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Sample records for advance directive law

  1. The Texas Advanced Directive Law: Unfinished Business.

    PubMed

    Kapottos, Michael; Youngner, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    The Texas Advance Directive Act allows physicians and hospitals to overrule patient or family requests for futile care. Purposefully not defining futility, the law leaves its determination in specific cases to an institutional process. While the law has received several criticisms, it does seem to work constructively in the cases that come to the review process. We introduce a new criticism: While the law has been justified by an appeal to professional values such as avoiding harm to patients, avoiding the provision of unseemly care, and good stewardship of medical resources, it is applied incompletely. It allows physicians and institutional committees to refuse "futile" treatments desired by patients and families while at the same time providing no way of regulating physicians who recommend or even push "futile" treatments in similar cases. In this sense, the TADA is incomplete on its own terms.

  2. Living wills and advance directives in South African Law.

    PubMed

    Skeen, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The legal status of living wills and advance directives in South African Law will be considered. Presently there is no reported judgment of a court in South Africa which has directly ruled on the validity of an advance directive or living will. In a case decided in 1992 the issue as to whether to discontinue life supporting treatment was decided with reference to the legal persuasions of society and whether, in light of these, it would be reasonable to discontinue artificial feeding of the patient. The judge indicated that just as a living person has an interest in the disposal of his body so did he think that the patient's wishes as expressed when he was in good health should be given effect. In South African law every person is legally entitled to refuse medical treatment even if the consequences may be to hasten death. The South African Law Convention has extensively investigated the issue in its report entitled Report on Euthanasia and the Artificial Preservation of Life in 1998. Certain problems were identified and a draft bill was suggested.

  3. Advance directives for mental health care: innovation in law, policy, and practice.

    PubMed

    Zelle, Heather; Kemp, Kathleen; Bonnie, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Virginia appears to be the first state to commit itself to statewide implementation of psychiatric advance directives, and its experience may be highly instructive for other states. The project began with consensus building among stakeholders (2007-2009), followed by revisions to Virginia's Health Care Decisions Act (2009-2010) and designation of five of the state's 40 Community Services Boards as demonstration sites for facilitation efforts. Early implementation efforts quickly showed that psychiatric advance directives are not self-executing innovations. This column describes the early policy and practice innovations, lessons learned from initial implementation efforts, and three approaches to facilitating completion of advance directives by consumers.

  4. Religious advance directives: the convergence of law, religion, medicine, and public health.

    PubMed Central

    Grodin, M A

    1993-01-01

    Because of the deep interpersonal significance of decisions made at the end of life, it is not surprising that religion has played an important role in patient and family decision making. Specific religious concerns about death and dying have led to religious advance directives. Advance directives offer a case study of models of interaction between religious communities and secular institutions. This paper examines why such directives have been created and how they may affect health care decisions. An analysis of their strengths and weaknesses concludes that specific religious instructions are unnecessary in written directives and may undermine both the religious and health care goals of patients. PMID:8498633

  5. Advance care directives

    MedlinePlus

    ... advance directive; Do-not-resuscitate - advance directive; Durable power of attorney - advance care directive; POA - advance care directive; Health care agent - advance care directive; Health care proxy - ...

  6. A direct advance on advance directives.

    PubMed

    Shaw, David

    2012-06-01

    Advance directives (ADs), which are also sometimes referred to as 'living wills', are statements made by a person that indicate what treatment she should not be given in the event that she is not competent to consent or refuse at the future moment in question. As such, ADs provide a way for patients to make decisions in advance about what treatments they do not want to receive, without doctors having to find proxy decision-makers or having recourse to the doctrine of necessity. While patients can request particular treatments in an AD, only refusals are binding. This paper will examine whether ADs safeguard the autonomy and best interests of the incompetent patient, and whether legislating for the use of ADs is justified, using the specific context of the legal situation in the United Kingdom to illustrate the debate. The issue of whether the law should permit ADs is itself dependent on the issue of whether ADs are ethically justified; thus we must answer a normative question in order to answer the legislative one. It emerges that ADs suffer from two major problems, one related to autonomy and one to consent. First, ADs' emphasis on precedent autonomy effectively sentences some people who want to live to death. Second, many ADs might not meet the standard criteria for informed refusal of treatment, because they fail on the crucial criterion of sufficient information. Ultimately, it transpires that ADs are typically only appropriate for patients who temporarily lose physical or mental capacity.

  7. Descendants and advance directives.

    PubMed

    Buford, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Some of the concerns that have been raised in connection to the use of advance directives are of the epistemic variety. Such concerns highlight the possibility that adhering to an advance directive may conflict with what the author of the directive actually wants (or would want) at the time of treatment. However, at least one objection to the employment of advance directives is metaphysical in nature. The objection to be discussed here, first formulated by Rebecca Dresser and labeled by Allen Buchanan as the slavery argument and David DeGrazia the someone else problem, aims to undermine the legitimacy of certain uses of advance directives by concluding that such uses rest upon an incorrect assumption about the identity over time of those ostensibly governed by the directives. There have been numerous attempts to respond to this objection. This paper aims to assess two strategies that have been pursued to cope with the problem.

  8. Descendants and advance directives.

    PubMed

    Buford, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Some of the concerns that have been raised in connection to the use of advance directives are of the epistemic variety. Such concerns highlight the possibility that adhering to an advance directive may conflict with what the author of the directive actually wants (or would want) at the time of treatment. However, at least one objection to the employment of advance directives is metaphysical in nature. The objection to be discussed here, first formulated by Rebecca Dresser and labeled by Allen Buchanan as the slavery argument and David DeGrazia the someone else problem, aims to undermine the legitimacy of certain uses of advance directives by concluding that such uses rest upon an incorrect assumption about the identity over time of those ostensibly governed by the directives. There have been numerous attempts to respond to this objection. This paper aims to assess two strategies that have been pursued to cope with the problem. PMID:25743056

  9. Advance Directives and Do Not Resuscitate Orders

    MedlinePlus

    ... a form. Call a lawyer. Use a computer software package for legal documents. Advance directives and living ... you write by yourself or with a computer software package should follow your state laws. You may ...

  10. How neuroscience might advance the law.

    PubMed Central

    O'Hara, Erin Ann

    2004-01-01

    This essay discusses the strengths and limitations of the new, growing field of law and biology and suggests that advancements in neuroscience can help to bolster that field. It also briefly discusses some ways that neuroscience can help to improve the workings of law more generally. PMID:15590609

  11. Overview of advanced law enforcement electronic technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harden, W. R.

    1995-05-01

    Law enforcement and security management are using advanced electronic equipment to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the budget restricted police officer force. Currently there is also significant national attention concerning the possible utilization of 'military' electronic hardware to implement the much sought after 'force multiplier' which can help to alleviate each jurisdictions economic restrictions. However, as we are now finding, the transfer of 'military' hardware for utilization by law enforcement personnel is not as economically viable as hoped. This paper will address some of the recent advances in electronic technology that are being derived from the military technology base. Additionally, comments are given concerning the economic impact as the technology is transferred to the law enforcement community.

  12. Advance directives: prerequisites and usefulness.

    PubMed

    van Asselt, D

    2006-10-01

    Advance directives allow competent persons to extend their right of self-determination into the future, by recording choices that are intended to influence their future care should they become unable to make choices. They are considered tools to facilitate end-of-life decision making. Advance directives are a form of anticipatory decision-making. This article will focus on instruction directives against a certain treatment, so-called advance refusals. The most important legal requirement is the acknowledgement of patient autonomy. This condition is met in all European countries. The legal uncertainties surrounding advance refusals are focused on practical modalities rather than on the validity of the general principle. According to leading ethics the underlying moral rule of advanced directives is that all truly autonomous refusals of treatment must be respected, no matter what the consequences. Physicians find it hard to adhere to the wishes and choices of patients as expressed in directives. They find the text ambiguous. Another weakness is that directives give little information about what in the patient's view constitutes a good quality of life. Some health professionals lack the willingness to step outside their own value systems and fully embrace that of the patient. Empathic skills are required. Very few persons create an advance directive. Furthermore, of the created directives only some are accessible when patients are admitted to hospital. However, when directives are available they usually influence medical treatment decisions.

  13. [Advance directives in Switzerland: brief analysis on ethical perspectives].

    PubMed

    Bondolfi, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The author describes the political atmosphere in Switzerland which accepts the principle of advanced directives. Until now only a few cantons have legally defined the advanced directives. At the present, during the revision of common law and especially the revision of the guardianship law, the parliament is discussing a chapter dedicated to advanced directives. In this way the statute of advanced directive will be the same in all cantons. The author underlines the importance/necessity and the partiality of the principle of autonomy in this field.

  14. Death, taxes and advance directives.

    PubMed

    Wood, N M; D'Amore, J D; Jones, S L; Sittig, D F; Ness, R B

    2014-01-01

    Suboptimal care at the end-of-life can be due to lack of access or knowledge of patient wishes. Ambiguity is often the result of non-standardized formats. Borrowing digital technology from other industries and using existing health information infrastructure can greatly improve the completion, storage, and distribution of advance directives. We believe several simple, low-cost adaptations to regional and federal programs can raise the standard of end-of-life care.

  15. [Written advance directives in dementia: useful and relevant].

    PubMed

    Widdershoven, Guy A M; Nieuwenhuijzen Kruseman, Arie C; van Wijmen, Frans C B

    2014-01-01

    According to the Dutch euthanasia law, the current wishes of the patient can be replaced by an advance directive if the patient is unable to give consent. However, Dutch physicians say they have difficulty responding to advance directives in people with dementia. A crucial issue is how to establish whether the patient actually suffers in a specific situation. We argue that the patient's wishes, views and decisions should be discussed in a timely manner, and laid down both in patient directives and in the doctor's files. We also ask for regular discussion, updating and reaffirmation of the advance directive so that the patient can trust the doctor knowing the patient's wishes and what constitutes unbearable suffering for that patient. Through frequent discussion and reaffirmation, the advance directive can play the role intended by the law on euthanasia. PMID:25424631

  16. Advance directives: role of nurse practitioners.

    PubMed

    Schlenk, J S

    1997-07-01

    Advance directives are documents that guide end of life decisions. Although advance directives are a fairly recent phenomenon in health care, they are grounded in both legal and ethical principles. Studies show few people have completed advance directives. Persons do not tend to complete advance directives for various reasons. Lack of knowledge has been identified, as well as belief that physicians should initiate the discussion and that the topic is appropriate only for the elderly or those in poor health. Many nurse practitioners practice in primary care settings, which are ideal for discussions about advance directives. Nurse practitioners possess the opportunities and skills to discuss advance directives with their patients.

  17. The Evolution of Health Care Advance Planning Law and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Sabatino, Charles P

    2010-01-01

    Context: The legal tools of health care advance planning have substantially changed since their emergence in the mid-1970s. Thirty years of policy development, primarily at the state legislative level addressing surrogate decision making and advance directives, have resulted in a disjointed policy landscape, yet with important points of convergence evolving over time. An understanding of the evolution of advance care planning policy has important implications for policy at both the state and federal levels. Methods: This article is a longitudinal statutory and literature review of health care advance planning from its origins to the present. Findings: While considerable variability across the states still remains, changes in law and policy over time suggest a gradual paradigm shift from what is described as a “legal transactional approach” to a “communications approach,” the most recent extension of which is the emergence of Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment, or POLST. The communications approach helps translate patients’ goals into visible and portable medical orders. Conclusions: States are likely to continue gradually moving away from a legal transactional mode of advance planning toward a communications model, albeit with challenges to authentic and reliable communication that accurately translates patients’ wishes into the care they receive. In the meantime, the states and their health care institutions will continue to serve as the primary laboratory for advance care planning policy and practice. PMID:20579283

  18. Natural resources policy and law: Trends and directions

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonnell, L.J.; Bates, S.F.

    1993-11-01

    The book explores past, present, and future directions in natural resource environmental law and policy, with a special emphasis on new laws and important legal cases of the past decade and their implications for the future. Its ten chapters, each written by a leading expert in the field, consider both specific concerns and broad themes, including topics such as history and evolution of natural resources law and policy, laws governing mining and minerals, oil and gas, and public lands, and relationship between environmentalism and environmental law, and future directions of the field.

  19. [Psychiatric advance directives--medical models into psychiatric medicine].

    PubMed

    Mautner, Sigal; Lachman, Max; Kaplan, Zeev; Shalev, Anat

    2014-01-01

    Since the year 2005, in the field of general medicine, the legislature in Israel determined ways to implement medically advanced directives according to the power of the law. Different states in the world had implemented parallel legislation for patients who suffer from mental illness. Psychiatric Advance Directives is a legitimate document which is valid in Australia, New Zealand, Scotland, England and in 25 countries in the U.S.A. Psychiatric advance directives (PAD's) allow competent persons, through advance instructions, to state their preferences for future mental health treatment in the event of an incapacitating psychiatric crisis. Self Determination Theory, Self Care and Autonomy are dominant supportive approaches in the creation of Psychiatric Advance Directives. Research conducted on psychiatric advance directives shows positive potential benefits for mental health clients, therapists and psychiatrists. More research in that area must be conducted. Psychiatric advance directives are currently developed and implemented with the cooperation of the Tauber Foundation and the Beer Sheva Mental Health Center. This is the first step in learning of effective ways to use this intervention in Israel and change perceptions toward a positive connection between medical efficiency and client preferences.

  20. Advanced nursing practice and Newton's three laws of motion.

    PubMed

    Sturgeon, David

    This article considers the reasons for the development of advanced practice roles among nurses and other healthcare professions. It explores the implications of financial constraints, consumer preferences and the development of new healthcare services on the reorganization of professional boundaries. It makes use of Sir Isaac Newton's three laws of motion to demonstrate how professional development in nursing has taken place in response to a number of external influences and demands. It also considers the significance of skill mix for the nursing profession, in particular the development and likely expansion of the physician assistant role. The application of different professionals and grades within a healthcare team or organization is central to the Government's Agenda for Change proposals and nurses have successfully adopted a number of roles traditionally performed by doctors. Nurses have demonstrated that they are capable of providing high quality care and contributing directly to positive patient outcome. Advanced nursing roles should not only reflect the changing nature of healthcare work, they should also be actively engaged in reconstructing healthcare boundaries.

  1. Implementing effective staff education about advance directives.

    PubMed

    DesRosiers, M; Navin, P

    1997-01-01

    The Patient Self-Determination Act of 1990 guarantees the right to refuse medical or surgical treatment and the right to draft advance directives. This review of the current literature provides those in nursing staff development and inservice education with an overview of advance directives and their implications for nursing education and practice. Possible core subjects for inclusion in planned, purposeful, advance directive education programs are examined, including cultural sensitivity, facilitator skills, interviewing techniques, legal information, patient autonomy, and reasoning and decision making. This review provides a platform for future research.

  2. Psychiatric advance directives: potential challenges in India.

    PubMed

    Sarin, Alok; Murthy, Pratima; Chatterjee, Sudipto

    2012-01-01

    The advance directive is a statement of an individual's preference for future treatment. The concept initially evolved in the context of end-of-life treatment decision making. Subsequently, in some countries, advance directives have been promoted in the care and treatment of people with serious mental disorders. They have recently been endorsed by the United Nations Convention for the Rights of Persons with Disability. In India, the legal framework related to the care of persons with mental illness is currently being reappraised, and significant changes are being contemplated. Thus, this is an appropriate time to review the existing evidence on psychiatric advance directives and examine the potential challenges involved in making them legally binding. A wide spectrum of mental health 'advance statements' have been developed and implemented in some high-resource countries. Of special interest to mental health contexts is the complex Ulysses contract to accommodate situations where the advance directive can be overridden during phases of acute illness or relapse. There have been mixed experiences with advance directives in the last couple of decades and there is scant evidence to suggest that they are effective in improving actual care. There has been almost no discourse in India on the issue of mental health advance directives. Yet this feature is being considered for implementation in the revised legal framework for the care of persons with mental illness. There are significant barriers to the feasibility and acceptability of legally mandated advance directives. There are logistical barriers to operationalising them in a manner that guarantees quality assurance of the process, and minimises the possibility of misuse. Thus, while the advance directive is a highly desirable clinical tool for collaborative decision making between the person with mental illness and the treatment provider, at this time, more needs to be done before legal enforcement is considered in

  3. Advance Directives - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Advance Directives URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/advancedirectives.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  4. Advance directives: the New Zealand context.

    PubMed

    Wareham, Pauline; McCallin, Antoinette; Diesfeld, Kate

    2005-07-01

    Advance directives convey consumers' wishes about accepting or refusing future treatment if they become incompetent. They are designed to communicate a competent consumer's perspective regarding the preferred treatment, should the consumer later become incompetent. There are associated ethical issues for health practitioners and this article considers the features that are relevant to nurses. In New Zealand, consumers have a legal right to use an advance directive that is not limited to life-prolonging care and includes general health procedures. Concerns may arise regarding a consumer's competence and the document's validity. Nurses need to understand their legal and professional obligations to comply with an advance directive. What role does a nurse play and what questions arise for a nurse when advance directives are discussed with consumers? This article considers the cultural dimensions, legal boundaries, consumers' and providers' perspectives, and the medical and nursing positions in New Zealand. PMID:16045243

  5. Preferences for Advance Directives in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So-Sun; Lee, Won-Hee; Cheon, JooYoung; Lee, Jung-Eun; Yeo, KiSun; Lee, JuHee

    2012-01-01

    Background. The goal of advance directives is to help patients retain their dignity and autonomy by making their own decisions regarding end-stage medical treatment. The purpose of this study was to examine preferences of advance directives among general population in Korea. Method. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was performed from October 2007 to June 2008 in Seoul, Korea. A total of 336 city-dwelling adults self-administered the questionnaire and returned it via mail. Data analyses were conducted using SPSS 17.0. Results. Subjects reported the need for healthcare providers' detailed explanations and recommendations regarding end-of-life care. When there is no hope of recovery and death is imminent, most subjects did not want to receive cardiopulmonary resuscitation nor an IV or tube feeding. However, most of the subjects wanted pain management care. Conclusions. The present study showed that many Korean people have an interest in advance directives. The results show that the autonomy and dignity of patient have increased in importance. To provide better end-of-life care, there is a need to educate patients on the definition and intent of an advance directive. Additional proactive communication between patients and their caregivers should be educated to healthcare providers. PMID:22229087

  6. 42 CFR 431.20 - Advance directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Advance directives. 431.20 Section 431.20 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS STATE ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Single State Agency §...

  7. Advances in the directed evolution of proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Michael D.; Seelig, Burckhard

    2014-01-01

    Natural evolution has produced a great diversity of proteins that can be harnessed for numerous applications in biotechnology and pharmaceutical science. Commonly, specific applications require proteins to be tailored by protein engineering. Directed evolution is a type of protein engineering that yields proteins with the desired properties under well-defined conditions and in a practical time frame. While directed evolution has been employed for decades, recent creative developments enable the generation of proteins with previously inaccessible properties. Novel selection strategies, faster techniques, the inclusion of unnatural amino acids or modifications, and the symbiosis of rational design approaches and directed evolution continue to advance protein engineering. PMID:25309990

  8. Advanced direct methanol fuel cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdan, Monjid; Kosek, John A.

    1999-11-01

    The goal of the program was an advanced proton-exchange membrane (PEM) for use as the electrolyte in a liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell which provides reduced methanol crossover while simultaneously providing high conductivity and low membrane water content. The approach was to use a membrane containing precross-linked fluorinated base polymer films and subsequently to graft the base film with selected materials. Over 80 different membranes were prepared. The rate of methanol crossover through the advanced membranes was reduced 90%. A 5-cell stack provided stable performance over a 100-hour life test. Preliminary cost estimates predicted a manufacturing cost at $4 to $9 per kW.

  9. Advanced Directives and Advanced Care Planning for Healthcare Professionals.

    PubMed

    Booth, Adam T; Lehna, Carlee

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess healthcare professionals' need for information on advanced directives and to implement and evaluate an educational plan for change in knowledge and behaviors related to advanced directives. End-of-life (EOL) care is an important topic for patients to discuss with their families and healthcare professionals (HP). Needs assessment data were collected from healthcare providers at an urban trauma intensive care unit (ICU) in Louisville, Kentucky on concepts related to end-of-life. Next, healthcare professionals participated in an educational intervention focused on: knowledge about advanced directives; communication techniques for healthcare professionals to use with patients and their families; awareness of the patient's level of illness in advanced care planning; and specifics about living wills in Kentucky and how to complete one. Pre- and post-test data were collected to evaluate change in knowledge, capability an average of 8.7 years (SD = 9.1; range = 1.9-35 years) in healthcare and worked an average of 8.4 years (SD = 9.3; range = 4 months to 35 years) in their respective ICUs. Eighty-seven percent did not have an AD in place even though their perceived knowledge about AD remained moderate throughout pre- and post-test scores (3.3 to 3.8 on a 5 point scale, respectively). Total post-test scores revealed a 2% improvement in correct responses. These findings point to the need for education of healthcare providers in the ICU to increase early AD and ACP discussions with patients and their families. PMID:27183766

  10. Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF) with the Experimental Apparatus Container (EAC) attached flew during the USMP-2 mission. This assembly consists of a furnace module, a muffle tube assembly and a translation mechanism which are enclosed in the EAC. During USMP-2, the AADSF was used to study the growth of mercury cadmium telluride crystals in microgravity by directional solidification, a process commonly used on earth to process metals and grow crystals. The furnace is tubular and has three independently controlled temperature zone . The sample travels from the hot zone of the furnace (1600 degrees F) where the material solidifies as it cools. The solidification region, known as the solid/liquid interface, moves from one end of the sample to the other at a controlled rate, thus the term directional solidification.

  11. Immunotherapy for advanced melanoma: future directions.

    PubMed

    Valpione, Sara; Campana, Luca G

    2016-02-01

    As calculated by the meta-analysis of Korn et al., the prognosis of metastatic melanoma in the pretarget and immunological therapy era was poor, with a median survival of 6.2 and a 1-year life expectancy of 25.5%. Nowadays, significant advances in melanoma treatment have been gained, and immunotherapy is one of the promising approaches to get to durable responses and survival improvement. The aim of the present review is to highlight the recent innovations in melanoma immunotherapy and to propose a critical perspective of the future directions of this enthralling oncology subspecialty.

  12. 42 CFR 431.20 - Advance directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., prescribes State plan requirements for the development and distribution of a written description of State law..., association, or other private nonprofit entity, develop a written description of the State law (whether... of this chapter. Revisions to the written descriptions as a result of changes in State law must...

  13. Geysers advanced direct contact condenser research

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, J.; Bahning, T.; Bharathan, D.

    1997-12-31

    The first geothermal application of the Advanced Direct Contact Condenser (ADCC) technology developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is now operational and is being tested at The Geysers Power Plant Unit 11. This major research effort is being supported through the combined efforts of NREL, The Department of Energy (DOE), and Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E). NREL and PG&E have entered into a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) for a project to improve the direct-contact condenser performance at The Geysers Power Plant. This project is the first geothermal adaptation of an advanced condenser design developed for the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) systems. PG&E expects this technology to improve power plant performance and to help extend the life of the steam field by using steam more efficiently. In accordance with the CRADA, no money is transferred between the contracting parties. In this case the Department of Energy is funding NREL for their efforts in this project and PG&E is contributing funds in kind. Successful application of this technology at The Geysers will provide a basis for NREL to continue to develop this technology for other geothermal and fossil power plant systems.

  14. Sexuality in advanced age in Jewish thought and law.

    PubMed

    David, Benjamin E; Weitzman, Gideon A

    2015-01-01

    Judaism has a positive attitude to sexual relations within a marriage, and views such sexual relations as important not only for procreation but also as part of the framework of marriage. This is true for any age group, and sexuality is seen as an essential element of marriage for couples of advanced age. In this article, the authors present the views of Jewish law and thought regarding sexuality among older couples. The authors illustrate this using 3 case studies of couples who sought guidance in the area of sexuality. In addition, this area of counseling benefits greatly from an ongoing relationship and dialogue between expert rabbis in the field and therapists treating older Orthodox Jewish patients for sexual dysfunction. The triad relationship of couple, therapist, and rabbi enhances the ability to treat and assist such couples to seek treatment and overcome their difficulties. PMID:24313599

  15. Direct Cardiac Reprogramming: Advances in Cardiac Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Olivia; Qian, Li

    2015-01-01

    Heart disease is one of the lead causes of death worldwide. Many forms of heart disease, including myocardial infarction and pressure-loading cardiomyopathies, result in irreversible cardiomyocyte death. Activated fibroblasts respond to cardiac injury by forming scar tissue, but ultimately this response fails to restore cardiac function. Unfortunately, the human heart has little regenerative ability and long-term outcomes following acute coronary events often include chronic and end-stage heart failure. Building upon years of research aimed at restoring functional cardiomyocytes, recent advances have been made in the direct reprogramming of fibroblasts toward a cardiomyocyte cell fate both in vitro and in vivo. Several experiments show functional improvements in mouse models of myocardial infarction following in situ generation of cardiomyocyte-like cells from endogenous fibroblasts. Though many of these studies are in an early stage, this nascent technology holds promise for future applications in regenerative medicine. In this review, we discuss the history, progress, methods, challenges, and future directions of direct cardiac reprogramming. PMID:26176012

  16. Dementia, Advance Directives, and Discontinuity of Personality.

    PubMed

    Demarco, Joseph P; Lipuma, Samuel H

    2016-10-01

    We argue that an advance directive (AD) is not invalidated by personality changes in dementia, as is claimed by Rebecca Dresser. The claim is that a new person results under such personality changes, and that the former person cannot write an AD for the new person. After stating the argument against ADs in cases of dementia, we provide a detailed examination of empirical studies of personality changes in dementia. This evidence, though not strong due mainly to low sample sizes and different notions of personal identity, does not support Dresser's position. Given the weakness in the empirical evidence, we turn to a philosophical defense of ADs based on a social contract view supporting the current interests of those writing ADs. Additionally, we argue that personality change is not equivalent to change in personal identity, as would be required by the argument against ADs in cases of dementia. PMID:27634718

  17. Dietary biomarkers: advances, limitations and future directions.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Valisa E; Dietrich, Andrea M; Estabrooks, Paul A; Savla, Jyoti; Serrano, Elena; Davy, Brenda M

    2012-12-14

    The subjective nature of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods presents numerous challenges to obtaining accurate dietary intake and nutritional status. This limitation can be overcome by the use of dietary biomarkers, which are able to objectively assess dietary consumption (or exposure) without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors. The need for dietary biomarkers was addressed by the Institute of Medicine, who recognized the lack of nutritional biomarkers as a knowledge gap requiring future research. The purpose of this article is to review existing literature on currently available dietary biomarkers, including novel biomarkers of specific foods and dietary components, and assess the validity, reliability and sensitivity of the markers. This review revealed several biomarkers in need of additional validation research; research is also needed to produce sensitive, specific, cost-effective and noninvasive dietary biomarkers. The emerging field of metabolomics may help to advance the development of food/nutrient biomarkers, yet advances in food metabolome databases are needed. The availability of biomarkers that estimate intake of specific foods and dietary components could greatly enhance nutritional research targeting compliance to national recommendations as well as direct associations with disease outcomes. More research is necessary to refine existing biomarkers by accounting for confounding factors, to establish new indicators of specific food intake, and to develop techniques that are cost-effective, noninvasive, rapid and accurate measures of nutritional status.

  18. Dietary biomarkers: advances, limitations and future directions.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Valisa E; Dietrich, Andrea M; Estabrooks, Paul A; Savla, Jyoti; Serrano, Elena; Davy, Brenda M

    2012-01-01

    The subjective nature of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods presents numerous challenges to obtaining accurate dietary intake and nutritional status. This limitation can be overcome by the use of dietary biomarkers, which are able to objectively assess dietary consumption (or exposure) without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors. The need for dietary biomarkers was addressed by the Institute of Medicine, who recognized the lack of nutritional biomarkers as a knowledge gap requiring future research. The purpose of this article is to review existing literature on currently available dietary biomarkers, including novel biomarkers of specific foods and dietary components, and assess the validity, reliability and sensitivity of the markers. This review revealed several biomarkers in need of additional validation research; research is also needed to produce sensitive, specific, cost-effective and noninvasive dietary biomarkers. The emerging field of metabolomics may help to advance the development of food/nutrient biomarkers, yet advances in food metabolome databases are needed. The availability of biomarkers that estimate intake of specific foods and dietary components could greatly enhance nutritional research targeting compliance to national recommendations as well as direct associations with disease outcomes. More research is necessary to refine existing biomarkers by accounting for confounding factors, to establish new indicators of specific food intake, and to develop techniques that are cost-effective, noninvasive, rapid and accurate measures of nutritional status. PMID:23237668

  19. The Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, D. C.; Reeves, F. A.; Jeter, L. B.; Sledd, J. D.; Cole, J. M.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF) is a five zone tubular furnace designed for Bridgman-Stockbarger, other techniques of crystal growth involving multiple temperature zones such as vapor transport experiments and other materials science experiments. The five zones are primarily designed to produce uniform hot and cold temperature regions separated by an adiabatic region constructed of a heat extraction plate and an insert to reduce radiation from the hot to the cold zone. The hot and cold zone temperatures are designed to reach 1600 C and 1100 C, respectively. AADSF operates on a Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure (MPESS) within the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle on the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP) missions. Two successful flights, both employing the directional solidification or Bridgman Stockbarger technique for crystal growth have been made, and crystals of HgCdTe and PbSnTe grown in microgravity have been produced on USMP-2 and USMP-3, respectively. The addition of a Sample Exchange Mechanism (SEM) will enable three different samples to be processed on future flights including the USMP-4 mission.

  20. [Corticobasal syndrome: recent advances and future directions].

    PubMed

    Aiba, Ikuko

    2012-04-01

    Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder described by Rebeiz et al. It is characterized by progressive, asymmetric, cortical (eg, apraxia, alien limb phenomena, cortical sensory loss, and myoclonus), and extrapyramidal (eg, rigidity, bradykinesia, dystonia, and tremor) dysfunction. However, CBD has many clinical phenotypes, and the features used for predicting CBD have low sensitivity. Therefore, the term corticobasal syndrome (CBS) has been used to characterize such clinical features, whereas the term CBD is used to refer to the pathological disorder. The most frequent causes of CBS are CBD, followed by Alzheimer's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 pathology (sporadic and familial), Pick's disease, Lewy body disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration with fused in sarcoma-positive inclusions, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and mutations in the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) and progranulin (GRN) genes. The topography of neurodegeneration dictates the clinical syndrome not according to the underlying pathology. Researchers have attempted to develop fluid biomarkers or imaging analysis for diagnosing CBS. The aim of this review was to highlight recent advances in CBS diagnosis and discuss future directions.

  1. Genetic Psychophysiology: advances, problems, and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Anokhin, Andrey P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of historical advances and the current state of genetic psychophysiology, a rapidly developing interdisciplinary research linking genetics, brain, and human behavior, discusses methodological problems, and outlines future directions of research. The main goals of genetic psychophysiology are to elucidate the neural pathways and mechanisms mediating genetic influences on cognition and emotion, identify intermediate brain-based phenotypes for psychopathology, and provide a functional characterization of genes being discovered by large association studies of behavioral phenotypes. Since the initiation of this neurogenetic approach to human individual differences in the 1970s, numerous twin and family studies have provided strong evidence for heritability of diverse aspects of brain function including resting-state brain oscillations, functional connectivity, and event-related neural activity in a variety of cognitive and emotion processing tasks, as well as peripheral psychophysiological responses. These data indicate large differences in the presence and strength of genetic influences across measures and domains, permitting the selection of heritable characteristics for gene finding studies. More recently, candidate gene association studies began to implicate specific genetic variants in different aspects of neurocognition. However, great caution is needed in pursuing this line of research due to its demonstrated proneness to generate false-positive findings. Recent developments in methods for physiological signal analysis, hemodynamic imaging, and genomic technologies offer new exciting opportunities for the investigation of the interplay between genetic and environmental factors in the development of individual differences in behavior, both normal and abnormal. PMID:24739435

  2. 48 CFR 970.5204-2 - Laws, regulations, and DOE directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Laws, regulations, and DOE... for Management and Operating Contracts 970.5204-2 Laws, regulations, and DOE directives. As prescribed in 970.0470-2, insert the following clause: Laws, Regulations, and DOE Directives (DEC 2000) (a)...

  3. Advance directives, dementia, and physician-assisted death.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Paul T; Steinbock, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    Physician-assisted suicide laws in Oregon and Washington require the person's current competency and a prognosis of terminal illness. In The Netherlands voluntariness and unbearable suffering are required for euthanasia. Many people are more concerned about the loss of autonomy and independence in years of severe dementia than about pain and suffering in their last months. To address this concern, people could write advance directives for physician-assisted death in dementia. Should such directives be implemented even though, at the time, the person is no longer competent and would not be either terminally ill or suffering unbearably? We argue that in many cases they should be, and that a sliding scale which considers both autonomy and the capacity for enjoyment provides the best justification for determining when: when written by a previously well-informed and competent person, such a directive gains in authority as the later person's capacities to generate new critical interests and to enjoy life decrease. Such an extension of legalized death assistance is grounded in the same central value of voluntariness that undergirds the current more limited legalization. PMID:23802899

  4. Why are elderly people not using advance directives?

    PubMed

    High, D M

    1993-11-01

    Although advance directives for health care are widely advocated, usage rates among the elderly are low. Reported is a study testing comparative educational strategies to increase the use of advance directives among elderly persons ages 65 to 93. Follow-up interviews (n = 293) with intervention participants and controls showed that only 1 of 6 different strategies increased use. Neither lack of information nor simple procrastination were found as primary barriers to completion of advance directives. Most intervention participants preferred to defer to family surrogates and avoid executing advance directives. Level of education was a factor in use. Proposed is a restructuring of the advance directives process to accommodate elderly persons' wishes to authorize family members for surrogate health decision making, a policy that would assist the majority of people, including those who either wish to avoid or fail to execute advance directives. PMID:10129468

  5. [Regulation (EC) No. 1394/2007 on advanced therapy medicinal products : Incorporation into national law].

    PubMed

    Dwenger, A; Strassburger, J; Schwerdtfeger, W

    2010-01-01

    Regulation (EC) No. 1394/2007 has created a new legal framework for advanced therapy medicinal products (gene therapy medicinal products, somatic cell therapy medicinal products and tissue engineered products). The Regulation is directly applicable in the Member States of the European Union and, in principle, requires no incorporation into national law. However, the amendment of Directive 2001/83/EC, which results from Regulation (EC) No. 1394/2007, has created a need for incorporation into and amendment of the German Medicinal Products Act. This is one of the objectives of the 15th amendment of the German Medicinal Products Act. In particular, the definition "advanced therapy medicinal products" and the special provisions for advanced therapy medicinal products prepared on a non-routine basis, which are based on the special provisions contained in Art. 28 No. 2 of Regulation (EC) No. 1394/2007, are to be incorporated into the German Medicinal Products Act. These special provisions will be explained in detail.

  6. Advanced directives. In search of self-determination.

    PubMed

    Flarey, D L

    1991-11-01

    Patients are seeking self-determination in health-care through the use of advanced directives. The author discusses advanced directives focusing on patient rights in decision making, autonomy, and the right to refuse life-sustaining treatment. Highlighted is the Patient Self-Determination Act of 1990, including strategies for its implementation in healthcare agencies.

  7. Direct therapeutic intervention for advanced pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Takakura, Kazuki; Koido, Shigeo

    2015-12-10

    Currently, chemotherapy is an accredited, standard treatment for unresectable, advanced pancreatic cancer (PC). However, it has been still showed treatment-resistance and followed dismal prognosis in many cases. Therefore, some sort of new, additional treatments are needed for the better therapeutic results for advanced PC. According to the previous reports, it is obvious that interventional endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is a well-established, helpful and low-risky procedure in general. As the additional treatments of the conventional therapy for advanced PC, many therapeutic strategies, such as immunotherapies, molecular biological therapies, physiochemical therapies, radioactive therapies, using siRNA, using autophagy have been developing in recent years. Moreover, the efficacy of the other potential therapeutic targets for PC using EUS-fine needle injection, for example, intra-tumoral chemotherapeutic agents (paclitaxel, irinotecan), several ablative energies (radiofrequency ablation and cryothermal treatment, neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser, high-intensity focused ultrasound), etc., has already been showed in animal models. Delivering these promising treatments reliably inside tumor, interventional EUS may probably be indispensable existence for the treatment of locally advanced PC in near future. PMID:26677434

  8. Direct therapeutic intervention for advanced pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Takakura, Kazuki; Koido, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    Currently, chemotherapy is an accredited, standard treatment for unresectable, advanced pancreatic cancer (PC). However, it has been still showed treatment-resistance and followed dismal prognosis in many cases. Therefore, some sort of new, additional treatments are needed for the better therapeutic results for advanced PC. According to the previous reports, it is obvious that interventional endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is a well-established, helpful and low-risky procedure in general. As the additional treatments of the conventional therapy for advanced PC, many therapeutic strategies, such as immunotherapies, molecular biological therapies, physiochemical therapies, radioactive therapies, using siRNA, using autophagy have been developing in recent years. Moreover, the efficacy of the other potential therapeutic targets for PC using EUS-fine needle injection, for example, intra-tumoral chemotherapeutic agents (paclitaxel, irinotecan), several ablative energies (radiofrequency ablation and cryothermal treatment, neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser, high-intensity focused ultrasound), etc., has already been showed in animal models. Delivering these promising treatments reliably inside tumor, interventional EUS may probably be indispensable existence for the treatment of locally advanced PC in near future. PMID:26677434

  9. Psychiatric Advance Directives and Social Workers: An Integrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Van Dorn, Richard A.; Scheyett, Anna; Swanson, Jeffrey W.; Swartz, Marvin S.

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatric Advance Directives (PADs) are legal documents that allow individuals to express their wishes for future psychiatric care and to authorize a legally appointed proxy to make decisions on their behalf during incapacitating crises. PADs are viewed as an alternative to the coercive interventions that sometimes accompany mental health crises for persons with mental illness. Insofar as coercive interventions can abridge clients’ autonomy and self-determination -- values supported by the Profession’s Code of Ethics -- social workers have a vested interest in finding ways to reduce coercion and increase autonomy and self-determination in their practice. However, PADs are also viewed as having the potential to positively affect a variety of other clinical outcomes, including but not limited to treatment engagement, treatment satisfaction, and working alliance. This article reviews the clinical and legal history of PADs and empirical evidence for their implementation and effectiveness. Despite what should be an inherent interest in PADs, and the fact that laws authorizing PADs have proliferated in the past decade, there is little theoretical or empirical research in the social work literature. PMID:20408357

  10. Nanoelectrodes: Recent Advances and New Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Jonathan T.; Zhang, Bo

    2012-07-01

    This article reviews recent work involving the development and application of nanoelectrodes in electrochemistry and related areas. We first discuss common analytical methods for characterizing the size, shape, and quality of nanoelectrodes, including electron microscopy, steady-state cyclic voltammetry, scanning electrochemical microscopy, and surface modification. We then emphasize recent developments in fabrication techniques that have led to structurally well-defined nanoelectrodes. We highlight recent advances in the application of nanoelectrodes in important analytical chemistry areas, such as single-molecule studies, single-nanoparticle electrochemistry, and measurements of neurotransmitters from single neuronal cells.

  11. Medicare and Medicaid programs; advance directives--HCFA. Interim final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    1992-03-01

    This interim final rule amends the Medicare and Medicaid regulations governing provider agreements and contracts to establish requirements for States, hospitals, nursing facilities, skilled nursing facilities, providers of home health care or personal care services, hospice programs and prepaid health plans concerning advance directives. An advance directive is a written instruction, such as a living will or durable power of attorney for health care, recognized under State law, relating to the provision of health care when an individual's condition makes him or her unable to express his or her wishes. The intent of these provisions is to enhance an individual's control over medical treatment decisions. This rule implements sections 4206 and 4751 of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 (OBRA '90), Public Law 101-508.

  12. Advances in direct oxidation methanol fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, S.; Narayanan, S. R.; Vamos, E.; Frank, H.; Halpert, G.; Laconti, Anthony B.; Kosek, J.; Prakash, G. K. Surya; Olah, G. A.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel cells that can operate directly on fuels such as methanol are attractive for low to medium power applications in view of their low weight and volume relative to other power sources. A liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell has been developed based on a proton exchange membrane electrolyte and Pt/Ru and Pt catalyzed fuel and air/O2 electrodes, respectively. The cell has been shown to deliver significant power outputs at temperatures of 60 to 90 C. The cell voltage is near 0.5 V at 300 mA/cm(exp 2) current density and an operating temperature of 90 C. A deterrent to performance appears to be methanol crossover through the membrane to the oxygen electrode. Further improvements in performance appear possible by minimizing the methanol crossover rate.

  13. [Nurses' knowledge about the health care proxy and advance directives].

    PubMed

    Georget, Jean-Philippe; Cecire-Denoyer, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    The Basse-Normandie palliative care nurses' group carried out a survey regarding nurses' knowledge of the health care proxy and advance directives. The study revealed a lack of connection between these two arrangements, poor knowledge about advance directives but an understanding of the role of the health care proxy. How, therefore, can patients be effectively informed? How should they be supported in this process of determining themselves the conditions of their end of life? PMID:26146326

  14. Neonatal ethical issues: viability, advance directives, family centered care.

    PubMed

    Sudia-Robinson, Tanya

    2011-01-01

    Ethical issues in perinatal and NICU settings can arise from a variety of situations. This article focuses on issues surrounding viability and the incorporation of advance directives and family-centered care. Prenatal education about infant viability, probable scenarios, and parental involvement in decision-making are addressed. Considerations for advance directives for complex births and critical decisions at the time of birth are also discussed. Implications for nurses and suggested dialogue strategies are provided. PMID:21407121

  15. Controlling death: the false promise of advance directives.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Henry S

    2007-07-01

    Advance directives promise patients a say in their future care but actually have had little effect. Many experts blame problems with completion and implementation, but the advance directive concept itself may be fundamentally flawed. Advance directives simply presuppose more control over future care than is realistic. Medical crises cannot be predicted in detail, making most prior instructions difficult to adapt, irrelevant, or even misleading. Furthermore, many proxies either do not know patients' wishes or do not pursue those wishes effectively. Thus, unexpected problems arise often to defeat advance directives, as the case in this paper illustrates. Because advance directives offer only limited benefit, advance care planning should emphasize not the completion of directives but the emotional preparation of patients and families for future crises. The existentialist Albert Camus might suggest that physicians should warn patients and families that momentous, unforeseeable decisions lie ahead. Then, when the crisis hits, physicians should provide guidance; should help make decisions despite the inevitable uncertainties; should share responsibility for those decisions; and, above all, should courageously see patients and families through the fearsome experience of dying.

  16. Competency for creation, use, and revocation of psychiatric advance directives.

    PubMed

    Srebnik, Debra S; Kim, Scott Y

    2006-01-01

    Psychiatric advance directives help promote patient involvement in treatment and expedite psychiatric care. However, clinicians are unsure of how to use directives, partly due to poor clarity regarding standards for capacity to create, use, and revoke them. This article recommends possible capacity standards. Capacity to create directives is a legal presumption, supported by empirical data. Standards are discussed for the subset of cases in which capacity assessment is needed. Use of directives may be triggered by incapacity to provide informed consent to treatment, although tailored, individualized points of activation may also be considered. In many states, revocation of a psychiatric advance directive requires adequate decision-making capacity. Setting a capacity standard for revocation presents challenges, however, in light of obstacles to providing treatment when revocation is attempted and the fact that many patients prefer revocable directives. As more directives are created and used, additional research and statutory refinements are warranted. PMID:17185480

  17. 23 CFR 633.203 - Applicability of existing laws, regulations, and directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of existing laws, regulations, and...) § 633.203 Applicability of existing laws, regulations, and directives. The provisions of title 23 U.S.C..., respectively, to the development highway system and the local access roads. In addition, the Regulations...

  18. Optimal guidance law development for an advanced launch system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, Anthony J.; Leung, Martin S. K.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this research effort was to develop a real-time guidance approach for launch vehicles ascent to orbit injection. Various analytical approaches combined with a variety of model order and model complexity reduction have been investigated. Singular perturbation methods were first attempted and found to be unsatisfactory. The second approach based on regular perturbation analysis was subsequently investigated. It also fails because the aerodynamic effects (ignored in the zero order solution) are too large to be treated as perturbations. Therefore, the study demonstrates that perturbation methods alone (both regular and singular perturbations) are inadequate for use in developing a guidance algorithm for the atmospheric flight phase of a launch vehicle. During a second phase of the research effort, a hybrid analytic/numerical approach was developed and evaluated. The approach combines the numerical methods of collocation and the analytical method of regular perturbations. The concept of choosing intelligent interpolating functions is also introduced. Regular perturbation analysis allows the use of a crude representation for the collocation solution, and intelligent interpolating functions further reduce the number of elements without sacrificing the approximation accuracy. As a result, the combined method forms a powerful tool for solving real-time optimal control problems. Details of the approach are illustrated in a fourth order nonlinear example. The hybrid approach is then applied to the launch vehicle problem. The collocation solution is derived from a bilinear tangent steering law, and results in a guidance solution for the entire flight regime that includes both atmospheric and exoatmospheric flight phases.

  19. [Advance Directives: theoretical concept and practical significance in the USA].

    PubMed

    Vollmann, J; Pfaff, M

    2003-07-01

    The article examines on the basic of empirical data the discrepancy between the theoretical demand and the practical role of advance directives. Often advance directives have no influence on medical decision-making in clinical care of critically ill patients. The vague language of the widely used standard living wills and the lack of physician-patient communication in the process of delivering an advance directives are contributing factors. However, many physicians even disregard patients' preferences in concrete and meaningful living wills at the end of life. Besides the lack of information many even seriously ill patients do not deliver an advance because they misjudge their medical prognosis and life expectancy. Often the communication between patients and doctors are blocked because they expect from the each other the first step to talk about end of life decisions and advance directives. In this context physicians claim lack of time, training in communication skills and their discomfort in talking about death and dying with their patients.

  20. Advance directives, living wills, and futility in perioperative care.

    PubMed

    Goede, Matthew; Wheeler, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    Patient autonomy is preserved through the use of advance directives. A living will defines treatment by establishing parameters under which patients want to be treated. A durable power of attorney for health care establishes a surrogate for patients if they are unable to make decisions for themselves. In the perioperative setting, advance directives are applied with significant variation between surgeons, likely due to surgeons implying from informed consent discussions that patients want to pursue aggressive treatment. Futility is a rare occurrence in patient care that is difficult to define; however, there are some classic surgical conditions in which futility is part of the decision process.

  1. Promoting Signing of Advance Directives in Faith Communities

    PubMed Central

    Medvene, Louis J; Wescott, Jo Veta; Huckstadt, Alicia; Ludlum, Joseph; Langel, Sondra; Mick, Katherine; Patrick, Reneé; Base, Michelle

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To develop a participatory educational program implemented in faith communities that would increase discussion and signing of two types of advance directives—living will and durable power of attorney for health care decisions. DESIGN Longitudinal study with four annual cycles of program implementation, evaluation, and revision incorporating a program that fostered the discussion, signing, and/or revision of advance directives. The program involved an educational workbook and ongoing support by parish nurses. SETTING Seventeen faith communities in Wichita, Kansas. Faith communities included several predominantly white congregations, as well as several primarily African-American and Hispanic congregations. PARTICIPANTS Seventeen faith communities, their pastors, and 25 parish nurses worked with 361 self-selected residents, living in community settings, to participate in the program as members of their faith communities. Congregations were recruited by the executive director of a local interfaith ministries organization and parish nurses. MAIN RESULTS Two hundred forty-eight (69%) of the congregants who started the program completed it. Of the program completers, 83 (33%) had a directive prior to the program and 140 (56%) had a directive after completion. One hundred eighty-six of the completers discussed directives with family members. Overall, 89 (36%) of the 248 program completers revised an existing directive or signed one for the first time. Age was positively related to having signed/revised a directive prior to the program. Fear that advance directives would be used to deny medical care was negatively related to signing both prior to the program and after program completion, and contributed to participants' reluctance to sign directives. CONCLUSIONS Educational programs implemented by parish nurses in faith communities can be effective in increasing rates of discussion, revision, and/or signing of advance directives. PMID:14687277

  2. University Students' Views on the Utility of Psychiatric Advance Directives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheyett, Anna M.; Rooks, Adrienne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Rates of serious mental illnesses (SMIs) among university students are increasing, and universities are struggling with how to respond to students who show SMI symptoms. Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) allow individuals, when well, to document their wishes for treatment during a psychiatric crisis. This project explored the…

  3. A Method for Increasing Elders' Use of Advance Directives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luptak, Marilyn K.; Boult, Chad

    1994-01-01

    Studied effectiveness of intervention to help frail elders to record advance directives (ADs). In collaboration with physicians and lay volunteer, social worker provided information/counseling to elderly subjects, families, and proxies in series of visits to geriatric evaluation and management clinic. Seventy-one percent of subjects recorded ADs.…

  4. Psychiatric Advance Directives and Social Workers: An Integrative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dorn, Richard A.; Scheyett, Anna; Swanson, Jeffrey W.; Swartz, Marvin S.

    2010-01-01

    Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) are legal documents that allow individuals to express their wishes for future psychiatric care and to authorize a legally appointed proxy to make decisions on their behalf during incapacitating crises. PADs are viewed as an alternative to the coercive interventions that sometimes accompany mental health crises…

  5. 42 CFR 422.128 - Information on advance directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information on advance directives. 422.128 Section 422.128 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the incapacitating condition or a mental disorder) or articulate whether or not he or she has...

  6. 42 CFR 422.128 - Information on advance directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Information on advance directives. 422.128 Section 422.128 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... information (due to the incapacitating condition or a mental disorder) or articulate whether or not he or...

  7. 42 CFR 422.128 - Information on advance directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Information on advance directives. 422.128 Section 422.128 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... information (due to the incapacitating condition or a mental disorder) or articulate whether or not he or...

  8. 42 CFR 422.128 - Information on advance directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Information on advance directives. 422.128 Section 422.128 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the incapacitating condition or a mental disorder) or articulate whether or not he or she has...

  9. [Advance Directives - Not a Lot of Margin for Error - The Surgeon's View of a Complex Medical-Legal Topic].

    PubMed

    Slotta, J E; Schilling, M K; Ghadimi, M; Kollmar, O

    2015-08-01

    Since September 1st, 2009, the most recent version of the German "Betreuungsrechtsänderungsgesetz" has been validated by the legislators. It precisely sets out how physicians and nursing staff have to deal with a written declaration of a patient's will. This new law focuses in a special way on advance directives, describes the precise rules for the authors of an advance directive and shows both its sphere of action and its limitations. This article aims to give an overview on the legal scope of advance directives, and to illustrate potential limitations and conflicts. Furthermore, it shows the commitments and rights of the medical team against the background of an existing advance directive.

  10. High-Alpha Research Vehicle Lateral-Directional Control Law Description, Analyses, and Simulation Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Lallman, Frederick J.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Bacon, Barton J.

    1998-01-01

    This report contains a description of a lateral-directional control law designed for the NASA High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The HARV is a F/A-18 aircraft modified to include a research flight computer, spin chute, and thrust-vectoring in the pitch and yaw axes. Two separate design tools, CRAFT and Pseudo Controls, were integrated to synthesize the lateral-directional control law. This report contains a description of the lateral-directional control law, analyses, and nonlinear simulation (batch and piloted) results. Linear analysis results include closed-loop eigenvalues, stability margins, robustness to changes in various plant parameters, and servo-elastic frequency responses. Step time responses from nonlinear batch simulation are presented and compared to design guidelines. Piloted simulation task scenarios, task guidelines, and pilot subjective ratings for the various maneuvers are discussed. Linear analysis shows that the control law meets the stability margin guidelines and is robust to stability and control parameter changes. Nonlinear batch simulation analysis shows the control law exhibits good performance and meets most of the design guidelines over the entire range of angle-of-attack. This control law (designated NASA-1A) was flight tested during the Summer of 1994 at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center.

  11. Making the case for a model mental health advance directive statute.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Judy A

    2014-01-01

    Acute episodes of mental illness temporarily destroy the capacity required to give informed consent and often prevent people from realizing they are sick, causing them to refuse intervention. Once a person refuses treatment, the only way to obtain care is as an involuntary patient. Even in the midst of acute episodes, many people do not meet commitment criteria because they are not likely to injure themselves or others and are still able to care for their basic needs. Left untreated, the episode will likely spiral out of control. By the time the person finally meets strict commitment criteria, devastation has already occurred. This Article argues that an individual should have the right to enter a Ulysses arrangement, a special type of mental health advance directive that authorizes a doctor to administer treatment during a future episode even if the episode causes the individual to refuse care. The Uniform Law Commissioners enacted the Uniform Health-Care Decisions Act as a model statute to address all types of advance health care planning, including planning for mental illness. However, the Act focuses on end-of-life care and fails to address many issues faced by people with mental illness. For example, the Act does not empower people to enter Ulysses arrangements and eliminates writing and witnessing requirements that protect against fraud and coercion. This Article recommends that the Uniform Law Commissioners adopt a model mental health advance directive statute that empowers people to enter Ulysses arrangements and provides safeguards against abuse. Appendix A sets forth model provisions.

  12. Clinical Research Informatics: Recent Advances and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives To summarize significant developments in Clinical Research Informatics (CRI) over the past two years and discuss future directions. Methods Survey of advances, open problems and opportunities in this field based on exploration of current literature. Results Recent advances are structured according to three use cases of clinical research: Protocol feasibility, patient identification/recruitment and clinical trial execution. Discussion CRI is an evolving, dynamic field of research. Global collaboration, open metadata, content standards with semantics and computable eligibility criteria are key success factors for future developments in CRI. PMID:26293865

  13. Technological advances in site-directed spin labeling of proteins.

    PubMed

    Hubbell, Wayne L; López, Carlos J; Altenbach, Christian; Yang, Zhongyu

    2013-10-01

    Molecular flexibility over a wide time range is of central importance to the function of many proteins, both soluble and membrane. Revealing the modes of flexibility, their amplitudes, and time scales under physiological conditions is the challenge for spectroscopic methods, one of which is site-directed spin labeling EPR (SDSL-EPR). Here we provide an overview of some recent technological advances in SDSL-EPR related to investigation of structure, structural heterogeneity, and dynamics of proteins. These include new classes of spin labels, advances in measurement of long range distances and distance distributions, methods for identifying backbone and conformational fluctuations, and new strategies for determining the kinetics of protein motion.

