Science.gov

Sample records for advance market commitment

  1. Economic perspectives on the advance market commitment for pneumococcal vaccines.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Christopher M; Begor, Wills; Berndt, Ernst R

    2011-08-01

    Pharmaceutical companies have long been reluctant to invest in producing new vaccines for the developing world because they have little prospect of earning an attractive return. One way to stimulate such investment is the use of an advance market commitment, an innovative financing program that guarantees manufacturers a long-term market. Under this arrangement, international donors pay a premium for initial doses sold to developing countries. In exchange, companies agree to continue supplying the vaccine over the longer term at more sustainable prices. This article provides a preliminary economic analysis of a pilot advance market commitment program for pneumococcal vaccines, explaining the principles behind the program's design and assessing its early performance. Spurred by the advance market commitment--and other contemporaneous initiatives that also increased resources to vaccine suppliers--new, second-generation pneumococcal vaccines have experienced a much more rapid rollout in developing countries than older first-generation vaccines.

  2. Advance market commitments for vaccines against neglected diseases: estimating costs and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Ernst R; Glennerster, Rachel; Kremer, Michael R; Lee, Jean; Levine, Ruth; Weizsäcker, Georg; Williams, Heidi

    2007-05-01

    The G8 is considering committing to purchase vaccines against diseases concentrated in low-income countries (if and when desirable vaccines are developed) as a way to spur research and development on vaccines for these diseases. Under such an 'advance market commitment,' one or more sponsors would commit to a minimum price to be paid per person immunized for an eligible product, up to a certain number of individuals immunized. For additional purchases, the price would eventually drop to close to marginal cost. If no suitable product were developed, no payments would be made. We estimate the offer size which would make revenues similar to the revenues realized from investments in typical existing commercial pharmaceutical products, as well as the degree to which various model contracts and assumptions would affect the cost-effectiveness of such a commitment. We make adjustments for lower marketing costs under an advance market commitment and the risk that a developer may have to share the market with subsequent developers. We also show how this second risk could be reduced, and money saved, by introducing a superiority clause to a commitment. Under conservative assumptions, we document that a commitment comparable in value to sales earned by the average of a sample of recently launched commercial products (adjusted for lower marketing costs) would be a highly cost-effective way to address HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis. Sensitivity analyses suggest most characteristics of a hypothetical vaccine would have little effect on the cost-effectiveness, but that the duration of protection conferred by a vaccine strongly affects potential cost-effectiveness. Readers can conduct their own sensitivity analyses employing a web-based spreadsheet tool.

  3. Advance price or purchase commitments to create markets for treatments for diseases of poverty: lessons from three policies.

    PubMed Central

    Towse, Adrian; Kettler, Hannah

    2005-01-01

    New drugs and vaccines are needed for tackling diseases of poverty in low- and middle-income countries. The lack of effective demand or market for these products translates into insufficient investment being made in research and development to meet the need for them. Many have advocated cost-reducing (push) and market-enhancing (pull) incentives to tackle this problem. Advance price or purchase commitments (APPCs) funded by international agencies and governments offer one way forward. This paper looks at design issues for APPCs for drugs and vaccines for diseases of poverty drawing on experience and lessons from three case studies: the introduction of the meningitis C vaccine in the United Kingdom; the Orphan Drug Act (ODA) in the United States of America (US); and the newly legislated US Project BioShield for bioterrorist interventions. Our key conclusion is that that APPCs have the potential to be a powerful tool and should be tried. The correct structure and design may only be determined through the process of taking action to set one up. PMID:15868022

  4. Learning organizations, internal marketing, and organizational commitment in hospitals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowledge capital is becoming more important to healthcare establishments, especially for hospitals that are facing changing societal and industrial patterns. Hospital staff must engage in a process of continual learning to improve their healthcare skills and provide a superior service to their patients. Internal marketing helps hospital administrators to improve the quality of service provided by nursing staff to their patients and allows hospitals to build a learning culture and enhance the organizational commitment of its nursing staff. Our empirical study provides nursing managers with a tool to allow them to initiate a change in the attitudes of nurses towards work, by constructing a new ‘learning organization’ and using effective internal marketing. Methods A cross-sectional design was employed. Two hundred questionnaires were distributed to nurses working in either a medical centre or a regional hospital in Taichung City, Taiwan, and 114 valid questionnaires were returned (response rate: 57%). The entire process of distribution and returns was completed between 1 October and 31 October 2009. Hypothesis testing was conducted using structural equation modelling. Results A significant positive correlation was found between the existence of a ‘learning organization’, internal marketing, and organizational commitment. Internal marketing was a mediator between creating a learning organization and organizational commitment. Conclusion Nursing managers may be able to apply the creation of a learning organization to strategies that can strengthen employee organizational commitment. Further, when promoting the creation of a learning organization, managers can coordinate their internal marketing practices to enhance the organizational commitment of nurses. PMID:24708601

  5. Marketing & Distributive Education. Committed to the Improvement of Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This package consists of 34 transparency masters outlining the nature and scope of marketing and distributive education. Included in the set are transparency masters addressing the following themes: the interconnectedness of education, labor, and work; objectives of marketing and distributive education at both the secondary and postsecondary…

  6. Internal marketing, customer orientation, and organizational commitment: moderating effects of work status.

    PubMed

    Huang, Meiju; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2013-08-01

    Associations among internal marketing, customer orientation, and organizational commitment were examined, particularly with regard to the moderating effects of work status on the relationships between internal marketing and customer orientation or organizational commitment, in a cross-sectional design with structural equation modeling. Two studies (Ns = 119 and 251) were conducted among full- and part-time service employees at Taipei Sports Centers. Internal marketing was associated with organizational commitment and customer orientation. Customer orientation was associated with organizational commitment and partially mediated the relation between internal marketing and organizational commitment. Furthermore, work status significantly moderated the relationships between internal marketing and customer orientation but not between internal marketing and organizational commitment. Implications and directions for future research were discussed.

  7. The Effect of Internal Marketing on Organizational Commitment: Job Involvement and Job Satisfaction as Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting, Shueh-Chin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: After reviewing previous research, this study found that few school or educational studies have simultaneously explored both internal marketing and organizational commitment, and of those that have, only direct effects were examined. This study clarifies the relationship between school organization's internal marketing and teachers'…

  8. Probability-Weighted LMP and RCP for Day-Ahead Energy Markets using Stochastic Security-Constrained Unit Commitment: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; O'Malley, M.

    2012-06-01

    Variable renewable generation resources are increasing their penetration on electric power grids. These resources have weather-driven fuel sources that vary on different time scales and are difficult to predict in advance. These characteristics create challenges for system operators managing the load balance on different timescales. Research is looking into new operational techniques and strategies that show great promise on facilitating greater integration of variable resources. Stochastic Security-Constrained Unit Commitment models are one strategy that has been discussed in literature and shows great benefit. However, it is rarely used outside the research community due to its computational limits and difficulties integrating with electricity markets. This paper discusses how it can be integrated into day-ahead energy markets and especially on what pricing schemes should be used to ensure an efficient and fair market.

  9. Measuring political commitment and opportunities to advance food and nutrition security: piloting a rapid assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Fox, Ashley M; Balarajan, Yarlini; Cheng, Chloe; Reich, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    Lack of political commitment has been identified as a primary reason for the low priority that food and nutrition interventions receive from national governments relative to the high disease burden caused by malnutrition. Researchers have identified a number of factors that contribute to food and nutrition's 'low-priority cycle' on national policy agendas, but few tools exist to rapidly measure political commitment and identify opportunities to advance food and nutrition on the policy agenda. This article presents a theory-based rapid assessment approach to gauging countries' level of political commitment to food and nutrition security and identifying opportunities to advance food and nutrition on the policy agenda. The rapid assessment tool was piloted among food and nutrition policymakers and planners in 10 low- and middle-income countries in April to June 2013. Food and nutrition commitment and policy opportunity scores were calculated for each country and strategies to advance food and nutrition on policy agendas were designed for each country. The article finds that, in a majority of countries, political leaders had verbally and symbolically committed to addressing food and nutrition, but adequate financial resources were not allocated to implement specific programmes. In addition, whereas the low cohesion of the policy community has been viewed a major underlying cause of the low-priority status of food and nutrition, the analysis finds that policy community cohesion and having a well thought-out policy alternative were present in most countries. This tool may be useful to policymakers and planners providing information that can be used to benchmark and/or evaluate advocacy efforts to advance reforms in the food and nutrition sector; furthermore, the results can help identify specific strategies that can be employed to move the food and nutrition agenda forward. This tool complements others that have been recently developed to measure national commitment to

  10. Effects of internal marketing on nurse job satisfaction and organizational commitment: example of medical centers in Southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Sheng; Chang, Hsin-Hsin

    2007-12-01

    As nurses typically represent the largest percentage of employees at medical centers, their role in medical care is exceptionally important and becoming more so over time. The quality and functions of nurses impact greatly on medical care quality. The concept of internal marketing, with origins in the field of market research, argues that enterprises should value and respect their employees by treating them as internal customers. Such a marketing concept challenges traditional marketing methods, which focus on serving external customers only. The main objective of internal marketing is to help internal customers (employees) gain greater job satisfaction, which should promote job performance and facilitate the organization accomplishing its ultimate business objectives. A question in the medical service industry is whether internal marketing can similarly increase the job satisfaction of nurses and enhance their commitment to the organization. This study aimed to explore the relational model of nurse perceptions related to internal marketing, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment by choosing nurses from two medical centers in Southern Taiwan as research subjects. Of 450 questionnaire distributed, 300 valid questionnaires were returned, giving a response rate of 66.7%. After conducting statistical analysis and estimation using structural equation modeling, findings included: (1) job satisfaction has positive effects on organizational commitment; (2) nurse perceptions of internal marketing have positive effects on job satisfaction; and (3) nurse perceptions of internal marketing have positive effects on organizational commitment.

  11. Advanced Unit Commitment Strategies for the U.S. Eastern Interconnection: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Meibom, P.; Barth, R.; Tuohy, A.

    2010-10-01

    This paper outlines a study undertaken for the U.S. Eastern Interconnection in which different advanced unit commitment strategies were simulated for three different years to evaluate the benefits that may occur from using these strategies as an operational tool.

  12. Marketing potential of advanced breeding clones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. The degree to which cultivars accumulate reducing sugars during storage determines their processing and market potential. Cultivars or advanced breeding lines with...

  13. [Estimation of the committed effective dose of radioactive cesium and potassium by the market basket method].

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Nabeshi, Hiromi; Ikarashi, Atsuko; Hachisuka, Akiko; Matsuda, Rieko

    2013-01-01

    The Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster after the Great East Japan Earthquake has caused radioactive contamination in food. Using the market basket method, total diet samples in Tokyo, Miyagi prefecture and Fukushima prefecture were analyzed for cesium-134 and -137 (radioactive cesium) and naturally occurring potassium-40 (radioactive potassium) in order to estimate the committed effective doses of these radioactive materials from food. Doses were calculated on the assumption that "not detected" corresponded to zero or to half the limit of detection (values in brackets). The estimated doses of radioactive cesium in Tokyo, Miyagi and Fukushima were 0.0021 (0.0024), 0.017 (0.018) and 0.019 (0.019) mSv/year, respectively. Although the doses in Miyagi and Fukushima were more than 8 times the dose in Tokyo, they were significantly lower than the maximum permissible dose (1 mSv/year) determined by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan. The estimated doses of naturally occurring radioactive potassium in these areas were in the range of 0.17-0.20 (0.18-0.20) mSv/year, and there were no significant differences between the areas.

  14. Institutional Advancement: A Marketing Perspective. Part I: A Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Daniel F.

    Strategies are proposed for the implementation of the marketing concept at Triton College. The report begins by describing the establishment and goals of the Marketing Task Force and goes on to define "institutional advancement," as a positive, progressive response to community educational needs, and "the marketing concept," as suggesting an…

  15. Optimal advanced credit releases in ecosystem service markets.

    PubMed

    BenDor, Todd K; Guo, Tianshu; Yates, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    Ecosystem service markets are popular policy tools for ecosystem protection. Advanced credit releases are an important factor affecting the supply side of ecosystem markets. Under an advanced credit release policy, regulators give ecosystem suppliers a fraction of the total ecosystem credits generated by a restoration project before it is verified that the project actually achieves the required ecological thresholds. In spite of their prominent role in ecosystem markets, there is virtually no regulatory or research literature on the proper design of advanced credit release policies. Using U.S. aquatic ecosystem markets as an example, we develop a principal-agent model of the behavior of regulators and wetland/stream mitigation bankers to determine and explore the optimal degree of advance credit release. The model highlights the tension between regulators' desire to induce market participation, while at the same time ensuring that bankers successfully complete ecological restoration. Our findings suggest several simple guidelines for strengthening advanced credit release policy.

  16. Optimal Advanced Credit Releases in Ecosystem Service Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BenDor, Todd K.; Guo, Tianshu; Yates, Andrew J.

    2014-03-01

    Ecosystem service markets are popular policy tools for ecosystem protection. Advanced credit releases are an important factor affecting the supply side of ecosystem markets. Under an advanced credit release policy, regulators give ecosystem suppliers a fraction of the total ecosystem credits generated by a restoration project before it is verified that the project actually achieves the required ecological thresholds. In spite of their prominent role in ecosystem markets, there is virtually no regulatory or research literature on the proper design of advanced credit release policies. Using U.S. aquatic ecosystem markets as an example, we develop a principal-agent model of the behavior of regulators and wetland/stream mitigation bankers to determine and explore the optimal degree of advance credit release. The model highlights the tension between regulators' desire to induce market participation, while at the same time ensuring that bankers successfully complete ecological restoration. Our findings suggest several simple guidelines for strengthening advanced credit release policy.

  17. A Qualitative Investigation of Commitment to Dance: Findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aujla, Imogen Jane; Nordin-Bates, Sanna; Redding, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Commitment to an activity forms an essential part of the talent development process, yet little is known about the reasons why young people commit to dance training. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors that affect young dancers' commitment to a selective dance talent scheme. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19…

  18. Community College Vice Presidents for Institutional Advancement: Role Expectations, Fundraising Responsibilities, Professional Relationships, and Commitment to the Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciampa, Donna Lynn

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how the role expectations, responsibilities toward fundraising, and professional relationships by the vice president of institutional advancement influenced commitment to the institution. A qualitative analysis was conducted across the mid-Atlantic region by interviewing community college vice presidents of institutional…

  19. Advanced Marketing/Coop Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Bobby

    This document contains the information required to present a 1-year school course that is the capstone class of a 2-year marketing major and is designed for high school students wishing to develop the skills required for entry into the marketing industry. The document begins with a rationale, brief course description, list of course objectives,…

  20. Advanced short haul aircraft for high density markets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, T. L.

    1977-01-01

    The short haul (less than 500 miles) passenger enplanements represent about 50% of the total domestic enplanements. These can be distinguished by the annual passenger flow for a given city pair and classified into low, medium and high densiy markets. NASA studies have investigated various advanced short haul aircraft concepts that have potential application in these three market areas. Although advanced operational techniques impact all market densities, advanced vehicle design concepts such as RTOL, STOL and VTOL have the largest impact in the high density markets. This paper summarizes the results of NASA sponsored high density short haul air transportation systems studies and briefly reviews NASA sponsored advanced VTOL conceptual aircraft design studies. Trends in vehicle characteristics and operational requirements will be indicated in addition to economic suitability and impact on the community.

  1. Advance commitment: an alternative approach to the family veto problem in organ procurement.

    PubMed

    De Wispelaere, Jurgen; Stirton, Lindsay

    2010-03-01

    This article tackles the current deficit in the supply of cadaveric organs by addressing the family veto in organ donation. The authors believe that the family veto matters-ethically as well as practically-and that policies that completely disregard the views of the family in this decision are likely to be counterproductive. Instead, this paper proposes to engage directly with the most important reasons why families often object to the removal of the organs of a loved one who has signed up to the donor registry-notably a failure to understand fully and deliberate on the information and a reluctance to deal with this sort of decision at an emotionally distressing time. To accommodate these concerns it is proposed to separate radically the process of information, deliberation and agreement about the harvesting of a potential donor's organs from the event of death and bereavement through a scheme of advance commitment. This paper briefly sets out the proposal and discusses in some detail its design as well as what is believed to be the main advantages compared with the leading alternatives.

  2. Potential markets for advanced satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamson, Steven; Roberts, David; Schubert, Leroy; Smith, Brian; Sogegian, Robert; Walters, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    This report identifies trends in the volume and type of traffic offered to the U.S. domestic communications infrastructure and extrapolates these trends through the year 2011. To describe how telecommunications service providers are adapting to the identified trends, this report assesses the status, plans, and capacity of the domestic communications infrastructure. Cable, satellite, and radio components of the infrastructure are examined separately. The report also assesses the following major applications making use of the infrastructure: (1) Broadband services, including Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (BISDN), Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS), and frame relay; (2) mobile services, including voice, location, and paging; (3) Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSAT), including mesh VSAT; and (4) Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) for audio and video. The report associates satellite implementation of specific applications with market segments appropriate to their features and capabilities. The volume and dollar value of these market segments are estimated. For the satellite applications able to address the needs of significant market segments, the report also examines the potential of each satellite-based application to capture business from alternative technologies.

  3. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maust, Robert N.

    1985-01-01

    Although college administrators may be committed to the concept and need for institutional marketing, even a well-developed marketing plan may not work if it is not clearly organized to address special needs. This article reviews management fads, how to make jargon operational, organizational dynamics, and monitoring fads. (MSE)

  4. Prospect of advanced generation technologies in a competitive market place

    SciTech Connect

    Guha, M.; Singh, A.

    1999-07-01

    The US Electric utility industry is undergoing tremendous changes for meeting the challenge of deregulation and customer demands for a free competitive market. Two major forces are driving this market: the deregulation of the industry and customer demands for achieving the lowest cost for electricity, forcing utility companies to position themselves as the low-cost producers. This paper will briefly discuss the status of various advanced generation technologies with respect to their costs, applicability and limitations, where these technologies are expected to be cost-effective and how they compare with the combined cycle plants. Advanced generation technologies may benefit as the environment regulations are tightened. This paper will examine how, when and where the advanced generation technologies would play a role in penetrating the market on their own merits.

  5. Advanced Marketing Core Curriculum. Test Items and Assessment Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Clifton L.; And Others

    This document contains duties and tasks, multiple-choice test items, and other assessment techniques for Missouri's advanced marketing core curriculum. The core curriculum begins with a list of 13 suggested textbook resources. Next, nine duties with their associated tasks are given. Under each task appears one or more citations to appropriate…

  6. Markets for small-scale, advanced coal-combustion technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Placet, M.; Kenkeremath, L.D.; Streets, D.G.; Dials, G.E.; Kern, D.M.; Nehring, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.

    1988-12-01

    This report examines the potential of using US-developed advanced coal technologies (ACTs) for small combustors in foreign markets; in particular, the market potentials of the member countries of the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) were determined. First, the United States and those OECD countries with very low energy demands were eliminated. The remaining 15 countries were characterized on the basis of eight factors that would influence their decision to use US ACTs: energy plan and situation, dependence on oil and gas imports, experience with coal, residential/commercial energy demand, industrial energy demand, trade relationship with the United States, level of domestic competition with US ACT manufacturers, and environmental pressure to use advanced technology. Each country was rated high, medium-high, low-medium, or low on each factor, based on statistical and other data. The ratings were then used to group the countries in terms of their relative market potential (good, good but with impediments, or limited). The best potential markets appear to be Spain, Italy, turkey, Greece, and Canada. 25 refs., 1 fig., 37 tabs.

  7. DNA Replication Fading As Proliferating Cells Advance in Their Commitment to Terminal Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Estefanía, Monturus Ma.; Ganier, Olivier; Hernández, Pablo; Schvartzman, Jorge B.; Mechali, Marcel; Krimer, Dora B.

    2012-01-01

    Terminal differentiation is the process by which cycling cells stop proliferating to start new specific functions. It involves dramatic changes in chromatin organization as well as gene expression. In the present report we used cell flow cytometry and genome wide DNA combing to investigate DNA replication during murine erythroleukemia-induced terminal cell differentiation. The results obtained indicated that the rate of replication fork movement slows down and the inter-origin distance becomes shorter during the precommitment and commitment periods before cells stop proliferating and accumulate in G1. We propose this is a general feature caused by the progressive heterochromatinization that characterizes terminal cell differentiation. PMID:22359734

  8. Pharmacists' Interest in and Commitment to Obtaining an Advanced Pharmacy Degree through Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, David A.

    1986-01-01

    Describes results of a survey of all West Virginia pharmacists concerning their views on continuing education and advanced pharmacy degrees. Conclusions indicate a small percentage of pharmacists are interested in a higher degree via continuing education. (Author/CT)

  9. Advanced Marketing. Marketing Education Teacher's Resource Guide. Expected Student Learning Outcomes and Cross-Referenced Instructional Materials by Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Clifton L.

    This guide, developed by a project to revise the minimum core competencies for the advanced marketing course in secondary marketing education in Missouri, contains four sections. The first section explains competency-based marketing education, including its mission, nature, curriculum, and the fundamentals of competency-based instruction. The…

  10. Assessment of Committed Effective Dose due to consumption of Red Sea coral reef fishes collected from the local market (Sudan).

    PubMed

    Hassona, Rifaat K; Sam, A K; Osman, O I; Sirelkhatim, D A; LaRosa, J

    2008-04-15

    An assessment of Committed Effective Dose (CED) due to consumption of Red Sea fish containing (210)Po and (137)Cs was performed for 23 different marine fish samples collected from the local market at Port Sudan. The fish were classified according to their feeding habits into three categories: carnivores, herbivores, and omnivores. Measured activity concentrations of (210)Po were found in the ranges 0.25-6.42 (carnivores), 0.7-5 (omnivores) and 1.5-3.8 (herbivores) Bq/kg fresh weight. In the same study, activity concentrations of Cs-137 were determined to be in the ranges 0.1-0.46 (carnivores), 0.09-0.35 (omnivores) and 0.09-0.32 (herbivores) Bq/kg fresh weight, which were several times lower than those of (210)Po. Appropriate conversion factors were used to derive the CED, which was found to be 0.012, 0.01 and 0.01 (microSv/yr) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively, for (137)Cs. This contributes about 0.4% of the total dose exclusively by ingestion of fish. For (210)Po, it was found to be 3.47, 4.81 and 4.14 (microSv/yr) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively, which represents 99.6% of the total dose (exclusively by ingestion of fish). The results of CED calculations suggest that the dose received by the Sudanese population from the consumption of marine fish is rather small and that the contribution of (137)Cs is negligible compared to (210)Po.

  11. 7 CFR 3550.70 - Conditional commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... into the required agreements; (4) Be financially responsible and have the ability to finance or obtain... approval of an affirmative marketing plan. (b) Limitations. Conditional commitments for new or... as bad weather, materials shortages, or marketing difficulties. Conditional commitments may...

  12. Studies of transformational leadership in consumer service: market orientation behavior and alternative roles for the mediators and moderators of change commitment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-Feng

    2013-12-01

    The present paper evaluates the relation between transformational leadership and market orientation along with the mediating and moderating effects of change commitment for employees in customer centers in Taiwan. 327 questionnaires were returned by personnel at several customer centers in four different insurance companies. Inter-rater agreement was acceptable based on the multiple raters (i.e., the consumer-related employees from the division groups) of one individual (i.e., a manager)--indicating the aggregated measures were acceptable. The multi-source sample comprised data taken from the four division centers: phone services, customer representatives, financial specialists, and front-line salespeople. The relations were assessed using a multiple mediation procedure incorporating bootstrap techniques and PRODCLIN2 with structural equation modeling analysis. The results reflect a mediating role for change commitment.

  13. Advanced Marketing 8130. Instructional Areas. Duties and Tasks. Learning Activities. Referenced Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond.

    This resource handbook, which is designed for use by instructors of courses in advanced marketing, consists of a duty/task list with referenced resources, a duty/task list with learning activities, and a list of resources. Included in each list are materials dealing with the following topics: communication in marketing, economics in marketing,…

  14. Major advances in milk marketing: government and industry consolidation.

    PubMed

    Stukenberg, D; Blayney, D; Miller, J

    2006-04-01

    Federal dairy programs have been instituted to assist dairy farmers in marketing their milk. Milk marketing licenses were issued for city markets in 1933 during the depression. Federal Milk Orders replaced licenses in 1937 with enactment of the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act. Low prices returned in the late 1940s and Congress passed the Agricultural Act of 1949 creating the support program for milk. Congressional involvement in milk marketing was minimal until passage of the 1977 Farm Bill. A support price adjustment to seek favorable political responses from farmers resulted in higher prices and ultimately higher production. Large expenditures and burdensome supplies caused Congress to make major changes to both programs. Other milk marketing programs have evolved from Congressional actions, including export and promotion programs. The exiting and consolidation of the dairy processors and producers has lead to a reduction in the number of marketing orders.

  15. Retail Merchandising. An Advanced Level Option for Marketing and Distribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Ross; And Others

    This curriculum guide is designed to prepare secondary school students for entry-level and career-level positions in the largest area of employment in distribution and marketing--retail merchandising. Developed for use in the twelfth grade competency cluster phase of New York State secondary marketing and distributive education program, this…

  16. An Examination of Relationship Marketing as a Determinant of Commitment and Loyalty in College and University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linares, Ronald T.

    2012-01-01

    U.S.-based Institutions of Higher Education (IHE) face significant competitive forces including market-based pressures in the form of new and increased competition, an escalating cost base and reduced financial aid sources. The practice of customer loyalty development and the study of the loyalty phenomena are prevalent in the marketing…

  17. Advanced Sensors and Controls for Building Applications: Market Assessment and Potential R&D Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, M. R.; Haves, P.; McDonald, S. C.; Torcellini, P.; Hansen, D.; Holmberg, D. R.; Roth, K. W.

    2005-04-01

    This document provides a market assessment of existing building sensors and controls and presents a range of technology pathways (R&D options) for pursuing advanced sensors and building control strategies.

  18. Organizational commitment of military physicians.

    PubMed

    Demir, Cesim; Sahin, Bayram; Teke, Kadir; Ucar, Muharrem; Kursun, Olcay

    2009-09-01

    An individual's loyalty or bond to his or her employing organization, referred to as organizational commitment, influences various organizational outcomes such as employee motivation, job satisfaction, performance, accomplishment of organizational goals, employee turnover, and absenteeism. Therefore, as in other sectors, employee commitment is crucial also in the healthcare market. This study investigates the effects of organizational factors and personal characteristics on organizational commitment of military physicians using structural equation modeling (SEM) on a self-report, cross-sectional survey that consisted of 635 physicians working in the 2 biggest military hospitals in Turkey. The results of this study indicate that professional commitment and organizational incentives contribute positively to organizational commitment, whereas conflict with organizational goals makes a significantly negative contribution to it. These results might help develop strategies to increase employee commitment, especially in healthcare organizations, because job-related factors have been found to possess greater impact on organizational commitment than personal characteristics.

  19. Institutional Advancement: A Marketing Perspective. Part II: A Status Report, 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Daniel F.

    This follow-up report examines the status of the recruitment and retention strategies implemented by Triton College in 1978 as part of an effort to utilize the marketing concept in identifying and meeting changing educational needs. The report first provides operational definitions for "institutional advancement,""marketing concept,""promotion,"…

  20. Advancement in Higher Education: The Role of Marketing in Building Philanthropic Giving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlexander, James H.; Koenig, Harold F.; DuFault, Beth

    2014-01-01

    This paper empirically explores ways in which marketers of higher education can contribute to the important task of cultivating alumni philanthropy. Advancement professionals understand that philanthropy is influenced by wealth and affinity. As marketers, we anticipate that our contribution resides with investments in building affinity. Using…

  1. Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development 2009/10-2011/12 Service Plan Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development's overarching purpose is to position British Columbia to meet the competitive challenges of the twenty-first century through better aligning labour market supply and demand. In the six months since the Ministry issued its February 2009 service plan and the subsequent re-election of…

  2. Markets and Standards for Advanced Learning Technology. A Report from a DELTA Workshop on Markets and Standards of Advanced Learning Technology (Milanfiori, Italy, December 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermant, Corinne, Ed.; van Langenhove, Lieve, Ed.

    This report is based on presentations given at the workshop arranged jointly by the DELTA (Developing European Learning through Technological Advance) Unit of DG XIII/F and the Italian based Datamont spa. The workshop addressed three principal themes: markets for technology-based learning, standards and conventions for technology-based learning,…

  3. Advanced Modeling of Renewable Energy Market Dynamics: May 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.; Little, R.; Lloyd, K.; Malikov, G.; Passolt, G.; Arent, D.; Swezey, B.; Mosey, G.

    2007-08-01

    This report documents a year-long academic project, presenting selected techniques for analysis of market growth, penetration, and forecasting applicable to renewable energy technologies. Existing mathematical models were modified to incorporate the effects of fiscal policies and were evaluated using available data. The modifications were made based on research and classification of current mathematical models used for predicting market penetration. An analysis of the results was carried out, based on available data. MATLAB versions of existing and new models were developed for research and policy analysis.

  4. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Marketing. Course: Advanced Salesmanship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, T.; Egan, B.

    One of thirteen individualized courses included in a marketing curriculum, this course covers wholesale and retail selling techniques, sales performance analysis, and intensive sales presentation practice. The course is comprised of four units: (1) Sales Preparation, (2) The Selling Process, (3) Special Selling Techniques, and (4) Sales…

  5. Advanced short haul systems in high density markets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    The design requirements, performance, economics, and noise aspects of STOL and VTOL conceptual aircraft developed for short haul air transportation are reviewed, along with the characteristics of areas of high-density annual passenger flow in which the aircraft are intended to operate. It is shown that aircraft of 100 to 200 passenger capacity provide the best return on investment in high density markets. The various STOL propulsive lift concepts have the same general trends with field length; their wing loadings are 20 to 30 pounds per square foot higher than the nonpropulsive lift concepts. A comparison of the aircraft under consideration shows that no one aircraft concept will be optimum for all future operational environments.

  6. Torin1-mediated TOR kinase inhibition reduces Wee1 levels and advances mitotic commitment in fission yeast and HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Atkin, Jane; Halova, Lenka; Ferguson, Jennifer; Hitchin, James R; Lichawska-Cieslar, Agata; Jordan, Allan M; Pines, Jonathon; Wellbrock, Claudia; Petersen, Janni

    2014-03-15

    The target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase regulates cell growth and division. Rapamycin only inhibits a subset of TOR activities. Here we show that in contrast to the mild impact of rapamycin on cell division, blocking the catalytic site of TOR with the Torin1 inhibitor completely arrests growth without cell death in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. A mutation of the Tor2 glycine residue (G2040D) that lies adjacent to the key Torin-interacting tryptophan provides Torin1 resistance, confirming the specificity of Torin1 for TOR. Using this mutation, we show that Torin1 advanced mitotic onset before inducing growth arrest. In contrast to TOR inhibition with rapamycin, regulation by either Wee1 or Cdc25 was sufficient for this Torin1-induced advanced mitosis. Torin1 promoted a Polo and Cdr2 kinase-controlled drop in Wee1 levels. Experiments in human cell lines recapitulated these yeast observations: mammalian TOR (mTOR) was inhibited by Torin1, Wee1 levels declined and mitotic commitment was advanced in HeLa cells. Thus, the regulation of the mitotic inhibitor Wee1 by TOR signalling is a conserved mechanism that helps to couple cell cycle and growth controls.

  7. Improving Butanol Fermentation To Enter the Advanced Biofuel Market

    PubMed Central

    Tracy, Bryan P.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT 1-Butanol is a large-volume, intermediate chemical with favorable physical and chemical properties for blending with or directly substituting for gasoline. The per-volume value of butanol, as a chemical, is sufficient for investing into the recommercialization of the classical acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) (E. M. Green, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 22:337–343, 2011) fermentation process. Furthermore, with modest improvements in three areas of the ABE process, operating costs can be sufficiently decreased to make butanol an economically viable advanced biofuel. The three areas of greatest interest are (i) maximizing yields of butanol on any particular substrate, (ii) expanding substrate utilization capabilities of the host microorganism, and (iii) reducing the energy consumption of the overall production process, in particular the separation and purification operations. In their study in the September/October 2012 issue of mBio, Jang et al. [mBio 3(5):e00314-12, 2012] describe a comprehensive study on driving glucose metabolism in Clostridium acetobutylicum to the production of butanol. Moreover, they execute a metabolic engineering strategy to achieve the highest yet reported yields of butanol on glucose. PMID:23232720

  8. Advanced Sensors and Controls for Building Applications: Market Assessment and Potential R&D Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, Michael R.; Haves, Philip; McDonald, Sean C.; Torcellini, Paul; Hansen, David G.; Holmberg, David; Roth, Kurt

    2005-04-13

    Significant energy savings can be achieved in commercial building operation, along with increased comfort and control for occupants, through the implementation of advanced technologies. This document provides a market assessment of existing building sensors and controls and presents a range of technology pathways (R&D options) for pursuing advanced sensors and building control strategies. This paper is actually a synthesis of five other white papers: the first describes the market assessment including estimates of market potential and energy savings for sensors and control strategies currently on the market as well as a discussion of market barriers to these technologies. The other four cover technology pathways: (1) current applications and strategies for new applications, (2) sensors and controls, (3) networking, security, and protocols and standards, and (4) automated diagnostics, performance monitoring, commissioning, optimal control and tools. Each technology pathway chapter gives an overview of the technology or application. This is followed by a discussion of needs and the current status of the technology. Finally, a series of research topics is proposed.

  9. Development of advanced concepts for DIR-MCFC cogeneration applications in the European Market

    SciTech Connect

    Kortbeek, P.J.; Ottervanger, R.G.; Dicks, A.L.

    1996-12-31

    Early 1996 a three year (1996 - 1998) joint European project was launched under the name {open_quote}Advanced DIR-MCFC Development{close_quote}, aiming at the development of Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) systems for cogeneration applications for the European market. In this project participate: Brandstofcel Nederland BV (BCN), British Gas pic (BG), Gaz de France (GDF), Netherlands Energy Research foundation (ECN), Stork, Royal Schelde and Sydkraft AB. The European Fuel Cell User Group (EFCUG) supports the project as an advisory board. Whereas the US and Japanese programmes are aimed at large-scale demonstrations of the MCFC technology, this project focusses on the development of concepts and technology, required for MCFC systems that will be competative on the cogeneration market. The project partners provide the essential expertise: from end-user, system engineering, stack development up to fundamental material research.

  10. Marketing Prior Learning Assessment Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heeger, Gerald A.

    1983-01-01

    Experiential learning programs must be marketed effectively if they are to succeed. The formulation of market strategy is discussed including: strategic planning; identification of a market target; and development of a market mix. A commitment to marketing academic programs is seen as a commitment to self-assessment. (MW)

  11. Marketing.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  12. Conscientious commitment to women's health.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Bernard M; Cook, Rebecca J

    2011-05-01

    Conscientious commitment, the reverse of conscientious objection, inspires healthcare providers to overcome barriers to delivery of reproductive services to protect and advance women's health. History shows social reformers experiencing religious condemnation and imprisonment for promoting means of birth control, until access became popularly accepted. Voluntary sterilization generally followed this pattern to acceptance, but overcoming resistance to voluntary abortion calls for courage and remains challenging. The challenge is aggravated by religious doctrines that view treatment of ectopic pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, and emergency contraception not by reference to women's healthcare needs, but through the lens of abortion. However, modern legal systems increasingly reject this myopic approach. Providers' conscientious commitment is to deliver treatments directed to women's healthcare needs, giving priority to patient care over adherence to conservative religious doctrines or religious self-interest. The development of in vitro fertilization to address childlessness further illustrates the inspiration of conscientious commitment over conservative objections.

  13. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, David L.

    This booklet suggests ways in which institutions--Catholic schools in particular--can move beyond public relations and advertising to engage in the broader arena of marketing with its focus on consumer satisfaction. The first of the book's three chapters reviews the concept of marketing, providing definitions of key terms, clarification of…

  14. Marketing Regulatory Oversight of Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products (ATMPs) in Europe: The EMA/CAT Perspective.

    PubMed

    Salmikangas, Paula; Schuessler-Lenz, Martina; Ruiz, Sol; Celis, Patrick; Reischl, Ilona; Menezes-Ferreira, Margarida; Flory, Egbert; Renner, Matthias; Ferry, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    With the release of Regulation 1394/2007, a new framework for gene and cell therapy medicinal products and tissue-engineered products was established in the European Union. For all three product classes, called advanced therapy medicinal products, a centralised marketing authorisation became mandatory. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) together with its Committee for Advanced Therapies, Committee for Human Medicinal Products and the network of national agencies is responsible for scientific evaluation of the marketing authorisation applications. For a new application, data and information relating to manufacturing processes and quality control of the active substance and the final product have to be submitted for evaluation together with data from non-clinical and clinical safety and efficacy studies. Technical requirements for ATMPs are defined in the legislation, and guidance for different products is available through several EMA/CAT guidelines. Due to the diversity of ATMPs, a tailored approach for regulating these products is considered necessary. Thus, a risk-based approach has been introduced for ATMPs allowing flexibility for the regulatory requirements. Since the regulatory framework for ATMPs was established, five products have been licenced in the European Union. However, the pipeline of new ATMPs is much bigger, as seen from the significant numbers of different products discussed by the CAT in scientific advice and classification procedures. In 2013, a public consultation on the ATMP Regulation was conducted by the European Commission, and the results were published in 2014. The report proposes several improvements for the current framework and established procedures for the regulation of ATMPs.

