space Technologies at low TRL”. This paper presents this H2020 TCLS ARM FOR SPACE initiative led by Airbus DS and which aims at fostering the use of European technology such as ARM processing for Space.

  1. Space Flight. Teacher Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This teacher's guide contains information, lesson plans, and diverse student learning activities focusing on space flight. The guide is divided into seven sections: (1) "Drawing Activities" (Future Flight; Space Fun; Mission: Draw); (2) "Geography" (Space Places); (3) "History" (Space and Time); (4)…

  2. Space: The New Frontier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This document is designed primarily to describe the U.S. Space Program, its history, its current state of development, and its goals for the future. Chapter headings include: Space and You; The Early History of Space Flight; The Solar System; Space Probes and Satellites; Scientific Satellites and Sounding Rockets; Application Satellites, Unmanned…

  3. Space Guidelines for Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Coordinating Committee for Higher Education, Madison.

    The following guidelines are recommended: stack space--for each 10 volumes, one square foot of space; reading room--25 square feet per station x 20% of the total undergraduate population; carrel space--25% of the graduate enrollment x 45 square feet; office and auxilliary space--135 square feet x full time equivalent staff. (NI)

  4. Budgeting Academic Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Watson

    2011-01-01

    There are many articles about space management, including those that discuss space calculations, metrics, and categories. Fewer articles discuss the space budgeting processes used by administrators to allocate space. The author attempts to fill this void by discussing her administrative experiences with Middle Tennessee State University's (MTSU)…

  5. Organic chemistry in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    Organic cosmochemistry, organic materials in space exploration, and biochemistry of man in space are briefly surveyed. A model of Jupiter's atmosphere is considered, and the search for organic molecules in the solar system and in interstellar space is discussed. Materials and analytical techniques relevant to space exploration are indicated, and the blood and urine analyses performed on Skylab are described.

  6. The Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffitt, William L.

    2003-01-01

    As missions have become increasingly more challenging over the years, the most adaptable and capable element of space shuttle operations has proven time and again to be human beings. Human space flight provides unique aspects of observation. interaction and intervention that can reduce risk and improve mission success. No other launch vehicle - in development or in operation today - can match the space shuttle's human space flight capabilities. Preserving U.S. leadership in human space flight requires a strategy to meet those challenges. The ongoing development of next generation vehicles, along with upgrades to the space shuttle, is the most effective means for assuring our access to space.

  7. Bioprocessing in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D. R. (Compiler)

    1977-01-01

    Proceedings are presented of the 1976 NASA Colloquium on bioprocessing in space. The program included general sessions and formal presentations on the following topics: NASA's Space Shuttle, Spacelab, and space-processing programs; the known unusual behavior of materials in space; space-processing experiment results; cell biology, gravity sensors in cells, space electrophoresis of living cells, new approaches to biosynthesis of biologicals from cell culture in space, and zero-g fermentation concepts; and upcoming flight opportunities and industrial application planning studies already underway.

  8. Space educators' handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodfill, Jerry

    1992-01-01

    The Space Educators' Handbook is a collection of space exploration information available on Hypercard as a space education reference book. Ranging from early dreams of space ships to current manned missions, the more than four thousand cards include entries of statistics, historical facts and anecdotes, technical articles, accounts of NASA missions from Mercury through the space shuttle, biographical information on women and men who have contributed to space exploration, scientific facts, and various other space-related data. The means of presenting the data range from cartoons and drawings to lists and narratives, some briefly quoted and some reproduced in full.

  9. Space Physiology and Operational Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this slide presentation are to teach a level of familiarity with: the effects of short and long duration space flight on the human body, the major medical concerns regarding future long duration missions, the environmental issues that have potential medical impact on the crew, the role and capabilities of the Space Medicine Flight Surgeon and the environmental impacts experienced by the Apollo crews. The main physiological effects of space flight on the human body reviewed in this presentation are: space motion sickness (SMS), neurovestibular, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, immune/hematopoietic system and behavioral/psycho-social. Some countermeasures are discussed to these effects.

  10. Space Science Curricula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Johnson High School, Huntsville, Alabama started an international magnet program in 1987. One of the courses in the curriculum was in space science. They appealed to Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) when they couldn't find a suitable textbook, nor locate other classes in space science to provide a guideline. MSFC agreed to help and placed the school under an official 'Adopt-A-School' program. MSFC's chief scientist and others at the space center helped prepare a very comprehensive space science program. Examples of the subjects covered include problems of space travel, materials processing in space, technology utilization, robotics, space colonization, etc. MSFC followed up by working with Johnson High to determine if the curriculum is generally usable and workable. If it is, MSFC may make it available to other schools. MSFC not only developed the space science curriculum; they continue to support the program by sponsoring hands- on activities and tours of space research facilities.

  11. Space Shuttle Familiarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellett, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation visualizes the NASA space center and research facility sites, as well as the geography, launching sites, launching pads, rocket launching, pre-flight activities, and space shuttle ground operations located at NASA Kennedy Space Center. Additionally, highlights the international involvement behind the International Space Station and the space station mobile servicing system. Extraterrestrial landings, surface habitats and habitation systems, outposts, extravehicular activity, and spacecraft rendezvous with the Earth return vehicle are also covered.

  12. The Austrian Space Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pseiner, K.; Balogh, W.

    2002-01-01

    After several years of preparation and discussion among the involved players, the Austrian Space Plan was approved for implementation in November 2001. Based on careful benchmarking and analysis of the capabilities of the Austrian space sector it aims to create excellent conditions for the sector's further development. The new space strategy embraces Austria's participation in the mandatory and optional programmes of the European Space Agency and establishes a National Space Programme supported by separate funding opportunities. A set of clearly-defined indicators ensures that the progress in implementing the Space Plan can be objectively judged through independent, annual reviews. The National Space Programme promotes international cooperation in space research and space activities with the aim to strengthen the role of space science and to better prepare Austrian space industry for the commercial space market. In the framework of the Space Plan the Austrian Space Agency has been tasked with integrating the industry's growing involvement in aeronautics activities to better utilize synergies with the space sector. This paper reviews the various steps leading to the approval of the new space strategy and discusses the hurdles mastered in this process. It reports on the Space Plan's first results, specifically taking into account projects involving international cooperation. For the first the Austria aerospace-sector can rely on an integrated strategy for aeronautics- and space activities which is firmly rooted in the efforts to enhance the country's R&D activities. It may also act as a useful example for other small space- using countries planning to enhance their involvement in space activities.

  13. National Space Agencies vs. Commercial Space: Towards Improved Space Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelton, J.

    2013-09-01

    Traditional space policies as developed at the national level includes many elements but they are most typically driven by economic and political objectives. Legislatively administered programs apportion limited public funds to achieve "gains" that can involve employment, stimulus to the economy, national defense or other advancements. Yet political advantage is seldom far from the picture.Within the context of traditional space policies, safety issues cannot truly be described as "afterthoughts", but they are usually, at best, a secondary or even tertiary consideration. "Space safety" is often simply assumed to be "in there" somewhere. The current key question is can "safety and risk minimization", within new commercial space programs actually be elevated in importance and effectively be "designed in" at the outset. This has long been the case with commercial aviation and there is at least reasonable hope that this could also be the case for the commercial space industry in coming years. The cooperative role that the insurance industry has now played for centuries in the shipping industry and for decades in aviation can perhaps now play a constructive role in risk minimization in the commercial space domain as well. This paper begins by examining two historical case studies in the context of traditional national space policy development to see how major space policy decisions involving "manned space programs" have given undue primacy to "political considerations" over "safety" and other factors. The specific case histories examined here include first the decision to undertake the Space Shuttle Program (i.e. 1970-1972) and the second is the International Space Station. In both cases the key and overarching decisions were driven by political, schedule and cost considerations, and safety seems absence as a prime consideration. In publicly funded space programs—whether in the United States, Europe, Russia, Japan, China, India or elsewhere—it seems realistic to

  14. Man in Space, Space in the Seventies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Walter

    Included is a summary of the Apollo lunar program to date. Projected future NASA programs planned for the 1970's are discussed under the headings Skylab, Space Shuttle, and Space Station. Possibilities for the 1980's are outlined in the final section. (Author/AL)

  15. Esrange Space Center, a Gate to Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widell, Ola

    Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) is operating the Esrange Space Center in northern Sweden. Space operations have been performed for more than 40 years. We have a unique combination of maintaining balloon and rocket launch operations, and building payloads, providing space vehicles and service systems. Sub-orbital rocket flights with land recovery and short to long duration balloon flights up to weeks are offered. The geographical location, land recovery area and the long term experience makes Swedish Space Corporation and Esrange to an ideal gate for space activities. Stratospheric balloons are primarily used in supporting atmospheric research, validation of satellites and testing of space systems. Balloon operations have been carried out at Esrange since 1974. A large number of balloon flights are yearly launched in cooperation with CNES, France. Since 2005 NASA/CSBF and Esrange provide long duration balloon flights to North America. Flight durations up to 5 days with giant balloons (1.2 Million cubic metres) carrying heavy payload (up to 2500kg) with astronomical instruments has been performed. Balloons are also used as a crane for lifting space vehicles or parachute systems to be dropped and tested from high altitude. Many scientific groups both in US, Europe and Japan have indicated a great need of long duration balloon flights. Esrange will perform a technical polar circum balloon flight during the summer 2008 testing balloon systems and flight technique. We are also working on a permission giving us the opportunity on a circular stratospheric balloon flight around the North Pole.

  16. SpaceTech—Postgraduate space education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijn, Ferdi J.; Ashford, Edward W.; Larson, Wiley J.

    2008-07-01

    SpaceTech is a postgraduate program geared primarily for mid-career space professionals seeking to gain or improve their expertise in space systems engineering and in business engineering. SpaceTech provides a lifelong impact on its participants by broadening their capabilities, encouraging systematic "end-to-end" thinking and preparing them for any technical or business-related engineering challenges they may encounter. This flexible 1-year program offers high competency gain and increased business skills. It is held in attractive locations in a flexible, multi-cultural environment. SpaceTech is a highly effective master's program certified by the esteemed Technical University of Delft (TUD), Netherlands. SpaceTech provides expert instructors who place no barriers between themselves and participants. The program combines innovative and flexible new approaches with time-tested methods to give participants the skills required for future missions and new business, while allowing participants to meet their work commitments at the same time as they study for their master's degree. The SpaceTech program is conducted in separate sessions, generally each of 2-week duration, separated by periods of some 6-8 weeks, during which time participants may return to their normal jobs. It also includes introductory online course material that the participants can study at their leisure. The first session is held at the TUD, with subsequent sessions held at strategic space agency locations. By participating at two or more of these sessions, attendees can earn certificates of satisfactory completion from TU Delft. By participating in all of the sessions, as well as taking part in the companion Central Case Project (CCP), participants earn an accredited and highly respected master's degree in Space Systems Engineering from the TUD. Seven distinct SpaceTech modules are provided during these sessions: Space Mission Analysis and Design, Systems Engineering, Business Engineering

  17. Section 2: The Space of Media Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Steve

    We began our study of media space with the social aspects of mediated communication because many in the computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) realm are familiar with models, theories, frameworks, issues, and design approaches related to sociality. But the first media space research came from another set of traditions — the ordering of space and the making of place. Formally, these are the professional and intellectual provinces of architecture, which are probably remote from the disciplinary backgrounds of most readers. However, remoteness in terms of rhetoric and training does not prevent proximity to everyday human experience. The meaning of media space with respect to human experience is the focus of the articles in this section. The spaces are designed to have meaning, and the meaning of the design derives from spatial experience.

  18. Optimization of the Ethanol Recycling Reflux Extraction Process for Saponins Using a Design Space Approach

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xingchu; Zhang, Ying; Pan, Jianyang; Qu, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    A solvent recycling reflux extraction process for Panax notoginseng was optimized using a design space approach to improve the batch-to-batch consistency of the extract. Saponin yields, total saponin purity, and pigment yield were defined as the process critical quality attributes (CQAs). Ethanol content, extraction time, and the ratio of the recycling ethanol flow rate and initial solvent volume in the extraction tank (RES) were identified as the critical process parameters (CPPs) via quantitative risk assessment. Box-Behnken design experiments were performed. Quadratic models between CPPs and process CQAs were developed, with determination coefficients higher than 0.88. As the ethanol concentration decreases, saponin yields first increase and then decrease. A longer extraction time leads to higher yields of the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rd. The total saponin purity increases as the ethanol concentration increases. The pigment yield increases as the ethanol concentration decreases or extraction time increases. The design space was calculated using a Monte-Carlo simulation method with an acceptable probability of 0.90. Normal operation ranges to attain process CQA criteria with a probability of more than 0.914 are recommended as follows: ethanol content of 79–82%, extraction time of 6.1–7.1 h, and RES of 0.039–0.040 min−1. Most of the results of the verification experiments agreed well with the predictions. The verification experiment results showed that the selection of proper operating ethanol content, extraction time, and RES within the design space can ensure that the CQA criteria are met. PMID:25470598

  19. Optimization of the ethanol recycling reflux extraction process for saponins using a design space approach.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xingchu; Zhang, Ying; Pan, Jianyang; Qu, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    A solvent recycling reflux extraction process for Panax notoginseng was optimized using a design space approach to improve the batch-to-batch consistency of the extract. Saponin yields, total saponin purity, and pigment yield were defined as the process critical quality attributes (CQAs). Ethanol content, extraction time, and the ratio of the recycling ethanol flow rate and initial solvent volume in the extraction tank (RES) were identified as the critical process parameters (CPPs) via quantitative risk assessment. Box-Behnken design experiments were performed. Quadratic models between CPPs and process CQAs were developed, with determination coefficients higher than 0.88. As the ethanol concentration decreases, saponin yields first increase and then decrease. A longer extraction time leads to higher yields of the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rd. The total saponin purity increases as the ethanol concentration increases. The pigment yield increases as the ethanol concentration decreases or extraction time increases. The design space was calculated using a Monte-Carlo simulation method with an acceptable probability of 0.90. Normal operation ranges to attain process CQA criteria with a probability of more than 0.914 are recommended as follows: ethanol content of 79-82%, extraction time of 6.1-7.1 h, and RES of 0.039-0.040 min-1. Most of the results of the verification experiments agreed well with the predictions. The verification experiment results showed that the selection of proper operating ethanol content, extraction time, and RES within the design space can ensure that the CQA criteria are met.

  20. Estradiol and progesterone-mediated regulation of P-gp in P-gp overexpressing cells (NCI-ADR-RES) and placental cells (JAR).

    PubMed

    Coles, Lisa D; Lee, Insong J; Voulalas, Pamela J; Eddington, Natalie D

    2009-01-01

    The effect of progesterone and estrogen treatment on the expression and function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was evaluated in JAR cells and a P-gp overexpressing cell line, NCI-ADR-RES. Western blot analysis and real-time Q-PCR were used to evaluate P-gp protein and MDR1 mRNA expression respectively in the cells following incubation with progesterone (P4) and/or beta-estradiol (E2). Cellular uptake studies of the P-gp substrates, saquinavir and paclitaxel, were performed to evaluate function. Treatment with either E2 or P4 resulted in a significant increase in P-gp protein levels in the NCI-ADR-RES cells at concentrations of or greater than 100 nM or 10 nM, respectively. JAR cells also had increased levels of P-gp with 100 nM of P4 but were much more sensitive to E2 showing increased P-gp at a concentration of 1 nM. Furthermore, E2 or P4 treatment resulted in a significant decrease in cellular uptake of the P-gp substrates tested in these cells lines. Based on mRNA quantitation, a transient increase (2-fold) in MDR1 levels was observed at 8 h postincubation with either E2 or P4, while MDR1 levels remained high in the JAR cells treated with E2 for 72 h postincubation. The addition of actinomycin D, a transcription inhibitor negated the increase in P-gp by P4 and E2. P4 and E2 increase P-gp expression and function in NCI-ADR-RES and JAR cells with the ERalpha-expressing cells (JAR) much more sensitive to E2. Furthermore, transcriptional regulation by E2 and P4 likely contributes to the modulation of P-gp levels.

  1. Bacillus cereus Fnr binds a [4Fe-4S] cluster and forms a ternary complex with ResD and PlcR

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacillus cereus is a facultative anaerobe that causes diarrheal disease in humans. Diarrheal syndrome may result from the secretion of various virulence factors including hemolysin BL and nonhemolytic enterotoxin Nhe. Expression of genes encoding Hbl and Nhe is regulated by the two redox systems, ResDE and Fnr, and the virulence regulator PlcR. B. cereus Fnr is a member of the Crp/Fnr family of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) proteins. Only its apo-form has so far been studied. A major goal in deciphering the Fnr-dependent regulation of enterotoxin genes is thus to obtain and characterize holoFnr. Results Fnr has been subjected to in vitro Fe-S cluster reconstitution under anoxic conditions. UV-visible and EPR spectroscopic analyses together with the chemical estimation of the iron content indicated that Fnr binds one [4Fe-4S]2+ cluster per monomer. Atmospheric O2 causes disassembly of the Fe-S cluster, which exhibited a half-life of 15 min in air. Holo- and apoFnr have similar affinities for the nhe and hbl promoter regions, while holoFnr has a higher affinity for fnr promoter region than apoFnr. Both the apo- and holo-form of Fnr interact with ResD and PlcR to form a ternary complex. Conclusions Overall, this work shows that incorporation of the [4Fe-4S]2+ cluster is not required for DNA binding of Fnr to promoter regions of hbl and nhe enterotoxin genes or for the formation of a ternary complex with ResD and PlcR. This points to some new unusual properties of Fnr that may have physiological relevance in the redox regulation of enterotoxin gene regulation. PMID:22731107

  2. Rubus coreanus Miquel extract causes apoptosis of doxorubicin-resistant NCI/ADR-RES ovarian cancer cells via JNK phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Kyoung; Choi, Hyeong Sim; Cho, Sung-Gook; Shin, Yong Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2016-05-01

    Cancer cells can acquire an anticancer, drug-resistant phenotype following chemotherapy, which is tightly linked to cancer malignancy and patient survival rates. Therefore, the identification of options to treat chemotherapy‑resistant cancer cells is an urgent requirement. Rubus coreanus Miquel (RCM) has long been used as a source of food. In addition, it has been reported that RCM has effective functions against particular diseases, including cancer and inflammation. In the present study, it was demonstrated that RCM extract caused the apoptotic cell death of doxorubicin‑resistant NCI/ADR‑RES ovarian cancer cells by phosphorylating c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK). The RCM‑mediated reduction of cell viability showed no synergism with doxorubicin. In addition, ellagic acid and quercetin, which are phytochemicals found in RCM, also caused apoptosis of the NCI/ADR‑RES cells. In subsequent investigations of the RCM‑altered signaling pathway, RCM extract, ellagic acid and quercetin were found to commonly induce the phosphorylation of JNK and AKT. Additionally, the inhibition of JNK with SP600125 repressed the apoptotic cell death induced by RCM extract, ellagic acid and quercetin, and the inhibition of JNK appeared to switch apoptosis to necrosis. JNK inhibition also reduced the phosphorylation of AKT, which was induced by RCM extract, ellagic acid and quercetin, suggesting that the phosphorylation of JNK is required for AKT phosphorylation in RCM‑, ellagic acid‑ or quercetin‑induced apoptotic cell death. Therefore, the data obtained in the present study led to the conclusion that RCM caused apoptosis of doxorubicin‑resistant NCI/ADR-RES ovarian cancer cells via JNK phosphorylation, and suggested that RCM may be effective in the treatment of chemotherapy‑resistant cancer cells.

  3. Space Station Spartan study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, J. H.; Schulman, J. R.; Neupert, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    The required extension, enhancement, and upgrading of the present Spartan concept are described to conduct operations from the space station using the station's unique facilities and operational features. The space station Spartan (3S), the free flyer will be deployed from and returned to the space station and will conduct scientific missions of much longer duration than possible with the current Spartan. The potential benefits of a space station Spartan are enumerated. The objectives of the study are: (1) to develop a credible concept for a space station Spartan; and (2) to determine the associated requirements and interfaces with the space station to help ensure that the 3S can be properly accommodated.

