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Sample records for advance pubertal onset

  1. Dioxin Exposure and Age of Pubertal Onset among Russian Boys

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mary M.; Williams, Paige L.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Burns, Jane S.; Patterson, Donald G.; Turner, Wayman E.; Needham, Larry L.; Altshul, Larisa; Revich, Boris; Hauser, Russ

    2011-01-01

    Background: Animal data demonstrate associations of dioxin, furan, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposures with altered male gonadal maturation. It is unclear whether these associations apply to human populations. Objectives: We investigated the association of dioxins, furans, PCBs, and corresponding toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations with pubertal onset among boys in a dioxin-contaminated region. Methods: Between 2003 and 2005, 499 boys 8–9 years of age were enrolled in a longitudinal study in Chapaevsk, Russia. Pubertal onset [stage 2 or higher for genitalia (G2+) or testicular volume (TV) > 3 mL] was assessed annually between ages 8 and 12 years. Serum levels at enrollment were analyzed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess age at pubertal onset as a function of exposure adjusted for potential confounders. We conducted sensitivity analyses excluding boys with pubertal onset at enrollment. Results: The median (range) total serum TEQ concentration was 21 (4–175) pg/g lipid, approximately three times higher than values in European children. At enrollment, boys were generally healthy and normal weight (mean body mass index, 15.9 kg/m2), with 30% having entered puberty by G2+ and 14% by TV criteria. Higher dioxin TEQs were associated with later pubertal onset by TV (hazard ratio = 0.68, 95% confidence interval, 0.49–0.95 for the highest compared with the lowest quartile). Similar associations were observed for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and dioxin concentrations for TV but not G2+. Results were robust to sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: Findings support an association of higher peripubertal serum dioxin TEQs and concentrations with later male pubertal onset reflected in delayed testicular maturation. PMID:21527364

  2. Does neighborhood environment influence girls' pubertal onset? findings from a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pubertal onset occurs earlier than in the past among U.S. girls. Early onset is associated with numerous deleterious outcomes across the life course, including overweight, breast cancer and cardiovascular health. Increases in childhood overweight have been implicated as a key reason for this secular trend. Scarce research, however, has examined how neighborhood environment may influence overweight and, in turn, pubertal timing. The current study prospectively examined associations between neighborhood environment and timing of pubertal onset in a multi-ethnic cohort of girls. Body mass index (BMI) was examined as a mediator of these associations. Methods Participants were 213 girls, 6-8 years old at baseline, in an on-going longitudinal study. The current report is based on 5 time points (baseline and 4 annual follow-up visits). Neighborhood environment, assessed at baseline, used direct observation. Tanner stage and anthropometry were assessed annually in clinic. Survival analysis was utilized to investigate the influence of neighborhood factors on breast and pubic hair onset, with BMI as a mediator. We also examined the modifying role of girls' ethnicity. Results When adjusting for income, one neighborhood factor (Recreation) predicted delayed onset of breast and pubic hair development, but only for African American girls. BMI did not mediate the association between Recreation and pubertal onset; however, these associations persisted when BMI was included in the models. Conclusions For African American girls, but not girls from other ethnic groups, neighborhood availability of recreational outlets was associated with onset of breast and pubic hair. Given the documented risk for early puberty among African American girls, these findings have important potential implications for public health interventions related to timing of puberty and related health outcomes in adolescence and adulthood. PMID:22414266

  3. Prepubertal Organochlorine Pesticide Concentrations and Age of Pubertal Onset Among Russian Boys

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Thuy; Williams, Paige L.; Lee, Mary M.; Korrick, Susan A.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Burns, Jane S.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Revich, Boris; Altshul, Larisa M.; Patterson, Donald G.; Turner, Wayman E.; Hauser, Russ

    2014-01-01

    Background In animal studies, organochlorine pesticide (OCP) exposure alters pubertal development, however, epidemiological data are limited and inconsistent. Objective To evaluate the associations of serum OCP concentrations [hexachlorobenzene (HCB), β-hexachlorocylohexane (β-HCH), and p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE)] with male pubertal onset. Methods In Chapaevsk, Russia, a town environmentally contaminated with OCPs, 350 8–9 year old boys with measured OCPs were enrolled during 2003–2005 and were followed annually for eight years. We evaluated three measures of pubertal onset: testicular volume (TV) > 3 mL in either testis, or stage 2 or greater for genitalia (G2+), or pubic hair (P2+). We used multivariable interval-censored models to evaluate associations of OCPs (quartiles) with physician-assessed pubertal onset. Results In adjusted models, boys with higher HCB concentrations had later mean ages of TV > 3 mL and P2+ (but not G2+). Mean age at attaining TV > 3 mL was delayed 3.6 (95% CI: −2.6, 9.7), 7.9 (95% CI: 1.7, 14.0), and 4.7 months (95% CI: −1.4, 10.9) for HCB Q2, Q3, and Q4, respectively, compared to Q1 (trend p: 0.06). Boys with higher HCB concentrations reached P2+ 0.1 months earlier (95% CI: −5.8, 5.6) for Q2, 4.7 months later (95% CI: −1.0, 10.3) for Q3 and 4.6 months later (95% CI: −1.1, 10.3) for Q4 compared to Q1 (trend p: 0.04). There were no associations of serum β-HCH and p,p′-DDE concentrations with age of pubertal onset. Conclusion Higher prepubertal serum HCB concentrations were associated with later age of gonadarche and pubarche. PMID:25118086

  4. Pubertal Onset in Girls is Strongly Influenced by Genetic Variation Affecting FSH Action

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Casper P.; Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Mouritsen, Annette; Mieritz, Mikkel G.; Tinggaard, Jeanette; Wohlfart-Veje, Christine; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Main, Katharina M.; Meyts, Ewa Rajpert-De; Almstrup, Kristian; Juul, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Age at pubertal onset varies substantially in healthy girls. Although genetic factors are responsible for more than half of the phenotypic variation, only a small part has been attributed to specific genetic polymorphisms identified so far. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates ovarian follicle maturation and estradiol synthesis which is responsible for breast development. We assessed the effect of three polymorphisms influencing FSH action on age at breast deveopment in a population-based cohort of 964 healthy girls. Girls homozygous for FSHR -29AA (reduced FSH receptor expression) entered puberty 7.4 (2.5–12.4) months later than carriers of the common variants FSHR -29GG+GA, p = 0.003. To our knowledge, this is the strongest genetic effect on age at pubertal onset in girls published to date. PMID:25231187

  5. Aromatase excess syndrome: a rare autosomal dominant disorder leading to pre- or peri-pubertal onset gynecomastia.

    PubMed

    Fukami, Maki; Miyado, Mami; Nagasaki, Keisuke; Shozu, Makio; Ogata, Tsutomu

    2014-03-01

    Overexpression of CYP19A1 encoding aromatase results in a rare genetic disorder referred to as aromatase excess syndrome (AEXS). Male patients with AEXS manifest pre- or peri-pubertal onset gynecomastia, gonadotropin deficiency, and advanced bone age, while female patients are mostly asymptomatic. To date, 30 male patients with molecularly confirmed AEXS have been reported. A total of 12 types of submicroscopic rearrangements, i.e., two simple duplications, four simple deletions, two simple inversions, and four complex rearrangements, have been implicated in AEXS. Clinical severity of AEXS primarily depends on the types of the rearrangements. AEXS appears to account for a small number of cases of pre- or peri-pubertal onset gynecomastia, and should be suspected particularly when gynecomastia is associated with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, characteristic hormone abnormalities and/or advanced bone age. Treatment with an aromatase inhibitor appears to benefit patients with AEXS, although long-term safety of this class of drugs remains unknown. PMID:24716396

  6. Neonatal amygdala lesions advance pubertal timing in female rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Shannon B.Z.; Raper, Jessica; Bachevalier, Jocelyne; Wallen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Summary Social context influences the timing of puberty in both humans and nonhuman primates, such as delayed first ovulation in low-ranking rhesus macaques, but the brain region(s) mediating the effects of social context on pubertal timing are unknown. The amygdala is important for responding to social information and thus, is a potential brain region mediating the effects of social context on pubertal timing. In this study, female rhesus macaques living in large, species-typical, social groups received bilateral neurotoxic amygdala lesions at one month of age and pubertal timing was examined beginning at 14 months of age. Pubertal timing was affected in neonatal amygdala-lesioned females (Neo-A), such that they experienced significantly earlier menarche and first ovulation than did control females (Neo-C). Duration between menarche and first ovulation did not differ between Neo-A and Neo-C females, indicating earlier first ovulation in Neo-A females was likely a consequence of earlier menarche. Social rank of Neo-A females was related to age at menarche, but not first ovulation, and social rank was not related to either event in Neo-C females. It is more likely that amygdalectomy affects pubertal timing through its modulation of GABA-ergic mechanisms rather than as a result of the removal of a social-contextual inhibition on pubertal timing. PMID:25462903

  7. Modeling Pubertal Timing and Tempo and Examining Links to Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Beltz, Adriene M.; Corley, Robin P.; Bricker, Josh B.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Berenbaum, Sheri A.

    2014-01-01

    Research on the role of puberty in adolescent psychological development requires attention to the meaning and measurement of pubertal development. Particular questions concern the utility of self report, the need for complex models to describe pubertal development, the psychological significance of pubertal timing versus tempo, and sex differences in the nature and psychological significance of pubertal development. We used longitudinal self-report data to model linear and logistic trajectories of pubertal development, and used timing and tempo estimates from these models, and from traditional approaches (age at menarche and time from onset of breast development to menarche), to predict psychological outcomes of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, and early sexual activity. Participants (738 girls, 781 boys) reported annually from ages 9 through 15 on their pubertal development, and they and their parents reported on their behavior in mid-to-late adolescence and early adulthood. Self reports of pubertal development provided meaningful data for both boys and girls, producing good trajectories, and estimates of individuals’ pubertal timing and tempo. A logistic model best fit the group data. Pubertal timing was estimated to be earlier in the logistic compared to linear model, but linear, logistic, and traditional estimates of pubertal timing correlated highly with each other and similarly with psychological outcomes. Pubertal tempo was not consistently estimated, and associations of tempo with timing and with behavior were model dependent. Advances in modeling facilitate the study of some questions about pubertal development, but assumptions of the models affect their utility in psychological studies. PMID:25437757

  8. Synaptic number changes in the medial prefrontal cortex across adolescence in male and female rats: A role for pubertal onset.

    PubMed

    Drzewiecki, Carly M; Willing, Jari; Juraska, Janice M

    2016-09-01

    Adolescence is a unique period of development, marked by maturation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a region important for executive functioning. During this time, the human PFC decreases in overall volume and thickness. Likewise in adolescent rodents, losses of neurons, dendrites, dendritic spines and neurotransmitter receptors have been documented within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), sometimes with sex and layer specificity. However, changes in the number of synapses during this time have not been examined. In the present study, we stereologically quantified the number of synaptophysin-immunoreactive boutons in the male and female rat mPFC across multiple time points from the juvenile period through adulthood (postnatal days (P) 25, 35, 45, 60 and 90). In females, there was a significant decrease in synaptophysin boutons between P35 and P45, coinciding with the onset of puberty. In males, there was no significant main effect of age on synaptophysin boutons; however, in both males and females, pubertal onset was associated with significant synaptic losses. These results suggest that puberty is a critical period for synaptic pruning within the rat mPFC, potentially contributing to maturation of adolescent executive function. Synapse 70:361-368, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27103097

  9. Chronic administration of anabolic steroids disrupts pubertal onset and estrous cyclicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Clark, Ann S; Kelton, Megan C; Whitney, Andrew C

    2003-02-01

    Use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) is becoming increasingly popular among adolescent girls, yet the effects of AASs on female physiology and development are not well understood. The present study compared the effects of chronic exposure to three individual AASs, stanozolol (0.05-5 mg/kg), 17alpha-methyltestosterone (0.5-5 mg/kg), and methandrostenolone (0.5-5 mg/kg) on the onset of puberty and estrous cyclicity in the rat. Female rats received daily injections of AASs for 30 days (Postnatal Day [PN] 21-51). Rats receiving the highest dose of each of the AASs (5 mg/kg) displayed vaginal opening at a younger age than rats receiving the oil vehicle. The day of first vaginal estrus was delayed in rats receiving stanozolol (5 mg/kg) or 17alpha-methyltestosterone (0.5-5 mg/kg) but not in rats receiving methandrostenolone. At the highest dose (5 mg/kg), each of the AASs reduced the incidence of regular estrous cyclicity during the treatment period. Concurrent administration (on PN21-51) of the androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide (10 mg/kg, twice daily), reversed the effects of 17alpha-methyltestosterone (5 mg/kg) on vaginal opening. Flutamide administration also eliminated the effects of stanozolol (5 mg/kg) and 17alpha-methyltestosterone (5 mg/kg) on the day of first vaginal estrus. In contrast, rats receiving flutamide and methandrostenolone (5 mg/kg) exhibited first vaginal estrus earlier than controls. The present results indicate that chronic exposure to AASs during development has deleterious effects on the female neuroendocrine axis and that these effects appear be mediated via multiple mechanisms. PMID:12533409

  10. Advanced Pubertal Status at Age 11 and Lower Physical Activity in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Birgitta L.; Birch, Leann L.; Trost, Stewart G.; Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between pubertal timing and physical activity. Study design A longitudinal sample of 143 adolescent girls was assessed at ages 11 and 13 years. Girls' pubertal development was assessed at age 11 with blood estradiol levels, Tanner breast staging criteria, and parental report of pubertal development. Girls were classified as early maturers (n = 41) or later maturers (n = 102) on the basis of their scores on the 3 pubertal development measures. Dependent variables measured at age 13 were average minutes/day of moderate to vigorous and vigorous physical activity as measured by the ActiGraph accelerometer. Results Early-maturing girls had significantly lower self-reported physical activity and accumulated fewer minutes of moderate to vigorous and vigorous physical activity and accelerometer counts per day at age 13 than later maturing girls. These effects were independent of differences in percentage body fat and self-reported physical activity at age 11. Conclusion Girls experiencing early pubertal maturation at age 11 reported lower subsequent physical activity at age 13 than their later maturing peers. Pubertal maturation, in particular early maturation relative to peers, may lead to declines in physical activity among adolescent girls. PMID:17961691

  11. Nutritional and Pubertal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Calvo, M Teresa; Argente, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Caloric-protein malnutrition can slow growth and cause pubertal delay. This chapter focuses on endocrine abnormalities and pubertal alterations in patients with eating disorders, childhood obesity, the female athlete triad and children cancer survivors. Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) exhibit multiple endocrine abnormalities, including isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. The delay in pubertal development and reduction in growth seen in AN patients may be a direct result of malnutrition. Appropriate psychiatric, nutritional and hormonal therapy is necessary. It is suggested that obesity during childhood can accelerate pubertal onset and these children usually exhibit accelerated linear growth during puberty. In girls the relationship between childhood obesity and early pubertal onset could be related to their insulin resistance and/or hyperinsulinemia. The female athlete triad is often observed in physically active girls and women in whom low energy availability with or without disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction and low bone mineral density can be present. In prepubertal girls excess exercise can cause delayed menarche with no effects on adult height, while in postpubertal females it results in menstrual cycle irregularities. The consequences of childhood cancer depend on the type of cancer, its location, the age at which the disease was diagnosed, the dose of radiotherapy, and the type and dose of chemotherapy. PMID:26680577

  12. Associations of Birth Order with Early Adolescent Growth, Pubertal Onset, Blood Pressure and Size: Evidence from Hong Kong’s “Children of 1997” Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Man Ki; Leung, Gabriel M.; Schooling, C. Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background Birth order has been proposed as a cardiovascular risk factor, because the lower birth weight and greater infant weight gain typical of firstborns could programme metabolism detrimentally. Methods We examined the associations of birth order (firstborn or laterborn) with birth weight-for-gestational age, length/height and body mass index (BMI) z-scores during infancy, childhood, and puberty using generalized estimating equations, with age at pubertal onset using interval-censored regression and with age-, sex- and height-standardized blood pressure, height and BMI z-scores at 13 years using linear regression in a population-representative Chinese birth cohort: “Children of 1997” (n = 8,327). Results Compared with laterborns, firstborns had lower birth weight-for-gestational age (mean difference = -0.18 z-score, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.23, -0.14), lower infant BMI (-0.09 z-score, 95% CI -0.14, -0.04), greater childhood height (0.10 z-score, 95% CI 0.05, 0.14) and BMI (0.08 z-score, 95% CI 0.03, 0.14), but not greater pubertal BMI (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.02, 0.11), adjusted for sex, parental age, birthplace, education and income. Firstborns had earlier onset of pubic hair (time ratio = 0.988, 95% CI 0.980, 0.996), but not breast or genitalia, development. Firstborns had greater BMI (0.07 z-score, 95% CI 0.002, 0.15), but not height (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.01, 0.11), at 13 years, but similar blood pressure. Conclusions Differences by birth order continue into early adolescence with firstborns being heavier with earlier pubic hair development, which could indicate long-term cardiovascular risk. PMID:27088360

  13. Nutrition and pubertal development.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ashraf; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania

    2014-11-01

    Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty) appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development. PMID:25538876

  14. Nutrition and pubertal development

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ashraf; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty) appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development. PMID:25538876

  15. Peripubertal administration of icariin and icaritin advances pubertal development in female rats.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun Ku; Lee, Sang-Bum; Kwon, Hyosuk; Sung, Chung Ki; Park, Young In; Dong, Mi-Sook

    2012-03-01

    Epimedii Herba is a traditional medicinal herb used in Korea and China and exerts estrogenic activity. In this study, we investigated the effect of peripubertal administration of Epimedii Herba on pubertal development in female rats using a modified protocol of the rodent 20-day pubertal female assay. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (21 days old after weaning, 10 rats per group) were divided into five groups: saline (Con), ethinyl estradiol (E2), Epimedii Herba ext (Ext), icariin (ICI), and icaritin (ICT), which were administered by oral gavage (E2 by subcutaneous injection) from postnatal day (PND) 21 through PND40. The time to vaginal opening (VO) was shorter for the Epimedii groups, particularly for the ICT group (p<0.05). Treatment with ICI and ICT significantly increased the duration of the estrus cycle (ICI, 2.78 days; ICT, 4.0 days; control, 1.78 days). Ovary weight was reduced by E2 treatment and increased by the Ext, ICI, and ICT treatments while the weight of the uterus and pituitary glands increased significantly only in the E2 and ICT groups. Although Epimedii Herba displayed relatively weak estrogenic activity, its repeated administration could affect pubertal development in female rats. PMID:24116294

  16. Increased Neurokinin B (Tac2) Expression in the Mouse Arcuate Nucleus Is an Early Marker of Pubertal Onset with Differential Sensitivity to Sex Steroid-Negative Feedback than Kiss1

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Víctor M.; Kwong, Cecilia; Noel, Sekoni D.; Martin, Cecilia; Xu, Shuyun; Clifton, Donald K.; Carroll, Rona S.; Steiner, Robert A.; Kaiser, Ursula B.

    2012-01-01

    At puberty, neurokinin B (NKB) and kisspeptin (Kiss1) may help to amplify GnRH secretion, but their precise roles remain ambiguous. We tested the hypothesis that NKB and Kiss1 are induced as a function of pubertal development, independently of the prevailing sex steroid milieu. We found that levels of Kiss1 mRNA in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) are increased prior to the age of puberty in GnRH/sex steroid-deficient hpg mice, yet levels of Kiss1 mRNA in wild-type mice remained constant, suggesting that sex steroids exert a negative feedback effect on Kiss1 expression early in development and across puberty. In contrast, levels of Tac2 mRNA, encoding NKB, and its receptor (NK3R; encoded by Tacr3) increased as a function of puberty in both wild-type and hpg mice, suggesting that during development Tac2 is less sensitive to sex steroid-dependent negative feedback than Kiss1. To compare the relative responsiveness of Tac2 and Kiss1 to the negative feedback effects of gonadal steroids, we examined the effect of estradiol (E2) on Tac2 and Kiss1 mRNA and found that Kiss1 gene expression was more sensitive than Tac2 to E2-induced inhibition at both juvenile and adult ages. This differential estrogen sensitivity was tested in vivo by the administration of E2. Low levels of E2 significantly suppressed Kiss1 expression in the ARC, whereas Tac2 suppression required higher E2 levels, supporting differential sensitivity to E2. Finally, to determine whether inhibition of NKB/NK3R signaling would block the onset of puberty, we administered an NK3R antagonist to prepubertal (before postnatal d 30) females and found no effect on markers of pubertal onset in either WT or hpg mice. These results indicate that the expression of Tac2 and Tacr3 in the ARC are markers of pubertal activation but that increased NKB/NK3R signaling alone is insufficient to trigger the onset of puberty in the mouse. PMID:22893725

  17. Pubertal development and regulation.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Ana Paula; Kaiser, Ursula B

    2016-03-01

    Puberty marks the end of childhood and is a period when individuals undergo physiological and psychological changes to achieve sexual maturation and fertility. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis controls puberty and reproduction and is tightly regulated by a complex network of excitatory and inhibitory factors. This axis is active in the embryonic and early postnatal stages of life and is subsequently restrained during childhood, and its reactivation culminates in puberty initiation. The mechanisms underlying this reactivation are not completely known. The age of puberty onset varies between individuals and the timing of puberty initiation is associated with several health outcomes in adult life. In this Series paper, we discuss pubertal markers, epidemiological trends of puberty initiation over time, and the mechanisms whereby genetic, metabolic, and other factors control secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone to determine initiation of puberty. PMID:26852256

  18. Pubertal Stage and Brain Anatomy in Girls

    PubMed Central

    Blanton, Rebecca E.; Cooney, Rebecca E.; Joormann, Jutta; Eugène, Fanny; Glover, Gary H.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of puberty have focused primarily on changes in hormones and on observable physical bodily characteristics. Little is known, however, about the nature of the relation between pubertal status and brain physiology. This is particularly important given findings that have linked the onset of puberty with both changes in cognitive functioning and increases in the incidence of depression and anxiety. The present study examined relations between pubertal stage, as assessed by Tanner Staging, and brain anatomy in a sample of 54 girls aged 9 - 15 years. Brain morphometric analysis was conducted using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The hippocampus and amygdala were manually traced on MRI scans in all participants. Stepwise regression analyses were conducted with total intracranial volume (ICV), age, and pubertal status as the predictor variables and hippocampus and amygdala volumes as outcome variables. Pubertal status was significantly associated with left amygdala volume, after controlling for both age and intracranial volume (ICV). In addition, puberty was related to right hippocampus and amygdala volumes, after controlling for ICV. In contrast, no significant associations were found between age and hippocampal and amygdala volumes after controlling for pubertal status and ICV. These findings highlight the importance of the relation between pubertal status and morphometry of the hippocampus and amygdala, and of limbic and subcortical structures that have been implicated in emotional and social behavior. PMID:22569152

  19. Pubertal Development: Correspondence between Hormonal and Physical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2009-01-01

    Puberty is advanced by sex hormones, yet it is not clear how it is best measured. The interrelation of multiple indices of puberty was examined, including the Pubertal Development Scale (PDS), a picture-based interview about puberty (PBIP), and a physical exam. These physical pubertal measures were then associated with basal hormones responsible…

  20. Associations among Pubertal Development, Empathic Ability, and Neural Responses While Witnessing Peer Rejection in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masten, Carrie L.; Eisenberger, Naomi I.; Pfeifer, Jennifer H.; Colich, Natalie L.; Dapretto, Mirella

    2013-01-01

    Links among concurrent and longitudinal changes in pubertal development and empathic ability from ages 10 to 13 and neural responses while witnessing peer rejection at age 13 were examined in 16 participants. More advanced pubertal development at age 13, and greater longitudinal increases in pubertal development, related to increased activity in…

  1. Genetic Influences on Pubertal Development and Links to Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Beltz, Adriene M.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Berenbaum, Sheri A.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic influences on adolescent psychological development are likely to be mediated and moderated by pubertal hormones. Combining genetic analyses with advanced models of pubertal development, we extended work on the measurement and psychological significance of puberty. We examined how genetic and environmental influences on puberty vary by the way that development is described (logistic versus linear models versus traditional methods) and the different aspects of puberty (adrenarche vs. gonadarche), and how genes and environment contribute to the covariation between different descriptions and aspects of puberty, and between pubertal development and behavior problems (substance use, age at sexual initiation). We also considered how puberty moderated the heritability of psychological outcomes (internalizing and externalizing problems), and sex differences. Participants from the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study (403 girls, 395 boys) reported their pubertal development annually from ages 9 through 15; they and their parents reported their behavior in mid-to-late adolescence. There was a large genetic contribution to pubertal timing for both sexes no matter how it was measured, but findings for pubertal tempo varied by method. Genetic covariation accounted for most of the phenotypic correlations among different indicators of pubertal timing, and between pubertal timing and psychological outcome. We consider the implications of our results for understanding how pubertal hormones mediate or moderate genetic and environmental influences on psychological development. PMID:25903988

  2. Familial cytomegalic adrenocortical hypoplasia: an X-linked syndrome of pubertal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Hay, I D; Smail, P J; Forsyth, C C

    1981-01-01

    Five boys with familial cytomegalic adrenocortical hypoplasia have been followed up for an average of 19 years. Despite treatment with replacement corticosteroids, all 5 failed to show a spontaneous onset of puberty and, when assessed at ages 13 to 19 years, all had both sexual infantilism and skeletal immaturity. Hypogonadism was confirmed by low levels of plasma testosterone, and pituitary reserve of gonadotrophin was shown to be inadequate by testing with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone. Two boys, both with adequate testosterone output on human chorionic gonadotrophin stimulation, were given gonadotrophin therapy, whereas the other 3 were treated with parenterally administered testosterone. With treatment, all 5 patients showed advances in pubertal staging. Although the mechanism of the hypogonadotropism remains unclear, the association of hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism with familial cytomegalic adrenocortical hypoplasia appears to be a constant one and may be considered as a treatable inherited syndrome of pubertal failure. PMID:7197507

  3. Circadian activity rhythm in pre-pubertal and pubertal marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) living in family groups.

    PubMed

    Melo, Paula R; Gonçalves, Bruno S B; Menezes, Alexandre A L; Azevedo, Carolina V M

    2016-03-01

    In marmosets, a phase advance was observed in activity onset in pubertal animals living in captivity under semi-natural conditions which had stronger correlation with the times of sunrise over the course of the year than the age of the animal. In order to evaluate the effect of puberty on the circadian activity rhythm in male and female marmosets living in family groups in controlled lighting conditions, the activity of 5 dyads of twins (4 ♀/♂ and 1 ♂/♂) and their respective parents was continuously monitored by actiwatches between the 4th and 12th months of age. The families were kept under LD 12:12 h with constant humidity and temperature. The onset of puberty was identified by monitoring fecal steroids. Juveniles showed higher totals of daily activity and differences in the daily distribution of activity in relation to parents, in which the bimodal profile was characterized by higher levels in evening activity in relation to morning activity. Regarding the phase, the activity onset and offset, occurred later in relation to parents. After entering puberty, the activity onset and offset occurred later and there was an increase in total daily activity. On the other hand, when assessing the effect of sex, only females showed a delay in the activity offset and an increase in total daily activity. Therefore, the circadian activity rhythm in marmosets has peculiar characteristics in the juvenile stage in relation to the total of daily activity, the onset and offset of the active phase, and the distribution of activity during this phase. Besides, the entering puberty was associated with a phase delay and increase on total daily activity, with differences between sexes, possibly due to hormonal influences and/or social modulation on rhythm. PMID:26724713

  4. Multiple sclerosis: the role of the pineal gland in its timing of onset and risk of psychiatric illness.

    PubMed

    Sandyk, R; Awerbuch, G I

    1993-09-01

    The incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) is age-dependent being rare prior to age 10, unusual prior to age 15, with a peak in the mid 20s. It has been suggested, therefore, that the clinical manifestation of MS is dependent upon having passed the pubertal period. Since pineal melatonin secretion declines from childhood to puberty and as melatonin is an immunomodulator, we have proposed that the dramatic decline in melatonin secretion just prior to the onset of the physical manifestations of puberty may disrupt immune responses resulting in either reactivation of the infective agent or in an increased susceptibility to post-pubertal infection. The fall in melatonin secretion during pre-puberty may also increase the susceptibility of these patients to affective disorder which is associated with lower melatonin secretion and the presence of a phase-advance of their biological rhythms. We predicted, therefore, a higher incidence of affective disorder in patients with pubertal or post-pubertal onset of MS compared to those in whom the disease manifested later. To test this hypothesis, we studied the incidence of affective disorder in relation to age of onset of first neurological symptoms in 31 MS patients, 6 of whom manifested symptoms of MS prior to age 18 (mean = 16.8 years). All patients with pubertal onset MS and only 48% of the control group had an affective disorder. The pubertal onset patients also had a significantly lower nocturnal melatonin levels and a lower incidence of pineal calcification on CT scan. These findings thus support the hypothesis implicating the pineal gland in the timing of onset of MS and in the risk for the development of affective disorder. PMID:8225803

  5. Epigenetic mechanisms in pubertal brain maturation

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Kathleen E.; Rodgers, Ali B.; Morgan, Christopher P.; Bale, Tracy L.

    2014-01-01

    Puberty is a critical period of development during which the reemergence of gonadotropin releasing hormone secretion from the hypothalamus triggers a cascade of hormone-dependent processes. Maturation of specific brain regions including the prefrontal cortex occurs during this window, but the complex mechanisms underlying these dynamic changes are not well understood. Particularly, the potential involvement of epigenetics in this programming has been under-examined. The epigenome is known to guide earlier stages of development, and it is similarly poised to regulate vital pubertal-driven brain maturation. Further, as epigenetic machinery is highly environmentally responsive, its involvement may also lend this period of growth to greater vulnerability to external insults, resulting in reprogramming and increased disease risk. Importantly, neuropsychiatric diseases commonly present in individuals during or immediately following puberty, and environmental perturbations including stress may precipitate disease onset by disrupting the normal trajectory of pubertal brain development via epigenetic mechanisms. In this review, we discuss epigenetic processes involved in pubertal brain maturation, the potential points of derailment, and the importance of future studies for understanding this dynamic developmental window and gaining a better understanding of neuropsychiatric disease risk. PMID:24239720

  6. Pubertal development in healthy children is mirrored by DNA methylation patterns in peripheral blood

    PubMed Central

    Almstrup, Kristian; Lindhardt Johansen, Marie; Busch, Alexander S.; Hagen, Casper P.; Nielsen, John E.; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Juul, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Puberty marks numerous physiological processes which are initiated by central activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis, followed by development of secondary sexual characteristics. To a large extent, pubertal timing is heritable, but current knowledge of genetic polymorphisms only explains few months in the large inter-individual variation in the timing of puberty. We have analysed longitudinal genome-wide changes in DNA methylation in peripheral blood samples (n = 102) obtained from 51 healthy children before and after pubertal onset. We show that changes in single methylation sites are tightly associated with physiological pubertal transition and altered reproductive hormone levels. These methylation sites cluster in and around genes enriched for biological functions related to pubertal development. Importantly, we identified that methylation of the genomic region containing the promoter of TRIP6 was co-ordinately regulated as a function of pubertal development. In accordance, immunohistochemistry identified TRIP6 in adult, but not pre-pubertal, testicular Leydig cells and circulating TRIP6 levels doubled during puberty. Using elastic net prediction models, methylation patterns predicted pubertal development more accurately than chronological age. We demonstrate for the first time that pubertal attainment of secondary sexual characteristics is mirrored by changes in DNA methylation patterns in peripheral blood. Thus, modulations of the epigenome seem involved in regulation of the individual pubertal timing. PMID:27349168

  7. Pubertal development in healthy children is mirrored by DNA methylation patterns in peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Almstrup, Kristian; Lindhardt Johansen, Marie; Busch, Alexander S; Hagen, Casper P; Nielsen, John E; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Juul, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Puberty marks numerous physiological processes which are initiated by central activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, followed by development of secondary sexual characteristics. To a large extent, pubertal timing is heritable, but current knowledge of genetic polymorphisms only explains few months in the large inter-individual variation in the timing of puberty. We have analysed longitudinal genome-wide changes in DNA methylation in peripheral blood samples (n = 102) obtained from 51 healthy children before and after pubertal onset. We show that changes in single methylation sites are tightly associated with physiological pubertal transition and altered reproductive hormone levels. These methylation sites cluster in and around genes enriched for biological functions related to pubertal development. Importantly, we identified that methylation of the genomic region containing the promoter of TRIP6 was co-ordinately regulated as a function of pubertal development. In accordance, immunohistochemistry identified TRIP6 in adult, but not pre-pubertal, testicular Leydig cells and circulating TRIP6 levels doubled during puberty. Using elastic net prediction models, methylation patterns predicted pubertal development more accurately than chronological age. We demonstrate for the first time that pubertal attainment of secondary sexual characteristics is mirrored by changes in DNA methylation patterns in peripheral blood. Thus, modulations of the epigenome seem involved in regulation of the individual pubertal timing. PMID:27349168

  8. Improvement with ongoing Enzyme Replacement Therapy in advanced late-onset Pompe disease: a case study.

    PubMed

    Case, Laura E; Koeberl, Dwight D; Young, Sarah P; Bali, Deeksha; DeArmey, Stephanie M; Mackey, Joanne; Kishnani, Priya S

    2008-12-01

    Benefits of enzyme replacement therapy with Myozyme (alglucosidase alfa), anecdotally reported in late-onset Pompe disease, range from motor and pulmonary improvement in less severely affected patients, to stabilization with minimal improvement in those with advanced disease. We report a case of a 63-year-old patient with significant morbidity who made notable motor and pulmonary function gains after two years on therapy. Thus, improvements in those with advanced disease may be possible after long-term treatment. PMID:18930676

  9. Breastfeeding versus Formula-Feeding & Girls’ Pubertal Development

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Aarti; Deardorff, Julianna; Lahiff, Maureen; Laurent, Cecile; Greenspan, Louise C.; Hiatt, Robert A.; Windham, Gayle; Galvez, Maida P.; Biro, Frank M.; Pinney, Susan M.; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Wolff, Mary S.; Barlow, Janice; Mirabedi, Anousheh; Lasater, Molly; Kushi, Lawrence H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of breastfeeding or its duration with timing of girls’ pubertal onset, and the role of BMI as a mediator in these associations. Methods A population of 1,237 socio-economically and ethnically diverse girls, ages 6–8 years, was recruited across three geographic locations (New York City, Cincinnati, and the San Francisco Bay Area) in a prospective study of predictors of pubertal maturation. Breastfeeding practices were assessed using self-administered questionnaire/interview with the primary caregiver. Girls were seen on at least annual basis to assess breast and pubic hair development. The association of breastfeeding with pubertal timing was estimated using parametric survival analysis while adjusting for body mass index, ethnicity, birth-weight, mother’s education, mother’s menarcheal age, and family income. Results Compared to formula fed girls, those who were mixed-fed or predominantly breastfed showed later onset of breast development (Hazard Ratios 0.90 [95% CI, 0.75–1.09] and 0.74 [95% CI, 0.59–0.94], respectively). Duration of breastfeeding was also directly associated with age at onset of breast development (p trend = 0.008). Associations between breastfeeding and pubic hair onset were not significant. In stratified analysis, the association of breastfeeding and later breast onset was seen in Cincinnati girls only. Conclusion The association between breast feeding and pubertal onset varied by study site. More research is needed about the environments within which breastfeeding takes place in order to better understand whether infant feeding practices are a potentially modifiable risk factor that may influence age at onset of breast development and subsequent risk for disease in adulthood. PMID:24916206

  10. Breastfeeding versus formula-feeding and girls' pubertal development.

    PubMed

    Kale, Aarti; Deardorff, Julianna; Lahiff, Maureen; Laurent, Cecile; Greenspan, Louise C; Hiatt, Robert A; Windham, Gayle; Galvez, Maida P; Biro, Frank M; Pinney, Susan M; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Wolff, Mary S; Barlow, Janice; Mirabedi, Anousheh; Lasater, Molly; Kushi, Lawrence H

    2015-03-01

    To examine the association of breastfeeding or its duration with timing of girls' pubertal onset, and the role of BMI as a mediator in these associations. A population of 1,237 socio-economically and ethnically diverse girls, ages 6-8 years, was recruited across three geographic locations (New York City, Cincinnati, and the San Francisco Bay Area) in a prospective study of predictors of pubertal maturation. Breastfeeding practices were assessed using self-administered questionnaire/interview with the primary caregiver. Girls were seen on at least annual basis to assess breast and pubic hair development. The association of breastfeeding with pubertal timing was estimated using parametric survival analysis while adjusting for body mass index, ethnicity, birth-weight, mother's education, mother's menarcheal age, and family income. Compared to formula fed girls, those who were mixed-fed or predominantly breastfed showed later onset of breast development [hazard ratios 0.90 (95 % CI 0.75, 1.09) and 0.74 (95 % CI 0.59, 0.94), respectively]. Duration of breastfeeding was also directly associated with age at onset of breast development (p trend = 0.008). Associations between breastfeeding and pubic hair onset were not significant. In stratified analysis, the association of breastfeeding and later breast onset was seen in Cincinnati girls only. The association between breast feeding and pubertal onset varied by study site. More research is needed about the environments within which breastfeeding takes place in order to better understand whether infant feeding practices are a potentially modifiable risk factor that may influence age at onset of breast development and subsequent risk for disease in adulthood. PMID:24916206

  11. Current Changes in Pubertal Timing: Revised Vision in Relation with Environmental Factors Including Endocrine Disruptors.

    PubMed

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Franssen, Delphine; Fudvoye, Julie; Pinson, Anneline; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to revise some common views on changes in pubertal timing. This revision is based on recent epidemiological findings on the clinical indicators of pubertal timing and data on environmental factor effects and underlying mechanisms. A current advancement in timing of female puberty is usually emphasized. It appears, however, that timing is also changing in males. Moreover, the changes are towards earliness for initial pubertal stages and towards lateness for final stages in both sexes. Such observations indicate the complexity of environmental influences on pubertal timing. The mechanisms of changes in pubertal timing may involve both the central neuroendocrine control and peripheral effects at tissues targeted by gonadal steroids. While sufficient energy availability is a clue to the mechanism of pubertal development, changes in the control of both energy balance and reproduction may vary under the influence of common determinants such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). These effects can take place right before puberty as well as much earlier, during fetal and neonatal life. Finally, environmental factors can interact with genetic factors in determining changes in pubertal timing. Therefore, the variance in pubertal timing is no longer to be considered under absolutely separate control by environmental and genetic determinants. Some recommendations are provided for evaluation of EDC impact in the management of pubertal disorders and for possible reduction of EDC exposure along the precautionary principle. PMID:26680578

  12. Pubertal maturation and affective symptoms in adolescence and adulthood: Evidence from a prospective birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Gaysina, Darya; Richards, Marcus; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca

    2015-11-01

    The higher prevalence of affective symptoms among women compared to men emerges in adolescence, and it has been associated with pubertal maturation. However, it remains unclear whether pubertal timing has long-term influences on affective symptoms. Using data from the British 1946 birth cohort, we investigated whether pubertal timing was associated with affective symptoms over the life course, distinguishing those with symptoms in adolescence only, symptoms in adulthood only, and symptoms in both adolescence and adulthood. In females, there was no evidence that early pubertal maturation was a risk factor for affective symptoms. However, those with particularly late menarche (≥15 years) showed a lower risk of adult-onset affective symptoms (odds ratio = 0.54, 95% confidence interval = 0.31, 0.95). This effect of late pubertal timing was not explained by a range of sociobehavioral factors. In contrast, in males, late pubertal timing was associated with increased risk of adolescent-onset affective symptoms that tracked into adulthood (odds ratio = 2.10, 95% confidence interval = 1.44, 3.06). This effect was partly explained by low prepubertal body mass index. Sex-specific effects of pubertal timing on the long-term risk of affective symptoms might be due to different effects of gonadal hormonal on the central nervous system, as well as different social experiences during puberty. PMID:26439078

  13. Pubertal timing and sexual risk behaviors among rural African American male youth: testing a model based on life history theory.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Steven M; Cho, Junhan; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Allen, Kimberly A; Beach, Steven R H; Simons, Ronald L; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2015-04-01

    Life History Theory (LHT), a branch of evolutionary biology, describes how organisms maximize their reproductive success in response to environmental conditions. This theory suggests that challenging environmental conditions will lead to early pubertal maturation, which in turn predicts heightened risky sexual behavior. Although largely confirmed among female adolescents, results with male youth are inconsistent. We tested a set of predictions based on LHT with a sample of 375 African American male youth assessed three times from age 11 to age 16. Harsh, unpredictable community environments and harsh, inconsistent, or unregulated parenting at age 11 were hypothesized to predict pubertal maturation at age 13; pubertal maturation was hypothesized to forecast risky sexual behavior, including early onset of intercourse, substance use during sexual activity, and lifetime numbers of sexual partners. Results were consistent with our hypotheses. Among African American male youth, community environments were a modest but significant predictor of pubertal timing. Among those youth with high negative emotionality, both parenting and community factors predicted pubertal timing. Pubertal timing at age 13 forecast risky sexual behavior at age 16. Results of analyses conducted to determine whether environmental effects on sexual risk behavior were mediated by pubertal timing were not significant. This suggests that, although evolutionary mechanisms may affect pubertal development via contextual influences for sensitive youth, the factors that predict sexual risk behavior depend less on pubertal maturation than LHT suggests. PMID:25501863

  14. Pubertal Timing and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Rural African American Male Youth: Testing a Model Based on Life History Theory

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Steven M.; Cho, Junhan; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Allen, Kimberly A.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Simons, Ronald L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2014-01-01

    Life History Theory (LHT), a branch of evolutionary biology, describes how organisms maximize their reproductive success in response to environmental conditions. This theory suggests that challenging environmental conditions will lead to early pubertal maturation, which in turn predicts heightened risky sexual behavior. Although largely confirmed among female adolescents, results with male youth are inconsistent. We tested a set of predictions based on LHT with a sample of 375 African American male youth assessed three times from age 11 to age 16. Harsh, unpredictable community environments and harsh, inconsistent, or unregulated parenting at age 11 were hypothesized to predict pubertal maturation at age 13; pubertal maturation was hypothesized to forecast risky sexual behavior, including early onset of intercourse, substance use during sexual activity, and lifetime numbers of sexual partners. Results were consistent with our hypotheses. Among African American male youth, community environments were a modest but significant predictor of pubertal timing. Among those youth with high negative emotionality, both parenting and community factors predicted pubertal timing. Pubertal timing at age 13 forecast risky sexual behavior at age 16. Results of analyses conducted to determine whether environmental effects ons exual risk behavior were mediated by pubertal timing were not significant. This suggests that, although evolutionary mechanisms may affect pubertal development via contextual influences for sensitive youth, the factors that predict sexual risk behavior depend lesson pubertal maturation than LHT suggests. PMID:25501863

  15. Exciting fear in adolescence: Does pubertal development alter threat processing?

    PubMed Central

    Spielberg, Jeffrey M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Forbes, Erika E.; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent development encompasses an ostensible paradox in threat processing. Risk taking increases dramatically after the onset of puberty, contributing to a 200% increase in mortality. Yet, pubertal maturation is associated with increased reactivity in threat-avoidance systems. In the first part of this paper we propose a heuristic model of adolescent affective development that may help to reconcile aspects of this paradox, which focuses on hypothesized pubertal increases in the capacity to experience (some) fear-evoking experiences as an exciting thrill. In the second part of this paper, we test key features of this model by examining brain activation to threat cues in a longitudinal study that disentangled pubertal and age effects. Pubertal increases in testosterone predicted increased activation to threat cues, not only in regions associated with threat avoidance (i.e., amygdala), but also regions associated with reward pursuit (i.e., nucleus accumbens). These findings are consistent with our hypothesis that puberty is associated with a maturational shift toward more complex processing of threat cues–which may contribute to adolescent tendencies to explore and enjoy some types of risky experiences. PMID:24548554

  16. Continuation of Gradual Weight Gain Necessary for the Onset of Puberty May Be Responsible for Obesity Later in Life

    PubMed Central

    Lehrer, Steven

    2016-01-01

    A continuation of the gradual weight gain necessary for the onset of puberty may be responsible for obesity later in life. Hypothetically, a group of brain nuclei form components of a single pubertal clock mechanism that drives pre-pubertal weight gain and governs the onset of puberty and fertility. No mechanism evolved to shut off pre-pubertal and pubertal weight and body fat gain after puberty. The weight gain continues unabated throughout life. A better understanding of the mechanism of puberty and pre-pubertal weight gain could provide new insights into obesity and diseases associated with obesity such as type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, heart disease, depression, etc. PMID:26562472

  17. Pubertal testosterone influences threat-related amygdala–orbitofrontal cortex coupling

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Erika E.; Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Worthman, Carol M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Ryan, Neal D.; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that normative pubertal maturation is associated with increased threat reactivity, and this developmental shift has been implicated in the increased rates of adolescent affective disorders. However, the neural mechanisms involved in this pubertal increase in threat reactivity remain unknown. Research in adults indicates that testosterone transiently decreases amygdala–orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) coupling. Consequently, we hypothesized that increased pubertal testosterone disrupts amygdala–OFC coupling, which may contribute to developmental increases in threat reactivity in some adolescents. Hypotheses were tested in a longitudinal study by examining the impact of testosterone on functional connectivity. Findings were consistent with hypotheses and advance our understanding of normative pubertal changes in neural systems instantiating affect/motivation. Finally, potential novel insights into the neurodevelopmental pathways that may contribute to adolescent vulnerability to behavioral and emotional problems are discussed. PMID:24795438

  18. Sex Variations in Youth Anxiety Symptoms: Effects of Pubertal Development and Gender Role Orientation

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Rona; Silverman, Wendy K.; Jaccard, James

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated whether pubertal development and gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity) can partially explain sex variations in youth anxiety symptoms among clinic referred anxious youth (N = 175; ages 9-13 years; 74% Hispanic; 48% female). Using youth and parent ratings of youth anxiety symptoms, structural equation modeling results indicated that youth who reported being more advanced in their pubertal development reported high levels of femininity and anxiety symptoms. Youth who reported high levels of masculinity had low levels of anxiety symptoms as reported by both youths and parents. The estimated effects of pubertal development, femininity, and masculinity on youth and parent ratings of youth anxiety symptoms were not significantly moderated by biological sex. Pubertal development and gender role orientation appear to be important in explaining levels of youth anxiety symptoms among clinic referred anxious youth. PMID:21916691

  19. Transitions in body and behavior: a meta-analytic study on the relationship between pubertal development and adolescent sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Baams, Laura; Dubas, Judith Semon; Overbeek, Geertjan; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2015-06-01

    The present meta-analysis studies the relations of pubertal timing and status with sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior among youth aged 10.5-22.4 years. We included biological sex, age, and ethnicity as potential moderators. Four databases were searched for studies (published between 1980 and 2012) on the relation between pubertal timing or status and sexual behavior. The outcomes were (1) sexual intercourse; (2) combined sexual behavior; and (3) risky sexual behavior. Earlier pubertal timing or more advanced pubertal status was related to earlier and more sexual behavior, and earlier pubertal timing was related to more risky sexual behavior. Further, the links between (1) pubertal status and combined sexual behavior and (2) pubertal timing and sexual intercourse status, combined sexual behavior, and risky sexual behavior were stronger for girls than boys. Most links between pubertal status, timing, and sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior were stronger for younger adolescents. Moderation by ethnicity did not yield consistent results. There was significant variation in results among studies that was not fully explained by differences in biological sex, age, and ethnicity. Future research is needed to identify moderators that explain the variation in effects and to design sexual health interventions for young adolescents. PMID:25636818

  20. Relationship of Age for Grade and Pubertal Stage to Early Initiation of Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Paul J.; Elliott, Marc N.; Davies, Susan L.; Tortolero, Susan; Baumler, Elizabeth; Banspach, Stephen W.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Studies suggest students who are substantially older than the average age for their grade engage in risky health behaviors, including substance use. However, most studies do not account for the distinct reasons why students are old for their grade (ie, grade retention vs delayed school entry) or for their pubertal stage. Thus, whether the association between age for grade and substance use is confounded by these factors is unknown. We sought to determine whether age, grade, or pubertal stage were associated with early substance use. Methods Cross-sectional Healthy Passages Wave I survey data from 5,147 fifth graders and their caregivers in Alabama, California, and Texas from 2004 through 2006 were analyzed in 2014. Logistic regressions examined whether older age for grade, grade retention, delayed school entry, or pubertal stage were associated with use of any substance, cigarettes, alcohol, or other drugs. Results Seventeen percent of fifth graders reported trying at least 1 substance. Among boys, advanced pubertal stage was associated with increased odds of cigarette, alcohol, or other drug use, whereas delayed school entry was associated with lower odds of any substance, alcohol, or other drug use. Among girls, advanced pubertal stage was associated only with higher odds of alcohol use, and delayed school entry was not associated with substance use. Neither older age for grade or grade retention was independently associated with substance use after controlling for potential confounders. Conclusion Advanced pubertal stage may be a more important risk factor for substance use than age for grade. Pediatricians should consider initiating substance use screening earlier for patients with advanced pubertal stage. PMID:26583575

  1. Problems in Studying and Defining Pubertal Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Petersen, Anne C.

    1984-01-01

    Issues in studying pubertal events are examined, including whether puberty is best characterized as a social construction or a physical event, whether early adolescence is a transitional or distinct life period, life events associated with puberty, boundaries of early adolescence, and possible models for studying pubertal change. (Author/BW)

  2. Family Rearing Antecedents of Pubertal Timing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; Steinberg, Laurence D.; Houts, Renate M.; Friedman, Sarah L.; DeHart, Ganie; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Roisman, Glenn I.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Susman, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Two general evolutionary hypotheses were tested on 756 White children (397 girls) studied longitudinally: (1) rearing experiences would predict pubertal timing; and (2) children would prove differentially susceptible to rearing. Analysis of pubertal measurements, including some based on repeated physical assessments, showed that mothering and…

  3. Association Between Urinary Phthalates and Pubertal Timing in Chinese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Huijing; Cao, Yang; Shen, Qing; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Yunhui

    2015-01-01

    Background Phthalates are synthetic chemicals and ubiquitous environmental contaminants, with hormonal activity that may alter the course of pubertal development in children. Objectives To determine whether exposure to phthalate metabolites is associated with timing of pubertal development in a cross-sectional study of a school-based clustered sample of 503 children from a suburban district in Shanghai, China, who were 7–14 years of age at enrollment (2010 October to November). Methods We analyzed six phthalate metabolites in urine samples by isotope-dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The associations of exposures to phthalates with pubertal timing of testes, breast, and pubic hair development (represented as Tanner stages) were evaluated using an ordered logistic regression model adjusted for chronological age, body fat proportion (BF%), and parental education. Results In boys, urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) levels were negatively associated with testicular volume, and mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) and mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) levels were negatively associated with pubic hair stages. The odds of being in an advanced stage were decreased by 43%–51%. In girls, mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), MEHHP, and MEOHP levels, as well as the sum of these levels, were positively associated with breast stages, and the association was much stronger in girls with high BF%; the odds of being in an advanced stage were increase by 29% to 50%. Conclusions Phthalate metabolites investigated in this study show significant associations with pubertal timing both in boys and in girls, especially among girls with high BF%. PMID:26212725

  4. Labial adhesions in pubertal girls.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Roy Kallol; Sonika, Agarwal; Charu, Chanana; Sunesh, Kumar; Neena, Malhotra

    2006-01-01

    Labial adhesions after puberty are rare and are usually the result of chronic inflammation, urinary tract infection, hypoestrogenism or surgical procedures leading to vulval trauma. Sexual abuse leading to labial adhesions is extremely rare in girls who have attained menarche. Complete vulval fusion can rarely occur without any evidence of hypoestrogenism. We address this rare entity in three young pubertal girls wherein one had a history of genital trauma, the second had a history of surgical intervention due to urinary retention and the last one had a history of sexual abuse. All patients had history of genital trauma in common. Accepted management of this condition is adhesiolysis followed by application of estrogen cream in the postoperative period. PMID:16189695

  5. Development's Tortoise and Hare: Pubertal Timing, Pubertal Tempo, and Depressive Symptoms in Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendle, Jane; Harden, K. Paige; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Graber, Julia A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the sequence of pubertal maturation remains consistent across most individuals, the timing and tempo of development fluctuate widely. While past research has largely focused on the sequelae of pubertal timing, a faster tempo of maturation might also present special challenges to children for acclimating to new biological and social…

  6. Associations Among Pubertal Development, Empathic Ability, and Neural Responses While Witnessing Peer Rejection in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Masten, Carrie L.; Eisenberger, Naomi I.; Pfeifer, Jennifer H.; Colich, Natalie L.; Dapretto, Mirella

    2012-01-01

    Links among concurrent and longitudinal changes in pubertal development and empathic ability from age 10 to 13 and neural responses while witnessing peer rejection at age 13 were examined in 16 participants. More advanced pubertal development at age 13, and greater longitudinal increases in pubertal development, related to increased activity in regions underlying cognitive aspects of empathy. Likewise, at age 13 greater perspective taking related to activity in cognitive empathy-related regions; however, affective components of empathy (empathic concern and personal distress) were additionally associated with activity in affective pain-related regions. Longitudinal increases in empathic ability related to cognitive and affective empathy-related circuitry. Findings provide preliminary evidence that physical and cognitive-emotional development relate to adolescents’ neural responses when witnessing peer rejection. PMID:23379360

  7. Advanced magnetic resonance neuroimaging in bulbar and limb onset early amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Maulik; Kumar, Suresh; Sharma, Sanjiv; Sharma, Sudhir; Makhaik, Sushma; Sood, R. G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal and most common motor neuron disease, caused by progressive loss of motor neurons. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopic (MRS) studies detect pathological changes in neuronal fibers in vivo. We evaluated the role of DTI and MRS in early course of the disease, which may prove beneficial in the early diagnosis and better management. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one patients with ALS and 13 age-matched controls received 1.5T DTI and three-dimensional multi-voxel MRS. Fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient, N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)/Creatine (Cr), and NAA/Choline (Ch) ratios were analyzed in various regions of the brain and compared with healthy controls. ALS patients were classified as definite, possible, and probable category, and patients were also studied in limb versus bulbar onset. Results: Decreased FA and increase mean diffusivity values in regions of corticospinal tract (CST) and corpus callosum (CC) was consistent finding in definite and probable disease category (P < 0.05). In possible disease, CC involvement was not significant. NAA/Cr and NAA/Ch ratios were lower in CC and regions of CST. However, in possible disease, CC involvement was not significant, while regions of CST were showing significant reduction in NAA/Cr and NAA/Ch ratios (P < 0.05). Conclusion: DTI and MRS detect changes associated with ALS even in the early phase of the disease. Bulbar onset and limb onset ALS patients show different pattern of involvement. Extramotor involvement suggested by CC involvement is a feature seen in bulbar onset patient and can suggest poor outcome in such patients. The present findings may be helpful for designing further studies in the direction of more early diagnosis of disease and its management. PMID:26933355

  8. Effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on pubertal development.

    PubMed

    Bennett, David S; Birnkrant, Jennifer M; Carmody, Dennis P; Lewis, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) and pubertal development. Children (n=192; 41% with PCE) completed the Pubertal Development Scale (Petersen et al. 1988) and provided salivary dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) samples at 6month intervals from 11 to 13years. PCE was examined as a predictor of pubertal status, pubertal tempo, and DHEA levels in mixed models analyses controlling for age, sex, environmental risk, neonatal medical problems, other prenatal exposures, and BMI. PCE interacted with age such that PCE predicted slower pubertal tempo during early adolescence. PCE also interacted with age to predict slower increases in DHEA levels during early adolescence. These findings suggest that PCE may affect pubertal development and, if slower pubertal tempo continues, could lead to delayed pubertal status in mid-adolescence. PMID:25446013

  9. Effects of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure on Pubertal Development

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, David S.; Birnkrant, Jennifer M.; Carmody, Dennis P.; Lewis, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) and pubertal development. Children (n=192; 41% with PCE) completed the Pubertal Development Scale (Petersen, et al. 1988) and provided salivary dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) samples at 6 month intervals from 11 to 13 years. PCE was examined as a predictor of pubertal status, pubertal tempo, and DHEA levels in mixed models analyses controlling for age, sex, environmental risk, neonatal medical problems, other prenatal exposures, and BMI. PCE interacted with age such that PCE predicted slower pubertal tempo during early adolescence. PCE also interacted with age to predict slower increases in DHEA levels during early adolescence. These findings suggest that PCE may affect pubertal development and, if slower pubertal tempo continues, could lead to delayed pubertal status in mid-adolescence. PMID:25446013

  10. Pubertal characteristics among schoolgirls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Felimban, Naila; Jawdat, Dunia; Al-Twaijri, Yasmin; Al-Mutair, Angham; Tamimi, Waleed; Shoukri, Mohamed; Tamim, Hani; Al-Alwan, Ibrahim

    2013-07-01

    Puberty is the gradual transition period between childhood and adulthood. Many factors may contribute to the onset of puberty. The objective of the study was to determine the age of onset of secondary pubertal characteristics among Saudi Arabian girls. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a cluster sample design. Seven hundred and twenty-five schoolgirls between the ages of 6 and 16 years from diverse socioeconomic levels were included. During physical examinations, the height and weight of the girls were recorded, and the stages of breast and pubic hair development were determined according to Tanner stages; axillary hair development was determined according to modified stages. The median age at Tanner stage 2 for breast and pubic hair development was 10 years. The median age at stage 2 in modified scales for axillary hair development was 12 years. In conclusion, the median age of the onset of breast development at Tanner stage 2 for Saudi girls in Riyadh is lower than what has been reported in some countries in Europe, South Africa, Turkey and India but similar to girls in Hong Kong, China and white girls in the USA, which may support secular trends of an earlier onset of puberty. PMID:23640021

  11. The Stability of Perceived Pubertal Timing across Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cance, Jessica Duncan; Ennett, Susan T.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.; Foshee, Vangie A.

    2012-01-01

    It is unknown whether perceived pubertal timing changes as puberty progresses or whether it is an important component of adolescent identity formation that is fixed early in pubertal development. The purpose of this study is to examine the stability of perceived pubertal timing among a school-based sample of rural adolescents aged 11-17 (N =…

  12. Relationship between urinary and serum growth hormone and pubertal status.

    PubMed Central

    Crowne, E C; Wallace, W H; Shalet, S M; Addison, G M; Price, D A

    1992-01-01

    Urinary growth hormone (uGH) excretion and serum growth hormone concentrations have been compared in three groups of children. Group 1 consisted of 21 children who had had cranial irradiation as part of their treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia; group 2, 18 normal children; and group 3, 12 boys with constitutional delay in growth and puberty who were in early puberty. Children in groups 1 and 2 each had a 24 hour serum growth hormone profile (sampling every 20 minutes) and concurrent urine collection. The 12 boys in group 3 had a total of 21 profiles (sampling every 15 minutes for 12 hours) and concurrent urine collections. In the prepubertal children (n = 17), in both groups 1 and 2, there was a significant correlation between mean serum growth hormone and total uGHng/g creatinine. There were also significant correlations between total uGHng/g creatinine and both peak serum growth hormone and mean amplitude of the pulses in the growth hormone profile. In the pubertal children (n = 22), in groups 1 and 2, whether combined or in separate groups, there was no significant correlation between total uGHng/g creatinine and mean serum growth hormone, peak serum growth hormone, or mean amplitude of the pulses in the growth hormone profile. In group 3 there were significant correlations between total uGHng/g creatinine and both the mean serum growth hormone and mean amplitude of the pulses in the profile. Therefore uGH estimations appear to correlate well with serum growth hormone profiles in children who are prepubertal or in early puberty, but not in those further advanced in pubertal development. These results may reflect a variation in the renal handling of growth hormone during pubertal development. uGH estimation may be an unreliable screening investigation for growth hormone sufficiency in mid to late puberty. PMID:1739346

  13. Pubertal Development and Physical Victimization in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynie, Dana L.; Piquero, Alex R.

    2006-01-01

    Although much research has established a link between pubertal development and adolescent involvement in offending, drug use, and other adverse outcomes, no research has examined whether puberty is associated with experiences of violent physical victimization. This is an unfortunate oversight because researchers are only beginning to understand…

  14. Sertoli Cell Differentiation in Pubertal Boars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meishan boars experience puberty at a younger age than crossbred (BX) boars in association with earlier cessation of Sertoli cell proliferation and smaller post pubertal testicular size. The current study defined changes in expression, assessed by immunohistochemistry, of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH...

  15. Is Neuromyelitis Optica with Advanced Age of Onset a Paraneoplastic Disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Ontaneda, Daniel; Fox, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Background Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) antibodies are commonly found in patients with NMO, a relapsing CNS inflammatory disorder. Recent evidence suggests that the NMO antibody may be a paraneoplastic marker. We evaluated this possibility using a health systemwide electronic medical record (EMR), allowing assessment of neoplasm both before and after the assessment of NMO seropositivity. Design/Methods An automated search of the Cleveland Clinic EMR was performed to identify patients with NMO serology testing (since 2006 ). Demographic, clinical, and imaging data were collected, including malignancy history. Results Forty-one patients NMO seropositive subjects were found. Average age at first clinical symptom was 38.7 years (SD 15.1), and 33 (80.5%) patients met formal criteria for NMO. Six malignancies were identified in 5 NMO seropositive patients (12.2%; age 48.7 yrs [SD 12.4] at presentation of NMO). Cancers included breast carcinoma (3 cases), lymphoma, cervical carcinoma, and leiomyosarcoma. The timing of malignancy diagnosis varied from 15 years prior to 14 years after the onset of neurologic symptoms. Among seropositive patients over age 50 years at the time of this review, malignancy was seen in 5/25 patients (20%). All 5 subjects fulfilled NMO clinical criteria. Conclusions A high prevalence of malignancy was found in NMO seropositive patients, although the sample size was small. These observations support the possibility of NMO as a paraneoplastic marker. If further studies confirm this relationship, clinicians may consider malignancy screening in individuals seropositive for NMO, particularly those over the age of 48. PMID:24111490

  16. Pubertal timing, sexual behaviour and self-reported depression in middle adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Kosunen, Elise; Rimpelä, Matti

    2003-10-01

    The associations between pubertal timing, sexual activity and self-reported depression were analysed in a population sample of 17,082 girls and 15,922 boys aged 14-16 as a par of a classroom survey. Pubertal timing was assessed by age at onset of menstruation (menarche) or ejaculations (oigarche). Sexual experiences elicited included kissing, light petting, heavy petting and intercourse. Self-reported depression was measured by the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory. Among girls, self-reported depression was associated with early puberty and intimate sexual relationship. Among boys depression was associated with very early and late puberty and experience of intercourse. Early puberty is a risk factor for self-reported depression. Intimate sexual relationships in middle adolescent are likely to indicate problems in adolescent development rather than successful adolescent passage. PMID:12972267

  17. Peer Group Similarity in Perceptions of Pubertal Timing

    PubMed Central

    Kretsch, Natalie; Mendle, Jane; Cance, Jessica D.; Harden, K. Paige

    2016-01-01

    Self-report measures of perceived pubertal timing correspond only weakly with clinical measures of “objective” physical development. Peer and school contexts shape adolescents’ self-perceptions of pubertal timing. The current study examined associations between perceived pubertal timing and the pubertal timing reported by nominated friends and schoolmates. Participants included 2,817 adolescents (Mage = 16.6; 49% female; 16% Black; 20% Hispanic) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Three measures of pubertal timing were included: age-standardized ratings of body changes, comparisons of development relative to peers (relative timing), and, in females, age at menarche. It was hypothesized that relative timing, which explicitly asks adolescents to compare themselves to their peers, would be related to the age-standardized pubertal timing of nominated friends and schoolmates. Surprisingly, there were no associations between relative timing and age-standardized pubertal timing reported by peers, suggesting that pubertal self-perceptions do not fluctuate in response to the average level of development in a friend group. Instead, males were similar to nominated friends and schoolmates in age-standardized ratings of body changes, and females were similar to nominated friends in relative timing, controlling for race, ethnicity, and age. Different self-report measures of pubertal timing index different underlying constructs, and the social processes that influence adolescents’ perceptions of pubertal maturation may differ between genders. PMID:25840777

  18. Peer Group Similarity in Perceptions of Pubertal Timing.

    PubMed

    Kretsch, Natalie; Mendle, Jane; Cance, Jessica Duncan; Harden, Kathryn Paige

    2016-08-01

    Self-report measures of perceived pubertal timing correspond only weakly with clinical measures of "objective" physical development. Peer and school contexts shape adolescents' self-perceptions of pubertal timing. The current study examined associations between perceived pubertal timing and the pubertal timing reported by nominated friends and schoolmates. Participants included 2817 adolescents (Mage = 16.6; 49 % female; 16 % Black; 20 % Hispanic) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Three measures of pubertal timing were included: age-standardized ratings of body changes, comparisons of development relative to peers (relative timing), and, in females, age at menarche. It was hypothesized that relative timing, which explicitly asks adolescents to compare themselves to their peers, would be related to the age-standardized pubertal timing of nominated friends and schoolmates. Surprisingly, there were no associations between relative timing and age-standardized pubertal timing reported by peers, suggesting that pubertal self-perceptions do not fluctuate in response to the average level of development in a friend group. Instead, males were similar to nominated friends and schoolmates in age-standardized ratings of body changes, and females were similar to nominated friends in relative timing, controlling for race, ethnicity, and age. Different self-report measures of pubertal timing index different underlying constructs, and the social processes that influence adolescents' perceptions of pubertal maturation may differ between genders. PMID:25840777

  19. Male pubertal development: are endocrine-disrupting compounds shifting the norms?

    PubMed

    Zawatski, William; Lee, Mary M

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) are synthetic or natural compounds that interfere with endogenous endocrine action. The frequent use of chemicals with endocrine active properties in household products and contamination of soil, water, and food sources by persistent chemical pollutants result in ubiquitous exposures. Wildlife observations and animal toxicological studies reveal adverse effects of EDCs on reproductive health. In humans, a growing number of epidemiological studies report an association with altered pubertal timing and progression. While these data are primarily reported in females, this review will focus on the small number of studies performed in males that report an association of polychlorinated biphenyls with earlier sexual maturity rating and confirm subtle effects of lead, dioxins, and endosulfan on delaying pubertal onset and progression in boys. Recent studies have also demonstrated that EDC exposure may affect pubertal testosterone production without having a noticeable effect on sexual maturity rating. A limitation to understand the effects of EDCs in humans is the potential for confounding due to the long temporal lag from early-life exposures to adult outcomes. The complex interplay of multiple environmental exposures over time also complicates the interpretation of human studies. These studies have identified critical windows of vulnerability during development when exposures to EDCs alter critical pathways and affect postnatal reproductive health. Contemporaneous exposures can also disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. This paper will review the normal process of puberty in males and summarize human data that suggest potential perturbations in pubertal onset and tempo with early-life exposures to EDCs. PMID:23709001

  20. Male pubertal development: are endocrine-disrupting compounds shifting the norms?

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) are synthetic or natural compounds that interfere with endogenous endocrine action. The frequent use of chemicals with endocrine active properties in household products and contamination of soil, water, and food sources by persistent chemical pollutants result in ubiquitous exposures. Wildlife observations and animal toxicological studies reveal adverse effects of EDCs on reproductive health.In humans, a growing number of epidemiological studies report an association with altered pubertal timing and progression. While these data are primarily reported in females,this review will focus on the small number of studies performed in males that report an association of polychlorinated biphenyls with earlier sexual maturity rating and confirm subtle effects of lead, dioxins, and endosulfan on delaying pubertal onset and progression in boys. Recent studies have also demonstrated that EDC exposure may affect pubertal testosterone production without having a noticeable effect on sexual maturity rating.A limitation to understand the effects of EDCs in humans is the potential for confounding due to the long temporal lag from early-life exposures to adult outcomes. The complex interplay of multiple environmental exposures over time also complicates the interpretation of human studies. These studies have identified critical windows of vulnerability during development when exposures to EDCs alter critical pathways and affect postnatal reproductive health. Contemporaneous exposures can also disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. This paper will review the normal process of puberty in males and summarize human data that suggest potential perturbations in pubertal onset and tempo with early-life exposures to EDCs. PMID:23977686

  1. Wetting and greening Tibetan Plateau in early summer since the late 1970s due to advanced Asian summer monsoon onset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenxia; Zhou, Tianjun; Zhang, Lixia

    2016-04-01

    Known as the "the world water tower", the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is the origin of the ten largest rivers in Asia, breeding more than 1.4 billion people, and exerts substantial influences on water resources, agriculture, and ecosystems in downstream countries. This region is one of the most susceptible areas around the world to changing climate due to the high elevation. Observed evidence have shown significant climate changes over the TP, including surface air warming and moistening, glaciers shrinking, winds stilling, solar dimming, and atmospheric heat source weakening. However, as an essential part of the hydrological cycle, precipitation changes on the TP remain an ambiguous picture. Changes in precipitation vary largely with different seasons, time periods and climate zones considered. This study shows a robust increase in precipitation amount over the TP in May, when the rainy season starts, over the period 1979-2014 (31% relative to the climatology). The wetting trend is spatially consistent over the south-eastern TP, to which both precipitation frequency and intensity contribute. Circulation trends show that the wetting TP in May is resulted from the advanced onset of Asian summer monsoon, which onsets 1~2 pentads earlier since 1979. It intensified water vapor transport from the Bay of Bengal (BOB) to south of the TP in May and local anomalous convection. This relationship is further validated by the significant correlation coefficient (0.47) between the onset dates of Asian summer monsoon (particularly the BOB summer monsoon, 0.68) and precipitation over the south-eastern TP in May. The wetting TP in May has further exerted profound impacts on the hydrological cycle and ecosystem, such as moistening the soil and animating vegetation activities throughout early summer. Both decadal variations of soil moisture (from May to June) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) (from May to July) coincide well with that of precipitation over the south

  2. The stability of perceived pubertal timing across adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cance, Jessica Duncan; Ennett, Susan T; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A; Foshee, Vangie A

    2012-06-01

    It is unknown whether perceived pubertal timing changes as puberty progresses or whether it is an important component of adolescent identity formation that is fixed early in pubertal development. The purpose of this study is to examine the stability of perceived pubertal timing among a school-based sample of rural adolescents aged 11-17 (N=6,425; 50% female; 53% White). Two measures of pubertal timing were used, stage-normative, based on the Pubertal Development Scale, a self-report scale of secondary sexual characteristics, and peer-normative, a one-item measure of perceived pubertal timing. Two longitudinal methods were used: one-way random effects ANOVA models and latent class analysis. When calculating intraclass correlation coefficients using the one-way random effects ANOVA models, which is based on the average reliability from one time point to the next, both measures had similar, but poor, stability. In contrast, latent class analysis, which looks at the longitudinal response pattern of each individual and treats deviation from that pattern as measurement error, showed three stable and distinct response patterns for both measures: always early, always on-time, and always late. Study results suggest instability in perceived pubertal timing from one age to the next, but this instability is likely due to measurement error. Thus, it may be necessary to take into account the longitudinal pattern of perceived pubertal timing across adolescence rather than measuring perceived pubertal timing at one point in time. PMID:21983873

  3. Glycative stress from advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and dicarbonyls: An emerging biological factor in cancer onset and progression.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jer-An; Wu, Chi-Hao; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Hsia, Shih-Min; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, glycative stress from exogenous or endogenous advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and highly reactive dicarbonyls has gained great attention for its putative effects on cancer development. AGEs are a group of compounds formed from the complex chemical reaction of reducing sugars with compounds containing an amino group. AGEs bind to and activate the receptor for AGEs (RAGE), which is a predominant modulator of inflammation-associated cancer, and AGEs induce reactive oxygen species that are an important regulator of the hallmarks of cancer. Dicarbonyls, which are formed during glycolysis, lipid oxidation, or protein degradation, include glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and 3-deoxyglucosone and are regarded as major precursors of AGEs. These dicarbonyls not only fuel the AGE pool in living organisms but also evoke carbonyl stress, which may contribute to the carbonylative damage of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, or DNA. Carbonylative damage then leads to many lesions, some of which are implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer. In this review, studies regarding the effects of AGEs and dicarbonyls on cancer onset or progression are systematically discussed, and the utilization of AGE inhibitors and dicarbonyl scavengers in cancer therapy are noted. PMID:26774083

  4. PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT IN FEMALE WISTAR RATS FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO PROPAZINE AND ATRAZINE BIOTRANSFORMATION BY-PRODUCTS, DIAMINO-S-CHLOROTRIAZINE AND HYDROXYATRAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have shown previously that the chlorotriazine herbicide, atrazine (ATR), delays the onset of pubertal development in female rats. ATR and its by-products of microbial degradation are present in soil and groundwater. Since current maximum contaminant levels are set only for ATR...