  15. Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development task 5 -- market study of the gas fired ATS. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), in partnership with the Department of Energy, will develop a family of advanced gas turbine-based power systems (ATS) for widespread commercialization within the domestic and international industrial marketplace, and to the rapidly changing electric power generation industry. The objective of the jointly-funded Program is to introduce an ATS with high efficiency, and markedly reduced emissions levels, in high numbers as rapidly as possible following introduction. This Topical Report is submitted in response to the requirements outlined in Task 5 of the Department of Energy METC Contract on Advanced Combustion Systems, Contract No, DE AC21-93MC30246 (Contract), for a Market Study of the Gas Fired Advanced Turbine System. It presents a market study for the ATS proposed by Solar, and will examine both the economic and siting constraints of the ATS compared with competing systems in the various candidate markets. Also contained within this report is an examination and analysis of Solar`s ATS and its ability to compete in future utility and industrial markets, as well as factors affecting the marketability of the ATS.

  16. Racial Differences in the Impact of Participating in Advanced Placement Programs on Educational and Labor Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Lamont A.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the wealth of information generated in recent years regarding the benefits for students who participate in Advanced Placement (AP) programs on educational outcomes, limited research exists contrasting and comparing the differential effects of AP program participation on educational and labor market outcomes by race. However, research…

  17. 77 FR 52977 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule; Market Risk Capital Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ...The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC), the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (Board), and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) (collectively, the agencies) are seeking comment on three notices of proposed rulemaking (NPRs) that would revise and replace the agencies' current capital rules. In this NPR (Advanced Approaches and Market Risk NPR) the......

  18. Commitment to health theory.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Cynthia W

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces commitment to health as a middle-range. Commitment to health (CTH) is derived from Prochaska and DiClemente's (1983) Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change. CTH theory is designed to predict the likelihood of behavior change between the action and maintenance stages of change. Commitment is defined as a freely chosen internal resolve to perform health behaviors, even when encumbered or inconvenienced by difficulties. Health is defined as the optimal level of well-being. Commitment is an independent continuous variable, but it can be categorized into three time-oriented categories: (1) low-level, (2) middle-level, and (3) high-level commitment. The higher the level of commitment, the more likely the individual will adopt long-term behavior change. This article presents the definitions, assumptions, and relational statements of CTH.

  19. An analysis of markets for small-scale, advanced coal-combustion technology in Spain, Italy, and Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Placet, M.; Gerry, P.A.; Kenski, D.M.; Kern, D.M.; Nehring, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.

    1989-09-01

    This report discusses the examination of potential overseas markets for using small-scale, US-developed, advanced coal-combustion technologies (ACTs). In previous work, member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) were rated on their potential for using ACTs through a comprehensive screening methodology. The three most promising OECD markets were found to be Spain, Italy, and Turkey. This report provides in-depth analyses of these three selected countries. First, it addresses changes in the European Community with particular reference to the 1992 restructuring and its potential effect on the energy situation in Europe, specifically in the three subject countries. It presents individual country studies that examine demographics, economics, building infrastructures, and energy-related factors. Potential niches for ACTs are explored for each country through regional analyses. Marketing channels, strategies, and the trading environments in each country are also discussed. The information gathered indicates that Turkey is a most promising market, Spain is a fairly promising market, and Italy appears to be a somewhat limited market for US ACTs. 76 refs., 16 figs., 14 tabs.

  20. Brand Attachment to Specific Technology, Means Efficacy, and Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McReynolds, Kevin V.

    2010-01-01

    This study was exploratory in nature and examined the organizational commitment (dependent variable) impact of evangelistic marketing and training efforts. There was sufficient evidence from the practitioner press that many technology companies have adopted an evangelism marketing approach. This marketing method seeks to create attachments to…

  1. Non-State Actors, and the Advance of Frontier Higher Education Markets in the Global South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Susan L.; Komljenovic, Janja

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the growth of global non-state and multilateral actors in the "global south" and the creation of frontier markets in the higher education sector. These developments are part of market-making changes in higher education as the sector is opened to new actors, logics, and innovative services, aimed at "the global…

  2. Our Commitment to Bioenergy Sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-18

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is committed to developing the resources, technologies, and systems needed to support a thriving bioenergy industry that protects natural resources and ad- vances environmental, economic, and social benefits. BETO’s Sustainability Technology Area proactively identifies and addresses issues that affect the scale-up potential, public acceptance, and long-term viability of advanced bioenergy systems; as a result, the area is critical to achieving BETO’s overall goals.

  3. United by Goals: There Is No Integrated Advancement without Communications and Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiConsiglio, John

    2011-01-01

    The idea behind integrated advancement is simple and dates back to the 1990s: A strong relationship between advancement offices conserves resources. It leads to a more efficient workforce. It portrays a highly unified message to stakeholders, including donors, alumni, local officials, and opinion leaders. In short, the entire advancement team…

  4. Why Do Electricity Policy and Competitive Markets Fail to Use Advanced PV Systems to Improve Distribution Power Quality?

    DOE PAGES

    McHenry, Mark P.; Johnson, Jay; Hightower, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The increasing pressure for network operators to meet distribution network power quality standards with increasing peak loads, renewable energy targets, and advances in automated distributed power electronics and communications is forcing policy-makers to understand new means to distribute costs and benefits within electricity markets. Discussions surrounding how distributed generation (DG) exhibits active voltage regulation and power factor/reactive power control and other power quality capabilities are complicated by uncertainties of baseline local distribution network power quality and to whom and how costs and benefits of improved electricity infrastructure will be allocated. DG providing ancillary services that dynamically respond to the networkmore » characteristics could lead to major network improvements. With proper market structures renewable energy systems could greatly improve power quality on distribution systems with nearly no additional cost to the grid operators. Renewable DG does have variability challenges, though this issue can be overcome with energy storage, forecasting, and advanced inverter functionality. This paper presents real data from a large-scale grid-connected PV array with large-scale storage and explores effective mitigation measures for PV system variability. We discuss useful inverter technical knowledge for policy-makers to mitigate ongoing inflation of electricity network tariff components by new DG interconnection requirements or electricity markets which value power quality and control.« less

  5. Estimating Commit Sizes Efficiently

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Philipp; Riehle, Dirk

    The quantitative analysis of software projects can provide insights that let us better understand open source and other software development projects. An important variable used in the analysis of software projects is the amount of work being contributed, the commit size. Unfortunately, post-facto, the commit size can only be estimated, not measured. This paper presents several algorithms for estimating the commit size. Our performance evaluation shows that simple, straightforward heuristics are superior to the more complex text-analysis-based algorithms. Not only are the heuristics significantly faster to compute, they also deliver more accurate results when estimating commit sizes. Based on this experience, we design and present an algorithm that improves on the heuristics, can be computed equally fast, and is more accurate than any of the prior approaches.

  6. Advances in high-performance sensors for the military and commercial market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, David; Daniel, Benton; Horikiri, Tad; King, P.; Nelson, David M.; Small, Michael

    2001-10-01

    The increasing proliferation of infrared technology, including domestic and international product development, is bringing very high performance systems into the commercial market. Raytheon Infrared Operations (RIO) programs have produced a variety of products that are economically viable for the commercial market and retain very high performance. These products include both cooled and uncooled sensors. Examples of these products range from high-resolution camera engines to high-performance focal planes. These sensors are available as commodity products directly from RIO, a merchant supplier.

  7. DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT OF ADVANCED EMISSION CONTROLS FOR THE RETROFIT MARKET

    SciTech Connect

    Edgar, B; Rumminger, M; Streichsbier, M

    2003-08-24

    Bringing a diesel retrofit product to market involves two primary phases: development and deployment. Critical product development steps include technology selection, system integration, laboratory and durability testing, and regulatory agency verification work. This initial product development phase is then followed by a deployment phase, which consists of building and managing the infrastructure for installation, distribution, service, sales and warranty support. Building relationships with regulators and air quality program developers is also a critical aspect of the deployment process. A successful path to market requires close cooperation between developer, distributor, customer and regulator.

  8. Advancing Health Marketing Research and Policy Recommendations by Incorporating Source Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mackert, Michael; Guadagno, Marie; Champlin, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Communication researchers, recognizing the message sent is not necessarily the same as the message received, have incorporated the perspective of advertising professionals into the study of advertising effects. Health marketing research could similarly benefit from incorporating this largely absent perspective into the academic and policy debate surrounding the impact of advertising on health issues ranging from obesity to alcohol use. This commentary serves as a call to action to stakeholders in this academic and policy debate: focus on the perspective of advertising professionals to enrich health marketing and public health research in which advertising is the delivery vehicle for health messages.

  9. Advances in Graduate Marketing Curriculum: Paying Attention to Ethical, Social, and Sustainability Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, James

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the impact of coercive, mimetic, and normative isomorphic pressures on the coverage and offering of courses addressing ethical, social, and sustainability issues (ESSI) in business schools' graduate marketing curricula. Data from the Aspen Institute's Beyond Grey Pinstripes program are analyzed to detect if significant…

  10. Local markets for global health technologies: lessons learned from advancing 6 new products.

    PubMed

    Matthias, Dipika Mathur; Taylor, Catharine H; Sen, Debjeet; Metzler, Mutsumi

    2014-05-01

    Key components to support local institutional and consumer markets are: supply chain, finance, clinical use, and consumer use. Key lessons learned: (1) Build supply and demand simultaneously. (2) Support a lead organization to drive the introduction process. (3) Plan for scale up from the start. (4) Profitability for the private sector is an absolute.

  11. Commitment to Health Scale.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Cynthia W

    2005-01-01

    The Commitment to Health Scale (CHS) was developed to predict likelihood of clients being able to permanently adopt new health-promoting behaviors. Commitment is based on the association between starting new health behaviors and long-term performance of those behaviors. The CHS evolved from an examination of Prochaska and DiClemente's Stages of Change Algorithm, Decisional Balance Scale, and Strong and Weak Principle (Velicer, Rossi, Prochaska, & DiClemente, 1996). Scale items were assessed by classical and Rasch measurement methods. The research was performed in three separate studies at various locations in the United States and included approximately 1100 subjects. A new unidimensional variable was identified called Commitment to Health. Internal consistency reliability of the scale was .94 (Cronbach's alpha). External validity and reliability were assessed based on expected and observed ordering and between known groups. Scale scores predicted self-reported health behaviors and body mass index.

  12. Technology advances and market forces: Their impact on high performance architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Best, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Reasonable projections into future supercomputer architectures and technology require an analysis of the computer industry market environment, the current capabilities and trends within the component industry, and the research activities on computer architecture in the industrial and academic communities. Management, programmer, architect, and user must cooperate to increase the efficiency of supercomputer development efforts. Care must be taken to match the funding, compiler, architecture and application with greater attention to testability, maintainability, reliability, and usability than supercomputer development programs of the past.

  13. Committed Sport Event Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Keunsu; Quarterman, Jerome; Strigas, Ethan; Ha, Jaehyun; Lee, Seungbum

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among selected demographic characteristics (income, education and age), motivation and commitment of volunteers at a sporting event. Three-hundred and five questionnaires were collected from volunteers in a marathon event and analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Based on…

  14. Commitment to Peace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montessori, Renilde

    1995-01-01

    This reprint from a 1985 issue of "The NAMTA Journal" discusses the ideas of Maria Montessori and Erich Fromm in relation to world peace and the role of education in promoting peace. Also examines the nature of conflict, war, and peace, and the need to commit oneself to peace. (MDM)

  15. The Vocational Commitment Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Susan F.; Hubbard, Constance F.

    1973-01-01

    The Index is the result of an effort made to examine all components of vocational commitment and to translate this information into an instrument which could be used to assess the relationship of an individual to a vocation.. The predictive ability of the 74-item device requires further research. (Author/AG)

  16. Travel and Tourism Module. An Advanced-Level Option For Distribution and Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

    Intended as an advanced option for distributive education students in the twelfth grade, this travel and tourism module is designed to cover a minimum of ten weeks or a maximum of twenty weeks. Introductory material includes information on employment demands, administrative considerations, course format, teaching suggestions, expected outcomes,…

  17. From controlled to committed.

    PubMed

    Hess, J C

    1996-02-01

    Most of us agree that people are our most important resource. Yet we spend a minimal amount of time learning more about human behavior, communication, and how our attitudes and behavior impact employee performance. Instead we rely on traditional methods of negative reinforcement in an attempt to control our areas of responsibility. While these methods can render some short-term success, managers and organizations that succeed during these times of change and fierce competition will be those that take the time to understand and capture the power of a committed workforce. The committed workforce is energized, not simply compliant, as a result of having basic human needs for achievement satisfied, belonging to a group, and receiving recognition for its contributions. Committed workers typically describe the manager as one who has the ability to give them a great degree of control over their area of influence. We all know that we don't change our leadership style like we change clothes. Old habits die hard. it takes a personal commitment and lots of practice to rid outselves of habits and behavior that no longer serve our departments and facilities. This commitment, however, is crucial to survival. As managers, we must cope with increasing ambiguity and uncertainty in the workplace. To survive these challenges, we must improve our interpersonal skills and ability to successfully bring out the best in others. I believe that success will continue for managers who not only increase their knowledge and technical ability, but who also inspire their workers to move forward with a collective sense of enthusiasm and purpose.

  18. Marketing your expertise.

    PubMed

    Czaplewski, L M

    1999-01-01

    Marketing an existing or new venture is a vital part of business. For the nurse entrepreneur, marketing involves applying previously learned skills to new situations. The methods used to market a service may mean the difference between success and failure. Unfortunately many entrepreneurs think that because they have a great idea, clients will beat a path to their door. Marketing requires planning, creativity, time, and money. It is an ongoing process that must be evaluated regularly. When marketing achieves results, clients commit to using the entrepreneur's services and profits are realized. Basic marketing concepts are considered, and strategies for developing a workable marketing plan are presented.

  19. Employee Commitment in Context: The Nature and Implication of Commitment Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, John P.; Stanley, Laura J.; Parfyonova, Natalya M.

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that employee commitment can take different forms (e.g., affective, normative, and continuance), yet it is only recently that theory has been advanced to explain how these different forms combine to influence behavior (Meyer & Herscovitch, 2001). We tested this theory with data from employees in three human services…

  20. Advances in segmentation modeling for health communication and social marketing campaigns.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, T L; Bryant, C

    1996-01-01

    Large-scale communication campaigns for health promotion and disease prevention involve analysis of audience demographic and psychographic factors for effective message targeting. A variety of segmentation modeling techniques, including tree-based methods such as Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection and logistic regression, are used to identify meaningful target groups within a large sample or population (N = 750-1,000+). Such groups are based on statistically significant combinations of factors (e.g., gender, marital status, and personality predispositions). The identification of groups or clusters facilitates message design in order to address the particular needs, attention patterns, and concerns of audience members within each group. We review current segmentation techniques, their contributions to conceptual development, and cost-effective decision making. Examples from a major study in which these strategies were used are provided from the Texas Women, Infants and Children Program's Comprehensive Social Marketing Program.

  1. Robust relativistic bit commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Kaushik; Chailloux, André; Leverrier, Anthony

    2016-12-01

    Relativistic cryptography exploits the fact that no information can travel faster than the speed of light in order to obtain security guarantees that cannot be achieved from the laws of quantum mechanics alone. Recently, Lunghi et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 030502 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.030502] presented a bit-commitment scheme where each party uses two agents that exchange classical information in a synchronized fashion, and that is both hiding and binding. A caveat is that the commitment time is intrinsically limited by the spatial configuration of the players, and increasing this time requires the agents to exchange messages during the whole duration of the protocol. While such a solution remains computationally attractive, its practicality is severely limited in realistic settings since all communication must remain perfectly synchronized at all times. In this work, we introduce a robust protocol for relativistic bit commitment that tolerates failures of the classical communication network. This is done by adding a third agent to both parties. Our scheme provides a quadratic improvement in terms of expected sustain time compared with the original protocol, while retaining the same level of security.

  2. Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion advanced system concepts applicable to small industrial and commercial markets. Topical report, Level 2

    SciTech Connect

    Ake, T.R.; Dixit, V.B.; Mongeon, R.K.

    1992-09-01

    As part of an overall strategy to promote FBC coal combustion and to improve the marketability of the eastern coals, the US Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Research Center awarded a three level contract to Riley Stoker Corporation to develop advanced Multi Solids Fluidized Bed (MSFB) boiler designs. The first level of this contract targeted the small package boiler (10,000--50,000 lb/hr steam) and industrial size boiler (75,000--150,000 lb/hr steam) markets. Two representative sizes, 30,000 lb/hr and 110,000 lb/hr of steam, were selected for the two categories for a detailed technical and economic evaluation. Technically, both the designs showed promise, however, the advanced industrial design was favored on economic considerations. It was thus selected for further study in the second level of the contract. Results of this Level-2 effort, presented in this report, consisted of testing the design concept in Riley`s 4.4 MBtu/hr pilot MSFB facility located at Riley Research Center in Worcester, Mass. The design and economics of the proof of concept facility developed in Level-1 of the contract were then revised in accordance with the findings of the pilot test program. A host site for commercial demonstration in Level-3 of the contract was also secured. It was determined that co-firing coal in combination with paper de-inking sludge will broaden the applicability of the design beyond conventional markets. International Paper (IP), the largest paper company in the world, is willing to participate in this part of the program. IP has offered its Hammermill operation at Lockhaven, Pa, site of a future paper de-inking plant, for the proof of concept installation. This plant will go in operation in 1994. It is recommended that METC proceed to the commercial demonstration of the design developed. The approach necessary to satisfy the needs of the customer while meeting the objectives of this program is presented along with a recommended plan of action.

  3. 24 CFR 200.46 - Commitment issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement... Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Commitment Applications § 200.46 Commitment issuance....

  4. 24 CFR 200.46 - Commitment issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement... Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Commitment Applications § 200.46 Commitment issuance....

  5. Moving graphene devices from lab to market: advanced graphene-coated nanoprobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Fei; Vajha, Pujashree; Shi, Yuanyuan; Ji, Yanfeng; Duan, Huiling; Padovani, Andrea; Larcher, Luca; Li, Xiao Rong; Xu, Jing Juan; Lanza, Mario

    2016-04-01

    After more than a decade working with graphene there is still a preoccupying lack of commercial devices based on this wonder material. Here we report the use of high-quality solution-processed graphene sheets to fabricate ultra-sharp probes with superior performance. Nanoprobes are versatile tools used in many fields of science, but they can wear fast after some experiments, reducing the quality and increasing the cost of the research. As the market of nanoprobes is huge, providing a solution for this problem should be a priority for the nanotechnology industry. Our graphene-coated nanoprobes not only show enhanced lifetime, but also additional unique properties of graphene, such as hydrophobicity. Moreover, we have functionalized the surface of graphene to provide piezoelectric capability, and have fabricated a nano relay. The simplicity and low cost of this method, which can be used to coat any kind of sharp tip, make it suitable for the industry, allowing production on demand.After more than a decade working with graphene there is still a preoccupying lack of commercial devices based on this wonder material. Here we report the use of high-quality solution-processed graphene sheets to fabricate ultra-sharp probes with superior performance. Nanoprobes are versatile tools used in many fields of science, but they can wear fast after some experiments, reducing the quality and increasing the cost of the research. As the market of nanoprobes is huge, providing a solution for this problem should be a priority for the nanotechnology industry. Our graphene-coated nanoprobes not only show enhanced lifetime, but also additional unique properties of graphene, such as hydrophobicity. Moreover, we have functionalized the surface of graphene to provide piezoelectric capability, and have fabricated a nano relay. The simplicity and low cost of this method, which can be used to coat any kind of sharp tip, make it suitable for the industry, allowing production on demand. Electronic

  6. World market: A survey of opportunities for advanced coal-fired systems

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, N.A.H.

    1995-06-01

    Although there is a wide range of forecasts for the future of World energy demand and consumption over the next 25 years, all forecasts show marked increases being required for all forms of fossil fuels even when optimistic projections are made for the future adoption of Nuclear and Renewable energy. It is also generally expected that coal usage will in this period experience its greatest growth (a doubling) in the Asia-Pacific region dominated demographically by China and India. In this paper, energy projections and the extent and nature of the coal reserves available worldwide are examined. While most coal technologies can handle a variety of feedstocks, there are often economic factors that will determine the preferred selection. The matching of technology to coal type and other factors is examined with particular reference to the Asia Pacific region. Oil usage is similarly forecast to experience a comparable growth in this region. Over 70% of the World`s oil reserves are heavy oils and refinery crudes are increasing in gravity and sulfur content. The clean coal technologies of gasification and fluid bed combustion can also use low value petroleum residuals as feedstocks. There is therefore a nearer term market opportunity to incorporate such technologies into cogeneration and coproduction schemes adjacent to refineries resulting in extremely efficient use of these resources.

  7. 2014 U.S. Offshore Wind Market Report: Industry Trends, Technology Advancement, and Cost Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Aaron; Stehly, Tyler; Walter Musial

    2015-09-29

    2015 has been an exciting year for the U.S. offshore wind market. After more than 15 years of development work, the U.S. has finally hit a crucial milestone; Deepwater Wind began construction on the 30 MW Block Island Wind Farm (BIWF) in April. A number of other promising projects, however, have run into economic, legal, and political headwinds, generating much speculation about the future of the industry. This slow, and somewhat painful, start to the industry is not without precedent; each country in northern Europe began with pilot-scale, proof-of-concept projects before eventually moving to larger commercial scale installations. Now, after more than a decade of commercial experience, the European industry is set to achieve a new deployment record, with more than 4 GW expected to be commissioned in 2015, with demonstrable progress towards industry-wide cost reduction goals. DWW is leveraging 25 years of European deployment experience; the BIWF combines state-of-the-art technologies such as the Alstom 6 MW turbine with U.S. fabrication and installation competencies. The successful deployment of the BIWF will provide a concrete showcase that will illustrate the potential of offshore wind to contribute to state, regional, and federal goals for clean, reliable power and lasting economic development. It is expected that this initial project will launch the U.S. industry into a phase of commercial development that will position offshore wind to contribute significantly to the electric systems in coastal states by 2030.

  8. Market-based licensing for HPV vaccines in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Outterson, Kevin; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2008-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines hold great promise for preventing cervical cancer, but 93 percent of mortality worldwide occurs in low- and middle-income countries, where high vaccine costs can restrict dissemination. Current models for promoting international access to health care innovations include differential pricing, advance market commitments, and voluntary and compulsory licensing. Some of these mechanisms have been effective, but much room for improvement remains. We discuss the usefulness of a new type of license that uses market forces to lower prices through generic competition in low- and middle-income countries while ensuring that pharmaceutical companies are appropriately reimbursed for their research and development.

  9. Does the Form of Employment Make a Difference?--Commitment of Traditional, Temporary, and Self-Employed Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felfe, Jorg; Schmook, Renate; Schyns, Birgit; Six, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Increasing change in the labor market has produced new forms of employment. A growing number of people have temporary jobs or are self-employed freelancers. The aim of our study is to address these changes by introducing commitment to the form of employment as a new focus in commitment. In addition, we compare organizational commitment under…

  10. Experimental unconditionally secure bit commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Yuan; Curty, Marcos; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Li, Yu-Huai; Lin, Ze-Hong; Sun, Qi-Chao; Li, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Cabello, Adan; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2014-03-01

    Quantum physics allows unconditionally secure communication between parties that trust each other. However, when they do not trust each other such as in the bit commitment, quantum physics is not enough to guarantee security. Only when relativistic causality constraints combined, the unconditional secure bit commitment becomes feasible. Here we experimentally implement a quantum bit commitment with relativistic constraints that offers unconditional security. The commitment is made through quantum measurements in two quantum key distribution systems in which the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. Bits are successfully committed with less than 5 . 68 ×10-2 cheating probability. This provides an experimental proof of unconditional secure bit commitment and demonstrates the feasibility of relativistic quantum communication.

  11. 19 CFR 206.16 - Industry adjustment plan and commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Industry adjustment plan and commitments. 206.16 Section 206.16 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO GLOBAL AND BILATERAL SAFEGUARD ACTIONS, MARKET DISRUPTION, TRADE DIVERSION, AND...

  12. 19 CFR 206.16 - Industry adjustment plan and commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Industry adjustment plan and commitments. 206.16 Section 206.16 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO GLOBAL AND BILATERAL SAFEGUARD ACTIONS, MARKET DISRUPTION, TRADE DIVERSION, AND...

  13. The Measurement of Organizational Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowday, Richard T.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    This paper summarizes a stream of research aimed at developing and validating a measure of employee commitment to work organizations. The instrument, developed by Porter and his colleagues, is called the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire. Satisfactory test-retest reliabilities and internal consistency reliabilities were found. (Author)

  14. Organizational Climate and Teacher Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Stephen Michael

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of school climate and teacher commitment in elementary schools in Alabama. A total of 67 elementary schools were surveyed and 1353 teachers voluntarily participated in the study. The instruments used in this study were the Organizational Climate Index (OCI) and the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ).…

  15. Experimental Unconditionally Secure Bit Commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Yuan; Curty, Marcos; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Li, Yu-Huai; Lin, Ze-Hong; Sun, Qi-Chao; Li, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Cabello, Adán; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Quantum physics allows for unconditionally secure communication between parties that trust each other. However, when the parties do not trust each other such as in the bit commitment scenario, quantum physics is not enough to guarantee security unless extra assumptions are made. Unconditionally secure bit commitment only becomes feasible when quantum physics is combined with relativistic causality constraints. Here we experimentally implement a quantum bit commitment protocol with relativistic constraints that offers unconditional security. The commitment is made through quantum measurements in two quantum key distribution systems in which the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. The security of the protocol relies on the properties of quantum information and relativity theory. In each run of the experiment, a bit is successfully committed with less than 5.68×10-2 cheating probability. This demonstrates the experimental feasibility of quantum communication with relativistic constraints.

  16. Alcohol breeds empty goal commitments.

    PubMed

    Sevincer, A Timur; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2009-08-01

    According to alcohol-myopia theory (C. M. Steele & R. A. Josephs, 1990), alcohol leads individuals to disproportionally focus on the most salient aspects of a situation and to ignore peripheral information. The authors hypothesized that alcohol leads individuals to strongly commit to their goals without considering information about the probability of goal attainment. In Study 1, participants named their most important interpersonal goal, indicated their expectations of successfully attaining it, and then consumed either alcohol or a placebo. In contrast to participants who consumed a placebo, intoxicated participants felt strongly committed to their goals despite low expectations of attaining them. In Study 2, goal-directed actions were measured over time. Once sober again, intoxicated participants with low expectations did not follow up on their strong commitments. Apparently, when prospects are bleak, alcohol produces empty goal commitments, as commitments are not based on individuals' expectations of attaining their goals and do not foster goal striving over time.

  17. Contexts as Shared Commitments

    PubMed Central

    García-Carpintero, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary semantics assumes two influential notions of context: one coming from Kaplan (1989), on which contexts are sets of predetermined parameters, and another originating in Stalnaker (1978), on which contexts are sets of propositions that are “common ground.” The latter is deservedly more popular, given its flexibility in accounting for context-dependent aspects of language beyond manifest indexicals, such as epistemic modals, predicates of taste, and so on and so forth; in fact, properly dealing with demonstratives (perhaps ultimately all indexicals) requires that further flexibility. Even if we acknowledge Lewis (1980)'s point that, in a sense, Kaplanian contexts already include common ground contexts, it is better to be clear and explicit about what contexts constitutively are. Now, Stalnaker (1978, 2002, 2014) defines context-as-common-ground as a set of propositions, but recent work shows that this is not an accurate conception. The paper explains why, and provides an alternative. The main reason is that several phenomena (presuppositional treatments of pejoratives and predicates of taste, forces other than assertion) require that the common ground includes non-doxastic attitudes such as appraisals, emotions, etc. Hence the common ground should not be taken to include merely contents (propositions), but those together with attitudes concerning them: shared commitments, as I will defend. PMID:26733087

  18. Contexts as Shared Commitments.

    PubMed

    García-Carpintero, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary semantics assumes two influential notions of context: one coming from Kaplan (1989), on which contexts are sets of predetermined parameters, and another originating in Stalnaker (1978), on which contexts are sets of propositions that are "common ground." The latter is deservedly more popular, given its flexibility in accounting for context-dependent aspects of language beyond manifest indexicals, such as epistemic modals, predicates of taste, and so on and so forth; in fact, properly dealing with demonstratives (perhaps ultimately all indexicals) requires that further flexibility. Even if we acknowledge Lewis (1980)'s point that, in a sense, Kaplanian contexts already include common ground contexts, it is better to be clear and explicit about what contexts constitutively are. Now, Stalnaker (1978, 2002, 2014) defines context-as-common-ground as a set of propositions, but recent work shows that this is not an accurate conception. The paper explains why, and provides an alternative. The main reason is that several phenomena (presuppositional treatments of pejoratives and predicates of taste, forces other than assertion) require that the common ground includes non-doxastic attitudes such as appraisals, emotions, etc. Hence the common ground should not be taken to include merely contents (propositions), but those together with attitudes concerning them: shared commitments, as I will defend.

  19. Performance Based Assessment and Instructional Activities in Communication Arts for Marketing Education. Application Activities for Communications in Marketing, Employment and Advancement, and Selling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broeker, Arlene M.

    This document contains performance-based assessment and instructional activities for Missouri high school teachers to use in teaching the communications arts needed by marketing education students. The activities included were developed to reflect Missouri's new Show-Me Standards, which are knowledge (content) and performance (process) standards…

  20. Arbitrarily Long Relativistic Bit Commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Kaushik; Chailloux, André; Leverrier, Anthony

    2015-12-01

    We consider the recent relativistic bit commitment protocol introduced by Lunghi et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 030502 (2015)] and present a new security analysis against classical attacks. In particular, while the initial complexity of the protocol scales double exponentially with the commitment time, our analysis shows that the correct dependence is only linear. This has dramatic implications in terms of implementation: in particular, the commitment time can easily be made arbitrarily long, by only requiring both parties to communicate classically and perform efficient classical computation.

  1. Reporters and Their Professional and Organizational Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Lee B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Secondary analyses of data gathered in a national study of United States journalists yielded information about variables that predict professional and organizational commitment. The factors selected for analysis were found to explain organizational commitment better than professional commitment. (GT)

  2. Communication, Leadership, and Organizational Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eblen, Anna L.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes the relationship of leadership style and communication behavior to employee commitment. Finds that leaders' stylistic qualities and socially skilled communication play a part in predicting how subordinates feel about their organization. (MS)

  3. A commitment to coal

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, Q.

    2006-07-15

    Quin Shea explores the need for power generated with coal and the advanced technologies that will generate that power more efficiently and cleanly in the future. The article considers the air and waste challenges of using coal, including progress toward reducing emissions of SO{sub 2}, NOx, and mercury; efforts to address CO{sub 2}, including voluntary programs like the Climate Challenge, Power Partners, and the Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate; and the regulation and beneficial use of coal-combustion byproducts (e.g., fly ash, bottom ash, flue gas desulfurization materials, boiler slag). 17 refs.

  4. Admission Market Research: An Alternative to Decline in the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lolli, Anthony; Scannell, James

    1983-01-01

    Institutional commitment, financial resources, and technical skills are essential components in meaningful, proactive marketing research. Some recently developed approaches and efforts illustrate the possibilities of such research. (MSE)

  5. Organizational commitment, work environment conditions, and life satisfaction among Iranian nurses.

    PubMed

    Vanaki, Zohreh; Vagharseyyedin, Seyyed Abolfazl

    2009-12-01

    Employee commitment to the organization is a crucial issue in today's health-care market. In Iran, few studies have sought to evaluate the factors that contribute to forms of commitment. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between nurses' organizational commitment, work environment conditions, and life satisfaction. A cross-sectional design was utilized. Questionnaires were distributed to all the staff nurses who had permanent employment (with at least 2 years of experience in nursing) in the five hospitals affiliated to Birjand Medical Sciences University. Two hundred and fifty participants returned completed questionnaires. Most were female and married. The correlation of the total scores of nurses' affective organizational commitment and work environment conditions indicated a significant and positive relationship. Also, a statistically significant relationship was found between affective organizational commitment and life satisfaction. The implementation of a comprehensive program to improve the work conditions and life satisfaction of nurses could enhance their organizational commitment.

  6. Market trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzsimmons, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    A very large segment of the over water, long haul passenger market, 31% of the passengers who provide 42% of the passenger revenue, offers a significant market for an advanced supersonic transport. This is for both the first class and full-fare economy passenger markets. The supersonic transport may be more competitive here in spite of lower costs of subsonic transports, as passenger preference is a more powerful variable than DOC. This latter fact was amply demonstrated in the late fifties when the jets completely replaced the reciprocating engine transports on most world routes, in spite of slightly higher fares.

  7. Incentives for new antibiotics: the Options Market for Antibiotics (OMA) model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance is a growing threat resulting from the convergence of biological, economic and political pressures. Investment in research and development of new antimicrobials has suffered secondary to these pressures, leading to an emerging crisis in antibiotic resistance. Methods Current policies to stimulate antibiotic development have proven inadequate to overcome market failures. Therefore innovative ideas utilizing market forces are necessary to stimulate new investment efforts. Employing the benefits of both the previously described Advanced Market Commitment and a refined Call Options for Vaccines model, we describe herein a novel incentive mechanism, the Options Market for Antibiotics. Results This model applies the benefits of a financial call option to the investment in and purchase of new antibiotics. The goal of this new model is to provide an effective mechanism for early investment and risk sharing while maintaining a credible purchase commitment and incentives for companies to ultimately bring new antibiotics to market. Conclusions We believe that the Options Market for Antibiotics (OMA) may help to overcome some of the traditional market failures associated with the development of new antibiotics. Additional work must be done to develop a more robust mathematical model to pave the way for practical implementation. PMID:24199835

  8. Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmel, Glenn S.; Davis, Steven R.; Leucht, Kurt W.; Rowe, Dan A.; Kelly, Andrew O.; Boeloeni, Ladislau

    2005-01-01

    The Spaceport Processing Systems Branch at NASA Kennedy Space Center has developed and deployed a software agent to monitor the Space Shuttle's ground processing telemetry stream. The application, the Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent, increases situational awareness for system and hardware engineers during Shuttle launch countdown. The agent provides autonomous monitoring of the telemetry stream, automatically alerts system engineers when predefined criteria have been met, identifies limit warnings and violations of launch commit criteria, aids Shuttle engineers through troubleshooting procedures, and provides additional insight to verify appropriate troubleshooting of problems by contractors. The agent has successfully detected launch commit criteria warnings and violations on a simulated playback data stream. Efficiency and safety are improved through increased automation.

  9. Sectoral Skills Needs: The Role of Universities. Task Force on Labour Market Issues: Office for Partnerships for Advanced Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This report analyzes the role of the Task Force on Labour Market Issues of the Council of Ontario Universities in meeting industry skill needs, focusing particularly on three sectors: biotechnology, culture, and software/information technology. Also included are the findings of an earlier study on the skill needs and training requirements in the…

  10. Counseling psychology trainees' social justice interest and commitment.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew J; Sendrowitz, Kerrin

    2011-04-01

    Scholars within the field of counseling psychology have for some time now articulated eloquent and compelling calls for attending to social justice in the social sciences. To date, counseling psychologists have been at the forefront of addressing social justice issues in research, practice, and professional development. The present study advances empirical perspectives on social justice by testing the external validity of M. J. Miller et al.'s (2009) social-cognitive model of social justice interest and commitment in a sample of 229 doctoral trainees in counseling psychology. Present findings support the ability of the model to explain, in part, counseling psychology trainees' social justice interest and commitment. In addition, the present study provides novel findings that demonstrate the direct and indirect ways in which program training environment and personal moral imperative relate to social justice interest and commitment. Study limitations, future directions for research, and implications for training are discussed.

  11. Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Lucien; Kent, Adrian

    2004-04-16

    We define cheat sensitive cryptographic protocols between mistrustful parties as protocols which guarantee that, if either cheats, the other has some nonzero probability of detecting the cheating. We describe an unconditionally secure cheat sensitive nonrelativistic bit commitment protocol which uses quantum information to implement a task which is classically impossible; we also describe a simple relativistic protocol.

  12. The Measurement of Vocational Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Susan F.; Hubbard, Constance F.

    Recent efforts toward career education and the rise in occupationally oriented programs on the secondary and postsecondary level encourage a close examination of the nature of the relationship between people and their vocations. A 74 item device, the Vocational Commitment Index was developed to assess this relationship. Based upon a theoretically…

  13. Regulatory Foci and Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovits, Yannis; Ullrich, Johannes; van Dick, Rolf; Davis, Ann J.

    2008-01-01

    We use regulatory focus theory to derive specific predictions regarding the differential relationships between regulatory focus and commitment. We estimated a structural equation model using a sample of 520 private and public sector employees and found in line with our hypotheses that (a) promotion focus related more strongly to affective…

  14. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twohig, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    This is the introductory article to a special series in Cognitive and Behavioral Practice on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). Instead of each article herein reviewing the basics of ACT, this article contains that review. This article provides a description of where ACT fits within the larger category of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT):…

  15. 24-Hour Relativistic Bit Commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbanis, Ephanielle; Martin, Anthony; Houlmann, Raphaël; Boso, Gianluca; Bussières, Félix; Zbinden, Hugo

    2016-09-01

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which a party wishes to commit a secret bit to another party. Perfect security between mistrustful parties is unfortunately impossible to achieve through the asynchronous exchange of classical and quantum messages. Perfect security can nonetheless be achieved if each party splits into two agents exchanging classical information at times and locations satisfying strict relativistic constraints. A relativistic multiround protocol to achieve this was previously proposed and used to implement a 2-millisecond commitment time. Much longer durations were initially thought to be insecure, but recent theoretical progress showed that this is not so. In this Letter, we report on the implementation of a 24-hour bit commitment solely based on timed high-speed optical communication and fast data processing, with all agents located within the city of Geneva. This duration is more than 6 orders of magnitude longer than before, and we argue that it could be extended to one year and allow much more flexibility on the locations of the agents. Our implementation offers a practical and viable solution for use in applications such as digital signatures, secure voting and honesty-preserving auctions.