  4. Deep Space Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manshadi, Farzin

    2012-01-01

    ITU defines deep space as the volume of Space at distances from the Earth equal to, or greater than, 2 106 km. Deep Space Spacecraft have to travel tens of millions of km from Earth to reach the nearest object in deep space. Spacecraft mass and power are precious. Large ground-based antennas and very high power transmitters are needed to overcome large space loss and spacecraft's small antennas and low power transmitters. Navigation is complex and highly dependent on measurements from the Earth. Every deep space mission is unique and therefore very costly to develop.

  5. Brazil in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Fabiola

    1993-10-01

    Brazil's National Space Research Institute (INPE) was born out of the desire of a number of Brazilians to see their country participating in the conquest of space. On 3 August 1961, President Janio Quadros signed a decree, creating the Organising Group for the National Space Commission (GOCNAE) as a part of the National Research Council (CNPq). CNAE, as the institution became known later gave birth to INPE. The present activities of INPE - concentrated in the areas of Space and Atmospheric Sciences, Earth Observation, and Space Technology - and showing that space science and technology can exert an important influence on the quality of life of the general population, and on Brazil's future national development.

  6. Copolymères (carbazolylène-pyrrolylène) : synthèse par oxydation chimique et propriétés

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucard, V.; Adès, D.; Siove, A.

    1998-06-01

    Conditions in which (carbazolylene-pyrrolylene) random copolymers could be synthetized directly by chemical oxidation by FeCl3 were studied. A substantial amount of soluble copolymers is obtained after work-up in the conditions corresponding to carbazole/pyrrole/2 FeCl3 molar proportions. An important fraction of polypyrrole was obtained beside a fraction of species soluble in ethanol (carbazole and dimer) and an other fraction of products soluble in water (pyrrole accompanied by the first terms of the oligomeric series). Soluble copolymers were characterized by means of SEC, NMR and UV-Visible spectroscopies. Cyclic voltammetry analysis disclosed that these copolymers exhibit both the carbazolic and the pyrrolic features. Les conditions dans lesquelles des copolymères statistiques (carbazo lylène-pyrrolylène) pouvaient être synthétisés directement par oxydation chimique par FeCl3 ont été étudiées. Des quantités substantielles de copolymères solubles en milieu organique sont obtenues par extraction lorsque les proportions molaires en réactifs carbazole/pyrrole/2 FeCl3 sont utilisées. Une fraction importante de polypyrrole est obtenue à côté d'une fraction d'espèces solubles dans l'éthanol (carbazole et son dimère) et d'une fraction de produits solubles dans l'eau (pyrrole et les premiers termes oligomères). Les copolymères solubles ont été caractérisés par CES, spectroscopies RMN et UV-Visible. L'analyse voltampérométrique de ces matériaux révèle qu'ils possèdent à la fois les caractéristiques des entités carbazolylènes et celles des entités pyrrolylènes.

  7. The Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (familial, early onset encephalopathy with calcifications of the basal ganglia and chronic cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis).

    PubMed Central

    Tolmie, J L; Shillito, P; Hughes-Benzie, R; Stephenson, J B

    1995-01-01

    Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (Mendelian inheritance in man Catalog No *225750) is an autosomal recessive encephalopathy which causes developmental arrest, intracerebral calcification, and white matter disease in the presence of chronic cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis, and a raised level of cerebrospinal fluid interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha). Diagnosis requires the presence of progressive encephalopathy with onset shortly after birth, and characteristic clinical neurological and neuroimaging signs together with chronic CSF lymphocytosis. The syndrome has superficial resemblance to the neurological sequelae of congenital infection, thus a rigorous search for microbiological and serological evidence of embryopathic infections should be carried out in each case. Images PMID:8592332

  8. [Reflections on physical spaces and mental spaces].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Yi

    2013-08-01

    This article analyzes certain reciprocal impacts from physical spaces to mental spaces. If the epistemological construction and the spatial imagination from the subject of cogito or the social collectivities are able to influence the construction and creation of the physical spaces of that subject, then the context of that physical space may also affect the cognitive or social subject's mental cognition. This article applies the methodology of iconology from art history (E. Panofsky) and sociology (P. Bourdieu) to explore correlations between the creation of imaginative and physical spaces from the collective consciousness and mental cognition. The author uses Gilles Deleuses's opinion regarding the 17th-century Baroque style and contemporary social collective symptoms as an explanation. From these theoretical studies, the author analyzes the differences of spatial epistemology generated by Taiwan's special geological text. Finally, the author applies Michel Foucault's studies on spatial context to assess the possible application of this thesis of reciprocal impacts from mental spaces to physical spaces in a nursing context.

  9. Grouped frequent sequential patterns derived from terrestrial image time series to monitor landslide behaviour - Application to the dynamics of the Sanières/Roche Plombée rockslide.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Péricault, Youen; Pothier, Catherine; Méger, Nicolas; Trouvé, Emmanuel; Vernier, Flavien; Rigotti, Christophe; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Image time series acquired with remote sensing methods based on optical terrestrial photogrammetry have great potential for understanding and monitoring the Earth surface dynamics at local scale, and are particularly interesting for landslide monitoring. Image correlation techniques can be applied to calculate the displacement fields, in either the image geometry or the terrain geometry if orthorectification procedures are applied. The resulting products are times series of displacement vectors for each epoch in which knowledge extraction techniques can be applied to discover relevant movement patterns in space and time. We used an unsupervised method (Grouped Frequent Sequential patterns / GFS-patterns) based on the mining of the displacement field. The method was originally developed for the analysis of time series of satellite images. It involves the extraction of trends / sub-trends affecting each pixel covering at least a minimum surface area and sufficiently connected to each other. The results of the mining are presented in spatio-temporal location maps (STL-map) of each GFS-pattern. In these maps, the spatial information is given by the pixel locations and the time information is displayed using a color ramp. The method is tested on a time series of 36 optical terrestrial images of the Sanières/Roche Plombée rockslide (South East French Alps) from 28 of July to 1 September 2014. From this series 35 2D displacement fields were calculated for epochs of three days, and the time series of vector magnitude and direction were analysed with GFS-patterns / STL-map. The method allowed identifying several patterns corresponding to different kinematical behaviour of the rockslide (long-term creep at the top of the slope, surficial movement of the debris at the base of the slope). The unsupervised knowledge extraction method GFS-pattern / STL-map, originally developed to analyse time series of satellite images showed in this study real possibilities of use for

  10. Gain length fitting formula for free-electron lasers with strong space-charge effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, G.; Hemsing, E.; Rosenzweig, J.

    2011-08-01

    We present a power-fit formula, obtained from a variational analysis using three-dimensional free-electron laser theory, for the gain length of a high-gain free-electron laser’s fundamental mode in the presence of diffraction, uncorrelated energy spread, and longitudinal space-charge effects. The approach is inspired by the work of Xie [Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 445, 59 (2000)NIMAER0168-900210.1016/S0168-9002(00)00114-5], and provides a useful shortcut for calculating the gain length of the fundamental Gaussian mode of a free-electron laser having strong space-charge effects in the 3D regime. The results derived from analytic theory are in good agreement with detailed numerical particle simulations that also include higher-order space-charge effects, supporting the assumptions made in the theoretical treatment and the variational solutions obtained in the single-mode limit.

  11. The Classroom Space Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbickas, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    Introduces the Classroom Space project aimed at revitalizing science education at Key Stages 3 and 4 by using exciting examples from Space Science and Astronomy to illustrate key science concepts. (Author/YDS)

  12. Space processing: A projection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccreight, L. R.; Griffin, R. N.

    1972-01-01

    Estimates concerning space manufacturing, which might well become the largest and most specific application of space technology by the end of the century are given. Two classes of materials are considered - electronic crystals and biologicals.

  13. Space Radiation Program Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krenek, Sam

    2008-01-01

    This poster presentation shows the various elements of the Space Radiation Program. It reviews the program requirements: develop and validate standards, quantify space radiation human health risks, mitigate risks through countermeasures and technologies, and treat and monitor unmitigated risks.

  14. French space activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanc, R.

    1982-01-01

    The four main points of research and development of space programs by France are explained. The National Center of Space Studies is discussed, listing the missions of the Center and describing the activities of the staff.

  15. Occupational Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarver, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Learning Objectives are: (1) Understand the unique work environment of astronauts. (2) Understand the effect microgravity has on human physiology (3) Understand how NASA Space Medicine Division is mitigating the health risks of space missions.

  16. Space spider crane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macconochie, Ian O. (Inventor); Mikulas, Martin M., Jr. (Inventor); Pennington, Jack E. (Inventor); Kinkead, Rebecca L. (Inventor); Bryan, Charles F., Jr. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A space spider crane for the movement, placement, and or assembly of various components on or in the vicinity of a space structure is described. As permanent space structures are utilized by the space program, a means will be required to transport cargo and perform various repair tasks. A space spider crane comprising a small central body with attached manipulators and legs fulfills this requirement. The manipulators may be equipped with constant pressure gripping end effectors or tools to accomplish various repair tasks. The legs are also equipped with constant pressure gripping end effectors to grip the space structure. Control of the space spider crane may be achieved either by computer software or a remotely situated human operator, who maintains visual contact via television cameras mounted on the space spider crane. One possible walking program consists of a parallel motion walking program whereby the small central body alternatively leans forward and backward relative to end effectors.

  17. The Space Station Chronicles

    NASA Video Gallery

    As early as the nineteenth century, writers and artists and scientists around the world began to publish their visions of a crewed outpost in space. Learn about the history of space stations, from ...

  18. Welding in Space Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    The potential was discussed for welding in space, its advantages and disadvantages, and what type of programs can benefit from the capability. Review of the various presentations and comments made in the course of the workshop suggests several routes to obtaining a better understanding of how welding processes can be used in NASA's initiatives in space. They are as follows: (1) development of a document identifying well processes and equipment requirements applicable to space and lunar environments; (2) more demonstrations of welding particular hardware which are to be used in the above environments, especially for space repair operations; (3) increased awareness among contractors responsible for building space equipment as to the potential for welding operations in space and on other planetary bodies; and (4) continuation of space welding research projects is important to maintain awareness within NASA that welding in space is viable and beneficial.

  19. Stereotype locally convex spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbarov, S. S.

    2000-08-01

    We give complete proofs of some previously announced results in the theory of stereotype (that is, reflexive in the sense of Pontryagin duality) locally convex spaces. These spaces have important applications in topological algebra and functional analysis.

  20. Space Studies Board, 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This 1994 report of the Space Studies Board of the National Research Council summarizes the charter and organization of the board, activities and membership, major and short reports, and congressional testimony. A cumulative bibliography of the Space Studies (formerly Space Science) Board and its committees is provided. An appendix contains reports of the panel to review Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) plans. Major reports cover scientific opportunities in the human exploration of space, the dichotomy between funding and effectiveness in space physics, an integrated strategy for the planetary sciences for the years 1995-2010, and Office of Naval Research (ONR) research opportunities in upper atmospheric sciences. Short reports cover utilization of the space station, life and microgravity sciences and the space station program, Space Infrared Telescope Facility and the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, and the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility and Cassini Saturn Probe.

  1. Space Traveler Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Describes the winners of the Space Traveler Project, a contest jointly sponsored by Rockwell International, NASA, and this magazine to identify worthwhile elementary science programs relating to the Space Shuttle. (SJL)

  2. Traveling Space Museum

    NASA Video Gallery

    In an effort to inspire and motivate the next generation of space explorers, NASA’s Ames Research Center teamed up with the Traveling Space Museum to teach students the way astronauts are taughtâ...

  3. Pathfinder: Humans in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John L.

    1988-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented on the Pathfinder program. Information is given on human exploration of the solar system, technical requirements interfaces, program objectives, space suits, human performance, man-machine systems, space habitats, life support systems, and artificial gravity

  4. What's Your Favorite Space?

    NASA Video Gallery

    The crew of STS-135, NASA's final space shuttle mission, and Sesame Street's Elmo welcomed visitors to "What's Your Favorite Space?" in New York City. The free, public event was presented by NASA a...

  5. Plants in Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    This student plant growth investigation on the International Space Station compares plant growth on the ground with plant growth in space. Brassica rapa seeds, commonly known as a turnip mustard, w...

  6. Angry Birds Space Encounter

    NASA Video Gallery

    At NASA's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida, a grand opening celebration was held for the new Angry Birds Space Encounter, March 22. Finland-based Rovio Entertainment, the creator of ...

  7. 46 CFR 154.1210 - Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing... Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1210 Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping. (a) Each hold space, void space, cofferdam,...

  8. 46 CFR 154.1210 - Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing... Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1210 Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping. (a) Each hold space, void space, cofferdam,...

  9. 46 CFR 154.1210 - Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing... Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1210 Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping. (a) Each hold space, void space, cofferdam,...

  10. 46 CFR 154.1210 - Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing... Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1210 Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping. (a) Each hold space, void space, cofferdam,...

  11. 46 CFR 154.1210 - Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing... Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1210 Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping. (a) Each hold space, void space, cofferdam,...

  12. Space Fence Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haimerl, J.; Fonder, G.

    Space is no longer a vast, empty void. Unprecedented quantities of new satellites, derelict satellites, and debris litter the skies, posing an imminent threat to America's space assets. The Space Fence System is a ground-based system of S-band radars designed to greatly enhance the Air Force Space Surveillance network. Space Fence provides unprecedented sensitivity, coverage and tracking accuracy, and contributes to key mission threads with the ability to detect, track and catalog small objects in LEO, MEO and GEO. Space Fence capabilities will revolutionize space situational awareness. Space Fence includes up to two minimally-manned radar sites and the Space Fence Operations Center. Each radar site features a design with closely-spaced, but separate, Transmit and Receive Arrays that are mission-optimized for high availability and low lifetime support costs, including prime power. The radar architecture is based on Digital Beam-forming. This capability permits tremendous user-defined flexibility to customize volume surveillance and track sectors instantaneously without impacting routine surveillance functions. Space Fence offers assured surveillance coverage for improved custody and features the capability to develop long arc tracks for accurate orbit determination, while simultaneously maintaining a persistent surveillance volume. Space Fence allows operators to reconstruct recent events such as collisions or satellite break-ups and accurately predict future events. For high-interest objects, a micro fence can be electronically constructed to gather more track data, focusing radar resources specifically on that object, providing more timely and accurate information. The Space Fence System is net-centric and will seamlessly integrate into the existing Space Surveillance Network, providing services to external users such as JSpOC and coordinating handoffs to other SSN sites. Space Fence is a robust, flexible, advanced end-to-end system that will meet the warfighters

  13. Animals in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Angela

    1988-01-01

    Animals are indispensable to the space program. Their continued use could have many significant results. Those who are opposed to using animals in space should remember that space animals are treated humanely; they are necessary because results can be obtained from them that would be unobtainable from humans; and results from animal experiments can be applied to human systems. Therefore, NASA should continue to use animals in space research.

  14. Space Shuttle Endeavour launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A smooth countdown culminated in a picture-perfect launch as the Space Shuttle Endeavour (STS-47) climbed skyward atop a ladder of billowing smoke. Primary payload for the plarned seven-day flight was Spacelab-J science laboratory. The second flight of Endeavour marks a number of historic firsts: the first space flight of an African-American woman, the first Japanese citizen to fly on a Space Shuttle, and the first married couple to fly in space.

  15. Humans in space.

    PubMed

    White, R J; Averner, M

    2001-02-22

    Many successful space missions over the past 40 years have highlighted the advantages and necessity of humans in the exploration of space. But as space travel becomes ever more feasible in the twenty-first century, the health and safety of future space explorers will be paramount. In particular, understanding the risks posed by exposure to radiation and extended weightlessness will be crucial if humans are to travel far from Earth.

  16. Clinical Space Medicine Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baisden, Denise L.; Billica, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The practice of space medicine is diverse. It includes routine preventive medical care of astronauts and pilots, the development of inflight medical capability and training of flight crews as well as the preflight, inflight, and postflight medical assessment and monitoring. The Johnson Space Center Medical Operations Branch is a leader in the practice of space medicine. The papers presented in this panel will demonstrate some of the unique aspects of space medicine.

  17. Space solar cell research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, Dennis J.

    1989-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the scope of the NASA space solar cell research and development program. Silicon cells, gallium arsenide cells, indium phosphide cells, and superlattice solar cells are addressed, indicating the state of the art of each type in outer space and their advantages and drawbacks for use in outer space. Contrasts between efficiency in space and on earth are pointed out.

  18. Space, Wargames and Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    manual space wargames, and possibly a computerized sp&Ace wargame will help both students and researchers explorT new strategies and doctrines. V...practical experience and the tremendous costs involved with exercising such capabilities (84:156; 64:5). A space wargame could model uncertainty which is...atellite’s performance within the engineering confines. the complexity of the designs adde," to the cost of the booster or Space Shuttle ride makes for

  19. US space commerce, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, Scott

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the US share of commercial payloads in comparison with Ariane's share; world communications satellite orders; the US share of prime contracts for construction of commercial communications satellites; emerging markets; space activities at the Commerce Department (DOC); Office of Space Commerce (OSC) mission description; key drivers for commercial space; and general DOC space policy themes.

  20. Man's future in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freitag, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    Studies evaluating potential operational and commercial uses of space are being conducted, taking into account astronomy, astrophysics, manned bases and laboratories in earth orbit, space colonization, terrestrial communications, space processing and manufacturing, interstellar probes, planetary exploration, and the use of space for terrestrial energy supply. The present status in the exploration of the solar system is examined, giving attention to Jupiter, Venus, Mars, and Mercury. A brief outline of the development of human colonies on Mars is presented.

  1. Deep Space Telecommunications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Resch, G. M.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing load on NASA's deep Space Network, the new capabilities for deep space missions inherent in a next-generation radio telescope, and the potential of new telescope technology for reducing construction and operation costs suggest a natural marriage between radio astronomy and deep space telecommunications in developing advanced radio telescope concepts.

  2. Radiation effects in space

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-07-01

    As more people spend more time in space, and the return to the moon and exploratory missions are considered, the risks require continuing examination. The effects of microgravity and radiation are two potential risks in space. These risks increase with increasing mission duration. This document considers the risk of radiation effects in space workers and explorers. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  3. Dependent Probability Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, William F.; Shiflett, Ray C.; Shultz, Harris

    2008-01-01

    The mathematical model used to describe independence between two events in probability has a non-intuitive consequence called dependent spaces. The paper begins with a very brief history of the development of probability, then defines dependent spaces, and reviews what is known about finite spaces with uniform probability. The study of finite…

  4. Pseudoneglect in Back Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocchini, Gianna; Watling, Rosamond; Della Sala, Sergio; Jansari, Ashok

    2007-01-01

    Successful interaction with the environment depends upon our ability to retain and update visuo-spatial information of both front and back egocentric space. Several studies have observed that healthy people tend to show a displacement of the egocentric frame of reference towards the left. However representation of space behind us (back space) has…

  5. Space methods in oceanology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolshakov, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    The study of Earth from space with specialized satellites, and from manned orbiting stations, has become important in the space programs. The broad complex of methods used for probing Earth from space are different methods of the study of ocean, dynamics. The different methods of ocean observation are described.

  6. Space processing applications bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This special bibliography lists 724 articles, papers, and reports which discuss various aspects of the use of the space environment for materials science research or for commercial enterprise. The potentialities of space processing and the improved materials processes that are made possible by the unique aspects of the space environment are emphasized. References identified in April, 1978 are cited.

  7. Economical space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkholder, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    A commercial approach to design and fabrication of an economical space power system is investigated. Cost projections are based on a 2 kW space power system conceptual design taking into consideration the capability for serviceability, constraints of operation in space, and commercial production engineering approaches. A breakdown of the system design, documentation, fabrication, and reliability and quality assurance estimated costs are detailed.

  8. Space Photography 1977 Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An index is provided to representative photographs and transparencies available from NASA. Subjects include spacecraft, astronauts, lunar surface, planets and outer space phenomena, earth observations, and aviation. High altitude aircraft infrared photographs are included along with artists' conceptions of space shuttle and space colonies.

  9. Space based OTV servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcallister, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Space based servicing of an orbit transfer vehicle (OTV) was previously outlined in sufficient detail to arrive at OTV and support system servicing requirements. Needed space station facilities and their functional requirements were identified. The impact of logistics and space serviceable design on the OTV design is detailed herein. RL10 derivative rocket engine inspection task times are enumerated.