  5. Consequences of Early Life Programing by Genetic and Environmental Influences: A Synthesis Regarding Pubertal Timing.

    PubMed

    Roth, Christian L; DiVall, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Sexual maturation is closely tied to growth and body weight gain, suggesting that regulative metabolic pathways are shared between somatic and pubertal development. The pre- and postnatal environment affects both growth and pubertal development, indicating that common pathways are affected by the environment. Intrauterine and early infantile developmental phases are characterized by high plasticity and thereby susceptibility to factors that affect metabolic function as well as related reproductive function throughout life. In children born small for gestational age, poor nutritional conditions during gestation can modify metabolic systems to adapt to expectations of chronic undernutrition. These children are potentially poorly equipped to cope with energy-dense diets and are possibly programmed to store as much energy as possible, causing rapid weight gain with the risk for adult disease and premature onset of puberty. Environmental factors can cause modifications to the genome, so-called epigenetic changes, to affect gene expression and subsequently modify phenotypic expression of genomic information. Epigenetic modifications, which occur in children born small for gestational age, are thought to underlie part of the metabolic programming that subsequently effects both somatic and pubertal development. PMID:26680576

  6. Early Life Growth Predicts Pubertal Development in South African Adolescents123

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Shane A; Martorell, Reynaldo; Mehta, Neil K; Richter, Linda M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Given global trends toward earlier onset of puberty and the adverse psychosocial consequences of early puberty, it is important to understand the childhood predictors of pubertal timing and tempo. Objective: We examined the association between early growth and the timing and tempo of puberty in adolescents in South Africa. Methods: We analyzed prospectively collected data from 1060 boys and 1135 girls participating in the Birth-to-Twenty cohort in Soweto, South Africa. Height-for-age z scores (HAZs) and body mass index–for-age z scores (BMIZs) were calculated based on height (centimeters) and body mass index (kilograms per meter squared) at ages 5 y and 8 y. The development of genitals, breasts, and pubic hair was recorded annually from 9 to 16 y of age with the use of the Tanner sexual maturation scale (SMS). We used latent class growth analysis to identify pubertal trajectory classes and also characterized children as fast or slow developers based on the SMS score at 12 y of age. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate associations of HAZ and BMIZ at ages 5 and 8 y with pubertal development. Results: We identified 3 classes for pubic hair development (for both girls and boys) and 4 classes for breast (for girls) and genital (for boys) development. In girls, both HAZ and BMIZ at age 5 y were positively associated with pubic hair development [relative risk ratio (RRR): 1.57, P < 0.001 and RRR: 1.51, P < 0.01, respectively], as was BMI at age 8 y (RRR: 2.06, P = 0.03); similar findings were observed for breast development. In boys, HAZ and BMIZ at age 5 y were positively associated with pubic hair development (RRR: 1.78, P < 0.001 and RRR: 1.43, P < 0.01, respectively); HAZ at age 5 y was associated with development of genitals (RRR: 2.19, P < 0.01). Conclusion: In boys and girls, both height and body mass index in early childhood predicted the trajectory of pubertal development. This may provide a tool to identify children at risk of early

  7. Pubertal Maturation and African American Children's Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ge, Xiaojia; Brody, Gene H.; Conger, Rand D.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2006-01-01

    The association of pubertal maturation with internalizing and externalizing symptoms was examined with a sample of 867 African-American 10-12-year-old children. Children reported their pubertal development status and timing using a self-report questionnaire, and symptoms were assessed through diagnostic interviews with the children and their…

  8. Fathers and Their Adolescent Sons: Pubertal Development and Paternal Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Mark D.; Jones, Randall M.; Coyl, Diana, D.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relation between pubertal transition and qualitative aspects of the father-son relationship through a survey of 173 adolescent males and 122 fathers. Assessed physical affection, general support, companionship, and sustained contact over three levels of pubertal development. Found that perception of physical affection was the only…

  9. Cognitive Function in Individuals with Atypical Pubertal Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovet, Joanne F.; And Others

    A study of 55 growth-disturbed children, aged 8-17, was conducted to assess how rate of physical maturation and pubertal development influences cognitive and neuropsychological functioning. The sample included 27 boys with short stature and delayed pubertal development (SSB), 15 girls with delayed puberty (DPG), and 13 girls with precocious…

  10. Pubertal Timing and Adolescent Sexual Behavior in Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sarah R.; Harden, K. Paige; Mendle, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Girls who experience earlier pubertal timing relative to peers also exhibit earlier timing of sexual intercourse and more unstable sexual relationships. Although pubertal development initiates feelings of physical desire, the transition into romantic and sexual relationships involves complex biological and social processes contributing both to…

  11. Contribution of anthropometric characteristics to pubertal stage prediction in young male individuals☆

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Radamés Maciel Vitor; Arrais, Ricardo Fernando; de Azevedo, Jenner Chrystian Veríssimo; do Rêgo, Jeferson Tafarel Pereira; de Medeiros, Jason Azevedo; de Andrade, Ricardo Dias; Dantas, Paulo Moreira Silva

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the contribution of anthropometric variables to predict the maturational stage in young males. Methods: Cross-sectional study that enrolled 190 male subjects aged between eight and 18 years, randomly selected from public and private schools in Natal, Northeast Brazil. Thirtytwo anthropometric variables were measured following the recommendations of the International Society for the Advancement of Kineanthropometry (ISAK). The assessment of sexual maturation was based on the observation of two experienced experts, who identified the pubertal development according to Tanner guidelines (1962). Results: The anthropometric variables showed a significant increase of their values during the advancement of pubertal development (p<0.05). The following variables showed the best value for prediction of maturational groups: sitting height, femoral biepicondylar diameter, forearm girth, triceps skinfold, tibiale laterale and acromiale-radiale bonelenghts. These variables were able to estimate the pubertal stages in 76.3% of the sujects. Conclusion: The anthropometric characteristics showed significant differences between the moments of maturational stages, being found, representatively, seven variables that best predict the stages of sexual maturation. PMID:25479854

  12. 10Be exposure dating of onset and timing of Neoglacial glacier advances in the Ecrins massif, French Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Roy, Melaine; Deline, Philip; Carcaillet, Julien

    2013-04-01

    Alpine glaciers are known to be highly sensitive to change in temperature and precipitation on decadal to centennial time scales. For two decades, numerous studies on Holocene climate revealed a period marked by abrupt cold reversals (e.g. 8.2 ka event) with increasing frequency and magnitude after the Holocene Climatic Optimum, during the so-called Neoglacial period (roughly the last 4 ka). State-of-the-art studies indicate that largest alpine glaciers failed to exceed their Little Ice Age (LIA) extent during these LIA Type-Events, unlike certain smaller glaciers. In the French Alps, very few investigations were conducted to date on Holocene glacier variability. Almost all studies focused on the most glacierized area: the Mont Blanc massif, where suitable organic remains to apply radiocarbon dating and dendrochronology are available. Other glacierized massifs are poorly studied, without any Holocene/Neoglacial glacier chronology up to now. Here, we present the results of a study focusing on six glacier forefields distributed in the Ecrins massif. Detailed geomorphological mapping and in-situ produced 10Be dating were carried on multi-crested so-called "LIA composite moraines". The targeted ridges are located in distal position with respect to late LIA drift in order to identify Holocene cold pulses that have led to (or slightly exceeded) LIA-like glacier extent. The 35 10Be ages obtained revealed that the onset of Neoglacial occurred at ~4.2 ka, and that at least two other advances were recorded at ~3.3 ka and ~0.85 ka. One site has yielded a nearly complete Neoglacial record as four discrete events have been dated. These results highlight the potential of lateral moraine ridge stratigraphy which could yield accurate record when sufficiently preserved, but also the different preservation of landforms along the glacier margin which could censor the record.

  13. Pubertal Timing and Tempo: Associations With Childhood Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Negriff, Sonya; Blankson, A. Nayena; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined pubertal timing and tempo in a sample of 445 adolescents (53% male), using both variable-centered (latent growth curve) and person-centered (latent class) approaches, to discern the pubertal development trajectories associated with the experience of maltreatment. Results from the variable-centered analyses indicated a slower initial tempo that increased later for boys who had experienced neglect. The person-centered results indicated three classes for boys that mainly differentiated tempo effects and two classes for girls primarily distinguishing timing differences. For girls, sexual abuse predicted membership in an earlier pubertal timing class. These findings enhance our knowledge of the variability in pubertal development as well as gender differences in maltreatment types that may alter pubertal timing and tempo. PMID:26146470

  14. Longitudinal Effects of Adolescent Girls' Pubertal Development, Perceptions of Pubertal Timing, and Parental Relations on Eating Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swarr, Amy E.; Richards, Maryse H.

    1996-01-01

    Examined both concurrently and longitudinally the influence of pubertal development, perceptions of pubertal timing, and experience with parents on the development of eating problems in normal adolescent girls. Found that adolescent girls' positive relationships with both parents were related to healthier eating. Results suggest that the…

  15. Defining the Boundaries of Early Adolescence: A User's Guide to Assessing Pubertal Status and Pubertal Timing in Research with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, Lorah D.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Woodward, Hermi Rojahn; Biro, Frank

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses pragmatic issues regarding the assessment of puberty in research on adolescent health and development. Because pubertal processes have a major effect on physical, psychological, and social development, we posit that the assessment of pubertal status is at least as important as the specification of age for characterizing…

  16. Animal Modeling of Early Programming and Disruption of Pubertal Maturation.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Juan M; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Puberty is a fascinating developmental transition that gates the attainment of reproductive capacity and culminates the somatic and sexual maturation of the organism. Rather than a circumscribed phenomenon, puberty is the endpoint of a long-lasting developmental continuum, which initiates in utero. Besides important genetic determinants, the tempo of puberty is influenced by numerous endogenous and exogenous factors that, acting at different levels of the developing hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis along the maturational continuum indicated above, can influence puberty onset. Among the different modifiers of puberty, in this chapter we will focus our attention on two major groups of signals, sex steroids and nutritional cues, and how these interplay mostly with the central elements of the HPG axis, and especially with gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons and their key upstream afferents, Kiss1 neurons, to influence the timing of puberty. Special emphasis will be given to summarize information emerging from relevant preclinical (mostly rodent) animal models, and how this information might be relevant in terms of translational medicine, as it may help for a better understanding and eventually management of pubertal disorders of escalating prevalence worldwide. PMID:26680574

  17. Phthalate exposure and pubertal development in a longitudinal study of US girls

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, M.S.; Teitelbaum, S.L.; McGovern, K.; Windham, G.C.; Pinney, S.M.; Galvez, M.; Calafat, A.M.; Kushi, L.H.; Biro, F.M.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Does phthalate exposure during early childhood alter the timing of pubertal development in girls? SUMMARY ANSWER Urinary concentrations of high-molecular weight phthalate (high-MWP) metabolites are associated with later pubarche. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Phthalates are anti-androgenic environmental agents known to alter early development, with possible effects on pubertal onset. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, AND DURATION This multi-ethnic study included 1239 girls from New York City, greater Cincinnati, and the San Francisco Bay Area who were 6–8 years old at enrollment (2004–2007) and who were followed until 2011. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Phthalate metabolites were measured in urine collected at enrollment from 1170 girls; concentrations ranged from <1 to >10 000 µg/l. Breast and pubic hair stages and body size were assessed one to two times annually to determine the age at transition from stage 1 to 2 for breast and pubic hair development. Associations between exposures and pubertal ages were estimated using Cox proportional hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and survival analyses. Associations were examined with respect to age-specific body mass-index percentile, one of the strongest predictors of pubertal onset. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Urinary concentrations of high-MWP including di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (ΣDEHP) metabolites were associated with later pubic hair development during 7 years of observation. The relationship was linear and was stronger among normal-weight girls. Among normal-weight girls, age at pubic hair stage 2 (PH2) was 9.5 months older for girls in the fifth compared with the first quintile of urinary ΣDEHP (medians: 510 and 59 µg/g creatinine, respectively; adjusted HR 0.70, CI 0.53–0.93, P-trend 0.005. Age at first breast development was older for fifth quintile of mono-benzyl phthalate versus first (HR 0.83, CI 0.68–1.02; P-trend 0.018). No associations were observed between low

  18. Sex 'n' drugs 'n' rock 'n' roll: the meaning and social consequences of pubertal timing.

    PubMed

    Waylen, Andrea; Wolke, Dieter

    2004-11-01

    This is a brief review of the normal changes in adolescent behaviour and the interplay between biology and social factors that occur at and around puberty, in an attempt to explain when this transition may become problematic The onset of puberty is a biological marker for an individual's transition from a non-reproductive to a reproductive state. Adolescence is a normal developmental transition associated with clearly visible physical changes, reorganization and pruning of neuronal circuits in the brain and the occurrence of new behaviours and interests. It is a time when new life tasks (orientation towards peers of the other sex, romantic and sexual involvement and mastering an educational career) need to be mastered. Parent-child conflict increases and becomes more intense as the adolescent struggles for more independence while still requiring support. These normal changes can become problematic if biological and social expectations diverge e.g. entering puberty very early or very late. While early pubertal onset in boys is likely to have beneficial effects, in girls precocious pubertal timing may have a negative impact on body-image, affect (or emotional well-being) and sex-role expectations. Other individual biological predispositions and genetic endowment may interact with social factors (e.g. peers, parenting style, neighbourhood) making adolescence either an adaptive or a challenging transition. There is a lack of sufficiently large longitudinal studies that have been able to study this interaction between genetics, biology and social environment on adolescent development. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort provides a unique opportunity to investigate the impact of pubertal timing on social behaviour. Planned assessments and concepts are outlined. PMID:15554900

  19. Increased neural response to peer rejection associated with adolescent depression and pubertal development

    PubMed Central

    Siegle, Greg J.; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Nelson, Eric E.; Stroud, Laura R.; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2014-01-01

    Sensitivity to social evaluation has been proposed as a potential marker or risk factor for depression, and has also been theorized to increase with pubertal maturation. This study utilized an ecologically valid paradigm to test the hypothesis that adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) would show altered reactivity to peer rejection and acceptance relative to healthy controls in a network of ventral brain regions implicated in affective processing of social information. A total of 48 adolescents (ages 11–17), including 21 with a current diagnosis of MDD and 27 age- and gender-matched controls, received rigged acceptance and rejection feedback from fictitious peers during a simulated online peer interaction during functional neuroimaging. MDD youth showed increased activation to rejection relative to controls in the bilateral amygdala, subgenual anterior cingulate, left anterior insula and left nucleus accumbens. MDD and healthy youth did not differ in response to acceptance. Youth more advanced in pubertal maturation also showed increased reactivity to rejection in the bilateral amygdala/parahippocampal gyrus and the caudate/subgenual anterior cingulate, and these effects remained significant when controlling for chronological age. Findings suggest that increased reactivity to peer rejection is a normative developmental process associated with pubertal development, but is particularly enhanced among youth with depression. PMID:24273075

  20. Pubertal status associations with reward and threat sensitivities and subcortical brain volumes during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Urošević, Snežana; Collins, Paul; Muetzel, Ryan; Lim, Kelvin O; Luciana, Monica

    2014-08-01

    Adolescence is characterized by complex developmental processes that impact behavior, biology, and social functioning. Two such adolescence-specific processes are puberty and increases in reward sensitivity. Relations between these processes are poorly understood. The present study focused on examining unique effects of puberty, age, and sex on reward and threat sensitivities and volumes of subcortical brain structures relevant for reward/threat processing in a healthy sample of 9-18year-olds. Unlike age, pubertal status had a significant unique positive relationship with reward sensitivity. In addition, there was a trend for adolescent females to exhibit higher threat sensitivity with more advanced pubertal development and higher reward and threat sensitivity with older age. Similarly, there were significant puberty by sex interaction effects on striatal volumes, i.e., left nucleus accumbens and right pallidum. The present pattern of results suggests that pubertal development, independent of chronological age, is uniquely associated with reward hypersensitivity and with structural differences in striatal regions implicated in reward processing. PMID:24512818

  1. Training the prepubertal and pubertal athlete.

    PubMed

    Logsdon, Valerie K

    2007-06-01

    Participation of prepubertal and pubertal children in sports has increased significantly over the past decade. There is a continuing concern for their emotional and physical well-being. This review discusses concerns that coaches, trainers, parents, and athletes must confront. Young athletes are limited in their ability to perform on the playing field by both their physical and emotional maturity. Competitive sports in this age group can lead to injury and disability. Both strength training and aerobic training can have benefits for this age group but must be performed in a cautious and creative fashion. Child athletes have increased nutritional demands that require special attention. The use of performance-enhancing drugs is of special concern in this age group. Training the child athlete should be performed with the utmost concern for the athlete's safety and well-being. PMID:19202665

  2. Environmental phenols and pubertal development in girls.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Mary S; Teitelbaum, Susan L; McGovern, Kathleen; Pinney, Susan M; Windham, Gayle C; Galvez, Maida; Pajak, Ashley; Rybak, Michael; Calafat, Antonia M; Kushi, Lawrence H; Biro, Frank M

    2015-11-01

    Environmental exposures to many phenols are documented worldwide and exposures can be quite high (>1 μM of urine metabolites). Phenols have a range of hormonal activity, but knowledge of effects on child reproductive development is limited, coming mostly from cross-sectional studies. We undertook a prospective study of pubertal development among 1239 girls recruited at three U.S. sites when they were 6-8 years old and were followed annually for 7 years to determine age at first breast or pubic hair development. Ten phenols were measured in urine collected at enrollment (benzophenone-3, enterolactone, bisphenol A, three parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-), 2,5-dichlorophenol, triclosan, genistein, daidzein). We used multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards ratios (HR (95% confidence intervals)) and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses to estimate relative risk of earlier or later age at puberty associated with phenol exposures. For enterolactone and benzophenone-3, girls experienced breast development 5-6 months later, adjusted HR 0.79 (0.64-0.98) and HR 0.80 (0.65-0.98) respectively for the 5th vs 1st quintiles of urinary biomarkers (μg/g-creatinine). Earlier breast development was seen for triclosan and 2,5-dichlorophenol: 4-9 months sooner for 5th vs 1st quintiles of urinary concentrations (HR 1.17 (0.96-1.43) and HR 1.37 (1.09-1.72), respectively). Association of breast development with enterolactone, but not the other three phenols, was mediated by body size. These phenols may be antiadipogens (benzophenone-3 and enterolactone) or thyroid agonists (triclosan and 2,5-dichlorophenol), and their ubiquity and relatively high levels in children would benefit from further investigation to confirm these findings and to establish whether there are certain windows of susceptibility during which exposure can affect pubertal development. PMID:26335517

  3. The APOE locus advances disease progression in late onset familial Alzheimer`s disease but is not causative

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, F.; Bennett, C.; Osborne, A.

    1994-09-01

    An association has been observed in several independent data sets between late onset Alzheimer`s disease (AD) and the APOE locus on chromosomes 19. We have examined the genotype in family history positive (FHP) and family history negative (FHN) cases and find a distortion of the APOE allele frequencies in accord with previous studies. However, when we examined the allele distribution of the at-risk siblings of the FHP group we found an excess of the {epsilon}4 allele which also differs significantly from historic controls but not from the affected siblings. The age distribution of the affected and unaffected siblings was similar, suggesting that the allelic frequency distortion in the unaffected siblings was not due to their being below the mean age of onset. Lod score linkage analysis, with age dependent onset and nonstringent specification of the genetic parameters, did not suggest linkage to the APOE locus. Furthermore, an analysis of variance of the age of disease-free survival suggested that APOE genotype contributes a small fraction of the total variance, indicating that the APOE locus is a poor predictor of disease-free survival time within late onset families. We suggest that the APOE locus enhances the rate of progression of the disease in otherwise predisposed individuals and that variation at this locus is not able in and of itself to cause this disease.

  4. Height-based Indices of Pubertal Timing in Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Khairullah, Ammar; May, Margaret T.; Tilling, Kate; Howe, Laura D.; Leonard, Gabriel; Perron, Michel; Richer, Louis; Veillette, Suzanne; Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    It is important to account for timing of puberty when studying the adolescent brain and cognition. The use of classical methods for assessing pubertal status may not be feasible in some studies, especially in male adolescents. Using data from a sample of 478 males from a longitudinal birth cohort, we describe the calculations of three independent height-based markers of pubertal timing: Age at Peak Height Velocity (APHV), Height Difference in Standard Deviations (HDSDS), and Percent Achieved of Adult Stature (PAAS). These markers correlate well with each other. In a separate cross-sectional study, we show that the PAAS marker correlates well with testosterone levels and self-reported pubertal-stage scores. We conclude by discussing key considerations for investigators when drawing upon these methods of assessing pubertal timing. PMID:26052478

  5. Onset, advance and withdrawal of southwest monsoon over Indian subcontinent: A study from precipitable water measurement using ground based GPS receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puviarasan, N.; Sharma, A. K.; Ranalkar, Manish; Giri, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Southwest monsoon (SWM) normally sets over Kerala by 1st June. It subsequently advances northwards and covers the entire country by 15th July. Prior knowledge of determination of date of onset of monsoon (DOM) is vital for many applications. However, accurate determination of DOM avoiding false or 'bogus' onset still remains a challenge to meteorological community. An incorrect identification of onset may lead to declaration of early onset. India Meteorological Department (IMD) has traditionally adopted an objective method to declare onset and withdrawal of monsoon based on rainfall over some specific stations in addition to wind field and Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) from a bounded region. An augmentation of existing criteria of monsoon onset using high temporal resolution tropospheric precipitable water (PW) content over a station obtained through ground based GPS receiver is proposed. It has been shown that variation of PW content is an indicator of the state of monsoon and can potentially be included in operational criteria for declaring onset and withdrawal of monsoon. In the paper, we present daily variation of PW during SWM at five stations viz. Chennai, Kolkata, Guwahati, Mumbai and Delhi. The superposed epoch analysis of PW variation for 13 days with respect to arrival and withdrawal date of SWM reveals that over Kolkata at the time of arrival of monsoon the PW (mm)/SD (Standard Deviation) increases from 48.62/2.5 (day -6) to 61.4/1.9 (day 0) and on withdrawal it decreases from 48.62/4.56 (day -6) to 22.55 mm/4.0 (day 0). Similarly in Guwahati, Mumbai and Delhi the value of PW/SD increase from 53.81/4.2, 43.10/7.2 and 44.6/5.0 mm to 62.74/1.5, 62.09/1.6 and 61.88/2.3 mm and on withdrawal it reduces to 27.12/4.2, 25.94/2.6 and 20.46/4.6 mm respectively. It is also noticed that there is a sharp variation of PW from day -2 to day 0, which indicates GPS PW can be considered as a precursor for monsoon arrival and withdrawal.

  6. Reward sensitivity for a palatable food reward peaks during pubertal developmental in rats.

    PubMed

    Friemel, Chris M; Spanagel, Rainer; Schneider, Miriam

    2010-01-01

    Puberty is a critical period for the initiation of drug use and abuse. Because early drug use onset often accounts for a more severe progression of addiction, it is of importance to understand the underlying mechanisms and neurodevelopmental changes during puberty that are contributing to enhanced reward processing in teenagers. The present study investigated the progression of reward sensitivity toward a natural food reward over the whole course of adolescence in male rats (postnatal days 30-90) by monitoring consummatory, motivational behavior and neurobiological correlates of reward. Using a limited-free intake paradigm, consumption of sweetened condensed milk (SCM) was measured repeatedly in adolescent and adult rats. Additionally, early- and mid-pubertal animals were tested in Progressive Ratio responding for SCM and c-fos protein expression in reward-associated brain structures was examined after odor conditioning for SCM. We found a transient increase in SCM consumption and motivational incentive for SCM during puberty. This increased reward sensitivity was most pronounced around mid-puberty. The behavioral findings are paralleled by enhanced c-fos staining in reward-related structures revealing an intensified neuronal response after reward-cue presentation, distinctive for pubertal animals. Taken together, these data indicate an increase in reward sensitivity during adolescence accompanied by enhanced responsiveness of reward-associated brain structures to incentive stimuli, and it seems that both is strongly pronounced around mid-puberty. Therefore, higher reward sensitivity during pubertal maturation might contribute to the enhanced vulnerability of teenagers for the initiation of experimental drug use. PMID:20700386

  7. "Electro-clinical syndromes" with onset in paediatric age: the highlights of the clinical-EEG, genetic and therapeutic advances

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The genetic causes underlying epilepsy remain largely unknown, and the impact of available genetic data on the nosology of epilepsy is still limited. Thus, at present, classification of epileptic disorders should be mainly based on electroclinical features. Electro-clinical syndrome is a term used to identify a group of clinical entities showing a cluster of electro-clinical characteristics, with signs and symptoms that together define a distinctive, recognizable, clinical disorder. These often become the focus of treatment trials as well as of genetic, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging investigations. They are distinctive disorders identifiable on the basis of a typical age onset, specific EEG characteristics, seizure types, and often other features which, when taken together, permit a specific diagnosis which, in turn, often has implications for treatment, management, and prognosis. Each electro-clinical syndrome can be classified according to age at onset, cognitive and developmental antecedents and consequences, motor and sensory examinations, EEG features, provoking or triggering factors, and patterns of seizure occurrence with respect to sleep. Therefore, according to the age at onset, here we review the more frequently observed paediatric electro-clinical syndrome from their clinical-EEG, genetic and therapeutic point of views. PMID:22182677

  8. Relationship between pubertal timing and body size in underfed male rats.

    PubMed

    Glass, A R; Anderson, J; Herbert, D; Vigersky, R A

    1984-07-01

    A direct connection has been proposed between body size and sexual maturation by the critical body weight and critical body fat hypotheses. To test these theories in male rats, we compared the degree of sexual maturation in animals with reduced growth rate due to undernutrition with that in weight-matched but normally fed rats. Underfed rats had significantly larger prostate, seminal vesicle, and testis weights than the weight-matched normally fed controls at the three time points studied: the early pubertal period (approximate time of onset of rising serum testosterone), late pubertal period (approximate time of appearance of mature spermatids), and young adult period. At the first time point, testes of underfed rats, but not those of normally fed, weight-matched controls, showed mature step 19 spermatids, and serum testosterone was significantly higher in the underfed animals. At all time points, serum LH levels were similar in both groups, while serum FSH levels were significantly lower in the underfed rats at all points. The Lee index, an index of fatness, was significantly lower in the underfed rats. The current study indicates that underfed rats are more sexually mature than normally fed controls of the same weight despite having a lower percentage of body fat. These findings do not support the critical body weight or critical body fat hypotheses of puberty in male rats. PMID:6428861

  9. Growth and pubertal development in children and adolescents: effects of diet and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Rogol, A D; Clark, P A; Roemmich, J N

    2000-08-01

    The longitudinal growth of an individual child is a dynamic statement of the general health of that child. Measurements should be performed often and accurately to detect alterations from physiologic growth. Although any single point on the growth chart is not very informative, when several growth points are plotted over time, it should become apparent whether that individual's growth is average, a variant of the norm, or pathologic. Somatic growth and maturation are influenced by several factors that act independently or in concert to modify an individual's genetic growth potential. Linear growth within the first 2 y of life generally decelerates but then remains relatively constant throughout childhood until the onset of the pubertal growth spurt. Because of the wide variation among individuals in the timing of the pubertal growth spurt, there is a wide range of physiologic variations in normal growth. Nutritional status and heavy exercise training are only 2 of the major influences on the linear growth of children. In the United States, nutritional deficits result from self-induced restriction of energy intake. That single factor, added to the marked energy expenditure of training and competition for some sports, and in concert with the self-selection of certain body types, makes it difficult to identify the individual factors responsible for the slow linear growth of some adolescent athletes, for example, those who partake in gymnastics, dance, or wrestling. PMID:10919954

  10. Long-term cortisol treatment inhibits pubertal development in male common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    Consten, D; Bogerd, J; Komen, J; Lambert, J G; Goos, H J

    2001-04-01

    The onset and regulation of puberty is determined by functional development of the brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis. Stress has been shown to interfere with reproduction and the functioning of the BPG axis. The response to chronic and severe stress may require much energy and force the organism to make adaptive choices. Energy that is normally available for processes like growth, immune response, or reproduction will be channeled into restoration of the disturbed homeostasis. Cortisol plays a key role in the homeostatic adaptation during or after stress. In the present study, immature common carp were fed with cortisol-containing food pellets covering the pubertal period. We showed that cortisol caused an inhibition of pubertal development, by affecting directly or indirectly all components of the BPG axis. The salmon GnRH content of the brain was decreased. Luteinizing hormone- and FSH-encoding mRNA levels in the pituitary and LH plasma levels were diminished by long-term cortisol treatment, as was the testicular androgen secretion. Testicular development, reflected by gonadosomatic index and the first wave of spermatogenesis, was retarded. PMID:11259251

  11. Environmental factors influencing growth and pubertal development.

    PubMed Central

    Delemarre-van de Waal, H A

    1993-01-01

    Postnatal growth is based on hereditary signals and environmental factors in a complex regulatory network. Each factor must be in an optimal state for normal growth of the child. Fetal conditions may also have consequences on postnatal height. Intrauterine growth retardation can be recovered postnatally, although postnatal growth remains depressed in about one-third of cases. After birth, the environment may exert either a positive or negative effect on growth. In underdeveloped countries, malnutrition plays a major role in inhibiting the growth process. Children from families of higher socioeconomic classes are taller than their coevals in the lower socioeconomic groups. Urbanization also has a positive effect on growth. Better child care is supported by sufficient food supply, appropriate health and sanitation services, and a higher level of education. Over the last century, these factors have induced a taller stature and a more rapid maturity in Europe, North America, and Australia; a phenomenon which has been referred to as "the secular trend" in growth. Recently, a secular trend has also been reported in some developing countries. Although urbanization in general appears to be associated with better conditions of living, this is not the case in the slums of South America or in Africa where rural children are better off than children living in the poor cities. This paper describes in more detail the different hereditary and environmental factors that act during the fetal period and postnatally, and which play a role in human growth and pubertal development. PMID:8243404

  12. Pubertal Timing Fluctuations across Middle School: Implications for Girls' Psychological Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Bridget M.; Juvonen, Jaana

    2012-01-01

    The relative nature of pubertal timing has received little attention in research linking early pubertal development with psychological adjustment. The current study examines the dynamic association between pubertal timing and internalizing symptoms among an urban, ethnically diverse sample of girls (n = 1,167; 50% Latina, 30% Black/African…

  13. Modeling Pubertal Timing and Tempo and Examining Links to Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltz, Adriene M.; Corley, Robin P.; Bricker, Josh B.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Berenbaum, Sheri A.

    2014-01-01

    Research on the role of puberty in adolescent psychological development requires attention to the meaning and measurement of pubertal development. Particular questions concern the utility of self-report, the need for complex models to describe pubertal development, the psychological significance of pubertal timing vs. tempo, and sex differences in…

  14. The effects of circulating testosterone and pubertal maturation on risk for disordered eating symptoms in adolescent males

    PubMed Central

    Culbert, K. M.; Burt, S. A.; Sisk, C. L.; Nigg, J. T.; Klump, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Testosterone may be a biological factor that protects males against eating disorders. Elevated prenatal testosterone exposure is linked to lower levels of disordered eating symptoms, but effects emerge only after mid-puberty. Whether circulating levels of testosterone account for decreased risk for disordered eating in boys after mid-puberty is currently unknown; however, animal data support this possibility. In rodents, prenatal testosterone’s masculinizing effects on sex-differentiated behaviors emerge during puberty when circulating levels of testosterone increase and ‘activate’ the expression of masculinized phenotypes. This study investigated whether higher levels of circulating testosterone predict lower levels of disordered eating symptoms in adolescent boys, and in particular whether effects are associated with advancing pubertal maturation. Method Participants were 213 male twins from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. The Minnesota Eating Behavior Survey and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire assessed several disordered eating symptoms. The Pubertal Development Scale assessed pubertal status. Afternoon saliva samples were assayed for testosterone using enzyme immunoassays. Results Consistent with animal data, higher levels of circulating testosterone predicted lower levels of disordered eating symptoms in adolescent boys and effects emerged with advancing puberty. Results were not accounted for by several important covariates, including age, adiposity, or mood/anxiety symptoms. Conclusions Findings suggest that elevated circulating testosterone may be protective and underlie decreased risk for eating pathology in males during/after puberty, whereas lower levels of testosterone may increase risk and explain why some, albeit relatively few, males develop eating disorders. PMID:24406155

  15. Pubertal Timing and Demographic Predictors of Adolescents in Southwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Sabageh, Donatus; Adeoye, Oluwatosin Adediran; Adeomi, Adeleye Abiodun

    2015-01-01

    Background Changes in the timing of puberty have been an area of research interest in developed countries because of its associated health and psychosocial problems. Adolescents in Africa are no exception as they are reaching adulthood today much earlier than before. This changing trend may have a major influence on adolescents’ sexual behaviour. Aim This study determined the timing of puberty and demographic predictors among the adolescents in southwest Nigeria. Materials and Methods The study was a cross-sectional study. Using Modified Sexual Maturity Scale (MSMS) of pubertal assessment, data were collected from 1000 respondents from rural and urban areas of Osun state, Nigeria. Data were collected using pre-tested Assisted Self Completion Questionnaires (ASCQ). The rate of pubertal development was based on age group and current pubertal stage. Data were analysed using SPSS version 16. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were done to identify significant demographic predictors. Statistical significance was at 5% level. Results The overall mean age of the respondents was 14.22±2.47 years. The mean age for males was 14.19±2.38 years and 14.25±2.57 years for females. A total of 52.9% of the respondents were males and 47.1% were females. Higher proportions of the females, 41.6% were already in late puberty stages compared to their male counterparts where 21.9% were at this stage. With regards to this rate of pubertal development, more males, 14.2% significantly had late rate of pubertal development than the females 5.1%. The significant demographic predictors was socio-economic class in females only. Conclusion From this study, the timing of puberty was early for females and socio-economic class is an important demographic predictor for pubertal development. This study was however limited because intrinsic factors such as genetic makeup and nutritional status which could affect the finding were not be excluded. PMID:26435973

  16. Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Female Adolescents According to Age, Bone Age and Pubertal Breast Stage

    PubMed Central

    Moretto, M.R; Silva, C.C; Kurokawa, C.S; Fortes, C.M; Capela, R.C; Teixeira, A.S; Dalmas, J.C; Goldberg, T.B

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy female Brazilian adolescents in five groups looking at chronological age, bone age, and pubertal breast stage, and determining BMD behavior for each classification. Methods: Seventy-two healthy female adolescents aged between 10 to 20 incomplete years were divided into five groups and evaluated for calcium intake, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), pubertal breast stage, bone age, and BMD. Bone mass was measured by bone densitometry (DXA) in lumbar spine and proximal femur regions, and the total body. BMI was estimated by Quetelet index. Breast development was assessed by Tanner’s criteria and skeletal maturity by bone age. BMD comparison according to chronologic and bone age, and breast development were analyzed by Anova, with Scheffe’s test used to find significant differences between groups at P≤0.05. Results: BMD (g·cm-2) increased in all studied regions as age advanced, indicating differences from the ages of 13 to 14 years. This group differed to the 10 and 11 to 12 years old groups for lumbar spine BMD (0.865±0.127 vs 0.672±0.082 and 0.689±0.083, respectively) and in girls at pubertal development stage B3, lumbar spine BMD differed from B5 (0.709±0.073 vs 0.936±0.130) and whole body BMD differed from B4 and B5 (0.867±0.056 vs 0.977±0.086 and 1.040±0.080, respectively). Conclusion: Bone mineralization increased in the B3 breast maturity group, and the critical years for bone mass acquisition were between 13 and 14 years of age for all sites evaluated by densitometry. PMID:21966336

  17. Reliability of Pubertal Self Assessment Method: An Iranian Study

    PubMed Central

    Rabbani, Ali; Noorian, Shahab; Fallah, Javad S.; Setoudeh, Arya; Sayarifard, Fatemeh; Abbasi, Farzaneh

    2013-01-01

    Objective This investigation aims to evaluate the validity of a Persian Tanner Stages Self-Assessment Questionnaire. Methods In this cross sectional study, 190 male students aged 8-16 years selected from three layers of different regions of Tehran (North, Central and South) were enrolled. A Persian questionnaire illustrated with Tanner stages of puberty (genital development and pubic hair distribution) was prepared. Children were asked to select the illustration that best described their pubertal development. Tanner status of the children was also estimated by an independent physician using physical examination. The degree of agreement between subjects’ judgments with assessments made by the rater was compared through the calculation of the weighted kappa statistic coefficient. Findings We found a substantial agreement between self-assessment of pubertal development made by the children and doctor's assessment of genital development (kappa=0.63, P<0.0001) and also the pubic hair distribution (kappa= 0.74, P<0.0001). Although a large proportion of subjects in G4 (89.2%) and G5 (85.7%) were capable of accurately or almost accurately identifying their own Tanner sexual stages, some degree of disagreement was observed in G3 Tanner stage (%46.9). Conclusion Self-assessment of puberty should be used very cautiously and may not be a substitute method for routine evaluation of pubertal state especially for early and mid pubertal groups. PMID:23795257

  18. The role of environmental factors in pubertal gynecomastia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proliferation of grandular tissue in the male breast during puberty, or pubertal gynecomastia, is a common condition that is usually benign and reversible. Since not all boys develop gynecomastia during puberty we were interested in whether environmental factors play a role. Furt...

  19. Pubertal Timing and Personality in Early Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcombe, Nora; Bandura, Mary M.

    The personality correlates of timing of puberty were investigated in this study. Estimates of total body water/body weight (TBW/BW) ratios obtained from the height and weight measurements of 85 sixth-grade girls were the primary measure of pubertal timing. Information on breast development and menarche was also obtained. Measures included scales…

  20. Sex steroids, growth hormone, leptin and the pubertal growth spurt.

    PubMed

    Rogol, Alan D

    2010-01-01

    A normal rate for the linear growth of a child or adolescent is a strong statement for the good general health of that child. Normal growth during childhood is primarily dependent on adequate nutrition, an adequate psychosocial environment, the absence of disease and adequate amounts thyroid hormone and growth hormone (and its downstream product, IGF-1). At adolescence there is the reawakening of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and its interaction with the GH/IGF-1 axis to subserve the pubertal growth spurt. The fat tissue-derived hormone, leptin and its receptor are likely involved in at least two aspects of pubertal development - sexual development itself and the alterations in body composition including the regional distribution of fat and bone mineralization. During the prepubertal years the male female differences in body composition are quite modest, but change remarkably during pubertal development with boys showing a relative decrement in fat percentage and girls a marked increase in concert with rising levels of circulating leptin. The boys show a much greater increase in lean body tissue and the relative proportions of water, muscle and bone. These may be observed as the differential growth of the shoulders and hips. The net effect of these pubertal changes is that the young adult woman has approximately 25% body fat in the 'gynoid' distribution while the male has much more muscle, especially in the shoulders and upper body but only approximately 13% body fat. PMID:19955758

  1. Early Pubertal Timing and Girls' Problem Behavior: Integrating Two Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stattin, Hakan; Kerr, Margaret; Skoog, Therese

    2011-01-01

    Girls' early pubertal timing has been linked in many studies to behavioral problems such as delinquency and substance use. The theoretical explanations for these links have often involved the girls' peer relationships, but contexts have also been considered important in some explanations. By integrating two theoretical models, the…

  2. Contextual Amplification or Attenuation of the Impact of Pubertal Timing on Mexican-origin Boys’ Mental Health Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Deardorff, Julianna; Liu, Yu; Gonzales, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the role of neighborhood contextual variation in the putative association between pubertal timing and internalizing and externalizing symptoms among Mexican-origin boys. Method In a sample of 7th grade Mexican-origin boys (N = 353; x̄age = 12.8 years) we assessed a range of secondary sexual characteristics, internalizing, and externalizing symptoms. Reports on all secondary sexual characteristics were collapsed and age-standardized to represent total pubertal timing. We also distinguished between the timing of physical changes driven by adrenal versus gonadal maturation. Boys’ residential addresses were geocoded and American Community Survey data were used to describe neighborhoods along two dimensions: ethnic concentration and socioeconomic disadvantage. Three years later (in 10th grade) we re-assessed internalizing and externalizing symptoms. We examined the moderating influence of neighborhood ethnic concentration and neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage on the prospective associations between puberty timing (total, gonadal, adrenal) and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Results Earlier total pubertal timing predicted increases in externalizing symptoms, but only when Mexican-origin boys lived in neighborhoods low on ethnic concentration. Total timing results for externalizing symptoms were replicated for adrenal timing. Further, early adrenal timing predicted increases in internalizing symptoms, but again, only when boys lived in neighborhoods low on ethnic concentration. No effects were observed for gonadal timing specifically. Conclusions Early pubertal timing, especially advanced physical changes initiated and regulated by adrenal maturation, have important implications for Mexican-origin boys’ internalizing and externalizing symptoms, but these implications depend on neighborhood characteristics. Ethnically concentrated neighborhoods are protective for early-maturing Mexican-origin boys. PMID:23992760

  3. Pubertal Development, Personality, and Substance Use: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study From Childhood to Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.; Séguin, Jean R.

    2013-01-01

    Most research linking early pubertal development to substance use has focused on the effects of pubertal timing (age at which a certain stage of pubertal development is reached or pubertal status at a particular age—related to the maturation disparity hypothesis), but little research has focused on pubertal tempo (rate of growth through pubertal stages—related to the maturation compression hypothesis). However, both timing and tempo have not only been identified as important components of pubertal development, with different predictors, but have also been shown to be independently associated with other adolescent psychopathologies. Using latent growth-curve modeling, this study examined how pubertal status at age 12 and pubertal tempo (between 11 and 13 years) related to substance use from 15 to 16 years in boys from low socioeconomic backgrounds (N = 871). Results showed that both pubertal status at age 12 and tempo were significant predictors of increased levels of substance use and problems in mid to late adolescence. In an attempt to identify mechanisms that may explain the association between pubertal development and substance use it was found that sensation seeking partially mediated the association between pubertal status at age 12 and substance use behaviors. Impulse control was found to moderate the association sensation seeking had with marijuana use frequency, with high sensation-seeking scores predicting higher marijuana use frequency only at low levels of impulse control. These findings highlight the importance of considering multiple sources of individual variability in the pubertal development of boys and provide support for both the maturational disparity and compression hypotheses. PMID:24016016

  4. Pubertal Development in Mexican American Girls: The Family’s Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Jean, Rosenie Thelus; Bondy, Melissa L.; Wilkinson, Anna V.; Forman, Michele R.

    2011-01-01

    Mexican American (MA) girls are entering puberty earlier than in the past, yet few studies have explored the perceptions surrounding puberty among this group. We conducted separate focus groups for fathers, mothers, and daughters aged 6 to 12 years to explore perceptions of body image, pubertal development, communications, and sources of puberty-related information in MA participants. Our results revealed parental concerns about daughters’ weight and pubertal development, as well as differences in their communication with their daughters. Although both parents willingly discussed pubertal issues concerning their daughters, mothers had a more active role in conveying pubertal information to daughters. Among the girls, there was a gap in knowledge about the pubertal process between the younger and older girls. Our findings present opportunities and challenges for addressing obesity as a pubertal risk factor in MA girls; however, more studies are needed to understand family beliefs and sociocultural dynamics surrounding puberty in MAs. PMID:19690203

  5. Childhood maltreatment, pubertal development, HPA axis functioning, and psychosocial outcomes: An integrative biopsychosocial model.

    PubMed

    Negriff, Sonya; Saxbe, Darby E; Trickett, Penelope K

    2015-12-01

    The timing and pace of pubertal development has been associated with psychosocial functioning, with pubertal variables represented both as predictors (e.g., earlier puberty linked with poor outcomes) and as sequelae (e.g., early stress linked with earlier puberty). However, the literature has largely not tested mediational models or prospective mechanisms of associations between puberty and psychosocial variables. In a longitudinal study including 454 youth followed over four timepoints (mean ages 10-18), structural equation modeling tested a hypothesized path from childhood maltreatment to cortisol (Time 1) to pubertal stage (Time 2), and psychosocial outcomes (Times 3 and 4). There was not support for the full hypothesized pathway in either gender. However, for boys, maltreatment was associated with attenuated cortisol, and more pubertal change predicted subsequent delinquency. For girls, cortisol predicted more pubertal change which then predicted substance use. This study demonstrates links between HPA axis function, pubertal development, and risky outcomes. PMID:26358357

  6. Exogenous pubertal induction by oral versus transdermal estrogen therapy.

    PubMed

    Kenigsberg, Lisa; Balachandar, Sadana; Prasad, Kris; Shah, Bina

    2013-04-01

    Hypogonadal adolescent girls need estrogen therapy for the induction of puberty. For years, oral conjugated estrogens have been used for this purpose, starting at a very low dose, with gradual increments over time, to allow for the maturation of the reproductive organs, in order to mimic physiologic conditions. Several concerns, mainly due to first pass through the liver, are manifest with oral estrogen therapy. With the advent of transdermal estrogens and its improved efficacy profile as well as reduced side effects, it seems reasonable to consider it for pubertal induction. The primary objective of this study was to compare and contrast oral versus transdermal estrogen with regard to metabolism and physiology and to review current available data on transdermal estrogens with respect to exogenous pubertal induction. PMID:22112543

  7. Possible pubertal effect on therapeutic gains in an autistic girl.

    PubMed

    Ayres, A J; Mailloux, Z K

    1983-08-01

    A deaf, partially sighted, severely retarded autistic girl, 11 years, 6 months of age, received approximately 2 years of occupational therapy, where sensory integration procedures were employed to reduce self-stimulation. Videotaped time samples of the amount of stereotypies showed a consistent reduction from the time of starting therapy to an interruption for vacation and surgery for scoliosis 46 weeks later. On returning to therapy after a 9-week break, self-stimulation had greatly increased and did not return to the presurgery level during an additional 55 weeks of therapy, 30 of which followed the removal of a cast. Menarche occurred 1 week after removing the cast. Increased self-stimulation is linked to reduced inclination toward environmental interaction as well as to an interruption of intervention and possible pubertal effect. Brief reports on four other autistic adolescents who received similar therapy are consistent with the conjecture of frequent pubertal regression. PMID:6624850

  8. Control of voice gender in pre-pubertal children.

    PubMed

    Cartei, Valentina; Cowles, Wind; Banerjee, Robin; Reby, David

    2014-03-01

    Adult listeners are capable of identifying the gender of speakers as young as 4 years old from their voice. In the absence of a clear anatomical dimorphism in the dimensions of pre-pubertal boys' and girls' vocal apparatus, the observed gender differences may reflect children's regulation of their vocal behaviour. A detailed acoustic analysis was conducted of the utterances of 34 6- to 9-year-old children, in their normal voices and also when asked explicitly to speak like a boy or a girl. Results showed statistically significant shifts in fundamental and formant frequency values towards those expected from the sex dimorphism in adult voices. Directions for future research on the role of vocal behaviours in pre-pubertal children's expression of gender are considered. PMID:24372318

  9. Prepubertal and pubertal canine reproductive studies: conflicting aspects.

    PubMed

    Gobello, C

    2014-12-01

    Insufficient knowledge has been acquired regarding the prepubertal and pubertal periods of domestic canids. Until further information becomes available, a better standardization of the definitions, a careful and complete description of experimental variables and end points is necessary to diminish experimental bias in published trials. The aim of this report is therefore to discuss the definition of puberty and some of the most conflicting conditions influencing the pubertal transition (e.g. age and body weight and condition score among others) that, in turn, will be useful for the future design of reproductive studies on the domestic dog. Only trials that could be easily processed by a meta-analysis will contribute to an improvement of our general knowledge on the reproductive physiology of this particular species. PMID:25251604

  10. Pubertal Stage and Deliberate Self-Harm in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, George C.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Beyers, Jennifer M.; Bond, Lyndal; Toumbourou, John W.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the association between pubertal stage and deliberate self-harm. Method: Cross-sectional survey of 12- to 15-year-olds in 300 secondary schools in the U.S. state of Washington in February-April 2002 and the Australian state of Victoria in June-August 2002. A total of 3,332 students in grades 7 and 9 provided complete data…

  11. Early onset of puberty in an obese boy with Klinefelter syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Byoung-Wook; Kwon, Seung-Eun; Kim, Soon-Ki; Lee, Taek; Han, Jee-Young

    2016-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is one of the most common disease entities characterized by X-chromosomal aberration causing the primary hypogonadism in adult men. Patients with KS seem to be typically characterized by tall, slender bodies with delayed puberty and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. However, it has been known that they have a broad spectrum of phenotype ranging from almost normal external appearances to typical phenotype. Only 25% KS Patients are ever diagnosed because KS remains unrecognized. Also, boys with KS have an onset of pubertal development within the normal range, not delayed onset of puberty. Adolescents with KS are generally diagnosed as having the lack of pubertal progress. Early detection of KS can be difficult without awareness. We report an unusual case of early onset of puberty in obese boy with KS who presented with a unilateral non-hormone secreting testicular teratoma. PMID:27104178

  12. Early onset of puberty in an obese boy with Klinefelter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cho, Byoung-Wook; Kwon, Seung-Eun; Kim, Soon-Ki; Lee, Taek; Han, Jee-Young; Lee, Ji-Eun

    2016-03-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is one of the most common disease entities characterized by X-chromosomal aberration causing the primary hypogonadism in adult men. Patients with KS seem to be typically characterized by tall, slender bodies with delayed puberty and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. However, it has been known that they have a broad spectrum of phenotype ranging from almost normal external appearances to typical phenotype. Only 25% KS Patients are ever diagnosed because KS remains unrecognized. Also, boys with KS have an onset of pubertal development within the normal range, not delayed onset of puberty. Adolescents with KS are generally diagnosed as having the lack of pubertal progress. Early detection of KS can be difficult without awareness. We report an unusual case of early onset of puberty in obese boy with KS who presented with a unilateral non-hormone secreting testicular teratoma. PMID:27104178

  13. Treatment Effects of Removable Functional Appliances in Pre-Pubertal and Pubertal Class II Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Studies

    PubMed Central

    Perinetti, Giuseppe; Primožič, Jasmina; Franchi, Lorenzo; Contardo, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment effects of removable functional appliances in Class II malocclusion patients according to the pre-pubertal or pubertal growth phase has yet to be clarified. Objectives To assess and compare skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of removable functional appliances in Class II malocclusion treatment between pre-pubertal and pubertal patients. Search methods Literature survey using the Medline, SCOPUS, LILACS and SciELO databases, the Cochrane Library from inception to May 31, 2015. A manual search was also performed. Selection criteria Randomised (RCTs) or controlled clinical trials with a matched untreated control group. No restrictions were set regarding the type of removable appliance whenever used alone. Data collection and analysis For the meta-analysis, cephalometric parameters on the supplementary mandibular growth were the main outcomes, with other cephalometric parameters considered as secondary outcomes. Risk of bias in individual and across studies were evaluated along with sensitivity analysis for low quality studies. Mean differences and 95% confidence intervals for annualised changes were computed according to a random model. Differences between pre-pubertal and pubertal patients were assessed by subgroup analyses. GRADE assessment was performed for the main outcomes. Results Twelve articles (but only 3 RCTs) were included accounting for 8 pre-pubertal and 7 pubertal groups. Overall supplementary total mandibular length and mandibular ramus height were 0.95 mm (0.38, 1.51) and 0.00 mm (-0.52, 0.53) for pre-pubertal patients and 2.91 mm (2.04, 3.79) and 2.18 mm (1.51, 2.86) for pubertal patients, respectively. The subgroup difference was significant for both parameters (p<0.001). No maxillary growth restrain or increase in facial divergence was seen in either subgroup. The GRADE assessment was low for the pre-pubertal patients, and generally moderate for the pubertal patients. Conclusions Taking into account the limited quality and

  14. Energy requirements for growth of pubertal female Saanen goats.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, F O M; Berchielli, T T; Resende, K T; Gomes, H F B; Almeida, A K; Sakomura, N K; Teixeira, I A M A

    2016-04-01

    Previous research on energy requirements of female Saanen goats, using the factorial approach, has not considered the specific requirements for maintenance and growth during the pubertal phase. Thus, the purpose of this study was to estimate energy requirements for maintenance (Trial 1) and growth (Trial 2) of non-pregnant and non-lactating female Saanen goats at the pubertal phase from 30 to 45 kg. In Trial 1, the net energy requirements for maintenance (NEm ) were estimated using 18 female Saanen goats randomly assigned to three levels of intake: ad libitum, and 70% and 40% of ad libitum intake. These animals were pair-fed in six slaughter groups, each consisting of one animal for each level of intake. In Trial 2, the net energy requirements for growth (NEg ) were estimated using 18 female Saanen goats, which were fed ad libitum and slaughtered at targeted BW of 30, 38 and 45 kg. The NEm was 52 kcal/kg(0.75) of BW. The NEg increased from 3.5 to 4.7 Mcal/kg of BW gain as BW increased from 30 to 45 kg. Our results suggest that the guidelines of the major feeding systems for the entire growth phase may not be adequate for females at pubertal phase. PMID:26249003

  15. Genetic Determinants of Pubertal Timing in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Gajdos, Zofia K.Z.; Henderson, Katherine D.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.

    2010-01-01

    Puberty is an important developmental stage during which reproductive capacity is attained. The timing of puberty varies greatly among healthy individuals in the general population and is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Although genetic variation is known to influence the normal spectrum of pubertal timing, the specific genes involved remain largely unknown. Genetic analyses have identified a number of genes responsible for rare disorders of pubertal timing such as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and Kallmann syndrome. Recently, the first loci with common variation reproducibly associated with population variation in the timing of puberty were identified at 6q21 in or near LIN28B and at 9q31.2. However, these two loci explain only a small fraction of the genetic contribution to population variation in pubertal timing, suggesting the need to continue to consider other loci and other types of variants. Here we provide an update of the genes implicated in disorders of puberty, discuss genes and pathways that may be involved in the timing of normal puberty, and suggest additional avenues of investigation to identify genetic regulators of puberty in the general population. PMID:20144687

  16. Pubertal changes in emotional information processing: pupillary, behavioral, and subjective evidence during emotional word identification.

    PubMed

    Silk, Jennifer S; Siegle, Greg J; Whalen, Diana J; Ostapenko, Laura J; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Dahl, Ronald E

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated pupillary and behavioral responses to an emotional word valence identification paradigm among 32 pre-/early pubertal and 34 mid-/late pubertal typically developing children and adolescents. Participants were asked to identify the valence of positive, negative, and neutral words while pupil dilation was assessed using an eyetracker. Mid-/late pubertal children showed greater peak pupillary reactivity to words presented during the emotional word identification task than pre-/early pubertal children, regardless of word valence. Mid-/late pubertal children also showed smaller sustained pupil dilation than pre-/early pubertal children after the word was no longer on screen. These findings were replicated controlling for participants' age. In addition, mid-/late pubertal children had faster reaction times to all words, and rated themselves as more emotional during their laboratory visit compared to pre-/early pubertal children. Greater recall of emotional words following the task was associated with mid-/late pubertal status, and greater recall of emotional words was also associated with higher peak pupil dilation. These results provide physiological, behavioral, and subjective evidence consistent with a model of puberty-specific changes in neurobehavioral systems underpinning emotional reactivity. PMID:19144220

  17. Effects of Low-Dose Estrogen Replacement During Childhood on Pubertal Development and Gonadotropin Concentrations in Patients With Turner Syndrome: Results of a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xiaohai; Garg, Sipi; Kowal, Karen; Cutler, Gordon B.; Ross, Judith L.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The optimal approach to estrogen replacement in girls with Turner syndrome has not been determined. Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the effects of an individualized regimen of low-dose ethinyl estradiol (EE2) during childhood from as early as age 5, followed by a pubertal induction regimen starting after age 12 and escalating to full replacement over 4 years. Design: This study was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Setting: The study was conducted at two US pediatric endocrine centers. Subjects: Girls with Turner syndrome (n = 149), aged 5.0–12.5 years, were enrolled; data from 123 girls were analyzable for pubertal onset. Intervention(s): Interventions comprised placebo or recombinant GH injections three times a week, with daily oral placebo or oral EE2 during childhood (25 ng/kg/d, ages 5–8 y; 50 ng/kg/d, ages >8–12 y); after age 12, all patients received escalating EE2 starting at a nominal dosage of 100 ng/kg/d. Placebo/EE2 dosages were reduced by 50% for breast development before age 12 years, vaginal bleeding before age 14 years, or undue advance in bone age. Main Outcome Measures: The main outcome measures for this report were median ages at Tanner breast stage ≥2, median age at menarche, and tempo of puberty (Tanner 2 to menarche). Patterns of gonadotropin secretion and impact of childhood EE2 on gonadotropins also were assessed. Results: Compared with recipients of oral placebo (n = 62), girls who received childhood low-dose EE2 (n = 61) had significantly earlier thelarche (median, 11.6 vs 12.6 y, P < 0.001) and slower tempo of puberty (median, 3.3 vs 2.2 y, P = 0.003); both groups had delayed menarche (median, 15.0 y). Among childhood placebo recipients, girls who had spontaneous breast development before estrogen exposure had significantly lower median FSH values than girls who did not. Conclusions: In addition to previously reported effects on cognitive measures and GH

  18. The Effect of Exposure to Atrazine on Dopaminergic Development in Pubertal Male SD Rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Shu; He, Xi; Ma, Kun; Wu, Yan-Ping; Li, Bai-Xiang

    2015-10-01

    Atrazine (ATR, 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) is used worldwide as a herbicide, and its presence in the environment has resulted in documented human exposure. A lack of strong evidence for genetic heritability of idiopathic Parkinson's disease has focused attention on environmental toxicants in the disease etiology, particularly agrichemicals. Parkinson's disease is associated with advanced age and is characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons, but it is unclear whether specific neuronal damage could result from insults during development. The juvenile period is particularly vulnerable to environmental agent, therefore, we evaluated the effects of a 28-day exposure to ATR on the dopaminergic system in pubertal rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated orally with ATR at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg bw, daily from postnatal days 27 to 54. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that pubertal exposure to ATR would disrupt the development of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system. The content of DA and levodopa (L-DA) were examined in striatum samples by HPLC-FL, and the mRNA and protein expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, orphan nuclear hormone receptor (Nurr1), Nurr1 interacting protein (NuIP), and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors of the Cip̲Kip family (p57kip2) were examined in samples of the nigrostriatum by use of fluorescence Real-Time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Exposure of juvenile rats to the high dose of ATR led to reduced levels of DA and L-DA, genes expression of NuIP, Nurr1, and p57kip2 in animals. PMID:26331294

  19. Genetic and Environmental Influences on the Association between Pubertal Maturation and Internalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marceau, Kristine; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reiss, David

    2012-01-01

    The literature consistently shows an association between pubertal maturation and internalizing problems in girls. The association for boys is less clear. The present study examines genetic and environmental influences on the association between pubertal maturation and internalizing problems for boys and girls in two primarily Caucasian adolescent…

  20. Pubertal Timing and Substance Use in Middle Adolescence: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; Marttunen, Mauri; Frojd, Sari

    2011-01-01

    Earlier research has associated early puberty with emotional and behavioral symptoms particularly among girls, while among boys, findings have been contradictory as to whether risks are associated with early or late pubertal timing. We studied the association between pubertal timing and substance use behaviors in middle adolescence in a 2-year…

  1. Pubertal Timing and Substance Use: Associations between and within Families across Late Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Danielle M.; Rose, Richard J.; Viken, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2000-01-01

    Used between-family analyses of data from adolescent twin girls to offer new evidence that early menarche is associated with earlier initiation and greater frequency of smoking and drinking. Found that association of pubertal timing with substance use could not be explained by between-family confounds, and pubertal timing influence on drinking…

  2. Ethnicity, Perceived Pubertal Timing, Externalizing Behaviors, and Depressive Symptoms among Black Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Rona; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Matusko, Niki; Antonucci, Toni; Jackson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    An accumulation of research evidence suggests that early pubertal timing plays a significant role in girls' behavioral and emotional problems. If early pubertal timing is a problematic event, then early developing Black girls should manifest evidence of this crisis because they tend to be the earliest to develop compared to other girls from…

  3. The Role of Peer Stress and Pubertal Timing on Symptoms of Psychopathology during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sontag, Lisa M.; Graber, Julia A.; Clemans, Katherine H.

    2011-01-01

    Stress is known to amplify the link between pubertal timing and psychopathology. However, few studies have examined the role of peer stress as a context for this link. The present study examined the interaction between perceived pubertal timing and peer stress on symptoms of psychopathology in early adolescence. The sample consisted of 264…

  4. Effects of early pubertal exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on social behavior of mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ran; Xu, Xiaohong; Weng, Huifang; Yan, Shengyao; Sun, Yangyang

    2016-04-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a main member of phthalates used as plasticizer in PVC plastics, is an environmental endocrine disrupter. The present study investigated the effect of DEHP on social behavior of mice following pubertal exposure (1, 10, 50, and 200mg/kg/d) from postnatal day 28 through postnatal day 42. The results showed that, in pubertal females, DEHP reduced the time spent in social play and social investigation and inhibited sociability, but a contrary effect was found in pubertal males, suggesting that the effect of DEHP on pubertal social behavior displays sex differences. In adults, DEHP reduced sociability in females and inhibited social play and social investigation in males, suggesting that early pubertal exposure to DEHP not only plays a significant role in puberty but also alters social behavior in adults. In addition, the present study showed that the higher dose of DEHP (50, 200mg/kg/d) reduced the relative weight of bilateral testis and anogenital distance of pubertal or adult males, suggesting an anti-androgenic activity of DEHP. These results suggest that early pubertal exposure to DEHP sex- and age- specifically affected the social behaviors of pubertal and even adult mice. PMID:26844866

  5. Usefulness and Reliability of Tanner Pubertal Self-Rating to Urban Black Adolescents in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Shane A.; Richter, Linda M.

    2005-01-01

    Self-rating of pubertal development is the recommended method to assess puberty in large community-based surveys of adolescent development and behavior. The aim of this study was to validate for the first time pubertal self-assessment using the sexual maturation scale developed by Tanner among Black South African adolescents (n=182) aged between…

  6. Links between Pubertal Timing and Neighborhood Contexts: Implications for Girls' Violent Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obeidallah, Dawn; Brennan, Robert T.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Earls, Felton

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate links between girls' violent behavior, pubertal timing, and neighborhood characteristics. Method: A total of 501 Hispanic, black, and white adolescent girls and their parents were interviewed twice over a 3-year period (1995-1998). Violent behavior was assessed using the Self-Report of Offending Scale and pubertal timing…

  7. Pubertal Timing and Mexican-Origin Girls’ Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms: The Influence of Harsh Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Deardorff, J.; Cham, H.; Gonzales, NA.; White, R.M.B.; Tein, J.-Y.; Wong, J.; Roosa, M.W.

    2012-01-01

    Early-maturing girls are at risk for internalizing and externalizing problems. Scarce research has examined pubertal timing and mental health among Mexican Americans, or examined the influence of parenting behaviors on these relations. This study addressed these gaps. This was a prospective examination of 362 Mexican-origin girls and their mothers using three waves of data. Measures included girls’ self-report of pubertal development and girls’ and mothers’ report of maternal harsh parenting and daughters’ mental health. Using structural equation modeling, we examined whether pubertal timing in 5th grade predicted girls’ internalizing and externalizing outcomes in 10th grade. We also examined the mediating and moderating effects of harsh parenting on the relations between pubertal timing and internalizing and externalizing behaviors, as well as the influence of mothers’ and daughters’ nativity on these relations. Results differed depending on reporter and maternal nativity. Using daughters’ report, Mexican American mothers’ harsh parenting acted as a moderator. At high levels of harsh parenting, early pubertal timing predicted higher externalizing scores, while at low levels of harsh parenting, early timing predicted lower externalizing scores. For Mexican immigrant mothers, harsh parenting mediated the effects of pubertal timing on girls’ internalizing and externalizing problems. There were no significant pubertal effects for mothers’ report. Findings suggest that maternal harsh parenting plays a key role in the relations between early pubertal timing and behavioral and emotional outcomes among Mexican-origin girls. PMID:23231686

  8. A Longitudinal Investigation of Associations between Boys' Pubertal Timing and Adult Behavioral Health and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taga, Keiko A.; Markey, Charlotte N.; Friedman, Howard S.