  14. Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, W. R.; Cox, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the legal issues relative to water quality covering publications of 1977. Consideration is given to federal laws, Supreme Court cases, and the impact of federal environmental laws on local government. A list of 47 references is also presented. (HM)

  15. Advance directives and the family: French and American perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Arias, David; Moutel, Grégoire; Aulisio, Mark P.; Salfati, Alexandra; Coffin, Jean-Christophe; Rodríguez-Arias, J.L.; Calvo, L.; Hervé, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have explored differences between North American and European doctor-patient relationships. They have focused primarily on differences in philosophical traditions and historic and socio-economic factors between these two regions that might lead to differences in behaviour, as well as divergent concepts in and justifications of medical practice. However, few empirical intercultural studies have been carried out to identify in practice these cultural differences. This lack of standard comparative empirical studies led us to compare differences between France and the USA regarding end-of-life decision making. We tested certain assertions put forward by bioethicists concerning the impact of culture on the acceptance of advance directives in such decisions. In particular, we compared North American and French intensive care professional’s attitudes toward: 1) advance directives and 2) the role of the family in decisions to withhold or withdraw life-support. PMID:21957397

  16. Advances and future directions of research on spectral methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patera, A. T.

    1986-01-01

    Recent advances in spectral methods are briefly reviewed and characterized with respect to their convergence and computational complexity. Classical finite element and spectral approaches are then compared, and spectral element (or p-type finite element) approximations are introduced. The method is applied to the full Navier-Stokes equations, and examples are given of the application of the technique to several transitional flows. Future directions of research in the field are outlined.

  17. Advance Directives in Some Western European Countries: A Legal and Ethical Comparison between Spain, France, England, and Germany.

    PubMed

    Veshi, Denard; Neitzke, Gerald

    2015-09-01

    We have studied national laws on advance directives in various Western European countries: Romance-speaking countries (Italy, France, Portugal, and Spain), English-speaking countries (Ireland and the United Kingdom), and German-speaking countries (Austria, Germany, and Switzerland). We distinguish two potentially complementary types of advance medical declaration: the 'living will' and the nomination of a legal proxy. After examining the similarities and differences between countries, we analyse in detail the legislation of four countries (Spain, France, England, and Germany), since the other countries in this survey have similar legal principles and/or a similar political approach. In conclusion, we note that in all the countries examined, advance directives have been seen as an instrument to enable the patient's right to self-determination. Notwithstanding, in Romance-speaking countries, the involvement of physicians in the end-of-life process and risks arising from the execution of advance directives were also considered. PMID:26427271

  18. Psychiatric Advance Directives in India: What will the future hold?

    PubMed

    Ratnam, Ashutosh; Rudra, Abhijit; Chatterjee, K; Das, R C

    2015-08-01

    Psychiatric Advance Directives (PADs) have been incorporated into India's Mental Health Care Bill, 2013. This is the first time any form of Advance Directive stands to receive legal sanction in India. PADs have numerous theoretical and empirically tenable therapeutic and financial advantages. Western experiences have shown high acceptance for the concept among psychiatric patients, and illustrated that most stable patients with severe mental illness retain the capacity to frame PADs consistent with community practice standards. However active psychopathology does impair this capacity, and therein, current subjective assessments of competence performed by Physicians without objective instruments are often inaccurate. Though PADs champion patient autonomy, when applied and studied, they have shown little significant advantage-there is currently not enough data to support evidence-based universal recommendations for PADs. PADs as incorporated into the Mental Health Care Bill model on existing Western statutes, and though many of the strengths of earlier systems have been subsumed, so have several of the shortcomings. The risks, benefits and applicability of PADs in India are complicated by the social re-calibration of patient autonomy, mental-healthcare delivery system weaknesses, and the relatively peripheral role the Psychiatrist is mandated to play in the entire advance directive process. Treating patients within the framework of their pre-stated wishes will be a much more intricate and arduous task than most of modern Psychiatric practice in India, but the difficulties, obstacles and inevitable failures encountered will provide evidence of the delivery system's weaknesses and thereby contribute to its strength.

  19. Canadian advanced life support capacities and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamsey, M.; Graham, T.; Stasiak, M.; Berinstain, A.; Scott, A.; Vuk, T. Rondeau; Dixon, M.

    2009-07-01

    Canada began research on space-relevant biological life support systems in the early 1990s. Since that time Canadian capabilities have grown tremendously, placing Canada among the emerging leaders in biological life support systems. The rapid growth of Canadian expertise has been the result of several factors including a large and technically sophisticated greenhouse sector which successfully operates under challenging climatic conditions, well planned technology transfer strategies between the academic and industrial sectors, and a strong emphasis on international research collaborations. Recent activities such as Canada's contribution of the Higher Plant Compartment of the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant and the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic continue to demonstrate Canadian capabilities with direct applicability to advanced life support systems. There is also a significant latent potential within Canadian institutions and organizations with respect to directly applicable advanced life support technologies. These directly applicable research interests include such areas as horticultural management strategies (for candidate crops), growth media, food processing, water management, atmosphere management, energy management, waste management, imaging, environment sensors, thermal control, lighting systems, robotics, command and data handling, communications systems, structures, in-situ resource utilization, space analogues and mission operations. With this background and in collaboration with the Canadian aerospace industry sector, a roadmap for future life support contributions is presented here. This roadmap targets an objective of at least 50% food closure by 2050 (providing greater closure in oxygen, water recycling and carbon dioxide uptake). The Canadian advanced life support community has chosen to focus on lunar surface infrastructure and not low Earth orbit or transit systems (i.e. microgravity

  20. A Korean perspective on developing a global policy for advance directives.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soyoon; Hahm, Ki-Hyun; Park, Hyoung Wook; Kang, Hyun Hee; Sohn, Myongsei

    2010-03-01

    Despite the wide and daunting array of cross-cultural obstacles that the formulation of a global policy on advance directives will clearly pose, the need is equally evident. Specifically, the expansion of medical services driven by medical tourism, just to name one important example, makes this issue urgently relevant. While ensuring consistency across national borders, a global policy will have the additional and perhaps even more important effect of increasing the use of advance directives in clinical settings and enhancing their effectiveness within each country, regardless of where that country's state of the law currently stands. One cross-cultural issue that may represent a major obstacle in formulating, let alone applying, a global policy is whether patient autonomy as the underlying principle for the use of advance directives is a universal norm or a construct of western traditions that must be reconciled with alternative value systems that may place lesser significance on individual choice. A global policy, at a minimum, must emphasize respect for patient autonomy, provision of medical information, limits to the obligations for physicians, and portability. And though the development of a global policy will be no easy task, active engagement in close collaboration with the World Health Organization can make it possible.

  1. Novel interfaces for light directed neuronal stimulation: advances and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Bareket-Keren, Lilach; Hanein, Yael

    2014-01-01

    Light activation of neurons is a growing field with applications ranging from basic investigation of neuronal systems to the development of new therapeutic methods such as artificial retina. Many recent studies currently explore novel methods for optical stimulation with temporal and spatial precision. Novel materials in particular provide an opportunity to enhance contemporary approaches. Here we review recent advances towards light directed interfaces for neuronal stimulation, focusing on state-of-the-art nanoengineered devices. In particular, we highlight challenges and prospects towards improved retinal prostheses. PMID:24872704

  2. A method for increasing elders' use of advance directives.

    PubMed

    Luptak, M K; Boult, C

    1994-06-01

    Most published studies report that few elderly people have recorded advance directives (AD). We studied the effectiveness of an interdisciplinary intervention designed to help ambulatory frail elders to record AD. In collaboration with physicians and a trained lay volunteer, a social worker provided information and counseling to the elderly subjects, to their families, and to their proxies in a series of visits to a geriatric evaluation and management (GEM) clinic. Seventy-one percent of the subjects recorded AD. Of these, 96% named a proxy, and 83% recorded specific treatment preferences.

  3. [Psychiatric advance directives and the role of autonomy].

    PubMed

    Ambrosini, Daniel L; Crocker, Anne G

    2009-01-01

    Although psychiatric advance directives (PADs) are grounded in the ethics of autonomy, the relationship between the two is unclear. PADs are legal documents that allow individuals with mental illness to record their treatment preferences should they become incompetent in the future. The relationship between autonomy and PADs has been discussed in ethical, legal, and philosophical terms, but has not been clearly operationalized for clinical purposes. Autonomy is a fundamental ethical value that includes having the independence from outside controlling influences and the mental capacity to direct one's personal actions. Individuals with mental illness sometimes require assistance to understand their ethical and legal rights with respect to autonomous choice, and professional stakeholders need education regarding the importance of autonomy for clinical practice. Competency to consent to treatment is the mental prerequisite that ensures individuals with mental illness are able to complete PADs with insight, whereas autonomy is the value that empowers individuals to work towards their recovery. PMID:20361109

  4. A primer on environmental law and some directions for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Blumm, M.C.

    1992-12-31

    Modern environmental law is only a generation old. Just twenty-two years ago, President Nixon began the modern era by signing into law the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Prior to the signing of NEPA, there was no effective national environmental legislation in the United States. Prompted by exposes such as Rachel Carson`s Silent Spring and the Ralph Nader studies on air and water pollution, Congress enacted a rapid succession of legislative initiatives in the 1970s. By 1980, the United States had virtually all of its major environmental statutes in place. The last fifteen years have largely been years of implementation and fine-tuning, not years of creation. That might soon change, however, as we reach the limits of what the first generation of environmental law can reasonably produce. This essay will introduce and discuss a number of characteristics of modern American environmental law, including the process for assessing environmental impact, the legislation for pollution control and the program of environmental cleanup. I will also mention, but not discuss in detail, a number of other environmental initiatives concerning chemical regulation, area-wide protection and species preservation. Finally, the essay will discuss the direction in which American environmental policy is heading and conclude with some personal hopes about the course that direction might take.

  5. Recent advances in high-performance direct methanol fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, S.R.; Chun, W.; Valdez, T.I.

    1996-12-31

    Direct methanol fuel cells for portable power applications have been advanced significantly under DARPA- and ARO-sponsored programs over the last five years. A liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell developed under these programs, employs a proton exchange membrane as electrolyte and operates on aqueous solutions of methanol with air or oxygen as the oxidant. Power densities as high as 320 mW/cm{sup 2} have been demonstrated. Demonstration of five-cell stack based on the liquid-feed concept have been successfully performed by Giner Inc. and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Over 2000 hours of life-testing have been completed on these stacks. These fuel cells have been also been demonstrated by USC to operate on alternate fuels such as trimethoxymethane, dimethoxymethane and trioxane. Reduction in the parasitic loss of fuel across the fuel cell, a phenomenon termed as {open_quotes}fuel crossover{close_quotes} has been achieved using polymer membranes developed at USC. As a result efficiencies as high as 40% is considered attainable with this type of fuel cell. The state-of-development has reached a point where it is now been actively considered for stationary, portable and transportation applications. The research and development issues have been the subject of several previous articles and the present article is an attempt to summarize the key advances in this technology.

  6. Making the case for a model mental health advance directive statute.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Judy A

    2014-01-01

    Acute episodes of mental illness temporarily destroy the capacity required to give informed consent and often prevent people from realizing they are sick, causing them to refuse intervention. Once a person refuses treatment, the only way to obtain care is as an involuntary patient. Even in the midst of acute episodes, many people do not meet commitment criteria because they are not likely to injure themselves or others and are still able to care for their basic needs. Left untreated, the episode will likely spiral out of control. By the time the person finally meets strict commitment criteria, devastation has already occurred. This Article argues that an individual should have the right to enter a Ulysses arrangement, a special type of mental health advance directive that authorizes a doctor to administer treatment during a future episode even if the episode causes the individual to refuse care. The Uniform Law Commissioners enacted the Uniform Health-Care Decisions Act as a model statute to address all types of advance health care planning, including planning for mental illness. However, the Act focuses on end-of-life care and fails to address many issues faced by people with mental illness. For example, the Act does not empower people to enter Ulysses arrangements and eliminates writing and witnessing requirements that protect against fraud and coercion. This Article recommends that the Uniform Law Commissioners adopt a model mental health advance directive statute that empowers people to enter Ulysses arrangements and provides safeguards against abuse. Appendix A sets forth model provisions. PMID:25051651

  7. Cross-border healthcare: Directive 2011/24 and the Greek law.

    PubMed

    Vidalis, Takis; Kyriakaki, Irini

    2014-03-01

    The Greek legal framework on healthcare is characterized by the complexity of an immense number of laws and regulatory acts, particularly regarding the national health system. In the face front of that problem, the Directive stands as an effort (and an opportunity) to achieve a regulatory rationalization. The Law 3918/2011 established the National Organisation for Healthcare (EOPYY). EOPYY is the unique national contact point in the country for the purposes of the Directive, having a responsibility to ensure that the services provided by its affiliated healthcare providers meet certain quality and safety standards. Furthermore, the Greek legal system encompasses an integrated body of legislation on informed consent, privacy, and data protection, as well as an explicit reference to the 'quality, safety and efficiency' of medical services, and provisions related to reimbursement issues that need further regulatory specification.

  8. Cross-border healthcare: Directive 2011/24 and the Greek law.

    PubMed

    Vidalis, Takis; Kyriakaki, Irini

    2014-03-01

    The Greek legal framework on healthcare is characterized by the complexity of an immense number of laws and regulatory acts, particularly regarding the national health system. In the face front of that problem, the Directive stands as an effort (and an opportunity) to achieve a regulatory rationalization. The Law 3918/2011 established the National Organisation for Healthcare (EOPYY). EOPYY is the unique national contact point in the country for the purposes of the Directive, having a responsibility to ensure that the services provided by its affiliated healthcare providers meet certain quality and safety standards. Furthermore, the Greek legal system encompasses an integrated body of legislation on informed consent, privacy, and data protection, as well as an explicit reference to the 'quality, safety and efficiency' of medical services, and provisions related to reimbursement issues that need further regulatory specification. PMID:24665669

  9. Cross-border patients and informed choices on treatment in English and French law and the Patients' Rights Directive.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Simon

    2012-12-01

    Developments in European Union law have created rules favourable to cross-border patient movement. However, where national laws on patient rights differ, this may limit movement by creating confusion for patients and by reducing their confidence in seeking treatment abroad. This article examines the extent to which English and French law recognize a patient right to information regarding treatment. In light of the differences between the two systems concerning both the form and the content of the law, highlighted by recent developments in French law, the article then considers whether the Patients' Rights Directive can provide a framework for coordination of national rules. PMID:23198486

  10. Scaling law for direct current field emission-driven microscale gas breakdown

    SciTech Connect

    Venkattraman, A.; Alexeenko, A. A.

    2012-12-15

    The effects of field emission on direct current breakdown in microscale gaps filled with an ambient neutral gas are studied numerically and analytically. Fundamental numerical experiments using the particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collisions method are used to systematically quantify microscale ionization and space-charge enhancement of field emission. The numerical experiments are then used to validate a scaling law for the modified Paschen curve that bridges field emission-driven breakdown with the macroscale Paschen law. Analytical expressions are derived for the increase in cathode electric field, total steady state current density, and the ion-enhancement coefficient including a new breakdown criterion. It also includes the effect of all key parameters such as pressure, operating gas, and field-enhancement factor providing a better predictive capability than existing microscale breakdown models. The field-enhancement factor is shown to be the most sensitive parameter with its increase leading to a significant drop in the threshold breakdown electric field and also to a gradual merging with the Paschen law. The proposed scaling law is also shown to agree well with two independent sets of experimental data for microscale breakdown in air. The ability to accurately describe not just the breakdown voltage but the entire pre-breakdown process for given operating conditions makes the proposed model a suitable candidate for the design and analysis of electrostatic microscale devices.

  11. Recent Trends in Advance Directives at Nursing Home Admission and One Year after Admission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuley, William J.; Buchanan, Robert J.; Travis, Shirley S.; Wang, Suojin; Kim, MyungSuk

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Advance directives are important planning and decision-making tools for individuals in nursing homes. Design and Methods: By using the nursing facility Minimum Data Set, we examined the prevalence of advance directives at admission and 12 months post-admission. Results: The prevalence of having any advance directive at admission declined…

  12. [Advance directives in Italy: a goal not yet reached but already passed?].

    PubMed

    Riccioni, Luigi; Gristina, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    The advance directives (ADs) have been adopted in many countries to defend patients' autonomy. In Italy, in the past, this topic gave rise to a heated debate involving philosophers, theologians, and politicians. In 2009, the government presented a bill of law on ADs firmly criticized from a scientific, moral and juridical point of view because the bill's content is against the principles of Italian Constitution, Italian Code of Medical Ethics, Oviedo Convention, and official statements of many scientific societies. Although the bill has passed the Low Chamber it lies, even since, in the Senate, lacking in regard any agreement among the political parties. The purpose of this article is to highlight that, in our country, patients, relatives and doctors deserve a law not only related to the specific topic of ADs, but - as in other European countries (Germany, Spain, France, UK) - aimed to deal with the complex issue of end of life care as a whole. This law should take into account the sound evidence existing in regard to the four fundamental principles supporting the best scientific and ethical approaches to the end of life issues: shared decision making process between doctors and patients/relatives; rejection of dying process marked by the suffering; withholding/withdrawing futile treatments together with palliative sedation as two crucial contributions to suppress the patient suffering and pain; clear-cut difference between these clinical/ethical options and euthanasia. At the same time, this law should be able to provide physicians with a legal coverage to make all the clinical and ethical decisions more and more complex because of the continuous evolution of medical science on one hand, and the impressive development of biotechnology on the other hand.

  13. [Direct genetic manipulation and criminal code in Venezuela: absolute criminal law void?].

    PubMed

    Cermeño Zambrano, Fernando G De J

    2002-01-01

    The judicial regulation of genetic biotechnology applied to the human genome is of big relevance currently in Venezuela due to the drafting of an innovative bioethical law in the country's parliament. This article will highlight the constitutional normative of Venezuela's 1999 Constitution regarding this subject, as it establishes the framework from which this matter will be legally regulated. The approach this article makes towards the genetic biotechnology applied to the human genome is made taking into account the Venezuelan penal law and by highlighting the violent genetic manipulations that have criminal relevance. The genetic biotechnology applied to the human genome has another important relevance as a consequence of the reformulation of the Venezuelan Penal Code discussed by the country's National Assembly. Therefore, a concise study of the country's penal code will be made in this article to better understand what judicial-penal properties have been protected by the Venezuelan penal legislation. This last step will enable us to identify the penal tools Venezuela counts on to face direct genetic manipulations. We will equally indicate the existing punitive loophole and that should be covered by the penal legislator. In conclusion, this essay concerns criminal policy, referred to the direct genetic manipulations on the human genome that haven't been typified in Venezuelan law, thus discovering a genetic biotechnology paradise.

  14. Recovery Act: Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Mobile Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, James H.; Cox, Philip; Harrington, William J; Campbell, Joseph L

    2013-09-03

    ABSTRACT Project Title: Recovery Act: Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Mobile Computing PROJECT OBJECTIVE The objective of the project was to advance portable fuel cell system technology towards the commercial targets of power density, energy density and lifetime. These targets were laid out in the DOE’s R&D roadmap to develop an advanced direct methanol fuel cell power supply that meets commercial entry requirements. Such a power supply will enable mobile computers to operate non-stop, unplugged from the wall power outlet, by using the high energy density of methanol fuel contained in a replaceable fuel cartridge. Specifically this project focused on balance-of-plant component integration and miniaturization, as well as extensive component, subassembly and integrated system durability and validation testing. This design has resulted in a pre-production power supply design and a prototype that meet the rigorous demands of consumer electronic applications. PROJECT TASKS The proposed work plan was designed to meet the project objectives, which corresponded directly with the objectives outlined in the Funding Opportunity Announcement: To engineer the fuel cell balance-of-plant and packaging to meet the needs of consumer electronic systems, specifically at power levels required for mobile computing. UNF used existing balance-of-plant component technologies developed under its current US Army CERDEC project, as well as a previous DOE project completed by PolyFuel, to further refine them to both miniaturize and integrate their functionality to increase the system power density and energy density. Benefits of UNF’s novel passive water recycling MEA (membrane electrode assembly) and the simplified system architecture it enabled formed the foundation of the design approach. The package design was hardened to address orientation independence, shock, vibration, and environmental requirements. Fuel cartridge and fuel subsystems were improved to ensure effective fuel

  15. Legal implications for failure to comply with advance directives: an examination of the incompetent individual's right to refuse life-sustaining medical treatment.

    PubMed

    Perry, Sherynn J

    2002-01-01

    Life-sustaining medical technology in the past century has created a growing body of case law and legislation recognizing the incompetent individual's right to make his or her own end-of-life decisions. This article focuses on California's leadership in the area of these specific end-of-life issues: specifically, exploring the right of an incompetent individual to refuse life-sustaining medical treatment. The article examines advance directives along with various judicial decision-making standards for incompetent individuals and explores the sociobehavioral and legal rationale for compliance with incompetent individual's rights to make end-of-life decisions. Finally this article concludes (i) that advance directives allow competent individuals to state the medical treatment they would prefer in the event they should later become incompetent and (ii) that when advance directives are properly executed in a detailed manner, under laws currently in effect in some jurisdictions, the preferences stated in the directive bind health care providers.

  16. The utility of standardized advance directives: the general practitioners' perspective.

    PubMed

    Otte, Ina Carola; Elger, Bernice; Jung, Corinna; Bally, Klaus Walter

    2016-06-01

    Advance directives (AD) are written documents that give patients the opportunity to communicate their preferences regarding treatments they do or do not want to receive in case they become unable to make decisions. Commonly used pre-printed forms have different formats. Some offer space for patients to (a) appoint a surrogate decision maker, and/or (b) to determine future medical treatments and/or (c) give a statement of personal values. So far it is unknown which forms GPs preferably use and why they decide to do so. 23 semi-structured interviews with GPs were analysed using content analysis. Interviewees mainly use short templates (to appoint surrogate decision makers) and medium length templates with checkboxes to indicate patients' preferences in regards to life prolonging measures. Especially when patients faced the progression of a disease, participants use the latter version. Only then, the interviewees remarked, patients are capable to rate concrete situations reliably. GPs also realize the importance of the verbal assessment of patients' preferences; however they rarely keep a written form of the conversation. Some GPs hand out one or more templates and ask their patients to read and think about them at home with the option to talk to them about it later on, while others prefer their patients to fill them out alone at home. Regardless of template usage, most GPs emphasize that ADs require regular updates. GPs tend to see standardized advance directives mainly as a tool to start a conversation with their patients and to identify their real preferences and values. When the patient is still not facing the progression of an already existing disease it could be sufficient to only appoint a surrogate decision maker instead of creating a full AD. However, in all other situations, appointing a surrogate decision maker should be backed up by a written statement of a patient's general values. Patients and their relatives should always have the opportunity to ask

  17. Introduction to direct variational and moment methods and an application to the Child-Langmuir law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D.; Desaix, M.

    2015-11-01

    A short introduction is given of direct variational methods and its relation to Galerkin and moment methods, all flexible and powerful approaches for finding approximate solutions of difficult physical equations. A pedagogical application of moment methods is given to the physically and technically important Child-Langmuir law in electron physics. The analysis is shown to provide simple, yet accurate, approximate solutions of the two-dimensional problem (a problem which does not allow an exact analytical solution) and illustrates the usefulness and the power of moment methods.

  18. Cancellation control law for lateral-directional dynamics of a supermaneuverable aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snell, Antony

    1993-01-01

    Cancellation control laws are designed which reduce the high levels of lateral acceleration encountered during aggressive rolling maneuvers executed at high angle of attack. Two independent problem are examined. One is to reduce lateral acceleration at the mass center, while the other focuses on lateral acceleration at the pilot's station, located 7.0 m forward of the mass center. Both of these problems are challenging and somewhat different in their limitations. In each case the design is based on a linearization of the lateral-directional dynamics about a high angle of attack condition. The controllers incorporate dynamic inversion inner loops to provide control of stability-axis roll- and yaw-rates and then employ cancellation filters in both feed-forward and feed-back signal paths. The relative simplicity of the control laws should allow nonlinear generalizations to be devised. Although it is shown that lateral acceleration can be reduced substantially by such control laws, this is at the cost of slowed roll response, poor dutch-roll damping or a combination of the two.

  19. Power Law Versus Exponential Form of Slow Crack Growth of Advanced Structural Ceramics: Dynamic Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2002-01-01

    The life prediction analysis based on an exponential crack velocity formulation was examined using a variety of experimental data on glass and advanced structural ceramics in constant stress-rate ("dynamic fatigue") and preload testing at ambient and elevated temperatures. The data fit to the strength versus In (stress rate) relation was found to be very reasonable for most of the materials. It was also found that preloading technique was equally applicable for the case of slow crack growth (SCG) parameter n > 30. The major limitation in the exponential crack velocity formulation, however, was that an inert strength of a material must be known priori to evaluate the important SCG parameter n, a significant drawback as compared to the conventional power-law crack velocity formulation.

  20. HIV Vaccine: Recent Advances, Current Roadblocks, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Rubens, Muni; Ramamoorthy, Venkataraghavan; Saxena, Anshul; Shehadeh, Nancy; Appunni, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In spite of successful interventions and treatment protocols, an HIV vaccine would be the ultimate prevention and control strategy. Ever since identification of HIV/AIDS, there have been meticulous efforts for vaccine development. The specific aim of this paper is to review recent vaccine efficacy trials and associated advancements and discuss the current challenges and future directions. Recombinant DNA technologies greatly facilitated development of many viral products which were later incorporated into vectors for effective vaccines. Over the years, a number of scientific approaches have gained popularity and include the induction of neutralizing antibodies in late 1980s, induction of CD8 T cell in early 1990s, and combination approaches currently. Scientists have hypothesized that stimulation of right sequences of somatic hypermutations could induce broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) capable of effective neutralization and viral elimination. Studies have shown that a number of host and viral factors affect these processes. Similarly, eliciting specific CD8 T cells immune responses through DNA vaccines hold future promises. In summary, future studies should focus on the continuous fight between host immune responses and ever-evasive viral factors for effective vaccines. PMID:26579546

  1. HIV Vaccine: Recent Advances, Current Roadblocks, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Rubens, Muni; Ramamoorthy, Venkataraghavan; Saxena, Anshul; Shehadeh, Nancy; Appunni, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In spite of successful interventions and treatment protocols, an HIV vaccine would be the ultimate prevention and control strategy. Ever since identification of HIV/AIDS, there have been meticulous efforts for vaccine development. The specific aim of this paper is to review recent vaccine efficacy trials and associated advancements and discuss the current challenges and future directions. Recombinant DNA technologies greatly facilitated development of many viral products which were later incorporated into vectors for effective vaccines. Over the years, a number of scientific approaches have gained popularity and include the induction of neutralizing antibodies in late 1980s, induction of CD8 T cell in early 1990s, and combination approaches currently. Scientists have hypothesized that stimulation of right sequences of somatic hypermutations could induce broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) capable of effective neutralization and viral elimination. Studies have shown that a number of host and viral factors affect these processes. Similarly, eliciting specific CD8 T cells immune responses through DNA vaccines hold future promises. In summary, future studies should focus on the continuous fight between host immune responses and ever-evasive viral factors for effective vaccines. PMID:26579546

  2. Processing of alnico permanent magnets by advanced directional solidification methods

    DOE PAGES

    Zou, Min; Johnson, Francis; Zhang, Wanming; Zhao, Qi; Rutkowski, Stephen F.; Zhou, Lin; Kramer, Matthew J.

    2016-07-05

    Advanced directional solidification methods have been used to produce large (>15 cm length) castings of Alnico permanent magnets with highly oriented columnar microstructures. In combination with subsequent thermomagnetic and draw thermal treatment, this method was used to enable the high coercivity, high-Titanium Alnico composition of 39% Co, 29.5% Fe, 14% Ni, 7.5% Ti, 7% Al, 3% Cu (wt%) to have an intrinsic coercivity (Hci) of 2.0 kOe, a remanence (Br) of 10.2 kG, and an energy product (BH)max of 10.9 MGOe. These properties compare favorably to typical properties for the commercial Alnico 9. Directional solidification of higher Ti compositions yieldedmore » anisotropic columnar grained microstructures if high heat extraction rates through the mold surface of at least 200 kW/m2 were attained. This was achieved through the use of a thin walled (5 mm thick) high thermal conductivity SiC shell mold extracted from a molten Sn bath at a withdrawal rate of at least 200 mm/h. However, higher Ti compositions did not result in further increases in magnet performance. Images of the microstructures collected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal a majority α phase with inclusions of secondary αγ phase. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the α phase has a spinodally decomposed microstructure of FeCo-rich needles in a NiAl-rich matrix. In the 7.5% Ti composition the diameter distribution of the FeCo needles was bimodal with the majority having diameters of approximately 50 nm with a small fraction having diameters of approximately 10 nm. The needles formed a mosaic pattern and were elongated along one <001> crystal direction (parallel to the field used during magnetic annealing). Cu precipitates were observed between the needles. Regions of abnormal spinodal morphology appeared to correlate with secondary phase precipitates. The presence of these abnormalities did not prevent the material from displaying superior magnetic properties in the 7.5% Ti

  3. Processing of alnico permanent magnets by advanced directional solidification methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Min; Johnson, Francis; Zhang, Wanming; Zhao, Qi; Rutkowski, Stephen F.; Zhou, Lin; Kramer, Matthew J.

    2016-12-01

    Advanced directional solidification methods have been used to produce large (>15 cm length) castings of Alnico permanent magnets with highly oriented columnar microstructures. In combination with subsequent thermomagnetic and draw thermal treatment, this method was used to enable the high coercivity, high-Titanium Alnico composition of 39% Co, 29.5% Fe, 14% Ni, 7.5% Ti, 7% Al, 3% Cu (wt%) to have an intrinsic coercivity (Hci) of 2.0 kOe, a remanence (Br) of 10.2 kG, and an energy product (BH)max of 10.9 MGOe. These properties compare favorably to typical properties for the commercial Alnico 9. Directional solidification of higher Ti compositions yielded anisotropic columnar grained microstructures if high heat extraction rates through the mold surface of at least 200 kW/m2 were attained. This was achieved through the use of a thin walled (5 mm thick) high thermal conductivity SiC shell mold extracted from a molten Sn bath at a withdrawal rate of at least 200 mm/h. However, higher Ti compositions did not result in further increases in magnet performance. Images of the microstructures collected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal a majority α phase with inclusions of secondary αγ phase. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the α phase has a spinodally decomposed microstructure of FeCo-rich needles in a NiAl-rich matrix. In the 7.5% Ti composition the diameter distribution of the FeCo needles was bimodal with the majority having diameters of approximately 50 nm with a small fraction having diameters of approximately 10 nm. The needles formed a mosaic pattern and were elongated along one <001> crystal direction (parallel to the field used during magnetic annealing). Cu precipitates were observed between the needles. Regions of abnormal spinodal morphology appeared to correlate with secondary phase precipitates. The presence of these abnormalities did not prevent the material from displaying superior magnetic properties in the 7.5% Ti

  4. New Directions for NASA's Advanced Life Support Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2006-01-01

    Exploration Life Support (ELS) Project, under the Exploration Technology Development Program, has recently been initiated to perform directed life support technology development in support of Constellation and the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). ELS) has replaced ALS, with several major differences. Thermal Control Systems have been separated into a new stand alone project (Thermal Systems for Exploration Missions). Tasks in Advanced Food Technology have been relocated to the Human Research Program. Tasks in a new discipline area, Habitation Engineering, have been added. Research and technology development for capabilities required for longer duration stays on the Moon and Mars, including bioregenerative system, have been deferred.

  5. UTILITY OF MECHANISTIC MODELS FOR DIRECTING ADVANCED SEPARATIONS RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES: Electrochemically Modulated Separation Example

    SciTech Connect

    Schwantes, Jon M.

    2009-06-01

    The objective for this work was to demonstrate the utility of mechanistic computer models designed to simulate actinide behavior for use in efficiently and effectively directing advanced laboratory R&D activities associated with developing advanced separations methods.

  6. Revisiting Horton's laws with considerations of the directly drained VS source area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Soohyun; Paik, Kyungrock

    2015-04-01

    River networks have been regarded as excellent examples of self-similar patterns in nature. Fractal characteristics of river networks have been quantified through scaling relations between several morphologic variables (e.g., Hack, 1957; Flint, 1974). In particular, Horton's legendary study on scaling properties between numbers and lengths of streams in different orders (Horton, 1945) has significantly influenced research studies in this subject. Today, Horton's laws are referred to the log-linear relationships of three variables across stream orders, i.e., number, length, and area which is later added by Schumm (1956). In a closer look, there is a conceptual inconsistency between their definitions though. While length is defined as the length of stream of a specific order only, area by its definition includes drainage area of lower order streams. To deal with this inconsistency, there was an attempt to distinguish the average area drained directly by the stream of a particular order in the Hortonian formulation (Marani et al., 1991; Beer and Borgas, 1993). Nevertheless, there remains an interesting problem in the definition of directly drained area for 1st order and for the rest orders in these studies. While the whole area of 1st order stream is regarded as the directly drained area in these studies, for a channel to form it needs the minimum drainage area named source area. In this study, we evaluate how significant considering this zero order area separately is in understanding overall river network organization. To this end, we define new expression for the directly drained area and revisit Horton's laws with a generalized formulation. To test the proposed ideas, several river networks extracted from digital elevation models (DEMs) are analyzed. References Beer, T., & Borgas, M. (1993). Horton's laws and the fractal nature of streams. Water Resources Research, 29(5), 1475-1487. Flint, J. J. (1974). Stream gradient as a function of order, magnitude, and

  7. [Advanced directives document and neurologist-patient relationship].

    PubMed

    Boada Rovira, M

    2004-12-01

    Perception of health and disease, pain and suffering, quality of life, personal relationships, privacy and intimacy, culture and social values, can now be stated in a written document, by way of a living will, giving legal legitimacy to each patient's way of being and understanding life, to be used when the subject cannot express it by him/herself. In this way, the patients will participate in the therapeutic process and will incorporate their desires and decisions through the Informed Consent and the Advanced Directives Document (ADD). Both documents translate and indicate how to treat and care for a patient who will progressively lose his/her cognitive faculties and others will decided for him/her, in the case of dementias. The basis of ADD is respect and promotion of the patient's autonomy, prolonging his/her right to decide in the stages in which he/she cannot do it. It consists in some instructions or orientations for the patient to be cared for in a certain way, according to his/her will. To this effect, a representative will be named who will act in the subject's name and who will help to interpret and make decisions when the patient cannot. Specifically, in Alzheimer's disease, ADD allows the patient to decide, in full lucidity, freedom and autonomy, how to live a progressive and irreversible disease. Explicit mention can be made to the will of making his/her disease known publically or not, the care of its aspect, privacy, type of care, whether institutionalized or home care, limitation of visits, treatment intensity and prolongation, palliative cares, donation of biological samples, participation in drug clinical trials. PMID:15719290

  8. Avoiding another directive: the unstable politics of European Union cross-border health care law.

    PubMed

    Greer, Scott L

    2013-10-01

    The European Union’s (EU) 2011 Directive on cross-border patient mobility codifies the right of any EU citizen to travel abroad for treatment and be reimbursed on the same terms as they would be at home. Governments hoped it would end the string of court cases that had reshaped EU health law but this article argues that it is likely to produce yet more judicial challenges. Patient mobility is an attractive idea with unclear definitions and divergent implementation. In many cases, providers, insurers and governments will not communicate and leave the patient with a bill – almost daring the patient to sue, and the courts to make more policy. Governments should try to prevent this by investing in coordination and alternative redress for patients who might otherwise sue. PMID:23425573

  9. The views of older Malaysians on advanced directive and advanced care planning: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Htut, Y; Shahrul, K; Poi, P J H

    2007-01-01

    The provision of optimum care for the ageing population is dependent on the understanding of their views and values on end of life issues. A qualitative descriptive study was conducted to describe views of elderly Malaysians on Advanced Care Planning (henceforth ACP) and Advanced Directives (henceforth AD), and explore factors influencing these views. Fifteen elderly subjects with ages ranging from 65 to 83 years, representing different ethnic and religious groups in Malaysia were selected for in-depth interviews guided by a questionnaire. Five core themes were extracted from the interviews: 1) Considering the future 2) Contingency plans for future illnesses 3) Attitudes towards life prolonging treatment procedures 4) Doctor-patient relationships and 5) Influence of religion on decisions related to future illness. Despite the lack of knowledge on ACP and AD, older respondents were very receptive to their concept. Although the majority agreed on the importance of planning for future medical management and having open discussion on end of life issues with their doctor, they felt it unnecessary to make a formal written AD. Most felt that the future was best left to fate or God, and none had made any contingency plan for severe future illnesses citing religion as reason for this view. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, mechanical ventilation and dialysis were considered by most to be invasive life prolonging treatments. We suggest that doctors initiate discussions on end of life care with every older patient and their family so as to promote awareness and introduce the concept of ACP/AD to a Malaysian setting.

  10. Advances in Research and Practice in Self-Directed Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Huey B.; And Others

    Selected papers presented in this book are: "Changing Concepts of Self-Direction in Learning" (Long); "The Transition from Learner-Control to Autodidaxy: More than Meets the Eye" (Candy); "Self-Directed Learning and the Theory of Adult Education" (Jarvis); "On the Theme and Variations of Self-Directed Learning" (Gerstner); "Self-Directed…

  11. Transition of advanced technology to military, homeland security, and law enforcement users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrett, Stephen M.

    2004-09-01

    With the attack on the United States and the subsequent war on terror and the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq a need has been exposed for the transition of technology to all of our defenders both combat forces on the foreign battlefield and domestic forces here at home. The establishment of the Department of Homeland Security has also provided a focus on inserting technology to dramatically improve the capability of airport security forces, law enforcement, and all first responder networks. The drastic increase in the use of Special Forces in combat has also required new advanced technology capabilities at a much faster rate of development than the standard military procurement system. Technology developers must address the questions of interoperability, cost, commercialization, of how these groups will use the technology delivered and the adoption criteria of users in the deployment environment. The successful transition to the field must address the formation of complex concepts of operations in the user's adoption criteria. Prototype transition for two systems, a pocket infrared camera and an acoustic/seismic detector, will be highlighted in their effect on the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and in the heightening of homeland security.

  12. Advanced health biotechnologies in Thailand: redefining policy directions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Thailand faces a significant burden in terms of treating and managing degenerative and chronic diseases. Moreover, incidences of rare diseases are rising. Many of these—such as diabetes, cancer, and inherited inborn metabolic diseases—have no definite treatments or cure. Meanwhile, advanced health biotechnology has been found, in principle, to be an effective solution for these health problems. Methods Qualitative approaches were employed to analyse the current situation and examine existing public policies related to advanced health biotechnologies in Thailand. The results of this analysis were then used to formulate policy recommendations. Results Our research revealed that the system in Thailand in relation to advanced health biotechnologies is fragmented, with multiple unaddressed gaps, underfunding of research and development (R&D), and a lack of incentives for the private sector. In addition, there are no clear definitions of advanced health biotechnologies, and coverage pathways are absent. Meanwhile, false advertising and misinformation are prevalent, with no responsible bodies to actively and effectively provide appropriate information and education (I&E). The establishment of a specialised institution to fill the gaps in this area is warranted. Conclusion The development and implementation of a comprehensive national strategic plan related to advanced health biotechnologies, greater investment in R&D and I&E for all stakeholders, collaboration among agencies, harmonisation of reimbursement across public health schemes, and provision of targeted I&E are specifically recommended. PMID:23281771

  13. Effect of Health Literacy on the Utilization of Advance Directives Based on the Health Belief Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkelman, Wallace J.

    2010-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that only a small proportion of individuals in the United States complete advance directives as part of their planning for end-of-life care. This study sought to determine if health literacy is a significant factor in advance directive completion as has been posited by previous researchers. Analysis of the data collected…

  14. Psychiatric epidemiology: selected recent advances and future directions.

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, R. C.

    2000-01-01

    Reviewed in this article are selected recent advances and future challenges for psychiatric epidemiology. Major advances in descriptive psychiatric epidemiology in recent years include the development of reliable and valid fully structured diagnostic interviews, the implementation of parallel cross-national surveys of the prevalences and correlates of mental disorders, and the initiation of research in clinical epidemiology. Remaining challenges include the refinement of diagnostic categories and criteria, recognition and evaluation of systematic underreporting bias in surveys of mental disorders, creation and use of accurate assessment tools for studying disorders of children, adolescents, the elderly, and people in less developed countries, and setting up systems to carry out small area estimations for needs assessment and programme planning. Advances in analytical and experimental epidemiology have been more modest. A major challenge is for psychiatric epidemiologists to increase the relevance of their analytical research to their colleagues in preventative psychiatry as well as to social policy analysts. Another challenge is to develop interventions aimed at increasing the proportion of people with mental disorders who receive treatment. Despite encouraging advances, much work still needs to be conducted before psychiatric epidemiology can realize its potential to improve the mental health of populations. PMID:10885165

  15. The positive attitudes and perceptions of care managers about advance directives.

    PubMed

    Golden, Adam G; Tewary, Sweta; Qadri, Syeda; Zaw, Khin; Ruiz, Jorge G; Roos, Bernard A

    2011-03-01

    In a previous intervention, we found that reminders from care managers failed to increase the number of their homebound older adult clients with advance directives. Thus, in the current study, we looked at the perceptions and attitudes of care managers about the need to discuss advance directives with their clients. Ninety-five care managers serving community-based nursing home-eligible older adults completed an 18-question survey, which found that care managers overwhelmingly believe it is important to address advance directives. Only 3.2% reported that discussing advance directives is time consuming. No attitudinal barriers were identified. Given their positive attitudes about advance directives, care managers need educational interventions that will provide the knowledge and skills to interact effectively with clients who are resistant to addressing end-of-life issues.

  16. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direction Injection (GTDI) Engine Development

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Terrance

    2015-12-31

    This program was undertaken in response to US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-FOA-0000079, resulting in a cooperative agreement with Ford and MTU to demonstrate improvement of fuel efficiency in a vehicle equipped with an advanced GTDI engine. Ford Motor Company has invested significantly in GTDI engine technology as a cost effective, high volume, fuel economy solution, marketed globally as EcoBoost technology. Ford envisions additional fuel economy improvement in the medium and long term by further advancing EcoBoost technology. The approach for the project was to engineer a comprehensive suite of gasoline engine systems technologies to achieve the project objectives, and to progressively demonstrate the objectives via concept analysis / computer modeling, single-cylinder and multi-cylinder engine testing on engine dynamometer, and vehicle level testing on chassis rolls.

  17. Zipf's word frequency law in natural language: a critical review and future directions.

    PubMed

    Piantadosi, Steven T

    2014-10-01

    The frequency distribution of words has been a key object of study in statistical linguistics for the past 70 years. This distribution approximately follows a simple mathematical form known as Zipf's law. This article first shows that human language has a highly complex, reliable structure in the frequency distribution over and above this classic law, although prior data visualization methods have obscured this fact. A number of empirical phenomena related to word frequencies are then reviewed. These facts are chosen to be informative about the mechanisms giving rise to Zipf's law and are then used to evaluate many of the theoretical explanations of Zipf's law in language. No prior account straightforwardly explains all the basic facts or is supported with independent evaluation of its underlying assumptions. To make progress at understanding why language obeys Zipf's law, studies must seek evidence beyond the law itself, testing assumptions and evaluating novel predictions with new, independent data.

  18. Advance Care Planning in Nursing Homes: Correlates of Capacity and Possession of Advance Directives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rebecca S.; DeLaine, Shermetra R.; Chaplin, William F.; Marson, Daniel C.; Bourgeois, Michelle S.; Dijkstra, Katinka; Burgio, Louis D.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The identification of nursing home residents who can continue to participate in advance care planning about end-of-life care is a critical clinical and bioethical issue. This study uses high quality observational research to identify correlates of advance care planning in nursing homes, including objective measurement of capacity. Design…

  19. Advance directives: binding or merely indicative? Incoherence of the Portuguese National Council of Ethics for the Life Sciences and insufficiencies of newly proposed regulation.

    PubMed

    Pereira, André

    2009-06-01

    The Portuguese National Council of Ethics for the Life Sciences issued in 2005 two important Opinions concerning persistent vegetative state (PVS) and refusal of blood transfusions. The first one advocated that advance directives should be respected; however, the second Opinion considered them "merely indicative." The different opinions of the National Council of Ethics reflect the difficulty of this matter. Portugal ratified the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine, which states that advance directives "should be taken into consideration" (Art. 9) and in order to regulate this generic rule, the Portuguese Association on Bioethics proposed to the Parliament a draft-law, which aims to legalize advance directives (including "living will" and "health-care proxy") and establish a National Registry of Advance Directives. This proposal dearly states that advance directives should be binding. However, some regulatory aspects, concerning the procedure that leads to the validity of a living will deserve further discussion. The Author argues in favour of a previous medical interview and a solemn formality in the case of binding advance directives, in order to assure the freedom and information of the refusal of treatment.

  20. Smoke-Free Laws and Direct Democracy Initiatives on Smoking Bans in Germany: A Systematic Review and Quantitative Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, Stefan; Minkner, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    Background: Germany’s 16 states regulate smoking differently within health protection principles laid down in the federal law. All state smoke-free laws in Germany have undergone at least one change since taking effect. Methods: We systematically review federal and state laws regulating smoking, as well as petitions, popular initiatives and referenda that aimed at changing statutory smoking bans. Data generated through the systematic review were correlated with state smoking rates. Results: The protection from the dangers of secondhand smoke is the primary motive for smoking bans in Germany. The first smoke-free laws affecting smoking in pubs, restaurants and several other public places were introduced in 2007. In 2008, the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany ruled in a leading decision on the smoke-free laws of two states that some common smoking ban exemptions of the introduced smoke-free laws violate the basic right to freely exercise a profession and mandated revisions. All states but Bavaria and Saarland, whose smoking bans were more and less comprehensive than those judged by the constitutional court, respectively, needed to change the smoking ban exemptions to reconcile their smoke-free laws with the constitution. Direct democracy initiatives to change smoking bans were only successful in Bavaria in 2010, but a total of 15 initiatives by citizens’ or interest groups attempted to influence non-smokers protection legislation through direct democratic procedures. Early ratification of a smoking ban in a federal state correlates with a higher reduction in the smoking rate from 2005 to 2009 (Spearman’s ρ = 0.51, p = 0.04). Conclusions: The federal government structure and direct democratic participation in smoke-free legislation in Germany has produced a diversity of local smoking bans and exemptions. PMID:24394216

  1. Cardiac gene therapy: Recent advances and future directions.

    PubMed

    Mason, Daniel; Chen, Yu-Zhe; Krishnan, Harini Venkata; Sant, Shilpa

    2015-10-10

    Gene therapy has the potential to serve as an adaptable platform technology for treating various diseases. Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of mortality in the developed world and genetic modification is steadily becoming a more plausible method to repair and regenerate heart tissue. Recently, new gene targets to treat cardiovascular disease have been identified and developed into therapies that have shown promise in animal models. Some of these therapies have advanced to clinical testing. Despite these recent successes, several barriers must be overcome for gene therapy to become a widely used treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we evaluate specific genetic targets that can be exploited to treat cardiovascular diseases, list the important delivery barriers for the gene carriers, assess the most promising methods of delivering the genetic information, and discuss the current status of clinical trials involving gene therapies targeted to the heart.

  2. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    In the Advance Coal Liquefaction Concept Proposal (ACLCP) carbon monoxide (CO) and water have been proposed as the primary reagents in the pretreatment process. The main objective of this project is to develop a methodology for pretreating coal under mild conditions based on a combination of existing processes which have shown great promise in liquefaction, extraction and pyrolysis studies. The aim of this pretreatment process is to partially depolymerise the coal, eliminate oxygen and diminish the propensity for retograde reactions during subsequent liquefaction. The desirable outcome of the CO pretreatment step should be: (1) enhanced liquefaction activity and/or selectivity toward products of higher quality due to chemical modification of the coal structure; (2) cleaner downstream products; (3) overall improvement in operability and process economics.

  3. Attitudes towards and barriers to writing advance directives amongst cancer patients, healthy controls, and medical staff

    PubMed Central

    Sahm, S; Will, R; Hommel, G

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: After years of public discussion too little is still known about willingness to accept the idea of writing an advance directive among various groups of people in EU countries. We investigated knowledge about and willingness to accept such a directive in cancer patients, healthy controls, physicians, and nursing staff in Germany. Methods: Cancer patients, healthy controls, nursing staff, and physicians (n = 100 in each group) were surveyed by means of a structured questionnaire. Results: Only 18% and 19% of the patients and healthy controls respectively, and 10% of the medical staff had written an advance directive. However, 50–81% of those surveyed indicated that they wished to write one. This intention was associated with deteriorating health (p < 0.001). Only 29% of the healthy controls and 43% of the patients knew about the possibility of appointing a health care proxy. A majority in all groups believed that advance directives may influence the course of treatment (79–85%), yet half of those surveyed in all groups fear that patients could be pressurised into writing an advance directive, and 38–65% thought that relatives could abuse such documents. Conclusions: Only a minority of the participants had written an advance directive and knew about the possibility of authorising a health care proxy. Deteriorating health was associated with increasing willingness to make a directive. Despite a majority belief that advance directives may influence treatment at the end of life, other factors limit their employment, such as fear of abuse. PMID:16076965

  4. Primary healthcare NZ nurses' experiences of advance directives: understanding their potential role.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Raewyn; Banister, Elizabeth; de Vries, Kay

    2013-07-01

    Advance directives are one aspect of advance care planning designed to improve end of life care. The New Zealand Nurses Organisation released their first mission statement in 2010 concerning advance directives suggesting an increase in the use of these. A burgeoning older population, expected to rise over the next few years, places the primary healthcare nurse in a pivotal role to address the challenges in constructing advance directives. While literature supports the role for primary healthcare nurses in promoting advance directives, no research was found on this role in the New Zealand context. This paper presents results of a qualitative study conducted in New Zealand with 13 senior primary healthcare nurses with respect to their knowledge, attitudes, and experiences of advance directives. Results of the analysis revealed a dynamic process involving participants coming to understand their potential role in this area. This process included reflection on personal experience with advance directives; values and ethics related to end of life issues; and professional actions. PMID:24187807

  5. An Advanced Design Concept of a Direct Vessel Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Tae-Soon Kwon; Chul-Hwa Song; Won-Pil Baek

    2006-07-01

    The ECC direct bypass fraction during a late reflood phase of a LBLOCA is strongly dependent on the cross flow in the downcomer of a pressurized light water reactor. An ECC flow channel, which is separated or isolated from such a high-speed cross flow, is a considerable design feature to mitigate the ECC bypass fraction. The dual core barrel cylinder is located between the reactor vessel and the core barrel outer wall in the downcomer annulus. The new narrow gap between the core barrel and the additional dual core barrel plays a role of a downward ECC flow channel. The flow zone around a broken cold leg in the downcomer has the role of a high ECC direct bypass due to strong suction force while the wake zone of a hot leg has the role of an ECC penetration. Thus, the relative azimuthal angle of the DVI nozzle from the broken cold leg is a considerable parameter. The azimuthal angle reallocation to shift the DVI nozzle from a cold leg to a hot leg is a considerable design concept to avoid a high suction flow zone when the ECC water is injected. The other enhancing mechanism of an ECC penetration is a grooved core barrel which has small rectangular-shaped grooves vertically arranged on the core barrel wall of the reactor vessel downcomer. These grooves have the role of a generation of a vortex induced by a high-speed lateral flow. Since the vortex is stagnant and rotational, the pulling force of an ECC drop or film to flow out through a broken cold leg is minimized. The open channel of grooves generates a stagnant vortex, while the closed channel of grooves creates an isolated ECC downward flow channel from the high-speed lateral flow. The grooved channels allow the ECC flow downward to the lower downcomer due to gravity. This causes a reduced direct ECC bypass fraction. In this study, new design concepts of a dual core barrel cylinder, grooved core barrel, and a reallocation of the DVI azimuthal angle are proposed and tested by using an air-water 1/5 scaled air

  6. Advances and directions of ion nitriding/carburizing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, Talivaldis

    1989-01-01

    Ion nitriding and carburizing are plasma activated thermodynamic processes for the production of case hardened surface layers not only for ferrous materials, but also for an increasing number of nonferrous metals. When the treatment variables are properly controlled, the use of nitrogenous or carbonaceous glow discharge medium offers great flexibility in tailoring surface/near-surface properties independently of the bulk properties. The ion nitriding process has reached a high level of maturity and has gained wide industrial acceptance, while the more recently introduced ion carburizing process is rapidly gaining industrial acceptance. The current status of plasma mass transfer mechanisms into the surface regarding the formation of compound and diffusion layers in ion nitriding and carbon build-up ion carburizing is reviewed. In addition, the recent developments in design and construction of advanced equipment for obtaining optimized and controlled case/core properties is summarized. Also, new developments and trends such as duplex plasma treatments and alternatives to dc diode nitriding are highlighted.

  7. Advanced direct coal liquefaction concepts. Final report, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, D.J.; Parker, R.J.; Simpson, P.L.

    1994-07-01

    Integration of innovative steps into new advanced processes have the potential to reduce costs for producing liquid fuels. In this program, objective is to develop a new approach to liquefaction that generates an all distillate product slate at a reduced cost of about US$25/barrel of crude oil equivalent. A Counterflow Reactor was developed in cooperation with GfK mbH, Germany. Advantages are low hydrogen recycle rates and low feed preheating requirements. Coal/heavy oil slurry is injected into the top of the reactor while the recycle gas and make up hydrogen is introduced into the bottom; hydrogenation products are withdrawn from the top. PU study resulted in distillable oil yields up to 74 wt % on feed (dry ash free) from coprocessing feed slurries containing 40 wt % Vesta subbituminous coal and 60 wt % Cold Lake heavy vacuum tower bottoms. Technologies developed separately by CED and ARC were combined. A 1-kg/hr integrated continuous flow bench scale unit was constructed at the ARC site in Devon, Alberta, based on modifications to a unit at Nisku, Alberta (the modified unit was used in the preliminary economic evaluation).

  8. Advanced Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings: Performance and Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. In this presentation, thermal barrier coating development considerations and performance will be emphasized. Advanced thermal barrier coatings have been developed using a multi-component defect clustering approach, and shown to have improved thermal stability and lower conductivity. The coating systems have been demonstrated for high temperature combustor applications. For thermal barrier coatings designed for turbine airfoil applications, further improved erosion and impact resistance are crucial for engine performance and durability. Erosion resistant thermal barrier coatings are being developed, with a current emphasis on the toughness improvements using a combined rare earth- and transition metal-oxide doping approach. The performance of the toughened thermal barrier coatings has been evaluated in burner rig and laser heat-flux rig simulated engine erosion and thermal gradient environments. The results have shown that the coating composition optimizations can effectively improve the erosion and impact resistance of the coating systems, while maintaining low thermal conductivity and cyclic durability. The erosion, impact and high heat-flux damage mechanisms of the thermal barrier coatings will also be described.