  10. Teacher in Space Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Prepared by NASA, this guide contains lessons dealing with space for use in elementary and secondary social studies classes. Activities are many and varied. For example, students analyze the costs and benefits of space travel, develop their own space station, and explore the decision-making processes involved in the shuttle. (RM)

  11. Radars in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delnore, Victor E.

    1990-01-01

    The capabilities of active microwave devices operating from space (typically, radar, scatterometers, interferometers, and altimeters) are discussed. General radar parameters and basic radar principles are explained. Applications of these parameters and principles are also explained. Trends in space radar technology, and where space radars and active microwave sensors in orbit are going are discussed.

  12. My Place, My Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostal, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Five- and six-year-olds know a lot about their own homes. Besides school, home is probably where they spend most of their time. But have they ever really thought about their space? Using students' knowledge of their current space will help them design new spaces and think about all the areas that surround them. In this project, students design…

  13. History of Space Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    2012), 1. 2 Winston Churchill, http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/history.html (accessed January 8, 2012). 3 Deborah Cadbury , Space Race... Cadbury , Space Race, The Epic Battle Between America and the Soviet Union for Dominion of Space (New York: Harper Collins, 2006), 4. 22 7 Ibid., 5

  14. Affordable Space Tourism: SpaceStationSim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    For over 5 years, people have been living and working in space on the International Space Station (ISS), a state-of-the-art laboratory complex orbiting high above the Earth. Offering a large, sustained microgravity environment that cannot be duplicated on Earth, the ISS furthers humankind s knowledge of science and how the body functions for extended periods of time in space all of which will prove vital on long-duration missions to Mars. On-orbit construction of the station began in November 1998, with the launch of the Russian Zarya Control Module, which provided battery power and fuel storage. This module was followed by additional components and supplies over the course of several months. In November 2000, the first ISS Expedition crew moved in. Since then, the ISS has continued to change and evolve. The space station is currently 240 feet wide, measured across the solar arrays, and 171 feet long, from the NASA Destiny Laboratory to the Russian Zvezda Habitation Module. It is 90 feet tall, and it weighs approximately 404,000 pounds. Crews inhabit a living space of about 15,000 cubic feet. To date, 90 scientific investigations have been conducted on the space station. New results from space station research, from basic science to exploration research, are being published each month, and more breakthroughs are likely to come. It is not all work on the space station, though. The orbiting home affords many of the comforts one finds on Earth. There is a weightless "weight room" and even a musical keyboard alongside research facilities. Holidays are observed, and with them, traditional foods such as turkey and cobbler are eaten, with lemonade to wash them down

  15. The Ninth National Space Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipskin, Beth Ann; Patterson, Sara; Brescia, David A.; Burk, Donna; Flannery, Jack; St. John, Pat; Zimkas, Chuck

    Proceedings of the Ninth National Space Symposium held 13-16 April 1993 by the United States Space Foundation are presented. Presentations made at the symposium are included. Topics discussed include: Change, Challenge and Opportunity; Washington Insiders: National Space Policy and Budget Issues; Civil Space: a Vision for the Future; Space Power for an Expanded Vision; Unparalled Launch Vehicle Propulsion Capabilities; National Security Space Issues; Perspectives on the Air Force in Space; Future Technology: Space Propulsion, Earth Observation and International Cooperation; Achieving Efficient Space Transportation; the Future in Space Exploration; Kids, Parents and Teachers are into Space; and Public Congressional Forum on Space - International Space Issues.

  16. Que nous apprennent les petits frères et sœurs sur les signes précoces d’autisme?1

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Sally J.

    2010-01-01

    L’objectif de cette revue est de présenter une synthèse des réponses que l’on peut actuellement apporter à la question de savoir quelles sont les premières caractéristiques comportementales qui prédisent le développement de l’autisme. L’article se centre sur 5 points : la présence de Troubles du Spectre Autistique (TSA) dans des groupes de frères et sœurs puînés d’enfants déjà diagnostiqués, les patterns et caractéristiques du développement moteur, les patterns et caractéristiques du développement social et émotionnel, les patterns et caractéristiques de la communication intentionnelle verbale et non verbale, et les patterns qui marquent le début de comportements pathognomoniques de TSA. La discussion porte sur les aspects inattendus des résultats et les pistes de recherche nouvelles qu’ils peuvent engendrer. PMID:20890377

  17. {kappa}-Rindler space

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalski-Glikman, J.

    2009-08-15

    In this paper we construct, and investigate some thermal properties of, the noncommutative counterpart of Rindler space, which we call {kappa}-Rindler space. This space is obtained by changing variables in the defining commutators of {kappa}-Minkowski space. We then rederive the commutator structure of {kappa}-Rindler space with the help of an appropriate star product, obtained from the {kappa}-Minkowski one. Using this star product, following the idea of Padmanabhan, we find the leading order, 1/{kappa} correction to the Hawking thermal spectrum.

  18. Space Acquired Photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Interested in a photograph of the first space walk by an American astronaut, or the first photograph from space of a solar eclipse? Or maybe your interest is in a specific geologic, oceanic, or meteorological phenomenon? The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center is making photographs of the Earth taken from space available for search, download, and ordering. These photographs were taken by Gemini mission astronauts with handheld cameras or by the Large Format Camera that flew on space shuttle Challenger in October 1984. Space photographs are distributed by EROS only as high-resolution scanned or medium-resolution digital products.

  19. Suited for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmo, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the basic functions of space suits for EVA astronauts. Space suits are also described from the past, present and future space missions. The contents include: 1) Why Do You Need A Space Suit?; 2) Generic EVA System Requirements; 3) Apollo Lunar Surface Cycling Certification; 4) EVA Operating Cycles for Mars Surface Missions; 5) Mars Surface EVA Mission Cycle Requirements; 6) Robustness Durability Requirements Comparison; 7) Carry-Weight Capabilities; 8) EVA System Challenges (Mars); 9) Human Planetary Surface Exploration Experience; 10) NASA Johnson Space Center Planetary Analog Activities; 11) Why Perform Remote Field Tests; and 12) Other Reasons Why We Perform Remote Field Tests.

  20. Space Station habitability research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clearwater, Y. A.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Cente is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.

  1. Space Station Habitability Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clearwater, Yvonne A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Center is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.

  2. Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the mission of the Hubble Space Telescope, a joint project between NASA and the European Space Agency which will be used to study deep space, as well as our solar system is presented. The video contains animations depicting the Hubble Space Telescope in orbit, as well as footage of scientists at the Space Telescope Science Institute making real time observations. The images Hubble acquires will be downloaded into a database that contains images of over 19,000,000 celestial objects called the Star Catalog.

  3. Low cost space.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, A. O.

    1973-01-01

    It is pointed out that a contradiction between boundless space and limited resources has put the space program in the distressing position of cutting good and worthy projects from its activities during this decade. One approach to ameliorate the situation is to increase the productivity of space activities by greater utilization of the equipment developed for its projects. The Space Shuttle constitutes the first big step in that direction. The reusable character of the Shuttle orbiter will cut operational costs by permitting recovery and reuse of payload equipment through routine round-trip operations to space.

  4. Madrid space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahnestock, R. J.; Renzetti, N. A.

    1975-01-01

    The Madrid space station, operated under bilateral agreements between the governments of the United States and Spain, is described in both Spanish and English. The space station utilizes two tracking and data acquisition networks: the Deep Space Network (DSN) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) operated under the direction of the Goddard Space Flight Center. The station, which is staffed by Spanish employees, comprises four facilities: Robledo 1, Cebreros, and Fresnedillas-Navalagamella, all with 26-meter-diameter antennas, and Robledo 2, with a 64-meter antenna.

  5. Virasoro model space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La, Hoseong; Nelson, Philip; Schwarz, A. S.

    1990-12-01

    The representations of a compact Lie group G can be studied via the construction of an associated “model space.” This space has the property that when geometrically quantized its Hilbert space contains every irreducible representation of G just once. We construct an analogous space for the group Diff S 1. It is naturally a complex manifold with a holomorphic, free action of Diff S 1 preserving a family of pseudo-Kahler structures. All of the “good” coadjoint orbits are obtained from our space by Hamiltonian constraint reduction. We briefly discuss the connection to the work of Alekseev and Shatashvili.

  6. Swamp to Space exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The menacing-looking alligator is really harmless. It is one of the realistic props to help convince visitors that the feel of the swamp is real in StenniSphere's Swamp to Space exhibit at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss. The historical section of the Swamp to Space exhibit tells the story of why and how Stennis Space Center came to be. It also pays tribute to the families who moved their homes to make way for the space age in Mississippi.

  7. Space acquired photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Interested in a photograph of the first space walk by an American astronaut, or the first photograph from space of a solar eclipse? Or maybe your interest is in a specific geologic, oceanic, or meteorological phenomenon? The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center is making photographs of the Earth taken from space available for search, download, and ordering. These photographs were taken by Gemini mission astronauts with handheld cameras or by the Large Format Camera that flew on space shuttle Challenger in October 1984. Space photographs are distributed by EROS only as high-resolution scanned or medium-resolution digital products.

  8. Developments in space medicine.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, S.

    1973-01-01

    The principal directions and results of space medicine studies are reviewed, starting with the early 1950s. The effects of prolonged inaction, a gravity-free environment, and isolation on the survival and functioning of man in space are examined. Quarantine and other measures developed to guard the health of astronauts during space missions are described. Space radiation hazards and means of overcoming them are discussed. The development of exobiology as a new field of science from our increasing knowledge of the universe is noted, together with some technological and medical advances resulting from space research.

  9. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

    2009-08-11

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  10. Center for Space Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Renjeng

    1998-01-01

    The Center for Space Construction (CSC) at University of Colorado at Boulder is one of eight University Space Engineering Research Centers established by NASA in 1988. The mission of the Center is to conduct research into space technology and to directly contribute to space engineering education. The Center reports to the Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences and resides in the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences. The College has a long and successful track record of cultivating multi-disciplinary research and education programs. The Center for Space Construction represents prominent evidence of this record. The basic concept on which the Center was founded is the in-space construction of large space systems, such as space stations, interplanetary space vehicles, and extraterrestrial space structures. Since 1993, the scope of CSC research has evolved to include the design and construction of all spacecraft, large and small. With the broadened scope our research projects seek to impact the technological basis for spacecraft such as remote sensing satellites, communication satellites and other special-purpose spacecraft, as well as large space platforms. A summary of accomplishments, including student participation and degrees awarded, during the contract period is presented.

  11. Life in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, John B.

    1992-01-01

    The scope of space life sciences and current research on the physiology of man in space are reviewed by examining Spacelab SLS-1. Milestones of space life sciences are discussed, with emphasis on the Skylab facility, the Space Shuttle program, and the Soviet Mir space station. Attention is given to the topic of the origins of life as it relates to space life sciences. The discovery of amino acids in meteorites and the question of whether the earth was seeded with life from space are discussed. A brief overview of efforts in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence is presented. Consideration is also given to the effects of gravity on cells, the effects of radiation, plant biology, CELSS, and the effects of gravity on humans.

  12. Space Food Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Russo, Dane M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Food Systems Laboratory (SFSL) is a multipurpose laboratory responsible for space food and package research and development. It is located on-site at Johnson Space Center in Building 17. The facility supports the development of flight food, menus, packaging and food related hardware for Shuttle, International Space Station, and Advanced Life Support food systems. All foods used to support NASA ground tests and/or missions must meet the highest standards before they are 'accepted' for use on actual space flights. The foods are evaluated for nutritional content, sensory acceptability, safety, storage and shelf life, and suitability for use in micro-gravity. The food packaging is also tested to determine its functionality and suitability for use in space. Food Scientist, Registered Dieticians, Packaging Engineers, Food Systems Engineers, and Technicians staff the Space Food Systems Laboratory.

  13. Polluting Black space.

    PubMed

    Bonam, Courtney M; Bergsieker, Hilary B; Eberhardt, Jennifer L

    2016-11-01

    Social psychologists have long demonstrated that people are stereotyped on the basis of race. Researchers have conducted extensive experimental studies on the negative stereotypes associated with Black Americans in particular. Across 4 studies, we demonstrate that the physical spaces associated with Black Americans are also subject to negative racial stereotypes. Such spaces, for example, are perceived as impoverished, crime-ridden, and dirty (Study 1). Moreover, these space-focused stereotypes can powerfully influence how connected people feel to a space (Studies 2a, 2b, and 3), how they evaluate that space (Studies 2a and 2b), and how they protect that space from harm (Study 3). Indeed, processes related to space-focused stereotypes may contribute to social problems across a range of domains-from racial disparities in wealth to the overexposure of Blacks to environmental pollution. Together, the present studies broaden the scope of traditional stereotyping research and highlight promising new directions. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Ion chemistry in space.

    PubMed

    Larsson, M; Geppert, W D; Nyman, G

    2012-06-01

    We review the gas-phase chemistry in extraterrestrial space that is driven by reactions with atomic and molecular ions. Ions are ubiquitous in space and are potentially responsible for the formation of increasingly complex interstellar molecules. Until recently, positively charged atoms and molecules were the only ions known in space; however, this situation has changed with the discovery of various molecular anions. This review covers not only the observation, distribution and reactions of ions in space, but also laboratory-based experimental and theoretical methods for studying these ions. Recent results from space-based instruments, such as those on the Cassini-Huygens space mission and the Herschel Space Observatory, are highlighted.

  15. Space Suit Thermal Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Anthony B.; Nair, Satish S.; Miles, John B.; Iovine, John V.; Lin, Chin H.

    1998-01-01

    The present NASA space suit (the Shuttle EMU) is a self-contained environmental control system, providing life support, environmental protection, earth-like mobility, and communications. This study considers the thermal dynamics of the space suit as they relate to astronaut thermal comfort control. A detailed dynamic lumped capacitance thermal model of the present space suit is used to analyze the thermal dynamics of the suit with observations verified using experimental and flight data. Prior to using the model to define performance characteristics and limitations for the space suit, the model is first evaluated and improved. This evaluation includes determining the effect of various model parameters on model performance and quantifying various temperature prediction errors in terms of heat transfer and heat storage. The observations from this study are being utilized in two future design efforts, automatic thermal comfort control design for the present space suit and design of future space suit systems for Space Station, Lunar, and Martian missions.

  16. China's Space Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Y.

    2002-01-01

    The scope of mankind's explorations has expanded from the land to the ocean, from the ocean to the air and from the air to outer space. Space technology, which emerged in the 1950's, opened up a new era of human exploration of outer space. Having developed rapidly for the last half century, mankind's activities in space have come a long way, greatly promoted social progress and had profound and far-reaching effects. Space technology is the field of high technology that has exerted the most profound influence on modern society. The continuous development and application of space technology has become an important endeavor in the modernization drives of countries all over the world. After the People's Republic of China was founded in 1949, China carried out space activities on its own. It succeed in developing and launching its first man-made satellite in 1970. China has made notable achievements and now ranks among the world's most advanced countries in some important fields of space technology. In the 21st century, China will continue to promote the development of its space industry in accordance with its national conditions, and make due contributions to the peaceful use of outer space and to the civilization and progress of all the human beings. At the turn of the century, it is important to give a brief introduction to the aims and principles, the present situation, future development plans and international co-operation concerning China's space activities. This paper covers the following aspects: development strategy, and held that the exploration and utilization of outer space should be for peaceful purposes and for the benefit of all human beings. China is drafting a space development strategy for the 21st century according to the actual demands and long-term targets of national development and to encourage growth of the space industry.

  17. [Space medicine and life sciences in space].

    PubMed

    Gerstenbrand, F; Muigg, A

    1993-01-01

    The examination of pathophysiological disturbances and the process of adaptation in man during space flight is not for optimizing of the biological systems during the training of cosmonauts and astronauts for their stay in space only. These results are also important for medical application on patients. In real microgravity disturbances of motor performances, coordination of movements, accuracy of movements, muscle function as well as structural changes in muscles is found in real microgravity. Spinal reflexes and the control of vestibular system on eye movements are also afflicted. Higher brain functions, especially associative reactions, critical abilities, memory, as well as high brain function like space orientation, body scheme control, geometric and arithmetic analysis and its reproduction, at last speech production, writing and reading are decreased. Vegetative disorders, bone decalcification, primary muscular atrophy occur as well as changes in sleep--wake regulation and diminishing of vigility. Disturbances of blood and body fluid circulation and biologic radiation damage are further effects of man space flight. Several problems of space adaptation can be studied with the methods of the simulated microgravity using the dry water immersion, examination and the bed rest model in special laboratories. The routine medicine is learning from the scientific results of the research in real and simulated microgravity.

  18. Kinematic space and wormholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian-dong; Chen, Bin

    2017-01-01

    The kinematic space could play a key role in constructing the bulk geometry from dual CFT. In this paper, we study the kinematic space from geometric points of view, without resorting to differential entropy. We find that the kinematic space could be intrinsically defined in the embedding space. For each oriented geodesic in the Poincaré disk, there is a corresponding point in the kinematic space. This point is the tip of the causal diamond of the disk whose intersection with the Poincaré disk determines the geodesic. In this geometric construction, the causal structure in the kinematic space can be seen clearly. Moreover, we find that every transformation in the SL(2,R) leads to a geodesic in the kinematic space. In particular, for a hyperbolic transformation defining a BTZ black hole, it is a timelike geodesic in the kinematic space. We show that the horizon length of the static BTZ black hole could be computed by the geodesic length of corresponding points in the kinematic space. Furthermore, we discuss the fundamental regions in the kinematic space for the BTZ blackhole and multi-boundary wormholes.

  19. International space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLucas, Lawrence J.

    1996-02-01

    The International Space Station represents the largest scientific and technological cooperative program in history, drawing on the resources of thirteen nations. The early stages of construction will involve significant participation from the Russian Space Agency (RSA), numerous nations of the European Space Agency (ESA), and the space agencies of Canada (CSA), Japan (NASDA) and the United States Space Agency (NASA). Its purpose is to place a unique, highly capable laboratory in tower orbit, where high value scientific research can be performed in microgravity. In addition to providing facilities where an international crew of six astronaut-scientists can live and work in space, it will provide important laboratory research facilities for performing basic research in life science, biomedical and material sciences, as well as space and engineering technology development which cannot be accomplished on Earth. The Space Station will be comprised of numerous interlocking components which are currently being constructed on Earth. Space Station will be assembled in orbit over a period of time and will provide several experimentation modules as well as habitation modules and interfaces for logistic modules. Including the four extensive solar rays from which it will draw electrical power, the Station will measure more than 300 feet wide by 200 feet long. This paper will present an overview of the various phases of construction of the Space Station and the planned science thought will be performed during the construction phase and after completion.

  20. Quantum spaces are modular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freidel, Laurent; Leigh, Robert G.; Minic, Djordje

    2016-11-01

    At present, our notion of space is a classical concept. Taking the point of view that quantum theory is more fundamental than classical physics, and that space should be given a purely quantum definition, we revisit the notion of Euclidean space from the point of view of quantum mechanics. Since space appears in physics in the form of labels on relativistic fields or Schrödinger wave functionals, we propose to define Euclidean quantum space as a choice of polarization for the Heisenberg algebra of quantum theory. We show, following Mackey, that generically, such polarizations contain a fundamental length scale and that contrary to what is implied by the Schrödinger polarization, they possess topologically distinct spectra. These are the modular spaces. We show that they naturally come equipped with additional geometrical structures usually encountered in the context of string theory or generalized geometry. Moreover, we show how modular space reconciles the presence of a fundamental scale with translation and rotation invariance. We also discuss how the usual classical notion of space comes out as a form of thermodynamical limit of modular space while the Schrödinger space is a singular limit.

  1. 46 CFR 108.205 - Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. 108.205... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.205 Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. (a) For the purposes of this section— (1) “Private facility” means...

  2. 46 CFR 108.205 - Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. 108.205... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.205 Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. (a) For the purposes of this section— (1) “Private facility” means...

  3. 46 CFR 108.205 - Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. 108.205... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.205 Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. (a) For the purposes of this section— (1) “Private facility” means...

  4. Science in space with the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Peter M.

    1987-01-01

    The potential of the Space Station as a versatile scientific laboratory is discussed, reviewing plans under consideration by the NASA Task Force on Scientific Uses of the Space Station. The special advantages offered by the Station for expanding the scope of 'space science' beyond astrophysics, geophysics, and terrestrial remote sensing are stressed. Topics examined include the advantages of a manned presence, the scientific value and cost effectiveness of smaller, more quickly performable experiments, improved communications for ground control of Station experiments, the international nature of the Station, the need for more scientist astronauts for the Station crew, Station on-orbit maintenance and repair services for coorbiting platforms, and the need for Shuttle testing of proposed Station laboratory equipment and procedures.