    2006-01-01

    To extend research linking pubertal timing and adolescent health outcomes, this study examines boys' pubertal timing and subsequent interpersonal success and health behaviors in mid adulthood. Past research has shown that boys' pubertal timing is associated with both positive and negative developmental outcomes in the short term, and so it is…

  9. Pubertal Timing and Vulnerabilities to Depression in Early Adolescence: Differential Pathways to Depressive Symptoms by Sex

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Jessica L.; Hamlat, Elissa J.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2014-01-01

    Although research implicates pubertal processes in the emergence of the sex difference in depression during adolescence, few studies have examined how cognitive and affective vulnerabilities influence the effect of pubertal timing on depressive symptoms. The current study prospectively examined whether early pubertal timing predicted increases in depressive symptoms among adolescents with more negative cognitive styles and lower emotional clarity, and whether this risk was specific to adolescent girls. In a diverse sample of 318 adolescents, early pubertal timing predicted increases in depressive symptoms among adolescent boys and girls with more negative cognitive styles and adolescent girls with poor emotional clarity. These findings suggest that earlier pubertal maturation may heighten the risk of depression for adolescents with pre-existing vulnerabilities to depression, and that early-maturing adolescent girls with lower levels of emotional clarity may be particularly vulnerable to depressive symptoms, representing one pathway through which the sex difference in depression may emerge. PMID:24439622

  10. Cognitive vulnerabilities amplify the effect of early pubertal timing on interpersonal stress generation during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jessica L; Stange, Jonathan P; Kleiman, Evan M; Hamlat, Elissa J; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2014-05-01

    Early pubertal timing has been found to confer risk for the occurrence of interpersonal stressful events during adolescence. However, pre-existing vulnerabilities may exacerbate the effects of early pubertal timing on the occurrence of stressors. Thus, the current study prospectively examined whether cognitive vulnerabilities amplified the effects of early pubertal timing on interpersonal stress generation. In a diverse sample of 310 adolescents (M age = 12.83 years, 55 % female; 53 % African American), early pubertal timing predicted higher levels of interpersonal dependent events among adolescents with more negative cognitive style and rumination, but not among adolescents with lower levels of these cognitive vulnerabilities. These findings suggest that cognitive vulnerabilities may heighten the risk of generating interpersonal stress for adolescents who undergo early pubertal maturation, which may subsequently place adolescents at greater risk for the development of psychopathology. PMID:24061858

  11. The increase in the number of spines on the gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuron across pubertal development in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Songzi; Takumi, Ken; Iijima, Norio; Ozawa, Hitoshi

    2016-05-01

    The onset of puberty is initiated by an increase in the release of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus. However, the precise mechanism that leads to the activation of GnRH neurons at puberty remains controversial. Spines are small protrusions on the surface of dendrites that normally receive excitatory inputs. In this study, we analyzed the number and morphology of spines on GnRH neurons to investigate changes in synaptic inputs across puberty in rats. For morphological estimation, we measured the diameter of the head (DH) of each spine and classified them into small-type (DH < 0.65 μm), large-type (DH > 0.65 μm) and giant-type (DH > 0.9 μm). The greatest number of spines was observed at the proximal dendrite within 50 μm of the soma. At the soma and proximal dendrite, the number of spines was greater in adults than in juveniles in both male and female individuals. Classification of spines revealed that the increase in spine number was due to increases in large- and giant-type spines. To further explore the relationship between spines on GnRH neurons and pubertal development, we next analyzed adult rats neonatally exposed to estradiol benzoate, in which puberty onset and reproductive functions are disrupted. We found a decrease in the number of all types of spines. These results suggest that GnRH neurons become to receive more and greater excitatory inputs on the soma and proximal dendrites as a result of the changes that occur at puberty and that alteration to spines plays a pivotal role in normal pubertal development. PMID:26667127

  12. Pubertal Development and Behavior: Hormonal Activation of Social and Motivational Tendencies

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Ronald E.; Forbes, Erika E.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of dramatic changes including rapid physical growth, the onset of sexual maturation, the activation of new drives and motivations, and a wide array of social and affective changes and challenges. This review focuses on behavioral changes in this interval and is organized by the claim that a key set of these adolescent changes are part of a more general re-orientation of social behavior. More specifically we hypothesize that pubertal maturation is associated with the activation of social and motivational tendencies, which in turn influence behavior and emotion in adolescence depending upon interactions with social context. We focus on evidence for two examples of these motivational changes: 1) increases in sensation seeking (motivational tendency to want to experience high-intensity, exciting experiences) and 2) stronger natural interest in—and pursuit of—contact with peers and potential romantic partners. We consider how these motivational changes contribute to the broader social re-orientation of adolescence, including exploration of social experiences, the development of skills and knowledge relevant to taking on adult social roles, individuation from family, and the establishment of an individual identity, all of which represent core developmental tasks during this period in the life span (Blakemore, 2008; Dahl & Spear, 2004; Steinberg & Morris, 2000). The paper also emphasizes the importance of investigating and understanding the direct influences of puberty on behavior and disentangling these from the broader set of changes during adolescent development. PMID:19942334

  13. Experience and cortical control over the pubertal transition to rougher play fighting in rats.

    PubMed

    Foroud, Afra; Whishaw, Ian Q; Pellis, Sergio M

    2004-02-01

    With the onset of puberty, play fighting in rats decreases in frequency and the tactics of attack and defense that are used are rougher. Previous studies have shown that the changes in the frequency of play and in the use of defensive tactics arise independently of social experience. Furthermore, while the former involves subcortical regulation, the latter depends on cortical mechanisms. In this study, the possible mechanisms regulating the developmental changes in the tactics of attack were examined. Two experiments were conducted using male rats. In the first study, rats reared in isolation from weaning were compared to rats reared in pairs, and were tested in the juvenile and early post-pubertal phases (30 and 60 days postnatally). In the second experiment, rats with their cortex removed shortly after birth were compared to sham-treated controls, and were tested in pairs at both the juvenile and early adult phases (30 and 90 days). Two measures of 'roughness,' derived from previous studies, were measured. Results showed that isolation-reared rats had the typical age-related changes in roughness of attack, whereas decorticated rats failed to show this age-related modulation, maintaining, or even exaggerating, the juvenile-typical pattern of attack. These findings suggest that social experience is not needed for this developmental change to occur, and that an intact cortex is needed to regulate this change in behavior. PMID:14739011

  14. Biomarkers for assessing reproductive development and health: Part 1--Pubertal development.

    PubMed Central

    Rockett, John C; Lynch, Courtney D; Buck, Germaine M

    2004-01-01

    The proposed National Children's Study has helped raise awareness of the issues related to children's health and the importance of monitoring the growth and development of children from preconception through adulthood. Many genetic predispositions can adversely impact the normal development process, and various environmental exposures have been linked to adverse reproductive health in rodent models and a small number of accidental human exposures. To monitor reproductive health and identify adverse effects at the earliest possible juncture, investigators must develop a network of biomarkers covering all stages and aspects of reproductive development and function. Biomarkers are biological indicators that can be measured repeatedly and are informative on one or more aspects of biological development or function. They can range from the anatomical level down to the molecular level and may provide information on the nature of an exposure, the effect of an exposure, or the susceptibility of individuals or populations to the toxic effects of an exposure. In theory, biomarkers can be used to monitor a wide variety of conditions and responses ranging from abnormal development to early indicators of late-onset disease. The main stumbling block with this theory has been finding appropriate biomarkers for particular conditions and exposures. Such biomarkers must be easily accessible, robust, and sensitive. Ideally, they will be expressed across a large section of the population, and can be monitored quickly, easily, conveniently, and with minimal cost. In this review, we discuss some of the current and emerging biomarkers of human pubertal development. PMID:14698938

  15. Pubertal development and behavior: hormonal activation of social and motivational tendencies.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Erika E; Dahl, Ronald E

    2010-02-01

    Adolescence is a time of dramatic changes including rapid physical growth, the onset of sexual maturation, the activation of new drives and motivations, and a wide array of social and affective changes and challenges. This review focuses on behavioral changes in this interval and is organized by the claim that a key set of these adolescent changes are part of a more general re-orientation of social behavior. More specifically we hypothesize that pubertal maturation is associated with the activation of social and motivational tendencies, which in turn influence behavior and emotion in adolescence depending upon interactions with social context. We focus on evidence for two examples of these motivational changes: (1) increases in sensation-seeking (motivational tendency to want to experience high-intensity, exciting experiences) and (2) stronger natural interest in--and pursuit of--contact with peers and potential romantic partners. We consider how these motivational changes contribute to the broader social re-orientation of adolescence, including exploration of social experiences, development of skills and knowledge relevant to taking on adult social roles, individuation from family, and establishment of an individual identity, all of which represent core developmental tasks during this period in the life span (Blakemore, 2008; Dahl & Spear, 2004; Steinberg & Morris, 2000). The paper also emphasizes the importance of investigating and understanding the direct influences of puberty on behavior and disentangling these from the broader set of changes during adolescent development. PMID:19942334

  16. Psychopathology and Social Competence during the Transition to Adolescence: The Role of Family Adversity and Pubertal Development

    PubMed Central

    Obradović, Jelena; Hipwell, Alison

    2010-01-01

    This study examined developmental processes linking competence and psychopathology in an urban sample of girls during their transition to adolescence. Longitudinal associations among indices of externalizing symptoms, social competence, and internalizing symptoms were also tested within contexts of family adversity and girls' pubertal status. Child, parent, and teacher report were employed to assess core constructs across six annual assessment waves, starting at age 9. Results revealed the significant effect of prior levels of externalizing symptoms on changes in social competence and internalizing symptoms, as well as reciprocal relations between social competence and internalizing symptoms. In addition, girl's maladaptive functioning predicted increases in family adversity exposure over time. Lastly, more mature pubertal status in early assessment waves was linked to an increase in internalizing symptoms; however, this association was reversed by the last assessment, when most girls had reached advance stages of puberty. The timing of these effects reveals important targets for future interventions aimed at promoting the successful adaptation of girls in adolescence. PMID:20576183

  17. Consumption of ground beef obtained from cattle that had received steroidal growth promotants does not trigger early onset of estrus in prepubertal pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onset of puberty was assessed when pre-pubertal gilts were fed a diet low in estrogenic activity versus a diet supplemented with ground beef obtained from steers implanted with growth enhancing compounds. The base diet was formulated using canola meal replacing soybean meal to reduce diet estrogeni...

  18. Recent advances in the understanding and management of delayed puberty.

    PubMed

    Wei, Christina; Crowne, Elizabeth Clare

    2016-05-01

    Delayed puberty, especially in boys, is a common presentation in paediatrics. Recent advances have improved our understanding of the neuroendocrine, genetic and environmental factors controlling pubertal development, and hence inform the pathophysiology of delayed puberty. The discovery of kisspeptin signalling through its receptor identified neuroendocrine mechanisms controlling the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse generator at the onset of puberty. Genetic mechanisms from single gene mutations to single nucleotide polymorphism associated with delayed puberty are being identified. Environmental factors, including nutritional factors and endocrine disruptors, have also been implicated in changes in secular trends and abnormal timing of puberty. Despite these advances, the key clinical question is to distinguish delayed puberty associated with an underlying pathology or hypogonadism from constitutional delay in growth and puberty, which remains challenging as biochemical tests are not always discriminatory. The diagnostic accuracies of newer investigations, including 36-hour luteinising hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) tests, GnRH-agonist tests, antimullerian hormone and inhibin-B, require further evaluation. Sex hormone replacement remains the main available treatment for delayed puberty, the choice of which is largely dictated by clinical practice and availability of the various sex steroid preparations. Spontaneous reversal of hypogonadism has been reported in boys with idiopathic hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism after a period of sex steroid treatment, highlighting the importance of reassessment at the end of pubertal induction. Novel therapies with a more physiological basis such as gonadotrophins or kisspeptin-agonist are being investigated for the management of hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Careful clinical assessment and appreciation of the normal physiology remain the key approach to patients with delayed puberty. PMID:26353794

  19. Cardiovascular Responses to Caffeine by Gender and Pubertal Stage

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Amanda M.; Graczyk, Adam; Bendlin, Ashley; Sion, Teresa; Vattana, Karina

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caffeine use is on the rise among children and adolescents. Previous studies from our laboratory reported gender differences in the effects of caffeine in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that gender differences in cardiovascular responses to caffeine emerge after puberty and that cardiovascular responses to caffeine differ across the phases of the menstrual cycle. METHODS: To test these hypotheses, we examined heart rate and blood pressure before and after administration of placebo and 2 doses of caffeine (1 and 2 mg/kg) in prepubertal (8- to 9-year-olds; n = 52) and postpubertal (15- to 17-year-olds; n = 49) boys (n = 54) and girls (n = 47) by using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response design. RESULTS: There was an interaction between gender and caffeine dose, with boys having a greater response to caffeine than girls. In addition, we found interactions between pubertal phase, gender, and caffeine dose, with gender differences present in postpubertal, but not in prepubertal, participants. Finally, we found differences in responses to caffeine across the menstrual cycle in post-pubertal girls, with decreases in heart rate greater in the midluteal phase and blood pressure increases greater in the midfollicular phase of the menstrual cycle. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that gender differences in response to caffeine emerge after puberty. Future research will determine the extent to which these gender differences are mediated by physiological factors, such as steroid hormones, or psychosocial factors, such as more autonomy and control over beverage purchases. PMID:24935999

  20. The Effects of Simazine, a Chlorotriazine Herbicide, on Female Pubertal Development*

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorotriazine herbicides, such as atrazine and its metabolites, have been shown to target the neuroendocrine regulation of male and female reproductive development. However, no studies have evaluated the effects of the chlorotriazine simazine on pubertal development in the femal...

  1. Brief communication: a proposed osteological method for the estimation of pubertal stage in human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Shapland, Fiona; Lewis, Mary E

    2013-06-01

    Puberty forms an important threshold between childhood and adulthood, but this subject has received little attention in bioarchaeology. The new application of clinical methods to assess pubertal stage in adolescent skeletal remains is explored, concentrating on the development of the mandibular canine, hamate, hand phalanges, iliac crest and distal radius. Initial results from the medieval cemetery of St. Peter's Church, Barton-upon-Humber, England suggest that application of these methods may provide insights into aspects of adolescent development. This analysis indicates that adolescents from this medieval site were entering the pubertal growth spurt at a similar age to their modern counterparts, but that the later stages of pubertal maturation were being significantly delayed, perhaps due to environmental stress. Continued testing and refinement of these methods on living adolescents is still necessary to improve our understanding of their significance and accuracy in predicting pubertal stages. PMID:23588889

  2. Gene-Environment Interplay in the Association between Pubertal Timing and Delinquency in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Harden, K. Paige; Mendle, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Early pubertal timing places girls at elevated risk for a breadth of negative outcomes, including involvement in delinquent behavior. While previous developmental research has emphasized the unique social challenges faced by early maturing girls, this relation is complicated by genetic influences for both delinquent behavior and pubertal timing, which are seldom controlled for in existing research. The current study uses genetically informed data on 924 female-female twin and sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to (1) disentangle biological versus environmental mechanisms for the effects of early pubertal timing and (2) test for gene-environment interactions. Results indicate that early pubertal timing influences girls’ delinquency through a complex interplay between biological risk and environmental experiences. Genes related to earlier age at menarche and higher perceived development significantly predict increased involvement in both non-violent and violent delinquency. Moreover, after accounting for this genetic association between pubertal timing and delinquency, the impact of non-shared environmental influences on delinquency are significantly moderated by pubertal timing, such that the non-shared environment is most important among early maturing girls. This interaction effect is particularly evident for non-violent delinquency. Overall, results suggest early maturing girls are vulnerable to an interaction between genetic and environmental risks for delinquent behavior. PMID:21668078

  3. IGF-IR Mediated Mammary Tumorigenesis Is Enhanced during Pubertal Development

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Craig I.; Moorehead, Roger A.

    2014-01-01

    Although breast cancer typically develops in women over the age of 40, it remains unclear when breast cancer initiating events occur or whether the mammary gland is particularly susceptible to oncogenic transformation at a particular developmental stage. Using MTB-IGFIR transgenic mice that overexpress type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) in a doxycycline-inducible manner, mammary tumorigenesis was initiated at different developmental stages. Tumor multiplicity was significantly increased while tumor latency was significantly decreased when the IGF-IR transgene was expressed during pubertal development compared to post-pubertal transgene expression. Moreover, metastatic spread of mammary tumors to the lungs was approximately twice as likely when IGF-IR was overexpressed in pubertal mice compared to post-pubertal mice. In addition, engraftment of pubertal MTB-IGFIR mammary tissue into cleared mammary fat pads of pubertal hosts produced tumors more frequently and faster than engraftment into adult hosts. These experiments show that the mammary microenvironment created during puberty renders mammary epithelial cells particularly susceptible to transformation. PMID:25259518

  4. The effects of exercise on pubertal progression and reproductive function in girls.

    PubMed

    Warren, M P

    1980-11-01

    To determine whether a significant energy drain during adolescence had a significant effect on puberty and normal reproductive function, 15 ballet dancers, aged 13--15 yr, who maintained a high level of physical activity from early adolescence were followed for 4.0 yr. Menarche was remarkably delayed in this group, occurring at a mean of 15.4 yr, significantly different (P < 0.01) from normal controls (12.5 yr) and normal music students (12.6 yr). In 2 dancers aged 18 yr, primary amenorrhea has persisted. While premenarchial, all of the dancers had varying breast development (Tanner stages 2--4) and low to low normal gonadotropin levels, normal PRL and T4 levels, and normal skull x-rays. The dancers' mean body weight and calculated body fat were significantly less than in controls (P < 0.05). The progression of sexual development and the onset of menarche correlated in 10 or 15 subjects with a decrease in exercise and/or injury causing forced rest of at least 2-month duration. During this interval, weight gain was minimal or absent, with no significant change in body composition. A significant dichotomy in the order of pubertal development was also noted; while breast development and menarche were delayed, pubic hair development was not affected. Reversion to the amenorrheic state occurred in 11 of 13 patients with a return to exercise without a change in weight. In conclusion, energy drain may have an important modulatory effect on the hypothalamic pituitary set point at puberty and, in combination with low body weight, may prolong the prepubertal state and induce amenorrhea. PMID:6775000

  5. Pubertal Status Predicts Back Pain, Overtiredness, and Dizziness in American and Dutch Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Hunfeld, Joke A. M.; Mancl, Lloyd A.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; LeResche, Linda

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Functional somatic symptoms, symptoms for which no organic pathologic basis can be found, are more prevalent in girls than in boys, and this difference tends to increase during adolescence. This might be explained, at least in part, by pubertal development. We hypothesized that pubertal maturation predicts the development of most functional somatic symptoms and that this especially is true for girls. METHOD: We used 2 longitudinal population-based studies to examine our hypotheses: the Longitudinal Study of Pain in Adolescents in Seattle (n = 1996 [49.7% girls]) and the Dutch Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (n = 2230 [51.0% girls]). Two assessment waves of each study were used. American adolescents were younger than Dutch adolescents at the first (11.6 vs 13.6) and second (14.5 vs 16.2) assessment waves, but they were in about the same pubertal development stage. Functional somatic symptoms were measured by pain questions, the Symptom Checklist-90, and the Youth Self-report. The Pubertal Development Scale was used to assess pubertal development on a continuous scale in both cohorts. RESULTS: Ordinal logistic regression analyses revealed that American and Dutch adolescents at a later pubertal status at baseline were more likely (odds ratios ranged from 1.24 to 1.61) to report back pain, overtiredness, and dizziness but not stomach pain and headache 2 to 3 years later. Although these relationships were not equally strong for boys and girls, no significant gender differences were found. CONCLUSIONS: Pubertal status predicted the frequency of some, but not all, functional somatic symptoms at follow-up. PMID:21807699

  6. Attachment, parenting styles and bullying during pubertal years.

    PubMed

    van der Watt, Ronél

    2014-01-01

    Research that focuses on combining attachment, parenting styles, bullying and the reciprocal nature thereof in the parent-adolescent and peer relationships is limited. The bio-psychosocial changes that adolescents experience open up broader social realities and are perceived differently by parents and adolescents. Attachment processes and parenting styles may elicit dissimilar perceptions. These processes are also associated with the multifaceted dynamics of bullying. The aim of the article is to advocate for research on the possible link between the implications of attachment, parenting styles and bullying. Exploring the association between attachment, parenting styles and bullying can deepen the understanding of the developmental challenges within the parent-adolescent relationship, add insight to the different perceptions of adolescents and parents, and complement intervention programmes accordingly. Firstly, this article outlines bio-psychosocial changes in the pubertal years as related to the social realities of the adolescent. Secondly, a discussion on the concepts 'attachment', 'parenting styles', 'bullying', and the potential link between these concepts will follow. Thirdly, an outline of the clinical implications of the apparent association between these concepts is given. The article concludes with recommendations that researchers can consider while exploring the relationship between attachment, parenting styles, and bullying and the delineation thereof in the parent-adolescent relationship. PMID:25533411

  7. A comprehensive approach to the spectrum of abnormal pubertal development.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, Heather; Malhotra, Shilpa

    2012-04-01

    Puberty is the biological transition from childhood to adulthood. The process involves the coordination of hormonal, physical, psychosocial, and cognitive systems to result in physiologic change. Precocious puberty is defined as pubertal development beginning earlier than expected based on normal standards. Gonadotropin dependent precocious puberty is caused by premature activation of the hypothalamus resulting in pulsatile secretion of GnRH. Gonadotropin independent precocious puberty is caused by excess sex hormones from peripheral or external sources. Treatment with GnRH agonists should be offered to prevent early fusion of the epiphyseal plates to avoid unnecessary short stature and should not be based on perceived psychosocial consequences of early puberty. Delayed puberty is the absence of or incomplete development of secondary sexual characteristics. Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism or primary hypogonadism may result from genetic mutation syndromes or can be acquired from antiovarian antibodies, exposure to radiation or chemotherapy, inflammatory insult, or surgical removal of the gonads. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism or secondary hypogonadism is due to hypothalamic dysfunction resulting in impaired secretion of GnRH. The long-term goal for patients with inadequate estrogen stimulation is to maintain the serum concentration of sex steroids within the normal adult range to promote the development of secondary sexual characteristics, prevent premature bone loss, and ultimately to induce fertility when indicated. PMID:22764552

  8. The influence of pubertal timing and stressful life events on depression and delinquency among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Yu, Jing; Wu, Yun; Zhang, Jianxin

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influences of pubertal timing and stressful life events on Chinese adolescents' depression and delinquency. Sex differences in these influences were also examined. A large sample with 4,228 participants aged 12-15 years (53% girls) was recruited in Beijing, China. Participants' pubertal development, stressful life events, depressive symptoms, and delinquency were measured using self-reported questionnaires. Both early maturing girls and boys displayed more delinquency than their same-sex on-time and late maturing peers. Early maturing girls displayed more depressive symptoms than on-time and late maturing girls, but boys in the three maturation groups showed similar levels of depressive symptoms. The interactive effects between early pubertal timing and stressful life events were significant in predicting depression and delinquency, particularly for girls. Early pubertal maturation is an important risk factor for Chinese adolescents' depression and delinquency. Stressful life events intensified the detrimental effects of early pubertal maturation on adolescents' depression and delinquency, particularly for girls. PMID:26261908

  9. Early pubertal timing as a vulnerability to depression symptoms: differential effects of race and sex.

    PubMed

    Hamlat, Elissa J; Stange, Jonathan P; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2014-05-01

    Robust evidence supports that girls and boys who experience early pubertal timing, maturing earlier than one's peers, are vulnerable to developing symptoms of depression. However, it has yet to be clarified whether early pubertal timing confers vulnerability to African American as well as to Caucasian adolescents and whether this vulnerability is specific to depressive symptoms or can be generalized to symptoms of social anxiety. In previous studies, one race or one sex was examined in isolation or sample sizes were too small to examine racial differences. Our longitudinal study consisted of a sample of 223 adolescents (Mage = 12.42, 54.3 % female, 50.2 % African American, and 49.8 % Caucasian). At baseline, depressive symptoms, social anxiety symptoms, and pubertal timing were assessed by self-report. Nine months later, we assessed depressive symptoms, social anxiety symptoms, body esteem, and stressful life events that occurred between baseline and follow-up. Analyses indicated that early pubertal timing interacted with stressful life events to predict increased symptoms of depression, but only for Caucasian girls and African American boys. Results were found to be specific to depressive symptoms and did not generalize to symptoms of social anxiety. Additionally, there was a significant positive indirect effect of pubertal timing on symptoms of depression through body esteem for Caucasian females. PMID:24014162

  10. Early Pubertal Timing as a Vulnerability to Depression Symptoms: Differential Effects of Race and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Hamlat, Elissa J.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Abramson, Lyn Y.

    2013-01-01

    Robust evidence supports that girls and boys who experience early pubertal timing, maturing earlier than one’s peers, are vulnerable to developing symptoms of depression. However, it has yet to be clarified whether early pubertal timing confers vulnerability to African American as well as to Caucasian adolescents and whether this vulnerability is specific to depressive symptoms or can be generalized to symptoms of social anxiety. In previous studies, one race or one sex was examined in isolation or sample sizes were too small to examine racial differences. Our longitudinal study consisted of a sample of 223 adolescents (Mean age = 12.42, 54.3% female, 50.2% African American, and 49.8% Caucasian). At baseline, depressive symptoms, social anxiety symptoms, and pubertal timing were assessed by self-report. Nine months later, we assessed depressive symptoms, social anxiety symptoms, body esteem, and stressful life events that occurred between baseline and follow-up. Analyses indicated that early pubertal timing interacted with stressful life events to predict increased symptoms of depression, but only for Caucasian girls and African American boys. Results were found to be specific to depressive symptoms and did not generalize to symptoms of social anxiety. Additionally, there was a significant positive indirect effect of pubertal timing on symptoms of depression through body esteem for Caucasian females. PMID:24014162

  11. Comparison of Examination Methods Used in the Evaluation of Prepubertal and Pubertal Female Genitalia: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Cathy; McCann, John; Miyamoto, Sheridan; Rogers, Kristen

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of three different examination methods in their ability to help the examiner detect both acute and non-acute genital injuries in prepubertal and pubertal girls suspected of having been sexually abused. Methods: Forty-six prepubertal and 74 pubertal girls, whose ages ranged from 4 months to 18 years, were…

  12. Adolescents' Increasing Stress Response to Social Evaluation: Pubertal Effects on Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase during Public Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Bos, Esther; de Rooij, Mark; Miers, Anne C.; Bokhorst, Caroline L.; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Stress responses to social evaluation are thought to increase during adolescence, which may be due to pubertal maturation. However, empirical evidence is scarce. This study is the first to investigate the relation between pubertal development and biological responses to a social-evaluative stressor longitudinally. Participants performed the Leiden…

  13. A Short-Term Longitudinal Study of Pubertal Change, Gender, and Psychological Well-Being of Mexican Early Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjet, Corina; Hernandez-Guzman, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Studied the role of pubertal development on depression, externalizing behavior problems, self-esteem, and body-image of 951 Mexican early adolescents. Findings show that the acute experience of menarche adversely affected the psychological well-being of girls, specifically in terms of depressive symptomatology. Pubertal change in boys did not…

  14. Pubertal Timing and Its Link to Behavioral and Emotional Problems among "At-Risk" African American Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Rona; Jaccard, James; Silverman, Wendy K.; Pina, Armando A.

    2009-01-01

    Using an "at-risk" sample of African American girls, the present study examined the link between girls' retrospective reports of pubertal timing, girls' perceived relative pubertal timing, and their behavioral and emotional problems as rated by the girls themselves (N = 102; 11-17 years), as well as teachers and parents. Structural equation…

  15. Impact of Pubertal Development and Physical Activity on Heart Rate Variability in Overweight and Obese Children in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Su-Ru; Chiu, Hung-Wen; Lee, Yann-Jinn; Sheen, Tzong-Chi; Jeng, Chii

    2012-01-01

    Child obesity is frequently associated with dysfunction of autonomic nervous system. Children in pubertal development were suggested to be vulnerable to autonomic nervous system problems such as decrease of heart rate variability from dysregulation of metabolic control. This study explored the influence of pubertal development on autonomic nervous…

  16. Self-Rated Pubertal Development, Depressive Symptoms and Delinquency: Measurement Issues and Moderation by Gender and Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negriff, Sonya; Fung, Michelle T.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2008-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined relationships between pubertal development, depressive symptoms and delinquency in a sample of 241 males and 213 females aged 9-13 years. Four objectives were set forth for this study: (1) to examine relationships between pubertal stage or timing and depressive symptoms and delinquency; (2) to compare continuous…

  17. Pubertal Timing, Peer Victimization, and Body Esteem Differentially Predict Depressive Symptoms in African American and Caucasian Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlat, Elissa J.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    This study prospectively examined pubertal timing and peer victimization as interactive predictors of depressive symptoms in a racially diverse community sample of adolescents. We also expanded on past research by assessing body esteem as a mechanism by which pubertal timing and peer victimization confer risk for depression. In all, 218…

  18. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Pubertal Development: Longitudinal Data from Finnish Twins at Ages 11 and 14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mustanski, Brian S.; Viken, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    To study sources of individual differences in pubertal development, the authors fit a sex-limitation common factor model to data reported, at ages 11 and 14 years, by 1,891 twin pairs on items that comprise the Pubertal Development Scale (PDS; A. C. Petersen, L. Crockett, M. Richards, & A. Boxer, 1988). The model divides variation into a general…

  19. Pubertal timing and early sexual intercourse in the offspring of teenage mothers.

    PubMed

    De Genna, Natacha M; Larkby, Cynthia; Cornelius, Marie D

    2011-10-01

    Early puberty is associated with stressful family environments, early sexual intercourse, and teenage pregnancy. We examined pubertal timing and sexual debut among the 14-year-old offspring of teenage mothers. Mothers (71% Black, 29% White) were recruited as pregnant teenagers (12-18 years old). Data were collected during pregnancy and when offspring were 6, 10 and 14 years old (n = 318). Adolescents (50% male) compared the timing of their pubertal maturation to same-sex peers. There was a significant 3-way interaction effect of race, sex, and pubertal timing on sexual debut (n = 305). This effect remained significant in a model controlling for maternal age at first intercourse, substance use, exposure to trauma, authoritative parenting, and peer sexual activity (n = 255). Early maturation was associated with early sex in daughters, and may be one pathway for the inter-generational transfer of risk for teenage pregnancy among daughters of teenage mothers. PMID:21279428

  20. Pubertal status, interaction with significant others, and self-esteem of adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Lacković-Grgin, K; Dekovíc, M; Opacić, G

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between pubertal status, the quality of interactions with significant others, and the self-esteem of adolescent girls. The model which was tested, hypothesized that pubertal status affects self-esteem through girls' interactions with their parents and friends. Pubertal status was operationalized as the number of months between occurrence of the first menstrual periods and time of the investigation. The measure of self-esteem was the shortened form of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Analyses revealed that girls who begun menstruating six months before the investigation obtained higher scores on the measure of self-esteem than did girls who had been menstruating 13 months or more. The best predictor of self-esteem, however, was the quality of interaction with their mothers. The results support the theoretical view that stresses the importance of interaction with significant others for the development of self-esteem. PMID:7832033

  1. Pubertal development, spare time activities, and adolescent delinquency: testing the contextual amplification hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Kretschmer, Tina; Oliver, Bonamy R; Maughan, Barbara

    2014-08-01

    Extensive evidence supports associations between early pubertal timing and adolescent externalizing behavior, but how and under which conditions they are linked is not fully understood. In addition, pubertal development is also characterized by variations in the relative speed at which individuals mature, but studies linking pubertal 'tempo' and outcomes are scarce. This study examined the mediating and moderating roles of spare time activities in associations between pubertal development and later delinquency, using data from a large (4,327 girls, 4,250 boys) longitudinal UK cohort (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children). Self-reports of Tanner stage were available from ages 9 to 14, spare time activities at age 12 and delinquency at age 15. Pubertal development was examined using latent growth models. Spare time activities were categorized using factor analyses, yielding four types (hanging out at home, hanging out outside, consumerist behavior, and sports/games), which were examined as mediators and moderators. Earlier and faster maturation predicted delinquency in boys and girls. Spare time activities partially mediated these links such that early maturing girls more often engaged in hanging out outside, which placed them at greater risk for delinquency. In addition, compared to their later and slower maturing counterparts, boys who matured earlier and faster were less likely to engage in sports/games, a spare time activity type that is linked to lower delinquency risk. No moderation effects were found. The findings extend previous research on outcomes of early maturation and show how spare time activities act as proxies between pubertal development and delinquency. PMID:24323040

  2. Endothelial function in pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy: a new frontier

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Aline Cristina; Bocchi, Edimar Alcides; Guimarães, Guilherme Veiga

    2012-01-01

    Although it is known that obesity, diabetes, and Kawasaki's disease play important roles in systemic inflammation and in the development of both endothelial dysfunction and cardiomyopathy, there is a lack of data regarding the endothelial function of pre-pubertal children suffering from cardiomyopathy. In this study, we performed a systematic review of the literature on pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy to assess the endothelial function of pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy. We searched the published literature indexed in PubMed, Bireme and SciELO using the keywords ‘endothelial', ‘children', ‘pediatric' and ‘infant' and then compiled a systematic review. The end points were age, the pubertal stage, sex differences, the method used for the endothelial evaluation and the endothelial values themselves. No studies on children with cardiomyopathy were found. Only 11 papers were selected for our complete analysis, where these included reports on the flow-mediated percentage dilatation, the values of which were 9.80±1.80, 5.90±1.29, 4.50±0.70, and 7.10±1.27 for healthy, obese, diabetic and pre-pubertal children with Kawasaki's disease, respectively. There was no significant difference in the dilatation, independent of the endothelium, either among the groups or between the genders for both of the measurements in children; similar results have been found in adolescents and adults. The endothelial function in cardiomyopathic children remains unclear because of the lack of data; nevertheless, the known dysfunctions in children with obesity, type 1 diabetes and Kawasaki's disease may influence the severity of the cardiovascular symptoms, the prognosis, and the mortality rate. The results of this study encourage future research into the consequences of endothelial dysfunction in pre-pubertal children. PMID:22473410

  3. Early-Onset Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Early-Onset Alzheimer’s What is early-onset Alzheimer’s disease? Early-onset Alzheimer’s disease is when Alzheimer’s affects a person younger than 65 years of age. People ...

  4. Pubertal status, pre-meal drink composition, and later meal timing interact in determining children's appetite and food intake.

    PubMed

    Patel, Barkha P; Hamilton, Jill K; Vien, Shirley; Thomas, Scott G; Anderson, G Harvey

    2016-09-01

    Puberty is a period of development that alters energy intake patterns. However, few studies have examined appetite and food intake (FI) regulation during development of puberty in children and adolescents. Therefore, the objective was to measure the effect of pubertal status on FI and subjective appetite after pre-meal glucose and whey protein drinks in 9- to 14-year-old boys and girls. In a within-subject, randomized, repeated-measures design, children (21 pre-early pubertal, 15 mid-late pubertal) received equally sweetened drinks containing Sucralose (control), glucose, or whey protein (0.75 g/kg body weight) in 250 mL of water 2 h after a standardized breakfast on 6 separate mornings. Ad libitum FI was measured either 30 or 60 min later and appetite was measured over time. In pre-early and mid-late pubertal boys and girls there was no effect of sex on total FI (kcal). Glucose and whey protein drinks reduced calorie intake similarly at 30 min. But at 60 min, whey protein reduced FI (p < 0.001) compared with control and glucose in pre-early pubertal children, but not in mid-late pubertal children. However, sex was a factor (p = 0.041) when FI was expressed per kilogram body weight. Pubertal status did not affect FI/kilogram body weight in boys, but it was 32% lower in mid-late pubertal girls than at pre-early puberty (p = 0.010). Appetite was associated with FI in mid-late pubertal children only. In conclusion, pubertal development affects appetite and FI regulation in children. PMID:27507005

  5. Neonatal olfactory bulbectomy enhances locomotor activity, exploratory behavior and binding of NMDA receptors in pre-pubertal rats.

    PubMed

    Flores, G; Ibañez-Sandoval, O; Silva-Gómez, A B; Camacho-Abrego, I; Rodríguez-Moreno, A; Morales-Medina, J C

    2014-02-14

    In this study, we investigated the effect of neonatal olfactory bulbectomy (nOBX) on behavioral paradigms related to olfaction such as exploratory behavior, locomotor activity in a novel environment and social interaction. We also studied the effect of nOBX on the activity of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors during development. The behavioral effects of nOBX (postnatal day 7, PD7) were investigated in pre- (PD30) and post-pubertal (PD60) Wistar rats. NMDA receptor activity was measured with [(125)I]MK-801 in the brain regions associated with the olfactory circuitry. A significant increase in the novelty-induced locomotion was seen in the pre-pubertal nOBX rats. Although the locomotor effect was less marked than in pre-pubertal rats, the nOBX rats tested post-pubertally failed to habituate to the novel situation as quickly as the sham- and normal- controls. Pre-pubertally, the head-dipping behavior was enhanced in nOBX rats compared with sham-operated and normal controls, while normal exploratory behavior was observed between groups in adulthood. In contrast, social interaction was increased in post-pubertal animals that underwent nOBX. Both pre- and post-pubertal nOBX rats recovered olfaction. Interestingly, pre-pubertal rats showed a significant increase in the [(125)I]MK-801 binding in the piriform cortex, dorsal hippocampus, inner and outer layers of the frontal cortex and outer layer of the cingulate cortex. At post-pubertal age, no significant differences in [(125)I]MK-801 binding were observed between groups at any of the brain regions analyzed. These results suggest that nOBX produces pre-pubertal behavioral disturbances and NMDA receptor changes that are transitory with recovery of olfaction early in adulthood. PMID:24295633

  6. Peri-pubertal exposure to testicular hormones organizes response to novel environments and social behaviour in adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Gillian R.; Kulbarsh, Kyle D.; Spencer, Karen A.; Duval, Camille

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that exposure to testicular hormones during the peri-pubertal period of life has long-term, organizational effects on adult sexual behaviour and underlying neural mechanisms in laboratory rodents. However, the organizational effects of peri-pubertal testicular hormones on other aspects of behaviour and brain function are less well understood. Here, we investigated the effects of manipulating peri-pubertal testicular hormone exposure on later behavioural responses to novel environments and on hormone receptors in various brain regions that are involved in response to novelty. Male rodents generally spend less time in the exposed areas of novel environments than females, and this sex difference emerges during the peri-pubertal period. Male Lister-hooded rats (Rattus norvegicus) were castrated either before puberty or after puberty, then tested in three novel environments (elevated plus-maze, light–dark box, open field) and in an object/social novelty task in adulthood. Androgen receptor (AR), oestrogen receptor (ER1) and corticotropin-releasing factor receptor (CRF-R2) mRNA expression were quantified in the hypothalamus, hippocampus and medial amygdala. The results showed that pre-pubertally castrated males spent more time in the exposed areas of the elevated-plus maze and light–dark box than post-pubertally castrated males, and also confirmed that peri-pubertal hormone exposure influences later response to an opposite-sex conspecific. Hormone receptor gene expression levels did not differ between pre-pubertally and post-pubertally castrated males in any of the brain regions examined. This study therefore demonstrates that testicular hormone exposure during the peri-pubertal period masculinizes later response to novel environments, although the neural mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. PMID:26159287

  7. Annotation: Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia--Clinical and Treatment Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Tompson, Martha C.; McGrath, Emily P.

    2004-01-01

    Background: In the past 10 years, there has been increased research on childhood-onset schizophrenia and clear advances have been achieved. Method: This annotation reviews the recent clinical and treatment literature on childhood-onset schizophrenia. Results: There is now strong evidence that the syndrome of childhood-onset schizophrenia exists…

  8. Detrimental Psychological Outcomes Associated with Early Pubertal Timing in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Mendle, Jane; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Though often discussed as though it were a discrete event, puberty comprises one segment of a larger developmental continuum and is notable for rapid transformation across a multitude of domains. Research suggests that an earlier rate of pubertal maturation in girls correlates with a number of detrimental outcomes compared with on-time or later maturation. The present review synthesizes the research on negative psychological sequelae of early pubertal timing in adolescent girls. Emphasis is on three theoretical perspectives by which precocious development is believed to affect the emergence of adverse outcomes: biological, psychosocial, and selection effects. PMID:20740062

  9. Timing and tempo: Exploring the complex association between pubertal development and depression in African American and European American girls.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Kate; Culbert, Kristen M; Grimm, Kevin J; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D

    2014-11-01

    The relative contribution of pubertal timing and tempo to the development of depression has not been tested in a large, representative sample, nor has the interface among pubertal maturation, depression, and race been tested. Participants were a community-based sample of 2,450 girls from the Pittsburgh Girls Study who were interviewed annually from ages 9 to 17 years. Pubertal timing and tempo were characterized as a unitary construct and also separately for pubic hair and breast development using child and maternal report. Depression symptoms were assessed annually. African American girls had higher depression symptoms and progressed through puberty earlier, but at a slower tempo than European American girls. Girls with earlier timing had higher levels of depression symptoms at age 10 years. Slower tempo was associated with higher depression symptoms at age 10, and faster tempo was associated with increases in depression from ages 10 to 13. As well, race moderated the associations among timing, tempo, and depression symptoms, and the association between race and depression was partially mediated by pubertal timing and tempo. Pubertal timing and tempo and race contribute to the developmental course of depression from early to late adolescence. The pattern of association varies as a function of the developmental window within which depression is assessed. Thus, repeated measures of depression symptoms and puberty across the span of pubertal development are necessary for exploring the relative importance of dimensions of pubertal development to depression etiology. PMID:25314262

  10. Timing and tempo: Exploring the complex association between pubertal development and depression in African American and European American girls

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Kate; Culbert, Kristen; Grimm, Kevin J.; Hipwell, Alison; Stepp, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The relative contribution of pubertal timing and tempo to the development of depression has not been tested in a large, representative sample, nor has the interface among pubertal maturation, depression, and race. Participants were a community-based sample of 2,450 girls from the Pittsburgh Girls Study (PGS) who were interviewed annually from ages 9 to 17 years. Pubertal timing and tempo were characterized as a unitary construct and also separately for pubic hair and breast development using child and maternal report. Depression symptoms were assessed annually. African-American females had higher depression symptoms and progressed through puberty earlier, but at a slower tempo than European American girls. Girls with earlier timing had higher levels of depression symptoms at age 10 years. Slower tempo was associated with higher depression symptoms at age 10, and faster tempo was associated with increases in depression from ages 10 to 13. As well, race moderated the associations among timing, tempo, and depression symptoms, and the association between race and depression was partially mediated by pubertal timing and tempo. Pubertal timing and tempo and race contribute to the developmental course of depression from early to late adolescence. The pattern of association varies as a function of the developmental window within which depression is assessed. Thus, repeated measures of depression symptoms and puberty across the span of pubertal development are necessary for exploring the relative importance of dimensions of pubertal development to depression etiology. PMID:25314262

  11. Associations between Early Life Stress, Child Maltreatment, and Pubertal Development among Girls in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendle, Jane; Leve, Leslie D.; Van Ryzin, Mark; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Ge, Xiaojia

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated pubertal development in girls with maltreatment histories (N=100), assessed at 4 time points over 2 years, beginning in the spring of their final year of elementary school. This sample is unique in that participants were subject to an unusual level of environmental risk early in life and resided in foster care at the…

  12. Early Pubertal Timing and the Union Formation Behaviors of Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Shannon E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether the transition into adolescence, proxied by pubertal timing, shaped the transition into adulthood, proxied by union formation behaviors, among contemporary American women. In a sample drawn from Add Health (n = 7,523), early maturing girls reported an accelerated transition to marriage and cohabitation in young…

  13. Effects of altered food intake during pubertal development in male and female Wistar rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.EPA is currently validating assays that will be used in a Tier I Screening Battery to detect endocrine disrupting chemicals. A primary concern with the Protocols for the Assessment of Pubertal Development and Thyroid Function in Juvenile Male and Female Rats is that a non...

  14. Pubertal Development and Adolescent Girls' Substance Use: Race, Ethnicity, and Neighborhood Contexts of Vulnerability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E.

    2012-01-01

    To highlight individual and neighborhood interactions in the risk of adolescent substance use, this study examined the moderating role of neighborhood disadvantage on the relationship between pubertal development and adolescent girls' substance use. Drawing on the contextual amplification hypothesis, it was hypothesized that the effect of pubertal…

  15. Early Adolescent Boys' Exposure to Internet Pornography: Relationships to Pubertal Timing, Sensation Seeking, and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyens, Ine; Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that adolescents regularly use Internet pornography. This two-wave panel study aimed to test an integrative model in early adolescent boys (M[subscript age] = 14.10; N = 325) that (a) explains their exposure to Internet pornography by looking at relationships with pubertal timing and sensation seeking, and (b) explores…

  16. Sex Variations in Youth Anxiety Symptoms: Effects of Pubertal Development and Gender Role Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Rona; Silverman, Wendy K.; Jaccard, James

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated whether pubertal development and gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity) can partially explain sex variations in youth anxiety symptoms among clinic-referred anxious youth (N = 175; ages 9-13 years; 74% Hispanic; 48% female). Using youth and parent ratings of youth anxiety symptoms, structural equation…

  17. EFFECT OF 1,3-DINITROBENZENE ON PREPUBERTAL, PUBERTAL, AND MOUSE SPERMATOGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure of prepubertal, pubertal, and adult mice to 0.8, 16, 32, 40, or 48 mg 1,3-dinitrobenzene (m-DNB)/kg body weight and measuring responses 1-25 d posttreatment (dpt) demonstrated significant effects on testicular function only at 48 mg/kg dosage m-DNB had no effect on body ...

  18. EFFECTS OF DIBUTYL PHTHALATE IN MALE RABBITS FOLLOWING IN UTERO, ADOLESCENT OR POST-PUBERTAL EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of dibutyl phthalate in male rabbits following in utero, adolescent, or post-pubertal exposure
    Ty T. Higuchi1, Jennifer S. Palmer1, L. Earl Gray Jr2., and D. N. Rao Veeramachaneni1
    1Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort

  19. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Pubertal Timing: Results from Two National Sibling Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ge, Xiaojia; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Reiss, David

    2007-01-01

    This study examined genetic and environmental effects on individual variation in pubertal timing using two national samples of siblings from the Nonshared Environment of Adolescent Development (NEAD) and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). In each sample, female and male siblings with different degrees of genetic…

  20. Off-Time Pubertal Timing Predicts Physiological Reactivity to Postpuberty Interpersonal Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anne Emilie; Powers, Sally I.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated associations between retrospectively assessed timing of pubertal development, interpersonal interactions, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity to an interpersonal stress task in 110 young adult women. Participants provided salivary cortisol samples at points prior and subsequent to a video-taped conflict discussion…

  1. Relations of Pubertal Timing and Depressive Symptoms to Substance Use in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiesner, Margit; Ittel, Angela

    2002-01-01

    Tested three hypotheses concerning effects of pubertal timing on substance use during early adolescence. Findings supported only the stage termination hypothesis. Early maturing boys and girls reported a higher frequency of substance use within the following year after puberty than did the other participants, with the effects being more pronounced…

  2. Detrimental Psychological Outcomes Associated with Early Pubertal Timing in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendle, Jane; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    Though often discussed as a discrete event, puberty comprises one segment of a larger developmental continuum and is notable for rapid transformation across a multitude of domains. Research suggests that an earlier rate of pubertal maturation in girls correlates with a number of detrimental outcomes compared with on-time or later maturation. The…

  3. The Relationship among Pubertal Stage, Age, and Drinking in Adolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faden, Vivian B.; Ruffin, Beverly; Newes-Adeyi, Gabriella; Chen, Chiung

    2010-01-01

    This study used data from the Third National Household and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to examine the association between pubertal status (Tanner staging for boys and girls and menarche for girls) and alcohol use in a nationally representative sample of youths ages 12 to 17. Logistic regression was used to model the relationship. In…

  4. Pubertal Status and Emotional Reactivity to a Voluntary Hyperventilation Challenge Predicting Panic Symptoms and Somatic Complaints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Reardon, Laura E.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The main and interactive effects of pubertal status and emotional reactivity to bodily sensations elicited by a voluntary hyperventilation challenge were examined in relation to panic symptoms and self- and parent-reported somatic complaints among 123 (56 females) adolescents between the ages of 12 and 17 years (M[age] = 15.05; SD = 1.50). As…

  5. The Impact of Pubertal Timing and Parental Control on Adolescent Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arim, Rubab G.; Shapka, Jennifer D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among pubertal timing, parental control, and problem behaviors. There were 267 participants, whose ages ranged from 9 to 16 years. Both maternal and paternal psychological control predicted problem behaviors over and above the effects of behavioral control. For boys, early maturation and high levels of paternal…

  6. Longitudinal Changes in Marital Relationships: The Role of Offspring's Pubertal Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2007-01-01

    This study charted the longitudinal trajectories of wives' and husbands' reports of marital love, satisfaction, and conflict and explored whether and how first- and second-born offspring's pubertal development was related to marital changes. Data were drawn from the first 7 years of a longitudinal study of family relationships. Participants…

  7. The Role of Pubertal Timing in What Adolescent Boys Do Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skoog, Therese; Stattin, Hakan; Kerr, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between pubertal timing and boys' Internet use, particularly their viewing of pornography. We used a sample comprising of 97 boys in grade 8 (M age, 14.22 years) from two schools in a medium-sized Swedish town. This age should be optimal for differentiating early, on-time, and later-maturing…

  8. ABILITY OF THE MALE RAT PUBERTAL ASSAY TO DETECT ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS THAT ALTER THYROID HORMONE HOMEOSTASIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABILITY OF THE MALE RAT PUBERTAL ASSAY TO DETECT ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS THAT ALTER THYROID HORMONE HOMEOSTASIS

    Stoker, Tammy E.1; Laws, Susan C.1; Ferrell, Janet M.1; Cooper, Ralph L.1.

    Endocrinology Branch, RTD, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. EPA, RTP, NC, 27711.

    The...

  9. Effect of high and low antral follicle count in pubertal beef heifers on IVF

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pubertal heifers can be classified between those with high (n = 25) or low (n = 15) antral follicle counts (AFC). The objective of this study was to determine oocyte development and maturation (e.g. fertility) in an IVF system for high- and low-AFC heifers. From a pool of 120 heifers, 10 high- and 1...

  10. Identification of various testicular cell populations in pubertal and adult cockerels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precise identification of the male germinal stem cell population is important for their practical use in programs dedicated to the integration of exogenous genetic material in testicular tissues. In the present study, our aim was to identify germinal cell populations in the testes of pubertal and ad...

  11. ASSESSMENT OF DE-71, A COMMERCIAL POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYLETHER (PBDE) MIXTURE, IN THE EDSP MALE PUBERTAL PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    ASSESSMENT OF DE-71, A COMMERCIAL POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER (PBDE) MIXTURE, IN THE EDSP MALE PUBERTAL PROTOCOL. T.E. Stoker1, J. Ferrell1, J.M. Hedge2, K. M. Crofton2, R.L. Cooper1 and S.C. Laws1. 1 Reprod. Tox. Div., 2 Neurotox. Div., NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, RTP, NC.

    P...

  12. Mothers' Knowledge of Early Adolescents' Activities following the Middle School Transition and Pubertal Maturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Robert D.; Marrero, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested a sequential mediation model to determine whether experiences, social cognitions, or parent-adolescent interactional processes account for lower levels of mothers' knowledge of adolescents' whereabouts and activities following early adolescents' transition into middle school (MS) and pubertal development. Cross-sectional data…

  13. Pubertal Development, Choice of Friends, and Smoking Initiation among Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drapela, Laurie A.; Gebelt, Janet L.; McRee, Nick

    2006-01-01

    Prior research has indicated that pubertal development and peer associations are important determinants of adolescent smoking behavior. However, more remains to be learned about "why" these variables matter or how they may be related to one another in ways that lead to the initiation of smoking. Using contractual data from the National…

  14. IPRODIONE DELAYS MALE RAT PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT, REDUCING SERUM TESTOSTERONE AND EX VIVO TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Iprodione (IPRO) is a dichlorophenyl dicarboximide fungicide similar to the androgen receptor (AR) antagonist vinclozolin. The current studies were designed to determine if IPRO would delay male rat pubertal development like vinclozolin and to identify the mechanism(s) of action...

  15. Pubertal Timing and Early Sexual Intercourse in the Offspring of Teenage Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Genna, Natacha M.; Larkby, Cynthia; Cornelius, Marie D.

    2011-01-01

    Early puberty is associated with stressful family environments, early sexual intercourse, and teenage pregnancy. We examined pubertal timing and sexual debut among the 14-year-old offspring of teenage mothers. Mothers (71% Black, 29% White) were recruited as pregnant teenagers (12-18 years old). Data were collected during pregnancy and when…

  16. Pubertal Effects on Adjustment in Girls: Moving from Demonstrating Effects to Identifying Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Warren, Michelle P.

    2006-01-01

    The present investigation examines mediated pathways from pubertal development to changes in depressive affect and aggression. Participants were 100 white girls who were between the ages of 10 and 14 (M=12.13, SD=0.80); girls were from well-educated, middle-to upper-middle class families, and attended private schools in a major northeastern urban…

  17. Child maltreatment and household dysfunction: associations with pubertal development in a British birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Li, Leah; Denholm, Rachel; Power, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Background: We aimed to establish the association between adverse childhood experiences (maltreatment and household dysfunction) and pubertal maturation, which is associated with later health outcome(s). Methods: The 1958 British birth cohort (n = 17 638) includes all born in one week, March 1958, followed up to mid adulthood. Pubertal stage was rated by medical personnel at 11 and 16 years of age (y). Childhood maltreatment (neglect or abuse) and household dysfunction scores were constructed from information ascertained in childhood and at 45 y. Results: Childhood neglect, assessed at 7 y, was associated with late pubertal development on several markers after adjusting for early life circumstances: relative risk ratio (RRRadjusted) was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.06,1.21) and 1.06 (1.00,1.12) for late menarche and breast development (females) per unit increase in neglect score ranging 0–7, respectively; 1.14 (1.08,1.20) for late voice change and 1.07 (1.02,1.13) for pubic hair growth (males). The RRRadjusted for late pubic hair (females) and genitalia and facial hair (males) development was 1.04 (P = 0.052 to 0.085). Abuse score (0–3, for physical, sexual or psychological abuse) was associated in females with late menarche [RRRadjusted = 1.17 (1.01,1.36)] and in males with late pubic hair growth [RRRadjusted = 1.16 (1.01,1.34)] per unit increase, but not with other pubertal markers. Neither score (neglect or abuse) was associated with early puberty, but sexual abuse was associated with early [RRRadjusted = 1.86 (1.06,3.29)] as well as late menarche [RRRadjusted = 1.66 (1.02,2.71)] and witnessing abuse with early genitalia development [RRRadjusted = 1.57 (1.02,2.41)]. Household dysfunction score was not associated consistently with pubertal markers. Conclusions: Cumulative neglect by 7 y was associated with delayed development of several pubertal markers. The underlying role of pubertal development in linking childhood neglect with future adult health warrants further

  18. Onset of Disordered Eating Attitudes and Behaviors in Early Adolescence: Interplay of Pubertal Status, Gender, Weight, and Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dea, Jennifer A.; Abraham, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the interplay of puberty, gender, weight, and age in regard to body image and disordered eating behaviors and attitudes in a sample of early adolescents. Results reveal that after menarche, females had increased personal expectations and were dissatisfied with weight/shape changes. Young males at puberty desired to build up their…

  19. Early onset of hypertension and serum electrolyte changes as potential predictive factors of activity in advanced HCC patients treated with sorafenib: results from a retrospective analysis of the HCC-AVR group

    PubMed Central

    Gardini, Andrea Casadei; Scarpi, Emanuela; Marisi, Giorgia; Foschi, Francesco Giuseppe; Donati, Gabriele; Giampalma, Emanuela; Faloppi, Luca; Scartozzi, Mario; Silvestris, Nicola; Bisulli, Marcello; Corbelli, Jody; Gardini, Andrea; Barba, Giuliano La; Veneroni, Luigi; Tamberi, Stefano; Cascinu, Stefano; Frassineti, Giovanni Luca

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension (HTN) is frequently associated with the use of angiogenesis inhibitors targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway and appears to be a generalized effect of this class of agent. We investigated the phenomenon in 61 patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) receiving sorafenib. Blood pressure and plasma electrolytes were measured on days 1 and 15 of the treatment. Patients with sorafenib-induced HTN had a better outcome than those without HTN (disease control rate: 63.4% vs. 17.2% (p=0.001); progression-free survival 6.0 months (95% CI 3.2-10.1) vs. 2.5 months (95% CI 1.9-2.6) (p<0.001) and overall survival 14.6 months (95% CI9.7-19.0) vs. 3.9 months (95% CI 3.1-8.7) (p=0.003). Sodium levels were generally higher on day 15 than at baseline (+2.38, p<0.0001) in the group of responders (+4.95, p <0.0001) compared to patients who progressed (PD) (+0.28, p=0.607). In contrast, potassium was lower on day 14 (−0.30, p=0.0008) in the responder group (−0.58, p=0.003) than in those with progressive disease (−0.06, p=0.500). The early onset of hypertension is associated with improved clinical outcome in HCC patients treated with sorafenib. Our data are suggestive of an activation of the renin-angiotensin system in patients with advanced disease who developed HTN during sorafenib treatment. PMID:26893366

  20. Early onset of hypertension and serum electrolyte changes as potential predictive factors of activity in advanced HCC patients treated with sorafenib: results from a retrospective analysis of the HCC-AVR group.

    PubMed

    Casadei Gardini, Andrea; Scarpi, Emanuela; Marisi, Giorgia; Foschi, Francesco Giuseppe; Donati, Gabriele; Giampalma, Emanuela; Faloppi, Luca; Scartozzi, Mario; Silvestris, Nicola; Bisulli, Marcello; Corbelli, Jody; Gardini, Andrea; La Barba, Giuliano; Veneroni, Luigi; Tamberi, Stefano; Cascinu, Stefano; Frassineti, Giovanni Luca

    2016-03-22

    Hypertension (HTN) is frequently associated with the use of angiogenesis inhibitors targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway and appears to be a generalized effect of this class of agent. We investigated the phenomenon in 61 patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) receiving sorafenib. Blood pressure and plasma electrolytes were measured on days 1 and 15 of the treatment. Patients with sorafenib-induced HTN had a better outcome than those without HTN (disease control rate: 63.4% vs. 17.2% (p=0.001); progression-free survival 6.0 months (95% CI 3.2-10.1) vs. 2.5 months (95% CI 1.9-2.6) (p<0.001) and overall survival 14.6 months (95% CI9.7-19.0) vs. 3.9 months (95% CI 3.1-8.7) (p=0.003). Sodium levels were generally higher on day 15 than at baseline (+2.38, p<0.0001) in the group of responders (+4.95, p <0.0001) compared to patients who progressed (PD) (+0.28, p=0.607). In contrast, potassium was lower on day 14 (-0.30, p=0.0008) in the responder group (-0.58, p=0.003) than in those with progressive disease (-0.06, p=0.500). The early onset of hypertension is associated with improved clinical outcome in HCC patients treated with sorafenib. Our data are suggestive of an activation of the renin-angiotensin system in patients with advanced disease who developed HTN during sorafenib treatment. PMID:26893366

  1. Young-Onset Parkinson's

    MedlinePlus

    ... idiopathic, or typical, PD. Understanding the roles of environment and genes will ultimately allow us to identify the multiple causes of PD. Is Medication Treatment Different for Young-Onset PD? Medical management of young-onset Parkinson's disease requires an understanding ...

  2. Evaluation of Hydroxyatrazine in the Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Program’s Male and Female Pubertal Protocols.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of Hydroxyatrazine in the Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Program’s Male and Female Pubertal Protocols. ABSTRACT Two critical components of the validation of any in vivo screening assay are to demonstrate sensitivity (ability to detect weak endocrine ...

  3. Understanding the Link Between Pubertal Timing in Girls and the Development of Depressive Symptoms: The Role of Sexual Harassment.

    PubMed

    Skoog, Therése; Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi; Stattin, Håkan

    2016-02-01

    The link between sexual maturation, or pubertal timing, in girls and adolescent depressive symptoms is well-documented, but the underlying processes remain unclear. We examined whether sexual harassment, which has previously been linked to both pubertal timing and depressive symptoms, mediates this link, using a two-wave longitudinal study including 454 girls in 7th (M age  = 13.42, SD = .53) and 8th grade (M age  = 14.42, SD = .55). Pubertal timing was linked to depressive symptoms in both age groups, and predicted an increase in depressive symptoms among the 7th graders. Sexual harassment significantly mediated the link between pubertal timing and depressive symptoms among the 7th, but not the 8th grade girls. Together, our findings suggest that one way to prevent depressive symptoms among early-maturing girls could be to address sexual harassment in preventive intervention in early adolescence. PMID:25971216

  4. Enzyme replacement therapy for mucopolysaccharidosis VI: Growth and pubertal development in patients treated with recombinant human N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase.

    PubMed

    Decker, Celeste; Yu, Zi-Fan; Giugliani, Roberto; Schwartz, Ida Vanessa D; Guffon, Nathalie; Teles, Elisa Leão; Miranda, M Clara Sá; Wraith, J Edmond; Beck, Michael; Arash, Laila; Scarpa, Maurizio; Ketteridge, David; Hopwood, John J; Plecko, Barbara; Steiner, Robert; Whitley, Chester B; Kaplan, Paige; Swiedler, Stuart J; Conrad, Susan; Harmatz, Paul

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Growth failure is characteristic of untreated mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI: Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome). Growth was studied in fifty-six MPS VI patients (5 to 29 years old) prior to and for up to 240 weeks of weekly infusions of recombinant human arylsulfatase B (rhASB) at 1 mg/kg during Phase 1/2, Phase 2, Phase 3 or Phase 3 Extension clinical trials. Height, weight, and Tanner stage data were collected. Pooled data were analyzed to determine mean height increase by treatment week, growth impacts of pubertal status, baseline urinary GAG, and age at treatment initiation. Growth rate for approximately 2 years prior to and following treatment initiation was analyzed using longitudinal modeling. RESULTS: Mean height increased by 2.9 cm after 48 weeks and 4.3 cm after 96 weeks on enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). Growth on ERT was not correlated with baseline urinary GAG. Patients under 16 years of age showed greatest increases in height on treatment. Model results based on pooled data showed significant improvement in growth rate during 96 weeks of ERT when compared to the equivalent pretreatment time period. Delayed pubertal onset or progression was noted in 10 patients entering the clinical trials; all of whom showed progression of at least one Tanner stage during 2 years on ERT, and 6 of whom (60%) completed puberty. CONCLUSION: Analysis of mean height by treatment week and longitudinal modeling demonstrate significant increase in height and growth rate in MPS VI patients receiving long-term ERT. This impact was greatest in patients aged below 16 years. Height increase may result from bone growth and/or reduction in joint contractures. Bone growth and resolution of delayed puberty may be related to improvements in general health, bone cell health, nutrition, endocrine gland function and reduced inflammation. PMID:20634905

  5. Enzyme replacement therapy for mucopolysaccharidosis VI: Growth and pubertal development in patients treated with recombinant human N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Celeste; Yu, Zi-Fan; Giugliani, Roberto; Schwartz, Ida Vanessa D.; Guffon, Nathalie; Teles, Elisa Leão; Miranda, M. Clara Sá; Wraith, J. Edmond; Beck, Michael; Arash, Laila; Scarpa, Maurizio; Ketteridge, David; Hopwood, John J.; Plecko, Barbara; Steiner, Robert; Whitley, Chester B.; Kaplan, Paige; Swiedler, Stuart J.; Conrad, Susan; Harmatz, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Background and Methods Growth failure is characteristic of untreated mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI: Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome). Growth was studied in fifty-six MPS VI patients (5 to 29 years old) prior to and for up to 240 weeks of weekly infusions of recombinant human arylsulfatase B (rhASB) at 1 mg/kg during Phase 1/2, Phase 2, Phase 3 or Phase 3 Extension clinical trials. Height, weight, and Tanner stage data were collected. Pooled data were analyzed to determine mean height increase by treatment week, growth impacts of pubertal status, baseline urinary GAG, and age at treatment initiation. Growth rate for approximately 2 years prior to and following treatment initiation was analyzed using longitudinal modeling. Results Mean height increased by 2.9 cm after 48 weeks and 4.3 cm after 96 weeks on enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). Growth on ERT was not correlated with baseline urinary GAG. Patients under 16 years of age showed greatest increases in height on treatment. Model results based on pooled data showed significant improvement in growth rate during 96 weeks of ERT when compared to the equivalent pretreatment time period. Delayed pubertal onset or progression was noted in 10 patients entering the clinical trials; all of whom showed progression of at least one Tanner stage during 2 years on ERT, and 6 of whom (60%) completed puberty. Conclusion Analysis of mean height by treatment week and longitudinal modeling demonstrate significant increase in height and growth rate in MPS VI patients receiving long-term ERT. This impact was greatest in patients aged below 16 years. Height increase may result from bone growth and/or reduction in joint contractures. Bone growth and resolution of delayed puberty may be related to improvements in general health, bone cell health, nutrition, endocrine gland function and reduced inflammation. PMID:20634905

  6. [Growth rate can be manipulated. Estrogen production in pubertal boys can be blocked by an aromatase inhibitor].

    PubMed

    Hagenäs, Lars

    2002-01-17

    A review of a twelve month clinical trial [1] using a new, effective aromatase inhibitor treatment in boys with delayed puberty shows that the pubertal increase in estrogen levels can be blocked, with concomitant preserved pubertal growth rate. Circulating testosterone levels are greatly enhanced during treatment due to increased gonadotrophin secretion. Despite this, bone age maturation is slow leading to an increased final height prognosis (mean 5.1 cm) for the boys treated with aromatase inhibitor. PMID:11838072

  7. Different effects on bone strength and cell differentiation in pre pubertal caloric restriction versus hypothalamic suppression✩,✩✩

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, R.N.; Safadi, F.F.; Barbe, M.F.; Carpio-Cano, Fe Del; Popoff, S.N.; Yingling, V.R.

    2013-01-01

    Hypothalamic amenorrhea and energy restriction during puberty affect peak bone mass accrual. One hypothesis suggests energy restriction alters hypothalamic function resulting in suppressed estradiol levels leading to bone loss. However, both positive and negative results have been reported regarding energy restriction and bone strength. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate energy restriction and hypothalamic suppression during pubertal onset on bone mechanical strength and the osteogenic capacity of bone marrow-derived cells in two models: female rats treated with gonadotropin releasing hormone antagonists (GnRH-a) or 30% energy restriction. At 23 days of age, female Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to three groups: control group (C, n=10), GnRH-a group (n=10), and Energy Restriction (ER, n=12) group. GnRH-a animals received daily injections for 27 days. The animals in the ER group received 70% of the control animals’ intake. After sacrifice (50 days of age), body weight, uterine and muscle weights were measured. Bone marrow-derived stromal cells were cultured and assayed for proliferation and differentiation into osteoblasts. Outcome measures included bone strength, bone histomorphometry and architecture, serum IGF-1 and osteocalcin. GnRH-a suppressed uterine weight, decreased osteoblast proliferation, bone strength, trabecular bone volume and architecture compared to control. Elevated serum IGF-1 and osteocalcin levels and body weight were found. The ER model had an increase in osteoblast proliferation compared to the GnRH-a group, similar bone strength relative to body weight and increased trabecular bone volume in the lumbar spine compared to control. The ER animals were smaller but had developed bone strength sufficient for their size. In contrast, suppressed estradiol via hypothalamic suppression resulted in bone strength deficits and trabecular bone volume loss. In summary, our results support the hypothesis that during periods of

  8. A longitudinal study of body dissatisfaction and pubertal timing in an ethnically diverse adolescent sample.

    PubMed

    de Guzman, Natalie S; Nishina, Adrienne

    2014-01-01

    In a 7-year study, adolescents' body dissatisfaction (N=1370) was examined across four high school years as a function of pubertal development (perceived timing relative to peers and self-reported physical changes measured during Grades 6-10) in the context of the high school transition. Boys and girls who, during early high school, perceived themselves to be late relative to peers were at risk for body dissatisfaction across the high school years. Boys who were late in pubertal development reported more body dissatisfaction in early high school than on-time boys, but then decreased over time. African-American girls reported less body dissatisfaction across the high school years relative to other girls. Asian girls reported more dissatisfaction in early high school than African-American, Latina, and Multiethnic girls, and increased over time. Results highlight the importance of considering late development within context as a risk factor in body dissatisfaction research. PMID:24331829

  9. A longitudinal pilot study on phonetograms/voice profiles in pre-pubertal choir boys.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, M F

    1993-12-01

    The phonetogram or voice profile, measuring frequency combined with intensity of the voice, has replaced simple measurement of tone ranges for analysis of professional boys choirs. Knowledge of the relationship between pubertal, sex hormones, and phonetogram development has been established in stratified studies. The connection between the singing voice in puberty and other pubertal phenomena needs documentation in longitudinal studies also. Therefore, a pilot study was carried out, where three boys aged 13-15 years were analysed at intervals of 2 months. Measurement of phonetograms, free and total serum testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) showed a significant relationship between SHBG and lowering of the lowest tones in the phonetograms (P < 0.01) confirming earlier stratified studies. PMID:8877226

  10. Young onset dementia

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, E; Warren, J; Rossor, M

    2004-01-01

    Young onset dementia is a challenging clinical problem with potentially devastating medical and social consequences. The differential diagnosis is wide, and includes a number of rare sporadic and hereditary diseases. However, accurate diagnosis is often possible, and all patients should be thoroughly investigated to identify treatable processes. This review presents an approach to the diagnosis, investigation, and management of patients with young onset dementia, with particular reference to common and treatable causes. PMID:15016933

  11. Precursors to Onset Clusters in Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierut, Judith A.; O'Connor, Kathleen M.