  16. Predictors of Child Caregiver Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Nancy Carnahan; Lowther, Malcolm

    This study examined the relationship between child caregiver commitment and the caregiver's personal characteristics and work experience, the characteristics of the job, and the quality of the child care center. Questionnaires that included several measurement instruments were sent to 381 full-time child caregivers in 94 centers. Caregiver…

  17. Hampshire Country School Staff Commitments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampshire Country School, Rindge, NH.

    Intended for professional personnel of the Hampshire Country School, which treats gifted children with immobilizing emotional dysfunctions, the handbook specifies staff commitments. The Code of Ethics, adapted from the National Education Association Code as supplemented by The Council for Exceptional Children, sets forth four principles:…

  18. Physical Education Teachers' Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Hayri

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine physical education teachers' organizational commitment levels. The sample consisted of 204 physical education teachers working in the city center of Konya in the 2011 to 2012 academic year. The respondents were randomly selected in this research. Data collected for this research by using the Scale for…

  19. Commitment Profiles and Employee Turnover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Laura; Vandenberghe, Christian; Vandenberg, Robert; Bentein, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    We examined how affective (AC), normative (NC), perceived sacrifice (PS), and few alternatives (FA) commitments combine to form profiles and determine turnover intention and turnover. We theorized that three mechanisms account for how profiles operate, i.e., the degree to which membership is internally regulated, the perceived desirability and…

  20. Higher Education and Social Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasution, S.; Virasai, Banphot, Eds.

    The proceedings of the Regional Institute of Higher Education and Development's seminar and the meaning and implications of social commitment in higher education are reported. The welcoming address (S. Nasution) and the opening address (Y. B. Dato' Murad bin Mohd. Noor) welcome the participants and set the tone for the discussions to follow. The…

  1. Idiosyncratic Deals and Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Thomas W. H.; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between idiosyncratic deals and organizational commitment. In particular, it examines how two individual differences which reflect self-worth (core self-evaluations and age) moderate that relationship. We predicted that employees with feelings of high self-worth will expect and will feel entitled to these…

  2. Faculty Organizational Commitment and Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Janet; Ott, Molly; Bell, Alli

    2012-01-01

    Building on a theoretical framework that links characteristics of individuals and their work settings to organizational commitment (OC) and citizenship behavior, this study considers why faculty may be disengaging from institutional service. Analyses of survey data collected from a state system of higher education suggest that job characteristics,…

  3. The Relationships between Collegiate DECA Commitment, Mentoring and College Students' Perceived Career Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between student's Collegiate DECA commitment, psychological capital, mentoring, and perceived career commitment. Proposed relationships were supported with several psychological theories and frameworks including Organizational Commitment, Psychological Capital, and Social Identity Theory. Data was…

  4. Pfizer and its competitive marketing challenges.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    Pfizer has been the preeminent global pharmaceutical company in recent years and much of their success can be attributed to their marketing responsiveness and innovation. Pfizer is committed to patients, the community and quality product development. As a model in marketing effectiveness they also show how to lead internal resources efficiently to maximize market place opportunities.

  5. 13 CFR 108.1200 - SBA's Leverage commitment to a NMVC Company-application procedure, amount, and term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false SBA's Leverage commitment to a... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage) Conditional Commitments by Sba to Reserve Leverage for A...

  6. 13 CFR 108.1200 - SBA's Leverage commitment to a NMVC Company-application procedure, amount, and term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false SBA's Leverage commitment to a... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage) Conditional Commitments by Sba to Reserve Leverage for A...

  7. 13 CFR 108.1200 - SBA's Leverage commitment to a NMVC Company-application procedure, amount, and term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false SBA's Leverage commitment to a... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage) Conditional Commitments by Sba to Reserve Leverage for A...

  8. Advanced power generation systems for the 21st Century: Market survey and recommendations for a design philosophy

    SciTech Connect

    Andriulli, J.B.; Gates, A.E.; Haynes, H.D.; Klett, L.B.; Matthews, S.N.; Nawrocki, E.A.; Otaduy, P.J.; Scudiere, M.B.; Theiss, T.J.; Thomas, J.F.; Tolbert, L.M.; Yauss, M.L.; Voltz, C.A.

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of a study designed to enhance the performance of future military generator sets (gen-sets) in the medium power range. The study includes a market survey of the state of the art in several key component areas and recommendations comprising a design philosophy for future military gen-sets. The market survey revealed that the commercial market is in a state of flux, but it is currently or will soon be capable of providing the technologies recommended here in a cost-effective manner. The recommendations, if implemented, should result in future power generation systems that are much more functional than today's gen-sets. The number of differing units necessary (both family sizes and frequency modes) to cover the medium power range would be decreased significantly, while the weight and volume of each unit would decrease, improving the transportability of the power source. Improved fuel economy and overall performance would result from more effective utilization of the prime mover in the generator. The units would allow for more flexibility and control, improved reliability, and more effective power management in the field.

  9. Lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries for the Chinese electric bike market and implications on future technology advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Burke, Andrew F.; Wei, Xuezhe

    China has been experiencing a rapid increase in battery-powered personal transportation since the late 1990s due to the strong growth of the electric bike and scooter (i.e. e-bike) market. Annual sales in China reached 17 million bikes year -1 in 2006. E-bike growth has been in part due to improvements in rechargeable valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery technology, the primary battery type for e-bikes. Further improvements in technology and a transition from VRLA to lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries will impact the future market growth of this transportation mode in China and abroad. Battery performance and cost for these two types are compared to assess the feasibility of a shift from VRLA to Li-ion battery e-bikes. The requirements for batteries used in e-bikes are assessed. A widespread shift from VRLA to Li-ion batteries seems improbable in the near future for the mass market given the cost premium relative to the performance advantages of Li-ion batteries. As both battery technologies gain more real-world use in e-bike applications, both will improve. Cell variability is a key problematic area to be addressed with VRLA technology. For Li-ion technology, safety and cost are the key problem areas which are being addressed through the use of new cathode materials.

  10. Education: Commodity, Come-On, or Commitment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    2000-07-01

    July 4, and the glass art shown on pages 812-816, remind us that freedom is fragile. Through their governments, citizens of democracies have traditionally made strong commitments to education on grounds that without it individuals would not be able to act responsibly and to make wise decisions in voting booths and public meetings. All citizens have a stake in everyone's education, because a better-educated citizenry benefits all of society. In this country such a commitment has produced a system of public schools and public universities that offers opportunities to many who otherwise could not afford a level of education commensurate with their talents. But there are signs that this commitment to public education is flagging. Many students, teachers, and administrators view education as merely a way to enhance personal prosperity. How often have you heard the statistic that a college education pays for itself through increased earning power, even if it costs $20,000-30,000 per year? Investing in education pays off just as investing in the stock market does, provided you wait long enough. Attending a better school gets you a better job and a better income. In other words, a certified level of education is a commodity-something that is useful and can be turned to commercial advantage. Viewing education as a commodity has several consequences. First, if education is a means to better employment rather than better citizenship, why should anyone pay for it other than the person who benefits? Why should I pay taxes to help someone else get a better job when I could be spending the money for my own benefit? Education as a commodity makes such attitudes reasonable, though not commendable, and the result is lessened support for public education. Second, those who supply education as an economic good should be rewarded, and those who are much better at educating should be rewarded much more. Hence the fear of Arthur Levine, president of Teachers College, Columbia University

  11. Market Access Advancements and Challenges in “Drug-Companion Diagnostic Test” Co-Development in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Akhmetov, Ildar; Ramaswamy, Rakshambikai; Akhmetov, Illias; Thimmaraju, Phani Kishore

    2015-01-01

    The pharma ecosphere is witnessing a measured transformation from the one-size-fits-all or blockbuster model of drugs to more informed and tailored personalized treatments that facilitate higher safety and efficacy for a relevant sub-population. However, with several breakthroughs still in a nascent stage, market access becomes a crucial factor for commercial success, especially when it comes to co-creating value for pertinent stakeholders. This article highlights diverse issues from stakeholder perspectives in Europe, specifically the ones which require immediate resolution. Furthermore, the article also discusses case studies articulating potential solutions for the issues discussed. PMID:26075972

  12. How do different types of community commitment influence brand commitment? The mediation of brand attachment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Zhou, Zhi-min; Su, Chen-ting; Zhou, Nan

    2013-11-01

    Although previous research indicates that participation in a brand community may foster consumer loyalty to the brand in question, research has seldom examined the mediating effect of community commitment on brand commitment. Drawing from the typologies of organizational commitment, we divide community commitment into three components: continuance community commitment (continuance CC), affective community commitment (affective CC), and normative community commitment (normative CC). We then assess the mediating role of brand attachment in the relationship between these three components and brand commitment. We test the hypotheses using a sample of online mobile phone brand communities in China. The empirical results reveal that brand attachment exerts an indirect (but not mediated) effect on the relationship between continuance CC and brand commitment and on the relationship between normative CC and brand commitment. We also find that it exerts a partial mediating effect on the relationship between affective CC and brand commitment. The findings contribute to the branding literature and have important implications for brand community management.

  13. Spermatogenesis: The Commitment to Meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Griswold, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian spermatogenesis requires a stem cell pool, a period of amplification of cell numbers, the completion of reduction division to haploid cells (meiosis), and the morphological transformation of the haploid cells into spermatozoa (spermiogenesis). The net result of these processes is the production of massive numbers of spermatozoa over the reproductive lifetime of the animal. One study that utilized homogenization-resistant spermatids as the standard determined that human daily sperm production (dsp) was at 45 million per day per testis (60). For each human that means ∼1,000 sperm are produced per second. A key to this level of gamete production is the organization and architecture of the mammalian testes that results in continuous sperm production. The seemingly complex repetitious relationship of cells termed the “cycle of the seminiferous epithelium” is driven by the continuous commitment of undifferentiated spermatogonia to meiosis and the period of time required to form spermatozoa. This commitment termed the A to A1 transition requires the action of retinoic acid (RA) on the undifferentiated spermatogonia or prospermatogonia. In stages VII to IX of the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium, Sertoli cells and germ cells are influenced by pulses of RA. These pulses of RA move along the seminiferous tubules coincident with the spermatogenic wave, presumably undergoing constant synthesis and degradation. The RA pulse then serves as a trigger to commit undifferentiated progenitor cells to the rigidly timed pathway into meiosis and spermatid differentiation. PMID:26537427

  14. Spermatogenesis: The Commitment to Meiosis.

    PubMed

    Griswold, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian spermatogenesis requires a stem cell pool, a period of amplification of cell numbers, the completion of reduction division to haploid cells (meiosis), and the morphological transformation of the haploid cells into spermatozoa (spermiogenesis). The net result of these processes is the production of massive numbers of spermatozoa over the reproductive lifetime of the animal. One study that utilized homogenization-resistant spermatids as the standard determined that human daily sperm production (dsp) was at 45 million per day per testis (60). For each human that means ∼1,000 sperm are produced per second. A key to this level of gamete production is the organization and architecture of the mammalian testes that results in continuous sperm production. The seemingly complex repetitious relationship of cells termed the "cycle of the seminiferous epithelium" is driven by the continuous commitment of undifferentiated spermatogonia to meiosis and the period of time required to form spermatozoa. This commitment termed the A to A1 transition requires the action of retinoic acid (RA) on the undifferentiated spermatogonia or prospermatogonia. In stages VII to IX of the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium, Sertoli cells and germ cells are influenced by pulses of RA. These pulses of RA move along the seminiferous tubules coincident with the spermatogenic wave, presumably undergoing constant synthesis and degradation. The RA pulse then serves as a trigger to commit undifferentiated progenitor cells to the rigidly timed pathway into meiosis and spermatid differentiation.

  15. 40 CFR 63.75 - Enforceable commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... made, and any other emission reduction measures to be used; and (6) A statement of commitment, signed... approval of commitments that have not been approved by December 1, 1993. (g) The control measure... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enforceable commitments. 63.75...

  16. Anchors of Religious Commitment in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, Emily; Dollahite, David C.; Hardy, Sam A.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores adolescent religious commitment using qualitative data from a religiously diverse (Jewish, Christian, Muslim) sample of 80 adolescents. A new construct, "anchors of religious commitment," grounded in interview data, is proposed to describe what adolescents commit to as a part of their religious identity. Seven anchors of…

  17. Organizational and Client Commitment among Contracted Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle-Shapiro, Jacqueline A-M.; Morrow, Paula C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines affective commitment to employing and client organizations among long-term contracted employees, a new and growing employment classification. Drawing on organizational commitment and social exchange literatures, we propose two categories of antecedents of employee commitment to client organizations. We tested our hypotheses…

  18. Professionalism as a Form of Work Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Paula C.; Goetz, Joe F., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluated concept of professionalism as a form of work commitment using a modified version of Hall's (1968) multidimensional measure of professionalism on 325 accountants in public practice. Examined three forms of work commitment--job involvement, organizational commitment, and work ethic endorsement--and four professional behaviors. Suggests the…

  19. Young Children's Understanding of Joint Commitments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grafenhain, Maria; Behne, Tanya; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    When adults make a joint commitment to act together, they feel an obligation to their partner. In 2 studies, the authors investigated whether young children also understand joint commitments to act together. In the first study, when an adult orchestrated with the child a joint commitment to play a game together and then broke off from their joint…

  20. Commitment among Arab Adolescents in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Ari, Adital Tirosh; Azaiza, Faisal

    1998-01-01

    Examines 662 Arab adolescents' commitments to their own self-development, family, Arab people, and village along with the order in which these commitments are structured. Reveals that the two prevalent patterns of adolescent commitment, individualistic and collectivistic, demonstrate the adolescents' struggle with these value systems and the…

  1. 24 CFR 200.47 - Firm commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement... Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Commitment Applications § 200.47 Firm commitments. A valid firm... completion of construction or substantial rehabilitation of the project; or (2) Upon completion of...

  2. 24 CFR 200.47 - Firm commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement... Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Commitment Applications § 200.47 Firm commitments. A valid firm... completion of construction or substantial rehabilitation of the project; or (2) Upon completion of...

  3. [Economic perspectives of the research on advanced therapies].

    PubMed

    Pamo Larrauri, Jose María

    2014-11-03

    Since a new advanced therapy medicinal product is discovered until finally allowed its sale in the domestic market, it has to overcome a series of stages. Biomedical research is the first phase, currently its situation is encouraging to the increase in the number of clinical trials in Spain and in the rest of the world, despite the economic situation and the various difficulties that have faced the pharmaceutical laboratories. The next phase consists in obtaining the authorization of marketing of the European Medicines Agency. After authorization, will attempt to set a fair and moderate price for inclusion in the list of health provision of Social Security. A price for a drug that provides added value to health and society, a price that is generated profits for the pharmaceutical companies that hope to make up for the years of work and investment. Commitment to advanced therapy must be clear and forceful, to fund ongoing research projects and encouraging their creation with economic aid.

  4. The Sense of Commitment: A Minimal Approach

    PubMed Central

    Michael, John; Sebanz, Natalie; Knoblich, Günther

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a starting point for psychological research on the sense of commitment within the context of joint action. We begin by formulating three desiderata: to illuminate the motivational factors that lead agents to feel and act committed, to pick out the cognitive processes and situational factors that lead agents to sense that implicit commitments are in place, and to illuminate the development of an understanding of commitment in ontogeny. In order to satisfy these three desiderata, we propose a minimal framework, the core of which is an analysis of the minimal structure of situations which can elicit a sense of commitment. We then propose a way of conceptualizing and operationalizing the sense of commitment, and discuss cognitive and motivational processes which may underpin the sense of commitment. PMID:26779080

  5. Commitment accounting for CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, S. J.; Socolow, R. H.

    2013-12-01

    Long-lived energy infrastructure that burns fossil fuels represents a multi-decade 'commitment' to emit CO2. Today's global power sector, alone, represents hundreds of billions of tons of still unrealized 'committed emissions' of CO2. And every year, substantial new commitments to future emissions are made, as new power plants are built. The socioeconomic inertia of these commitments is a major barrier to climate change mitigation. Here, we quantify these annual commitments by a bottom-up analysis of all power plants commissioned between 1950 and 2011; assigning emission commitments to the year when each generator came on line. We find, assuming 40-year commitments, that the global commitment to future emissions from the world's generators in 2011 (the most recent year in our analysis) was 318 Gt CO2, of which 216 Gt CO2 were commitments from the world's coal-fired generators and 134 Gt CO2 were commitments from China's generators. Annual new global commitments exceeded 15 Gt CO2 per year in every year since 2000. Moreover, between 2005-2010 (the latest year of available emissions data), new global commitments were more than twice as large as actual emissions from all power plants. Country-specific ratios of new committed emissions to actual emissions, averaged over 1990-2010 were 4.1 for China, 2.6 for India, 0.9 for the EU, and 0.6 for the US. We urge that the reporting of annual CO2 emissions, already widely institutionalized, be augmented by 'commitment accounting' which makes these future emissions salient. Annual committed emissions and annual emissions of primary power infrastructure. New committed emissions (light green) have grown from approximately 4 Gt CO2 per year in 1960 to roughly 10 Gt CO2 per year between 1970-1995, and then to more than 15 Gt CO2 per year since 2000. Throughout this period, new committed emissions have exceeded annual emissions (blue curve, source: IEA). Although the commitments made 30-40 years ago have largely been realized (dark

  6. In the market for ethics. Marketing begins with values.

    PubMed

    Schick, I C; Schick, T A

    1989-10-01

    High-quality care and concern for the poor are among the core values that all Catholic healthcare facilities share. And marketing is a proven tool for extending those values. In times past, healthcare providers, including Catholic facilities, were concerned about whether healthcare marketing was ethical. Much of the concern focused on advertising and promotion. A number of ethical violations do appear in hospital advertising. But government and professional organizations have established guidelines for ethics in advertising. Hospitals should encourage their marketing professionals to personally adhere to these codes. To ensure marketing activities are conducted ethically, a hospital must clearly articulate its commitment to ethical marketing; ensure that marketing professionals adhere to this commitment; and monitor activity. These steps should extend to a hospital's strategic plan, particularly its mission statement. Although strategic planning has many critical elements, the heart of the plan and the process is the mission statement, the expression of an organization's distinctiveness. For a Catholic hospital, this distinctiveness is found in two tiers of value: the core Catholic values, as articulated by its religious sponsors, and the institution's specific values flowing from its history, location, and services. If a religious healthcare provider is really committed to its values, it will actively affirm them in its marketing.

  7. Measuring government commitment to vaccination.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Amanda; Zoloa, Juan Ignacio; Duran, Denizhan

    2013-04-18

    Vaccination is among the most cost-effective health interventions and has attracted ever greater levels of funding from public and private donors. However, some countries, mainly populous lower-middle income countries, are lagging behind on vaccination financing and performance. In this paper, we discuss the rationale for investing in vaccination and construct a metric to measure government commitment to vaccination that could promote accountability and better tracking of performance. While noting the limitations of available data, we find that populous middle-income countries, which stand to gain tremendously from increased vaccination uptake, perform poorly in terms of their vaccination outcomes.

  8. Outpatient civil commitment: a dangerous charade or a component of a comprehensive institution of civil commitment?

    PubMed

    Schopp, Robert F

    2003-01-01

    This article examines three criticisms frequently directed toward preventive commitment as one form of outpatient commitment. These criticisms contend that preventive commitment (a) abandons the dangerousness criteria for civil commitmnet, (b) promotes unwarranted inpatient commitment of those who do not meet civil commitment criteria, and (c) undermines important individual liberties by diluting the right to refuse treatment. Understanding and evaluating these criticisms requires analysis of the intersection among empirical, conceptual, and justificatory claims. According to the analysis presented here, advocates of preventive commitment can defend a legitimate role for preventive commitment. This analysis applies to preventive commitment as a dispositional alternative within a comprehensive institution of civil commitment involving distinct parens patriae and police power components.

  9. 76 FR 58999 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, Or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism #0; #0; #0... the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, Or Support Terrorism On... persons who commit, threaten to commit, or support terrorism, pursuant to the International...

  10. Leadership and satisfaction in change commitment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-Feng

    2011-06-01

    Managerial transformational leadership skills may directly influence banking counter staff toward change commitment and improve job satisfaction and service quality, or the influence instead may be mediated by change commitment. For a sample comprised of 246 managers from four large Taiwanese banks, the following path relationships were tested: (1) the association of transformational leadership with change commitment, (2) the association of change commitment with job satisfaction, and (3) the direct or indirect (through the mediation of change commitment) effect of transformational leadership on job satisfaction. Regression was utilized to gain insight into the effects of transformational leadership and change commitment on job satisfaction. Transformational leadership may foster change by providing psychological support to the banking counter staff, enabling them to use their skills to meet the needs of individual customers in response to complex environments.

  11. Employee Commitment to Organizations: A Conceptual Review.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    7 A A03 357 OREGON UNIV EUGENE GRADUATE SCHOOLSOF MANAGEMENT AND--ETC F/ 5/1 EMPLOYEE COMMITMENT TO ORGANIZATIONS: A CONC PTUAL REVIEW.CU...Management University of Oregon Eugene, Oregon 97403 \\ . ’k. Employee Commitment to Organizations: A Conceptual Review Richard M. Steers, University of...Review. 5 TYPE OF REPORT 8 PERIO’ COVERED .’ Employee Commitment to Organizations: A Concep- ’ tual Review. 6 PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(*) 8

  12. Commitment, Careers, and Retention in Organizations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    validation of a measure of employee commitment to organizations. This instrument has been used to carry out several studies relating to both the antecedents...validating a measure of employee commitment to work organizations. The instrument, developed by Porter and his colleagues, is called the Organizational...34 Employee Commitment and Organizational Effectiveness." Invited speaker, University of Washington, November 1978. Steers, R. M. "Facilitating

  13. Revealing ontological commitments by magic.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Thomas L

    2015-03-01

    Considering the appeal of different magical transformations exposes some systematic asymmetries. For example, it is more interesting to transform a vase into a rose than a rose into a vase. An experiment in which people judged how interesting they found different magic tricks showed that these asymmetries reflect the direction a transformation moves in an ontological hierarchy: transformations in the direction of animacy and intelligence are favored over the opposite. A second and third experiment demonstrated that judgments of the plausibility of machines that perform the same transformations do not show the same asymmetries, but judgments of the interestingness of such machines do. A formal argument relates this sense of interestingness to evidence for an alternative to our current physical theory, with magic tricks being a particularly pure source of such evidence. These results suggest that people's intuitions about magic tricks can reveal the ontological commitments that underlie human cognition.

  14. Treatment During Civil Commitment for Sexual Offending Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Rebecca

    2016-07-01

    The first sex offender civil commitment legislation passed in Washington State in 1990. Since that time, 21 additional jurisdictions in the USA have passed similar statutes. Although considered controversial by some, the statutes have withstood legal scrutiny at the state and federal levels. These statutes have been found constitutional in large part because they offer treatment to those individuals detained under them. In the 25 years since sex offender civil commitment became a reality, significant advances in sex offender assessment and treatment have shaped the landscape of the associated treatment programs. This article reviews current practice in programs that treat individuals detained under these laws and provides a framework in which these programs are delivered.

  15. Facility's employment practices reflect affirmative action commitment.

    PubMed

    Glaser, J W; Madden, M J

    1984-04-01

    The U.S. bishops' statements on racism over the last 40 years have addressed the structural as well as the personal aspects of racial discrimination. They have noted its persistence, described it as a moral and religious problem, and called for aggressive action among Catholics to combat it. "Meaningful equality" for blacks, however, remains a distant dream, the U.S. Supreme Court noted in a recent case involving institutional discrimination, because of the basically disadvantaged position into which blacks are born. As statistics on health, education, work, and standard of living illustrate, the socioeconomic opportunities available to blacks are markedly lower than those available to white Americans. Despite these odds, efforts to improve blacks' chances of contributing to society--through affirmative action programs--have achieved striking results in industry. Hospitals, as major workplaces, likewise should focus greater attention on developing and extending minority employment and advancement programs. Catholic health care facilities especially should evaluate their commitments to affirmative action. Increased efforts to eliminate discrimination in all aspects of a hospital's relationships with the business community as well as with its own employees will cause them to be recognized as symbols of justice not only in the workplace but also in society.

  16. Cellular commitment in the developing cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Marzban, Hassan; Del Bigio, Marc R.; Alizadeh, Javad; Ghavami, Saeid; Zachariah, Robby M.; Rastegar, Mojgan

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian cerebellum is located in the posterior cranial fossa and is critical for motor coordination and non-motor functions including cognitive and emotional processes. The anatomical structure of cerebellum is distinct with a three-layered cortex. During development, neurogenesis and fate decisions of cerebellar primordium cells are orchestrated through tightly controlled molecular events involving multiple genetic pathways. In this review, we will highlight the anatomical structure of human and mouse cerebellum, the cellular composition of developing cerebellum, and the underlying gene expression programs involved in cell fate commitments in the cerebellum. A critical evaluation of the cell death literature suggests that apoptosis occurs in ~5% of cerebellar cells, most shortly after mitosis. Apoptosis and cellular autophagy likely play significant roles in cerebellar development, we provide a comprehensive discussion of their role in cerebellar development and organization. We also address the possible function of unfolded protein response in regulation of cerebellar neurogenesis. We discuss recent advancements in understanding the epigenetic signature of cerebellar compartments and possible connections between DNA methylation, microRNAs and cerebellar neurodegeneration. Finally, we discuss genetic diseases associated with cerebellar dysfunction and their role in the aging cerebellum. PMID:25628535

  17. Our Commitment to Bioenergy Sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    2011-07-01

    This fact sheet describes how the Biomass Program and its partners combine advanced analysis with applied research to understand and address the potential environmental, economic, and social impacts of bioenergy production.

  18. Cutting planes for the multistage stochastic unit commitment problem

    DOE PAGES

    Jiang, Ruiwei; Guan, Yongpei; Watson, Jean -Paul

    2016-04-20

    As renewable energy penetration rates continue to increase in power systems worldwide, new challenges arise for system operators in both regulated and deregulated electricity markets to solve the security-constrained coal-fired unit commitment problem with intermittent generation (due to renewables) and uncertain load, in order to ensure system reliability and maintain cost effectiveness. In this paper, we study a security-constrained coal-fired stochastic unit commitment model, which we use to enhance the reliability unit commitment process for day-ahead power system operations. In our approach, we first develop a deterministic equivalent formulation for the problem, which leads to a large-scale mixed-integer linear program.more » Then, we verify that the turn on/off inequalities provide a convex hull representation of the minimum-up/down time polytope under the stochastic setting. Next, we develop several families of strong valid inequalities mainly through lifting schemes. In particular, by exploring sequence independent lifting and subadditive approximation lifting properties for the lifting schemes, we obtain strong valid inequalities for the ramping and general load balance polytopes. Lastly, branch-and-cut algorithms are developed to employ these valid inequalities as cutting planes to solve the problem. Our computational results verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach.« less

  19. Cutting planes for the multistage stochastic unit commitment problem

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Ruiwei; Guan, Yongpei; Watson, Jean -Paul

    2016-04-20

    As renewable energy penetration rates continue to increase in power systems worldwide, new challenges arise for system operators in both regulated and deregulated electricity markets to solve the security-constrained coal-fired unit commitment problem with intermittent generation (due to renewables) and uncertain load, in order to ensure system reliability and maintain cost effectiveness. In this paper, we study a security-constrained coal-fired stochastic unit commitment model, which we use to enhance the reliability unit commitment process for day-ahead power system operations. In our approach, we first develop a deterministic equivalent formulation for the problem, which leads to a large-scale mixed-integer linear program. Then, we verify that the turn on/off inequalities provide a convex hull representation of the minimum-up/down time polytope under the stochastic setting. Next, we develop several families of strong valid inequalities mainly through lifting schemes. In particular, by exploring sequence independent lifting and subadditive approximation lifting properties for the lifting schemes, we obtain strong valid inequalities for the ramping and general load balance polytopes. Lastly, branch-and-cut algorithms are developed to employ these valid inequalities as cutting planes to solve the problem. Our computational results verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  20. Commitment and Trust in Librarian-Faculty Relationships: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Sue F.; Campbell, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to examine the methodologies used to study librarian-faculty relationships and to use the Key Mediating Variable model (KMV) of The Trust and Commitment Theory of Relationship Marketing to assess the quality of the librarian-faculty relationship as it has been portrayed in the literature. Relationship…

  1. Project on Elite Athlete Commitment (PEAK): IV. identification of new candidate commitment sources in the sport commitment model.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, Tara K; Russell, David G; Scanlan, Larry A; Klunchoo, Tatiana J; Chow, Graig M

    2013-10-01

    Following a thorough review of the current updated Sport Commitment Model, new candidate commitment sources for possible future inclusion in the model are presented. They were derived from data obtained using the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method. Three elite New Zealand teams participated: amateur All Black rugby players, amateur Silver Fern netball players, and professional All Black rugby players. An inductive content analysis of these players' open-ended descriptions of their sources of commitment identified four unique new candidate commitment sources: Desire to Excel, Team Tradition, Elite Team Membership, and Worthy of Team Membership. A detailed definition of each candidate source is included along with example quotes from participants. Using a mixed-methods approach, these candidate sources provide a basis for future investigations to test their viability and generalizability for possible expansion of the Sport Commitment Model.

  2. Psychology & employee commitment. Promoting physician loyalty.

    PubMed

    Lakin, J D

    1998-01-01

    Physician and staff loyalty has become more important and more difficult to maintain. Group managers should realize that not all forms of commitment are equal and should actively work to build commitment to the organization, not just to the practice of medicine.

  3. Juvenile Court Commitment Rates: The National Picture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosin, Michael

    There is less geographic variation in the commitment rate of juvenile offenders than is commonly assumed. Apparently, judges across the country develop a similar standard of what percentage of youths they face should be committed. This standard may be similar across the country because it represents broadly shared ideals. However, there is much…

  4. Commitment: A Behavioral Approach to Job Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Yoash; Gechman, Arthur S.

    1977-01-01

    Work commitment behaviors were defined as a special class of socially acceptable work behaviors exceeding formal and/or normative expectations relevant to work. For a sample of 54 female elementary school teachers, work commitment measures demonstrated moderate correlations with two attitudinal measures of job involvement and a job satisfaction…

  5. Predicting the Social Commitments of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavelle, Ellen; O'Ryan, Leslie W.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the nature of social beliefs and commitments during the college years in relation to developmental orientations as measured by the Dakota Inventory of Student Orientations. Results support Creative-Reflective scale scores as predictive of commitment to the more humanitarian issues such as race and women's rights, whereas…

  6. The Social Construction of Marital Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Stephanie Ellen

    2009-01-01

    This paper articulates a theoretical framework for understanding how individuals orient themselves toward marital commitment. Using a life history interview methodology and interpretive framework, it examines the orientations toward marital commitment for a sample of women and men, single and married, between the ages of 28 and 35 (N = 75).…

  7. Education on the Internet: Anonymity vs. Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfus, Hubert L.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that learning a skill requires the kind of commitment which is undermined by the Press (the Public) and the Internet, citing Soren Kierkegaard's "The Present Age", and states that learning by apprenticeship is impossible in cyberspace. Includes: aesthetic sphere--commitment to the enjoyment of sheer information; ethical…

  8. Overview of the Core Commitments Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTighe Musil, Caryn

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the Core Commitments Initiative conducted by the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U). Core Commitments was intended to reinvigorate the conversation about personal and social responsibility within higher education, and served as the impetus for this "New Directions" volume.

  9. Sexually Violent Predators and Civil Commitment Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer Kendall, Wanda D.; Cheung, Monit

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzes the civil commitment models for treating sexually violent predators (SVPs) and analyzes recent civil commitment laws. SVPs are commonly defined as sex offenders who are particularly predatory and repetitive in their sexually violent behavior. Data from policy literature, a survey to all states, and a review of law review…

  10. Predictors of Commitment to Athletic Training Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Windee M.; Neibert, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Context: In order for athletic training students to be successful in any athletic training education program (ATEP), a certain level of commitment to the program and profession is required. Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the applicability of the sport commitment model (SCM) to an ATEP by applying the SCM in an academic setting…

  11. Design and analysis of electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioshansi, Ramteen Mehr

    Restructured competitive electricity markets rely on designing market-based mechanisms which can efficiently coordinate the power system and minimize the exercise of market power. This dissertation is a series of essays which develop and analyze models of restructured electricity markets. Chapter 2 studies the incentive properties of a co-optimized market for energy and reserves that pays reserved generators their implied opportunity cost---which is the difference between their stated energy cost and the market-clearing price for energy. By analyzing the market as a competitive direct revelation mechanism we examine the properties of efficient equilibria and demonstrate that generators have incentives to shade their stated costs below actual costs. We further demonstrate that the expected energy payments of our mechanism is less than that in a disjoint market for energy only. Chapter 3 is an empirical validation of a supply function equilibrium (SFE) model. By comparing theoretically optimal supply functions and actual generation offers into the Texas spot balancing market, we show the SFE to fit the actual behavior of the largest generators in market. This not only serves to validate the model, but also demonstrates the extent to which firms exercise market power. Chapters 4 and 5 examine equity, incentive, and efficiency issues in the design of non-convex commitment auctions. We demonstrate that different near-optimal solutions to a central unit commitment problem which have similar-sized optimality gaps will generally yield vastly different energy prices and payoffs to individual generators. Although solving the mixed integer program to optimality will overcome such issues, we show that this relies on achieving optimality of the commitment---which may not be tractable for large-scale problems within the allotted timeframe. We then simulate and compare a competitive benchmark for a market with centralized and self commitment in order to bound the efficiency

  12. Deployment & Market Transformation (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    NREL's deployment and market transformation (D and MT) activities encompass the laboratory's full range of technologies, which span the energy efficiency and renewable energy spectrum. NREL staff educates partners on how they can advance sustainable energy applications and also provides clients with best practices for reducing barriers to innovation and market transformation.

  13. Essays on restructured electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Emma Leah

    This dissertation focuses on the performance of restructured electricity markets in the United States. In chapter 1, I study bidder-specific offer caps ("BSOCs") which are used to mitigate market power in three wholesale electricity markets. The price of electricity is determined through multi-unit uniform price auctions and BSOCs impose an upper limit, which is increasing in marginal cost, on each generator's bid. I apply BSOCs in both the uniform and discriminatory price auctions and characterize the equilibria in a two firm model with stochastic demand. BSOCs unambiguously increase expected production efficiency in the uniform price auction and they can increase the expected profit of the generator with the lower cap. Chapter 2, coauthored with Ramteen Sioshansi, Ph.D., compares two types of uniform price auction formats used in wholesale electricity markets, centrally committed markets and self committed markets. In centrally committed markets, generators submit two-part bids consisting of a fixed startup cost and a variable (per MWh) energy cost, and the auctioneer ensures that no generator operates at a loss. Generators in self committed markets must incorporate their startup costs into their one part energy bids. We derive Nash equilibria for both the centrally and self committed electricity markets in a model with two symmetric generators with nonconvex costs and deterministic demand. Using a numerical example, we demonstrate that if the caps on the bid elements are chosen appropriately, the two market designs are equivalent in terms of generator revenues and settlement costs. Regulators and prominent academic experts believe that electric restructuring polices have stifled investment in new generation capacity. In chapter 3 I seek to determine whether these fears are supported by empirical evidence. I examine both total investment in megawatts and the number of new investments across regions that adopted different electric restructuring policies to

  14. How Do Different Types of Community Commitment Influence Brand Commitment? The Mediation of Brand Attachment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Su, Chen-ting; Zhou, Nan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Although previous research indicates that participation in a brand community may foster consumer loyalty to the brand in question, research has seldom examined the mediating effect of community commitment on brand commitment. Drawing from the typologies of organizational commitment, we divide community commitment into three components: continuance community commitment (continuance CC), affective community commitment (affective CC), and normative community commitment (normative CC). We then assess the mediating role of brand attachment in the relationship between these three components and brand commitment. We test the hypotheses using a sample of online mobile phone brand communities in China. The empirical results reveal that brand attachment exerts an indirect (but not mediated) effect on the relationship between continuance CC and brand commitment and on the relationship between normative CC and brand commitment. We also find that it exerts a partial mediating effect on the relationship between affective CC and brand commitment. The findings contribute to the branding literature and have important implications for brand community management. PMID:23768073

  15. The Impact of Trust on Organization Commitment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Kimberly; Stinson, Thomas N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As the global economy continues to spawn competitive forces, organizations have sought to become more competitive by cutting costs, eliminating non-value added work, and using more automation. Jobs have become broader and more flexible leading to a leaner workforce with higher-level knowledge and skills and more responsibility for day-to-day decisions. More than ever, organizations depend on employees as the innovators and designers of products and processes and as a source of strategic advantage. Therefore employee commitment among knowledge workers is needed to maintain organizational viability. It would seem that stronger relationships due to greater dependency, involvement, and investment would develop between employers and high-technology workers resulting in more committed employees. However, the opposite has been evidenced as key knowledge workers are changing jobs frequently. This may be due to a perceived lack of commitment by management to its employees. The notion of exchange may dominate the development of organizational commitment whereby an individual decides what to give a firm (commitment, extra effort, better performance, etc.) based on what the firm gives them (e.g., trust and security). It is the relationship between an employee's organizational commitment and the responding level of trust in the organization that is examined in this paper. An experiment is described that will seek to identify this relationship. Preliminary results are expected to show a positive relationship whereby employee commitment is positively correlated with organizational trust.