  9. Using Adult Learning Concepts To Assist Patients in Completing Advance Directives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Rose Mary

    2000-01-01

    Advance directives that enable individuals to control their health care are underused due to lack of patient knowledge. Nurses can teach patients about them using adult learning principles, transformation theory, and skills for learning how to learn. (SK)

  10. Status and future directions for advanced accelerator research - conventional and non-conventional collider concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Siemann, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between advanced accelerator research and future directions for particle physics is discussed. Comments are made about accelerator research trends in hadron colliders, muon colliders, and e{sup +}3{sup {minus}} linear colliders.

  11. Middle-Aged Independent-Living African Americans' Selections for Advance Directives: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Brenda J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this collective embedded qualitative case study was to examine the perspectives of three middle-aged independent-living African Americans who had participated in the process of advance care planning (ACP) and completed at least two advance directives (ADs), a Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care (DPAHC) and a Living Will (LW).…

  12. Direct Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian ADER-MOOD finite volume schemes for multidimensional hyperbolic conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscheri, Walter; Loubère, Raphaël; Dumbser, Michael

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we present a new family of efficient high order accurate direct Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) one-step ADER-MOOD finite volume schemes for the solution of nonlinear hyperbolic systems of conservation laws for moving unstructured triangular and tetrahedral meshes. This family is the next generation of the ALE ADER-WENO schemes presented in [16,20]. Here, we use again an element-local space-time Galerkin finite element predictor method to achieve a high order accurate one-step time discretization, while the somewhat expensive WENO approach on moving meshes, used to obtain high order of accuracy in space, is replaced by an a posteriori MOOD loop which is shown to be less expensive but still as accurate. This a posteriori MOOD loop ensures the numerical solution in each cell at any discrete time level to fulfill a set of user-defined detection criteria. If a cell average does not satisfy the detection criteria, then the solution is locally re-computed by progressively decrementing the order of the polynomial reconstruction, following a so-called cascade of predefined schemes with decreasing approximation order. A so-called parachute scheme, typically a very robust first order Godunov-type finite volume method, is employed as a last resort for highly problematic cells. The cascade of schemes defines how the decrementing process is carried out, i.e. how many schemes are tried and which orders are adopted for the polynomial reconstructions. The cascade and the parachute scheme are choices of the user or the code developer. Consequently the iterative MOOD loop allows the numerical solution to maintain some interesting properties such as positivity, mesh validity, etc., which are otherwise difficult to ensure. We have applied our new high order unstructured direct ALE ADER-MOOD schemes to the multi-dimensional Euler equations of compressible gas dynamics. A large set of test problems has been simulated and analyzed to assess the validity of our approach

  13. Executive Function in SLI: Recent Advances and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Plante, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a review of recent research on executive function abilities in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Across several studies, children with SLI are reported to perform worse than typically developing peers on measures of sustained attention, working memory, inhibition, and attention shifting. However, few studies have considered multiple executive function components simultaneously and even fewer have examined the underlying relationship between executive function deficits and impaired language acquisition. We argue that in order to fully understand the nature of executive function deficits in SLI, the field must move past simply identifying weaknesses to instead test models of executive function development and explore the nature of the relationship between executive function and language. Future research directions are recommended in order to achieve these goals. PMID:26543795

  14. Advances in direct transesterification of algal oils from wet biomass.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Park, Min S; Lee, Young-Chul; Yang, Ji-Won

    2015-05-01

    An interest in biodiesel as an alternative fuel for diesel engines has been increasing because of the issue of petroleum depletion and environmental concerns related to massive carbon dioxide emissions. Researchers are strongly driven to pursue the next generation of vegetable oil-based biodiesel. Oleaginous microalgae are considered to be a promising alternative oil source. To commercialize microalgal biodiesel, cost reductions in oil extraction and downstream biodiesel conversion are stressed. Herein, starting from an investigation of oil extraction from wet microalgae, a review is conducted of transesterification using enzymes, homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts, and yield enhancement by ultrasound, microwave, and supercritical process. In particular, there is a focus on direct transesterification as a simple and energy efficient process that omits a separate oil extraction step and utilizes wet microalgal biomass; however, it is still necessary to consider issues such as the purification of microalgal oils and upgrading of biodiesel properties.

  15. Critical current scaling laws for advanced Nb3Sn superconducting strands for fusion applications with six free parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xi Feng; Taylor, David M. J.; Hampshire, Damian P.

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents comprehensive measurements on three advanced ITER internal-tin Nb3Sn strands manufactured by Oxford Superconducting Technology (OST), Outokumpu Superconductors (OKSC) and Luvata Italy (OCSI) for fusion applications. The engineering critical current density (JC) at 10 µV m-1 and the index (n) characterized over the range 10-100 µV m-1 are presented as a function of magnetic field (B<=15 T in Durham and B<=28 T at the European high-field laboratory in Grenoble), temperature (2.35 K<=T<=14 K) and intrinsic strain (-1.1%<=ɛI<=0.5%). Consistency tests show that the variable strain JC data are homogeneous (± 5%) along the length of the strand, and that there is a good agreement between different samples measured in Durham and in other laboratories (at zero applied strain). Limited strain cycling (fatigue) tests demonstrate that there is no significant degradation in the critical current density in the strands due to cyclic mechanical loads. JC is accurately described by the scaling law that was derived using microscopic and phenomenological theoretical analysis and n is described by the modified power law of the form n = 1+rICs, where r and s are approximately constant. Using variable strain high magnetic field data at 2.35 K for the OCSI sample, it is demonstrated that these laws can be extended to describe data below 4.2 K. For these advanced strands, thirteen, nine and six free parameter fits to the data are considered. When thirteen or nine free parameters are used, the scaling laws fit the data very accurately. The accuracy with which the scaling law derived from fitting data taken at 4.2 K alone fits all the variable temperature data if calculated errors in fitting JC are shown to be primarily determined by uncertainties in TC. It is shown that six free parameter fits can successfully be used when, as with these advanced strands, the strain dependence of the normalized effective upper critical field at zero temperature is accurately known

  16. Zipf’s word frequency law in natural language: A critical review and future directions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The frequency distribution of words has been a key object of study in statistical linguistics for the past 70 years. This distribution approximately follows a simple mathematical form known as Zipf ’ s law. This article first shows that human language has a highly complex, reliable structure in the frequency distribution over and above this classic law, although prior data visualization methods have obscured this fact. A number of empirical phenomena related to word frequencies are then reviewed. These facts are chosen to be informative about the mechanisms giving rise to Zipf’s law and are then used to evaluate many of the theoretical explanations of Zipf’s law in language. No prior account straightforwardly explains all the basic facts or is supported with independent evaluation of its underlying assumptions. To make progress at understanding why language obeys Zipf’s law, studies must seek evidence beyond the law itself, testing assumptions and evaluating novel predictions with new, independent data. PMID:24664880

  17. African Cultural Concept of Death and the Idea of Advance Care Directives

    PubMed Central

    Ekore, Rabi Ilemona; Lanre-Abass, Bolatito

    2016-01-01

    An advance care directive is a person's oral or written instructions about his or her future medical care, if he or she becomes unable to communicate. It may be in written or oral form. Africans ordinarily do not encourage the contemplation of death or any discussion about their own or their loved ones’ death. According to the African belief system, life does not end with death, but continues in another realm. Becoming an ancestor after death is a desirable goal of every individual, a feat which cannot be achieved if an individual asks for an unnatural death by attempting to utilize advance care directives. Advance care directives are considered to be too individualistic for communitarian societies such as Africa. Coupled with the communitarian nature of African societies are issues such as lack of awareness of advance directives, fear of death and grief, and the African cultural belief system, which are potential barriers to the utilization of advance care directives in the African setting. Hence, the need for culture sensitivity which makes it imperative that patient's family and loved ones are carried along as far as possible, without compromising the autonomy of the patient in question when utilizing advance care directives. PMID:27803556

  18. Advances in directional borehole radar data analysis and visualization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.V.G.; Brown, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is developing a directional borehole radar (DBOR) tool for mapping fractures, lithologic changes, and underground utility and void detection. An important part of the development of the DBOR tool is data analysis and visualization, with the aim of making the software graphical user interface (GUI) intuitive and easy to use. The DBOR software system consists of a suite of signal and image processing routines written in Research Systems' Interactive Data Language (IDL). The software also serves as a front-end to many widely accepted Colorado School of Mines Center for Wave Phenomena (CWP) Seismic UNIX (SU) algorithms (Cohen and Stockwell, 2001). Although the SU collection runs natively in a UNIX environment, our system seamlessly emulates a UNIX session within a widely used PC operating system (MicroSoft Windows) using GNU tools (Noer, 1998). Examples are presented of laboratory data acquired with the prototype tool from two different experimental settings. The first experiment imaged plastic pipes in a macro-scale sand tank. The second experiment monitored the progress of an invasion front resulting from oil injection. Finally, challenges to further development and planned future work are discussed.

  19. Advancing the Field Elder Abuse: Future Directions and Policy Implications

    PubMed Central

    Dong, XinQi

    2012-01-01

    Elder abuse, sometime called elder mistreatment or elder maltreatment, includes psychological, physical, and sexual abuse, neglect (caregiver neglect and self-neglect), and financial exploitation. Evidence suggests that 1 out of 10 older adult experiences some form of elder abuse, and only 1 of out 25 cases are actually reported to social services agencies. At the same time, elder abuse is associated with significant morbidity and premature mortality. Despite these findings, there is a great paucity in research, practice, and policy dealing with the pervasive issues of elder abuse. Through my experiences as a American Political Sciences Association Congressional Policy Fellow/Health and Aging Policy Fellow working with Administration on Community Living (ACL) (Previously known at Administration on Aging (AoA)) for the last two years, I will describe the major functions of the ACL; and highlight on two major pieces of federal legislation: The Older Americans Act (OAA) and the Elder Justice Act (EJA). Moreover, I will highlight major research gaps and future policy relevant research directions for the field of elder abuse. PMID:23110488

  20. Extreme robustness of scaling in sample space reducing processes explains Zipf’s law in diffusion on directed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Hanel, Rudolf; Thurner, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    It has been shown recently that a specific class of path-dependent stochastic processes, which reduce their sample space as they unfold, lead to exact scaling laws in frequency and rank distributions. Such sample space reducing processes offer an alternative new mechanism to understand the emergence of scaling in countless processes. The corresponding power law exponents were shown to be related to noise levels in the process. Here we show that the emergence of scaling is not limited to the simplest SSRPs, but holds for a huge domain of stochastic processes that are characterised by non-uniform prior distributions. We demonstrate mathematically that in the absence of noise the scaling exponents converge to ‑1 (Zipf’s law) for almost all prior distributions. As a consequence it becomes possible to fully understand targeted diffusion on weighted directed networks and its associated scaling laws in node visit distributions. The presence of cycles can be properly interpreted as playing the same role as noise in SSRPs and, accordingly, determine the scaling exponents. The result that Zipf’s law emerges as a generic feature of diffusion on networks, regardless of its details, and that the exponent of visiting times is related to the amount of cycles in a network could be relevant for a series of applications in traffic-, transport- and supply chain management.

  1. Extreme robustness of scaling in sample space reducing processes explains Zipf’s law in diffusion on directed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Hanel, Rudolf; Thurner, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    It has been shown recently that a specific class of path-dependent stochastic processes, which reduce their sample space as they unfold, lead to exact scaling laws in frequency and rank distributions. Such sample space reducing processes offer an alternative new mechanism to understand the emergence of scaling in countless processes. The corresponding power law exponents were shown to be related to noise levels in the process. Here we show that the emergence of scaling is not limited to the simplest SSRPs, but holds for a huge domain of stochastic processes that are characterised by non-uniform prior distributions. We demonstrate mathematically that in the absence of noise the scaling exponents converge to -1 (Zipf’s law) for almost all prior distributions. As a consequence it becomes possible to fully understand targeted diffusion on weighted directed networks and its associated scaling laws in node visit distributions. The presence of cycles can be properly interpreted as playing the same role as noise in SSRPs and, accordingly, determine the scaling exponents. The result that Zipf’s law emerges as a generic feature of diffusion on networks, regardless of its details, and that the exponent of visiting times is related to the amount of cycles in a network could be relevant for a series of applications in traffic-, transport- and supply chain management.

  2. Beyond advance directives: importance of communication skills at the end of life.

    PubMed

    Tulsky, James A

    2005-07-20

    Patients and their families struggle with myriad choices concerning medical treatments that frequently precede death. Advance directives have been proposed as a tool to facilitate end-of-life decision making, yet frequently fail to achieve this goal. In the context of the case of a man with metastatic cancer for whom an advance directive was unable to prevent a traumatic death, I review the challenges in creating and implementing advance directives, discuss factors that can affect clear decision making; including trust, uncertainty, emotion, hope, and the presence of multiple medical providers; and offer practical suggestions for physicians. Advance care planning remains a useful tool for approaching conversations with patients about the end of life. However, such planning should occur within a framework that emphasizes responding to patient and family emotions and focuses more on goals for care and less on specific treatments.

  3. Recent developments and near term directions for Navy laser weapons system (LaWS) testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlak, Robert J.

    2012-11-01

    The Laser Weapons System (LaWS) testbed has been a demonstrator of many High Energy Laser (HEL)-related technologies for the Navy. LaWS employs a sharedaperture design with incoherent beam combining, and makes extensive use of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) technologies in the areas of inertial sensing, fiber lasers, sensors, and video trackers. Since the system has demonstrated the art of the possible with COTS elements, it is useful to examine where performance can be increased with the greatest possible effect, as well as which modifications are necessary to support better integration with ships' systems. A review of past test events, architectures, and further plans will be provided, while emphasizing the past and future evolution of the LaWS system. These evolutions will relate within the context of technical drivers that most affected system development.

  4. Inapplicability of advance directives in a paternalistic setting: the case of a post-communist health system

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Albanian medical system and Albanian health legislation have adopted a paternalistic position with regard to individual decision making. This reflects the practices of a not-so-remote past when state-run facilities and a totalitarian philosophy of medical care were politically imposed. Because of this history, advance directives concerning treatment refusal and do-not-resuscitate decisions are still extremely uncommon in Albania. Medical teams cannot abstain from intervening even when the patient explicitly and repeatedly solicits therapeutic abstinence. The Albanian law on health care has no provisions regarding limits or withdrawal of treatment. This restricts the individual's healthcare choices. Discussion The question of 'medically futile' interventions and pointless life-prolonging treatment has been discussed by several authors. Dutch physicians call such interventions 'medisch zinloos' (senseless), and the Netherlands, as one of the first states to legislate on end-of-life situations, actually regulates such issues through appropriate laws. In contrast, leaving an 'advance directive' is not a viable option for Albanian ailing individuals of advanced age. Verbal requests are provided during periods of mental competence, but unfortunately such instructions are rarely taken seriously, and none of them has ever been upheld in a legal or other official forum. Summary End-of-life decisions, treatment refusal and do-not-resuscitate policies are hazardous options in Albania, from the legal point of view. Complying with them involves significant risk on the part of the physician. Culturally, the application of such instructions is influenced from a mixture of religious beliefs, death coping-behaviors and an immense confusion concerning the role of proxies as decision-makers. Nevertheless, Albanian tradition is familiar with the notion of 'amanet', a sort of living will that mainly deals the property and inheritance issues. Such living wills, verbally

  5. Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation can stabilize perception of movement: Evidence from the two-thirds power law illusion.

    PubMed

    Scocchia, Lisa; Bolognini, Nadia; Convento, Silvia; Stucchi, Natale

    2015-11-16

    Human movements conform to specific kinematic laws of motion. One of such laws, the "two-thirds power law", describes the systematic co-variation between curvature and velocity of body movements. Noticeably, the same law also influences the perception of moving stimuli: the velocity of a dot moving along a curvilinear trajectory is perceived as uniform when the dot kinematics complies with the two-thirds power law. Instead, if the dot moves at constant speed, its velocity is perceived as highly non-uniform. This dynamic visual illusion points to a strong coupling between action and perception; however, how this coupling is implemented in the brain remains elusive. In this study, we tested whether the premotor cortex (PM) and the primary visual cortex (V1) play a role in the illusion by means of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). All participants underwent three tDCS sessions during which they received active or sham cathodal tDCS (1.5mA) over PM or V1 of the left hemisphere. During tDCS, participants were required to adjust the velocity of a dot moving along an elliptical trajectory until it looked uniform across the whole trajectory. Results show that occipital tDCS decreases the illusion variability both within and across participants, as compared to sham tDCS. This means that V1 stimulation increases individual sensitivity to the illusory motion and also increases coherence across different observers. Conversely, the illusion seems resistant to tDCS in terms of its magnitude, with cathodal stimulation of V1 or PM not affecting the amount of the illusory effect. Our results provide evidence for strong visuo-motor coupling in visual perception: the velocity of a dot moving along an elliptical trajectory is perceived as uniform only when its kinematics closely complies to the same law of motion that constrains human movement production. Occipital stimulation by cathodal tDCS can stabilize such illusory percept.

  6. Advance Directives

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease, medical care to promote your well-being ( palliative care ) continues. This type of care includes treatment to ... the patient’s behalf. Contact the National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization for more information about companies that provide ...

  7. Development of advanced direct perception displays for nuclear power plants to enhance monitoring, control and fault management. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B.; Shaheen, S.; Moray, N.; Sanderson, P.; Reising, D.V.

    1993-05-21

    With recent theoretical and empirical research in basic and applied psychology, human factors, and engineering, it is now sufficient to define an integrated approach to the deign of advanced displays for present and future nuclear power plants. Traditionally, the conventional displays have shown operators the individual variables on gauges, meters, strip charts, etc. This design approach requires the operators to mentally integrate the separately displayed variables and determine the implications for the plant state. This traditional approach has been known as the single-sensor-single-indicator display design and it places an intolerable amount of mental workload on operators during transients and abnormal conditions. This report discusses a new alternative approach which is the use of direct perception interfaces. Direct perception a interfaces display the underlying physical and system constraints of the situation in a directly perceptual way, such that the viewer need not reason about what is seen to identify system states, but can identify the state of the system perceptually. It is expected that displays which show the dynamics of fundamental physical laws should better support operator decisions and diagnoses of plant states. The purpose of this research project is to develop a suite of direct perception displays for PWR nuclear power plant operations.

  8. Similarity laws for cathode-directed streamers in gaps with an inhomogeneous field at elevated air pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotov, O. V.; Golota, V. I.; Kadolin, B. B.; Karas', V. I.; Ostroushko, V. N.; Zavada, L. M.; Shulika, A. Yu.

    2010-11-15

    Results are presented from experimental studies of cathode-directed streamers in the gap closure regime without a transition into spark breakdown. Spatiotemporal, electrodynamic, and spectroscopic characteristics of streamer discharges in air at different pressures were studied. Similarity laws for streamer discharges were formulated. These laws allow one to compare the discharge current characteristics and streamer propagation dynamics at different pressures. Substantial influence of gas photoionization on the deviations from the similarity laws was revealed. The existence of a pressure range in which the discharges develop in a similar way was demonstrated experimentally. In particular, for fixed values of the product pd and discharge voltage U, the average streamer velocity is also fixed. It is found that, although the similarity laws are violated in the interstreamer pause of the discharge, the average discharge current and the product of the pressure and the streamer repetition period remain the same at different pressures. The radiation spectra of the second positive system of nitrogen (the C{sup 3{Pi}}{sub u}-B{sup 3{Pi}}{sub g} transitions) in a wavelength range of 300-400 nm at air pressures of 1-3 atm were recorded. It is shown that, in the entire pressure range under study, the profiles of the observed radiation bands practically remain unchanged and the relative intensities of the spectral lines corresponding to the {sup 3{Pi}}{sub u}-B{sup 3{Pi}}{sub g} transitions are preserved.

  9. Advancing sexual health through human rights: The role of the law

    PubMed Central

    Kismödi, Eszter; Cottingham, Jane; Gruskin, Sofia; Miller, Alice M.

    2015-01-01

    Since the International Conference on Population and Development, definitions of sexuality and sexual health have been greatly elaborated alongside widely accepted recognition that sexual health requires respect, protection and fulfilment of human rights. Considerable progress has also been made in enacting or changing laws that affect sexuality and sexual health, in line with human rights standards. These measures include legal guarantees against non-discrimination and violence, decriminalisation of consensual sexual conduct and guaranteeing availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of sexual health information and services to all. Such legal actions have had positive effects on health and specifically on sexual health, particularly for marginalised populations. Yet in all regions of the world, laws still exist which jeopardise health, including sexual health, and violate human rights. In order to ensure accountability for the rights and health of their populations, states have an obligation to bring their laws into line with international, regional and national human rights standards. These rights-based legal guarantees, while insufficient alone, are essential for effective systems of accountability, achieving positive sexual health outcomes and the respect and protection of human rights. PMID:25539286

  10. Advancing sexual health through human rights: the role of the law.

    PubMed

    Kismödi, Eszter; Cottingham, Jane; Gruskin, Sofia; Miller, Alice M

    2015-01-01

    Since the International Conference on Population and Development, definitions of sexuality and sexual health have been greatly elaborated alongside widely accepted recognition that sexual health requires respect, protection and fulfilment of human rights. Considerable progress has also been made in enacting or changing laws that affect sexuality and sexual health, in line with human rights standards. These measures include legal guarantees against non-discrimination and violence, decriminalisation of consensual sexual conduct and guaranteeing availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of sexual health information and services to all. Such legal actions have had positive effects on health and specifically on sexual health, particularly for marginalised populations. Yet in all regions of the world, laws still exist which jeopardise health, including sexual health, and violate human rights. In order to ensure accountability for the rights and health of their populations, states have an obligation to bring their laws into line with international, regional and national human rights standards. These rights-based legal guarantees, while insufficient alone, are essential for effective systems of accountability, achieving positive sexual health outcomes and the respect and protection of human rights.

  11. Direct and indirect effects of unilateral divorce law on marital stability.

    PubMed

    Kneip, Thorsten; Bauer, Gerrit; Reinhold, Steffen

    2014-12-01

    Previous research examining the impact of unilateral divorce law (UDL) on the prevalence of divorce has provided mixed results. Studies based on cross-sectional cross-country/cross-state survey data have received criticism for disregarding unobserved heterogeneity across countries, as have studies using country-level panel data for failing to account for possible mediating mechanisms at the micro level. We seek to overcome both shortcomings by using individual-level event-history data from 11 European countries (SHARELIFE) and controlling for unobserved heterogeneity over countries and cohorts. We find that UDL in total increased the incidence of marital breakdown by about 20 %. This finding, however, neglects potential selection effects into marriage. Accordingly, the estimated effect of unilateral divorce laws becomes much larger when we control for age at marriage, which is used as indicator for match quality. Moreover, we find that UDL particularly affects marital stability in the presence of children.

  12. Advances in the study of mechanical properties and constitutive law in the field of wood research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, S.; Zhao, J. X.; Han, G. Z.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of mechanical properties and constitutive law for wood. Current research on the mechanical properties of wood have mostly focused on density, grain, moisture, and other natural factors. It has been established that high density, dense grain, and high moisture lead to higher strength. In most literature, wood has been regarded as an anisotropic material because of its fiber. A microscopic view is used in research of wood today, in this way, which has allowed for clear observation of anisotropy. In general, wood has higher strength under a dynamic load, and no densification. The constitutive model is the basis of numerical analysis. An anisotropic model of porous and composite materials has been used for wood, but results were poor, and new constitutions have been introduced. According to the literature, there is no single theory that is widely accepted for the dynamic load. Research has shown that grain and moisture are key factors in wood strength, but there has not been enough study on dynamic loads so far. Hill law has been the most common method of simulation. Models that consider high strain rate are attracting more and more attention.

  13. The concept of capacity in Australian mental health law reform: Going in the wrong direction?

    PubMed

    McSherry, Bernadette; Wilson, Kay

    2015-01-01

    The six Australian states and two territories each have legislation that enables the involuntary detention and treatment of individuals diagnosed with mental illness who are considered in need of treatment and where there is evidence of a risk of harm to self or others. A number of governments have undertaken or are currently undertaking reviews of mental health laws in light of the Australian Government's ratification of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. While United Nations bodies have made it clear that laws which enable the detention of and substituted decision-making for persons with disabilities should be abolished, debates in Australia about the reform of mental health legislation have largely focused on Article 12 of the CRPD and what is meant by the right of persons with disabilities to enjoy legal capacity on an equal basis with others. It is argued that a more holistic view of the CRPD rather than the current narrow focus on Article 12 would best serve the needs of persons with mental impairments.

  14. Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Approaches to Chronic Pain: Recent Advances and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Francis J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reviews and highlights recent research advances and future research directions concerned with behavioral and cognitive-behavioral approaches to chronic pain. Reviews assessment research on studies of social context of pain, relationship of chronic pain to depression, cognitive variables affecting pain, and comprehensive assessment measures.…

  15. Health Care Professionals' Death Attitudes, Experiences, and Advance Directive Communication Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    The study surveyed 135 health care professionals (74 nurses, 32 physicians, and 29 social workers) to examine their personal death attitudes and experiences in relation to their reported advance directive communication practice behavior. Negative correlations were found between collaborating with other health care professionals regarding the…

  16. Completion of Advance Directives: Do Social Work Preadmission Interviews Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Yvonne M.; Stadel, Vivian L.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: This study tests the efficacy of a preadmission, educational interview on advance directives, in this case, health care proxies (HCPs) offered to elective, orthopedic patients. Method: Using a quasi-experimental design, participants (n = 54) are assigned to either treatment group (who received the educational interview, conducted by a…

  17. Civil Rights Laws as Tools to Advance Health in the Twenty-First Century.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Angela K; Lee, Mary M; Meneses, Cristina M; Perkins, Jane; Youdelman, Mara

    2016-01-01

    To improve health in the twenty-first century, to promote both access to and quality of health care services and delivery, and to address significant health disparities, legal and policy approaches, specifically those focused on civil rights, could be used more intentionally and strategically. This review describes how civil rights laws, and their implementation and enforcement, help to encourage health in the United States, and it provides examples for peers around the world. The review uses a broad lens to define health for both classes of individuals and their communities--places where people live, learn, work, and play. Suggestions are offered for improving health and equity broadly, especially within societal groups and marginalized populations. These recommendations include multisectorial approaches that focus on the social determinants of health. PMID:26789383

  18. Civil Rights Laws as Tools to Advance Health in the Twenty-First Century.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Angela K; Lee, Mary M; Meneses, Cristina M; Perkins, Jane; Youdelman, Mara

    2016-01-01

    To improve health in the twenty-first century, to promote both access to and quality of health care services and delivery, and to address significant health disparities, legal and policy approaches, specifically those focused on civil rights, could be used more intentionally and strategically. This review describes how civil rights laws, and their implementation and enforcement, help to encourage health in the United States, and it provides examples for peers around the world. The review uses a broad lens to define health for both classes of individuals and their communities--places where people live, learn, work, and play. Suggestions are offered for improving health and equity broadly, especially within societal groups and marginalized populations. These recommendations include multisectorial approaches that focus on the social determinants of health.

  19. Reconfigurable multivariable control law for commercial airplane using a direct digital output feedback design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostroff, A. J.; Hueschen, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    The ability of a pilot to reconfigure the control surfaces on an airplane after a failure, allowing the airplane to recover to a safe condition for landing, becomes more difficult with increasing airplane complexity. Techniques are needed to stabilize and control the airplane immediately after a failure, allowing the pilot time to make longer range decisions. This paper shows a design of a discrete multivariable control law using four controls for the longitudinal channel of a B-737. Single control element failures are allowed in three of the four controls. The four controls design and failure cases are analyzed by means of a digital airplane simulation, with regard to tracking capability and ability to overcome severe windshear and turbulence during the aproach and landing phase of flight.

  20. HER Story: The Next Chapter in HER-2-Directed Therapy for Advanced Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Joy, Anil A.; Rayson, Daniel; McLeod, Deanna; Brezden-Masley, Christine; Boileau, Jean-François; Gelmon, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    Untreated human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2)-positive advanced breast cancer (ABC) is an aggressive disease, associated with a poor prognosis and short overall survival. HER-2-directed therapy prolongs both time to disease progression and overall survival when combined with chemotherapy and has become the standard of care for those with HER-2-positive breast cancer in the early and advanced settings. Despite the remarkable therapeutic impact HER-2-directed therapy has had on disease outcomes, some patients with HER-2-positive disease will have primary resistant disease and others will respond initially but will eventually have progression, underscoring the need for other novel therapeutic options. This article reviews recent phase III trial data and discusses a practical approach to sequencing of HER-2-directed therapy in patients with HER-2-positive ABC. The significant cumulative survival gains seen in these trials are slowly reshaping the landscape of HER-2-positive ABC outcomes. PMID:24212500

  1. The desire to die: making treatment decisions for suicidal patients who have an advance directive.

    PubMed

    Salter, Erica K

    2014-01-01

    This article enumerates and critically examines the potential grounds on which we might treat the case of a patient with an advance directive who attempted suicide, differently from one whose injuries were the result of an accident. Grounds for differentiation are distilled into two potential justifications. The first addresses the concern that withholding or withdrawing care from a patient with self-inflicted injuries would be aiding and abetting suicide.The second examines concerns about the patient's decisionmaking capacity. Ultimately, it is argued that while there might be legitimate reasons to hold the advance directive of a suicidal patient to a different standard of scrutiny, the fact that the patient's medical state was self-inflicted should not, in and of itself, necessarily invalidate the guidance of the directive. Finally, four practical recommendations are offered for negotiating similar cases.

  2. End-of-life communication in Korean older adults: With focus on advance care planning and advance directives.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Wook; Lee, Ji Eun; Cho, BeLong; Yoo, Sang Ho; Kim, SangYun; Yoo, Jun-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    The present article aimed to provide a comprehensive review of current status of end-of-life (EOL) care and sociocultural considerations in Korea, with focus on the EOL communication and use of advance directives (AD) in elderly Koreans. Through literature review, we discuss the current status of EOL care and sociocultural considerations in Korea, and provide a look-ahead. In Korea, patients often receive life-sustaining treatment until the very end of life. Advance care planning is rare, and most do-not-resuscitate decisions are made between the family and physician at the very end of patient's life. Koreans, influenced mainly by Confucian tradition, prefer a natural death and discontinuation of life-sustaining treatment. Although Koreans generally believe that death is natural and unavoidable, they tend not to think about or discuss death, and regard preparation for death as unnecessary. As a result, AD are completed by just 4.7% of the general adult population. This situation can be explained by several sociocultural characteristics including opting for natural death, wish not to burden others, preference for family involvement and trust in doctor, avoidance of talking about death, and filial piety. Patients often receive life-sustaining treatment until the very EOL, advance care planning and the use of AD is not common in Korea. This was related to unique sociocultural characteristics of Korea. A more active role of physicians, development of a more deliberate EOL discussion process, development of culturally appropriate AD and promotion of advance care planning might be required to provide good EOL care in Korea.

  3. Real-time approximate optimal guidance laws for the advanced launch system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speyer, Jason L.; Feeley, Timothy; Hull, David G.

    1989-01-01

    An approach to optimal ascent guidance for a launch vehicle is developed using an expansion technique. The problem is to maximize the payload put into orbit subject to the equations of motion of a rocket over a rotating spherical earth. It is assumed that the thrust and gravitational forces dominate over the aerodynamic forces. It is shown that these forces can be separated by a small parameter epsilon, where epsilon is the ratio of the atmospheric scale height to the radius of the earth. The Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman or dynamic programming equation is expanded in a series where the zeroth-order term (epsilon = 0) can be obtained in closed form. The zeroth-order problem is that of putting maximum payload into orbit subject to the equations of motion of a rocket in a vacuum over a flat earth. The neglected inertial and aerodynamic terms are included in higher order terms of the expansion, which are determined from the solution of first-order linear partial differential equations requiring only quadrature integrations. These quadrature integrations can be performed rapidly, so that real-time approximate optimization can be used to construct the launch guidance law.

  4. 7 CFR 1948.88 - Direct land acquisition by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... for direct acquisition by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354: (1) The State or... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Direct land acquisition by FmHA or its successor... by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354. (a) FmHA or its successor agency...

  5. 7 CFR 1948.88 - Direct land acquisition by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... for direct acquisition by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354: (1) The State or... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Direct land acquisition by FmHA or its successor... by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354. (a) FmHA or its successor agency...

  6. Advanced shortwave infrared and Raman hyperspectral sensors for homeland security and law enforcement operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klueva, Oksana; Nelson, Matthew P.; Gardner, Charles W.; Gomer, Nathaniel R.

    2015-05-01

    Proliferation of chemical and explosive threats as well as illicit drugs continues to be an escalating danger to civilian and military personnel. Conventional means of detecting and identifying hazardous materials often require the use of reagents and/or physical sampling, which is a time-consuming, costly and often dangerous process. Stand-off detection allows the operator to detect threat residues from a safer distance minimizing danger to people and equipment. Current fielded technologies for standoff detection of chemical and explosive threats are challenged by low area search rates, poor targeting efficiency, lack of sensitivity and specificity or use of costly and potentially unsafe equipment such as lasers. A demand exists for stand-off systems that are fast, safe, reliable and user-friendly. To address this need, ChemImage Sensor Systems™ (CISS) has developed reagent-less, non-contact, non-destructive sensors for the real-time detection of hazardous materials based on widefield shortwave infrared (SWIR) and Raman hyperspectral imaging (HSI). Hyperspectral imaging enables automated target detection displayed in the form of image making result analysis intuitive and user-friendly. Application of the CISS' SWIR-HSI and Raman sensing technologies to Homeland Security and Law Enforcement for standoff detection of homemade explosives and illicit drugs and their precursors in vehicle and personnel checkpoints is discussed. Sensing technologies include a portable, robot-mounted and standalone variants of the technology. Test data is shown that supports the use of SWIR and Raman HSI for explosive and drug screening at checkpoints as well as screening for explosives and drugs at suspected clandestine manufacturing facilities.

  7. Marine legislation--the ultimate 'horrendogram': international law, European directives & national implementation.

    PubMed

    Boyes, Suzanne J; Elliott, Michael

    2014-09-15

    The EU is a pre-eminent player in sustainable development, adopting more than 200 pieces of legislation that have direct repercussions for marine environmental policy and management. Over five decades, measures have aimed to protect the marine environment by tackling the impact of human activities, but maritime affairs have been dealt with by separate sectoral policies without fully integrating all relevant sectors. Such compartmentalisation has resulted in a patchwork of EU legislation and resultant national legislation leading to a piecemeal approach to marine protection. These are superimposed on international obligations emanating from UN and other bodies and are presented here as complex 'horrendograms' showing the complexity across vertical governance. These horrendograms have surprised marine experts despite them acknowledging the many uses and users of the marine environment. Encouragingly since 2000, the evolution in EU policy has progressed to more holistic directives and here we give an overview of this change.

  8. Direct and quantitative AFM measurements of the concentration and temperature dependence of the hydrophobic force law at nanoscopic contacts.

    PubMed

    Stock, Philipp; Utzig, Thomas; Valtiner, Markus

    2015-05-15

    By virtue of its importance for self-organization of biological matter the hydrophobic force law and the range of hydrophobic interactions (HI) have been debated extensively over the last 40 years. Here, we directly measure and quantify the hydrophobic force-distance law over large temperature and concentration ranges. In particular, we study the HI between molecularly smooth hydrophobic self-assembled monolayers, and similarly modified gold-coated AFM tips (radii∼8-50 nm). We present quantitative and direct evidence that the hydrophobic force is both long-ranged and exponential down to distances of about 1-2 nm. Therefore, we introduce a self-consistent radius-normalization for atomic force microscopy data. This approach allows quantitative data fitting of AFM-based experimental data to the recently proposed Hydra-model. With a statistical significance of r(2)⩾0.96 our fitting and data directly reveal an exponential HI decay length of 7.2±1.2 Å that is independent of the salt concentration up to 750 mM. As such, electrostatic screening does not have a significant influence on the HI in electrolyte concentrations ranging from 1 mM to 750 mM. In 1 M solutions the observed instability during approach shifts to longer distances, indicating ion correlation/adsorption effects at high salt concentrations. With increasing temperature the magnitude of HI decreases monotonically, while the range increases slightly. We compare our results to the large body of available literature, and shed new light into range and magnitude of hydrophobic interactions at very close distances and over wide temperature and concentration regimes. PMID:25678158

  9. Extending the Surrogacy Analogy: Applying the Advance Directive Model to Biobanks

    PubMed Central

    Mongoven, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Biobank donors and biobank governance face a conceptual challenge akin to clinical patients and their designated surrogate decision-makers: the necessity of making decisions and policies now that must be implemented under future unknown circumstances. We propose that biobanks take advantage of this parallel to learn lessons from the historical trajectory of advance directives and develop models analogous to current “best practice” advance directives such as values histories and the Five Wishes. We suggest how such models could improve biobanks’ engagement both with communities and with individual donors by being more honest about the limits of current disclosure and eliciting information to ensure protection of donor interests more robustly through time than current “informed consent” processes in biobanking. PMID:25074323

  10. Advance directives and living wills: the role of patient's autonomy in the Brazilian experience.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Eduardo

    2013-12-01

    This paper aims to discuss the development of the notion that the patient has the right to refuse treatment, and how the Brazilian legal system is dealing with bioethical dilemmas, such as the possibility of exercising autonomy through advance directives. The paper discusses the lack of legislation to regulate important issues in the end of life healthcare, and what ethical guidelines exist, providing physicians with ethical and legal parameters to deal with the patient's will.

  11. Navigating Ethical Conflicts Between Advance Directives and Surrogate Decision-Makers' Interpretations of Patient Wishes.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Courtenay R; Bibler, Trevor; Childress, Andrew M; Stephens, Ashley L; Pena, Adam M; Allen, Nathan G

    2016-02-01

    There is little guidance on what clinicians should do when advance directives (or living wills, specifically) are challenged, particularly when surrogate decision-makers' interpretations of patients' wishes conflict with the living will. In our commentary, we make a controversial argument suggesting that overriding living wills can be ethically preferable to the alternative of strictly adhering to them. We propose four ethical considerations for determining whether it is ethically supportable to override living wills.

  12. Beer's-law-based, simple spectral model for direct normal and diffuse horizontal irradiance

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, R.E.

    1982-12-01

    A spectral model for cloudless days that uses simple mathematical expressions and tabulated look-up tables to generate direct normal and diffuse horizontal irradiance is presented. The model is based on modifications to previously published simple models and comparisons with rigorous radiative transfer codes. This model is expected to be more accurate and to be applicable to a broader range of atmospheric conditions than previous simple models. The prime significance of this model is its simplicity, which allows it to be used on small desk-top computers. The spctrum produced by this model is limited to 0.3 to 4.0 ..mu..m wavelength with an approximate resolution of 10 nm.

  13. Direct study of eos mixing laws through an orbital-free-molecular-dynamics point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Flavien; Danel, Jean-Francois; Kazandjian, Luc; Clerouin, Jean

    2008-04-01

    We have investigated eos mixing rules by an approach coupling consistently molecular dynamics for the nuclei and orbital free density functional theory for the electronic fluid. This framework allowed us to study, without mixing approximation, mixtures in the hot and dense regime -- ie a plasma strongly coupled and partially degenerated --, regime relevant for inertial confinement fusion. Several mixtures borrowed from this field have been examined in order to both present the method and check the validity of eos mixing rules commonly used in hydrodynamics simulations. [1] F. Lambert, J. Clerouin, J.-F. Danel, L. Kazandjian, and G. Zerah. Direct verification of mixing rules in the hot and dense regime. Phys. Rev. E, 2007. Submitted. [2] F. Lambert, J. Clerouin, and S. Mazevet. Structural and dynamical properties of hot dense matter by a Thomas-Fermi-Dirac molecular dynamics. Europhysics Lett., 75(5):681--687, 2006.

  14. Impact of California's Air Pollution Laws on Black Carbon and their Implications for Direct Radiative Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahadur, R.; Feng, Y.; Russell, L. M.; Ramanathan, V.

    2010-12-01

    We examine the temporal and the spatial trends in the concentrations of black carbon (BC) - recorded by the IMPROVE monitoring network for the past 20 years - in California. Annual average BC concentrations in California have decreased by about 50% from 0.46 μg m-3 in 1989 to 0.24 μgm-3 in 2008 compared to a corresponding reductions in diesel BC emissions (also about 50%) from a peak of 0.013 Tg Yr-1 in 1990 to 0.006 Tg Yr-1 by 2008. We attribute the observed negative trends to the deployment of diesel particulate filters. Our conclusion that the reduction in diesel emissions is the primary cause of the observed BC reduction is also substantiated by a significant decrease in the ratio of BC to non-BC aerosols. The absorption efficiency of aerosols at visible wavelengths - determined from the observed scattering coefficient and the observed BC - also decreased by about 50% leading to a model-inferred negative direct radiative forcing (a cooling effect) of -1.4 Wm-2 (±60%) over California. Figure 1 (a) Annual means of measured Black Carbon (left axis) and BC fossil fuel emissions (right axis) in California from 1985 to 2008. Error bars correspond to standard deviation between measurements at each station. Dashed lines indicate a linear fit. Aerosol measurements from the IMPROVE network, emission inventories from (1) CARB, (2) [Ito and Penner, 2005] (b) Annual means of BC measured in Southern (South of 35 N), Northern (North of 38 N), and Central California (c) Annual means of measured Sulfate, Nitrate, and OC from IMPROVE network.

  15. Nitroreductase gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy: insights and advances toward clinical utility.

    PubMed

    Williams, Elsie M; Little, Rory F; Mowday, Alexandra M; Rich, Michelle H; Chan-Hyams, Jasmine V E; Copp, Janine N; Smaill, Jeff B; Patterson, Adam V; Ackerley, David F

    2015-10-15

    This review examines the vast catalytic and therapeutic potential offered by type I (i.e. oxygen-insensitive) nitroreductase enzymes in partnership with nitroaromatic prodrugs, with particular focus on gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT; a form of cancer gene therapy). Important first indications of this potential were demonstrated over 20 years ago, for the enzyme-prodrug pairing of Escherichia coli NfsB and CB1954 [5-(aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide]. However, it has become apparent that both the enzyme and the prodrug in this prototypical pairing have limitations that have impeded their clinical progression. Recently, substantial advances have been made in the biodiscovery and engineering of superior nitroreductase variants, in particular development of elegant high-throughput screening capabilities to enable optimization of desirable activities via directed evolution. These advances in enzymology have been paralleled by advances in medicinal chemistry, leading to the development of second- and third-generation nitroaromatic prodrugs that offer substantial advantages over CB1954 for nitroreductase GDEPT, including greater dose-potency and enhanced ability of the activated metabolite(s) to exhibit a local bystander effect. In addition to forging substantial progress towards future clinical trials, this research is supporting other fields, most notably the development and improvement of targeted cellular ablation capabilities in small animal models, such as zebrafish, to enable cell-specific physiology or regeneration studies.

  16. Consciousness in humans and non-human animals: recent advances and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Boly, Melanie; Seth, Anil K.; Wilke, Melanie; Ingmundson, Paul; Baars, Bernard; Laureys, Steven; Edelman, David B.; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu

    2013-01-01

    This joint article reflects the authors' personal views regarding noteworthy advances in the neuroscience of consciousness in the last 10 years, and suggests what we feel may be promising future directions. It is based on a small conference at the Samoset Resort in Rockport, Maine, USA, in July of 2012, organized by the Mind Science Foundation of San Antonio, Texas. Here, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of subjectivity in humans and other animals, including empirical, applied, technical, and conceptual insights. These include the evidence for the importance of fronto-parietal connectivity and of “top-down” processes, both of which enable information to travel across distant cortical areas effectively, as well as numerous dissociations between consciousness and cognitive functions, such as attention, in humans. In addition, we describe the development of mental imagery paradigms, which made it possible to identify covert awareness in non-responsive subjects. Non-human animal consciousness research has also witnessed substantial advances on the specific role of cortical areas and higher order thalamus for consciousness, thanks to important technological enhancements. In addition, much progress has been made in the understanding of non-vertebrate cognition relevant to possible conscious states. Finally, major advances have been made in theories of consciousness, and also in their comparison with the available evidence. Along with reviewing these findings, each author suggests future avenues for research in their field of investigation. PMID:24198791

  17. Progress in the Development of Direct Osmotic Concentration Wastewater Recovery Process for Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cath, Tzahi Y.; Adams, Dean V.; Childress, Amy; Gormly, Sherwin; Flynn, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Direct osmotic concentration (DOC) has been identified as a high potential technology for recycling of wastewater to drinking water in advanced life support (ALS) systems. As a result the DOC process has been selected for a NASA Rapid Technology Development Team (RTDT) effort. The existing prototype system has been developed to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 3. The current project focuses on advancing the development of this technology from TRL 3 to TRL 6 (appropriate for human rated testing). A new prototype of a DOC system is been designed and fabricated that addresses the deficiencies encountered during the testing of the original system and allowing the new prototype to achieve TRL 6. Background information is provided about the technologies investigated and their capabilities, results from preliminary tests, and the milestones plan and activities for the RTDT program intended to develop a second generation prototype of the DOC system.

  18. (AADSF) Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace Onboard STS-87 USMP-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the experiments for the Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF) is to determine how gravity-driven convection affects the composition and properties of alloys (mixtures of two or more materials, usually metal). During the USMP-4 mission, the AADSF will solidify crystals of lead tin telluride and mercury cadmium telluride, alloys of compound semiconductor materials used to make infrared detectors and lasers, as experiment samples. Although these materials are used for the same type application their properties and compositional uniformity are affected differently during the solidification process.

  19. Innovative pacing: Recent advances, emerging technologies, and future directions in cardiac pacing.

    PubMed

    Austin, Christopher; Kusumoto, Fred

    2016-07-01

    The field of cardiovascular medicine is rapidly evolving as advancements in technology and engineering provide clinicians new and exciting ways to care for an aging population. Cardiac pacing, in particular, has seen a series of game-changing technologies emerge in the past several years spurred by low-power electronics, high density batteries, improved catheter delivery systems and innovative software design. We look at several of these emerging pacemaker technologies, discussing the rationale, current state and future directions of these pioneering developments in electrophysiology. PMID:27017442

  20. The Recent Revolution in the Design and Manufacture of Cranial Implants: Modern Advancements and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Bonda, David J; Manjila, Sunil; Selman, Warren R; Dean, David

    2015-11-01

    Large format (i.e., >25 cm) cranioplasty is a challenging procedure not only from a cosmesis standpoint, but also in terms of ensuring that the patient's brain will be well-protected from direct trauma. Until recently, when a patient's own cranial flap was unavailable, these goals were unattainable. Recent advances in implant computer-aided design and 3-dimensional (3-D) printing are leveraging other advances in regenerative medicine. It is now possible to 3-D-print patient-specific implants from a variety of polymer, ceramic, or metal components. A skull template may be used to design the external shape of an implant that will become well integrated in the skull, while also providing beneficial distribution of mechanical force in the event of trauma. Furthermore, an internal pore geometry can be utilized to facilitate the seeding of banked allograft cells. Implants may be cultured in a bioreactor along with recombinant growth factors to produce implants coated with bone progenitor cells and extracellular matrix that appear to the body as a graft, albeit a tissue-engineered graft. The growth factors would be left behind in the bioreactor and the graft would resorb as new host bone invades the space and is remodeled into strong bone. As we describe in this review, such advancements will lead to optimal replacement of cranial defects that are both patient-specific and regenerative. PMID:26171578

  1. [The periodic health examination: from law to the directive of the German Federal Joint Committee (G-BA)].

    PubMed

    Perleth, Matthias; Matthias, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Since 1989 a periodic health examination beginning at the age of 35 for the early detection of "common diseases" (especially cardiovascular and kidney diseases as well as diabetes) by means of history-taking, physical examination, blood and urine tests and counselling has been available in Germany. Altogether, the respective directive of the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA) was revised six times, but a substantive change took place only once (i. e., the cancellation of uric acid, creatinine, and resting ECG in 1999). However, additional examinations (e.g., glaucoma screening) were not added to the health check after systematic assessments of the evidence were completed. In the mid-1990s, several evaluations were performed which showed that new diagnoses were established in a significant proportion of patients, and measures were initiated such as nutrition counselling. A patient-relevant benefit in terms of avoided adverse events (such as heart attacks) could, however, not be demonstrated due to methodological reasons. Criticism of the health examination is not new, in particular concerning the lack of evidence of benefit for the diagnostic procedures of the health examination. A draft law issued by the former Federal Government proposing an amendment to the health examination has recently been rejected in the Bundesrat (upper house of the German parliament).

  2. Advances in the development of catalytic tethering directing groups for C-H functionalization reactions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huan; Guimond, Nicolas; Huang, Yong

    2016-09-28

    Transition metal-catalyzed C-H bond insertion is one of the most straightforward strategies to introduce functionalities within a hydrocarbon microenvironment. For the past two decades, selective activation and functionalization of certain inert C-H bonds have been made possible with the help of directing groups (DGs). Despite the enormous advances in the field, an overwhelming majority of systems require two extra steps from their simple precursors: installation and removal of the DGs. Recently, traceless and multitasking groups were invented as a partial solution to DG release. However, installation remains largely unsolved. Ideally, a transient, catalytic DG would circumvent this problem and increase the step- and atom-economy of C-H functionalization processes. In this review, we summarize the recent development of the transient tethering strategy for C-H activation reactions. PMID:27506568

  3. A coaxial subharmonic cavity design for direct injection at the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Waldschmidt, G.; Nassiri, A.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2006-01-01

    Coaxial subharmonic cavity designs are being investigated at the Advanced Photon Source to improve injector reliability by injecting beam directly from the linac to the booster in storage ring top-up mode. The subharmonic system must operate jointly with the present 352-MHz booster to accelerate the beam to 7 GeV with minimal beam degradation. Design considerations must be made to ensure that bunch purity is maintained and that a large percentage of the linac macropulse is captured. An analysis of rf cavity designs using electromagnetic simulation software has been conducted at 29 MHz and 117 MHz. Higher-order modes are evaluated as well as the total power loss and peak surface fields produced at the required gap voltage.

  4. Proceedings of the advanced research and technology development direct utilization, instrumentation and diagnostics contractors' review meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Geiling, D.W. ); Goldberg, P.M. )

    1990-01-01

    The 1990 Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Direct Utilization, and Instrumentation and Diagnostics Contractors Review Meeting was held September 16--18, 1990, at the Hyatt at Chatham Center in Pittsburgh, PA. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, and the Pittsburgh and Morgantown Energy Technology Centers. Each year the meeting provides a forum for the exchange of information among the DOE AR TD contractors and interested parties. This year's meeting was hosted by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and was attended by 120 individuals from industry, academia, national laboratories, and other governmental agencies. Papers were presented on research addressing coal surface, science, devolatilization and combustion, ash behavior, emission controls for gases particulates, fluid bed combustion and utilization in diesels and turbines. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  5. Advance directives in home health and hospice agencies: United States, 2007.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Helaine E; Hickman, Susan E; Foster, Gregory L

    2011-11-01

    This report provides nationally representative data on policies, storage, and implementation of advance directives (ADs) in home health and hospice (HHH) agencies in the United States using the National Home and Hospice Care Survey. Federally mandated ADs policies were followed in >93% of all agencies. Nearly all agencies stored ADs in a file at the agency, but only half stored them at the patient's residence. Nearly all agencies informed staff about the AD, but only 77% and 72% of home health agencies informed the attending physician and next-of-kin, respectively. Home health and hospice agencies are nearly universally compliant with ADs policies that are required in order to receive Medicare and Medicaid payments, but have much lower rates of adoption of ADs policies beyond federally mandated minimums. PMID:21398271

  6. A Qualitative Analysis of an Advanced Practice Nurse–Directed Transitional Care Model Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Bradway, Christine; Trotta, Rebecca; Bixby, M.Brian; McPartland, Ellen; Wollman, M. Catherine; Kapustka, Heidi; McCauley, Kathleen; Naylor, Mary D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe barriers and facilitators to implementing a transitional care intervention for cognitively impaired older adults and their caregivers lead by advanced practice nurses (APNs). Design and Methods: APNs implemented an evidence-based protocol to optimize transitions from hospital to home. An exploratory, qualitative directed content analysis examined 15 narrative case summaries written by APNs and fieldnotes from biweekly case conferences. Results: Three central themes emerged: patients and caregivers having the necessary information and knowledge, care coordination, and the caregiver experience. An additional category was also identified, APNs going above and beyond. Implications: APNs implemented individualized approaches and provided care that exceeds the type of care typically staffed and reimbursed in the American health care system by applying a Transitional Care Model, advanced clinical judgment, and doing whatever was necessary to prevent negative outcomes. Reimbursement reform as well as more formalized support systems and resources are necessary for APNs to consistently provide such care to patients and their caregivers during this vulnerable time of transition. PMID:21908805

  7. Communicating advance directives from long-term care facilities to emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Pauls, M A; Singer, P A; Dubinsky, I

    2001-07-01

    Many residents of long-term care (LTC) facilities are transferred to Emergency Departments without advance directives (AD). The goal of this study was to describe an ideal model for the transfer of AD from LTC facilities to Emergency Departments. Health care providers were asked to describe their ideal model for the completion and transfer of the ADs of LTC residents. A grounded theory methodology was used to identify significant themes. The model we present as a result of this analysis acknowledges the importance of simplifying and standardizing ADs, but focuses more attention on the process of completing and transferring the AD. A key feature of this model is an emphasis on the education of LTC residents and their relatives about ADs and advance-care planning. This education should involve a variety of resources used in creative ways; it should begin as soon as LTC placement is being considered, and the emphasis should be on providing information and discussing options rather than pressuring residents to make a decision.