    2002-01-01

    Two lawful relationships involving word-initial onset clusters have been advanced in the acquisition literature; namely, that clusters imply affricates, and that liquid clusters imply a liquid distinction. This study evaluated and extended the validity of these implicational laws in a population of 110 children (aged 3;0 to 8;6) with functional…

  12. The Developmental Pathway From Pubertal Timing to Delinquency and Sexual Activity From Early to Late Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Negriff, Sonya; Elizabeth, J. Susman; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2013-01-01

    There is strong evidence that early pubertal timing is associated with adolescent problem behaviors. However, there has been limited investigation of the mechanisms or developmental relationships. The present study examined longitudinal models incorporating pubertal timing, delinquency, and sexual activity in a sample of 454 adolescents (9–13 years old at enrollment; 47% females). Participants were seen for three assessments approximately 1 year apart. Characteristics of friendship networks (older friends, male friends, older male friends) were examined as mediators. Structural equation modeling was used to test these associations as well as temporal relationships between sexual activity and delinquency. Results showed that early pubertal timing at Time 1 was related to more sexual activity at Time 2, which was related to higher delinquency at Time 3, a trend mediation effect. None of the friendship variables mediated these associations. Gender or maltreatment status did not moderate the meditational pathways. The results also supported the temporal sequence of sexual activity preceding increases in delinquency. These findings reveal that early maturing adolescents may actively seek out opportunities to engage in sexual activity which appears to be risk for subsequent delinquency. PMID:21191640

  13. Parental Knowledge is a Contextual Amplifier of Associations of Pubertal Maturation and Substance Use.

    PubMed

    Marceau, Kristine; Abar, Caitlin C; Jackson, Kristina M

    2015-09-01

    Earlier pubertal development and less parental knowledge have been linked to more substance use during adolescence. The present study examines interactions between pubertal timing and tempo and parental knowledge (children's disclosure, parental control, and parental solicitation) for adolescent substance initiation. Data are from a northeastern US-based cohort-sequential study examining 1023 youth (52 % female) semiannually for up to 6 assessments (ages 10.5-19 years). The findings supported the hypothesis that lower knowledge is a contextual amplifier of early timing-substance use associations in girls and later timing/slower tempo-substance use associations in boys, though results varied based on source of knowledge. The findings suggest that prevention efforts may have the greatest impact when targeting families of early developing girls, and later developing boys, and that incorporating a focus on specific sources of knowledge depending on the pubertal maturation profile of the adolescent may prove valuable in prevention/intervention efforts. PMID:26208832

  14. Sexual differentiation of human behavior: effects of prenatal and pubertal organizational hormones.

    PubMed

    Berenbaum, Sheri A; Beltz, Adriene M

    2011-04-01

    A key question concerns the extent to which sexual differentiation of human behavior is influenced by sex hormones present during sensitive periods of development (organizational effects), as occurs in other mammalian species. The most important sensitive period has been considered to be prenatal, but there is increasing attention to puberty as another organizational period, with the possibility of decreasing sensitivity to sex hormones across the pubertal transition. In this paper, we review evidence that sex hormones present during the prenatal and pubertal periods produce permanent changes to behavior. There is good evidence that exposure to high levels of androgens during prenatal development results in masculinization of activity and occupational interests, sexual orientation, and some spatial abilities; prenatal androgens have a smaller effect on gender identity, and there is insufficient information about androgen effects on sex-linked behavior problems. There is little good evidence regarding long-lasting behavioral effects of pubertal hormones, but there is some suggestion that they influence gender identity and perhaps some sex-linked forms of psychopathology, and there are many opportunities to study this issue. PMID:21397624

  15. Heightened stress responsivity and emotional reactivity during pubertal maturation: Implications for psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    SPEAR, LINDA PATIA

    2011-01-01

    This commentary reviews and reflects on the studies of this special section: studies that collectively provide compelling evidence for meaningful changes in stress- and emotionally reactive psychophysiological systems with the transition from middle childhood into adolescence. The observed changes were complex and often overlaid upon ontogenetic differences in basal levels of activation of these systems. Maturational increases in responsiveness to stressors were stressor dependent and differentially expressed across autonomic and hormonal measures. Pubertal status increased the impact of some affective valence manipulations, although not significantly influencing others, including negative affect-related potentiation of startle/reflexes. Such ontogenetic increases in stressor and affect sensitivity may have implications for developmental psychopathology. Developmental increases in stressor reactivity may normally aid youth in responding adaptively to the challenges of adolescence, but may result in stress dysregulation among at-risk adolescents, increasing further their vulnerability for psychopathology. Pubertal-related increases in sensitivity to emotionally laden stimuli may exacerbate individual predispositions for exaggerated affective processing, perhaps contributing to the emergence of psychological disorders in these youth. Together, these studies, with their innovative use of autonomic, reflexive, and hormonal measures to index age- and pubertal-related changes in reactivity to stressors and affective stimuli, provide promising directions for future research. Some of these, along with a few cautionary notes, are outlined. PMID:19144224

  16. Increased prepubertal body weight enhances leptin sensitivity in proopiomelanocortin and neuropeptide y neurons before puberty onset in female rats.

    PubMed

    Castro-González, David; Fuente-Martín, Esther; Sánchez-Garrido, Miguel A; Argente-Arizón, Pilar; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Barrios, Vicente; Chowen, Julie A; Argente, Jesús

    2015-04-01

    Pubertal onset may be advanced by obesity, with leptin potentially acting as a permissive factor. We hypothesized that having increased body weight (BW) prepubertally affects the ability of leptin to activate intracellular signaling pathways and modulate the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in reproduction and metabolism. Because being raised in small litters (SLs) tends to increase BW at weaning, female rats were raised in litters of 4 or large litters (LLs) of 12 pups. Leptin (3 μg/g BW) or vehicle (saline) was injected sc at postnatal day (PND) 21 and 30. Rats raised in SLs weighed more at both ages, but relative visceral and subcutaneous fat was increased only on PND21. Serum leptin levels were not different at PND21 or PND30. At PND21, key elements of intracellular leptin signaling (phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and phosphorylated Akt [p-Akt]) were lower in SL than in LL rats. Leptin injection stimulated phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in both groups, with a greater increase in LL, whereas p-Akt rose only in SL rats. At PND30, basal leptin signaling did not differ between LL and SL rats. Leptin activation of Akt was similar at 45 minutes, but at 2 hours p-AKT levels were higher in SL than in LL rats, as was the decrease in neuropeptide Y mRNA and increase in pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA levels. No change in the reproductive axis was found. Thus, being raised in SLs increases BW and visceral body fat content, fails to increase plasma leptin concentrations, and increases the leptin responsiveness of both neuropeptide Y and pro-opiomelanocortin cells in the prepubertal hypothalamus. PMID:25574789

  17. Single fixed-time artificial insemination in gilts and weaned sows using pLH at estrus onset administered through vulvar submucosal route.

    PubMed

    Ulguim, R R; Fontana, D L; Bernardi, M L; Wentz, I; Bortolozzo, F P

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated the use of a single fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) in gilts and weaned sows using 2.5 mg of porcine luteinizing hormone (pLH) administered through vulvar submucosal route, at the onset of estrus. In experiment 1 (Exp.1), 318 pubertal gilts were assigned to two groups: control-G-no hormonal application and artificial inseminations (AIs) at 12, 36, and 60 hours after the onset of estrus if they were still in standing estrus; and FTAI-G-use of pLH at the onset of estrus and a single FTAI 12 hours later. In experiment 2 (Exp. 2), 309 weaned sows were assigned to three groups: Control-S-no hormone application and AIs at 0, 24, and 48 hours after the onset of estrus if they were still in standing estrus; FTAI-NH-no hormone application and a single FTAI at 24 hours after the onset of estrus, and FTAI-pLH-use of pLH at the onset of estrus and a single FTAI 24 hours later. Transabdominal real time B-mode ultrasonography was performed to determine whether the insemination had been performed within 24 hours before ovulation, considered as the optimal interval. In Exp. 1, ultrasound evaluation (12-hour intervals) was carried out to determine the interval between the onset of estrus and ovulation. In both experiments, 2 × 10(9) sperm cells in 80 mL were used to perform cervical and postcervical deposition of semen in gilts and sows, respectively. Compared with control-G, FTAI-G gilts had shorter (P < 0.05) duration of estrus (57.7 vs. 61.2 hours) and interval between the onset of estrus and ovulation (36.3 vs. 42.3 hours). The adjusted farrowing rate (AFR) was lower (P < 0.05) in FTAI-G (86.0%) compared with control-G (93.5%), but total piglets born (TPB) did not differ between these groups (12.3 vs. 12.5 piglets). Within the FTAI-G group, the AFR was lower (P < 0.05) in the presence (50.0%) than in the absence (94.9%) of semen backflow during AI. Also in the FTAI-G group, the insemination outside the optimal interval reduced (P

  18. Young-Onset Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Kuruppu, Dulanji K; Matthews, Brandy R

    2014-01-01

    Young-onset dementia (YOD) is an neurological syndrome that affects behavior and cognition of patients younger than 65 years of age. Although frequently misdiagnosed, a systematic approach, reliant upon attainment of detailed medical history, collateral history from an informant, neuropsychological testing, laboratory studies, and neuroimaging, may facilitate earlier and more accurate diagnosis with subsequent intervention. The differential diagnosis of YOD is extensive and includes early-onset forms of adult neurodegenerative conditions including Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia, Lewy body dementias, Huntington's disease, and prion disease. Late-onset forms of childhood neurodegenerative conditions may also present as YOD and include mitochondrial disorders, lysosomal storage disorders, and leukodystrophies. Potentially reversible etiologies including inflammatory disorders, infectious diseases, toxic/metabolic abnormalities, transient epileptic amnesia, obstructive sleep apnea, and normal pressure hydrocephalus also represent important differential diagnostic considerations in YOD. This review will present etiologies, diagnostic strategies, and options for management of YOD with comprehensive summary tables for clinical reference. PMID:24234358

  19. Onset of magnetospheric substorms.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, B.; Bogott, F.

    1972-01-01

    An examination of the onset of magnetospheric substorms is made by using ATS 5 energetic particles, conjugate balloon X rays and electric fields, all-sky camera photographs, and auroral-zone magnetograms. It is shown that plasma injection to ATS distances, conjugate 1- to 10-keV auroral particle precipitation, energetic electron precipitation, and enhancements of westward magnetospheric electric-field component all occur with the star of slowly developing negative magnetic bays. No trapped or precipitating energetic-particle features are seen at ATS 5 when later sharp negative magnetic-bay onsets occur at Churchill or Great Whale River.

  20. Elucidating the mechanisms linking early pubertal timing, sexual activity, and substance use for maltreated versus nonmaltreated adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Negriff, Sonya; Brensilver, Matthew; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To test models linking pubertal timing, peer substance use, sexual behavior, and substance use for maltreated versus comparison adolescents. Three theoretical mechanisms were tested: 1) peer influence links early pubertal timing to later sexual behavior and substance use, 2) early maturers engage in substance use on their own and then select substance-using friends, or 3) early maturers initiate sexual behaviors which leads them to substance-using peers. Methods The data came from a longitudinal study of the effects of child maltreatment on adolescent development (303 maltreated and 151 comparison adolescents; age: 9–13 years at initial wave). Multiple-group structural equation models tested the hypotheses across three timepoints including variables of pubertal timing, perception of peer substance use, sexual behavior, and self-reported substance use. Results Early pubertal timing was associated with substance-using peers only for maltreated adolescents, indicating the mediation path from early pubertal timing through substance-using peers to subsequent adolescent substance use and sexual behavior only holds for maltreated adolescents. Mediation via sexual behavior was significant for both maltreated and comparison adolescents. This indicates that sexual behavior may be a more universal mechanism linking early maturation with risky friends regardless of adverse life experiences. Conclusions The findings are a step toward elucidating the developmental pathways from early puberty to risk behavior and identifying early experiences that may alter mediation effects. PMID:26003577

  1. A Comparison of Self-Reported Puberty Using the Pubertal Development Scale and the Sexual Maturation Scale in a School-Based Epidemiologic Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Lyndal; Clements, Jackie; Bertalli, Nadine; Evans-Whipp, Tracy; McMorris, Barbara J.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To examine concordance between two self-reported measures of puberty: Sexual Maturation Scale (SMS) and Pubertal Development Scale (PDS) and their acceptability to adolescents. Methods: Participants of a school-based study in grades 5, 7 and 9 were classified into one of 5 pubertal stages using each method. Results: 2864 students (age…

  2. Premorbid risk factors for major depressive disorder: are they associated with early onset and recurrent course?

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sylia; Vaidyanathan, Uma; Miller, Michael B; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2014-11-01

    Premorbid risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) and predictors of an earlier onset and recurrent course were examined in two studies in a large, community-based sample of parents and offspring, prospectively assessed from late childhood into adulthood. In Study 1 (N = 2,764 offspring and their parents), parental psychiatric status, offspring personality at age 11, and age 11 offspring internalizing and externalizing symptoms predicted the subsequent development of MDD, as did poor quality parent-child relationships, poor academic functioning, early pubertal development, and childhood maltreatment by age 11. Parental MDD and adult antisocial behavior, offspring negative emotionality and disconstraint, externalizing symptoms, and childhood maltreatment predicted an earlier onset of MDD, after accounting for course; lower positive emotionality, trait anxiety, and childhood maltreatment predicted recurrent MDD, after accounting for age of onset. In Study 2 (N = 7,146), we examined molecular genetic risk for MDD by extending recent reports of associations with glutamatergic system genes. We failed to confirm associations with MDD using either individual single nucleotide polymorphism based tests or gene-based analyses. Overall, results speak to the pervasiveness of risk for MDD, as well as specific risk for early onset MDD; risk for recurrent MDD appears to be largely a function of its often earlier onset. PMID:25422974

  3. Premorbid Risk Factors for Major Depressive Disorder: Are They Associated With Early Onset and Recurrent Course?

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sylia; Vaidyanathan, Uma; Miller, Michael B.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Premorbid risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) and predictors of an earlier onset and recurrent course were examined in two studies in a large, community-based sample of parents and offspring, prospectively assessed from late childhood into adulthood. In Study 1 (N = 2,764 offspring and their parents), parental psychiatric status, offspring personality at age 11, and age-11 offspring internalizing and externalizing symptoms predicted the subsequent development of MDD, as did poor quality parent-child relationships, poor academic functioning, early pubertal development, and childhood maltreatment by age 11. Parental MDD and adult antisocial behavior, offspring negative emotionality and disconstraint, externalizing symptoms, and childhood maltreatment predicted an earlier onset of MDD, after accounting for course; lower positive emotionality, trait anxiety, and childhood maltreatment predicted recurrent MDD, after accounting for age of onset. In Study 2 (N = 7,146), we examined molecular genetic risk for MDD by extending recent reports of associations with glutamatergic system genes. We failed to confirm associations with MDD using either individual SNP-based tests or gene-based analyses. Overall, results speak to the pervasiveness of risk for MDD, as well as specific risk for early-onset MDD; risk for recurrent MDD appears to be largely a function of its often earlier onset. PMID:25422974

  4. Investigation of Relationships between Urinary Biomarkers of Phytoestrogens, Phthalates, and Phenols and Pubertal Stages in Girls

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Mary S.; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Pinney, Susan M.; Windham, Gayle; Liao, Laura; Biro, Frank; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Erdmann, Chris; Hiatt, Robert A.; Rybak, Michael E.; Calafat, Antonia M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Hormonally active environmental agents may alter the course of pubertal development in girls, which is controlled by steroids and gonadotropins. Objectives We investigated associations of concurrent exposures from three chemical classes (phenols, phthalates, and phytoestrogens) with pubertal stages in a multiethnic longitudinal study of 1,151 girls from New York City, New York, greater Cincinnati, Ohio, and northern California who were 6–8 years of age at enrollment (2004–2007). Methods We measured urinary exposure biomarkers at visit 1 and examined associations with breast and pubic hair development (present or absent, assessed 1 year later) using multivariate adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Modification of biomarker associations by age-specific body mass index percentile (BMI%) was investigated, because adipose tissue is a source of peripubertal hormones. Results Breast development was present in 30% of girls, and 22% had pubic hair. High-molecular-weight phthalate (high MWP) metabolites were weakly associated with pubic hair development [adjusted PR, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.88–1.00), fifth vs. first quintile]. Small inverse associations were seen for daidzein with breast stage and for triclosan and high MWP with pubic hair stage; a positive trend was observed for low-molecular-weight phthalate biomarkers with breast and pubic hair development. Enterolactone attenuated BMI associations with breast development. In the first enterolactone quintile, for the association of high BMI with any development, the PR was 1.34 (95% CI, 1.23–1.45 vs. low BMI). There was no BMI association in the fifth, highest quintile of enterolactone. Conclusions Weak hormonally active xenobiotic agents investigated in this study had small associations with pubertal development, mainly among those agents detected at highest concentrations. PMID:20308033

  5. Younger pubertal age is associated with allergy and other atopic conditions in girls

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Chi-Chen; Pajak, Ashley; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Vangeepuram, Nita; Galvez, Maida; Pinney, Susan M.; Windham, Gayle; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Biro, Frank M.; Wolff, Mary S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Early menarche is linked to higher incidence of adult asthma, suggesting that earlier puberty may influence type 2 immune response characteristics of allergic diseases. We examined the hypothesis that timing of breast and pubic hair development, which precede menarche, is associated with increased childhood atopic conditions. Methods Girls were enrolled at 6–8 yr of age (2004–2007) in the Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program Puberty Study and were followed through 2011. Pubertal stages were assessed and atopic conditions were queried annually. Associations of age at pubertal stage 2 for breast or pubic hair development with atopic conditions were assessed using prevalence ratios (PR) or odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from log-binomial regression and generalized estimating equation models, controlling for body mass index and other covariates. A total of 1055 girls with medical and pubertal stage data were included. Results Asthma (ever vs. never) was associated with younger pubarche (≤10 vs. >10 yr, PR = 1.15, CI: 1.04–1.28 adjusted for race/ethnicity and site; PR = 1.13, CI: 1.01–1.25 further adjusted for BMI), but not thelarche. In longitudinal models, risk of developing allergies increased with younger age at pubarche (adjusted OR = 1.60, CI: 1.10–2.34; ≤10 vs. >10 yr). Risks were highest among black girls with earlier pubarche (n = 248/326); for allergies, their fully adjusted OR was 2.35, CI: 1.06–5.19 for pubarche ≤10 vs. >10 yr. Conclusions Atopic conditions during childhood are associated with younger age at pubarche, independent of obesity, and these relationships may vary by racial/ethnic groups. PMID:25387609

  6. Adult onset retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Sabyasachi; Pan, Utsab; Khetan, Vikas

    2016-07-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common primary malignant intraocular tumor of childhood presenting usually before 5 years of age. RB in adults older than 20 years is extremely rare. A literature search using PubMed/PubMed Central, Scopus, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases revealed only 45 cases till date. Over the past decade, there has been a significant increase in the number of such reports, indicating heightened level of suspicion among ophthalmologists. Compared to its pediatric counterpart, adult onset RB poses unique challenges in diagnosis and treatment. This article summarizes available literature on adult onset RB and its clinical and pathologic profile, genetics, association with retinocytoma, diagnostics, treatment, and outcomes. PMID:27609158

  7. Young onset dementia.

    PubMed

    Draper, B; Withall, A

    2016-07-01

    Young onset dementia (YOD), where symptoms of dementia have an onset before the age of 65, has become more prominent due to the population increase from the Baby Boomer generation. This clinical perspective examines key issues in the assessment, diagnosis and management of YOD. Challenges in the assessment and diagnosis of YOD are partly due to the diverse range of types of YOD, where degenerative dementias are less common and secondary dementias more common than in late onset dementia. Early symptoms are broad and include depression, behavioural change, neurological disorders, systemic disorders and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Perceived diagnostic delay may result in frustration and distress in people with YOD and their families. Chronic depression and MCI are associated with longer time to diagnosis, and in these situations, clinicians need to establish appropriate review processes and communicate clearly. A diagnosis of YOD may have marked consequences for a younger person, including early retirement, financial impacts and the psychological challenge of coming to grips with cognitive decline. Partners, children and other supporters often have unmet needs, feel burdened by care and are at high risk of physical and emotional consequences. Concerns about the heritability of dementia may add to family distress. Recent community service developments in Australia for YOD are outlined and the challenges of residential care described. PMID:27405890

  8. Chronic kisspeptin administration stimulated gonadal development in pre-pubertal male yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi; Perciformes) during the breeding and non-breeding season.

    PubMed

    Nocillado, Josephine N; Zohar, Yonathan; Biran, Jakob; Levavi-Sivan, Berta; Elizur, Abigail

    2013-09-15

    The kisspeptin system is now accepted as a key regulator of vertebrate reproductive function, particularly the onset of puberty. In teleosts, the stimulatory effect of exogenous kisspeptins has been demonstrated mainly at the hypothalamic and pituitary levels of the reproductive axis, with very limited information pertaining to gonadal response. We determined the effect of chronic peripheral administration of the conserved kisspeptin decapeptides (YNLNSFGLRY or Kiss1-10; and FNFNPFGLRF or Kiss2-10) on gonadal development of pre-pubertal yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi), a Perciform teleost, during the breeding and non-breeding season. We utilized slow-release implants to chronically deliver the synthesized peptides, which were based on the yellowtail kingfish kiss1 and kiss2 cDNA sequences that we isolated. The expression level of kiss2r and gnrh1 in the brain or hypothalamus did not vary between treated and control groups. Pituitary expression of fshβ and lhβ was upregulated only with Kiss1-10 treatment regardless of the season. Based on histological evidence, gonadal development was stimulated in male fish with either Kiss1-10 or Kiss2-10, with Kiss2-10 being more effective during the non-breeding period. Overall, our results suggest that kisspeptins modulate the early gonadal development of male yellowtail kingfish, however that may vary with the breeding season. PMID:23791760

  9. The juvenile-onset, adolescent-onset and adult-onset obese.

    PubMed

    Garn, S M; Sullivan, T V; Hawthorne, V M

    1991-02-01

    As shown in more than 8000 proband-parent pairs derived from a total-community sample and followed in longitudinal fashion, the 5-year incidence of obesity (new cases per 5-year period) approximates 8 percent for the juvenile-onset, adolescent-onset and adult-onset obese alike. Parents of juvenile-onset (ages 5-9), adolescent-onset (10-19) and adult-onset obese (20-39) tend to be of above-average fatness level, +0.25Z scores, overall, regardless of the age at onset of obesity in their progeny. Except for the parents of the juvenile-onset obese, educational level of the parents tends to be below average for the sample as a whole. These new data acquired in longitudinal context and explored in retrospective-prospective fashion do not substantiate the notion that different onset ages of obesity indicate separate etiologies and different family constellations. PMID:2040547

  10. Childhood adversity and youth depression: influence of gender and pubertal status.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Karen D; Flynn, Megan

    2007-01-01

    This research examined three possible models to explain how childhood social adversity and recent stress interact to predict depression in youth: stress sensitization, stress amplification, and stress inoculation. Drawing from a stress-sensitization theory of depression, we hypothesized that exposure to childhood adversity, in the form of disruptions in critical interpersonal relationships, would lower youths' threshold for depressive reactions to recent interpersonal stress. We expected that this pattern of stress sensitization would be most salient for girls negotiating the pubertal transition. These hypotheses were examined in two studies: a longitudinal, questionnaire-based investigation of 399 youth (M = 11.66 years) and a concurrent, interview-based investigation of 147 youth (M = 12.39 years). Findings supported the role of stress-sensitization processes in pubertal girls and prepubertal boys, and stress-amplification processes in prepubertal girls. Childhood social adversity specifically predicted sensitization to recent interpersonal, but not noninterpersonal, stress. These findings build on prior theory and research by suggesting that early adversity exerts context-specific effects that vary across gender and development. Future research will need to identify the specific mechanisms underlying this stress-sensitization process. PMID:17459181

  11. Pre-pubertal castration improves spatial learning during mid-adolescence in rats.

    PubMed

    Moradpour, Farshad; Naghdi, Nasser; Fathollahi, Yaghoub; Javan, Mohamad; Choopani, Samira; Gharaylou, Zeinab

    2013-10-01

    Hippocampus functions, including spatial cognition and stress responses, mature during adolescence. In addition, hippocampus neuronal structures are modified by circulating sex steroids, which dramatically increase during adolescence. Therefore, the effects of castration and the circulating levels of the main sex steroid testosterone on spatial learning and memory were examined across postnatal ages to test whether pre-pubertal castration affected rats' spatial ability in the Morris Water maze (MWM). Male rats were either castrated or sham-castrated at 22d (days of age), or left gonadally intact. They were then trained and tested in the MWM beginning at 28d, 35d, 45d or 60d. We found that all of the intact rats learned the spatial task; however, the males at 22d and 28d required more trials to acquire the task than the males at older ages. The males castrated at 22d and tested at 35d had significantly lower escape latency and traveled distance during training than the sham-castrated males trained at the same age. No differences were observed in mean values of escape latency and traveled distance at 45d even though they had comparable levels of testosterone. We conclude that adult-typical performance for male spatial memory emerges during mid-adolescence and that pre-pubertal castration appears to improve spatial learning during this time. PMID:23871792

  12. Bone mass in schoolchildren in Brazil: the effect of racial miscegenation, pubertal stage, and socioeconomic differences.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Roberto Regis; Guerra-Junior, Gil; de Azevedo Barros-Filho, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate bone mass by phalanges ultrasound in healthy white and black schoolchildren in relationship to socioeconomic level, pubertal stage, and body composition. Included were 1,356 healthy schoolchildren aged from 6 to 11 years from different socioeconomic levels and both genders; all were placed into white and black groups. Weight, height, body mass index, fat percentage, fat mass, and lean mass were evaluated by anthropometric methods, and AD-SoS bone quantity and UBPI bone quality were evaluated using a third-generation IGEA phalanges DBM Sonic BP ultrasound. Data were compared using the Mann-Whitney, chi-squared, correlation coefficient, and analyses of multiple linear regression statistical tests with 5% significance. Black schoolchildren predominated in the low socioeconomic levels. Higher values of weight and height for black boys and girls were observed in the lean mass in relation to white children of the same gender and age. An increasing variation in the bone quantity mean was observed from 6 to 11 years of age and with pubertal stage for both genders and skin color. The white schoolchildren presented higher values of bone quantity and quality in relation to the black children. The anthropometric, gender, and socioeconomic level variables explained only 16 and 11% of the variability of bone quantity and quality, respectively. As such, the present study, carried out with healthy black and white Brazilian schoolchildren, demonstrated higher bone mass, as evaluated by ultrasound, in white than in black schoolchildren. PMID:19283337

  13. Responses of testis, epididymis, and sperm of pubertal rats exposed to functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Farombi, Ebenezer O; Adedara, Isaac A; Forcados, Gilead E; Anao, Osemudiamen O; Agbowo, Agatha; Patlolla, Anita K

    2016-05-01

    The present study investigated the response of testes, epididymides and sperm in pubertal Wistar rats following exposure to 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 mg kg(-1) functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) for 5 days. The results showed that administration of (f-MWCNTs) significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in a dose-dependent manner in both testes and sperm compared with control group. Moreover, the significant decrease in the activity of glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione level was accompanied with significant elevation in the levels of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde in both testes and sperm of (f-MWCNTs)-treated rats. The spermiogram of (f-MWCNTs)-treated rats indicated significant decrease in epididymal sperm number, sperm progressive motility, testicular sperm number and daily sperm production with elevated sperm abnormalities when compared with the control. Exposure to (f-MWCNTs) decreased plasma testosterone level and produced marked morphological changes including decreased geminal epithelium, edema, congestion, reduced spermatogenic cells and focal areas of tubular degeneration in the testes. The lumen of the epididymides contained reduced sperm cells and there was mild to severe hyperplasia epithelial cells lining the duct of the epididymis. Collectively, pubertal exposure of male rats to (f-MWCNTs) elicited oxidative stress response resulting in marked testicular and epididymides dysfunction. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 543-551, 2016. PMID:25410135

  14. Mobile phone radiation during pubertal development has no effect on testicular histology in rats.

    PubMed

    Tumkaya, Levent; Kalkan, Yildiray; Bas, Orhan; Yilmaz, Adnan

    2016-02-01

    Mobile phones are extensively used throughout the world. There is a growing concern about the possible public health hazards posed by electromagnetic radiation emitted from mobile phones. Potential health risk applies particularly to the most intensive mobile phone users-typically, young people. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mobile phone exposure to the testes, by assessing the histopathological and biochemical changes in the testicular germ cells of rats during pubertal development. A total of 12 male Sprague Dawley rats were used. The study group (n = 6) was exposed to a mobile phone for 1 h a day for 45 days, while the control group (n = 6) remained unexposed. The testes were processed with routine paraffin histology and sectioned. They were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, caspase 3, and Ki-67 and then photographed. No changes were observed between the groups (p > 0.05). The interstitial connective tissue and cells of the exposed group were of normal morphology. No abnormalities in the histological appearance of the seminiferous tubules, including the spermatogenic cycle stage, were observed. Our study demonstrated that mobile phones with a low specific absorption rate have no harmful effects on pubertal rat testicles. PMID:24097363

  15. Menarcheal and pubertal development and determining factors among schoolgirls in Kumasi, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Opare-Addo, P M; Stowe, M; Ankobea-Kokroe, F; Zheng, T

    2012-02-01

    To determine menarcheal and pubertal ages and possible factors responsible for current pubertal trends in Kumasi, Ghana, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 720 urban and rural Kumasi 7-17-year-old schoolgirls and their mothers in 2008. Heights and weights were measured and additional information obtained by survey. Mantel-Haenzsel, χ(2), ordered logistic regression and probit analyses were used to analyse the data collected. With 40.42% menarcheal prevalence, median menarcheal ages were significantly different: 12.37 ± 1.48 years urban and 13.41 ± 2.25 years rural; 12.89 ± 1.93 years, overall. Obesity (OR = 2.57; p = 0.033) and high socioeconomic status (OR = 2.12; p = 0.008) were predictors of early menarche, while a younger mother was protective against early menarche (OR = 0.32; p = 0.039). Age at menarche among Kumasi schoolgirls has dropped 0.76 years since it was last determined among similarly aged girls in 1986, declining at a rate of about 0.32 years/decade. The predicting factors provide an important opportunity for intervention through school curricula and targeted education of adolescents. PMID:22296429

  16. Late onset globoid cell leukodystrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, R P; Petronas, N; Barton, N W

    1991-01-01

    A 29 year old male with onset of globoid cell leukodystrophy at age 14 is described. This is the first case of enzymatically confirmed globoid cell leukodystrophy with onset of symptoms after the age of ten. This patient is unique because of the late onset and slow progression and extends the clinical spectrum of globoid cell leukodystrophy. Images PMID:1800646

  17. Potential role of endometrial stem/progenitor cells in the pathogenesis of early-onset endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Gargett, C E; Schwab, K E; Brosens, J J; Puttemans, P; Benagiano, G; Brosens, I

    2014-07-01

    The pathogenesis of early-onset endometriosis has recently been revisited, sparked by the discovery of endometrial stem/progenitor cells and their possible role in endometriosis, and because maternal pregnancy hormone withdrawal following delivery induces uterine bleeding in the neonate. The neonatal uterus has a large cervix to corpus ratio which is functionally blocked with mucous, supporting the concept of retrograde shedding of neonatal endometrium. Only 5% show overt bleeding. Furthermore, the presence of endometriosis in pre-menarcheal girls and even in severe stage in adolescents supports the theory that early-onset endometriosis may originate from retrograde uterine bleeding soon after birth. Endometrial stem/progenitor cells have been identified in menstrual blood suggesting that they may also be shed during neonatal uterine bleeding. Thus, we hypothesized that stem/progenitor cells present in shedding endometrium may have a role in the pathogenesis of early-onset endometriosis through retrograde neonatal uterine bleeding. During the neonatal and pre-pubertal period, shed endometrial stem/progenitor cells are postulated to survive in the pelvic cavity in the absence of circulating estrogens supported by niche cells also shed during neonatal uterine bleeding. According to this hypothesis, during thelarche, under the influence of rising estrogen levels, endometrial stem/progenitor cells proliferate and establish ectopic endometrial lesions characteristic of endometriosis. This New Research Horizon review builds on recent discussions on the pathogenesis of early-onset endometriosis and raises new avenues for research into this costly condition. PMID:24674992

  18. Effects of Pubertal Timing on Communication Behaviors and Stress Reactivity in Young Women during Conflict Discussions with Their Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weichold, Karina; Buttig, Sabine; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2008-01-01

    Individuation, a process whereby adolescents gain autonomy from their parents while maintaining emotional relatedness, is displayed by characteristic styles of verbal exchanges. Negotiating this developmental transition is often stressful for adolescents and their parents. This study deals with the association between pubertal timing,…

  19. Effect of high and low antral follicle count in pubertal beef heifers on in vitro fertilization (IVF)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pubertal heifers can be classified between those with high (= 25) and low (= 15) antral follicle counts (AFC). The objective of this study was to determine oocyte development and maturation (e.g., fertility) in an in vitro fertilization (IVF) system for high and low AFC heifers. From a pool of 120...

  20. In vitro fertilization (IVF) from low or high antral follicle count pubertal beef heifers using semi-defined culture conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antral follicle counts (AFC) vary among pubertal beef heifers. Our objective was to compare the in vitro maturation and fertilization of oocytes collected from low and high AFC heifers. Previously we reported results using serum-based IVF media and in this study report results using semi-defined m...

  1. The Moderating Effects of Pubertal Timing on the Longitudinal Associations between Parent-Child Relationship Quality and Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Katherine H.; Van Den Bree, Marianne B. M.

    2010-01-01

    This prospective, longitudinal study investigated the moderating role of pubertal timing on reciprocal links between adolescent appraisals of parent-child relationship quality and girls' (N = 1,335) and boys' (N = 1,203) cigarette and alcohol use across a 12-month period. Reciprocal effects were found between parent-child relations and on-time…

  2. ASSESSMENT OF DE-71, A COMMERCIAL POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER (PBDE) MIXTURE, IN THE EDSP MALE AND FEMALE PUBERTAL PROTOCOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    DE-71, a commercial mixture, was used to test the sensitivity of the female and male pubertal protocol to detect thyroid active chemicals. These protocols are being evaluated for the U.S. EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program as part of a Tier I Screening Battery. To exa...

  3. The Effect of Pubertal and Psychosocial Timing on Adolescents' Alcohol Use: What Role Does Alcohol-Specific Parenting Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Knibbe, Ronald A.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Burk, William J.

    2011-01-01

    In scientific literature, early pubertal timing emerges as a risk factor of adolescents' drinking, whereas alcohol-specific rules (the degree to which parents permit their children to consume alcohol in various situations) showed to protect against adolescents' drinking. This study investigated whether alcohol-specific rules mediate and/or…

  4. Effect of pubertal status and number of estrous cycles prior to the breeding season on pregnancy rate in beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate whether pubertal status prior to breeding influences pregnancy rate in beef heifers. Records were collected at West Central Research and Extension Center, North Platte, NE from 2002 to 2011 (Exp. 1; n = 1,005) and Gudmundsen Sandhills Laboratory, Whitman,...

  5. Trajectories of Depressed Mood from Early Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Effects of Pubertal Timing and Adolescent Dating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Biehl, Michael C.; Ge, Xiaojia

    2009-01-01

    The effects of pubertal timing and adolescent dating on trajectories of depressed mood from early adolescence to young adulthood were examined among youths who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results showed that for both boys and girls, the trajectories of depressed mood between the ages of 12 and 23 took an…

  6. Do Trajectories of Household Risk in Childhood Moderate Pubertal Timing Effects on Substance Initiation in Middle School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D.; Graber, Julia A.; Andrews, Judy A.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on pubertal timing has either evaluated contextual predictors of early puberty or negative adjustment outcomes associated with off-time development, especially early maturation. In this study, we integrated these 2 lines of research by evaluating the moderating influence of early childhood household risk on associations between…

  7. Relationships of Pubertal Development among Early Adolescents to Sexual and Nonsexual Risk Behaviors and Caregivers' Parenting Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Helen P.; Rose, Allison; Bhaskar, Brinda; Walker, Leslie R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a school-based sample of fifth graders (mean age = 10.38, SD = 0.66) and their parents (N = 408) from Washington, D.C., the authors examine associations of pubertal development with early adolescents' sexual and nonsexual risk behaviors and their caregivers' parenting behaviors and of these risk behaviors with parenting behaviors. Results…

  8. The Effects of Pubertal Changes on Body Image and Relations with Peers of the Opposite Sex in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Tome, H.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined impact of pubertal maturation on body image and on perceived quality of relations with opposite sex peers in adolescence. Findings from 157 French adolescents aged 11 to 16 years confirmed that boys evaluated themselves on attractiveness more positively than girls. Found no sex difference on perceived physical condition. (Author/NB)

  9. THE EFFECTS OF DE-71, A COMMERCIAL POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL EITHER MIXTURE, ON FEMALE PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT AND THYROID FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE EFFECTS OF DE-71, A COMMERICAL POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER MIXTURE, ON FEMALE PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT AND THYROID FUNCTION. S.C. Laws1, J. M. Ferrell1, J. M Hedge2, K. M. Crofton2, R.L. Cooper1, and T.E. Stoker1. 1Reprod. Tox. Div., 2Neurotox. Div., NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, R...

  10. Pubertal Timing and Mexican-Origin Girls' Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms: The Influence of Harsh Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deardorff, Julianna; Cham, Heining; Gonzales, Nancy A.; White, Rebecca M. B.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Wong, Jessie J.; Roosa, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Early-maturing girls are at risk for internalizing and externalizing problems. Research concerning pubertal timing and mental health among Mexican Americans or the influence of parenting behaviors on these relations has been scarce. This study addressed these gaps. This was a prospective examination of 362 Mexican-origin girls and their mothers in…

  11. An Exploratory Study of Pubertal Maturation Timing and Self-Esteem among Gay and Bisexual Male Youths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savin-Williams, Ritch C.

    1995-01-01

    A study of 83 gay and bisexual male youths (17-23 years old) found that pubertal maturation was associated with self-reported age of first orgasm and homosexual activity and frequency of orgasms during junior high school. It concluded that gay and bisexual male youths share with heterosexual male youths a similar developmental trajectory in regard…

  12. Pubertal Expression of α4βδ GABAA Receptors Reduces Seizure-Like Discharges in CA1 Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lie; Shen, Hui; Merlin, Lisa R; Smith, Sheryl S

    2016-01-01

    More than half of children with epilepsy outgrow their seizures, yet the underlying mechanism is unknown. GABAergic inhibition increases at puberty in female mice due to expression of extrasynaptic α4βδ GABAA receptors (GABARs). Therefore, we tested the role of these receptors in regulating seizure-like discharges in CA1 hippocampus using a high K(+) (8.5 mM) seizure model. Spontaneous field potentials were recorded from hippocampus of pre-pubertal (~28-32 PND) and pubertal (~35-44 PND) female wild-type or α4-/- mice. The coastline length, a measure of burst intensity, was assessed. 8.5 mM K(+) induced seizure-like discharges in over 60% of pre-pubertal slices, but only in 7% of pubertal slices, where the coastline length was reduced by 70% (P = 0.04). However, the pubertal decrease in seizure-like discharges was not seen in the α4-/-, implicating α4βδ GABARs as the cause of the decreased seizure-like activity during puberty. Administration of THIP or DS2, to selectively increase α4βδ current, reduced activity in 8.5 mM K(+) at puberty, while blockade of α5-GABARs had no effect. GABAergic current was depolarizing but inhibitory in 8.5 mM K(+), suggesting a mechanism for the effects of α4βδ and α5-GABARs, which exhibit different polarity-dependent desensitization. These data suggest that α4βδ GABARs are anti-convulsant during adolescence. PMID:27561815

  13. Pubertal Expression of α4βδ GABAA Receptors Reduces Seizure-Like Discharges in CA1 Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lie; Shen, Hui; Merlin, Lisa R.; Smith, Sheryl S.

    2016-01-01

    More than half of children with epilepsy outgrow their seizures, yet the underlying mechanism is unknown. GABAergic inhibition increases at puberty in female mice due to expression of extrasynaptic α4βδ GABAA receptors (GABARs). Therefore, we tested the role of these receptors in regulating seizure-like discharges in CA1 hippocampus using a high K+ (8.5 mM) seizure model. Spontaneous field potentials were recorded from hippocampus of pre-pubertal (~28–32 PND) and pubertal (~35–44 PND) female wild-type or α4−/− mice. The coastline length, a measure of burst intensity, was assessed. 8.5 mM K+ induced seizure-like discharges in over 60% of pre-pubertal slices, but only in 7% of pubertal slices, where the coastline length was reduced by 70% (P = 0.04). However, the pubertal decrease in seizure-like discharges was not seen in the α4−/−, implicating α4βδ GABARs as the cause of the decreased seizure-like activity during puberty. Administration of THIP or DS2, to selectively increase α4βδ current, reduced activity in 8.5 mM K+ at puberty, while blockade of α5-GABARs had no effect. GABAergic current was depolarizing but inhibitory in 8.5 mM K+, suggesting a mechanism for the effects of α4βδ and α5-GABARs, which exhibit different polarity-dependent desensitization. These data suggest that α4βδ GABARs are anti-convulsant during adolescence. PMID:27561815

  14. The effects of hydraulic resistance strength training in pre-pubertal males.

    PubMed

    Weltman, A; Janney, C; Rians, C B; Strand, K; Berg, B; Tippitt, S; Wise, J; Cahill, B R; Katch, F I

    1986-12-01

    In order to examine the effectiveness and safety of hydraulic resistance strength training in young males, 26 pre-pubertal males (mean age = 8.2 +/- 1.3 yr) completed a 14-wk strength training study. Subjects were evaluated before and after the 14-wk experimental period for pubertal state (Tanner's sexual maturity rating, serum testosterone, and serum dihydroepiandrosterone sulfate). Effectiveness of the strength training program was determined by measuring pre-post differences in: isokinetic strength for flexion and extension at the knee and elbow joints at two speeds (30 degrees and 90 degrees X s-1) (KIN COM, Chattecx, Inc., Chattanooga, TN), flexibility, standing long jump, vertical jump, body composition parameters, maximal oxygen consumption, and creatinine phosphokinase. Safety of strength training was assessed by biphasic musculoskeletal scintigraphy before and after the program and by physician evaluation of complaints by subjects. Strength training subjects (N = 16) participated in a 45 min/session, 3 session/wk, 14-wk supervised strength training program with an attendance rate of 91.5%. Participants performed concentric work using hydraulic resistance equipment (Hydra-Fitness Industries, Belton, TX). Eccentric work was not performed. Control subjects (N = 10) did not strength train but did participate in sport activities and activities of daily living. Results indicated that strength training subjects increased isokinetic strength as a result of strength training (average concentric work/repetition increases by 18.5 to 36.6% for the eight motions tested; torque scores over the first 90% of the range of motion increases by 13.1 to 45.1% for the eight motions tested). These changes were significantly greater than changes seen in the control group (P less than 0.05). Strength training subjects also demonstrated significant improvements (as compared to control subjects) in vertical jump (+10.4%), flexibility (+8.4%), and maximal oxygen consumption [+19

  15. In utero and lactational exposure to fluoxetine delays puberty onset in female rats offspring.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Alice Hartmann; Vieira, Milene Leivas; de Azevedo Camin, Nathália; Anselmo-Franci, Janete Aparecida; Ceravolo, Graziela Scalianti; Pelosi, Gislaine Garcia; Moreira, Estefânia Gastaldello; Kiss, Ana Carolina Inhasz; Mesquita, Suzana de Fátima Paccola; Gerardin, Daniela Cristina Ceccatto

    2016-07-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent disorders in the world and may occur during pregnancy and postpartum periods. Fluoxetine (FLX) has been widely prescribed for use during depression in pregnancy and lactation. This study aimed to investigate if in utero and lactational exposure to FLX could compromise reproductive parameters in female offspring. Wistar rats received, by daily gavage, FLX 5mg/kg or 0.3ml of water (control group) from the first gestational day until weaning (21 days). Assessments in the female offspring included: body weight, anogenital distance, vaginal opening, first estrus, estrous cycle, reproductive organs weight, uterine morphometric analyses, ovarian follicle and corpora lutea counting, estradiol plasmatic concentration, sexual behavior, maternal behavior and fertility test. Exposure to FLX delayed the puberty onset in female pups. The present study demonstrated that developmental exposure to FLX can deregulate the neuroendocrine hormonal control of female offspring during prepubertal and pubertal periods. PMID:27094375

  16. Coupling between pre-onset flows and substorm onset waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, T.; Lyons, L. R.; Angelopoulos, V.; Donovan, E.; Mende, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    A critical, long-standing problem in substorm research is identification of the sequence of events leading to substorm expansion phase onset. Recent THEMIS all-sky imager (ASI) array observations have shown a repeatable pre-onset sequence, which is initiated by a poleward boundary intensification (PBI) and is followed by auroral streamers moving equatorward (earthward flow in the plasma sheet) and then by substorm onset. On the other hand, substorm onset is also preceded by azimuthally propagating waves, indicating a possible importance of wave instability for triggering substorm onset. However, it has been difficult to identify the link between fast flows and waves. We have found an isolated substorm event that was well-instrumented with the Poker Flat incoherent scatter radar (PFISR), THEMIS white-light ASI, and multi-spectral ASI, where the auroral onset occurred within the PFISR and ASI fields-of-view. This substorm onset was preceded by a PBI, and ionospheric flows propagated equatorward from the polar cap, crossed the PBI and reached the growth phase arc. This sequence provides evidence that flows from open magnetic field lines propagate across the open-closed boundary and reach the near-Earth plasma sheet prior to the onset. Quasi-stable oscillations in auroral luminosity and ionospheric density are found along the growth phase arc. These pre-onset auroral waves amplified abruptly at the onset time, soon after the equatorward flows reached the onset region. This sequence suggests a coupling process where pre-existing stable waves in the near-Earth plasma sheet interact with flows from further downtail and then evolve to onset instability.

  17. Use of commercial and social sources of alcohol by underage drinkers: the role of pubertal timing.

    PubMed

    Storvoll, Elisabet E; Pape, Hilde; Rossow, Ingeborg

    2008-01-01

    We have explored whether alcohol use and procurement of alcohol from commercial and social sources vary with pubertal timing. A sub-sample of 9291 Norwegian minors (13-17 year-olds) was extracted from a nationwide school survey (response rate: 92%). Adolescents who had matured early (early developers, EDs) reported higher consumption and more alcohol-related harm than those who had matured late (late developers, LDs) or at the "normal" time (on time developers, ODs). Purchases from on-premise and off-premise outlets were much more important sources of alcohol for EDs than for ODs and LDs - both in relative and absolute terms. Moreover, EDs were somewhat more likely to obtain alcohol from social sources. Taken together, the findings indicate that adolescents who mature early have access to a larger variety of sources of alcohol than adolescents who mature later - which in turn may explain their increased level of drinking. PMID:17553624

  18. Pubertal Timing as a Potential Mediator of Adoption Effects on Problem Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Rebecca J.; Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Bricker, Josh; Corley, Robin P.; Wadsworth, Sally J.

    2012-01-01

    Adopted children show more problem behaviors than nonadopted children. Given that internationally-adopted individuals show earlier puberty than non-adopted individuals, and early puberty is associated with problem behaviors in nonadopted youth, we analyzed data from domestic adoptees to determine whether problem behaviors could be explained by differences in pubertal timing. Relative to nonadopted controls (n = 153), domestically-adopted girls (n = 121) had earlier menarche, earlier sexual initiation, and more conduct disorder symptoms. Age at menarche partially mediated the relation of adoptive status to sexual initiation, but not to conduct disorder symptoms. Extending findings from international adoptees, results show that domestic adoption is also linked to earlier puberty, and suggest early puberty as one mechanism linking adoption to problematic outcomes. PMID:23335840

  19. Age, sex, and pubertal phase influence mentalizing about emotions and actions in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Keulers, Esther H H; Evers, Elisabeth A T; Stiers, Peter; Jolles, Jelle

    2010-01-01

    This study examined (1) emotional versus cognitive developmental trajectories and (2) the influence of age-extrinsic factors (i.e., sex and puberty). Using a cross-sectional design, adolescents (N = 252) divided into four age-groups (ages 13, 15, 17, 19) performed two versions of a mentalizing task, about emotions and actions, as well as the Tower task. First, performance on all tasks improved linearly into late adolescence (age 19). Thus no differential trajectories were found for emotional versus cognitive development. Second, girls outperformed boys in mentalizing speed regarding both emotions and actions. In boys, a later pubertal phase was associated with increased mentalizing speed after controlling for age-group. PMID:20721775

  20. A pre-pubertal girl with giant juvenile fibroadenoma: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Gaurav, Kumar; Chandra, Gautam; Neelam, Kumari; Kumar, Sanjeet; Singla, Harish; Yadav, Sanjay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Fibroadenomas are benign neoplasms usually arising between the ages of 15–25 years. Approximately 0.4% fibroadenomas arise in juvenile age group. Usually the diagnosis is straightforward by clinical examination and FNAC. But sometimes rapid growth and giant size may pose difficulty in clinical approach. Case presentation In this paper we are presenting a rare case of giant juvenile fibroadenoma in a 10 years old girl which was diagnosed by FNAC and treated by excision. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology. Discussion Giant juvenile fibroadenomas are over 5 cm in diameter and tend to show rapid growth mimicking a carcinoma. But histological features are similar to smaller fibroadenomas and can be enucleated. Conclusion Through this case we want to emphasize that these giant benign neoplasms should be suspected in any pre-pubertal girl with breast lump and should always be treated with breast conserving surgery. PMID:26433926

  1. Effect of tricyclic antidepressants on switching to mania and on the onset of bipolarity in depressed 6- to 12-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Geller, B; Fox, L W; Fletcher, M

    1993-01-01

    The authors present data on the rates of onset of bipolar phenomena, at 2- to 3-year follow-up, in depressed 6- to 12-year olds. The subjects had participated in the nortriptyline drug study. There were high rates of onset of bipolarity and of switching to mania while patients were on tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). Mania developed only in subjects who had received TCAs at some time in the past or were receiving them concurrent with the onset of mania. These findings were analyzed with respect to the influence of multiple covariates, including family history of manic disorders and pubertal status. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for the prescription of TCAs to children who present with major depressive disorder and have a family history of bipolarity or a history of bipolar symptoms. The relevance of these findings for the later development of rapid cycling is discussed and compared with predictors of rapid cycling in adults. PMID:8428883

  2. The progestin levonorgestrel disrupts gonadotropin expression and sex steroid levels in pubertal roach (Rutilus rutilus).

    PubMed

    Kroupova, H K; Trubiroha, A; Lorenz, C; Contardo-Jara, V; Lutz, I; Grabic, R; Kocour, M; Kloas, W

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the synthetic progestin levonorgestrel (LNG) on the reproductive endocrine system of a teleost fish, the roach (Rutilus rutilus). Pubertal roach were exposed for 28 days in a flow-through system to four concentrations of LNG (3, 31, 312, and 3124 ng/l). Both males and females treated with 3124 ng/l LNG exhibited the upregulated levels of vitellogenin and oestrogen receptor 1 mRNA in the liver. At the same concentration, LNG caused a significant upregulation of the mRNA expression of the gene encoding luteinising hormone β-subunit (lhβ) and the suppression of the mRNA expression of the gene encoding follicle-stimulating hormone β-subunit (fshβ) in the pituitary of both male and female roach. A lower LNG concentration (312 ng/l) suppressed mRNA expression of fshβ in males only. Females treated with 3124 ng/l LNG exhibited significantly lower plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and oestradiol (E2) concentrations, whereas their testosterone (T) level was higher compared with the control. Females exposed to 312 ng/l LNG presented significantly lower plasma E2 concentrations. Males exposed to ≥31 ng/l LNG exhibited significantly reduced 11-KT levels. As determined through a histological analysis, the ovaries of females were not affected by LNG exposure, whereas the testes of males exposed to 31 and 312 ng/l LNG exhibited a significantly higher percentage of spermatogonia B compared with the control. The results of the present study demonstrate that LNG disrupts the reproductive system of pubertal roach by affecting the pituitary gonadotropin expression and the sex steroid levels. This disruption was determined to occur in males after exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration (31 ng/l). Moreover, the highest tested concentration of LNG (3124 ng/l) exerted an oestrogenic effect on fish of both sexes. PMID:24893273

  3. Dioxin (TCDD) Induces Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Adult Onset Disease and Sperm Epimutations

    PubMed Central

    Manikkam, Mohan; Tracey, Rebecca; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Skinner, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental compounds can promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in subsequent generations following ancestral exposure during fetal gonadal sex determination. The current study examined the ability of dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo[p]dioxin, TCDD) to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and DNA methylation epimutations in sperm. Gestating F0 generation females were exposed to dioxin during fetal day 8 to 14 and adult-onset disease was evaluated in F1 and F3 generation rats. The incidences of total disease and multiple disease increased in F1 and F3 generations. Prostate disease, ovarian primordial follicle loss and polycystic ovary disease were increased in F1 generation dioxin lineage. Kidney disease in males, pubertal abnormalities in females, ovarian primordial follicle loss and polycystic ovary disease were increased in F3 generation dioxin lineage animals. Analysis of the F3 generation sperm epigenome identified 50 differentially DNA methylated regions (DMR) in gene promoters. These DMR provide potential epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and ancestral environmental exposures. Observations demonstrate dioxin exposure of a gestating female promotes epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease and sperm epimutations. PMID:23049995

  4. Adult-Onset Hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Khera, Mohit; Broderick, Gregory A; Carson, Culley C; Dobs, Adrian S; Faraday, Martha M; Goldstein, Irwin; Hakim, Lawrence S; Hellstrom, Wayne J G; Kacker, Ravi; Köhler, Tobias S; Mills, Jesse N; Miner, Martin; Sadeghi-Nejad, Hossein; Seftel, Allen D; Sharlip, Ira D; Winters, Stephen J; Burnett, Arthur L

    2016-07-01

    In August 2015, an expert colloquium commissioned by the Sexual Medicine Society of North America (SMSNA) convened in Washington, DC, to discuss the common clinical scenario of men who present with low testosterone (T) and associated signs and symptoms accompanied by low or normal gonadotropin levels. This syndrome is not classical primary (testicular failure) or secondary (pituitary or hypothalamic failure) hypogonadism because it may have elements of both presentations. The panel designated this syndrome adult-onset hypogonadism (AOH) because it occurs commonly in middle-age and older men. The SMSNA is a not-for-profit society established in 1994 to promote, encourage, and support the highest standards of practice, research, education, and ethics in the study of human sexual function and dysfunction. The panel consisted of 17 experts in men's health, sexual medicine, urology, endocrinology, and methodology. Participants declared potential conflicts of interest and were SMSNA members and nonmembers. The panel deliberated regarding a diagnostic process to document signs and symptoms of AOH, the rationale for T therapy, and a monitoring protocol for T-treated patients. The evaluation and management of hypogonadal syndromes have been addressed in recent publications (ie, the Endocrine Society, the American Urological Association, and the International Society for Sexual Medicine). The primary purpose of this document was to support health care professionals in the development of a deeper understanding of AOH, particularly in how it differs from classical primary and secondary hypogonadism, and to provide a conceptual framework to guide its diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. PMID:27343020

  5. Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents: a Critical Approach Considering the Interaction between Pubertal Stage and Insulin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Reinehr, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Pediatricians increasingly diagnose the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in recent years to describe cardiovascular risk and to guide management of the obese child. However, there is an ongoing discussion about how to define the MetS in childhood and adolescence. Since insulin resistance-the major driver of MetS-is influenced by pubertal stage, it is questionable to use definitions for MetS in children and adolescents that do not take into account pubertal status. A metabolic healthy status in prepubertal stage does not predict a metabolic healthy status during puberty. Furthermore, cardiovascular risk factors improve at the end of puberty without treatment. However, having a uniform internationally accepted definition of the MetS for children and adolescents would be very helpful for the description of populations in different studies. Therefore, the concept of MetS has to be revisited under the influence of puberty stage. PMID:26747052

  6. Sexual Dimorphisms in the Associations of BMI and Body Fat with Indices of Pubertal Development in Girls and Boys

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Melissa K.; Stern, Elizabeth A.; Sedaka, Nicole M.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Brady, Sheila M.; Ali, Asem H.; Shawker, Thomas H.; Hubbard, Van S.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The effect of obesity and concomitant insulin resistance on pubertal development is incompletely elucidated. Objective: To determine how measures of adiposity and insulin resistance are associated with pubertal maturation in boys and girls. Setting and Design: Breast and pubic hair Tanner stage and testicular volume by orchidometry were determined by physical examination in 1066 children. Ovarian volume was estimated by trans-abdominal ultrasound. Fat mass, skeletal age, and fasting serum for insulin and glucose, total T, estradiol, estrone, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, and androstenedione were measured at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Research Center. Convenience sample; 52% obese, 59% female. Results: Logistic regression identified a significant interaction between sex and obesity for prediction of pubertal development (P ≤ .01). There was a negative association between boys' testicular volume and body mass index (BMI)/fat mass but a positive association between girls' breast stage and BMI/fat mass. Ovarian volume in girls was positively associated with insulin resistance but not with BMI/fat mass. There was a positive association between obesity and measures of estrogen exposure (breast development and skeletal age) in both sexes. Positive correlations were seen for girls between BMI and pubic hair development and between insulin resistance and T production, whereas adiposity was negatively associated with pubic hair in boys. Conclusions: Significant sexual dimorphisms in the manifestations of pubertal development are seen in obese girls and boys. Two known effects of obesity, increased peripheral conversion of low-potency androgens to estrogens by adipose tissue-aromatase and increased insulin resistance, may be in large part responsible for these differences. PMID:24780051

  7. Effect of insulin with concurrent amino acid infusion on protein metabolism in rapidly growing pubertal children with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Godil, Mushtaq A; Wilson, Thomas A; Garlick, Peter J; McNurlan, Margaret A

    2005-08-01

    Insulin treatment of prepubertal children with insulin-dependent diabetes improves body protein balance by decreasing the rate of protein degradation without stimulating protein synthesis. However, insulin also causes hypoaminoacidemia, so the inability of insulin to stimulate protein synthesis may have been limited by substrate availability. We investigated the ability of insulin to stimulate protein synthesis in growing pubertal children who were given sufficient amino acids to counter insulin-induced hypoaminoacidemia. Protein metabolism in six pubertal children with type 1 diabetes was assessed from leucine kinetics during a primed, 6-h infusion of L-[1-(13)C]leucine. The children were studied in the postabsorptive state during a basal (insulin withdrawn) period and during the infusion of 0.83 mU * kg(-1) * min(-1) human regular insulin. Amino acids and glucose were given with insulin to prevent hypoaminoacidemia and hypoglycemia. Net leucine balance was significantly higher with insulin than in the basal state, the result of decreased protein degradation but also decreased protein synthesis. The data suggest that insulin alone does not increase protein synthesis in pubertal children with type 1 diabetes. PMID:16006430

  8. Pubertal timing and its link to behavioral and emotional problems among 'at-risk' African American adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Carter, Rona; Jaccard, James; Silverman, Wendy K; Pina, Armando A

    2009-06-01

    Using an 'at-risk' sample of African American girls, the present study examined the link between girls' retrospective reports of pubertal timing, girls' perceived relative pubertal timing, and their behavioral and emotional problems as rated by the girls themselves (N=102; 11-17 years), as well as teachers and parents. Structural equation modeling results indicated that the girls' retrospective reports of menarche were significantly related to their perceived relative menarche, whereas the girls' retrospective reports of development of their breasts were not related to their perceived relative development of breasts. Girls who perceived their breasts developing early relative to their peers were more likely to engage in delinquent behaviors according to teacher report. Significant effects of teacher reported adolescent internalizing problems also were found for girls who retrospectively reported either early or late development of breasts. The study's findings underscore the importance of teasing apart the effects of different indicators of girls' pubertal development on psychosocial adjustment and including teachers' reports of girls' emotional and behavioral problems, particularly among girls with the additional risks associated with residing in an economically disadvantaged urban setting. PMID:18801563

  9. Loss of vitamin D receptor signaling from the mammary epithelium or adipose tissue alters pubertal glandular development

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Abby L.; Zinser, Glendon M.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D3 receptor (VDR) signaling within the mammary gland regulates various postnatal stages of glandular development, including puberty, pregnancy, involution, and tumorigenesis. Previous studies have shown that vitamin D3 treatment induces cell-autonomous growth inhibition and differentiation of mammary epithelial cells in culture. Furthermore, mammary adipose tissue serves as a depot for vitamin D3 storage, and both epithelial cells and adipocytes are capable of bioactivating vitamin D3. Despite the pervasiveness of VDR in mammary tissue, individual contributions of epithelial cells and adipocytes, as well as the VDR-regulated cross-talk between these two cell types during pubertal mammary development, have yet to be investigated. To assess the cell-type specific effect of VDR signaling during pubertal mammary development, novel mouse models with mammary epithelial- or adipocyte-specific loss of VDR were generated. Interestingly, loss of VDR in either cellular compartment accelerated ductal morphogenesis with increased epithelial cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis within terminal end buds. Conversely, VDR signaling specifically in the mammary epithelium modulated hormone-induced alveolar growth, as ablation of VDR in this cell type resulted in precocious alveolar development. In examining cellular cross-talk ex vivo, we show that ligand-dependent VDR signaling in adipocytes significantly inhibits mammary epithelial cell growth in part through the vitamin D3-dependent production of the cytokine IL-6. Collectively, these studies delineate independent roles for vitamin D3-dependent VDR signaling in mammary adipocytes and epithelial cells in controlling pubertal mammary gland development. PMID:25139050

  10. Peer and Individual Risk Factors in Adolescence Explaining the Relationship Between Girls' Pubertal Timing and Teenage Childbearing.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, C Emily; Cance, Jessica Duncan; Maslowsky, Julie

    2016-05-01

    Girls with early pubertal timing are at elevated risk for teenage childbearing; however, the modifiable mechanisms driving this relationship are not well understood. The objective of the current study was to determine whether substance use, perceived peer substance use, and older first sexual partners mediate the relationships among girls' pubertal timing, sexual debut, and teenage childbearing. Data are from Waves 1-15 of the female cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), a nationwide, ongoing cohort study of U.S. men and women born between 1980 and 1984. The analytic sample (n = 2066) was 12-14 years old in 1997 and ethnically diverse (51 % white, 27 % black, 22 % Latina). Using structural equation modeling, we found substance use in early adolescence and perceived peer substance use each partially mediated the relationships among girls' pubertal timing, sexual debut, and teenage childbearing. Our findings suggest early substance use behavior as one modifiable mechanism to be targeted by interventions aimed at preventing teenage childbearing among early developing girls. PMID:26769576

  11. The onset of driving phobias.

    PubMed

    Munjack, D J

    1984-12-01

    Thirty driving phobics who called the Psychiatry Outpatient Phobia Clinic (25 females and five males) were given a 20-min semi-standardized telephone interview during which they were asked about the circumstances of the onset of their driving fears. Twelve (40%) reported that their fears were precipitated by a panic attack on the freeway; six (20%) by a collision; and three (10%) by other frightening experiences in automobiles. Four (13.3%) related the onset to family stress or upheaval. Other modes of onset also occurred. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of existing theories of fear acquisition and treatment approaches. PMID:6526942

  12. Adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors in a large contemporary population of pre-pubertal children

    PubMed Central

    Falaschetti, Emanuela; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Jones, Alexander; Charakida, Marietta; Finer, Nicholas; Whincup, Peter; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Davey Smith, George; Sattar, Naveed; Deanfield, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Aims To examine the associations of several markers of adiposity and a wide range of cardiovascular risk factors and biomarkers in pre-pubertal children. Methods and results Four measures of adiposity,body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-determined fat mass, and leptin concentration, were available in up to 7589 children aged 8.8–11.7 (9.9 mean) years from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Thirteen per cent of boys and 18.8% of girls were overweight, and 5.3% of boys and 5% of girls were obese. Body mass index was highly correlated with waist circumference (r = 0.91), DXA fat mass (r = 0.87), and leptin concentration (r = 0.75), and all had similar associations with cardiovascular risk factors. A 1 kg/m2 greater BMI was associated with 1.4mmHg (95% CI 1.25–1.44) higher systolic blood pressure (BP). In 5002 children, a 1 kg/m2 greater BMI was associated with a 0.05 mmol/L (95% CI 0.036–0.055) higher non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and 0.03 mmol/L (95% CI −0.034 to −0.025) lower HDL cholesterol. There were also graded associations with apolipoproteins A1 and B, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein. Comparing children who were obese with those who were normal weight, the odds ratio for hypertension was 10.7 (95% CI 7.2–15.9) for boys and 13.5 (95% CI 9.4–19.5) for girls. Conclusion In pre-pubertal UK children, overweight/obesity is common and has broadly similar associations with BP, HDL cholesterol, and non-HDL cholesterol to those observed in adults. Future research should evaluate whether effective interventions to maintain healthy weight in childhood could have important benefits for adult cardiovascular risk. PMID:20972265

  13. Strangeness and onset of deconfinement

    SciTech Connect

    Becattini, F.

    2012-05-15

    I will review the current status of global strangeness production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions with particular emphasis on recent results from core-corona model. I will discuss its relevance for the detection of the onset of deconfinement.

  14. Delayed-onset chloroquine retinopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenfeld, M; Nesher, R; Merin, S

    1986-01-01

    Delayed-onset chloroquine retinopathy was diagnosed in a patient seven years after cessation of treatment by a total dose of 730 g of chloroquine for rheumatoid arthritis. Visual functions continued to deteriorate after the diagnosis. Periodic examinations by ophthalmoscopy and by functional tests such as EOG and visual fields should be continued in patients at risk of delayed-onset chloroquine retinopathy after discontinuance of the drug. PMID:3964626

  15. Facial preferences in early adolescent girls: pubertal maturity predicts preferences maturity.

    PubMed

    Kościński, Krzysztof

    2013-09-01

    Despite numerous studies on perception of facial attractiveness in adults, preferences in adolescents remain poorly recognized. The aim of present study was to explore facial preferences in girls at early adolescence (11-14 years old) and compare them with preferences of women. All females evaluated the same 30 male faces, which were also assessed by independent judges for several perceived features. Regardless of age, girls assessed attractiveness much the same as women, and the strengths of their preferences for specific facial features were similar to those of women. Except for the youngest girls, pubertal maturity (measured as the time elapsed since the menarche and breast development) correlated positively with the similarity of the girls' attractiveness evaluations to those of adult women and with strength of preference for cues to good biological quality (skin healthiness and sexy appearance). This remained true even after controlling for age and psychosexual development, suggesting thus that sex hormones are involved in development of facial preferences in pubescent girls. PMID:24308210

  16. Semen analysis in post-pubertal patients with posterior urethral valves: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Puri, A; Gaur, K K; Kumar, A; Bhatnagar, V

    2002-03-01

    The issues of sexual function and fertility are becoming relevant in patients with posterior urethral valves (PUV), as more of them reach adulthood. To evaluate the semen of post-pubertal patients with PUV as a determinant of future fertility, all such patients (age >16 years) attending the follow-up urology clinic of our department from 1985 to December 1999 were contacted. Of the nine patients contacted, eight agreed to form the study group. All eight patients were asked to provide a post-masturbation semen sample and urine. Semen was analysed for pH, viscosity, liquefaction time, sperm morphology, sperm count, motility, and agglutination. The patients ages ranged from 16 to 21 years (mean 17.5 years). One patient with chronic renal failure awaiting a renal transplant refused to give a semen sample; two tried but failed to ejaculate on three consecutive visits. Their urine was negative for sperm. Of the five patients who gave semen, the liquefaction time was high in two. pH ranged from 7.2 to 8, sperm counts were 24-80 million. None of the patients had oligospermia. Abnormal sperm agglutination was present in four cases; a higher percentage of immotile sperm was also present in four. Semen abnormalities in the form of increased liquefaction time, abnormal sperm agglutination, and a high percentage of immotile sperm were thus seen in the present study. The bearing of these findings on subsequent sexual function and fertility remains a matter of speculation. PMID:11956780

  17. Bone mineral homeostasis, bone growth, and mineralisation during years of pubertal growth: a unifying concept.

    PubMed Central

    Krabbe, S; Transbøl, I; Christiansen, C

    1982-01-01

    Serum calcium, magnesium proteins, phosphate, and immunoparathyroid hormone were measured in 338 normal children and adolescents aged between 7 and 20 years and in 123 normal adults aged between 21 and 50 years. Protein corrected serum calcium and magnesium remained stable throughout the study. Despite hyperphosphataemia protein corrected calcium exceeded the concentrations of normal adults. Serum phosphate and the Ca X P product greatly exceeded adult values and fell rather slowly towards adult levels after the pubertal growth spurt. Serum immunoparathyroid hormone tended to exceed normal adult values and was judged high for the level of serum calcium. Similarities between mineral metabolism in childhood an adolescence and in acromegaly were striking. On this basis in the light of studies demonstrating stimulatory actions of gonadal hormones on growth hormone and of growth hormone on the secretion of parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, a unifying concept is developed. This concept places growth hormone in the unique position of being the main driver and co-ordinator during childhood and adolescence of bone growth an mineralisation on the one hand, and of blood mineral homeostasis on the other. Gonadal hormones probably express some of their actions through stimulation of growth hormone secretion and others by different mechanisms. According to this concept growth hormone is maintaining th Ca X P product at a suitable high level as long as growth hormone and gonadal hormones deliver bone matrix for mineralisation at a high rate. PMID:7092291

  18. Development of an Immortalised, Post-Pubertal Gonadotrophon-Releasing Hormone Neuronal Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, A.; Ng, Y.; Divall, S. A.; Singh, S. P.; Radovick, S.