  16. 75 FR 57159 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or Support Terrorism On September 23, 2001... commit, threaten to commit, or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers... grave acts of terrorism and threats of terrorism committed by foreign terrorists, including...

  17. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to Persons Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or Support Terrorism Presidential Documents Other... Persons Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or Support Terrorism On September 23, 2001, by Executive Order... commit, or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C....

  18. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism Presidential Documents Other... Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism On September 23, 2001, by Executive Order... commit, or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C....

  19. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism Presidential Documents Other... Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism On September 23, 2001, by Executive Order... commit, or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C....

  20. Advances in dental materials.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Garry J P

    2014-05-01

    The dental market is replete with new resorative materials marketed on the basis of novel technological advances in materials chemistry, bonding capability or reduced operator time and/or technique sensitivity. This paper aims to consider advances in current materials, with an emphasis on their role in supporting contemporary clinical practice.

  1. Internet marketing 401.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ryan J

    2010-11-01

    For facial plastic surgeons who are already realizing increased patient consultation requests from their online marketing efforts, the primary concern often becomes implementing additional tactics and strategies that can keep their online marketing fresh, relevant, and effective. This article creates a framework for evaluating advanced online marketing opportunities by analyzing each opportunity according to the variables of possible return, average cost to implement, probability of success, and implementation time. Within this framework, 11 distinct tactics are discussed, with special emphasis on the most common marketing needs and challenges of facial plastic surgery practices.

  2. A practical quantum bit commitment protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arash Sheikholeslam, S.; Aaron Gulliver, T.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new quantum bit commitment protocol which is secure against entanglement attacks. A general cheating strategy is examined and shown to be practically ineffective against the proposed approach.

  3. Green Supplier Network Manufacturer Commitment Form

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Online form expressing interest in committing to be a Green Supplier; this form expresses your intent to participate in a confidential Green Suppliers Network assessment, implement recommended environmental improvements and complete a NIST MEP follow-up.

  4. 24 CFR 241.510 - Commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Purchase and Installation of Energy Conserving Improvements, Solar Energy Systems, and Individual Utility... insured. (b) Types of firm commitment. (1) Where the amount of the loan is $250,000 or more, the...

  5. 24 CFR 241.510 - Commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Purchase and Installation of Energy Conserving Improvements, Solar Energy Systems, and Individual Utility... insured. (b) Types of firm commitment. (1) Where the amount of the loan is $250,000 or more, the...

  6. 24 CFR 241.510 - Commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Purchase and Installation of Energy Conserving Improvements, Solar Energy Systems, and Individual Utility... insured. (b) Types of firm commitment. (1) Where the amount of the loan is $250,000 or more, the...

  7. 24 CFR 241.510 - Commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Purchase and Installation of Energy Conserving Improvements, Solar Energy Systems, and Individual Utility... insured. (b) Types of firm commitment. (1) Where the amount of the loan is $250,000 or more, the...

  8. 24 CFR 241.510 - Commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Purchase and Installation of Energy Conserving Improvements, Solar Energy Systems, and Individual Utility... insured. (b) Types of firm commitment. (1) Where the amount of the loan is $250,000 or more, the...

  9. Green Suppliers Network Supply Chain Commitment Form

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Online form to show your company desires to be a Green Suppliers Network supply chain. Expresses an intent to: commit to engage at least five suppliers to complete an assessment process within a 12-month period and more.

  10. Quantum Bit Commitment with a Composite Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srikanth, R.

    2004-01-01

    Entanglement-based attacks, which are subtle and powerful, are usually believed to render quantum bit commitment insecure. We point out that the no-go argument leading to this view implicitly assumes the evidence-of-commitment to be a monolithic quantum system. We argue that more general evidence structures, allowing for a composite, hybrid (classical quantum) evidence, conduce to improved security. In particular, we present and prove the security of the following protocol Bob sends Alice an anonymous state. She inscribes her commitment b by measuring part of it in the + (for b = 0) or × (for b = 1) basis. She then communicates to him the (classical) measurement outcome Rx and the partmeasured anonymous state interpolated into other, randomly prepared qubits as her evidence-of-commitment.

  11. Higher Education's Commitment to Instructional Improvement Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popham, W. James

    1974-01-01

    Supports the contention that current attempts to improve the quality of university instruction represent meagre efforts due to insufficient commitment, and a lack of resources, both in finances and in personnel. (AM)

  12. Livestock Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the seasonal and cyclical patterns of livestock markets. Cash marketing, forward contracting, hedging in the futures markets, and the options markets are examined. Examples illustrate how each marketing tool may be useful in gaining a profit on livestock and cutting risk exposure. The unit is organized in the…

  13. Young children's understanding of joint commitments.

    PubMed

    Gräfenhain, Maria; Behne, Tanya; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-09-01

    When adults make a joint commitment to act together, they feel an obligation to their partner. In 2 studies, the authors investigated whether young children also understand joint commitments to act together. In the first study, when an adult orchestrated with the child a joint commitment to play a game together and then broke off from their joint activity, 3-year-olds (n = 24) reacted to the break significantly more often (e.g., by trying to re-engage her or waiting for her to restart playing) than when she simply joined the child's individual activity unbidden. Two-year-olds (n = 24) did not differentiate between these 2 situations. In the second study, 3- and 4-year-old children (n = 30 at each age) were enticed away from their activity with an adult. Children acknowledged their leaving (e.g., by looking to the adult or handing her the object they had been playing with) significantly more often when they had made a joint commitment to act together than when they had not. By 3 years of age, children thus recognize both when an adult is committed and when they themselves are committed to a joint activity.

  14. Beyond promiscuity: mate-choice commitments in social breeding

    PubMed Central

    Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2013-01-01

    Obligate eusociality with distinct caste phenotypes has evolved from strictly monogamous sub-social ancestors in ants, some bees, some wasps and some termites. This implies that no lineage reached the most advanced form of social breeding, unless helpers at the nest gained indirect fitness values via siblings that were identical to direct fitness via offspring. The complete lack of re-mating promiscuity equalizes sex-specific variances in reproductive success. Later, evolutionary developments towards multiple queen-mating retained lifetime commitment between sexual partners, but reduced male variance in reproductive success relative to female's, similar to the most advanced vertebrate cooperative breeders. Here, I (i) discuss some of the unique and highly peculiar mating system adaptations of eusocial insects; (ii) address ambiguities that remained after earlier reviews and extend the monogamy logic to the evolution of soldier castes; (iii) evaluate the evidence for indirect fitness benefits driving the dynamics of (in)vertebrate cooperative breeding, while emphasizing the fundamental differences between obligate eusociality and cooperative breeding; (iv) infer that lifetime commitment is a major driver towards higher levels of organization in bodies, colonies and mutualisms. I argue that evolutionary informative definitions of social systems that separate direct and indirect fitness benefits facilitate transparency when testing inclusive fitness theory. PMID:23339241

  15. Increasing Medical Practice Team Commitment: Twenty-Five Strategies.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Employee commitment is one of the most important principles of practice man- agement. Yet commitment is delicate; it must be carefully earned, and it can easily deteriorate. This article explores practical strategies the medical practice manager can use to assess, foster, and increase employee commitment. It de- fines commitment and how commitment is manifested in employee attitudes and behavior. It provides a 10-question guide medical practice managers can use to assess employee commitment, and a four-part roadmap that will inspire commitment through leadership. This article also offers 25 hands-on strate- gies to increase employee commitment, and more than a dozen questions to guide difficult conversations with employees when their commitment level to the medical practice is low or unclear. Finally, this article suggest four drivers of employee commitment and a five-part strategy medical practice managers can use to model commitment through their own leadership.

  16. The Career Advancement Portfolio. Advancement for Low-Wage Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobs for the Future, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Jobs for the Future created the "Career Advancement Portfolio" as central to its commitment to developing, implementing, and advocating for models, strategies, and policies that enable adults to advance toward economic self-sufficiency for themselves and their families. The "Portfolio" brings together the most innovative workforce development…

  17. BPA Committed to Northwest Values

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    The Columbia River has been called the “crown jewel” of the Pacific Northwest. There is no question it is among the region’s greatest assets — supplying low-cost clean hydropower, making deserts bloom thanks to irrigation and providing navigation, recreation and a home for many species of fish and wildlife. The Bonneville Power Administration is proud to be a steward of this great resource. Our mission is to serve the people and environment of the Pacific Northwest. We sell wholesale power from Grand Coulee Dam and 30 other Northwest federal dams to Northwest utilities, including public utility districts, rural electric cooperatives and municipal utility departments, as well as investor-owned utilities. We operate three-fourths of the region’s high voltage transmission system that delivers that power. But, as a federal agency, we are not just a power marketer. We have public responsibilities that include, among many, promoting energy efficiency, facilitating development of renewable power, protecting fish and wildlife affected by hydro development, honoring treaty obligations to tribes and promoting a reliable energy future through collaboration and partnerships. This document describes our responsibilities to citizens in the Pacific Northwest.

  18. Examining Marketing Officers' Demographic Factors' Influence on MIHE Scores at California Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Zachary Martin

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that one way to investigate a college's dedication to marketing is to examine the role, influence, and support the marketing officer receives on their campus. Based on the literature's premise that marketing officers are a measure of commitment, this study explored the relationship between Marketing Index of Higher Education…

  19. A Systems Approach to the Design and Operation of Effective Marketing Programs in Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scigliano, John A.

    1983-01-01

    Presents a research-based marketing model consisting of an environmental scanning process, a series of marketing audits, and an information-processing scheme. Views the essential elements of college marketing as information flow; high-level, long-term commitment; diverse strategies; innovation; and a broad view of marketing. Includes a marketing…

  20. [General practitioners' commitment to treating excessive alcohol consumption: A question of role security in treating affected patients?].

    PubMed

    Fankhänel, Thomas; Rascher, Anja; Thiel, Carolin; Schulz, Katrin; Klement, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Only a few general practitioners (GPs) are committed to screen their patients for alcohol consumption and, in case of excessive alcohol consumption conduct by a brief intervention according to WHO recommendations. Apart from inadequate compensation and work load, another barrier identified by the GPs was their uncertainty about how to deal with affected patients. Most German universities presently spend no more than 90minutes lecture time on addiction medicine teaching. Our research aims to investigate the question whether medical studies and advanced medical education increases the role security of medical students and physicians and their commitment to implementing alcohol screening and brief intervention. Moreover, we will explore whether lack of therapeutic commitment can be related to lack of role security. Questionnaires were administered to pre-clinical and clinical medical students as well as senior house officers. Role security and therapeutic commitment of students and senior house officers were assessed using the Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Questionnaire (SAAPPQ) subscales "Role Security" and "Therapeutic Commitment". Analysis was based on 367 questionnaires. As expected, senior house officers reported more Role Security than clinical medical students who showed a higher level of Role Security than pre-clinical medical students. No differences could be found for Therapeutic Commitment. An association between Role Security and Therapeutic Commitment was only revealed for clinical medical students. Medical studies and advanced medical education can increase students' and senior house officers' Role Security to treat patients with excessive alcohol consumption, but not Therapeutic Commitment. Moreover, no association between Role Security and Therapeutic Commitment could be found for senior house officers. Hence, it may be assumed that educational activities aiming to increase Role Security do not promote the development of motivational aspects such as

  1. Security-constrained unit commitment with flexible operating modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bo

    The electricity industry throughout the world, which has long been dominated by vertically integrated utilities, is facing enormous challenges. To enhance the competition in electricity industry, vertically integrated utilities are evolving into a distributed and competitive industry in which market forces drive the price of electricity and possibly reduce the net cost of supplying electrical loads through increased competition. To excel in the competition, generation companies (GENCOs) will acquire additional generating units with flexible operating capability which allows a timely response to the continuous changes in power system conditions. This dissertation considers the short-term scheduling of generating units with flexible modes of operation in security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC). Among the units considered in this study are combined cycle units, fuel switching/blending units, photovoltaic/battery system, pumped-storage units, and cascaded hydro units. The proposed security-constrained unit commitment solution will include a detailed model of transmission system which could impact the short-term scheduling of units with flexible operation modes.

  2. Do Sell-Side Stock Analysts Exhibit Escalation of Commitment?

    PubMed Central

    Milkman, Katherine L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents evidence that when an analyst makes an out-of-consensus forecast of a company’s quarterly earnings that turns out to be incorrect, she escalates her commitment to maintaining an out-of-consensus view on the company. Relative to an analyst who was close to the consensus, the out-of-consensus analyst adjusts her forecasts for the current fiscal year’s earnings less in the direction of the quarterly earnings surprise. On average, this type of updating behavior reduces forecasting accuracy, so it does not seem to reflect superior private information. Further empirical results suggest that analysts do not have financial incentives to stand by extreme stock calls in the face of contradictory evidence. Managerial and financial market implications are discussed. PMID:21516220

  3. The Revised Commitment Inventory: Psychometrics and Use with Unmarried Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Jesse; Rhoades, Galena K.; Stanley, Scott M.; Markman, Howard J.

    2011-01-01

    The Commitment Inventory measures interpersonal commitment (dedication) and constraint commitment. Since it was first published, substantial revisions have been made, but there are no published data on the psychometric properties of the new version. Furthermore, little information is available on measuring commitment for unmarried couples. This…

  4. 28 CFR 522.11 - Civil contempt commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil contempt commitments. 522.11..., CLASSIFICATION, AND TRANSFER ADMISSION TO INSTITUTION Civil Contempt of Court Commitments § 522.11 Civil contempt commitments. Inmates can come into Bureau custody for civil contempt commitments in two ways: (a) The...

  5. Further Exploring the Meaning and Measurement of Career Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Gary J.

    1988-01-01

    Examined the reliability and validity of a career commitment measure using employees (N=266) of newspaper and insurance companies. Results showed career commitment could be reliably measured and was operationally distinct from job involvement and organizational commitment. Discusses findings in terms of meaning of career commitment. (Author/ABL)

  6. Civil Commitment in the United States

    PubMed Central

    West, Sara G.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the academic literature on the psychiatric practice of civil commitment. It provides an overview of the history of involuntary psychiatric hospitalization in the United States—from the creation of the first asylum and the era of institutionalization to the movement of deinstitutionalization. The ethical conflict that the practice of involuntary hospitalization presents for providers, namely the conflict between the ethical duties of beneficence and respect for patient autonomy, is presented. The evolution of the United States commitment standards, from being based on a right to treatment for patients with mental illness to being based on dangerousness, as well as the implications that the changes in commitment criteria has had on patients and society, are discussed. Involuntary hospitalization of patient populations that present unique challenges for psychiatry (e.g., not guilty by reason of insanity acquittees, sex offenders, and individuals with eating disorders, substance use disorders, and personality disorders) is discussed. Finally, an overview of outpatient commitment is provided. By reading this article, one will learn the history of involuntary psychiatric hospitalization in the United States and gain an understanding of the ethical issues that make civil commitment one of the most controversial practices in modern psychiatry. PMID:22778709

  7. Robust Unit Commitment Considering Uncertain Demand Response

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Guodong; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2014-09-28

    Although price responsive demand response has been widely accepted as playing an important role in the reliable and economic operation of power system, the real response from demand side can be highly uncertain due to limited understanding of consumers' response to pricing signals. To model the behavior of consumers, the price elasticity of demand has been explored and utilized in both research and real practice. However, the price elasticity of demand is not precisely known and may vary greatly with operating conditions and types of customers. To accommodate the uncertainty of demand response, alternative unit commitment methods robust to themore » uncertainty of the demand response require investigation. In this paper, a robust unit commitment model to minimize the generalized social cost is proposed for the optimal unit commitment decision taking into account uncertainty of the price elasticity of demand. By optimizing the worst case under proper robust level, the unit commitment solution of the proposed model is robust against all possible realizations of the modeled uncertain demand response. Numerical simulations on the IEEE Reliability Test System show the e ectiveness of the method. Finally, compared to unit commitment with deterministic price elasticity of demand, the proposed robust model can reduce the average Locational Marginal Prices (LMPs) as well as the price volatility.« less

  8. Robust Unit Commitment Considering Uncertain Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2014-09-28

    Although price responsive demand response has been widely accepted as playing an important role in the reliable and economic operation of power system, the real response from demand side can be highly uncertain due to limited understanding of consumers' response to pricing signals. To model the behavior of consumers, the price elasticity of demand has been explored and utilized in both research and real practice. However, the price elasticity of demand is not precisely known and may vary greatly with operating conditions and types of customers. To accommodate the uncertainty of demand response, alternative unit commitment methods robust to the uncertainty of the demand response require investigation. In this paper, a robust unit commitment model to minimize the generalized social cost is proposed for the optimal unit commitment decision taking into account uncertainty of the price elasticity of demand. By optimizing the worst case under proper robust level, the unit commitment solution of the proposed model is robust against all possible realizations of the modeled uncertain demand response. Numerical simulations on the IEEE Reliability Test System show the e ectiveness of the method. Finally, compared to unit commitment with deterministic price elasticity of demand, the proposed robust model can reduce the average Locational Marginal Prices (LMPs) as well as the price volatility.

  9. Romantic Relationship Commitment and Its Linkages with Commitment to Parents and Friends during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Goede, Irene H. A.; Branje, Susan; van Duin, Jet; VanderValk, Inge E.; Meeus, Wim

    2012-01-01

    This five-wave longitudinal study examines linkages between adolescents' perceptions of romantic relationship commitment and the development of adolescents' perceptions of commitment to parents and friends. A total of 218 early-to-middle adolescents (39.0 percent boys) and 185 middle-to-late adolescents (30.8 percent boys) participated.…

  10. Influence of Teacher Empowerment on Teachers' Organizational Commitment, Professional Commitment and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogler, Ronit; Somech, Anit

    2004-01-01

    The present study focuses on the relationship between teacher empowerment and teachers' organizational commitment, professional commitment (PC) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). It examines which subscales of teacher empowerment can best predict these outcomes. The data were collected through a questionnaire returned by a sample of…

  11. Highly Committed Teachers: What Makes Them Tick? A Study of Sustained Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fransson, Göran; Frelin, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on teacher commitment, and particularly on teachers displaying sustained high levels of commitment throughout their teaching careers (over 15 years). Graduates from one Teacher Education programme responded to an open-ended questionnaire conducted on 10 occasions concerning their work as teachers, from graduation in 1993 to…

  12. Landscape Architects and Environmental Concern: An Examination of Attitudes, Verbal Commitment and Actual Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Anita Anne

    Landscape architects have a combination of abilities that have been gained through education and experience that could make their demonstration of environmental concern as citizens very effective. This study assessed the attitudes, verbal commitment, and actual commitment regarding environmental concern held by landscape architects registered and…

  13. Student Marketing for Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside, Richard

    2004-01-01

    AACRAO's new publication "Student Marketing for Colleges and Universities" is the single authoritative source interpreting basic and advanced marketing techniques within the context of student marketing. Four sections address marketing fundamentals in the higher education setting, strategic planning, consumer behavior of the college-bound student…

  14. Organizational identification and commitment: correlates of sense of belonging and affective commitment.

    PubMed

    Dávila, Ma Celeste; Jiménez García, Gemma

    2012-03-01

    The general purpose of this work is to analyze the overlap between organizational identification and commitment. Specifically, our study focuses on the analysis of the differences and similarities between sense of belonging (a dimension of organizational identification) and affective commitment (a dimension of organizational commitment). In order to do this, we analyzed their discriminant validity and raised their relationship with variables that previous research had showed like precedent and subsequent variables of them: value congruence, perceived support, organizational citizenship behavior, and intention to continue in the organization. A total of 292 people at one organization completed surveys measuring the variables previously described. The results showed that sense of belonging and affective commitment are different concepts and they have different relationships with relation to precedent and subsequent variables. Affective commitment seems to be more useful than sense of belonging to predict organizational citizenship behavior aimed at the organization and intention to continue. Some practical implications are described.

  15. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to Persons Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or Support Terrorism Presidential Documents Other... Persons Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or Support Terrorism On September 23, 2001, by Executive Order..., or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C....

  16. Contractor and Government: Teamwork and Commitment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Gerald D.

    1984-01-01

    The assigned topic, "Contractor and Government: Teamwork and Commitment," is a subject about vitally interested. The successes of the U.S. space program were built on such teamwork and commitment. It seems only a short time ago that man's role in space was an unknown quantity. In rapid succession, however, the flights of Shepard, Glenn, and Armstrong demonstrated man's capability to live and travel in space. Consequently, we no longer live with the same awe of space. The success of these joint industry-NASA efforts in achieving our Nation's space goals testifies to the validity of our team's past commitment, management expertise, communications techniques, and teamwork over a period of 25 years. Today, however, We are at the beginning of a new era in space.

  17. Importance-performance analysis of food-supply veterinary medicine career commitment.

    PubMed

    Gwinner, Kevin; Andrus, David; Prince, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    This study presents the results of an analysis that identifies factors important to veterinary students in making a lifetime commitment to a particular career area. Using an importance-performance framework, the study evaluated 28 veterinary career attributes. Results indicate that to develop greater lifetime commitment among students, careers in food-supply veterinary medicine need to improve in the areas of health care and retirement benefits, free time available for family, opportunities to become authorities in the field, opportunities for advancement, and more contact with peer veterinarians.

  18. Integration of Skills and Competencies in the Missouri Marketing Education Core Curriculum. Section II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhland, Sheila K.; Wilkinson, Richard F.

    This publication contains teaching activities for the Fundamentals of Marketing and Advanced Marketing curriculum. Chapter 1 presents an alignment of the marketing education core competencies within the nine curriculum units for Fundamentals of Marketing and Advanced Marketing as they relate to the basic academic skills, advanced academic skills,…

  19. Quantum bit commitment under Gaussian constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandilara, Aikaterini; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2012-06-01

    Quantum bit commitment has long been known to be impossible. Nevertheless, just as in the classical case, imposing certain constraints on the power of the parties may enable the construction of asymptotically secure protocols. Here, we introduce a quantum bit commitment protocol and prove that it is asymptotically secure if cheating is restricted to Gaussian operations. This protocol exploits continuous-variable quantum optical carriers, for which such a Gaussian constraint is experimentally relevant as the high optical nonlinearity needed to effect deterministic non-Gaussian cheating is inaccessible.

  20. Intelligence, democracy, and international environmental commitment.

    PubMed

    Obydenkova, Anastassia; Salahodjaev, Raufhon

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of nations' commitment to environmental protection at the international level by focusing on the role of national intelligence and the level of democracy. The national intelligence is measured by nation's IQ scores. The findings based on a sample of 152 nations provide strong evidence that intelligence has statistically significant impact on ratification of international environmental agreements, and the countries with IQ 10-points above global average are 23% more likely to sign multilateral environmental agreements than others. The findings also demonstrate that it is the combination of high-level of intelligence of nations and democracy, that likely result in international environmental commitments.

  1. Secure quantum bit commitment against empty promises

    SciTech Connect

    He Guangping

    2006-08-15

    The existence of unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment (QBC) is excluded by the Mayers-Lo-Chau no-go theorem. Here we look for the second-best: a QBC protocol that can defeat certain quantum attacks. By breaking the knowledge symmetry between the participants with quantum algorithm, a QBC protocol is proposed and is proven to be secure against a major kind of coherent attacks - the dummy attack, in which the participant makes an empty promise instead of committing to a specific bit. Therefore it surpasses previous QBC protocols which are secure against individual attacks only.

  2. Can Low-Income Single Parents Move up in the Labor Market? Findings from the Employment Retention and Advancement Project. Practitioner Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cynthia; Deitch, Victoria; Hill, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    The Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA) project evaluated strategies to promote employment stability among low-income workers. This practitioner brief examines the work, education, and training patterns of single parents in the ERA project. Three years after entering the study, only one in four single parents had advanced. Most of the…

  3. 7 CFR 170.12 - What are the selection criteria for participation in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... market site. The criteria are: (a) Member of one of the three participant groups specified in § 170.4 of.... Participants should commit to supporting the USDA food gleaning/food recovery initiative. This commitment requires farmers and vendors to donate surplus food and food products at the end of each market day to...

  4. Estimating potential stranded commitments for U.S. investor-owned electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.; Hirst, E.

    1995-01-01

    New technologies, low natural gas prices, and federal and state utility regions are restructuring the electricity industry. Yesterday`s vertically integrated utility with a retail monopoly franchise may be a very different organization in a few years. Conferences, regulatory-commission hearings, and other industry fora are dominated by debates over the extent and form of utility deintegration, wholesale competition, and retail wheeling. A key obstacle to restructuring the electricity industry is stranded commitments. Past investments, power-purchase contracts, and public-policy-driven programs that made sense in an era of cost-of-service regulation may not be cost-effective in a competitive power market. Regulators, utilities, and other parties face tough decisions concerning the mitigation and allocation of these stranded commitments. The authors developed and applied a simple method to calculate the amount of stranded commitments facing US investor-owned electric utilities. The results obtained with this method depend strongly on a few key assumptions: (1) the fraction of utility sales that is at risk with respect to competition, (2) the market price of electric generation, and (3) the number of years during which the utility would lose money because of differences between its embedded cost of production and the market price.

  5. 13 CFR 108.1200 - SBA's Leverage commitment to a NMVC Company-application procedure, amount, and term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false SBA's Leverage commitment to a NMVC Company-application procedure, amount, and term. 108.1200 Section 108.1200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA...

  6. 13 CFR 108.1200 - SBA's Leverage commitment to a NMVC Company-application procedure, amount, and term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false SBA's Leverage commitment to a NMVC Company-application procedure, amount, and term. 108.1200 Section 108.1200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA...

  7. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: Western adoption of Buddhist tenets?

    PubMed

    Fung, Kenneth

    2015-08-01

    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a psychological intervention that has wide clinical applications with emerging empirical support. It is based on Functional Contextualism and is derived as a clinical application of the Relational Frame Theory, a behavioral account of the development of human thought and cognition. The six core ACT therapeutic processes include: Acceptance, Defusion, Present Moment, Self-as-Context, Values, and Committed Action. In addition to its explicit use of the concept of mindfulness, the therapeutic techniques of ACT implicitly incorporate other aspects of Buddhism. This article describes the basic principles and processes of ACT, explores the similarities and differences between ACT processes and some of the common tenets in Buddhism such as the Four Noble Truths and No-Self, and reports on the experience of running a pilot intervention ACT group for the Cambodian community in Toronto in partnership with the community's Buddhist Holy Monk. Based on this preliminary exploration in theory and the reflections of the group experience, ACT appears to be consistent with some of the core tenets of Buddhism in the approach towards alleviating suffering, with notable differences in scope reflecting their different aims and objectives. Further development of integrative therapies that can incorporate psychological and spiritual as well as diverse cultural perspectives may help the continued advancement and evolution of more effective psychotherapies that can benefit diverse populations.

  8. Factors Predicting Faculty Commitment to the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fjortoft, Nancy

    This paper examines the effect of faculty rank, satisfaction with salary, working conditions, institutional reputation, perceived influence on institutional policies, participation in meetings, and perceived governance on organizational commitment (at both the departmental and institutional level) using a representative sample of 4,925 faculty.…

  9. Crime, Commitment and the Responsive Bystander.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Thomas

    The paper describes a field experiment conducted at Jones Beach, New York, to determine (1) how responsive are individuals who witness a crime, and (2) under what conditions will bystanders take action to prevent a crime. The major independent variable in this study was the degree of prior commitment to the victim; whether or not the subject had…

  10. 24 CFR 203.7 - Commitment process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SINGLE... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Commitment process. 203.7 Section 203.7 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  11. 24 CFR 203.7 - Commitment process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SINGLE... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commitment process. 203.7 Section 203.7 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  12. 24 CFR 203.7 - Commitment process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SINGLE... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Commitment process. 203.7 Section 203.7 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  13. 24 CFR 203.7 - Commitment process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SINGLE... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Commitment process. 203.7 Section 203.7 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  14. 24 CFR 203.7 - Commitment process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SINGLE... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Commitment process. 203.7 Section 203.7 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  15. Work Commitment through the Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitin, Teresa E.; Quinn, Robert P.

    Data obtained from a national, cross-sectional survey of the American work force were used to examine the relationship between age and an interview measure of psychological involvement with work (i.e., paid employment). For men, this relationship was curvilinear. Commitment began at a low level among the 16-20 year old men, rose to its highest…

  16. Organizational Commitment through Organizational Socialization Tactics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filstad, Cathrine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate how organizational socialization tactics affect newcomers' organizational commitment and learning processes. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was conducted using a measurement tool based on Van Maanen and Schein's theory on organizational socialization tactics and Kuvaas' measurement tools of…

  17. Affective Commitment among Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehman, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Student affairs professionals in the United States were surveyed to determine the predictive value of overall job satisfaction, organizational support, organizational politics, and work/nonwork interaction on affective organizational commitment. Results indicate that a supportive work environment leads to increased affective attachment to the…

  18. Resistance, Justice, and Commitment to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Rex D.

    2010-01-01

    This research focused on individual responses to organizational change by exploring the relationships among individual resistance, organizational justice, and commitment to change following organizational change implementations in three organizations. To accomplish this, Web-based questionnaires were used to gather individual-level quantitative…

  19. Organizational Justice and Commitment in Interscholastic Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisenant, Warren

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of three organizational justice dimensions on the commitment of high school student athletes (N = 480) to continue playing a referent sport. The athletes were asked to complete an instrument designed to assess their perceived levels of justice displayed by their coaches in three justice…

  20. Sex, Love, and the Committed Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Carl A.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Six responses are presented to the question of relationship of love, sex, and commitment as revised by Sager in the Spring 1976 issue of this journal. Theoretical and historical perspectives as well as issues of coupling, eroticism, sexual dysfunction and therapy, and psychosexual development are discussed. (HLM)

  1. Committed to the Cause: James Forman Jr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    Steeped in the values of the civil rights movement, James Forman Jr. has charted a path into academia that has demonstrated both a keen commitment to social justice as well as impressive legal and academic achievements. Among his most notable accomplishments prior to his Georgetown appointment in 2003, Forman co-founded the nationally acclaimed…

  2. Commitment at Work and Independence from Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Jacques; Edwards, Paul K.; Wright, Martyn

    2003-01-01

    Case study of a Canadian aluminum smelter through 15 interviews, observation, and employee survey (n=214) revealed high commitment, acceptance of change, and worker independence from management. This pattern emerged from a traditionally strong union presence. Comparison with other cases underlines the centrality of collective organization to…

  3. Public Television: Commitment to Children's Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Distance Education Report, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Illustrates public television's early commitment to children's programming, discussing the popularity of "Sesame Street" and noting other shows launched under Joan Ganz Cooney, president of CTW from 1970 until 1988. Discusses the erosion of television network ratings by cable television in the mid '80s, and concludes by posing questions…

  4. Organizational Commitment among Public Service Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Brian S.; Worchel, Stephen; Woehr, David J.

    1998-01-01

    A study that examined factors associated with organizational commitment among 64 blue-collar workers found that the following were positively and significantly related: promotion satisfaction, job characteristics, communication, leadership satisfaction, job satisfaction, intrinsic and extrinsic exchange, and intrinsic and extrinsic rewards.…

  5. Influencing Organizational Commitment through Office Redesign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Paula C.; McElroy, James C.; Scheibe, Kevin P.

    2012-01-01

    Prior research on the effects of office redesign on work-related outcomes has been largely a theoretical and yielded mixed and conflicting findings. Expanding on individual reactions to office design changes as specified by social interference theory, we propose that office redesign affects organizational commitment and this relationship is…

  6. Labor Market Advancement for Young Men: How It Differs by Educational Attainment and Race/Ethnicity during the Initial Transition to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the 1990 U.S. Census and the 2006-2007 American Community Survey (ACS) and a synthetic cohort method, this article examines the labor market performance of young men during their initial transition to work and how it differs by educational attainment and race. The article looks at young men between the ages of 16 to 26 in 1990 who…

  7. Accelerating advanced-materials commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maine, Elicia; Seegopaul, Purnesh

    2016-05-01

    Long commercialization times, high capital costs and sustained uncertainty deter investment in innovation for advanced materials. With appropriate strategies, technology and market uncertainties can be reduced, and the commercialization of advanced materials accelerated.

  8. Engaging Marketing Students: Student Operated Businesses in a Simulated World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell-Bennett, Rebekah; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn R.; Kuhn, Kerri-Ann

    2010-01-01

    Engaged students are committed and more likely to continue their university studies. Subsequently, they are less resource intensive from a university's perspective. This article details an experiential second-year marketing course that requires students to develop real products and services to sell on two organized market days. In the course,…

  9. Marketing Your Library Program--More than a PR Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gerald R.

    In this workshop, the concept of marketing was applied to school library media programs by examining the relationship between library media programs, the marketing plan, public relations (PR), and promotion. Reachable goals, targeting the audience, advertising, and motivation and commitment of the staff were also considered, and successful…

  10. Changing Labor Markets: A Systems Approach to Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plastrik, Peter; Seltzer, Marlene B.; Taylor, Judith Combes

    A systems approach to changing labor market performance requires a substantial and enduring commitment to the task of change. A systems reform framework has been developed that is based on a dual-customer approach, with a focus on improving labor market outcomes for both low-income people and their employers. The objective is to change the labor…

  11. Conceptual Commitments of AGI Systems: Editorial, Commentaries, and Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-06-01

    Editorial: Conceptual Commitments of AGI Systems Haris Dindo / James Marshall / Giovanni Pezzulo 23 General Problems of Unified Theories of Cognition, and Another Conceptual Commitment of LIDA Benjamin Angerer / Stefan Schneider 26 LIDA, Committed to Consciousness Antonio Chella 28 The Radical Interactionism Conceptual Commitment Olivier L. Georgeon / David W. Aha 31 Commitments of the Soar Cognitive Architecture John E. Laird 36 Conceptual Commitments of AGI Projects Pei Wang 39 Will (dis)Embodied LIDA Agents be Socially Interactive? Travis J. Wiltshire / Emilio J. C. Lobato / Florian G. Jentsch / Stephen M. Fiore 42 Author's Response to Commentaries Steve Strain / Stan Franklin 48

  12. Hospital marketing.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation.

  13. Agricultural Marketing. Farmers' Marketing Practices and Programs To Teach Alternative Practices. Briefing Report to Congressional Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    This report describes a General Accounting Office study of farmers' marketing practices. The report specifically discusses farmers' use of the three advanced marketing techniques--cash forward contracting, hedging in the futures market, and trading in agricultural options--as disclosed in nine studies of farmers' marketing practices made from 1976…

  14. Follow-up on commitments at the Third Global Forum on Human Resources for Health: Indonesia, Sudan, Tanzania : "A commitment is a promise, a promise is a debt".

    PubMed

    Dussault, Gilles; Badr, Elsheikh; Haroen, Hartiah; Mapunda, Martin; Mars, Achmad Soebagja Tancarino; Pritasari, Kirana; Cometto, Giorgio

    2016-04-26

    This study sought to assess actions which Indonesia, Sudan, and Tanzania took to implement the health workforce commitments they made at the Third Global Forum on Human Resources for Health (HRH) in November 2013. The study was conducted through a survey of published and gray literature in English and field research consisting of direct contacts with relevant ministries and agencies. Results show that the three countries implemented interventions to translate their commitments into actions. The three countries focused their commitments on improving the availability, geographical accessibility, quality of education, and performance of health workers. The implementation of the Recife commitments primarily entailed initiatives at the central level, such as the adoption of new legislation or the development of accreditation mechanisms. This study shows that action is more likely to take place when policy documents explicitly recognize and document HRH problems, when stakeholders are involved in the formulation and the implementation of policy changes, and when external support is available. The Recife Forum appears to have created an opportunity to advance the HRH policy agenda, and advocates of health workforce development in these three countries took advantage of it.

  15. Advanced automotive diesel assessment program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekar, R.; Tozzi, L.

    1983-01-01

    Cummins Engine Company completed an analytical study to identify an advanced automotive (light duty) diesel (AAD) power plant for a 3,000-pound passenger car. The study resulted in the definition of a revolutionary diesel engine with several novel features. A 3,000-pound car with this engine is predicted to give 96.3, 72.2, and 78.8 MPG in highway, city, and combined highway-city driving, respectively. This compares with current diesel powered cars yielding 41.7, 35.0, and 37.7 MPG. The time for 0-60 MPH acceleration is 13.9 sec. compared to the baseline of 15.2 sec. Four technology areas were identified as crucial in bringing this concept to fruition. They are: (1) part-load preheating, (2) positive displacement compounding, (3) spark assisted diesel combustion system, and (4) piston development for adiabatic, oilless diesel engine. Marketing and planning studies indicate that an aggressive program with significant commitment could result in a production car in 10 years from the date of commencement.