  5. International Treaties and Active Experiments in Space

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    injection into the magnetosphere from Siple Station. Antartica , J. Geophuys. Res. 79:2511. 8 w~ 4 o 0U 00 zc o log CO) wzw F-J W~ 1-.4 -)o U CC, ow z w z...R.A. and Katsufrakis, J.P. (1974) VLF wave injection into the magnetosphere from Siple Station, Antartica . J. Geoplujs. Res. 79:2511. 13. The AMPTE

  6. Space Resources Roundtable 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignatiev, A.

    2000-01-01

    Contents include following: Developing Technologies for Space Resource Utilization - Concept for a Planetary Engineering Research Institute. Results of a Conceptual Systems Analysis of Systems for 200 m Deep Sampling of the Martian Subsurface. The Role of Near-Earth Asteroids in Long-Term Platinum Supply. Core Drilling for Extra-Terrestrial Mining. Recommendations by the "LSP and Manufacturing" Group to the NSF-NASA Workshop on Autonomous Construction and Manufacturing for Space Electrical Power Systems. Plasma Processing of Lunar and Planetary Materials. Percussive Force Magnitude in Permafrost. Summary of the Issues Regarding the Martian Subsurface Explorer. A Costing Strategy for Manufacturing in Orbit Using Extraterrestrial Resources. Mine Planning for Asteroid Orebodies. Organic-based Dissolution of Silicates: A New Approach to Element Extraction from LunarRegohth. Historic Frontier Processes Active in Future Space-based Mineral Extraction. The Near-Earth Space Surveillance (NIESS) Mission: Discovery, Tracking, and Characterization of Asteroids, Comets, and Artificial Satellites with a microsatellite. Privatized Space Resource Property Ownership. The Fabrication of Silicon Solar Cells on the Moon Using In-Situ Resources. A New Strategy for Exploration Technology Development: The Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Exploratiori/Commercialization Technology Initiative. Space Resources for Space Tourism. Recovery of Volatiles from the Moon and Associated Issues. Preliminary Analysis of a Small Robot for Martian Regolith Excavation. The Registration of Space-based Property. Continuous Processing with Mars Gases. Drilling and Logging in Space; An Oil-Well Perspective. LORPEX for Power Surges: Drilling, Rock Crushing. An End-To-End Near-Earth Asteroid Resource Exploitation Plan. An Engineering and Cost Model for Human Space Settlement Architectures: Focus on Space Hotels and Moon/Mars Exploration. The Development and Realization of a Silicon-60-based

  7. Space 2010. [Space Station Freedom future explorations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fordyce, J. Stuart; Grisaffe, Salvatore J.; Stephens, Joseph R.

    1989-01-01

    An account is given of the thrust of the NASA-Lewis Research Center's developmental activities in advanced materials for aerospace propulsion and space power systems; these materials must have exceptional strength/weight values, possess high operating temperature capabilities, exhibit long-term property stability, and be affordable within program budgetary constraints. Metal-matrix composites are prominent among emerging materials for space propulsion systems; representative of current interest in this field are the tungsten fiber-reinforced superalloys, which are applicable to liquid rocket propulsion systems' turbomachinery.

  8. Space resources. Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Mary Fae (Editor); Mckay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael B. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Space resources must be used to support life on the Moon and in the exploration of Mars. Just as the pioneers applied the tools they brought with them to resources they found along the way rather than trying to haul all their needs over a long supply line, so too must space travelers apply their high technology tools to local resources. This overview describes the findings of a study on the use of space resources in the development of future space activities and defines the necessary research and development that must precede the practical utilization of these resources. Space resources considered included lunar soil, oxygen derived from lunar soil, material retrieved from near-Earth asteroids, abundant sunlight, low gravity, and high vacuum. The study participants analyzed the direct use of these resources, the potential demand for products from them, the techniques for retrieving and processing space resources, the necessary infrastructure, and the economic tradeoffs.

  9. Gymnastics in Phase Space

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Alexander Wu; /SLAC

    2012-03-01

    As accelerator technology advances, the requirements on accelerator beam quality become increasingly demanding. Facing these new demands, the topic of phase space gymnastics is becoming a new focus of accelerator physics R&D. In a phase space gymnastics, the beam's phase space distribution is manipulated and precision tailored to meet the required beam qualities. On the other hand, all realization of such gymnastics will have to obey accelerator physics principles as well as technological limitations. Recent examples of phase space gymnastics include Emittance exchanges, Phase space exchanges, Emittance partitioning, Seeded FELs and Microbunched beams. The emittance related topics of this list are reviewed in this report. The accelerator physics basis, the optics design principles that provide these phase space manipulations, and the possible applications of these gymnastics, are discussed. This fascinating new field promises to be a powerful tool of the future.

  10. Ultrasound in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, David S.; South, Donna A.; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Arbeille, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    Physiology of the human body in space has been a major concern for space-faring nations since the beginning of the space era. Ultrasound (US) is one of the most cost effective and versatile forms of medical imaging. As such, its use in characterizing microgravity-induced changes in physiology is being realized. In addition to the use of US in related ground-based studies, equipment has also been modified to fly in space. This involves alteration to handle the stresses of launch and different power and cooling requirements. Study protocols also have been altered to accommodate the microgravity environment. Ultrasound studies to date have shown a pattern of adaptation to microgravity that includes changes in cardiac chamber sizes and vertebral spacing. Ultrasound has been and will continue to be an important component in the investigation of physiological and, possibly, pathologic changes occurring in space or as a result of spaceflight.

  11. The International Space University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    The International Space University (ISU) was founded on the premise that any major space program in the future would require international cooperation as a necessary first step toward its successful completion. ISU is devoted to being a leading center for educating future authorities in the world space industry. ISU's background, goals, current form, and future plans are described. The results and benefits of the type of education and experience gained from ISU include technical reports describing the design projects undertaken by the students, an exposure to the many different disciplines which are a part of a large space project, an awareness of the existing activities from around the world in the space community, and an international professional network which spans all aspects of space activities and covers the globe.

  12. Hubble Space Telescope Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This photograph shows the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) flight article assembly with multilayer insulation, high gain anterna, and solar arrays in a clean room of the Lockheed Missile and Space Company. The HST is the first of NASA's great observatories and the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made. The purpose of the HST is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit by placing the telescope in space, enabling astronomers to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had overall responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company, Sunnyvale, California, produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  13. Flat-space singletons

    SciTech Connect

    Fronsdal, C.

    1987-02-15

    Singletons exist, as particles and as local fields, only in 3+2 de Sitter space. Their kinematical properties make them natural candidates for constituents of massless fields, and perhaps for quarks. It is interesting to find out how to describe this type of compositeness in flat space. A theory of interacting singleton fields in de Sitter space is now available, and in this paper we study the flat-space limit of the Green's functions of that theory. The flat-space limit is an autonomous theory of Green's functions, but is not an operator field theory. The three-point function is calculated and its flat-space limit is found to reveal glimpses of a physical interpretation. Causal and spectral properties are in accord with the tenets of axiomatic field theory. The theory is a generalization of local field theory, in which photons appear as composite objects although the physical S matrix is the same as in conventional QED.

  14. Space biology research development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Institute is to conduct and promote research related activities regarding the search for extraterrestrial life, particularly intelligent life. Such research encompasses the broad discipline of 'Life in the Universe', including all scientific and technological aspects of astronomy and the planetary sciences, chemical evolution, the origin of life, biological evolution, and cultural evolution. The primary purpose was to provide funding for the Principal Investigator to collaborate with the personnel of the SETI Institute and the NASA-Ames Research center in order to plan and develop space biology research on and in connection with Space Station Freedom; to promote cooperation with the international partners in the space station; to conduct a study on the use of biosensors in space biology research and life support system operation; and to promote space biology research through the initiation of an annual publication 'Advances in Space Biology and Medicine'.

  15. Space construction data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Construction of large systems in space is a technology requiring the development of construction methods to deploy, assemble, and fabricate the elements comprising such systems. A construction method is comprised of all essential functions and operations and related support equipment necessary to accomplish a specific construction task in a particular way. The data base objective is to provide to the designers of large space systems a compendium of the various space construction methods which could have application to their projects.

  16. Space applications of superconductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, D. B.; Vorreiter, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    Some potential applications of superconductivity in space are summarized, e.g., the use of high field magnets for cosmic ray analysis or energy storage and generation, space applications of digital superconducting devices, such as the Josephson switch and, in the future, a superconducting computer. Other superconducting instrumentation which could be used in space includes: low frequency superconducting sensors, microwave and infrared detectors, instruments for gravitational studies, and high-Q cavities for use as stabilizing elements in clocks and oscillators.

  17. Challenges for space medicine.

    PubMed

    Sri Kantha, S

    1994-03-01

    Since April 1961, when Yuri Gagarin first orbited the earth about 270 astronauts (predominantly males) have lived in space. More than 90 percent of these astronauts were natives of the USA and the ex-USSR. In this commentary, the challenges confronting the discipline of space medicine are reviewed. These include, (1) space sickness, (2) wasting of the musculoskeletal system and (3) developing a longterm life support system.

  18. Space Mechanisms Technology Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The Mechanical Components Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center hosted a workshop to discuss the state of drive systems technology needed for space exploration. The Workshop was held Thursday, November 2, 2000. About 70 space mechanisms experts shared their experiences from working in this field and considered technology development that will be needed to support future space exploration in the next 10 to 30 years.

  19. Lyophilization process design space.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sajal Manubhai; Pikal, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    The application of key elements of quality by design (QbD), such as risk assessment, process analytical technology, and design space, is discussed widely as it relates to freeze-drying process design and development. However, this commentary focuses on constructing the Design and Control Space, particularly for the primary drying step of the freeze-drying process. Also, practical applications and considerations of claiming a process Design Space under the QbD paradigm have been discussed.

  20. Space technology research plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hook, W. Ray

    1992-01-01

    Development of new technologies is the primary purpose of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST). OAST's mission includes the following two goals: (1) to conduct research to provide fundamental understanding, develop advanced technology and promote technology transfer to assure U.S. preeminence in aeronautics and to enhance and/or enable future civil space missions: and (2) to provide unique facilities and technical expertise to support national aerospace needs. OAST includes both NASA Headquarters operations as well as programmatic and institutional management of the Ames Research Center, the Langley Research Center and the Lewis Research Center. In addition. a considerable portion of OAST's Space R&T Program is conducted through the flight and science program field centers of NASA. Within OAST, the Space Technology Directorate is responsible for the planning and implementation of the NASA Space Research and Technology Program. The Space Technology Directorate's mission is 'to assure that OAST shall provide technology for future civil space missions and provide a base of research and technology capabilities to serve all national space goals.' Accomplishing this mission entails the following objectives: y Identify, develop, validate and transfer technology to: (1) increase mission safety and reliability; (2) reduce flight program development and operations costs; (3) enhance mission performance; and (4) enable new missions. Provide the capability to: (1) advance technology in critical disciplines; and (2) respond to unanticipated mission needs. In-space experiments are an integral part of OAST's program and provides for experimental studies, development and support for in-space flight research and validation of advanced space technologies. Conducting technology experiments in space is a valuable and cost effective way to introduce advanced technologies into flight programs. These flight experiments support both the R&T base and the focussed programs

  1. NASA develops Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freitag, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA Space Station program's planning stage began in 1982, with a view to development funding in FY1987 and initial operations within a decade. An initial cost of $8 billion is projected for the continuously habitable, Space Shuttle-dependent system, not including either operational or scientific and commercial payload-development costs. As a customer-oriented facility, the Space Station will be available to foreign countries irrespective of their participation in the development phase.

  2. Space Odyssey Gift Shop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Space Odyssey Gift Shop located in StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., offers every visitor the opportunity to go home with 'the right stuff' from his or her StenniSphere visit. The gift shop is located just inside the front doors to StenniSphere and offers a wide range of space-related apparel, memorabilia, toys, books, mission patches and more.

  3. Aging and space travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohler, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The matter of aging and its relation to space vehicle crewmembers undertaking prolonged space missions is addressed. The capabilities of the older space traveler to recover from bone demineralization and muscle atrophy are discussed. Certain advantages of the older person are noted, for example, a greater tolerance of monotony and repetitious activities. Additional parameters are delineated including the cardiovascular system, the reproductive system, ionizing radiation, performance, and group dynamics.

  4. Space Transportation Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Stewart, Mark E.; Suresh, Ambady; Owen, A. Karl

    2001-01-01

    This report outlines the Space Transportation Propulsion Systems for the NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) program. Topics include: 1) a review of Engine/Inlet Coupling Work; 2) Background/Organization of Space Transportation Initiative; 3) Synergy between High Performance Computing and Communications Program (HPCCP) and Advanced Space Transportation Program (ASTP); 4) Status of Space Transportation Effort, including planned deliverables for FY01-FY06, FY00 accomplishments (HPCCP Funded) and FY01 Major Milestones (HPCCP and ASTP); and 5) a review current technical efforts, including a review of the Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle (RBCC), Scope of Work, RBCC Concept Aerodynamic Analysis and RBCC Concept Multidisciplinary Analysis.

  5. The deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Presented is Deep Space Network (DSN) progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition (TDA) research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations.

  6. Control of space stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. Y.

    1983-01-01

    A study is made to develop controllers for the NASA-JSC Triangular Space Station and evaluate their performances to make recommendations for structural design and/or control alternatives. The control system design assumes the rigid body of the Space Station and developes the lumped parameter control system by using the Inverse Optimal Control Theory. In order to evaluate the performance of the control system, a Parameter Estimation algorithm is being developed which will be used in modeling an equivalent but simpler Space Station model. Finally, a scaled version of the Space Station is being built for the purpose of physical experiments to evaluate the control system performance.

  7. Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    An overview of President Bush's Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) and it's three main components, Space Station Freedom, a Permanent Lunar Base, and a Manned Mission to Mars is provided. Computer simulations of the Space Station Freedom and Permanent Lunar Base are shown, and an animated sequence describes a Mars mission where heavy lift vehicle will bring components of a Mars Spacecraft into orbit, where it will be put together by astronauts using a robotic arm. The Mars spacecraft is shown orbiting Mars and discharging a lander to the surface, carrying human explorers. The video also details the SEI's Outreach Program, designed to garner interest in and ideas for Space Exploration.

  8. Growing plant in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Bula, R. J.; Tibbits, T. W.

    1989-01-01

    Space agencies in several countries are planning for the culture of plants in long duration space bases. The challenge of developing crop production procedures suitable for space projects will result in a new approach of problems we may meet today or in the near future in our common production systems. You may keep in mind subjects as: minimizing wastes or pollution problems, saving materials, introductions robotic helps. Discussion between scientists involved with food production for space programmes and protected horticultural cultivation may open new perspectives.

  9. Behavioral science space contributions.

    PubMed

    Harris, P R

    1989-07-01

    In anticipation of longer missions on the space stations, Mir and Freedom, as well as a potential return to the Moon and the exploration of Mars, human survival and the quality of life aloft will be increasingly dependent upon research in the behavioral and biological sciences. This article reviews the possible contributions to space habitation of the behavioral sciences--especially anthropology, psychology, and sociology. Before space settlements become a reality, the author makes a case for the broadening of the engineering approach to human factor studies, and consideration of the integrative living systems theory in space planning and management.

  10. Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Among 2011's many accomplishments, we safely retired the Space Shuttle Program after 30 incredible years; completed the International Space Station and are taking steps to enable it to reach its full potential as a multi-purpose laboratory; and helped to expand scientific knowledge with missions like Aquarius, GRAIL, and the Mars Science Laboratory. Responding to national budget challenges, we are prioritizing critical capabilities and divesting ourselves of assets no longer needed for NASA's future exploration programs. Since these facilities do not have to be maintained or demolished, the government saves money. At the same time, our commercial partners save money because they do not have to build new facilities. It is a win-win for everyone. Moving forward, 2012 will be even more historically significant as we celebrate the 50th Anniversary of Kennedy Space Center. In the coming year, KSC will facilitate commercial transportation to low-Earth orbit and support the evolution of the Space Launch System and Orion crew vehicle as they ready for exploration missions, which will shape how human beings view the universe. While NASA's Vision is to lead scientific and technological advances in aeronautics and space for a Nation on the frontier of discovery KSC's vision is to be the world's preeminent launch complex for government and commercial space access, enabling the world to explore and work in space. KSC's Mission is to safely manage, develop, integrate, and sustain space systems through partnerships that enable innovative, diverse access to space and inspires the Nation's future explorers.

  11. Microtechnology in space bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Walther, I; van der Schoot, B; Boillat, M; Muller, O; Cogoli, A

    1999-03-01

    Space biology is a young and rapidly developing discipline comprising basic research and biotechnology. In the next decades it will play a prominent role in the International Space Station (ISS). Therefore, there is an increasing demand for sophisticated instrumentation to satisfy the requirements of the future projects in space biology. Bioreactors will be needed to supply fresh living material (cells and tissues) either to study still obscure basic biological mechanisms or to develop profitable bioprocesses which will take advantage of the peculiar microgravity conditions. Since more than twenty years, the Space Biology Group of the ETHZ is carrying out research projects in space (Space Shuttle/Spacelab, MIR Station, satellites, and sounding rockets) that involve also the development of space-qualified instrumentation. In the last ten years we have developed, in collaboration with Mecanex SA, Nyon, and the Institute of Microtechnology of the University of Neuchatel, a space bioreactor for the continuous culture of yeast cells under controlled conditions. Sensors, pH control, nutrients pump and fluid flowmeter are based on state-of-the-art silicon technology. After two successful space flights, a further improved version is presently prepared for a flight in the year 2000.

  12. The deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Summaries are given of Deep Space Network progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations.

  13. Multimegawatt space power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Dearien, J.A.; Whitbeck, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    In response to the need of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) and long range space exploration and extra-terrestrial basing by the National Air and Space Administration (NASA), concepts for nuclear power systems in the multi-megawatt levels are being designed and evaluated. The requirements for these power systems are being driven primarily by the need to minimize weight and maximize safety and reliability. This paper will discuss the present requirements for space based advanced power systems, technological issues associated with the development of these advanced nuclear power systems, and some of the concepts proposed for generating large amounts of power in space. 31 figs.

  14. The space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Abraham

    1988-01-01

    Conceived since the beginning of time, living in space is no longer a dream but rather a very near reality. The concept of a Space Station is not a new one, but a redefined one. Many investigations on the kinds of experiments and work assignments the Space Station will need to accommodate have been completed, but NASA specialists are constantly talking with potential users of the Station to learn more about the work they, the users, want to do in space. Present configurations are examined along with possible new ones.

  15. Space construction activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Center for Space Construction at the University of Colorado at Boulder was established in 1988 as a University Space Engineering Research Center. The mission of the Center is to conduct interdisciplinary engineering research which is critical to the construction of future space structures and systems and to educate students who will have the vision and technical skills to successfully lead future space construction activities. The research activities are currently organized around two central projects: Orbital Construction and Lunar Construction. Summaries of the research projects are included.

  16. Space Shuttle Cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Want to sit in the cockpit of the Space Shuttle and watch astronauts work in outer space? At StenniSphere, you can do that and much more. StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis space Center in Hancock County, Miss., presents 14,000-square-feet of interactive exhibits that depict America's race for space as well as a glimpse of the future. Stennisphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  17. Space Shuttle Cockpit exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Want to sit in the cockpit of the Space Shuttle and watch astronauts work in outer space? At StenniSphere, you can do that and much more. StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., presents 14,000-square-feet of interactive exhibits that depict America's race for space as well as a glimpse of the future. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  18. Space support forum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posvar, Wesley W.; Laidlaw, Donald A.; Brown, Robert; King, Douglas; Graham, Daniel O.; Strine, Linda; Hopkins, Mark; McNair, Carl

    This is a report of the discussions held by the Space Support Forum on the subject of education as an investment in the future. The Space Support Forum is a gathering of representatives of various space-related organizations that interact or overlap with the mission of the Space Foundation. They reported that an international science assessment in 17 countries ranked the United States either near or at the bottom in biology, chemistry, and physics. The U.S. Department of Education has laid out 6 National Education Goals to turn this status around and is helping hundreds of communities to work towards these goals, referred to as America 2000.