  8. Tuberculosis--advances in development of new drugs, treatment regimens, host-directed therapies, and biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Robert S; Maeurer, Markus; Mwaba, Peter; Chakaya, Jeremiah; Rustomjee, Roxana; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Marais, Ben; Schito, Marco; Churchyard, Gavin; Swaminathan, Soumya; Hoelscher, Michael; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2016-04-01

    Tuberculosis is the leading infectious cause of death worldwide, with 9·6 million cases and 1·5 million deaths reported in 2014. WHO estimates 480,000 cases of these were multidrug resistant (MDR). Less than half of patients who entered into treatment for MDR tuberculosis successfully completed that treatment, mainly due to high mortality and loss to follow-up. These in turn illustrate weaknesses in current treatment regimens and national tuberculosis programmes, coupled with operational treatment challenges. In this Review we provide an update on recent developments in the tuberculosis drug-development pipeline (including new and repurposed antimicrobials and host-directed drugs) as they are applied to new regimens to shorten and improve outcomes of tuberculosis treatment. Several new or repurposed antimicrobial drugs are in advanced trial stages for MDR tuberculosis, and two new antimicrobial drug candidates are in early-stage trials. Several trials to reduce the duration of therapy in MDR and drug-susceptible tuberculosis are ongoing. A wide range of candidate host-directed therapies are being developed to accelerate eradication of infection, prevent new drug resistance, and prevent permanent lung injury. As these drugs have been approved for other clinical indications, they are now ready for repurposing for tuberculosis in phase 2 clinical trials. We assess risks associated with evaluation of new treatment regimens, and highlight opportunities to advance tuberculosis research generally through regulatory innovation in MDR tuberculosis. Progress in tuberculosis-specific biomarkers (including culture conversion, PET and CT imaging, and gene expression profiles) can support this innovation. Several global initiatives now provide unique opportunities to tackle the tuberculosis epidemic through collaborative partnerships between high-income countries and middle-income and low-income countries for clinical trials training and research, allowing funders to

  9. Early experience with digital advance care planning and directives, a novel consumer-driven program.

    PubMed

    Fine, Robert L; Yang, Zhiyong; Spivey, Christy; Boardman, Bonnie; Courtney, Maureen

    2016-07-01

    Barriers to traditional advance care planning (ACP) and advance directive (AD) creation have limited the promise of ACP/AD for individuals and families, the healthcare team, and society. Our objectives were to determine the results of a digital ACP/AD through which consumers create, store, locate, and retrieve their ACP/AD at no charge and with minimal physician involvement, and the ACP/AD can be integrated into the electronic health record. The authors chose 900 users of MyDirectives, a digital ACP/AD tool, to achieve proportional representation of all 50 states by population size and then reviewed their responses. The 900 participants had an average age of 50.8 years (SD = 16.6); 84% of the men and 91% of the women were in self-reported good health when signing their ADs. Among the respondents, 94% wanted their physicians to consult a supportive and palliative care team if they were seriously ill; nearly 85% preferred cessation of life-sustaining treatments during their final days; 76% preferred to spend their final days at home or in a hospice; and 70% would accept attempted cardiopulmonary resuscitation in limited circumstances. Most respondents wanted an autopsy under certain conditions, and 62% wished to donate their organs. In conclusion, analysis of early experience with this ACP/AD platform demonstrates that individuals of different ages and conditions can engage in an interrogatory process about values, develop ADs that are more nuanced than traditional paper-based ADs in reflecting those values, and easily make changes to their ADs. Online ADs have the potential to remove barriers to ACP/AD and thus further improve patient-centered end-of-life care.

  10. Degradation pathways of lamotrigine under advanced treatment by direct UV photolysis, hydroxyl radicals, and ozone.

    PubMed

    Keen, Olya S; Ferrer, Imma; Michael Thurman, E; Linden, Karl G

    2014-12-01

    Lamotrigine is recently recognized as a persistent pharmaceutical in the water environment and wastewater effluents. Its degradation was studied under UV and ozone advanced oxidation treatments with reaction kinetics of lamotrigine with ozone (≈4 M(-1)s(-1)), hydroxyl radical [(2.1 ± 0.3) × 10(9)M(-1)s(-1)] and by UV photolysis with low and medium pressure mercury vapor lamps [quantum yields ≈0 and (2.7 ± 0.4)× 10(-4) respectively] determined. All constants were measured at pH 6 and at temperature ≈20°C. The results indicate that lamotrigine is slow to respond to direct photolysis or oxidation by ozone and no attenuation of the contaminant is expected in UV or ozone disinfection applications. The compound reacts rapidly with hydroxyl radicals indicating that advanced oxidation processes would be effective for its treatment. Degradation products were identified under each treatment process using accurate mass time-of-flight spectrometry and pathways of decay were proposed. The main transformation pathways in each process were: dechlorination of the benzene ring during direct photolysis; hydroxyl group addition to the benzene ring during the reaction with hydroxyl radicals; and triazine ring opening after reaction with ozone. Different products that form in each process may be to a varying degree less environmentally stable than the parent lamotrigine. In addition, a novel method of ozone quenching without addition of salts is presented. The new quenching method would allow subsequent mass spectrometry analysis without a solid phase extraction clean-up step. The method involves raising the pH of the sample to approximately 10 for a few seconds and lowering it back and is therefore limited to applications for which temporary pH change is not expected to affect the outcome of the analysis.

  11. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units. Final report, Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The Advanced Concepts for Direct Coal Liquefaction program was initiated by the Department of Energy in 1991 to develop technologies that could significantly reduce the cost of producing liquid fuels by the direct liquefaction of coal. The advanced 2-stage liquefaction technology that was developed at Wilsonville over the past 10 years has contributed significantly toward decreasing the cost of producing liquids from coal to about $33/bbl. It remains, however, the objective of DOE to further reduce this cost to a level more competitive with petroleum based products. This project, among others, was initiated to investigate various alternative approaches to develop technologies that might ultimately lead to a 25 % reduction in cost of product. In this project a number of novel concepts were investigated, either individually or in a coupled configuration that had the potential to contribute toward meeting the DOE goal. The concepts included mature technologies or ones closely related to them, such as coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, fluid coking and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. Other approaches that were either embryonic or less developed were chemical pretreatment of coal to remove oxygen, and dispersed catalyst development for application in the 2-stage liquefaction process. This report presents the results of this project. It is arranged in four sections which were prepared by participating organizations responsible for that phase of the project. A summary of the overall project and the principal results are given in this section. First, however, an overview of the process economics and the process concepts that were developed during the course of this program is presented.

  12. Early experience with digital advance care planning and directives, a novel consumer-driven program

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhiyong; Spivey, Christy; Boardman, Bonnie; Courtney, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Barriers to traditional advance care planning (ACP) and advance directive (AD) creation have limited the promise of ACP/AD for individuals and families, the healthcare team, and society. Our objectives were to determine the results of a digital ACP/AD through which consumers create, store, locate, and retrieve their ACP/AD at no charge and with minimal physician involvement, and the ACP/AD can be integrated into the electronic health record. The authors chose 900 users of MyDirectives, a digital ACP/AD tool, to achieve proportional representation of all 50 states by population size and then reviewed their responses. The 900 participants had an average age of 50.8 years (SD = 16.6); 84% of the men and 91% of the women were in self-reported good health when signing their ADs. Among the respondents, 94% wanted their physicians to consult a supportive and palliative care team if they were seriously ill; nearly 85% preferred cessation of life-sustaining treatments during their final days; 76% preferred to spend their final days at home or in a hospice; and 70% would accept attempted cardiopulmonary resuscitation in limited circumstances. Most respondents wanted an autopsy under certain conditions, and 62% wished to donate their organs. In conclusion, analysis of early experience with this ACP/AD platform demonstrates that individuals of different ages and conditions can engage in an interrogatory process about values, develop ADs that are more nuanced than traditional paper-based ADs in reflecting those values, and easily make changes to their ADs. Online ADs have the potential to remove barriers to ACP/AD and thus further improve patient-centered end-of-life care. PMID:27365867

  13. Tuberculosis--advances in development of new drugs, treatment regimens, host-directed therapies, and biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Robert S; Maeurer, Markus; Mwaba, Peter; Chakaya, Jeremiah; Rustomjee, Roxana; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Marais, Ben; Schito, Marco; Churchyard, Gavin; Swaminathan, Soumya; Hoelscher, Michael; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2016-04-01

    Tuberculosis is the leading infectious cause of death worldwide, with 9·6 million cases and 1·5 million deaths reported in 2014. WHO estimates 480,000 cases of these were multidrug resistant (MDR). Less than half of patients who entered into treatment for MDR tuberculosis successfully completed that treatment, mainly due to high mortality and loss to follow-up. These in turn illustrate weaknesses in current treatment regimens and national tuberculosis programmes, coupled with operational treatment challenges. In this Review we provide an update on recent developments in the tuberculosis drug-development pipeline (including new and repurposed antimicrobials and host-directed drugs) as they are applied to new regimens to shorten and improve outcomes of tuberculosis treatment. Several new or repurposed antimicrobial drugs are in advanced trial stages for MDR tuberculosis, and two new antimicrobial drug candidates are in early-stage trials. Several trials to reduce the duration of therapy in MDR and drug-susceptible tuberculosis are ongoing. A wide range of candidate host-directed therapies are being developed to accelerate eradication of infection, prevent new drug resistance, and prevent permanent lung injury. As these drugs have been approved for other clinical indications, they are now ready for repurposing for tuberculosis in phase 2 clinical trials. We assess risks associated with evaluation of new treatment regimens, and highlight opportunities to advance tuberculosis research generally through regulatory innovation in MDR tuberculosis. Progress in tuberculosis-specific biomarkers (including culture conversion, PET and CT imaging, and gene expression profiles) can support this innovation. Several global initiatives now provide unique opportunities to tackle the tuberculosis epidemic through collaborative partnerships between high-income countries and middle-income and low-income countries for clinical trials training and research, allowing funders to

  14. Early experience with digital advance care planning and directives, a novel consumer-driven program.

    PubMed

    Fine, Robert L; Yang, Zhiyong; Spivey, Christy; Boardman, Bonnie; Courtney, Maureen

    2016-07-01

    Barriers to traditional advance care planning (ACP) and advance directive (AD) creation have limited the promise of ACP/AD for individuals and families, the healthcare team, and society. Our objectives were to determine the results of a digital ACP/AD through which consumers create, store, locate, and retrieve their ACP/AD at no charge and with minimal physician involvement, and the ACP/AD can be integrated into the electronic health record. The authors chose 900 users of MyDirectives, a digital ACP/AD tool, to achieve proportional representation of all 50 states by population size and then reviewed their responses. The 900 participants had an average age of 50.8 years (SD = 16.6); 84% of the men and 91% of the women were in self-reported good health when signing their ADs. Among the respondents, 94% wanted their physicians to consult a supportive and palliative care team if they were seriously ill; nearly 85% preferred cessation of life-sustaining treatments during their final days; 76% preferred to spend their final days at home or in a hospice; and 70% would accept attempted cardiopulmonary resuscitation in limited circumstances. Most respondents wanted an autopsy under certain conditions, and 62% wished to donate their organs. In conclusion, analysis of early experience with this ACP/AD platform demonstrates that individuals of different ages and conditions can engage in an interrogatory process about values, develop ADs that are more nuanced than traditional paper-based ADs in reflecting those values, and easily make changes to their ADs. Online ADs have the potential to remove barriers to ACP/AD and thus further improve patient-centered end-of-life care. PMID:27365867

  15. A direct-execution parallel architecture for the Advanced Continuous Simulation Language (ACSL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Chester C.; Owen, Jeffrey E.

    1988-01-01

    A direct-execution parallel architecture for the Advanced Continuous Simulation Language (ACSL) is presented which overcomes the traditional disadvantages of simulations executed on a digital computer. The incorporation of parallel processing allows the mapping of simulations into a digital computer to be done in the same inherently parallel manner as they are currently mapped onto an analog computer. The direct-execution format maximizes the efficiency of the executed code since the need for a high level language compiler is eliminated. Resolution is greatly increased over that which is available with an analog computer without the sacrifice in execution speed normally expected with digitial computer simulations. Although this report covers all aspects of the new architecture, key emphasis is placed on the processing element configuration and the microprogramming of the ACLS constructs. The execution times for all ACLS constructs are computed using a model of a processing element based on the AMD 29000 CPU and the AMD 29027 FPU. The increase in execution speed provided by parallel processing is exemplified by comparing the derived execution times of two ACSL programs with the execution times for the same programs executed on a similar sequential architecture.

  16. Psychiatric Advance Directives as a complex and multistage intervention: a realist systematic review.

    PubMed

    Nicaise, Pablo; Lorant, Vincent; Dubois, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatric Advance Directives (PADs) are documents that allow users with severe and chronic mental illnesses to notify their treatment preferences for future crisis relapses and to appoint a surrogate decision-maker for a period of incompetence. Despite many supposed clinical and organisational benefits, their take-up rate has remained very low and their clinical evaluation has given contradictory results for organisational outcomes. Intermediary results are available, however, which rely on different theoretical views about how PADs are supposed to work. We carried out a realist systematic review that considered the PAD as a multistage intervention including the definition of the document, its completion and its access and honouring. We identified the theoretical frameworks underlying this kind of intervention and examined the available evidence that supported or contradicted the expectations at each stage of the intervention. Forty-seven references were retrieved, ranging from 1996 to 2009. Three frameworks underlie a PAD intervention: enhancement of the autonomy of the user, improvement of the therapeutic alliance and integration of care through partnership working. Although designed in the first place with a view to sustaining the user's autonomy, results indicate that the intervention is more efficient within a therapeutic alliance framework. Moreover, much is known about the completion process and the content of the document, but very little about its access and honouring. The mixture of expectations makes the purpose of PADs unclear, for example, crisis relapse prevention or management, advance planning of long-term or emergency care, or reduction in the resort to coercion. This may explain their low take-up rates. Hence, frameworks and purpose have to be clarified. The shape of the whole intervention at each stage relies on such clarification. More research is needed, particularly on the later stages of the intervention, as the evidence for how PADs should

  17. On the link between particle size and deviations from the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law for direct transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Michael L.; Clark, Aaron S.

    2014-01-01

    Ballistic photon models of radiative transfer in discrete absorbing random media have demonstrated deviations from the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law of exponential attenuation. A number of theoretical constructs to quantify the deviation from the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law have appeared in the literature, several of which rely principally on a statistical measure related to the statistics of the absorber spatial positions alone. Here, we utilize a simple computational model to explore the interplay between the geometric size of the absorbing obstacles and the statistics governing the placement of the absorbers in the volume. We find that a description of the volume that depends on particle size and the spatial statistics of absorbers is not sufficient to fully characterize deviations from the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law. Implications for future further theoretical and computational explorations of the problem are explored.

  18. A growth model for directed complex networks with power-law shape in the out-degree distribution.

    PubMed

    Esquivel-Gómez, J; Stevens-Navarro, E; Pineda-Rico, U; Acosta-Elias, J

    2015-01-01

    Many growth models have been published to model the behavior of real complex networks. These models are able to reproduce several of the topological properties of such networks. However, in most of these growth models, the number of outgoing links (i.e., out-degree) of nodes added to the network is constant, that is all nodes in the network are born with the same number of outgoing links. In other models, the resultant out-degree distribution decays as a poisson or an exponential distribution. However, it has been found that in real complex networks, the out-degree distribution decays as a power-law. In order to obtain out-degree distribution with power-law behavior some models have been proposed. This work introduces a new model that allows to obtain out-degree distributions that decay as a power-law with an exponent in the range from 0 to 1. PMID:25567141

  19. A growth model for directed complex networks with power-law shape in the out-degree distribution

    PubMed Central

    Esquivel-Gómez, J.; Stevens-Navarro, E.; Pineda-Rico, U.; Acosta-Elias, J.

    2015-01-01

    Many growth models have been published to model the behavior of real complex networks. These models are able to reproduce several of the topological properties of such networks. However, in most of these growth models, the number of outgoing links (i.e., out-degree) of nodes added to the network is constant, that is all nodes in the network are born with the same number of outgoing links. In other models, the resultant out-degree distribution decays as a poisson or an exponential distribution. However, it has been found that in real complex networks, the out-degree distribution decays as a power-law. In order to obtain out-degree distribution with power-law behavior some models have been proposed. This work introduces a new model that allows to obtain out-degree distributions that decay as a power-law with an exponent in the range from 0 to 1. PMID:25567141

  20. Advanced Foreign Language Learning: A Challenge to College Programs. Issues in Language Program Direction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Heidi, Ed.; Maxim, Hiram H., Ed.

    This book includes the following chapters: "Literacy and Advanced Foreign Language Learning: Rethinking he Curriculum" (Richard G. Kern); "A Template for Advanced Learner Tasks: Staging Genre Reading and Cultural Literacy Through the Precis" (Janet Swaffar); "Fostering Advanced L2 Literacy: A Genre-Based, Cognitive Approach" (Heidi Byrnes,…

  1. [Respecting patient's end of life wishes: feasibility study of an information on surrogate and advance directives].

    PubMed

    Vinant, Pascale; Rousseau, Isabelle; Huillard, Olivier; Goldwasser, François; Guillard, Marie-Yvonne; Colombet, Isabelle

    2015-03-01

    This prospective interventional study aims to show the feasibility and impact of information procedure on surrogate and advance directives (AD), for patients with incurable lung or gastrointestinal cancer. The intervention consisted of two semi-structured interviews. The first included: collection of preferences for prognostic information and involvement in decision-making, initial assessment of knowledge, information and surrogate and DA. The second assessed the impact of the first interview on knowledge, surrogate designation and DA writing, the assessment procedure by the patient and assessment of anxiety generated. Among 77 eligible patients, 23 (30 %) were included, 6/29 (21 %) refused to participate, 20/23 (87 %) completed both interviews. Patients not included had a higher 4-month death rate than included ones (39 % vs. 4 %, P=0.002). Patients included had high expectations of information and appreciated it be delivered early, by someone not involved in their care. The study shows the feasibility of the procedure and its impact on the use of surrogate and DA by patients, however, revealing the complexity of approaching end-of-life wills and the importance of a process of anticipated discussion.

  2. Therapeutic Rationales, Progresses, Failures, and Future Directions for Advanced Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wadosky, Kristine M; Koochekpour, Shahriar

    2016-01-01

    Patients with localized prostate cancer (PCa) have several therapeutic options with good prognosis. However, survival of patients with high-risk, advanced PCa is significantly less than patients with early-stage, organ-confined disease. Testosterone and other androgens have been directly linked to PCa progression since 1941. In this review, we chronicle the discoveries that led to modern therapeutic strategies for PCa. Specifically highlighted is the biology of androgen receptor (AR), the nuclear receptor transcription factor largely responsible for androgen-stimulated and castrate-recurrent (CR) PCa. Current PCa treatment paradigms can be classified into three distinct but interrelated categories: targeting AR at pre-receptor, receptor, or post-receptor signaling. The continuing challenge of disease relapse as CR and/or metastatic tumors, destined to occur within three years of the initial treatment, is also discussed. We conclude that the success of PCa therapies in the future depends on targeting molecular mechanisms underlying tumor recurrence that still may affect AR at pre-receptor, receptor, and post-receptor levels. PMID:27019626

  3. The Attitudes of Chinese Cancer Patients and Family Caregivers toward Advance Directives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiu; Xie, Chuanbo; Xie, Shanghang; Liu, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Advance directives (ADs) have been legislated in many countries to protect patient autonomy regarding medical decisions at the end of life. China is facing a serious cancer burden and cancer patients' quality at the end of life should be a concern. However, limited studies have been conducted locally to gather information about attitudes toward ADs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of Chinese cancer patients and family caregivers toward ADs and to explore the predictors that are associated with attitudes. The study indicated that although there was low awareness of ADs, most cancer patients and family caregivers had positive attitudes toward ADs after related information was explained to them. Participants preferred to discuss ADs with medical staff when they were diagnosed with a life-threatening disease. Preferences for refusing life-sustaining treatment and choosing Hospice-Palliative Care (HPC) at the end of life would increase the likelihood of agreeing with ADs. This suggests that some effective interventions to help participants better understand end-of-life treatments are helpful in promoting ADs. Moreover, the development of HPC would contribute to Chinese cancer patients and family caregivers agreeing with ADs. PMID:27529264

  4. [Respecting patient's end of life wishes: feasibility study of an information on surrogate and advance directives].

    PubMed

    Vinant, Pascale; Rousseau, Isabelle; Huillard, Olivier; Goldwasser, François; Guillard, Marie-Yvonne; Colombet, Isabelle

    2015-03-01

    This prospective interventional study aims to show the feasibility and impact of information procedure on surrogate and advance directives (AD), for patients with incurable lung or gastrointestinal cancer. The intervention consisted of two semi-structured interviews. The first included: collection of preferences for prognostic information and involvement in decision-making, initial assessment of knowledge, information and surrogate and DA. The second assessed the impact of the first interview on knowledge, surrogate designation and DA writing, the assessment procedure by the patient and assessment of anxiety generated. Among 77 eligible patients, 23 (30 %) were included, 6/29 (21 %) refused to participate, 20/23 (87 %) completed both interviews. Patients not included had a higher 4-month death rate than included ones (39 % vs. 4 %, P=0.002). Patients included had high expectations of information and appreciated it be delivered early, by someone not involved in their care. The study shows the feasibility of the procedure and its impact on the use of surrogate and DA by patients, however, revealing the complexity of approaching end-of-life wills and the importance of a process of anticipated discussion. PMID:25732047

  5. [Physicians' views and perspectives on advanced directives in patients with incipient dementia].

    PubMed

    Mattiussi, Mercedes; Dawidowski, Adriana; Restibo, Jimena; Pollán, Javier; Pezzano, Laura; Cámera, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Dementia is a progressive disease in which patients lose their ability to decide and communicate. Advance directives (AD) allow patients to express their preferences on end of life care in the early stages of the disease. Primary care practitioners (PCP) are in the best position to promote AD. The aim of this study was to elicit PCPs views about the discussion of AD with early stage dementia patients. A qualitative approach was taken, focus groups and individual interviews to elderly patients' PCPs from the Hospital italiano de buenos aires were conducted. A purposive sampling was performed, conforming homogeneous groups according to age and seniority. The discussion was stimulated by a vignette. We performed thematic content analysis in an interdisciplinary team. Twelve PCPs = 30 year of age, 32 middle-aged and 8 over 45 years participated of the study. The youngest group favored the discussion of AD while those over 45 regarded the family as the decision maker, and thus, the discussion as useless. Besides, they expressed that our society is not mature enough to discuss AD. Difficulties in AD implementation, in predicting the evolution of a patient's disease, the span of time between the discussion and AD implementation, lack of legislation and specific institutional policies were other factors that conditioned the discussion. Younger PCPs expressed concern on the lack of communication skills and difficulties to broach this subject with patients. PCPs perspectives on AD vary, their age should be taken into account when designing strategies to their implementation.

  6. Intricate decision making: ambivalences and barriers when fulfilling an advance directive

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Lars; Hommel, Gerhard; Sahm, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite a recent statutory ruling stating the binding nature of advance directives (ADs), only a minority of the population has signed one. Yet, a majority deem it of utmost importance to ensure their wishes are followed through in case they are no longer able to decide. The reasons for this discrepancy have not yet been investigated sufficiently. Patients and methods This article is based on a survey of patients using a well-established structured questionnaire. First, patients were asked about their attitudes with respect to six therapeutic options at the end of life: intravenous fluids, artificial feeding, antibiotics, analgesia, chemotherapy/dialysis, and artificial ventilation; and second, they were asked about the negative effects related to the idea of ADs surveying their apprehensions: coercion to fulfill an AD, dictatorial reading of what had been laid down, and abuse of ADs. Results A total of 1,260 interviewees completed the questionnaires. A significant percentage of interviewees were indecisive with respect to therapeutic options, ranging from 25% (analgesia) to 45% (artificial feeding). There was no connection to health status. Apprehensions about unwanted effects of ADs were widespread, at 51%, 35%, and 43% for coercion, dictatorial reading, and abuse, respectively. Conclusion A significant percentage of interviewees were unable to anticipate decisions about treatment options at the end of life. Apprehensions about negative adverse effects of ADs are widespread. PMID:27574407

  7. [A case of advanced esophageal cancer with direct bronchial invasion successfully treated by multidisciplinary therapy].

    PubMed

    Haba, Yusuke; Okamoto, Koichi; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Tsukada, Tomoya; Kinoshita, Jun; Makino, Isamu; Nakamura, Keishi; Oyama, Katsunobu; Ninomiya, Itasu; Fushida, Sachio; Fujimura, Takashi; Ohta, Tetsuo

    2014-11-01

    A 66-year-old man with advanced esophageal cancer (staging Mt, 6.0 cm, cT3N0M0, cStage II) was administered neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC: 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin). As the tumor continued to grow after one course of NAC, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery(VATS) was used to perform an esophagectomy along with 3-field lymph node dissection and retrosternal route reconstruction using a gastric tube. The second course of NAC was not administered. Intraoperative findings showed the direct invasion of the primary esophageal cancer into the membranous portion of the left bronchus. The maximum possible tumor tissue was resected and removed. The tumor tissue was exposed extensively to the surface of the esophageal adventitia and a residual tumor at the surface of the left bronchus was suspected. It was diagnosed as CT-pT4 (left bronchus), N0, M0, CT-pStage III. Subsequently, we administered chemoradiotherapy consisting of weekly low-dose docetaxel with radiation for the residual tumor (60 Gy/30 Fr). The patient is still alive 40 months after surgery without any signs of recurrence.

  8. Lightning Radio Source Retrieval Using Advanced Lightning Direction Finder (ALDF) Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bailey, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    A linear algebraic solution is provided for the problem of retrieving the location and time of occurrence of lightning ground strikes from an Advanced Lightning Direction Finder (ALDF) network. The ALDF network measures field strength, magnetic bearing and arrival time of lightning radio emissions. Solutions for the plane (i.e., no Earth curvature) are provided that implement all of tile measurements mentioned above. Tests of the retrieval method are provided using computer-simulated data sets. We also introduce a quadratic planar solution that is useful when only three arrival time measurements are available. The algebra of the quadratic root results are examined in detail to clarify what portions of the analysis region lead to fundamental ambiguities in source location. Complex root results are shown to be associated with the presence of measurement errors when the lightning source lies near an outer sensor baseline of the ALDF network. In the absence of measurement errors, quadratic root degeneracy (no source location ambiguity) is shown to exist exactly on the outer sensor baselines for arbitrary non-collinear network geometries. The accuracy of the quadratic planar method is tested with computer generated data sets. The results are generally better than those obtained from the three station linear planar method when bearing errors are about 2 deg. We also note some of the advantages and disadvantages of these methods over the nonlinear method of chi(sup 2) minimization employed by the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) and discussed in Cummins et al.(1993, 1995, 1998).

  9. [A case of advanced esophageal cancer with direct bronchial invasion successfully treated by multidisciplinary therapy].

    PubMed

    Haba, Yusuke; Okamoto, Koichi; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Tsukada, Tomoya; Kinoshita, Jun; Makino, Isamu; Nakamura, Keishi; Oyama, Katsunobu; Ninomiya, Itasu; Fushida, Sachio; Fujimura, Takashi; Ohta, Tetsuo

    2014-11-01

    A 66-year-old man with advanced esophageal cancer (staging Mt, 6.0 cm, cT3N0M0, cStage II) was administered neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC: 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin). As the tumor continued to grow after one course of NAC, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery(VATS) was used to perform an esophagectomy along with 3-field lymph node dissection and retrosternal route reconstruction using a gastric tube. The second course of NAC was not administered. Intraoperative findings showed the direct invasion of the primary esophageal cancer into the membranous portion of the left bronchus. The maximum possible tumor tissue was resected and removed. The tumor tissue was exposed extensively to the surface of the esophageal adventitia and a residual tumor at the surface of the left bronchus was suspected. It was diagnosed as CT-pT4 (left bronchus), N0, M0, CT-pStage III. Subsequently, we administered chemoradiotherapy consisting of weekly low-dose docetaxel with radiation for the residual tumor (60 Gy/30 Fr). The patient is still alive 40 months after surgery without any signs of recurrence. PMID:25731408

  10. The Attitudes of Chinese Cancer Patients and Family Caregivers toward Advance Directives

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiu; Xie, Chuanbo; Xie, Shanghang; Liu, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Advance directives (ADs) have been legislated in many countries to protect patient autonomy regarding medical decisions at the end of life. China is facing a serious cancer burden and cancer patients’ quality at the end of life should be a concern. However, limited studies have been conducted locally to gather information about attitudes toward ADs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of Chinese cancer patients and family caregivers toward ADs and to explore the predictors that are associated with attitudes. The study indicated that although there was low awareness of ADs, most cancer patients and family caregivers had positive attitudes toward ADs after related information was explained to them. Participants preferred to discuss ADs with medical staff when they were diagnosed with a life-threatening disease. Preferences for refusing life-sustaining treatment and choosing Hospice-Palliative Care (HPC) at the end of life would increase the likelihood of agreeing with ADs. This suggests that some effective interventions to help participants better understand end-of-life treatments are helpful in promoting ADs. Moreover, the development of HPC would contribute to Chinese cancer patients and family caregivers agreeing with ADs. PMID:27529264

  11. Unpacking the psychiatric advance directive in low-resource settings: an exploratory qualitative study in Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychiatric advance directives, a tool to document preferences for care in advance of decisional incapacity, have been shown to benefit persons with mental illness in a number of countries through improving medication adherence, reducing symptoms from escalating in a crisis, accelerating recovery, and enhancing service user autonomy. While concepts such as autonomy are important in a number of high-income country settings, it remains unclear whether tools like psychiatric advance directives are suitable in a different context. The recent introduction of the psychiatric advance directive into draft legislation in India prompts the question as to how feasible psychiatric advance directives are in the Indian context. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility and utility of PADs in India, with a focus on the need for individual control over decision making and barriers to implementation, by exploring views of its central stakeholders, service users and carers. Methods Qualitative semi-structured interviews (n = 51) with clients (n = 39) and carers (n = 12) seeking mental health treatment at outpatient clinics in urban and rural settings provided by a non-profit organisation in Tamil Nadu, India. Results Clients engaged in a number of forms of decision-making (passive, active, and collaborative) depending on the situation and decision at hand, and had high levels of self-efficacy. Most clients and carers were unfamiliar with PADs, and while some clients felt it is important to have a say in treatment wishes, carers expressed concerns about service user capacity to make decisions. After completing PADs, clients reported an increase in self-efficacy and an increased desire to make decisions. Conclusions The introduction of psychiatric advance directives in India appears to be associated with positive outcomes for some service users, however, there is a need to better understand how this tool can be adapted to better suit the care context in

  12. Advance Directives and Do-Not-Resuscitate Orders in Patients with Cancer with Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression: Advanced Care Planning Implications

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, J. Lynn; Bianty, Josephine; Konzen, Benedict; Shin, Ki; Bruera, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Communication about end-of-life decisions is crucial. Although patients with metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) have a median survival time of 3 to 6 months, few data are available concerning the presence of advance directives and do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders in this population. The objective of this study was to determine presence of advance directives and DNR order among patients with MSCC. Methods We retrospectively reviewed data concerning advance directives for 88 consecutive patients with cancer who had MSCC and required rehabilitation consultation at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center from September 20, 2005 to August 29, 2008. We characterized the data using univariate descriptive statistics and used the Fisher exact test to find correlations. Results The mean age of this patient population was 55 years (range, 24–81). Thirty patients (33%) were female. Twenty patients (23%) had a living will, 27 patients (31%) had health care proxies, and 10 patients (11%) had either out-of-hospital DNR order and/or dictated DNR note. The median survival time for these patients was 4.3 months. Conclusion Despite strong evidence showing short survival times for MSCC patients, it seems many of these patients are not aware of the urgency to have an advance directive. This may be an indicator of delayed end-of-life palliative care and suboptimal doctor–patient communication. Using the catastrophic event of a diagnosis of MSCC to trigger communication and initiate palliative care may be beneficial to patients and their families. PMID:20192843

  13. Default options in advance directives: study protocol for a randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Gabler, Nicole B; Cooney, Elizabeth; Small, Dylan S; Troxel, Andrea B; Arnold, Robert M; White, Douglas B; Angus, Derek C; Loewenstein, George; Volpp, Kevin G; Bryce, Cindy L; Halpern, Scott D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although most seriously ill Americans wish to avoid burdensome and aggressive care at the end of life, such care is often provided unless patients or family members specifically request otherwise. Advance directives (ADs) were created to provide opportunities to set limits on aggressive care near life's end. This study tests the hypothesis that redesigning ADs such that comfort-oriented care is provided as the default, rather than requiring patients to actively choose it, will promote better patient-centred outcomes. Methods and analysis This multicentre trial randomises seriously ill adults to receive 1 of 3 different ADs: (1) a traditional AD that requires patients to actively choose their goals of care or preferences for specific interventions (eg, feeding tube insertion) or otherwise have their care guided by their surrogates and the prevailing societal default toward aggressive care; (2) an AD that defaults to life-extending care and receipt of life-sustaining interventions, enabling patients to opt out from such care; or (3) an AD that defaults to comfort care, enabling patients to opt into life-extending care. We seek to enrol 270 patients who return complete, legally valid ADs so as to generate sufficient power to detect differences in the primary outcome of hospital-free days (days alive and not in an acute care facility). Secondary outcomes include hospital and intensive care unit admissions, costs of care, hospice usage, decision conflict and satisfaction, quality of life, concordance of preferences with care received and bereavement outcomes for surrogates of patients who die. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Institutional Review Boards at all trial centres, and is guided by a data safety and monitoring board and an ethics advisory board. Study results will be disseminated using methods that describe the results in ways that key stakeholders can best understand and implement. Trial registration number NCT02017548

  14. Physical and chemical effects of direct aqueous advanced oxidation processing on green sand foundry mold materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clobes, Jason Kenneth

    Iron foundries using the common green sand molding process have increasingly been incorporating aqueous advanced oxidation (AO) systems to reduce the consumption of sand system bentonite clay and coal raw materials by and to decrease their volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. These AO systems typically use a combination of sonication, ozone aeration, and hydrogen peroxide to treat and recycle slurries of sand system baghouse dust, which is rich in clay and coal. While the overall effects of AO on raw material consumption and organic emissions are known, the mechanisms behind these effects are not well understood. This research examined the effects of bench-scale direct aqueous AO processing on green sand mold materials at the micro level. Bench-scale AO processing, including acoustic sonication, ozone/oxygen aeration, and hydrogen peroxide dramatically decreased the particle sizes of both western bentonite and foundry sand system baghouse dust. Bench-scale AO processing was shown to effectively separate the clay material from the larger silica and coal particles and to extensively break up the larger clay agglomerates. The acoustic sonication component of AO processing was the key contributor to enhanced clay recovery. Acoustic sonication alone was slightly more effective than combined component AO in reducing the particle sizes of the baghouse dust and in the recovery of clay yields in the supernatant during sedimentation experiments. Sedimentation separation results correlated well with the increase in small particle concentrations due to AO processing. Clay suspension viscosity decreased with AO processing due to enhanced dispersion of the particles. X-ray diffraction of freeze-dried baghouse dust indicated that AO processing does not rehydrate calcined montmorillonite and does not increase the level of interlayer water hydration in the dry clays. Zeta potential measurements indicated that AO processing also does not produce any large changes in the

  15. The Prevalence and Contents of Advance Directives in Patients With Pacemakers

    PubMed Central

    Pasalic, Dario; Tajouri, Tanya H.; Ottenberg, Abigale L.; Mueller, Paul S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the use of advance directives (ADs) in patients who have implantable cardiac pacemakers (PMs). Methods We conducted a retrospective review of the medical records of residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, who underwent implantation of a cardiac PM at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, Minnesota) during 2006 and 2007 and determined the prevalence and contents of ADs in these patients. Results During the study period, 205 residents of Olmsted County (men, 53%) underwent PM implantation (mean age [SD] at implantation, 77 [15] years). Overall, 120 patients (59%) had ADs. Of these, 63 ADs (53%) were executed more than 12 months before and 33 (28%) were executed after PM implantation. Many patients specifically mentioned life-prolonging treatments in their ADs: cardiopulmonary resuscitation, 76 (63%); mechanical ventilation, 56 (47%); and hemodialysis, 31 (26%). Pain control was mentioned in 79 ADs (66%) and comfort measures were mentioned in 42 ADs (35%). Furthermore, the AD of many patients contained a general statement about end-of-life care (eg, no “heroic measures”). However, only 1 AD (1%) specifically addressed the end-of-life management of the PM. Conclusions More than half of the patients with PMs in our study had executed an AD, but only 1 patient specifically mentioned her PM in her AD. These results suggest that patients with PMs should be encouraged to execute ADs and, specifically address end-of-life device management in their ADs. Doing so may prevent end-of-life ethical dilemmas related to PM management. PMID:24215172

  16. Real-time comparison of conventional direct control and pattern recognition myoelectric control in a two-dimensional Fitts' law style test.

    PubMed

    Wurth, Sophie M; Hargrove, Levi J

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have directly compared real-time control performance of pattern recognition to direct control for the next generation of myoelectric controlled upper limb prostheses. Many different implementations of pattern recognition control have been proposed, with minor differentiations in the feature sets and classifiers. An objective and generalizable evaluation tool quantifying the control performance, other than classification accuracy, is needed. This paper used the implementation of such a tool through the design of a target acquisition test, similar to a Fitts' law test, relating movement time of the target acquisition to the difficulty of the target, for a given control strategy. Performance metrics such as throughput (bits/sec), completion rate (%) and path efficiency (%) allow for a complete evaluation of the described strategies. We compared direct control and pattern recognition control with the proposed test and found that 1) the test was valid for control system evaluation by following Fitts' law with high coefficients of determination for both types of control and 2) that pattern recognition significantly outperformed direct control in throughput with similar completion rates and path efficiencies. In this framework, the present pilot study supports pattern recognition as a promising strategy and forms a basis for the development of a general and objective tool for the performance evaluation of upper limb control strategies.

  17. Advancements in the development of a directional-position sensing fast neutron detector using acoustically tensioned metastable fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archambault, Brian C.; Webster, Jeffrey A.; Grimes, Thomas F.; Fischer, Kevin F.; Hagen, Alex R.; Taleyakhan, Rusi P.

    2015-06-01

    Advancements in the development of a direction and position sensing fast neutron detector which utilizes the directional acoustic tensioned metastable fluid detector (D-ATMFD) are described. The resulting D-ATMFD sensor is capable of determining the direction of neutron radiation with a single compact detector versus use of arrays of detectors in conventional directional systems. Directional neutron detection and source positioning offer enhanced detection speeds in comparison to traditional proximity searching; including enabling determination of the neutron source shape, size, and strength in near real time. This paper discusses advancements that provide the accuracy and precision of ascertaining directionality and source localization information utilizing enhanced signal processing-cum-signal analysis, refined computational algorithms, and on-demand enlargement capability of the detector sensitive volume. These advancements were accomplished utilizing experimentation and theoretical modeling. Benchmarking and qualifications studies were successfully conducted with random and fission based special nuclear material (SNM) neutron sources (239Pu-Be and 252Cf). These results of assessments have indicated that the D-ATMFD compares well in technical performance with banks of competing directional fast neutron detector technologies under development worldwide, but it does so with a single detector unit, an unlimited field of view, and at a significant reduction in both cost and size while remaining completely blind to common background (e.g., beta-gamma) radiation. Rapid and direct SNM neutron source imaging with two D-ATMFD sensors was experimentally demonstrated, and furthermore, validated via multidimensional nuclear particle transport simulations utilizing MCNP-PoliMi. Characterization of a scaled D-ATMFD based radiation portal monitor (RPM) as a cost-effective and efficient 3He sensor replacement was performed utilizing MCNP-PoliMi simulations, the results of which

  18. Sigma Team for Advanced Actinide Recycle FY2015 Accomplishments and Directions

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Bruce A.

    2015-09-30

    noncomplexing aqueous solution and submission of this scientific breakthrough as a paper in Science; The first-ever co-crystallization of Am(VI) with UO2(NO3)2 ∙ 6H2O, opening the door to a new approach for separating hexavalent actinides as a group; Results showing that three potentially problematic metals will not present risk in ALSEP; Improvement in ALSEP contactor stripping kinetics to acceptable performance; A comparison of centrifugal contactors vs mixer-settlers showing the former performs better in ALSEP stripping; Synthesis of new mixed N,O-donor extractants with enhanced solubility and strength for selective trivalent actinide extraction; Development of computational methods showing promise in prediction of the selectivity of new extractants for trivalent actinides vs lanthanides; An order-of-magnitude improvement in aqueous Am/Eu complexation selectivity of an alternative macrocyclic stripping agent for ALSEP, potentially enabling an option for an Am product stream free from both Ln and Cm. An alternative aqueous combination of dipicolinate complexant and malonate buffer that may present options for ALSEP and TALSPEAK (Trivalent Actinide-Lanthanide Separations by Phosphorus-reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes) type separations. The ALSEP concept is advancing toward a benchtop flowsheet demonstration planned for FY 2016, and a bench-scale test bed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will be employed to demonstrate at least one tandem Am oxidation and separation concept. This report outlines the goals of the STAAR, significance of achieving these goals, STAAR organization around the above aims and questions, recent highlights, and future directions. The report also includes a listing of publications, reports, patents, and dissertations.

  19. Barcelona 2002: law, ethics, and human rights. Advancing research and access to HIV vaccines: a framework for action.

    PubMed

    Avrett, Sam

    2002-12-01

    In light of the continuing spread of HIV infection and the devastating impact of the disease on lives, communities, and economies, particularly in the developing world, the investment in new treatments, vaccines, and microbicides has clearly been inadequate. Efforts must be intensified to develop effective HIV vaccines and to ensure that they are accessible to people in all parts of the world. This article is a summary of a paper by Sam Avrett presented at "Putting Third First: Vaccines, Access to Treatments and the Law," a satellite meeting held at Barcelona on 5 July 2002 and organized by the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network, the AIDS Law Project, South Africa, and the Lawyers Collective HIV/AIDS Unit, India. In the article, Avrett calls for immediate action to increase commitment and funding for HIV vaccines, enhance public support and involvement, accelerate vaccine development, and plan for the eventual delivery of the vaccines. The article briefly outlines steps that governments need to take to implement each of these objectives. The article also provides a menu of potential actions for vaccine advocates to consider as they lobby governments. PMID:14743820

  20. Advance Directives and Communication Skills of Prehospital Physicians Involved in the Care of Cardiovascular Patients.

    PubMed

    Gigon, Fabienne; Merlani, Paolo; Ricou, Bara

    2015-12-01

    Advance directives (AD) were developed to respect patient autonomy. However, very few patients have AD, even in cases when major cardiovascular surgery is to follow. To understand the reasons behind the low prevalence of AD and to help decision making when patients are incompetent, it is necessary to focus on the impact of prehospital practitioners, who may contribute to an increase in AD by discussing them with patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate self-rated communication skills and the attitudes of physicians potentially involved in the care of cardiovascular patients toward AD.Self-administered questionnaires were sent to general practitioners, cardiologists, internists, and intensivists, including the Quality of Communication Score, divided into a General Communication score (QOCgen 6 items) and an End-of-life Communication score (QOCeol 7 items), as well as questions regarding opinions and practices in terms of AD.One hundred sixty-four responses were received. QOCgen (mean (±SD)): 9.0/10 (1.0); QOCeol: 7.2/10 (1.7). General practitioners most frequently start discussions about AD (74/149 [47%]) and are more prone to designate their own specialty (30/49 [61%], P < 0.0001). Overall, only 57/159 (36%) physicians designated their own specialty; 130/158 (82%) physicians ask potential cardiovascular patients if they have AD and 61/118 (52%) physicians who care for cardiovascular patients talk about AD with some of them.The characteristics of physicians who do not talk about AD with patients were those who did not personally have AD and those who work in private practices.One hundred thirty-three (83%) physicians rated the systematic mention of patients' AD in the correspondence between physicians as good, while 114 (71%) at the patients' first registration in the private practice.Prehospital physicians rated their communication skills as good, whereas end-of-life communication was rated much lower. Only half of those surveyed speak about AD

  1. A model for emergency department end-of-life communications after acute devastating events--part I: decision-making capacity, surrogates, and advance directives.

    PubMed

    Limehouse, Walter E; Feeser, V Ramana; Bookman, Kelly J; Derse, Arthur

    2012-09-01

    Making decisions for a patient affected by sudden devastating illness or injury traumatizes a patient's family and loved ones. Even in the absence of an emergency, surrogates making end-of-life treatment decisions may experience negative emotional effects. Helping surrogates with these end-of-life decisions under emergent conditions requires the emergency physician (EP) to be clear, making medical recommendations with sensitivity. This model for emergency department (ED) end-of-life communications after acute devastating events comprises the following steps: 1) determine the patient's decision-making capacity; 2) identify the legal surrogate; 3) elicit patient values as expressed in completed advance directives; 4) determine patient/surrogate understanding of the life-limiting event and expectant treatment goals; 5) convey physician understanding of the event, including prognosis, treatment options, and recommendation; 6) share decisions regarding withdrawing or withholding of resuscitative efforts, using available resources and considering options for organ donation; and 7) revise treatment goals as needed. Emergency physicians should break bad news compassionately, yet sufficiently, so that surrogate and family understand both the gravity of the situation and the lack of long-term benefit of continued life-sustaining interventions. EPs should also help the surrogate and family understand that palliative care addresses comfort needs of the patient including adequate treatment for pain, dyspnea, or anxiety. Part I of this communications model reviews determination of decision-making capacity, surrogacy laws, and advance directives, including legal definitions and application of these steps; Part II (which will appear in a future issue of AEM) covers communication moving from resuscitative to end-of-life and palliative treatment. EPs should recognize acute devastating illness or injuries, when appropriate, as opportunities to initiate end-of-life discussions and to

  2. A model for emergency department end-of-life communications after acute devastating events--part I: decision-making capacity, surrogates, and advance directives.

    PubMed

    Limehouse, Walter E; Feeser, V Ramana; Bookman, Kelly J; Derse, Arthur

    2012-09-01

    Making decisions for a patient affected by sudden devastating illness or injury traumatizes a patient's family and loved ones. Even in the absence of an emergency, surrogates making end-of-life treatment decisions may experience negative emotional effects. Helping surrogates with these end-of-life decisions under emergent conditions requires the emergency physician (EP) to be clear, making medical recommendations with sensitivity. This model for emergency department (ED) end-of-life communications after acute devastating events comprises the following steps: 1) determine the patient's decision-making capacity; 2) identify the legal surrogate; 3) elicit patient values as expressed in completed advance directives; 4) determine patient/surrogate understanding of the life-limiting event and expectant treatment goals; 5) convey physician understanding of the event, including prognosis, treatment options, and recommendation; 6) share decisions regarding withdrawing or withholding of resuscitative efforts, using available resources and considering options for organ donation; and 7) revise treatment goals as needed. Emergency physicians should break bad news compassionately, yet sufficiently, so that surrogate and family understand both the gravity of the situation and the lack of long-term benefit of continued life-sustaining interventions. EPs should also help the surrogate and family understand that palliative care addresses comfort needs of the patient including adequate treatment for pain, dyspnea, or anxiety. Part I of this communications model reviews determination of decision-making capacity, surrogacy laws, and advance directives, including legal definitions and application of these steps; Part II (which will appear in a future issue of AEM) covers communication moving from resuscitative to end-of-life and palliative treatment. EPs should recognize acute devastating illness or injuries, when appropriate, as opportunities to initiate end-of-life discussions and to

  3. Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion Baseline Control Law: Flight-Test Results for the Full-scale Advanced Systems Testbed F/A-18 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    A model reference nonlinear dynamic inversion control law has been developed to provide a baseline controller for research into simple adaptive elements for advanced flight control laws. This controller has been implemented and tested in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation and in flight. The flight results agree well with the simulation predictions and show good handling qualities throughout the tested flight envelope with some noteworthy deficiencies highlighted both by handling qualities metrics and pilot comments. Many design choices and implementation details reflect the requirements placed on the system by the nonlinear flight environment and the desire to keep the system as simple as possible to easily allow the addition of the adaptive elements. The flight-test results and how they compare to the simulation predictions are discussed, along with a discussion about how each element affected pilot opinions. Additionally, aspects of the design that performed better than expected are presented, as well as some simple improvements that will be suggested for follow-on work.

  4. Advanced Life Support Water Recycling Technologies Case Studies: Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal and Direct Osmotic Concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Design for microgravity has traditionally not been well integrated early on into the development of advanced life support (ALS) technologies. NASA currently has a many ALS technologies that are currently being developed to high technology readiness levels but have not been formally evaluated for microgravity compatibility. Two examples of such technologies are the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal Technology and the Direct Osmotic Concentration Technology. This presentation will cover the design of theses two systems and will identify potential microgravity issues.

  5. Solid-State ¹⁷O NMR studies of organic and biological molecules: Recent advances and future directions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gang

    2016-02-01

    This Trends article highlights the recent advances published between 2012 and 2015 in solid-state (17)O NMR for organic and biological molecules. New developments in the following areas are described: (1) new oxygen-containing functional groups, (2) metal organic frameworks, (3) pharmaceuticals, (4) probing molecular motion in organic solids, (5) dynamic nuclear polarization, and (6) paramagnetic coordination compounds. For each of these areas, the author offers his personal views on important problems to be solved and possible future directions.

  6. Advance Directives for End-of-Life Care and the Role of Health Education Specialists: Applying the Theory of Reasoned Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremethick, Mary Jane; Johnson, Maureen K.; Carter, Mary R.

    2011-01-01

    Quality end-of-life care is subjective and based on individual values and beliefs. An advance directive provides a legal means of communicating these values and beliefs, as well as preferences in regards to end-of-life care when an individual is no longer able to make his or her desires known. In many nations, advance directives are underused…

  7. The Biopsychosocial Approach to Chronic Pain: Scientific Advances and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatchel, Robert J.; Peng, Yuan Bo; Peters, Madelon L.; Fuchs, Perry N.; Turk, Dennis C.

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence and cost of chronic pain is a major physical and mental health care problem in the United States today. As a result, there has been a recent explosion of research on chronic pain, with significant advances in better understanding its etiology, assessment, and treatment. The purpose of the present article is to provide a review of…

  8. A Qualitative Analysis of an Advanced Practice Nurse-Directed Transitional Care Model Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradway, Christine; Trotta, Rebecca; Bixby, M. Brian; McPartland, Ellen; Wollman, M. Catherine; Kapustka, Heidi; McCauley, Kathleen; Naylor, Mary D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe barriers and facilitators to implementing a transitional care intervention for cognitively impaired older adults and their caregivers lead by advanced practice nurses (APNs). Design and Methods: APNs implemented an evidence-based protocol to optimize transitions from hospital to home. An…

  9. Management of locally advanced breast cancer-perspectives and future directions.

    PubMed

    Tryfonidis, Konstantinos; Senkus, Elzbieta; Cardoso, Maria J; Cardoso, Fatima

    2015-03-01

    Locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) constitutes a heterogeneous entity that includes advanced-stage primary tumours, cancers with extensive nodal involvement and inflammatory breast carcinomas. Although the definition of LABC can be broadened to include some large operable breast tumours, we use this term to strictly refer to inoperable cancers that are included in the above-mentioned categories. The prognosis of such tumours is often unfavourable; despite aggressive treatment, many patients eventually develop distant metastases and die from the disease. Advances in systemic therapy, including radiation treatment, surgical techniques and the development of new targeted agents have significantly improved clinical outcomes for patients with this disease. Notwithstanding these advances, LABC remains an important clinical problem, particularly in developing countries and those without widely adapted breast cancer awareness programmes. The optimal management of LABC requires a multidisciplinary approach, a well-coordinated treatment schedule and close cooperation between medical, surgical and radiation oncologists. In this Review, we discuss the current state of the art and possible future treatment strategies for patients with LABC. PMID:25668732

  10. Nanoscale Graphene Disk: A Natural Functionally Graded Material–How is Fourier’s Law Violated along Radius Direction of 2D Disk

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Nuo; Hu, Shiqian; Ma, Dengke; Lu, Tingyu; Li, Baowen

    2015-01-01

    In this Paper, we investigate numerically and analytically the thermal conductivity of nanoscale graphene disks (NGDs), and discussed the possibility to realize functionally graded material (FGM) with only one material, NGDs. Different from previous studies on divergence/non-diffusive of thermal conductivity in nano-structures with different size, we found a novel non-homogeneous (graded) thermal conductivity along the radius direction in a single nano-disk structure. We found that, instead of a constant value, the NGD has a graded thermal conductivity along the radius direction. That is, Fourier’s law of heat conduction is not valid in two dimensional graphene disk structures Moreover, we show the dependent of NGDs’ thermal conductivity on radius and temperature. Our study might inspire experimentalists to develop NGD based versatile FGMs, improve understanding of the heat removal of hot spots on chips, and enhance thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency by two dimensional disk with a graded thermal conductivity. PMID:26443206

  11. Nanoscale Graphene Disk: A Natural Functionally Graded Material-How is Fourier's Law Violated along Radius Direction of 2D Disk.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nuo; Hu, Shiqian; Ma, Dengke; Lu, Tingyu; Li, Baowen

    2015-10-07

    In this Paper, we investigate numerically and analytically the thermal conductivity of nanoscale graphene disks (NGDs), and discussed the possibility to realize functionally graded material (FGM) with only one material, NGDs. Different from previous studies on divergence/non-diffusive of thermal conductivity in nano-structures with different size, we found a novel non-homogeneous (graded) thermal conductivity along the radius direction in a single nano-disk structure. We found that, instead of a constant value, the NGD has a graded thermal conductivity along the radius direction. That is, Fourier's law of heat conduction is not valid in two dimensional graphene disk structures Moreover, we show the dependent of NGDs' thermal conductivity on radius and temperature. Our study might inspire experimentalists to develop NGD based versatile FGMs, improve understanding of the heat removal of hot spots on chips, and enhance thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency by two dimensional disk with a graded thermal conductivity.

  12. Nanoscale Graphene Disk: A Natural Functionally Graded Material-How is Fourier’s Law Violated along Radius Direction of 2D Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Nuo; Hu, Shiqian; Ma, Dengke; Lu, Tingyu; Li, Baowen

    2015-10-01

    In this Paper, we investigate numerically and analytically the thermal conductivity of nanoscale graphene disks (NGDs), and discussed the possibility to realize functionally graded material (FGM) with only one material, NGDs. Different from previous studies on divergence/non-diffusive of thermal conductivity in nano-structures with different size, we found a novel non-homogeneous (graded) thermal conductivity along the radius direction in a single nano-disk structure. We found that, instead of a constant value, the NGD has a graded thermal conductivity along the radius direction. That is, Fourier’s law of heat conduction is not valid in two dimensional graphene disk structures Moreover, we show the dependent of NGDs’ thermal conductivity on radius and temperature. Our study might inspire experimentalists to develop NGD based versatile FGMs, improve understanding of the heat removal of hot spots on chips, and enhance thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency by two dimensional disk with a graded thermal conductivity.

  13. Preventive Law on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Paul; Tribbensee, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how, by fostering a teamwork relationship between administrators and university attorneys, the preventive law approach can effectively identify risks and develop strategies and policies in advance of any individual legal dispute. (EV)

  14. Research directions and progress in the SERI advanced high efficiency concept program

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, L A; Benner, J P

    1984-06-01

    The inherent electro-optical properties of gallium arsenide (GaAs) and related III-V compounds make this class of semiconductors an optimum choice for use in very high efficiency solar cells. The ability to alloy GaAs with other column III and V elements while maintaining the single crystal zincblende structure allows the photovoltaic properties to be tailored to specific needs. The current understanding and control of the properties of these materials is more advanced than for any other semiconductor except single crystal silicon. For these reasons, the Advanced High Efficiency Concepts Program supports materials research to improve the properties of III-V semiconductors needed to achieve the maximum attainable photovoltaic conversion efficiencies.