  16. Observing Joint Action: Coordination Creates Commitment

    PubMed Central

    Michael, John; Sebanz, Natalie; Knoblich, Günther

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that interpersonal coordination enhances pro-social attitudes and behavior. Here, we extend this research by investigating whether the degree of coordination observed in a joint action enhances the perception of individuals’ commitment to the joint action. In four experiments, participants viewed videos of joint actions. In the low coordination condition, two agents made independent individual contributions to a joint action. In the high coordination condition, the individual contributions were tightly linked. Participants judged whether and for how long the observed agents would resist a tempting outside option and remain engaged in the joint action. The results showed that participants were more likely to expect agents to resist outside options when observing joint actions with a high degree of coordination. This indicates that observing interpersonal coordination is sufficient to enhance the perception of commitment to joint action. PMID:27610745

  17. [Involuntary commitment: implication for psychiatric nursing practice].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Lilian Hortale de Oliveira; Loyola, Cristina Maria Douat

    2011-06-01

    The characteristics of involuntary psychiatric commitment (IPI) may cause implications on the nursing/patient relationship. The objectives of this study were to list the forms of nursing care delivered to psychiatric patients, according to the type of commitment; analyze the reaction of the nursing team towards the IPI patient, and discuss on the implications that IPI have on the practice o psychiatric nursing. A field research was performed with the nursing team of a psychiatric institution in Rio de Janeiro. After 50 hours of participant observation and 9 of focal group meetings, we found that the teams are concerned with the clinical evolution of the patients. No references of the nursing team to the IPI patient were observed. There are no records or actions of any kind that would suggest a specific look towards this type of patient. Nursing professionals are not able to clearly identify this type of patient, thus the care is provided as per the patient's needs or requests.

  18. Commentary: civil commitment and its reform.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Alexander I F

    2015-03-01

    Internationally, civil commitment laws have gone through substantial reforms in the past 50 years. Discernible shifts from the medically paternalistic to the excessively legalistic may be giving way to a blending of legislative intent under the rubric of therapeutic jurisprudence. In the light of those international movements, Shao and Xie describe how China's new mental health law shows the impact of these international and local influences on the development and practice of mental health law in China. The new Law was passed in 2012. It sets a broad vision for mental health services and mental health promotion in Chinese society as well as providing the legal framework for civil commitment. Practicalities of implementation may be highly significant in the success of the legislation.

  19. Acceptance and Commitment: Implications for Prevention Science

    PubMed Central

    Biglan, Anthony; Hayes, Steven C.; Pistorello, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Recent research in behavior analysis and clinical psychology points to the importance of language processes having to do with the control of negative cognition and emotion and the commitment to valued action. Efforts to control unwanted thoughts and feelings, also referred to as experiential avoidance, appear to be associated with a diverse array of psychological and behavioral difficulties. Recent research shows that interventions that reduce experiential avoidance (EA) and help people to identify and commit to the pursuit of valued directions is beneficial for ameliorating diverse problems in living. These developments have the potential to improve the efficacy of many preventive interventions. This paper reviews the basic findings in these areas and points to some ways in which these developments could enhance the impact of preventive interventions. PMID:18690535

  20. Safe Commits for Transactional Featherweight Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuong Tran, Thi Mai; Steffen, Martin

    Transactions are a high-level alternative for low-level concurrency-control mechanisms such as locks, semaphores, monitors. A recent proposal for integrating transactional features into programming languages is Transactional Featherweight Java (TFJ), extending Featherweight Java by adding transactions. With support for nested and multi-threaded transactions, its transactional model is rather expressive. In particular, the constructs governing transactions - to start and to commit a transaction - can be used freely with a non-lexical scope. On the downside, this flexibility also allows for an incorrect use of these constructs, e.g., trying to perform a commit outside any transaction. To catch those kinds of errors, we introduce a static type and effect system for the safe use of transactions for TFJ. We prove the soundness of our type system by subject reduction.

  1. Teaching in a web of commitments.

    PubMed

    Sutphen, Molly; Solbrekke, Tone Dyrdal

    2012-04-01

    Drawing on interviews and survey results from a national study of nursing education, this article discusses teaching professional responsibilities in prelicensure nursing education and explores how to help students reflect on multiple commitments they will meet in nursing. Inspired by the moral philosopher Larry May's communitarian approach, we suggest strategies for teaching students a broad notion of professional responsibility, including the profession's moral and societal responsibilities.

  2. Marketing fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Redmond, W H

    2001-01-01

    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined.

  3. Climate commitment in an uncertain world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armour, K. C.; Roe, G. H.

    2011-01-01

    Climate commitment—the warming that would still occur given no further human influence—is a fundamental metric for both science and policy. It informs us of the minimum climate change we face and, moreover, depends only on our knowledge of the natural climate system. Studies of the climate commitment due to CO2 find that global temperature would remain near current levels, or even decrease slightly, in the millennium following the cessation of emissions. However, this result overlooks the important role of the non-CO2 greenhouse gases and aerosols. This paper shows that global energetics require an immediate and significant warming following the cessation of emissions as aerosols are quickly washed from the atmosphere, and the large uncertainty in current aerosol radiative forcing implies a large uncertainty in the climate commitment. Fundamental constraints preclude Earth returning to pre-industrial temperatures for the indefinite future. These same constraints mean that observations are currently unable to eliminate the possibility that we are already beyond the point where the ultimate warming will exceed dangerous levels. Models produce a narrower range of climate commitment, but undersample observed forcing constraints.

  4. Constructing rich false memories of committing crime.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Julia; Porter, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Memory researchers long have speculated that certain tactics may lead people to recall crimes that never occurred, and thus could potentially lead to false confessions. This is the first study to provide evidence suggesting that full episodic false memories of committing crime can be generated in a controlled experimental setting. With suggestive memory-retrieval techniques, participants were induced to generate criminal and noncriminal emotional false memories, and we compared these false memories with true memories of emotional events. After three interviews, 70% of participants were classified as having false memories of committing a crime (theft, assault, or assault with a weapon) that led to police contact in early adolescence and volunteered a detailed false account. These reported false memories of crime were similar to false memories of noncriminal events and to true memory accounts, having the same kinds of complex descriptive and multisensory components. It appears that in the context of a highly suggestive interview, people can quite readily generate rich false memories of committing crime.

  5. Appliance Commitment for Household Load Scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Pengwei; Lu, Ning

    2011-06-30

    This paper presents a novel appliance commitment algorithm that schedules thermostatically-controlled household loads based on price and consumption forecasts considering users comfort settings to meet an optimization objective such as minimum payment or maximum comfort. The formulation of an appliance commitment problem was described in the paper using an electrical water heater load as an example. The thermal dynamics of heating and coasting of the water heater load was modeled by physical models; random hot water consumption was modeled with statistical methods. The models were used to predict the appliance operation over the scheduling time horizon. User comfort was transformed to a set of linear constraints. Then, a novel linear, sequential, optimization process was used to solve the appliance commitment problem. The simulation results demonstrate that the algorithm is fast, robust, and flexible. The algorithm can be used in home/building energy-management systems to help household owners or building managers to automatically create optimal load operation schedules based on different cost and comfort settings and compare cost/benefits among schedules.

  6. Advantages of a leveled commitment contracting protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Sandholm, T.W.; Lesser, V.R.

    1996-12-31

    In automated negotiation systems consisting of self-interested agents, contracts have traditionally been binding. Such contracts do not allow agents to efficiently accommodate future events. Game theory has proposed contingency contracts to solve this problem. Among computational agents, contingency contracts are often impractical due to large numbers of interdependent and unanticipated future events to be conditioned on, and because some events are not mutually observable. This paper proposes a leveled commitment contracting protocol that allows self-interested agents to efficiently accommodate future events by having the possibility of unilaterally decommitting from a contract based on local reasoning. A decommitment penalty is assigned to both agents in a contract: to be freed from the contract, an agent only pays this penalty to the other party. It is shown through formal analysis of several contracting settings that this leveled commitment feature in a contracting protocol increases Pareto efficiency of deals and can make contracts individually rational when no full commitment contract can. This advantage holds even if the agents decommit manipulatively.

  7. Impact of committed individuals on vaccination behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Tao; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Zhang, Lianzhong

    2012-11-01

    We study how the presence of committed vaccinators, a small fraction of individuals who consistently hold the vaccinating strategy and are immune to influence, impact the vaccination dynamics in well-mixed and spatially structured populations. For this purpose, we develop an epidemiological game-theoretic model of a flu-like vaccination by integrating an epidemiological process into a simple agent-based model of adaptive learning, where individuals (except for those committed ones) use anecdotal evidence to estimate costs and benefits of vaccination. We show that the committed vaccinators, acting as “steadfast role models” in the populations, can efficiently avoid the clustering of susceptible individuals and stimulate other imitators to take vaccination, hence contributing to the promotion of vaccine uptake. We substantiate our findings by making comparative studies of our model on a full lattice and on a randomly diluted one. Our work is expected to provide valuable information for decision-making and design more effective disease-control strategy.

  8. Job Stress and Organizational Commitment among Mentoring Coordinators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Orly; Court, Deborah; Petal, Pnina

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This research aims to examine the impact of job stress on the organizational commitment of a random, representative sample of coordinators in the Israeli educational mentoring organization PMP. Organizational commitment, including affective, continuance and normative commitment, refers to worker relations in the organization, and how…

  9. 48 CFR 2401.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the corrective management measures to prevent future unauthorized commitments. If the individual who... unauthorized commitments. 2401.602-3 Section 2401.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF..., Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 2401.602-3 Ratification of unauthorized commitments....

  10. Predicting Organizational Commitment from Organizational Culture in Turkish Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ipek, Cemalettin

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to describe organizational culture and commitment and to predict organizational commitment from organizational culture in Turkish primary schools. Organizational Culture Scale (Ipek "1999") and Organizational Commitment Scale (Balay "2000") were used in the data gathering process. The data were collected from…

  11. The Relationship between Employee Commitment and Conflict Resolution Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Manuel; Howat, Gary

    1978-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between the use of five conflict resolution strategies (withdrawing, smoothing, compromising, forcing, and confronting) and three measures of employee commitment (commitment to the organization, profession, and community). The relationships varied between the different types of commitment and between…

  12. Personal, Role, Structural, Alternative and Affective Correlates of Organizational Commitment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    Commitment Among Chinese Workers Employee commitment to organizations has been the topic of considerable conceptual and empirical attention in recent years...Steers, R.M., Mowday, R.T., & Porter, L.W., Employee Commitment to organizations: A conceptual review. ONR Technical Report 7, Graduate School of

  13. Effects of Team and Organizational Commitment--A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neininger, Alexandra; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone; Henschel, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially team commitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of team commitment over time. In a longitudinal…

  14. 12 CFR 1807.501 - Commitment for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commitment for use. 1807.501 Section 1807.501 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Leveraging and Commitment Requirement § 1807.501 Commitment for use. (a) CMF awards shall...

  15. 12 CFR 1807.501 - Commitment for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commitment for use. 1807.501 Section 1807.501 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Leveraging and Commitment Requirement § 1807.501 Commitment for use. (a) CMF awards shall...

  16. 12 CFR 1807.501 - Commitment for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commitment for use. 1807.501 Section 1807.501 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Leveraging and Commitment Requirement § 1807.501 Commitment for use. (a) CMF awards shall...

  17. 12 CFR 1807.501 - Commitment for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commitment for use. 1807.501 Section 1807.501 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Leveraging and Commitment Requirement § 1807.501 Commitment for use. (a) CMF awards shall...

  18. Satisfied and Dissatisfied Commitment: Teachers in Three Generations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Pik Lin; Tang, Sylvia Yee Fan

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the self-appraisal of teacher commitment and their associated emotional experiences in the first ten years of teaching among three generations of Hong Kong teachers. Findings affirm previous view that high commitment level of teachers is characterized with psychological attachment to the commitment objects. However the…

  19. Professional Commitment: An Analysis of Students and Alumni.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fjortoft, Nancy F.; Lee, Mary W. L.

    "Professional commitment" has been defined as "one's attitude toward one's profession or vocation." This study developed and tested a model to predict the development of professional commitment in students by examining the qualities of the college experience that may lead to that commitment. Factors such as background and…

  20. Dual pricing algorithm in ISO markets

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, Richard P.; Castillo, Anya; Eldridge, Brent; Hytowitz, Robin Broder

    2016-10-10

    The challenge to create efficient market clearing prices in centralized day-ahead electricity markets arises from inherent non-convexities in unit commitment problems. When this aspect is ignored, marginal prices may result in economic losses to market participants who are part of the welfare maximizing solution. In this essay, we present an axiomatic approach to efficient prices and cost allocation for a revenue neutral and non-confiscatory day-ahead market. Current cost allocation practices do not adequately attribute costs based on transparent cost causation criteria. Instead we propose an ex post multi-part pricing scheme, which we refer to as the Dual Pricing Algorithm. Lastly, our approach can be incorporated into current dayahead markets without altering the market equilibrium.

  1. Dual pricing algorithm in ISO markets

    DOE PAGES

    O'Neill, Richard P.; Castillo, Anya; Eldridge, Brent; ...

    2016-10-10

    The challenge to create efficient market clearing prices in centralized day-ahead electricity markets arises from inherent non-convexities in unit commitment problems. When this aspect is ignored, marginal prices may result in economic losses to market participants who are part of the welfare maximizing solution. In this essay, we present an axiomatic approach to efficient prices and cost allocation for a revenue neutral and non-confiscatory day-ahead market. Current cost allocation practices do not adequately attribute costs based on transparent cost causation criteria. Instead we propose an ex post multi-part pricing scheme, which we refer to as the Dual Pricing Algorithm. Lastly,more » our approach can be incorporated into current dayahead markets without altering the market equilibrium.« less

  2. Social marketing in public health.

    PubMed

    Grier, Sonya; Bryant, Carol A

    2005-01-01

    Social marketing, the use of marketing to design and implement programs to promote socially beneficial behavior change, has grown in popularity and usage within the public health community. Despite this growth, many public health professionals have an incomplete understanding of the field. To advance current knowledge, we provide a practical definition and discuss the conceptual underpinnings of social marketing. We then describe several case studies to illustrate social marketing's application in public health and discuss challenges that inhibit the effective and efficient use of social marketing in public health. Finally, we reflect on future developments in the field. Our aim is practical: to enhance public health professionals' knowledge of the key elements of social marketing and how social marketing may be used to plan public health interventions.

  3. Hospital commitment to community orientation and its association with quality of care and patient experience.

    PubMed

    Kang, Raymond; Hasnain-Wynia, Romana

    2013-01-01

    We examine the association between hospital community orientation and quality-of-care measures, which include process measures for patients admitted for acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and pneumonia as well as measures of patient experience. The community orientation measure is obtained from the 2009 American Hospital Association's Annual Survey Database. Information on hospital quality of care and patient experience comes from 2009 Hospital Quality Alliance data and results from the 2009 Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (Medicare.gov, 2009). To evaluate the relationship between community orientation and measures of quality and patient experience, we used multivariate linear regressions. Organizational and market control variables included bed size, ownership, teaching status, safety net status, number of nurses per patient day, multihospital system status, network status, extent of reliance on managed care, market competition, and location within an Aligning Forces for Quality community (these communities have multistakeholder alliances and focus on improving quality of care at the community level). After controlling for organizational factors, we found that hospitals with a stronger commitment to community orientation perform better on process measures for all three conditions, and they report higher patient experience of care scores for one measure, than do those demonstrating weaker commitment. Hospital commitment to community orientation is significantly related to the provision of high-quality care and to one measure of patient experience of care.

  4. The status of marketing in the health care industry: perspectives of marketing practitioners.

    PubMed

    Manu, F A; Cooper, P D; Reinhart, W

    1996-01-01

    To assess the scope and status of the marketing function in the health care industry, a mail survey of marketing professionals in health care organizations in the Greater Baltimore region was undertaken. Questions were designed to identify important responsibilities, required skills, evaluation factors, and major problems in the practice of health care marketing. Analytic ability was the skill identified as being most necessary to perform their job while quality of service was factor most used to evaluate their performance. Planning, service and the development of products/services were indicated as being their most important responsibility. Inadequate budget and top management's lack of knowledge of marketing were cited as the most important hindrances to effectiveness in marketing jobs. Failure of marketing in the health care industry appears to be internal to the organizations themselves, that is, in terms of how it is interpreted and applied in practice. Solutions require greater understanding of and commitment to the varied roles of marketing professionals.

  5. Commitment in different relationships statuses: validation study of the personal commitment scale.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Ana Pego; Costa-Ramalho, Susana; Ribeiro, Maria Teresa; Pinto, Alexandra Marques

    2015-06-03

    This study presents the validation process of the Portuguese version of the short-form Dedication Scale (Rhoades, Stanley, & Markman, 2006; Stanley, 1986), with a sample of 924 participants in different relationship statutes. With 14 items, this short version is recommended by the authors for its simple use, when wanting to measure commitment in romantic relationships. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the instrument did not have a totally acceptable fit with the data so an exploratory factor analysis was conducted. This revealed a one-dimensional structure of the scale, and led to the exclusion of two items, which relate to a distinct meta-commitment dimension. In sum, the Portuguese version (ECP - Personal Commitment Scale) has 12 items, with good internal consistency (α = .82), correlations item-total between .36 and .60, and good criteria validity (p < .001). Its use for research is therefore appropriate. In a second study, significant differences were found between the participants' four relationship statuses (dating non-cohabiting and cohabiting relationships, formal unions and marriage) (p < .001; η2 p = .03). Results showed that married participants were more committed than those in a formal union, even when controlling for several relational and socio-demographic variables. No differences were found between cohabiting and non-cohabiting dating participants. Men reported higher levels of commitment than women (p < .001; η2 p = .02). Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  6. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... economy of the United States constituted by the grave acts of terrorism and threats of terrorism committed... United States nationals or the United States. The actions of persons who commit, threaten to commit, or... policy, and economy of the United States. For this reason, the national emergency declared in...

  7. Marketing 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla A.

    1997-01-01

    A marketing model for camps includes a mix of services, presentation, and communication elements that promote the virtues of camp, convince potential campers and their families of the benefits of camp, and successfully distinguish the camp from others. Includes resources related to marketing strategies, theme merchandise, and market trends…

  8. Quantum bit commitment with cheat sensitive binding and approximate sealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-Bing; Xu, Sheng-Wei; Huang, Wei; Wan, Zong-Jie

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a cheat-sensitive quantum bit commitment scheme based on single photons, in which Alice commits a bit to Bob. Here, Bob’s probability of success at cheating as obtains the committed bit before the opening phase becomes close to \\frac{1}{2} (just like performing a guess) as the number of single photons used is increased. And if Alice alters her committed bit after the commitment phase, her cheating will be detected with a probability that becomes close to 1 as the number of single photons used is increased. The scheme is easy to realize with present day technology.

  9. Commitment: Functions, Formation, and the Securing of Romantic Attachment.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Scott M; Rhoades, Galena K; Whitton, Sarah W

    2010-12-01

    In this theoretical paper, we review central concepts in the psychological literature on relationship commitment to provide a foundation to discuss two themes related to long-term romantic relationships and marriages. First, we describe and discuss the role that commitment plays in stabilizing romantic attachment. Second, we use empirical research on cohabitation to highlight how the formation of commitment can be undermined by what are now common trajectories of couple development. The first topic underscores an increasingly important role for commitment in an age of companionate marriage. The second topic draws attention to dynamics that can affect the strength of romantic commitments, especially in marriage.

  10. Advanced Concepts. Chapter 21

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Mulqueen, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Before there is a funded space mission, there must be a present need for the mission. Space science and exploration are expensive, and without a well-defined and justifiable need, no one is going to commit significant funding for any space endeavor. However, as discussed in Chapter 1, applications of space technology and many and broad, hence there are many ways to determine and establish a mission need. Robotic science missions are justified by their science return. To be selected for flight, questions like these must be addressed: What is the science question that needs answering, and will the proposed mission be the most cost-effective way to answer it? Why does answering the question require an expensive space flight, instead of some ground-based alternative? If the question can only be answered by flying in space, then why is this approach better than other potential approaches? How much will it cost? And is the technology required to answer the question in hand and ready to use? If not, then how much will it cost and how long will it take to mature the technology to a usable level? There are also many ways to justify human exploration missions, including science return, technology advancement, as well as intangible reasons, such as national pride. Nonetheless, many of the questions that need answering, are similar to those for robotic science missions: Where are the people going, why, and will the proposed mission be the most cost-effective way to get there? What is the safest method to achieve the goal? How much will it cost? And is the technology required to get there and keep the crew alive in hand and ready to use? If not, then how much will it cost and how long will it take to mature the technology to a usable level? Another reason for some groups sending spacecraft into space is for profit. Telecommunications, geospatial imaging, and tourism are examples of proven, market-driven space missions and applications. For this specific set of users, the

  11. 75 FR 30010 - Improving Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice of Agenda and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Improving Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice... discuss issues related to unit commitment software. The technical conference will be held from 8 a.m. to 5..., Secretary. Agenda for AD10-12 Staff Technical Conference on Unit Commitment Software Federal...

  12. The Socialist Market Economy and Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yixian, Li

    2006-01-01

    The [Chinese Communist] Party's Fourteenth Congress unequivocally confirmed the building of a socialist market system. The Third Plenary Session of the Party's Twelfth Congress in 1984 propounding the market led to economic reforms and the advancing of the theory of a socialist market economy. It constitutes a deepened understanding of the…

  13. Advanced Engineering Fibers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edie, Dan D.; Dunham, Michael G.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Clemson University's Advanced Engineered Fibers Laboratory, which was established to provide national leadership and expertise in developing the processing equipment and advance fibers necessary for the chemical, fiber, and textile industries to enter the composite materials market. Discusses some of the laboratory's activities in…

  14. Marketing and public relations in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Mayer, T A; Tilson, W; Hemingway, J

    1987-02-01

    This article outlines the elements of successful ED marketing, as well as providing definitions for terms used within the marketing process. In today's competition and rapidly changing environment, marketing and public relations are tools that every ED Medical Director may want to consider. Because the marketing process requires a great deal of time and effort, as well as a high degree of intellectual honesty, it should never be entered into without a strong commitment. However, marketing the ED can be among the most productive, stimulating, and gratifying experiences for the ED Medical Director, the emergency department physicians, and all ED service personnel.

  15. Improving Deterministic Reserve Requirements for Security Constrained Unit Commitment and Scheduling Problems in Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fengyu

    Traditional deterministic reserve requirements rely on ad-hoc, rule of thumb methods to determine adequate reserve in order to ensure a reliable unit commitment. Since congestion and uncertainties exist in the system, both the quantity and the location of reserves are essential to ensure system reliability and market efficiency. The modeling of operating reserves in the existing deterministic reserve requirements acquire the operating reserves on a zonal basis and do not fully capture the impact of congestion. The purpose of a reserve zone is to ensure that operating reserves are spread across the network. Operating reserves are shared inside each reserve zone, but intra-zonal congestion may block the deliverability of operating reserves within a zone. Thus, improving reserve policies such as reserve zones may improve the location and deliverability of reserve. As more non-dispatchable renewable resources are integrated into the grid, it will become increasingly difficult to predict the transfer capabilities and the network congestion. At the same time, renewable resources require operators to acquire more operating reserves. With existing deterministic reserve requirements unable to ensure optimal reserve locations, the importance of reserve location and reserve deliverability will increase. While stochastic programming can be used to determine reserve by explicitly modelling uncertainties, there are still scalability as well as pricing issues. Therefore, new methods to improve existing deterministic reserve requirements are desired. One key barrier of improving existing deterministic reserve requirements is its potential market impacts. A metric, quality of service, is proposed in this thesis to evaluate the price signal and market impacts of proposed hourly reserve zones. Three main goals of this thesis are: 1) to develop a theoretical and mathematical model to better locate reserve while maintaining the deterministic unit commitment and economic dispatch

  16. Supersonic market and economic analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochte, L. S.

    1980-01-01

    Advanced supersonic transport markets of the free world were projected for the period 1985 to 2004. Passenger traffic volume and airplane range and seat capacity requirements were estimated for Mach 2.2 service by international regional area market areas and by city pairs within and between these areas. Market factors and traffic factors examined include variable loads, growth rates, supersonic transport market shares, and schedule frequencies considering the different makeup of passenger traffic and individual city pairs. Direct, indirect, and total operating costs and yield levels were economically analyzed for first class and full fare economy class traffic.

  17. Orphan drugs for rare diseases: is it time to revisit their special market access status?

    PubMed

    Simoens, Steven; Cassiman, David; Dooms, Marc; Picavet, Eline

    2012-07-30

    Orphan drugs are intended for diseases with a very low prevalence, and many countries have implemented legislation to support market access of orphan drugs. We argue that it is time to revisit the special market access status of orphan drugs. Indeed, evidence suggests that there is no societal preference for treating rare diseases. Although society appears to assign a greater value to severity of disease, this criterion is equally relevant to many common diseases. Furthermore, the criterion of equity in access to treatment, which underpins orphan drug legislation, puts more value on health improvement in rare diseases than in common diseases and implies that population health is not maximized. Finally, incentives for the development, pricing and reimbursement of orphan drugs have created market failures, including monopolistic prices and the artificial creation of rare diseases. We argue that, instead of awarding special market access status to orphan drugs, there is scope to optimize research and development (R&D) of orphan drugs and to control prices of orphan drugs by means of, for example, patent auctions, advance purchase commitments, pay-as-you-go schemes and dose-modification studies. Governments should consider carefully the right incentive strategy for R&D of orphan drugs in rare diseases.

  18. Capacity Markets and Market Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, Hoff

    2006-04-15

    The good news is that market stability can be achieved through a combination of longer-term contracts, auctions for far enough in the future to permit new entry, a capacity management system, and a demand curve. The bad news is that if and when stable capacity markets are designed, the markets may seem to be relatively close to where we started - with integrated resource planning. Market ideologues will find this anathema. (author)

  19. Patient safety: honoring advanced directives.

    PubMed

    Tice, Martha A

    2007-02-01

    Healthcare providers typically think of patient safety in the context of preventing iatrogenic injury. Prevention of falls and medication or treatment errors is the typical focus of adverse event analyses. If healthcare providers are committed to honoring the wishes of patients, then perhaps failures to honor advanced directives should be viewed as reportable medical errors.

  20. Combined Effects of the Three Commitment Components on Focal and Discretionary Behaviors: A Test of Meyer and Herscovitch's Propositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellatly, Ian R.; Meyer, John P.; Luchak, Andrew A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test theoretical propositions advanced by Meyer and Herscovitch (2001) concerning the interactive effects of affective, normative, and continuance commitment on focal (staying intentions) and discretionary (citizenship) behavior. Study measures were gathered from a sample of 545 hospital employees. Several a priori…

  1. Toward a Theory of Organizational Commitment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    A0D-AI03 358 OREGON UNIV EUGENE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT AND--ETC F/0 5/1 TOWARD A THEORY OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT.(U) AUG A1 R T MOWDAY, R...M STEERS, L W PORTER N00014-81-K 0026 UNCLASSIFIED TR-8 ML EhEE"hE hhEEE~EE7hhhh LEVEr / 00 Gradate choo of anagmen Univrsit of rego -VI Euee0reo 70...Oregon Eugene , OR 97403 Dr. Gerald R. Stoffer Aerospace Psychologist LT, Medical Service Corp. Code N-712 HAVTRAEQUIPCEN Orlando, FL 32813 Dr

  2. International Military Commitment: A Conceptual Definition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    commitments chiefly in military terms--most recently, in terms of the threat to our interest posed by the Soviet Union and by Communist China" (1973...nd accurate the poli t i c i t, n policy o 198 0’s wi1 i (Sprout i.arch 25/ ns, Europea t i-polar condi t ions h y d i fferont f...behavior had been effected -- if only crudely and at a very basic level. A nuclear weapons duopoly by the Lmited States and the Soviet Union and a less

  3. The dynamics of professional commitment: immigrant physicians from the former Soviet Union in Israel.

    PubMed

    Shuval, J T; Bernstein, J

    1996-04-01

    The paper examines professional commitment among physicians who immigrated to Israel form the former Soviet Union during the early 1990s. This population faces severe limits regarding occupational continuity because of the highly saturated market in which non-negligible groups will, in the long run, of necessity undergo occupational change. The theoretical background for the analysis is drawn from the literature regarding recent changes in professional roles with particular reference to the shifting meaning of work in post-modern societies and its consequences for occupational commitment. The professional context of medical practice in the former Soviet Union and the social and economic constraints of Israeli society in the 1990s set the scene for the analysis. Several dimensions of professional commitment are examined empirically, on the assumption that there are a variety of ways to consider the notion of commitment and that no one measure tells a complete story. Prolonged processes of deprofessionalization of medicine in the Soviet Union, suggest that medicine for most immigrant physicians is not so much a 'calling' to which they are devoted; rather it is a necessary means to gain a livelihood, the only occupation for which they have been trained for many years after stringent selection to medical school and the only job in which they have worked consistently since completing their formal training. Two and a half years after arrival in Israel the immigrant doctors are characterized by a short-range time perspective which makes them unwilling to accept the constraints of the saturated market; intense efforts are made by most to obtain a license despite the fact that only a fraction of them will be able to work in their profession on a regular basis. Despite this over-riding reality, many hope that they will be among the selected few who will be able to obtain a medical post.

  4. Management commitments and primary care: another lesson from Costa Rica for the world?

    PubMed

    Soors, Werner; De Paepe, Pierre; Unger, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Maintained dedication to primary care has fostered a public health delivery system with exceptional outcomes in Costa Rica. For more than a decade, management commitments have been part of Costa Rican health reform. We assessed the effect of the Costa Rican management commitments on access and quality of care and on compliance with their intended objectives. We constructed seven hypotheses on opinions of primary care providers. Through a mixed qualitative and quantitative approach, we tested these hypotheses and interpreted the research findings. Management commitments consume an excessive proportion of consultation time, inflate recordkeeping, reduce comprehensiveness in primary care consultations, and induce a disproportionate consumption of hospital emergency services. Their formulation relies on norms in need of optimization, their control on unreliable sources. They also affect professionalism. In Costa Rica, management commitments negatively affect access and quality of care and pose a threat to the public service delivery system. The failures of this pay-for-performance-like initiative in an otherwise well-performing health system cast doubts on the appropriateness of pay-for-performance for health systems strengthening in less advanced environments.

  5. Commitment and exploration as mechanisms of identity formation.

    PubMed

    Meeus, W; Iedema, J; Maassen, G H

    2002-06-01

    We report a two-wave longitudinal study of 1,571 Dutch adolescents concerning the role of commitment and exploration in identity development. We used the Utrecht-Groningen Identity Development Scale to measure commitment and exploration in the domains of relational and societal identity. Our results can be summarized in three points. (1) Commitment and exploration are related processes in the development of identity. Adolescents with strong commitments also frequently explore them, and adolescents with low exploration in general have weak commitments. (2) The longitudinal stability of commitment and exploration has a medium effect size. For relational identity the stability of commitment is greater than that of exploration, but this is not the case for societal identity. The explanation we give for the lack of this difference in stability between commitment and exploration in societal identity is that the formative period for societal identity comes primarily at the end of adolescence. In that connection, we conclude that for present-day Dutch adolescents the formation of relational identity probably precedes that of societal identity. (3) In neither identity domain is commitment predictive of exploration three years later, nor is the reverse the case. We conclude that no long-term developmental sequentiality of commitment and exploration was found, but the results do not rule out the possibility of short-term developmental sequentiality.

  6. Effects of Gender on Engineering Career Commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Anne M.

    Engineering has been one of the most difficult fields for 'women to enter and in which to succeed. Although the percentage of female engineers has Increased, women are still seriously underrcpresented in the workforce. This study examined the effect offender on career commitment, success, satisfaction, and involvement in engineering, and the effect of personality and work environment on these variables. Alumni from an engineering school in the northeastern United States were surveyed. The questionnaire was analyzed using statistical and descriptive methods to determine relationships among these variables. Women's commitment scores were lower than men's when controlled for other variables, including satisfaction and involvement. Men had longer tenure as engineers than women, even when controlled for year of graduation, professional engineering status, and number of children. Women did not leave engineering in different proportions than men, but they did earn significantly less despite controlling for year of graduation and number of hours worked weekly. Some gender differences in workplace experience were also found, including having colleagues act protectively, being mistaken for secretaries, and seeing men progress faster in their careers than equally qualified women.

  7. Rationales for the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willett, John C. (Editor); Merceret, Francis J. (Editor); Krider, E. Philip; O'Brien, T. Paul; Dye, James E.; Walterscheid, Richard L.; Stolzenburg, Maribeth; Cummins, Kenneth; Christian, Hugh J.; Madura, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Since natural and triggered lightning are demonstrated hazards to launch vehicles, payloads, and spacecraft, NASA and the Department of Defense (DoD) follow the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC) for launches from Federal Ranges. The LLCC were developed to prevent future instances of a rocket intercepting natural lightning or triggering a lightning flash during launch from a Federal Range. NASA and DoD utilize the Lightning Advisory Panel (LAP) to establish and develop robust rationale from which the criteria originate. The rationale document also contains appendices that provide additional scientific background, including detailed descriptions of the theory and observations behind the rationales. The LLCC in whole or part are used across the globe due to the rigor of the documented criteria and associated rationale. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) adopted the LLCC in 2006 for commercial space transportation and the criteria were codified in the FAA's Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for Safety of an Expendable Launch Vehicle (Appendix G to 14 CFR Part 417, (G417)) and renamed Lightning Flight Commit Criteria in G417.

  8. Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Religious Commitment of Full-Time University Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Donna; Sargeant, Marcel A.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of job satisfaction and organizational and religious commitment among full time workers at Akra University (a pseudonym) based on a number of demographic factors. Analysis of variance using the Games-Howell procedure revealed that workers who were older than age 46 years had higher job satisfaction and…

  9. Sociosexual orientation, commitment, and infidelity: a mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Mattingly, Brent A; Clark, Eddie M; Weidler, Daniel J; Bullock, Melinda; Hackathorn, Jana; Blankmeyer, Katheryn

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with an unrestricted sociosexual orientation (SO) are less committed to their romantic relationships and more likely to engage in infidelity. Furthermore, commitment is negatively associated with tendencies to cheat. However, no previous research has examined the possible mediating role of commitment in the relationship between SO and infidelity. The current study examined whether commitment mediated the relationship between SO and willingness to engage in three types of cheating behaviors (Ambiguous, Deceptive, and Explicit). Results suggested that commitment partially mediated the relationship between SO and infidelity, such that unrestricted individuals had lower commitment, which in turn led to a greater likelihood of cheating. Implications of this association and directions for future research are discussed.

  10. Conflicting pressures on romantic relationship commitment for anxiously attached individuals.

    PubMed

    Joel, Samantha; MacDonald, Geoff; Shimotomai, Atsushi

    2011-02-01

    Anxious attachment predicts strong desires for intimacy and stability in romantic relationships, yet the relation between anxious attachment and romantic commitment is unclear. We propose that extant literature has failed to find a consistent relation because anxiously attached individuals experience conflicting pressures on commitment. Data from Australia (N=137) show that relationship satisfaction and felt security each act as suppressors of a positive relation between anxious attachment and commitment. Data from Japan (N=159) replicate the suppression effect of felt security and also demonstrate that the residual positive relation between anxious attachment and commitment can be partly explained by dependence on the partner. These findings suggest that anxiously attached individuals may be ambivalent about commitment. Dissatisfaction and worries about negative evaluation appear to exert downward pressure on commitment, counteracting the upward pressure that is exerted by factors such as relational dependency.

  11. Experimental bit commitment based on quantum communication and special relativity.

    PubMed

    Lunghi, T; Kaniewski, J; Bussières, F; Houlmann, R; Tomamichel, M; Kent, A; Gisin, N; Wehner, S; Zbinden, H

    2013-11-01

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which Bob wishes to commit a secret bit to Alice. Perfectly secure bit commitment between two mistrustful parties is impossible through asynchronous exchange of quantum information. Perfect security is however possible when Alice and Bob split into several agents exchanging classical and quantum information at times and locations suitably chosen to satisfy specific relativistic constraints. Here we report on an implementation of a bit commitment protocol using quantum communication and special relativity. Our protocol is based on [A. Kent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 130501 (2012)] and has the advantage that it is practically feasible with arbitrary large separations between the agents in order to maximize the commitment time. By positioning agents in Geneva and Singapore, we obtain a commitment time of 15 ms. A security analysis considering experimental imperfections and finite statistics is presented.

  12. Research on unit commitment with large-scale wind power connected power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Ran; Zhang, Baoqun; Chi, Zhongjun; Gong, Cheng; Ma, Longfei; Yang, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale integration of wind power generators into power grid brings severe challenges to power system economic dispatch due to its stochastic volatility. Unit commitment including wind farm is analyzed from the two parts of modeling and solving methods. The structures and characteristics can be summarized after classification has been done according to different objective function and constraints. Finally, the issues to be solved and possible directions of research and development in the future are discussed, which can adapt to the requirements of the electricity market, energy-saving power generation dispatching and smart grid, even providing reference for research and practice of researchers and workers in this field.

  13. Signaling Networks that Control the Lineage Commitment and Differentiation of Bone Cells

    PubMed Central

    Soltanoff, Carrie S.; Chen, Wei; Yang, Shuying; Li, Yi-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Osteoblasts and osteoclasts are the two major bone cells involved in the bone remodeling process. Osteoblasts are responsible for bone formation while osteoclasts are the bone-resorbing cells. The major event that triggers osteogenesis and bone remodeling is the transition of mesenchymal stem cells into differentiating osteoblast cells and monocyte/macrophage precursors into differentiating osteoclasts. Imbalance in differentiation and function of these two cell types will result in skeletal diseases such as osteoporosis, Paget’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis, osteopetrosis, periodontal disease, and bone cancer metastases. Osteoblast and osteoclast commitment and differentiation are controlled by complex activities involving signal transduction and transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Recent advances in molecular and genetic studies using gene targeting in mice enable a better understanding of the multiple factors and signaling networks that control the differentiation process at a molecular level. This review summarizes recent advances in studies of signaling transduction pathways and transcriptional regulation of osteoblast and osteoclast cell lineage commitment and differentiation. Understanding the signaling networks that control the commitment and differentiation of bone cells will not only expand our basic understanding of the molecular mechanisms of skeletal development but will also aid our ability to develop therapeutic means of intervention in skeletal diseases. PMID:19191755

  14. Which serial killers commit suicide? An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Lester, David; White, John

    2012-11-30

    In a sample of 483 serial killers, 6.2% were documented to have committed suicide. Those who committed suicide were found to come from more dysfunctional homes characterized by more psychiatric disturbance in the parents. The sexual acts involved in the murders by the suicides seemed to be more deviant in some aspects, such as committing more bizarre sexual acts or more often taping the murder.