  19. Start of space tourism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomo, Makoto

    1993-03-01

    Space tourism means commercialization of manned space flight. From the early stage of space development, space commercialization is a profound theme in multidisciplinary fields, on the basis of a principle that the outcomes of advanced technique developed by tax should be returned to citizens. In these days, space satellite system in which users pay a fee for utilization has succeeded commercially in business such as communication network or broadcasting, and an attempt has been made to observe the earth from outer space to resolve global problems, such as environmental destruction. There is also an increasing interest in space tourism, however, many obstacles should be overcome for the realization, especially the medical problems such as effect of acceleration, cosmic ray, noise or weightless condition. In addition, the space flight business should be managed on the commercial base so that reasonable cost and large number of passengers are essential. It is necessary to design rockets suitable for tourism. For attractive design, the policy of space tourism should be clarified.

  20. Adventures in Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billica, Roger D.

    1999-01-01

    Human space flight experience has demonstrated a variety of hazards and risks to health and performance. In developing ways to help respond to these issues, the field of space medicine has developed a comprehensive program of space flight health risk management that has resulted in positive contributions to medicine and society in general. Examples include accelerated focus on critical health issues such as aging and osteoporosis, and development of new technologies such as non-invasive diagnostic testing for diabetics. The role of health care professionals in human space exploration represents a fulfillment of new adventures and expanding frontiers.

  1. Space station structures development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teller, V. B.

    1986-01-01

    A study of three interrelated tasks focusing on deployable Space Station truss structures is discussed. Task 1, the development of an alternate deployment system for linear truss, resulted in the preliminary design of an in-space reloadable linear motor deployer. Task 2, advanced composites deployable truss development, resulted in the testing and evaluation of composite materials for struts used in a deployable linear truss. Task 3, assembly of structures in space/erectable structures, resulted in the preliminary design of Space Station pressurized module support structures. An independent, redundant support system was developed for the common United States modules.

  2. Space industrialization opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jernigan, C. M. (Editor); Pentecost, E. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The current status of efforts to develop commercial space projects is surveyed, with a focus on US programs, in reviews and reports presented at the Second Symposium on Space Industrialization held in Huntsville in February 1984. Areas explored include policy, legal, and economic aspects; communications; materials processing; earth-resources observation; and the role of space carriers and a space station. Also included in the volume are 132 brief descriptions of the NASA Microgravity Science and Applications Program Tasks as of December 1984. These tasks cover the fields electronics materials; solidification of metals, alloys, and composites; fields and transport phenomena; biotechnology; glass and ceramics; combustion science; and experimental technology.

  3. Android in Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    Can smartphones control robots in space? The Nexus-S upgrade of Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites -- SPHERES -- makes this a reality. By connecting a smartphone ...

  4. Space Radiation Protection, Space Weather, and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapp, Neal; Fry, Dan; Lee, Kerry

    2010-01-01

    Management of crew exposure to radiation is a major concern for manned spaceflight and will be even more important for the modern concept of longer-duration exploration. The inherent protection afforded to astronauts by the magnetic field of the Earth in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) makes operations on the space shuttle or space station very different from operations during a deep space exploration mission. In order to experience significant radiation-derived Loss of Mission (LOM) or Loss of Crew (LOC) risk for LEO operations, one is almost driven to dictate extreme duration or to dictate an extreme sequence of solar activity. Outside of the geo-magnetosphere, however, this scenario changes dramatically. Exposures to the same event on the ISS and on the surface of the Moon may differ by multiple orders of magnitude. This change in magnitude, coupled with the logistical constraints present in implementing any practical operational mitigation make situational awareness with regard to space weather a limiting factor for our ability to conduct exploration operations. With these differences in risk to crew, vehicle and mission in mind, we present the status of the efforts currently underway as the required development to enable exploration operations. The changes in the operating environment as crewed operations begin to stretch away from the Earth are changing the way we think about the lines between research and operations . The real, practical work to enable a permanent human presence away from Earth has already begun

  5. Physiologic adaptation to space - Space adaptation syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderploeg, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The adaptive changes of the neurovestibular system to microgravity, which result in space motion sickness (SMS), are studied. A list of symptoms, which range from vomiting to drowsiness, is provided. The two patterns of symptom development, rapid and gradual, and the duration of the symptoms are described. The concept of sensory conflict and rearrangements to explain SMS is being investigated.

  6. Weak Turbulence Effects in Space Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabtree, Chris

    2012-10-01

    With the advent of multi-satellite missions such as Cluster and the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) space plasmas have become a rich laboratory for the detailed and fundamental study of plasma turbulence. Space offers a diversity of plasma environments to directly test theory and simulation, from high-β plasmas in the solar-wind and the Earth's magnetotail, to low-β multi-species plasmas in the radiation belts and ionosphere. Recent theoretical work has demonstrated that by considering the effects of induced non-linear scattering (non-linear Landau damping, to be referred to as NL scattering) of electromagnetic waves leads to testable predictions in both storm-time radiation belt plasmas and the solar wind turbulent spectrum at scales below the ion gyroradius. In the radiation belts, VLF waves (with frequencies between the ion and electron gyrofrequencies) of sufficient amplitude may be nonlinearly scattered near the lower-hybrid surface inside the plasmasphere. Upon scattering a portion of these waves can return to the ionosphere where they may be reflected. This process can lead to the formation of a VLF wave cavity [1] that can efficiently resonate with the energetic (MeV) trapped electron population and quickly precipitate these particles into the ionosphere [2]. In the solar wind, the large-scale Alfvenic fluctuations can be shown to lead to a plateau in the electron distribution function that reduces the Landau damping of kinetic Alfven waves (KaWs). With the reduction of the linear damping the NL scattering of KAWs becomes important and leads to a non-local redistribution of energy in k-space and results in a steeper turbulent spectrum [3]. The edges of the plateaus are also unstable to electromagnetic left hand polarized ion cyclotron-Alfven waves as well as right hand polarized magnetosonic-whistler waves. These waves can pitch angle scatter the ion super-thermal velocity component to provide perpendicular ion heating [4]. [4pt] [1] C. Crabtree, L

  7. Cadmium and the reticuloendothelial system (RES). A specific defect in blood clearance of soluble aggregates of IgG by the liver in mice given cadmium.

    PubMed Central

    Knutson, D W; Vredevoe, D L; Aoki, K R; Hays, E J; Levy, L

    1980-01-01

    The ability of the reticuloendothelial system (RES) to bind and catabolize soluble stable heat aggregates of 125I-IgG (A-IgG) was studied in mice given oral cadmium. Cadmium caused a delay in the circulation clearance of A-IgG in intact animals. The defect was due to impaired liver uptake of A-IgG and correlated with increased liver cadmium. Subsequent catabolism of bound A-IgG by liver slices was not affected. The defect was specific in that clearance of aggregated human serum albumin and colloidal carbon was normal in cadmium mice; this suggests that cadmium may affect either Fc or complement receptors of Kupffer cells in liver. PMID:7419241

  8. Bringing comfort and convenience to the colonial table: Delhaize Frères & Cie's Colonial Department in the 1920s and 1930s.

    PubMed

    Teughels, Nelleke

    2015-11-01

    The paper explores the role of convenient shopping in establishing a sense of comfort for Europeans in a colonial environment. So far, there has been little investigation into how Belgian retailers tried to gain a firm foothold in the Congo, how they presented themselves and promoted their wares. This paper examines the activities of the colonial department of Delhaize Frères & Cie 'Le Lion', Belgium's first and largest food multiple. It examines how this large grocery chain tried to establish itself in the Congo, what motivations it had to extend its business to the colony, what audience it wished to reach, what products and services it had to offer and what sales and marketing strategies were used. It appears that convenient shopping was one of the key selling points Delhaize's advertising, while also characterising its products as indispensable for Europeans' comfort, moral respectability and homely warmth in a so-called primitive, backward environment.

  9. Space Operations in the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Highlights activities/accomplishments and future endeavors related to space operations. Topics discussed include the Space Shuttle, recovery/refurbishment operations, payload manipulator, upper stages operations, tracking and data relay, spacelab, space power systems, space exposure facility, space construction, and space station. (JN)

  10. Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The topics addressed in Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference are: (1) space station freedom overview and research capabilities; (2) space station freedom research plans and opportunities; (3) life sciences research on space station freedom; (4) technology research on space station freedom; (5) microgravity research and biotechnology on space station freedom; and (6) closing plenary.

  11. Irish Team Wins SEA & SPACE Super Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-09-01

    A secondary school team from Ireland has won a trip to Europe's Spaceport in Kourou, French Guyana, and to ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Cerro Paranal, Chile. The trip is the Super-Prize for the Sea & Space Newspaper Competition , organised within the framework of the European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture. ESO PR Photo 33/98 ESO PR Photo 33/98 [Preview - JPEG: 800 x 434 pix - 568k] [High-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 1627 pix - 6.7Mb] The presentation of prize certificates to the winning Irish team (right) in Lisbon, on August 31, 1998, by ESO, ESA and EAAE representatives. Stephen Kearney, Cian Wilson (both aged 16 years), Eamonn McKeogh (aged 17 years) together with their teacher, John Daly of Blackrock College in Dublin, prepared their newspaper, Infinitus , on marine and space themes, and came first in the national round of the competition. Together with other students from all over Europe, they were invited to present their winning newspaper to a jury consisting of representatives of the organisers, during a special programme of events at the Gulbenkian Planetarium and EXPO '98 in Lisbon, from 28-31 August, 1998. The Irish team scored highly in all categories of the judging, which included scientific content and originality and creativity of the articles. Their look at Irish contributions to sea and space research also proved popular in a ballot by fellow student competitors. This vote was also taken into account by the judges. The jury was very impressed by the high quality of the national entries and there were several close runners-up. The width and depth was amazing and the variety of ideas and formats presented by the sixteen teams was enormous. A poster competition was organised for younger students, aged 10 to 13 and winning entries at national level are on display at the Oceanophilia Pavilion at EXPO '98. The SEA & SPACE project is a joint initiative of the European Space Agency (ESA) , the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , and the

  12. Cognitive Neuroscience in Space

    PubMed Central

    De la Torre, Gabriel G.

    2014-01-01

    Humans are the most adaptable species on this planet, able to live in vastly different environments on Earth. Space represents the ultimate frontier and a true challenge to human adaptive capabilities. As a group, astronauts and cosmonauts are selected for their ability to work in the highly perilous environment of space, giving their best. Terrestrial research has shown that human cognitive and perceptual motor performances deteriorate under stress. We would expect to observe these effects in space, which currently represents an exceptionally stressful environment for humans. Understanding the neurocognitive and neuropsychological parameters influencing space flight is of high relevance to neuroscientists, as well as psychologists. Many of the environmental characteristics specific to space missions, some of which are also present in space flight simulations, may affect neurocognitive performance. Previous work in space has shown that various psychomotor functions degrade during space flight, including central postural functions, the speed and accuracy of aimed movements, internal timekeeping, attentional processes, sensing of limb position and the central management of concurrent tasks. Other factors that might affect neurocognitive performance in space are illness, injury, toxic exposure, decompression accidents, medication side effects and excessive exposure to radiation. Different tools have been developed to assess and counteract these deficits and problems, including computerized tests and physical exercise devices. It is yet unknown how the brain will adapt to long-term space travel to the asteroids, Mars and beyond. This work represents a comprehensive review of the current knowledge and future challenges of cognitive neuroscience in space from simulations and analog missions to low Earth orbit and beyond. PMID:25370373

  13. Cognitive neuroscience in space.

    PubMed

    De la Torre, Gabriel G

    2014-07-03

    Humans are the most adaptable species on this planet, able to live in vastly different environments on Earth. Space represents the ultimate frontier and a true challenge to human adaptive capabilities. As a group, astronauts and cosmonauts are selected for their ability to work in the highly perilous environment of space, giving their best. Terrestrial research has shown that human cognitive and perceptual motor performances deteriorate under stress. We would expect to observe these effects in space, which currently represents an exceptionally stressful environment for humans. Understanding the neurocognitive and neuropsychological parameters influencing space flight is of high relevance to neuroscientists, as well as psychologists. Many of the environmental characteristics specific to space missions, some of which are also present in space flight simulations, may affect neurocognitive performance. Previous work in space has shown that various psychomotor functions degrade during space flight, including central postural functions, the speed and accuracy of aimed movements, internal timekeeping, attentional processes, sensing of limb position and the central management of concurrent tasks. Other factors that might affect neurocognitive performance in space are illness, injury, toxic exposure, decompression accidents, medication side effects and excessive exposure to radiation. Different tools have been developed to assess and counteract these deficits and problems, including computerized tests and physical exercise devices. It is yet unknown how the brain will adapt to long-term space travel to the asteroids, Mars and beyond. This work represents a comprehensive review of the current knowledge and future challenges of cognitive neuroscience in space from simulations and analog missions to low Earth orbit and beyond.

  14. Risk Analysis and Prediction of Floor Failure Mechanisms at Longwall Face in Parvadeh-I Coal Mine using Rock Engineering System (RES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghababaei, Sajjad; Saeedi, Gholamreza; Jalalifar, Hossein

    2016-05-01

    The floor failure at longwall face decreases productivity and safety, increases operation costs, and causes other serious problems. In Parvadeh-I coal mine, the timber is used to prevent the puncture of powered support base into the floor. In this paper, a rock engineering system (RES)-based model is presented to evaluate the risk of floor failure mechanisms at the longwall face of E 2 and W 1 panels. The presented model is used to determine the most probable floor failure mechanism, effective factors, damaged regions and remedial actions. From the analyzed results, it is found that soft floor failure is dominant in the floor failure mechanism at Parvadeh-I coal mine. The average of vulnerability index (VI) for soft, buckling and compressive floor failure mechanisms was estimated equal to 52, 43 and 30 for both panels, respectively. By determining the critical VI for soft floor failure mechanism equal to 54, the percentage of regions with VIs beyond the critical VI in E 2 and W 1 panels is equal to 65.5 and 30, respectively. The percentage of damaged regions showed that the excess amount of used timber to prevent the puncture of weak floor below the powered support base is equal to 4,180,739 kg. RES outputs and analyzed results showed that setting and yielding load of powered supports, length of face, existent water at face, geometry of powered supports, changing the cutting pattern at longwall face and limiting the panels to damaged regions with supercritical VIs could be considered to control the soft floor failure in this mine. The results of this research could be used as a useful tool to identify the damaged regions prior to mining operation at longwall panel for the same conditions.

  15. Providing for the consideration of the resolution (H. Res. 36) establishing a select committee to investigate and report on the attack on the United States consulate in Benghazi, Libya.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Stockman, Steve [R-TX-36

    2013-07-18

    07/30/2013 Motion to Discharge Committee filed by Mr. Stockman. Petition No: 113-4. (Discharge petition text with signatures.) (All Actions) Notes: On 7/30/2013, a motion was filed to discharge the Committee on Rules from the consideration of H.Res.306 a resolution providing for consideration of H.Res.36. A discharge petition requires 218 signatures for further action. (Discharge Petition No. 113-4: text with signatures.) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. Providing for the consideration of the resolution (H. Res. 251) directing the Secretary of the Treasury to transmit to the House of Representatives all information in his possession relating to specific communications with American International Group, Inc. (AIG).

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. LaTourette, Steven C. [R-OH-14

    2009-04-23

    05/07/2009 Motion to Discharge Committee filed by Mr. LaTourette. Petition No: 111-3. (Discharge petition text with signatures.) (All Actions) Notes: On 5/7/2009, a motion was filed to discharge the Committee on Rules from consideration of H.Res.359 a resolution providing for consideration of H.Res.251. A discharge petition requires 218 signatures for further action. (Discharge Petition No. 111-3: text with signatures.) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Space Resource Roundtable Rationale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Recent progress in the U.S. Space Program has renewed interest in space resource issues. The Lunar Prospector mission conducted in NASA's Discovery Program has yielded interesting new insights into lunar resource issues, particularly the possibility that water is concentrated in cold traps at the lunar poles. This finding has not yet triggered a new program of lunar exploration or development, however it opens the possibility that new Discovery Missions might be viable. Several asteroid missions are underway or under development and a mission to return samples from the Mars satellite, Phobos, is being developed. These exploration missions are oriented toward scientific analysis, not resource development and utilization, but can provide additional insight into the possibilities for mining asteroids. The Mars Surveyor program now includes experiments on the 2001 lander that are directly applicable to developing propellants from the atmosphere of Mars, and the program has solicited proposals for the 2003/2005 missions in the area of resource utilization. These are aimed at the eventual human exploration of Mars. The beginning of construction of the International Space Station has awakened interest in follow-on programs of human exploration, and NASA is once more studying the human exploration of Moon, Mars and asteroids. Resource utilization will be included as objectives by some of these human exploration programs. At the same time, research and technology development programs in NASA such as the Microgravity Materials Science Program and the Cross-Enterprise Technology Development Program are including resource utilization as a valid area for study. Several major development areas that could utilize space resources, such as space tourism and solar power satellite programs, are actively under study. NASA's interests in space resource development largely are associated with NASA missions rather than the economic development of resources for industrial processes. That

  18. Aspects théoriques et expérimentaux du dopage physique (implantation) des polymères électroactifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moliton, A.; Duroux, J. L.; Froyer, G.

    In this paper is presented the physicist point of view concerning the transport mechanisms and the doping of electroactive polymers, and the main results collected by physical doping (ion implantation) of these materials. In a first step, the Peierls transition is explained in the frame of solid state physics and we show by using the Hückel theory that a band gap shows up in a model atoms separated by bond lengths alternating between two values. Doping mechanisms and their effects on the band structure are presented following Bredas theory through the example of polyparaphenylene. Therefore we show that defects (polarons and bipolarons) are introduced on the chain generating localized gap states. For high level doping, bipolaron bands are obtained which partly close the gap. The second step of this paper describes the overall conduction process and not only the intrachain process. It may be explained in terms of Mott theory (variable range hoping) elaborated for amorphous semiconducting materials. From the experimental point of view, cristallographic studies performed so far show that dopants are localized in intersticial position and thus can transfer charge to the polymer chain. Some examples of implantation profiles are presented in electroactive polymers, it is possible to calculate the mean ion range from the stopping powers deduced from implantation parameters. With large implantation parameters, particularly E > 100 keV, polymer degradation becomes noticeable and is constant whatever the polymer type, electroactive or not. With smoother parameters, electroactive polymers can be doped efficiently and in a stable way allowing thus the practical formation of components which should become important in the forth coming years. Dans cet article nous présentons essentiellement du point de vue du physicien d'une part les mécanismes de conduction et de dopage des polymères électroactifs, et d'autre part les principaux résultats obtenus à la suite du dopage

  19. Access to space: The Space Shuttle's evolving rolee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duttry, Steven R.

    1993-04-01

    Access to space is of extreme importance to our nation and the world. Military, civil, and commercial space activities all depend on reliable space transportation systems for access to space at a reasonable cost. The Space Transportation System or Space Shuttle was originally planned to provide transportation to and from a manned Earth-orbiting space station. To justify the development and operations costs, the Space Shuttle took on other space transportation requirements to include DoD, civil, and a growing commercial launch market. This research paper or case study examines the evolving role of the Space Shuttle as our nation's means of accessing space. The case study includes a review of the events leading to the development of the Space Shuttle, identifies some of the key players in the decision-making process, examines alternatives developed to mitigate the risks associated with sole reliance on the Space Shuttle, and highlights the impacts of this national space policy following the Challenger accident.

  20. Space Shuttle news reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description of the space shuttle vehicle and associated subsystems is given. Space transportation system propulsion, power generation, environmental control and life support system and avionics are among the topics. Also, orbiter crew accommodations and equipment, mission operations and support, and flight crew complement and crew training are addressed.

  1. Next generation space robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwata, Tsutomu; Oda, Mitsushige; Imai, Ryoichi

    1989-01-01

    The recent research effort on the next generation space robots is presented. The goals of this research are to develop the fundamental technologies and to acquire the design parameters of the next generation space robot. Visual sensing and perception, dexterous manipulation, man machine interface and artificial intelligence techniques such as task planning are identified as the key technologies.