    2016-01-01

    Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is important in reproduction, although some of the mechanisms for its synthesis and release remain elusive. Progress in understanding the GnRH neurone has been hampered by the limited number and diffuse distribution of the neurone in the mammalian brain. Several stable GnRH-expressing cell lines have been developed using in vivo expression of the simian virus 40 T Antigen (TAg), and they have been helpful for the study of gene expression and neuronal function. However, expression of an immortalising gene may interfere with normal cellular function. We developed a novel GnRH-secreting cell line transgenic mouse model suitable for targeted transformation in post-pubertal mice using a tetracycline-regulated TAg transgene. This clonal cell line, GRT, expresses neuronal markers and GnRH. GRT cells grown in medium containing tetracycline-free serum express increasing mRNA levels of GnRH associated with declining levels of TAg expression. The novelty and ultimately the usefulness of this cell line is that TAg expression, which could affect the GnRH neuronal phenotype, can be regulated by tetracycline. PMID:18624926

  19. Differential proteome and gene expression reveal response to carbon ion irradiation in pubertal mice testes.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyan; He, Yuxuan; Zhang, Hong; Miao, Guoying

    2014-03-21

    Heavy ion radiation, a high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, has been shown to have adverse effects on reproduction in male mice. The aim of this study was to profile and investigate the differentially expressed proteins in pubertal male mice testes following carbon ion radiation (CIR). Male mice underwent whole-body irradiation with CIR (1 and 4 Gy), and MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis was used to investigate the alteration in protein expression in 2-DE (two-dimensional gel electrophoresis) gels of testes caused by irradiation after 14 days. 8 differentially expressed proteins were identified and these proteins were mainly involved in energy supply, the endoplasmic reticulum, cell proliferation, cell cycle, antioxidant capacity and mitochondrial respiration, which play important roles in the inhibition of testicular function in response to CIR. Furthermore, we confirmed the relationship between transcription of mRNA and the abundance of proteins. Our results indicated that these proteins may lead to new insights into the molecular mechanism of CIR toxicity, and suggested that the gene expression response to CIR involves diverse regulatory mechanisms from transcription of mRNA to the formation of functional proteins. PMID:24440814

  20. Metabolic clearance and production rates of oestradiol and progesterone during pubertal and postpubertal development in gilts.

    PubMed

    Christenson, R K; Ford, J J; Redmer, D A

    1985-09-01

    The crossbred gilts studied were aged 80 days (prepubertal), 180 days (prepubertal or postpubertal) and 260 days (postpubertal or pregnant). Estimates of metabolic clearance rate (MCR) of oestradiol and progesterone were consistently less (21 and 27%) in plasma than in blood, and these differences were not influenced by age of gilt. The MCR (1/day per kg body weight) for oestradiol and progesterone in plasma was greater (P less than 0.05) for 80-day-old prepubertal gilts than for older gilts. The MCR values of oestradiol and progesterone were similar in 180-day-old and 260-day-old gilts independent of reproductive state. Production rate (PR) of oestradiol and progesterone increased with age (80-180 days), and age and reproductive state differences were much more pronounced for PR of progesterone than of oestradiol. These results support the hypothesis that a reduction in the MCR and an increase in PR of oestradiol and progesterone in the gilt are associated with the process of pubertal development, and changes in gonadal steroid concentrations appear not to alter the MCR of oestradiol and progesterone. PMID:4032373

  1. CHILDHOOD ADVERSITY AND PUBERTAL TIMING: UNDERSTANDING THE ORIGINS OF ADULTHOOD CARDIOVASCULAR RISK

    PubMed Central

    Bleil, Maria E.; Adler, Nancy E.; Appelhans, Bradley M.; Gregorich, Steven E.; Sternfeld, Barbara; Cedars, Marcelle I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether greater childhood adversity relates to younger menarcheal age; whether younger menarcheal age relates to increased CVD risk; and whether greater childhood adversity relates to increased CVD risk, directly or indirectly (mediated by menarcheal age). Methods Among 650 pre-menopausal women (ages 25-45; M=34.9[5.6]), SEM was performed to estimate relations between childhood adversity, menarcheal age, and CVD risk. Results Results supported a covariate-adjusted model (RMSEA=0.035; CFI=0.983) in which greater childhood adversity was related to younger menarcheal age (β=−.13, p<.01) and younger menarcheal age was related to greater CVD risk (β=−.18, p<.05). Direct and indirect effects of childhood adversity on CVD risk were non-significant. Re-evaluation of the same model with additional covariate-adjustment for adulthood body composition showed the relation between menarcheal age and CVD risk attenuated (β=−.03, p=.376). Conclusions Cross-sectional evidence suggests family-related adversity experiences in childhood confer risk for earlier menarche which, in turn, relates to increased CVD risk in adulthood, possibly via post-pubertal body size. PMID:23428374

  2. High-Throughput Sequencing Reveals Circulating miRNAs as Potential Biomarkers for Measuring Puberty Onset in Chicken (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yijun; Li, Guohui; Qu, Liang; Zhang, Huiyong; Wang, Kehua; Zou, Jianmin; Liu, Honglin

    2016-01-01

    There are still no highly sensitive and unique biomarkers for measurement of puberty onset. Circulating miRNAs have been shown to be promising biomarkers for diagnosis of various diseases. To identify circulating miRNAs that could be served as biomarkers for measuring chicken (Gallus gallus) puberty onset, the Solexa deep sequencing was performed to analyze the miRNA expression profiles in serum and plasma of hens from two different pubertal stages, before puberty onset (BO) and after puberty onset (AO). 197 conserved and 19 novel miRNAs (reads > 10) were identified as serum/plasma-expressed miRNAs in the chicken. The common miRNA amounts and their expression changes from BO to AO between serum and plasma were very similar, indicating the different treatments to generate serum and plasma had quite small influence on the miRNAs. 130 conserved serum-miRNAs were showed to be differentially expressed (reads > 10, P < 0.05) from BO to AO, with 68 up-regulated and 62 down-regulated. 4829 putative genes were predicted as the targets of the 40 most differentially expressed miRNAs (|log2(fold-change)|>1.0, P < 0.01). Functional analysis revealed several pathways that were associated with puberty onset. Further quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) test found that a seven-miRNA panel, including miR-29c, miR-375, miR-215, miR-217, miR-19b, miR-133a and let-7a, had great potentials to serve as novel biomarkers for measuring puberty onset in chicken. Due to highly conserved nature of miRNAs, the findings could provide cues for measurement of puberty onset in other animals as well as humans. PMID:27149515

  3. LATE-AGE ONSET SCLERODERMA

    PubMed Central

    Manno, Rebecca L.; Wigley, Fredrick M.; Gelber, Allan C.; Hummers, Laura K.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although patients who develop scleroderma (SSc) later in life (≥ 65 years) may express the entire clinical spectrum of disease, we hypothesize that patients with late-age onset incur a different risk for specific organ manifestations of disease compared to those with younger-age onset SSc. METHODS In total, 2300 SSc patients were evaluated between 1990–2009 and reviewed from a university-based Scleroderma Center cohort. Demographic profile, SSc subtype, autoantibody status, Medsger severity scores, pulmonary function tests, echocardiography, and right heart catheterization parameters were compared between late-age versus younger-age onset patients. RESULTS Overall, 2084 (91%) patients developed SSc prior to age 65; whereas 216 (9%) were ≥65 years. Late-age onset patients had a significantly higher proportion of anti-centromere antibodies (42% vs 27%; p=0.001) compared to younger-age onset. Risk of pulmonary hypertension (OR 1.77; 95%CI 1.00, 3.12), muscle weakness (OR 1.85; 95%CI 1.30, 2.64), renal impairment (OR 2.83; 95%CI 1.98, 4.04) and cardiac disease (OR 2.69; 95%CI 1.92, 3.78) was greater among those with late-age onset SSc; although risk of digital ischemia (OR 0.64; 95%CI 0.47, 0.86) was reduced. The cumulative incidence of pulmonary hypertension at 5 years was greater among those with late-age (9%) compared to younger-age (2.5%) onset SSc (log-rank, p<0.001). CONCLUSION These findings suggest that older SSc patients are at greater risk for pulmonary hypertension, renal impairment, cardiac disease, and muscle weakness. Awareness of the distinct risk for specific organ manifestations in SSc, in particular pulmonary hypertension, should guide the care of older SSc patients whose disease begins after age 65 years. PMID:21685299

  4. The importance of decision onset.

    PubMed

    Teichert, Tobias; Grinband, Jack; Ferrera, Vincent

    2016-02-01

    The neural mechanisms of decision making are thought to require the integration of evidence over time until a response threshold is reached. Much work suggests that response threshold can be adjusted via top-down control as a function of speed or accuracy requirements. In contrast, the time of integration onset has received less attention and is believed to be determined mostly by afferent or preprocessing delays. However, a number of influential studies over the past decade challenge this assumption and begin to paint a multifaceted view of the phenomenology of decision onset. This review highlights the challenges involved in initiating the integration of evidence at the optimal time and the potential benefits of adjusting integration onset to task demands. The review outlines behavioral and electrophysiolgical studies suggesting that the onset of the integration process may depend on properties of the stimulus, the task, attention, and response strategy. Most importantly, the aggregate findings in the literature suggest that integration onset may be amenable to top-down regulation, and may be adjusted much like response threshold to exert cognitive control and strategically optimize the decision process to fit immediate behavioral requirements. PMID:26609111

  5. Late Onset Clozapine Induced Agranulocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Velayudhan, Rajmohan; Kakkan, Sushil

    2014-01-01

    Agranulocytosis is defined as an absolute neutrophil count less than 100/mm3 in association with infectious disease. The risk of agranulocytosis is 0.38% of all clozapine treated cases and there is a relatively lesser incidence in Indian population. The risk of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis and neutropenia is highest in the first 6 months and higher in the initial 18 months after the onset of treatment. There have been very few reports of neutropenia and agranulocytosis after this period. There have so far been no reports of late onset clozapine induced agranulocytosis has been reported from India. A case of late onset clozapine induced agranulocytosis with possible mechanism of the same is reported. PMID:25336778

  6. Cutaneous warming promotes sleep onset.

    PubMed

    Raymann, Roy J E M; Swaab, Dick F; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2005-06-01

    Sleep occurs in close relation to changes in body temperature. Both the monophasic sleep period in humans and the polyphasic sleep periods in rodents tend to be initiated when core body temperature is declining. This decline is mainly due to an increase in skin blood flow and consequently skin warming and heat loss. We have proposed that these intrinsically occurring changes in core and skin temperatures could modulate neuronal activity in sleep-regulating brain areas (Van Someren EJW, Chronobiol Int 17: 313-54, 2000). We here provide results compatible with this hypothesis. We obtained 144 sleep-onset latencies while directly manipulating core and skin temperatures within the comfortable range in eight healthy subjects under controlled conditions. The induction of a proximal skin temperature difference of only 0.78 +/- 0.03 degrees C (mean +/- SE) around a mean of 35.13 +/- 0.11 degrees C changed sleep-onset latency by 26%, i.e., by 3.09 minutes [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.91 to 4.28] around a mean of 11.85 min (CI, 9.74 to 14.41), with faster sleep onsets when the proximal skin was warmed. The reduction in sleep-onset latency occurred despite a small but significant decrease in subjective comfort during proximal skin warming. The induction of changes in core temperature (delta = 0.20 +/- 0.02 degrees C) and distal skin temperature (delta = 0.74 +/- 0.05 degrees C) were ineffective. Previous studies have demonstrated correlations between skin temperature and sleep-onset latency. Also, sleep disruption by ambient temperatures that activate thermoregulatory defense mechanisms has been shown. The present study is the first to experimentally demonstrate a causal contribution to sleep-onset latency of skin temperature manipulations within the normal nocturnal fluctuation range. Circadian and sleep-appetitive behavior-induced variations in skin temperature might act as an input signal to sleep-regulating systems. PMID:15677527

  7. Quality of Early Family Relationships and Individual Differences in the Timing of Pubertal Maturation in Girls: A Longitudinal Test of an Evolutionary Model

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Bruce J.; McFadyen-Ketchum, Steven; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    2009-01-01

    In an 8-year prospective study of 173 girls and their families, the authors tested predictions from J. Belsky, L. Steinberg, and P. Draper's (1991) evolutionary model of individual differences in pubertal timing. This model suggests that more negative–coercive (or less positive–harmonious) family relationships in early childhood provoke earlier reproductive development in adolescence. Consistent with the model, fathers' presence in the home, more time spent by fathers in child care, greater supportiveness in the parental dyad, more father–daughter affection, and more mother–daughter affection, as assessed prior to kindergarten, each predicted later pubertal timing by daughters in 7th grade, The positive dimension of family relationships, rather than the negative dimension, accounted for these relations. In total, the quality of fathers' investment in the family emerged as the most important feature of the proximal family environment relative to daughters' pubertal timing. PMID:10474213

  8. Deleterious effects of obesity on physical fitness in pre-pubertal children.

    PubMed

    Ceschia, Arianna; Giacomini, Stefano; Santarossa, Simone; Rugo, Miriam; Salvadego, Desy; Da Ponte, Alessandro; Driussi, Caterina; Mihaleje, Martina; Poser, Stefano; Lazzer, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in children has increased dramatically during the past decades in Europe and understanding physical fitness and its components in children is critical to design and implement effective interventions. The objective of the present study was to analyse the association between physical fitness (aerobic, speed, agility, power, flexibility and balance) and body mass index (BMI) in pre-pubertal children. A total of 2411 healthy schoolchildren (7-11 years) participated in this study. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition were assessed by skinfold thickness. Physical fitness was measured by nine physical fitness tests: endurance running, 20 m running speed, agility, handgrip strength, standing long jump and squat jump, sit and reach, medicine ball forward throw and static balance. No relevant differences were observed between boys and girls regarding anthropometric characteristics, body composition and physical fitness. However, overweight and obese children showed significantly lower physical fitness levels in endurance running, speed and agility (mean: +18.8, +5.5 and +14.5% of time to complete tasks, respectively), lower limb power normalised to body mass (-23.3%) and balance tests (number of falls: +165.5%) than their normal weight counterparts. On the other hand, obesity did not affect handgrip, throwing and flexibility. In conclusion, increased BMI was associated with lower performance capabilities limiting proper motor skill development, which directly affects the ability of children to take on sports skills. Actions undertaken to promote children's wellness and fitness should be prioritised and introduced early in life with the aim of enhancing physical fitness as well as preventing overweight and obesity. PMID:25866877

  9. Sexually dimorphic innate immunological responses of pre-pubertal Brahman cattle following an intravenous lipopolysaccharide challenge.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Jeffery A; Burdick Sanchez, Nicole C; Hulbert, Lindsey E; Ballou, Michael A; Dailey, Jeffery W; Caldwell, Lisa C; Vann, Rhonda C; Welsh, Thomas H; Randel, Ronald D

    2015-08-15

    This study was designed to characterize potential sexually dimorphic immunological responses following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in beef cattle. Six female (heifers) and five male (bulls) Brahman calves (average age=253 ± 19.9 and 288 ± 47.9 days; average body weight=194 ± 11 kg and 247 ± 19 kg for heifers and bulls, respectively) were challenged with LPS (0.25 μg LPS/kg body weight). Following administration of LPS, all cattle displayed increased sickness behavior beginning at 0.5h, with heifers on average displaying less sickness behavior than bulls. A febrile response was observed in all animals following LPS administration, with a maximum response observed from 4 to 5.5h. The average rectal temperature response was greater in heifers than bulls. In all cattle there were elevated serum concentrations of cortisol from 0.5 to 8h, TNF-α from 1 to 2.5h, IL-6 from 2 to 8h, and IFN-γ from 2.5 to 7h after LPS challenge. Additionally, serum concentrations of TNF-α were greater in heifers than bulls from 1.5 to 2h after the LPS challenge. Concentrations of IFN-γ were also greater on average in bulls than heifers. Leukopenia occurred from 1 to 8h, with a decreased neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio for the first 5h among all calves. These data demonstrate the existence of a sexually dimorphic acute-phase response in pre-pubertal Brahman calves. Specifically, heifers may have a more robust acute response to LPS challenge, even though bulls display more signs of sickness. PMID:26144890

  10. Sex-dependent consequences of pre-pubertal gonadectomy: Social behavior, stress and ethanol responsivity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Esther U; Spear, Linda P

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption can be enhanced or moderated by sensitivity to its aversive and appetitive properties, including positive social outcomes. These differences emerge post-pubertally, suggesting a potential role of gonadal hormones. To determine the role of gonadal hormones in sensitivity to the social impairing and social context-related attenuations in the aversive effects of ethanol, prepubertal male and female rats were gonadectomized (GX) or sham (SH) operated on postnatal day (P) 25, or left non-manipulated (NM). In adulthood (P70), rats were restrained for 90 min prior to challenge with 0.0 or 1.0 g/kg ethanol and social interaction (SI) testing. At P77, groups of 4 same-sex littermates from the same surgical condition were given access to a supersaccharin (SS) solution (3% sucrose, 0.125% saccharin), followed by an intraperitoneal injection of ethanol (0.0, 0.50, 1.0, 1.5 g/kg). Intakes of SS were examined 24h later for expression of conditioned taste aversions. Acute stress prior to SI testing increased frequency of play fighting in both sexes, whereas there were no GX effects on this measure, social investigation nor contact. GX, however, decreased baseline social preference (a social anxiety-like effect) in males, while inducing anxiolytic-like increases in baseline social preference in females. The social drinking test revealed that females developed ethanol conditioned taste aversions at a lower dose relative to males, regardless of surgical condition. These findings suggest a potential role for gonadal hormones in moderating social-anxiety like behaviors but not sensitivity to the social impairing effects of ethanol or ethanol's aversive consequences in a social context. PMID:26386303

  11. Pubertal exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate influences social behavior and dopamine receptor D2 of adult female mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ran; Xu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Qingjie

    2016-02-01

    DEHP, one of the most commonly phthalates used in plastics and many other products, is an environmental endocrine disruptor (EED). Puberty is another critical period for the brain development besides the neonatal period and is sensitive to EEDs. Social behavior is organized during puberty, so the present study is to investigate whether pubertal exposure to DEHP influenced social behavior of adult female mice. The results showed that pubertal exposure to DEHP for 2 weeks did not change the serum level of 17β-estradiol and the weight of uterus of adult females, but decreased the number of grid crossings and the frequency of rearing, and increased grooming in open field. DEHP reduced the open arm entries and the time spent in open arms in the elevated plus maze. DEHP reduced mutual sniffing and grooming between unfamiliar conspecifics in social play task and reduced the right chamber (containing unfamiliar female mouse) entries and the frequency of sniffing unfamiliar female mouse. DEHP at 1 mg kg(-1) d(-1) reduced the time spent in right chamber. Furthermore, Western blot analyses showed that DEHP decreased the levels of estrogen receptor β (ERβ), dopamine receptor D2, and the phosphorylation of ERKs in striatum. These results suggest that pubertal exposure to DEHP impaired social investigation and sociability and influenced anxiety-like state of adult female mice. The decreased activity of ERK1/2, and the down-regulated D2 and ERβ in striatum may be associated with the DEHP-induced changes of emotional and social behavior in mice. PMID:26524146

  12. Pubertal bisphenol A exposure alters murine mammary stem cell function leading to early neoplasia in regenerated glands.

    PubMed

    Wang, Danhan; Gao, Hui; Bandyopadhyay, Abhik; Wu, Anqi; Yeh, I-Tien; Chen, Yidong; Zou, Yi; Huang, Changjiang; Walter, Christi A; Dong, Qiaoxiang; Sun, Lu-Zhe

    2014-04-01

    Perinatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to cause aberrant mammary gland morphogenesis and mammary neoplastic transformation. Yet, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that mammary glands exposed to BPA during a susceptible window may lead to its susceptibility to tumorigenesis through a stem cell-mediated mechanism. We exposed 21-day-old Balb/c mice to BPA by gavage (25 μg/kg/d) during puberty for 3 weeks, and a subset of animals were further challenged with one oral dose (30 mg/kg) of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) at 2 months of age. Primary mammary cells were isolated at 6 weeks, and 2 and 4 months of age for murine mammary stem cell (MaSC) quantification and function analysis. Pubertal exposure to the low-dose BPA increased lateral branches and hyperplasia in adult mammary glands and caused an acute increase of MaSC in 6-week-old glands and a delayed increase of luminal progenitors in 4-month-old adult gland. Most importantly, pubertal BPA exposure altered the function of MaSC from different age groups, causing early neoplastic lesions in their regenerated glands similar to those induced by DMBA exposure, which indicates that MaSCs are susceptible to BPA-induced transformation. Deep sequencing analysis on MaSC-enriched mammospheres identified a set of aberrantly expressed genes associated with early neoplastic lesions in patients with human breast cancer. Thus, our study for the first time shows that pubertal BPA exposure altered MaSC gene expression and function such that they induced early neoplastic transformation. PMID:24520039

  13. Effects of Pubertal Exposure to Dietary Soy on Estrogen Receptor Activity in the Breast of Cynomolgus Macaques.

    PubMed

    Dewi, Fitriya N; Wood, Charles E; Willson, Cynthia J; Register, Thomas C; Lees, Cynthia J; Howard, Timothy D; Huang, Zhiqing; Murphy, Susan K; Tooze, Janet A; Chou, Jeff W; Miller, Lance D; Cline, J Mark

    2016-05-01

    Endogenous estrogens influence mammary gland development during puberty and breast cancer risk during adulthood. Early-life exposure to dietary or environmental estrogens may alter estrogen-mediated processes. Soy foods contain phytoestrogenic isoflavones (IF), which have mixed estrogen agonist/antagonist properties. Here, we evaluated mammary gland responses over time in pubertal female cynomolgus macaques fed diets containing either casein/lactalbumin (n = 12) or soy protein containing a human-equivalent dose of 120 mg IF/day (n = 17) for approximately 4.5 years spanning menarche. We assessed estrogen receptor (ER) expression and activity, promoter methylation of ERs and their downstream targets, and markers of estrogen metabolism. Expression of ERα and classical ERα response genes (TFF1, PGR, and GREB1) decreased with maturity, independent of diet. A significant inverse correlation was observed between TFF1 mRNA and methylation of CpG sites within the TFF1 promoter. Soy effects included lower ERβ expression before menarche and lower mRNA for ERα and GREB1 after menarche. Expression of GATA-3, an epithelial differentiation marker that regulates ERα-mediated transcription, was elevated before menarche and decreased after menarche in soy-fed animals. Soy did not significantly alter expression of other ER activity markers, estrogen-metabolizing enzymes, or promoter methylation for ERs or ER-regulated genes. Our results demonstrate greater ER expression and activity during the pubertal transition, supporting the idea that this life stage is a critical window for phenotypic modulation by estrogenic compounds. Pubertal soy exposure decreases mammary ERα expression after menarche and exerts subtle effects on receptor activity and mammary gland differentiation. Cancer Prev Res; 9(5); 385-95. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27006379

  14. Does soaking temperature during controlled slow freezing of pre-pubertal mouse testes influence course of in vitro spermatogenesis?

    PubMed

    Arkoun, Brahim; Dumont, Ludovic; Milazzo, Jean-Pierre; Rondanino, Christine; Bironneau, Amandine; Wils, Julien; Rives, Nathalie

    2016-06-01

    The banking of testicular tissue before highly gonadotoxic treatment is a prerequisite for the preservation of fertility in pre-pubertal boys not yet producing sperm. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the impact of a soaking temperature performed at -7 °C, -8 °C or -9 °C on the ability of frozen-thawed mouse spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) to generate haploid germ cells after in vitro maturation. Testes of 6.5-day-old post-partum CD-1 mice were cryopreserved by using a controlled slow freezing protocol with soaking at -7 °C, -8 °C or -9 °C. Frozen-thawed pre-pubertal testicular tissues were cultured in vitro on agarose gel for 30 days. Histological evaluations were performed and flagellated late spermatids were counted after mechanical dissection of the cultured tissues. The differentiation of frozen SSCs into elongated spermatids was more efficient after treatment at -9 °C than at -7 °C and -8 °C. After dissection, flagellated late spermatids were observed by using Shorr staining. The number of flagellated late spermatids was significantly decreased after slow freezing when compared with a fresh tissue control. Therefore, the soaking temperature during slow freezing of pre-pubertal mouse testicular tissue might positively influence the course of in vitro spermatogenesis. Our slow freezing protocol with a soaking temperature at -9 °C was the optimal condition in terms of the achievement of in vitro spermatogenesis with a higher production of elongated spermatids, although the effectiveness of the maturation process was reduced compared with the fresh tissue control. PMID:26714728

  15. Hormonal mechanisms in the onset of puberty

    PubMed Central

    Swerdloff, Ronald S.; Odell, William D.

    1975-01-01

    Sexual maturation is associated with increasing levels of sex steroids. These steroidal events are the result of complex changes that occur at several functional levels including the hypothalamus, pituitary, gonad and adrenal gland. These changes, as outlined in Table 3, are often interrelated. While considerable progress has been made in our understanding of the hormonal events associated with sexual maturation, many important questions remain unanswered. Further intensive investigation will be required before we have a lucid understanding of the physiological basis of the sequence of hormonal events which occur during the pubertal process. PMID:1197148

  16. Delayed onset of the 2002 Indian monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flatau, M. K.; Flatau, P. J.; Schmidt, J.; Kiladis, G. N.

    2003-07-01

    We show that there is a set of dynamical predictors, which facilitate forecasting of a delayed monsoon onset. The main dynamical contributor is the early May propagation of the ``bogus onset Intraseasonal Oscillation'' which triggers a set of events precluding the climatological monsoon onset. We analyze in detail the 2002 monsoon onset and show that it followed a pattern described in our previous study. We notice that the 2003 monsoon onset followed very similar pattern and was delayed.

  17. The Moderating Effects of Pubertal Timing on the Longitudinal Associations Between Parent-Child Relationship Quality and Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Katherine H.; van den Bree, Marianne B.M.

    2010-01-01

    This prospective, longitudinal study investigated the moderating role of pubertal timing on reciprocal links between adolescent appraisals of parent-child relationship quality and girls’ (N=1335) and boys’ (N=1203) cigarette and alcohol use across a twelve-month period. Reciprocal effects were found between parent-child relations and on-time maturing boys and girls’ cigarette and alcohol use, after estimating stability in these constructs across time. Parent-child relationship quality was associated with increased alcohol use twelve months later for early maturing girls. Cigarette and alcohol use were associated with increased problems in the parent-child relationship for late maturing girls. No off-time effects were observed for off-time maturing boys in the pathways between parent-child relationship quality and substance use. Pubertal timing moderated the pathway linking parent-child relationship quality with cigarette use one year later such that the association was stronger for late maturing girls compared to early and on-time maturing girls. The findings indicate interplay between the psychosocial aspects of maturation, family relationships and adolescent substance use and highlight possible gender-specific influences. PMID:21170159

  18. Long-term consequences of pubertal timing for youth depression: Identifying personal and contextual pathways of risk

    PubMed Central

    RUDOLPH, KAREN D.; TROOP-GORDON, WENDY; LAMBERT, SHARON F.; NATSUAKI, MISAKI N.

    2015-01-01

    This research explored sex differences in the pathways linking pubertal timing to depression across 4 years. A sample of 167 youth (M age = 12.41 years, SD = 1.19) and their caregivers completed measures of puberty and semistructured interviews of interpersonal stress and youth depression. Youth reported on psychological (negative self-focus, anxious arousal) and social–behavioral (coping) characteristics; parents reported on youths’ social–behavioral characteristics (withdrawal/social problems) and deviant peer affiliations. Early maturation predicted stable high trajectories of depression in girls; although early maturing boys showed low initial levels of depression, they did not differ from girls by the final wave of the study. Latent growth curve analyses identified several psychological, social–behavioral, and interpersonal pathways accounting for the contribution of pubertal timing to initial and enduring risk for depression in girls as well as emerging risk for depression in boys. These findings provide novel insight into multilevel processes accounting for sex differences in depression across the adolescent transition. PMID:25422971

  19. Long-term consequences of pubertal timing for youth depression: Identifying personal and contextual pathways of risk.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Karen D; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Lambert, Sharon F; Natsuaki, Misaki N

    2014-11-01

    This research explored sex differences in the pathways linking pubertal timing to depression across 4 years. A sample of 167 youth (M age = 12.41 years, SD = 1.19) and their caregivers completed measures of puberty and semistructured interviews of interpersonal stress and youth depression. Youth reported on psychological (negative self-focus, anxious arousal) and social-behavioral (coping) characteristics; parents reported on youths' social-behavioral characteristics (withdrawal/social problems) and deviant peer affiliations. Early maturation predicted stable high trajectories of depression in girls; although early maturing boys showed low initial levels of depression, they did not differ from girls by the final wave of the study. Latent growth curve analyses identified several psychological, social-behavioral, and interpersonal pathways accounting for the contribution of pubertal timing to initial and enduring risk for depression in girls as well as emerging risk for depression in boys. These findings provide novel insight into multilevel processes accounting for sex differences in depression across the adolescent transition. PMID:25422971

  20. Brief communication: a proposed method for the assessment of pubertal stage in human skeletal remains using cervical vertebrae maturation.

    PubMed

    Shapland, Fiona; Lewis, Mary E

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of age-at-death in non-adult skeletal remains is under constant review. However, in many past societies an individual's physical maturation may have been more important in social terms than their exact age, particularly during the period of adolescence. In a recent article (Shapland and Lewis: Am J Phys Anthropol 151 (2013) 302-310) highlighted a set of dental and skeletal indicators that may be useful in mapping the progress of the pubertal growth spurt. This article presents a further skeletal indicator of adolescent development commonly used by modern clinicians: cervical vertebrae maturation (CVM). This method is applied to a collection of 594 adolescents from the medieval cemetery of St. Mary Spital, London. Analysis reveals a potential delay in ages of attainment of the later CVM stages compared with modern adolescents, presumably reflecting negative environmental conditions for growth and development. The data gathered on CVM is compared to other skeletal indicators of pubertal maturity and long bone growth from this site to ascertain the usefulness of this method on archaeological collections. PMID:24318949

  1. Failure of differences in prepubertal dietary intake to affect ovarian development in pubertal beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing replacement heifers on lower energy diets to a lighter body weight at first breeding can reduce input costs but may impede follicular development and onset of puberty. The objective was to determine whether lower dietary intake prepubertally impedes ovarian development in purebred or cros...

  2. Pubertal Development and Behavior: Hormonal Activation of Social and Motivational Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Erika E.; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of dramatic changes including rapid physical growth, the onset of sexual maturation, the activation of new drives and motivations, and a wide array of social and affective changes and challenges. This review focuses on behavioral changes in this interval and is organized by the claim that a key set of these adolescent changes…

  3. Toward a New Understanding of Early Menarche: The Role of Environmental Stress in Pubertal Timing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wierson, Michelle; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined divorce and interparental conflict in light of theory that environmental stress may trigger early menarche in adolescents. Findings from 71 adolescent females and their mothers revealed that, compared to girls from intact families, those from divorced families had earlier onset of menarche. Higher maternal reports of interparental…

  4. Pubertal Development and Sexual Intercourse among Adolescent Girls: An Examination of Direct, Mediated, and Spurious Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savolainen, Jukka; Mason, W. Alex; Hughes, Lorine A.; Ebeling, Hanna; Hurtig, Tuula M.; Taanila, Anja M.

    2015-01-01

    There are strong reasons to assume that early onset of puberty accelerates coital debut among adolescent girls. Although many studies support this assumption, evidence regarding the putative causal processes is limited and inconclusive. In this research, longitudinal data from the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort Study (N = 2,596) were used to…

  5. Assessment of pubertal development of boars derived from ultrasonographic determination of testicular diameter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At the onset of puberty, seminiferous tubules rapidly increase in diameter occupying a greater proportion of the testis with a consequent rapid increase in testicular size. The objective of the current studies was to evaluate the utility of ultrasonography to assess testicular diameter as a basis fo...

  6. Pubertal Development of the Understanding of Social Emotions: Implications for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Stephanie; Thompson, Stephanie; Bird, Geoffrey; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2011-01-01

    Recent developmental cognitive neuroscience research has supported the notion that puberty and adolescence are periods of profound socio-emotional development. The current study was designed to investigate whether the onset of puberty marks an increase in the awareness of complex, or "mixed," emotions. Eighty-three female participants (aged 9-16…

  7. Pubertal Development Moderates the Importance of Environmental Influences on Depressive Symptoms in Adolescent Girls and Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Alexis C.; Rose, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Dick, Danielle M.

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence differences in depressive symptoms between the sexes typically emerge in adolescence, with symptoms more prevalent among girls. Some evidence suggests that variation in onset and progression of puberty might contribute to these differences. This study used a genetically informative, longitudinal (assessed at ages 12, 14, and 17) sample…

  8. Acute onset of postoperative syringohydromyelia.

    PubMed

    Rao, K Santosh Mohan; Balasubramaniam, Chidambaram; Subramaniam, K

    2015-01-01

    Syringohydromyelia is a frequent finding in cases of tethered cord syndrome. The classical teaching is that the development and progression of a syrinx is a chronic process. We present a case report of an acute onset syringomyelia in an infant, who underwent an excision of a lumbosacral transitional lipoma and detethering of the cord. Immediately after recovery, the infant was found to have flaccid paraplegia. An emergency magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large acute onset syringomyelia for which he underwent an emergency midline myelotomy and release of fluid from the syrinx. Though the eventual recovery was good, this made us re-visit our understanding of the concept of syringohydromyelia. The case details and a plausible hypothesis for the rapid development of the syrinx are presented. PMID:26557165

  9. Acute onset of postoperative syringohydromyelia

    PubMed Central

    Rao, K. Santosh Mohan; Balasubramaniam, Chidambaram; Subramaniam, K.

    2015-01-01

    Syringohydromyelia is a frequent finding in cases of tethered cord syndrome. The classical teaching is that the development and progression of a syrinx is a chronic process. We present a case report of an acute onset syringomyelia in an infant, who underwent an excision of a lumbosacral transitional lipoma and detethering of the cord. Immediately after recovery, the infant was found to have flaccid paraplegia. An emergency magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large acute onset syringomyelia for which he underwent an emergency midline myelotomy and release of fluid from the syrinx. Though the eventual recovery was good, this made us re-visit our understanding of the concept of syringohydromyelia. The case details and a plausible hypothesis for the rapid development of the syrinx are presented. PMID:26557165

  10. Abrupt-Onset Severe Headaches

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Yo-El S.; Schwedt, Todd J.

    2013-01-01

    Thunderclap headache, a severe headache which is maximal in intensity at onset, is associated with numerous underlying disorders, including subarachnoid hemorrhage, unruptured intracranial aneurysm, cervical artery dissection, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, and reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy. After exclusion of all possible causes, thunderclap headache may be considered a primary headache. This review summarizes the diagnostic considerations and clinical approach to thunderclap headache, with particular emphasis on the reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes. PMID:20352589

  11. Use of a stair-step compensatory gain nutritional regimen to program the onset of puberty in beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, R C; Alves, B R C; Prezotto, L D; Thorson, J F; Tedeschi, L O; Keisler, D H; Park, C S; Amstalden, M; Williams, G L

    2014-07-01

    proportion of heifers pubertal by 12 mo of age in the SS-2 group (40%) was lower (P < 0.05) than both HC and SS-1. However, by 14 mo of age, 90% of heifers in the SS-2 group had also attained puberty compared to only 40% of the LC group. In summary, these data provide evidence that changes in the nutritional and metabolic status during the early juvenile period can program the onset of puberty that occurs months later, allowing optimal timing of sexual maturation in replacement beef heifers. PMID:24879767

  12. New-onset atrial fibrillation and thromboembolic risk: Cardiovascular syzygy?

    PubMed

    Procter, Nathan E K; Stewart, Simon; Horowitz, John D

    2016-06-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a condition that confers increased thromboembolic risk. Oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy can attenuate this risk. However, use of OAC therapy is determined largely by the presence of additional clinical factors (encapsulated by the CHA2DS2VASc score) that incrementally elevate stroke risk. Currently, there is no specific recommendation regarding urgency of initiation of OAC therapy in the presence of new-onset AF, except where cardioversion is being considered. Recently, it has become increasingly apparent that there is a period immediately following the onset of AF of particularly accentuated thromboembolic risk (with respect to chronic AF): the physiological bases for this risk are as yet incompletely understood. However, given that both inflammation and impaired nitric oxide signaling are pivotally involved in the pathogenesis of AF, these factors may also mediate thrombotic risk in the context of new-onset AF. Advances in OAC therapy have recently been achieved, with development of agents that are comparable or superior to warfarin for mitigation of stroke risk, but with a safety profile similar to aspirin therapy. Thus, the incremental increase in thromboembolic risk experienced by new-onset AF patients constitutes a previously widely neglected case in favor of the rapid application of OAC therapy to such individuals. This review seeks to summarize the thromboembolic risk observed in new-onset AF and the emerging understanding of the physiological bases for this risk. PMID:26690062

  13. Dipolarization Fronts from Reconnection Onset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitnov, M. I.; Swisdak, M. M.; Merkin, V. G.; Buzulukova, N.; Moore, T. E.

    2012-12-01

    Dipolarization fronts observed in the magnetotail are often viewed as signatures of bursty magnetic reconnection. However, until recently spontaneous reconnection was considered to be fully prohibited in the magnetotail geometry because of the linear stability of the ion tearing mode. Recent theoretical studies showed that spontaneous reconnection could be possible in the magnetotail geometries with the accumulation of magnetic flux at the tailward end of the thin current sheet, a distinctive feature of the magnetotail prior to substorm onset. That result was confirmed by open-boundary full-particle simulations of 2D current sheet equilibria, where two magnetotails were separated by an equilibrium X-line and weak external electric field was imposed to nudge the system toward the instability threshold. To investigate the roles of the equilibrium X-line, driving electric field and other parameters in the reconnection onset process we performed a set of 2D PIC runs with different initial settings. The investigated parameter space includes the critical current sheet thickness, flux tube volume per unit magnetic flux and the north-south component of the magnetic field. Such an investigation is critically important for the implementation of kinetic reconnection onset criteria into global MHD codes. The results are compared with Geotail visualization of the magnetotail during substorms, as well as Cluster and THEMIS observations of dipolarization fronts.

  14. Differential effects of short term feeding of a soy protein isolate diet and estrogen treatment on bone in the pre-pubertal rat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beneficial effects of a soy diet on bone quality have been assumed to be due to the putative estrogenic actions of isoflavones. We studied the effects of soy protein isolate (SPI) on bone quality and compared these effects to 17 beta-estradiol (E2) in pre-pubertal rats. Female rats were weaned to a ...

  15. EVALUATION OF AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE IN THE ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR SCREENING AND TESTING PROGRAM'S MALE PUBERTAL PROTOCOL: ABILITY TO DETECT EFFECTS OF THYROID ENDPOINTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S EPA Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program Tier 1 male pubertal protocol was designed to detect reproductive development and thyroid function. One purpose of this in vivo protocol is to detect thyrotoxicants via a number of different mechanisms of action. Here we evaluate ...

  16. THE EFFECT OF ATRAZINE ON PUBERTY IN THE MALE WISTAR RATS: AN EVALUATION IN THE PROTOCOL FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT AND THYROID FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since atrazine (ATR), a chlorotriazine herbicide, has been shown previously to alter the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL) through a direct effect on the central nervous system (CNS), we hypothesized that exposure to ATR in the EDSTAC male pubertal protoco...

  17. Are the Effects of Early Pubertal Timing on the Initiation of Weekly Alcohol Use Mediated by Peers and/or Parents? A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Knibbe, Ronald A.; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether the link between early pubertal timing and initiation of weekly alcohol use is mediated by changes in perceived parental alcohol-specific rule setting and changes in perceived proportion of drinkers in the peer group. Longitudinal data including 3 annual waves were used to estimate the hazard for adolescents to initiate…

  18. Modifications to the Current EPA Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program's Tier 1 Female Pubertal Protocol: A Study on the Effects of the Chlorotriazine Simazine

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently the US EPA is implementing a screening program for environmental endocrine disruptors. One of the in vivo assays in the Tier 1 Screen of the Endocrine Disruptors Screening Program (EDSP) is a female pubertal assay. In this study we examined the chlorotriazine simazine, ...

  19. HPA axis genetic variation, pubertal status, and sex interact to predict amygdala and hippocampus responses to negative emotional faces in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L; Bogdan, Ryan; Agrawal, Arpana; Gaffrey, Michael S; Belden, Andrew C; Botteron, Kelly N; Harms, Michael P; Barch, Deanna M

    2015-04-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests a role for stress exposure, particularly during early life, and for variation in genes involved in stress response pathways in neural responsivity to emotional stimuli. Understanding how individual differences in these factors predict differences in emotional responsivity may be important for understanding both normative emotional development and for understanding the mechanisms underlying internalizing disorders, like anxiety and depression, that have often been related to increased amygdala and hippocampus responses to negatively valenced emotional stimuli. The present study examined whether stress exposure and genetic profile scores (10 single nucleotide polymorphisms within four hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis genes: CRHR1, NR3C2, NR3C1, and FKBP5) predict individual differences in amygdala and hippocampus responses to fearful vs. neutral faces in school-age children (7-12 year olds; N = 107). Experience of more stressful and traumatic life events predicted greater left amygdala responses to negative emotional stimuli. Genetic profile scores interacted with sex and pubertal status to predict amygdala and hippocampus responses. Specifically, genetic profile scores were a stronger predictor of amygdala and hippocampus responses among pubertal vs. prepubertal children where they positively predicted responses to fearful faces among pubertal girls and positively predicted responses to neutral faces among pubertal boys. The current results suggest that genetic and environmental stress-related factors may be important in normative individual differences in responsivity to negative emotional stimuli, a potential mechanism underlying internalizing disorders. Further, sex and pubertal development may be key moderators of the effects of stress-system genetic variation on amygdala and hippocampus responsivity, potentially relating to sex differences in stress-related psychopathology. PMID:25583614

  20. HPA Axis Genetic Variation, Pubertal Status, and Sex Interact to Predict Amygdala and Hippocampus Responses to Negative Emotional Faces in School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L.; Bogdan, Ryan; Agrawal, Arpana; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Belden, Andrew C.; Botteron, Kelly N.; Harms, Michael P.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests a role for stress exposure, particularly during early life, and for variation in genes involved in stress response pathways in neural responsivity to emotional stimuli. Understanding how individual differences in these factors predict differences in emotional responsivity may be important for understanding both normative emotional development and for understanding the mechanisms underlying internalizing disorders, like anxiety and depression, that have often been related to increased amygdala and hippocampus responses to negatively valenced emotional stimuli. The present study examined whether stress exposure and genetic profile scores (10 single nucleotide polymorphisms within four hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis genes: CRHR1, NR3C2, NR3C1, and FKBP5) predict individual differences in amygdala and hippocampus responses to fearful vs. neutral faces in school-age children (7–12 year olds; N=107). Experience of more stressful and traumatic life events predicted greater left amygdala responses to negative emotional stimuli. Genetic profile scores interacted with sex and pubertal status to predict amygdala and hippocampus responses. Specifically, genetic profile scores were a stronger predictor of amygdala and hippocampus responses among pubertal vs. prepubertal children where they positively predicted responses to fearful faces among pubertal girls and positively predicted responses to neutral faces among pubertal boys. The current results suggest that genetic and environmental stress-related factors may be important in normative individual differences in responsivity to negative emotional stimuli, a potential mechanism underlying internalizing disorders. Further, sex and pubertal development may be key moderators of the effects of stress-system genetic variation on amygdala and hippocampus responsivity, potentially relating to sex differences in stress-related psychopathology. PMID:25583614

  1. The Onset of Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daldorff, Lars K. S.; Klimchuk, James A.; van der Holst, Bart

    2015-04-01

    A fundamental question concerning magnetic energy release on the Sun is why the release occurs only after substantial stresses have been built up in the field. If reconnection were to occur readily, the released energy would be insufficient to explain coronal heating, CMEs, flares, jets, spicules, etc. How can we explain this switch-on property? What is the physical nature of the onset conditions? One idea involves the "secondary instability" of current sheets, which switches on when the rotation of the magnetic field across a current sheet reaches a critical angle. Such conditions would occur at the boundaries of flux tubes that become tangled and twisted by turbulent photospheric convection, for example. Other ideas involve a critical thickness for the current sheet. We report here on the preliminary results of our investigation of reconnect onset. Unlike our earlier work on the secondary instability (Dahlburg, Klimchuk, and Antiochos 2005), we treat the coupled chromosphere-corona system. Using the BATS-R-US MHD code, we simulate a single current sheet in a sheared magnetic field that extends from the chromosphere into the corona. Driver motions are applied at the base of the model. The configuration and chromosphere are both idealized, but capture the essential physics of the problem. The advantage of this unique approach is that it resolves the current sheet to the greatest extent possible while maintaining a realistic solar atmosphere. It thus bridges the gap between "reconnection in a box" studies and studies of large-scale systems such as active regions. One question we will address is whether onset conditions are met first in the chromosphere or corona. We will report on the work done on the project.

  2. Blunted Sleep-Related Luteinizing Hormone Rise in Healthy Premenarcheal Pubertal Girls with Elevated Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Bordini, Brian; Littlejohn, Elizabeth; Rosenfield, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Our objective was to determine whether excessive adiposity is associated with alteration of the normal hormonal changes of early pubertal girls. Design and Participants: Healthy 6.4- to 9.5-yr-old, prepubertal (PRE, n = 20) and 9.4- to 13.0-yr-old pubertal premenarcheal volunteers (PUB, n = 20) were divided into excessive-weight (EW) or normal-weight (NW) groups according to the 85th percentile body mass index. Interventions and Setting: Overnight blood sampling; GnRH agonist (GnRHag), low-dose ACTH, oral glucose tolerance tests, and pelvic ultrasonograms were performed in our Clinical Research Center. Results: EW girls were similar in age and baseline and ACTH- and GnRHag-stimulated androgen levels to stage-matched NW girls. However, the sleep-related LH rise was blunted in EW-PUB girls compared with NW-PUB girls. The sleep-related rise of mean LH in EW-PUB [0.68 ± 0.35 (sem) U/liter] was insignificant, less than that of NW-PUB (2.1 ± 0.45, P < 0.05) and not significantly different from that of PRE girls (0.08±0.03). EW-PUB had slower LH pulse frequency and a lower rise in LH pulse amplitude during sleep than NW-PUB girls (both P < 0.05). Overnight FSH patterns paralleled LH patterns, whereas estradiol levels were similar in stage-matched NW and EW groups, differing between stages as expected. Early morning and peak LH, FSH, and estradiol responses to GnRHag were similar in EW-PUB and NW-PUB and significantly greater than those of PRE girls. Conclusions: Healthy EW-PUB girls have significantly blunted sleep-related LH production. These data suggest that excess adiposity, in the absence of sex steroid excess, may subtly suppress hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal function in premenarcheal pubertal girls. PMID:19190110

  3. High prevalence of lipoatrophy in pre-pubertal South African children on antiretroviral therapy: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite changes in WHO guidelines, stavudine is still used extensively for treatment of pediatric HIV in the developing world. Lipoatrophy in sub-Saharan African children can be stigmatizing and have far-reaching consequences. The severity and extent of lipoatrophy in pre-pubertal children living in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown. Methods In this cross-sectional study, children who were 3-12 years old, on antiretroviral therapy and pre-pubertal were recruited from a Family HIV Clinic in South Africa. Lipoatrophy was identified and graded by consensus between two HIV pediatricians using a standardized grading scale. A professional dietician performed formal dietary assessment and anthropometric measurements of trunk and limb fat. Previous antiretroviral exposures were recorded. In a Dual-Energy X-ray Absorbtiometry (DXA) substudy body composition was determined in 42 participants. Results Among 100 recruits, the prevalence of visually obvious lipoatrophy was 36% (95% CI: 27%–45%). Anthropometry and DXA measurements corroborated the clinical diagnosis of lipoatrophy: Both confirmed significant, substantial extremity fat loss in children with visually obvious lipoatrophy, when adjusted for age and sex. Adjusted odds ratio for developing lipoatrophy was 1.9 (95% CI: 1.3 - 2.9) for each additional year of accumulated exposure to standard dose stavudine. Cumulative time on standard dose stavudine was significantly associated with reductions in biceps and triceps skin-fold thickness (p=0.008). Conclusions The prevalence of visually obvious lipoatrophy in pre-pubertal South African children on antiretroviral therapy is high. The amount of stavudine that children are exposed to needs review. Resources are needed to enable low-and-middle-income countries to provide suitable pediatric-formulated alternatives to stavudine-based pediatric regimens. The standard stavudine dose for children may need to be reduced. Diagnosis of lipoatrophy at an early stage is

  4. Neurobiology of Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biswas, Parthasarathy

    2008-01-01

    In the last decade there has been an exponential increase in studies on neurobiological measures in childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS). There seems to be a consensus that structural changes in COS are more marked than in adolescence-onset (AdOS) or adult-onset schizophrenia (AOS). Atrophy of total brain volume is progressive throughout the course…

  5. Inverse correlation of genetic risk score with age at onset in bout-onset and progressive-onset multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sorosina, Melissa; Esposito, Federica; Guaschino, Clara; Clarelli, Ferdinando; Barizzone, Nadia; Osiceanu, Ana Maria; Brambilla, Paola; Mascia, Elisabetta; Cavalla, Paola; Gallo, Paolo; Martinelli, Vittorio; Leone, Maurizio; Comi, Giancarlo; D'Alfonso, Sandra; Martinelli Boneschi, Filippo

    2015-10-01

    We correlated the weighted genetic risk score measured using 107 established susceptibility variants for multiple sclerosis (MS) with the age at onset in bout-onset (BOMS, n=906) and progressive-onset MS Italian patients (PrMS) (n=544). We observed an opposite relationship in the two disease courses: a higher weighted genetic risk score was associated with an earlier age at onset in BOMS (rho= -0.1; p=5 × 10(-3)) and a later age at onset in PrMS cases (rho=0.07; p=0.15) (p of difference of regression=1.4 × 10(-2)). These findings suggest that established MS risk variants anticipate the onset of the inflammatory phase, while they have no impact on, or even delay, the onset of the progressive phase. PMID:25533292

  6. The use of focus groups to examine pubertal concerns in preteen girls: initial findings and implications for practice and research.

    PubMed

    Doswell, W M; Vandestienne, G

    1996-01-01

    This article presents the findings of four focus groups aimed at discovering the concerns a group of 9- to 12-year-old African American and Hispanic girls (N = 38) had about puberty, the transition to adolescence, and growing up. Among the factors these girls liked about growing up were increasing independence from parents, widening social relations with same- and opposite-sex friends, and an increase in decision making regarding clothes and activities. What they reported as not liking about growing up were an increase in peer pressure, high parental expectations, and more responsibility for their actions in home, school, and recreational activities. Health care for this group must include systematic monitoring of pubertal development and concerns in order to aggressively educate preadolescents to negotiate this period smoothly and to avoid high-risk behaviors that could have negative health and social sequelae during adolescence and adulthood. PMID:8920329

  7. Do Trajectories of Household Risk in Childhood Moderate Pubertal Timing Effects on Substance Initiation in Middle School?

    PubMed Central

    Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D.; Graber, Julia A.; Andrews, Judy A.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on pubertal timing has either evaluated contextual predictors of early puberty or negative adjustment outcomes associated with off-time development, especially early maturation. In this study, we integrated these 2 lines of research by evaluating the moderating influence of early childhood household risk on associations between early puberty and 8th-grade substance use in a longitudinal sample of 1,070 participants. We determined trajectories of early childhood household risk using group-based trajectory analysis. Rates of early maturation were higher but not significantly so in groups with high household risk. Early timing was associated with higher rates of substance initiation only among individuals with a history of high household risk. PMID:20604607

  8. Control of puberty onset and fertility by gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons.

    PubMed

    Herbison, Allan E

    2016-08-01

    The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal network generates pulse and surge modes of gonadotropin secretion critical for puberty and fertility. The arcuate nucleus kisspeptin neurons that innervate the projections of GnRH neurons in and around their neurosecretory zone are key components of the pulse generator in all mammals. By contrast, kisspeptin neurons located in the preoptic area project to GnRH neuron cell bodies and proximal dendrites and are involved in surge generation in female rodents (and possibly other species). The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis develops embryonically but, apart from short periods of activation immediately after birth, remains suppressed through a combination of gonadal and non-gonadal mechanisms. At puberty onset, the pulse generator reactivates, probably owing to progressive stimulatory influences on GnRH neurons from glial and neurotransmitter signalling, and the re-emergence of stimulatory arcuate kisspeptin input. In females, the development of pulsatile gonadotropin secretion enables final maturation of the surge generator that ultimately triggers the first ovulation. Representation of the GnRH neuronal network as a series of interlocking functional modules could help conceptualization of its functioning in different species. Insights into pulse and surge generation are expected to aid development of therapeutic strategies ameliorating pubertal disorders and infertility in the clinic. PMID:27199290

  9. Pre-pubertal gonadectomy and the social consequences of acute ethanol in adolescent male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Morales, Melissa; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2014-07-01

    It has previously been shown that pre-pubertal or adult gonadectomy (GX) increases ethanol intake in male rats. This study examined whether this sex-selective increase reflects a GX-induced maintenance in males of more adolescent-typical responsiveness to ethanol characterized by enhanced sensitivity to positive (e.g., socially facilitating) and a decreased sensitivity to adverse (e.g., socially inhibitory) effects of ethanol. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-pubertally GX, sham (SH)-operated, or non-manipulated (NM) at postnatal day (P) 25. During the late adolescent transition into adulthood (P48 - baseline day), rats were given a saline injection, placed alone into a familiar test apparatus for 30min and then exposed for 10min to an unfamiliar partner of the same age and sex. On the following day (P49), similar testing occurred after administration of 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 or 1.25g/kg ethanol. At baseline, GX males and females displayed higher levels of social activity (especially adolescent-typical play and contact behavior) than SH and NM animals, with GX females displaying greater social activity than GX males. Neither males nor females demonstrated social facilitation at lower ethanol doses, regardless of hormonal status. Whereas the social inhibitory effects of higher doses of ethanol were similar across groups among females, SH males were less sensitive than both GX and NM males to ethanol-induced social inhibition. These results suggest that enhanced ethanol intake in GX males is not related to alterations in sensitivity to ethanol's social inhibitory effects. GX, however, results in retention of adolescent-typical social behaviors, with older GX adolescent rats resembling early adolescents in exhibiting elevated social activity-particularly play and contact behavior. PMID:24816080

  10. Deslorelin implants in pre-pubertal female dogs: short- and long-term effects on the genital tract.

    PubMed

    Marino, G; Rizzo, S; Quartuccio, M; Macrì, F; Pagano, G; Taormina, A; Cristarella, S; Zanghì, A

    2014-04-01

    Deslorelin acetate is a GnRH agonist used for contraception in dogs. This study aimed to evaluate the treatment of pre-pubertal female dogs with deslorelin acetate implants, to better investigate the primary stimulatory effect of the drug and the long-term effects on the genital tract, throughout repeated treatments. Sicilian hound female dogs (24) were randomly assigned to treated group, control group 1 and control group 2. First group bitches were implanted at 4.5, 9.0 and 13.5 months and monitored clinically, ultrasonographically and endocrinologically, throughout the study period (13.5 months). Control group 1 bitches were not implanted and clinically monitored for the same period. At 18 months, the animals underwent ovariohysterectomy, thus allowing evaluation of the internal genitalia. Control group 2 bitches were ovariohysterectomized at the age of 4.5 months. The suppression of oestrus was obtained in the treated group despite the fact that the first implant caused a modest increase in plasmatic levels of 17-beta estradiol and an evident cornification of the vaginal mucosa cells (50-80%). Estradiol and progesterone were at baseline levels for the remaining study period, in which no other oestrous manifestations were observed. The external genitalia maintained a juvenile appearance. The ovaries, ultrasonographically, showed no follicular structures and stayed the same size. At 18 months, the genital tract was still juvenile with inactive small ovaries and a thin filiform uterus. Deslorelin suppressed ovarian activity in pre-pubertal bitches, and oestrous induction was not observed despite the presence of the primary stimulatory effect of the drug. Juvenile genitalia were an expected side effect of the treatment. PMID:24467617

  11. Regulation of gonadal sex ratios and pubertal development by the thyroid endocrine system in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharma, Prakash; Patino, Reynaldo

    2013-01-01

    We examined associations between thyroid condition, gonadal sex and pubertal development in zebrafish. Seventy-two-hour postfertilization larvae were reared in untreated medium or in the presence of goitrogens (sodium perchlorate, 0.82 mM; methimazole, 0.15 and 0.3 mM) or thyroxine (1 and 10 nM) for 30 days. Thyrocyte height, gonadal sex and gonadal development were histologically determined at 45 and 60 days postfertilization (dpf). Thyrocyte hypertrophy, an index of hypothyroidism, was observed at 45 and 60 dpf in perchlorate-treated but only at 45 dpf in methimazole-treated fish. Similarly, gonadal sex ratios were biased toward ovaries relative to control animals at 45 and 60 dpf in perchlorate-treated fish but only at 45 dpf in methimazole-treated fish. Gonadal sex ratios were biased toward testes at 45 and 60 dpf in thyroxine-treated fish. Spermatogenesis was delayed in testes from goitrogen-treated fish at 60 dpf relative to control values, but was unaffected in testes from thyroxine-treated individuals. Oogenesis seemed to be nonspecifically delayed in all treatments relative to control at 60 dpf. This study confirmed the previously reported association between hypothyroid condition and ovarian-skewed ratios, and hyperthyroid condition and testicular-skewed ratios, and also showed that male pubertal development is specifically delayed by experimental hypothyroidism. The simultaneous recovery from the hypothyroid and ovary-inducing effects of methimazole by 60 dpf (27 days post-treatment) suggests that the ovary-skewing effect of goitrogens is reversible when thyroid conditions return to basal levels before developmental commitment of gonadal sex. Conversely, the masculinizing effect of hyperthyroidism seems to be stable and perhaps permanent.

  12. Onset of self-assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Chitanvis, S.M.

    1998-02-01

    We have formulated a theory of self-assembly based on the notion of local gauge invariance at the mesoscale. Local gauge invariance at the mesoscale generates the required long-range entropic forces responsible for self-assembly in binary systems. Our theory was applied to study the onset of mesostructure formation above a critical temperature in estane, a diblock copolymer. We used diagrammatic methods to transcend the Gaussian approximation and obtain a correlation length {xi}{approximately}(c{minus}c{sup {asterisk}}){sup {minus}{gamma}}, where c{sup {asterisk}} is the minimum concentration below which self-assembly is impossible, c is the current concentration, and {gamma} was found numerically to be fairly close to 2/3. The renormalized diffusion constant vanishes as the critical concentration is approached, indicating the occurrence of critical slowing down, while the correlation function remains finite at the transition point. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. Tail reconnection triggering substorm onset.

    PubMed

    Angelopoulos, Vassilis; McFadden, James P; Larson, Davin; Carlson, Charles W; Mende, Stephen B; Frey, Harald; Phan, Tai; Sibeck, David G; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Auster, Uli; Donovan, Eric; Mann, Ian R; Rae, I Jonathan; Russell, Christopher T; Runov, Andrei; Zhou, Xu-Zhi; Kepko, Larry

    2008-08-15

    Magnetospheric substorms explosively release solar wind energy previously stored in Earth's magnetotail, encompassing the entire magnetosphere and producing spectacular auroral displays. It has been unclear whether a substorm is triggered by a disruption of the electrical current flowing across the near-Earth magnetotail, at approximately 10 R(E) (R(E): Earth radius, or 6374 kilometers), or by the process of magnetic reconnection typically seen farther out in the magnetotail, at approximately 20 to 30 R(E). We report on simultaneous measurements in the magnetotail at multiple distances, at the time of substorm onset. Reconnection was observed at 20 R(E), at least 1.5 minutes before auroral intensification, at least 2 minutes before substorm expansion, and about 3 minutes before near-Earth current disruption. These results demonstrate that substorms are likely initiated by tail reconnection. PMID:18653845

  14. The onset of vortex turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, G. . Center for Polymer Studies Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1992-12-01

    It is the goal of this thesis to investigate some of the unusual and spectacular properties near the transition to turbulence in a two-dimensional field of limit-cycle oscillators. Of particular interest are the dynamics of topological defects (vortices) associated with the onset of turbulence. The complex Ginzburg-Landau equation describes an extended reaction-diffusion system close to the bifurcation of a steady state into a stable, periodic orbit. In the jargon of nonlinear dynamics, it is the amplitude equation corresponding to a Hopf bifurcation. Because of the generality of the assumptions under which it is derived, the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation describes systems in contexts other than chemical reactions with diffusion. Examples include Rayleigh-Benard convection and the phase fields of multimode lasers. The reaction-diffusion model is however, a sufficiently general model to frame our discussion.

  15. Body size and pubertal development explain ethnic differences in structural geometry at the femur in Asian, Hispanic, and white early adolescent girls living in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, D.L.; Weaver, C.M.; McCabe, L.D.; McCabe, G.M.; Novotny, R.; Van Loan, M.D.; Going, S.; Matkovic, V.; Boushey, C.J.; Savaiano, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Variation in structural geometry is present in adulthood, but when this variation arises and what influences this variation prior to adulthood remains poorly understood. Ethnicity is commonly the focus of research of skeletal integrity and appears to explain some of the variation in quantification of bone tissue. However, why ethnicity explains variation in skeletal integrity is unclear. Methods Here we examine predictors of bone cross sectional area (CSA) and section modulus (Z), measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and the Advanced Hip Analysis (AHA) program at the narrow neck of the femur in adolescent (9–14 yr) girls (n=479) living in the United States who were classified as Asian, Hispanic, or white if the subject was 75% of a given group based on parental reported ethnicity. Protocols for measuring height and weight follow standardized procedures. Total body lean mass (LM) and total body fat mass (FM) were quantified in kilograms using DXA. Total dietary and total dairy calcium intakes from the previous month were estimated by the use of an electronic semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (eFFQ). Physical activity was estimated for the previous year by a validated self-administered modifiable activity questionnaire for adolescents with energy expenditure calculated from the metabolic equivalent (MET) values from the Compendium of Physical Activities. Multiple regression models were developed to predict CSA and Z. Results Age, time from menarche, total body lean mass (LM), total body fat mass (FM), height, total calcium, and total dairy calcium all shared a significant (p<0.05), positive relationship with CSA. Age, time from menarche, LM, FM, and height shared significant (p<0.05), positive relationships with Z. For both CSA and Z, LM was the most important covariate. Physical activity was not a significant predictor of geometry at the femoral neck (p≥0.339), even after removing LM as a covariate. After adjusting for covariates

  16. How to investigate new-onset polyarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok

    2014-12-01

    Polyarthritis comprises a large number of conditions ranging from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to metabolic conditions such as ochronosis. Differential diagnosis begins with delineation of inflammatory from non-inflammatory disorders using laboratory markers of inflammation. The latter are good but they can be misleading. Laboratory tests help in the diagnosis of rheumatic diseases as well as their prognostication. The choice of serological tests should be based on clinical differential diagnosis and not 'arthritis panels'. The point of time when the test is performed in the clinical course of disease can have an important influence on the result obtained. Anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA), rheumatoid factor, human leucocyte antigen (HLA) B27 and imaging are routinely employed for the early diagnosis of RA and spondyloarthritis (SpA). Despite advances in musculoskeletal imaging modalities such as ultrasonography (USG) with power Doppler, conventional as well as extremity magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dual-energy computed tomography (DECT), their exact place in clinical rheumatology remains to be defined. Synovial fluid examination has only a limited role in the investigations of new-onset polyarthritis. PMID:26096089

  17. Systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Cimaz, Rolando

    2016-09-01

    Systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SoJIA) is a systemic inflammatory disease which has up to now been classified as a category of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. However, in this context, systemic inflammation has been associated with dysregulation of the innate immune system, suggesting that it may rather be part of the spectrum of autoinflammatory disorders. The disease is in fact unique with regard to the other JIA categories, in terms of clinical manifestations, prognosis, and response to conventional immunosuppressant therapies. It is characterized clinically by fever, lymphadenopathy, arthritis, rash, and serositis. IL-1 and IL-6 play a major role in the pathogenesis of SoJIA, and treatment with IL-1 and IL-6 inhibitors has shown to be highly effective. However, complications of SoJIA, including macrophage activation syndrome, limitations in functional outcome by arthritis and long-term damage from chronic inflammation continue to be a major issue in patients' care. Recent advances on the pathogenesis and treatment have revolutionized the care and prognosis of this potentially life-threatening pediatric condition. PMID:27392503

  18. Age-at-onset in Huntington disease

    PubMed Central

    Orth, Michael; Schwenke, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Background: In Huntington disease, the accurate determination of age-at-onset is critical to identify modifiers and therapies that aim to delay it. Methods: Retrospective data from the European Huntington’s Disease Network’s REGISTRY and PREDICT-HD, a longitudinal study in prodromal huntingtin gene expansion mutation carriers. Data (age, gender, CAG repeat length, parent affected, and Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale motor score, total functional capacity) from at least three visits in 423 REGISTRY and 124 PREDICT-HD participants were included. Data based extrapolations of individual age-at-onset using generalized linear mixed models based on individual slopes of motor score or total functional capacity, and predictions using the Langbehn, or Ranen formula, were compared with clinicians’ estimates. Results: Concordance was best for the observed age-at-onset in PREDICT-HD and the calculated onset using the PREDICT-HD UHDRS longitudinal motor scores. This was superior to the REGISTRY data. For total functional capacity, the investigator’s estimate was 4 years before the data derived age-at-onset. The concordance of predictions of probability of age-at-onset is better with the observed age-at-onset in the PREDICT-HD data (difference in 25%tile -5 to 10 years) than the REGISTRY data (±20 years). Conclusions: Estimating or predicting age-at-onset in Huntington disease may be inaccurate. It can be useful to 1) add in the manifest population motor score regression derived age-at-onset as additional motor onset and 2) add total functional capacity regression derived age-at-onset for the onset of functional impact of Huntington disease when patients are in mid- to late-stage. PMID:22453877

  19. Onset of a planetesimal dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Weiss, B. P.; Wang, J.; Chen-Wiegart, Y. C. K.; Downey, B. G.; Suavet, C. R.; Andrade Lima, E.; Zucolotto, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    The paleomagnetism of achondritic meteorites provides evidence for advecting metallic core dynamos and large-scale differentiation on their parent planetesimals. The small sizes of these bodies (~102 km) enable a new opportunity to understand the physics of dynamo generation in a size regime with distinct thermal evolution parameters that are more accessible to model than planets. One key unknown about planetesimal dynamos is their onset time. Theoretical studies have suggested that it might occur instantaneously after large-scale melting (Weiss et al. 2008, Elkins-Tanton et al. 2011) while others have argued that a dynamo could be delayed by ~6 My (Sterenborg and Crowley 2013) or longer. Here we present the first paleomagnetic study that has constrained the onset time of a planetesimal dynamo, which has key implications for the physics of core formation, planetary thermal evolution and dynamo generation mechanisms. Our study focused on angrites, a group of ancient basaltic achondrites from near the surface of an early differentiated planetesimal. With unshocked, unbrecciated textures and Pb/Pb ages ranging from only ~3-10 My younger than the formation of calcium aluminum inclusions (CAIs), they are among the oldest known and best preserved planetary igneous rocks. We used a new CO2 + H2 gas mixture system (Suavet et al. 2014) for controlled oxygen fugacity thermal paleointensity experiments on two of the oldest angrites (D'Orbigny and SAH 99555; 4564.4 Ma) and a younger angrite (Angra dos Reis; 4557.7 Ma). For D'Orbigny and SAH 99555, we found that the natural remanence (NRM) demagnetizes at much lower temperatures than lab-applied thermoremanence (TRM), indicating that their NRMs are dominantly overprints from the Earth's field and hand magnets. In contrast, the NRM of Angra dos Reis behaves similarly to a TRM, confirming its thermal origin. We estimate the paleointensities to be < 0.2 µT for D'Orbigny and SAH 99555 and ~10 µT for Angra dos Reis. This indicates

  20. Alcohol-Induced Developmental Origins of Adult-Onset Diseases.

    PubMed

    Lunde, Emilie R; Washburn, Shannon E; Golding, Michael C; Bake, Shameena; Miranda, Rajesh C; Ramadoss, Jayanth

    2016-07-01

    Fetal alcohol exposure may impair growth, development, and function of multiple organ systems and is encompassed by the term fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Research has so far focused on the mechanisms, prevention, and diagnosis of FASD, while the risk for adult-onset chronic diseases in individuals exposed to alcohol in utero is not well explored. David Barker's hypothesis on Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) suggests that insults to the milieu of the developing fetus program it for adult development of chronic diseases. In the 25 years since the introduction of this hypothesis, epidemiological and animal model studies have made significant advancements in identifying in utero developmental origins of chronic adult-onset diseases affecting cardiovascular, endocrine, musculoskeletal, and psychobehavioral systems. Teratogen exposure is an established programming agent for adult diseases, and recent studies suggest that prenatal alcohol exposure correlates with adult onset of neurobehavioral deficits, cardiovascular disease, endocrine dysfunction, and nutrient homeostasis instability, warranting additional investigation of alcohol-induced DOHaD, as well as patient follow-up well into adulthood for affected individuals. In utero epigenetic alterations during critical periods of methylation are a key potential mechanism for programming and susceptibility of adult-onset chronic diseases, with imprinted genes affecting metabolism being critical targets. Additional studies in epidemiology, phenotypic characterization in response to timing, dose, and duration of exposure, as well as elucidation of mechanisms underlying FASD-DOHaD inter relation, are thus needed to clinically define chronic disease associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. These studies are critical to establish interventional strategies that decrease incidence of these adult-onset diseases and promote healthier aging among individuals affected with FASD. PMID:27254466

  1. Calcium and magnesium content of the uterine fluid and blood serum during the estrous cycle and pre-pubertal phase in water buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Alavi Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Asri Rezaie, Siamak; Khaki, Amir; Belbasi, Abulfazle; Tahmasebian, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    To investigate uterine fluid and serum calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) variations during the estrus cycle in water buffaloes, 71 genital tracts and blood samples were collected from the abattoir in Urmia. The phase of the estrous cycle was determined by examining ovarian structures. 18 animals were pro-estrous, 15 estrous, 16 met-estrous and 22 diestrous. The uterine fluid was collected by gentle scraping of the uterine mucosa with a curette. Blood serum and uterine fluid samples of 71 pre-pubertal buffalo calves were also collected and treated in similar manners. The mean ± SEM total serum and uterine fluid Ca in cyclic buffaloes were 8.68 ± 0.28 mg dL-1 and 8.10 ± 0.2 mg dL-1 vs. 6.76 ± 0.65 mg dL-1 and 7.90 ± 0.15 mg dL-1 in pre-pubertal calves, respectively. Blood serum Mg was not different in cyclic and pre-pubertal animals but the uterine fluid Mg in cyclic cows was higher than those in pre-pubertal calves. Serum Ca in pro-estrus and estrus were higher than those in other stages and also higher than those in the uterine fluid. The lowest Mg content of serum was recorded in diestrus, while in the uterine fluid it was observed in estrus. In all stages of estrous cycle except for estrus the uterine fluid Mg content was significantly higher than those of the serum. These results suggested that during the estrous cycle in the buffalo cows, Ca was passively secreted in uterine lumen and mostly dependent on blood serum Ca concentrations but Mg was secreted independently. The values (except for serum total Mg) also increased after puberty. PMID:25610582

  2. Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Simonsen, Kari A.; Anderson-Berry, Ann L.; Delair, Shirley F.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Early-onset sepsis remains a common and serious problem for neonates, especially preterm infants. Group B streptococcus (GBS) is the most common etiologic agent, while Escherichia coli is the most common cause of mortality. Current efforts toward maternal intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis have significantly reduced the rates of GBS disease but have been associated with increased rates of Gram-negative infections, especially among very-low-birth-weight infants. The diagnosis of neonatal sepsis is based on a combination of clinical presentation; the use of nonspecific markers, including C-reactive protein and procalcitonin (where available); blood cultures; and the use of molecular methods, including PCR. Cytokines, including interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and cell surface antigens, including soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM) and CD64, are also being increasingly examined for use as nonspecific screening measures for neonatal sepsis. Viruses, in particular enteroviruses, parechoviruses, and herpes simplex virus (HSV), should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Empirical treatment should be based on local patterns of antimicrobial resistance but typically consists of the use of ampicillin and gentamicin, or ampicillin and cefotaxime if meningitis is suspected, until the etiologic agent has been identified. Current research is focused primarily on development of vaccines against GBS. PMID:24396135

  3. Contexts of Risk? Explaining the Link between Girls' Pubertal Development and Their Delinquency Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynie, Dana L.