  15. Creating effective social marketing: let your customer be your guide.

    PubMed

    Brookes, R

    2000-02-01

    Social marketing uses commercial marketing techniques to change behaviors that benefit individuals or society in general. Unlike conventional marketing, which seeks to sell products or services, social marketing aims to promote voluntary behavior change. Some examples of behaviors that have changed due to social marketing are: using seat belts, wearing bike helmets, child immunizations, and smoking cessation. Although good social marketing campaigns use the same techniques as that of commercial marketers, by letting the customer be the guide for all major decisions, it is not primarily advertising and is not about top-down planning and decisions. Instead, it is about having a consumer orientation, which means understanding the target audience very well. An effective social marketer must be committed to ongoing communication with the audience in order to create programs, products, or practice that enable them to make the changes desired.

  16. Synergy between intention recognition and commitments in cooperation dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Han, The Anh; Santos, Francisco C; Lenaerts, Tom; Pereira, Luís Moniz

    2015-03-20

    Commitments have been shown to promote cooperation if, on the one hand, they can be sufficiently enforced, and on the other hand, the cost of arranging them is justified with respect to the benefits of cooperation. When either of these constraints is not met it leads to the prevalence of commitment free-riders, such as those who commit only when someone else pays to arrange the commitments. Here, we show how intention recognition may circumvent such weakness of costly commitments. We describe an evolutionary model, in the context of the one-shot Prisoner's Dilemma, showing that if players first predict the intentions of their co-player and propose a commitment only when they are not confident enough about their prediction, the chances of reaching mutual cooperation are largely enhanced. We find that an advantageous synergy between intention recognition and costly commitments depends strongly on the confidence and accuracy of intention recognition. In general, we observe an intermediate level of confidence threshold leading to the highest evolutionary advantage, showing that neither unconditional use of commitment nor intention recognition can perform optimally. Rather, our results show that arranging commitments is not always desirable, but that they may be also unavoidable depending on the strength of the dilemma.

  17. Synergy between intention recognition and commitments in cooperation dilemmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, The Anh; Santos, Francisco C.; Lenaerts, Tom; Pereira, Luís Moniz

    2015-03-01

    Commitments have been shown to promote cooperation if, on the one hand, they can be sufficiently enforced, and on the other hand, the cost of arranging them is justified with respect to the benefits of cooperation. When either of these constraints is not met it leads to the prevalence of commitment free-riders, such as those who commit only when someone else pays to arrange the commitments. Here, we show how intention recognition may circumvent such weakness of costly commitments. We describe an evolutionary model, in the context of the one-shot Prisoner's Dilemma, showing that if players first predict the intentions of their co-player and propose a commitment only when they are not confident enough about their prediction, the chances of reaching mutual cooperation are largely enhanced. We find that an advantageous synergy between intention recognition and costly commitments depends strongly on the confidence and accuracy of intention recognition. In general, we observe an intermediate level of confidence threshold leading to the highest evolutionary advantage, showing that neither unconditional use of commitment nor intention recognition can perform optimally. Rather, our results show that arranging commitments is not always desirable, but that they may be also unavoidable depending on the strength of the dilemma.

  18. [The publication and its commitment to the society].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Publishing a research is one of the most important achievements for a researcher, since it is one of the tools to evaluate his scientific work. This achievement has a three-dimensional commitment: the personal commitment, the commitment with the population from which the data were obtained, and the commitment to the institution where he works. Therefore, publishing in the Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social should be a priority and an honor for a researcher of this Institution, since he is working with it to provide solutions to medical problems that affect their beneficiaries.

  19. Outpatient commitment and procedural due process.

    PubMed

    Player, Candice Teri-Lowe

    2015-01-01

    A large empirical literature on Kendra's Law has assessed the impact of court ordered outpatient treatment on outcomes such as treatment adherence, psychiatric hospitalization, quality of life, and treatment costs. Missing from the empirical literature, however, is a better understanding of procedural due process under Kendra's Law. Procedural due process concerns the safeguards that must be in place when governments deprive persons of their liberties, for example--notice, the right to a hearing and the right to appeal. This article reports the findings from a qualitative study of procedural due process and assisted outpatient treatment hearings under Kendra's Law. Attorneys reported significant barriers to effective advocacy on behalf of their clients. Further, despite the shift from a medical model of civil commitment to a judicial model in the 1970s, by and large judges continue to accord great deference to clinical testimony.

  20. Neuronal Polarity: Demarcation, growth and commitment

    PubMed Central

    Cáceres, Alfredo; Ye, Bing; Dotti, Carlos G.

    2012-01-01

    In a biological sense, polarity refers to the extremity of the main axis of an organelle, cell, or organism. In neurons, morphological polarity begins with the appearance of the first neurite from the cell body. In multipolar neurons, a second phase of polarization occurs when a single neurite initiates a phase of rapid growth to become the neuron’s axon, while the others later differentiate as dendrites. Finally, during a third phase, axons and dendrites develop an elaborate architecture, acquiring special morphological and molecular features that commit them to their final identities. Mechanistically, each phase must be preceded by spatial restriction of growth activity. We will review recent work on the mechanisms underlying the polarized growth of neurons. PMID:22726583

  1. Nanotechnology to drive stem cell commitment.

    PubMed

    Bressan, Eriberto; Carraro, Amedeo; Ferroni, Letizia; Gardin, Chiara; Sbricoli, Luca; Guazzo, Riccardo; Stellini, Edoardo; Roman, Marco; Pinton, Paolo; Sivolella, Stefano; Zavan, Barbara

    2013-03-01

    Stem cells (SCs) are undifferentiated cells responsible for the growth, homeostasis and repair of many tissues. The maintenance and survival of SCs is strongly influenced by several stimuli from the local microenvironment. The majority of signaling molecules interact with SCs at the nanoscale level. Therefore, scaffolds with surface nanostructures have potential applications for SCs and in the field of regenerative medicine. Although some strategies have already reached the field of cell biology, strategies based on modification at nanoscale level are new players in the fields of SCs and tissue regeneration. The introduction of the possibility to perform such modifications to these fields is probably due to increasing improvements in nanomaterials for biomedical applications, as well as new insights into SC biology. The aim of the present review is to exhibit the most recent applications of nanostructured materials that drive the commitment of adult SCs for potential clinical applications.

  2. Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stancil, Ronald A., Sr.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the Marketing Education program at West Haven (CT) High School in West Haven, Connecticut, that promotes skills for life and attributes, enhances the academic program, and develops leaders out of ordinary students through an interactive curriculum. The three components of West Haven's marketing and management program are (1)…

  3. Marketing Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Eric

    1998-01-01

    All of our ideas have been field tested and have proven effective in our environment. Our objectives are: We will share our ideas about marketing training and what we've implemented at Michoud Space Systems. You will go away with at least one new idea or insight about how to more effectively market your training.

  4. Agricultural Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helt, Lawrence; And Others

    Designed for use in farm business management adult programs, this marketing curriculum includes six teaching lessons and professional staff products. The following topics are covered in the lessons: introduction to marketing; interpretation of price/demand/supply cycles and fundamental outlook trends (carryover/projections/disappearance); farmers'…

  5. Tourism Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document contains teacher materials for a 6-unit, 1-year distributive education course in marketing tourism offered in grades 11 and 12 in North Carolina. Although in general the material presented concerns marketing tourism anywhere, some of it is specifically related to tourism within North Carolina. A purpose statement explains the…

  6. Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment: Affective Commitment Predictors in a Group of Professionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferretti, Maria Santa

    Job satisfaction and organizational commitment have long been identified as relevant factors for the well-being of individuals within an organization and the success of the organization itself. As the well-being can be, in principle, considered as emergent from the influence of a number of factors, the main goal of a theory of organizations is to identify these factors and the role they can play. In this regard job satisfaction and organizational commitment have been often identified with structural factors allowing an organization to be considered as a system, or a wholistic entity, rather than a simple aggregate of individuals. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that job satisfaction has a significant, direct effect on determining individuals' attachment to an organization and a significant but indirect effect on their intention to leave a company. However, a complete assessment of the role of these factors in establishing and keeping the emergence of an organization is still lacking, due to shortage of measuring instruments and to practical difficulties in interviewing organization members. The present study aims to give a further contribution to what is currently known about the relationship between job satisfaction and affective commitment by using a group of professionals, all at management level. A questionnaire to measure these constructs, following a pilot study, was designed and administered to 1042 participants who were all professionals and had the title of industrial manager or director. The factors relating to job satisfaction and the predictive value of these factors (to predict an employee's emotional involvement with their organization) were simultaneously tested by a confirmative factorial model. The results were generalized with a multi-sample procedure by using models of structural equations. This procedure was used to check whether these factors could be considered or not as causes producing the measured affective commitment. The results

  7. Fundamentals of Marketing Core Curriculum. Test Items and Assessment Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Clifton L.; And Others

    This document contains multiple choice test items and assessment techniques for Missouri's fundamentals of marketing core curriculum. The core curriculum is divided into these nine occupational duties: (1) communications in marketing; (2) economics and marketing; (3) employment and advancement; (4) human relations in marketing; (5) marketing…

  8. Sense or Sensibility?: How Commitment Mediates the Role of Self-Service Technology on Loyalty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sangeeta; Olsen, Line Lervik

    It has been well documented that employing self-service technology (SST) results in considerable cost savings but few studies have examined its impact on consumers’ behavior. We apply a well-recognized model from the field of services marketing in an SST context. We examine how the established relationships between satisfaction, affective and calculative commitments, and loyalty are affected when the service is provided through a technology interface as opposed to service personnel. We then present two alternative perspectives on the role of SST. The first is based on the predominant assumption that SST is a moderator of the relationship between customer loyalty and its drivers, while the other rests on the assumption that SST is just another context and that its role in affecting customer loyalty is mediated by drivers of loyalty. A cross-sectional study conducted in the banking industry shows that SST does not change everything. The classical model of how customers evaluate services and the predictors of loyalty are replicated in the SST setting. Interestingly, SST does not have a direct influence on loyalty by itself but its effects are mediated by commitment. However, it is the affective commitment that is more important in forming loyalty toward the service provider.

  9. Why the ninth circuit court's decision on contracts signed during the western markets crisis is a call for FERC to enhance its oversight of market competitiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Schotland, Sara D.; Bidstrup, W. Richard; Morrissey, Jennifer A.

    2007-03-15

    Current complaints about problems in the nascent wholesale energy markets should not allow buyers to escape their contractual obligations. It would throw out the baby with the bathwater if the December 2006 decisions provide an excuse for buyers to renege on contractual commitments because today's energy markets are imperfect. (author)

  10. Commitment and self-control in a prisoner's dilemma game.

    PubMed

    Locey, Matthew L; Rachlin, Howard

    2012-07-01

    Humans often make seemingly irrational choices in situations of conflict between a particular smaller-sooner reinforcer and a more abstract, temporally extended, but larger reinforcer. In two experiments, the extent to which the availability of commitment responses-self-imposed restrictions on future choices-might improve self-control in such situations was investigated. Participants played a prisoner's dilemma game against a computer that played a tit-for-tat strategy-cooperating after a participant cooperated, defecting after a participant defected. Defecting produced a small-immediate reinforcer (consisting of points convertible to gift cards) whereas cooperating increased the amount of subsequent reinforcers, yielding a greater overall reinforcer rate. Participants were normally free to cooperate or defect on each trial. Additionally, they could choose to make a commitment response that forced their choice for the ensuing five trials. For some participants, the commitment response forced cooperation; for others, it forced defection. Most participants, with either commitment response available, chose to commit repeatedly despite a minor point loss for doing so. After extended exposure to these contingencies, the commit-to-cooperate group cooperated significantly more than a control group (with no commitment available). The commit-to-defect group cooperated significantly less than the control group. When both commitment alternatives were simultaneously available-one for cooperation and one for defection-cooperation commitment was strongly preferred. In Experiment 2, the commitment alternative was removed at the end of the session; gains in cooperation, relative to the control group, were not sustained in the absence of the self-imposed behavioral scaffold.

  11. Brazil's Market for Trading Forest Certificates.

    PubMed

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Rajão, Raoni; Merry, Frank; Rodrigues, Hermann; Davis, Juliana; Lima, Letícia; Macedo, Marcia; Coe, Michael; Carneiro, Arnaldo; Santiago, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Brazil faces an enormous challenge to implement its revised Forest Code. Despite big losses for the environment, the law introduces new mechanisms to facilitate compliance and foster payment for ecosystem services (PES). The most promising of these is a market for trading forest certificates (CRAs) that allows landowners to offset their restoration obligations by paying for maintaining native vegetation elsewhere. We analyzed the economic potential for the emerging CRA market in Brazil and its implications for PES programs. Results indicate a potential market for trading 4.2 Mha of CRAs with a gross value of US$ 9.2±2.4 billion, with main regional markets forming in the states of Mato Grosso and São Paulo. This would be the largest market for trading forests in the world. Overall, the potential supply of CRAs in Brazilian states exceeds demand, creating an opportunity for additional PES programs to use the CRA market. This expanded market could provide not only monetary incentives to conserve native vegetation, but also environmental co-benefits by fostering PES programs focused on biodiversity, water conservation, and climate regulation. Effective implementation of the Forest Code will be vital to the success of this market and this hurdle brings uncertainty into the market. Long-term commitment, both within Brazil and abroad, will be essential to overcome the many challenges ahead.

  12. Commit* to change? A call to end the publication of the phrase ‘commit* suicide’

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Countering stigma is a fundamental facet of suicide prevention efforts.  Integral to this is the promotion of accurate and sensitive language.  The phrase ‘commit* suicide’ has prompted marked opposition primarily due to the connotations of immorality and illegality.  Methods. The study investigated the frequency of the use of the wordstem ‘commit’, in relation to self-harm and suicidal behaviours, in the three leading suicide-specific academic journals between 2000 and 2015.  Results. One third (34%) of articles published since the year 2000 used the word ‘commit*’ when describing an act of self-harm or suicide. Over half of these articles (57%) used the phrase on more than one occasion, with 6% using it more than 10 times in the same manuscript. The percentage of papers utilising the word ‘commit*’ has fluctuated over time, but there is a promising downward trend in the use of this phrase from 33% in 2000 to 13% in 2015 (p < 0.001).  Discussion. We advocate for the implementation of publication requirements regarding the language used when discussing suicide. Whilst we call for collective responsibility amongst academics and clinicians, editors hold a unique position in ensuring that outdated, inaccurate and stigma-laden terms are expunged from the scientific literature. PMID:28286872

  13. 10 CFR 609.8 - Term sheets and conditional commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Term sheets and conditional commitments. 609.8 Section 609.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS LOAN GUARANTEES FOR PROJECTS THAT EMPLOY INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 609.8 Term sheets and conditional commitments. (a) DOE, after review...

  14. Enhancing Commitment Improves Adherence to a Medical Regimen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Dana E.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Evaluated commitment-based intervention for improvement of adherence to 10-day antibiotic regimen. Subjects were 60 college students. Experimental subjects made verbal and written commitments for adherence and completed tasks designed to increase their investment in medication regimen. Controls performed similarly structured tasks unrelated to…

  15. 49 CFR 611.11 - Local financial commitment criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MAJOR CAPITAL INVESTMENT PROJECTS § 611.11 Local financial... proposed project is supported by an acceptable degree of local financial commitment, as required by section 5309(e)(1)(C). The local financial commitment to a proposed project will be evaluated according to...

  16. A Longitudinal Investigation of Commitment Dynamics in Cohabiting Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Galena K.; Stanley, Scott M.; Markman, Howard J.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study followed 120 cohabiting, opposite-sex couples over 8 months to test hypotheses derived from commitment theory about how two types of commitment (dedication and constraint) operate during cohabitation. In nearly half the couples, there were large differences between partners in terms of dedication. These differences were…

  17. Teacher Team Commitment, Teamwork and Trust: Exploring Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sungmin; Henkin, Alan B.; Egley, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate relationships between teamwork, trust and teacher team commitment. Design/methodology/approach: Research has confirmed the value-added effects of organizational commitment in terms of job performance, organizational effectiveness, and employee retention. This study focused on teacher teams as the unit of analysis, and…

  18. Commitment Contingencies in the Behavioral Treatment of Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Richard S.; Powers, Richard B.

    Commitment is a self-control technique to induce weight loss. Tow targets of commitment contingencies, completion of the study and behavior change, were examined among 42 female and 3 male subjects who made a monetary deposit to enroll in the 10-week program. The treatment consisted of self-monitoring of eating and exercise behavior. Subjects were…

  19. The Five Commitments: A Philosophical Framework Manifested through Dance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakamatsu, Kori

    2013-01-01

    The philosophical framework known as the Five Commitments was recently approved by the Governing Board of the Brigham Young University-Public School Partnership. The Five Commitments consist of: Civic Preparation and Engagement; Engaged Learning Through Nurturing Pedagogy; Equitable Access to Academic Knowledge and Achievement; Stewardship in…

  20. 38 CFR 36.4526 - Issuance of fund reservation commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... except with the written approval of the Department of Veterans Affairs. (b) Notwithstanding that direct... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Direct Loans § 36.4526 Issuance of fund reservation commitments... eligible for direct loans may apply for a commitment for the reservation of direct loan funds to be...

  1. The Application of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to Problem Anger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eifert, Georg H.; Forsyth, John P.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to familiarize clinicians with the use of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for problem anger by describing the application of ACT to a case of a 45-year-old man struggling with anger. ACT is an approach and set of intervention technologies that support acceptance and mindfulness processes linked with commitment and…

  2. 46 CFR 308.5 - Voluntary contract of commitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE General § 308.5 Voluntary contract of commitment. Applications for insurance on vessels described in § 308... obtained from the American War Risk Agency or MARAD. The effective date of the contract of commitment...

  3. Commitment, enjoyment and motivation in young soccer competitive players.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Mas, Alexandre; Palou, Pere; Gili, Margarita; Ponseti, Xavier; Borras, Pere A; Vidal, Josep; Cruz, Jaume; Torregrosa, Miquel; Villamarín, Francisco; Sousa, Catarina

    2010-11-01

    Building upon Deci's and Ryan (1985) Self-determination theory as well as the sportive behavioral correlates of the model of Commitment (Scanlan et al., 1976), this study tries to establish the relationship between motivation and commitment in youth sport. For this purpose 454 young competitive soccer players answered the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS) and the Sport Commitment Questionnaire (SCQ) during the regular season. The SMS measures the three dimensions of the Motivational continuum (the Amotivation, the Extrinsic Motivation and the Intrinsic Motivation). The SCQ measures the Sportive Commitment and its composing factors such as the Enjoyment, the Alternatives to the sport, and the Social Pressure. Our findings provided a clear pattern of the influence of motivation in sport enjoyment and commitment, outlining the positive contribution of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to enjoyment and commitment. Amotivation, contributes positively to alternatives to sport and negatively to enjoyment and commitment, It should be noted that extrinsic motivation has a higher contribution to enjoyment whereas intrinsic motivation has a higher contribution to commitment.

  4. Commitment to Community Practice among Social Work Students: Contributing Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehm, Amnon; Cohen, Ayala

    2013-01-01

    It is important to develop commitment to community practice among social work students to encourage their engagement in this field as professionals later in life. This research examines factors that affect commitment to community practice among social work students. A structured questionnaire was administered to 277 social work students in one…

  5. 48 CFR 3001.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... unauthorized commitments. 3001.602-3 Section 3001.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 3001.602-3 Ratification of unauthorized commitments. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) policy requires that acquisitions be made...

  6. 48 CFR 852.215-71 - Evaluation factor commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation factor....215-71 Evaluation factor commitments. As prescribed in 815.304-71(b), insert the following clause: Evaluation Factor Commitments (DEC 2009) The offeror agrees, if awarded a contract, to use the...

  7. Toward a Theory of Commitment To Environmental Education Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuman, Dorothea Kunz; Ham, Sam H.

    1997-01-01

    Addresses why some teachers are more committed than others to environmental education. Offers a theoretical perspective that links teachers' commitments to environmental education to significant life experiences and to beliefs and attitudes about teaching environmental concepts. Theoretical development led to a Model of Environmental Education…

  8. 40 CFR 52.238 - Commitment to undertake rulemaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Commitment to undertake rulemaking. 52.238 Section 52.238 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.238 Commitment to...

  9. Unconditionally secure commitment in position-based quantum cryptography

    PubMed Central

    Nadeem, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    A new commitment scheme based on position-verification and non-local quantum correlations is presented here for the first time in literature. The only credential for unconditional security is the position of committer and non-local correlations generated; neither receiver has any pre-shared data with the committer nor does receiver require trusted and authenticated quantum/classical channels between him and the committer. In the proposed scheme, receiver trusts the commitment only if the scheme itself verifies position of the committer and validates her commitment through non-local quantum correlations in a single round. The position-based commitment scheme bounds committer to reveal valid commitment within allocated time and guarantees that the receiver will not be able to get information about commitment unless committer reveals. The scheme works for the commitment of both bits and qubits and is equally secure against committer/receiver as well as against any third party who may have interests in destroying the commitment. Our proposed scheme is unconditionally secure in general and evades Mayers and Lo-Chau attacks in particular. PMID:25346509

  10. Principal Leadership and Organizational Commitment: The Principal Must Deliver.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, C. John; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Theoretically, schools led by principals providing structure, resources, consideration, useful influence, and professional support in an even-handed, noncontrolling manner should be work places that elicit teacher commitment. This hypothesis was tested using a sample of 72 New Jersey secondary schools. Close control blunts teacher commitment.…

  11. Organisational Commitments and Teaching Styles among Academics in Mainland China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-Fang; Jing, Li-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    This research pioneered the investigation of the predictive power of organisational commitments for academics' teaching styles. Participants were 370 faculty members from 15 higher educational institutions in Beijing, the People's Republic of China. Results showed that academics' organisational commitments as measured by the Organisational…

  12. The Relationship between Perceived Organizational Support and Teachers' Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nayir, Funda

    2012-01-01

    Problem Statement: It can be said that one of the key factors ensuring teachers adaptation to developments is teachers' level of commitment to their schools. In this commitment, the teacher is expected to internalize the organizational objectives. The teacher's perception of organizational support is important for him to internalize the…

  13. 17 CFR 229.1207 - (Item 1207) Delivery commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false (Item 1207) Delivery... Gas Producing Activities § 229.1207 (Item 1207) Delivery commitments. (a) If the registrant is... delivery commitments; and (3) The steps that the registrant has taken to ensure that available reserves...

  14. Teachers: Emotional Intelligence, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anari, Nahid Naderi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction, between emotional intelligence and organizational commitment, and between job satisfaction and organizational commitment among high-school English teachers. Furthermore, the study aims to examine the role of gender and age in…

  15. Attachment and Commitment in College Students' Romantic Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistole, M. Carole; Vocaturo, Loran C.

    1999-01-01

    Study examines attachment organization and dimensions of commitment in 101 females and 30 males with the use of an attachment questionnaire and the Commitment Inventory. Persons in a relationship who endorsed a secure or preoccupied attachment prototype reported stronger personal dedication than those endorsing a fearful-avoidant or…

  16. Primary Teacher Commitment and the Attractions of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troman, Geoff; Raggl, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The article examines data collected from six primary schools in the ESRC Project: Primary Teacher Identity, Commitment and Career in Performative Cultures, and compares it to classic analyses of teacher commitment made by Dan Lortie and Jennifer Nias in order to assess continuity and change. The "mission" to teach is still there, as is…

  17. 37 CFR 251.38 - Billing and commitment to standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Billing and commitment to... PROCEDURE Standards of Conduct § 251.38 Billing and commitment to standards. (a) Arbitrators are bound by... abide by all the terms therein, including all of the standards of conduct and billing...

  18. 37 CFR 251.38 - Billing and commitment to standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Billing and commitment to... PROCEDURE Standards of Conduct § 251.38 Billing and commitment to standards. (a) Arbitrators are bound by... abide by all the terms therein, including all of the standards of conduct and billing...

  19. School Health and Its Relation to Teacher Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nir, Adam

    2002-01-01

    Examines the relationship between teacher commitment to school and students and organizational health, using survey data from 54 elementary schools in Israel. Finds, for example, that the principal's administrative behavior is the most significant predictor of teacher commitment. (Contains 50 references.) (PKP)

  20. Considerations in civil commitment of individuals with substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Cavaiola, Alan A; Dolan, David

    2016-01-01

    Several states currently have enacted laws that allow for civil commitment for individuals diagnosed with severe substance use disorders. Civil commitment or involuntary commitment refers to the legal process by which individuals with mental illness are court-ordered into inpatient and/or outpatient treatment programs. Although initially civil commitment laws were intended for individuals with severe mental illness, these statutes have been extended to cover individuals with severe substance use disorders. Much of the recent legislation allowing for civil commitment of individuals with substance use disorders has come about in response to the heroin epidemic and is designed to provide an alternative to the unrelenting progression of opioid use disorders. Civil commitment also provides an opportunity for individuals with opioid use disorders to make informed decisions regarding ongoing or continued treatment. However, civil commitment also raises concerns regarding the potential violation of 14th Amendment rights, specifically pertaining to abuses of deprivation of liberty or freedom, which are guaranteed under the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution. This commentary examines these issues while supporting the need for effective brief civil commitment legislation in all states.

  1. Generational Differences as a Determinant of Women's Perspectives on Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Marcella D.; Kirk, Amy Manning; Bruhn, Rick

    2012-01-01

    Differences between 116 graduate and undergraduate women, representing 4 generations (i.e., Baby Boomers, Transitionals, Generation Xers, and Millennials), were studied to categorize earliest awareness and definitions of commitment in relationships. More than 63% of participants in each generation viewed relationship commitment in terms of…

  2. The Relationship between Career Growth and Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weng, Qingxiong; McElroy, James C.; Morrow, Paula C.; Liu, Rongzhi

    2010-01-01

    This research examines the relationship between employees' career growth and organizational commitment. Career growth was conceptualized by four factors: career goal progress, professional ability development, promotion speed and remuneration growth, while organizational commitment was conceptualized using Meyer and Allen's (1997) three component…

  3. What Factors Influence a Teacher's Commitment to Student Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dannetta, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    Study of the personal, organizational, student-related factors influencing teacher commitment to student learning. Finds, for example, that among personal factors intrinsic rewards are more important than extrinsic rewards, that among organization factors collegiality is an important influence on commitment to student learning, and that among…

  4. Transferability of Skills and Education and Thai Academics' Organisational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rungruang, Parisa; Donohue, Ross

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have examined the links between perceived transferability of education or perceived transferability of skills and organisational commitment. This paper reports on a study examining the relationships between transferability of education and transferability of skills, and the three components of organisational commitment (affective,…

  5. 49 CFR 611.11 - Local financial commitment criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Local financial commitment criteria. 611.11... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MAJOR CAPITAL INVESTMENT PROJECTS § 611.11 Local financial... proposed project is supported by an acceptable degree of local financial commitment, as required by...

  6. School-Based Management and Its Effect on Teacher Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nir, Adam E.

    2002-01-01

    Report of a study from Israel that reveals that SBM positively affects teachers' commitment to the profession and students' academic achievement, and negatively affects their commitment to the school and students' social well-being. Further, teachers' autonomy remained unchanged after SBM was introduced. (Contains 4 figures, a questionnaire, and…

  7. Investigation of the Relationship between Organizational Trust and Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastug, Gülsüm; Pala, Adem; Kumartasli, Mehmet; Günel, Ilker; Duyan, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Organizational trust and organizational commitment are considered as the most important entraining factors for organizational success. The most important factor in the formation of organizational commitment is trust that employees have in their organizations. In this study, the relationship between organizational trust and organizational…

  8. 48 CFR 2001.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... unauthorized commitments. 2001.602-3 Section 2001.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR... Authority and Responsibilities 2001.602-3 Ratification of unauthorized commitments. (a) The Government is..., all other terms of subpart 2001.6 are applicable. All ratification actions exceeding $2,500 shall...

  9. 48 CFR 2001.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... unauthorized commitments. 2001.602-3 Section 2001.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR... Authority and Responsibilities 2001.602-3 Ratification of unauthorized commitments. (a) The Government is..., all other terms of subpart 2001.6 are applicable. All ratification actions exceeding $2,500 shall...

  10. 48 CFR 2001.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... unauthorized commitments. 2001.602-3 Section 2001.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR... Authority and Responsibilities 2001.602-3 Ratification of unauthorized commitments. (a) The Government is..., all other terms of subpart 2001.6 are applicable. All ratification actions exceeding $2,500 shall...

  11. 48 CFR 2001.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... unauthorized commitments. 2001.602-3 Section 2001.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR... Authority and Responsibilities 2001.602-3 Ratification of unauthorized commitments. (a) The Government is..., all other terms of subpart 2001.6 are applicable. All ratification actions exceeding $2,500 shall...

  12. 48 CFR 2001.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... unauthorized commitments. 2001.602-3 Section 2001.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR... Authority and Responsibilities 2001.602-3 Ratification of unauthorized commitments. (a) The Government is..., all other terms of subpart 2001.6 are applicable. All ratification actions exceeding $2,500 shall...

  13. Impact of Satisfaction and Commitment on Teachers' Organizational Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sesen, Harun; Basim, Nejat H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the impact of job satisfaction and organizational commitment on teachers' organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) in a structural equation model. The study was employed to a group of teachers and their supervisors. The results indicated that job satisfaction and commitment to the school had an impact on OCBs of the teachers…

  14. Companies commit to emergency contraception -- have you?

    PubMed

    1999-12-01

    Despite the efforts of the medical community, as well as promotional efforts by pharmaceutical companies, relatively few women in the US have heard of emergency contraceptives (ECs). Gynetics, marketer of Preven, plans to file a new drug application for a levonorgestrel EC by the end of 1999, with an anticipated approval in the second half of 2000. Women's Capital Corp., marketer of Plan B, is also aiming for a national commercial launch of its product. According to a recently published acceptability study, women will use ECs when they are made available. A survey among 235 women at 13 Kaiser Permanente medical offices in San Diego, California, regarding their experiences with ECs showed that 91% were satisfied with ECs, and 97% said they would use ECs for emergencies only--dispelling fears that women would forego use of ongoing contraception. About 70% of the women who participated in the study were using a contraceptive method when they requested ECs.

  15. Representations of spacetime: Formalism and ontological commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, Jonathan Stanley

    This dissertation consists of two parts. The first is on the relation between formalism and ontological commitment in the context of theories of spacetime, and the second is on scientific realism. The first part begins with a look at how the substantivalist/relationist debate over the ontological status of spacetime has been influenced by a particular mathematical formalism, that of tensor analysis on differential manifolds (TADM). This formalism has motivated the substantivalist position known as manifold substantivalism. Chapter 1 focuses on the hole argument which maintains that manifold substantivalism is incompatible with determinism. I claim that the realist motivations underlying manifold substantivalism can be upheld, and the hole argument avoided, by adopting structural realism with respect to spacetime. In this context, this is the claim that it is the structure that spacetime points enter into that warrants belief and not the points themselves. In Chapter 2, an elimination principle is defined by means of which a distinction can be made between surplus structure and essential structure with respect to formulations of a theory in two distinct mathematical formulations and some prior ontological commitments. This principle is then used to demonstrate that manifold points may be considered surplus structure in the formulation of field theories. This suggests that, if we are disposed to read field theories literally, then, at most, it should be the essential structure common to all alternative formulations of such theories that should be taken literally. I also investigate how the adoption of alternative formalisms informs other issues in the philosophy of spacetime. Chapter 3 offers a realist position which takes a semantic moral from the preceding investigation and an epistemic moral from work done on reliability. The semantic moral advises us to read only the essential structure of our theories literally. The epistemic moral shows us that such structure

  16. Ideological commitment and posttraumatic stress in former Tamil child soldiers.

    PubMed

    Kanagaratnam, Pushpa; Raundalen, Magne; Asbjørnsen, Arve E

    2005-12-01

    This study focuses on the impact of present ideological commitment on posttraumatic stress symptoms in former child soldiers living in exile. Eighteen men and two women (aged 25-37), who had joined different Tamil armed groups in Sri Lanka between the ages of 13 and 17 years, participated. The Impact of Event Scale was used to measure posttraumatic symptoms. Qualitative methods were used to investigate the participants' ideological commitment. Participants reported being exposed to many potentially traumatizing events, and had high scores on the Impact of Event Scale. Twenty-five percent of the sample showed strong ideological commitment to the "cause". Ideological commitment at the present seemed to predict better mental health when exposure was less intense and overwhelming. Time had a negative impact on ideological commitment.

  17. Exploring commitment, professional identity, and support for student nurses.

    PubMed

    Clements, Andrew James; Kinman, Gail; Leggetter, Sandra; Teoh, Kevin; Guppy, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Problems with the recruitment and retention of nurses globally mean that insight into the factors that might increase retention in qualified staff and students is crucial. Despite clear links between work commitment and retention, there is little research exploring commitment in student nurses and midwives. This paper reports the findings of a qualitative study designed to provide insight into commitment using semi-structured interviews conducted with nine pre-registration students and a qualitative survey completed by 171 pre-registration students. Thematic analysis of the data emphasised the impact of placement experiences on commitment via interpersonal relationships. Students typically emphasised their professional identity as the basis for commitment, although many participants also highlighted a lack of acceptance by qualified practitioners, which reduced it. There was evidence that suggested that practitioner workload may impact the student experience due to challenges in making sufficient time to provide support. Implications for retention strategies are discussed.

  18. Nurses' perception of ethical climate and organizational commitment.

    PubMed

    Borhani, Fariba; Jalali, Tayebe; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Haghdoost, Aliakbar

    2014-05-01

    The high turnover of nurses has become a universal issue. The manner in which nurses view their organization's ethical climate has direct bearing on their organizational commitment. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between nurses' perception of ethical climate and organizational commitment in teaching hospitals in the southeastern region of Iran. A descriptive analytical design was used in this study. The sample consisted of 275 nurses working in four teaching hospitals in the southeastern region of Iran. The instruments used in this study included a demographic questionnaire, Ethical Climate Questionnaire, and Organizational Commitment Questionnaire. Data analysis was carried out using Pearson's correlation, t-test, and descriptive statistic through Statistical Package for Social Science, version 16. The result of this research indicated a positive correlation among professionalism, caring, rules, independence climate, and organizational commitment. Therefore, findings of this study are a guideline for researchers and managers alike who endeavor to improve organizational commitment.

  19. Marketing Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Gale; Kwielford, Merrilee Andersen

    2001-01-01

    Discusses marketing techniques for teacher librarians based on six levels: basic assumptions; library resource program, including attitudes for success; school, including a collaborative environment; administration, including program support; community, including awareness; and state and national, including professional participation. (LRW)

  20. Advanced payload concepts and system architecture for emerging services in Indian National Satellite Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, E. P.; Rao, N. Prahlad; Sarkar, S.; Singh, D. K.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past two decades Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) has developed and operationalized satellites to generate a large capacity of transponders for telecommunication service use in INSAT system. More powerful on-board transmitters are built to usher-in direct-to-home broadcast services. These have transformed the Satcom application scenario in the country. With the proliferation of satellite technology, a shift in the Indian market is witnessed today in terms of demand for new services like Broadband Internet, Interactive Multimedia, etc. While it is imperative to pay attention to market trends, ISRO is also committed towards taking the benefits of technological advancement to all round growth of our population, 70% of which dwell in rural areas. The initiatives already taken in space application related to telemedicine, tele-education and Village Resource Centres are required to be taken to a greater height of efficiency. These targets pose technological challenges to build a large capacity and cost-effective satellite system. This paper addresses advanced payload concepts and system architecture along with the trade-off analysis on design parameters in proposing a new generation satellite system capable of extending the reach of the Indian broadband structure to individual users, educational and medical institutions and enterprises for interactive services. This will be a strategic step in the evolution of INSAT system to employ advanced technology to touch every human face of our population.

  1. Moral Commitment in Intimate Committed Relationships: A Conceptualization from Cohabiting Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Amber Leighann

    2010-01-01

    Diverse types of intimate committed relationships, namely cohabiting same-sex and opposite-sex partnerships, are increasingly prevalent in the United States (Bumpass & Lu, 2000; Garber, 2005; U.S. Census Bureau, 2000). Given the rise in the number of individuals participating in intimate committed relationships outside of the marital context,…

  2. 77 FR 56519 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism On September 23, 2001, by Executive Order 13224, the... terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). The President... policy, and economy of the United States constituted by the grave acts of terrorism and threats...

  3. 78 FR 58149 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Vol. 78 Friday, No. 183 September 20, 2013 Part VI The President Notice of September 18, 2013--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78...