  2. Language, Gesture, and Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmorey, Karen, Ed.; Reilly, Judy S., Ed.

    A collection of papers addresses a variety of issues regarding the nature and structure of sign language, gesture, and gesture systems. Articles include: "Theoretical Issues Relating Language, Gesture, and Space: An Overview" (Karen Emmorey, Judy S. Reilly); "Real, Surrogate, and Token Space: Grammatical Consequences in ASL American…

  3. Dedicated Space | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The three-story, 330,000-square-foot Advanced Technology Research Facility has nearly 40,000 square feet designated as partnership space (shown in blue) for co-location of collaborators from industry, academia, nonprofit sectors, and other government agencies. The partnership space, combined with multiple conference rooms and meeting areas, encourages both internal and external collaborations.

  4. Solar space vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.E.

    1982-10-19

    This invention relates to space vehicle where solar energy is used to generate steam, which in turn, propels the vehicle in space. A copper boiler is provided and a novel solar radiation condensing means is used to focus the sunlight on said boiler. Steam generated in said boiler is exhausted to the environment to provide a thrust for the vehicle.

  5. Space Shuttle Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNutt, Leslie

    2006-01-01

    Many students are not even aware of the many activities related to the US Space Program. The intent of this presentation is to introduce students to the world of space exploration and encourage them to pursue math, science, and engineering careers. If this is not their particular interest, I want to encourage them to pursue their dream.

  6. The Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Deep Space Network progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition, research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations is cited. Topics covered include: tracking and ground based navigation; spacecraft/ground communication; station control and operations technology; ground communications; and deep space stations.

  7. NASA Facts, Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    This newsletter from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contains a description of the purposes and potentials of the Space Shuttle craft. The illustrated document explains some of the uses for which the shuttle is designed; how the shuttle will be launched from earth, carry out its mission, and land again on earth; and what a…

  8. Displays in space.

    PubMed

    Colford, Nicholas

    2002-04-01

    This chapter describes the human and environmental factors that dictate the way that displays must be designed for, and used in space. A brief history of the evolution of such display systems covers developments from the Mercury rockets to the International Space Station.

  9. The deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The progress is reported of Deep Space Network (DSN) research in the following areas: (1) flight project support, (2) spacecraft/ground communications, (3) station control and operations technology, (4) network control and processing, and (5) deep space stations. A description of the DSN functions and facilities is included.

  10. Space station dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berka, Reg

    1990-01-01

    Structural dynamic characteristics and responses of the Space Station due to the natural and induced environment are discussed. Problems that are peculiar to the Space Station are also discussed. These factors lead to an overall acceleration environment that users may expect. This acceleration environment can be considered as a loading, as well as a disturbance environment.

  11. Space and Atmospheric Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet L.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on space environments and the protection of materials and structures from their harsh conditions. Space environments are complex, and the complexity of spacecraft systems is increasing. Design accommodation must be realistic. Environmental problems can be limited at low cost relative to spacecraft cost.

  12. Vision for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Bryan K.

    2007-01-01

    Vision tasks include: a) Complete the International Space Station; b) Safely fly the Space Shuttle until 2010; c) Develop and fly the Crew Exploration Vehicle (by 2014); d) Return to the moon (by 2020); e) Sustained and affordable human and robotic program; f) Develop innovative technologies, knowledge, and infrastructures; and g) Promote international and commercial participation.

  13. Law in Outer Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, William G.

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of the current practice and fascinating future of legal issues involved in outer space exploration and colonization. Current space law, by necessity, addresses broad principles rather than specific incidents. Nonetheless, it covers a variety of issues including commercial development, rescue agreements, object registration,…

  14. Space Transportation Systems Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laue, Jay H.

    2001-01-01

    This document is the final report by the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) on contracted support provided to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under Contract NAS8-99060, 'Space Transportation Systems Technologies'. This contract, initiated by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) on February 8, 1999, was focused on space systems technologies that directly support NASA's space flight goals. It was awarded as a Cost-Plus-Incentive-Fee (CPIF) contract to SAIC, following a competitive procurement via NASA Research Announcement, NRA 8-21. This NRA was specifically focused on tasks related to Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs). Through Task Area 3 (TA-3), "Other Related Technology" of this NRA contract, SAIC extensively supported the Space Transportation Directorate of MSFC in effectively directing, integrating, and setting its mission, operations, and safety priorities for future RLV-focused space flight. Following an initially contracted Base Year (February 8, 1999 through September 30, 1999), two option years were added to the contract. These were Option Year 1 (October 1, 1999 through September 30, 2000) and Option Year 2 (October 1, 2000 through September 30, 2001). This report overviews SAIC's accomplishments for the Base Year, Option Year 1, and Option Year 2, and summarizes the support provided by SAIC to the Space Transportation Directorate, NASA/MSFC.

  15. How to Manage Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, R. B.

    Major institutions and organizations are increasingly recognizing the need for organized and structured action on space administration. In large organizations the successful administration of space matters requires a committee that includes an architect; an engineer; and ranking persons from personnel, planning, and finance departments. Procedures…

  16. Electrostatic space radiation shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Ram K.; Wilson, John W.; Youngquist, Robert C.

    2008-09-01

    For the success of NASA’s new vision for space exploration to Moon, Mars and beyond, exposures from the hazards of severe space radiation in deep space long duration missions is ‘a must solve’ problem. The payload penalty demands a very stringent requirement on the design of the spacecrafts for human deep space missions. The exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) to enable routine access of space will require protection from the hazards of the accumulated exposures of space radiation, Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE), and minimizing the production of secondary radiation is a great advantage. There is a need to look to new horizons for newer technologies. The present investigation revisits electrostatic active radiation shielding and explores the feasibility of using the electrostatic shielding in concert with the state-of-the-art materials shielding and protection technologies. The full space radiation environment has been used, for the first time, to explore the feasibility of electrostatic shielding. The goal is to repel enough positive charge ions so that they miss the spacecraft without attracting thermal electrons. Conclusions are drawn for the future directions of space radiation protection.

  17. A Space for Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charman, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article I examine the possibilities of reparation in an era of privatisation and de-industrialisation. I examine the effect of a recent project Sunshine Memory Space, a space, designed to evoke memories of a de-industrialised urban Melbourne suburb Sunshine. This project offered the opportunity for the effects of industrial change to be…

  18. Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, Barbara; Mount, Frances

    2004-01-01

    The first human space flight, in the early 1960s, was aimed primarily at determining whether humans could indeed survive and function in micro-gravity. Would eating and sleeping be possible? What mental and physical tasks could be performed? Subsequent programs increased the complexity of the tasks the crew performed. Table 1 summarizes the history of U.S. space flight, showing the projects, their dates, crew sizes, and mission durations. With over forty years of experience with human space flight, the emphasis now is on how to design space vehicles, habitats, and missions to produce the greatest returns to human knowledge. What are the roles of the humans in space flight in low earth orbit, on the moon, and in exploring Mars?

  19. Commercial space services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of space service opportunities as identified by a Wyle Laboratories' research team is given. Through the use of a baseline space scenario, a variety of space hardware, services, and commercial activities are identified and related on a time-phased basis. A model is presented to relate the potential functions of government and the private sector in a commercialized space environment during the period 1984 to 2004. Barriers, incentives and key issues are likewise identified and addressed to aid in the implementation of private sector activities for spacerelated programs. Broader awareness, legislative actions, incentive development and benefit analyses are considered in the presentation. The time-phased plan provides a useful planning and management tool, allows broader communication, and supports overall space commercialization program assessment.

  20. Space in the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDaniel, William E.

    1986-08-01

    As we enter into the space age we must realize that our space activities are likely to constitute germinal input to an extraterrestrial society and its culture which will be uniquely different from any found on Earth. It is vital that the current generation of students have the opportunity to learn as much as possible about the nature of the changes which the space age will necessitate in both terrestrial and extraterrestrial society and culture, and the impact that such changes are likely to have upon career and lifestyle. To these ends I introduced a space related course into the Niagara University curriculum with the two goals of fostering student understanding of the sociocultural forces which shape their lives and of helping to prepare them for life in the space age. This paper describes the course, its difficulties and its prospects.

  1. Wireless Communications in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    In 1992, NASA and the U.S. Department of Defense jointly commissioned the research and development of a technology solution to address the challenges and requirements of communicating with their spacecraft. The project yielded an international consortium composed of representatives from the space science community, industry, and academia. This group of experts developed a broad suite of protocols specifically designed for space-based communications, known today as Space Communications Protocol Standards (SCPS). Having been internationally standardized by the Consultative Committee on Space Data Systems and the International Standards Organization, SCPS is distributed as open source technology by NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The protocols are used for every national space mission that takes place today.

  2. Space Station Food System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurmond, Beverly A.; Gillan, Douglas J.; Perchonok, Michele G.; Marcus, Beth A.; Bourland, Charles T.

    1986-01-01

    A team of engineers and food scientists from NASA, the aerospace industry, food companies, and academia are defining the Space Station Food System. The team identified the system requirements based on an analysis of past and current space food systems, food systems from isolated environment communities that resemble Space Station, and the projected Space Station parameters. The team is resolving conflicts among requirements through the use of trade-off analyses. The requirements will give rise to a set of specifications which, in turn, will be used to produce concepts. Concept verification will include testing of prototypes, both in 1-g and microgravity. The end-item specification provides an overall guide for assembling a functional food system for Space Station.

  3. Space station data flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The results of the space station data flow study are reported. Conceived is a low cost interactive data dissemination system for space station experiment data that includes facility and personnel requirements and locations, phasing requirements and implementation costs. Each of the experiments identified by the operating schedule is analyzed and the support characteristics identified in order to determine data characteristics. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of candidate concepts resulted in a proposed data system configuration baseline concept that includes a data center which combines the responsibility of reprocessing, archiving, and user services according to the various agencies and their responsibility assignments. The primary source of data is the space station complex which provides through the Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRS) and by space shuttle delivery data from experiments in free flying modules and orbiting shuttles as well as from the experiments in the modular space station itself.

  4. Atoms for space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1990-10-01

    Nuclear technology offers many advantages in an expanded solar system space exploration program. These cover a range of possible applications such as power for spacecraft, lunar and planetary surfaces, and electric propulsion; rocket propulsion for lunar and Mars vehicles; space radiation protection; water and sewage treatment; space mining; process heat; medical isotopes; and self-luminous systems. In addition, space offers opportunities to perform scientific research and develop systems that can solve problems here on Earth. These might include fusion and antimatter research, using the Moon as a source of helium-3 fusion fuel, and manufacturing perfect fusion targets. In addition, nuclear technologies can be used to reduce risk and costs of the Space Exploration Initiative. 1 fig.

  5. Lubrication of space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    NASA has many high-technology programs plannned for the future, such as the space station, Mission to Planet Earth (a series of Earth-observing satellites), space telescopes, and planetary orbiters. These missions will involve advanced mechanical moving components, space mechanisms that will need wear protection and lubrication. The tribology practices used in space today are primarily based on a technology that is more than 20 years old. The question is the following: Is this technology base good enough to meet the needs of these future long-duration NASA missions? This paper examines NASA's future space missions, how mechanisms are currently lubricated, some of the mechanism and tribology challenges that may be encountered in future missions, and some potential solutions to these future challenges.

  6. Space qualified laser sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, Frank; Schwander, Thomas; Lange, Robert; Smutny, Berry

    2006-04-01

    Tesat-Spacecom has developed a series of fiber coupled single frequency lasers for space applications ranging from onboard metrology for space borne FTIR spectrometers to step tunable seed lasers for LIDAR applications. The cw-seed laser developed for the ESA AEOLUS Mission shows a 3* 10 -11 Allen variance from 1 sec time intervals up to 1000 sec. Q-switched lasers with stable beam pointing under space environments are another field of development. One important aspect of a space borne laser system is a reliable fiber coupled laser diode pump source around 808nm. A dedicated development concerning chip design and packaging yielded in a 5*10 6h MTTF (mean time to failure) for the broad area emitters. Qualification and performance test results for the different laser assemblies will be presented and their application in the different space programs.

  7. Space Experiment Module (SEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodell, Charles L.

    1999-01-01

    The Space Experiment Module (SEM) Program is an education initiative sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Shuttle Small Payloads Project. The program provides nationwide educational access to space for Kindergarten through University level students. The SEM program focuses on the science of zero-gravity and microgravity. Within the program, NASA provides small containers or "modules" for students to fly experiments on the Space Shuttle. The experiments are created, designed, built, and implemented by students with teacher and/or mentor guidance. Student experiment modules are flown in a "carrier" which resides in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. The carrier supplies power to, and the means to control and collect data from each experiment.

  8. Cassava For Space Diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    Space agriculture is an advanced life support enginnering concept based on biological and ecological system ot drive the materials recycle loop and create pleasant life environment on distant planetary bodies. Choice of space diet is one of primary decision required ot be made at designing space agriculture. We propose cassava, Manihot esculenta and, for one major composition of space food materials, and evaluate its value and feasibility of farming and processing it for space diet. Criteria to select space crop species could be stated as follows. 1) Fill th enutritional requirements. There is no perfect food material to meet this requirements without making a combination with others. A set of food materials which are adopted inthe space recipe shall fit to the nutritional requirement. 2) Space food is not just for maintaining physiological activities of human, but an element of human culture. We shall consider joy of dining in space life. In this context, space foos or recipe should be accepted by future astronauts. Food culture is diverse in the world, and has close relatioship to each cultural background. Cassava root tuber is a material to supply mainly energy in the form of carbohydrate, same as cereals and other tuber crops. Cassava leaf is rich in protein high as 5.1 percents about ten times higher content than its tuber. In the food culture in Africa, cassava is a major component. Cassava root tuber in most of its strain contains cyanide, it should be removed during preparation for cooking. However certain strain are less in this cyanogenic compound, and genetically modified cassava can also aboid this problem safely.

  9. Canadian space robotic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallaberger, Christian; Space Plan Task Force, Canadian Space Agency

    The Canadian Space Agency has chosen space robotics as one of its key niche areas, and is currently preparing to deliver the first flight elements for the main robotic system of the international space station. The Mobile Servicing System (MSS) is the Canadian contribution to the international space station. It consists of three main elements. The Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) is a 7-metre, 7-dof, robotic arm. The Special Purpose Dextrous Manipulator (SPDM), a smaller 2-metre, 7-dof, robotic arm can be used independently, or attached to the end of the SSRMS. The Mobile Base System (MBS) will be used as a support platform and will also provide power and data links for both the SSRMS and the SPDM. A Space Vision System (SVS) has been tested on Shuttle flights, and is being further developed to enhance the autonomous capabilities of the MSS. The CSA also has a Strategic Technologies in Automation and Robotics Program which is developing new technologies to fulfill future robotic space mission needs. This program is currently developing in industry technological capabilities in the areas of automation of operations, autonomous robotics, vision systems, trajectory planning and object avoidance, tactile and proximity sensors, and ground control of space robots. Within the CSA, a robotic testbed and several research programs are also advancing technologies such as haptic devices, control via head-mounted displays, predictive and preview displays, and the dynamic characterization of robotic arms. Canada is also now developing its next Long Term Space Plan. In this context, a planetary exploration program is being considered, which would utilize Canadian space robotic technologies in this new arena.

  10. Space 2000 Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Space 2000 Symposium is to present the creativity and achievements of key figures of the 20th century. It offers a retrospective discussion on space exploration. It considers the future of the enterprise, and the legacy that will be left for future generations. The symposium includes panel discussions, smaller session meetings with some panelists, exhibits, and displays. The first session entitled "From Science Fiction to Science Facts" commences after a brief overview of the symposium. The panel discussions include talks on space exploration over many decades, and the missions of the millennium to search for life on Mars. The second session, "Risks and Rewards of Human Space Exploration," focuses on the training and health risks that astronauts face on their exploratory mission to space. Session three, "Messages and Messengers Informing and Inspire Space Exploration and the Public," focuses on the use of TV medium by educators and actors to inform and inspire a wide variety of audiences with adventures of space exploration. Session four, "The Legacy of Carl Sagan," discusses the influences made by Sagan to scientific research and the general public. In session five, "Space Exploration for a new Generation," two student speakers and the NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin address the group. Session six, "Destiny or Delusion? -- Humankind's Place in the Cosmos," ends the symposium with issues of space exploration and some thought provoking questions. Some of these issues and questions are: what will be the societal implications if we discover the origin of the universe, stars, or life; what will be the impact if scientists find clear evidence of life outside the domains of the Earth; should there be limits to what humans can or should learn; and what visionary steps should space-faring people take now for future generations.

  11. Observation of Two Slow Shocks Associated with Magnetic Reconnection Exhausts in the Interplanetary Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, HengQiang; Li, QiuHuan; Wang, JieMin; Zhao, GuoQing

    2017-04-01

    In the Petschek magnetic reconnection model, two groups of slow shocks play an important role in the energy release. In the past half century, a large number of slow shocks were observed in the geomagnetic tail, and many slow shocks were associated with magnetic reconnection events in the geomagnetic tail. Slow shocks in the interplanetary space are rarer than in the geomagnetic tail. We investigated whether slow shocks associated with interplanetary reconnection exhausts are rare. We examined the boundaries of 50 reconnection exhausts reported by Phan, Gosling, and Davis (Geophys. Res. Lett. 36:L09108, 2009) in interplanetary space to identify slow shocks by fitting the Rankine-Hugoniot relations. Two slow shocks associated with magnetic reconnection exhausts were found and evaluated using observations from Wind and the Advanced Composition Explorer. The observed slow shocks associated with interplanetary reconnection exhausts are rarer than the observed slow shocks associated with geomagnetic tail reconnection exhausts.

  12. Kennedy Space Center - "America's Gateway to Space"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Janet; Chevalier, Mary Ann; Hurst, Chery

    2011-01-01

    KSC fits into the overall NASA vision and mission by moving forward so that what we do and learn will benefit all here on Earth. In January of last year, KSC revised its Mission and Vision statements to articulate our identity as we align with this new direction the Agency is heading. Currently KSC is endeavoring to form partnerships with industry, , Government, and academia, utilizing institutional assets and technical capabilities to support current and future m!issions. With a goal of safe, low-cost, and readily available access to space, KSC seeks to leverage emerging industries to initiate development of a new space launch system, oversee the development of a multipurpose crew vehicle, and assist with the efficient and timely evolution of commercial crew transportation capabilities. At the same time, KSC is pursuing modernizing the Center's infrastructure and creating a multi-user launch complex with increased onsite processing and integration capabilities.

  13. Space station thermal control surfaces. [space radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maag, C. R.; Millard, J. M.; Jeffery, J. A.; Scott, R. R.

    1979-01-01

    Mission planning documents were used to analyze the radiator design and thermal control surface requirements for both space station and 25-kW power module, to analyze the missions, and to determine the thermal control technology needed to satisfy both sets of requirements. Parameters such as thermal control coating degradation, vehicle attitude, self eclipsing, variation in solar constant, albedo, and Earth emission are considered. Four computer programs were developed which provide a preliminary design and evaluation tool for active radiator systems in LEO and GEO. Two programs were developed as general programs for space station analysis. Both types of programs find the radiator-flow solution and evaluate external heat loads in the same way. Fortran listings are included.

  14. The Rocks From Space 'Space Safari

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Victoria; Brooks, Val

    2010-05-01

    We describe an integrated online science programme incorporating Moodle virtual learning environments (VLEs) and Elluminate Live! virtual classrooms. The "Space Safari" was run as part of the Rocks From Space (RFS) programme hosted at The Open University (OU) and in partnership with Stockton City Learning Centre (SCLC). Schools used these resources for direct science teaching or to incorporate them into the wider curriculum (arts/literature etc), after which they produce an output. Emphasis was on providing links between schools and scientists within the higher education sector. Live sessions with experts via Elluminate Live! were held regularly, including sessions with NASA scientists and astronomers in Mallorca. Teachers and students have used Space Safari resources as part of the school science curriculum and to develop key skills and additional curriculum skills. They have also used it for informal (forums, online discussions) opportunities to engage with science. Over 3 years of the project, over 1500 students have engaged, with the project. The use of virtual classrooms enabled direct interaction with many students; one session alone involved over 100 students. This project is now hosted on the eTwinning portal to enable sustainability and widen access.

  15. Space Radiation Protection, Space Weather, and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapp, Neal; Rutledge, R.; Semones, E. J.; Johnson, A. S.; Guetersloh, S.; Fry, D.; Stoffle, N.; Lee, K.