  15. Research directions and progress in the SERI Advanced High Efficiency Concept Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, L.A.; Benner, J.P.; US

    1984-05-01

    The inherent electro-optical properties of gallium arsenide (GaAs) and related III-V compounds make this class of semiconductors an optimum choice for use in very high efficiency solar cells. The ability to alloy GaAs with other column III and V elements while maintaining the single crystal zincblende structure allows the photovoltaic properties to be tailored to specific needs. The current understanding and control of the properties of these materials is more advanced than for any other semiconductor except single crystal silicon. For these reasons, the Advanced High Efficiency Concepts Program supports materials research to improve the properties of III-V semiconductors needed to achieve the maximum attainable photovoltaic conversion efficiencies.

  16. Future directions of C3 research at DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, D. G.; Dahmann, J. S.

    Research into C3 related problems is a major effort of the Information Science and Technology Office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The major thrusts of projects are in the area of future, high-risk efforts, often resulting in the development of a conceptual model or prototype. Some of these prototypes are then further developed to provide an infrastructure for future research. The programs can be divided into two groups: base technology research programs and testbed programs. The testbeds provide a focus for the technology programs.

  17. Efficacy of Skin-Directed Therapy for Cutaneous Metastases From Advanced Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Spratt, Daniel E.; Gordon Spratt, Elizabeth A.; Wu, Shenhong; DeRosa, Antonio; Lee, Nancy Y.; Lacouture, Mario E.; Barker, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To perform the first meta-analysis of the efficacy of skin-directed therapies for cutaneous metastases. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched for reports of prospective clinical studies published between 1960 and 2013 that assessed the response of skin-directed therapy for cutaneous metastases (47 of 2,955 unique studies were selected). Primary end points of the study were complete and objective response rates. Secondary analyses were preplanned and included subgroup analyses by skin-directed therapy, histology, and recurrence rates. Meta-analyses were performed with random-effect modeling, and extent of heterogeneity between studies was determined with the Cochran Q and I2 tests. Results After applying exclusion criteria, 47 prospective studies of 4,313 cutaneous metastases were assessed. Five skin-directed therapies were identified: electrochemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, radiotherapy, intralesional therapy, and topical therapy. Among all cutaneous metastases, complete response rate was 35.5% (95% CI, 27.6% to 44.3%) and objective response rate was 60.2% (95% CI, 50.6% to 69.0%). Overall recurrence rate was estimated to be 9.2% (95% CI, 3.7% to 21.2%). Melanoma and breast carcinoma comprised 96.8% of all cutaneous metastases studied and had similar objective response rates (54.5% [95% CI, 48.3% to 60.7%] and 54.0% [95% CI, 48.3% to 59.7%], respectively). Grade ≥ 3 toxicity was reported in less than 6% of patients. Conclusion Response to skin-directed therapy for cutaneous metastases is high but heterogeneous across treatment modalities, with low rates of recurrence post-treatment. Treatment was generally well tolerated and conferred improvements in quality of life. Standardization of response criteria for cutaneous metastases and treatment algorithms to optimally use the available skin-directed therapies are needed. PMID:25154827

  18. Critical care research on patients with advance directives or do-not-resuscitate status: ethical challenges for clinician-investigators.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michael A; Haywood, Carlton

    2003-03-01

    Clinician-investigators face challenges in conducting research on critically ill patients when they have do-not-resuscitate orders, advance directives, or are in need of end-of-life care. Potential conflicts of interest for clinician-investigators include either financial stakes or academic and reputational stakes. The dual roles for intensive care unit physician or nurse clinician-investigators as healthcare professionals and scientists also present conflicts of interest, as does the dual purpose for the physical plant of the intensive care unit, which simultaneously serves as a site for patient care and a site for clinical research. Intensive care unit patients who become human research subjects also have dual roles that present conflict or confusion that can result in the therapeutic misconception. There are no scientifically or ethically sound reasons to exclude patients from participation in critical care research based on the presence of an advance directive or do-not-resuscitate order, as it would create a biased study sample that does not reflect the critically ill patient population, and it would treat a large group of potential research subjects differently from others without justification. There are four values in tension for critical care clinician-investigators in relation to patients/human research subjects: curative intent, palliative intent, research, and fiduciary obligations. A patient's decision to participate in research does not relieve clinician-investigators of their obligation to serve patient/human research subject's interests, even when doing so involves decisions to limit or withdraw life-sustaining interventions or withdraw the patient/human research subject from research. Critical care research involving patients with advance directives or do-not-resuscitate status is both possible and desirable because it is just, respects patient autonomy, and results in study populations that better reflect the clinical population in all respects

  19. Recent advances in direct C–H arylation: Methodology, selectivity and mechanism in oxazole series

    PubMed Central

    Verrier, Cécile; Lassalas, Pierrik; Théveau, Laure; Quéguiner, Guy; Trécourt, François; Marsais, Francis

    2011-01-01

    Summary Catalytic direct (hetero)arylation of (hetero)arenes is an attractive alternative to traditional Kumada, Stille, Negishi and Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reactions, notably as it avoids the prior preparation and isolation of (hetero)arylmetals. Developments of this methodology in the oxazole series are reviewed in this article. Methodologies, selectivity, mechanism and future aspects are presented. PMID:22238536

  20. Investigation of Ruthenium Dissolution in Advanced Membrane Electrode Assemblies for Direct Methanol Based Fuel Cells Stacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, T. I.; Firdosy, S.; Koel, B. E.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a detailed review of the Direct Methanol Based Fuel Cell (DMFC) stack and investigates the Ruthenium that was found at the exit of the stack. The topics include: 1) Motivation; 2) Pathways for Cell Degradation; 3) Cell Duration Testing; 4) Duration Testing, MEA Analysis; and 5) Stack Degradation Analysis.

  1. Advancing Scientific Reasoning in Upper Elementary Classrooms: Direct Instruction versus Task Structuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazonder, Ard W.; Wiskerke-Drost, Sjanou

    2015-01-01

    Several studies found that direct instruction and task structuring can effectively promote children's ability to design unconfounded experiments. The present study examined whether the impact of these interventions extends to other scientific reasoning skills by comparing the inquiry activities of 55 fifth-graders randomly assigned to one of…

  2. Use of Advance Directives: A Social Work Perspective on the Myth versus the Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Molly K.

    1994-01-01

    Considers Directive to Physician, Durable Power of Attorney for Healthcare Decisions, and Medical Ethics Decision Form. Notes importance of process individuals go through in defining what quality of life means to them. Sees current struggle being individual articulation of one's wishes based on personal definition of quality of life set forth in…

  3. Polycaprolactone scaffolds fabricated with an advanced electrohydrodynamic direct-printing method for bone tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Seung Hyun; Lee, Hyeong Jin; Kim, Geun Hyung

    2011-12-12

    Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) direct writing has been used in diverse microelectromechanical systems and various supplemental methods for biotechnology and electronics. In this work, we expanded the use of EHD-induced direct writing to fabricate 3D biomedical scaffolds designed as porous structures for bone tissue engineering. To prepare the scaffolds, we modified a grounded target used in conventional EHD direct printing using a poly(ethylene oxide) solution bath, elastically cushioning the plotted struts to prevent crumbling. The fabricated scaffolds were assessed for not only physical properties including surface roughness and water uptake ability but also biological capabilities by culturing osteoblast-like cells (MG63) for the EHD-plotted polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold. The EHD-scaffolds showed significantly roughened surface and enhanced water-absorption ability (400% increase) compared with the pure rapid-prototyped PCL. The results of cell viability, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralization analyses showed significantly enhanced biological properties of the scaffold (20 times the cell viability and 6 times the mineralization) compared with the scaffolds fabricated using RP technology. Because of the results, the modified EHD direct-writing process can be a promising method for fabricating 3D biomedical scaffolds in tissue engineering.

  4. A new direction for Antarctic ice cores: reconstructing Pacific decadal variability and Australian drought history from the Law Dome ice core.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, Tessa; Roberts, Jason; Plummer, Chris; Kiem, Anthony; van Ommen, Tas

    2015-04-01

    Decadal scale SST oscillations in the Pacific significantly influence rainfall variability and drought risk across and beyond the Pacific region. Understanding long-term decadal SST behavior in the Pacific is necessary to assess past and future climate, particularly drought risk. However, short instrumental records through much of the Pacific region, in particular the South Pacific, make such assessments difficult. A new reconstruction of Pacific decadal variability covering the last millennium has been produced from the Law Dome ice core, a high snow accumulation site in East Antarctica. The Law Dome ice core samples (at sub-annual resolution) a broad mid-latitude swathe of the Indian and South West Pacific region. This region exhibits wind speed and direction anomalies that are coherent with the phase of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), an index measuring the decadal-scale Pacific SST state. This is the first millennial length IPO reconstruction and is based on the annual accumulation (snowfall) and sub-annual sea salt (wind proxy) records from Law Dome. To demonstrate the versatility of this new IPO reconstruction, we used it to explore drought history in eastern Australia, a region where drought risk is elevated during IPO positive phases. To do this, we super-imposed the 1000 year IPO reconstruction on a Law Dome proxy for eastern Australian rainfall (previously shown to represent rainfall with high significance during IPO positive phases (r =0.406-0.677, p <0.0001-0.01). Eight 'mega-droughts' (dry periods >5 years duration) were identified over the last millennium. Six mega-droughts occurred between AD 1000-1320 including one 39 y drought (AD 1174-1212). Water resources and infrastructure planning in Australia has been based on very limited statistical certainty around drought risk due to the short (~100 year) instrumental record and lack of rainfall proxies. This study shows that, similar to SW North America, Australia also experienced mega

  5. Palliative Medicine Consultation Reduces Length of Stay, Improves Symptom Management, and Clarifies Advance Directives in the Geriatric Trauma Population.

    PubMed

    Kupensky, Diane; Hileman, Barbara M; Emerick, Eric S; Chance, Elisha A

    2015-01-01

    The impact of Palliative Medicine Consultation (PMC) on geriatric trauma patients' outcomes was evaluated. It was hypothesized that patients with PMC would have a shorter length of stay. Patients aged 65 years or older and admitted to trauma services were analyzed. Patients with a PMC were more likely to have a documented advance directive discussion (P < .001) and a code status update (P < .001). Length of stay was reduced for patients with a PMC on or before trauma day 2 compared to those with a PMC after trauma day 2. Palliative Medicine should be consulted early into a geriatric patient's hospital stay. PMID:26352657

  6. Beyond HER2: recent advances and future directions in targeted therapies in esophagogastric cancers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Esophagogastric cancers (EGCa) are a leading cause of cancer related mortality worldwide. It has been recognized that they represent heterogenous diseases based on histology and anatomy. However, it is also increasingly evident that these are diverse malignancies based on genetic alterations, and this is increasingly making these diseases amenable to targeted therapies. While epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and mTOR inhibitors have failed to prove effective in the treatment of advanced EGCa, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inihibitor have now been demonstrated to improve survival, at least in the 2nd line setting of adenocarcinomas. Other promising approaches are being investigated, including targeted therapies such as MET and FGFR inhibitors, as well as immunotherapy and agents that may affect synthetic lethality. PMID:27747090

  7. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    In the Advance Coal Liquefaction Concept Proposal (ACLCP) carbon monoxide (CO) and water have been proposed as the primary reagents in the pretreatment process. The main objective of this project is to develop a methodology for pretreating coal under mild conditions based on a combination of existing processes which have shown great promise in liquefaction, extraction and pyrolysis studies. The aim of this pretreatment process is to partially depolymerise the coal, eliminate oxygen and diminish the propensity for retograde reactions during subsequent liquefaction. The desirable outcome of the CO pretreatment step should be: (1) enhanced liquefaction activity and/or selectivity toward products of higher quality due to chemical modification of the coal structure; (2) cleaner downstream products; (3) overall improvement in operability and process economics.

  8. The Crosstalk between Tissue Engineering and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology: Recent Advances and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Daniela P; Reis, Rui L; Correlo, Vítor M; Marques, Alexandra P

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-engineered constructs made of biotechnology-derived materials have been preferred due to their chemical and physical composition, which offers both high versatility and a support to enclose/ incorporate relevant signaling molecules and/or genes known to therapeutically induce tissue repair. Herein, a critical overview of the impact of different biotechnology-derived materials, scaffolds, and recombinant signaling molecules over the behavior of cells, another element of tissue engineered constructs, as well its regulatory role in tissue regeneration and disease progression is given. Additionally, these tissue-engineered constructs evolved to three-dimensional (3D) tissue-like models that, as an advancement of two-dimensional standard culture methods, are expected to be a valuable tool in the field of drug discovery and pharmaceutical research. Despite the improved design and conception of current proposed 3D tissue-like models, advanced control systems to enable and accelerate streamlining and automation of the numerous labor-intensive steps intrinsic to the development of tissue-engineered constructs are still to be achieved. In this sense, this review intends to present the biotechnology- derived materials that are being explored in the field of tissue engineering to generate 3D tissue-analogues and briefly highlight their foremost breakthroughs in tissue regeneration and drug discovery. It also aims to reinforce that the crosstalk between tissue engineering and pharmaceutical biotechnology has been fostering the outcomes of tissue engineering approaches through the use of biotechnology-derived signaling molecules. Gene delivery/therapy is also discussed as a forefront area that represents another cross point between tissue engineering and pharmaceutical biotechnology, in which nucleic acids can be considered a "super pharmaceutical" to drive biological responses, including tissue regeneration.

  9. Experimental Advances Towards Neural Regeneration from Induced Stem Cells to Direct In Vivo Reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Dametti, Sara; Faravelli, Irene; Ruggieri, Margherita; Ramirez, Agnese; Nizzardo, Monica; Corti, Stefania

    2016-05-01

    Neuronal loss is a common substrate of many neurological diseases that still lack effective treatments and highly burden lives of affected individuals. The discovery of self-renewing stem cells within the central nervous system (CNS) has opened the doors to the possibility of using the plasticity of CNS as a potential strategy for the development of regenerative therapies after injuries. The role of neural progenitor cells appears to be crucial, but insufficient in reparative processes after damage. In addition, the mechanisms that regulate these events are still largely unknown. Stem cell-based therapeutic approaches have primarily focused on the use of either induced pluripotent stem cells or induced neural stem cells as sources for cell transplantation. More recently, in vivo direct reprogramming of endogenous CNS cells into multipotent neural stem/progenitor cells has been proposed as an alternative strategy that could overcome the limits connected with both the invasiveness of exogenous cell transplantation and the technical issues of in vitro reprogramming (i.e., the time requested and the limited available amount of directly induced neuronal cells). In this review, we aim to highlight the recent studies on in vivo direct reprogramming, focusing on astrocytes conversion to neurons or to neural stem/precursors cells, in the perspective of future therapeutic purposes for neurological disorders.

  10. Advancing Scientific Reasoning in Upper Elementary Classrooms: Direct Instruction Versus Task Structuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazonder, Ard W.; Wiskerke-Drost, Sjanou

    2015-02-01

    Several studies found that direct instruction and task structuring can effectively promote children's ability to design unconfounded experiments. The present study examined whether the impact of these interventions extends to other scientific reasoning skills by comparing the inquiry activities of 55 fifth-graders randomly assigned to one of three conditions. Children in the control condition investigated a four-variable inquiry task without additional support. Performance of this task in the direct instruction condition was preceded by a short training in experimental design, whereas children in the task structuring condition, who did not receive the introductory training, were given a version of the task that addressed the four variables one at a time. Analysis of children's experimentation behavior confirmed that direct instruction and task structuring are equally effective and superior to unguided inquiry. Both interventions also evoked more determinate predictions and valid inferences. These findings demonstrate that the effect of short-term interventions designed to promote unconfounded experimentation extends beyond the control of variables.

  11. A real-time comparison between direct control, sequential pattern recognition control and simultaneous pattern recognition control using a Fitts’ law style assessment procedure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pattern recognition (PR) based strategies for the control of myoelectric upper limb prostheses are generally evaluated through offline classification accuracy, which is an admittedly useful metric, but insufficient to discuss functional performance in real time. Existing functional tests are extensive to set up and most fail to provide a challenging, objective framework to assess the strategy performance in real time. Methods Nine able-bodied and two amputee subjects gave informed consent and participated in the local Institutional Review Board approved study. We designed a two-dimensional target acquisition task, based on the principles of Fitts’ law for human motor control. Subjects were prompted to steer a cursor from the screen center of into a series of subsequently appearing targets of different difficulties. Three cursor control systems were tested, corresponding to three electromyography-based prosthetic control strategies: 1) amplitude-based direct control (the clinical standard of care), 2) sequential PR control, and 3) simultaneous PR control, allowing for a concurrent activation of two degrees of freedom (DOF). We computed throughput (bits/second), path efficiency (%), reaction time (second), and overshoot (%)) and used general linear models to assess significant differences between the strategies for each metric. Results We validated the proposed methodology by achieving very high coefficients of determination for Fitts’ law. Both PR strategies significantly outperformed direct control in two-DOF targets and were more intuitive to operate. In one-DOF targets, the simultaneous approach was the least precise. The direct control was efficient in one-DOF targets but cumbersome to operate in two-DOF targets through a switch-depended sequential cursor control. Conclusions We designed a test, capable of comprehensively describing prosthetic control strategies in real time. When implemented on control subjects, the test was able to capture

  12. Simulation model of the F/A-18 high angle-of-attack research vehicle utilized for the design of advanced control laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strickland, Mark E.; Bundick, W. Thomas; Messina, Michael D.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Carzoo, Susan W.; Yeager, Jessie C.; Beissner, Fred L., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The 'f18harv' six degree-of-freedom nonlinear batch simulation used to support research in advanced control laws and flight dynamics issues as part of NASA's High Alpha Technology Program is described in this report. This simulation models an F/A-18 airplane modified to incorporate a multi-axis thrust-vectoring system for augmented pitch and yaw control power and actuated forebody strakes for enhanced aerodynamic yaw control power. The modified configuration is known as the High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The 'f18harv' simulation was an outgrowth of the 'f18bas' simulation which modeled the basic F/A-18 with a preliminary version of a thrust-vectoring system designed for the HARV. The preliminary version consisted of two thrust-vectoring vanes per engine nozzle compared with the three vanes per engine actually employed on the F/A-18 HARV. The modeled flight envelope is extensive in that the aerodynamic database covers an angle-of-attack range of -10 degrees to +90 degrees, sideslip range of -20 degrees to +20 degrees, a Mach Number range between 0.0 and 2.0, and an altitude range between 0 and 60,000 feet.

  13. Micropen direct-write technique for fabrication of advanced electroceramic and optical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jingjing

    Direct-write technologies, a subset of the rapid prototyping, have been applied for many applications including electronics, photonics and biomedical engineering. Among them, Micropen(TM) is a promising technique, providing precision deposition of materials with various viscosities, on-line design changes and writing on nonplanar substrates. The objective of this project was to directly write two- and three-dimensional novel structures by Micropen(TM) for potential optical and transducer applications. First, to gain a basic understanding of Micropen(TM) operation, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) solutions were developed as a model system. The effects of solution rheological properties on deposition conditions were investigated. Secondly, PMMA/SiO2 hybrids were developed using sol-gel process. The effects of organic/inorganic ratios on thermal stability, microstructure and optical properties were studied. The solution with 80 wt% PMMA loading was chosen to deposit lines for optical applications. Another application was the direct-write of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thick films (6-70 mum) for MEMS or high frequency medical imaging applications. Pastes consisting of 15-30 vol% ceramic loading in a sol-gel solution were prepared for the deposition of films on various substrates. The PZT sol was used as a binder as well as to achieve low temperature heat treatment of the films. Using the 15 vol% paste with a 250-mum pen tip, a four-layer film was deposited on a silicon substrate. This 16-mum film with 1 cm 2 area had K of 870, tandelta of 4.1%, Pr of 12.2 muC/cm 2 and Ec of 27 kV/cm. Furthermore, Micropen(TM) was utilized for the direct-write of ceramic skeletal structures to develop PZT ceramic/polymer composites with 2-2 connectivity for medical ultrasound transducers. Ceramic/binder based pastes were developed as writing materials. The 35 vol% paste exhibited shear thinning with a viscosity of 45 Pa˙s at lower shear rate and 3 Pa˙s at higher shear rate. Using a

  14. Fluctuating capacity and advance decision-making in Bipolar Affective Disorder - Self-binding directives and self-determination.

    PubMed

    Gergel, Tania; Owen, Gareth S

    2015-01-01

    For people with Bipolar Affective Disorder, a self-binding (advance) directive (SBD), by which they commit themselves to treatment during future episodes of mania, even if unwilling, can seem the most rational way to deal with an imperfect predicament. Knowing that mania will almost certainly cause enormous damage to themselves, their preferred solution may well be to allow trusted others to enforce treatment and constraint, traumatic though this may be. No adequate provision exists for drafting a truly effective SBD and efforts to establish such provision are hampered by very valid, but also paralysing ethical, clinical and legal concerns. Effectively, the autonomy and rights of people with bipolar are being 'protected' through being denied an opportunity to protect themselves. From a standpoint firmly rooted in the clinical context and experience of mania, this article argues that an SBD, based on a patient-centred evaluation of capacity to make treatment decisions (DMC-T) and grounded within the clinician-patient relationship, could represent a legitimate and ethically coherent form of self-determination. After setting out background information on fluctuating capacity, mania and advance directives, this article proposes a framework for constructing such an SBD, and considers common objections, possible solutions and suggestions for future research. PMID:25939286

  15. Fluctuating capacity and advance decision-making in Bipolar Affective Disorder - Self-binding directives and self-determination.

    PubMed

    Gergel, Tania; Owen, Gareth S

    2015-01-01

    For people with Bipolar Affective Disorder, a self-binding (advance) directive (SBD), by which they commit themselves to treatment during future episodes of mania, even if unwilling, can seem the most rational way to deal with an imperfect predicament. Knowing that mania will almost certainly cause enormous damage to themselves, their preferred solution may well be to allow trusted others to enforce treatment and constraint, traumatic though this may be. No adequate provision exists for drafting a truly effective SBD and efforts to establish such provision are hampered by very valid, but also paralysing ethical, clinical and legal concerns. Effectively, the autonomy and rights of people with bipolar are being 'protected' through being denied an opportunity to protect themselves. From a standpoint firmly rooted in the clinical context and experience of mania, this article argues that an SBD, based on a patient-centred evaluation of capacity to make treatment decisions (DMC-T) and grounded within the clinician-patient relationship, could represent a legitimate and ethically coherent form of self-determination. After setting out background information on fluctuating capacity, mania and advance directives, this article proposes a framework for constructing such an SBD, and considers common objections, possible solutions and suggestions for future research.

  16. What do service users want? A content analysis of what users may write in psychiatric advance directives in India.

    PubMed

    Pathare, Soumitra; Shields, Laura; Nardodkar, Renuka; Narasimhan, Lakshmi; Bunders, Joske

    2015-04-01

    Although psychiatric advance directives give service users control over their care, very few studies exist on the content of PADs. This paper aims to contribute to this evidence base by presenting the content of psychiatric advance directives in India. Participants were 75 clients seeking outpatient care at a mental health services organisation in Tamil Nadu, India, who agreed to draft a PAD. Most clients were comfortable with appointing a representative (usually a family member) to make decisions on their behalf during a period of decisional incapacity or relapse, were willing to accept admission to the hospital/clinic and take medication if required, wanted to have a trusted person to discuss their mental health problems. No client used the opportunity to outright refuse treatment. This study highlights an important first step in improving the quality of mental health care by documenting user preferences for care in India. More in-depth research is needed to elicit rich descriptions of experiences of care and user-centred understanding of rights.

  17. Fluctuating capacity and advance decision-making in Bipolar Affective Disorder — Self-binding directives and self-determination

    PubMed Central

    Gergel, Tania; Owen, Gareth S.

    2015-01-01

    For people with Bipolar Affective Disorder, a self-binding (advance) directive (SBD), by which they commit themselves to treatment during future episodes of mania, even if unwilling, can seem the most rational way to deal with an imperfect predicament. Knowing that mania will almost certainly cause enormous damage to themselves, their preferred solution may well be to allow trusted others to enforce treatment and constraint, traumatic though this may be. No adequate provision exists for drafting a truly effective SBD and efforts to establish such provision are hampered by very valid, but also paralysing ethical, clinical and legal concerns. Effectively, the autonomy and rights of people with bipolar are being ‘protected’ through being denied an opportunity to protect themselves. From a standpoint firmly rooted in the clinical context and experience of mania, this article argues that an SBD, based on a patient-centred evaluation of capacity to make treatment decisions (DMC-T) and grounded within the clinician–patient relationship, could represent a legitimate and ethically coherent form of self-determination. After setting out background information on fluctuating capacity, mania and advance directives, this article proposes a framework for constructing such an SBD, and considers common objections, possible solutions and suggestions for future research. PMID:25939286

  18. [Studies on Latin American freshwater macroinvertebrates: recent advances and future directions].

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Alonso; Gutiérrez-Fonseca, Pablo E

    2014-04-01

    Latin America is an active scientific research area, in particular with respect to the study of freshwater macroinvertebrates. The present serves as an introduction to a special issue that highlights recent research projects on macroinvertebrates in Latin America. As part of this introduction, we conducted a literature analysis of the last 14 years of publications from the region that highlights the steady increase in publications on macroinvertebrates. Most studies from 2000-2013 were conducted in Brazil, Colombia, Argentina, and Costa Rica, and were focused on taxonomy and different issues related to biodiversity and distribution. There was a tendency for the use of local low-impact journals, but high impact publications were also found. This special issue contributes with 18 studies conducted in eight different countries. Two major topics are covered in the special issue, the ecology and natural history of aquatic macroinvertebrates and their use in the evaluation of anthropogenic impacts to aquatic ecosystems. Based on the literature review and contributions included in the issue, we discuss research needs for the region. Identified needs include: (1) to continue emphasizing taxonomic research, (2) assess mechanisms responsible for changes in biodiversity, (3) assess the role of macroinvertebrates in ecosystem processes and function, (4) improve biomonitoring efforts beyond unimetric indices, (5) the need for an ecosystem perspective, and (6) establishing long-term studies. This special issue is an initial effort to advance our knowledge on freshwater macroinvertebrates in Latin America. PMID:25189066

  19. Advanced Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings: Performance and Future Directions (Invited paper)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. In this presentation, thermal barrier coating development considerations and performance will be emphasized. Advanced thermal barrier coatings have been developed using a multi-component defect clustering approach, and shown to have improved thermal stability and lower conductivity. The coating systems have been demonstrated for high temperature combustor applications. For thermal barrier coatings designed for turbine airfoil applications, further improved erosion and impact resistance are crucial for engine performance and durability. Erosion resistant thermal barrier coatings are being developed, with a current emphasis on the toughness improvements using a combined rare earth- and transition metal-oxide doping approach. The performance of the toughened thermal barrier coatings has been evaluated in burner rig and laser heat-flux rig simulated engine erosion and thermal gradient environments. The results have shown that the coating composition optimizations can effectively improve the erosion and impact resistance of the coating systems, while maintaining low thermal conductivity and cyclic durability. The erosion, impact and high heat-flux damage mechanisms of the thermal barrier coatings will also be described.

  20. [Studies on Latin American freshwater macroinvertebrates: recent advances and future directions].

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Alonso; Gutiérrez-Fonseca, Pablo E

    2014-04-01

    Latin America is an active scientific research area, in particular with respect to the study of freshwater macroinvertebrates. The present serves as an introduction to a special issue that highlights recent research projects on macroinvertebrates in Latin America. As part of this introduction, we conducted a literature analysis of the last 14 years of publications from the region that highlights the steady increase in publications on macroinvertebrates. Most studies from 2000-2013 were conducted in Brazil, Colombia, Argentina, and Costa Rica, and were focused on taxonomy and different issues related to biodiversity and distribution. There was a tendency for the use of local low-impact journals, but high impact publications were also found. This special issue contributes with 18 studies conducted in eight different countries. Two major topics are covered in the special issue, the ecology and natural history of aquatic macroinvertebrates and their use in the evaluation of anthropogenic impacts to aquatic ecosystems. Based on the literature review and contributions included in the issue, we discuss research needs for the region. Identified needs include: (1) to continue emphasizing taxonomic research, (2) assess mechanisms responsible for changes in biodiversity, (3) assess the role of macroinvertebrates in ecosystem processes and function, (4) improve biomonitoring efforts beyond unimetric indices, (5) the need for an ecosystem perspective, and (6) establishing long-term studies. This special issue is an initial effort to advance our knowledge on freshwater macroinvertebrates in Latin America.

  1. Numerical Simulations of the Geodynamo and Scaling Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oruba, L.; Dormy, E.

    2013-12-01

    State of the art numerical models of the Geodynamo are still performed in a parameter regime extremely remote from the values relevant to the physics of the Earth core. In order to establish a connection between dynamo modeling and the geophysical motivation, it is necessary to use scaling laws. Such laws establish the dependency of essential quantities (such as the magnetic field strength) on measured or controlled quantities. They allow for a direct confrontation of advanced models with geophysical constraints. We will present a detailed analysis of scaling laws based on a wide database of 185 direct numerical simulations (courtesy of U. Christensen) and test various existing scaling laws. Our main concern is to stress the risks of a direct numerical fit free from physical insight. We show that different a priori hypothesis can yield contradictory dependences, in particular concerning the dependence of the magnetic field strength on the rotation rate as well as on the viscosity.

  2. [Effects of advance visual cue utilization on anticipation of ball direction].

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Satoko; Mori, Shuji; Hirose, Nobuyuki

    2012-08-01

    We examined skill-based differences in the anticipation of ball direction during the catching of a grounder in baseball. In Experiment 1, we used film stimuli which included a sequence of pitching and hitting action from the shortstop's customary perspective, and participants judged the ball's direction (left or right). Also, we used white-circle stimuli, and participants reported whether the circle was displaced to the left or to the right. Baseball players responded faster than non-players in the film task, but there was no significant difference between the two groups in the white-circle task. In Experiment 2, we used film stimuli which were cut off at four different temporal occlusion periods to examine the time of extraction of important visual cues. Accuracy exceeded the chance level prior to the bat-ball contact in both groups, but was earlier for players than for non-players. Our results suggest that players may extract anticipatory visual cues more effectively and earlier than non-players. PMID:23012821

  3. Advances in homology directed genetic engineering of human pluripotent and adult stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ramamoorthi, Kalpith; Curtis, Donald; Asuri, Prashanth

    2013-10-26

    The ability to introduce precise genomic modifications in human cells has profound implications for both basic and applied research in stem cells, ranging from identification of genes regulating stem cell self-renewal and multilineage differentiation to therapeutic gene correction and creation of in vitro models of human diseases. However, the overall efficiency of this process is challenged by several factors including inefficient gene delivery into stem cells and low rates of homology directed site-specific targeting. Recent studies report the development of novel techniques to improve gene targeting efficiencies in human stem cells; these methods include molecular engineering of viral vectors to efficiently deliver episomal genetic sequences that can participate in homology directed targeting, as well as the design of synthetic proteins that can introduce double-stranded breaks in DNA to initiate such recombination events. This review focuses on the potential of these new technologies to precisely alter the human stem cell genome and also highlights the possibilities offered by the combination of these complementary strategies.

  4. Advances in directed self assembly integration and manufacturability at 300 mm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathsack, Benjamen; Somervell, Mark; Muramatsu, Makato; Tanouchi, Keiji; Kitano, Takahiro; Nishimura, Eiichi; Yatsuda, Koichi; Nagahara, Seiji; Iwaki, Hiroyuki; Akai, Keiji; Ozawa, Mariko; Romo Negreira, Ainhoa; Tahara, Shigeru; Nafus, Kathleen

    2013-03-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) has the potential to extend scaling for both line/space and hole patterns. DSA has shown the capability for pitch reduction (multiplication), hole shrinks, CD self-healing as well as a pathway towards LWR and pattern collapse improvement [1-10]. TEL has developed a DSA development ecosystem (collaboration with customers, consortia, inspection vendors and material suppliers) to successfully demonstrate directed PS-PMMA DSA patterns using chemo-epitaxy (lift-off and etch guide) and grapho-epitaxy integrations on 300 mm wafers. New processes are being developed to simplify process integration, to reduce defects and to address design integration challenges with the long term goal of robust manufacturability. For hole DSA applications, a wet development process has been developed that enables traditional post-develop metrology through the high selectivity removal of PMMA cylindrical cores. For line/ space DSA applications, new track, cleans and etch processes have been developed to improve manufacturability. In collaboration with universities and consortia, fundamental process studies and simulations are used to drive process improvement and defect investigation. To extend DSA resolution beyond a PS-PMMA system, high chi materials and processes are also explored. In this paper, TEL's latest process solutions for both hole and line/space DSA process integrations are presented.

  5. Proton exchange membrane materials for the advancement of direct methanol fuel-cell technology

    DOEpatents

    Cornelius, Christopher J.

    2006-04-04

    A new class of hybrid organic-inorganic materials, and methods of synthesis, that can be used as a proton exchange membrane in a direct methanol fuel cell. In contrast with Nafion.RTM. PEM materials, which have random sulfonation, the new class of materials have ordered sulfonation achieved through self-assembly of alternating polyimide segments of different molecular weights comprising, for example, highly sulfonated hydrophilic PDA-DASA polyimide segment alternating with an unsulfonated hydrophobic 6FDA-DAS polyimide segment. An inorganic phase, e.g., 0.5 5 wt % TEOS, can be incorporated in the sulfonated polyimide copolymer to further improve its properties. The new materials exhibit reduced swelling when exposed to water, increased thermal stability, and decreased O.sub.2 and H.sub.2 gas permeability, while retaining proton conductivities similar to Nafion.RTM.. These improved properties may allow direct methanol fuel cells to operate at higher temperatures and with higher efficiencies due to reduced methanol crossover.

  6. [Effects of advance visual cue utilization on anticipation of ball direction].

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Satoko; Mori, Shuji; Hirose, Nobuyuki

    2012-08-01

    We examined skill-based differences in the anticipation of ball direction during the catching of a grounder in baseball. In Experiment 1, we used film stimuli which included a sequence of pitching and hitting action from the shortstop's customary perspective, and participants judged the ball's direction (left or right). Also, we used white-circle stimuli, and participants reported whether the circle was displaced to the left or to the right. Baseball players responded faster than non-players in the film task, but there was no significant difference between the two groups in the white-circle task. In Experiment 2, we used film stimuli which were cut off at four different temporal occlusion periods to examine the time of extraction of important visual cues. Accuracy exceeded the chance level prior to the bat-ball contact in both groups, but was earlier for players than for non-players. Our results suggest that players may extract anticipatory visual cues more effectively and earlier than non-players.

  7. Challenges and Benefits of Direct Policy Search in Advancing Multiobjective Reservoir Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelletti, Andrea; Giuliani, Matteo; Zatarain-Salazar, Jazmin; Hermann, John; Pianosi, Francesca; Reed, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Optimal management policies for water reservoir operation are generally designed via stochastic dynamic programming (SDP). Yet, the adoption of SDP in complex real-world problems is challenged by the three curses of dimensionality, of modeling, and of multiple objectives. These three curses considerably limit SDP's practical application. Alternatively, in this study, we focus on the use of evolutionary multi-objective direct policy search (EMODPS), a simulation-based optimization approach that combines direct policy search, nonlinear approximating networks and multi-objective evolutionary algorithms to design Pareto approximate operating policies for multi-purpose water reservoirs. Our analysis explores the technical and practical implications of using EMODPS through a careful diagnostic assessment of the EMODPS Pareto approximate solutions attained and the overall reliability of the policy design process. A key choice in the EMODPS approach is the selection of alternative formulations of the operating policies. In this study, we distinguish the relative performance of two widely used nonlinear approximating networks, namely Artificial Neural Networks and Radial Basis Functions, and we further compare them with SDP. Besides, we comparatively assess state-of-the-art multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) in terms of efficiency, effectiveness, reliability, and controllability. Our diagnostic results show that RBFs solutions are more effective that ANNs in designing Pareto approximate policies for several water reservoir systems. They also highlight that EMODPS is very challenging for modern MOEAs and that epsilon dominance is critical for attaining high levels of performance. Epsilon dominance algorithms epsilon-MOEA, epsilon-NSGAII and the auto adaptive Borg MOEA, are statistically superior for the class of problems considered.

  8. Advancing predictive models for particulate formation in turbulent flames via massively parallel direct numerical simulations

    PubMed Central

    Bisetti, Fabrizio; Attili, Antonio; Pitsch, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Combustion of fossil fuels is likely to continue for the near future due to the growing trends in energy consumption worldwide. The increase in efficiency and the reduction of pollutant emissions from combustion devices are pivotal to achieving meaningful levels of carbon abatement as part of the ongoing climate change efforts. Computational fluid dynamics featuring adequate combustion models will play an increasingly important role in the design of more efficient and cleaner industrial burners, internal combustion engines, and combustors for stationary power generation and aircraft propulsion. Today, turbulent combustion modelling is hindered severely by the lack of data that are accurate and sufficiently complete to assess and remedy model deficiencies effectively. In particular, the formation of pollutants is a complex, nonlinear and multi-scale process characterized by the interaction of molecular and turbulent mixing with a multitude of chemical reactions with disparate time scales. The use of direct numerical simulation (DNS) featuring a state of the art description of the underlying chemistry and physical processes has contributed greatly to combustion model development in recent years. In this paper, the analysis of the intricate evolution of soot formation in turbulent flames demonstrates how DNS databases are used to illuminate relevant physico-chemical mechanisms and to identify modelling needs. PMID:25024412

  9. Advanced direct coal liquefaction concepts. Quarterly report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, D.J.; Parker, R.J.; Simpson, P.L.

    1993-12-31

    Six runs on the bench unit were successfully completed this quarter. The runs covered twenty five different operating conditions and yield periods, and involved 336 hours of operation. In the bench unit, increased temperature of first stage operation (410{degree}C) and direct addition of the powdered solid sodium aluminate to the feed as first stage catalyst improved both coal and carbon monoxide conversion. To achieve 90%+ overall coal conversion, temperatures of 430{degree}C+ were required in the second stage. Oil yields (pentane soluble liquid product) in excess of 65 wt % based on MAF Black Thunder coal, were achieved both with iron oxide/dimethyl disulfide and ammonium molybdate/carbon disulfide second stage catalysts. C{sub l}-C{sub 3} hydrogen gas yields were modest, generally 7-8 wt % on MAF coal, and overall hydrogen consumption (including first stage shift hydrogen) was in the order of 7-8 wt % on MAF coal. The ammonium molybdate catalyst system appeared to give slightly higher oil yields and hydrogen consumption, as was expected, but the differences may not be significant.

  10. Improved fabrication of melt electrospun tissue engineering scaffolds using direct writing and advanced electric field control.

    PubMed

    Ristovski, Nikola; Bock, Nathalie; Liao, Sam; Powell, Sean K; Ren, Jiongyu; Kirby, Giles T S; Blackwood, Keith A; Woodruff, Maria A

    2015-03-25

    Direct writing melt electrospinning is an additive manufacturing technique capable of the layer-by-layer fabrication of highly ordered 3d tissue engineering scaffolds from micron-diameter fibers. The utility of these scaffolds, however, is limited by the maximum achievable height of controlled fiber deposition, beyond which the structure becomes increasingly disordered. A source of this disorder is charge build-up on the deposited polymer producing unwanted coulombic forces. In this study, the authors introduce a novel melt electrospinning platform with dual voltage power supplies to reduce undesirable charge effects and improve fiber deposition control. The authors produced and characterized several 90° cross-hatched fiber scaffolds using a range of needle/collector plate voltages. Fiber thickness was found to be sensitive only to overall potential and invariant to specific tip/collector voltage. The authors also produced ordered scaffolds up to 200 layers thick (fiber spacing 1 mm and diameter 40 μm) and characterized structure in terms of three distinct zones: ordered, semiordered, and disordered. Our in vitro analysis indicates successful cell attachment and distribution throughout the scaffolds, with little evidence of cell death after seven days. This study demonstrates the importance of electrostatic control for reducing destabilizing polymer charge effects and enabling the fabrication of morphologically suitable scaffolds for tissue engineering.

  11. Advanced Compositional Analysis of Nanoparticle-polymer Composites Using Direct Fluorescence Imaging.

    PubMed

    Crick, Colin R; Noimark, Sacha; Peveler, William J; Bear, Joseph C; Ivanov, Aleksandar P; Edel, Joshua B; Parkin, Ivan P

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication of polymer-nanoparticle composites is extremely important in the development of many functional materials. Identifying the precise composition of these materials is essential, especially in the design of surface catalysts, where the surface concentration of the active component determines the activity of the material. Antimicrobial materials which utilize nanoparticles are a particular focus of this technology. Recently swell encapsulation has emerged as a technique for inserting antimicrobial nanoparticles into a host polymer matrix. Swell encapsulation provides the advantage of localizing the incorporation to the external surfaces of materials, which act as the active sites of these materials. However, quantification of this nanoparticle uptake is challenging. Previous studies explore the link between antimicrobial activity and surface concentration of the active component, but this is not directly visualized. Here we show a reliable method to monitor the incorporation of nanoparticles into a polymer host matrix via swell encapsulation. We show that the surface concentration of CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles can be accurately visualized through cross-sectional fluorescence imaging. Using this method, we can quantify the uptake of nanoparticles via swell encapsulation and measure the surface concentration of encapsulated particles, which is key in optimizing the activity of functional materials. PMID:27500449

  12. Advanced unidirectional photocurrent generation via cytochrome c as reaction partner for directed assembly of photosystem I.

    PubMed

    Stieger, Kai R; Feifel, Sven C; Lokstein, Heiko; Lisdat, Fred

    2014-08-01

    Conversion of light into an electrical current based on biohybrid systems mimicking natural photosynthesis is becoming increasingly popular. Photosystem I (PSI) is particularly useful in such photo-bioelectrochemical devices. Herein, we report on a novel biomimetic approach for an effective assembly of photosystem I with the electron transfer carrier cytochrome c (cyt c), deposited on a thiol-modified gold-surface. Atomic force microscopy and surface plasmon resonance measurements have been used for characterization of the assembly process. Photoelectrochemical experiments demonstrate a cyt c mediated generation of an enhanced unidirectional cathodic photocurrent. Here, cyt c can act as a template for the assembly of an oriented and dense layer of PSI and as wiring agent to direct the electrons from the electrode towards the photosynthetic reaction center of PSI. Furthermore, three-dimensional protein architectures have been formed via the layer-by-layer deposition technique resulting in a successive increase in photocurrent densities. An intermittent cyt c layer is essential for an efficient connection of PSI layers with the electrode and for an improvement of photocurrent densities. PMID:24957935

  13. Transcranial direct current stimulation in stroke rehabilitation: a review of recent advancements.

    PubMed

    Gomez Palacio Schjetnan, Andrea; Faraji, Jamshid; Metz, Gerlinde A; Tatsuno, Masami; Luczak, Artur

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising technique to treat a wide range of neurological conditions including stroke. The pathological processes following stroke may provide an exemplary system to investigate how tDCS promotes neuronal plasticity and functional recovery. Changes in synaptic function after stroke, such as reduced excitability, formation of aberrant connections, and deregulated plastic modifications, have been postulated to impede recovery from stroke. However, if tDCS could counteract these negative changes by influencing the system's neurophysiology, it would contribute to the formation of functionally meaningful connections and the maintenance of existing pathways. This paper is aimed at providing a review of underlying mechanisms of tDCS and its application to stroke. In addition, to maximize the effectiveness of tDCS in stroke rehabilitation, future research needs to determine the optimal stimulation protocols and parameters. We discuss how stimulation parameters could be optimized based on electrophysiological activity. In particular, we propose that cortical synchrony may represent a biomarker of tDCS efficacy to indicate communication between affected areas. Understanding the mechanisms by which tDCS affects the neural substrate after stroke and finding ways to optimize tDCS for each patient are key to effective rehabilitation approaches.

  14. RECENT ADVANCES OF GENETIC ANCESTRY TESTING IN BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH AND DIRECT TO CONSUMER TESTING

    PubMed Central

    Via, Marc; Ziv, Elad; Burchard, Esteban González

    2010-01-01

    In the post-Human Genome Project era, the debate on the concept of race/ethnicity and its implications for biomedical research are dependent on two critical issues: whether and how to classify individuals and whether biological factors play a role in health disparities. The advent of reliable estimates of genetic (or biogeographic) ancestry has provided this debate with a quantitative and more objective tool. The estimation of genetic ancestry allows investigators to control for population stratification in association studies and helps to detect biological causation behind population-specific differences in disease and drug response. New techniques such as admixture mapping can specifically detect population-specific risk alleles for a disease in admixed populations. However, researchers have to be mindful of the correlation between genetic ancestry and socioeconomic and environmental factors that could underlie these differences. More importantly, researchers must avoid the stigmatization of individuals based on perceived or real genetic risks. The latter point will become increasingly sensitive as several “for profit companies” are offering ancestry and genetic testing directly to consumers and the consequences of the spread of the services of these companies is still unforeseeable. PMID:19793051

  15. Advancing predictive models for particulate formation in turbulent flames via massively parallel direct numerical simulations.

    PubMed

    Bisetti, Fabrizio; Attili, Antonio; Pitsch, Heinz

    2014-08-13

    Combustion of fossil fuels is likely to continue for the near future due to the growing trends in energy consumption worldwide. The increase in efficiency and the reduction of pollutant emissions from combustion devices are pivotal to achieving meaningful levels of carbon abatement as part of the ongoing climate change efforts. Computational fluid dynamics featuring adequate combustion models will play an increasingly important role in the design of more efficient and cleaner industrial burners, internal combustion engines, and combustors for stationary power generation and aircraft propulsion. Today, turbulent combustion modelling is hindered severely by the lack of data that are accurate and sufficiently complete to assess and remedy model deficiencies effectively. In particular, the formation of pollutants is a complex, nonlinear and multi-scale process characterized by the interaction of molecular and turbulent mixing with a multitude of chemical reactions with disparate time scales. The use of direct numerical simulation (DNS) featuring a state of the art description of the underlying chemistry and physical processes has contributed greatly to combustion model development in recent years. In this paper, the analysis of the intricate evolution of soot formation in turbulent flames demonstrates how DNS databases are used to illuminate relevant physico-chemical mechanisms and to identify modelling needs.

  16. Advanced feeder-free generation of induced pluripotent stem cells directly from blood cells.

    PubMed

    Trokovic, Ras; Weltner, Jere; Nishimura, Ken; Ohtaka, Manami; Nakanishi, Mahito; Salomaa, Veikko; Jalanko, Anu; Otonkoski, Timo; Kyttälä, Aija

    2014-12-01

    Generation of validated human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) for biobanking is essential for exploring the full potential of iPSCs in disease modeling and drug discovery. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are attractive targets for reprogramming, because blood is collected by a routine clinical procedure and is a commonly stored material in biobanks. Generation of iPSCs from blood cells has previously been reported using integrative retroviruses, episomal Sendai viruses, and DNA plasmids. However, most of the published protocols require expansion and/or activation of a specific cell population from PBMCs. We have recently collected a PBMC cohort from the Finnish population containing more than 2,000 subjects. Here we report efficient generation of iPSCs directly from PBMCs in feeder-free conditions in approximately 2 weeks. The produced iPSC clones are pluripotent and transgene-free. Together, these properties make this novel method a powerful tool for large-scale reprogramming of PBMCs and for iPSC biobanking.

  17. Advancing predictive models for particulate formation in turbulent flames via massively parallel direct numerical simulations.

    PubMed

    Bisetti, Fabrizio; Attili, Antonio; Pitsch, Heinz

    2014-08-13

    Combustion of fossil fuels is likely to continue for the near future due to the growing trends in energy consumption worldwide. The increase in efficiency and the reduction of pollutant emissions from combustion devices are pivotal to achieving meaningful levels of carbon abatement as part of the ongoing climate change efforts. Computational fluid dynamics featuring adequate combustion models will play an increasingly important role in the design of more efficient and cleaner industrial burners, internal combustion engines, and combustors for stationary power generation and aircraft propulsion. Today, turbulent combustion modelling is hindered severely by the lack of data that are accurate and sufficiently complete to assess and remedy model deficiencies effectively. In particular, the formation of pollutants is a complex, nonlinear and multi-scale process characterized by the interaction of molecular and turbulent mixing with a multitude of chemical reactions with disparate time scales. The use of direct numerical simulation (DNS) featuring a state of the art description of the underlying chemistry and physical processes has contributed greatly to combustion model development in recent years. In this paper, the analysis of the intricate evolution of soot formation in turbulent flames demonstrates how DNS databases are used to illuminate relevant physico-chemical mechanisms and to identify modelling needs. PMID:25024412

  18. Domoic acid induces direct DNA damage and apoptosis in Caco-2 cells: recent advances.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Silva, C R Carvalho; Moukha, S; Matias, W G; Creppy, E E

    2008-12-01

    Domoic acid (DA) is a neurotoxin produced by sea-water phytoplankton. Shellfish feeding on the phytoplankton can bioconcentrate DA, leading to a potentially serious health hazard for people consuming the contaminated shellfish. DA is the principal toxin responsible for amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP). The toxic mechanism of DA is believed to be mediated at the level of the mitochondria, where uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation decreases membrane permeability, causing cell swelling and ultimately lysis. Literature is poor concerning data on the possible genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of DA. In the present study, we have evaluated the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of DA on a human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (Caco-2). Our results clearly demonstrate that DA decreased cell viability (IC(50) about 70 ng/mL), induced direct DNA damage from 15 ng/mL, and apoptosis in Caco-2 cells at 100 ng/mL. This apoptosis is likely bax-dependent and occurred only at high concentrations of DA, while lower concentrations upregulated both bax and bcl-2 at an apparent constant ratio until a sudden decrease of bcl-2 at 100 ng/mL and increase of bax. PMID:18293405

  19. Does advanced medical technology encourage hospitalist use and their direct employment by hospitals?

    PubMed

    David, Guy; Helmchen, Lorens A; Henderson, Robert A

    2009-02-01

    In the United States, inpatient medical care increasingly encompasses the use of expensive medical technology and, at the same time, is coordinated and supervised more and more by a rapidly growing number of inpatient-dedicated physicians (hospitalists). In the production of inpatient care services, Hospitalist services can be viewed as complementary to sophisticated and expensive medical equipment in the provision of inpatient medical care. We investigate the causal relationship between a hospital's access to three types of sophisticated diagnostic and therapeutic medical equipment - intensity-modulated radiation therapy, gamma knife, and multi-slice computed tomography - and its likelihood of using hospitalists. To rule out omitted variables bias and reverse causality, we use technology-specific Certificate of Need regulation to predict technology use. We find a strong positive association, yet no causal link between access to medical technology and hospitalist use. We also study the choice of employment modality among hospitals that use hospitalists, and find that access to expensive medical technology reduces the hospital's propensity to employ hospitalists directly.

  20. Advancing vector biology research: a community survey for future directions, research applications and infrastructure requirements.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Alain; Pondeville, Emilie; Schnettler, Esther; Crisanti, Andrea; Supparo, Clelia; Christophides, George K; Kersey, Paul J; Maslen, Gareth L; Takken, Willem; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M; Oliva, Clelia F; Busquets, Núria; Abad, F Xavier; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Levashina, Elena A; Wilson, Anthony J; Veronesi, Eva; Pichard, Maëlle; Arnaud Marsh, Sarah; Simard, Frédéric; Vernick, Kenneth D

    2016-01-01

    Vector-borne pathogens impact public health, animal production, and animal welfare. Research on arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, sandflies, and midges which transmit pathogens to humans and economically important animals is crucial for development of new control measures that target transmission by the vector. While insecticides are an important part of this arsenal, appearance of resistance mechanisms is increasingly common. Novel tools for genetic manipulation of vectors, use of Wolbachia endosymbiotic bacteria, and other biological control mechanisms to prevent pathogen transmission have led to promising new intervention strategies, adding to strong interest in vector biology and genetics as well as vector-pathogen interactions. Vector research is therefore at a crucial juncture, and strategic decisions on future research directions and research infrastructure investment should be informed by the research community. A survey initiated by the European Horizon 2020 INFRAVEC-2 consortium set out to canvass priorities in the vector biology research community and to determine key activities that are needed for researchers to efficiently study vectors, vector-pathogen interactions, as well as access the structures and services that allow such activities to be carried out. We summarize the most important findings of the survey which in particular reflect the priorities of researchers in European countries, and which will be of use to stakeholders that include researchers, government, and research organizations. PMID:27677378

  1. Long-term survival of direct and indirect restorations placed for the treatment of advanced tooth wear.

    PubMed

    Smales, Roger J; Berekally, Thomas L

    2007-03-01

    Advanced tooth wear was restored with direct resin-based composites (RBCs) in 17 patients, and with indirect ceramo-metal crowns (CMCs) and full gold crowns in 8 other patients. The mean patient age was 64.9 (8.6 SD) years, with each patient having a mean of 13.8 (5.4) restorations. In this retrospective case series study, the mean restoration age was 5.0 (3.0) years for the direct and 5.9 (2.6) years for the indirect restorations. Over 10 years, cumulative survival estimates were 62.0% for direct and 74.5% for indirect restorations (P = 0.23). Survival estimates were 58.9% for anterior RBCs and 70.3% for anterior CMCs (P = 0.06). RBCs usually failed from fractures, and CMCs from complete losses. RBC failures were usually replaced or repaired, while CMC failures often required root canal therapies or extractions. The findings from this relatively small study require confirmation by large long-term controlled clinical trials.

  2. Advanced direct coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, December 1983-February 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Paranjape, A.S.

    1984-04-30

    Five Bench-Scale coal liquefaction runs were completed with Wyoming subbituminous coal in a two-stage process scheme. In this process scheme, LDAR, the lighter fraction of ash-free resid, was fed to the catalytic stage prior to its recycle to the thermal stage, whereas DAR, the heavy fraction of the deashed resid, was directly recycled to the thermal stage without any intermediate processing step. The results indicate that increasing coal space rate in the dissolver resulted in lower coal conversion and reduced distillate yield in this process configuration. The coal conversions decreased from 92 wt% to 89 wt% (MAF coal) and the distillate yield was reduced from 50 wt% to less than 40 wt% (MAF coal), as the coal space velocity increased. Attempts to duplicate the yields of Run 32, at comparable process conditions in Runs 37 and 38, were unsuccessful. Several process parameters were investigated but failed to show why the yields of Run 32 could not be duplicated. Valuable process related information was gained as a result of process parameter studies completed during these runs. At comparable process conditions, coal conversions were lower by about 3 to 4 relative percent and were only in the 87 wt% (MAF coal) range. Similarly, the distillate yield was about 40 wt% (MAF coal) which is about 10 wt% lower than observed in Run 32. Although no exact cause for these results could be determined, it appeared that the H/C atomic ratio of the solvent and possibly the flow pattern (plug-flow versus back-mixed) could have affected the coal conversion and quantity of distillate product produced. A significant decrease in coal conversion of 4 to 5 wt% was observed when the disposable catalyst (iron oxide) was removed from the reaction mixture and therefore substantiates the need for a disposable catalyst in the liquefaction of Wyoming subbituminous coal.