  4. Toward a multidimensional model of athletes' commitment to coach-athlete relationships and interdependent sport teams: a substantive-methodological synergy.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Ben; Gucciardi, Daniel F; Dimmock, James A

    2014-02-01

    Drawing from a three-factor model of organizational commitment, we sought to provide validity evidence for a multidimensional conceptualization designed to capture adolescent athletes' commitment to their coach-athlete relationship or their team. In Study 1, 335 individual-sport athletes (Mage = 17.32, SD = 1.38) completed instruments assessing affective, normative, and continuance commitment to their relationship with their coach, and in Study 2, contextually modified instruments were administered to assess interdependent-sport athletes' (N = 286, Mage = 16.31, SD = 1.33) commitment to their team. Bayesian structural equation modeling revealed support for a three-factor (in comparison with a single-factor) model, along with relations between commitment dimensions and relevant correlates (e.g., satisfaction, return intentions, cohesion) that were largely consistent with theory. Guided by recent advancements in Bayesian modeling, these studies provide a new commitment instrument with the potential for use and refinement in team- and relationship-based settings and offer preliminary support for a conceptual framework that may help advance our understanding of the factors underpinning individuals' engagement in sport.

  5. Relationship of High School Principal Organizational Commitment and Campus Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edison, David Allen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the relationship of Texas high school principals' organizational commitment and the academic performance of the high schools served by the principals. Three components of principal organizational commitment--affective commitment, continuance commitment, and normative commitment--were assessed using the…

  6. Establishing a Companywide Customer Orientation through Persuasive Internal Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Kathleen K.; Enis, Ben

    1990-01-01

    Argues that applying persuasion strategies to internal marketing efforts can facilitate the adoption of a customer orientation among employees and elicit greater commitment to the company and its goals. Examines four specific persuasion strategies: defining the customer satisfaction link; encouraging self-efficacy; providing rewards; and creating…

  7. 75 FR 45623 - Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice Establishing Date for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice... conferences regarding models and software related to wholesale electricity markets and planning: \\1\\ \\1... Software, 75 FR 27,341 (2010). June 2-3 Enhanced Unit-Commitment Models. June 9-10 Enhanced...

  8. Concept analysis of professional commitment in Iranian nurses

    PubMed Central

    Jafaragaee, Fateme; Parvizy, Soroor; Mehrdad, Neda; Rafii, Forough

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Professional commitment has been widely discussed during the last decade. There is no comprehensive definition about “professional commitment in Iranian nurses.” Hence, this study was conducted with the aim of analyzing the concept of professional commitment in Iranian nurses. Materials and Methods: Hybrid model was used in three phases. Firstly, in the theoretical phase, data were retrieved from the CINHAl, MEDLINE, PubMed, OVID, Google scholar, and SID databases. The literature search used the keywords “professional commitment” and “nursing.” The final sample included 27 papers published in English between 2001 and 2011.Secondly, in the fieldwork phase, deep interviews with five clinical nurses were carried out, and thirdly, in the final analytical phase, the obtained data from theoretical and fieldwork phases were combined and a comprehensive analysis was conducted. Results: Loyalty and tendency to remain in the profession and responsibility to the professional issues were extracted in theoretical phase. Commitment to promote caring abilities, satisfying of being a nurse, and belonging to the nursing profession were obtained in fieldwork phase. Finally, two main themes including “commitment to offering the best nursing care” and “commitment to promotion of the nursing profession” were extracted. Conclusion: Nursing is a humanistic profession; it has some particular characteristics due to the profession’s nature. In this paper, a definition composed of two main dimensions of professional commitment in nursing has been introduced. PMID:23922592

  9. Elementary teachers committed to actively teaching science and engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opperman, Julianne Radkowski

    Committed elementary teachers of science and engineering, members of a professional learning community called Collaborative Conversations in STEM, were studied to elicit their perceptions of experiences that influenced their commitment to, and their pedagogical content knowledge of, STEM teaching and learning. The hermeneutic phenomenological interviews enabled the teachers to express their beliefs in their own words. Data analysis employed a theoretical framework that investigated teacher epistemology and knowledge in light of their experiences. Findings revealed a web of lifelong experiences unique to each individual, and evidential of the committed elementary scientist-teachers' present day values, teaching epistemology, lifelong learning, and emotional and intellectual engagement. Scientist-teachers are individuals whose teaching and learning characteristics reflect those of scientists and engineers. Evidence indicated that no single transformative learning experience resulted in those elementary teachers' commitment to STEM teaching and learning, but recent professional development activities were influential. Formal K-16 STEM learning was not uniformly or positively influential to the teachers' commitment to, or knowledge of, STEM. Findings suggest that ongoing professional development for STEM teaching and learning can influence elementary teachers to become committed to actively teaching STEM. The Collaborative Conversations in STEM provided intellectual and emotional engagement that empowered the teachers to provide STEM teaching and learning for their students and their colleagues overcoming impediments encountered in a literacy-focused curriculum. Elementary teachers actively committed to teaching science and engineering can undergo further transformation and emerge as leaders.

  10. Abnormal brain structure in youth who commit homicide

    PubMed Central

    Cope, L.M.; Ermer, E.; Gaudet, L.M.; Steele, V.R.; Eckhardt, A.L.; Arbabshirani, M.R.; Caldwell, M.F.; Calhoun, V.D.; Kiehl, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Violence that leads to homicide results in an extreme financial and emotional burden on society. Juveniles who commit homicide are often tried in adult court and typically spend the majority of their lives in prison. Despite the enormous costs associated with homicidal behavior, there have been no serious neuroscientific studies examining youth who commit homicide. Methods Here we use neuroimaging and voxel-based morphometry to examine brain gray matter in incarcerated male adolescents who committed homicide (n = 20) compared with incarcerated offenders who did not commit homicide (n = 135). Two additional control groups were used to understand further the nature of gray matter differences: incarcerated offenders who did not commit homicide matched on important demographic and psychometric variables (n = 20) and healthy participants from the community (n = 21). Results Compared with incarcerated adolescents who did not commit homicide (n = 135), incarcerated homicide offenders had reduced gray matter volumes in the medial and lateral temporal lobes, including the hippocampus and posterior insula. Feature selection and support vector machine learning classified offenders into the homicide and non-homicide groups with 81% overall accuracy. Conclusions Our results indicate that brain structural differences may help identify those at the highest risk for committing serious violent offenses. PMID:24936430

  11. Efficient Non-interactive Universally Composable String-Commitment Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimaki, Ryo; Fujisaki, Eiichiro; Tanaka, Keisuke

    The universal composability (UC) for commitment is a very strong security notion. It guarantees that commitment schemes remain secure even if they are composed with arbitrary protocols and polynomially many copies of the schemes are run concurrently. Several UC commitment schemes in the common reference string (CRS) model have been proposed, but, they are either interactive commitment or bit-commitment (not string-commitment) schemes. We propose new non-interactive string-commitment schemes that achieve UC security in the CRS model assuming the difficulty of the decisional Diffie-Hellman problem or the decisional composite residuosity problem, but our schemes are not reusable. The main building blocks of our constructions are all-but-one trapdoor functions (ABO-TDFs) introduced by Peikert and Waters in STOC 2008 to construct secure public-key encryption schemes. Our main idea is to use the homomorphic properties of the function indices of the all-but-one trapdoor functions and to extend the functions to probabilistic ones by using re-randomization of ciphertexts. This is a new application of ABO-TDFs.

  12. [Changes in nursing professional commitment among junior college graduates].

    PubMed

    Lu, K Y; Chang, Y Y; Chiou, S L

    2001-02-01

    The purposes of this longitudinal study were to understand the changes in professional commitment from nursing students before graduation to registered nurses one year and two years after their graduation, and to find the relationship among these changes, work backgrounds and organizational satisfaction. The sample consisted of 890 junior college graduates. The Nursing Professional Commitment Scale was used for data collection at the first and the second test, while work backgrounds and organizational satisfaction were included at the third test. The data were analyzed by using percentage, mean, standard deviation, correlation and repeated measure ANOVA statistical methods. The results showed that: (1) The average scores of the three tests were 2.96, 2.84 and 2.79, with a full point scale of 4. (2) There were positive correlations among the three tests of professional commitments; also, positive correlation was shown between organizational satisfaction and professional commitment on the third test. (3) The scores for overall nursing professional commitment decreased significantly one year after graduation, but there was no significant changes from one year to two years after graduation. (4) There was a significant relationship between the changes in professional commitment and grades of hospital, but no significant relationship with job category or work unit. (5) Organizational satisfaction influenced the decrease in professional commitment from nursing students before graduation to two years after graduation; it also changed professional commitment from one to two years after graduation significantly. The author suggests that nursing educators and administrators should be concerned with changes in the professional commitment of nurses so as to increase nurses' organizational satisfaction.

  13. The Healthy Weight Commitment Foundation Pledge

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M.

    2014-01-01

    Context An independent evaluation of the Healthy Weight Commitment Foundation (HWCF) marketplace pledge found that the participating companies met and exceeded their interim 2012 sales reduction pledge. Evidence acquisition This follow-up study conducted in 2013 used purchase data from 2000–2012 among U.S. households with children and compared trends in calorie purchases of HWCF, non-HWCF name brands, and private label (PL) products in the pre-pledge period (2000–2007) and the post-pledge period (2008–2012); controlled for potential effects of concurrent changes in demographic and economic factors, including the Great Recession and food prices; and assessed whether the HWCF marketplace pledge was associated with reductions in consumer packaged goods (CPG) calorie purchases by households with children. Evidence synthesis There has been a significant per capita decline in average daily CPG caloric purchases between 2000 and 2012 among households with children from all brand categories. Based on pre-pledge trends, declines in CPG caloric purchases were already occurring. However, post-pledge reductions in calories purchased from HWCF brands were less than expected, and reductions in calories purchased from non-HWCF name brands and PLs were greater than expected after economic, sociodemographic, and secular factors were accounted for. Conclusions If the 16 HWCF companies had been able to maintain their pre-pledge trajectory, there should have been an additional 42 kcals/capita/day reduction in calories purchased from HWCF products in 2012 among households with children. A lack of change in total CPG calories purchased between 2011 and 2012 calls into question the sustainability of the decline and a need for continued monitoring. PMID:25240968

  14. Earth system commitments due to delayed mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfister, Patrik L.; Stocker, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    As long as global CO2 emissions continue to increase annually, long-term committed Earth system changes grow much faster than current observations. A novel metric linking this future growth to policy decisions today is the mitigation delay sensitivity (MDS), but MDS estimates for Earth system variables other than peak temperature (ΔT max) are missing. Using an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity, we show that the current emission increase rate causes a ΔT max increase roughly 3-7.5 times as fast as observed warming, and a millenial steric sea level rise (SSLR) 7-25 times as fast as observed SSLR, depending on the achievable rate of emission reductions after the peak of emissions. These ranges are only slightly affected by the uncertainty range in equilibrium climate sensitivity, which is included in the above values. The extent of ocean acidification at the end of the century is also strongly dependent on the starting time and rate of emission reductions. The preservable surface ocean area with sufficient aragonite supersaturation for coral reef growth is diminished globally at an MDS of roughly 25%-80% per decade. A near-complete loss of this area becomes unavoidable if mitigation is delayed for a few years to decades. Also with respect to aragonite, 12%-18% of the Southern Ocean surface become undersaturated per decade, if emission reductions are delayed beyond 2015-2040. We conclude that the consequences of delaying global emission reductions are much better captured if the MDS of relevant Earth system variables is communicated in addition to current trends and total projected future changes.

  15. The Healthy Weight Commitment Foundation Pledge

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Shu Wen; Slining, Meghan M.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2014-01-01

    Corporate voluntary pledges to improve the health of Americans have not been held to either explicit measurable outcomes or a framework for independent evaluation. The Healthy Weight Commitment Foundation (HWCF), whose members include 16 of the nation’s leading consumer packaged goods (CPG) food and beverage manufacturers, voluntarily pledged to collectively sell 1 trillion fewer calories in the U.S. marketplace by 2012 (against a 2007 baseline), and sell 1.5 trillion fewer calories by 2015. This paper presents the findings of an independent evaluation of the 2012 HWCF marketplace pledge, conducted in 2013. The 16 HWCF companies collectively sold approximately 6.4 trillion fewer calories (−10.6%) in 2012 than in the baseline year of 2007. Taking into account population changes over the 5-year period of 2007–2012, CPG caloric sales from brands included in the HWCF pledge declined by an average of 78 kcals/capita/day. CPG caloric sales from non-HWCF national brands during the same period declined by 11 kcals/capita/day, but there was little change in calories from private label products. Thus, the total reduction in CPG caloric sales between 2007 and 2012 was 87 kcals/capita/day. This independent evaluation is the first to evaluate food industry compliance with its calorie reduction pledges and to assess how sales from the CPG food and beverage sector are changing. An accompanying paper investigates the extent to which the HWCF pledge affected household-level changes in CPG calories purchased, controlling for important economic and sociodemographic factors affecting household food purchases over this period. PMID:25240967

  16. An analysis of commitment strategies in planning: The details

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minton, Steven; Bresina, John; Drummond, Mark; Philips, Andrew B.

    1991-01-01

    We compare the utility of different commitment strategies in planning. Under a 'least commitment strategy', plans are represented as partial orders and operators are ordered only when interactions are detected. We investigate claims of the inherent advantages of planning with partial orders, as compared to planning with total orders. By focusing our analysis on the issue of operator ordering commitment, we are able to carry out a rigorous comparative analysis of two planners. We show that partial-order planning can be more efficient than total-order planning, but we also show that this is not necessarily so.

  17. Distributed Wind Market Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Forsyth, T.; Baring-Gould, I.

    2007-11-01

    Distributed wind energy systems provide clean, renewable power for on-site use and help relieve pressure on the power grid while providing jobs and contributing to energy security for homes, farms, schools, factories, private and public facilities, distribution utilities, and remote locations. America pioneered small wind technology in the 1920s, and it is the only renewable energy industry segment that the United States still dominates in technology, manufacturing, and world market share. The series of analyses covered by this report were conducted to assess some of the most likely ways that advanced wind turbines could be utilized apart from large, central station power systems. Each chapter represents a final report on specific market segments written by leading experts in this field. As such, this document does not speak with one voice but rather a compendium of different perspectives, which are documented from a variety of people in the U.S. distributed wind field.

  18. Building Trust and Commitment in Scientist-Teacher Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, B. A.; Hall-Wallace, M. K.

    2003-12-01

    Scientific partnerships bring individuals from different cultures together to achieve mutual goals, make decisions, exchange ideas, and contribute resources (Gomez et al., 1990.) These collaborations have the potential to benefit both parties, but forming functional partnerships between two different work-environment cultures is difficult. We were interested in determining what governs their success. CATTS (Collaboration to Advance Teaching Technology and Science) is an NSF GK-12 fellowship program that fosters relationships between graduate and undergraduate CATTS scientists and K-12 teachers. A case-study approach was used to examine the dynamics of partnership development. Specifically, we looked for patterns in the behavior and attitudes of partners to understand why some partnerships are successful and others fail. We used classroom observations, journals, surveys, and interviews with scientists and teachers to establish these patterns. By their nature, the evolution of every scientific partnership is unique, and the outcome is unpredictable. However, the case-study approach allowed us to understand some of the attributes of successful and unsuccessful partnerships. Frequent communication was essential, especially in defining the roles and responsibilities of the teacher and scientist. Setting mutual goals and expectations was necessary, but the flexibility of both partners was also crucial as goals and expectations typically evolved as the partnership progressed. The most successful partners shared classroom and planning responsibilities in ways that utilized the strengths of each partner. This promoted greater exchange of scientific and pedagogical knowledge and experience between the partners and made the scientist and teacher feel as though their respective contributions were important. When both partners felt welcomed, invited, and appreciated, investment in the partnership remained high. Because it takes time and negotiation to build trust and commitment

  19. Marketing percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldenberg, J.; Libai, B.; Solomon, S.; Jan, N.; Stauffer, D.

    2000-09-01

    A percolation model is presented, with computer simulations for illustrations, to show how the sales of a new product may penetrate the consumer market. We review the traditional approach in the marketing literature, which is based on differential or difference equations similar to the logistic equation (Bass, Manage. Sci. 15 (1969) 215). This mean-field approach is contrasted with the discrete percolation on a lattice, with simulations of "social percolation" (Solomon et al., Physica A 277 (2000) 239) in two to five dimensions giving power laws instead of exponential growth, and strong fluctuations right at the percolation threshold.

  20. Applied Creativity: The Creative Marketing Breakthrough Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titus, Philip A.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the increasing importance of personal creativity in today's business environment, few conceptual creativity frameworks have been presented in the marketing education literature. The purpose of this article is to advance the integration of creativity instruction into marketing classrooms by presenting an applied creative marketing…

  1. 47 CFR 54.644 - Multi-year commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICE Universal Service Support for Health Care Providers Healthcare Connect Fund § 54.644 Multi-year commitments. (a) Participants in the Healthcare Connect Fund are permitted to enter into multi-year...

  2. 47 CFR 54.644 - Multi-year commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICE Universal Service Support for Health Care Providers Healthcare Connect Fund § 54.644 Multi-year commitments. (a) Participants in the Healthcare Connect Fund are permitted to enter into multi-year...

  3. Organisational Commitment and Committee Turnover of Volunteers in Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuskelly, Graham

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 328 volunteers serving on sports committees in Australia found that organizational commitment was higher in organizations with open decision making, conflict resolution, and attention to group process. Positive, effective committee functioning led to lower turnover. (SK)

  4. Alcohol affects goal commitment by explicitly and implicitly induced myopia.

    PubMed

    Sevincer, A Timur; Oettingen, Gabriele; Lerner, Tobias

    2012-05-01

    Alcohol commits people to personally important goals even if expectations of reaching the goals are low. To illuminate this effect, we used alcohol myopia theory, stating that alcohol intoxicated people disproportionally attend to the most salient aspects of a situation and ignore peripheral aspects. When low expectations of reaching an important goal were activated students who consumed alcohol were less committed than students who consumed a placebo. We observed less commitment regardless of whether low expectations were explicitly activated in a questionnaire (Study 1) or implicitly activated through subliminal priming (Study 2). The results imply that, intoxicated people commit to goals according to what aspects of a goal are activated either explicitly or implicitly.

  5. The probate judge and involuntary civil commitment in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Ferlauto, Michael J; Frierson, Richard L

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have scrutinized the decision-making process of physicians involved in the civil commitment of mentally ill persons, but few have examined the process used by probate judges when deciding to issue orders of detention and when conducting commitment hearings. This study consisted of a written survey sent to all probate court judges (n = 68) in South Carolina. Factors examined in the survey included the education and experience of the judges, their approach to the decision-making process, their view of lay and expert testimony at commitment hearings, and their knowledge about four items: two common psychiatric terms (delusion and psychosis), the leading suicide risk factor (previous attempt), and the standard of proof required for civil commitment (clear and convincing evidence). We attempt to analyze existing training standards for South Carolina probate judges and to explore possible areas for improvement so that proper dispositions of emergency psychiatric detainees are made and overcrowded emergency centers are less burdened.

  6. Relationships among perceived career support, affective commitment, and work engagement.

    PubMed

    Poon, June M L

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to test the predictive effects of perceived career support and affective commitment on work engagement. It was hypothesized that perceived career support would relate positively to work engagement and this relationship would be transmitted through affective commitment. Survey data were collected from 115 full-time employees enrolled as part-time graduate students in a large public university in Malaysia. Multiple regression analysis yielded results indicating that the relationship between perceived career support and work engagement was mediated by affective commitment. This finding suggests that employers can promote employee work engagement by ensuring employees perceive their organization to be supportive of their career and increasing employees' level of affective commitment.

  7. Length of hospitalization and outcome of commitment and recommitment hearings.

    PubMed

    Parry, C D; Turkheimer, E

    1992-01-01

    Despite extensive legislative reformulation of civil commitment procedures, empirical studies have shown that civil commitment hearings continue to be largely nonadversarial. The authors observed all civil commitment hearings during a three-month period at a large state hospital in Virginia and examined the characteristics of patients and the actions of attorneys, clinical examiners, and judges as a function of the length of time the patient had been in the hospital. The analysis revealed that as the length of a patient's hospitalization increased, the hearings became shorter and less adversarial; patients tended to show fewer signs of acute psychiatric illness and more signs of chronic schizophrenia. The implications of these findings for civil commitment policy are discussed.

  8. The Management Team: A Structure or a Commitment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegall, Hugh H.

    1980-01-01

    More important than the structure, formation or organizational plan of the school district's management team are the commitments of team members, particularly the superintendent and board members, to both the spirit and purposes of team management. (Author)

  9. Dual Incarceration and Condom Use in Committed Relationships.

    PubMed

    Groves, Allison K; Zhan, WeiHai; Del Río-González, Ana Maria; Rosenberg, Alana; Blankenship, Kim M

    2017-02-13

    Incarceration fractures relationship ties and has been associated with unprotected sex. Relationships where both individuals have a history of incarceration (dual incarceration) may face even greater disruption and involve more unprotected sex than relationships where only one individual has been incarcerated. We sought to determine whether dual incarceration is associated with condom use, and whether this association varies by relationship type. Data come from 499 sexual partnerships reported by 210 individuals with a history of incarceration. We used generalized estimating equations to examine whether dual incarceration was associated with condom use after controlling for individual and relationship characteristics. Interaction terms between dual incarceration and relationship commitment were also examined. Among currently committed relationships, dual incarceration was associated with inconsistent condom use (AOR: 4.33; 95% CI 1.02, 18.45). Dual incarceration did not affect condom use in never committed relationships. Reducing incarcerations may positively impact committed relationships and subsequently decrease HIV-related risk.

  10. Rorschach object relations of adolescents who committed homicide.

    PubMed

    Greco, C M; Cornell, D G

    1992-12-01

    We investigated the object relations of adolescents who committed homicide. A clinical sample of 55 adolescents who committed homicide did not differ from a comparison group of nonviolent delinquents on Rorschach measures of object differentiation, mutuality of autonomy, and aggressive content. However, the subgroup of adolescents who committed homicides in the context of another crime (e.g., robbery or burglary) did manifest significantly lower object relations (poorer object differentiation and more victim responses) than the subgroup of adolescents whose homicides were committed in the context of an interpersonal conflict or dispute with the victim. These findings support the need for differentiated classification of violent individuals as urged by Megargee (1970) over 20 years ago.

  11. Sports Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This document presents the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency profile for sports marketing. The profile is to serve as the basis for curriculum development in Ohio's secondary, adult, and postsecondary programs. The profile includes a comprehensive listing of 999 specialty key indicators for evaluating mastery of 113 competencies in…

  12. Internal marketing, nurse loyalty and relationship marketing: an exploratory study of German nurses.

    PubMed

    Peltier, James; Nill, Alexander; Schibrowsky, John A

    2003-01-01

    Nurse loyalty and retention are critical issues facing the healthcare industry. A lack of continuity in the nursing staff compromises the quality of the care, results in significant costs, and leads to patient concerns about the viability of the healthcare facility. Conversely, a motivated and committed nursing staff creates a solid foundation for implementing initiatives for the improvement of healthcare quality. This article employs the "Relationship Marketing Paradigm" as a framework to understand and enhance nurse loyalty through internal marketing efforts. The results indicate that financial, social and structural bonds have significant, albeit different, impacts on nurse loyalty. Managerial implications and future research directions are discussed.

  13. The Measurement of International Military Commitments for Crisis Early Warning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    MEASUREMENT OF INTERNATIONAL MILITARY COMMITMENTS FOR CRISIS EARLY WARNING TR&A Technical Report #33 Threat Recognition and Analysis Project "Approved for...INTERNATIONAL MILITARY COMMITMENTS FOR CRISIS EARLY WARNING Wayne R. Martin California State College, Dominguez Hills International Relations Research...Institute August 1976 The scope of the crisis analysis problem is both wide and complex. It ranges from early - warning --which is concerned primarily with the

  14. Voluntary "involuntary" commitment--the briar-patch syndrome.

    PubMed

    Miller, R D

    1980-01-01

    Szasz and others have pointed out that many so-called voluntary admissions to mental hospitals have various elements of coercion involved, and are thus not truly voluntary. The author contends that the converse situation is also true, that many patients admitted under involuntary commitment papers arrange for their own commitments. Reasons for such choices are discussed in the context of a review of the literature and several case histories.

  15. Marketing Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  16. Dimensions of Attachment and Commitment Across the Transition to Parenthood

    PubMed Central

    Ferriby, Megan; Kotila, Letitia; Dush, Claire Kamp; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    We used structural equation modeling (SEM) and Actor-Partner Interdependence Models (APIM) to test dyadic associations between adult attachment and changes in relationship commitment at the transition to parenthood in a sample of 182 dual-earner couples. Overall, more avoidant individuals experienced significant changes in commitment at the transition to parenthood; specifically higher avoidance was associated with decreases in personal confidence and dedication. More anxious fathers experienced increases in personal felt constraint while anxious mothers’ commitment remained stable. Partners of more anxious individuals experienced changes in commitment at the transition to parenthood. Higher anxiety was associated with decreases in partners’ confidence and dedication and increases in partners’ felt constraint. These results suggest that interventions focused on couple relationships at the transition to parenthood should address commitment as well as relationship skills and explore how adult attachment may influence the parents’ reactions to stress during this disruptive transition. Future research should examine whether commitment levels recover once the initial stress of the transition to parenthood decreases and family roles and routines renegotiated. PMID:26168264

  17. Employee commitment and motivation: a conceptual analysis and integrative model.

    PubMed

    Myer, John P; Becker, Thomas E; Vandenberghe, Christian

    2004-12-01

    Theorists and researchers interested in employee commitment and motivation have not made optimal use of each other's work. Commitment researchers seldom address the motivational processes through which commitment affects behavior, and motivation researchers have not recognized important distinctions in the forms, foci, and bases of commitment. To encourage greater cross-fertilization, the authors present an integrative framework in which commitment is presented as one of several energizing forces for motivated behavior. E. A. Locke's (1997) model of the work motivation process and J. P. Meyer and L. Herscovitch's (2001) model of workplace commitments serve as the foundation for the development of this new framework. To facilitate the merger, a new concept, goal regulation, is derived from self-determination theory (E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan, 1985) and regulatory focus theory (E. I. Higgins, 1997). By including goal regulation, it is acknowledged that motivated behavior can be accompanied by different mindsets that have particularly important implications for the explanation and prediction of discretionary work behavior.

  18. The impact of work rewards on radiographers' organizational commitment.

    PubMed

    Akroyd, D; Mulkey, W; Utley-Smith, Q

    1995-01-01

    Organizational commitment is an affective work outcome that has been used to predict work-related behaviors such as turnover, absenteeism and intent-to-leave. There has been little research in organizational commitment for the allied health professions and no empirical studies in the radiologic sciences. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive value of selected intrinsic and extrinsic work reward variables--involvement, significance, autonomy, general working conditions, supervision and salary--on staff radiographers' organizational commitment. In this study of 600 full-time staff radiographers in North and South Carolina, supervision (for ages 20-37 years) and involvement (for ages 38-66 years) were significant predictors of organizational commitment. The results of the study indicate that healthcare organizations should provide potential supervisors with managerial training, especially for radiographers who move to supervisory positions based on clinical skills and years of experience. In the long run, such programs are much less expensive than costs associated with replacing employees who leave the organization because of low organizational commitment. Also, management strategies and programs to redesign and enhance job tasks may help maintain or increase organizational commitment.

  19. Professional commitment: Does it buffer or intensify job demands?

    PubMed

    Nesje, Kjersti

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether professional commitment can be seen as a moderator in the relationship between job demands and emotional exhaustion among Norwegian nurses. Inspired by the job demands-resources model, this study explores whether having a strong commitment to the nursing profession can be seen as a resource that buffers the effect of job demands on emotional exhaustion or, conversely, intensifies the impact of job demands. A survey that comprised Norwegian nurses who had graduated three years previously (N = 388) was conducted. Multiple regression was performed to test the hypothesis. The results provide support to a buffering effect; thus, individuals with a higher degree of professional commitment conveyed a weaker association between job demands and emotional exhaustion compared with nurses with a lower degree of commitment. Developing a better understanding of the potential buffering effect of professional commitment is of great interest. The present study is the first to utilize professional commitment as a resource within the job demands-resources framework.

  20. Sport commitment among competitive female gymnasts: a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Windee M; Weiss, Maureen R

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine age and competitive level differences in the relationship between determinants and level of sport commitment. Gymnasts (N = 304) comprised three age groups (8-11, 11-14.5, and 14.5-18 years) and two competitive levels (Levels 5-6 and 8-10). Multiple regression analyses revealed: (a) perceived costs and social constraints from parents and best friends were the strongest predictors of commitment for the youngest gymnasts, (b) perceived costs, personal investments, and parent social constraints predicted commitment for 11-14.5-year-old gymnasts, and (c) perceived competence and costs predicted commitment for the oldest gymnasts. Competitive level differences also emerged; for Level 5-6 gymnasts, personal investments, perceived costs, coach social support, and social constraints by coach, best friend, and teammates were predictors of commitment. Personal investments and teammate social constraints were significant predictors for Level 8-10 gymnasts. Developmental factors and additional determinants are important to consider in further studies of the sport commitment model.

  1. 15 internal marketing tools that will improve your practice of pediatric dentistry.

    PubMed

    Nacht, E S; Trupkin, D

    1993-01-01

    Pediatric dentists can use these 15 specific internal marketing tools to target distinct markets and accomplish practice benefits, such as higher patient retention, lower staff turn-over, higher fee-for-service dentistry, and a better developed recare system. By making a commitment to an internal marketing program that projects a positive image to patients and parents, the pediatric dentist has greater potential for profit and total job satisfaction.

  2. Three Dimensional Lightning Launch Commit Criteria Visualization Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2014-01-01

    Lightning occurrence too close to a NASA LSP or future SLS program launch vehicle in flight would have disastrous results. The sensitive electronics on the vehicle could be damaged to the point of causing an anomalous flight path and ultimate destruction of the vehicle and payload.According to 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC), a vehicle cannot launch if lightning is within 10 NM of its pre-determined flight path. The 45 WS Launch Weather Officers (LWOs) evaluate this LLCC for their launch customers to ensure the safety of the vehicle in flight. Currently, the LWOs conduct a subjective analysis of the distance between lightning and the flight path using data from different display systems. A 3-D display in which the lightning data and flight path are together would greatly reduce the ambiguity in evaluating this LLCC. It would give the LWOs and launch directors more confidence in whether a GO or NO GO for launch should be issued. When lightning appears close to the path, the LWOs likely err on the side of conservatism and deem the lightning to be within 10 NM. This would cause a costly delay or scrub. If the LWOs can determine with a strong level of certainty that the lightning is beyond 10 NM, launch availability would increase without compromising safety of the vehicle, payload or, in the future, astronauts.The AMU was tasked to conduct a market research of commercial, government, and open source software that might be able to ingest and display the 3-D lightning data from the KSC Lightning Mapping Array (LMA), the 45th Space Wing Weather Surveillance Radar (WSR), the National Weather Service in Melbourne Weather Surveillance Radar 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D), and the vehicle flight path data so that all can be visualized together. To accomplish this, the AMU conducted Internet searches for potential software candidates and interviewed software developers.None of the available off-the-shelf software had a 3-D capability that could

  3. Joint-venture, capitation model can strengthen market share.

    PubMed

    Miller, R J; Brass, A W; Gilson, T J

    1991-06-01

    As health maintenance organizations (HMOs) and preferred provider organizations (PPOs) control an increasingly larger percentage of the healthcare market, many hospitals are entering capitation contracts to capture and preserve market share. A joint-venture and capitation model may provide an additional mechanism for large referral centers and community hospitals to jointly maintain or increase market share through improved service delivery. While the model includes many benefits, hospitals should thoroughly consider ramifications. Only through substantial institutional commitment, careful planning, and ongoing management will the model prove successful.

  4. Technical and economic evaluation of advanced air cargo system concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews NASA air cargo market studies, reports on NASA and NASA-sponsored studies of advanced freighter concepts, and identifies the opportunities for the application of advanced technology. The air cargo market is studied to evaluate the timing for, and the potential market response to, advanced technology aircraft. The degree of elasticity in future air freight markets is also being investigated, since the demand for a new aircraft is most favorable in a price-sensitive environment. Aircraft design studies are considered with attention to mission and design requirements, incorporation of advanced technologies in transport aircraft, new cargo aircraft concepts, advanced freighter evaluation, and civil-military design commonality.

  5. Marketing and clinical trials: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Francis, David; Roberts, Ian; Elbourne, Diana R; Shakur, Haleema; Knight, Rosemary C; Garcia, Jo; Snowdon, Claire; Entwistle, Vikki A; McDonald, Alison M; Grant, Adrian M; Campbell, Marion K

    2007-01-01

    Background Publicly funded clinical trials require a substantial commitment of time and money. To ensure that sufficient numbers of patients are recruited it is essential that they address important questions in a rigorous manner and are managed well, adopting effective marketing strategies. Methods Using methods of analysis drawn from management studies, this paper presents a structured assessment framework or reference model, derived from a case analysis of the MRC's CRASH trial, of 12 factors that may affect the success of the marketing and sales activities associated with clinical trials. Results The case study demonstrates that trials need various categories of people to buy in – hence, to be successful, trialists must embrace marketing strategies to some extent. Conclusion The performance of future clinical trials could be enhanced if trialists routinely considered these factors. PMID:18028537

  6. Contractor and government - Teamwork and commitment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, G. D.

    1985-01-01

    Procedures being implemented at NASA to improve cooperation with contractors and increase productivity are reviewed from the NASA point of view. The goals of the U.S. space program for the coming 25 years are listed, and the importance of the commercial utilization of space in these plans is stressed. Consideration is given to the ongoing American Productivity Center White-Collar Productivity-Improvement Project, the implementation of the recommendations of the 1984 NASA/Contractor Conferences in present and future contracts, and the use of incentive contracts to create situations in which both NASA and the contractor benefit from increased productivity. Future plans call for increased industry responsibility in managing and operating the STS; steamlining of Shuttle operations; advanced design-to-cost procedures, increased commonality, better NASA-contractor communications, and more use of CAD/CAM and robotics for the Space Station; and accommodation of greatly expanded private investment and exploitation of space.

  7. No More Navel Gazing! Articles from "Marketing Higher Education."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topor, Robert, Ed.

    This book gathers articles on marketing higher education that first appeared in a newsletter on that topic. Chapter 1, "Marketing and You!" contains two articles on the importance of the person interested in advancing the institution through marketing. The second chapter, "Building Blocks," offers important ideas including a…

  8. What climate changes do 400 ppm commit us to? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zickfeld, K.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric CO2 is approaching an annual average concentration of 400 ppm. This paper explores the long-term climate changes that this level of atmospheric CO2 commits us to. Climate change commitment refers to the climate changes that are to be expected in the future in response to past human activities. Several types of climate change commitment have been discussed in the literature. This paper investigates the long-term climate response to the current atmospheric composition perpetuated over several centuries (constant composition commitment) and the response to an abrupt cessation of greenhouse gas emissions (zero emission commitment) using an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity (EMIC). The committed changes in both the physical and biogeochemical Earth system components are quantified, and the uncertainties in the magnitude and the time scales of the simulated changes are explored using sensitivity analysis and results from an EMIC intercomparison undertaken in support of the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the IPCC. A second research question addresses whether it is feasible to return from 400 ppm to lower levels of atmospheric CO2 on human timescales using 'negative emissions' (i.e. net removal of atmospheric CO2 from the atmosphere). The implementation of negative emission technology (e.g. biomass energy with carbon capture and geological storage) may be desirable if the committed climate changes of 400 ppm exceed 'safe' levels. The feasibility of returning to lower CO2 levels is assessed based on the response of the Earth System and currently known limits of negative emission technology.

  9. A marketing clinical doctorate programs.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Isaac D; Kimball, Olive M

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decade, clinical doctorate programs in health disciplines have proliferated amid both support and controversy among educators, professional organizations, practitioners, administrators, and third-party payers. Supporters argue that the explosion of new knowledge and increasing sophistication of technology have created a need for advanced practice models to enhance patient care and safety and to reduce costs. Critics argue that necessary technological advances can be incorporated into existing programs and believe that clinical doctorates will increase health care costs, not reduce them. Despite the controversy, many health disciplines have advanced the clinical doctorate (the most recent is the doctor of nursing practice in 2004), with some professions mandating the doctorate as the entry-level degree (i.e., psychology, pharmacy, audiology, and so on). One aspect of the introduction of clinical doctoral degrees has been largely overlooked, and that is the marketing aspect. Because of marketing considerations, some clinical doctorates have been more successfully implemented and accepted than others. Marketing is composed of variables commonly known as "the four P's of marketing": product, price, promotion, and place. This report explores these four P's within the context of clinical doctorates in the health disciplines.

  10. Sec. Chu Announces the First Auto Loans for Advanced Technologies

    ScienceCinema

    Secretary Chu

    2016-07-12

    Energy Secretary Steven Chu announced $8 billion in conditional loan commitments for the development of innovative, advanced vehicle technologies that will create thousands of green jobs while helping reduce the nation’s dangerous dependence on foreign oil. The first three auto loans for advanced technologies were awarded to Ford Motor Company, Nissan Motors and Tesla Motors.

  11. A clinical advancement process revisited: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Ward, Cynthia W; Goodrich, Cynthia A

    2007-06-01

    Clinical advancement programs are not evaluated often for effectiveness and participant satisfaction. The advancement committee at this community hospital made the commitment to evaluate participant satisfaction periodically. Revisions were made in the program based on the evaluation findings and implemented in 2002. This re-evaluation was conducted to determine participant satisfaction.