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data on 5,477 girls attending mixed-sex secondary schools found that early puberty and physical development that was advanced relative to age were related most strongly to "party" deviance (drinking, smoking, disorderly conduct), but also to minor and serious delinquency. Parent-child…

  4. Effects of exposure of pre-pubertal boars to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on their frozen-thawed sperm viability post-puberty.

    PubMed

    Spjuth, L; Saravia, F; Johannisson, A; Lundeheim, N; Rodríguez-Martínez, H

    2006-10-01

    Late effects of pre-pubertal oral exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a plastic softener used in, for example, polyvinyl chloride-products, on semen quality in young boars have not been clear-cut. The aim of this study was to determine whether stress imposed on spermatozoa would reveal such effects. Semen was collected from post-pubertal boars (8-9 months of age), which had been exposed to 300 mg kg(-1) body weight of DEHP per os three times a week from 3 to 7 weeks of age and from control siblings given placebo (water). The semen was cryopreserved and examined for plasma membrane integrity post-thaw using the short hypo-osmotic swelling test and flow cytometry (propidium iodide /SYBR-14). Sperm motility was assessed by computer-assisted sperm analysis. No significant difference in plasma membrane integrity could be found between the groups. The DEHP-exposed group had a significantly lower percentage of linearly motile spermatozoa at 30 min (P < 0.05) and 120 min (P < 0.001) after thawing, and a larger amplitude of lateral displacement of the head 120 min after thawing (P < 0.05), compared with controls. In summary, spermatozoa from boars pre-pubertally exposed to low doses of DEHP, showed kinematic deviations post-thaw that could be related to DEHP exposure. PMID:16961572

  5. Induction of immunocastration in pre-pubertal boars immunized with recombinant gonadotropin-releasing hormone conjugated with Salmonella Typhimurium flagellin fljB.

    PubMed

    Park, Woo-Jung; Park, Byung-Joo; Song, Young-Jo; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Sang-Won; Jang, Young-Gyu; Kim, Hyoung-Moon; Han, Jang-Hyuck; Jung, Cheong-Hwan; Choi, In-Soo

    2015-05-01

    Immunocastration is an alternative method used to replace surgical castration commonly performed in swine farms. In boars, the main effects of immunocastration are reduction of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and the resulting inhibition of testicular function. The aim of this study was to evaluate immunocastration efficacy in pre-pubertal boars vaccinated with a recombinant GnRH protein conjugated with Salmonella Typhimurium flagellin fljB (STF2). A total of 35 boars were assigned to three groups: the untreated group (n = 5), the surgically castrated group (n = 5), and the immunocastrated group (n = 25). Pigs in the immunocastration group were immunized with the GnRH-STF2 vaccine at pre-pubertal ages 4 and 8 weeks. All experimental pigs were kept for 26 weeks before slaughter. Anti-GnRH antibody levels of immunocastrated pigs were significantly higher than those of untreated pigs (P < 0.001). In contrast, testosterone levels of immunocastrated pigs were significantly lower than those of untreated pigs (P < 0.001). Statistical significances were not found in the body weights and backfat thicknesses of untreated vs. immunocastrated pigs. Weights of the testes and epididymides of immunocastrated pigs were significantly lower than those of untreated pigs (P < 0.001). Testicular tissues of immunocastrated pigs were severely suppressed compared with those of untreated pigs. In conclusion, immunization with the STF2-GnRH vaccine effectively induced immunocastration in pre-pubertal boars. PMID:26164876

  6. Noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus can persist in testicular tissue after vaccination of peri-pubertal bulls but prevents subsequent infection.

    PubMed

    Givens, M Daniel; Riddell, Kay P; Walz, Paul H; Rhoades, Jim; Harland, Richard; Zhang, YiJing; Galik, Patricia K; Brodersen, Bruce W; Cochran, Anna M; Brock, Kenny V; Carson, Robert L; Stringfellow, David A

    2007-01-15

    The objectives of this research were to evaluate the risk of prolonged testicular infection as a consequence of vaccination of peri-pubertal bulls with a modified-live, noncytopathic strain of BVDV and to assess vaccine efficacy in preventing prolonged testicular infections after a subsequent acute infection. Seronegative, peri-pubertal bulls were vaccinated subcutaneously with an approximate minimum immunizing dose or a 10x standard dose of modified-live, noncytopathic BVDV or were maintained as unvaccinated controls. Forty-nine days after vaccination, all bulls were intranasally inoculated with a noncytopathic field strain of BVDV. Semen and testicular biopsies collected after vaccination and challenge were assayed for BVDV using virus isolation, reverse transcription-nested PCR, or immunohistochemistry and the identity of viral strains was determined by nucleotide sequencing of PCR products. The vaccine strain of BVDV was detected in testicular tissue of vaccinated bulls as long as 134 days after immunization. Prolonged testicular infections with the challenge strain were detected only in unvaccinated bulls as long as 85 days after challenge. Whereas vaccination caused prolonged testicular infection in some bulls, it did prevent subsequent infection of testicular tissue with the challenge strain. This research demonstrates that subcutaneous vaccination of naïve, peri-pubertal bulls with a noncytopathic, modified-live strain of BVDV can result in prolonged viral replication within testicular tissue. The risk for these prolonged testicular infections to cause venereal transmission of BVDV or subfertility is likely to be low but requires further investigation. PMID:17005300

  7. Effects of testicular transfixation on seminiferous tubule morphology and sperm parameters of prepubertal, pubertal, and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Carina T; De Souza, Diogo B; Costa, Waldemar S; Pereira-Sampaio, Marco A; Sampaio, Francisco J B

    2015-10-15

    Orchiopexy is performed as part of cryptorchidism and testicular torsion treatment. The inflammation caused by the needle and suture penetration has been suggested to be one of the possible causes of subfertility after parenchymal transfixation of the testicles. The purpose of the present study was to investigate testicular alterations after parenchymal transfixation sutures at different ages in rats. Prepubertal, pubertal, and adult rats were submitted to parenchymal suturing (without tying the knots, thus avoiding local ischemic injury) of the right testicle, which was maintained for 4 hours. All animals were subjected to euthanasia on completion of 14 weeks of life. The right testicles were studied as the sutured testicles, whereas the left organs were studied as contralateral. One age-matched control group of rats that was not submitted to any procedure was used for comparison. During euthanasia, sperm were collected from the tail of the epididymal and evaluated for concentration, motility, and viability. Samples from testicular tissue were collected for morphologic analysis. Sperm analysis indicated that only the adult operated animals presented reductions in motility (38.2% of adult vs. 54.1% of control; P = 0.02) and viability (16.6% of adult vs. 24.6% of control; P = 0.003). Several morphologic alterations were noted both in sutured and in contralateral testes at all ages. For instance, the seminiferous epithelium volumetric density of right testicles was reduced from 50.4% in controls to 32.3% in prepubertal operated animals, 45.3% in pubertal operated animals, and 39.4% in adult operated animals (P < 0.05). The seminiferous epithelium volumetric density was also reduced to 39.9% and 39.0% in contralateral testicles of animals operated before and after puberty, respectively (P < 0.05). The animals operated on before puberty and in adulthood showed more testicular morphologic alterations, as seminiferous tubule volumetric density, seminiferous tubule length

  8. Comparison of Conservative and Surgical Therapy Concepts for Synechia of the Labia in Pre-Pubertal Girls

    PubMed Central

    Bussen, S.; Eckert, A.; Schmidt, U.; Sütterlin, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the primary and secondary therapeutic successes of different therapy schemes for the treatment of synechia of the labia in pre-pubertal girls. Materials and Methods: The treatment courses of 47 pre-pubertal girls who were treated between February 2007 and February 2013 in the special outpatient clinic for paediatric gynaecology of a department for gynaecology at a German university hospital and for whom information on the course of the disease was available for at least the six months following end of the treatment. 23 of these children were treated with a topical estriol therapy (treatment group A). For 24 of the girls a manual separation of the adhering labia minora was undertaken (treatment group B). Statistical evaluation was performed using the χ2 test, Fischerʼs exact test and the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: For 18 of the 23 (80 %) girls in treatment group A topical estriol therapy alone led to a resolution of the synechia. Five of these 23 children (20 %) required a secondary manual separation. All girls for whom treatment was not successful were under 5 years of age. For all 24 girls (100 %) of treatment group B the primary manual separation was performed with success. The recurrence rates after ≥ 6 months in cases with identical after-care did not differ between the two treatment groups (treatment group A: 34 %, treatment group B: 33 %, χ2 test: p = 0.853). 16 of the 17 recurrences occurred ≥ 3 months after the end of the therapy. Conclusion: Our results show that for children < 5 years of age a 4-week topical therapy with estriol is a promising therapy option for synechia of the labia that is less of a burden for the family situation. Especially for girls ≥ 5 years of age, primary therapy fails in up to 20 % of the cases. Primary manual separation represents a more effective therapeutic option. Irrespective of the treatment applied, a recurrence after ≥ 3 must be

  9. Effect of insulin supplementation on in vitro maturation of pre-antral follicles from adult and pre-pubertal mice.

    PubMed

    Nath, Amar; Hakim, Bilal Ahmad; Rajender, Singh; Singh, Kavita; Sachdev, Monika; Konwar, Rituraj

    2016-05-01

    This study was aimed to determine the impact of insulin concentrations on in vitro pre-antral follicle growth, survival, antrum formation rate, and retrieval of mature oocytes in mice. Mice pre-antral follicle growth were recorded on days 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 in α-modified essential media (α-MEM) supplemented with insulin concentrations of 6, 8, and 10 μg/ml along with 10% FBS, 100 mIU/ml follicle stimulating hormone, 10 mIU/ml luteinizing hormone, 100 μg/ml penicillin, and 50 μg/ml streptomycin. After 12 d of growth in vitro, follicles were allowed to mature for 16-18 h in α-MEM supplemented with 1.5 IU/ml human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and 5 ng/ml epidermal growth factor (EGF). The initial diameter (54.86 ± 2.5 μm) of mice oocyte progressively increased in all the three insulin concentration groups and attained a maximum size on day 12 (71.90 ± 2.8 μm). Supplementation with higher concentrations of insulin (both 8 and 10 μg/ml) significantly enhanced antrum formation without effecting the oocyte diameter and percent retrieval of mature oocyte in all the three concentration groups. Both in vitro cultured as well as in vivo collected follicles and oocytes showed similar localization and expression of oocyte maturation markers SAS1B and GDF9. Insulin concentration of 8 μg/ml was found to be optimal for in vitro follicle culture of adult mice (42-49 d). Optimized follicle culture conditions were also assessed successfully with pre-pubertal mice (12-14 d); however, adult mice showed higher follicle survival, antrum formation, and more mature oocytes production in comparison to pre-pubertal mice. PMID:26956357

  10. Predictors of Early Alcohol Drinking Onset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooley, David; Prause, JoAnn

    2007-01-01

    Early alcohol drinking onset (ADO) has been implicated as a cause of adult alcohol disorder inviting interventions that target the causes of ADO. This study explores the precursors of early ADO using variables measured before drinking onset, reaching back to the mothers of the respondents. The sample consists of children of the women respondents…

  11. Late-onset offending: fact or fiction.

    PubMed

    Wiecko, Filip M

    2014-01-01

    This research focuses on a detailed exploration of late-onset offending. Using the National Youth Survey, this work seeks to answer three questions. First, is late-onset offending a real phenomenon? Second, if late onset does exist, is the evidence for it conditioned by how we define crime and delinquency? Finally, is late-onset offending an artifact of measurement methodology? Most literature evidencing late onset relies on official police contact and arrest data. Propensity or control theories in general posit that late onset should not exist. Propensity, namely self-control, should be instilled early in life and if absent, results in early initiation into crime and delinquency. Research in developmental psychology seems to support this notion. The findings from this study indicate that late-onset offending is almost nonexistent when self-reported measures are used leading one to conclude that contemporary evidence for late-onset is heavily conditioned by how we measure crime and delinquency. A comprehensive discussion includes future directions for research, and implications for theory development and methodology. PMID:23014937

  12. Saturation of subcutaneous adipose tissue expansion and accumulation of ectopic fat associated with metabolic dysfunction during late and post-pubertal growth

    PubMed Central

    Gyllenhammer, Lauren E.; Alderete, Tanya L.; Toledo-Corral, Claudia M.; Weigensberg, Marc; Goran, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective Puberty is a period defined by large changes in adipose tissue accumulation and distribution, however longitudinal patterns of ectopic fat development have not been shown. We have previously shown significant declines in beta-cell function (BCF) across puberty and hypothesize that accumulation of ectopic fat deposition, particularly hepatic fat, will predict this fall. Subject/Methods We conducted a longitudinal study and examined 2-year change in abdominal fat distribution and type 2 diabetes risk markers in 76 Hispanic children and young adults (16.1 ±0.5 years, 66% obese, 52% male, 51% post-pubertal). Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), hepatic fat fraction (HFF) and pancreatic fat fraction (PFF) were measured by 3-Tesla MRI, and markers of type 2 diabetes risk were collected at fasting and during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Results Baseline pubertal status significantly moderated 2-year change in ectopic fat deposition, such that VAT, HFF and PFF increased in individuals during late and post-pubertal growth whereas children earlier in their pubertal development decreased ectopic accumulation and had less VAT accumulation (VAT: pTanner*time =0.044, 0.31±0.08L vs. 0.03±0.10L; HFF: pTanner*time=0.007, 1.34±0.87% vs. −2.61±1.11%; PFF: pTanner*time<0.001, 1.61±0.39% vs. −0.96±0.50%). Independent of pubertal status, two-year increase in HFF and VAT significantly associated with a decline in BCF (β=−1.04, p=0.038; β=−1.81, p=0.020) and metabolic function, while accumulation of SAAT significantly associated with BCF (β=1.36, p=0.012) and metabolic improvement. HFF accumulation was the only depot to significantly predict clinical markers of type 2 diabetes risk, fasting glucose and HbA1c, and circulating free fatty acid levels (β=1.00, p=0.034; β=1.00, p=0.015; β=01.01, p=0.024). Conclusions The accumulation of SAAT defends against type 2 diabetes risk and potentially ectopic

  13. Effect of oxandrolone and timing of pubertal induction on final height in Turner’s syndrome: randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Gault, Emma Jane; Perry, Rebecca J; Cole, Tim J; Casey, Sarah; Paterson, Wendy F; Hindmarsh, Peter C; Betts, Peter; Dunger, David B

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of oxandrolone and the timing of pubertal induction on final height in girls with Turner’s syndrome receiving a standard dose of growth hormone. Design Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial. Setting 36 paediatric endocrinology departments in UK hospitals. Participants Girls with Turner’s syndrome aged 7-13 years at recruitment, receiving recombinant growth hormone therapy (10 mg/m2/week). Interventions Participants were randomised to oxandrolone (0.05 mg/kg/day, maximum 2.5 mg/day) or placebo from 9 years of age. Those with evidence of ovarian failure at 12 years were further randomised to oral ethinylestradiol (year 1, 2 µg daily; year 2, 4 μg daily; year 3, 4 months each of 6, 8, and 10 μg daily) or placebo; participants who received placebo and those recruited after the age of 12.25 years started ethinylestradiol at age 14. Main outcome measure Final height. Results 106 participants were recruited, of whom 14 withdrew and 82/92 reached final height. Both oxandrolone and late pubertal induction increased final height: by 4.6 (95% confidence interval 1.9 to 7.2) cm (P=0.001, n=82) for oxandrolone and 3.8 (0.0 to 7.5) cm (P=0.05, n=48) for late pubertal induction with ethinylestradiol. In the 48 children who were randomised twice, the effects on final height (compared with placebo and early induction of puberty) of oxandrolone alone, late induction alone, and oxandrolone plus late induction were similar, averaging 7.1 (3.4 to 10.8) cm (P<0.001). No cases of virilisation were reported. Conclusion Oxandrolone had a positive effect on final height in girls with Turner’s syndrome treated with growth hormone, as did late pubertal induction with ethinylestradiol at age 14 years. However, these effects were not additive, so using both had no advantage. Oxandrolone could, therefore, be offered as an alternative to late pubertal induction for increasing final height in Turner’s syndrome. Trial registration Current

  14. Evaluation of Permanent Growth Hormone Deficiency (GHD) in Young Adults with Childhood Onset GHD: A multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Berberoğlu, Merih; Darendeliler, Feyza; Poyrazoğlu, Şükran; Darcan, Şükran; İşgüven, Pınar; Bideci, Aysun; Öcal, Gönül; Bundak, Rüveyde; Yüksel, Bilgin; Arslanoğlu, İlknur

    2008-01-01

    Background: Reconfirming the diagnosis of childhood onset growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in young adults is necessary to demonstrate the need for continuation of GH therapy. Objective: This nationally−based study was planned to establish GH status during adulthood in childhood−onset GH deficient patients and to evaluate factors that would predict persistency of the GHD. Methods: In this multicenter study, 70 GH deficient patients who had reached final height were evaluated after completion of GH treatment. Fifty−two patients (74%) had isolated GHD and 18 patients (26%) had multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (MPHD). Patients who had reached final height and the pubertal Tanner stage 5 were reevaluated for GH status. After at least 6 weeks of cessation of GH treatment, patients were retested with insulin induced hypoglycemia. Results: GHD was found to be transient in 64.3% of all patients. Of the isolated GH deficient patients 82.7% had transient GHD, whereas 88.9% of the MPHD patients showed persistent GHD. Comparison of isolated GH deficient and multiple hormone deficient patients indicated higher peak GH, IGF−I and IGFBP−3 levels in isolated GH deficient patients. No parameter was significantly different in the transiently and persistently GH deficient patients with respect to gender. Although specificity of IGF−I value of less than −2 SD showing persistency of GHD was lower than the specificity of IGFBP−3 value of less than −2 SD (65.7% vs 84%), negative predictive values were similar for the two parameters (85.2% and 84%, respectively). Conclusion: Most of the cases of childhood onset GHD are idiopathic and the GHD is transient. In patients with MPHD, GHD is generally permanent. Low IGF−I and IGFBP−3 levels are supporting findings to show persistency of the GHD. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21318062

  15. Temporal Relationship Between Insulin Sensitivity and the Pubertal Decline in Physical Activity in Peripubertal Hispanic and African American Females

    PubMed Central

    Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Belcher, Britni R.; Hsu, Ya-Wen; McClain, Arianna D.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Nguyen-Rodriguez, Selena; Weigensberg, Marc J.; Goran, Michael I.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Little attention has been paid to possible intrinsic biological mechanisms for the decline in physical activity that occurs during puberty. This longitudinal observational study examined the association between baseline insulin sensitivity (SI) and declines in physical activity and increases in sedentary behavior in peripubertal minority females over a year. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants were Hispanic and African American girls (n = 55; 76% Hispanic; mean age 9.4 years; 36% obese). SI and other insulin indices were measured at baseline using the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Physical activity was measured on a quarterly basis by accelerometry and self-report. RESULTS Physical activity declined by 25% and time spent in sedentary behaviors increased by ∼13% over 1 year. Lower baseline SI predicted the decline in physical activity measured by accelerometry, whereas higher baseline acute insulin response to glucose predicted the decline in physical activity measured by self-report. Time spent in sedentary behavior increased by ~13% over 1 year, and this was predicted by lower baseline SI. All models controlled for adiposity, age, pubertal stage, and ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS When evaluated using a longitudinal design with strong outcome measures, this study suggests that lower baseline SI predicts a greater decline in physical activity in peripubertal minority females. PMID:23846812

  16. Association of Iron Depletion with Menstruation and Dietary Intake Indices in Pubertal Girls: The Healthy Growth Study

    PubMed Central

    Moschonis, George; Mavrogianni, Christina; Giannopoulou, Angeliki; Damianidi, Louisa; Chrousos, George P.; Manios, Yannis

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations of iron depletion (ID) with menstrual blood losses, lifestyle, and dietary habits, in pubertal girls. The study sample comprised 1222 girls aged 9–13 years old. Biochemical, anthropometrical, dietary, clinical, and physical activity data were collected. Out of 274 adolescent girls with menses, 33.5% were found to be iron depleted (defined as serum ferritin < 12 μg/L) compared to 15.9% out of 948 girls without menses. Iron-depleted girls without menses were found to have lower consumption of poultry (P = 0.017) and higher consumption of fruits (P = 0.044) and fast food (P = 0.041) compared to their peers having normal iron status. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that girls with menses were 2.57 (95% CI: 1.37, 4.81) times more likely of being iron depleted compared to girls with no menses. Iron depletion was found to be associated with high calcium intake, high consumption of fast foods, and low consumption of poultry and fruits. Menses was the only factor that was found to significantly increase the likelihood of ID in these girls. More future research is probably needed in order to better understand the role of diet and menses in iron depletion. PMID:24455693

  17. Ethnic differences in body fat distribution among Asian pre-pubertal children: A cross-sectional multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ethnic differences in body fat distribution contribute to ethnic differences in cardiovascular morbidities and diabetes. However few data are available on differences in fat distribution in Asian children from various backgrounds. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore ethnic differences in body fat distribution among Asian children from four countries. Methods A total of 758 children aged 8-10 y from China, Lebanon, Malaysia and Thailand were recruited using a non-random purposive sampling approach to enrol children encompassing a wide BMI range. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), fat mass (FM, derived from total body water [TBW] estimation using the deuterium dilution technique) and skinfold thickness (SFT) at biceps, triceps, subscapular, supraspinale and medial calf were collected. Results After controlling for height and weight, Chinese and Thai children had a significantly higher WC than their Lebanese and Malay counterparts. Chinese and Thais tended to have higher trunk fat deposits than Lebanese and Malays reflected in trunk SFT, trunk/upper extremity ratio or supraspinale/upper extremity ratio after adjustment for age and total body fat. The subscapular/supraspinale skinfold ratio was lower in Chinese and Thais compared with Lebanese and Malays after correcting for trunk SFT. Conclusions Asian pre-pubertal children from different origins vary in body fat distribution. These results indicate the importance of population-specific WC cut-off points or other fat distribution indices to identify the population at risk of obesity-related health problems. PMID:21703012

  18. Impairment of cognitive performance after reelin knockdown in the medial prefrontal cortex of pubertal or adult rats.

    PubMed

    Brosda, Jan; Dietz, Frank; Koch, Michael

    2011-11-01

    The glycoprotein reelin is important for embryonic neuronal migration. During adulthood reelin possibly acts as a modulator of synaptic plasticity. Several studies link reduced levels of reelin messenger RNA and protein to the pathophysiology of certain neuropsychiatric disorders. However, little is known about reelin's role for behavioral and cognitive functions in vivo. Therefore, the effect of a reelin knockdown in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of Wistar rats was examined in behavioral tasks related to neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. Rats treated with reelin antisense phosphothioate oligonucleotides in the mPFC during puberty or adulthood were tested for prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle reflex, spatial working memory, object recognition, and locomotor activity. Reelin quantification in the mPFC was assessed by Western blotting. Local reelin knockdown during puberty or adulthood induced (1) a PPI deficit as well as (2) an impairment of spatial working memory and object recognition following pubertal injections. Western blot analyses showed a distinct and highly selective reelin knockdown in the rats' mPFC. These results indicate that mPFC reelin signaling plays an important role in behavioral tasks with relevance to e.g. schizophrenia. Understanding reelin's function as a neurotrophic modulator of the extracellular matrix may help to achieve new insights into the etiology of certain neuropsychiatric diseases and foster prospective treatment strategies. PMID:21784155

  19. Comparative proteomic profiling and possible toxicological mechanism of acute injury induced by carbon ion radiation in pubertal mice testes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong

    2016-07-01

    We investigated potential mechanisms of acute injury in pubertal mice testes after exposure to carbon ion radiation (CIR). Serum testosterone was measured following whole-body irradiation with a 2Gy carbon ion beam. Comparative proteomic profiling and Western blotting were applied to identify potential biomarkers and measure protein expression, and terminal dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) was performed to detect apoptotic cells. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to investigate protein localization. Serum testosterone was lowest at 24h after CIR, and 10 differentially expressed proteins were identified at this time point that included eIF4E, an important regulator of initiation that combines with mTOR and 4EBP1 to control protein synthesis via the mTOR signalling pathway during proliferation and apoptosis. Protein expression and localization studies confirmed their association with acute injury following exposure to CIR. These three proteins may be useful molecular markers for detecting abnormal spermatogenesis following exposure to environmental and cosmic radiation

  20. Diagnosing young onset dementia can be challenging.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Samrah; Baker, Ian; Butler, Christopher R

    2016-05-01

    Although the risk of developing dementia increases with age, onset can be as early as the third or fourth decade of life. Genetic influences play a more important role in younger than in older people with dementia, so young onset dementia may cluster in families. Diagnosing young onset dementia is challenging. The range of possible presenting features is broad, encompassing behavioural, cognitive, psychiatric and neurological domains, and symptoms are often subtle initially. Frequently the complaints are misattributed to stress or depression, and the patient is falsely reassured that they are too young to have dementia. The most common causes of young onset dementia are early onset forms of adult neurodegenerative conditions and alcohol. Vascular dementia is the second most common cause of young onset dementia after Alzheimer's disease. Conventional vascular risk factors may be absent and diagnosis relies on imaging evidence of cerebrovascular disease. Obtaining a detailed history remains the most important part of the workup and usually requires corroboration by a third party. Undertaking a basic neurological examination is also important. Those with suspected young onset dementia should be referred to a neurology-led cognitive disorders clinic where available as the differenti diagnosis is considerably broader tha in older adults and requires specialist investigation. PMID:27382914

  1. Onset of autumn shapes the timing of birth in Pyrenean chamois more than onset of spring.

    PubMed

    Kourkgy, Charlotte; Garel, Mathieu; Appolinaire, Joël; Loison, Anne; Toïgo, Carole

    2016-03-01

    In seasonal environments, birth dates are a central component for a species' life history, with potential long-term fitness consequences. Yet our understanding of selective pressures of environmental changes on birth dates is limited in wild mammals due to the difficulty of data collection. In a context of rapid climate change, the question of a possible mismatch between plant phenology and birth phenology also remains unanswered for most species. We assessed whether and how the timing of birth in a mountain mammal (isard, also named Pyrenean chamois, Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) tracked changes in plant growing season, accounting for maternal traits, individual heterogeneity and population density. We not only focused on spring conditions but also assessed to what extent onset of autumn can be a driver of phenological biological events and compared the magnitude of the response to the magnitude of the environmental changes. We relied on a 22-year study based on intensively monitored marked individuals of known age. Births were highly synchronized (80% of kids born within 25 days) and highly repeatable (84%; between-female variation of 9.6 days, within-female variation of 4.2 days). Individual phenotypic plasticity allows females to respond rapidly to interannual changes in plant phenology but did not prevent the existence of a mismatch: a 10-day advance in the autumn or spring plant phenology led to 3.9 and 1.3 days advance in birth dates, respectively. Our findings suggest that plant phenology may act as a cue to induce important stages of the reproductive cycle (e.g. conception and gestation length), subsequently affecting parturition dates, and stressed the importance of focusing on long-term changes during spring for which females may show much lower adaptive potential than during autumn. These results also question the extent to which individual plasticity along with high heterogeneity among individuals will allow species to cope with demographic

  2. Leaf onset in the northern hemisphere triggered by daytime temperature.

    PubMed

    Piao, Shilong; Tan, Jianguang; Chen, Anping; Fu, Yongshuo H; Ciais, Philippe; Liu, Qiang; Janssens, Ivan A; Vicca, Sara; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Jeong, Su-Jong; Li, Yue; Myneni, Ranga B; Peng, Shushi; Shen, Miaogen; Peñuelas, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Recent warming significantly advanced leaf onset in the northern hemisphere. This signal cannot be accurately reproduced by current models parameterized by daily mean temperature (T(mean)). Here using in situ observations of leaf unfolding dates (LUDs) in Europe and the United States, we show that the interannual anomalies of LUD during 1982-2011 are triggered by daytime (Tmax) more than by nighttime temperature (T(min)). Furthermore, an increase of 1 °C in Tmax would advance LUD by 4.7 days in Europe and 4.3 days in the United States, more than the conventional temperature sensitivity estimated from T(mean). The triggering role of Tmax, rather than the T(min) or T(mean) variable, is also supported by analysis of the large-scale patterns of satellite-derived vegetation green-up in spring in the northern hemisphere (>30 °N). Our results suggest a new conceptual framework of leaf onset using daytime temperature to improve the performance of phenology modules in current Earth system models. PMID:25903224

  3. Leaf onset in the northern hemisphere triggered by daytime temperature

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Shilong; Tan, Jianguang; Chen, Anping; Fu, Yongshuo H.; Ciais, Philippe; Liu, Qiang; Janssens, Ivan A.; Vicca, Sara; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Jeong, Su-Jong; Li, Yue; Myneni, Ranga B.; Peng, Shushi; Shen, Miaogen; Peñuelas, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Recent warming significantly advanced leaf onset in the northern hemisphere. This signal cannot be accurately reproduced by current models parameterized by daily mean temperature (Tmean). Here using in situ observations of leaf unfolding dates (LUDs) in Europe and the United States, we show that the interannual anomalies of LUD during 1982–2011 are triggered by daytime (Tmax) more than by nighttime temperature (Tmin). Furthermore, an increase of 1 °C in Tmax would advance LUD by 4.7 days in Europe and 4.3 days in the United States, more than the conventional temperature sensitivity estimated from Tmean. The triggering role of Tmax, rather than the Tmin or Tmean variable, is also supported by analysis of the large-scale patterns of satellite-derived vegetation green-up in spring in the northern hemisphere (>30°N). Our results suggest a new conceptual framework of leaf onset using daytime temperature to improve the performance of phenology modules in current Earth system models. PMID:25903224

  4. Genetics Home Reference: early-onset glaucoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Glaucoma Genetic Testing Registry (2 links) Glaucoma, congenital Primary open angle glaucoma juvenile onset 1 ClinicalTrials.gov (1 link) ClinicalTrials.gov Scientific articles on PubMed (1 link) PubMed OMIM (2 links) ...

  5. Epidemiology of early-onset schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Häfner, H; Nowotny, B

    1995-01-01

    A total of 232 (84%) first episodes of schizophrenia from our epidemiologically defined ABC sample (Age, Beginning and Course) were retrospectively assessed with regard to the onset and early course of the disorder. In a follow-up study a representative subgroup (n = 133) was prospectively examined in five cross sections over 3 years from first admission on. Population-based incidence rates for 5-year age groups comprising a range of < 10 - < 60 years were calculated on the basis of two definitions of onset: first sign of disorder and first psychotic symptom. In 40% of adult patients who had been admitted with a first schizophrenic episode after age 20 years the prodromal phase, in 11% the psychotic prephase, began before that age. This demonstrates that schizophrenia often begins in an age period in which the social and cognitive development and brain maturation are still unfinished. Early-onset schizophrenias (< or = 20 years) were compared with a medium-onset group (21 - < 35 years) and a late-onset group (35 - < 60 years) with regard to age and type of onset, early symptom-related course, social development and social course. The number of schizophrenia-specific positive and negative syndromes in early-onset schizophrenia is comparable to that of higher age groups. However, neurotic syndromes, emotional disorders and conduct disorders are most frequent in younger patients, especially in young men. Paranoid syndromes seem to prevail in late-onset schizophrenia, whereas less differentiated positive syndromes, such as delusional mood, are more frequent in the youngest age group. An earlier onset of schizophrenia has more severe social consequences than onset in adults, because it interrupts the cognitive and social development at an earlier stage. The worse social course of schizophrenia in men compared with women cannot be related to a more severe symptomatology, but to the earlier age at onset and the impairment or stagnation of social ascent at an earlier stage

  6. Phenomenon of onset in magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    Subramaniam, V.V.

    1986-01-01

    The performance of magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters has been severely limited by onset. This destructive onset phenomenon refers to the abrupt increase in voltage oscillations accompanied by severe electrode erosion which occurs at a critical value of the current for a given mass flow rate. This research is aimed at explaining and quantifying onset. The steady, one-dimensional, self-field flow in the MPD thruster is first analyzed for frozen flow, equilibrium flow, and nonequilibrium flow. This quasi one-dimensional theory explains the behavior of efficiency and predicts a new mechanisms for the onset phenomenon. This model predicts that smoothly accelerating supersonic flow can exist only below a critical current level because of increasing back-EMF. This limit is interpreted as onset and correlates with the experimentally observed J/sup 2//m onset parameter. In order to quantify electrode erosion rates, the electrode-adjacent boundary layer is analyzed using the results of the quasi one-dimensional theory. The free-stream boundary conditions for the steady boundary-layer flow analysis are obtained from the results of the quasi one-dimensional theory.

  7. Spondyloarthritis with onset after age 45.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Ignazio; D'Angelo, Salvatore; Padula, Angela; Leccese, Pietro; Palazzi, Carlo

    2013-12-01

    The ASAS (Assessment in SpondyloArtrhritis international Society) classification criteria for axial and peripheral spondyloarthritis permit to classify patients with age at disease onset less than 45 years. Nevertheless, these two forms of spondyloarthritis may begin after the age of 45. With the longer duration of the life expectancy, patients with this late-onset form of spondyloarthritis may be more frequently recognized in the near future. A small percentage (ranging from 3.5 to 6 %) of patients with axial SpA, as defined by the modified New York criteria, have onset of their disease after 45 years of age. Relatively more frequent is the late onset form of peripheral spondyloarthritis with the characteristics of undifferentiated spondyloarthritis. Its clinical spectrum is as broad as it is in children and very young adults. Psoriatic arthritis frequently begins over the age of 45 and occasionally after the age of 60. Some old studies had suggested than elderly-onset psoriatic arthritis is more severe than younger-onset disease, but a recent study found no such difference, and further studies are needed. PMID:24170254

  8. Assessment of DE-71, a commercial polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) mixture, in the EDSP male and female pubertal protocols.

    PubMed

    Stoker, Tammy E; Laws, Susan C; Crofton, Kevin M; Hedge, Joan M; Ferrell, Janet M; Cooper, Ralph L

    2004-03-01

    DE-71, a commercial mixture, was used to test the sensitivity of the female and male pubertal protocol to detect thyroid active chemicals. These protocols are being evaluated for the U.S. EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program as part of a Tier I Screening Battery. To examine the ability of these protocols to screen for chemicals that induce the clearance of thyroid hormone, we examined male and female Wistar rats following DE-71 exposure. Rats were gavaged daily with 0, 3, 30, or 60 mg/kg DE in corn oil from postnatal day (PND) 23-53 in the male or PND 22-41 in the female. The temporal effects of DE-71 on liver enzymes and thyroid hormones were measured in another group of males and females following only 5 days of dosing (PND 21 to 26 in females and PND 23 to 28 in males). Serum T4 was significantly decreased at 30 and 60 mg/kg following the 5-day exposures and in the 21-day exposed females. Doses of 3, 30, and 60 mg/kg decreased T4 in 31-day exposed males. Serum T3 was decreased and TSH elevated by 30 and 60 mg/kg in the 31-day exposed males only. Decreased colloid area and increased follicular cell heights (indicative of the hypothyroid state) were observed in thyroids of the 60 mg/kg groups of 20- and 31-day exposed female and males. Increased liver-to-body weight ratios coincided with a significant induction of uridinediphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UDGPT; two to four-fold), and ethoxy- and pentoxy-resorufin-O-deethylase (EROD and PROD) at the two highest doses in all exposures. Of the androgen dependent tissues in the 31-day exposed males, seminal vesicle (SV) and ventral prostate (VP) weights were reduced at 60 mg/kg, while testes and epididymal weights were not affected. Preputial separation (PPS) was also significantly delayed by doses of 30 and 60 mg/kg. In the female, the 60 mg/kg dose also caused a significant delay in the age of vaginal opening. Based upon the thyroid hormone response data, this study provides evidence that the 31-day

  9. Gender differences in sagittal standing alignment before pubertal peak growth: the importance of subclassification and implications for spinopelvic loading

    PubMed Central

    Dolphens, Mieke; Cagnie, Barbara; Vleeming, Andry; Vanderstraeten, Guy; Danneels, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze gender differences in sagittal standing alignment at pre-peak height velocity age thereby applying a scientifically sound and practically oriented classification scheme for overall standing balance. The study population consisted of healthy boys (n = 639) and girls (n = 557) before pubertal peak growth. During subjects' habitual standing, sagittal plane measures of the spine, pelvis and lower limbs were collected using a clinical screening protocol. With each subject classified as one of three postural types (neutral, sway-back, or leaning-forward), differences in sagittal plane alignment were analyzed between sexes. The results revealed clear differences between genders in each of the postural types. Within the neutral and sway-back postural subgroups, boys presented more forward inclination of the trunk, more thoracic kyphosis and more pelvis backtilt compared with girls. Within the leaning-forward category, girls displayed more forward trunk lean, less thoracic kyphosis and more pelvic anteversion. A state of lumbar segmental hyperextension appeared to exist in female leaning-forward subjects. Our results reveal for the first time that sagittal standing alignment is different between prepubescent boys and girls when subjects are appropriately subclassified, and conversely represent a ‘wash-out effect’ when pooled. When the classification system is applied, gender-specificity in gravity line position is suggested, implying gender-related differences in lever arms and thus load. Present findings may add to our understanding of gender-specific biomechanical challenges posed by habitual posture, and may shed new light on sagittal standing alignment as a possible contributory factor in developmental spinal-pelvic disorders. PMID:24107185

  10. Differential proteomic profile of spermatogenic and Sertoli cells from peri-pubertal testes of three different bovine breeds

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Utkarsh K.; Aslam, Muhammad K. M.; Pandey, Shashank; Nayak, Samiksha; Chhillar, Shivani; Srinivasan, A.; Mohanty, T. K.; Kadam, Prashant H.; Chauhan, M. S.; Yadav, Savita; Kumaresan, Arumugam

    2014-01-01

    Sub-fertility is one of the most common problems observed in crossbred males, but the etiology remains unknown in most of the cases. Although proteomic differences in the spermatozoa and seminal plasma between breeds have been investigated, the possible differences at the sperm precursor cells and supporting/nourishing cells have not been studied. The present study reports the differential proteomic profile of spermatogenic and Sertoli cells in crossbred and purebred bulls. Testis was removed by unilateral castration of 12 peri-pubertal bulls (10 months age), four each from crossbred (Holstein Friesian × Tharparkar), exotic purebred [Holstein Friesian (HF)] and indigenous purebred [Tharparkar (TP)] bulls. Spermatogenic and Sertoli cells were isolated and subjected to proteomic analysis. Protein extracts from the Sertoli and spermatogenic cells of each breed were analyzed with 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and analyzed with Decyder™ software. Compared to HF, 26 protein spots were over expressed and 14 protein spots were under expressed in spermatogenic cells of crossbred bulls. Similarly, 7 protein spots were over expressed and 15 protein spots were under expressed in the spermatogenic cells of TP bulls compared to that of crossbred bulls. Out of 12 selected protein spots identified through mass spectrometry, Phosphatidyl ethanolamine binding protein was found to be over expressed in the spermatogenic cells of crossbred bulls compared to TP bulls. The protein, gamma actin was found to be over expressed in the Sertoli cells of HF bulls, whereas Speedy Protein-A was found to be over expressed in Sertoli cells of crossbred bulls. It may be concluded that certain proteomic level differences exist in sperm precursor cells and nourishing cells between breeds, which might be associated with differences in the fertility among these breeds. PMID:25364731

  11. Oral exposure of pubertal male mice to endocrine-disrupting chemicals alters fat metabolism in adult livers.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yuanxiang; Lin, Xiaojian; Miao, Wenyu; Wang, Linggang; Wu, Yan; Fu, Zhengwei

    2015-12-01

    The potential for the exposure of humans and wildlife to environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been increasing. Risk assessment for such EDCs is primarily based on detecting the main endpoints related to the endocrine and reproductive systems, while the effects on glucose and fat metabolism have only received limited attention. In this study, pubertal male C57BL/6J mice were orally administered 10 mg/kg body weight cypermethrin (CYP), 100 mg/kg body weight atrazine (ATZ), and 0.1 mg/kg body weight 17α-ethynyestradiol (EE2) for 4 weeks and then switched to a high-energy diet (HD) for 8 weeks. The body weight gain in the EDC-treated groups was lower than that in the control group during exposure and then tended to show values similar to the HD group. The epididymal fat weight, cell size and serum triacylglycerol (TG) and total cholesterol (TCH) levels in the EDC-HD groups were lower than those in the HD group. The transcription of genes related to glycolytic and gluconeogenic processes in the liver was affected by EDC exposure. Furthermore, the expression levels of transcriptional factors including PPARα, PPARγ, and SREBP1C and their target genes related to fatty acid synthesis and oxidation in the liver were also influenced by early life EDC administration. The results showed that early-life-stage exposure to high doses of various environmental EDCs affected the homeostasis of glucose and fatty acid metabolism in the livers of adult male mice. PMID:24916741

  12. Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Test-Level 1 to monitor changes in aerobic fitness in pre-pubertal boys.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Luís; Krustrup, Peter; Silva, Gustavo; Rebelo, Antonio; Oliveira, José; Brito, João

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the performance and heart rate responses during the Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Test-Level 1 (Yo-Yo IE1) in children under the age of 10. One hundred and seven male children (7-9 years) performed the Yo-Yo IE1 at the beginning (M1), middle (M2) and end (M3) of the school year. Data from individual heart rate curves of the Yo-Yo IE1 were analysed in order to detect the inflection point between an initial phase of fast rise in heart rate values and a second phase in which the rise of the heart rate values is much smaller. The distance covered in the Yo-Yo IE1 improved from M1 to M3 (884 ± 496 vs. 1032 ± 596 m; p < 0.05; d = 0.27), with intermediate values for M2 (962 ± 528 m). Peak heart rate (HRpeak) decreased from M1 to M2 and M3 (204 ± 9, 202 ± 9 and 200 ± 9 bpm, respectively; p < 0.05; d = 0.25-0.42). The 7th shuttle of the test (280 m), corresponding to 2.5 min, was identified as the inflection point between the two phases. Also, absolute heart rate at the 7th shuttle decreased progressively throughout the year (185 ± 9, 183 ± 10, and 179 ± 10 bpm; p < 0.05; d = 0.31-0.61). The present study provides evidence of the usefulness of a maximal as well as a submaximal version of Yo-Yo IE1 as a tool to monitor changes in aerobic fitness in pre-pubertal children. PMID:25611184

  13. Ovulation induction in pre-pubertal Sahiwal-Friesian cross bred heifers by the use of clomiphene citrate and hCG.

    PubMed

    Ubaid-Ur-Rehman; Ali, Shujait; Ahmad, Nazir; Khanum, Shanaz Adeeb; Zubair, Muhammad

    2014-10-01

    In this study, an attempt was made to induce ovulation in crossbred pre-pubertal heifers by the use of clomiphene citrate (an anti-estrogen) and hCG. The hypothesis was that the clomiphene citrate, being anti-estrogen, would remove negative feedback effect of estrogen on the release of pituitary gonadotropins. Elevated gonadotropins would support ovarian follicular growth to a point where hCG would induce ovulation. Six pre-pubertal heifers were given clomiphene citrate orally at 300 mg/heifer for 9 days. At the same time, six control heifers were given placebo tablets. On following day, hCG was given to all heifers at a dose of 2500IU. Blood was collected before, during and after treatment and plasma was assayed for progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) concentrations. Five heifers (83.3%) in the experimental group had E2 concentrations above 10 pg/ml compared to one heifer (16.7%) in control group. Due to a wide variation, mean E2 concentration did not differ significantly between experimental and control heifers. The P4 assays showed that four heifers (66.7%) in the experimental group had ovulated (P4>1ng/ml plasma) compared to one heifer (16.7%) in control group, and mean P4 concentration differed (P<0.05) when concentrations were greatest in the clomiphene citrate-treated heifers. In conclusion, clomiphene citrate along with hCG can be used to induce ovulation in pre-pubertal heifers. PMID:25104473

  14. Effects of Pubertal Cannabinoid Administration on Attentional Set-Shifting and Dopaminergic Hyper-Responsivity in a Developmental Disruption Model of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Francisco S.; Grace, Anthony A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adolescent exposure to cannabinoids in vulnerable individuals is proposed to be a risk factor for psychiatric conditions later in life, particularly schizophrenia. Evidence from studies in animals has indicated that a combination of repeated pubertal cannabinoid administration with either neonatal prefrontocortical lesion, isolation rearing, or chronic NMDA receptor antagonism administration induces enhanced schizophrenia-like behavioral disruptions. The effects of adolescent exposure to CB1 receptor agonists, however, have not been tested in a developmental disruption model of schizophrenia. Methods: This was tested in the methylazoxymethanol (MAM) model, in which repeated treatment with the synthetic cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN; 1.2mg/kg) was extended over 25 days throughout puberty (postnatal days 40–65) in control and MAM rats. The rats received 20 injections, which were delivered irregularly to mimic the human condition. Adult rats were tested for attentional set-shifting task and locomotor response to amphetamine, which was compared with in vivo recording from ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons. Results: MAM-treated rats showed impairment in the attentional set-shifting task, augmented locomotor response to amphetamine administration, and an increased number of spontaneously active DA neurons in the VTA. Interestingly, pubertal WIN treatment in normal animals induced similar changes at adulthood as those observed in MAM-treated rats, supporting the notion that adolescence exposure to cannabinoids may represent a risk factor for developing schizophrenia-like signs at adulthood. However, contrary to expectations, pubertal WIN administration did not exacerbate the behavioral and electrophysiological changes in MAM-treated rats beyond that observed in WIN-treated saline rats (Sal). Indeed, WIN treatment actually attenuated the locomotor response to amphetamine in MAM rats without impacting DA neuron activity states

  15. On the role of pre-onset streamers in substorm onset and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepko, L.

    2014-12-01

    A large body of THEMIS-era research has made significant progress in studying both the morphology and the impact on substorm development of pre-onset auroral streamers. Specifically, beginning in 2010, a series of papers by Nishimura, Lyons, and others has laid out a scenario in which pre-onset white light streamers that appear to move from hight to low latitude represent low entropy flux tubes propagating to the near-Earth transition region. These entropy depleted flux tubes trigger an instability which then grows exponentially, rapidly leading to substorm onset. In the context of previously established terminology, this is considered a hybrid triggered inside-out scenario. More recent work has also challenged the traditional interpretation that Pi2 pulsations, the initiation of the substorm current wedge, and auroral onset are nearly simultaneous, as predicted by a model of onset driven by magnetotail flow bursts. Instead, it has been argued that auroral onset occurs many minutes earlier, and that further development is fed by post-onset auroral streamer activity. In this talk, I assess the role of of pre-onset auroral streamers in substorm onset and development, and review how the observations and interpretations relate to our current understanding of magnetotail processes.

  16. A Dominant X-Linked QTL Regulating Pubertal Timing in Mice Found by Whole Genome Scanning and Modified Interval-Specific Congenic Strain Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Guo, Zhengxia; Zhao, Ying; Zhou, Yuxun; Li, Kai; Xing, Zhenghong; Chen, Guoqiang; Liang, Yinming; Jin, Li; Xiao, Junhua

    2008-01-01

    Background Pubertal timing in mammals is triggered by reactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and modulated by both genetic and environmental factors. Strain-dependent differences in vaginal opening among inbred mouse strains suggest that genetic background contribute significantly to the puberty timing, although the exact mechanism remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a genome-wide scanning for linkage in reciprocal crosses between two strains, C3H/HeJ (C3H) and C57BL6/J (B6), which differed significantly in the pubertal timing. Vaginal opening (VO) was used to characterize pubertal timing in female mice, and the age at VO of all female mice (two parental strains, F1 and F2 progeny) was recorded. A genome-wide search was performed in 260 phenotypically extreme F2 mice out of 464 female progeny of the F1 intercrosses to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling this trait. A QTL significantly associated was mapped to the DXMit166 marker (15.5 cM, LOD = 3.86, p<0.01) in the reciprocal cross population (C3HB6F2). This QTL contributed 2.1 days to the timing of VO, which accounted for 32.31% of the difference between the original strains. Further study showed that the QTL was B6-dominant and explained 10.5% of variation to this trait with a power of 99.4% at an alpha level of 0.05.The location of the significant ChrX QTL found by genome scanning was then fine-mapped to a region of ∼2.5 cM between marker DXMit68 and rs29053133 by generating and phenotyping a panel of 10 modified interval-specific congenic strains (mISCSs). Conclusions/Significance Such findings in our study lay a foundation for positional cloning of genes regulating the timing of puberty, and also reveal the fact that chromosome X (the sex chromosome) does carry gene(s) which take part in the regulative pathway of the pubertal timing in mice. PMID:18725948

  17. Predicting Epileptic Seizures in Advance

    PubMed Central

    Moghim, Negin; Corne, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is the second most common neurological disorder, affecting 0.6–0.8% of the world's population. In this neurological disorder, abnormal activity of the brain causes seizures, the nature of which tend to be sudden. Antiepileptic Drugs (AEDs) are used as long-term therapeutic solutions that control the condition. Of those treated with AEDs, 35% become resistant to medication. The unpredictable nature of seizures poses risks for the individual with epilepsy. It is clearly desirable to find more effective ways of preventing seizures for such patients. The automatic detection of oncoming seizures, before their actual onset, can facilitate timely intervention and hence minimize these risks. In addition, advance prediction of seizures can enrich our understanding of the epileptic brain. In this study, drawing on the body of work behind automatic seizure detection and prediction from digitised Invasive Electroencephalography (EEG) data, a prediction algorithm, ASPPR (Advance Seizure Prediction via Pre-ictal Relabeling), is described. ASPPR facilitates the learning of predictive models targeted at recognizing patterns in EEG activity that are in a specific time window in advance of a seizure. It then exploits advanced machine learning coupled with the design and selection of appropriate features from EEG signals. Results, from evaluating ASPPR independently on 21 different patients, suggest that seizures for many patients can be predicted up to 20 minutes in advance of their onset. Compared to benchmark performance represented by a mean S1-Score (harmonic mean of Sensitivity and Specificity) of 90.6% for predicting seizure onset between 0 and 5 minutes in advance, ASPPR achieves mean S1-Scores of: 96.30% for prediction between 1 and 6 minutes in advance, 96.13% for prediction between 8 and 13 minutes in advance, 94.5% for prediction between 14 and 19 minutes in advance, and 94.2% for prediction between 20 and 25 minutes in advance. PMID:24911316

  18. Characterization of southwest monsoon onset over Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mie Sein, Z. M.; Islam, A. R. M. Towfiqul; Maw, K. W.; Moya, T. B.

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to characterize the southwest monsoon onset over Myanmar based on the model. The Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) was run for a period of 10 years (2000-2009) to simulate the meteorological fields which focused on April to July season. The model input data were obtained from the reanalyzed datasets of the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). Grell scheme with Arakawa closure for cumulus parameterization assumption was used for simulation with 45 km horizontal resolution. The results revealed that southwest monsoon onset was confirmed when the prevailing wind direction up to 600 hPa level had shifted from northeasterly to westerly or southwesterly. The southwest monsoon first arrived at southernmost Kawthoung station of Myanmar and progressed through the Deltaic and Central parts until it reached at northernmost Putao station. Over the simulation periods, the southwest monsoon onset progressed from the southernmost to northernmost parts of the country in 19 ± 10 days. The position of Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) appeared (23°N-28°N) over the Northern part of the country before the onset. Furthermore, 500 hPa ridge appeared consistently over the Deltaic area of Myanmar from 6 to 10 days before the monsoon onset. Its position is about 6° to the south of the ITCZ.

  19. Onset of Natural Convection in Saline Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaz, A.

    2013-05-01

    Sequestration of carbon dioxide in saline aquifers has emerged as the preferred method of permanently storing CO2 in the subsurface. In order to be successful over geologic time scales, sequestration in saline aquifers relies upon enhanced dissolution of CO2 in brine by natural convection. In this talk we review the progress made thus far towards the modeling and prediction of the onset time for natural convection that occurs due to an unstable stratification of aqueous CO2. We show how the onset of natural convection is connected to a preceding event of the onset of instability with respect to small amplitude perturbations that originate within the aqueous boundary layer. Our analysis indicates that the onset time for instability is uncertain within an initial transient period where perturbation growth depends on the specific form of the initial condition. A constrained adjoint based optimization is employed to determine the upper bound and the mean of perturbation growth. With the help of a weakly nonlinear analysis, we show that the time at which convection initiates is associated with fixed perturbation amplitude. The influence of permeability heterogeneity is studied with this approach. For certain permeability structures, the marginal stability curve bifurcates to form multiple stable and unstable zones in the space of the perturbation wavenumber and time. The transition toward bifurcation governs the behavior of the most dangerous mode in the linear regime and determines the route to the onset of natural convection.

  20. Effects of Dietary Glucose on Serum Estrogen Levels and Onset of Puberty in Gilts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fangfang; Zhu, Yujing; Ding, Lan; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic signals and the state of energy reserves have been shown to play a crucial role in the regulation of reproductive function. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary glucose levels on puberty onset in gilts. Weight-matched, landrace gilts (n = 36) 162±3 days old, weighing about 71.05±4.53 kg, were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatment groups of 12 gilts each. The trial lasted until the onset of puberty. Gilts in each group were supplied with diets containing different levels of glucose as follows: i) starch group (SG) was free of glucose, contained 64% corn derived starch; ii) low-dose group (LDG) contained 19.2% glucose and 44.8% corn derived starch; iii) high-dose group (HDG) contained 30% glucose and 30% corn derived starch. Results indicated: i) The growth performance of gilts were not affected by the addition of glucose, but the age of puberty onset was advanced significantly (p<0.05); ii) Compared with the SG, the concentration of insulin significantly increased before puberty in HDG (p<0.05); iii) There was no difference in serum progesterone (P) levels amongst the different feed groups, however, levels of estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone were significantly higher at puberty onset in HDG (p<0.05). Overall, our findings indicate that glucose supplementation significantly advances puberty onset, which can have practical purposes for commercial breeding. PMID:26954130

  1. Effects of Dietary Glucose on Serum Estrogen Levels and Onset of Puberty in Gilts.

    PubMed

    Li, Fangfang; Zhu, Yujing; Ding, Lan; Zhang, Yong

    2016-09-01

    Metabolic signals and the state of energy reserves have been shown to play a crucial role in the regulation of reproductive function. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary glucose levels on puberty onset in gilts. Weight-matched, landrace gilts (n = 36) 162±3 days old, weighing about 71.05±4.53 kg, were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatment groups of 12 gilts each. The trial lasted until the onset of puberty. Gilts in each group were supplied with diets containing different levels of glucose as follows: i) starch group (SG) was free of glucose, contained 64% corn derived starch; ii) low-dose group (LDG) contained 19.2% glucose and 44.8% corn derived starch; iii) high-dose group (HDG) contained 30% glucose and 30% corn derived starch. Results indicated: i) The growth performance of gilts were not affected by the addition of glucose, but the age of puberty onset was advanced significantly (p<0.05); ii) Compared with the SG, the concentration of insulin significantly increased before puberty in HDG (p<0.05); iii) There was no difference in serum progesterone (P) levels amongst the different feed groups, however, levels of estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone were significantly higher at puberty onset in HDG (p<0.05). Overall, our findings indicate that glucose supplementation significantly advances puberty onset, which can have practical purposes for commercial breeding. PMID:26954130

  2. Localizing epileptic seizure onsets with Granger causality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Bhim M.; Epstein, Charles M.; Dhamala, Mukesh

    2013-09-01

    Accurate localization of the epileptic seizure onset zones (SOZs) is crucial for successful surgery, which usually depends on the information obtained from intracranial electroencephalography (IEEG) recordings. The visual criteria and univariate methods of analyzing IEEG recordings have not always produced clarity on the SOZs for resection and ultimate seizure freedom for patients. Here, to contribute to improving the localization of the SOZs and to understanding the mechanism of seizure propagation over the brain, we applied spectral interdependency methods to IEEG time series recorded from patients during seizures. We found that the high-frequency (>80 Hz) Granger causality (GC) occurs before the onset of any visible ictal activity and causal relationships involve the recording electrodes where clinically identifiable seizures later develop. These results suggest that high-frequency oscillatory network activities precede and underlie epileptic seizures, and that GC spectral measures derived from IEEG can assist in precise delineation of seizure onset times and SOZs.

  3. Cognitive dysfunction in early onset parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Tsai, C H; Lu, C S; Hua, M S; Lo, W L; Lo, S K

    1994-01-01

    Cognitive functions of 24 patients with early onset parkinsonism (age of onset before 40 years) and 24 controls were investigated by a battery of neuropsychological tests. Patients were shown to be impaired in performance IQ (PIQ), conceptual ability and regulation behavior, memory, visuospatial perception, and manual dexterity. Patients were also shown to have a higher Zung Depression score. However, analysis of the testing scores appeared to indicate that only a small portion of poor performance on neuropsychological tests are depression related. The results demonstrated that patients with early onset parkinsonism, in whom the factor of aging is not as important, still show cognitive dysfunction and suggested that Parkinson's disease itself can cause cognitive impairment. PMID:8178636

  4. Is Adolescent-Onset First-Episode Psychosis Different from Adult Onset?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballageer, Trevor; Malla, Ashok; Manchanda, Rahul; Takhar, Jatinder; Haricharan, Raj

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether first-episode psychosis patients with onset during adolescence (ages 15-18) differ significantly from those with young-adult onset (ages 19-30). Method: Consecutive patients presenting with first-episode psychosis (N = 242) were assessed for demographic and illness characteristics such as duration of untreated…

  5. Co-Occurring Problems of Early Onset Persistent, Childhood Limited, and Adolescent Onset Conduct Problem Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Edward D.; Oliver, Bonamy R.; Maughan, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is increasingly recognized that youth who follow early onset persistent (EOP), childhood limited (CL) and adolescent onset (AO) trajectories of conduct problems show somewhat varying patterns of risk (in childhood) and adjustment problems (in adolescence and adulthood). Little, however, is known about how other adjustment problems…

  6. Impulsivity in Juvenile Delinquency: Differences among Early-Onset, Late-Onset, and Non-Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Annemaree; Hemingway, Francene; Bower, Julie; Ashman, Adrian; Houghton, Stephen; Durkin, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The present research investigated differences in levels of impulsivity among early-onset, late-onset, and non-offending adolescents. 129 adolescents (114 males, 15 females), of whom 86 were institutionalised (M age = 15.52 years) and 43 were regular school students (M age = 15.40 years) participated. Each participant completed the Adapted…

  7. [Late-onset alcohol withdrawal syndrome].