  3. New Directions in School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Organization on Legal Problems of Education, Topeka, KS.

    This book contains a collection of 18 papers presented at the 1975 annual convention of the National Organization on Legal Problems of Education. All of the papers are organized around the topic of "Legal Problems in the Governance of Education." Titles of the individual papers include "Legal Issues in the Governance of American Education,""Points…

  4. ADVANCED BYPRODUCT RECOVERY: DIRECT CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF SO2 TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Weber

    1999-05-01

    Arthur D. Little, Inc., together with its commercialization partner, Engelhard Corporation, and its university partner Tufts, investigated a single-step process for direct, catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide from regenerable flue gas desulfurization processes to the more valuable elemental sulfur by-product. This development built on recently demonstrated SO{sub 2}-reduction catalyst performance at Tufts University on a DOE-sponsored program and is, in principle, applicable to processing of regenerator off-gases from all regenerable SO{sub 2}-control processes. In this program, laboratory-scale catalyst optimization work at Tufts was combined with supported catalyst formulation work at Engelhard, bench-scale supported catalyst testing at Arthur D. Little and market assessments, also by Arthur D. Little. Objectives included identification and performance evaluation of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. The catalyst formulation was improved significantly over the course of this work owing to the identification of a number of underlying phenomena that tended to reduce catalyst selectivity. The most promising catalysts discovered in the bench-scale tests at Tufts were transformed into monolith-supported catalysts at Engelhard. These catalyst samples were tested at larger scale at Arthur D. Little, where the laboratory-scale results were confirmed, namely that the catalysts do effectively reduce sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur when operated under appropriate levels of conversion and in conditions that do not contain too much water or hydrogen. Ways to overcome those limitations were suggested by the laboratory results. Nonetheless, at the end of Phase I, the catalysts did not exhibit the very stringent levels of activity or selectivity that would have permitted ready scale-up to pilot or commercial operation. Therefore, we chose not to pursue Phase II of this work which would have included further bench-scale testing

  5. 48 CFR 225.7402-4 - Law of war training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Law of war training. 225... States 225.7402-4 Law of war training. (a) Basic training. Basic law of war training is required for all...=en-US. (b) Advanced law of war training. (1) The types of personnel that must obtain advanced law...

  6. 48 CFR 225.7402-4 - Law of war training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Law of war training. 225... States 225.7402-4 Law of war training. (a) Basic training. Basic law of war training is required for all...= en-US. (b) Advanced law of war training. (1) The types of personnel that must obtain advanced law...

  7. 48 CFR 225.7402-4 - Law of war training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Law of war training. 225... States 225.7402-4 Law of war training. (a) Basic training. Basic law of war training is required for all...=en-US. (b) Advanced law of war training. (1) The types of personnel that must obtain advanced law...

  8. 48 CFR 225.7402-4 - Law of war training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Law of war training. 225... States 225.7402-4 Law of war training. (a) Basic training. Basic law of war training is required for all...= en-US. (b) Advanced law of war training. (1) The types of personnel that must obtain advanced law...

  9. 48 CFR 225.7402-4 - Law of war training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Law of war training. 225... States 225.7402-4 Law of war training. (a) Basic training. Basic law of war training is required for all...= en-US. (b) Advanced law of war training. (1) The types of personnel that must obtain advanced law...

  10. Advancing user experience research to facilitate and enable patient-centered research: current state and future directions.

    PubMed

    Payne, Philip R O

    2013-01-01

    Human-computer interaction and related areas of user experience (UX) research, such as human factors, workflow evaluation, and data visualization, are thus essential to presenting data in ways that can further the analysis of complex data sets such as those used in patient-centered research. However, a review of available data on the state of UX research as it relates to patient-centered research demonstrates a significant underinvestment and consequently a large gap in knowledge generation. In response, this report explores trends in funding and research productivity focused on UX and patient-centered research and then presents a set of recommendations to advance innovation at this important intersection point. Ultimately, the aim is to catalyze a community-wide dialogue concerning future directions for research and innovation in UX as it applies to patient-centered research.

  11. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units, Phase 2. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The aims of this research program are to advance to bench-scale testing, concepts that have the potential for making net reductions in direct coal liquefaction process costs. The research involves a teaming arrangement between the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER), Consolidation Coal Company (CONSOL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and LDP Associates. Progress reports are presented for: Task 2.1.1 development of a catalyst screening test (UK/CAER); Task 2.1.2 activation of impregnated catalysts (UK/CAER); Task 2.2 laboratory support (CONSOL); Task 3 continuous operations/parametric studies (Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc.) and; Task 4.4 conceptual design, preliminary technical assessment (LDP Associates).

  12. Multi-objective direct optimization of dynamic acceptance and lifetime for potential upgrades of the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Borland, M.; Sajaev, V.; Emery, L.; Xiao, A.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2010-08-24

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a 7 GeV storage ring light source that has been in operation for well over a decade. In the near future, the ring may be upgraded, including changes to the lattice such as provision of several long straight sections (LSS). Because APS beamlines are nearly fully built out, we have limited freedom to place LSSs in a symmetric fashion. Arbitrarily-placed LSSs will drastically reduce the symmetry of the optics and would typically be considered unworkable. We apply a recently-developed multi-objective direct optimization technique that relies on particle tracking to compute the dynamic aperture and Touschek lifetime. We show that this technique is able to tune sextupole strengths and select the working point in such a way as to recover the dynamic and momentum acceptances. We also show the results of experimental tests of lattices developed using these techniques.

  13. Do Spanish Hospital Professionals Educate Their Patients About Advance Directives? : A Descriptive Study in a University Hospital in Madrid, Spain.

    PubMed

    Pérez, María; Herreros, Benjamín; Martín, M Dolores; Molina, Julia; Kanouzi, Jack; Velasco, María

    2016-06-01

    It is unknown whether hospital-based medical professionals in Spain educate patients about advance directives (ADs). The objective of this research was to determine the frequency of hospital-based physicians' and nurses' engagement in AD discussions in the hospital and which patient populations merit such efforts. A short question-and-answer-based survey of physicians and nurses taking care of inpatients was conducted at a university hospital in Madrid, Spain. In total, 283 surveys were collected from medical professionals, of whom 71 per cent were female, with an average age of thirty-four years. Eighty-four per cent had never educated patients about ADs because of lack of perceived responsibility, time, or general knowledge of ADs. Patient populations that warranted AD discussions included those with terminal illnesses (77 per cent), chronic diseases (61 per cent), and elderly patients (43 per cent). Regarding degree of AD understanding in medical professionals: 57 per cent of medical professionals claimed sufficient general knowledge of ADs, 19 per cent understood particulars regarding AD document creation, and 16 per cent were aware of AD regulatory policies. Engagement in AD discussions was considered important by 83 per cent of medical professionals, with 79 per cent interested in participating in such discussions themselves. The majority of hospital physicians and nurses do not educate their patients about ADs, despite acknowledging their importance. Patient populations of highest priority included those with terminal diseases or chronic illness or who are of advanced age. PMID:26797513

  14. Teachers and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Louis; And Others

    This book is designed to promote legal literacy for public school teachers. It examines a wide range of constitutional, statutory, and case law that directly affects their work. Its purpose is to provide teachers with the knowledge necessary to comply with the law, assert their rights, and bring violations to the attention of administrators and…

  15. Basic laws of the processes and the principle of minimum energy consumption during pneumatic transport and distribution of pulverized fuel in direct pulverized fuel preparation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leykin, V. Z.

    2015-08-01

    The paper presents analysis of the basic laws and a calculation-based investigation of processes related to the low-concentration pneumatic transport and the distribution of finely dispersed pulverized fuel in direct pulverized fuel preparation systems of boiler units. Based on the principle of the minimum energy consumption, it is shown that, at high (standard) velocities of the turbulent gas flow—of 25-30 m/s, which is by 1.5-2 times higher than the critical speeds—the finely dispersed pulverized fuel can be transported simultaneously in the form of a low-concentration flow in pipelines and a concentrated, to 30% of the flow rate, thin layer on the pipeline walls with the height of the layer equal to 0.02-0.04 of the pipe radius. Consideration of this phenomenon is of great significance in terms of securing the efficient operation of pulverized fuel distribution units. The basic characteristics of the process have been determined and validated by test bench investigations using both model systems and pulverized fuel distribution systems of a number of power-generating units. The obtained results underlie a methodological approach to developing high-efficiency adjustable pulverized fuel distribution units. Also, results of industrial testing are presented that confirm the results of the analysis and of experimental studies.

  16. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units: Phase 2. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The Advanced Direct Liquefaction Concepts Program sponsored by the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center was initiated in 1991 with the objective of promoting the development of new and emerging technology that has the potential for reducing the cost of producing liquid fuels by direct coal liquefaction. The laboratory research program (Phase I) was completed in 1995 by UK/CAER, CONSOL, Sandia National Laboratories and LDP Associates. A three year extension was subsequently awarded in October 1995 to further develop several promising concepts derived from the laboratory program. During Phase II, four continuous bench scale runs will be conducted at Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. using a 2 kg/hr continuous bench scale unit located at their facility in Lawrenceville, NJ. The first run in this program (ALC-1), conducted between April 19 and May 14, 1996, consisted of five test conditions to evaluate the affect of coal cleaning and recycle solvent modification. A detailed discussion of this run is included in Section Two of this report. Results obtained during this reporting period for all participants in this program are summarized.

  17. Degradation mechanism of alachlor during direct ozonation and O(3)/H(2)O(2) advanced oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Zhimin; Liu, Chao; Dong, Bingzhi; Zhang, Yalei

    2010-01-01

    The degradation of alachlor by direct ozonation and advanced oxidation process O(3)/H(2)O(2) was investigated in this study with focus on identification of degradation byproducts. The second-order reaction rate constant between ozone and alachlor was determined to be 2.5+/-0.1M(-1)s(-1) at pH 7.0 and 20 degrees C. Twelve and eight high-molecular-weight byproducts (with the benzene ring intact) from alachlor degradation were identified during direct ozonation and O(3)/H(2)O(2), respectively. The common degradation byproducts included N-(2,6-diethylphenyl)-methyleneamine, 8-ethyl-3,4-dihydro-quinoline, 8-ethyl-quinoline, 1-chloroacetyl-2-hydro-3-ketone-7-acetyl-indole, 2-chloro-2',6'-diacetyl-N-(methoxymethyl)acetanilide, 2-chloro-2'-acetyl-6'-ethyl-N-(methoxymethyl)-acetanilide, and two hydroxylated alachlor isomers. In direct ozonation, four more byproducts were also identified including 1-chloroacetyl-2,3-dihydro-7-ethyl-indole, 2-chloro-2',6'-ethyl-acetanilide, 2-chloro-2',6'-acetyl-acetanilide and 2-chloro-2'-ethyl-6'-acetyl-N-(methoxymethyl)-acetanilide. Degradation of alachlor by O(3) and O(3)/H(2)O(2) also led to the formation of low-molecular-weight byproducts including formic, acetic, propionic, monochloroacetic and oxalic acids as well as chloride ion (only detected in O(3)/H(2)O(2)). Nitrite and nitrate formation was negligible. Alachlor degradation occurred via oxidation of the arylethyl group, N-dealkylation, cyclization and cleavage of benzene ring. After O(3) or O(3)/H(2)O(2) treatment, the toxicity of alachlor solution examined by the Daphnia magna bioassay was slightly reduced. PMID:20022076

  18. Limit laws for Zipf's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2011-01-01

    In this communication we establish stochastic limit laws leading from Zipf's law to Pareto's and Heaps' laws. We consider finite ensembles governed by Zipf's law and study their asymptotic statistics as the ensemble size tends to infinity. A Lorenz-curve analysis establishes three types of limit laws for the ensembles' statistical structure: 'communist', 'monarchic', and Paretian. Further considering a dynamic setting in which the ensembles grow stochastically in time, a functional central limit theorem analysis establishes a Gaussian approximation for the ensembles' stochastic growth. The Gaussian approximation provides a generalized and corrected formulation of Heaps' law.

  19. Non-CAR resists and advanced materials for Massively Parallel E-Beam Direct Write process integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourteau, Marie-Line; Servin, Isabelle; Lepinay, Kévin; Essomba, Cyrille; Dal'Zotto, Bernard; Pradelles, Jonathan; Lattard, Ludovic; Brandt, Pieter; Wieland, Marco

    2016-03-01

    The emerging Massively Parallel-Electron Beam Direct Write (MP-EBDW) is an attractive high resolution high throughput lithography technology. As previously shown, Chemically Amplified Resists (CARs) meet process/integration specifications in terms of dose-to-size, resolution, contrast, and energy latitude. However, they are still limited by their line width roughness. To overcome this issue, we tested an alternative advanced non-CAR and showed it brings a substantial gain in sensitivity compared to CAR. We also implemented and assessed in-line post-lithographic treatments for roughness mitigation. For outgassing-reduction purpose, a top-coat layer is added to the total process stack. A new generation top-coat was tested and showed improved printing performances compared to the previous product, especially avoiding dark erosion: SEM cross-section showed a straight pattern profile. A spin-coatable charge dissipation layer based on conductive polyaniline has also been tested for conductivity and lithographic performances, and compatibility experiments revealed that the underlying resist type has to be carefully chosen when using this product. Finally, the Process Of Reference (POR) trilayer stack defined for 5 kV multi-e-beam lithography was successfully etched with well opened and straight patterns, and no lithography-etch bias.

  20. Fast wave direct electron heating in advanced inductive and ITER baseline scenario discharges in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Pinsker, R. I.; Jackson, G. L.; Luce, T. C.; Politzer, P. A.; Austin, M. E.; Diem, S. J.; Kaufman, M. C.; Ryan, P. M.; Doyle, E. J.; Zeng, L.; Grierson, B. A.; Hosea, J. C.; Nagy, A.; Perkins, R.; Solomon, W. M.; Taylor, G.; Maggiora, R.; Milanesio, D.; Porkolab, M.; Turco, F.

    2014-02-12

    Fast Wave (FW) heating and electron cyclotron heating (ECH) are used in the DIII-D tokamak to study plasmas with low applied torque and dominant electron heating characteristic of burning plasmas. FW heating via direct electron damping has reached the 2.5 MW level in high performance ELMy H-mode plasmas. In Advanced Inductive (AI) plasmas, core FW heating was found to be comparable to that of ECH, consistent with the excellent first-pass absorption of FWs predicted by ray-tracing models at high electron beta. FW heating at the ∼2 MW level to ELMy H-mode discharges in the ITER Baseline Scenario (IBS) showed unexpectedly strong absorption of FW power by injected neutral beam (NB) ions, indicated by significant enhancement of the D-D neutron rate, while the intended absorption on core electrons appeared rather weak. The AI and IBS discharges are compared in an effort to identify the causes of the different response to FWs.

  1. Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS) phase 1. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The laser atmospheric wind sounder (LAWS) will provide a new space based capability for the direct measurement of atmospheric winds in the troposphere. LAWS will make a major contribution toward advancing the understanding and prediction of the total Earth system and NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Program. LAWS is designed to measure a fundamental atmospheric parameter required to advance weather forecasting accuracies and investigate global climatic change. LAWS has a potential added benefit of providing (global) concentration profiles of large aerosols including visible and subvisible cirrus clouds, volcanic dust, smoke, and other pollutants. The objective of this Phase One study was to develop a LAWS concept and configuration. The instrument design is outlined in this first volume of three.

  2. Analysis of the entrainment law of a dry, shear-free convective boundary layer growing into a linearly stratified fluid using direct numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, J.; Mellado, J.

    2013-12-01

    Despite the good performance of the zero-order model (ZOM) in predicting the entrainment rate for a dry, shear-free convective boundary layer growing into a linearly stratified fluid, it is well-known that, due to its assumption of an infinitesimally thin capping layer, parameters in the entrainment rate equation such as the entrainment ratio and buoyancy increment are not accurately provided by the ZOM (Federovich et al. 2004). These parameters become relevant in cases of added complexity, like cloud formation or transition into a sheared CBL. Hence, extensions of the basic ZOM framework have been proposed to take into account the effect of the finite thickness, such as general structure models (Fedorovich and Mironov 1995, Fedorovich et al. 2004). To bring entrainment ratio measurements closer to the ZOM framework, Sullivan et al. (1998) concluded that the finite thickness contributes by increasing the entrainment ratio and should therefore be included. However, reliable data of the capping layer is still missing (Sullivan and Patton 2011). Hence, we do direct numerical simulation of the dry, shear-free CBL and use our data to eliminate uncertainty due to the sub-grid scale turbulence model when evaluating the exact equation for the entrainment rate. Contrary to previous findings, we find out that the finite thickness term is not only negligible but is of opposite sign, further decreasing the entrainment ratio that is already smaller than the reference value 0.2. The exact equation shows that it is actually a particular definition of the buoyancy jump that results from the exact equation that compensates for the smaller entrainment ratio. This buoyancy jump is different from a first-order model buoyancy jump and the buoyancy jump definition used by Sullivan et al. (1998). The entrainment ratio and the appropriate buoyancy jump are related by an exact equation, meaning the two cannot be chosen independently without possible violation of this equation. We also

  3. Contribution of Morphological Awareness and Lexical Inferencing Ability to L2 Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension among Advanced EFL Learners: Testing Direct and Indirect Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dongbo; Koda, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    Within the Structural Equation Modeling framework, this study tested the direct and indirect effects of morphological awareness and lexical inferencing ability on L2 vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension among advanced Chinese EFL readers in a university in China. Using both regular z-test and the bootstrapping (data-based resampling)…

  4. Nurses' knowledge of advance directives and perceived confidence in end‐of‐life care: a cross‐sectional study in five countries

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Geraldine; Weathers, Elizabeth; Friedman, M. Isabel; Gallo, Katherine; Ehrenfeld, Mally; Chan, Sophia; Li, William H.C.; Poletti, Piera; Zanotti, Renzo; Molloy, D. William; McGlade, Ciara; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J.; Itzhaki, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Nurses' knowledge regarding advance directives may affect their administration and completion in end‐of‐life care. Confidence among nurses is a barrier to the provision of quality end‐of‐life care. This study investigated nurses' knowledge of advance directives and perceived confidence in end‐of‐life care, in Hong Kong, Ireland, Israel, Italy and the USA using a cross‐sectional descriptive design (n = 1089). In all countries, older nurses and those who had more professional experience felt more confident managing patients' symptoms at end‐of‐life and more comfortable stopping preventive medications at end‐of‐life. Nurses in the USA reported that they have more knowledge and experience of advance directives compared with other countries. In addition, they reported the highest levels of confidence and comfort in dealing with end‐of‐life care. Although legislation for advance directives does not yet exist in Ireland, nurses reported high levels of confidence in end‐of‐life care. PMID:26823112

  5. Development of the High-Order Decoupled Direct Method in Three Dimensions for Particulate Matter: Enabling Advanced Sensitivity Analysis in Air Quality Models

    EPA Science Inventory

    The high-order decoupled direct method in three dimensions for particular matter (HDDM-3D/PM) has been implemented in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to enable advanced sensitivity analysis. The major effort of this work is to develop high-order DDM sensitivity...

  6. To what extent are the wishes of a signatory reflected in their advance directive: a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Advance directives (ADs) are assumed to reflect the patients’ preferences, even if these are not clearly expressed. Research into whether this assumption is correct has been lacking. This study explores to what extent ADs reflect the true wishes of the signatories. Methods Semi-structured interviews (INT), pretest. Transcribed INT and the contents of ADs were inductively categorised (Mayring) and triangulated. Software: MAXQDA 2007. Participants: Patients receiving palliative care (PPC), healthy (H) and chronically ill (CI) individuals with an AD completed ≥3 months prior to recruitment. Results Between 08/2008 and 07/2009, 53 individuals (20 H, 17 CI, 16 PPC) were interviewed (mean age 63.2 years (55–70 years)), 34% male). Most important (in)consistencies between preferences as expressed in INT compared to ADs included preconditions for termination/rejection of life-sustaining measures, refusal of/demand for medical interventions and the nomination of proxies. Standardized AD forms were rarely tailored to the individual. We found a high tendency to use set phrases, such as want to die with dignity or do not want to suffer/vegetate. Likely events in the course of an existing progressive disease were not covered, even in ADs of PPC close to death. Conclusions Only some of the incongruities between verbally expressed preferences and the contents of the AD can be put down to use of standardized forms or lack of medical knowledge. Nevertheless, the non-involvement of a doctor in the process of making an AD must be seen as potentially problematic and seeking medical advice should be promoted by politics and physicians. Standardised forms should encourage amendments and present space for free text entries for all aspects covered. Set phrases need to be defined by the individual to enable them to be translated into a specific course of action. PMID:24981101

  7. Examining single-source secondary impacts estimated from brute-force, decoupled direct method, and advanced plume treatment approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, James T.; Baker, Kirk R.; Napelenok, Sergey L.; Roselle, Shawn J.

    2015-06-01

    In regulatory assessments, there is a need for reliable estimates of the impacts of precursor emissions from individual sources on secondary PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microns) and ozone. Three potential methods for estimating these impacts using Eulerian grid photochemical models are the brute-force (B-F) method, the decoupled direct method (DDM), and advanced plume treatment (APT). Here, we systematically inter-compare and assess the B-F, DDM, and APT approaches using hypothetical sources in a consistent modeling platform for a wide range of source conditions (i.e., emissions amount and composition, location within two California air basins, and stack parameters). The impacts of NOx and VOC sources on ozone and SO2 sources on PM2.5 sulfate calculated by these methods are in general agreement. The agreement is evident in the similar magnitudes, spatial patterns, and strong correlations among the impacts. This result, along with previous model evaluations based on similar Eulerian grid modeling, builds confidence in the reliability of the impact estimates. Disagreement among methods is evident in calculations of PM2.5 nitrate impacts associated with NH3 and NOx sources. Numerical instabilities in DDM sensitivity calculations compromise the nitrate impact estimates from that approach. The B-F and APT methods, which use brute-force differencing to identify impacts, are affected by numerical artifacts to a lesser degree than (H)DDM, with the artifacts being more prominent for APT than B-F. Overall, our results indicate that the (H)DDM, B-F, and APT approaches are viable for use in estimating single-source impacts for ozone and secondary PM2.5 sulfate, while the B-F method appears to be the most reliable for estimating nitrate impacts. There is a need for additional field study measurements to better constrain model estimates of single-source secondary impacts.

  8. Environmental Barrier Coating Development for SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites: Recent Advances and Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming

    2016-01-01

    This presentation briefly reviews the SiC/SiC major environmental and environment-fatigue degradations encountered in simulated turbine combustion environments, and thus NASA environmental barrier coating system evolution for protecting the SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites for meeting the engine performance requirements. The presentation will review several generations of NASA EBC materials systems, EBC-CMC component system technologies for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite combustors and turbine airfoils, highlighting the temperature capability and durability improvements in simulated engine high heat flux, high pressure, high velocity, and with mechanical creep and fatigue loading conditions. This paper will also focus on the performance requirements and design considerations of environmental barrier coatings for next generation turbine engine applications. The current development emphasis is placed on advanced NASA candidate environmental barrier coating systems for SiC/SiC CMCs, their performance benefits and design limitations in long-term operation and combustion environments. The efforts have been also directed to developing prime-reliant, self-healing 2700F EBC bond coat; and high stability, lower thermal conductivity, and durable EBC top coats. Major technical barriers in developing environmental barrier coating systems, the coating integrations with next generation CMCs having the improved environmental stability, erosion-impact resistance, and long-term fatigue-environment system durability performance will be described. The research and development opportunities for turbine engine environmental barrier coating systems by utilizing improved compositions, state-of-the-art processing methods, and simulated environment testing and durability modeling will be briefly discussed.

  9. The new Israeli law on the care of the terminally ill: conceptual innovations waiting for implementation.

    PubMed

    Barilan, Y Michael

    2007-01-01

    Israel has recently enacted a law on the care of terminally ill patients. This law, the Patient Nearing Death Act, is the first of its kind in the world. The law divides terminally ill patients--upon their own wishes--into two separate groups: "those who wish their lives be prolonged," and those who do not. Doctors will have to abide by elaborate advanced directives and take into account various sources of information on the presumed wishes of the patient. The law sanctions discontinuation of mechanical ventilation should it become a "cyclical" rather than "continuous" therapy, a provision that has implications for the use of the already available paraPAC ventilators. The law exposes gaps in modern Judaism between the religious law and the attitudes of the observant population with regard to medical ethics.

  10. Law 302.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This publication outlines a law course intended as part of a business education program in the secondary schools of Manitoba, Canada. The one credit course of study should be taught over a period of 110-120 hours of instruction. It provides students with an introduction to the principles, practices, and consequences of law with regard to torts,…

  11. Space Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermida, Julian

    2006-01-01

    This chapter examines the salient characteristics of Space Law. It analyzes the origins and evolution of Space Law, its main international principles, and some current topics of interest to the scientific community: the delimitation of airspace and outer space, intellectual property, and criminal responsibility.

  12. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, Matt

    2013-04-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

  13. The gap between law and ethics in human embryonic stem cell research: overcoming the effect of U.S. federal policy on research advances and public benefit.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Patrick L

    2005-10-01

    Key ethical issues arise in association with the conduct of stem cell research by research institutions in the United States. These ethical issues, summarized in detail, receive no adequate translation into federal laws or regulations, also described in this article. U.S. Federal policy takes a passive approach to these ethical issues, translating them simply into limitations on taxpayer funding, and foregoes scientific and ethical leadership while protecting intellectual property interests through a laissez faire approach to stem cell patents and licenses. Those patents and licenses, far from being scientifically and ethically neutral in effect, virtually prohibit commercially sponsored research that could otherwise be a realistic alternative to the federal funding gap. The lack of federal funding and related data-sharing principles, combined with the effect of U.S. patent policy, the lack of key agency guidance, and the proliferation of divergent state laws arising from the lack of Federal leadership, significantly impede ethical stem cell research in the United States, without coherently supporting any consensus ethical vision. Research institutions must themselves implement steps, described in the article, to integrate addressing ethical review with the many legal compliance issues U.S. federal and state laws create.

  14. Translational Mini-Review Series on B Cell-Directed Therapies: Recent advances in B cell-directed biological therapies for autoimmune disorders

    PubMed Central

    Levesque, M C

    2009-01-01

    B cell-directed therapies are promising treatments for autoimmune disorders. Besides targeting CD20, newer B cell-directed therapies are in development that target other B cell surface molecules and differentiation factors. An increasing number of B cell-directed therapies are in development for the treatment of autoimmune disorders. Like rituximab, which is approved as a treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), many of these newer agents deplete B cells or target pathways essential for B cell development and function; however, many questions remain about their optimal use in the clinic and about the role of B cells in disease pathogenesis. Other therapies besides rituximab that target CD20 are the furthest along in development. Besides targeting CD20, the newer B cell-directed therapies target CD22, CD19, CD40–CD40L, B cell activating factor belonging to the TNF family (BAFF) and A proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL). Rituximab is being tested in an ever-increasing number of autoimmune disorders and clinical studies of rituximab combined with other biological therapies are being pursued for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). B cell-directed therapies are being tested in clinical trials for a variety of autoimmune disorders including RA, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjögren's syndrome, vasculitis, multiple sclerosis (MS), Graves' disease, idiopathic thrombocytopenia (ITP), the inflammatory myopathies (dermatomyositis and polymyositis) and the blistering skin diseases pemphigus and bullous pemphigoid. Despite the plethora of clinical studies related to B cell-directed therapies and wealth of new information from these trials, much still remains to be discovered about the pathophysiological role of B cells in autoimmune disorders. PMID:19604259

  15. The new Russian law on psychiatric care.

    PubMed

    Kinsey, D

    1994-01-01

    On July 2, 1992, President Boris Yeltsin signed into effect a law that has the potential for advancing human rights of psychiatric clients in the Russian Federation. The author provides a comparative analysis of the U.S. and Russian psychiatric laws, demonstrating a striking similarity of the laws in terms of substance and scope.

  16. Abandonment and reconciliation: addressing political and common law objections to fetal homicide laws.

    PubMed

    Curran, Douglas S

    2009-03-01

    Fetal homicide laws criminalize killing a fetus largely to the same extent as killing any other human being. Historically, the common law did not generally recognize feticide as a crime, but this was because of the evidentiary "born-alive" rule, not because of the substantive understanding of the term "human being." As medicine and science have advanced, states have become increasingly willing to abandon this evidentiary rule and to criminalize feticide as homicide. Although most states have recognized the crime of fetal homicide, fourteen have not. This is largely the result of two independent obstacles: (judicial) adherence to the born-alive rule and (legislative) concern that fetal homicide laws could erode constitutionally protected reproductive rights. This Note explores a variety of fetal homicide laws that states have adopted, demonstrating that popular opinion has shifted toward recognizing this crime. It then directly confronts the objections that have prevented other states from adopting such laws: it first reviews the literature suggesting that the born-alive rule should be abandoned, as it is an obsolete evidentiary standard; it then argues that constitutionally protected reproductive liberties can be reconciled with, and in fact augmented by, punishing the killing of a fetus as a homicide. PMID:19353836

  17. The girl child and law.

    PubMed

    Jain, A

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the flaws in India's legislation dealing with female children and equality, marriage age, rape, adoption, child care, and inheritance. India's national policies treat children as commodities and not human beings with their own rights. The best interests of a child are not generally served in a manner that advances their welfare. Exploitation of children for labor and sexual abuse of children is widespread. Only some children have such basic needs met as education, nutrition, food, health, clothing, shelter. Children are defined by the UN as human beings below the age of 18 years. However, in India the Constitution protects only children younger than 14 in employment. The prostitution act protects children younger than 16. The juvenile justice protects girls under the age of 18 years and boys under the age of 16 years. Hindus recognize inheritance of family property only for sons. This custom contributes to the abortion of female fetuses. The practice of equal protection under the law has enough loopholes to safeguard the interests of masculine patriarchal values, norms, and structure. The Act of Marriage does not deal directly with the issue of validity and only recommends a suitable age of marriage. Women can seek divorce on the grounds she was too young to marry only if the marriage occurred before the age of 15 years. Sexual intercourse with a woman under 16 years old is rape, with or without her consent. However, in practice men receive a lesser punishment for rape if the woman is his own wife and not under 12 years of age. The rape must be reported within a year of its occurrence. India's laws penalize the adults involved in child marriages, but the Hindu Marriage Act punishes only the parties married, including the child. Marriage registration is not compulsory. India's protective laws distinguish between prostitutes and men who use prostitutes, husbands versus wives in fidelity disputes, married versus unmarried or "unchaste" women

  18. The girl child and law.

    PubMed

    Jain, A

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the flaws in India's legislation dealing with female children and equality, marriage age, rape, adoption, child care, and inheritance. India's national policies treat children as commodities and not human beings with their own rights. The best interests of a child are not generally served in a manner that advances their welfare. Exploitation of children for labor and sexual abuse of children is widespread. Only some children have such basic needs met as education, nutrition, food, health, clothing, shelter. Children are defined by the UN as human beings below the age of 18 years. However, in India the Constitution protects only children younger than 14 in employment. The prostitution act protects children younger than 16. The juvenile justice protects girls under the age of 18 years and boys under the age of 16 years. Hindus recognize inheritance of family property only for sons. This custom contributes to the abortion of female fetuses. The practice of equal protection under the law has enough loopholes to safeguard the interests of masculine patriarchal values, norms, and structure. The Act of Marriage does not deal directly with the issue of validity and only recommends a suitable age of marriage. Women can seek divorce on the grounds she was too young to marry only if the marriage occurred before the age of 15 years. Sexual intercourse with a woman under 16 years old is rape, with or without her consent. However, in practice men receive a lesser punishment for rape if the woman is his own wife and not under 12 years of age. The rape must be reported within a year of its occurrence. India's laws penalize the adults involved in child marriages, but the Hindu Marriage Act punishes only the parties married, including the child. Marriage registration is not compulsory. India's protective laws distinguish between prostitutes and men who use prostitutes, husbands versus wives in fidelity disputes, married versus unmarried or "unchaste" women

  19. Pulse advancement and delay in an integrated-optical two-port ring-resonator circuit: direct experimental observations.

    PubMed

    Uranus, H P; Zhuang, L; Roeloffzen, C G H; Hoekstra, H J W M

    2007-09-01

    We report experimental observations of the negative-group-velocity (v(g)) phenomenon in an integrated-optical two-port ring-resonator circuit. We demonstrate that when the v(g) is negative, the (main) peak of output pulse appears earlier than the peak of a reference pulse, while for a positive v(g), the situation is the other way around. We observed that a pulse splitting phenomenon occurs in the neighborhood of the critical-coupling point. This pulse splitting limits the maximum achievable delay and advancement of a single device as well as facilitating a smooth transition from highly advanced to highly delayed pulse, and vice versa, across the critical-coupling point. PMID:17767325

  20. Pulse advancement and delay in an integrated-optical two-port ring-resonator circuit: direct experimental observations.

    PubMed

    Uranus, H P; Zhuang, L; Roeloffzen, C G H; Hoekstra, H J W M

    2007-09-01

    We report experimental observations of the negative-group-velocity (v(g)) phenomenon in an integrated-optical two-port ring-resonator circuit. We demonstrate that when the v(g) is negative, the (main) peak of output pulse appears earlier than the peak of a reference pulse, while for a positive v(g), the situation is the other way around. We observed that a pulse splitting phenomenon occurs in the neighborhood of the critical-coupling point. This pulse splitting limits the maximum achievable delay and advancement of a single device as well as facilitating a smooth transition from highly advanced to highly delayed pulse, and vice versa, across the critical-coupling point.

  1. Control definition study for advanced vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapins, M.; Martorella, R. P.; Klein, R. W.; Meyer, R. C.; Sturm, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The low speed, high angle of attack flight mechanics of an advanced, canard-configured, supersonic tactical aircraft designed with moderate longitudinal relaxed static stability (Static Margin, SM = 16% C sub W at M = 0.4) was investigated. Control laws were developed for the longitudinal axis (""G'' or maneuver and angle of attack command systems) and for the lateral/directional axes. The performance of these control laws was examined in engineering simulation. A canard deflection/rate requirement study was performed as part of the ""G'' command law evaluation at low angles of attack. Simulated coupled maneuvers revealed the need for command limiters in all three aircraft axes to prevent departure from controlled flight. When modified with command/maneuver limiters, the control laws were shown to be adequate to prevent aircraft departure during aggressive air combat maneuvering.

  2. School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splitt, David A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses (1) a Michigan court decision concerning reverse discrimination and voluntary affirmative action policies; (2) the Massachusetts Supreme Court's rejection of the work-to-rule strategy; and (3) an Arkansas law that will allow teachers failing a basic skills and literacy test to be fired only when their state certification expires. (MLF)

  3. School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splitt, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Summarizes three current issues in school law, including school district suits over potentially carcinogenic asbestos insulation, a California judge's finding that captionless educational television discriminates against hearing-impaired students, and the federal government's attempt to keep the Fairfax (Virginia) school system from charging…

  4. The constructal law and the evolution of design in nature.

    PubMed

    Bejan, Adrian; Lorente, Sylvie

    2011-10-01

    The constructal law accounts for the universal phenomenon of generation and evolution of design (configuration, shape, structure, pattern, rhythm). This phenomenon is observed across the board, in animate, inanimate and human systems. The constructal law states the time direction of the evolutionary design phenomenon. It defines the concept of design evolution in physics. Along with the first and second law, the constructal law elevates thermodynamics to a science of systems with configuration. In this article we review the more recent work of our group, with emphasis on the advances made with the constructal law in the natural sciences. Highlighted are the oneness of animate and inanimate designs, the origin of finite-size organs on animals and vehicles, the flow of stresses as the generator of design in solid structures (skeletons, vegetation), the universality and rigidity of hierarchy in all flow systems, and the global design of human flows. Noteworthy is the tapestry of distributed energy systems, which balances nodes of production with networks of distribution on the landscape, and serves as key to energy sustainability and empowerment. At the global level, the constructal law accounts for the geography and design of human movement, wealth and communications.

  5. The constructal law and the evolution of design in nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejan, Adrian; Lorente, Sylvie

    2011-10-01

    The constructal law accounts for the universal phenomenon of generation and evolution of design (configuration, shape, structure, pattern, rhythm). This phenomenon is observed across the board, in animate, inanimate and human systems. The constructal law states the time direction of the evolutionary design phenomenon. It defines the concept of design evolution in physics. Along with the first and second law, the constructal law elevates thermodynamics to a science of systems with configuration. In this article we review the more recent work of our group, with emphasis on the advances made with the constructal law in the natural sciences. Highlighted are the oneness of animate and inanimate designs, the origin of finite-size organs on animals and vehicles, the flow of stresses as the generator of design in solid structures (skeletons, vegetation), the universality and rigidity of hierarchy in all flow systems, and the global design of human flows. Noteworthy is the tapestry of distributed energy systems, which balances nodes of production with networks of distribution on the landscape, and serves as key to energy sustainability and empowerment. At the global level, the constructal law accounts for the geography and design of human movement, wealth and communications.

  6. Considering economic analyses in the revision of the preventive vaccination law: a new direction for health policy-making in Japan?

    PubMed

    Akazawa, Manabu; Yongue, Julia; Ikeda, Shunya; Satoh, Toshihiko

    2014-10-01

    Evidence of a significant vaccine policy shift can be witnessed not only in the number of new vaccines available in Japan but also in the way that vaccine policy is being formulated. In 2010, policy makers decided for the first time ever to commission economic analyses as a reference in their consideration of subsidy allocation. This research offers a first hand account of the recent changes in vaccine policies by examining the decision-making process from the perspective of the researchers commissioned to perform the economic evaluations. In order to understand the vaccine policy-making process, a review was made of all the documents that were distributed and discussed during the government committee meetings from February 2010 when the revision of the Preventive Vaccination Law was initially proposed to May 2012 when the final recommendations were made. Economic evaluations were conducted for seven vaccines under consideration in the routine immunization program (Haemophilus influenzae type b or Hib, pneumococcal disease for children and adults, human papillomavirus, varicella, mumps, and hepatitis B). All were cost-effective options, except the Hib and hepatitis B vaccines. Nonetheless, all the vaccines were recommended equally for inclusion in the routine immunization program. While it is significant that policy-makers decided to commission economic assessments at all, various issues remain regarding the influence of external pressure, the choice of evaluation methods and the implications of using cost-effectiveness analyses on the future of Japanese health policy-making.

  7. 7 CFR 1948.88 - Direct land acquisition by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT Section 601 Energy Impacted Area Development Assistance Program § 1948.88 Direct land acquisition... local government serving the area must lack power to condemn land of this type for this purpose and must... local governments have been unable to obtain the real property for a price which does not...

  8. Recent Advances in the Discovery of Small Molecules Targeting Exchange Proteins Directly Activated by cAMP (EPAC)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haijun; Wild, Christopher; Zhou, Xiaobin; Ye, Na; Cheng, Xiaodong; Zhou, Jia

    2014-01-01

    cAMP is a pivotal second messenger that regulates numerous biological processes under physiological and pathological conditions, including cancer, diabetes, heart failure, inflammation and neurological disorders. In the past, all effects of cAMP were initially believed to be mediated by PKA and cyclic nucleotide-regulated ion channels. Since the discovery of EPAC proteins in 1998, accumulating evidence has demonstrated that the net cellular effects of cAMP are also regulated by EPAC. The pursuit of the biological functions of EPAC has benefited from the development and applications of a growing number of pharmacological probes targeting EPAC proteins. In this Perspective, we seek to provide a concise update on recent advances in the development of chemical entities including various membrane-permeable analogues of cAMP and newly discovered EPAC-specific ligands from high throughput assays and hit-to-lead optimizations. PMID:24256330

  9. Critical roles of microRNAs in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis: New advances, challenges and potential directions.

    PubMed

    Miao, Cheng-Gui; Xiong, You-Yi; Yu, Hao; Zhang, Xiao-Lin; Qin, Mei-Song; Song, Tong-Wen; Du, Chuan-Lai

    2015-09-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease characterized by immune disorders, vascular obliteration, excessive extracellular matrix deposition, skin fibrosis, and further pathological change of internal organs. To date, the exact etiology of this complicated disease remains unknown. Over the past few years, the roles of epigenetic modifications caused by environmental factors have been intensively studied in relation to the disease pathogenesis, and important advances have been made. This review focuses on the new advances of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the field of SSc research, including the upstream regulatory factors of miRNAs, the downstream targets, and the feedback mechanisms between miRNAs and their targets. We also discussed the correlation of miRNAs and DNA methylation, the miRNAs and the gene polymorphism. Overall, the findings presented in this review illustrated how miRNAs play important roles in the pathogenesis of SSc. However, several unanswered questions continue to impede our understanding of this complex disease. Future research should focus on the identification of new biomarkers for early diagnosis and prognosis, which will help us improve the clinical treatment of patients with SSc. In addition, we discussed the challenges of miRNA study in SSc in the future. Since the miRNA injection may be a promising therapeutic approach for SSc treatment, one of the challenges in the future is to evaluate the therapeutic effects of miRNA and anti-miRNAs using SSc model animals. In light of the fact that one miRNA can target many mRNAs, and one mRNA is targeted by many miRNAs, the effect of miRNA changes on other gene expression should be investigated to evaluate the treatment safety of miRNA injection in vivo.

  10. Responses to the advanced notice of proposed rulemaking EPA published on June 6, 1996 regarding changes to the EPA allowance auctions and elimination of the direct sale

    SciTech Connect

    Critchfield, L.R.

    1997-12-31

    On June 6, 1996, EPA`s Acid Rain Program published an advance notice of proposed rulemaking (ANPRM) in the Federal Register seeking comment on: (1) whether to change the design of the annual sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) allowance auctions; (2) whether to change the timing of the allowance auctions; (3) whether to change the requirement that the minimum price of offered allowances must be in whole dollars, and (4) whether EPA should propose the ability to submit allowance transfers electronically. EPA also published on that day a proposed and direct final rule on whether to eliminate the direct sale. This paper documents the issues addressed in the ANPRM, the comments EPA received, and EPA`s responses to those comments. EPA received comments from 14 separate commenters.

  11. Advances in Methane Isotope Measurements via Direct Absorption Spectroscopy with Applications to Oil and Gas Source Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yacovitch, T. I.; Herndon, S. C.; Roscioli, J. R.; Petron, G.; Shorter, J. H.; Jervis, D.; McManus, J. B.; Nelson, D. D.; Zahniser, M. S.; Kolb, C. E., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Instrumental developments in the measurement of multiple isotopes of methane (12CH4, 13CH4 and 12CH3D) are presented. A first generation 8-micron instrument quantifies 12CH4 and 13CH4 at a 1-second rate via tunable infrared direct absorption spectroscopy (TILDAS). A second generation instrument uses two 3-micron intraband cascade lasers in an Aerodyne dual laser chassis for simultaneous measurement of 12CH4, 13CH4 and 12CH3D. Sensitivity and noise performance improvements are examined. The isotopic signature of methane provides valuable information for emission source identification of this greenhouse gas. A first generation spectrometer has been deployed in the field on a mobile laboratory along with a sophisticated 4-tank calibration system. Calibrations are done on an agressive schedule, allowing for the correction of measured isotope ratios to an absolute isotope scale. Distinct isotopic signatures are found for a number of emission sources in the Denver-Julesburg Basin: oil and gas gathering stations, compressor stations and processing plants; a municipal landfill, and dairy/cattle operations. The isotopic signatures are compared with measured ethane/methane ratios. These direct absorption measurements have larger uncertainties than samples measured via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, but have several advantages over canister sampling methods: individual sources of short duration are easier to isolate; calibrated isotope ratio results are available immediately; replicate measurements on a single source are easily performed; and the number of sources sampled is not limited by canister availability and processing time.

  12. Preoperative Direct Puncture Embolization of Advanced Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma in Combination with Transarterial Embolization: An Analysis of 22 Consecutive Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Lv Mingming Fan, Xin-dong; Su Lixin; Chen Dong

    2013-02-15

    ObjectiveThis study was designed to evaluate the clinical application of preoperative auxiliary embolization for juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) by direct puncture embolization (DPE) of the tumor in combination with transarterial embolization (TAE). The study included 22 patients. An 18-gauge needle was used to puncture directly into the tumor, and 20-25 % N-butyl cyanoacrylate was injected under the guidance of fluoroscopy after confirming the placement of the needle into the JNA and no leaking into the surrounding tissue. Tumors were obstructed later via TAE. The supplying arteries of JNA were from branches of the internal carotid and external carotid arteries. Control angiography showed the obliteration of contrast stain in the entire tumor mass and the distal supplying arteries disappeared after DPE in combination with TAE. Surgical resection was performed within 4 days after embolization and none of the patients required blood transfusion. The use of DPE in combination with TAE was a safe, feasible, and efficacious method. It can devascularize effectively the JNAs and reduce intraoperative bleeding when JNAs are extirpated.

  13. Community-based treatment of advanced HIV disease: introducing DOT-HAART (directly observed therapy with highly active antiretroviral therapy).

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, P.; Léandre, F.; Mukherjee, J.; Gupta, R.; Tarter, L.; Kim, J. Y.

    2001-01-01

    In 2000, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) overtook tuberculosis (TB) as the world's leading infectious cause of adult deaths. In affluent countries, however, AIDS mortality has dropped sharply, largely because of the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Antiretroviral agents are not yet considered essential medications by international public health experts and are not widely used in the poor countries where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) takes its greatest toll. Arguments against the use of HAART have mainly been based on the high cost of medications and the lack of the infrastructure necessary for using them wisely. We re- examine these arguments in the setting of rising AIDS mortality in developing countries and falling drug prices, and describe a small community-based treatment programme based on lessons gained in TB control. With the collaboration of Haitian community health workers experienced in the delivery of home-based and directly observed treatment for TB, an AIDS-prevention project was expanded to deliver HAART to a subset of HIV patients deemed most likely to benefit. The inclusion criteria and preliminary results are presented. We conclude that directly observed therapy (DOT) with HAART, "DOT-HAART", can be delivered effectively in poor settings if there is an uninterrupted supply of high-quality drugs. PMID:11799447

  14. Property Tax Laws of Texas. A Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Jay D., Jr.

    This booklet is basically a summary of a law book on the same subject by the same author. Although the 25 chapters of the larger work correspond directly to the chapters of the summary, this publication is not a law book in the usual sense. Rather, it is intended primarily to provide a simplified view of the property tax laws of Texas for tax…

  15. A Universal Power Law Governing Pedestrian Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamouzas, Ioannis; Skinner, Brian; Guy, Stephen J.

    2015-03-01

    Human crowds often bear a striking resemblance to interacting particle systems, and this has prompted many researchers to describe pedestrian dynamics in terms of interaction forces and potential energies. The correct quantitative form of this interaction, however, has remained an open question. Here, we introduce a novel statistical-mechanical approach to directly measure the interaction energy between pedestrians. This analysis, when applied to a large collection of human motion data, reveals a simple power law interaction that is based not on the physical separation between pedestrians but on their projected time to a potential future collision, and is therefore fundamentally anticipatory in nature. Remarkably, this simple law is able to describe human interactions across a wide variety of situations, speeds and densities. We further show, through simulations, that the interaction law we identify is sufficient to reproduce many known crowd phenomena. Work at Argonne National Laboratory is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. Work at the University of Minnesota is supported by MnDRIVE Initiative on Robotics, Sensors, and Advanced Manufacturing.

  16. A Relationship between Lotka's Law, Bradford's Law, and Zipf's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ye-Sho; Leimkuhler, Ferdinand F.

    1986-01-01

    A common functional relationship among Lotka's law, Bradford's law, and Zipf's law is derived. The proof takes explicit account of the sequences of observed values of the variables by means of an index. This approach results in a more realistic and precise formulation of each law. (Author/EM)

  17. Recent approaches for the direct use of elemental sulfur in the synthesis and processing of advanced materials.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jeewoo; Pyun, Jeffrey; Char, Kookheon

    2015-03-01

    Elemental sulfur is an abundant and inexpensive material obtained as a by-product of natural-gas and petroleum refining operations. Recently, the need for the development of new energy-storage systems brought into light the potential of sulfur as a high-capacity cathode material in secondary batteries. Sulfur-containing materials were also shown to have useful IR optical properties. These developments coupled with growing environmental concerns related to the global production of excess elemental sulfur have led to a keen interest in its utilization as a feedstock in materials applications. This Minireview focuses on the recent developments on physical and chemical methods for directly processing elemental sulfur to produce functional composites and polymers.

  18. Development of advanced direct perception displays for nuclear power plants to enhance monitoring, control and fault management

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B.G.; Shaheen, S.; Moray, N.

    1997-08-01

    Traditional Single-Sensor-Single Indicator (SSSI) displays are poorly matched to the cognitive abilities of operators, especially for large and complex systems. It is difficult for operators to monitor very large arrays of displays and controls, and to integrate the information displayed therein. In addition, standard operating procedures (SOPs) are bulky (running to many hundreds of pages) and difficult to use, and operators may become lost. For these reasons, and also because it is becoming increasingly difficult to find replacements for aging hardware components, there is a trend towards computerized graphical interfaces for nuclear power plants (NPPs). There is, however, little rational theory for display design in this domain. This report describes some recent theoretical developments and shows how to develop displays which will greatly reduce the cognitive load on the operator and allow the use of perceptual rather than cognitive mechanisms while using SON and to support state diagnosis and fault management. The report outlines the conceptual framework within which such a new approach could be developed, and provides an example of how the operating procedures for the start-up sequence of a NPP could be realized. A detailed description of a set of displays for a graphical interface for the SON of the feedwater system is provided as an example of how the proposed approach could be realized, and a general account of how it would fit into the overall start-up sequence is given. Examples of {open_quotes}direct perception{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}ecological{close_quotes} configural state space displays to support the use of the proposed direct manipulation SOP interface are provided, and also a critical discussion which identifies some difficulties which may be anticipated should the general approach herein advocated be adopted.

  19. Living wills in English law.

    PubMed

    Stern, K

    1993-01-01

    There is considerable debate surrounding the provision of life-sustaining treatment to those unable themselves to give consent. This article examines the issues involved from a legal perspective, and discusses two proposed solutions: the 'advance directive' and the 'health care proxy'. It is concluded that a legislative framework should be set up in order to give advance directives a legal status.

  20. Rediscovering Kepler's Third Law using NASA data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, Jason; Springsteen, Paul

    2009-10-01

    Kepler's three laws of planetary motion were discovered around four hundred years ago using data that was meticulously gathered by Tycho Brahe through naked eye observations. Here we will show that the same Kepler's result illustrated in his third planetary law still holds today, by using modern data from NASA. In addition, we discuss how all three of Kepler's laws of planetary motion can be derived directly from Newton's Gravitational law.

  1. Advancing-side directivity and retreating-side interactions of model rotor blade-vortex interaction noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. M.; Splettstoesser, W. R.; Elliott, J. W.; Schultz, K.-J.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic data are presented from a 40 percent scale model of the four-bladed BO-105 helicopter main rotor, tested in a large aerodynamic wind tunnel. Rotor blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise data in the low-speed flight range were acquired using a traversing in-flow microphone array. Acoustic results presented are used to assess the acoustic far field of BVI noise, to map the directivity and temporal characteristics of BVI impulsive noise, and to show the existence of retreating-side BVI signals. The characterics of the acoustic radiation patterns, which can often be strongly focused, are found to be very dependent on rotor operating condition. The acoustic signals exhibit multiple blade-vortex interactions per blade with broad impulsive content at lower speeds, while at higher speeds, they exhibit fewer interactions per blade, with much sharper, higher amplitude acoustic signals. Moderate-amplitude BVI acoustic signals measured under the aft retreating quadrant of the rotor are shown to originate from the retreating side of the rotor.

  2. A Low NO(x) Lean-Direct Injection, Multipoint Integrated Module Combuster Concept for Advanced Aircraft Gas Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, Robert; Wey, Changlie; Laing, Peter; Mansour, Adel

    2002-01-01

    A low NO(x) emissions combustor has been demonstrated in flame-tube tests. A multipoint, lean-direct injection concept was used. Configurations were tested that had 25- and 36- fuel injectors in the size of a conventional single fuel injector. An integrated-module approach was used for the construction where chemically etched laminates, diffusion bonded together, combine the fuel injectors, air swirlers and fuel manifold into a single element. Test conditions were inlet temperatures up to 810 K, inlet pressures up to 2760 kPa, and flame temperatures up to 2100 K. A correlation was developed relating the NO(x) emissions with the inlet temperature, inlet pressure, fuel-air ratio and pressure drop. Assuming that 10 percent of the combustion air would be used for liner cooling and using a hypothetical engine cycle, the NO(x) emissions using the correlation from flame-tube tests were estimated to be less than 20 percent of the 1996 ICAO standard.

  3. Facile synthesis of Pt-Pd@Silicon nanostructure as an advanced electrocatalyst for direct methanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ensafi, Ali A.; Jafari-Asl, M.; Rezaei, B.; Abarghoui, M. Mokhtari; Farrokhpour, H.

    2015-05-01

    In this work, platinum-palladium (Pt-Pd) is assembled in-situ on the surface of porous silicon flour (PSiF) through chemical reduction of PtCl62-/PdCl42- and oxidation of the precursor solution SiF64-. The components and the morphological properties of the Pt-Pd on PSiF is investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. In the next stage, screen printed graphene electrode (SPGE) is prepared by electro-reduction of exfoliated graphene oxide at the surface of a screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE), which is subsequently characterized by FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, FE-SEM, and electrochemical methods. Finally, a combination of Pt-Pd@PSi nanostructure and SPGE is used for the electro-oxidation of methanol in direct methanol fuel cell. The electrochemical results demonstrate that the Pt-Pd@PSiF-SPGE exhibits an excellent electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation. In addition, the electron transfer kinetic of methanol oxidation on Pt-Pd@PSiF-SPGE is investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results showed that the surface of Pt-Pd@PSiF-SPGE is not affected (poisoned) by intermediate products such as CO.