    2008-01-01

    Management of crew exposure to radiation is a major concern for manned spaceflight -- and will be even more important for the modern concept of longer-duration exploration. The inherent protection afforded to astronauts by the magnetic field of the Earth in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) makes operations on the space shuttle or space station very different from operations during an exploration mission. In order to experience significant radiation-derived Loss of Mission (LOM) or Loss of Crew (LOC) risk for LEO operations, one is almost driven to dictate extreme duration or to dictate an extreme sequence of solar activity. Outside of the geo-magnetosphere, however, this scenario changes dramatically. Exposures to the same event on the ISS and on the surface of the Moon may differ by multiple orders of magnitude. This change in magnitude, coupled with the logistical constraints present in implementing any practical operational mitigation make situational awareness with regard to space weather a limiting factor for our ability to conduct exploration operations. With these differences in risk to crew, vehicle and mission in mind, we present the status of the efforts currently underway as the required development to enable exploration operations. The changes in the operating environment as crewed operations begin to stretch away from the Earth are changing the way we think about the lines between "research" and "operations". The real, practical work to enable a permanent human presence away from Earth has already begun.

  16. Space Debris & its Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, Sourabh; Arora, Nishant

    2012-07-01

    Space debris has become a growing concern in recent years, since collisions at orbital velocities can be highly damaging to functioning satellites and can also produce even more space debris in the process. Some spacecraft, like the International Space Station, are now armored to deal with this hazard but armor and mitigation measures can be prohibitively costly when trying to protect satellites or human spaceflight vehicles like the shuttle. This paper describes the current orbital debris environment, outline its main sources, and identify mitigation measures to reduce orbital debris growth by controlling these sources. We studied the literature on the topic Space Debris. We have proposed some methods to solve this problem of space debris. We have also highlighted the shortcomings of already proposed methods by space experts and we have proposed some modification in those methods. Some of them can be very effective in the process of mitigation of space debris, but some of them need some modification. Recently proposed methods by space experts are maneuver, shielding of space elevator with the foil, vaporizing or redirecting of space debris back to earth with the help of laser, use of aerogel as a protective layer, construction of large junkyards around international space station, use of electrodynamics tether & the latest method proposed is the use of nano satellites in the clearing of the space debris. Limitations of the already proposed methods are as follows: - Maneuvering can't be the final solution to our problem as it is the act of self-defence. - Shielding can't be done on the parts like solar panels and optical devices. - Vaporizing or redirecting of space debris can affect the human life on earth if it is not done in proper manner. - Aerogel has a threshold limit up to which it can bear (resist) the impact of collision. - Large junkyards can be effective only for large sized debris. In this paper we propose: A. The Use of Nano Tubes by creating a mesh

  17. Fundamentals of Space Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisacane, Vincent L.

    2005-06-01

    Fundamentals of Space Systems was developed to satisfy two objectives: the first is to provide a text suitable for use in an advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate course in both space systems engineering and space system design. The second is to be a primer and reference book for space professionals wishing to broaden their capabilities to develop, manage the development, or operate space systems. The authors of the individual chapters are practicing engineers that have had extensive experience in developing sophisticated experimental and operational spacecraft systems in addition to having experience teaching the subject material. The text presents the fundamentals of all the subsystems of a spacecraft missions and includes illustrative examples drawn from actual experience to enhance the learning experience. It included a chapter on each of the relevant major disciplines and subsystems including space systems engineering, space environment, astrodynamics, propulsion and flight mechanics, attitude determination and control, power systems, thermal control, configuration management and structures, communications, command and telemetry, data processing, embedded flight software, survuvability and reliability, integration and test, mission operations, and the initial conceptual design of a typical small spacecraft mission.

  18. The manned space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovit, B.

    The development and establishment of a manned space station represents the next major U.S. space program after the Space Shuttle. If all goes according to plan, the space station could be in orbit around the earth by 1992. A 'power tower' station configuration has been selected as a 'reference' design. This configuration involves a central truss structure to which various elements are attached. An eight-foot-square truss forms the backbone of a structure about 400 feet long. At its lower end, nearest the earth, are attached pressurized manned modules. These modules include two laboratory modules and two so-called 'habitat/command' modules, which provide living and working space for the projected crew of six persons. Later, the station's pressurized space would be expanded to accommodate up to 18 persons. By comparison, the Soviets will provide habitable space for 12 aboard a 300-ton station which they are expected to place in orbit. According to current plans the six U.S. astronauts will work in two teams of three persons each. A ninety-day tour of duty is considered.

  19. The Swedish space programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helger, Arne

    The Swedish National Space Board (SNSB) under the Ministry of Industry is the central governmental agency responsible for the goverment-funded Swedish national and international space and remote sensing activities. The technical implementation is mainly contracted by the Board to the state-owned Swedish Space Corporation (SSC). International cooperation is a cornerstone in the Swedish space activities, absorbing more than 80% of the total national budget. Within ESA, Sweden participates in practically all infrastructure and applications programs. Basic research, mainly concentrated to the near earth space physics, microgravity and remote sensing are important elements in the Swedish space program. Sweden participates in the French Spot program. At Esrange, data reception, and satellite control, and tracking, telemetry command (TT&C) are performed for many international satellite projects. An SSC subsidiary, SATELLITBILD, is archiving, processing and distributing remote sensing data worldwide. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has established a portable TT&C station for JERS-1 at Esrange, Kiruna. A center for international research on the ozone problem has been established at Esrange and Kiruna. A new sounding rocket for 15 minutes of microgravity research, MAXUS, has been developed by SSC in cooperation with Germany. A national scientific satellite, FREJA, is planned to be launched late 1992.

  20. Managing the space sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    In April 1994 the National Research Council received a request from NASA that the NRC's Space Studies Board provide guidance on questions relating to the management of NASA's programs in the space sciences. The issues raised in the request closely reflect questions posed in the agency's fiscal year 1994 Senate appropriations report. These questions included the following: Should all the NASA space science programs be gathered into a 'National Institute for Space Science'? What other organizational changes might be made to improve the coordination and oversight of NASA space science programs? What processes should be used for establishing interdisciplinary science priorities based on scientific merit and other criteria, while ensuring opportunities for newer fields and disciplines to emerge? And what steps could be taken to improve utilization of advanced technologies in future space scienc missions? This report details the findings of the Committee on the Future of Space Science (FOSS) and its three task groups: the Task Group on Alternative Organizations, Task Group on Research Prioritization, and the Task Group on Technology.

  1. Space to Space Advanced EMU Radio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maicke, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The main task for this project was the development of a prototype for the Space to Space Advanced EMU Radio (SSAER). The SSAER is an updated version of the Space to Space EMU Radio (SSER), which is the current radio used by EMUs (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) for communication between suits and with the ISS. The SSER was developed in 1999, and it was desired to update the design used in the system. Importantly, besides replacing out-of-production parts it was necessary to decrease the size of the radio due to increased volume constraints with the updated Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 2.5, which will be attached on future space suits. In particular, it was desired to fabricate a PCB for the front-end of the prototype SSAER system. Once this board was manufactured and all parts assembled, it could then be tested for quality of operation as well as compliancy with the SSER required specifications. Upon arrival, a small outline of the target system was provided, and it was my responsibility to take that outline to a finished, testable board. This board would include several stages, including frequency mixing, amplification, modulation, demodulation, and handled both the transmit and receive lines of the radio. I developed a new design based on the old SSER system and the outline provided to me, and found parts to fit the tasks in my design. It was also important to consider the specifications of the SSER, which included the system noise figure, gain, and power consumption. Further, all parts needed to be impedance matched, and spurious signals needed to be avoided. In order to fulfill these two requirements, it was necessary to perform some calculations using a Smith Chart and excel analysis. Once all parts were selected, I drew the schematics for the system in Altium Designer. This included developing schematic symbols, as well as layout. Once the schematic was finished, it was then necessary to lay the parts out onto a PCB using Altium. Similar to the schematic

  2. Skylab, Space Shuttle, Space Benefits Today and Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The pamphlet "Skylab" describes very generally the kinds of activities to be conducted with the Skylab, America's first manned space station. "Space Shuttle" is a pamphlet which briefly states the benefits of the Space Shuttle, and a concise review of present and future benefits of space activities is presented in the pamphlet "Space Benefits…

  3. Advanced space transportation technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, Rishi S.

    1989-01-01

    A wide range of propulsion technologies for space transportation are discussed in the literature. It is clear from the literature review that a single propulsion technology cannot satisfy the many mission needs in space. Many of the technologies tested, proposed, or in experimental stages relate to: chemical and nuclear fuel; radiative and corpuscular external energy source; tethers; cannons; and electromagnetic acceleration. The scope and limitation of these technologies is well tabulated in the literature. Prior experience has shown that an extensive amount of fuel needs to be carried along for the return mission. This requirement puts additional constraints on the lift off rocket technology and limits the payload capacity. Consider the possibility of refueling in space. If the return fuel supply is guaranteed, it will not only be possible to lift off more payload but also to provide security and safety of the mission. Exploration to deep space where solar sails and thermal effects fade would also be possible. Refueling would also facilitate travel on the planet of exploration. This aspect of space transportation prompts the present investigation. The particle emissions from the Sun's corona will be collected under three different conditions: in space closer to the Sun, in the Van Allen Belts; and on the Moon. It is proposed to convert the particle state into gaseous, liquid, or solid state and store it for refueling space vehicles. These facilities may be called space pump stations and the fuel collected as space fuel. Preliminary estimates of fuel collection at all three sites will be made. Future work will continue towards advancing the art of collection rate and design schemes for pumping stations.

  4. Views from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitmacher, Gary H.

    2002-01-01

    Only in the last century have human beings flown in space and men and machines have explored the worlds of our solar system. Robots have gone to most of the our neighboring worlds, the valleys of Mars and the clouds and moons of Jupiter. Instruments like the Hubble Space Telescope have looked into deep space. Those of us on the earth have been able to participate as vicarious explorers through the records, and experiences and the photographs that have been returned. At the beginning of the space program hardly anyone thought of photographs from space as anything more than a branch of industrial photography. There were pictures of the spaceships, and launches and of astronauts in training, but these were all pictures taken on the ground. When John Glenn became America's first man in orbit, bringing a camera was an afterthought. An Ansco Autoset was purchased in a drug store and hastily modified so the astronaut could use it more easily while in his pressure suit. In 1962, everything that Glenn did was deemed an experiment. At the beginning of the program, no one knew for certain whether weightlessness would prevent a man from seeing, or from breathing, or from eating and swallowing. Photography was deemed nothing more than a recreational extra. Not only was little expected of those first pictures taken from space, but there was serious concern that taking pictures of other nations from orbit would be seen as an act of ill will and even one of war- as sovereign sensitive nations would resent having pictures taken by Americans orbiting overhead. A few years earlier, in 1957, in reaction to the Soviet launch of the first Sputnik satellite, scientists told congressman of the necessity of orbiting our own robot spacecraft-they predicted that one day we would take daily pictures of the world's weather. Congressman were incredulous. But space photography developed quickly. For security purposes, spy satellites took over many of the responsibilities we had depended upon

  5. Fundamentals of Space Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clément, Gilles

    2005-03-01

    A total of more than 240 human space flights have been completed to date, involving about 450 astronauts from various countries, for a combined total presence in space of more than 70 years. The seventh long-duration expedition crew is currently in residence aboard the International Space Station, continuing a permanent presence in space that began in October 2000. During that time, investigations have been conducted on both humans and animal models to study the bone demineralization and muscle deconditioning, space motion sickness, the causes and possible treatment of postflight orthostatic intolerance, the changes in immune function, crew and crew-ground interactions, and the medical issues of living in a space environment, such as the effects of radiation or the risk of developing kidney stones. Some results of these investigations have led to fundamental discoveries about the adaptation of the human body to the space environment. Gilles Clément has been active in this research. This readable text presents the findings from the life science experiments conducted during and after space missions. Topics discussed in this book include: adaptation of sensory-motor, cardio-vascular, bone, and muscle systems to the microgravity of spaceflight; psychological and sociological issues of living in a confined, isolated, and stressful environment; operational space medicine, such as crew selection, training and in-flight health monitoring, countermeasures and support; results of space biology experiments on individual cells, plants, and animal models; and the impact of long-duration missions such as the human mission to Mars. The author also provides a detailed description of how to fly a space experiment, based on his own experience with research projects conducted onboard Salyut-7, Mir, Spacelab, and the Space Shuttle. Now is the time to look at the future of human spaceflight and what comes next. The future human exploration of Mars captures the imagination of both the

  6. Space Station Induced Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F. (Editor); Torr, Marsha R. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    This report contains the results of a conference convened May 10-11, 1988, to review plans for monitoring the Space Station induced environment, to recommend primary components of an induced environment monitoring package, and to make recommendations pertaining to suggested modifications of the Space Station External Contamination Control Requirements Document JSC 30426. The contents of this report are divided as Follows: Monitoring Induced Environment - Space Station Work Packages Requirements, Neutral Environment, Photon Emission Environment, Particulate Environment, Surface Deposition/Contamination; and Contamination Control Requirements.

  7. Advanced materials for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenney, D. R.; Slemp, W. S.; Long, E. R., Jr.; Sykes, G. F.

    1980-01-01

    The principal thrust of the LSST program is to develop the materials technology required for confident design of large space systems such as antennas and platforms. Areas of research in the FY-79 program include evaluation of polysulfones, measurement of the coefficient of thermal expansion of low expansion composite laminates, thermal cycling effects, and cable technology. The development of new long thermal control coatings and adhesives for use in space is discussed. The determination of radiation damage mechanisms of resin matrix composites and the formulation of new polymer matrices that are inherently more stable in the space environment are examined.

  8. Space Shuttle Aging Elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Cris E.

    2007-01-01

    The reusable Manned Space Shuttle has been flying into Space and returning to earth for more than 25 years. The Space Shuttle's uses various types of elastomers and they play a vital role in mission success. The Orbiter has been in service well past its design life of 10 years or 100 missions. As part of the aging vehicle assessment one question under evaluation is how the elastomers are performing. This paper will outline a strategic assessment plan, how identified problems were resolved and the integration activities between subsystems and Aging Orbiter Working Group.

  9. The Space Block

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Ciba-Geigy Corporation's "Space Block," technically known as TDT-177-51 Ren Shape epoxy model block, is a two-foot by two-foot by five- inch plastic block from which master models of the Space Shuttle protective tiles are cut by NC machines. Space Block is made of epoxy resin with low viscosity and slow curing time, enabling the large block to cure uniformly without cracking. Rockwell International uses master models of Shuttle tiles to check accuracy of NC machines accurately by comparing model dimensions with specifications. New epoxy resins are attracting broad interest as a replacement for traditional materials used in modeling auto, aerospace or other parts.

  10. Detroit space odessey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, H., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The symposium included personal appearances by NASA astronauts, NASA exhibits, aerospace science lecture demonstrations (Spacemobile Lectures), and talks on job opportunities in aerospace and on the benefits of the Space Program. The program was directed mainly at (public, parochial and private) student groups, each of which spent three hours at the symposium site, Wayne State University campus, to participate in the symposium activities. The symposium was open to the general public and consisted of the NASA exhibits, aerospace science lecture demonstrations, films, talks on the benefits of the space program, and a special tasting demonstration of ""space food'' meal systems.

  11. Climate engineering and space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrogl, K.-U.; Summerer, L.

    2016-12-01

    This article provides a comprehensive look at climate engineering and space. Its starting point is that the States are failing to slow down global warming. The consequences for the environment and the economic and societal burden are uncontested. The priority to maintain the use of fossil resources might soon lead to the implementation of deliberate engineering measures to alter the climate instead of reducing the greenhouse gases. The article describes these currently discussed measures for such climate engineering. It will particularly analyse the expected contributions from space to these concepts. Based on this it evaluates the economic and political implications and finally tests the conformity of these concepts with space law.

  12. Evolution to Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will discuss recent space exploration results (LCROSS, KEPLER, etc.), increase access to space and the small and cube satellites platform as it relates to the future of space exploration. It will highlight the concept of modularization and the use of biology, and specifically synthetic biology in the future. The presentation will be a general public presentation. When speaking to a younger audience, I will discuss my background. All slides contain only public information. No technical ITAR/Export controlled material will be discussed.

  13. Detecting Space Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinard, William H.; Humes, Donald H.; Kassel, Philip C., Jr.; Wortman, Jim; Singer, S. Fred; Stanley, John

    1988-01-01

    Technique records times specific craters formed in targets exposed in space and permits determination of direction in which impacting particles traveled at times of impacts. MOS capacitor is short-circuited by impact of particle striking at high speed. After recovery of targets from space, compositions of impacting particles established through post-flight laboratory analyses of residual materials in craters. On earth technique has industrial and military uses in detection of fragments driven by explosions. Studies of orbital dynamics of particles produced by solid-propellant rocket-motor firings in space made using technique.

  14. Space Station operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    An evaluation of the success of the Space Station will be based on the service provided to the customers by the Station crew, the productivity of the crew, and the costs of operation. Attention is given to details regarding Space Station operations, a summary of operational philosophies and requirements, logistics and resupply operations, prelaunch processing and launch operations, on-orbit operations, aspects of maintainability and maintenance, habitability, and questions of medical care. A logistics module concept is considered along with a logistics module processing timeline, a habitability module concept, and a Space Station rescue mission.

  15. Fundamentals of Space Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clément, G.

    2003-10-01

    As of today, a total of more than 240 human space flights have been completed, involving about 450 astronauts from various countries, for a combined total presence in space of more than 70 years. The seventh long-duration expedition crew is currently in residence aboard the International Space Station, continuing a permanent presence in space that began in October 2000. During that time, investigations have been conducted on both humans and animal models to study the bone demineralization and muscle deconditioning, space motion sickness, the causes and possible treatment of postflight orthostatic intolerance, the changes in immune function, crew and crew-ground interactions, and the medical issues of living in a space environment, such as the effects of radiation or the risk of developing kidney stones. Some results of these investigations have led to fundamental discoveries about the adaptation of the human body to the space environment. Gilles Clément has been active in this research. This book presents in a readable text the findings from the life science experiments conducted during and after space missions. Topics discussed in this book include: adaptation of sensory-motor, cardiovascular, bone and muscle systems to the microgravity of spaceflight; psychological and sociological issues of living in a confined, isolated and stressful environment; operational space medicine, such as crew selection, training and in-flight health monitoring, countermeasures and support; results of space biology experiments on individual cells, plants, and animal models; and the impact of long-duration missions such as the human mission to Mars. The author also provides a detailed description of how to fly a space experiment, based on his own experience with research projects conducted onboard Salyut-7, Mir, Spacelab, and the Space Shuttle. Now is the time to look at the future of human spaceflight and what comes next. The future human exploration of Mars captures the imagination

  16. Space engine safety system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Meyer, Claudia M.

    1991-01-01

    A rocket engine safety system is designed to initiate control procedures which will minimize damage to the engine and vehicle or test stand in the event of an engine failure. This report describes the features and the implementation issues associated with rocket engine safety systems. Specific concerns of safety systems applied to a space-based engine and long duration space missions are discussed. Examples of safety system features and architectures are given from recent safety monitoring investigations conducted for the Space Shuttle Main Engine and for future liquid rocket engines. Also, a general design and implementation process for rocket engine safety systems is presented.

  17. Space Weather Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    This workshop will focus on what space weather is about and its impact on society. An overall picture will be "painted" describing the Sun's influence through the solar wind on the near-Earth space environment, including the aurora, killer electrons at geosynchronous orbit, million ampere electric currents through the ionosphere and along magnetic field lines, and the generation of giga-Watts of natural radio waves. Reference material in the form of Internet sites will be provided so that teachers can discuss space weather in the classroom and enable students to learn more about this topic.

  18. Transportation - Space Station interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macconchie, Ian O.; Eide, D. G.; Witcofski, R. D.; Pennington, J. E.; Rhodes, M. D.; Melfi, L. T.; Jones, W. R.; Morris, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    A study aimed at identifying conceptual mechanisms for the transfer and manipulation of various masses in the vicinity of or on the Space Station is presented. These transfers encompass mass transfers involved in the arrivals or departures of various vehicles including the Shuttle, Orbital Manuever Vehicles (OMVs), and Orbital Transfer Vehicles (OTVs); point-to-point mass transfer of a nonroutine nature around the Space Station; and routine transfer of cargo and spacecraft around the Space Station, including the mating and processing of OMVs, OTVs, propellants, and payloads.