    PubMed

    Batel, P; Larivière, P

    2000-10-01

    The alcoholic withdrawal syndrome (AWS) arises variably within hours following the hospitalization of an alcohol dependent patient. Delay usually observed between admission and the first symptoms depends above all on alcohol serum level concentration at arrival and on the degree of severity of physical dependence. The case reported here describes the very late onset severe alcoholic withdrawal syndrome observed in a 57-year-old alcohol dependent patient hospitalized for leg trauma and operated within hours followed admission. The first symptoms of AWS appeared only the 4-th day after hospitalization and the patient quickly developed a clinical state of delirium tremens. Delay in the onset of this AWS is discussed. PMID:11104941

  8. A case of late-onset oligomeganephronia.

    PubMed

    Alves, Rafael José Vargas; Oppermann, Kenselyn; Schein, Luiz Eduardo; Pêgas, Karla Lais

    2012-01-01

    A 33-year old caucasian man was investigated for pain in the right flank, proteinuria, hemathuria and an elevated serum creatinine level. He also presented an abnormal ultrasonography, which revealed asymmetric kidneys. Through renal biopsy, the diagnosis of oligomeganephronia (OMN) was confirmed. OMN is a very rare form of renal hypoplasia, and late-onset in adulthood is even rarer. In the pediatric population, OMN leads to end-stage-renal-failure(ESRF) in a few years. This is the sixth case related in the literature of a late-onset OMN who have not yet developed ESRF. PMID:23318829

  9. Eating disorders: What age at onset?

    PubMed

    Volpe, Umberto; Tortorella, Alfonso; Manchia, Mirko; Monteleone, Alessio M; Albert, Umberto; Monteleone, Palmiero

    2016-04-30

    Age at onset (AAO) of eating disorders has classically been described in adolescence. We analyzed data from 806 subjects with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN) and performed a normal distribution admixture analysis to determine their AAO. No significant differences were found concerning the AAO functions of AN and BN subjects. Both groups had a mean AAO of about 18 years. Most of the subjects with AN (75.3%) and BN (83.3%) belonged to the early onset group. The definition of AAO for ED may be crucial for planning treatment modalities, with specific consideration of their clinical history and course. PMID:27086237

  10. Molecular mechanisms underlying the onset of degenerative aortic valve disease.

    PubMed

    Hakuno, Daihiko; Kimura, Naritaka; Yoshioka, Masatoyo; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2009-01-01

    Morbidity from degenerative aortic valve disease is increasing worldwide, concomitant with the ageing of the general population and the habitual consumption of diets high in calories and cholesterol. Immunohistologic studies have suggested that the molecular mechanism occurring in the degenerate aortic valve resembles that of atherosclerosis, prompting the testing of HMG CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) for the prevention of progression of native and bioprosthetic aortic valve degeneration. However, the effects of these therapies remain controversial. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying the onset of aortic valve degeneration are largely unknown, research in this area is advancing rapidly. The signaling components involved in embryonic valvulogenesis, such as Wnt, TGF-beta(1), BMP, and Notch, are also involved in the onset of aortic valve degeneration. Furthermore, investigations into extracellular matrix remodeling, angiogenesis, and osteogenesis in the aortic valve have been reported. Having noted avascularity of normal cardiac valves, we recently identified chondromodulin-I (chm-I) as a crucial anti-angiogenic factor. The expression of chm-I is restricted to cardiac valves from late embryogenesis to adulthood in the mouse, rat, and human. In human degenerate atherosclerotic valves, the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases and angiogenesis is observed in the area of chm-I downregulation. Gene targeting of chm-I resulted in VEGF expression, angiogenesis, and calcification in the aortic valves of aged mice, and aortic stenosis is detected by echocardiography, indicating that chm-I is a crucial factor for maintaining normal cardiac valvular function by preventing angiogenesis. The present review focuses on the animal models of aortic valve degeneration and recent studies on the molecular mechanisms underlying the onset of degenerative aortic valve disease. PMID:18766323

  11. Effects of chronic testosterone administration on body weight and food intake differ among pre-pubertal, gonadal-intact, and ovariectomized female rats.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Yiliyasi, Mayila; Kato, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Akira; Irahara, Minoru

    2016-08-01

    In females, estrogens play pivotal roles in preventing excessive body weight gain. On the other hand, the roles of androgen in female appetite and body weight regulation have not been fully studied. In this study, whether the roles of androgen in the regulation of body weight and appetite were different among ages and/or the estrogen milieu in females was evaluated. Body weight gain and food intake were increased by chronic testosterone administration in pre-pubertal and gonadal-intact female rats, but not in ovariectomized female rats. Testosterone administration also affected the serum leptin level and adipose leptin gene expression levels differently in each experimental condition. Hypothalamic mRNA levels of ERα, which plays pivotal roles in regulation of body weight and metabolism, were decreased by chronic testosterone administration in pre-pubertal and gonadal-intact female rats, but not in ovariectomized female rats. These results indicate that the effects of testosterone on body weight and appetite differed among ages and/or estrogen milieu in female rats, and that attenuation of estrogens' actions on the hypothalamus might be partly involved in the androgen-induced increases of body weight gain and food intake in females. PMID:27139935

  12. Relationships between leptin, KiSS-1/GPR54 expression and TSH secretion from pituitary cells of pubertal ewes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Radwańska, Paulina; Kosior-Korzecka, Urszula

    2016-04-01

    Kisspeptin and leptin play a crucial role in the puberty of sheep as they initiate the activity of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Also hormones of thyrotropic axis are probably involved in this process. The aim of study was to analyze the impact of leptin on kisspeptin-10 secretion as well as kisspeptin-1 and G protein-coupled receptor (GPR54) mRNA expression in pituitary cells of pubertal ewes in vitro. The influence of kisspeptin on TSH secretion was also examined. Cells were cultured in McCoy's 5A medium without hormones; with 10(-10)-10(-5)M of leptin; with 10(-11)-10(-5)M of kisspeptin-10; with peptide 234 (10(-7)M, antagonist of GPR54) or 10(-11)-10(-5)M of kisspeptin-10 and peptide 234. Then, kisspeptin-10 and TSH secretion as well as KiSS-1 and GPR54 expression were analyzed. We found that leptin directly affected kisspeptin-10 secretion and kisspeptin-1/GPR54 expression in pituitary cells of pubertal ewes. Kisspeptin-10 did not change TSH secretion, except exerting a short-term influence after 2h. PMID:27033929

  13. Excessive Refined Carbohydrates and Scarce Micronutrients Intakes Increase Inflammatory Mediators and Insulin Resistance in Prepubertal and Pubertal Obese Children Independently of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    López-Alarcón, Mardia; Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Armenta-Álvarez, Andrea; Bram-Falcón, María Teresa; Mayorga-Ochoa, Marielle

    2014-01-01

    Background. Low-grade inflammation is the link between obesity and insulin resistance. Because physiologic insulin resistance occurs at puberty, obese pubertal children are at higher risk for insulin resistance. Excessive diets in refined carbohydrates and saturated fats are risk factors for insulin resistance, but calcium, magnesium, vitamin-D, and the omega-3 fatty acids likely protect against inflammation and insulin resistance. Objective. To analyze interactions among dietary saturated fat, refined carbohydrates, calcium, magnesium, vitamin D, and omega-3 fatty acids on the risk of inflammation and insulin resistance in a sample of prepubertal and pubertal children. Methods. A sample of 229 children from Mexico City was analyzed in a cross-sectional design. Anthropometric measurements, 24 h recall questionnaires, and blood samples were obtained. Serum insulin, glucose, calcium, magnesium, 25-OHD3, C-reactive protein, leptin, adiponectin, and erythrocytes fatty acids were measured. Parametric and nonparametric statistics were used for analysis. Results. While mean macronutrients intake was excessive, micronutrients intake was deficient (P < 0.01). Inflammation determinants were central obesity and magnesium-deficient diets. Determinants of insulin resistance were carbohydrates intake and circulating magnesium and adiponectin. Conclusions. Magnesium-deficient diets are determinants of inflammation, while high intake of refined carbohydrates is a risk factor for insulin resistance, independently of central adiposity. PMID:25477716

  14. Niemann-Pick type C: focus on the adolescent/adult onset form.

    PubMed

    Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Marano, Massimo; Florio, Lucia; De Santis, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is an inherited sphingolipidosis characterized by progressive neurological deterioration and early mortality. The symptomatology and disease progression of NP-C are markedly affected by the age at onset of neurological manifestations, and categorization into early-infantile, late-infantile, juvenile, adolescent/adult neurological onset forms can aid evaluation of disease course and responses to therapy. Here, we review current information on the detection, diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of NP-C, with a focus on the adolescent/adult-onset form. A recent analysis indicated that the combined incidence of NP-C related to NPC1 gene mutations (NPC1) and NP-C related to NPC2 gene mutations (NPC2) is approximately 1 case in every 89 000 live births. In particular, late-onset phenotypes might well provide a greater contribution to the overall incidence than has previously been reported. Some neuropathological features in NP-C are held in common with other advanced age-onset diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Visceral symptoms such as splenomegaly are frequently asymptomatic in patients with adolescent/adult-onset NP-C, and are only occasionally detected during routine ultrasound assessments. In contrast, most patients with adolescent/adult-onset exhibit some degree of slowly progressive, non-disease-specific movement disorders (e.g. cerebellar ataxia), and/or more pathognomonic neurological signs such as vertical supranuclear gaze palsy. An increasing number of adolescent/adult-onset cases have been reported following initial recognition of cognitive impairment and/or psychiatric signs. The recent development and implementation of new clinical screening tools (e.g. the NP-C suspicion index) and biomarkers (e.g. plasma oxysterols) should help identify patients who warrant further investigation and possible treatment. PMID:26998855

  15. Age-at-Onset in Late Onset Alzheimer Disease is Modified by Multiple Genetic Loci

    PubMed Central

    Naj, Adam C.; Jun, Gyungah; Reitz, Christiane; Kunkle, Brian W.; Perry, William; Park, YoSon; Beecham, Gary W.; Rajbhandary, Ruchita A.; Hamilton-Nelson, Kara L.; Wang, Li-San; Kauwe, John S.K.; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Myers, Amanda J.; Bird, Thomas D.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Baldwin, Clinton T.; Jarvik, Gail P.; Crane, Paul K.; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Barmada, Michael M.; Demirci, F. Yesim; Cruchaga, Carlos; Kramer, Patricia; Ertekin-Taner, Nilufer; Hardy, John; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Green, Robert C.; Larson, Eric B.; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Evans, Denis; Schneider, Julie A.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Kamboh, M. Ilyas; Saykin, Andrew J.; Reiman, Eric M.; De Jager, Philip L.; Bennett, David A.; Morris, John C.; Montine, Thomas J.; Goate, Alison M.; Blacker, Deborah; Tsuang, Debby W.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Kukull, Walter A.; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Martin, Eden R.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Mayeux, Richard; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Importance As APOE locus variants contribute to both risk of late-onset Alzheimer disease and differences in age-at-onset, it is important to know if other established late-onset Alzheimer disease risk loci also affect age-at-onset in cases. Objectives To investigate the effects of known Alzheimer disease risk loci in modifying age-at-onset, and to estimate their cumulative effect on age-at-onset variation, using data from genome-wide association studies in the Alzheimer’s Disease Genetics Consortium (ADGC). Design, Setting and Participants The ADGC comprises 14 case-control, prospective, and family-based datasets with data on 9,162 Caucasian participants with Alzheimer’s occurring after age 60 who also had complete age-at-onset information, gathered between 1989 and 2011 at multiple sites by participating studies. Data on genotyped or imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) most significantly associated with risk at ten confirmed LOAD loci were examined in linear modeling of AAO, and individual dataset results were combined using a random effects, inverse variance-weighted meta-analysis approach to determine if they contribute to variation in age-at-onset. Aggregate effects of all risk loci on AAO were examined in a burden analysis using genotype scores weighted by risk effect sizes. Main Outcomes and Measures Age at disease onset abstracted from medical records among participants with late-onset Alzheimer disease diagnosed per standard criteria. Results Analysis confirmed association of APOE with age-at-onset (rs6857, P=3.30×10−96), with associations in CR1 (rs6701713, P=7.17×10−4), BIN1 (rs7561528, P=4.78×10−4), and PICALM (rs561655, P=2.23×10−3) reaching statistical significance (P<0.005). Risk alleles individually reduced age-at-onset by 3-6 months. Burden analyses demonstrated that APOE contributes to 3.9% of variation in age-at-onset (R2=0.220) over baseline (R2=0.189) whereas the other nine loci together contribute to 1.1% of

  16. The Relationship between Greater Pre-Pubertal Adiposity, Subsequent Age of Maturation and Bone Strength during Adolescence†

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Natalie A.; Torner, James C.; Letuchy, Elena M.; Burns, Trudy L.; Janz, Kathleen F.; Gilmore, Julie M. Eichenberger; Schlechte, Janet A.; Levy, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated whether greater pre-pubertal adiposity was associated with subsequent timing of maturation and bone strength during adolescence in 135 girls and 123 boys participating in the Iowa Bone Development Study. Greater adiposity was defined using BMI data at age 8 years to classify participants as overweight (OW, ≥85th percentile for age and sex) or healthy-weight, HW). Maturation was defined as the estimated age of peak height velocity (PHV) based on a series of cross-sectional estimates. Measurements were taken at ages 11, 13, 15 and 17 years for estimates of body composition by DXA, bone compression (bone strength index) and torsion strength (polar strength-strain index) at the radius and tibia by pQCT, and femoral neck bending strength (section modulus) by hip structural analysis. Bone strength in OW versus HW were evaluated by fitting sex-specific linear mixed models that included centered age (visit age – grand mean age of cohort) as the time variable and adjusted for change in fat mass, and limb length in Model 1. Analyses were repeated using biological age (visit age – age PHV) as the time variable for Model 1 with additional adjustment for lean mass in Model 2. BMI was negatively associated with age of maturation (p<0.05). OW versus HW girls had significantly greater bone strength (p<0.001) in Model 1, while OW versus HW boys had significantly greater bone strength (p<0.001) at the tibia and femoral neck, but not radius (p>0.05). Analyses were repeated using biological age, which yielded reduced parameter estimates for girls but similar results for boys (Model 1.) Differences were no longer present following adjustment for lean mass (Model 2) in girls (p>0.05) while differences at the tibia were sustained in boys (p<0.05). These findings demonstrate sex- and site-specific differences in the associations between adiposity, maturation and bone strength. PMID:26861036

  17. Season of birth is associated with birth weight, pubertal timing, adult body size and educational attainment: a UK Biobank study

    PubMed Central

    Day, Felix R.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Ong, Ken K.; Perry, John R.B.

    2015-01-01

    Season of birth, a marker of in utero vitamin D exposure, has been associated with a wide range of health outcomes. Using a dataset of ∼450,000 participants from the UK Biobank study, we aimed to assess the impact of this seasonality on birth weight, age at menarche, adult height and body mass index (BMI). Birth weight, age at menarche and height, but not BMI, were highly significantly associated with season of birth. Individuals born in summer (June–July–August) had higher mean birth weight (P = 8 × 10−10), later pubertal development (P = 1.1 × 10−45) and taller adult height (P = 6.5 × 10−9) compared to those born in all other seasons. Concordantly, those born in winter (December–January–February) showed directionally opposite differences in these outcomes. A secondary comparison of the extreme differences between months revealed higher odds ratios [95% confidence intervals (CI)] for low birth weight in February vs. September (1.23 [1.15–1.32], P = 4.4 × 10−10), for early puberty in September vs. July (1.22 [1.16–1.28], P = 7.3 × 10−15) and for short stature in December vs. June (1.09 [1.03–1.17], P = 0.006). The above associations were also seen with total hours of sunshine during the second trimester, but not during the first three months after birth. Additional associations were observed with educational attainment; individuals born in autumn vs. summer were more likely to continue in education post age 16 years (P = 1.1 × 10−91) or attain a degree-level qualification (P = 4 × 10−7). However, unlike other outcomes, an abrupt difference was seen between those born in August vs. September, which flank the start of the school year. Our findings provide support for the ‘fetal programming’ hypothesis, refining and extending the impact that season of birth has on childhood growth and development. Whilst other mechanisms may contribute to these associations, these findings are consistent with a possible role of in utero vitamin

  18. Improving Accuracy in Detecting Acoustic Onsets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duyck, Wouter; Anseel, Frederik; Szmalec, Arnaud; Mestdagh, Pascal; Tavernier, Antoine; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    In current cognitive psychology, naming latencies are commonly measured by electronic voice keys that detect when sound exceeds a certain amplitude threshold. However, recent research (e.g., K. Rastle & M. H. Davis, 2002) has shown that these devices are particularly inaccurate in precisely detecting acoustic onsets. In this article, the authors…

  19. Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonthier, Misty; Lyon, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    Childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS), particularly when diagnosed prior to the age of 13, is considered to be especially rare and severe. This article provides an in-depth look into its symptomatology, general course, long-term functioning, diagnostic criteria, and methods of assessing the disorder. It also includes discussions of the various…

  20. Coronal behavior before the large flare onset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imada, Shinsuke; Bamba, Yumi; Kusano, Kanya

    2014-12-01

    Flares are a major explosive event in our solar system. They are often followed by a coronal mass ejection that has the potential to trigger geomagnetic storms. There are various studies aiming to predict when and where the flares are likely to occur. Most of these studies mainly discuss the photospheric and chromospheric activity before the flare onset. In this paper we study the coronal features before the famous large flare occurrence on 2006 December 13. Using the data from Hinode/Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS), X-Ray Telescope (XRT), and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT), we discuss the coronal features in the large scale (a few 100″) before the flare onset. Our findings are as follows. (1) The upflows in and around the active region start growing from ˜ 10 to 30 km s-1 a day before the flare. (2) The expanding coronal loops are clearly observed a few hours before the flare. (3) Soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet intensity are gradually reduced. (4) The upflows are further enhanced after the flare. From these observed signatures, we conclude that the outer part of active region loops with low density was expanding a day before the flare onset, and the inner part with high density was expanding a few hours before the onset.

  1. Adult onset xanthogranuloma presenting as laryngeal mass.

    PubMed

    Li, Shawn; Weidenbecher, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Histiocytic disorders can be classified according to the distribution pattern of the lesions and the organs involved. Non-Langerhans-cell histiocytosis is a rare group of diseases that have varied clinical presentations ranging from isolated masses to diffuse systemic eruptions. We discuss a patient who initially presented with a vocal cord lesion and was ultimately diagnosed with adult onset xanthogranuloma. PMID:26954863

  2. Voice Onset Time in Parkinson Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Emily; Goberman, Alexander M.

    2010-01-01

    Research has found that speaking rate has an effect on voice onset time (VOT). Given that Parkinson disease (PD) affects speaking rate, the purpose of this study was to examine VOT with the effect of rate removed (VOT ratio), along with the traditional VOT measure, in individuals with PD. VOT and VOT ratio were examined in 9 individuals with PD…

  3. Prediction of Juvenile-Onset Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Zadnik, Karla; Sinnott, Loraine T.; Cotter, Susan A.; Jones-Jordan, Lisa A.; Kleinstein, Robert N.; Manny, Ruth E.; Twelker, J. Daniel; Mutti, Donald O.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Myopia (nearsightedness) has its onset in childhood and affects about one-third of adults in the United States. Along with its high prevalence, myopia is expensive to correct and is associated with ocular diseases that include glaucoma and retinal detachment. OBJECTIVE To determine the best set of predictors for myopia onset in school-aged children. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error (CLEERE) Study was an observational cohort study of ocular development and myopia onset conducted at 5 clinical sites from September 1, 1989, through May 22, 2010. Data were collected from 4512 ethnically diverse, nonmyopic school-aged children from grades 1 through 8 (baseline grades 1 through 6) (ages 6 through 13 years [baseline, 6 through 11 years]). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We evaluated 13 candidate risk factors for their ability to predict the onset of myopia. Myopia onset was defined as −0.75 diopters or more of myopia in each principal meridian in the right eye as measured by cycloplegic autorefraction at any visit after baseline until grade 8 (age 13 years). We evaluated risk factors using odds ratios from discrete time survival analysis, the area under the curve, and cross validation. RESULTS A total of 414 children became myopic from grades 2 through 8 (ages 7 through 13 years). Of the 13 factors evaluated, 10 were associated with the risk for myopia onset (P < .05). Of these 10 factors, 8 retained their association in multivariate models: spherical equivalent refractive error at baseline, parental myopia, axial length, corneal power, crystalline lens power, ratio of accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A ratio), horizontal/vertical astigmatism magnitude, and visual activity. A less hyperopic/more myopic baseline refractive error was consistently associated with risk of myopia onset in multivariate models (odds ratios from 0.02 to 0.13, P < .001), while near work, time

  4. The decadal-scale variation of the South Asian summer monsoon onset and its connection with the PDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, T.; Yamazaki, K.

    2013-12-01

    The summer Asian monsoon shows the abrupt increase of precipitation on the onset phase. It is an interesting and important problem when the summer monsoon onset occurs because natural resources, such as water and renewable energy agricultural product, are influenced by the variation of the summer Asian monsoon. Some researchers suggested the advance of the Asian summer monsoon onset in recent decades. We investigated the variation of the Asian monsoon onset using the long-term onset data over Kerala, a state in the southwest region of India, for 1948-2011. We discuss three main questions: 1) how is the variation of the monsoon onset date in the long-term period, 2) how the variation of the onset date is related to variations of atmospheric circulation and SST, and 3) what is the mechanism of such variation. Our main method is composite analysis using monthly-mean data. Though the onset date over Kerala shows the trend toward the early onset in recent three decades, such a trend is not observed in the whole period. It is noteworthy that the onset over Kerala shows the interannual variation on a multi-decadal scale. As regards the early onset years of Kerala, the summer monsoon onset is early over the following regions: the region from the southern Arabian Sea to southwestern India, the region from the southern Bay of Bengal to the Indochina Peninsula and the western North Pacific Ocean. On the other hand, the onset is late over southern China, Taiwan and the northern Philippine Sea. In early onset years of Kerala, the sea surface temperature over the northern Pacific Ocean is very similar to the negative PDO. The stationary wave train related with the negative PDO reaches into the Central Asia region, generates warm anomaly there and hence intensifies the land-sea thermal contrast there, which promotes the summer monsoon onset over South and Southeast Asia. Though the correlation between the onset over Kerala and the PDO is weak before 1976, it becomes high after

  5. Clinical Characteristics of Pediatric-Onset and Adult-Onset Multiple Sclerosis in Hispanic Americans.

    PubMed

    Langille, Megan M; Islam, Talat; Burnett, Margaret; Amezcua, Lilyana

    2016-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis can affect pediatric patients. Our aim was to compare characteristics between pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis and adult-onset multiple sclerosis in Hispanic Americans. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 363 Hispanic American multiple scleroses cases; demographic and clinical characteristics were analyzed. A total of 110 Hispanic patients presented with multiple sclerosis before age 18 and 253 as adult multiple sclerosis. The most common presenting symptoms for both was optic neuritis. Polyfocal symptoms, seizures, and cognitive symptoms at presentation were more prevalent in pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (P ≤ .001). Transverse myelitis was more frequent in adult-onset multiple sclerosis (P ≤ .001). Using multivariable analysis, pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (adjusted odds ratio, 0.3OR 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.71, P = .004) and being US born (adjusted odds ratio, 0.553, 95% confidence interval 0.3-1.03, P = .006) were less likely to have severe ambulatory disability. Results suggest that pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis and adult-onset multiple sclerosis in Hispanics have differences that could be important for treatment and prognosis. PMID:27021143

  6. A comparative study of 470 cases of early-onset and late-onset schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Howard, R; Castle, D; Wessely, S; Murray, R

    1993-09-01

    The presence or absence of 22 schizophrenic symptoms was recorded with the age at onset of illness in 470 patients with non-affective, non-organic psychoses. Positive and negative formal thought disorder, affective symptoms, inappropriate affect, delusions of grandiosity or passivity, primary delusions other than delusional perception, and thought insertion and withdrawal were all more common in early-onset cases (age at onset 44 years or less; n = 336). Persecutory delusions with and without hallucinations, organised delusions, and third-person, running commentary and accusatory or abusive auditory hallucinations were all more common in late-onset cases (age at onset 45 years or more; n = 134). There was no difference between cases of early and late onset in the prevalence of delusions of reference, bizarre delusions, delusional perception, or lack of insight. We conclude that although there are clinical similarities between cases of schizophrenia with early and late onset, there are sufficient differences between them to suggest that they are not phenotypically homogeneous. PMID:8401965

  7. Stress during the pre-pubertal period leads to long-term diet-dependent changes in anxiety-like behavior and in oxidative stress parameters in male adult rats.

    PubMed

    Arcego, Danusa Mar; Krolow, Rachel; Lampert, Carine; Noschang, Cristie; Pettenuzzo, Letícia Ferreira; Marcolin, Marina Lima; Toniazzo, Ana Paula; Dalmaz, Carla

    2013-09-01

    Social isolation during early development is one of the most potent stressors that can cause alterations in the processes of brain maturation, leading to behavioral and neurochemical changes that may persist to adulthood. Exposure to palatable diets during development can also affect neural circuits with long-term consequences. The aims of the present study were to investigate the long-term effects of isolation stress during the pre-pubertal period on the exploratory and anxiety-like behavior, the oxidative stress parameters and the respiratory chain enzymes activities in the hippocampus of adult male rats under chronic palatable diets. The results showed that isolated rats receiving either normal or high-fat diet during the pre-pubertal period presented an anxiolytic-like behavior. The animals exposed to stress and treated with high-carbohydrate diet, rich in disaccharides, on the other hand, presented the opposite pattern of behavior. Stress in the pre-pubertal period also leads to decreased activity of the antioxidant enzymes and the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes II and IV and decreased total thiol content. These effects were reversed by high-fat diet when it was associated with stress. The effects of a sub-acute pre-pubertal isolation stress on anxiety-like behavior and on hippocampal oxidative imbalance during adulthood appear to be modulated by different types of diets, and probably different mechanisms are involved. PMID:23729300

  8. Very early onset and greater vulnerability in schizophrenia: A clinical and neuroimaging study

    PubMed Central

    Margari, Francesco; Presicci, Anna; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Ventura, Patrizia; Di Cuonzo, Franca; Palma, Michele; Margari, Lucia

    2008-01-01

    Although schizophrenia has been diagnosed in children, this group of disorders has received too little attention in the clinical and research literature. Preliminary data suggest that early onset schizophrenia (EOS) and very early onset schizophrenia (VEOS) tend to have a worse outcome than adult onset schizophrenia, and seem to be related to a greater familial vulnerability, due to genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors. Recently, advanced neuroimaging techniques have revealed structural and functional brain abnormalities in some cerebral areas. This paper reports on a case diagnosed as VEOS, with premorbid year-long psychopathological history. The patient showed atypical proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings, and normal brain and spine computer tomography and brain magnetic resonance images. PMID:19043525

  9. Delayed sleep onset in depressed young people

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The circadian abnormality of delayed sleep phase has been suggested to characterise a subgroup of depressed young adults with different risk factors and course of illness. We aim to assess the prevalence and factors, particularly substance use, associated with such delay in a large help-seeking cohort of young people with mental health problems. Methods From a consecutively recruited sample of 802 help-seeking young people, 305 (38%) had at least moderate depressive symptoms (QIDS-C16 >10), sleep data and did not have a chronic severe mental illness. Demographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated through self report and clinical interview. Delayed sleep phase was defined as a sleep onset between the hours of 02:00 a.m. – 06:00 a.m. and the characteristics of this group were compared to normal phase sleepers. Results Delayed sleep onset was reported amongst 18% (n = 56/305) of the depressed group compared to 11% of the non-depressed young people. Amongst the depressed group, delayed sleep onset was associated with tobacco, alcohol and cannabis misuse and short sleep duration (x̅: 5.8 hrs vs. x̅: 7.8 hrs). There were no differences in demographic factors, personality traits or symptoms. Tobacco smoking was very common: In logistic regression analyses only tobacco use (OR 2.28, 95% CI: 1.04 - 5.01) was associated with delayed sleep onset. There was no interaction with age. Conclusions Delayed sleep onset was twice as common in depressed young people as the general population and young people with other mental health problems, and is a potential marker for a subgroup of mood disorders. Those with delayed sleep onset were not more severely depressed but had short sleep duration, a risk for chronic psychological ill health, and higher levels of tobacco use. Nicotine use was common in this group, has biological evidence as a sleep disrupter, and requires specifically addressing in this population. PMID:24506941

  10. The increasing incidence of young-onset colorectal cancer: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Ahnen, Dennis J; Wade, Sally W; Jones, Whitney F; Sifri, Randa; Mendoza Silveiras, Jose; Greenamyer, Jasmine; Guiffre, Stephanie; Axilbund, Jennifer; Spiegel, Andrew; You, Y Nancy

    2014-02-01

    In the United States, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common and second most lethal cancer. More than one-tenth of CRC cases (11% of colon cancers and 18% of rectal cancers) have a young onset (ie, occurring in individuals younger than 50 years). The CRC incidence and mortality rates are decreasing among all age groups older than 50 years, yet increasing in younger individuals for whom screening use is limited and key symptoms may go unrecognized. Familial syndromes account for approximately 20% of young-onset CRCs, and the remainder are typically microsatellite stable cancers, which are more commonly diploid than similar tumors in older individuals. Young-onset CRCs are more likely to occur in the distal colon or rectum, be poorly differentiated, have mucinous and signet ring features, and present at advanced stages. Yet, stage-specific survival in patients with young-onset CRC is comparable to that of patients with later-onset cancer. Primary care physicians have an important opportunity to identify high-risk young individuals for screening and to promptly evaluate CRC symptoms. Risk modification, targeted screening, and prophylactic surgery may benefit individuals with a predisposing hereditary syndrome or condition (eg, inflammatory bowel disease) or a family history of CRC or advanced adenomatous polyps. When apparently average-risk young adults present with CRC-like symptoms (eg, unexplained persistent rectal bleeding, anemia, and abdominal pain), endoscopic work-ups can expedite diagnosis. Early screening in high-risk individuals and thorough diagnostic work-ups in symptomatic young adults may improve young-onset CRC trends. PMID:24393412

  11. Daily Accumulated Area of Snow Melt Onset on Arctic Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliss, A. C.; Anderson, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    The ice and snow in the Arctic are vital components of the global climate system, which has seen record-breaking changes in recent years. Changes in the onset of melting in the Arctic during the spring and summer months greatly changes the surface albedo of snow and ice covered surfaces, impacting sea ice loss through the remainder of the melt season. The present study utilizes the date on which melting begins in the snow atop sea ice, derived from passive microwave brightness temperatures from the DMSP SMMR, SSM/I (F08-F13), and SSMIS (F17) platforms, to analyze regional and inter-annual variability in the onset of melting in the Arctic. The Advanced Horizontal Range Algorithm (AHRA) snowmelt onset dates used in this study exploit the changes between 19 GHz (18 GHz for SMMR) and 37 GHz brightness temperatures to derive snow melt onset dates over Arctic sea ice from 1979-2011. Each annual AHRA snowmelt onset date grid indicates the day from the first of the year that melting occurred at each grid point. To analyze snowmelt onset on a daily basis, the annual grids are partitioned by date. A melt onset area is calculated by summing the number of grid points experiencing melt on individual dates then multiplying by the grid resolution to produce an areal extent of melt onset for each date during the melt seasons throughout the study period. By totaling the daily areal extent of melt onset, an accumulation is calculated by summing the area of melt each day throughout the melt season. Variations observed in the melt accumulation pattern through a melt season can be attributed to the weather conditions present at the time of melt onset. Analysis of the daily accumulation of melt area indicates high variability in the timing of snowmelt onset over the 1979-2011 record and a trend towards earlier melt onset dates for the Arctic region as a whole and sub-regionally. The accumulation of melt area through the melt season shows the SMMR years (1979-1987) to generally be below

  12. Different Alterations of Cerebral Regional Homogeneity in Early-Onset and Late-Onset Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Ke; Fang, Weidong; Zhu, Yingcheng; Shuai, Guangying; Zou, Dezhi; Su, Meilan; Han, Yu; Cheng, Oumei

    2016-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Eighteen EOPD, 21 LOPD and 37 age-matched normal control subjects participated in the resting state fMRI scans.Age at onset of PD modulates the distribution of cerebral regional homogeneity during resting state.Disproportionate putamen alterations are more prominent in PD patients with a younger age of onset. Objective: Early-onset Parkinson's disease (EOPD) is distinct from late-onset PD (LOPD) as it relates to the clinical profile and response to medication. The objective of current paper is to investigate whether characteristics of spontaneous brain activity in the resting state are associated with the age of disease onset. Methods: We assessed the correlation between neural activity and age-at-onset in a sample of 39 PD patients (18 EOPD and 21 LOPD) and 37 age-matched normal control subjects. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) approaches were employed using ANOVA with two factors: PD and age. Results: In the comparisons between LOPD and EOPD, EOPD revealed lower ReHo values in the right putamen and higher ReHo values in the left superior frontal gyrus. Compared with age-matched control subjects, EOPD exhibited lower ReHo values in the right putamen and higher ReHo values in the left inferior temporal gyrus; However, LOPD showed lower ReHo values in the right putamen and left insula. The ReHo values were negatively correlated with the UPDRS total scores in the right putamen in LOPD, but a correlation between the ReHo value and UPDRS score was not detected in EOPD. Conclusions: Our findings support the notion that age at onset is associated with the distribution of cerebral regional homogeneity in the resting state and suggest that disproportionate putamen alterations are more prominent in patients with a younger age of onset. PMID:27462265

  13. Estimating the time of melt onset and freeze onset over Arctic sea-ice area using active and passive microwave data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belchansky, G.I.; Douglas, D.C.; Mordvintsev, I.N.; Platonov, N.G.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate calculation of the time of melt onset, freeze onset, and melt duration over Arctic sea-ice area is crucial for climate and global change studies because it affects accuracy of surface energy balance estimates. This comparative study evaluates several methods used to estimate sea-ice melt and freeze onset dates: (1) the melt onset database derived from SSM/I passive microwave brightness temperatures (Tbs) using Drobot and Anderson's [J. Geophys. Res. 106 (2001) 24033] Advanced Horizontal Range Algorithm (AHRA) and distributed by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC); (2) the International Arctic Buoy Program/Polar Exchange at the Sea (IABP/POLES) surface air temperatures (SATs); (3) an elaborated version of the AHRA that uses IABP/POLES to avoid anomalous results (Passive Microwave and Surface Temperature Analysis [PMSTA]); (4) another elaborated version of the AHRA that uses T b variance to avoid anomalous results (Mean Differences and Standard Deviation Analysis [MDSDA]); (5) Smith's [J. Geophys. Res. 103 (1998) 27753] vertically polarized Tb algorithm for estimating melt onset in multiyear (MY) ice (SSM/I 19V-37V); and (6) analyses of concurrent backscattering cross section (????) and brightness temperature (T b) from OKEAN-01 satellite series. Melt onset and freeze onset maps were created and compared to understand how the estimates vary between different satellite instruments and methods over different Arctic sea-ice regions. Comparisons were made to evaluate relative sensitivities among the methods to slight adjustments of the Tb calibration coefficients and algorithm threshold values. Compared to the PMSTA method, the AHRA method tended to estimate significantly earlier melt dates, likely caused by the AHRA's susceptibility to prematurely identify melt onset conditions. In contrast, the IABP/POLES surface air temperature data tended to estimate later melt and earlier freeze in all but perennial ice. The MDSDA method was least sensitive to

  14. Estimating the time of melt onset and freeze onset over Arctic sea-ice area using active and passive microwave data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belchansky, G.I.; Douglas, D.C.; Mordvintsev, I.N.; Platonov, N.G.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate calculation of the time of melt onset, freeze onset, and melt duration over Arctic sea-ice area is crucial for climate and global change studies because it affects accuracy of surface energy balance estimates. This comparative study evaluates several methods used to estimate sea-ice melt and freeze onset dates: (1) the melt onset database derived from SSM/I passive microwave brightness temperatures (Tbs) using Drobot and Anderson's [J. Geophys. Res. 106 (2001) 24033] Advanced Horizontal Range Algorithm (AHRA) and distributed by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC); (2) the International Arctic Buoy Program/Polar Exchange at the Sea (IABP/POLES) surface air temperatures (SATs); (3) an elaborated version of the AHRA that uses IABP/POLES to avoid anomalous results (Passive Microwave and Surface Temperature Analysis [PMSTA]); (4) another elaborated version of the AHRA that uses Tb variance to avoid anomalous results (Mean Differences and Standard Deviation Analysis [MDSDA]); (5) Smith's [J. Geophys. Res. 103 (1998) 27753] vertically polarized Tb algorithm for estimating melt onset in multiyear (MY) ice (SSM/I 19V - 37V); and (6) analyses of concurrent backscattering cross section (rj) and brightness temperature (Tb) from OKEAN-01 satellite series. Melt onset and freeze onset maps were created and compared to understand how the estimates vary between different satellite instruments and methods over different Arctic seaice regions. Comparisons were made to evaluate relative sensitivities among the methods to slight adjustments of the Tb calibration coefficients and algorithm threshold values. Compared to the PMSTA method, the AHRA method tended to estimate significantly earlier melt dates, likely caused by the AHRA's susceptibility to prematurely identify melt onset conditions. In contrast, the IABP/POLES surface air temperature data tended to estimate later melt and earlier freeze in all but perennial ice. The MDSDA method was least sensitive to small

  15. Age of Onset of Social Anxiety Disorder in Depressed Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Dalrymple, Kristy L.; Zimmerman, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Onset of social anxiety disorder (SAD) often precedes that of major depressive disorder (MDD) in patients with this comorbidity pattern. The current study examined the association between three SAD onset groups (childhood, adolescent, adulthood) and clinical characteristics of 412 psychiatric outpatients diagnosed with MDD and SAD based on a semi-structured diagnostic interview. Childhood and adolescent SAD onset groups were more likely to report an onset of MDD prior to age 18 and have made at least one prior suicide attempt compared to the adulthood onset group. The childhood SAD onset group also was more likely to have chronic MDD, poorer past social functioning, and an increased hazard of MDD onset compared to the adulthood onset group. Findings suggest that patients with an onset of SAD in childhood or adolescence may be particularly at risk for a more severe and chronic course of depressive illness. PMID:20832989

  16. Effects of Habitual Physical Activity and Fitness on Tibial Cortical Bone Mass, Structure and Mass Distribution in Pre-pubertal Boys and Girls: The Look Study.

    PubMed

    Duckham, Rachel L; Rantalainen, Timo; Ducher, Gaele; Hill, Briony; Telford, Richard D; Telford, Rohan M; Daly, Robin M

    2016-07-01

    Targeted weight-bearing activities during the pre-pubertal years can improve cortical bone mass, structure and distribution, but less is known about the influence of habitual physical activity (PA) and fitness. This study examined the effects of contrasting habitual PA and fitness levels on cortical bone density, geometry and mass distribution in pre-pubertal children. Boys (n = 241) and girls (n = 245) aged 7-9 years had a pQCT scan to measure tibial mid-shaft total, cortical and medullary area, cortical thickness, density, polar strength strain index (SSIpolar) and the mass/density distribution through the bone cortex (radial distribution divided into endo-, mid- and pericortical regions) and around the centre of mass (polar distribution). Four contrasting PA and fitness groups (inactive-unfit, inactive-fit, active-unfit, active-fit) were generated based on daily step counts (pedometer, 7-days) and fitness levels (20-m shuttle test and vertical jump) for boys and girls separately. Active-fit boys had 7.3-7.7 % greater cortical area and thickness compared to inactive-unfit boys (P < 0.05), which was largely due to a 6.4-7.8 % (P < 0.05) greater cortical mass in the posterior-lateral, medial and posterior-medial 66 % tibial regions. Cortical area was not significantly different across PA-fitness categories in girls, but active-fit girls had 6.1 % (P < 0.05) greater SSIpolar compared to inactive-fit girls, which was likely due to their 6.7 % (P < 0.05) greater total bone area. There was also a small region-specific cortical mass benefit in the posterior-medial 66 % tibia cortex in active-fit girls. Higher levels of habitual PA-fitness were associated with small regional-specific gains in 66 % tibial cortical bone mass in pre-pubertal children, particularly boys. PMID:26983726

  17. Copper and zinc concentrations in uterine fluid and blood serum during the estrous cycle and pre-pubertal phase in water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Alavi Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Asri Rezaie, Siamak; Khaki, Amir; Belbasi, Abulfazl; Tahmasebian, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    To investigate uterine fluid and serum copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) variations during the estrous cycle in water buffaloes, 71 genital tracts and blood samples were collected from the abattoir in Urmia, Iran. The phase of the estrous cycle was determined by examining ovarian structures; 18, 15, 16 and 22 were pro-estrous, estrous, met-estrous and diestrous, respectively. The uterine fluid was collected by gentle scraping of the uterine mucosa with a curette. Blood serum and uterine fluid samples of 71 pre-pubertal buffalo calves were also collected and treated in similar manners. The mean (± SEM) total serum (77.10 ± 1.50 µg dL(-1)) and uterine fluid (296.40 ± 9.40 μg dL(-1)) Cu in cyclic cows was higher than the values of 54.00 ± 1.10 μg dL(-1) and 133.40 ± 5.70 μg dL(-1) in pre-pubertal calves, respectively. Blood serum (114.60 ± 3.20 μg dL(-1)) and the uterine fluid (349.90 ± 8.90 μg dL(-1)) Zn content in cyclic cows were also higher than those (98.80 ± 1.50 μg dL(-1) and 246.6 ± 4.50 μg dL(-1) respectively) in pre-pubertal calves. Serum Cu in pro-estrus and estrus were lower than those in other stages and also lower than those in the uterine fluid. The lowest serum Zn content was recorded in pro- and met-estrus, while in the uterine fluid it was observed in estrus. In all stages of estrous cycle the uterine fluid Zn content was significantly higher than those of the serum. These results suggested that during the estrous cycle in the buffalo cows, Cu and Zn were actively secreted in uterine lumen and were not dependent on blood serum. The values also increased after puberty. PMID:26893810

  18. Copper and zinc concentrations in uterine fluid and blood serum during the estrous cycle and pre-pubertal phase in water buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Alavi Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Asri Rezaie, Siamak; Khaki, Amir; Belbasi, Abulfazl; Tahmasebian, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    To investigate uterine fluid and serum copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) variations during the estrous cycle in water buffaloes, 71 genital tracts and blood samples were collected from the abattoir in Urmia, Iran. The phase of the estrous cycle was determined by examining ovarian structures; 18, 15, 16 and 22 were pro-estrous, estrous, met-estrous and diestrous, respectively. The uterine fluid was collected by gentle scraping of the uterine mucosa with a curette. Blood serum and uterine fluid samples of 71 pre-pubertal buffalo calves were also collected and treated in similar manners. The mean (± SEM) total serum (77.10 ± 1.50 µg dL-1) and uterine fluid (296.40 ± 9.40 μg dL-1) Cu in cyclic cows was higher than the values of 54.00 ± 1.10 μg dL-1 and 133.40 ± 5.70 μg dL-1 in pre-pubertal calves, respectively. Blood serum (114.60 ± 3.20 μg dL-1) and the uterine fluid (349.90 ± 8.90 μg dL-1) Zn content in cyclic cows were also higher than those (98.80 ± 1.50 μg dL-1 and 246.6 ± 4.50 μg dL-1 respectively) in pre-pubertal calves. Serum Cu in pro-estrus and estrus were lower than those in other stages and also lower than those in the uterine fluid. The lowest serum Zn content was recorded in pro- and met-estrus, while in the uterine fluid it was observed in estrus. In all stages of estrous cycle the uterine fluid Zn content was significantly higher than those of the serum. These results suggested that during the estrous cycle in the buffalo cows, Cu and Zn were actively secreted in uterine lumen and were not dependent on blood serum. The values also increased after puberty. PMID:26893810

  19. Delayed onset muscle soreness: is massage effective?

    PubMed

    Nelson, Nicole

    2013-10-01

    Despite the widespread occurrence of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), there is little consensus as to the exact cause or which treatments may be most effective at alleviating symptoms. Greater understanding of DOMS can give sports medicine and fitness professionals an opportunity to help prevent or speed recovery of this performance limiting condition. This article will review the DOMS literature, including the potential role of psychosocial factors and explore studies which involve massage therapy as a treatment modality. Articles from PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and references from articles are included in this review. Search words and phrases included delayed onset muscle soreness, repeated bout effect, massage effectiveness, exercise induced muscle damage, and eccentric exercise. PMID:24139006

  20. Late onset spondyloarthropathy mimicking polymyalgia rheumatica.

    PubMed

    Aydeniz, Ali; Altındağ, Ozlem; Oğüt, Evrim; Gürsoy, Savaş

    2012-05-01

    We report a 55-year-old woman with late onset spondyloarthropathy who had widespread body pain and pitting oedema of both ankles. She had been followed up for polymyalgia rheumatica for nearly 10 years. On laboratory examination, ESR: 62 mm/h and CRP: 16.1 mg/dl. HLA was positive. There was tenderness on both of her ankles. We diagnosed late onset spondyloarthropathy according to clinic and radiographic findings. The patient was treated with sulphasalazine 200 mg/day and indomethacin 100 mg/day. As a conclusion, LoSPA may mimic a variety of rheumatic conditions such as PMR and reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome. Careful examination should be warranted in such conditions. PMID:20237931

  1. Premorbid personality in first-onset psychosis.

    PubMed

    Dalkin, T; Murphy, P; Glazebrook, C; Medley, I; Harrison, G

    1994-02-01

    The data presented are those from a two-year prospective study of 69 patients identified in the Nottingham field centre of the WHO Study of Determinants of Outcome of Severe Mental Disorders. Premorbid personality, childhood adjustment and adolescent adjustment were assessed at the patients' first presentation to psychiatric services with a psychotic illness. Ratings were made blind to diagnosis. Premorbid explosive and paranoid traits were commoner in patients with schizophrenia than in patients with other non-organic psychoses, and these traits were associated with later onset of schizophrenia. Premorbid schizoid traits were significantly commoner in patients with schizophrenia compared to patients with other psychoses, but only in those patients for whom a parent was the informant. Schizoid traits were no commoner in men with schizophrenia than in women, and were not associated with earlier age of onset. The findings suggest that premorbid personality, in men and women, may shape the expression of symptoms produced during an illness episode. PMID:8173823

  2. Effect of a postnatal high-fat diet exposure on puberty onset, estrous cycle regularity, and kisspeptin expression in female rats.

    PubMed

    Lie, Maria E K; Overgaard, Agnete; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2013-12-01

    Kisspeptin, encoded by Kiss1, plays a key role in pubertal maturation and reproduction as a positive upstream regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. To examine the role of high-fat diet (HFD) on puberty onset, estrous cycle regularity, and kisspeptin expression, female rats were exposed to HFD in distinct postnatal periods. Three groups of rats were exposed to HFD containing 60% energy from fat during the pre-weaning period (postnatal day (PND) 1-16, HFD PND 1-16), post-weaning period (HFD PND 21-34), or during both periods (HFD PND 1-34). Puberty onset, evaluated by vaginal opening, was monitored on days 30-34. Leptin, estradiol (E2), Kiss1 mRNA levels, and number of kisspeptin-immunoreactive cells in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and arcuate nucleus (ARC) were measured at day 34. Body weight increased only in rats exposed to HFD during post-weaning period, whereas the timing of vaginal opening was unaffected in all three groups. Leptin, Kiss1 mRNA levels, and number of kisspeptin-immunoreactive cells at day 34 were not affected by HFD. Additionally, the estrous cycle regularity was monitored in rats exposed to HFD for 40 days from weaning. Leptin, E2, and Kiss1 mRNA levels in the AVPV and ARC were measured after the HFD exposure. Thirty-three percent of rats exposed to HFD exhibited irregular estrous cycles and a two-fold increase in leptin. By contrast, E2 level and Kiss1 mRNA levels were not affected by the treatment. These data show that postnatal HFD exposure induced irregular estrous cycles, but had no effect on puberty onset or kisspeptin. PMID:24287038

  3. [Brain imaging in early onset anorexia].

    PubMed

    Bargiacchi, A

    2014-05-01

    Structural and functional brain alterations in the structures involved in taste processing, emotions regulation and the reward system have been described in anorexia nervosa. The neurodevelopmental origin of this disorder has been recently discussed. In this article, brain-imaging data in early onset anorexia nervosa will be recalled and the relationship between clinical symptoms, normal brain maturation and brain imaging data in adolescents and adults will be discussed. PMID:24726667

  4. The events and regulation of anaphase onset

    SciTech Connect

    Sluder, G.; Rieder, C.L.

    1993-12-31

    Aneuploidy results from the malsegregation of one or more chromosomes during mitosis or meiosis. It can occur from the non-disjunction of a chromosome, the complete failure of a chromosome to attach to the spindle, the assembly of a multipolar spindle, or the failure of a mono-oriented chromosome to achieve a bipolar attachment prior to chromatid disjunction. Given that aneuploidy has serious, often lethal, consequences for the individual organism, fidelity of chromosome distribution during cell division is of obvious importance. Cells must not only regulate the spatial arrangement and distribution of chromosomes to ensure their equal partition but also tightly coordinate the start of poleward chromosome movements in mitosis with the concurrent orderly return to interphase. Anaphase onset is commonly defined as that point during mitosis and meiosis when the sister chromatids (or meiosis I bivalents) aligned on the spindle equator separate or {open_quotes}disjoin{close_quotes} from each other and start moving towards opposite spindle poles. It represents the culmination of the many preparations for division and the start of the actual partition of the cell. However, there is much more to anaphase onset than just meets the eye. Anaphase onset for the chromosomes is coincident with the metaphase-anaphase transition point in the cell cycle that triggers the events that finish mitosis (or meiosis) and return the cell to interphase. In this chapter we briefly review anaphase onset from the standpoint of both chromosomal events and cell cycle progression. We then outline the interrelationship between these two processes, and what little is known about the mechanisms that control them, without pretense of providing a complete review of the several active areas of research involved.

  5. Childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Olowu, Wasiu

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the initial clinicolaboratory manifestations and short-term outcome in a series of Nigerian children with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: A nonrandomized prospective study of consecutive cases of childhood-onset SLE. Baseline and follow-up clinicolaboratory data were collected and analyzed. Each patient was followed up for 12 months. RESULTS: Eleven children were studied. There were seven girls (F:M, 1.75). Mean ages at lupus onset and diagnosis were 10.0 +/- 2.53 years and 11.2 +/- 2.53 years, respectively. Mean time at onset of renal disease following SLE symptoms onset was 1.22 +/- 0.93 years. All cases were misdiagnosed prior to presentation; diagnosis was delayed in nine patients. Lupus activity was mild, moderate and severe in two, five and four patients, respectively. Hypertension (n = 5), nephrotic syndrome (n = 6), microerythrocyturia (n = 6) and acute renal failure (n = 7) were associated morbidities. Of the 27 presenting clinical features, 17 were nondiagnostic, while 10 were diagnostic. Fever (n = 9) was a major nondiagnostic symptom; major diagnostic manifestations were lupus nephritis (n = 11), arthritis (n = 10) and serositis (n = 7). Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome was diagnosed in three. The glomerular lesions were nonproliferative (n = 1), focal (n = 3) and diffuse (n = 7) proliferative lupus nephritis. Complete remission rate at end-point was 71.4%. Fourteen percent of the patients relapsed. Renal survival and mortality rates were 86.0% and 30.0%, respectively. CONCLUSION: In this study, severe renal and extrarenal comorbidities were common; mortality rate was also high. High frequency of misdiagnosis and delayed diagnosis were probably responsible for these. PMID:17668644

  6. Environmental modulation of the onset of air breathing and survival of Betta splendens and Trichopodus trichopterus.

    PubMed

    Mendez-Sanchez, J F; Burggren, W W

    2014-03-01

    The effect of hypoxia on air-breathing onset and survival was determined in larvae of the air-breathing fishes, the three spot gourami Trichopodus trichopterus and the Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens. Larvae were exposed continuously or intermittently (12 h nightly) to an oxygen partial pressure (PO2 ) of 20, 17 and 14 kPa from 1 to 40 days post-fertilization (dpf). Survival and onset of air breathing were measured daily. Continuous normoxic conditions produced a larval survival rate of 65-75% for B. splendens and 15-30% for T. trichopterus, but all larvae of both species died at 9 dpf in continuous hypoxia conditions. Larvae under intermittent (nocturnal) hypoxia showed a 15% elevated survival rate in both species. The same conditions altered the onset of air breathing, advancing onset by 4 days in B. splendens and delaying onset by 9 days in T. trichopterus. These interspecific differences were attributed to air-breathing characteristics: B. splendens was a non-obligatory air breather after 36 dpf, whereas T. trichopterus was an obligatory air breather after 32 dpf. PMID:24502248

  7. The effect of tremor onset on middle cerebellar peduncle of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Sako, Wataru; Murakami, Nagahisa; Miyazaki, Yoshimichi; Abe, Takashi; Harada, Masafumi; Izumi, Yuishin; Kaji, Ryuji

    2015-11-15

    The majority of studies of Parkinson's disease (PD) focused on basal ganglia initially; however, accumulating evidence suggests cerebellar involvement in pathophysiology. We aimed to investigate the effects of tremor onset on middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP) width of PD patients and of disease duration on differential diagnosis. We measured MCP width of 81 PD, 34 multiple system atrophy (MSA) and 16 normal controls, using MRI. A meta-analysis was performed including two previous and the present studies. We carried out correlation analysis between disease duration and MCP width separately in subgroup of PD with or without tremor onset. Receiver operating characteristic curves were analyzed. Our meta-analysis indicated that MCP width was significantly smaller in MSA relative to PD with homogeneous studies. There was significant correlation between disease duration and MCP width in PD without tremor onset. In contrast, there was no correlation observed in PD with tremor onset. Subclassification according to disease duration showed improved area under curve of PD vs. MSA with predominant parkinsonian features. MCP width could be a valuable tool for differential diagnosis. Our finding suggested that MCP was impaired in advanced stage of PD without tremor onset as part of the abnormality of the cerebellar system. PMID:26341153

  8. Note Onset Deviations as Musical Piece Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Serrà, Joan; Özaslan, Tan Hakan; Arcos, Josep Lluis

    2013-01-01

    A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields. PMID:23935971

  9. CME Onset and Take-Off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antiochos, S. K.; Karpen, J. T.; DeVore, C. R.

    2011-01-01

    For understanding and eventually predicting coronal mass ejections/eruptive flares, two critical questions must be answered: What is the mechanism for eruption onset, and what is the mechanism for the rapid acceleration? We address these questions in the context of the breakout model using 2.5D MHD simulations with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). The AMR capability allowed us to achieve ultra-high numerical resolution and, thereby, determine the influence of the effective Lundquist number on the eruption. Our calculations show that, at least, for the breakout model, the onset of reconnection external to the highly sheared filament channel is the onset mechanism. Once this reconnection turns on, eruption is inevitable. However, as long as this is the only reconnection in the system, the eruption remains slow. We find that the eruption undergoes an abrupt "take-off" when the flare reconnection below the erupting plasmoid develops significant reconnection jets. We conclude that in fast CMEs, flare reconnection is the primary mechanism responsible for both flare heating and CME acceleration. We discuss the implications of these results for SDO observations and describe possible tests of the model.

  10. Fast ionospheric feedback instability and substorm onset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lysak, Robert L.; Grieger, John; Song, Yan

    1992-01-01

    A study suggesting that the Alfven resonator can play an important role in modifying the ionosphere on the time and space scales required to play a significant role in substorm formation is presented. Although the effect of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling on the onset of substorms has been studied, the effects due to gradients of the Alfven speed along auroral field line were neglected. The large increase of the Alfven speed with altitude above the ionosphere creates an effective resonant cavity, which can lead to fluctuations in the electric and magnetic fields as well as in particle fluxes in the range 0.1 to 1 Hz. Such fluctuations can be observed from the ground as PiB pulsations associated with substorm onset. These fluctuations can be excited by a fast feedback instability, which can grow on time scales much less than the Alfven travel time between the ionosphere and the plasma sheet. The instability enhances the value of both the Pedersen and Hall conductivity, and may play a role in preparing the ionosphere for substorm onset.

  11. Current filamentation and onset in magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannelli, Sebastiano; Misuri, Tommaso; Andrenucci, Mariano

    2011-06-01

    The possible role of current filamentation in the operation of magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters is investigated here by means of a stability analysis of a current-carrying plasma in a simplified coaxial configuration. Magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters are known to enter a strongly unstable regime, named onset in the literature, when operated above a threshold current level, given the propellant mass flow rate. During onset, a transition from diffuse to spotty current pattern occurs, leading to intense fluctuations of thruster terminal voltage and to severe anode damage with commonly employed anode materials. Despite several experimental and theoretical efforts in the last few decades, no complete and definitive understanding of the physical nature of this phenomenon is yet available. In this work it is shown that conditions suitable for azimuthal symmetry breaking and the subsequent development of this instability can actually exist in magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters. A physically coherent explanation of the complex onset phenomenology is then proposed, showing that both the plasma dynamics and the voltage fluctuations can be ultimately explained in terms of the filamentation instability and its effects.

  12. Note onset deviations as musical piece signatures.

    PubMed

    Serrà, Joan; Özaslan, Tan Hakan; Arcos, Josep Lluis

    2013-01-01

    A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields. PMID:23935971

  13. Early-onset Parkinson's disease and depression.

    PubMed

    Bertucci Filho, Délcio; Teive, Hélio A G; Werneck, Lineu C

    2007-03-01

    Patients with Parkinsons disease (PD) in whom symptoms start before the age of 45 years (EOPD) present different clinical characteristics from those with the late-onset form of the disease. The incidence of depression is believed to be greater in patients with EOPD than with the late-onset form of the disease, although there is no risk factor or marker for depression in patients with PD. We studied 45 patients with EOPD to define the frequency of depression and to identify possible differences between the groups with and without depression. Depression was diagnosed in 16 (35.5%) of the patients, a higher incidence than in the population at large but similar to the figure for late-onset Parkinson disease; 8 (50%) of the patients had mild depression, 4 (25%) moderate depression and 4 (25%) were in remission. There was no relationship between depression and any of the clinical characteristics of the disease, although the EOPD patients with depression presented earlier levodopa-related complications and were more affected on the Hoehn-Yahr, UPDRS and Schwab-England scales. PMID:17420818

  14. Basic consensus document on late-onset hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Becerra Fernández, Antonio; Enríquez Acosta, Luis

    2008-01-01

    One of the most important elements in men's live is the ability to engage in normal sexual activity; loss of this activity has always been considered especially important. The relationship between sexual activity, as well as other masculine characteristics, and the testicles has been well known since ancient times and has been related to the slow decrease in testosterone secretion with advanced age. Male hypogonadism is one of the most frequent and under-diagnosed endocrine diseases. Several terms have been proposed to refer to clinical situations caused by the age-related decline in male gonadal function; currently, the most widely accepted term is late-onset hypogonadism (LOH). LOH consists of a clinical and biochemical syndrome associated with advanced age (in men), characterized by typical symptoms and reduced serum testosterone concentrations, which can affect multiple organs and systems and reduce quality of life. This syndrome can be treated and the alterations produced can be reversed. To achieve this, a diagnostic protocol that approaches the multiple factors related to the risks and benefits of treatment is required. PMID:22967848

  15. Predicting Indian Summer Monsoon onset through variations of surface air temperature and relative humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolbova, Veronika; Surovyatkina, Elena; Kurths, Jurgen

    2015-04-01

    Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) rainfall has an enormous effect on Indian agriculture, economy, and, as a consequence, life and prosperity of more than one billion people. Variability of the monsoonal rainfall and its onset have a huge influence on food production, agricultural planning and GDP of the country, which on 22% is determined by agriculture. Consequently, successful forecasting of the ISM onset is a big challenge and large efforts are being put into it. Here, we propose a novel approach for predictability of the ISM onset, based on critical transition theory. The ISM onset is defined as an abrupt transition from sporadious rainfall to spatially organized and temporally sustained rainfall. Taking this into account, we consider the ISM onset as is a critical transition from pre-monsoon to monsoon, which take place in time and also in space. It allows us to suggest that before the onset of ISM on the Indian subcontinent should be areas of critical behavior where indicators of the critical transitions can be detected through an analysis of observational data. First, we identify areas with such critical behavior. Second, we use detected areas as reference points for observation locations for the ISM onset prediction. Third, we derive a precursor for the ISM onset based on the analysis of surface air temperature and relative humidity variations in these reference points. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of this precursor on two observational data sets. The proposed approach allows to determine ISM onset in advance in 67% of all considered years. Our proposed approach is less effective during the anomalous years, which are associated with weak/strong monsoons, e.g. El-Nino, La-Nina or positive Indian Ocean Dipole events. The ISM onset is predicted for 23 out of 27 normal monsoon years (85%) during the past 6 decades. In the anomalous years, we show that time series analysis in both areas during the pre-monsoon period reveals indicators whether the

  16. ENSO influences the onset of violent conflicts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, K. C.; Hsiang, S. M.

    2009-12-01

    Climatic changes are frequently cited as a possible external driver of violent conflict in human societies. Qualitative studies suggest that climatic shifts may stress populations and be conducive to violent conflict. Statistical evidence has shown that anomalous local rainfall is correlated with the onset of conflict. This study finds that in addition to idiosyncratic weather events, climatic states also play a role in triggering violent conflict. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the semi-periodic, oceanic Kelvin wave in the tropical Pacific, induces remote temperatures in the tropical free troposphere to rise. This ``ENSO teleconnection'' is not globally uniform and is felt most strongly in the tropical regions during the boreal winter. To determine the degree in which country-level climatic conditions are affected by ENSO, an absolute correlation measure between surface temperature and two ENSO indices was calculated for every country for the period 1949-2009. Countries with high levels of correlation are labeled “ENSO affected,” while countries with low correlation are labeled “ENSO unaffected”. Thus, historical variation in ENSO serves as a ``natural experiment'': if the state of ENSO influences conflict onset, it should be apparent for ENSO affected countries but not for unaffected countries. Using the UCDP/PRIO Armed Conflict Dataset, we find evidence of a large and statistically significant influence of ENSO on the onset of violent conflict. Between 1949-2009, the average probability of a conflict beginning in any country was 0.03. For the ENSO affected countries, we find that a 1°C rise in either NINO12 or NINO34 is associated with an increased probability of conflict onset by 0.015 (or 50% of the global country average). A relationship was not detected for the ENSO unaffected group of countries. This result is robust to a range of statistical models. Nonparametric methods (see figure) also indicate a marked difference in the response of ENSO

  17. Impact of food restriction on ovarian development, RFamide-related peptide-3 and the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis in pre-pubertal ewes.

    PubMed

    Li, H; Song, H; Huang, M; Nie, H; Wang, Z; Wang, F

    2014-10-01

    RFamide-related peptide-3 (RFRP-3), the mammalian ortholog of gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone, has been implicated as a mediator between reproduction and energy balance. This study aimed to investigate the physiological effects of RFRP-3 on the process of ovarian development in food-restricted pre-pubertal ewes. The results showed that food restriction significantly inhibited the ovarian development and follicular growth. The data of qPCR in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis showed that food restriction not only upregulated RFRP-3 mRNA expression but also downregulated the mRNA expression of gonadotropin-releasing-hormone receptor, follicle-stimulating hormone receptor and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR). Immunohistochemistry of RFRP-3 in the ovaries suggested that RFRP-3 may regulate the follicular development. These results suggested that the changes of RFRP-3 in response to food restriction might influence the HPO axis and inhibit ovarian development. PMID:25039406

  18. Fundamental voice frequency in female puberty measured with electroglottography during continuous speech as a secondary sex characteristic. A comparison between voice, pubertal stages, oestrogens and androgens.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, M F; Møller, S; Krabbe, S; Bennett, P; Svenstrup, B

    1990-09-01

    The change of fundamental voice frequency in continuous speech in female puberty was analysed in 47 girls by comparison of 2000 consecutive electroglottographic cycles in a reading situation. The results were compared with serum concentrations of androgens (dihydroepiandrosterone, delta-4-androstenedione, testosterone, and sex hormone binding globulin), oestrogens (oestradiol, oestrone, and oestronesulphate), and somatic puberty (weight, height, mamma stages, and pubic hair stages). Fundamental frequency in continuous speech was related only to oestrone r = -0.34, (P less than 0.05). But the tone range in continuous speech and the lowest tone in the phonetogram were found to be significantly correlated with many of the pubertal and hormone parameters. All these correlations could be explained by a common age-dependency. By multiple regression analysis different sets of variables for prediction of speaking fundamental frequency were found before and after menarche. PMID:2262290

  19. Factors Differentiating Childhood-Onset and Adolescent-Onset Schizophrenia:A Claims Database Study

    PubMed Central

    Jerrell, Jeanette M.; McIntyre, Roger S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The greater severity and burden of illness in individuals with early onset schizophrenia (ie, before age 18 years) deserves further investigation, specifically regarding its prevalence in community-based treatment and its association with other psychiatric or medical conditions. Method A retrospective cohort design was employed using the South Carolina Medicaid claims database covering outpatient and inpatient medical services from January 1, 1999, through December 31, 2013, to identify patients aged ≤ 17 years with a diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (ICD-9-CM). Logistic regression was used to examine the factors differentiating childhood- versus adolescent-onset schizophrenia in a community-based system of care. Results Early onset schizophrenia was diagnosed in 613 child and adolescent cases during the study epoch or 0.2% of this population-based cohort. The early onset cohort was primarily male (64%) and black (48%). The mean length of time followed in the Medicaid dataset was 12.6 years. Within the early onset cohort, 22.5% were diagnosed at age ≤ 12 years and 77.5% were diagnosed as adolescents. The childhood-onset subgroup was twice as likely to have speech, language, or educational disabilities and an attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis but significantly less likely to have schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, an organic brain disorder or mental retardation/intellectual disability, or a substance use disorder (adjusted OR = 2.01, 2.26, 0.38, 0.31, 0.47, and 0.32, respectively) compared to the adolescent-onset subgroup. Conclusion Primary care providers should identify and maintain surveillance of cases of pediatric neurodevelopmental disorders, which appear to be highly comorbid and genetically related, and refer them early and promptly for specialized treatment. PMID:27486543

  20. Pubertal Development and Prepubertal Height and Weight Jointly Predict Young Adult Height and Body Mass Index in a Prospective Study in South Africa12

    PubMed Central

    Martorell, Reynaldo; Richter, Linda M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Height and adiposity track over childhood, but few studies, to our knowledge, have longitudinally examined the mediating relation of the timing and progression of puberty. Objective: We assessed interrelations between prepubertal height and body mass index, the progression through puberty, and young adult height and adiposity. Methods: We analyzed data from the Birth to Twenty Plus study (females, n = 823; males, n = 765). Serial measures of anthropometry and pubertal development were obtained between ages 9 and 16 y. We used latent class growth analysis to categorize pubertal development with respect to pubic hair (females and males), breasts (females), and genitalia (males) development. Adult height and weight were obtained at ages 18 to 20 y. Results: Among females, higher latent class (earlier initiation and faster progression through puberty) was associated with an increased risk of obesity [pubic hair class 3 compared with class 1: RR, 3.41 (95% CI: 1.57, 7.44)] and inconsistent associations with height. Among males, higher latent class was associated with increased adult height [pubic hair development class 3 compared with class 1: 2.43 cm (95% CI: 0.88, 4.00)] and increased risk of overweight/obesity [pubic hair development class 3 compared with class 1: OR, 3.44 (95% CI: 1.44, 8.20)]. In females, the association with adult height became inverse after adjusting for prepubertal height [pubic hair development class 3 compared with class 1: females, −1.31 cm (95% CI: −2.32, −0.31)]; in males, the association with height was attenuated with this adjustment [−0.56 cm (95% CI: −1.63, 0.52)]. Associations with adiposity were attenuated after adjusting for prepubertal adiposity. Conclusions: Progression through puberty modifies the relation between prepubertal and adult anthropometry. Screening for early or rapid progression of puberty might identify children at an increased risk of becoming overweight or obese adults. PMID:27335138

  1. Pubertal activation of estrogen receptor α in the medial amygdala is essential for the full expression of male social behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Sano, Kazuhiro; Nakata, Mariko; Musatov, Sergei; Morishita, Masahiro; Sakamoto, Toshiro; Tsukahara, Shinji; Ogawa, Sonoko

    2016-07-01

    Testosterone plays a central role in the facilitation of male-type social behaviors, such as sexual and aggressive behaviors, and the development of their neural bases in male mice. The action of testosterone via estrogen receptor (ER) α, after being aromatized to estradiol, has been suggested to be crucial for the full expression of these behaviors. We previously reported that silencing of ERα in adult male mice with the use of a virally mediated RNAi method in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) greatly reduced sexual behaviors without affecting aggressive behaviors whereas that in the medial amygdala (MeA) had no effect on either behavior. It is well accepted that testosterone stimulation during the pubertal period is necessary for the full expression of male-type social behaviors. However, it is still not known whether, and in which brain region, ERα is involved in this developmental effect of testosterone. In this study, we knocked down ERα in the MeA or MPOA in gonadally intact male mice at the age of 21 d and examined its effects on the sexual and aggressive behaviors later in adulthood. We found that the prepubertal knockdown of ERα in the MeA reduced both sexual and aggressive behaviors whereas that in the MPOA reduced only sexual, but not aggressive, behavior. Furthermore, the number of MeA neurons was reduced by prepubertal knockdown of ERα. These results indicate that ERα activation in the MeA during the pubertal period is crucial for male mice to fully express their male-type social behaviors in adulthood. PMID:27325769

  2. Chronic pubertal, but not adult chronic cannabinoid treatment impairs sensorimotor gating, recognition memory, and the performance in a progressive ratio task in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Miriam; Koch, Michael

    2003-10-01

    There is evidence from studies in humans and animals that a vulnerable period for chronic cannabinoid administration exists during certain phases of development. The present study tested the hypothesis that long-lasting interference of cannabinoids with the developing endogenous cannabinoid system during puberty causes persistent behavioral alterations in adult rats. Chronic treatment with the synthetic cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) (1.2 mg/kg) or vehicle was extended over 25 days either throughout the rats' puberty or for a similar time period in adult rats. The rats received 20 injections intraperitoneally (i.p.), which were not delivered regularly. Adult rats were tested for object recognition memory, performance in a progressive ratio (PR) operant behavior task, locomotor activity, and prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response (ASR). PPI was significantly disrupted only by chronic peripubertal cannabinoid treatment. This long-lasting PPI deficit was reversed by the acute administration of the dopamine antagonist haloperidol. Furthermore, we found deficits in recognition memory of pubertal-treated rats and these animals showed lower break points in a PR schedule, whereas food preference and locomotion were not affected. Adult chronic cannabinoid treatment had no effect on the behaviors tested. Therefore, we conclude that puberty in rats is a vulnerable period with respect to the adverse effects of cannabinoid treatment. Since PPI deficits, object recognition memory impairments, and anhedonia/avolition are among the endophenotypes of schizophrenia, we propose chronic cannabinoid administration during pubertal development as an animal model for some aspects of the etiology of schizophrenia. PMID:12888772

  3. Testicular recovery after irradiation differs in prepubertal and pubertal non-human primates, and can be enhanced by autologous germ cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Ehmcke, Jens; Quader, Mubina A.; Saiful Huq, M.; Epperly, Michael W.; Hergenrother, Scott; Nurmio, Mirja; Schlatt, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although infertility is a serious concern in survivors of pediatric cancers, little is known about the influence of the degree of sexual maturation at the time of irradiation on spermatogenic recovery after treatment. Thus, we address this question in a non-human primate model, the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). METHODS Two pubertal (testis size 3 and 6.5 ml, no sperm in ejaculate) and four prepubertal (testis size 1 ml, no sperm in ejaculate) macaques were submitted to a single fraction of testicular irradiation (10 Gy). Unilateral autologous transfer of cryopreserved testis cells was performed 2 months after irradiation. Testicular volume, histology and semen parameters were analyzed to assess irradiation effects and testicular recovery. RESULTS Irradiation provoked acute testis involution only in the two pubertal monkeys. Subsequently, testis sizes recovered and sperm was present in the ejaculates. Longitudinal outgrowth of seminiferous tubules continued, and, in testes without autologous cell transfer, 4–22% of tubular cross sections showed spermatogenesis 2 years after irradiation. In contrast, the four prepubertal monkeys showed neither a detectable involution as direct response to irradiation, nor a detectable growth of seminiferous tubules later. However, two of these animals showed spermarche 2 years after irradiation, and 8–12% of tubules presented spermatogenesis. One prepubertally irradiated monkey presented fast growth of one testis after cell transfer, and showed spermarche 1 year after irradiation. The infused testis had spermatogenesis in 70% of the tubules. The contralateral testis remained smaller. CONCLUSION We conclude that irradiation before puberty has a severe detrimental effect on outgrowth of seminiferous tubules. But, within the seminiferous epithelium, spermatogenetic recovery occurs at a low rate with no detectable relation to the maturity of the epithelium at irradiation. We also show that autologous testis cell

  4. Effects of biostimulation and nutritional supplementation on pubertal age and pregnancy rates of Nelore heifers (Bos indicus) in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, C M G; Oliveira Filho, B D; Gambarini, M L; Viu, M A O; Lopes, D T; Sousa, A P F

    2009-07-01

    To determine effects of biostimulation (BIO) and dietary supplementation (BIO+S) on pubertal age and pregnancy rates, Nelore heifers (n=392) were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups (n=98/group). All animals were in tropical environmental conditions, in the middle-west region of Brazil, grazing in pastures of Brachiaria brizantha, cv. Marandu; Panicum Maximum, cv. Tanzânia and Brachiaria humidícula. The heifers of the BIO group were kept in the presence of bulls while being maintained on pasture; the animals in the BIO+S group were kept in the presence of bulls while being managed on pasture and were fed a diet with greater energy and protein content to produce 0.49 kg of BW gain/day; the animals in control group (the NBIO) were kept away from bulls and under pasture conditions; and the animals in the NBIO+S group were kept away from bulls, were maintained on pasture, and were fed the same diet as the BIO+S group. Heifers were bred at 22-23 months of age, and pregnancy diagnosis was made 45 days after the end of the breeding season. There were differences (P<0.05) between groups regarding pubertal heifers up to 19 months (NPH), final body weight (FBW) and pregnancy rates (P<0.01), with an advantage for the animals in the BIO and BIO+S groups. Although the effect of a diet with greater protein and energy content was not clear in this experiment, the exposure of heifers to a male during the prepubertal period decreased age at the first breeding season, resulting in a significant reduction in age of first pregnancy in Nelore heifers kept under extensive management systems in a tropical environment. PMID:18805660

  5. Biceps skin-fold thickness may detect and predict early lipoatrophy in HIV-infected pre-pubertal children on antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Innes, Steve; Schulte-Kemna, Eva; Cotton, Mark F.; Zöllner, Ekkehard Werner; Haubrich, Richard; Klinker, Hartwig; Sun, Xiaoying; Jain, Sonia; Edson, Clair; van Niekerk, Margaret; Ryan, Emily; Rabie, Helena; Browne, Sara H.