  4. Advancing Solar Irradiance Measurement for Climate-Related Studies: Accurate Constraint on Direct Aerosol Radiative Effect (DARE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Ji, Q. Jack

    2011-01-01

    Earth's climate is driven primarily by solar radiation. As summarized in various IPCC reports, the global average of radiative forcing for different agents and mechanisms, such as aerosols or CO2 doubling, is in the range of a few W/sq m. However, when solar irradiance is measured by broadband radiometers, such as the fleet of Eppley Precision Solar Pyranometers (PSP) and equivalent instrumentation employed worldwide, the measurement uncertainty is larger than 2% (e.g., WMO specification of pyranometer, 2008). Thus, out of the approx. 184 W/sq m (approx.263 W/sq m if cloud-free) surface solar insolation (Trenberth et al. 2009), the measurement uncertainty is greater than +/-3.6 W/sq m, overwhelming the climate change signals. To discern these signals, less than a 1 % measurement uncertainty is required and is currently achievable only by means of a newly developed methodology employing a modified PSP-like pyranometer and an updated calibration equation to account for its thermal effects (li and Tsay, 2010). In this talk, we will show that some auxiliary measurements, such as those from a collocated pyrgeometer or air temperature sensors, can help correct historical datasets. Additionally, we will also demonstrate that a pyrheliometer is not free of the thermal effect; therefore, comparing to a high cost yet still not thermal-effect-free "direct + diffuse" approach in measuring surface solar irradiance, our new method is more economical, and more likely to be suitable for correcting a wide variety of historical datasets. Modeling simulations will be presented that a corrected solar irradiance measurement has a significant impact on aerosol forcing, and thus plays an important role in climate studies.

  5. Advances in the simulation and automated measurement of well-sorted granular material: 2. Direct measures of particle properties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buscombe, Daniel D.; Rubin, David M.

    2012-01-01

    1. In this, the second of a pair of papers on the structure of well-sorted natural granular material (sediment), new methods are described for automated measurements from images of sediment, of: 1) particle-size standard deviation (arithmetic sorting) with and without apparent void fraction; and 2) mean particle size in material with void fraction. A variety of simulations of granular material are used for testing purposes, in addition to images of natural sediment. Simulations are also used to establish that the effects on automated particle sizing of grains visible through the interstices of the grains at the very surface of a granular material continue to a depth of approximately 4 grain diameters and that this is independent of mean particle size. Ensemble root-mean squared error between observed and estimated arithmetic sorting coefficients for 262 images of natural silts, sands and gravels (drawn from 8 populations) is 31%, which reduces to 27% if adjusted for bias (slope correction between observed and estimated values). These methods allow non-intrusive and fully automated measurements of surfaces of unconsolidated granular material. With no tunable parameters or empirically derived coefficients, they should be broadly universal in appropriate applications. However, empirical corrections may need to be applied for the most accurate results. Finally, analytical formulas are derived for the one-step pore-particle transition probability matrix, estimated from the image's autocorrelogram, from which void fraction of a section of granular material can be estimated directly. This model gives excellent predictions of bulk void fraction yet imperfect predictions of pore-particle transitions.

  6. Promises, promises for neuroscience and law.

    PubMed

    Buckholtz, Joshua W; Faigman, David L

    2014-09-22

    Stunning technical advances in the ability to image the human brain have provoked excited speculation about the application of neuroscience to other fields. The 'promise' of neuroscience for law has been touted with particular enthusiasm. Here, we contend that this promise elides fundamental conceptual issues that limit the usefulness of neuroscience for law. Recommendations for overcoming these challenges are offered.

  7. Implementation of an advanced hybrid MPC-PID control system using PAT tools into a direct compaction continuous pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ravendra; Sahay, Abhishek; Karry, Krizia M; Muzzio, Fernando; Ierapetritou, Marianthi; Ramachandran, Rohit

    2014-10-01

    It is desirable for a pharmaceutical final dosage form to be manufactured through a quality by design (QbD)-based approach rather than a quality by testing (QbT) approach. An automatic feedback control system coupled with PAT tools that is part of the QbD paradigm shift, has the potential to ensure that the pre-defined end product quality attributes are met in a time and cost efficient manner. In this work, an advanced hybrid MPC-PID control architecture coupled with real time inline/online monitoring tools and principal components analysis (PCA) based additional supervisory control layer has been proposed for a continuous direct compaction tablet manufacturing process. The advantages of both MPC and PID have been utilized in a hybrid scheme. The control hardware and software integration and implementation of the control system has been demonstrated using feeders and blending unit operation of a continuous tablet manufacturing pilot plant and an NIR based PAT tool. The advanced hybrid MPC-PID control scheme leads to enhanced control loop performance of the critical quality attributes in comparison to a regulatory (e.g. PID) control scheme indicating its potential to improve pharmaceutical product quality. PMID:24974987

  8. Exact law of live nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azbel, Mark Ya.

    2005-07-01

    Exact law of mortality dynamics in changing populations and environment is derived. It includes no explicit characteristics of animal- environment interactions (metabolism etc) which are a must for life; it is universal for all animals, from single cell yeast to humans, with their drastically different biology, evolutionary history, and complexity; it is rapidly (within few percent of life span) reversible. Such law is unique for live systems with their homeostatic self-adjustment to environment (cf. thermodynamics of liquids and glasses). The law which is valid for all live, and only live, systems is their specific natural law. Mortality is an instrument of natural selection and biological diversity. Its law, which is preserved in evolution of all species, is a conservation law of mortality, selection, evolution, biology. The law implies new kind of intrinsic mortality and adaptation which dominate in evolutionary unprecedented protected populations and, in contrast to species specific natural selection, proceed via universal stepwise rungs and reduce to universal cellular mechanism. The law demonstrates that intrinsic mortality and at least certain aspects of aging are disposable evolutionary byproducts, and directed genetic and/or biological changes may yield healthy and vital Methuselah lifespan. This is consistent with experiments. Universality implies that single cell yeast may provide a master key to the cellular mechanism of universal mortality, aging, selection, evolution, and its regulation in all animals. One may look for its manifestations in animal cells also, e.g., in their replicative senescence and cancer. Evolutionary origin and genetic nature of universality are suggested.

  9. An overview on the advanced oxidation processes applied for the treatment of water pollutants defined in the recently launched Directive 2013/39/EU.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana R; Nunes, Olga C; Pereira, Manuel F R; Silva, Adrián M T

    2015-02-01

    Environmental pollution is a recognized issue of major concern since a wide range of contaminants has been found in aquatic environment at ngL(-1) to μgL(-1) levels. In the year 2000, a strategy was defined to identify the priority substances concerning aquatic ecosystems, followed by the definition of environmental quality standards (EQS) in 2008. Recently it was launched the Directive 2013/39/EU that updates the water framework policy highlighting the need to develop new water treatment technologies to deal with such problem. This review summarizes the data published in the last decade regarding the application of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to treat priority compounds and certain other pollutants defined in this Directive, excluding the inorganic species (cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel and their derivatives). The Directive 2013/39/EU includes several pesticides (aldrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, dicofol, dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan, isodrin, heptachlor, lindane, pentachlorophenol, chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinphos, dichlorvos, atrazine, simazine, terbutryn, diuron, isoproturon, trifluralin, cypermethrin, alachlor), solvents (dichloromethane, dichloroethane, trichloromethane and carbon tetrachloride), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and its derivatives (PFOS), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nonylphenol and octylphenol, as well as the three compounds included in the recommendation for the first watch list of substances (diclofenac, 17-alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and 17-beta-estradiol (E2)). Some particular pesticides (aclonifen, bifenox, cybutryne, quinoxyfen), organotin compounds (tributyltin), dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, brominated diphenylethers, hexabromocyclododecanes and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate are also defined in this Directive, but studies dealing with AOPs are missing. AOPs are recognized tools to destroy recalcitrant compounds or, at least, to transform them into biodegradable species

  10. An overview on the advanced oxidation processes applied for the treatment of water pollutants defined in the recently launched Directive 2013/39/EU.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana R; Nunes, Olga C; Pereira, Manuel F R; Silva, Adrián M T

    2015-02-01

    Environmental pollution is a recognized issue of major concern since a wide range of contaminants has been found in aquatic environment at ngL(-1) to μgL(-1) levels. In the year 2000, a strategy was defined to identify the priority substances concerning aquatic ecosystems, followed by the definition of environmental quality standards (EQS) in 2008. Recently it was launched the Directive 2013/39/EU that updates the water framework policy highlighting the need to develop new water treatment technologies to deal with such problem. This review summarizes the data published in the last decade regarding the application of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to treat priority compounds and certain other pollutants defined in this Directive, excluding the inorganic species (cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel and their derivatives). The Directive 2013/39/EU includes several pesticides (aldrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, dicofol, dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan, isodrin, heptachlor, lindane, pentachlorophenol, chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinphos, dichlorvos, atrazine, simazine, terbutryn, diuron, isoproturon, trifluralin, cypermethrin, alachlor), solvents (dichloromethane, dichloroethane, trichloromethane and carbon tetrachloride), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and its derivatives (PFOS), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nonylphenol and octylphenol, as well as the three compounds included in the recommendation for the first watch list of substances (diclofenac, 17-alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and 17-beta-estradiol (E2)). Some particular pesticides (aclonifen, bifenox, cybutryne, quinoxyfen), organotin compounds (tributyltin), dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, brominated diphenylethers, hexabromocyclododecanes and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate are also defined in this Directive, but studies dealing with AOPs are missing. AOPs are recognized tools to destroy recalcitrant compounds or, at least, to transform them into biodegradable species

  11. Using SpaceClaim/TD Direct for Modeling Components with Complex Geometries for the Thermal Desktop-Based Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabanich, William

    2014-01-01

    SpaceClaim/TD Direct has been used extensively in the development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) thermal model. This paper outlines the workflow for that aspect of the task and includes proposed best practices and lessons learned. The ASRG thermal model was developed to predict component temperatures and power output and to provide insight into the prime contractors thermal modeling efforts. The insulation blocks, heat collectors, and cold side adapter flanges (CSAFs) were modeled with this approach. The model was constructed using mostly TD finite difference (FD) surfaces solids. However, some complex geometry could not be reproduced with TD primitives while maintaining the desired degree of geometric fidelity. Using SpaceClaim permitted the import of original CAD files and enabled the defeaturing repair of those geometries. TD Direct (a SpaceClaim add-on from CRTech) adds features that allowed the mark-up of that geometry. These so-called mark-ups control how finite element (FE) meshes were generated and allowed the tagging of features (e.g. edges, solids, surfaces). These tags represent parameters that include: submodels, material properties, material orienters, optical properties, and radiation analysis groups. TD aliases were used for most tags to allow analysis to be performed with a variety of parameter values. Domain-tags were also attached to individual and groups of surfaces and solids to allow them to be used later within TD to populate objects like, for example, heaters and contactors. These tools allow the user to make changes to the geometry in SpaceClaim and then easily synchronize the mesh in TD without having to redefine these objects each time as one would if using TD Mesher.The use of SpaceClaim/TD Direct has helped simplify the process for importing existing geometries and in the creation of high fidelity FE meshes to represent complex parts. It has also saved time and effort in the subsequent analysis.

  12. Using SpaceClaimTD Direct for Modeling Components with Complex Geometries for the Thermal Desktop-Based Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabanich, William A., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    SpaceClaim/TD Direct has been used extensively in the development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) thermal model. This paper outlines the workflow for that aspect of the task and includes proposed best practices and lessons learned. The ASRG thermal model was developed to predict component temperatures and power output and to provide insight into the prime contractor's thermal modeling efforts. The insulation blocks, heat collectors, and cold side adapter flanges (CSAFs) were modeled with this approach. The model was constructed using mostly TD finite difference (FD) surfaces/solids. However, some complex geometry could not be reproduced with TD primitives while maintaining the desired degree of geometric fidelity. Using SpaceClaim permitted the import of original CAD files and enabled the defeaturing/repair of those geometries. TD Direct (a SpaceClaim add-on from CRTech) adds features that allowed the "mark-up" of that geometry. These so-called "mark-ups" control how finite element (FE) meshes are to be generated through the "tagging" of features (e.g. edges, solids, surfaces). These tags represent parameters that include: submodels, material properties, material orienters, optical properties, and radiation analysis groups. TD aliases were used for most tags to allow analysis to be performed with a variety of parameter values. "Domain-tags" were also attached to individual and groups of surfaces and solids to allow them to be used later within TD to populate objects like, for example, heaters and contactors. These tools allow the user to make changes to the geometry in SpaceClaim and then easily synchronize the mesh in TD without having to redefine the objects each time as one would if using TDMesher. The use of SpaceClaim/TD Direct helps simplify the process for importing existing geometries and in the creation of high fidelity FE meshes to represent complex parts. It also saves time and effort in the subsequent analysis.

  13. Eldercare at Home: Advanced Directives

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Alzheimer's disease, after surgery, and during a terminal illness, coma, or stroke. When this happens, you ... want done medically in the case of a terminal illness or in the event of a coma ...

  14. Advanced direct coal liquefaction concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, D.J.; Parker, R.J.; Simpson, P.L. )

    1992-01-01

    During the first quarter of FY 1993, the Project proceeded close to the Project Plan. The analysis of the feed material has been completed as far as possible. Some unplanned distillation was needed to correct the boiling range of the Black Thunder solvent used during the autoclave tests. Additional distillation will be required if the same solvent is to be used for the bench unit tests. A decision on this is still outstanding. The solvent to be used with Illinois No. 6 coal has not yet been defined. As a result, the procurement of the feed and the feed analysis is somewhat behind schedule. Agglomeration tests with Black Thunder coal indicates that small agglomerates can be formed. However, the ash removal is quite low (about 10%), which is not surprising in view of the low ash content of the coal. The first series of autoclave tests with Black Thunder coal was completed as planned. Also, additional runs are in progress as repeats of previous runs or at different operating conditions based on the data obtained so far. The results are promising indicating that almost complete solubilization (close to 90%) of Black Thunder coal can be achieved in a CO/H[sub 2]O environment at our anticipated process conditions. The design of the bench unit has been completed. In contrast to the originally planned modifications, the bench unit is now designed based on a computerized control and data acquisition system. All major items of equipment have been received, and prefabrication of assemblies and control panels is proceeding on schedule. Despite a slight delay in the erection of the structural steel, it is anticipated that the bench unit will be operational at the beginning of April 1993.

  15. Fourier's law: insight from a simple derivation.

    PubMed

    Dubi, Y; Di Ventra, M

    2009-04-01

    The onset of Fourier's law in a one-dimensional quantum system is addressed via a simple model of weakly coupled quantum systems in contact with thermal baths at their edges. Using analytical arguments we show that the crossover from the ballistic (invalid Fourier's law) to diffusive (valid Fourier's law) regimes is characterized by a thermal length scale, which is directly related to the profile of the local temperature. In the same vein, dephasing is shown to give rise to classical Fourier's law, similarly to the onset of Ohm's law in mesoscopic conductors.

  16. 33 CFR 88.11 - Law enforcement vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Law enforcement vessels. 88.11... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.11 Law enforcement vessels. (a) Law enforcement vessels may display a flashing blue light when engaged in direct law enforcement or public safety activities....

  17. Melatonin advances the circadian timing of EEG sleep and directly facilitates sleep without altering its duration in extended sleep opportunities in humans

    PubMed Central

    Rajaratnam, Shantha M W; Middleton, Benita; Stone, Barbara M; Arendt, Josephine; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2004-01-01

    The rhythm of plasma melatonin originating from the pineal gland and driven by the circadian pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus is closely associated with the circadian (approximately 24 h) variation in sleep propensity and sleep spindle activity in humans. We investigated the contribution of melatonin to variation in sleep propensity, structure, duration and EEG activity in a protocol in which sleep was scheduled to begin during the biological day, i.e. when endogenous melatonin concentrations are low. The two 14 day trials were conducted in an environmental scheduling facility. Each trial included two circadian phase assessments, baseline sleep and nine 16 h sleep opportunities (16.00–08.00 h) in near darkness. Eight healthy male volunteers (24.4 ± 4.4 years) without sleep complaints were recruited, and melatonin (1.5 mg) or placebo was administered at the start of the first eight 16 h sleep opportunities. During melatonin treatment, sleep in the first 8 h of the 16 h sleep opportunities was increased by 2 h. Sleep per 16 h was not significantly different and approached asymptotic values of 8.7 h in both conditions. The percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was not affected by melatonin, but the percentage of stage 2 sleep and sleep spindle activity increased, and the percentage of stage 3 sleep decreased. During the washout night, the melatonin-induced advance in sleep timing persisted, but was smaller than on the preceding treatment night and was consistent with the advance in the endogenous melatonin rhythm. These data demonstrate robust, direct sleep-facilitating and circadian effects of melatonin without concomitant changes in sleep duration, and support the use of melatonin in the treatment of sleep disorders in which the circadian melatonin rhythm is delayed relative to desired sleep time. PMID:15459246

  18. Hubble Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The relationship that states that the recessional velocities of distant galaxies are directly proportional to their distances. It is named after the American astronomer Edwin P Hubble (1889-1953) who, in 1929, published his discovery that the redshifts in the spectra of galaxies are proportional to their distances. This was one of the key discoveries in cosmology for it showed that the galaxies a...

  19. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  20. Environmental law institute

    SciTech Connect

    Futrell, J.W.

    1993-10-01

    Congress and the Clinton Administration must consider reauthorizing some of the country's most important environmental statutes during a time of increasing environmental concern and decreasing financial resources. The debate over the U.S. environmental direction is fierce; yet if history is any guide, the result of the commotion will be better policy. The constant tugging and pulling may slog the law-making process, but resulting policy is often much better because of it. Fundamental policy issues continue to be as pertinent today as they were in the 1970s.

  1. A realistic approach to assessing mental health laws' compliance with the UNCRPD.

    PubMed

    Dawson, John

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that a more realistic view should be taken of the implications of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities for mental health law than the view taken by the UN monitoring committee, in its General Comment on Equal Recognition Before the Law, in 2014. This more realistic interpretation would not forbid reliance on the concept of mental capacity in the law. Nor would it forbid legislation that authorises substitute decision-making or involuntary treatment. Less radical reforms, it is suggested, could promote Convention compliance. These reforms would shift mental health law away from reliance on over-broad concepts like "mental disorder" or "mental disability", but would still permit use of legal standards that rely on specific impairments in mental function that are relevant to a person's capacity to make particular decisions or perform specific tasks. Strong efforts would be required to promote supported decision-making, and respect advance directives, but substitute decision-making and treatment without consent would be permitted in exceptional circumstances, subject to appropriate safeguards and independent review. Under this interpretation, those measures would not constitute discrimination in the law on the ground of disability, or denial of equal recognition before the law. This approach, it is argued, is more likely to generate positive responses from state parties in terms of law reform.

  2. Videofile for Law Enforcement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Components of a videotape storage and retrieval system originally developed for NASA have been adapted as a tool for law enforcement agencies. Ampex Corp., Redwood City, Cal., built a unique system for NASA-Marshall. The first application of professional broadcast technology to computerized record-keeping, it incorporates new equipment for transporting tapes within the system. After completing the NASA system, Ampex continued development, primarily to improve image resolution. The resulting advanced system, known as the Ampex Videofile, offers advantages over microfilm for filing, storing, retrieving, and distributing large volumes of information. The system's computer stores information in digital code rather than in pictorial form. While microfilm allows visual storage of whole documents, it requires a step before usage--developing the film. With Videofile, the actual document is recorded, complete with photos and graphic material, and a picture of the document is available instantly.

  3. Teaching Global Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    1980-01-01

    Addresses problem of American students' limited knowledge of international issues and laws. Provides articles for secondary school students on law around the world, South Africa, Russia, folk law, and alternatives to the adversary system and suggests relevant resources. (KC)

  4. Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur. First quarterly technical progress report, [October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Benedek, K.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.

    1996-02-01

    The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts University and Engelhard Corporation will be conducting Phase I of a four and a half year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. this catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria or zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. More than 95% elemental sulfur yield, corresponding to almost complete sulfur dioxide conversion, was obtained over a Cu-Ce-O oxide catalyst as part of an ongoing DOE-sponsored University Coal Research Program. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning. Tests with CO and CH{sub 4} reducing gases indicates that the catalyst has the potential for flexibility with regard to the composition of the reducing gas, making it attractive for utility use. the performance of the catalyst is consistently good over a range of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration (0.1 to 10%) indicating its flexibility in treating SO{sub 2} tail gases as well as high concentration streams.

  5. The cultural context of patient’s autonomy and doctor’s duty: passive euthanasia and advance directives in Germany and Israel

    PubMed Central

    Raz, Aviad; Shalev, Carmel

    2010-01-01

    The moral discourse surrounding end-of-life (EoL) decisions is highly complex, and a comparison of Germany and Israel can highlight the impact of cultural factors. The comparison shows interesting differences in how patient’s autonomy and doctor’s duties are morally and legally related to each other with respect to the withholding and withdrawing of medical treatment in EoL situations. Taking the statements of two national expert ethics committees on EoL in Israel and Germany (and their legal outcome) as an example of this discourse, we describe the similarity of their recommendations and then focus on the differences, including the balancing of ethical principles, what is identified as a problem, what social role professionals play, and the influence of history and religion. The comparison seems to show that Israel is more restrictive in relation to Germany, in contrast with previous bioethical studies in the context of the moral and legal discourse regarding the beginning of life, in which Germany was characterized as far more restrictive. We reflect on the ambivalence of the cultural reasons for this difference and its expression in various dissenting views on passive euthanasia and advance directives, and conclude with a comment on the difficulty in classifying either stance as more or less restrictive. PMID:20680469

  6. PSYCHIATRY AND THE LAW

    PubMed Central

    Zeifert, Mark

    1957-01-01

    In Rex vs. Arnold (1724) it was held that to avail himself of the defense of insanity “a man must be totally deprived of his understanding and memory, so as not to know what he is doing, no more than an infant, a brute, or a wild beast.” Although there has been some modification of this formula in most jurisdictions, the courts still operate under the McNaghten Rule (1843) which is no more logical and actually is more difficult to apply. That such a situation exists in 1956 is a reflection on the indifference of society—and particularly the courts which it elects—as well as on the failure of modern psychiatry to communicate its viewpoint to society. If we are to correct the sad formulae of the “right and wrong” and “policeman at the elbow” tests, we must have more study and better methods of communication in this area. A similar state of confusion exists in the methods of commitment of mentally ill people to psychiatric hospitals. The methods prescribed by law are archaic and cruel—and again reflect the failure of modern psychiatry to communicate its understanding to the legislatures and courts. There are many other areas of conflict between law (which looks to the past for its insights) and psychiatry (which seeks for its concepts in the current scientific advances). PMID:13383383

  7. Psychiatry and the law.

    PubMed

    ZEIFERT, M

    1957-01-01

    In Rex vs. Arnold (1724) it was held that to avail himself of the defense of insanity "a man must be totally deprived of his understanding and memory, so as not to know what he is doing, no more than an infant, a brute, or a wild beast." Although there has been some modification of this formula in most jurisdictions, the courts still operate under the McNaghten Rule (1843) which is no more logical and actually is more difficult to apply. That such a situation exists in 1956 is a reflection on the indifference of society-and particularly the courts which it elects-as well as on the failure of modern psychiatry to communicate its viewpoint to society. If we are to correct the sad formulae of the "right and wrong" and "policeman at the elbow" tests, we must have more study and better methods of communication in this area.A similar state of confusion exists in the methods of commitment of mentally ill people to psychiatric hospitals. The methods prescribed by law are archaic and cruel-and again reflect the failure of modern psychiatry to communicate its understanding to the legislatures and courts. There are many other areas of conflict between law (which looks to the past for its insights) and psychiatry (which seeks for its concepts in the current scientific advances).

  8. [Medical Devices Law for anesthesiologists].

    PubMed

    Regner, M

    2015-09-01

    The Medical Devices Law is a relatively new legal system, which has replaced the still well-known medical devices regulations in Germany. The Medical Devices Law in Germany is based on European directives, which have been translated into national law with the Medical Devices Act. The Medical Devices Act is a framework of regulations and incorporates a number of decrees that address specific topics within the medical devices directives and in turn individual regulations refer to guidelines and recommendations from other sources which provide detailed technical information on specific topics. Overall, the Medical Devices Act represents a very complex legal system, which needs to be permanently observed with respect to continuous updating and adjustment. In this article the design and the structure are described but most of all the article filters significant problem areas that need to be considered when using and operating medical devices, especially for anesthesiologists.

  9. Faraday's Law and Seawater Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Luca, R.

    2010-01-01

    Using Faraday's law, one can illustrate how an electromotive force generator, directly utilizing seawater motion, works. The conceptual device proposed is rather simple in its components and can be built in any high school or college laboratory. The description of the way in which the device generates an electromotive force can be instructive not…

  10. [The fringes of the euthanasia law].

    PubMed

    Boer, Theo A

    2015-01-01

    A survey published in the Dutch Journal of Medicine (NTvG) shows that doctors asked to assess the suffering of patients making a request for euthanasia may give very different opinions. In this paper, I argue that this stems from the subjective character of the term 'unbearable' and that differences are bound to occur even more frequently in 'borderline' cases, such as those presented here. In my opinion, such differences do not justify a plea to abandon the assessment of unbearable suffering altogether. Rather, differences in assessment may serve as indications that the boundaries of the Dutch law on euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide are within sight. Moreover, it is argued that advance directives can only be seen as euthanasia requests in a legal sense if, at the time of issue of the directive, the patient was informed about his or her diagnosis and had discussed different treatment options with the physician. Such a directive may never serve as a generic request which is valid under hypothetical conditions. PMID:25714773

  11. [The fringes of the euthanasia law].

    PubMed

    Boer, Theo A

    2015-01-01

    A survey published in the Dutch Journal of Medicine (NTvG) shows that doctors asked to assess the suffering of patients making a request for euthanasia may give very different opinions. In this paper, I argue that this stems from the subjective character of the term 'unbearable' and that differences are bound to occur even more frequently in 'borderline' cases, such as those presented here. In my opinion, such differences do not justify a plea to abandon the assessment of unbearable suffering altogether. Rather, differences in assessment may serve as indications that the boundaries of the Dutch law on euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide are within sight. Moreover, it is argued that advance directives can only be seen as euthanasia requests in a legal sense if, at the time of issue of the directive, the patient was informed about his or her diagnosis and had discussed different treatment options with the physician. Such a directive may never serve as a generic request which is valid under hypothetical conditions.

  12. Learning Experiences for elementary Law-Related Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulaney, Beverly; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Outlines learning activities related to law-related education at the elementary school level. Activities include creating a classroom constitution, a law-related scavenger hunt, and case studies. Learning outcomes and curriculum correlation are included in directions. (KC)

  13. Scaling Laws for Mesoscale and Microscale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Spletzer, Barry

    1999-08-23

    The set of laws developed and presented here is by no means exhaustive. Techniques have been present to aid in the development of additional scaling laws and to combine these and other laws to produce additional useful relationships. Some of the relationships produced here have yielded perhaps surprising results. Examples include the fifth order scaling law for electromagnetic motor torque and the zero order scaling law for capacitive motor power. These laws demonstrate important facts about actuators in small-scale systems. The primary intent of this introduction into scaling law analysis is to provide needed tools to examine possible areas of the research in small-scale systems and direct research toward more fruitful areas. Numerous examples have been included to show the validity of developing scaling laws based on first principles and how real world systems tend to obey these laws even when many other variables may potentially come into play. Development of further laws may well serve to provide important high-level direction to the continued development of small-scale systems.

  14. Tax Law System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsindeliani, Imeda A.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with consideration of the actual theoretic problems of the subject and system of tax law in Russia. The theoretical approaches to determination of the nature of separate institutes of tax law are represented. The existence of pandect system intax law building as financial law sub-branch of Russia is substantiated. The goal of the…

  15. Innovations in Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2000-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at historical and recent innovations in law. The first article examines the code of laws developed by the ancient Hebrews which influenced Roman law, English law, and the U.S. Declaration of Independence and Constitution. The second article explores Thomas Jefferson's writing of the Declaration of…

  16. Investigating Coulomb's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Ellis; Koehlinger, Mervin; Kowalski, Ludwik; Swackhamer, Gregg

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of a computer-linked camera to demonstrate Coulomb's law. Suggests a way of reducing the difficulties in presenting Coulomb's law by teaching the inverse square law of gravity and the inverse square law of electricity in the same unit. (AIM)

  17. Exact law of live nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azbel‧, Mark Ya.

    2005-08-01

    The exact law of mortality dynamics in changing populations and environment is derived. It includes no explicit characteristics of animal-environment interactions (metabolism, etc.) which are a must for life; it is universal for all animals, from single-cell yeast to humans, with their drastically different biology, evolutionary history, and complexity; it is rapidly (within few percent of life span) reversible. Such a law is unique for live systems with their homeostatic self-adjustment to environment (cf. thermodynamics of liquids and glasses). The law which is valid for all live, and only live, systems is their specific natural law. Mortality is an instrument of natural selection and biological diversity. Its law, which is preserved in evolution of all species, is a conservation law of mortality, selection, evolution, biology. The law implies new kinds of intrinsic mortality and adaptation which dominate in evolutionary unprecedented protected populations and, in contrast to species-specific natural selection, proceed via universal stepwise rungs and reduce to universal cellular mechanism. The law demonstrates that intrinsic mortality and at least certain aspects of aging are disposable evolutionary byproducts, and directed genetic and/or biological changes may yield healthy and vital Methuselah lifespan. This is consistent with experiments. Universality implies that single-cell yeast may provide a master key to the cellular mechanism of universal mortality, aging, selection, evolution, and its regulation in all animals. One may look for its manifestations in animal cells also, e.g., in their replicative senescence and cancer. Evolutionary origin and genetic nature of universality are suggested.

  18. Advance care planning.

    PubMed

    Lo, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    Advance directives allow patients to have some control over decisions even when they are no longer able to make decisions themselves. All states authorize written advance directives, such as the appointment of a health care proxy, but commonly impose procedural requirements. Some states have restricted the use of oral advance directives, although they are frequently used in everyday practice. Advance directives are limited because they are infrequently used, may not be informed, and may conflict with the patient's current best interests. Moreover, surrogates often cannot state patients' preferences accurately. Furthermore, discussions among physicians and patients about advance directives are flawed. Physicians can improve discussions about advance directives by asking the patient who should serve as proxy and by ascertaining the patient's values and general preferences before discussing specific clinical situations. PMID:15538068

  19. Living Wills in Italy: Ethical and Comparative Law Approaches.

    PubMed

    Veshi, Denard; Neitzke, Gerald

    2015-03-01

    In this article, advance directives will be analysed through ethical and comparative law approaches. Their importance, the two different types of advance directives and the so-called three steps hierarchy, will be discussed. Living wills will be treated in detail, considering the criticism they have attracted, as well as their known benefits. A thorough examination of the latest version of Arts. 3 and 4 of Italian Bill No. 2350, as approved by the Italian Senate in March 2009 and then amended by the Chamber of Deputies in July 2011, is included. This bill grants advance directives advisory force, limits their application in time and does not allow the validity of oral declarations. This political decision limits autonomy. Furthermore, there are doubts about the constitutionality of this bill, especially with respect to Arts. 2, 13 and 32 of the Italian Constitution, related to the right of self-determination. Further, this article will include a comparative approach of the legal aspects, with particular attention to the French and German models. To conclude, some ethical principles that the Italian legislator must take into consideration are indicated. In addition, some possible modifications of this Bill are suggested based on the experience of other European legislation.

  20. The neuroeconomic path of the law.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Morris B

    2004-01-01

    Advances in evolutionary biology, experimental economics and neuroscience are shedding new light on age-old questions about right and wrong, justice, freedom, the rule of law and the relationship between the individual and the state. Evidence is beginning to accumulate suggesting that humans evolved certain fundamental behavioural predispositions grounded in our intense social natures, that those predispositions are encoded in our brains as a distribution of probable behaviours, and therefore that there may be a core of universal human law. PMID:15590608

  1. Law and the Courts: A Handbook about United States Law and Court Procedures, with a Glossary of Legal Terms. You and the Law Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL. Public Education Div.

    For most people, law and the courts are veiled in mystery. Even though the law is made by legislators elected by the public and interpreted by judges chosen directly or indirectly by the public, and even though great strides have been made in making the law and its special language more understandable to people, the general public is still often…

  2. Fault tolerant control laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ly, U. L.; Ho, J. K.

    1986-01-01

    A systematic procedure for the synthesis of fault tolerant control laws to actuator failure has been presented. Two design methods were used to synthesize fault tolerant controllers: the conventional LQ design method and a direct feedback controller design method SANDY. The latter method is used primarily to streamline the full-state Q feedback design into a practical implementable output feedback controller structure. To achieve robustness to control actuator failure, the redundant surfaces are properly balanced according to their control effectiveness. A simple gain schedule based on the landing gear up/down logic involving only three gains was developed to handle three design flight conditions: Mach .25 and Mach .60 at 5000 ft and Mach .90 at 20,000 ft. The fault tolerant control law developed in this study provides good stability augmentation and performance for the relaxed static stability aircraft. The augmented aircraft responses are found to be invariant to the presence of a failure. Furthermore, single-loop stability margins of +6 dB in gain and +30 deg in phase were achieved along with -40 dB/decade rolloff at high frequency.

  3. NASA and the practice of space law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses the need for increased awareness in space law due to advances in space technology and a trend toward commercialization of space. A list of national and international treaties, conventions, agreements, laws, and regulations relevant to space activities is presented. NASA lawyers specialize in international and municipal laws that affect the NASA space mission; an example of the lawyers working with insurance companies in negotiating the first Space Shuttle liability policy is provided. The increased participation of the public sector in space activities, for example, the commercialization of the Space Shuttle transportation system, is examined.

  4. [Does population ecology have general laws?].

    PubMed

    Turchin, P V

    2002-01-01

    There is a widespread opinion among ecologists that ecology lacks general laws. In this paper the author argues that this opinion is mistaken. Taking the case of population dynamics, the author points out that there are several very general law-like propositions that provide the theoretical basis for most population dynamics models that were developed to address specific issues. Some of these foundational principles, like the law of exponential growth, are logically very similar to certain law of physics (Newton's law of intertia, for example, is almost a direct analogue of exponential growth). The author discusses two other principles (population self-limitation and resource-consumer oscillations), as well as the more elementary postulates that underlie them. None of the "laws" that the author proposes for population ecology are new. Collectively ecologists have been using these general principles in guiding development of their models and experiments since the days of Lotka, Volterra, and Gause.

  5. Abortion laws in African Commonwealth countries.

    PubMed

    Cook, R J; Dickens, B M

    1981-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the range of current (1981) abortion laws in the African Commonwealth countries, traces the origins of the laws to their colonial predecessors, and discusses legal reform that would positively provide for legal termination of pregnancy. The authors claim that the range of these laws demonstrates an evolution that leads from customary/common law (Lesotho and Swaziland) to basic law (Botswana, The Gambia, Malawi, Mauritius, Nigeria's Northern States and Seychelles) to developed law (Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria's Southern States, Sierra Leone, and Uganda), and, finally, to advanced law (Zambia and Zimbabwe). The authors call for treating abortion as an issue of health and welfare as opposed to one of crime and punishment. Since most of the basic law de jure is treated and administered as developed law de facto, the authors suggest decriminalizing abortion and propose ways in which to reform the law: clarifying existing law; liberalizing existing law to allow abortion based upon certain indications; limiting/removing women's criminal liability for seeking an abortion; allowing hindsight contraception; protecting providers treating women in good faith; publishing recommended fees for services to protect poor women; protecting providers who treat women with incomplete abortion; and punishing providers who fail to provide care to women in need, with the exception of those seeking protection under a conscience clause. The authors also suggest clarifying the means by which health services involving pregnancy termination may be delivered, including: clarification of the qualifications of practitioners who may treat women; specification of the facilities that may treat women, perhaps broken down by gestational duration of the pregnancy; specifying gestational limits during which the procedure can be performed; clarifying approval procedures and consents; and allowing for conscientious objections to performing the procedure.

  6. A study on laws related to women's welfare.

    PubMed

    Kim, E

    1991-01-01

    Since 1980, the domestic policy of every Korean government has focused on the construction of a welfare society, yet real change remains elusive, leaving women particularly neglected. This study examines social security legislation, especially the laws that define the status and welfare of women with the goal of advancing women's welfare and eliminating sexual discrimination against them. Welfare laws and literature were collected and examined from Korea and aboard, and facilities were visited. This paper reviews: 1) the theoretical background of women's welfare including the feminist critique and strategies for the welfare state and social welfare, and the significance and necessity of women's welfare; 2) women's welfare: international treaties and trends, including the World Declaration of Human Rights, international agreements on human rights, the International Labor Organization Treaty, the UN Convention on the Elimination of Sexual Discrimination Against Women, and the women's development strategies toward the year 2000; 3) the analysis of the laws and regulations related to women's welfare, including the systematic organization of women's welfare law (judicial, and systematic organization by applicable clients), the constitutional basis of the women's welfare related legislation and legal principles, the main feature and problems of the women's welfare related legislation, e.g. the Social Security Act: the National Pensions Act, Medical Insurance Act, the Livelihood Protection Act, Mother-child Welfare Act, Child Welfare Act, the Anti-prostitution Act, and the Gender Equal Employment Act, and 4) the direction of revision of the women's welfare related legislation including the revision and legislation of women's welfare related laws, restructuring of the delivery system, and the formation of proper environment conducive to the realization of women's welfare.

  7. Constructing cities, deconstructing scaling laws

    PubMed Central

    Arcaute, Elsa; Hatna, Erez; Ferguson, Peter; Youn, Hyejin; Johansson, Anders; Batty, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cities can be characterized and modelled through different urban measures. Consistency within these observables is crucial in order to advance towards a science of cities. Bettencourt et al. have proposed that many of these urban measures can be predicted through universal scaling laws. We develop a framework to consistently define cities, using commuting to work and population density thresholds, and construct thousands of realizations of systems of cities with different boundaries for England and Wales. These serve as a laboratory for the scaling analysis of a large set of urban indicators. The analysis shows that population size alone does not provide us enough information to describe or predict the state of a city as previously proposed, indicating that the expected scaling laws are not corroborated. We found that most urban indicators scale linearly with city size, regardless of the definition of the urban boundaries. However, when nonlinear correlations are present, the exponent fluctuates considerably. PMID:25411405

  8. [International malpractice law].

    PubMed

    Stellpflug, M H

    2001-10-01

    According to German Civil Law the liability of a physician in telemedicine can be based on the breach of contractual duties or tort. In telemedicine doctor and patient are separated by distance. In the case of cross border telemedicine Medical Malpractice Law becomes an international issue with many new questions arising. The rules and regulations of "private international law" determine which law has to be applied. The German private international law allows the patient to choose either the law of the state in which the doctor acts or that state in which the therapeutical damage is being suffered. Another important question arises in determining the jurisdiction (of a court). The European agreements give the patient the right to choose. A "choice of jurisdiction clause" or a "choice of law clause" can help to decide with binding force which law and what jurisdiction has to be applied. However, various regulations concerned with consumer protection restrict the permission of such agreements.

  9. Civil Law Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents a glossary of civil law terms originally compiled for journalists by the American Bar Association. Defines many essential civil law concepts and practices including compensatory damages, jurisdiction, motion to dismiss, discovery, and remedy. (MJP)

  10. [International malpractice law].

    PubMed

    Stellpflug, M H

    2001-10-01

    According to German Civil Law the liability of a physician in telemedicine can be based on the breach of contractual duties or tort. In telemedicine doctor and patient are separated by distance. In the case of cross border telemedicine Medical Malpractice Law becomes an international issue with many new questions arising. The rules and regulations of "private international law" determine which law has to be applied. The German private international law allows the patient to choose either the law of the state in which the doctor acts or that state in which the therapeutical damage is being suffered. Another important question arises in determining the jurisdiction (of a court). The European agreements give the patient the right to choose. A "choice of jurisdiction clause" or a "choice of law clause" can help to decide with binding force which law and what jurisdiction has to be applied. However, various regulations concerned with consumer protection restrict the permission of such agreements. PMID:11688223

  11. Health care law versus constitutional law.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court's ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a landmark decision - both for constitutional law and for health care law and policy. Others will study its implications for constitutional limits on a range of federal powers beyond health care. This article considers to what extent the decision is also about health care law, properly conceived. Under one view, health care law is the subdiscipline that inquires how courts and government actors take account of the special features of medicine that make legal or policy issues especially problematic - rather than regarding health care delivery and finance more generically, like most any other economic or social enterprise. Viewed this way, the opinions from the Court's conservative justices are mainly about general constitutional law principles. In contrast, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's dissenting opinion for the four more liberal justices is just as much about health care law as it is about constitutional law. Her opinion gives detailed attention to the unique features of health care finance and delivery in order to inform her analysis of constitutional precedents and principles. Thus, the Court's multiple opinions give a vivid depiction of the compelling contrasts between communal versus individualistic conceptions of caring for those in need, and between health care and health insurance as ordinary commodities versus ones that merit special economic, social, and legal status.

  12. Communication, Law, and Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anapol, Malthon M.

    The author takes the position that communication is an essential, but often overlooked component of law and justice; furthermore, some of the current problems in the area of law and justice are basically communication problems. The author traces the early development of communication and law as closely related disciplines, with emphasis on the…

  13. The Laws Are Yours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawyers' Wives of Wisconsin, Racine.

    The pamphlet briefly describes various facets of the law and legal system in Wisconsin, and defines many legal terms. The objective is to further public understanding of the law and of the legal profession, particularly in Wisconsin. No attempt is made to answer specific legal questions. Sections cover civil and criminal law; the federal court…

  14. Henry's Law: A Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Robert M.; Peticolas, Warner L.

    2004-01-01

    A retrospective view of Henry's law and its applicability in any specific system at a finite concentration is tested. It can be concluded that Henry's law is only a limiting law and is adequate at low mole fractions but is useful for practical purposes where high precision is not required.

  15. On Teaching Natural Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forte, David F.

    1978-01-01

    A brief look at Columbia, Harvard, and Notre Dame law schools shows that the American tradition in teaching natural law has not been strong. The value of teaching natural law is discussed, a separate course or seminar is seen as the most effective option, and a selection of available sources for such a course is appended. (JMD)

  16. Preventive School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednar, William C., Jr.

    The purpose of this chapter is to suggest outlines of a preventive law practice, raise issues, and provoke further thought and discussion concerning the application of preventive law principles and techniques to the management and operation of educational systems. The theory of preventive law and some of its premises are examined in order to…

  17. Campus Common Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakken, Gordon Morris

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the legal principle of common law as it applies to the personnel policies of colleges and universities in an attempt to define the parameters of campus common law and to clarify its relationship to written university policies and relevant state laws. (JG)

  18. Zipf's law in multifragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Campi, X.; Krivine, H.

    2005-11-01

    We discuss the meaning of Zipf's law in nuclear multifragmentation. We remark that Zipf's law is a consequence of a power-law fragment size distribution with exponent {tau}{approx_equal}2. We also recall why the presence of such a distribution is not a reliable signal of a liquid-gas phase transition.

  19. Laws of valley growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Robert; Seybold, Hansjoerg; Rothman, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    River networks incised by re-emerging groundwater flow provide a model framework for studying channelization. The underlying physical equations are well-defined and thus analytical predictions can be obtained and tested in the field. Theory of growth in such channel systems was first formed by Dunne in the early 1980s. A small bulge in the sidewall of a stream leads to the focusing of the ground water flow, and thus to a larger flux of water resulting in a higher erosion rate in this direction. In time such small perturbations grow into newly formed channels, but how they do so is unclear. To probe this problem, we begin by relating the advancement of the tip to the discharge into the spring. If a stream advances at a rate v ~ qη, where q is the discharge of water into the tip, theory of growth in a diffusive field predicts that η has to be smaller than 1 to obtain ramified networks. We test this hypothesis by measuring erosion rates in a field site of groundwater driven channels on the Florida Panhandle. Our network reconstruction yields tip growth rates, which we can directly compare to observational rates obtained from collected cosmogenic 10Be data. This allows us to both verify the existence of a discharge-erosion relation, as well as better characterize growth and competition in the channelization process.

  20. Educational Reform in Brazil. The Law of 1961.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, William A.

    On December 21, 1961 the Brazilian Congress passed the Law of Directives and Bases of National Education, implementing the educational provisions of the Constitution of 1946. This Law of 1961 was Brazil's first general education law and was widely publicized as decentralizing the administration of and the responsibility for Brazilian education,…

  1. Computational mechanics - Advances and trends; Proceedings of the Session - Future directions of Computational Mechanics of the ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Anaheim, CA, Dec. 7-12, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The papers contained in this volume provide an overview of the advances made in a number of aspects of computational mechanics, identify some of the anticipated industry needs in this area, discuss the opportunities provided by new hardware and parallel algorithms, and outline some of the current government programs in computational mechanics. Papers are included on advances and trends in parallel algorithms, supercomputers for engineering analysis, material modeling in nonlinear finite-element analysis, the Navier-Stokes computer, and future finite-element software systems.

  2. On the application of subcell resolution to conservation laws with stiff source terms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Shih-Hung

    1989-01-01

    LeVeque and Yee recently investigated a one-dimensional scalar conservation law with stiff source terms modeling the reacting flow problems and discovered that for the very stiff case most of the current finite difference methods developed for non-reacting flows would produce wrong solutions when there is a propagating discontinuity. A numerical scheme, essentially nonoscillatory/subcell resolution - characteristic direction (ENO/SRCD), is proposed for solving conservation laws with stiff source terms. This scheme is a modification of Harten's ENO scheme with subcell resolution, ENO/SR. The locations of the discontinuities and the characteristic directions are essential in the design. Strang's time-splitting method is used and time evolutions are done by advancing along the characteristics. Numerical experiment using this scheme shows excellent results on the model problem of LeVeque and Yee. Comparisons of the results of ENO, ENO/SR, and ENO/SRCD are also presented.

  3. Water, law, science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2008-01-01

    SummaryIn a world with water resources severely impacted by technology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end, this paper is an earth scientist's attempt to comprehend essential elements of water law, and to examine their connections to science. Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with a priori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science, observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while in law, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law in Europe and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago by Roman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason. Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the sea were governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that these elements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as private property. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jus gentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast, jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jus gentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in which science plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all. This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, follows their evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit of science inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving water and environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In a technological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of water law. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophical understanding of the relationships between science and law will contribute to their constructively coming together in the service of society.

  4. International law and law enforcement firearms.

    PubMed

    Jussila, Jorma; Normia, Pertti

    2004-01-01

    Several international agreements set constraints on the legitimate use of firearms as representing lethal force. Their meaning in terms of weapons technology must take into account their operational frame of reference, and legitimate warfare can be regarded as a law enforcement operation with similar principles on the use of force. Changes in weapons technology, such as new types of ammunition, transforming firearms into weapons with less-lethal and even humanitarian options, require new interpretations of the legislation. A division into lethal and non-lethal weapons is an oversimplification and the separation of international humanitarian law into military and law enforcement provisions can be questioned from the technical aspect. The type of technology acceptable for law enforcement use of firearms should be defined. An assessment for weapon injury should not be based on lethality, but rather on the potential for tissue damage and its reversibility. PMID:15015547

  5. International law and law enforcement firearms.

    PubMed

    Jussila, Jorma; Normia, Pertti

    2004-01-01

    Several international agreements set constraints on the legitimate use of firearms as representing lethal force. Their meaning in terms of weapons technology must take into account their operational frame of reference, and legitimate warfare can be regarded as a law enforcement operation with similar principles on the use of force. Changes in weapons technology, such as new types of ammunition, transforming firearms into weapons with less-lethal and even humanitarian options, require new interpretations of the legislation. A division into lethal and non-lethal weapons is an oversimplification and the separation of international humanitarian law into military and law enforcement provisions can be questioned from the technical aspect. The type of technology acceptable for law enforcement use of firearms should be defined. An assessment for weapon injury should not be based on lethality, but rather on the potential for tissue damage and its reversibility.

  6. Approximation of Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niiniluoto, Ilkka

    2014-03-01

    Approximation of laws is an important theme in the philosophy of science. If we can make sense of the idea that two scientific laws are "close" to each other, then we can also analyze such methodological notions as approximate explanation of laws, approximate reduction of theories, approximate empirical success of theories, and approximate truth of laws. Proposals for measuring the distance between quantitative scientific laws were given in Niiniluoto (1982, 1987). In this paper, these definitions are reconsidered as a response to the interesting critical remarks by Liu (1999).

  7. FY2001 Final Report Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) on Advanced Nuclear Fuel Design in the Future Nuclear Energy Market

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, D.; Choi, J.-S.; DiSabatino, A.; Wirth, B.

    2001-09-30

    This study is to research the maturity of advanced nuclear fuel and cladding technology and to explore the suitability of existing technology for addressing the emerging requirements for Generation IV reactors and emerging thermal/fast spectrum reactors, while simultaneously addressing nuclear waste management, and proliferation resistance concerns.

  8. Ovum donation: examining the new Israeli law.

    PubMed

    Gruenbaum, Benjamin F; Pinchover, Zachary S; Lunenfeld, Eitan; Jotkowitz, Alan

    2011-11-01

    Ovum donation affords countless couples that under natural circumstances would not be able to produce offspring the ability to carry out natural pregnancies. With advancements in biotechnology including egg collection and in vitro fertilization (IVF), physicians can now successfully implant fertilized embryos. Due to Israel's tremendous involvement in IVF for its own citizens, the national laws that govern egg donation are of great importance. On September 5th 2010, the Israeli Parliament (Knesset) passed a law that allows young women between the ages of 21 and 35 to donate their eggs for paid financial compensation. The new law allows infertile women between the ages of 18 and 54 to request egg donation and IVF, which will partially be covered under state insurance plans. This article provides a description of the new Israeli law regulating ovum donation and the practical, moral and ethical debate surrounding the new system.

  9. The law's interface with expanding technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, H. P.

    1972-01-01

    The role of the law in technology assessment is described in generalized terms of a legal system as it confronts expanding technology. The functions of a technology assessment are considered to be twofold; provide for legislative action designed to channel technological advance along lines which are regarded as optimal from the standpoint of society's interests; and encourage and promote legislative action which will deal decisively with the potential disruptions and injuries caused by technology at a much earlier stage of the growth of the technology than is feasible under the present legal system. It is concluded that since new law always has a disruptive effect on expectations and commitments arrived at under old law, it is generally desirable that new legislation should make the least possible change in the law consistant with accomplishing the desired objective.

  10. Derivation of the Biot-Savart Law from Ampere's Law Using the Displacement Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschauer, Robert

    2013-12-01

    The equation describing the magnetic field due to a single, nonrelativistic charged particle moving at constant velocity is often referred to as the "Biot-Savart law for a point charge." Introductory calculus-based physics books usually state this law without proof.2 Advanced texts often present it either without proof or as a special case of a complicated mathematical formalism.3 Either way, little or no physical insight is provided to the student regarding the underlying physics. This paper presents a novel, basic, and transparent derivation of the Biot-Savart law for a point charge based only on Maxwell's displacement current term in Ampere's law. This derivation can serve many pedagogical purposes. For example, it can be used as lecture material at any academic level to obtain the Biot-Savart law for a point charge from simple principles. It can also serve as a practical example of the important fact that a changing electric flux produces a magnetic field.

  11. [Sources of law].

    PubMed

    Gutierrez Luna, M

    2004-12-01

    In it first article, the Civil Code establishes that the sources of Spanish law are law, custom, and the general principles of law as well as the circumstances in which each one of them is applied. The Spanish Constitution (SC) is the Law of Laws. It gathers the fundamental rights of the person who should respect the guidelines of the lower ranking. The Law is the guideline having the maximum category below the SC, its elaboration corresponds to the General Courts although the executive power may legislate in certain circumstances (by delegation of the legislative power or by emergency). Executive power elaborates Regulations that are technical developments of the laws. The regulations of the Regional Communities have the rank of law in their geographic setting and for the material in which it has competence. The validly agreed upon international treaties form a part of the Spanish set of rules after being published in the Official State Bulletin. The Spanish legal system is hierarchical, the rules coming from community law are within the peak of the pyramidal structure, with preference on the constitution, followed by laws and rules.

  12. Water, law, science

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2007-10-17

    In a world with water resources severely impacted bytechnology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end,this paper is an earth scientist s attempt to comprehend essentialelements of water law, and to examine their connections to science.Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with apriori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science,observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while inlaw, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law inEurope and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago byRoman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason.Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the seawere governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that theseelements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as privateproperty. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jusgentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast,jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jusgentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in whichscience plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all.This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, followstheir evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit ofscience inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving waterand environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In atechnological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of waterlaw. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophicalunderstanding of the relationships between science and law willcontribute to their constructively coming together in the service ofsociety.

  13. Improving Law Enforcement Cross Cultural Competencies through Continued Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sereni-Massinger, Christine; Wood, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Over the last thirty years Community Oriented Policing (COP) has spawned advancements in creating community partnerships with law enforcement agencies. Agencies that focus on such partnerships have served to reduce crime and resolve conflict. However, community opinions towards law enforcement have become increasingly negative due to recent civil…

  14. Direct Conversion of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corliss, William R.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Direct energy conversion involves energy transformation without moving parts. The concepts of direct and dynamic energy conversion plus the laws governing energy conversion are investigated. Among the topics…

  15. Current management and future directions in the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma–a latin american perspective: 10 years in review

    PubMed Central

    Smaletz, Oren

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The worldwide incidence of kidney cancer is estimated at 337,860 new cases per year in the International Agency for Research on Cancer's GLOBOCAN 2012 update, with an estimated 143,369 deaths annually. Over the past 10 years, there have been significant advances in the treatment of advanced/metastatic renal cell carcinoma, including the development of targeted therapies. Currently recommended first-line treatments include sunitinib, temsirolimus, bevacizumab plus interferon, and pazopanib, or high-dose interleukin-2 or sorafenib for selected patients. Recommended second-line treatments include all of the above agents, as well as everolimus and axitinib. Unfortunately, combination therapies have generally resulted in increased toxicity and little improvement in efficacy. Recent studies focused on identification of predictive biomarkers for responses to specific targeted therapies and have not been successful to date. Despite recent advances in targeted treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma, important questions regarding biomarkers of efficacy, and optimal combination and sequencing of agents remain to be answered. This paper reviews literature concerned with first-and second-line treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma and will discuss key issues in Latin America. PMID:26689508

  16. Neptune radio emission - Predictions based on planetary scaling laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desch, Michael D.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper a prediction is advanced concerning Neptune's low-frequency radio emission based on the radiometric Bode's law for radio planets in combination with the magnetostrophic scaling law for magnetized planets. The total emitted radio power is predicted to be about 1.6 x 10 to the 7th W, very nearly the same as that predicted and observed for Uranus. Possible emission spectral shapes, based on Saturn and earth-like models, are shown. Using these models, the radio emission frequency range is predicted to extend from approximately 100 to just over 1000 kHz, with a spectral peak between 350 and 500 kHz. If radiation is beamed approximately in the sunward direction, Neptune should be detectable by the planetary radio astronomy experiment onboard the Voyager spacecraft sometime between 45 and 90 days before closest approach. This detection is likely to represent the first direct evidence of a Neptune magnetic field. Possible implications for Neptune's magnetosphere with regard to the time of first detection are discussed.