  19. Space station operations management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Kathleen V.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom operations management concepts must be responsive to the unique challenges presented by the permanently manned international laboratory. Space Station Freedom will be assembled over a three year period where the operational environment will change as significant capability plateaus are reached. First Element Launch, Man-Tended Capability, and Permanent Manned Capability, represent milestones in operational capability that is increasing toward mature operations capability. Operations management concepts are being developed to accomodate the varying operational capabilities during assembly, as well as the mature operational environment. This paper describes operations management concepts designed to accomodate the uniqueness of Space Station Freedoom, utilizing tools and processes that seek to control operations costs.

  20. SpaceCube Mini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Michael; Petrick, David; Geist, Alessandro; Flatley, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This version of the SpaceCube will be a full-fledged, onboard space processing system capable of 2500+ MIPS, and featuring a number of plug-andplay gigabit and standard interfaces, all in a condensed 3x3x3 form factor [less than 10 watts and less than 3 lb (approximately equal to 1.4 kg)]. The main processing engine is the Xilinx SIRF radiation- hardened-by-design Virtex-5 FX-130T field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Even as the SpaceCube 2.0 version (currently under test) is being targeted as the platform of choice for a number of the upcoming Earth Science Decadal Survey missions, GSFC has been contacted by customers who wish to see a system that incorporates key features of the version 2.0 architecture in an even smaller form factor. In order to fulfill that need, the SpaceCube Mini is being designed, and will be a very compact and low-power system. A similar flight system with this combination of small size, low power, low cost, adaptability, and extremely high processing power does not otherwise exist, and the SpaceCube Mini will be of tremendous benefit to GSFC and its partners. The SpaceCube Mini will utilize space-grade components. The primary processing engine of the Mini is the Xilinx Virtex-5 SIRF FX-130T radiation-hardened-by-design FPGA for critical flight applications in high-radiation environments. The Mini can also be equipped with a commercial Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA with integrated PowerPCs for a low-cost, high-power computing platform for use in the relatively radiation- benign LEOs (low-Earth orbits). In either case, this version of the Space-Cube will weigh less than 3 pounds (.1.4 kg), conform to the CubeSat form-factor (10x10x10 cm), and will be low power (less than 10 watts for typical applications). The SpaceCube Mini will have a radiation-hardened Aeroflex FPGA for configuring and scrubbing the Xilinx FPGA by utilizing the onboard FLASH memory to store the configuration files. The FLASH memory will also be used for storing algorithm and

  1. Space Guiding Us

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primikiri, Athina

    2016-04-01

    Taking into consideration the fact that general education provides the passport for a successful career the charting of Space consists of a constructive instrument available to every single teacher. Activities touching directly upon Space comprise a source of inspiration that encourages pupils to get acquainted with natural sciences and technology while consolidating their cross-curriculum knowledge. The applications and endeavors arising out of Space play a vital role for the further development and growth of our societies. Moreover, the prosperity of people is inextricably bound up with the implementation of Space policies adapted to different sectors such as the Environment, the phenomenon of climate change, matters affecting public or private safety, humanitarian aid and other technological issues. Therefore, the thorough analysis of Space endows us with insights about new products and innovative forms of industrial collaboration. As a teacher, I have consciously chosen to utilize the topic of Space in class as an instructive tool during the last 4 years. The lure of Space combined with the fascination provided by Space flights contributes to the enrichment of children's knowledge in the field of STEM. Space consists of the perfect cross-curriculum tool for the teaching of distinct subjects such as History, Geography, Science, Environment, Literature, Music, Religion and Physical Education. Following the Curriculum for pupils aged 9-10 I opted to teach the topic of Space under the title 'Space Guiding Us' as well as its subunits: • International Space Station • Cassini/Huygens, Mission to Titan • Rosetta & Philae • European Union and Space • Mission X: Train like an Astronaut The main purpose of choosing the module of 'Space' is to stimulate the scientific and critical thought of the pupils, to foster the co-operative spirit among them and to make them aware of how the application of Science affects their everyday lives. Aims • To incite pupils

  2. The deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Progress is reported in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations. The functions and facilities of the Deep Space Network are emphasized.

  3. Emergency medicine in space.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lowan H; Trunkey, Donald; Rebagliati, G Steve

    2007-01-01

    Recent events, including the development of space tourism and commercial spaceflight, have increased the need for specialists in space medicine. With increased duration of missions and distance from Earth, medical and surgical events will become inevitable. Ground-based medical support will no longer be adequate when return to Earth is not an option. Pending the inclusion of sub-specialists, clinical skills and medical expertise will be required that go beyond those of current physician-astronauts, yet are well within the scope of Emergency Medicine. Emergency physicians have the necessary broad knowledge base as well as proficiency in basic surgical skills and management of the critically ill and injured. Space medicine shares many attributes with extreme conditions and environments that many emergency physicians already specialize in. This article is an introduction to space medicine, and a review of current issues in the emergent management of medical and surgical disease during spaceflight.

  4. Space Vehicle Valve System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Lindner, Jeffrey L. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is a space vehicle valve system which controls the internal pressure of a space vehicle and the flow rate of purged gases at a given internal pressure and aperture site. A plurality of quasi-unique variable dimension peaked valve structures cover the purge apertures on a space vehicle. Interchangeable sheet guards configured to cover valve apertures on the peaked valve structure contain a pressure-activated surface on the inner surface. Sheet guards move outwardly from the peaked valve structure when in structural contact with a purge gas stream flowing through the apertures on the space vehicle. Changing the properties of the sheet guards changes the response of the sheet guards at a given internal pressure, providing control of the flow rate at a given aperture site.

  5. The Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faget, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    Design and configurations of the Space Shuttle are examined. Attention is given to such features as the Orbiter, the guidance systems, design avionics, system design, and the flight control system centered about a redundant set of general purpose computers.

  6. Aboard the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, F. S.

    1980-01-01

    Livability aboard the space shuttle orbiter makes it possible for men and women scientists and technicians in reasonably good health to join superbly healthy astronauts as space travelers and workers. Features of the flight deck, the mid-deck living quarters, and the subfloor life support and house-keeping equipment are illustrated as well as the provisions for food preparation, eating, sleeping, exercising, and medical care. Operation of the personal hygiene equipment and of the air revitalization system for maintaining sea level atmosphere in space is described. Capabilities of Spacelab, the purpose and use of the remote manipulator arm, and the design of a permanent space operations center assembled on-orbit by shuttle personnel are also depicted.

  7. Outlook for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Future space activities within the context of national needs were examined, and directions that the United States should take in the civilian use and exploration of space for the time period from 1980 to 2000 were identified. It was decided that the following activities should be pursued: (1) those related to the continuing struggle to improve the quality of life (food production and distribution, new energy sources, etc., (2) those meeting the need for intellectual challenge, for exploration, and for the knowledge by which man can better understand the universe and his relationship to it, (3) those related to research and development in areas applicable to future space systems and missions. A continuing emphasis should be placed on orienting the space program to the physical needs of mankind, to the quest of the mind and spirit, to the vitality of the nation and to the relationship between this nation and other nations of the world.

  8. Space and national security

    SciTech Connect

    Stares, P.B.

    1987-01-01

    In this timely volume, the author assesses the long-term costs and benefits of developing ASAT weapons and the feasibility of alternative policies. He examines in detail the military space programs of the United States and Soviet Union and explores the potential military uses of space. He also addresses the threats to space systems and how they can be defended, the impact of ASAT attacks in wartime, and the utility of arms control. The author concludes that current U.S. policy is both shortsighted and unbalanced in stressing ASAT development over meaningful limitations on space weaponry. He presents a list of unilateral and negotiated measures as an alternative strategy for the United States.

  9. Quantum Space-Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashtekar, Abhay

    In general relativity space-time ends at singularities. The big bang is considered as the Beginning and the big crunch, the End. However these conclusions are arrived at by using general relativity in regimes which lie well beyond its physical domain of validity. Examples where detailed analysis is possible show that these singularities are naturally resolved by quantum geometry effects. Quantum space-times can be vastly larger than what Einstein had us believe. These non-trivial space-time extensions enable us to answer of some long standing questions and resolve of some puzzles in fundamental physics. Thus, a century after Minkowski's revolutionary ideas on the nature of space and time, yet another paradigm shift appears to await us in the wings.

  10. Electrophoresis experiments for space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Robert S.; Rhodes, Percy H.

    2000-01-01

    It has long been hoped that space could alleviate the problems of large-scale, high-capacity electrophoresis. Support media and reduced chamber dimensions of capillary electrophoresis have established the physical boundaries for Earth-based systems. Ideally, electrophoresis conducted in a virtual weightless environment in an unrestricted ``free'' fluid should have great potential. The electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing experiments done in the reduced gravity over the past twenty-five years have demonstrated the absence of thermal convection and sedimentation as well as the presence of electrohydrodynamics that requires careful control. One commercial venture produced gram amounts of an electrophoretically purified protein during seven Space Shuttle flights but the market disappeared in the six years between experiment conception and performance on the Space Shuttle. Our accumulated experience in microgravity plus theoretical models predict improvements that should be possible with electrophoresis if past problems are considered and both invention of new technologies and innovation of procedures on the Space Station are encouraged. .

  11. Space Station Live! Tour

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA is using the Internet and smartphones to provide the public with a new inside look at what happens aboard the International Space Station and in the Mission Control Center. NASA Public Affairs...

  12. Space processing economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bredt, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    Two types of space processing operations may be considered economically justified; they are manufacturing operations that make profits and experiment operations that provide needed applied research results at lower costs than those of alternative methods. Some examples from the Skylab experiments suggest that applied research should become cost effective soon after the space shuttle and Spacelab become operational. In space manufacturing, the total cost of space operations required to process materials must be repaid by the value added to the materials by the processing. Accurate estimates of profitability are not yet possible because shuttle operational costs are not firmly established and the markets for future products are difficult to estimate. However, approximate calculations show that semiconductor products and biological preparations may be processed on a scale consistent with market requirements and at costs that are at least compatible with profitability using the Shuttle/Spacelab system.

  13. Space Food and Nutrition

    NASA Video Gallery

    This is an introduction to the Space Food System and Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory. Topics cover food systems of programs past, present and future, and issues surrounding food systems and foo...

  14. Space robotics in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, William; Lowrie, James W.; McCain, Harry; Bejczy, Antal; Sheridan, Tom; Kanade, Takeo; Allen, Peter

    1994-03-01

    Japan has been one of the most successful countries in the world in the realm of terrestrial robot applications. The panel found that Japan has in place a broad base of robotics research and development, ranging from components to working systems for manufacturing, construction, and human service industries. From this base, Japan looks to the use of robotics in space applications and has funded work in space robotics since the mid-1980's. The Japanese are focusing on a clear image of what they hope to achieve through three objectives for the 1990's: developing long-reach manipulation for tending experiments on Space Station Freedom, capturing satellites using a free-flying manipulator, and surveying part of the moon with a mobile robot. This focus and a sound robotics infrastructure is enabling the young Japanese space program to develop relevant systems for extraterrestrial robotics applications.

  15. Future space transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grishin, S. D.; Chekalin, S. V.

    1984-01-01

    Prospects for the mastery of space and the basic problems which must be solved in developing systems for both manned and cargo spacecraft are examined. The achievements and flaws of rocket boosters are discussed as well as the use of reusable spacecraft. The need for orbiting satellite solar power plants and related astrionics for active control of large space structures for space stations and colonies in an age of space industrialization is demonstrated. Various forms of spacecraft propulsion are described including liquid propellant rocket engines, nuclear reactors, thermonuclear rocket engines, electrorocket engines, electromagnetic engines, magnetic gas dynamic generators, electromagnetic mass accelerators (rail guns), laser rocket engines, pulse nuclear rocket engines, ramjet thermonuclear rocket engines, and photon rockets. The possibilities of interstellar flight are assessed.

  16. The deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The functions and facilities of the Deep Space Network are considered. Progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations is reported.

  17. Telescopes and space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.; Maran, S. P.

    1982-01-01

    Progress in contemporary astronomy and astrophysics is shown to depend on complementary investigations with sensitive telescopes operating in several wavelength regions, some of which can be on the Earth's surface and others of which must be in space.

  18. Space tug thermal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    The future development of full capability Space Tug will impose strict requirements upon the thermal design. While requiring a reliable and reusable design, Space Tug must be capable of steady-state and transient thermal operation during any given mission for mission durations of up to seven days and potentially longer periods of time. Maximum flexibility and adaptability of Space Tug to the mission model requires that the vehicle operate within attitude constraints throughout any specific mission. These requirements were translated into a preliminary design study for a geostationary deploy and retrieve mission definition for Space Tug to determine the thermal control design requirements. Results of the study are discussed with emphasis given to some of the unique avenues pursued during the study, as well as the recommended thermal design configuration.

  19. Earth study from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidorenko, A. V.

    1981-01-01

    The significance that space studies are making to all Earth sciences in the areas of geography, geodesy, cartography, geology, meteorology, oceanology, agronomy, and ecology is discussed. It is predicted that cosmonautics will result in a revolution in science and technology.

  20. Space Station Software Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, S. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Four panels of invited experts and NASA representatives focused on the following topics: software management, software development environment, languages, and software standards. Each panel deliberated in private, held two open sessions with audience participation, and developed recommendations for the NASA Space Station Program. The major thrusts of the recommendations were as follows: (1) The software management plan should establish policies, responsibilities, and decision points for software acquisition; (2) NASA should furnish a uniform modular software support environment and require its use for all space station software acquired (or developed); (3) The language Ada should be selected for space station software, and NASA should begin to address issues related to the effective use of Ada; and (4) The space station software standards should be selected (based upon existing standards where possible), and an organization should be identified to promulgate and enforce them. These and related recommendations are described in detail in the conference proceedings.

  1. Testing weapons in space

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, A.B.

    1989-07-01

    The Antiballistic-Missile Treaty seems to forbid the testing of ABM weapons in space, but the US has pushed for a broad interpretation of the language. Would a more permissive regime really serve US interests This paper reviews the rationale of the treaty's provisions to help answer this question. Four modes of testing a space weapon are treated differently by the ABM treaty: (1) an orbiting weapon intercepts a ballistic weapon is flight; (2) intercepting weapon is launched on a suborbital flight; (3) both weapon and target are placed in space; and (4) orbiting weapon is aimed at an aircraft in flight or a target on the ground. Three approaches to negotiating an agreement to limit testing weapons in space are discussed. They differ in the strictness of the limits.

  2. Space Station Software Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, S. (Editor); Beskenis, S. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Issues in the development of software for the Space Station are discussed. Software acquisition and management, software development environment, standards, information system support for software developers, and a future software advisory board are addressed.

  3. Space Smackdown 101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasan, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Space Smackdown is a competition that involves a collaborative multi-team exercise that engages in constructive simulation of a world with simulation of vehicles deployed in that world including stand-alone and integrated missions.

  4. The deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The facilities, programming system, and monitor and control system for the deep space network are described. Ongoing planetary and interplanetary flight projects are reviewed, along with tracking and ground-based navigation, communications, and network and facility engineering.

  5. Technologies. [space power sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Energy technologies to meet the power requirements of future space missions are reviewed. Photovoltaic, solar dynamic, and solar thermal technologies are discussed along with techniques for energy storage and power management and distribution.

  6. The quantum space race

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennewein, Thomas; Higgins, Brendon

    2013-03-01

    Sending satellites equipped with quantum technologies into space will be the first step towards a global quantum-communication network. As Thomas Jennewein and Brendon Higgins explain, these systems will also enable physicists to test fundamental physics in new regimes.

  7. Automated assembly in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Sandanand; Dwivedi, Suren N.; Soon, Toh Teck; Bandi, Reddy; Banerjee, Soumen; Hughes, Cecilia

    1989-01-01

    The installation of robots and their use of assembly in space will create an exciting and promising future for the U.S. Space Program. The concept of assembly in space is very complicated and error prone and it is not possible unless the various parts and modules are suitably designed for automation. Certain guidelines are developed for part designing and for an easy precision assembly. Major design problems associated with automated assembly are considered and solutions to resolve these problems are evaluated in the guidelines format. Methods for gripping and methods for part feeding are developed with regard to the absence of gravity in space. The guidelines for part orientation, adjustments, compliances and various assembly construction are discussed. Design modifications of various fasteners and fastening methods are also investigated.

  8. Liquid lubrication in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1990-01-01

    The requirement for long-term, reliable operation of aerospace mechanisms has, with a few exceptions, pushed the state of the art in tribology. Space mission life requirements in the early 1960s were generally 6 months to a year. The proposed U.S. space station schedule to be launched in the 1990s must be continuously usable for 10 to 20 years. Liquid lubrication systems are generally used for mission life requirements longer than a year. Although most spacecraft or satellites have reached their required lifetimes without a lubrication-related failure, the application of liquid lubricants in the space environment presents unique challenges. The state of the art of liquid lubrication in space as well as the problems and their solutions are reviewed.

  9. The Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Progress on the Deep Space Network (DSN) supporting research and technology, advanced development, engineering and implementation, and DSN operations is presented. The functions and facilities of the DSN are described.

  10. Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpkins, Patrick A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the importance of the Kennedy Space Center both in terms to the economy of Florida and to spaceflight. It reviews the general NASA direction,the challenges of the coming year and the accomplishments.

  11. Composite Space Telescope Truss

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA engineers are recycling an idea for a lightweight, compact space telescope structure from the early 1990s. The 315 struts and 84 nodes were originally designed to enable spacewalking astronaut...

  12. Space Flute Duet

    NASA Video Gallery

    Harmony reaches new heights as NASA Astronaut Cady Coleman, circling Earth aboard the International Space Station, and musician Ian Anderson, founder of the rock band Jethro Tull, join together for...

  13. Space Medicine Medical Operations

    NASA Video Gallery

    This is an overview of the Space and Clinical Operations Division whose mission is to optimize the health, fitness and well-being of flight crews, their dependents and employees of the Johnson Spac...

  14. Nuclear Power in Space

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1994-01-01

    In the early years of the United States space program, lightweight batteries, fuel cells, and solar modules provided electric power for space missions. As missions became more ambitious and complex, power needs increased and scientists investigated various options to meet these challenging power requirements. One of the options was nuclear energy. By the mid-1950s, research had begun in earnest on ways to use nuclear power in space. These efforts resulted in the first radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), which are nuclear power generators build specifically for space and special terrestrial uses. These RTGs convert the heat generated from the natural decay of their radioactive fuel into electricity. RTGs have powered many spacecraft used for exploring the outer planets of the solar system and orbiting the sun and Earth. They have also landed on Mars and the moon. They provide the power that enables us to see and learn about even the farthermost objects in our solar system.

  15. Radiation effects in space

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses the radiation environment in space that astronauts are likely to be exposed to. Emphasis is on proton and HZE particle effects. Recommendations for radiation protection guidelines are presented. (ACR)

  16. The deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A report is given of the Deep Space Networks progress in (1) flight project support, (2) tracking and data acquisition research and technology, (3) network engineering, (4) hardware and software implementation, and (5) operations.

  17. Space solar power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toliver, C.

    1977-01-01

    Studies were done on the feasibility of placing a solar power station called POwersat, in space. A general description of the engineering features are given as well as a brief discussion of the economic considerations.

  18. Space robotics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittaker, William; Lowrie, James W.; Mccain, Harry; Bejczy, Antal; Sheridan, Tom; Kanade, Takeo; Allen, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Japan has been one of the most successful countries in the world in the realm of terrestrial robot applications. The panel found that Japan has in place a broad base of robotics research and development, ranging from components to working systems for manufacturing, construction, and human service industries. From this base, Japan looks to the use of robotics in space applications and has funded work in space robotics since the mid-1980's. The Japanese are focusing on a clear image of what they hope to achieve through three objectives for the 1990's: developing long-reach manipulation for tending experiments on Space Station Freedom, capturing satellites using a free-flying manipulator, and surveying part of the moon with a mobile robot. This focus and a sound robotics infrastructure is enabling the young Japanese space program to develop relevant systems for extraterrestrial robotics applications.

  19. The Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The various systems and subsystems are discussed for the Deep Space Network (DSN). A description of the DSN is presented along with mission support, program planning, facility engineering, implementation and operations.

  20. Space Launch System Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA is ready to move forward with the development of the Space Launch System -- an advanced heavy-lift launch vehicle that will provide an entirely new national capability for human exploration be...