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of lipoatrophy in children on antiretroviral therapy in Southern Africa is high, affecting around a third of children. Early diagnosis of lipoatrophy is essential for effective intervention to arrest progression. Methods Pre-pubertal children on antiretroviral therapy were recruited from a hospital-based family HIV clinic in Cape Town and followed up prospectively. Lipoatrophy was identified and graded by consensus between two HIV pediatricians. A dietician performed anthropometric measurements of trunk and limb fat. Anthropometric measurements in children with and without lipoatrophy were compared using multivariable linear regression adjusting for age and gender. The most discerning anthropometric indicators of lipoatrophy underwent Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analysis. The precision of anthropometric measurements performed by an inexperienced healthcare worker was compared to a research dietician. Results 36/100 recruits had lipoatrophy at baseline and a further 9 developed lipoatrophy by 15 month follow-up. Annual incidence of lipoatrophy was 12% (CI: 5–20%) per person-year of follow-up. A biceps skin-fold thickness <5mm at baseline had a sensitivity of 89% (CI: 67–100%) and a specificity of 60% (CI: 46–75%) for predicting which children would go on to develop lipoatrophy by 15 month follow-up. Negative and positive predictive values were 97% (CI: 91–100%) and 32% (CI: 14–50%). Conclusion Biceps skin-fold thickness <5mm in pre-pubertal children exposed to thymidine analogue-based antiretroviral therapy may be a useful screening tool to identify children who are likely to go on to develop lipoatrophy. The variation in precision of measurements performed by an inexperienced healthcare worker only marginally impacted performance. PMID:23249919

  6. Statins and Risk of New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Association Cardiology Patient Page Statins and Risk of New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus Ravi V. Shah and Allison ... most common adverse effects, and recent concerns about new-onset diabetes mellitus to help patients and providers ...

  7. Similarities and differences in adolescence-onset versus adulthood-onset sexual abuse incidents.

    PubMed

    McKillop, Nadine; Brown, Sarah; Smallbone, Stephen; Pritchard, Karlyn

    2015-08-01

    A sample of males who had first committed sexual offences against children in either adolescence (n=230; M=14.0 years, SD=1.5) or adulthood (n=280; M=34.4 years, SD=11.7) were compared on measures relating to the circumstances of their first known sexual abuse incident. Considerable diversity in the circumstances of these first incidents was observed for both groups. However, adulthood-onset sexual abuse most often occurred following a long-standing familial relationship with a female victim, and in a home setting. The first incident for adolescence-onset offenders also tended to occur in the context of a long-term relationship and against a female child in a home setting, but more commonly against a nonfamilial victim. Adulthood-onset offenders abused older children, were more likely to engage in penetrative sexual behaviors, and went on to abuse over a longer duration than adolescence-onset offenders. Adolescence-onset offences were more likely to be witnessed by a third party. Findings and their implications for prevention are considered from a situational crime prevention perspective. PMID:25777943

  8. Pharmacological Management of Childhood-Onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Thorbinson, Colin; Oni, Louise; Smith, Eve; Midgley, Angela; Beresford, Michael W

    2016-06-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a rare, severe, multisystem autoimmune disorder. Childhood-onset SLE (cSLE) follows a more aggressive course with greater associated morbidity and mortality than adult-onset SLE. Its aetiology is yet to be fully elucidated. It is recognised to be the archetypal systemic autoimmune disease, arising from a complex interaction between the innate and adaptive immune systems. Its complexity is reflected by the fact that there has been only one new drug licensed for use in SLE in the last 50 years. However, biologic agents that specifically target aspects of the immune system are emerging. Immunosuppression remains the cornerstone of medical management, with glucocorticoids still playing a leading role. Treatment choices are led by disease severity. Immunosuppressants, including azathioprine and methotrexate, are used in mild to moderate manifestations. Mycophenolate mofetil is widely used for lupus nephritis. Cyclophosphamide remains the first-line treatment for patients with severe organ disease. No biologic therapies have yet been approved for cSLE, although they are being used increasingly as part of routine care of patients with severe lupus nephritis or with neurological and/or haematological involvement. Drugs influencing B cell survival, including belimumab and rituximab, are currently undergoing clinical trials in cSLE. Hydroxychloroquine is indicated for disease manifestations of all severities and can be used as monotherapy in mild disease. However, the management of cSLE is hampered by the lack of a robust evidence base. To date, it has been principally guided by best-practice guidelines, retrospective case series and adapted adult protocols. In this pharmacological review, we provide an overview of current practice for the management of cSLE, together with recent advances in new therapies, including biologic agents. PMID:26971103

  9. Childhood Onset Schizophrenia: Clinical Features, Course and Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sood, Mamta; Kattimani, Shivanand

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia in children is diagnosed by using adult criteria. Based on the age of onset, patients with childhood onset schizophrenia (COS) are subdivided into those with very early onset (before age 12-14 years) and those with early onset (between 14-17 years). The prevalence of COS is reported to be 1 in 10,000 before the age of 12 years;…

  10. Circadian fluctuations in onset of perimesencephalic hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Mensing, Liselore A; Greebe, Paut; Algra, Ale; Ruigrok, Ynte M; Rinkel, Gabriel J E

    2013-10-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) occurs more often during working hours and in the evening, and thus at times of relatively high blood pressure, with an even distribution over the days of the week in most studies. Perimesencephalic hemorrhage (PMH) is a non-aneurysmal subset of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) without known circadian fluctuation. We studied the time and day of onset in a large series of patients with PMH. For all 249 PMH patients included in our SAH-database we analyzed the time (categorized in 2- and 6-h intervals) and day of onset by calculating rate ratios (RRs) with corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for time and day, with the afternoon and Saturday as reference. The risk of PMH was lower between 2-4 AM (RR 0.14; 95 % CI 0.03-0.63), 4-6 AM (RR 0.21; 95 % CI 0.06-0.75) and 6-8 AM (RR 0.07; 95 % CI 0.01-0.54). A tendency towards higher risks in the morning and afternoon was observed. Analyzing the time of onset in 6-h intervals also showed a lower risk (RR 0.35; 95 % CI 0.21-0.58) during night hours (12-6 AM). The risk of PMH was evenly distributed over the days of the week. PMH occurs less often during night hours. The pattern of PMH during the day shows similarities to that seen in aSAH, although the differences over the day are not statistically significant, as they are in aSAH. The occurrence of PMH is evenly distributed over the days of the week, as it is in aSAH. PMID:23881103

  11. Onset Age of Obesity and Variables of Personality and Biography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Carol

    Three hypotheses derived from Hilde Bruch's formulations regarding onset differences among the obese were tested. In Bruch's theory, adult-onset, or reactive, obesity is a result of psychological trauma; the individual uses eating as a defense against anxiety and depression. Child-onset, or developmental, obesity results from a mixture of…

  12. Realization of Complex Onsets by Pediatric Users of Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Steven B.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined variations in English complex onset realizations by children who use cochlear implants. Data consisted of 227 productions of two-segment onset clusters from 12 children. In general, onset cluster realizations of children with cochlear implants did not differ markedly from those reported for children with normal hearing: null…

  13. Specific Intellectual Deficits in Children with Early Onset Diabetes Mellitus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovet, Joanne F.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Compares 27 children with early onset diabetes (EOD) with 24 children with late onset diabetes (LOD) and 30 sibling controls in performance on tests of intellectual functioning and school achievement. Results revealed that duration of illness, age of onset, and hypoglycemic convulsions significantly predicted spatial ability. (Author/RWB)

  14. Oscillation onset in neural delayed feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Longtin, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper studies dynamical aspects of neural systems with delayed negative feedback modelled by nonlinear delay-differential equations. These systems undergo a Hopf bifurcation from a stable fixed point to a limit cycle oscillation as certain parameters are varied. We show that their frequency of oscillation is robust to parameter variations and noisy fluctuations, a property that makes these systems good candidates for pacemakers. The onset of oscillation is postponed by both additive and parametric noise in the sense that the state variable spends more time near the fixed point. Finally, we show that a distributed delay (rather than a fixed delay) also stabilizes the fixed point solution. 40 refs., 2 figs.

  15. The onset of molecular condensation: hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Morilla, J H; Fernández, J M; Tejeda, G; Montero, S

    2010-10-14

    The very first steps of condensation as studied experimentally in the simplest molecular system (para-H(2)) are reported. The fast time-space evolution of the nascent clusters have been measured using state-of-the-art Raman spectroscopy implemented on cryogenic supersonic jets. The time-dependent onset of condensation is presented in a non-equilibrium pressure-temperature phase diagram. Dimer and trimer formation are found to obey three-body processes whose rates have been determined. PMID:20683514

  16. The Predictability of the Sahelian Climate: Seasonal Sahel Rainfall and Onset over Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndiaye, Ousmane

    increased if a negative anomaly of PWAT is located in the vicinity of Senegal and nearby tropical Atlantic, with a strong advection of cold (convection inhibiting) air from the north, a further danger sign. The CFS coupled model is found to also have some skill for onset prediction for the southern region when initialized in early May. It is concluded that combining boundary forcing and synoptic propagation can provide useful advance information about onset.

  17. Familial clustering in Italian progressive-onset and bout-onset multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Guaschino, Clara; Esposito, Federica; Liberatore, Giuseppe; Colombo, Bruno; Annovazzi, Pietro; D'Amico, Emanuele; Cavalla, Paola; Capello, Elisabetta; Capra, Ruggero; Galimberti, Daniela; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Grimaldi, Luigi; Leone, Maurizio; D'Alfonso, Sandra; Martinelli, Vittorio; Comi, Giancarlo; Martinelli-Boneschi, Filippo

    2014-05-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disease triggered by environmental and genetic agents, and clinically characterized by bout onset (BOMS) or progressive onset (PrMS). We collected clinical and familial aggregation data in a cohort of 518 Italian PrMS patients, and compared with 400 BOMS cases. An increased prevalence of MS in first-degree relatives of Italian PrMS was found. Familial aggregation is not influenced by probands' clinical course, and there is no disease course concordance within MS families. These data are useful in counseling MS patients affected with different clinical courses of the disease. PMID:24514917

  18. [Early-onset and late-onset male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroshi; Shin, Takeshi; Kobori, Yoshitomo

    2016-07-01

    Hypogonadism is classified into two major clinical entities, namely early-onset hypogonadism and late-onset hypogonadism. The former is characterized by the malfunction of hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal(testicular)axis or by the primary hypofunction of testes(e.g. Klinefelter's syndrome). The latter is summarized as LOH syndrome which is attributed to the dropped level of bioavailable testosterone. In these diseases testosterone is the key molecule which may cause various symptoms relating not only to physical health but also to mental or psychologic health. In this review issues concerning bone health in these disease are described. PMID:27346312

  19. Clinical correlates of age of onset in psychotic depression.

    PubMed

    Gournellis, Rossetos; Oulis, Panagiotis; Rizos, Emmanuel; Chourdaki, Evgenia; Gouzaris, Agis; Lykouras, Lefteris

    2011-01-01

    The issue whether the clinical characteristics of unipolar psychotic major depression (PMD) vary according to the age of onset remains still unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess comparatively a broad set of clinical characteristics of three groups of PMD patients, namely young early-onset (n=30), elderly early-onset (n=34) and elderly late-onset (n=35). Ninety-nine inpatients suffering from DSM-IV unipolar PMD were assessed on the basis of Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-IV), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) and a physical impairment rating scale. The elderly late-onset patients suffered from overall more severe depression compared to both early-onset ones, more psychic anxiety compared to elderly early-onset patients and more gastrointestinal symptoms compared to young early-onset patients. Additionally, they expressed significantly more frequently delusions of somatic content and higher scores on the HRSD item of hypochondriasis than their young early-onset counterparts. The group of elderly early-onset PMD patients was found to hold an intermediate position between the young early-onset and elderly late-onset PMD patients with regard to hypochondriacal ideation, gastrointestinal symptoms and delusions of somatic, guilt, and paranoid content. Their stability of delusional content across successive episodes was found to extend into old age. Nevertheless, they expressed additional somatic delusions. Overall, the findings of the present study suggest considerable differences between young early-onset, elderly early-onset and elderly late-onset PMD patients with respect to their clinical features. PMID:20299112

  20. Resolution of Inflammation: What Controls Its Onset?

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Michelle A.; Sousa, Lirlândia P.; Pinho, Vanessa; Perretti, Mauro; Teixeira, Mauro M.

    2016-01-01

    An effective resolution program may be able to prevent the progression from non-resolving acute inflammation to persistent chronic inflammation. It has now become evident that coordinated resolution programs initiate shortly after inflammatory responses begin. In this context, several mechanisms provide the fine-tuning of inflammation and create a favorable environment for the resolution phase to take place and for homeostasis to return. In this review, we focus on the events required for an effective transition from the proinflammatory phase to the onset and establishment of resolution. We suggest that several mediators that promote the inflammatory phase of inflammation can simultaneously initiate a program for active resolution. Indeed, several events enact a decrease in the local chemokine concentration, a reduction which is essential to inhibit further infiltration of neutrophils into the tissue. Interestingly, although neutrophils are cells that characteristically participate in the active phase of inflammation, they also contribute to the onset of resolution. Further understanding of the molecular mechanisms that initiate resolution may be instrumental to develop pro-resolution strategies to treat complex chronic inflammatory diseases, in humans. The efforts to develop strategies based on resolution of inflammation have shaped a new area of pharmacology referred to as “resolution pharmacology.” PMID:27199985

  1. Adult onset retinoblastoma: A diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Raj, Amit; Arya, Sudesh Kumar; Punia, Rajpal Singh; Kohli, Piyush

    2016-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular tumor of childhood. About 95% of retinoblastoma cases are diagnosed before the age of 5 years. Not more than 30 cases of Adult-onset retinoblastoma have been reported in literature. A 32 year old male presented with a painful blind eye. There was sudden loss of vision accompanied by severe pain and redness in right eye about 1 year ago, for which some surgery was done with neither a gain in vision nor any relief from pain. Then he was put on maximum tolerable medical therapy, later cyclocryotherapy was done. Now he presented to us with complains of extreme pain and bleeding from right eye since 2 days. There is no history of any ocular trauma. Right eye had no perception of light & showed anterior staphyloma with perforation. Right eye evisceration was done & material sent for histopathological examination, which revealed an adult-onset retinoblastoma. CECT scan revealed thickening of optic nerve throughout its entire length with contrast enhancement. He was further taken up for enucleation of residual sclera with maximum optic nerve stump removal to reconfirm the diagnosis. Histopathological examination revealed tumor deposits present in orbital soft tissue, resection margins and optic nerve cut end.Retinoblastoma presenting in adult age creates a diagnostic dilemma because of its low frequency and atypical features. We want to highlight the importance of high clinical suspicion and imaging modalities before taking any patient for evisceration with unexplained vision loss. One should send the eviscerated material for histopathological examination. PMID:26709674

  2. Pyramidal cells accumulate chloride at seizure onset

    PubMed Central

    Lillis, Kyle P; Kramer, Mark A; Mertz, Jerome; Staley, Kevin J

    2012-01-01

    Seizures are thought to originate from a failure of inhibition to quell hyperactive neural circuits, but the nature of this failure remains unknown. Here we combine high-speed two-photon imaging with electrophysiological recordings to directly evaluate the interaction between populations of interneurons and principal cells during the onset of seizure-like activity in mouse hippocampal slices. Both calcium imaging and dual patch clamp recordings reveal that in vitro seizure-like events (SLEs) are preceded by pre-ictal bursts of activity in which interneurons predominate. Corresponding changes in intracellular chloride concentration were observed in pyramidal cells using the chloride indicator Clomeleon. These changes were measurable at SLE onset and became very large during the SLE. Pharmacological manipulation of GABAergic transmission, either by blocking GABAA receptors or by hyperpolarizing the GABAA reversal potential, converted SLEs to short interictal-like bursts. Together, our results support a model in which pre-ictal GABAA receptor-mediated chloride influx shifts EGABA to produce a positive feedback loop that contributes to the initiation of seizure activity. PMID:22677032

  3. Onset conditions for equatorial spread F

    SciTech Connect

    Mendillo, M.; Baumgardner, J.; Xiaoqing Pi; Sultan, P.J. ); Tsunoda, R. )

    1992-09-01

    The problem of day-to-day variability in the occurrence of equatorial spread F (ESF) is addressed using multidiagnostic observations and semiempirical modeling. The observational results are derived from a two-night case study of ESF onset conditions observed at Kwajalein Atoll (Marshall Islands) using the ALTAIR incoherent scatter radar and all-sky optical imaging techniques. The major difference between nights when ESF instabilities did not occur (August 14, 1988) and did occur (August 15, 1988) in the Kwajalein sector was that the northern meridional gradient of 6300-[angstrom] airglow was reduced on the night of limited ESF activity. Modeling results suggest that this unusual airglow pattern is due to equatorward neutral winds. Previous researchers have shown that transequatorial thermospheric winds can exert a control over ESF seasonal and longitudinal occurrence patterns by inhibiting Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth rates. They present evidence to suggest that this picture can be extended to far shorter time scales, namely, that 'surges' in transequatoral winds acting over characteristic times of a few hours to a day can result in a stabilizing influence upon irregularity growth rates. The seemingly capricious nature of ESF onset may thus be controlled, in part, by the inherent variability of low-latitude thermospheric winds.

  4. Onset conditions for equatorial spread F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendillo, Michael; Baumgardner, Jeffrey; Pi, Xiaoqing; Sultan, Peter J.; Tsunoda, Roland

    1992-01-01

    The problem of day-to-day variability in the occurrence of equatorial spread F (ESF) is addressed using multidiagnostic observations and semiempirical modeling. The observational results are derived from a two-night case study of ESF onset conditions observed at Kwajalein Atoll (Marshall Islands) using the ALTAIR incoherent scatter radar and all-sky optical imaging techniques. The major difference between nights when ESF instabilities did not occur (August 14, 1988) and did occur (August 15, 1988) in the Kwajalein sector was that the northern meridional gradient of 6300-A airglow was reduced on the night of limited ESF activity. Modeling results suggest that this unusual airglow pattern is due to equatorward neutral winds. Previous researchers have shown that transequatorial thermospheric winds can exert a control over ESF seasonal and longitudinal occurrence patterns by inhibiting Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth rates. Evidence is presented to suggest that this picture can be extended to far shorter time scales, namely, that 'surges' in transequatorial winds acting over characteristic times of a few hours to a day can result in a stabilizing influence upon irregularity growth rates. The seemingly capricious nature of ESF onset may thus be controlled, in part, by the inherent variability of low-latitude thermospheric winds.

  5. Resolution of Inflammation: What Controls Its Onset?

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Michelle A; Sousa, Lirlândia P; Pinho, Vanessa; Perretti, Mauro; Teixeira, Mauro M

    2016-01-01

    An effective resolution program may be able to prevent the progression from non-resolving acute inflammation to persistent chronic inflammation. It has now become evident that coordinated resolution programs initiate shortly after inflammatory responses begin. In this context, several mechanisms provide the fine-tuning of inflammation and create a favorable environment for the resolution phase to take place and for homeostasis to return. In this review, we focus on the events required for an effective transition from the proinflammatory phase to the onset and establishment of resolution. We suggest that several mediators that promote the inflammatory phase of inflammation can simultaneously initiate a program for active resolution. Indeed, several events enact a decrease in the local chemokine concentration, a reduction which is essential to inhibit further infiltration of neutrophils into the tissue. Interestingly, although neutrophils are cells that characteristically participate in the active phase of inflammation, they also contribute to the onset of resolution. Further understanding of the molecular mechanisms that initiate resolution may be instrumental to develop pro-resolution strategies to treat complex chronic inflammatory diseases, in humans. The efforts to develop strategies based on resolution of inflammation have shaped a new area of pharmacology referred to as "resolution pharmacology." PMID:27199985

  6. A Wee1 checkpoint inhibits anaphase onset

    PubMed Central

    Lianga, Noel; Williams, Elizabeth C.; Kennedy, Erin K.; Doré, Carole; Pilon, Sophie; Girard, Stéphanie L.; Deneault, Jean-Sebastien

    2013-01-01

    Cdk1 drives both mitotic entry and the metaphase-to-anaphase transition. Past work has shown that Wee1 inhibition of Cdk1 blocks mitotic entry. Here we show that the budding yeast Wee1 kinase, Swe1, also restrains the metaphase-to-anaphase transition by preventing Cdk1 phosphorylation and activation of the mitotic form of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APCCdc20). Deletion of SWE1 or its opposing phosphatase MIH1 (the budding yeast cdc25+) altered the timing of anaphase onset, and activation of the Swe1-dependent morphogenesis checkpoint or overexpression of Swe1 blocked cells in metaphase with reduced APC activity in vivo and in vitro. The morphogenesis checkpoint also depended on Cdc55, a regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). cdc55Δ checkpoint defects were rescued by mutating 12 Cdk1 phosphorylation sites on the APC, demonstrating that the APC is a target of this checkpoint. These data suggest a model in which stepwise activation of Cdk1 and inhibition of PP2ACdc55 triggers anaphase onset. PMID:23751495

  7. The influence of puberty onset, body mass index, and pressure to be thin on disordered eating behaviors in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Line; Lariviere, Michel

    2009-04-01

    The main objective of this study is to verify the hypothesis that pubertal development, obesity, body satisfaction, as well as family and peer influences predict unhealthy eating habits in children and adolescents. A randomized stratified sample of young Quebecers aged 9, 13, and 16 years on March 31, 1999 [608 children aged of 9 years (325 girls and 283 boys) and 662 adolescents aged of 13 and 16 years (349 girls and 313 boys)] were used. Children's weight, height, and Body Mass Index (BMI) were recorded. Questionnaires were administered to children and a parent (usually the mother). Among 9-year-old children, this study found that weight loss or weight control behaviors were predicted mainly by the onset of puberty, lower maternal abusive control, and the level of peer pressure. Among adolescents, mother's BMI, income, peer pressure, and negative comments about the child's weight most strongly predicted behaviors to control weight, strategies to lose weight and the frequency of such behaviors. The findings suggest that both parents and children need to understand the impact of comments on a child's behavior. PMID:19447348

  8. Clinical and molecular features of young-onset colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ballester, Veroushka; Rashtak, Shahrooz; Boardman, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer related mortality worldwide. Although young-onset CRC raises the possibility of a hereditary component, hereditary CRC syndromes only explain a minority of young-onset CRC cases. There is evidence to suggest that young-onset CRC have a different molecular profile than late-onset CRC. While the pathogenesis of young-onset CRC is well characterized in individuals with an inherited CRC syndrome, knowledge regarding the molecular features of sporadic young-onset CRC is limited. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of young-onset CRC can help us tailor specific screening and management strategies. While the incidence of late-onset CRC has been decreasing, mainly attributed to an increase in CRC screening, the incidence of young-onset CRC is increasing. Differences in the molecular biology of these tumors and low suspicion of CRC in young symptomatic individuals, may be possible explanations. Currently there is no evidence that supports that screening of average risk individuals less than 50 years of age will translate into early detection or increased survival. However, increasing understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of young-onset CRC could help us tailor specific screening and management strategies. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the current knowledge about young-onset CRC, its clinicopathologic features, and the newly recognized molecular alterations involved in tumor progression. PMID:26855533

  9. Phenotypes, Risk Factors, and Mechanisms of Adult-Onset Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Ilmarinen, Pinja; Tuomisto, Leena E.; Kankaanranta, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with many phenotypes, and age at disease onset is an important factor in separating the phenotypes. Genetic factors, atopy, and early respiratory tract infections are well-recognized factors predisposing to childhood-onset asthma. Adult-onset asthma is more often associated with obesity, smoking, depression, or other life-style or environmental factors, even though genetic factors and respiratory tract infections may also play a role in adult-onset disease. Adult-onset asthma is characterized by absence of atopy and is often severe requiring treatment with high dose of inhaled and/or oral steroids. Variety of risk factors and nonatopic nature of adult-onset disease suggest that variety of mechanisms is involved in the disease pathogenesis and that these mechanisms differ from the pathobiology of childhood-onset asthma with prevailing Th2 airway inflammation. Recognition of the mechanisms and mediators that drive the adult-onset disease helps to develop novel strategies for the treatment. The aim of this review was to summarize the current knowledge on the pathogenesis of adult-onset asthma and to concentrate on the mechanisms and mediators involved in establishing adult-onset asthma in response to specific risk factors. We also discuss the involvement of these mechanisms in the currently recognized phenotypes of adult-onset asthma. PMID:26538828

  10. Developmental Programming: Prenatal and Postnatal Androgen Antagonist and Insulin Sensitizer Interventions Prevent Advancement of Puberty and Improve LH Surge Dynamics in Prenatal Testosterone-Treated Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Herkimer, Carol; Abi Salloum, Bachir; Moeller, Jacob; Beckett, Evan; Sreedharan, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal T excess induces maternal hyperinsulinemia, early puberty, and reproductive/metabolic defects in the female similar to those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. This study addressed the organizational/activational role of androgens and insulin in programming pubertal advancement and periovulatory LH surge defects. Treatment groups included the following: 1) control; 2) prenatal T; 3) prenatal T plus prenatal androgen antagonist, flutamide; 4) prenatal T plus prenatal insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone; 5) prenatal T and postnatal flutamide; 6) prenatal T and postnatal rosiglitazone; and 7) prenatal T and postnatal metformin. Prenatal treatments spanned 30–90 days of gestation and postnatal treatments began at approximately 8 weeks of age and continued throughout. Blood samples were taken twice weekly, beginning at approximately 12 weeks of age to time puberty. Two-hour samples after the synchronization with prostaglandin F2α were taken for 120 hours to characterize LH surge dynamics at 7 and 19 months of age. Prenatal T females entered puberty earlier than controls, and all interventions prevented this advancement. Prenatal T reduced the percentage of animals having LH surge, and females that presented LH surge exhibited delayed timing and dampened amplitude of the LH surge. Prenatal androgen antagonist, but not other interventions, restored LH surges without normalizing the timing of the surge. Normalization of pubertal timing with prenatal/postnatal androgen antagonist and insulin sensitizer interventions suggests that pubertal advancement is programmed by androgenic actions of T involving insulin as a mediary. Restoration of LH surges by cotreatment with androgen antagonist supports androgenic programming at the organizational level. PMID:25919188

  11. Developmental Programming: Prenatal and Postnatal Androgen Antagonist and Insulin Sensitizer Interventions Prevent Advancement of Puberty and Improve LH Surge Dynamics in Prenatal Testosterone-Treated Sheep.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Herkimer, Carol; Abi Salloum, Bachir; Moeller, Jacob; Beckett, Evan; Sreedharan, Rohit

    2015-07-01

    Prenatal T excess induces maternal hyperinsulinemia, early puberty, and reproductive/metabolic defects in the female similar to those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. This study addressed the organizational/activational role of androgens and insulin in programming pubertal advancement and periovulatory LH surge defects. Treatment groups included the following: 1) control; 2) prenatal T; 3) prenatal T plus prenatal androgen antagonist, flutamide; 4) prenatal T plus prenatal insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone; 5) prenatal T and postnatal flutamide; 6) prenatal T and postnatal rosiglitazone; and 7) prenatal T and postnatal metformin. Prenatal treatments spanned 30-90 days of gestation and postnatal treatments began at approximately 8 weeks of age and continued throughout. Blood samples were taken twice weekly, beginning at approximately 12 weeks of age to time puberty. Two-hour samples after the synchronization with prostaglandin F2α were taken for 120 hours to characterize LH surge dynamics at 7 and 19 months of age. Prenatal T females entered puberty earlier than controls, and all interventions prevented this advancement. Prenatal T reduced the percentage of animals having LH surge, and females that presented LH surge exhibited delayed timing and dampened amplitude of the LH surge. Prenatal androgen antagonist, but not other interventions, restored LH surges without normalizing the timing of the surge. Normalization of pubertal timing with prenatal/postnatal androgen antagonist and insulin sensitizer interventions suggests that pubertal advancement is programmed by androgenic actions of T involving insulin as a mediary. Restoration of LH surges by cotreatment with androgen antagonist supports androgenic programming at the organizational level. PMID:25919188

  12. Elevated Reward Region Responsivity Predicts Future Substance Use Onset But Not Overweight/Obesity Onset

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Yokum, Sonja; Burger, Kyle S.

    2013-01-01

    Background We tested the hypotheses that adolescents who show elevated reward region responsivity are at increased risk for initial onset of overweight/obesity and substance use, which is important because there have been no such prospective tests of the reward surfeit model of these motivated behaviors. Methods One hundred sixty-two adolescents (mean age = 15.3 ± 1.06 years) with healthy weights (mean body mass index = 20.8 ± 1.90) completed functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigms that assessed neural activation in response to receipt and anticipated receipt of palatable food and monetary reward; body fat and substance use were assessed at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Results Elevated caudate (r = .31, p < .001) and putamen (r = .28, p < .001) response to monetary reward predicted substance use onset over 1-year follow-up, but reward circuitry responsivity did not predict future overweight/obesity onset. Adolescents who reported substance use versus abstinence at baseline also showed less caudate (r = –.31, p < .001) response to monetary reward. Discussion Results show that hyper-responsivity of reward circuitry increases risk for future substance use onset, providing novel support for the reward surfeit model. Results also imply that even a limited substance use history was associated with reduced reward region responsivity, extending results from studies that compared substance-dependent individuals with healthy control subjects and suggesting that substance use downregulates reward circuitry. However, aberrant reward region responsivity did not predict initial unhealthy weight gain. PMID:23312561

  13. Neonatal Septicemia in Nepal: Early-Onset versus Late-Onset

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Shamshul; Nepal, Hari Prasad; Gautam, Rajendra; Shrestha, Sony; Neopane, Puja; Chapagain, Moti Lal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Neonatal septicemia is defined as infection in the first 28 days of life. Early-onset neonatal septicemia and late-onset neonatal septicemia are defined as illnesses appearing from birth to three days and from four to twenty-eight days postnatally, respectively. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, blood samples from the suspected infants were collected and processed in the bacteriology laboratory. The growth was identified by standard microbiological protocol and the antibiotic sensitivity testing was carried out by modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Results. Among total suspected cases, the septicemia was confirmed in 116 (12.6%) neonates. Early-onset septicemia (EOS) was observed in 82 infants and late-onset septicemia (LOS) in 34 infants. Coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS) (46.6%) was the predominant Gram-positive organism isolated from EOS as well as from LOS cases followed by Staphylococcus aureus (14.6%). Acinetobacter species (9.5%) was the predominant Gram-negative organism followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (7.7%). Conclusions. The result of our study reveals that the CoNS, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter spp., and Klebsiella pneumoniae are the most common etiological agents of neonatal septicemia. In particular, since rate of CoNS causing sepsis is alarming, prompting concern to curb the excess burden of CoNS infection is necessary. PMID:26649057

  14. Chromosome 14 and late-onset familial alzheimer disease (FAD)

    SciTech Connect

    Schellenberg, G.D.; Anderson, L.; Nemens, E.; Bird, T.D.; Wijsman, E.M.; Martin, G.M.; Payami, H.; Orr, H.T.; White, J.A.; Alonso, M.E.

    1993-09-01

    Familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) is genetically heterogeneous. Two loci responsible for early-onset FAD have been identified: the amyloid precursor protein gene on chromosome 21 and the as-yet-unidentified locus on chromosome 14. The genetics of late-onset FAD is unresolved. Maximum-likelihood, affected-pedigree-member (APM), and sib-pair analysis were used, in 49 families with a mean age at onset [>=]60 years, to determine whether the chromosome 14 locus is responsible for late-onset FAD. The markers used were D14S53, D14S43, and D14S52. The LOD score method was used to test for linkage of late-onset FAD to the chromosome 14 markers, under three different models: age-dependent penetrance, an affected-only analysis, and age-dependent penetrance with allowance for possible age-dependent sporadic cases. No evidence for linkage was obtained under any of these conditions for the late-onset kindreds, and strong evidence against linkage (LOD score [>=]2.0) to this region was obtained. Heterogeneity tests of the LOD score results for the combined group of families (early onset, Volga Germans, and late onset) favored the hypothesis of linkage to chromosome 14 with genetic heterogeneity. The positive results are primarily from early-onset families. APM analysis gave significant evidence for linkage of D14S43 and D14S52 to FAD in early-onset kindreds (P<.02). No evidence for linkage was found for the entire late-onset family group. Significant evidence for linkage to D14S52, however, was found for a subgroup of families of intermediate age at onset (mean age at onset [>=]60 years and <70 years). These results indicate that the chromosome 14 locus is not responsible for Alzheimer disease in most late-onset FAD kindreds but could play a role in a subset of these kindreds. 37 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  15. Obstetric Outcome in Early and Late Onset Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Easmin, S; Chowdhury, T A; Islam, M R; Beg, A; Jahan, M K; Latif, T; Dhar, S; Alam, M N; Akhter, M

    2015-07-01

    Obstetric outcome in early onset and late onset GDM was compared in a prospective study conducted at the Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology in BIRDEM, Dhaka, Bangladesh. A total 120 pregnant women were recruited purposively for the study in which 60 were early onset GDM and 60 were late onset GDM during study period of January 2008 to December 2009. Patients were followed up in different periods of gestation, during delivery and early postpartum period & findings were compared between two groups. BMI & family history of diabetes were significantly higher in early GDM group (p<0.05). Evidence of increased glycaemia was observed in early GDM group & difference of glycaemic status was statistically significant (p<0.05). Insulin was needed in 85% of early onset GDM and 55% in late onset GDM. There was also significant difference (p<0.05). In this study, 23.3% of early onset GDM group developed pre-eclampsia while in late onset GDM it was 10% and was statistically significant (p<0.05). Regarding intrapartum & postpartum complications - perineal tear, PPH wound infection, puerperal sepsis were more in early onset than late onset GDM group with no significant difference. Regarding foetal outcome, 8.3% early GDM group delivered asphyxiated baby in comparison to 3.3% in late GDM group. Twenty percent (20%) of early onset GDM group had to admit their babies in neonatal unit while in late onset group it was 5%. There was significant difference between two groups (p<0.05). Neonatal hypoglycaemia was also statistically significantly (p<0.05) higher in early GDM group. Neonatal hyper-bilirubinaemia, RDS, perinatal death was more in early onset GDM subjects. Early onset GDM subjects are high risk subgroup & have significant deleterious effect on maternal and perinatal outcome than late GDM groups. PMID:26329938

  16. A Reevaluation of the Question: Is the Pubertal Resurgence in Pulsatile GnRH Release in the Male Rhesus Monkey (Macaca mulatta) Associated With a Gonad-Independent Augmentation of GH Secretion?

    PubMed

    Shahab, M; Trujillo, M Vargas; Plant, T M

    2015-10-01

    A somatic signal has been posited to trigger the pubertal resurgence in pulsatile GnRH secretion that initiates puberty in highly evolved primates. That GH might provide such a signal emerged in 2000 as a result of a study reporting that circulating nocturnal GH concentrations in castrated juvenile male monkeys increased in a 3-week period immediately preceding the pubertal resurgence of LH secretion. The present study was conducted to reexamine this intriguing relationship, again in an agonadal model. Four castrated juvenile male monkeys were implanted with indwelling jugular catheters, housed in remote sampling cages, and subjected to 24 hours of sequential blood sampling (every 30 min) every 2 weeks from 19.5 to 22 months of age. Twenty-four-hour profiles of circulating GH concentrations were analyzed using the pulse detection algorithm, PULSAR, and developmental changes in pulsatile GH release with respect to the initiation of the pubertal rise of LH secretion (week 0; observed between 22.5 and 32 mo of age) were examined for significance by a repeated-measures ANOVA. Changes in the parameters of pulsatile GH secretion, including mean 24-hour GH concentration and GH pulse frequency and pulse amplitude for 3 (n = 4) and 6 (n = 3) months before week 0 were unremarkable and nonsignificant. These findings fail to confirm those of the earlier study and lead us to conclude that the timing of the pubertal resurgence of GnRH release in the male monkey is not dictated by GH. Reasons for the discrepancy between the two studies are unclear. PMID:26181107

  17. A Deeper Look into Type 1 Diabetes – Imaging Immune Responses during Onset of Disease

    PubMed Central

    Christoffersson, Gustaf; von Herrath, Matthias G.

    2016-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes execute the killing of insulin-producing beta cells during onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). The research community has come far in dissecting the major events in the development of this disease, but still the trigger and high-resolved information of the immunological events leading up to beta cell loss are missing. During the past decades, intravital imaging of immune responses has led to significant scientific breakthroughs in diverse models of disease, including T1D. Dynamic imaging of immune cells at the pancreatic islets during T1D onset has been made possible through the development of both advanced microscopes, and animal models that allow long-term immobilization of the pancreas. The use of these modalities has revealed a milling microenvironment at the pancreatic islets during disease onset with a plethora of active players. Clues to answering the remaining questions in this disease may lie in intravital imaging, including how key immune cells traffic to and from the pancreas, and how cells interact at this target tissue. This review highlights and discusses recent studies, models, and techniques focused to understand the immune responses during T1D onset through intravital imaging. PMID:27574523

  18. A Deeper Look into Type 1 Diabetes - Imaging Immune Responses during Onset of Disease.

    PubMed

    Christoffersson, Gustaf; von Herrath, Matthias G

    2016-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes execute the killing of insulin-producing beta cells during onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). The research community has come far in dissecting the major events in the development of this disease, but still the trigger and high-resolved information of the immunological events leading up to beta cell loss are missing. During the past decades, intravital imaging of immune responses has led to significant scientific breakthroughs in diverse models of disease, including T1D. Dynamic imaging of immune cells at the pancreatic islets during T1D onset has been made possible through the development of both advanced microscopes, and animal models that allow long-term immobilization of the pancreas. The use of these modalities has revealed a milling microenvironment at the pancreatic islets during disease onset with a plethora of active players. Clues to answering the remaining questions in this disease may lie in intravital imaging, including how key immune cells traffic to and from the pancreas, and how cells interact at this target tissue. This review highlights and discusses recent studies, models, and techniques focused to understand the immune responses during T1D onset through intravital imaging. PMID:27574523

  19. Onset of runaway nucleation in aerosol reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jin Jwang; Flagan, Richard C.

    1987-01-01

    The onset of homogeneous nucleation of new particles from the products of gas phase chemical reactions was explored using an aerosol reactor in which seed particles of silicon were grown by silane pyrolysis. The transition from seed growth by cluster deposition to catastrophic nucleation was extremely abrupt, with as little as a 17 percent change in the reactant concentration leading to an increase in the concentration of measurable particles of four orders of magnitude. From the structure of the particles grown near this transition, it is apparent that much of the growth occurs by the accumulation of clusters on the growing seed particles. The time scale for cluster diffusion indicates, however, that the clusters responsible for growth must be much smaller than the apparent fine structure of the product particles.

  20. Onset of Asymptotic Scaling in Deuteron Photodisintegration

    SciTech Connect

    P. Rossi; et. Al.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the transition from the nucleon-meson to quark-gluon description of the strong interaction using the photon energy dependence of the d({gamma},p)n differential cross section for photon energies above 0.5 GeV and center-of-mass proton angles between 30{sup o} and 150{sup o}. A possible signature for this transition is the onset of cross section s{sup 11} scaling with the total energy squared, s, at some proton transverse momentum, P{sub T}. The results show that the scaling has been reached for proton transverse momentum above about 1.1 GeV/c. This may indicate that the quark-gluon regime is reached above this momentum.

  1. Pachyonychia congenita with late onset (PC tarda)

    PubMed Central

    Sravanthi, A.; Srivalli, P.; Gopal, K. V. T.; Rao, T. Narayana

    2016-01-01

    Pachyonychia congenita is a rare type of ectodermal dysplasia further classified into 4 types. Cutaneous manifestations seen in most of the cases of Pachyonychia congenita include palmoplantar keratoderma, follicular hyperkeratosis, wedge shaped nails, oral leukokeratosis and woolly hair. A 25-year-old male presented to us with thickened nails and scanty scalp hair. On examination, we noticed hyperkeratotic plaques over both the soles, palmoplantar hyperhidrosis and yellowish discoloration, wedging with subungual hyperkeratosis of all the nails. Follicular hyperkeratotic papules and steatocystoma multiplex were also observed over the scalp and face. The patient had history of natal teeth and on dental examination, lower central incisors were absent. All cutaneous changes in our case had manifested first in the 2nd decade except for natal teeth. All the above features suggested the diagnosis of pachyonychia congenita with late onset (PC tarda), which is an infrequently reported rare variant. PMID:27559502

  2. Particle acceleration during substorm growth and onset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. J.; Mitchell, D. G.; Huang, C. Y.; Frank, L. A.; Russell, C. T.

    1990-01-01

    ISEE-1 observations of ion and electron energization made at 11 RE during a substorm event on April 2, 1978 are presented. An analysis of the dominant cross-tail current systems in this event (Mitchell et al., 1990) has made it possible to uniquely associate particle energization processes with the development and/or disruption of the cross-tail currents. It is found that significant ion acceleration occurs as the ions participate in serpentine cross-tail motion (Speiser, 1965), establishing the dominant plasma sheet current system just prior to onset. As this current disrupts, the magnetic field configuration dipolarizes and further ion energization and the bulk of the electron energization occurs. During dipolarization energization is due primarily to the inductive electric field, including betatron and Fermi acceleration processes.

  3. Pachyonychia congenita with late onset (PC tarda).

    PubMed

    Sravanthi, A; Srivalli, P; Gopal, K V T; Rao, T Narayana

    2016-01-01

    Pachyonychia congenita is a rare type of ectodermal dysplasia further classified into 4 types. Cutaneous manifestations seen in most of the cases of Pachyonychia congenita include palmoplantar keratoderma, follicular hyperkeratosis, wedge shaped nails, oral leukokeratosis and woolly hair. A 25-year-old male presented to us with thickened nails and scanty scalp hair. On examination, we noticed hyperkeratotic plaques over both the soles, palmoplantar hyperhidrosis and yellowish discoloration, wedging with subungual hyperkeratosis of all the nails. Follicular hyperkeratotic papules and steatocystoma multiplex were also observed over the scalp and face. The patient had history of natal teeth and on dental examination, lower central incisors were absent. All cutaneous changes in our case had manifested first in the 2(nd) decade except for natal teeth. All the above features suggested the diagnosis of pachyonychia congenita with late onset (PC tarda), which is an infrequently reported rare variant. PMID:27559502

  4. Nonsurgical Management of Early-onset Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Thorsness, Robert J; Faust, John R; Behrend, Caleb J; Sanders, James O

    2015-09-01

    Early-onset scoliosis is potentially fatal if left untreated. Although surgical management with growing instrumentation may be necessary, this is not a panacea and is associated with high complication rates. Recent evidence has demonstrated that nonsurgical treatment can be an effective early management strategy in delaying or even precluding the need for surgery, especially surgery with growing instrumentation. The goal of both nonsurgical and surgical management is to control or correct the spinal curve to allow appropriate pulmonary development while delaying definitive fusion until an appropriate skeletal age. Although more commonly used to delay surgery, serial cast correction using the Cotrel and Morel elongation-derotation-flexion technique may result in complete correction in patients with infantile idiopathic scoliosis and smaller curve magnitudes. PMID:26306805

  5. Onset of asymptotic scaling in deuteron photodisintegration.

    PubMed

    Rossi, P; Mirazita, M; Ronchetti, F; De Sanctis, E; Adams, G; Ambrozewicz, P; Anciant, E; Anghinolfi, M; Asavapibhop, B; Audit, G; Avakian, H; Bagdasaryan, H; Ball, J P; Barrow, S; Battaglieri, M; Beard, K; Bektasoglu, M; Bellis, M; Benmouna, N; Berman, B L; Bertozzi, W; Bianchi, N; Biselli, A S; Boiarinov, S; Bonner, B E; Bouchigny, S; Bradford, R; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Burkert, V D; Butuceanu, C; Calarco, J R; Carman, D S; Carnahan, B; Chen, S; Cole, P L; Cords, D; Corvisiero, P; Crabb, D; Crannell, H; Cummings, J P; De Vita, R; Degtyarenko, P V; Denizli, H; Dennis, L; Deppman, A; Dharmawardane, K V; Dhuga, K S; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Doughty, D; Dragovitsch, P; Dugger, M; Dytman, S; Dzyubak, O P; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K S; Elouadrhiri, L; Empl, A; Eugenio, P; Fatemi, R; Feuerbach, R J; Ficenec, J; Forest, T A; Funsten, H; Gai, M; Gavalian, G; Gilad, S; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Gordon, C I O; Griffioen, K; Guidal, M; Guillo, M; Guo, L; Gyurjyan, V; Hadjidakis, C; Hakobyan, R S; Hardie, J; Heddle, D; Hersman, F W; Hicks, K; Hicks, R S; Holtrop, M; Hu, J; Hyde-Wright, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ito, M M; Jenkins, D; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Kellie, J D; Khandaker, M; Kim, K Y; Kim, K; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Klimenko, A V; Klusman, M; Kossov, M; Kramer, L H; Kuhn, J; Kuhn, S E; Lachniet, J; Laget, J M; Lawrence, D; Li, Ji; Lima, A C S; Livingston, K; Lukashin, K; Manak, J J; Marchand, C; McAleer, S; McCarthy, J; McNabb, J W C; Mecking, B A; Mehrabyan, S; Melone, J J; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mikhailov, K; Miskimen, R; Mokeev, V; Morand, L; Morrow, S A; Muccifora, V; Mueller, J; Mutchler, G S; Napolitano, J; Nasseripour, R; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Niczyporuk, B B; Niyazov, R A; Nozar, M; O'Brien, J T; O'Rielly, G V; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A; Park, K; Pasyuk, E; Peterson, G; Philips, S A; Pivnyuk, N; Pocanic, D; Pogorelko, O; Polli, E; Pozdniakov, S; Preedom, B M; Price, J W; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Qin, L M; Raue, B A; Riccardi, G; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Rosner, G; Rowntree, D; Rubin, P D; Sabatié, F; Salgado, C; Santoro, J P; Sapunenko, V; Schumacher, R A; Serov, V S; Sharabian, Y G; Shaw, J; Simionatto, S; Skabelin, A V; Smith, E S; Smith, L C; Sober, D I; Spraker, M; Stavinsky, A; Stepanyan, S; Stokes, B; Stoler, P; Strakovsky, I I; Strauch, S; Taiuti, M; Taylor, S; Tedeschi, D J; Thoma, U; Thompson, R; Tkabladze, A; Todor, L; Tur, C; Ungaro, M; Vineyard, M F; Vlassov, A V; Wang, K; Weinstein, L B; Weller, H; Weygand, D P; Whisnant, C S; Wolin, E; Wood, M H; Yegneswaran, A; Yun, J; Zhang, B; Zhou, Z

    2005-01-14

    We investigate the transition from the nucleon-meson to the quark-gluon description of the strong interaction using the photon energy dependence of the d(gamma,p)n differential cross section for photon energies above 0.5 GeV and center-of-mass proton angles between 30 degrees and 150 degrees. A possible signature for this transition is the onset of cross-section s(-11) scaling with the total energy squared, s, at some proton transverse momentum P(T). The results show that the scaling has been reached for proton transverse momentum above about 1.1 GeV/c. This may indicate that the quark-gluon regime is reached above this momentum. PMID:15698073

  6. Glacial onset predated Late Ordovician climate cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, Alexandre; Donnadieu, Yannick; Le Hir, Guillaume; Ladant, Jean-Baptiste; Dumas, Christophe; Alvarez-Solas, Jorge; Vandenbroucke, Thijs R. A.

    2016-06-01

    The Ordovician glaciation represents the acme of one of only three major icehouse periods in Earth's Phanerozoic history and is notorious for setting the scene for one of the "big five" mass extinction events. Nevertheless, the mechanisms that drove ice sheet growth remain poorly understood and the final extent of the ice sheet crudely constrained. Here using an Earth system model with an innovative coupling method between ocean, atmosphere, and land ice accounting for climate and ice sheet feedback processes, we report simulations portraying for the first time the detailed evolution of the Ordovician ice sheet. We show that the emergence of the ice sheet happened in two discrete phases. In a counterintuitive sequence of events, the continental ice sheet appeared suddenly in a warm climate. Only during the second act, and set against a background of decreasing atmospheric CO2, followed steeply dropping temperatures and extending sea ice. The comparison with abundant sedimentological, geochemical, and micropaleontological data suggests that glacial onset may have occurred as early as the Middle Ordovician Darriwilian, in agreement with recent studies reporting third-order glacioeustatic cycles during the same period. The second step in ice sheet growth, typified by a sudden drop in tropical sea surface temperatures by ˜8°C and the further extension of a single, continental-scale ice sheet over Gondwana, marked the onset of the Hirnantian glacial maximum. By suggesting the presence of an ice sheet over Gondwana throughout most of the Middle and Late Ordovician, our models embrace the emerging paradigm of an "early Paleozoic Ice Age."

  7. Early-onset scoliosis: current treatment.

    PubMed

    Cunin, V

    2015-02-01

    Early-onset scoliosis, which appears before the age of 10, can be due to congenital vertebral anomalies, neuromuscular diseases, scoliosis-associated syndromes, or idiopathic causes. It can have serious consequences for lung development and significantly reduce the life expectancy compared to adolescent scoliosis. Extended posterior fusion must be avoided to prevent the crankshaft phenomenon, uneven growth of the trunk and especially restrictive lung disease. Conservative (non-surgical) treatment is used first. If this fails, fusionless surgery can be performed to delay the final fusion procedure until the patient is older. The gold standard delaying surgical treatment is the implantation of growing rods as described by Moe and colleagues in the mid-1980s. These rods, which are lengthened during short surgical procedures at regular intervals, curb the scoliosis progression until the patient reaches an age where fusion can be performed. Knowledge of this technique and its complications has led to several mechanical improvements being made, namely use of rods that can be distracted magnetically on an outpatient basis, without the need for anesthesia. Devices based on the same principle have been designed that preferentially attach to the ribs to specifically address chest wall and spine dysplasia. The second category of surgical devices consists of rods used to guide spinal growth that do not require repeated surgical procedures. The third type of fusionless surgical treatment involves slowing the growth of the scoliosis convexity to help reduce the Cobb angle. The indications are constantly changing. Improvements in surgical techniques and greater surgeon experience may help to reduce the number of complications and make this lengthy treatment acceptable to patients and their family. Long-term effects of surgery on the Cobb angle have not been compared to those involving conservative "delaying" treatments. Because the latter has fewer complications associated with

  8. The risk factors for labor onset hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yasumasa; Terauchi, Mikio; Tamakoshi, Koji; Shiozaki, Arihiro; Saito, Shigeru

    2016-04-01

    Our aim was to clarify the perinatal outcomes of and risk factors for hypertension that is first detected after labor onset (labor onset hypertension, LOH), which may be a risk factor for eclampsia and stroke during labor. A total of 1349 parturient women who did not exhibit preeclampsia or gestational hypertension prior to labor were examined. The patients were classified into four groups: the normotensive (n=1023) (whose systolic blood pressure (SBP) remained below 140 mm Hg throughout labor), mild LOH (n=241) (whose maximum SBP during labor ranged from 140 to 159 mm Hg), severe LOH (n=66) (whose maximum SBP during labor ranged from 160 to 179 mm Hg) and emergent LOH groups (n=19) (whose maximum SBP during labor was greater than 180 mm Hg). The perinatal outcomes and patient characteristics of the four groups were compared. Twenty-four percent of the pregnant women who remained normotensive throughout pregnancy developed hypertension during labor. One of the patients in the emergent LOH group developed eclampsia. The blood pressure at delivery and frequencies of hypotensor use, interventional delivery and low Apgar scores differed significantly among the four groups. The following risk factors for severe/emergent LOH were extracted: being over 35 years old, a body mass index at delivery of >30, an SBP at 36 weeks' gestation of 130-134 mm Hg, an SBP at admission of 130-139 mm Hg, proteinuria (a score of 2+ on the dipstick test) and severe edema. The risk factors for severe/emergent LOH were identified in this study. In high risk cases, repeatedly measuring maternal blood pressure during delivery might help detect critical hypertension early. PMID:26490090

  9. Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee (SRPC) Points to Consider*: Histopathology Evaluation of the Pubertal Development and Thyroid Function Assay (OPPTS 890.1450, OPPTS 890.1500) in Rats to Screen for Endocrine Disruptors

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Kevin A.; Parker, George A.; Regan, Karen S.; Picut, Catherine; Dixon, Darlene; Creasy, Dianne; Giri, Dipak; Hukkanen, Renee R.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) is a multitiered approach to determine the potential for environmental chemicals to alter the endocrine system. The Pubertal Development and Thyroid Function in Intact Juvenile/Peripubertal Female and Male Rats (OPPTS 890.1450, 890.1500) are 2 of the 9 EDSP tier 1 test Guidelines, which assess upstream mechanistic pathways along with downstream morphological end points including histological evaluation of the kidneys, thyroid, and select male/female reproductive tissues (ovaries, uterus, testes, and epididymides). These assays are part of a battery of in vivo and in vitro screens used for initial detection of test article endocrine activity. In this Points to Consider article, we describe tissue processing, evaluation, and nomenclature to aid in standardization of assay results across laboratories. Pubertal assay end points addressed include organ weights, estrous cyclicity, clinical pathology, hormonal assays, and histological evaluation. Potential treatment-related findings that may indicate endocrine disruption are reviewed. Additional tissues that may be useful in assessment of endocrine disruption (vagina, mammary glands, and liver) are discussed. This Points to Consider article is intended to provide information for evaluating peripubertal tissues within the context of individual assay end points, the overall pubertal assay, and tier I assays of the EDSP program. PMID:25948506

  10. Onset and Evolution of Digitated Structures in Spreading Surfactant Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matar, Omar K.; Troian, Sandra M.

    1998-11-01

    A linearized transient analysis describing the spreading of an insoluble surfactant monolayer on a thin viscous film has revealed significant amplification in the disturbance film thickness on a time scale comparable to a Marangoni shear time (Matar and Troian, Phys. Fluids, 10 (5)), 1234 (1998). The onset, location and shape of typical excitations resemble digitated structures observed experimentally. Our numerical studies reveal which parameters control the amplification ratio, why disturbances localize behind the leading edge, and why van der Waals forces enhance the disturbance amplitude and lifetime. For the parameter set chosen, we also find that the solutions to the fully nonlinear equations mimic the behavior captured by the linearized description. For example, the equations favor disturbances of increasing wavelength as time advances. Interestingly, initial disturbances consisting of several harmonics of a preferred wavenumber do not couple through the nonlinear terms to any significant degree. We conclude from our work that the digitation observed experimentally is a transient response which nonetheless strongly influences the spreading process by channeling the liquid and surfactant flux to produce nonuniform surface coverage.

  11. Relationships among body composition, circulating concentrations of leptin and follistatin, and the onset of puberty and fertility in young female sheep.

    PubMed

    Rosales Nieto, C A; Thompson, A N; Macleay, C A; Briegel, J R; Hedger, M P; Ferguson, M B; Martin, G B

    2014-12-30

    The onset of puberty depends on the attainment of critical body mass, so should also be affected by increases in the rate of accumulation of muscle and adipose tissue. Adipose tissue and reproduction are linked by leptin. For muscle, a link has not yet been identified, although one possibility is follistatin. We assessed the relationships among circulating concentrations of follistatin and leptin and the rates of growth and accumulation of muscle and fat during pubertal development in female sheep. We used 326 animals with known phenotypic values for live weight (LW), depths of eye muscle (EMD) and fat (FAT), and known breeding values at post-weaning age for body mass (PWT) and depths of eye muscle (PEMD) and fat (PFAT). Leptin concentration was positively correlated with values for EMD, PEMD, FAT, PFAT, LW and PWT (P<0.001), whereas follistatin concentration was negatively correlated with values for EMD and PWT (P<0.001), and PEMD (P<0.01) and FAT (P<0.05). Leptin concentration was negatively related to age and positively related to live weight at first oestrus and the proportion of females that attained puberty (P≤0.05), and to fertility and reproductive rate (P<0.01). Follistatin concentration was negatively related to live weight at first oestrus and to fertility (P<0.01) and reproductive rate (P<0.05). There were positive correlations (P<0.001) between muscle accumulation and leptin concentration, and between muscle accumulation and reproductive performance. We conclude that leptin and follistatin are probably both involved in effects of accelerated accumulation of muscle and adipose tissues on the onset of puberty. PMID:25458319

  12. Visual Activity before and after the Onset of Juvenile Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Jones-Jordan, Lisa A.; Mitchell, G. Lynn; Cotter, Susan A.; Kleinstein, Robert N.; Manny, Ruth E.; Mutti, Donald O.; Twelker, J. Daniel; Sims, Janene R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate visual activities before and after the onset of juvenile myopia. Methods. The subjects were 731 incident myopes (−0.75 D or more myopia on cycloplegic autorefraction in both meridians) and 587 emmetropes (between −0.25 and +1.00 D) in the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error (CLEERE) Study. Parents supplied visual activity data annually. Data from myopic children 5 years before through 5 years after myopia onset were compared to data from age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched models of children who remained emmetropic. Results. Hours per week spent reading or using a computer/playing video games did not differ between the groups before myopia onset; however, hours per week for both activities were significantly greater in myopes than in emmetropes at onset and in 4 of the 5 years after onset by 0.7 to 1.6 hours per week. Hours per week spent in outdoor/sports activities were significantly fewer for children who became myopic 3 years before onset through 4 years after onset by 1.1 to 1.8 hours per week. Studying and TV watching were not significantly different before myopia onset. Conclusions. Before myopia onset, near work activities of future myopic children did not differ from those of emmetropes. Those who became myopic had fewer outdoor/sports activity hours than the emmetropes before, at, and after myopia onset. Myopia onset may influence children's near work behavior, but the lack of difference before onset argues against a major causative role for near work. Less outdoor/sports activity before myopia onset may exert a stronger influence on development than near work. PMID:20926821

  13. Late-onset pathological gambling: clinical correlates and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Kim, Suck Won; Odlaug, Brian L; Buchanan, Stephanie N; Potenza, Marc N

    2009-01-01

    Age at illness onset has significant clinical implications for psychiatric disorders. Prior research has not systematically examined age at illness onset and its relationship to the clinical characteristics of pathological gambling (PG). Among a sample of 322 consecutive subjects with current DSM-IV PG, those with late-onset (at or after age 55 years) PG were compared to those with earlier onsets (at or prior to age 25, 26-54 years old) on measures of PG severity, co-occurring disorders, social and legal problems, and family history. Forty-two (13.4%) subjects reported onset of PG at or after age 55 years, 63 (19.6%) reported onset prior to age 25 years, and the majority (n=217; 67.4%) reported onset between the ages of 26 and 54 years. The late-onset group were less likely to declare bankruptcy (p=.029) or have credit card debt attributable to gambling (p=.006). Late-onset PG subjects were significantly more likely to have an anxiety disorder (p<.001) and significantly less likely to have a father (p=.025) or a mother (p=.048) with a gambling problem. Exploratory analyses identified an age-by-gender interaction with respect to treatment-seeking, with more pronounced age-related shortening in the duration between problem onset and treatment seeking observed in men. Age at onset of PG is associated with multiple important clinical features. Long durations of PG prior to treatment-seeking indicate the need for improved prevention efforts among individuals with early PG onset. Late-onset PG is relatively common and has distinct clinical characteristics suggesting that this population might benefit from unique prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:18499125

  14. Effects of suppression of estrogen action by the p450 aromatase inhibitor letrozole on bone mineral density and bone turnover in pubertal boys.

    PubMed

    Wickman, Sanna; Kajantie, Eero; Dunkel, Leo

    2003-08-01

    The essential role of estrogen (E) in regulation of developing peak bone mass in males was confirmed when young adult men were described who cannot respond to or produce E because of defective E receptor alpha or P-450 aromatase enzyme, respectively. These men had significantly reduced bone mineral density (BMD) despite normal or supranormal androgen concentrations, and E administration improved BMD in the men with aromatase deficiency, whereas testosterone (T) was ineffective. Because new P450 aromatase inhibitors may prove to be potential drugs in various growth disorders, the effect of suppression of E action on developing peak bone mass has to be closely evaluated. In this study, we explored the effects of suppression of E synthesis on bone metabolism in pubertal boys. A total of 23 boys with constitutional delay of puberty were randomized to receive T and placebo or T and a specific and potent P450 aromatase inhibitor, letrozole. We determined BMD in the lumbar spine and the femoral neck. Bone resorption was studied by measuring the serum concentration of cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen by two different methods (CTx and ICTP), and bone formation by determining the serum concentrations of carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), osteocalcin, and alkaline phosphatase. We demonstrated previously that, during treatment with T and placebo, the concentrations of androgens and E increased. During treatment with T and letrozole, the E concentrations remained at the pretreatment level, but the androgen concentrations increased; the increase in the T concentration was more than 5-fold higher than during treatment with T and placebo. We did not observe any significant differences in the changes in bone mineral content, BMD, or bone mineral apparent density, an estimate of true volumetric BMD, between the treated groups. Lumbar spine bone mineral apparent density increased in both treated groups; but in the T- plus letrozole

  15. Characterizing the onset and demise of the Indian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noska, Ryne; Misra, Vasubandhu

    2016-05-01

    An objective index of the onset and demise of the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) is introduced. This index has the advantage of simplicity by using only one variable, which is the spatially averaged all-India rainfall, a reliably observed quantity for more than a century. The proposed onset index is shown to be insensitive to all historic false onsets. By definition, now the seasonal mean rainfall anomalies become a function of variations in onset and demise dates, rendering their monitoring to be very meaningful. This new index provides a comprehensive representation of the seasonal evolution of the ISM by capturing the corresponding changes in large-scale dynamic and thermodynamic variables. We also show that the interannual variability of the onset date of the ISM is associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) with early (late) onsets preceded by cold (warm) ENSO.

  16. The onset of nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (the ONSET PD study).

    PubMed

    Pont-Sunyer, Claustre; Hotter, Anna; Gaig, Carles; Seppi, Klaus; Compta, Yaroslau; Katzenschlager, Regina; Mas, Natalia; Hofeneder, Dominik; Brücke, Thomas; Bayés, Angels; Wenzel, Karoline; Infante, Jon; Zach, Heidemarie; Pirker, Walter; Posada, Ignacio J; Álvarez, Ramiro; Ispierto, Lourdes; De Fàbregues, Oriol; Callén, Antoni; Palasí, Antoni; Aguilar, Miquel; Martí, Maria José; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Salamero, Manel; Poewe, Werner; Tolosa, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    Nonmotor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) can precede onset of motor symptoms. Relationship between premotor symptoms onset and motor features is limited. Our aim is to describe the presence and perceived onset of NMS in PD as well as their possible association with motor phenotype. Presence and onset of NMS were assessed by a custom-made questionnaire in 109 newly diagnosed untreated PD patients and 107 controls from 11 Spanish and Austrian centers. Seventeen of thirty-one NMS were more common in patients than controls (P < 0.05). They were usually mild and frequently reported to occur at different time-spans before motor symptoms. Anhedonia, apathy, memory complaints, and inattention occurred more frequently during the 2-year premotor period. Those reported more frequently in the 2- to 10-year premotor period were smell loss, mood disturbances, taste loss, excessive sweating, fatigue, and pain. Constipation, dream-enacting behavior, excessive daytime sleepiness, and postprandial fullness were frequently perceived more than 10 years before motor symptoms. No correlation between NMS burden and motor severity, age, or gender was observed. NMS associated in four clusters: rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder symptoms-constipation, cognition-related, mood-related, and sensory clusters. No cluster was associated with a specific motor phenotype or severity. NMS are common in early unmedicated PD and frequently reported to occur in the premotor period. They are generally mild, but a patient subgroup showed high NMS burden mainly resulting from cognition-related symptoms. Certain NMS when present at the time of assessment or in the premotor stage, either alone or in combination, allowed discriminating PD from controls. PMID:25449044

  17. Onset Manifestations of Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy (Kennedy's Disease).

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Soraru, Gianni

    2016-03-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is regarded as a disorder with adult onset between third and fifth decade of life. However, there is increasing evidence that SBMA may start already before adulthood. The present study investigated the following: (1) Which clinical manifestations have been described so far in the literature as initial manifestations? (2) Which was the age at onset of these manifestations? and (3) Is age at onset dependent on the CAG-repeat length if non-motor manifestations are additionally considered? Data for this review were identified by searches of MEDLINE using appropriate search terms. Onset manifestations in SBMA can be classified as frequent, rare, motor, non-motor, or questionable. Frequent are muscle weakness, cramps, fasciculations/twitching, tremor, dysarthria, dysphagia, or gynecomastia. Rare are myalgia, easy fatigability, exercise intolerance, polyneuropathy, hyper-CKemia, under-masculinized genitalia, scrotal hypospadias, microphallus, laryngospasm, or oligospermia. Questionable manifestations include sensory disturbances, cognitive impairment, increased pituitary volume, diabetes, reduced tongue pressure, elevated creatine-kinase, or low androgens/high estrogens. Age at onset is highly variable ranging from 4-76 years. Non-motor manifestations develop usually before motor manifestations. Age at onset depends on what is considered as an onset manifestation. Considering non-motor onset manifestations, age at onset is independent of the CAG-repeat size. In conclusion, age at onset of SBMA depends on what is regarded as onset manifestation. If non-motor manifestations are additionally considered, age at onset is independent of the CAG-repeat length. Since life expectancy is hardly reduced in SBMA, re-investigation of patients from published studies with regard to their initial disease profiles is recommended. PMID:26482145

  18. A New Approach for Determining Onset of Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, H. A.; Warren, E. S.

    1997-01-01

    The final report consists of three papers which outline and demonstrate the new method for determining transition onset. The procedure developed under this grant requires specification of the instability mechanism, i.e., Tollmien-Schlichting or crossflow, that leads to transition. The attached papers are entitled: 'An Alternative to the e(sup n) Method for Determining Onset of Transition', 'Transition Model for Swept Wing Flows', and 'A Transition Closure Model for Predicting Transition Onset'.

  19. Onset of Reconnection in the near Magnetotail: PIC Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yi-Hsin; Birn, Joachim; Daughton, William; Hesse, Michael; Schindler, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Using 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of magnetotail dynamics, we investigate the onset of reconnection in two-dimensional tail configurations with finite Bz. Reconnection onset is preceded by a driven phase, during which magnetic flux is added to the tail at the high-latitude boundaries, followed by a relaxation phase, during which the configuration continues to respond to the driving. We found a clear distinction between stable and unstable cases, dependent on deformation amplitude and ion/electron mass ratio. The threshold appears consistent with electron tearing. The evolution prior to onset, as well as the evolution of stable cases, are largely independent of the mass ratio, governed by integral flux tube entropy conservation as imposed in MHD (magnetohydrodynamics). This suggests that ballooning instability in the tail should not be expected prior to the onset of tearing and reconnection. The onset time and other onset properties depend on the mass ratio, consistent with expectations for electron tearing. At onset,we found electron anisotropies T?/ T? (bottom tail divided by parallel tail) equals 1.1-1.3, raising growth rates and wavenumbers. Our simulations have provided a quantitative onset criterion that is easily evaluated in MHD simulations, provided the spatial resolution is sufficient. The evolution prior to onset and after the formation of a neutral line does not depend on the electron physics, which should permit an approximation by MHD simulations with appropriate dissipation terms.

  20. Differences Between Early and Late Onset Adult Depression

    PubMed Central

    Bukh, Jens Drachmann; Bock, Camilla; Vinberg, Maj; Gether, Ulrik; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2011-01-01

    Background: It is unclear, whether age-of-onset identifies subgroups of depression. Aim: To assess the clinical presentation of depression with onset in the early adult age (18-30 years) as compared to depression with later onset (31-70 years). Method: A total number of 301 patients with first episode depression were systematically recruited. Characteristics including psychiatric co-morbidity, personality disorders and traits, stressful life events prior to onset, family history, and treatment outcome were assessed by structured interviews and compared by chi-square tests for categorical data, t-tests for continuous parametric data and Mann-Whitney U-test for continuous nonparametric data. Logistic and multiple regression analyses were used to adjust the analyses for potentially confounding variables. Results: Patients with early onset of depression were characterised by a higher prevalence of co-morbid personality disorders, higher levels of neuroticism, and a lower prevalence of stressful life events preceding onset compared to patients with later age-of-onset. There were no differences in severity of the depressive episode, treatment outcome or family loading of psychiatric illness. Conclusion: Early adult onset of depression is associated with co-morbid personality deviances, whereas late onset is associated with environmental risk factors. PMID:21866230