  17. Derivation of the Biot-Savart Law from Ampere's Law Using the Displacement Current

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buschauer, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The equation describing the magnetic field due to a single, nonrelativistic charged particle moving at constant velocity is often referred to as the "Biot-Savart law for a point charge." Introductory calculus-based physics books usually state this law without proof. Advanced texts often present it either without proof or as a special…

  18. Teaching Commercial Law in the Third Year: A Short Report on a Business Organizations and Commercial Law Clinic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, John F.; McNair, Russell A., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The development and implementation of a clinic to offer advanced study in business organizations and commercial law transactions for third-year law students at Wayne State University (Michigan) are described. The course builds vertically on prior study and puts students in contact with practicing lawyers in an academic setting. Considerations…

  19. On Hack's Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigon, Riccardo; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Maritan, Amos; Giacometti, Achille; Tarboton, David G.; Rinaldo, Andrea

    1996-11-01

    Hack's law is reviewed, emphasizing its implications for the elongation of river basins as well as its connections with their fractal characteristics. The relation between Hack's law and the internal structure of river basins is investigated experimentally through digital elevation models. It is found that Hack's exponent, elongation, and some relevant fractal characters are closely related. The self-affine character of basin boundaries is shown to be connected to the power law decay of the probability of total contributing areas at any link and to Hack's law. An explanation for Hack's law is derived from scaling arguments. From the results we suggest that a statistical framework referring to the scaling invariance of the entire basin structure should be used in the interpretation of Hack's law.

  20. Law-Based Degree Programs in Business and Their Departments: What's in a Name? (A Comprehensive Study of Undergraduate Law-Based Degrees in AACSB-Accredited Universities)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carol J.; Crain, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines undergraduate law-based degree programs in the 404 U.S. universities with undergraduate degrees in business that had Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) accreditation in 2005. University Web sites were used to identify and compare law-based undergraduate programs inside business to law-related programs…

  1. Genetically modified plants for law enforcement applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, C. Neal, Jr.

    2002-08-01

    Plants are ubiquitous in the environment and have the unique ability to respond to their environment physiologically and through altered gene expression profiles (they cannot walk away). In addition, plant genetic transformation techniques and genomic information in plants are becoming increasingly advanced. We have been performing research to express the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) in plants. GFP emits green light when excited by blue or UV light. In addition, my group and collaborators have developed methods to detect GFP in plants by contact instruments and at a standoff. There are several law enforcement applications for this technology. One involves using tagging and perhaps modifying drug plants genetically. In one instance, we could tag them for destruction. In another, we could adulterate them directly. Another application is one that falls into the chemical terrorism and bioterrorism countermeasures category. We are developing plants to sense toxins and whole organisms covertly. Plants are well adapted to monitor large geographic areas; biosurveillance. Some examples of research being performed focus on plants with plant pathogen inducible promoters fused to GFP for disease sensing, and algae biosensors for chemicals.

  2. Law and medical ethics.

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel, D A

    1979-01-01

    Summarising the interrelationship between law and medical ethics, I would say that in cases which do not touch the patient's body or integrity, such as professional secrecy, statutory law may take precedence over rules of medical ethics. But in cases where the human subject becomes a victim because of domestic statutory laws which are in contradiction with medical ethics, the medical practitioners should insist on adhering to their professional standards in such a way that the legislators will have to adapt their legislations to the laws of humanity and public conscience. Legislators, as well as medical practitioners, should not forget that the term 'being' is preceded and qualified by 'human'. PMID:469871

  3. Technical advance: introducing a novel metric, directionality time, to quantify human neutrophil chemotaxis as a function of matrix composition and stiffness.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Xian M; Loosley, Alex J; Oakley, Katie E; Tang, Jay X; Reichner, Jonathan S

    2014-06-01

    A direct consequence of cellular movement and navigation, migration incorporates elements of speed, direction, and persistence of motion. Current techniques to parameterize the trajectory of a chemotaxing cell most commonly pair migration speed with some measure of persistence by calculating MSD, RMS speed, TAD, and/or CI. We address inherent limitations in TAD and CI for comparative analysis by introducing two new analytical tools to quantify persistence: directionality index and directionality time. With the use of these tools, we show that the mechanical properties of the underlying substrate contribute significantly to the regulation of human neutrophil chemotaxis toward fMLP on Fgn-, Col-, and Fn-coated gels of varying elasticity. The β₁-integrin ligand Col demonstrated mechanosensitive speed. In contrast, β₂-integrin ligand Fgn supported mechanosensitive persistence. Fn, recognized by β₁ and β₂ integrins, mechanoregulated speed and persistence. Blocking β₂ integrins of cells migrating on Fn identified an underlying β₂-integrin-directed modulation of persistence. These data demonstrate that individual components of the neutrophil chemotactic response show integrin dependence and are finely tunable with different ligand, mechanotactic, and chemotactic cues, underscoring the need for sensitive analytical methods.

  4. Technical Advance: Introducing a novel metric, directionality time, to quantify human neutrophil chemotaxis as a function of matrix composition and stiffness

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Xian M.; Loosley, Alex J.; Oakley, Katie E.; Tang, Jay X.; Reichner, Jonathan S.

    2014-01-01

    A direct consequence of cellular movement and navigation, migration incorporates elements of speed, direction, and persistence of motion. Current techniques to parameterize the trajectory of a chemotaxing cell most commonly pair migration speed with some measure of persistence by calculating MSD, RMS speed, TAD, and/or CI. We address inherent limitations in TAD and CI for comparative analysis by introducing two new analytical tools to quantify persistence: directionality index and directionality time. With the use of these tools, we show that the mechanical properties of the underlying substrate contribute significantly to the regulation of human neutrophil chemotaxis toward fMLP on Fgn-, Col-, and Fn-coated gels of varying elasticity. The β1-integrin ligand Col demonstrated mechanosensitive speed. In contrast, β2-integrin ligand Fgn supported mechanosensitive persistence. Fn, recognized by β1 and β2 integrins, mechanoregulated speed and persistence. Blocking β2 integrins of cells migrating on Fn identified an underlying β2-integrin-directed modulation of persistence. These data demonstrate that individual components of the neutrophil chemotactic response show integrin dependence and are finely tunable with different ligand, mechanotactic, and chemotactic cues, underscoring the need for sensitive analytical methods. PMID:24511103

  5. Shallow-water conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostapenko, V. V.

    2015-10-01

    The derivation of basic conservation laws in the shallow-water theory from the multidimensional integral laws of conservation of mass and total momentum describing the plane-parallel flow of an ideal incompressible fluid above a horizontal bottom is proposed. The restrictions on flow parameters arising in this case have the integral form and are much weaker in comparison with the requirement of flow potentiality and the condition of long-wavelength approximation. The last fact substantiates the use of the shallow-water model for the mathematical modeling of a much wider class of wave flows, the parameters of which are not related directly to the restrictions of the long-wavelength approximation.

  6. Medical innovation laws: an unnecessary innovation.

    PubMed

    Richards, Bernadette

    2016-06-01

    Objective This paper aims to demonstrate that any suggestion that there is a need for specific innovation laws is flawed. Innovation is central to good medical practice and is adequately supported by current law. Methods The paper reviews the nature of medical innovation and outlines recent attempts in the UK to introduce specific laws aimed at 'encouraging' and 'supporting' innovation. The current legal framework is outlined and the role of the law in relation to medical innovation explored. Results The analysis demonstrates the cyclic relationship between medical advancement and the law and concludes that there is no requirement for specific innovation laws. Conclusions The law not only supports innovation and development in medical treatment but encourages it as central to a functioning medical system. There is no need to introduce specific laws aimed at medical innovation; to do so represents an unnecessary legal innovation and serves to complicate matters. What is known about the topic? Over recent months, there has been a great deal of discussion surrounding the law in the context of medical innovation. This was driven by the attempts in the UK to introduce specific laws in the Medical Innovation Bill. The general subject matter - negligence and the expected standard of care in the provision of treatment - is very well understood, but not in cases where the treatment can be described as innovative. The general rhetoric in both the UK and Australia around the Medical Innovation Bill demonstrates a lack of understanding of the position of the law with regards to innovative treatment. What does this paper add? This paper adds clarity to the debate. It presents the law and explains the manner in which the law can operate around innovative treatment. The paper asserts that medical innovation is both supported and encouraged by existing legal principles. What are the implications for practitioners? The paper presents an argument that can guide the policy position

  7. School Law Update...Preventive School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas N., Ed.; Semler, Darel P., Ed.

    A wide variety of contemporary legal issues are addressed in the 15 separate papers that make up this volume. The introductory chapter by William C. Bednar, Jr. provides a broad-based rationale for "Preventive School Law." Chapters 2 and 3, both by Gerald A. Caplan, review "Current Issues in Reduction-in-Force" and "First Amendment Claims by…

  8. Economics of mining law

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    Modern mining law, by facilitating socially and environmentally acceptable exploration, development, and production of mineral materials, helps secure the benefits of mineral production while minimizing environmental harm and accounting for increasing land-use competition. Mining investments are sunk costs, irreversibly tied to a particular mineral site, and require many years to recoup. Providing security of tenure is the most critical element of a practical mining law. Governments owning mineral rights have a conflict of interest between their roles as a profit-maximizing landowner and as a guardian of public welfare. As a monopoly supplier, governments have considerable power to manipulate mineral-rights markets. To avoid monopoly rent-seeking by governments, a competitive market for government-owned mineral rights must be created by artifice. What mining firms will pay for mineral rights depends on expected exploration success and extraction costs. Landowners and mining firms will negotlate respective shares of anticipated differential rents, usually allowing for some form of risk sharing. Private landowners do not normally account for external benefits or costs of minerals use. Government ownership of mineral rights allows for direct accounting of social prices for mineral-bearing lands and external costs. An equitable and efficient method is to charge an appropriate reservation price for surface land use, net of the value of land after reclamation, and to recover all or part of differential rents through a flat income or resource-rent tax. The traditional royalty on gross value of production, essentially a regressive income tax, cannot recover as much rent as a flat income tax, causes arbitrary mineral-reserve sterilization, and creates a bias toward development on the extensive margin where marginal environmental costs are higher. Mitigating environmental costs and resolving land-use conflicts require local evaluation and planning. National oversight ensures

  9. Know Your Laws. French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.; Ledun, Andree

    This French language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three levels of the…

  10. Know Your Laws. German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.; Karch, Hannelore

    This German language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three levels of the…

  11. Know Your Laws. Czechoslovakian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.; Ziembinski, Vera

    This Czechoslovakian language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three…

  12. Know Your Laws. Polish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.; Kopania, Margaret

    This Polish language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three levels of the…

  13. Know Your Laws. Italian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.

    This Italian language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult students with law they will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three levels of the…

  14. Know Your Laws. Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.; Ackerson, Leonor

    This Spanish language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three levels of…

  15. Science and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Donald; Merrill, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    Explaines the role of the Carnegie Commission which was formed to explore the relationship between the disciplines of science, technology, and the law. Discusses concerns about the individual right of privacy in projects such as the Human Genome Project. Focuses on the panel on Science, Technology, and Law which was established in 1999. (YDS)

  16. Teaching Information Technology Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, M. J.; Jones, R. P.; Haggerty, J.; Gresty, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an approach to the teaching of information technology law to higher education computing students that attempts to prepare them for professional computing practice. As information technology has become ubiquitous its interactions with the law have become more numerous. Information technology practitioners, and in particular…

  17. Lotka's Law Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, William Gray

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the literature that has become associated with Lotka's Law of Scientific Productivity (a general theoretical estimate of author productivity in the sciences) and attempts to identify the important factors of Lotka's original methodology that should be considered when attempting to test applicability of Lotka's Law. Forty-seven references…

  18. Information Law and Copyright.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Peter A.

    1986-01-01

    Because of information law's inability to keep up with rapid changes in information technology and impreciseness of the law, copyrighting of databases poses unique problems. Interpretation of fair use doctrine, privately owned computer "downloading," impact of federal electronic filing, and questions concerning information businesses need to be…

  19. Law Studies Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seminole County Board of Public Instruction, Sanford, FL. Dept. of Curriculum Services.

    This law studies curriculum guide describes a course designed to provide secondary students with the opportunity to acquire an understanding of the U.S. legal process. The law studies course is intended to develop corresponding concepts and skills in conjunction with the content presented. The content areas of the curriculum include: (1)…

  20. Social Studies: Law Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Reviews 11 series, texts, supplements, kits, and professional references for law instruction, including civil and criminal law, the Bill of Rights, and controversial legal issues: arson, gun control, capital punishment, and euthanasia. While all grade levels are covered, the emphasis is on secondary-level materials. (SJL)

  1. Reinventing Howard's Law School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Gwendolyn

    2001-01-01

    Describes efforts by Alice Gresham Bullock, dean of the Howard University School of Law, to improve the school (including building a new library and improving relations with faculty) and restore Howard to its previous stature as a leader in civil rights law. (EV)

  2. Charles' Law of Gases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, John T.

    1995-01-01

    Describes an experiment that uses air to test Charles' law. Reinforces the student's intuitive feel for Charles' law with quantitative numbers they can see, introduces the idea of extrapolating experimental data to obtain a theoretical value, and gives a physical quantitative meaning to the concept of absolute zero. (JRH)

  3. Law and Marine Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockrath, Joseph

    1976-01-01

    The University of Delaware Marine Studies has implemented courses in coastal zone law and policy and maritime law. The courses attempt to integrate the scientist's or engineer's work with public policy formation. The program emphasizes historical and current issues and the economic, cultural, and political forces operating in decision-making…

  4. Indian Law Enforcement History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etheridge, David

    Written as a tribute to American Indian law enforcement officers and the Indian Criminal Justice System, this monographh details the history of the legislative, judicial, financial, and cultural problems associated with the development of Indian law enforcement. Citing numerous court cases, pieces of legislation, and individual and organizational…

  5. The Law of Elasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocco, Alberto; Masin, Sergio Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Participants estimated the imagined elongation of a spring while they were imagining that a load was stretching the spring. This elongation turned out to be a multiplicative function of spring length and load weight--a cognitive law analogous to Hooke's law of elasticity. Participants also estimated the total imagined elongation of springs joined…

  6. Language and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, John

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the language of law and its general interest to the field of applied linguistics. Specific focus is on legal language, the problems and remedies of legal communication (e.g., language and disadvantage before the law, improving legal communication) the legislation of language (e.g., language rights, language crimes), and forensic…

  7. Laws for Young Mountaineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanawha County Board of Education, Charleston, WV.

    This booklet introduces secondary grade students to the criminal laws of West Virginia. It can easily be adapted and used by educators in other states. The authors believe that young people must recognize and understand these laws and the mechanisms which society uses to implement and enforce them if they are to function as an integral, important,…

  8. Pop Goes the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    The Law School Admission Council recently reported that applications were heading toward a 30-year low, reflecting, as a "New York Times" article put it, "increased concern over soaring tuition, crushing student debt, and diminishing prospects of lucrative employment upon graduation." Since 2004 the number of law-school applicants has dropped from…

  9. Multi-scale 3D X-ray Imaging Capabilities at the Advanced Photon Source - Current status and future direction (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCarlo, F.; Xiao, X.; Khan, F.; Glowacki, A.; Schwarz, N.; Jacobsen, C.

    2013-12-01

    In x-ray computed μ-tomography (μ-XCT), a thin scintillator screen is coupled to a visible light lens and camera system to obtain micrometer-scale transmission imaging of specimens as large as a few millimeters. Recent advances in detector technology allow collecting these images at unprecedented frame rates. For a high x-ray flux density synchrotron facility like the Advanced Photon Source (APS), the detector exposure time ranges from hundreds of milliseconds to hundreds of picoseconds, making possible to acquire a full 3D micrometer-resolution dataset in less than one second. The micron resolution limitation of parallel x-ray beam projection systems can be overcame by Transmission X-ray Microscopes (TXM) where part of the image magnification is done in x-ray regime using x-ray optics like capillary condensers and Fresnel zone plates. These systems, when installed on a synchrotron x-ray source, can generate 2D images with up to 20 nm resolution with second exposure time and collect a full 3D nano-resolution dataset in few minutes. μ-XCT and TXM systems available at the x-ray imaging beamlines of the APS are routinely used in material science and geoscience applications where high-resolution and fast 3D imaging are instrumental in extracting in situ four-dimensional dynamic information. In this presentation we describe the computational challenges associated with μ-XCT and TXM systems and present the framework and infrastructure developed at the APS to allow for routine multi-scale data integration between the two systems.

  10. Multi-scale 3D X-ray Imaging Capabilities at the Advanced Photon Source - Current status and future direction (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCarlo, F.; Xiao, X.; Khan, F.; Glowacki, A.; Schwarz, N.; Jacobsen, C.

    2011-12-01

    In x-ray computed μ-tomography (μ-XCT), a thin scintillator screen is coupled to a visible light lens and camera system to obtain micrometer-scale transmission imaging of specimens as large as a few millimeters. Recent advances in detector technology allow collecting these images at unprecedented frame rates. For a high x-ray flux density synchrotron facility like the Advanced Photon Source (APS), the detector exposure time ranges from hundreds of milliseconds to hundreds of picoseconds, making possible to acquire a full 3D micrometer-resolution dataset in less than one second. The micron resolution limitation of parallel x-ray beam projection systems can be overcame by Transmission X-ray Microscopes (TXM) where part of the image magnification is done in x-ray regime using x-ray optics like capillary condensers and Fresnel zone plates. These systems, when installed on a synchrotron x-ray source, can generate 2D images with up to 20 nm resolution with second exposure time and collect a full 3D nano-resolution dataset in few minutes. μ-XCT and TXM systems available at the x-ray imaging beamlines of the APS are routinely used in material science and geoscience applications where high-resolution and fast 3D imaging are instrumental in extracting in situ four-dimensional dynamic information. In this presentation we describe the computational challenges associated with μ-XCT and TXM systems and present the framework and infrastructure developed at the APS to allow for routine multi-scale data integration between the two systems.

  11. Critical opportunities for public health law: a call for action.

    PubMed

    Mello, Michelle M; Wood, Jennifer; Burris, Scott; Wagenaar, Alexander C; Ibrahim, Jennifer K; Swanson, Jeffrey W

    2013-11-01

    Although legal interventions are responsible for many sentinel public health achievements, law is underutilized as a tool for advancing population health. Our purpose was to identify critical opportunities for public health lawmaking. We articulated key criteria and illustrated their use with 5 examples. These opportunities involve significant health problems that are potentially amenable to change through law and for which an effective legal intervention is available: optimizing graduated driver licensing laws, increasing tax rates on alcoholic beverages, regulating sodium in foods, enacting laws to facilitate reversal of opioid overdoses, and improving mental health interventions in the college setting. We call for a national conversation about critical opportunities for public health law to advance evidence-based policymaking.

  12. Critical Opportunities for Public Health Law: A Call for Action

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Jennifer; Burris, Scott; Wagenaar, Alexander C.; Ibrahim, Jennifer K.; Swanson, Jeffrey W.

    2013-01-01

    Although legal interventions are responsible for many sentinel public health achievements, law is underutilized as a tool for advancing population health. Our purpose was to identify critical opportunities for public health lawmaking. We articulated key criteria and illustrated their use with 5 examples. These opportunities involve significant health problems that are potentially amenable to change through law and for which an effective legal intervention is available: optimizing graduated driver licensing laws, increasing tax rates on alcoholic beverages, regulating sodium in foods, enacting laws to facilitate reversal of opioid overdoses, and improving mental health interventions in the college setting. We call for a national conversation about critical opportunities for public health law to advance evidence-based policymaking. PMID:24028265

  13. Ohm's law for a current sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, L. R.; Speiser, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    The paper derives an Ohm's law for single-particle motion in a current sheet, where the magnetic field reverses in direction across the sheet. The result is considerably different from the resistive Ohm's law often used in MHD studies of the geomagnetic tail. Single-particle analysis is extended to obtain a self-consistency relation for a current sheet which agrees with previous results. The results are applicable to the concept of reconnection in that the electric field parallel to the current is obtained for a one-dimensional current sheet with constant normal magnetic field. Dissipated energy goes directly into accelerating particles within the current sheet.

  14. Chemical Laws, Idealization and Approximation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Emma

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the notion of laws in chemistry. Vihalemm ("Found Chem" 5(1):7-22, 2003) argues that the laws of chemistry are fundamentally the same as the laws of physics they are all "ceteris paribus" laws which are true "in ideal conditions". In contrast, Scerri (2000) contends that the laws of chemistry are…

  15. Child Labor Laws in Mississippi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Jerry H.

    Child labor laws have not attracted much attention in recent years. Much of the basic legislation and the case law dates from the early part of the 20th century. This paper discusses the Mississippi statutory law on the subject, compares that law with legislation in five other States, and discusses case law in Mississippi and in other States.…

  16. A linear Fick's law calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, Seymour S.; Bryant, Pat D.; Woodside, William F.

    1982-10-01

    A small animal calorimeter is described that is based on the direct application of Fick's law. Heat flow is channeled through a circular disk of magnesium and the temperature difference between the inside and outside surface of the disk is detected by means of solid-state temperature transducers. The device is calibrated using a light-weight electrical resistive source and is shown to be linear in its response and to have an e-folding time of 4.8 min. A rat was introduced into the calorimeter and its heat energy expenditure rate was observed in both the sedated and unsedated states.

  17. Spatial Homogeneity and Redshift--Distance Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicoll, J. F.; Segal, I. E.

    1982-06-01

    Spatial homogeneity in the radial direction of low-redshift galaxies is subjected to Kafka-Schmidt V/Vm tests using well-documented samples. Homogeneity is consistent with the assumption of the Lundmark (quadratic redshift-distance) law, but large deviations from homogeneity are implied by the assumption of the Hubble (linear redshift-distance) law. These deviations are similar to what would be expected on the basis of the Lundmark law. Luminosity functions are obtained for each law by a nonparametric statistically optimal method that removes the observational cutoff bias in complete samples. Although the Hubble law correlation of absolute magnitude with redshift is reduced considerably by elimination of the bias, computer simulations show that its bias-free value is nevertheless at a satistically quite significant level, indicating the self-inconsistency of the law. The corresponding Lundmark law correlations are quite satisfactory satistically. The regression of redshift on magnitude also involves radial spatial homogeneity and, according to R. Soneira, has slope determining the redshift-magnitude exponent independently of the luminosity function. We have, however, rigorously proved the material dependence of the regression on this function and here exemplify our treatment by using the bias-free functions indicated, with results consistent with the foregoing argument.

  18. A Control Law Design Method Facilitating Control Power, Robustness, Agility, and Flying Qualities Tradeoffs: CRAFT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C.; Davidson, John B.

    1998-01-01

    A multi-input, multi-output control law design methodology, named "CRAFT", is presented. CRAFT stands for the design objectives addressed, namely, Control power, Robustness, Agility, and Flying Qualities Tradeoffs. The methodology makes use of control law design metrics from each of the four design objective areas. It combines eigenspace assignment, which allows for direct specification of eigenvalues and eigenvectors, with a graphical approach for representing the metrics that captures numerous design goals in one composite illustration. Sensitivity of the metrics to eigenspace choice is clearly displayed, enabling the designer to assess the cost of design tradeoffs. This approach enhances the designer's ability to make informed design tradeoffs and to reach effective final designs. An example of the CRAFT methodology applied to an advanced experimental fighter and discussion of associated design issues are provided.

  19. The Fourth Law of Behavior Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Chabris, Christopher F.; Lee, James J.; Cesarini, David; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Laibson, David I.

    2015-01-01

    Behavior genetics is the study of the relationship between genetic variation and psychological traits. Turkheimer (2000) proposed “Three Laws of Behavior Genetics” based on empirical regularities observed in studies of twins and other kinships. On the basis of molecular studies that have measured DNA variation directly, we propose a Fourth Law of Behavior Genetics: “A typical human behavioral trait is associated with very many genetic variants, each of which accounts for a very small percentage of the behavioral variability.” This law explains several consistent patterns in the results of gene discovery studies, including the failure of candidate gene studies to robustly replicate, the need for genome-wide association studies (and why such studies have a much stronger replication record), and the crucial importance of extremely large samples in these endeavors. We review the evidence in favor of the Fourth Law and discuss its implications for the design and interpretation of gene-behavior research. PMID:26556960

  20. Electrodynamic force law controversy.

    PubMed

    Graneau, P; Graneau, N

    2001-05-01

    Cavalleri et al. [Phys. Rev. E 52, 2505 (1998); Eur. J. Phys. 17, 205 (1996)] have attempted to resolve the electrodynamic force law controversy. This attempt to prove the validity of either the Ampère or Lorentz force law by theory and experiment has revealed only that the two are equivalent when predicting the force on part of a circuit due to the current in the complete circuit. However, in our analysis of internal stresses, only Ampère's force law agrees with experiment. PMID:11415053

  1. Sexuality and Australian law.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The author describes the changing legal environment concerning same-sex relationships in the common law world with special reference to Australia. He refers to shifts in public opinion recorded in opinion polls; important decisions of human rights courts and tribunals; and changes in national law and court decisions. He then reviews the Australian constitutional setting which divides lawmaking responsibility on such subjects between the federal, State and Territory legislatures. He describes initiatives adopted in the States and Territories and the more modest changes effected in federal law and practice. He concludes on a note of optimism concerning Australia's future reforms affecting discrimination on the grounds of sexuality.

  2. Epilepsy and criminal law.

    PubMed

    Paul, G M; Lange, K W

    1992-04-01

    Automatic episodes of aggressive or violent behaviour may occur during or after an epileptic fit. Epileptic automatisms are regarded by the law as 'insane automatisms'. A person who commits a crime during the course of a seizure is therefore legally insane and must be committed to a psychiatric hospital. The law of insanity is inappropriate when applied to epileptic automatisms. A change in the law is therefore necessary to remove epileptic offenders from the legal ambit of insanity, and to save them the threat of detention in a mental hospital as a consequence of their crime.

  3. Anomalous law of cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton’s law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  4. Anomalous law of cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-01

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  5. Anomalous law of cooling.

    PubMed

    Lapas, Luciano C; Ferreira, Rogelma M S; Rubí, J Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  6. Laws of valley growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seybold, Hansjoerg; Yi, Robert; Willenbring, Jane; Kirchner, James; Rothman, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The question of how the channel heads advance has long been debated [1,2]. By studying a simplified setting - channels incised by re-emerging groundwater flow - we seek insight into the headward growth of channel networks, by combining theoretical modeling with field observations. A concept for how such seepage channel systems form was first proposed by T. Dunne in the early 1980s [2]. A small bulge in the sidewall of a stream focuses ground water flow. This results in a larger flux and therefore a higher erosion rate in this direction. Over time such small perturbations grow into newly formed streams, but how they do so and how erosion depends on the water flux is unclear. The theory of diffusive growth provides a theoretical framework to describe channelization in response to groundwater flow. For this system the underlying physical equations are well-defined, and numerical and analytical predictions can be obtained and tested in the field. If a stream advances at a rate v˜ q^η, where q is the discharge of ground water into the tip, theory predicts that η has to be smaller than a critical value η^star to obtain ramified networks [3]. We test this hypothesis by measuring erosion rates in a field site in the Florida Panhandle, which provides a natural laboratory to study channel incision by re-emerging groundwater flow [4]. Our theoretical network reconstruction yields tip growth rates which we can directly compare to observational rates obtained from cosmogenic 10Be measurements. This comparison of theory and observation allows us to verify the existence of a constitutive discharge-erosion relation, and to better characterize growth and competition of streams at the channel head. [1] Montgommery, D. R. and Dietrich, W. E. Where do channels begin?, Nature, 336, no. 6196 (1988): 232-234 [2] Dunne, T. Formation and controls of channel networks, Prog. Phys. Geogr., 4 (1980): 211-239 [3] Carleson, L. and Makarov, N. Laplacian path models, J. Anal. Math., 87, no. 1

  7. Infusing CD19-directed T cells to augment disease control in patients undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for advanced B-lymphoid malignancies.

    PubMed

    Kebriaei, Partow; Huls, Helen; Jena, Bipulendu; Munsell, Mark; Jackson, Rineka; Lee, Dean A; Hackett, Perry B; Rondon, Gabriela; Shpall, Elizabeth; Champlin, Richard E; Cooper, Laurence J N

    2012-05-01

    Limited curative treatment options exist for patients with advanced B-lymphoid malignancies, and new therapeutic approaches are needed to augment the efficacy of hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). Cellular therapies, such as adoptive transfer of T cells that are being evaluated to target malignant disease, use mechanisms independent of chemo- and radiotherapy with nonoverlapping toxicities. Gene therapy is employed to generate tumor-specific T cells, as specificity can be redirected through enforced expression of a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) to achieve antigen recognition based on the specificity of a monoclonal antibody. By combining cell and gene therapies, we have opened a new Phase I protocol at the MD Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX) to examine the safety and feasibility of administering autologous genetically modified T cells expressing a CD19-specific CAR (capable of signaling through chimeric CD28 and CD3-ζ) into patients with high-risk B-lymphoid malignancies undergoing autologous HSCT. The T cells are genetically modified by nonviral gene transfer of the Sleeping Beauty system and CAR(+) T cells selectively propagated in a CAR-dependent manner on designer artificial antigen-presenting cells. The results of this study will lay the foundation for future protocols including CAR(+) T-cell infusions derived from allogeneic sources. PMID:22107246

  8. Infusing CD19-Directed T Cells to Augment Disease Control in Patients Undergoing Autologous Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation for Advanced B-Lymphoid Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Kebriaei, Partow; Huls, Helen; Jena, Bipulendu; Munsell, Mark; Jackson, Rineka; Lee, Dean A.; Hackett, Perry B.; Rondon, Gabriela; Shpall, Elizabeth; Champlin, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Limited curative treatment options exist for patients with advanced B-lymphoid malignancies, and new therapeutic approaches are needed to augment the efficacy of hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). Cellular therapies, such as adoptive transfer of T cells that are being evaluated to target malignant disease, use mechanisms independent of chemo- and radiotherapy with nonoverlapping toxicities. Gene therapy is employed to generate tumor-specific T cells, as specificity can be redirected through enforced expression of a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) to achieve antigen recognition based on the specificity of a monoclonal antibody. By combining cell and gene therapies, we have opened a new Phase I protocol at the MD Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX) to examine the safety and feasibility of administering autologous genetically modified T cells expressing a CD19-specific CAR (capable of signaling through chimeric CD28 and CD3-ζ) into patients with high-risk B-lymphoid malignancies undergoing autologous HSCT. The T cells are genetically modified by nonviral gene transfer of the Sleeping Beauty system and CAR+ T cells selectively propagated in a CAR-dependent manner on designer artificial antigen-presenting cells. The results of this study will lay the foundation for future protocols including CAR+ T-cell infusions derived from allogeneic sources. PMID:22107246

  9. Relativity, nonextensivity, and extended power law distributions.

    PubMed

    Silva, R; Lima, J A S

    2005-11-01

    A proof of the relativistic theorem by including nonextensive effects is given. As it happens in the nonrelativistic limit, the molecular chaos hypothesis advanced by Boltzmann does not remain valid, and the second law of thermodynamics combined with a duality transformation implies that the parameter lies on the interval [0,2]. It is also proven that the collisional equilibrium states (null entropy source term) are described by the relativistic power law extension of the exponential Juttner distribution which reduces, in the nonrelativistic domain, to the Tsallis power law function. As a simple illustration of the basic approach, we derive the relativistic nonextensive equilibrium distribution for a dilute charged gas under the action of an electromagnetic field . Such results reduce to the standard ones in the extensive limit, thereby showing that the nonextensive entropic framework can be harmonized with the space-time ideas contained in the special relativity theory. PMID:16383791

  10. Relativity, nonextensivity, and extended power law distributions.

    PubMed

    Silva, R; Lima, J A S

    2005-11-01

    A proof of the relativistic theorem by including nonextensive effects is given. As it happens in the nonrelativistic limit, the molecular chaos hypothesis advanced by Boltzmann does not remain valid, and the second law of thermodynamics combined with a duality transformation implies that the parameter lies on the interval [0,2]. It is also proven that the collisional equilibrium states (null entropy source term) are described by the relativistic power law extension of the exponential Juttner distribution which reduces, in the nonrelativistic domain, to the Tsallis power law function. As a simple illustration of the basic approach, we derive the relativistic nonextensive equilibrium distribution for a dilute charged gas under the action of an electromagnetic field . Such results reduce to the standard ones in the extensive limit, thereby showing that the nonextensive entropic framework can be harmonized with the space-time ideas contained in the special relativity theory.

  11. The LSU Law Center -- Canada Bijuralism Conference. Introduction: Global Law and the Law School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costonis, John J.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces papers from a conference focused on the bijural programs of Louisiana State University Law Center and McGill University Faculty of Law. The programs educate all first-degree law students in both the common law and civil law traditions, preparing them for the increasing globalization of legal practice. (EV)

  12. Disobeying Immoral Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israel, Elfie

    1994-01-01

    Describes how one teacher continued to teach after becoming pregnant, even though this was against school policy. Reminds teachers that Henry Thoreau claimed it is moral to disobey an immoral law. (HB)

  13. The Biogenetic Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapadia, Ramesh

    1975-01-01

    A criterion for development of syllabi for mathematics courses is discussed. This criterion is based on the biogenetic law that individuals develop through all the stages of the development of the species. (SD)

  14. The "Natural Law Tradition."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnis, John

    1986-01-01

    A discussion of natural law outlines some of the theory and tradition surrounding it and examines its relationship to the social science and legal curriculum and to the teaching of jurisprudence. (MSE)

  15. The matching law

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, Peter

    1972-01-01

    The matching law may be viewed either as an empirical generalization, and therby subject to disproof, or as part of a system of equations used to define the utility (“value”) of a reinforcer. In the latter case it is tautologous, and not subject to disproof within the defining context. A failure to obtain matching will most often be a signal that the independent variables have not been properly scaled. If, however, the proper transformations have been made on the independent variables, and matching is not obtained, the experimental paradigm may be outside the purview of the matching law. At that point, reinterpretations or revisions of the law are called for. The theoretical matching law is but one of many possible ways to define utility, and it may eventually be rejected in favor of a more useful definition. PMID:16811604

  16. Potential conservation laws

    SciTech Connect

    Kunzinger, Michael; Popovych, Roman O.

    2008-10-15

    We prove that potential conservation laws have characteristics depending only on local variables if and only if they are induced by local conservation laws. Therefore, characteristics of pure potential conservation laws have to essentially depend on potential variables. This statement provides a significant generalization of results of the recent paper by Bluman et al. [J. Math. Phys. 47, 113505 (2006)]. Moreover, we present extensions to gauged potential systems, Abelian and general coverings, and general foliated systems of differential equations. An example illustrating possible applications of these results is given. A special version of the Hadamard lemma for fiber bundles and the notions of weighted jet spaces are proposed as new tools for the investigation of potential conservation laws.

  17. SL-401 and SL-501, targeted therapeutics directed at the interleukin-3 receptor, inhibit the growth of leukaemic cells and stem cells in advanced phase chronic myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Frolova, Olga; Benito, Juliana; Brooks, Chris; Wang, Rui-Yu; Korchin, Borys; Rowinsky, Eric K; Cortes, Jorge; Kantarjian, Hagop; Andreeff, Michael; Frankel, Arthur E; Konopleva, Marina

    2014-09-01

    While imatinib and other tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are highly efficacious in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), some patients become refractory to these therapies. After confirming that interleukin-3 receptor (IL3R, CD123) is highly expressed on CD34(+) /CD38(-) BCR-ABL1(+) CML stem cells, we investigated whether targeting IL3R with diphtheria toxin (DT)-IL3 fusion proteins SL-401 (DT388 -IL3) and SL-501 (DT388 -IL3[K116W]) could eradicate these stem cells. SL-401 and SL-501 inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in the KBM5 cell line and its TKI-resistant KBM5-STI subline. Combinations of imatinib with these agents increased apoptosis in KBM5 and in primary CML cells. In six primary CML samples, including CML cells harbouring the ABL1 T315I mutation, SL-401 and SL-501 decreased the absolute numbers of viable CD34(+) /CD38(-) /CD123(+) CML progenitor cells by inducing apoptosis. IL3-targeting agents reduced clonogenic growth and diminished the fraction of primitive long-term culture-initiating cells in samples from patients with advanced phase CML that were resistant to TKIs or harboured an ABL1 mutation. Survival was also extended in a mouse model of primary TKI-resistant CML blast crisis. These data suggest that the DT-IL3 fusion proteins, SL-401 and SL-501, deplete CML stem cells and may increase the effectiveness of current CML treatment, which principally targets tumour bulk.

  18. Advanced sulfur control concepts in hot-gas desulfurization technology: Phase 1, Feasibility of the direct production of elemental sulfur during the regeneration of high temperature desulfurization sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, A.; White, J.; Groves, F.R.; Harrison, D.P.

    1994-10-01

    This topical report de-scribes the results of Phase 1 research performed during the first six months of a three-year contract to study the feasibility of the direct production of elemental sulfur during the regeneration of high temperature desulfurization sorbents. Much effort has gone into the development of a high-temperature meal oxide sorbent process for removal of H{sub 2}S from the coal gas. A number of sorbents based upon metals such as zinc, iron, manganese and others have been studied. In order for high temperature desulfurization to be economical it is necessary that the sorbents be regenerated to permit multicycle operation. Current methods of sorbent regeneration involve oxidation of the metal sulfide to reform the metal oxide and free the sulfur as SO{sub 2}. An alternate regeneration process in which the sulfur is liberated in elemental form is preferable. The overall objective of the current research is to study simpler and economically superior processing of known sorbents capable of producing elemental sulfur during regeneration. This topical report summarizes the first steps of this effort. A literature search has been completed to identify possible regeneration concepts and to collect relevant thermodynamic, kinetic, and process data. Three concepts involving reaction with SO{sub 2}, partial oxidation using an O{sub 2} {minus} H{sub 2}O mixture, and steam regeneration have been identified. The first two concepts result in the direct production of elemental sulfur while H{sub 2}S is the product of steam regeneration. This concept is of potential interest, however, since existing Claus technology can be used to convert H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur. Following the literature search, a thermodynamic analysis, based upon free-energy minimization was carried out to evaluate candidate sorbents for possible use with the three regeneration concepts.

  19. The business of human embryonic stem cell research and an international analysis of relevant laws.

    PubMed

    De Trizio, Ella; Brennan, Christopher S

    2004-01-01

    Few sciences have held out such therapeutic promise and correspondingly stirred so much controversy in countries throughout the world as the developing science surrounding human embryonic stem cells. Since the first reported development of several lines of human embryonic stem cells in 1988, many governments around the world have attempted to address the thorny ethical issues raised by human embryonic stem cell research by the passage of laws. In some cases these laws have directly regulated governmental funding of the science; in other cases they have created a legal environment that has either encouraged or discouraged both governmental and private funding of the science. This article first differentiates human embryonic stem cells from other types of stem cells and frames the ethical controversy surrounding human embryonic stem cell research, then surveys laws governing human embryonic stem cell research in various scientifically advanced countries located throughout the Pacific Rim, Europe and North America and explains the impact these laws have had on governmental and private funding of human embryonic stem cell research.

  20. Robust Neighboring Optimal Guidance for the Advanced Launch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, David G.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, optimization has become an engineering tool through the availability of numerous successful nonlinear programming codes. Optimal control problems are converted into parameter optimization (nonlinear programming) problems by assuming the control to be piecewise linear, making the unknowns the nodes or junction points of the linear control segments. Once the optimal piecewise linear control (suboptimal) control is known, a guidance law for operating near the suboptimal path is the neighboring optimal piecewise linear control (neighboring suboptimal control). Research conducted under this grant has been directed toward the investigation of neighboring suboptimal control as a guidance scheme for an advanced launch system.

  1. Laparoscopic anterior pelvic exenteration for locoregionally advanced rectal cancer directly invading the urinary bladder: A case report of low anterior resection with en bloc cystectomy for sphincter preservation

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Shinya; Hamada, Takeomi; Nishida, Takahiro; Maehara, Naoki; Ikeda, Takuto; Tsukino, Hiromasa; Mukai, Shoichiro; Kamoto, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Laparoscopic multi‐visceral resection in patients with T4 colorectal cancer remains controversial. A 73‐year‐old man was admitted to the hospital for rectosigmoid cancer directly invading the urinary bladder trigone without distant metastasis. We successfully performed complete resection by laparoscopic anterior pelvic exenteration while preserving the anus. After laparoscopic mobilization of the rectum, urinary bladder, and prostate, the urethra and urethral catheter were dissected to reveal the lower rectum. By pulling the urethral catheter toward the head, the prostate was excised retrogradely from the lower rectum anterior wall. The lower rectum was resected and anastomosed by the double stapling technique with a safe distal margin from the tumor. Pathological findings of the resected specimen indicated no residual tumor in the surgical margin. There was no evidence of recurrence 34 months after surgery. En bloc, R0, laparoscopic anterior pelvic exenteration for T4 rectal cancer is feasible. However, further studies with long‐term follow‐up are required to resolve oncological outcomes. PMID:26303734

  2. Laparoscopic anterior pelvic exenteration for locoregionally advanced rectal cancer directly invading the urinary bladder: A case report of low anterior resection with en bloc cystectomy for sphincter preservation.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Hidenobu; Nakashima, Shinya; Hamada, Takeomi; Nishida, Takahiro; Maehara, Naoki; Ikeda, Takuto; Tsukino, Hiromasa; Mukai, Shoichiro; Kamoto, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Kazuhiro

    2015-08-01

    Laparoscopic multi-visceral resection in patients with T4 colorectal cancer remains controversial. A 73-year-old man was admitted to the hospital for rectosigmoid cancer directly invading the urinary bladder trigone without distant metastasis. We successfully performed complete resection by laparoscopic anterior pelvic exenteration while preserving the anus. After laparoscopic mobilization of the rectum, urinary bladder, and prostate, the urethra and urethral catheter were dissected to reveal the lower rectum. By pulling the urethral catheter toward the head, the prostate was excised retrogradely from the lower rectum anterior wall. The lower rectum was resected and anastomosed by the double stapling technique with a safe distal margin from the tumor. Pathological findings of the resected specimen indicated no residual tumor in the surgical margin. There was no evidence of recurrence 34 months after surgery. En bloc, R0, laparoscopic anterior pelvic exenteration for T4 rectal cancer is feasible. However, further studies with long-term follow-up are required to resolve oncological outcomes.

  3. Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Second quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    In the more than 170 wet scrubber systems in 72,000 MW of US, coal-fired, utility boilers, the SO{sub 2} removed from the boiler flue gas is sorbed, and the sulfated sorbent must be disposed of. The use of regenerable sorbents has the potential to reduce this disposal problem. The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts Univ., and Engelhard Corp. are conducting Phase I of a 4.5-year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting SO{sub 2} to S. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide such as ceria and zirconia; the catalytic activity can be promoted by active transition metals such as Cu. The Phase I program includes the following work elements: market/process/cost/evaluation; lab-scale catalyst preparation/optimization, lab-scale bulk/supported catalyst kinetic studies, bench-scale catalyst/process studies, and utility review.

  4. Application of Hamilton's Law of Varying Action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, C. D.

    1973-01-01

    The application of Hamilton's Law to the direct solution of nonstationary as well as stationary problems in mechanics of solids is discussed. Solutions are demonstrated for conservative and monconservative, stationary and/or nonstationary particle motion. Mathematical models are developed to establish the relationships of the parameters.

  5. Consequences of Lotka's Law for the Law of Bradford.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egghe, L.

    1985-01-01

    After discussion of the equivalency of the information laws of Bradford, Leimkuhler, Lotka, and Mandelbrot, aberrations from Leimkuhler's law (including "Groos droop" as encountered in practice) are studied. Other aberrations of Leimkuhler's law are explained, starting from generalization of verbal formulation of Bradford's Law. (18 references)…

  6. Rediscovering Kepler's laws using Newton's gravitation law and NASA data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springsteen, Paul; Keith, Jason

    2010-03-01

    Kepler's three laws of planetary motion were originally discovered by using data acquired from Tycho Brache's naked eye observations of the planets. We show how Kepler's third law can be reproduced using planetary data from NASA. We will also be using Newton's Gravitational law to explain why Kepler's three laws exist as they do.

  7. Recent advances in thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometery method to eliminate the matrix effect between air and water samples: application to the accurate determination of Henry's law constant.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2014-05-16

    Accurate values for the Henry's law constants are essential to describe the environmental dynamics of a solute, but substantial errors are recognized in many reported data due to practical difficulties in measuring solubility and/or vapor pressure. Despite such awareness, validation of experimental approaches has scarcely been made. An experimental approach based on thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometery (TD-GC-MS) method was developed to concurrently allow the accurate determination of target compounds from the headspace and aqueous samples in closed equilibrated system. The analysis of six aromatics and eight non-aromatic oxygenates was then carried out in a static headspace mode. An estimation of the potential bias and mass balance (i.e., sum of mass measured individually from gas and liquid phases vs. the mass initially added to the system) demonstrates compound-specific phase dependency so that the best results are obtained by aqueous (less soluble aromatics) and headspace analysis (more soluble non-aromatics). Accordingly, we were able to point to the possible sources of biases in previous studies and provide the best estimates for the Henry's constants (Matm(-1)): benzene (0.17), toluene (0.15), p-xylene (0.13), m-xylene (0.13), o-xylene (0.19), styrene (0.27); propionaldehyde (9.26), butyraldehyde (6.19), isovaleraldehyde (2.14), n-valeraldehyde (3.98), methyl ethyl ketone (10.5), methyl isobutyl ketone (3.93), n-butyl acetate (2.41), and isobutyl alcohol (22.2).

  8. Recent advances in thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometery method to eliminate the matrix effect between air and water samples: application to the accurate determination of Henry's law constant.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2014-05-16

    Accurate values for the Henry's law constants are essential to describe the environmental dynamics of a solute, but substantial errors are recognized in many reported data due to practical difficulties in measuring solubility and/or vapor pressure. Despite such awareness, validation of experimental approaches has scarcely been made. An experimental approach based on thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometery (TD-GC-MS) method was developed to concurrently allow the accurate determination of target compounds from the headspace and aqueous samples in closed equilibrated system. The analysis of six aromatics and eight non-aromatic oxygenates was then carried out in a static headspace mode. An estimation of the potential bias and mass balance (i.e., sum of mass measured individually from gas and liquid phases vs. the mass initially added to the system) demonstrates compound-specific phase dependency so that the best results are obtained by aqueous (less soluble aromatics) and headspace analysis (more soluble non-aromatics). Accordingly, we were able to point to the possible sources of biases in previous studies and provide the best estimates for the Henry's constants (Matm(-1)): benzene (0.17), toluene (0.15), p-xylene (0.13), m-xylene (0.13), o-xylene (0.19), styrene (0.27); propionaldehyde (9.26), butyraldehyde (6.19), isovaleraldehyde (2.14), n-valeraldehyde (3.98), methyl ethyl ketone (10.5), methyl isobutyl ketone (3.93), n-butyl acetate (2.41), and isobutyl alcohol (22.2). PMID:24704185

  9. Water laws and concepts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, H.E.

    1970-01-01

    Throughout human history various laws and customs have developed concerning the individual rights and rights in common to the waters of the earth. Many existing laws and concepts are clearly influenced by the environment in which they originated and reflect the relative abundance or scarcity of water. Many concepts reflect the people's original interests in the water and once established have been passed from generation to generation with little modification. Some laws and concepts have been carried by people in their migrations and colonial expansions to vastly different environments, with rather curious consequences. In many places water laws that had been well adapted to the natural environment have become less tenable because of man's activities in modifying that environment, or because of increasing use of water: Increasing consumptive use shifts the water economy toward lesser abundance or increasing deficiency; increasing nonconsumptive use results in pollution of the water resources, so that they become less suitable for other users. The water-rights systems in the United States vary from State to State: some are reasonably fitted to their environment, some have outlived their place in history, some are wasteful of water, some show favoritism to certain special interests or segments of the population. Water-use rights are universally recognized as real property, with constitutional protection against deprivation without due process of law.

  10. Definition and preliminary design of the LAWS (Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder), volume 2, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of winds is critical to our understanding of the earth's climate and to our ability to predict climate change. Winds are a fundamental component of highly nonlinear interactions between oceans, land surfaces, and the atmosphere. Interactions at these interfaces are the focus of much climate change research. Although wind information is critical for advancing our understanding, currently most of our description of atmospheric motion is obtained indirectly - i.e., derived from observations of temperature and moisture through geostrophic relationships. Direct measurement of winds over the globe is limited to land-based rawinsonde surface stations and a few ship/aircraft reports. Cloud track winds using satellite imagery are calculated but must be used with great care. The LAWS mission objective, therefore, is to provide diurnal and global direct observations of winds - an observation that will incrementally enhance our knowledge of the earth's climate and physical processes responsible for its change. This document is Volume 2 of the LAWS Phase 2 Final Study Report and describes the definition and preliminary design of the LAWS instrument, together with details of the laser breadboard program conducted during the last 18 months of the program.

  11. Comparative molecular developmental aspects of the mammalian- and the avian lungs, and the insectan tracheal system by branching morphogenesis: recent advances and future directions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Gas exchangers fundamentally form by branching morphogenesis (BM), a mechanistically profoundly complex process which derives from coherent expression and regulation of multiple genes that direct cell-to-cell interactions, differentiation, and movements by signaling of various molecular morphogenetic cues at specific times and particular places in the developing organ. Coordinated expression of growth-instructing factors determines sizes and sites where bifurcation occurs, by how much a part elongates before it divides, and the angle at which branching occurs. BM is essentially induced by dualities of factors where through feedback- or feed forward loops agonists/antagonists are activated or repressed. The intricate transactions between the development orchestrating molecular factors determine the ultimate phenotype. From the primeval time when the transformation of unicellular organisms to multicellular ones occurred by systematic accretion of cells, BM has been perpetually conserved. Canonical signalling, transcriptional pathways, and other instructive molecular factors are commonly employed within and across species, tissues, and stages of development. While much still remain to be elucidated and some of what has been reported corroborated and reconciled with rest of existing data, notable progress has in recent times been made in understanding the mechanism of BM. By identifying and characterizing the morphogenetic drivers, and markers and their regulatory dynamics, the elemental underpinnings of BM have been more precisely explained. Broadening these insights will allow more effective diagnostic and therapeutic interventions of developmental abnormalities and pathologies in pre- and postnatal lungs. Conservation of the molecular factors which are involved in the development of the lung (and other branched organs) is a classic example of nature’s astuteness in economically utilizing finite resources. Once purposefully formed, well-tested and tried ways and

  12. 7 CFR 766.155 - Conflict with State law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict with State law. 766.155 Section 766.155... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN SERVICING-SPECIAL Homestead Protection Program § 766.155 Conflict with State law. If there is a conflict between a borrower's homestead protection rights and...

  13. 5 CFR 1315.16 - Relationship to other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Relationship to other laws. 1315.16 Section 1315.16 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES PROMPT PAYMENT § 1315.16 Relationship to other laws. (a) Contract Disputes Act of 1978 (41 U.S.C. 605). (1) A claim...

  14. When Can a Grievance Arbitrator Apply Outside Law?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischli, George R.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the issue of whether arbitrators possess the authority to take into account law outside the contract when not directed by the parties to do so, or whether arbitrators are confined to construing the contract. Favors the use of external law under certain circumstances. (MLF)

  15. Connection between nonlocal equations of motion and their balance laws

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, L.I.

    1986-05-01

    One starts with a certain class of nonlocal equations of motion, namely, linear second-order integrodifferential equations (LSIDEs). By means of a formalism developed by the author it is then shown how to obtain balance laws, continuity equations, or conservation laws associated with the LSIDEs in a fairly direct way.

  16. Law-Related Education: Implications for Teaching Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlong, Mary

    1982-01-01

    The article demonstrates how the theories and methods of law-related education can provide direction for instructors of gifted children. Four goals of law-related education (including improvement of critical thinking skills) are discussed, and specific teaching strategies are suggested. (Author/SW)

  17. 12 CFR 202.11 - Relation to state law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... that the law: (i) Requires or permits a practice or act prohibited by the Act or this regulation; (ii... federal or state banking regulations directed only toward insuring the solvency of financial institutions... Act and this regulation or that applicants are afforded greater protection under state law; and...

  18. Modeling and controlling a robotic convoy using guidance laws strategies.

    PubMed

    Belkhouche, Fethi; Belkhouche, Boumediene

    2005-08-01

    This paper deals with the problem of modeling and controlling a robotic convoy. Guidance laws techniques are used to provide a mathematical formulation of the problem. The guidance laws used for this purpose are the velocity pursuit, the deviated pursuit, and the proportional navigation. The velocity pursuit equations model the robot's path under various sensors based control laws. A systematic study of the tracking problem based on this technique is undertaken. These guidance laws are applied to derive decentralized control laws for the angular and linear velocities. For the angular velocity, the control law is directly derived from the guidance laws after considering the relative kinematics equations between successive robots. The second control law maintains the distance between successive robots constant by controlling the linear velocity. This control law is derived by considering the kinematics equations between successive robots under the considered guidance law. Properties of the method are discussed and proven. Simulation results confirm the validity of our approach, as well as the validity of the properties of the method. Index Terms-Guidance laws, relative kinematics equations, robotic convoy, tracking. PMID:16128462

  19. Modeling and controlling a robotic convoy using guidance laws strategies.

    PubMed

    Belkhouche, Fethi; Belkhouche, Boumediene

    2005-08-01

    This paper deals with the problem of modeling and controlling a robotic convoy. Guidance laws techniques are used to provide a mathematical formulation of the problem. The guidance laws used for this purpose are the velocity pursuit, the deviated pursuit, and the proportional navigation. The velocity pursuit equations model the robot's path under various sensors based control laws. A systematic study of the tracking problem based on this technique is undertaken. These guidance laws are applied to derive decentralized control laws for the angular and linear velocities. For the angular velocity, the control law is directly derived from the guidance laws after considering the relative kinematics equations between successive robots. The second control law maintains the distance between successive robots constant by controlling the linear velocity. This control law is derived by considering the kinematics equations between successive robots under the considered guidance law. Properties of the method are discussed and proven. Simulation results confirm the validity of our approach, as well as the validity of the properties of the method. Index Terms-Guidance laws, relative kinematics equations, robotic convoy, tracking.

  20. Fractal probability laws.

    PubMed

    Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2008-06-01

    We explore six classes of fractal probability laws defined on the positive half-line: Weibull, Frechét, Lévy, hyper Pareto, hyper beta, and hyper shot noise. Each of these classes admits a unique statistical power-law structure, and is uniquely associated with a certain operation of renormalization. All six classes turn out to be one-dimensional projections of underlying Poisson processes which, in turn, are the unique fixed points of Poissonian renormalizations. The first three classes correspond to linear Poissonian renormalizations and are intimately related to extreme value theory (Weibull, Frechét) and to the central limit theorem (Lévy). The other three classes correspond to nonlinear Poissonian renormalizations. Pareto's law--commonly perceived as the "universal fractal probability distribution"--is merely a special case of the hyper Pareto class.