  12. Sec. Chu Announces the First Auto Loans for Advanced Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Secretary Chu

    2009-07-16

    Energy Secretary Steven Chu announced $8 billion in conditional loan commitments for the development of innovative, advanced vehicle technologies that will create thousands of green jobs while helping reduce the nation’s dangerous dependence on foreign oil. The first three auto loans for advanced technologies were awarded to Ford Motor Company, Nissan Motors and Tesla Motors.

  13. Sources of well-being and commitment of staff in the Australian Disability Employment Services.

    PubMed

    Noblet, Andrew; Graffam, Joseph; McWilliams, John

    2008-03-01

    This study examined the role of working conditions in predicting the psychological health, job satisfaction and organisational commitment of personnel responsible for helping people with disabilities gain employment in the mainstream Australian labour market. The working conditions were assessed using two theories: the Job Strain Model (job demand, social support and job control) and Psychological Contract Theory (unwritten reciprocal obligations between employers and employees). In the case of the Job Strain Model, the generic dimensions had been augmented by industry-specific sources of stress. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in June and July 2005 with 514 staff returning completed questionnaires (representing a response rate of 30%). Comparisons between respondents and non-respondents revealed that on the basis of age, gender and tenure, the sample was broadly representative of employees working in the Australian disability employment sector at that time. The results of regression analyses indicate that social support was predictive of all of the outcome measures. Job control and the honouring of psychological contracts were both predictive of job satisfaction and commitment, while the more situation-specific stressors--treatment and workload stressors--were inversely related to psychological health (i.e. as concern regarding the treatment and workload stressors increased, psychological health decreased). Collectively, these findings suggest that strategies aimed at combating the negative effects of large-scale organisational change could be enhanced by addressing several variables represented in the models--particularly social support, job control, psychological contracts and sector-specific stressors.

  14. Continuous use of social commerce: Its conceptual relation with E-WOM, commitment and trust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sami, Atyaf; Hashim, Kamarul Faizal; Yusof, Shafiz Affendi Mohd

    2016-08-01

    The popularity of social media has changed the way of doing business and introduces a new type of commerce known later as social commerce (s-commerce). Within s-commerce, consumer's loyalty and returning to use have reduced mainly because it is a high competitive environment, which is simply presented by products that proposed and announced rapidly to the market. S-commerce has a magic power called Electronic Word-of-Mouth (E-WOM). E-WOM enables consumers to make a collaboration decision as well as it enable business to reach up their consumers and their network in low cost and short time. Yet, to date, there is limited research that conducted the effect of E-WOM on consumer's continuous use behavior. Therefore, this study is an attempt to propose a value conceptual model that explains the relationship between e-WOM and continuous use behavior. This study serves not only to clarify the relationship between e-WOM and continuous use, but also to explain the mediating role of trust and commitment in this relationship; a theory known as Commitment-Trust theory is adopted. Additionally, drawing upon flow theory, this study examines flow experience determinants as predictors for promoting e-WOM among s-commerce consumers.

  15. Applications of the marketing perspective in nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Fleming, P L

    1987-09-01

    The marketing paradigm is based on the premise of exchange of value, that is, value received for value given. The role of the nutrition educator as a marketer is to facilitate exchanges of value with consumers. To carry out this role, a strong orientation to the consumer, what she or he wants and needs and is willing to "pay," guides the development of the nutrition education mission, objectives, and strategies. The marketing paradigm calls for a marketing information system that includes internal record keeping, marketing intelligence gathering, and marketing research. The information is used in the marketing audit, which identifies organizational strengths and weaknesses and marketplace opportunities and barriers. Marketing objectives are formulated, and strategies for segmenting, positioning, and developing the marketing mix follow. These are translated in the marketing plan to an action plan, a budget, and profit and loss projections. Use of the marketing paradigm in nutrition education is not a panacea for organizational ills and marketplace problems. Instead, the paradigm raises issues to which nutrition educators must bring their expertise, commitment, ingenuity, and creativity.

  16. Market efficiency in foreign exchange markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Gabjin; Kim, Seunghwan; Eom, Cheoljun

    2007-08-01

    We investigate the relative market efficiency in financial market data, using the approximate entropy(ApEn) method for a quantification of randomness in time series. We used the global foreign exchange market indices for 17 countries during two periods from 1984 to 1998 and from 1999 to 2004 in order to study the efficiency of various foreign exchange markets around the market crisis. We found that on average, the ApEn values for European and North American foreign exchange markets are larger than those for African and Asian ones except Japan. We also found that the ApEn for Asian markets increased significantly after the Asian currency crisis. Our results suggest that the markets with a larger liquidity such as European and North American foreign exchange markets have a higher market efficiency than those with a smaller liquidity such as the African and Asian markets except Japan.

  17. Does the market maker stabilize the market?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Mei; Chiarella, Carl; He, Xue-Zhong; Wang, Duo

    2009-08-01

    The market maker plays an important role in price formation, but his/her behavior and stabilizing impact on the market are relatively unclear, in particular in speculative markets. This paper develops a financial market model that examines the impact on market stability of the market maker, who acts as both a liquidity provider and an active investor in a market consisting of two types of boundedly rational speculative investors-the fundamentalists and trend followers. We show that the market maker does not necessarily stabilize the market when he/she actively manages the inventory to maximize profits, and that rather the market maker’s impact depends on the behavior of the speculators. Numerical simulations show that the model is able to generate outcomes for asset returns and market inventories that are consistent with empirical findings.

  18. The Relationship between Career Maturity and Work Commitment in a Sample of Australian High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Wendy; Creed, Peter A.

    2002-01-01

    Australian high school students (n=377) completed the Career Development Inventory and a work commitment measure. Commitment was moderately correlated with career development. Commitment and the knowledge component of career maturity were strongly related for females. Females had higher work commitment scores than males. (Contains 39 references.)…

  19. Teacher Commitment and Its Effects on Student Achievement in American High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Insim

    2005-01-01

    This study explored the effects of teacher commitment on student achievement. Three teacher commitment dimensions of organizational, professional, and student commitment were derived. The three-dimensional teacher commitment measurement model was tested by a confirmatory factor analysis. Then, the relationships among individual and organizational…

  20. CME planning series: article five of five, using commitment to change within educational activities.

    PubMed

    van Hoof, Thomas J

    2009-03-01

    Commitment to change is an educational practice that encourages participants to commit to doing something differently in their respective practices based on an educational activity. Evidence suggests that such commitment increases the likelihood that changes in behavior will occur above and beyond what might be expected from participation without explicit commitments. Educators should consider options for incorporating this practice into their educational activities.

  1. Transitioning to a waterways city: municipal context, capacity and commitment.

    PubMed

    Morison, P J; Brown, R R; Cocklin, C

    2010-01-01

    In Melbourne, Australia, the adoption of Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) and the inclusion of best practice in new urban development has shifted the "drained city" of the 1960s toward an environmentally-oriented "waterways city" for the future. However, the "waterways city" is tenuous owing to the variable commitment of local municipalities to WSUD. This paper reports on the first phase of a social research project, which aims to secure a model of the waterways city by addressing the commitment and capacity deficits of local municipalities. Municipal commitment and capacity across three geographical areas in Melbourne are measured quantitatively using an innovative, comprehensive, and replicable assessment technique. The results show variability in municipal capacity and commitment across the areas, with a pronounced deficit in the rural-regional area. Consequently, intergovernmental attempts to normalise modes of integrated urban water management (such as WSUD) need to include innovative and flexible mechanisms that are responsive to the dynamics of municipal commitment and capacity. These principles have broader application to cities internationally where the management of urban stormwater is the shared responsibility of multiple governments.

  2. Communicating with New and Existing Markets. A Task Force of Howard Community College's 1998-1999 Commission on the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard Community Coll., Columbia, MD.

    This is a report from a task force formed by Howard Community College (Maryland) to examine existing and future markets. The task force also explored ways to use marketing strategies to attract potential customers to the college. The task force recommends that the college use its strengths to attract customers, such as its commitment to open…

  3. 7 CFR 1485.19 - Advances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... COMMODITIES Market Access Program § 1485.19 Advances. (a) Policy. In general, CCC operates the MAP on a reimbursable basis. (b) Exception. A MAP Participant for generic promotion activities may request an advance of MAP funds from CCC, provided the MAP Participant meets the criteria for advance payments set forth...

  4. Marketing Maps: Illustrating How Marketing Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyure, James F.; Arnold, Susan G.

    2003-01-01

    Today's colleges and universities may tolerate the "idea" of marketing more easily, but marketers must continue to educate campus communities about marketing theories and practice. To promote a useful appreciation of how theories translate into initiatives, we propose incorporating "marketing maps"-user-friendly graphic representations of how…

  5. Dual Level Study of Organizational Commitment and Its Relationship with Intentions to Remain in Service.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    model of the ante- cedents of employee commitment to organizations. From his work, Steers contended that the antecedents of commitment were grouped...commitment attitudes of federal service employees, Stevens and others (1978:389) reported a correlation of .404 between employee commitment atti- tudes...attitudes of hospital employees and scientists, Steers noted diverse sources of factors affecting employee commitment . As a result, there was a substantial

  6. Security bound of cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment.

    PubMed

    He, Guang Ping

    2015-03-23

    Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment (CSQBC) loosens the security requirement of quantum bit commitment (QBC), so that the existing impossibility proofs of unconditionally secure QBC can be evaded. But here we analyze the common features in all existing CSQBC protocols, and show that in any CSQBC having these features, the receiver can always learn a non-trivial amount of information on the sender's committed bit before it is unveiled, while his cheating can pass the security check with a probability not less than 50%. The sender's cheating is also studied. The optimal CSQBC protocols that can minimize the sum of the cheating probabilities of both parties are found to be trivial, as they are practically useless. We also discuss the possibility of building a fair protocol in which both parties can cheat with equal probabilities.

  7. Security bound of cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guang Ping

    2015-03-01

    Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment (CSQBC) loosens the security requirement of quantum bit commitment (QBC), so that the existing impossibility proofs of unconditionally secure QBC can be evaded. But here we analyze the common features in all existing CSQBC protocols, and show that in any CSQBC having these features, the receiver can always learn a non-trivial amount of information on the sender's committed bit before it is unveiled, while his cheating can pass the security check with a probability not less than 50%. The sender's cheating is also studied. The optimal CSQBC protocols that can minimize the sum of the cheating probabilities of both parties are found to be trivial, as they are practically useless. We also discuss the possibility of building a fair protocol in which both parties can cheat with equal probabilities.

  8. Procedural justice and layoff survivors' commitment: a quantitative review.

    PubMed

    Grubb, W Lee

    2006-10-01

    Layoffs are common in today's organizations. Most studies that have examined the correlation between procedural justice and the organizational commitment of layoff survivors have yielded positive correlations, but the magnitude of the correlations varies widely. This study is the first to estimate the population correlation and to identify the primary sources that cause variation in the correlation across studies. The results indicated that justice and commitment correlations can always be expected to be positive. Based on a total sample size of 9080 individuals, the estimated mean population correlation was .34. Variation was primarily explained by attributes of the justice measure where multiple items scales and scales composed of both interactional and procedural justice items yielded higher correlations than single item measures. Therefore, it is important that employers recognize the substantial assuaging affect that procedural and interactional justice can have on survivors' organizational commitment.

  9. Management Commitment to Safety, Teamwork, and Hospital Worker Injuries.

    PubMed

    McGonagle, Alyssa K; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Hamblin, Lydia; Luborsky, Mark; Upfal, Mark; Arnetz, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Although many studies link teamwork in health care settings to patient safety, evidence linking teamwork to hospital worker safety is lacking. This study addresses this gap by providing evidence linking teamwork perceptions in hospital workers to worker injuries, and further, finds a linkage between manager commitment to safety and teamwork. Organizational records of worker injuries and survey responses regarding management commitment to safety and teamwork from 446 hospital workers within 42 work units in a multi-site hospital system were examined. Results underscored the particular importance of teamwork on worker injuries as well as the importance of management commitment to safety as relating to teamwork. To improve worker safety, organizational leaders and unit managers should work to maintain environments wherein teamwork can thrive.

  10. Love, Hate and Murder: Commitment Devices in Violent Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Aizer, Anna; Bó, Pedro Dal

    2009-01-01

    Many violent relationships are characterized by a high degree of cyclicality: women who are the victims of domestic violence often leave and return multiple times. To explain this we develop a model of time inconsistent preferences in the context of domestic violence. This time inconsistency generates a demand for commitment. We present supporting evidence that women in violent relationships display time inconsistent preferences by examining their demand for commitment devices. We find that no-drop policies – which compel the prosecutor to continue with prosecution even if the victim expresses a desire to drop the charges – result in an increase in reporting. No-drop policies also result in a decrease in the number of men murdered by intimates suggesting that some women in violent relationships move away from an extreme type of commitment device when a less costly one is offered. PMID:24244055

  11. [Experiencing familiar violence: men who commit violence against their mates].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Nadirlene Pereira; Diniz, Normélia Maria Freire; Freire, Normélia Maria

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand which elements are present on the construction of the identity of men who commit violence against their mates. This qualitative study took as theoretical reference the Social Representations. It was carried out on Calafate community, San Martin, Salvador, BA. Its population was composed by 7 men who committed violence against their mates. Semi-structured interview provided data, which was organized through Bardin's Content Analysis, specifically thematic analysis, in the axis Familiar Relation. The study enabled us to identify elements that interfere on the construction of the identity of men who commit violence against their mates. Its origin is in the familiar relationship, marked by factors as lack of dialogue and physical aggressions.

  12. Security bound of cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment

    PubMed Central

    He, Guang Ping

    2015-01-01

    Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment (CSQBC) loosens the security requirement of quantum bit commitment (QBC), so that the existing impossibility proofs of unconditionally secure QBC can be evaded. But here we analyze the common features in all existing CSQBC protocols, and show that in any CSQBC having these features, the receiver can always learn a non-trivial amount of information on the sender's committed bit before it is unveiled, while his cheating can pass the security check with a probability not less than 50%. The sender's cheating is also studied. The optimal CSQBC protocols that can minimize the sum of the cheating probabilities of both parties are found to be trivial, as they are practically useless. We also discuss the possibility of building a fair protocol in which both parties can cheat with equal probabilities. PMID:25796977

  13. Relevant Sex Appeals in Advertising: Gender and Commitment Context Differences

    PubMed Central

    Lanseng, Even J.

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates differences in men's and women's attitudes toward ads featuring product-relevant sex appeals. It is found that women, but not men, were more negative toward an ad featuring an attractive opposite-sex model when their commitment thoughts were heightened. Women were also more negative toward an ad with an attractive same-sex model in the presence of commitment thoughts, but only when they scored high on sociosexuality. Men appeared unaffected, regardless of their level of sociosexuality. Commitment thoughts were manipulated by two types of prime, a parenting prime (study1) and a romantic prime (study 2). Results are explained by differences in how men and women react to sexual material and by differences in men's and women's evolved mating preferences. PMID:27746749

  14. Love, Hate and Murder: Commitment Devices in Violent Relationships.

    PubMed

    Aizer, Anna; Bó, Pedro Dal

    2009-04-01

    Many violent relationships are characterized by a high degree of cyclicality: women who are the victims of domestic violence often leave and return multiple times. To explain this we develop a model of time inconsistent preferences in the context of domestic violence. This time inconsistency generates a demand for commitment. We present supporting evidence that women in violent relationships display time inconsistent preferences by examining their demand for commitment devices. We find that no-drop policies - which compel the prosecutor to continue with prosecution even if the victim expresses a desire to drop the charges - result in an increase in reporting. No-drop policies also result in a decrease in the number of men murdered by intimates suggesting that some women in violent relationships move away from an extreme type of commitment device when a less costly one is offered.

  15. Why the evidence for outpatient commitment is good enough.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jeffrey W; Swartz, Marvin S

    2014-06-01

    After nearly three decades of studies evaluating the legal practice of involuntary outpatient commitment, there is yet little consensus about its effectiveness and only limited implementation. Debate continues over how best to assist adults with serious mental illnesses who are unable or unwilling to participate in prescribed community treatment and as a result experience repeated involuntary hospitalizations or involvement with the criminal justice system. The authors comment on the Oxford Community Treatment Order Evaluation Trial (OCTET), a recently conducted randomized trial of outpatient commitment, and discuss the limitations of the study's design for resolving the persistent question of whether compulsory treatment is more effective than purely voluntary treatment for this difficult-to-reach target population. The authors conclude that the search for a definitive and generalizable randomized trial of outpatient commitment may be a quixotic quest; the field should, rather, welcome the results of well-conducted, large-scale, quasi-experimental and naturalistic studies with rigorous multivariable statistical controls.

  16. Management Commitment to Safety, Teamwork, and Hospital Worker Injuries

    PubMed Central

    McGonagle, Alyssa K.; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Hamblin, Lydia; Luborsky, Mark; Upfal, Mark; Arnetz, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Although many studies link teamwork in health care settings to patient safety, evidence linking teamwork to hospital worker safety is lacking. This study addresses this gap by providing evidence linking teamwork perceptions in hospital workers to worker injuries, and further, finds a linkage between manager commitment to safety and teamwork. Organizational records of worker injuries and survey responses regarding management commitment to safety and teamwork from 446 hospital workers within 42 work units in a multi-site hospital system were examined. Results underscored the particular importance of teamwork on worker injuries as well as the importance of management commitment to safety as relating to teamwork. To improve worker safety, organizational leaders and unit managers should work to maintain environments wherein teamwork can thrive. PMID:27867448

  17. Asymmetries in commitment in an avian communication network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randler, Christoph; Vollmer, Christian

    2013-02-01

    Mobbing of predators occurs within a conspecific and heterospecific context but has not been quantified within the framework of a communication network and analysed with respect to heterospecific reciprocity. Here, we used playbacks of mobbing calls to show that mobbing is unequally distributed within a community of deciduous forest birds. Five species (great tit Parus major, blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus, marsh tit Poecile palustris, nuthatch Sitta europaea and chaffinch Fringilla coelebs) responded to each other's playbacks of mobbing calls. Commitment to mob was measured by minimum distance, response latency and uttering of calls. Commitment was higher when conspecific calls were broadcast. Yet, responses to heterospecific calls were significantly different between the five species. Chaffinches had the lowest commitment, and blue tits tended to have the highest. The communication network is asymmetric. Some species invest more than they receive from other species. As mobbing might incur costs, these are unequally distributed across the community.

  18. Bases of social power, leadership styles, and organizational commitment.

    PubMed

    Pierro, Antonio; Raven, Bertram H; Amato, Clara; Bélanger, Jocelyn J

    2013-01-01

    Affective organizational commitment reflects the extent to which organizational members are loyal and willing to work toward organizational objectives (Meyer & Allen, 1997). In particular, affective organizational commitment holds very important implications at all organizational levels (e.g., turnover rates, performance, and citizenship behavior). Whereas previous research has evinced the positive influence of transformational and charismatic leadership styles on affective commitment toward the organization (Bass & Avolio, 1994), little is known with regard to the nature of this relationship. In line with the interpersonal power/interaction model, the present investigation aimed to investigate the mechanism at play between transformational leadership style and affective organizational commitment. Specifically, we hypothesized that transformational leadership style would increase affective organizational commitment through its effect on willingness to comply with soft bases of power. In two studies, we subjected the foregoing hypotheses to empirical scrutiny. In Study 1, the proposed mediation model was empirically supported with Italian employees in the public sector. Attesting to the robustness of our findings, Study 2 replicated the findings of Study 1 with Italian employees from the public and private sectors. In addition, Study 2 replicated Study 1 using a different measure of transformational leadership. Both Study 1 and Study 2 provided results consistent with our hypotheses. Specifically, the present paper reports empirical evidence that (1) the more participants report having a transformational leader, the more willing they become to comply with soft (but not harsh) power bases, (2) in turn, greater willingness to comply with soft (but not harsh) power bases increases one's affective organizational commitment. These findings provide additional support for the interpersonal power/interaction model and pave the way for new research directions.

  19. Simplified quantum bit commitment using single photon nonlocality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guang Ping

    2014-10-01

    We simplified our previously proposed quantum bit commitment (QBC) protocol based on the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, by replacing symmetric beam splitters with asymmetric ones. It eliminates the need for random sending time of the photons; thus, the feasibility and efficiency are both improved. The protocol is immune to the cheating strategy in the Mayers-Lo-Chau no-go theorem of unconditionally secure QBC, because the density matrices of the committed states do not satisfy a crucial condition on which the no-go theorem holds.

  20. Judges' assumptions about the appropriateness of civil and forensic commitment.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, K L; Fisher, W H

    1997-05-01

    The study examined judges' reasons for ordering pretrial forensic evaluation instead of civil commitment for persons with mental illness who are arrested. Fifty-five of 58 judges acknowledged having concerns about the adequacy of treatment or confinement in the civil mental health system, and 31 reported ordering pretrial forensic evaluations as a means of ensuring adequate treatment for patients who appear in their courts. Other frequently endorsed reasons for ordering these evaluations included lack of confidence in the ability to civilly commit mentally ill offenders and concerns about their being discharged prematurely. This study confirms suspicions that judges order pretrial evaluations to fill perceived gaps in the civil system.

  1. Pre-engagement cohabitation and gender asymmetry in marital commitment.

    PubMed

    Rhoades, Galena Kline; Stanley, Scott M; Markman, Howard J

    2006-12-01

    The authors longitudinally examined couples' (N = 197) dedication (interpersonal commitment) levels on the basis of their premarital cohabitation history. Findings suggested that men who cohabited with their spouse before engagement were less dedicated than men who cohabited only after engagement or not at all before marriage. Furthermore, these husbands were less dedicated to their wives than their wives were to them. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that such asymmetries were apparent before marriage and through the early years of marriage. Relationship adjustment and religiousness were related to dedication but did not account for the findings. The authors suggest that couples considering cohabitation before engagement could benefit from discussions about commitment and expectations about marriage.

  2. Volunteer Work, Religious Commitment, and Resting Pulse Rates.

    PubMed

    Krause, Neal; Ironson, Gail; Hill, Peter C

    2017-04-01

    Research indicates that greater involvement in volunteer activities is associated with better health. We aim to contribute to this literature in two ways. First, rather than rely on self-reports of health, measured resting pulse rates serve as the dependent variable. Second, an effort is made to see if religious commitment moderates the relationship between volunteering and resting pulse rates. Data that come from a recent nationwide survey (N = 2265) suggest that volunteer work is associated with lower resting pulse rates. The results also reveal that the relationship between engaging in volunteer work and resting pulse rates improves among study participants who are more deeply committed to religion.

  3. Unconditionally secure bit commitment by transmitting measurement outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kent, Adrian

    2012-09-28

    We propose a new unconditionally secure bit commitment scheme based on Minkowski causality and the properties of quantum information. The receiving party sends a number of randomly chosen Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) qubits to the committer at a given point in space-time. The committer carries out measurements in one of the two BB84 bases, depending on the committed bit value, and transmits the outcomes securely at (or near) light speed in opposite directions to remote agents. These agents unveil the bit by returning the outcomes to adjacent agents of the receiver. The protocol's security relies only on simple properties of quantum information and the impossibility of superluminal signalling.

  4. Ohio Advanced Energy Manufacturing Center

    SciTech Connect

    Kimberly Gibson; Mark Norfolk

    2012-07-30

    The program goal of the Ohio Advanced Energy Manufacturing Center (OAEMC) is to support advanced energy manufacturing and to create responsive manufacturing clusters that will support the production of advanced energy and energy-efficient products to help ensure the nation's energy and environmental security. This goal cuts across a number of existing industry segments critical to the nation's future. Many of the advanced energy businesses are starting to make the transition from technology development to commercial production. Historically, this transition from laboratory prototypes through initial production for early adopters to full production for mass markets has taken several years. Developing and implementing manufacturing technology to enable production at a price point the market will accept is a key step. Since these start-up operations are configured to advance the technology readiness of the core energy technology, they have neither the expertise nor the resources to address manufacturing readiness issues they encounter as the technology advances toward market entry. Given the economic realities of today's business environment, finding ways to accelerate this transition can make the difference between success and failure for a new product or business. The advanced energy industry touches a wide range of industry segments that are not accustomed to working together in complex supply chains to serve large markets such as automotive and construction. During its first three years, the Center has catalyzed the communication between companies and industry groups that serve the wide range of advanced energy markets. The Center has also found areas of common concern, and worked to help companies address these concerns on a segment or industry basis rather than having each company work to solve common problems individually. EWI worked with three industries through public-private partnerships to sew together disparate segments helping to promote overall industry

  5. Advanced turbocharger design study program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culy, D. G.; Heldenbrand, R. W.; Richardson, N. R.

    1984-01-01

    The advanced Turbocharger Design Study consisted of: (1) the evaluation of three advanced engine designs to determine their turbocharging requirements, and of technologies applicable to advanced turbocharger designs; (2) trade-off studies to define a turbocharger conceptual design and select the engine with the most representative requirements for turbocharging; (3) the preparation of a turbocharger conceptual design for the Curtiss Wright RC2-32 engine selected in the trade-off studies; and (4) the assessment of market impact and the preparation of a technology demonstration plan for the advanced turbocharger.

  6. Commitment to organizational change: extension of a three-component model.

    PubMed

    Herscovitch, Lynne; Meyer, John P

    2002-06-01

    Three studies were conducted to test the application of a three-component model of workplace commitment (J. P. Meyer & N. J. Allen, 1991: J. P. Meyer & L. Herscovitch, 2001) in the context of employee commitment to organizational change. Study 1, conducted with 224 university students, provided preliminary evidence for the validity of newly developed Affective, Continuance, and Normative Commitment to Change Scales. Studies 2 and 3, conducted with hospital nurses (N = 157 and 108, respectively), provided further support for the validity of the three Commitment to Change Scales, and demonstrated that (a) commitment to a change is a better predictor of behavioral support for a change than is organizational commitment, (b) affective and normative commitment to a change are associated with higher levels of support than is continuance commitment, and (c) the components of commitment combine to predict behavior.

  7. Sport commitment among competitive female athletes: test of an expanded model.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Windee M; Weiss, Maureen R; Amorose, Anthony J

    2010-02-01

    In the present study, we examined an expanded model of sport commitment by adding two determinants (perceived costs and perceived competence) and behavioural commitment as a consequence of psychological commitment, as well as identifying psychological commitment as a mediator of relationships between determinants and behavioural commitment. Competitive female gymnasts (N = 304, age 8-18 years) completed relevant measures while coaches rated each gymnast's training behaviours as an indicator of behavioural commitment. Path analysis revealed that the best fitting model was one in which original determinants (enjoyment, involvement opportunities, investments, attractive alternatives) and an added determinant (perceived costs) predicted psychological commitment, in addition to investments and perceived costs directly predicting behavioural commitment. These results provide further, but partial, support for the sport commitment model and also suggest that additional determinants and behavioural consequences be considered in future research.

  8. Distributive and Procedural Justice as Related to Satisfaction and Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Thomas Li-Ping; Sarsfield-Baldwin, Linda J.

    Randomly selected employees from a Veterans Administration Medical Center (n=200) were asked to complete measures on distributive justice and procedural justice 4 weeks before their performance appraisal; and on job satisfaction, commitment, involvement, and self-reported performance feedback 4 weeks after their performance appraisals.…

  9. Beyond motivation: Initial validation of the commitment to sobriety scale.

    PubMed

    Kelly, John F; Greene, M Claire

    2014-02-01

    From an addiction treatment and recovery standpoint maladaptive motivational hierarchies lie at the core of the challenge in mobilizing salutary behavior change. Motivation has been conceptualized as dynamic, interactive and modifiable, as well as multidimensional. Measures of recovery motivation have been developed and validated, but are generally only modest and variable predictors of future behavior. A related, but potentially more potent, construct, is that of commitment to sobriety as it denotes a clearer re-ranking of motivational hierarchies such that the recovery task is now given a top priority potentially less susceptible to the risks associated with undulating future circumstance. This study investigated the psychometric properties of a novel commitment to sobriety scale (CSS). Results revealed a coherent, psychometrically valid, and reliable tool that outperformed an existing commitment to abstinence scale (ATAQ; J. Morgenstern, R.M. Frey, B.S. McCrady, E. Labouvie, & C.J. Neighbors, 1996) and a gold standard measure of motivation (SOCRATES; W.R. Miller & J.S. Tonigan, 1996). This study highlights commitment to sobriety as an important addiction construct. Researchers and theoreticians may find the CSS useful in helping to explain how individuals achieve recovery, and practitioners may find clinical utility in the CSS in helping identify patients in need of more intensive or alternative intervention.

  10. Identity Styles and Religiosity: Examining the Role of Identity Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grajales, Tevni E.; Sommers, Brittany

    2016-01-01

    This study observed the role of identity styles, identity commitment, and identity statuses in predicting religiosity in a sample of undergraduate students attending a Seventh-day Adventist university (N = 138). Two structural models were evaluated via path analysis. Results revealed two strong models for the prediction of religiosity. Identity…

  11. New Principals, Accountability, and Commitment in Low-Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirrell, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine first-year principals' sense-making about two potentially conflicting demands as they take over low-performing urban schools: the demand to exert control over their teachers' practice, and the need to build their teachers' trust, collegiality, and commitment. Design/methodology/approach: This study…

  12. Effects of Commitment and Psychological Centrality on Fathering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasley, Kay; Furtis, Ted G.; Skinner, Martie L.

    2002-01-01

    Identity theory model was tested with fathers (N=186) to assess whether commitment to the fathering role identity affected the psychological centrality of that role. Results showed that fathers who perceived that their wives evaluated them positively as fathers were more likely to report higher levels of involvement in child-related activities and…

  13. The Problem of Convergence and Commitment in Multigroup Evaluation Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausken, Chester A.

    This paper outlines a model for multigroup evaluation planning in a rural-education setting wherein the commitment to the structure necessary to evaluate a program is needed on the part of a research and development laboratory, the state departments of education, county supervisors, and the rural schools. To bridge the gap between basic research,…

  14. Play Context, Commitment, and Dating Violence: A Structural Equation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mendez, Rosaura; Hernandez-Cabrera, Juan Andres

    2009-01-01

    This study develops a structural equation model to describe the effect of two groups of factors (type of commitment and play context) on the violence experienced during intimate partner conflict. After contrasting the model in adolescents and university students, we have confirmed that aggressive play and the simulation of jealousy and anger…

  15. Maybe I Do: Interpersonal Commitment and Premarital or Nonmarital Cohabitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Scott M.; Whitton, Sarah W.; Markman, Howard J.

    2004-01-01

    Explanations for the risks associated with premarital and nonmarital cohabitation (e.g., higher rates of breakup and divorce, lower relationship satisfaction, and greater risk for violent interaction) have focused on levels of conventionality, including attitudes about commitment to the institution of marriage. However, relatively little attention…

  16. Employee Absenteeism, Organizational Commitment, and Job Satisfaction: Another Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sage, Abraham

    1998-01-01

    An investigation of the relationship between work attitudes and voluntary and involuntary absences used data from 140 Israeli municipal clerks. Organizational commitment and job satisfaction were strongly related to duration of voluntary but not involuntary absences. Intention to quit was not significantly related to either type of absence. (SK)

  17. Employer Engagement: The Critical Role of Employee Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Julie; Blake, Joanne; Swallow, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce a case study that identifies the practical issues and implications of employer engagement through course design, delivery and employee commitment in a higher education course delivered in the financial services sector. Design/methodology/approach: Using a case study the paper draws on the course…

  18. 24 CFR 599.107 - Required State and local commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES RENEWAL COMMUNITIES Eligibility Requirements for... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Required State and local commitments. 599.107 Section 599.107 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  19. 24 CFR 599.509 - Modification of commitments and plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES RENEWAL COMMUNITIES Post-Designation Requirements § 599... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Modification of commitments and plans. 599.509 Section 599.509 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  20. 24 CFR 599.509 - Modification of commitments and plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES RENEWAL COMMUNITIES Post-Designation Requirements § 599... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Modification of commitments and plans. 599.509 Section 599.509 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  1. 24 CFR 599.509 - Modification of commitments and plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES RENEWAL COMMUNITIES Post-Designation Requirements § 599... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Modification of commitments and plans. 599.509 Section 599.509 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  2. 24 CFR 599.107 - Required State and local commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES RENEWAL COMMUNITIES Eligibility Requirements for... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Required State and local commitments. 599.107 Section 599.107 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  3. 24 CFR 599.509 - Modification of commitments and plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES RENEWAL COMMUNITIES Post-Designation Requirements § 599... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Modification of commitments and plans. 599.509 Section 599.509 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  4. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) as a Career Counselling Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoare, P. Nancey; McIlveen, Peter; Hamilton, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) has potential to contribute to career counselling. In this paper, the theoretical tenets of ACT and a selection of its counselling techniques are overviewed along with a descriptive case vignette. There is limited empirical research into ACT's application in career counselling. Accordingly, a research agenda…

  5. 10 CFR 609.8 - Term sheets and conditional commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... EMPLOY INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 609.8 Term sheets and conditional commitments. (a) DOE, after review and... preliminary credit rating or credit assessment, and information obtained as the result of meeting with the... meetings on the terms and conditions contained in the Term Sheet, including requests for clarifications...

  6. The Ethical Commitments of Academic Faculty in Psychiatric Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Stephen A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This article explores the commitment of faculty to ethics training in psychiatric education. Although psychiatry has insufficiently addressed the profession's need for ethics training in education, program directors acknowledge its critical importance, and its positive impact has been demonstrated. Additionally, residents often seek…

  7. 48 CFR 852.215-71 - Evaluation factor commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evaluation factor commitments. 852.215-71 Section 852.215-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses...

  8. Preparing for Undergraduate Teaching: Competence, Collaboration, and Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Patricia S.

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on the qualifications of an ideal candidate for an undergraduate teaching position, such as competence, including linguistic, cultural and pedagogical skills; collaboration, or the ability to cooperate effectively with students, colleagues, and people from the local community; and commitment, i.e., a dedication to serving one's…

  9. Commitment of Licensed Social Workers to Aging Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Kelsey; Bonifas, Robin; Gammonley, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to identify client, professional, and employment characteristics that enhance licensed social workers' commitment to aging practice. A series of binary logistic regressions were performed using data from 181 licensed, full-time social workers who reported aging as their primary specialty area as part of the 2004 NASW's national…

  10. 48 CFR 815.304-70 - Evaluation factor commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation factor... Evaluation factor commitments. (a) VA contracting officers shall: (1) Include provisions in negotiated... SDVOSBs; (2) Use past performance in meeting SDVOSB subcontracting goals as a non-price evaluation...

  11. Functional Analytic Psychotherapy with Juveniles Who Have Committed Sexual Offenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newring, Kirk A. B.; Wheeler, Jennifer G.

    2012-01-01

    We have previously discussed the application of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) with adults who have committed sexual offense behaviors (Newring & Wheeler, 2010). The present entry borrows heavily from the foundation presented in that chapter, and extends this approach to working with adolescents, youth, and juveniles with sexual offense…

  12. 48 CFR 2901.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... LABOR GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting... supervisor of the individual who made the unauthorized commitment shall prepare a corrective action plan to... training, or other appropriate action). The ratifying official may approve the corrective action plan....

  13. 48 CFR 1501.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... unauthorized commitments. 1501.602-3 Section 1501.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL... are; (1) Ordering supplies or services by an individual without contracting authority; (2...; (iii) A statement of the delivery status of the supplies or services associated with the...

  14. 48 CFR 1501.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... unauthorized commitments. 1501.602-3 Section 1501.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL... are; (1) Ordering supplies or services by an individual without contracting authority; (2...; (iii) A statement of the delivery status of the supplies or services associated with the...

  15. 48 CFR 1501.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... unauthorized commitments. 1501.602-3 Section 1501.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL... are; (1) Ordering supplies or services by an individual without contracting authority; (2...; (iii) A statement of the delivery status of the supplies or services associated with the...

  16. Working Smart: Turning Everyday Commitments into Scholarly Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Barbara S.; Heinrich, Kathleen T.

    2000-01-01

    Using Boyer's model of scholarship (teaching and learning, practice and engagement, integration, discovery), nursing faculty used a professional commitment to conduct a research project as an opportunity to teach graduate students and contribute to the nursing knowledge base. Their recommendations are to think scholarship, share the workload,…

  17. Effects of parental divorce on marital commitment and confidence.

    PubMed

    Whitton, Sarah W; Rhoades, Galena K; Stanley, Scott M; Markman, Howard J

    2008-10-01

    Research on the intergenerational transmission of divorce has demonstrated that compared with offspring of nondivorced parents, those of divorced parents generally have more negative attitudes toward marriage as an institution and are less optimistic about the feasibility of a long-lasting, healthy marriage. It is also possible that when entering marriage themselves, adults whose parents divorced have less personal relationship commitment to their own marriages and less confidence in their own ability to maintain a happy marriage with their spouse. However, this prediction has not been tested. In the current study, we assessed relationship commitment and relationship confidence, as well as parental divorce and retrospectively reported interparental conflict, in a sample of 265 engaged couples prior to their first marriage. Results demonstrated that women's, but not men's, parental divorce was associated with lower relationship commitment and lower relationship confidence. These effects persisted when controlling for the influence of recalled interparental conflict and premarital relationship adjustment. The current findings suggest that women whose parents divorced are more likely to enter marriage with relatively lower commitment to, and confidence in, the future of those marriages, potentially raising their risk for divorce.

  18. 48 CFR 3401.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ratification of unauthorized commitments. 3401.602-3 Section 3401.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development,...

  19. 48 CFR 3401.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Ratification of unauthorized commitments. 3401.602-3 Section 3401.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development,...

  20. 48 CFR 3401.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ratification of unauthorized commitments. 3401.602-3 Section 3401.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development,...